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Sample records for pasel showing antihypertensive

  1. Antihypertensive treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Cramer; Mogensen, C E

    1987-01-01

    This study was undertaken to clarify whether antihypertensive treatment has any effect on the rate of progression of kidney disease in patients with incipient diabetic nephropathy. Six insulin-dependent diabetic men with incipient nephropathy (urinary albumin excretion above 15 micrograms....../min and total protein excretion below 0.5 g/24 h) were first given metoprolol (200 mg daily) with the subsequent addition of hydroflumethiazide. At the start of antihypertensive treatment, mean patient age was 32 +/- 4.2 years (SD) and mean duration of diabetes was 18 +/- 1.2 years. The patients were followed...... with repeated measurements of urinary albumin excretion for a mean of 5.4 +/- 3.1 years prior to, and for 4.7 +/- 1.3 years (SD) during treatment. Mean arterial blood pressure declined significantly during treatment, e.g., the values at 6 months before initiation of treatment being compared with values during...

  2. Antihypertensive effects of astaxanthin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Yoshida

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Hidekatsu Yanai1,2, Kumie Ito1,2, Hiroshi Yoshida2,3, Norio Tada1,21Department of Internal Medicine; 2Institute of Clinical Medicine and Research; 3Department of Laboratory Medicine, The Jikei University School of Medicine, Chiba, JapanAbstract: Astaxanthin is a biological antioxidant naturally found in a wide variety of aquatic living organisms, and has shown various pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic activities. A recent study reported that the administration of astaxanthin induced a significant reduction in blood pressure and delayed the incidence of stroke in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats, suggesting that astaxanthin also has antihypertensive effect. In a study using aortic rings of spontaneously hypertensive rats, astaxanthin induced a significant reduction of the contractile responses of the aorta to α-adrenergic receptor agonist and angiotensin II, which may contribute to the antihypertensive effect of astaxanthin. In a histopathological study, astaxanthin decreased coronary artery wall thickness compared with the control, indicating the possibility that astaxanthin ameliorates hypertension-induced vascular remodeling. Astaxanthin has anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antihypertensive, and antioxidative activities; therefore, we should perform further studies to elucidate an antiatherogenic effect of astaxanthin.Keywords: astaxanthin, antioxidant, antihypertensive effect, atherosclerosis

  3. [Classical antihypertensive drugs: diuretics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Viktor László

    2017-03-01

    The diuretics are essential medicaments of antihypertensive therapy. They reduce blood pressure and cardiovascular events optimally. With increasing doses of thiazides and thiazide analogs do not come further powerful effect of reducing blood pressure or cardiovascular mortality and morbidity, but clearly elevate the side effects. Because of it, the minimum effective dose level and the fixed-dose combination therapy should be preferred. The use these drugs leads to especially positive outcome in elder patients, isolated systolic hypertension, heart failure, after stroke and in black population. Loop diuretics as antihypertensive therapy can be used only by renal impairment. The use of aldosterone antagonists can have a good effect not only on heart failure but also on prevention of atrial fibrillation. Furthermore, using it in a combination therapy with thiazides, it reduces the risk of hypokalemia. Therefore, the diuretic treatment in hypertension is flourishing again. Orv. Hetil., 2017, 158(11), 403-408.

  4. Compliance to antihypertensive therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almas, A.; Hameed, A.; Ahmed, B.; Islam, M.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine compliance, factors affecting compliance to antihypertensive therapy and to compare compliant and non-compliant groups, in a tertiary care setting. Study Design: Analytical (cross-sectional) study. Place and Duration of Study: The outpatient clinics at the Aga Khan University from May 2004 to February 2005. Patients and Methods: Two hundred patients presenting to the outpatients clinic were included. All patients 18 years and above, who had stage 1 and 2 hypertension, had one clinic visit to a medicine clinic, 6 months prior to presentation and started on antihypertensive medicines, were included. Results: Sixty-six percent were males and 33.5 % were females. Mean age was 58.1 ( +- 12) years and mean duration of hypertension was 7.2 (+- 6.7) years. Fifty-seven percent were compliant and 43% were noncompliant. In the noncompliant group, 53.4 % had mild noncompliance, 24.4 % had severe non-compliance, while 22% had moderate noncompliance. Factors of noncompliance were 56.8% missed doses due to forgetfulness, 12.7% deliberately missed their doses, 11.6% could not take the medicine due to side effects, 10.4% did not take the dose due to increased number of tablets, 4.6% were not properly counseled by the physician and 3.48% did not take medicines due to cost issues. The mean systolic blood pressure was 126 +- 19.2 mmHg in the compliant group while it was 133 +- 16.5 mmHg in the noncompliant group (p-value 0.004). The mean diastolic blood pressure in the compliant group was 76 +- 11.9 mmHg, while in the noncompliant group it was 81.9 +- 10.9 mmHg (p-value 0.001). Conclusion: Compliance to antihypertensive therapy in a tertiary care center is significantly good. Forgetfulness was the major reason for noncompliance. The mean blood pressure control was better in the compliant group. (author)

  5. Antihypertensive Effects of Probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles-Vera, Iñaki; Toral, Marta; Romero, Miguel; Jiménez, Rosario; Sánchez, Manuel; Pérez-Vizcaíno, Francisco; Duarte, Juan

    2017-04-01

    The present review focuses in the hypertension-associated changes in the microbiota and the current insights regarding the impact of probiotics on blood pressure in animal models and in human hypertensive patients. Gut dysbiosis in hypertension is characterized by (i) the gut microbioma that is less diverse and less rich with an increased Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and (ii) a decrease in acetate- and butyrate-producing bacteria and an increase in lactate-producing bacterial populations. The meta-analysis of the human studies supports that supplementation with probiotics reduces blood pressure. The mechanism of this antihypertensive effect of probiotics and its protective effect on endothelial function has not been fully elucidated. Further investigations are needed to clarify if the effects of probiotic bacteria result from the changes in the gut microbiota and its metabolic by-products; the restoration of the gut barrier function; and the effects on endotoxemia, inflammation, and renal sympathetic nerve activity.

  6. Antihypertensives in dermatology Part I - Uses of antihypertensives in dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. S. Ranugha

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is a global health problem. Antihypertensives are the mainstay of treatment for hypertension. Some of them were accidentally found to be useful in alopecias and infantile hemangiomas and have now become standard treatment for these conditions as well. Antihypertensives are also being studied for other dermatological indications, where they have shown promising efficacy. This review focuses on the dermatological indications for antihypertensives, discussing the drugs that have been tried, as well as their efficacy, dosage, duration of therapy, and adverse effects.

  7. Antihypertensive potential of bioactive hydrolysate from edible bird's nest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Ravisangkar; Babji, Abdul Salam; Sani, Norrakiah Abdullah

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study is to determine and compare the proximate composition, the degree of hydrolysis (DH) and the antihypertensive activity of edible bird's nest (EBN) hydrolysates of two different drying methods. Four types of enzymes (alcalase, bromelain, pancreatin and papain) were used in this study and with different hydrolysis time (30, 60, 90, 120, 180 and 240 min). The highest DH for alcalase (79.48 - 84.09%), pancreatine (77.10 - 80.45%) and papain (82.33%) for EBN hydrolysates was produced with alcalase treatment at 60 - 90 min, pancreatine treatment at 30 - 90 min and papain treatment at 90 min. Bromelain generated hydrolysates showed low DH. EBN hydrolysed using alcalase, pancreatin and papain have significantly higher protein content compared to raw EBN and the moisture content of all hydrolysates treatments was significantly lower compared to raw EBN. For antihypertensive assay, freeze dried EBN hydrolysates have higher antihypertensive activity compared to spray dried hydrolysates. The highest antihypertensive activity for freeze dried samples was produced by alcalase, bromelain and pancreatin and in the range of 80.22 - 86.97%. Meanwhile, papain proved to be less effective in producing hydrolysate with antihypertensive ability. In conclusion, EBN hydrolysate prepared by alcalase, bromelain and pancreatin could be classified as a functional food as it showed significant antihypertensive activity.

  8. [The problems of antihypertensive balneotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladimirskiĭ, E V; Fil'tsagina, T N

    2013-01-01

    This review is devoted to the challenging problems of balneotherapeutics, such as the mechanisms of antihypertensive balneotherapy and its optimization. The experience of the authors with the practical application of chloride - sodium, iodine - bromide, and hydrogen sulfide mineral baths is analysed in comparison with the literature data. The role, dosage regimen, and duration of balneotherapeutic treatment as well as the effectiveness of its combination with medicamental therapy are considered. The authors hope that the discussion of these issues will be conducive to the solution of problems currently facing modern antihypertensive balneotherapy.

  9. Antihypertensive Medications Adherence Among Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hospital, Ogbomosho, 2Goshen Heart Clinic, Osogbo, 3Department of Economics, Osun State University, Osogbo, Nigeria ... significant impact of antihypertensive medication adherence.[13]. The level of information provided to patients may also impact ..... Muntner P. New medication adherence scale versus pharmacy.

  10. New-onset diabetes and antihypertensive treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rychlik, Reinhard

    2010-03-01

    publications focused on ACE inhibitors alone or in combination with calcium-channel-blockers, ten publications on ARB and/or ACE inhibitors with respect to their effects on new-onset diabetes or their preventive aspects. Furthermore, five publications investigate the role of calcium-channel-antagonists in the development of diabetes, and five publications indicate the development of new-onset diabetes with different antihypertensive agents amongst each other or in comparison to no antihypertensive treatment. The clinical trials show a significant difference in the development of new-onset diabetes. Therapies with diuretics and/or beta-blockers result in a higher incidence of new-onset diabetes. ARB as well as ACE inhibitors have a preventive effect and calcium-channel-blockers show a neutral position regarding the development of new-onset diabetes. Two publications report on economic results. The first one evaluates the cost-effectiveness of ARB alone or in combination with calcium-channel-blockers in comparison to diuretics alone or in combination with beta-blockers. The second publication compares economic outcomes of calcium-channel-blockers and beta-blockers considering the development of new-onset diabetes. Treatment with the ARB candesartan lead to savings in total costs of 549 US-Dollar per patient and in incremental costs of 30,000 US-Dollar per diabetes mellitus avoided. In the second publication, costs to the amount of 18,965 Euro in Great Britain and 13,210 Euro in Sweden are quoted for an avoided event. The treatment with calcium-channel-blockers compared to beta-blockers is proven to be more cost-effective. No publications were identified regarding ethical, social and legal aspects. Discussion: The available meta-analyses allow for a high clinical evidence level. A few studies vary in terms of diabetes definition and study duration. In most of the trials, the incidence of new-onset diabetes is not an endpoint. The evaluation of treatment-induced diabetes mellitus

  11. ASSESSMENT OF AMLODIPINE ANTIHYPERTENSIVE EFFECT HOMOGENEITY IN CONTROLLED TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Gorbunov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To compare influence of amlodipine and spirapril on ambulatory blood pressure profile, including antihypertensive effect smoothness in patients with arterial hypertension (HT.Methods. 39 patients (aged 53,7±10,0 y.o. with HT were included in the open, randomized, cross-over study, 30 patients completed study. The duration of every therapies was 4 weeks, initial control period and wash-out period between therapies lasted 1 week. The initial daily dose of amlodipine was 5 mg, standard dose of spirapril (6 mg/daily was not changed during the trial. After 1-2 weeks of treatment amlodipine dose was increased up to 10 mg/daily as well as dihydrochlorothiazide was added, if necessary. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM was performed initially and at the end of both therapies.Results. Both drugs demonstrated good antihypertensive effect according to ABPM data. Decrease of systolic/diastolic blood pressure was 11,2±1,8/7,6±1,2 mm Hg in amlodipine therapy and 10,0±1,8/7,1±1,2 in spirapril therapy (p<0,0001. The smoothness indexes (SI were 0,65/0,45 and 0,55/0,45, respectively, differences between two therapies were not significant. However the individual analysis of the SI distribution (with SI=0,5 as a satisfactory criterion, showed that antihypertensive effect smoothness is better in amlodipine therapy than this in spirapril one.Conclusion. Amlodipine has prominent as well as smooth antihypertensive effect, that gives it advantages in the long-term antihypertensive therapy.

  12. Lactotripeptides and antihypertensive effects: A critical review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelsma, E.; Kloek, J.

    2009-01-01

    Hypertension or high blood pressure is a significant health problem worldwide. Typically, lifestyle changes, including adopting a healthy diet, are recommended for people with an elevated blood pressure. Lactotripeptides are bioactive milk peptides with potential antihypertensive properties in man.

  13. Relationship between patients' beliefs about their antihypertensives ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... patients' beliefs about their antihypertensives and adherence in a secondary hospital in ... The study was a cross-sectional study on hypertensive patients in General ... were effective in protecting them from the effects of high blood pressure.

  14. Antihypertensive medication postpones the onset of glaucoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horwitz, Anna; Klemp, Marc; Jeppesen, Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the impact of antihypertensive medication on the onset of glaucoma. Data from the complete Danish population between 40 and 95 years of age were used in the period from 1996 to 2012, covering >2.6 million individuals. The National Danish Registry of Medicinal Products...... Statistics was used to identify all claimed prescriptions for glaucoma medication and antihypertensive drugs. We first investigated basic correlations in the data and found that patients treated with antihypertensive medication, at any time during the study period, had a significantly higher overall relative...... risk (RR) of glaucoma, even when controlling for age and sex (with a RR of 1.31 and Pglaucoma. To investigate the causal effect of antihypertensive treatment on the onset of treatment for glaucoma, we used...

  15. Towards personalized antihypertensive therapy: innovate or denervate?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eeftinck Schattenkerk, D.W.

    2017-01-01

    In this thesis we employed novel techniques to gain a better understanding of hypertensive disorders and improve antihypertensive treatment strategies. We discuss novel aspects in phenotyping and treatment modalities. Assessment of central hemodynamics may improve hypertensive phenotyping beyond

  16. Antihypertensive Action of Allantoin in Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Fen Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The agonists of imidazoline I-1 receptors (I-1R are widely used to lower blood pressure. It has been indicated that guanidinium derivatives show an ability to activate imidazoline receptors. Also, allantoin has a chemical stricture similar to guanidinium derivatives. Thus, it is of special interest to characterize the effect of allantoin on I-1R. In conscious male spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHRs, mean blood pressure (MBP was recorded using the tail-cuff method. Furthermore, the hemodynamic analyses in catheterized rats were applied to measure the actions of allantoin in vivo. Allantoin decreased blood pressures in SHRs at 30 minutes, as the most effective time. Also, this antihypertensive action was shown in a dose-dependent manner from SHRs treated with allantoin. Moreover, in anesthetized rats, allantoin inhibited cardiac contractility and heart rate as showing in hemodynamic dP/dt max significantly. Also, the peripheral blood flow was markedly increased by allantoin. Both actions were diminished by efaroxan at the dose sufficient to block I-1R. Thus, we suggest that allantoin, as I-1R agonist, has the potential to develop as a new therapeutic agent for hypertension in the future.

  17. High blood pressure, antihypertensive medication and lung function in a general adult population

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Several studies showed that blood pressure and lung function are associated. Additionally, a potential effect of antihypertensive medication, especially beta-blockers, on lung function has been discussed. However, side effects of beta-blockers have been investigated mainly in patients with already reduced lung function. Thus, aim of this analysis is to determine whether hypertension and antihypertensive medication have an adverse effect on lung function in a general adult population. Methods Within the population-based KORA F4 study 1319 adults aged 40-65 years performed lung function tests and blood pressure measurements. Additionally, information on anthropometric measurements, medical history and use of antihypertensive medication was available. Multivariable regression models were applied to study the association between blood pressure, antihypertensive medication and lung function. Results High blood pressure as well as antihypertensive medication were associated with lower forced expiratory volume in one second (p = 0.02 respectively p = 0.05; R2: 0.65) and forced vital capacity values (p = 0.01 respectively p = 0.05, R2: 0.73). Furthermore, a detailed analysis of antihypertensive medication pointed out that only the use of beta-blockers was associated with reduced lung function, whereas other antihypertensive medication had no effect on lung function. The adverse effect of beta-blockers was significant for forced vital capacity (p = 0.04; R2: 0.65), while the association with forced expiratory volume in one second showed a trend toward significance (p = 0.07; R2: 0.73). In the same model high blood pressure was associated with reduced forced vital capacity (p = 0.01) and forced expiratory volume in one second (p = 0.03) values, too. Conclusion Our analysis indicates that both high blood pressure and the use of beta-blockers, but not the use of other antihypertensive medication, are associated with reduced lung function in a general adult

  18. Opportunities for Web-based Drug Repositioning: Searching for Potential Antihypertensive Agents with Hypotension Adverse Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kejian; Wan, Mei; Wang, Rui-Sheng; Weng, Zuquan

    2016-04-01

    Drug repositioning refers to the process of developing new indications for existing drugs. As a phenotypic indicator of drug response in humans, clinical side effects may provide straightforward signals and unique opportunities for drug repositioning. We aimed to identify drugs frequently associated with hypotension adverse reactions (ie, the opposite condition of hypertension), which could be potential candidates as antihypertensive agents. We systematically searched the electronic records of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) through the openFDA platform to assess the association between hypotension incidence and antihypertensive therapeutic effect regarding a list of 683 drugs. Statistical analysis of FAERS data demonstrated that those drugs frequently co-occurring with hypotension events were more likely to have antihypertensive activity. Ranked by the statistical significance of frequent hypotension reporting, the well-known antihypertensive drugs were effectively distinguished from others (with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve > 0.80 and a normalized discounted cumulative gain of 0.77). In addition, we found a series of antihypertensive agents (particularly drugs originally developed for treating nervous system diseases) among the drugs with top significant reporting, suggesting the good potential of Web-based and data-driven drug repositioning. We found several candidate agents among the hypotension-related drugs on our list that may be redirected for lowering blood pressure. More important, we showed that a pharmacovigilance system could alternatively be used to identify antihypertensive agents and sustainably create opportunities for drug repositioning.

  19. Antihypertensive use, prescription patterns, and cost of medications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antihypertensive use, prescription patterns, and cost of medications in a Teaching Hospital in Lagos, Nigeria. ... Conclusions: Antihypertensive prescription pattern was in accordance with the seventh report of Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of high blood pressure.

  20. Cost Evaluation of Commonly Prescribed Antihypertensive Drugs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was also concluded that generic prescription should be encouraged among prescribers to lessen the financial burden of patients because drugs marketed under generic names are usually cheaper than those with brand names. Key words: Brand, Generic,Prescription, Antihypertensives,Cost. [Nig. Jnl Health & Biomedical ...

  1. Original Research Prescription pattern of antihypertensive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017 The College of Medicine and the Medical Association of Malawi. This work is licensed ... This study assessed the prescription pattern of antihypertensive medications and BP .... Data were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social. Sciences ... chi-square test was used to determine the significance of observed ...

  2. Antihypertensive properties of lactoferricin B-derived peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Giménez, Pedro; Ibáñez, Aida; Salom, Juan B; Marcos, Jose F; López-Díez, Jose Javier; Vallés, Salvador; Torregrosa, Germán; Alborch, Enrique; Manzanares, Paloma

    2010-06-09

    A set of eight lactoferricin B (LfcinB)-derived peptides was examined for inhibitory effects on angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) activity and ACE-dependent vasoconstriction, and their hypotensive effect in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Peptides were derived from different elongations both at the C-terminal and N-terminal ends of the representative peptide LfcinB(20-25), which is known as the LfcinB antimicrobial core. All of the eight LfcinB-derived peptides showed in vitro inhibitory effects on ACE activity with different IC(50) values. Moreover, seven of them showed ex vivo inhibitory effects on ACE-dependent vasoconstriction. No clear correlation between in vitro and ex vivo inhibitory effects was found. Only LfcinB(20-25) and one of its fragments, F1, generated after a simulated gastrointestinal digestion, showed significant antihypertensive effects in SHR after oral administration. Remarkably, F1 did not show any effect on ACE-dependent vasoconstriction in contrast to the inhibitory effect showed by LfcinB(20-25). In conclusion, two LfcinB-derived peptides lower blood pressure and exhibit potential as orally effective antihypertensive compounds, yet a complete elucidation of the mechanism(s) involved deserves further ongoing research.

  3. Effect of discontinuation of antihypertensive medication on orthostatic hypotension in older persons with mild cognitive impairment: the DANTE Study Leiden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moonen, Justine E F; Foster-Dingley, Jessica C; de Ruijter, Wouter; van der Grond, Jeroen; de Craen, Anton J M; van der Mast, Roos C

    2016-03-01

    the relationship between antihypertensive medication and orthostatic hypotension in older persons remains ambiguous, due to conflicting observational evidence and lack of data of clinical trials. to assess the effect of discontinuation of antihypertensive medication on orthostatic hypotension in older persons with mild cognitive impairment. a total of 162 participants with orthostatic hypotension were selected from the Discontinuation of Antihypertensive Treatment in Elderly people (DANTE) Study. This randomised clinical trial included community-dwelling participants aged ≥75 years, with mild cognitive impairment, using antihypertensive medication and without serious cardiovascular disease. Participants were randomised to discontinuation or continuation of antihypertensive treatment (ratio 1:1). Orthostatic hypotension was defined as a drop of at least 20 mmHg in systolic blood pressure and/or 10 mmHg in diastolic blood pressure on standing from a seated position. Outcome was the absence of orthostatic hypotension at 4-month follow-up. Relative risks (RR) were calculated by intention-to-treat and per-protocol analyses. at follow-up, according to intention-to-treat analyses, of the 86 persons assigned to discontinuation of antihypertensive medication, 43 (50%) were free from orthostatic hypotension, compared with 29 (38%) of the 76 persons assigned to continuation of medication [RR 1.31 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.92-1.87); P = 0.13]. Per-protocol analysis showed that recovery from orthostatic hypotension was significantly higher in persons who completely discontinued all antihypertensive medication (61%) compared with the continuation group (38%) [RR 1.60 (95% CI 1.10-2.31); P = 0.01]. in older persons with mild cognitive impairment and orthostatic hypotension receiving antihypertensive medication, discontinuation of antihypertensive medication may increase the probability of recovery from orthostatic hypotension. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford

  4. Antihypertensive activity of peptides identified in the in vitro gastrointestinal digest of pork meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero, Elizabeth; Toldrá, Fidel; Sentandreu, Miguel Angel; Nishimura, Hitoshi; Arihara, Keizo

    2012-07-01

    This study investigated the in vivo antihypertensive activity of three novel peptides identified in the in vitro digest of pork meat. These peptides were RPR, KAPVA and PTPVP and all of them showed significant antihypertensive activity after oral administration to spontaneously hypertensive rats, RPR being the peptide with the greatest in vivo activity. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing the in vivo antihypertensive action of the three peptides from nebulin (RPR) and titin (KAPVA and PTPVP), thus confirming their reported in vitro angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity. These findings suggest that pork meat could constitute a source of bioactive constituents that could be utilized in functional foods or nutraceuticals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Antihypertensive drugs and risk of cancer: network meta-analyses and trial sequential analyses of 324,168 participants from randomised trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangalore, Sripal; Kumar, Sunil; Kjeldsen, Sverre E

    2011-01-01

    The risk of cancer from antihypertensive drugs has been much debated, with a recent analysis showing increased risk with angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARBs). We assessed the association between antihypertensive drugs and cancer risk in a comprehensive analysis of data from randomised clinical tr...

  6. EVALUATIN OF ANTIHYPERTENSIVE ACTIVITY OF SONCHUS ASPER L. IN RATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtaq, Muhammad Naveed; Akhtar, Muhammad Shoaib; Alamgeer; Ahmad, Taseer; Khan, Hafeez Ullah; Maheen, Safirah; Ahsan, Haseeb; Naz, Huma; Asif, Hira; Younis, Waqas; Tabassum, Nazia

    2016-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out to evaluate the effect of aerial parts of Sonchus asper L. in normotensive, glucose and egg feed diet induced hypertensive rats. Aqueous-methanolic extract of Sonchus asper in 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg doses was studied in normotensive and glucose induced hypertensive rats using the non-invasive technique. The results obtained showed that the extract has significantly (p < 0.5 - p < 0.001) decreased the blood pressure and heart rate in dose dependent manner. The dose 1000 mg/kg of the extract produced the maximum antihypertensive effect and was selected for further experiments. The extract was found to prevent the rise in blood pressure of egg and glucose fed rats as compared to control group in 21 days study. The LD50 of the plant extract was 3500 mg/kg b.w. in mice and sub-chronic toxicity study showed that there was no significant alteration in the blood chemistry of the extract treated rats. It is conceivable, therefore, that the aqueous-methanolic extract of Sonchus asper has exerted considerable antihypertensive activity in rats and has duly supported traditional medicinal use of plant in hypertension.

  7. Do advertisements for antihypertensive drugs in Australia promote quality prescribing? A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spurling Geoffrey K

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antihypertensive medications are widely prescribed by doctors and heavily promoted by the pharmaceutical industry. Despite strong evidence of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of thiazide diuretics, trends in both promotion and prescription of antihypertensive drugs favour newer, less cost-effective agents. Observational evidence shows correlations between exposure to pharmaceutical promotion and less ideal prescribing. Our study therefore aimed to determine whether print advertisements for antihypertensive medications promote quality prescribing in hypertension. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study of 113 advertisements for antihypertensive drugs from 4 general practice-oriented Australian medical publications in 2004. Advertisements were evaluated using a quality checklist based on a review of hypertension management guidelines. Main outcome measures included: frequency with which antihypertensive classes were advertised, promotion of thiazide class drugs as first line agents, use of statistical claims in advertisements, mention of harms and prices in the advertisements, promotion of assessment and treatment of cardiovascular risk, promotion of lifestyle modification, and targeting of particular patient subgroups. Results Thiazides were the most frequently advertised drug class (48.7% of advertisements, but were largely promoted in combination preparations. The only thiazide advertised as a single agent was the most expensive, indapamide. No advertisement specifically promoted any thiazide as a better first-line drug. Statistics in the advertisements tended to be expressed in relative rather than absolute terms. Drug costs were often reported, but without cost comparisons between drugs. Adverse effects were usually reported but largely confined to the advertisements' small print. Other than mentioning drug interactions with alcohol and salt, no advertisements promoted lifestyle modification. Few

  8. Do advertisements for antihypertensive drugs in Australia promote quality prescribing? A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Brett D; Mansfield, Peter R; Spurling, Geoffrey K; Ward, Alison M

    2008-05-20

    Antihypertensive medications are widely prescribed by doctors and heavily promoted by the pharmaceutical industry. Despite strong evidence of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of thiazide diuretics, trends in both promotion and prescription of antihypertensive drugs favour newer, less cost-effective agents. Observational evidence shows correlations between exposure to pharmaceutical promotion and less ideal prescribing. Our study therefore aimed to determine whether print advertisements for antihypertensive medications promote quality prescribing in hypertension. We performed a cross-sectional study of 113 advertisements for antihypertensive drugs from 4 general practice-oriented Australian medical publications in 2004. Advertisements were evaluated using a quality checklist based on a review of hypertension management guidelines. Main outcome measures included: frequency with which antihypertensive classes were advertised, promotion of thiazide class drugs as first line agents, use of statistical claims in advertisements, mention of harms and prices in the advertisements, promotion of assessment and treatment of cardiovascular risk, promotion of lifestyle modification, and targeting of particular patient subgroups. Thiazides were the most frequently advertised drug class (48.7% of advertisements), but were largely promoted in combination preparations. The only thiazide advertised as a single agent was the most expensive, indapamide. No advertisement specifically promoted any thiazide as a better first-line drug. Statistics in the advertisements tended to be expressed in relative rather than absolute terms. Drug costs were often reported, but without cost comparisons between drugs. Adverse effects were usually reported but largely confined to the advertisements' small print. Other than mentioning drug interactions with alcohol and salt, no advertisements promoted lifestyle modification. Few advertisements (2.7%) promoted the assessment of cardiovascular risk

  9. Patient adherence to antihypertensive therapy and its individual psychological factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Trachuk

    2016-09-01

    low endurance to stress, strain of defense mechanisms, emotional instability and self-esteem, impulsivity, nonconformnism, tendency to independence, stability of attitudes, commitment to relying on their own experience, conflict behavior, rigidity, self-centeredness, introversion, the need for updating their own individuality, lack of deepening into serious problems. Designed psychocorrective program, aimed at transformation of lifestyle of patients and formation of a conscious aspiring to health, showed high efficacy. Conclusions. Adherence to antihypertensive therapy in patients with arterial hypertension depends on such individual psychological factors as personality characteristics, type of subjective control, anxiety level and the level of intensity of attitudes to health, that should also be considered during treatment of hypertension to predict the level of compliance. It is reasonable to involve medical psychologists in counseling and correction of patients with hypertension in cardiology departments and clinics to diagnose personality compliance factors, intensity of attitude to health, identifying patients at risk of low adherence to antihypertensive therapy and, if necessary, adjust the level of compliance. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

  10. Cost Minimization Analysis of Antihypertensive Therapy with Captopril-Hydrochlorothiazide and Amlodipine-Hydrochlorothiazide in One of Hospitals in Bandung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andini Faramitha

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The successful therapy of stage 2 hypertension can be supported by the administration of antihypertensive. Existence of various antihypertensive alternative, making pharmacoeconomics study is needed in order to have an effective and efficient therapy. Purpose of this study is to find the antihypertensive group therapy which is more efficient in cost (cost minimization which used in the treatment of stage 2 hypertension in patients at one hospital in Bandung from 2011 until 2013. This study is an observational reserach with retrospective data collection. Data retrieval is done by taking the medical records of hospitalized patients who received therapy of stage 2 hypertension antihypertensive, captopril-hydrochlorothiazide or amlodipin-hydrochlorothiazide. Components that are collected include the cost of antihypertensive, supportive therapy costs, the cost of action, administrative expenses and cost of hospitalization. The result of the study cost minimization analysis showed that the total cost of treatment with the antihypertensive captopril-hydrochlorothiazide is lower compared to amlodipin- hydrochlorothiazide, with the difference amounting to Rp126,798.

  11. Utilization of Antihypertensive Drugs: A Comparison of Tertiary and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To compare the quality of antihypertensive prescriptions at 2 different health care levels in a hypertensive Nigerian population.We carried out a retrospective comparative analysis of the quality and pattern of antihypertensive and low-dose aspirin prescription in a tertiary and two secondary health care institutions providing ...

  12. Prescribing Patterns and Cost of Antihypertensive Drugs in Private ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nx 6110

    Antihypertensive agents are used to prevent morbidity and mortality related to hypertension. Prescribing patterns and the cost of some antihypertensive were studied for 600 patients attending medical clinics in four private hospitals in Dar es. Salaam using the WHO drug use indicator forms. The average number of drugs ...

  13. Antihypertensive and organ-protective effects of benazepril.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Vivencio; Escobar, Carlos

    2010-12-01

    Benazepril is a nonsulfhydryl ACE inhibitor with favorable pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, well-established antihypertensive effects and a good tolerability profile. Recent clinical studies have demonstrated that patients treated with benazepril alone or in combination with hydrochlorothiazide or amlodipine may achieve beneficial renal outcomes that extend beyond blood pressure control. Furthermore, the recent Avoiding Cardiovascular Events Through Combination Therapy in Patients Living with Systolic Hypertension (ACCOMPLISH) trial showed decreased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality with benazepril when administered as a cotreatment. An additional novel therapeutic area for benazepril is atrial fibrillation. Differences between combination therapies have implications for which patients may be best suited to particular interventions, and further studies are required to fully ascertain this potential.

  14. Mechanisms underlying the antihypertensive properties of Urtica dioica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qayyum, Rahila; Qamar, Hafiz Misbah-Ud-Din; Khan, Shamim; Salma, Umme; Khan, Taous; Shah, Abdul Jabbar

    2016-09-01

    Urtica dioica has traditionally been used in the management of cardiovascular disorders especially hypertension. The aim of this study was to explore pharmacological base of its use in hypertension. Crude methanolic extract of U. dioica (Ud.Cr) and its fractions (Ud.EtAc, Ud.nHex, Ud.Chl and Ud.Aq) were tested in vivo on normotensive and hypertensive rats under anesthesia for blood pressure lowering effect. In-vitro experiments on rat and rabbit aortae were employed to probe the vasorelaxation mechanism(s). The responses were measured using pressure and force transducers connected to PowerLab Data Acquisition System. Ud.Cr and fractions were found more effective antihypertensive in hypertensive rats than normotensive with remarkable potency exhibited by the ethyl acetate fraction. The effect was same in the presence of atropine. In isolated rat aortic rings, Ud.Cr and all its fractions exhibited L-NAME sensitive endothelium-dependent vasodilator effect and also inhibit K(+) (80 mM)-induced pre-contractions. In isolated rabbit thoracic aortic rings Ud.Cr and its fractions induced relaxation with more potency against K(+) (80 mM) than phenylephrine (1 µM) like verapamil, showing Ud.EtAc fraction the most potent one. Pre-incubation of aortic rings with Ud.Cr and its fractions exhibited Ca(2+) channel blocking activity comparable with verapamil by shifting Ca(2+) concentration response curves to the right. Ud.Cr and its fractions also ablated the intracellular Ca(2+) release by suppressing PE peak formation in Ca(2+) free medium. When tested on basal tension, the crude extract and all fractions were devoid of any vasoconstrictor effect. These data indicate that crude methanolic extract and its fractions possess antihypertensive effect. Identification of NO-mediated vasorelaxation and calcium channel blocking effects explain the antihypertensive potential of U. dioica and provide a potential pharmacological base to its medicinal use in the management of hypertension.

  15. [C-reactive protein changes with antihypertensive and statin treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodilla, Enrique; Gómez-Belda, Ana; Costa, José A; Aragó, Miriam; Miralles, Amparo; González, Carmen; Pascual, José M

    2005-10-29

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the modifications of high sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) with antihypertensive and statin treatment in a hypertensive population with a wide range of coronary risks (CR). Retrospective follow-up study in 665 hypertensive patients: 556 (52% male) without dyslipidemia and CR (Framingham at 10 years) of 8.3 (7.6) as a control group (C) and 109 (61% male) with dyslipidemia and CR of 13.1 (8.8) who were treated with statins (T). Statins treatment was established according to NCEP-ATP-III. In both groups, the antihypertensive treatment was optimized in order to achieve blood pressure (BP) control (< 140/90 mmHg). A lipid profile and high sensitivity CRP (analyzed by nephelometry) was performed at the beginning and at the end of follow up [14.3 (3.6) months]. CRP levels were reduced in the T group -0.17 (0.2) mg/L vs. 0.14 (0.09) mg/L (p = 0.003, Mann-Whitney) in C. The lessening of CRP was not related to the reduction of lipids levels: total cholesterol (r = 0.06; p = 0.49), LDL-C (r = 0.11; p = 0.24), triglycerides (r = -0.02; p = 0.81) (Spearman), or to the reduction of systolic BP (r = -0.07; p = 0.44) and diastolic BP (r = -0.121; p = 0.21). The T group was treated with more antihypertensive drugs than C (2.2 [2.3] vs. 2.5 [1.2]; p = 0.02). Patients treated with ECA inhibitors or angiotensin II antagonist showed a tendency to decreasing the CRP levels more (p = 0.08). In hypertensive populations, statins induce a reduction of CRP levels. The reduction is not related to the lowering of lipids levels or BP values. The effect of statins on the reduction of CRP in hypertensive patients is not related to the lowering of lipids or BP.

  16. [Variations in antihypertensive drug utilization among primary care areas in the autonomous region of Valencia (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanfélix-Gimeno, Gabriel; Peiró, Salvador; Librero, Julián

    2010-01-01

    To estimate consumption of five subgroups of antihypertensive drugs by primary care areas and to analyze its variation. We performed an ecological, descriptive study of antihypertensive consumption in 239 primary care areas in the autonomous region of Valencia in 2005 followed by analysis of the variability observed. The 239 primary care areas were studied by descriptive analysis of dispensation [defined daily dose (DDD) per 1,000 inhabitants/day in pensioners (DDD/1000p/day) and in the active population (DDD/1000a/day)] and standardized consumption ratios. Small-area variation analysis was used to analyze the observed variability. Associations among dispensations of the distinct therapeutic subgroups were also analyzed. Overall antihypertensive use in the autonomous region of Valencia in 2005 was 235.6DDD/1000/day. This consumption was concentrated in pensioners (800DDD/1000p/day vs. 73DDD/1000a/day). Consumption of antihypertensive subgroups oscillated from 442DDD/1000p/day for drugs with action on the renin-angiotensin system to 32DDD/1000p/day for doxazosin. The active population showed similar patterns. Variation in consumption was moderate, with coefficients of variation from 0.20 to 0.40 (slightly greater for the active population). Associations among dispensations of the different therapeutic subgroups were strong. This study shows major variations in the overall consumption of antihypertensive drugs among primary care areas of the autonomous region of Valencia. These results suggest that variation may be associated with problems of underutilization in areas with lower consumption. Copyright © 2010 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Neurocognitive Function in Children with Primary Hypertension after Initiation of Antihypertensive Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lande, Marc B; Batisky, Donald L; Kupferman, Juan C; Samuels, Joshua; Hooper, Stephen R; Falkner, Bonita; Waldstein, Shari R; Szilagyi, Peter G; Wang, Hongyue; Staskiewicz, Jennifer; Adams, Heather R

    2018-04-01

    To determine the change in neurocognitive test performance in children with primary hypertension after initiation of antihypertensive therapy. Subjects with hypertension and normotensive control subjects had neurocognitive testing at baseline and again after 1 year, during which time the subjects with hypertension received antihypertensive therapy. Subjects completed tests of general intelligence, attention, memory, executive function, and processing speed, and parents completed rating scales of executive function. Fifty-five subjects with hypertension and 66 normotensive control subjects underwent both baseline and 1-year assessments. Overall, the blood pressure (BP) of subjects with hypertension improved (24-hour systolic BP load: mean baseline vs 1 year, 58% vs 38%, P < .001). Primary multivariable analyses showed that the hypertension group improved in scores of subtests of the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Grooved Pegboard, and Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System Tower Test (P < .05). However, the control group also improved in the same measures with similar effects sizes. Secondary analyses by effectiveness of antihypertensive therapy showed that subjects with persistent ambulatory hypertension at 1 year (n = 17) did not improve in subtests of Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test and had limited improvement in Grooved Pegboard. Overall, children with hypertension did not improve in neurocognitive test performance after 1 year of antihypertensive therapy, beyond that also seen in normotensive controls, suggesting improvements with age or practice effects because of repeated neurocognitive testing. However, the degree to which antihypertensive therapy improves BP may affect its impact upon neurocognitive function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Antihypertensive treatment and risk of atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marott, Sarah C W; Nielsen, Sune F; Benn, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: To examine the associations between antihypertensive treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEis) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), β-blockers, diuretics, or calcium-antagonists, and risk of atrial fibrillation. We examined these associations using the entire Danish...... population from 1995 through 2010. METHODS AND RESULTS: Excluding medication used in atrial fibrillation, we matched individuals on ACEi monotherapy 1:1 with individuals on β-blocker (n = 48 658), diuretic (n = 69 630), calcium-antagonist (n = 57 646), and ARB monotherapy (n = 20 158). Likewise, individuals...... on ARB monotherapy were matched 1:1 with individuals on β-blocker (n = 20 566), diuretic (n = 20 832), calcium-antagonist (n = 20 232), and ACEi monotherapy (n = 20 158). All were free of atrial fibrillation and of predisposing diseases like heart failure, ischaemic heart disease, diabetes mellitus...

  19. ADVERSE PREGNANCY OUTCOMES ASSOCIATED WITH MATERNAL ENALAPRIL ANTIHYPERTENSIVE TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enalapril, one of several antihypertensive drugs that act as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, is often used for treatment of hypertension in women of reproductive age. Adverse birth outcomes following the use of ACE inhibitors, including enalapril, during pregnanc...

  20. Does fermented milk possess antihypertensive effect in humans?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Usinger, Lotte; Ibsen, Hans; Jensen, Lars T

    2009-01-01

    The putative antihypertensive effect of milk after fermentation by lactic bacteria has attracted attention over the past 20 years. Research on fermented milk and hypertension has mainly focused on the content of peptides with in-vitro angiotensin converting enzyme-inhibitor effect. However......, fermented milk products contain several proteins, peptides and minerals, all with possible different antihypertensive modes of actions. The burden of cardiovascular events in industrialized countries caused by hypertension is considerable. Diet modifications are one way to lower blood pressure......, and fermented milk could be a feasible way. In this review, interventional human studies of the possible antihypertensive effect of fermented milk are evaluated. The results are diverging, and the antihypertensive effect is still debatable. Additionally, present knowledge of bioavailability and in-vivo actions...

  1. Antihypertensive Activity of Aqueous-Methanol Extract of Berberis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Median lethal dose (LD50) and sub-chronic toxicity of the extract were also determined ... possible mode(s) of action, side effects, toxicity ... medicinal uses. Berberis ... evaluate the possible antihypertensive effect of this plant. EXPERIMENTAL.

  2. Use of antihypertensive drugs during pregnancy in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, Josta; Bos, Jens H.J.; Schuiling-Veninga, Catharina C.M.; De Jong-Van Den Berg, Lolkje T.W.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Antihypertensive drugs are used during pregnancy for both chronic hypertension and gestational hypertension. Methyldopa, labetalol and nifedipine are considered safe for the fetus during pregnancy and are therefore recommended in the Dutch guidelines. Objectives: To determine how often

  3. Effective antihypertensive treatment postpones renal insufficiency in diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parving, H H; Smidt, U M; Hommel, E

    1993-01-01

    The effect of long-term, aggressive, antihypertensive treatment on kidney function in diabetic nephropathy was studied prospectively in 11 insulin-dependent diabetic patients (mean age, 30 years). Renal function was assessed every 4 months by measurement of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) (single...... infarction (GFR, 46 mL/min/1.73 m2). Effective antihypertensive treatment postpones renal insufficiency in diabetic nephropathy....

  4. Efficacy of nitric oxide, with or without continuing antihypertensive treatment, for management of high blood pressure in acute stroke (ENOS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bath, Philip M W; Woodhouse, Lisa; Scutt, Polly

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High blood pressure is associated with poor outcome after stroke. Whether blood pressure should be lowered early after stroke, and whether to continue or temporarily withdraw existing antihypertensive drugs, is not known. We assessed outcomes after stroke in patients given drugs......·91-1·13; p=0·83), and with continue versus stop antihypertensive drugs OR was 1·05 (0·90-1·22; p=0·55). INTERPRETATION: In patients with acute stroke and high blood pressure, transdermal glyceryl trinitrate lowered blood pressure and had acceptable safety but did not improve functional outcome. We show...

  5. Left Ventricular Structure during Antihypertensive Treatment in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batir T. Daminov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to investigate the left ventricular (LV echocardiographic parameters and estimate the antiremodeling efficacy of eprosartan and lercanidipine in patients with CKD, depending on the presence or absence of diabetic nephropathy (DN. Materials and Methods: The study included 121 patients (mean age 52.4±5.7 years with CKD stage 3 (KDOQI, 2002. Patients were distributed in two groups according to the etiology of CKD. Group 1 consisted of 67 patients with non-diabetic CKD. Group 2 consisted of 54 CKD patients with DN. All patients had arterial hypertension grade 1 or 2 (ESH/ESC, 2013. All patients underwent clinical examination, echocardiography; GFR was estimated by the Cockcroft-Gault formula. Stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD were determined according to the KDOQI 2002 classification. Eprosartan and lercanidipine were prescribed to patients after one week of lavage from previous antihypertensive therapy. This 6-month follow-up study compared the effectiveness of two courses of treatment. Results: LVH was observed in all CKD patients regardless of the presence or absence of DN. Eprosartan and lercanidipine showed the high antihypertensive efficacy expressing a reliable decrease in absolute values of SBP and DBP. In CKD patients with DN, on the background of a comparable antihypertensive effect, eprosartan, in comparison with lercanidipine, showed a more pronounced effect on the LV echocardiographic parameters associated with LVH regression.

  6. Antihypertensive treatment and stroke prevention: are angiotensin receptor blockers superior to other antihypertensive agents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armario, Pedro; de la Sierra, Alejandro

    2009-06-01

    Stroke remains a common vascular event with high mortality and morbidity. After heart disease, stroke is the second leading cause of death worldwide in adult persons. Silent or subclinical stroke is likely to occur with even greater frequency than clinical stroke and increases the risk of subsequent cerebrovascular events. Hypertension is by far the single most important controllable risk factor for stroke. The relationship between blood pressure (BP) and stroke mortality is strong, linear, and continuous in subjects with levels of BP higher than 115/75 mm Hg. Blood pressure reduction by antihypertensive treatment is clearly efficacious in the prevention of stroke (both primary and secondary). Although meta-analyses suggest that BP reduction, per se, is the most important determinant for stroke risk reduction, the question is if specific classes of antihypertensive drugs offer special protection against stroke is still controversial. Some studies have suggested that angiotensin receptors blockers (ARBs) appear to offer additional protection against stroke. This has been hypothesized in studies in hypertensives, such as LIFE and SCOPE, and especially in the only comparative trial focused on secondary stroke prevention. In the MOSES trial, the comparison of eprosartan versus nitrendipine in patients with a previous stroke resulted, despite a similar BP reduction, in a significant reduction in the primary composite endpoint of total mortality plus cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events, including recurrent events. These results may suggest a blood pressure-independent effect of ARBs, which can be mediated through several mechanisms, including their ability to counteract other markers of target organ damage, but also through a direct neuroprotective effect.

  7. Continuing versus Stopping Prestroke Antihypertensive Therapy in Acute Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krishnan, Kailash; Scutt, Polly; Woodhouse, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: More than 50% of patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) are taking antihypertensive drugs before ictus. Although antihypertensive therapy should be given long term for secondary prevention, whether to continue or stop such treatment during the acute phase of ICH...... remains unclear, a question that was addressed in the Efficacy of Nitric Oxide in Stroke (ENOS) trial. METHODS: ENOS was an international multicenter, prospective, randomized, blinded endpoint trial. Among 629 patients with ICH and systolic blood pressure between 140 and 220 mmHg, 246 patients who were...... taking antihypertensive drugs were assigned to continue (n = 119) or to stop (n = 127) taking drugs temporarily for 7 days. The primary outcome was the modified Rankin Score at 90 days. Secondary outcomes included death, length of stay in hospital, discharge destination, activities of daily living, mood...

  8. Prescription Pattern of Antihypertensive Agents in T2DM Patients Visiting Tertiary Care Centre in North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ethiraj Dhanaraj

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hypertension management is of a paramount importance in diabetic patients for cardiovascular risk reduction. Aim. To evaluate prescribing pattern of antihypertensive in T2DM (type 2 diabetes patients and compare with existing recent guidelines. Methods. A cross-sectional study involving evaluation of all T2DM patients referred to endocrinology unit at tertiary care centre for hypertension, comorbid complications, and recording prescription. Utilization of 5 different antihypertensive drug classes was compared for all patients receiving 1, 2, 3, 4, or more drugs. Logistical regression was used to assess likelihood of prescription of drugs and/or therapy for specific conditions mentioned in the guidelines. Results. Out of 1358, T2DM enrolled patients 1186 (87% had hypertension (males 52%, females 48%. The median duration (IQ of hypertension diabetics was 4 (1–10 years. A total of 25% patients had controlled BP and 75% with uncontrolled blood pressure (13% isolated systolic hypertension, 6% isolated diastolic hypertension, and 55% both elevated. Overall, ACE inhibitors (ACEIs were prescribed the highest (59% followed by angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs (52%, calcium channel blockers (CCBs (29%, diuretics (27%, and beta-blockers (14%. Overall, 55% of T2DM patients were on polytherapy, 41% on monotherapy, and 4% had no antihypertensive treatment. Polytherapy was more predominant with age, duration of diabetes, duration of hypertension, and comorbid complications. Conclusion. Although prescribing pattern of antihypertensive showed adherence to existing evidence-based guidelines, higher proportion of uncontrolled hypertensive patients was found.

  9. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in clinical trials with antihypertensive agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.H. van den Meiracker (Anton)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractAmbulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) is being used increasingly for the evaluation of antihypertensive agents in clinical trials. In this brief review several aspects of ABPM are discussed. In particular, attention is paid to the extent to which ABPM is subject to a placebo

  10. Drug Therapy Problems in Patients on Antihypertensives and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drug therapy problems (DTPs), with the associated risks inherent in antihypertensive and antidiabetic therapy require utmost attention. This present study was aimed at assessing the DTPs observed in the management of hypertension and diabetes mellitus (DM) in two tertiary health facilities in Niger Delta region. In this ...

  11. Interaction between anti-hypertensive and non-steroidal anti ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AKS Publication

    Department of Physiotherapy, College of Medicine, University College Hospital,. University of Ibadan, Nigeria. (Received 19 ... that NSAIDs diminish the effects of anti-hypertensive drugs and may lead to an ineffective hypertension therapy. ..... repair, regeneration and transplantation. Instr Course Lect. 1998;47:487-504. 15.

  12. Antihypertensive Activity of Residue From “Gebto Arekei”. Locally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antihypertensive Activity of Residue From “Gebto Arekei”. Locally Distilled Medicinal Spirit From a Brew Containing Lupinus albus Seeds in Renovascular Hypertensive Guines-Pigs. Cherinet Ambaye, Tesfaye Tolessa, Abebe Abera, Hassen Taha Sherief, Dawit Abebe, Kelbessa Urga ...

  13. Antihypertensive regimen and blood pressure control in patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hypertension is a major public health problem worldwide. In Nigeria, records have shown an increasing prevalence with suboptimal evaluation of blood pressure (BP) control. Generally, antihypertensives have recorded significant successes in BP control over the years. This study was aimed at investigating ...

  14. Invited review: Fermented milk as antihypertensive functional food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-Barrientos, L M; Hernández-Mendoza, A; Torres-Llanez, M J; González-Córdova, A F; Vallejo-Córdoba, B

    2016-06-01

    Over the past decade, interest has risen in fermented dairy foods that promote health and could prevent diseases such as hypertension. This biological effect has mainly been attributed to bioactive peptides encrypted within dairy proteins that can be released during fermentation with specific lactic acid bacteria or during gastrointestinal digestion. The most studied bioactive peptides derived from dairy proteins are antihypertensive peptides; however, a need exists to review the different studies dealing with the evaluation of antihypertensive fermented milk before a health claim may be associated with the product. Thus, the objective of this overview was to present available information related to the evaluation of fermented milk containing antihypertensive peptides by in vitro and in vivo studies, which are required before a fermented functional dairy product may be introduced to the market. Although commercial fermented milks with antihypertensive effects exist, these are scarce and most are based on Lactobacillus helveticus. Thus, a great opportunity is available for the development of functional dairy products with new lactic acid bacteria that support heart health through blood pressure- and heart rate-lowering effects. Hence, the consumer may be willing to pay a premium for foods with important functional benefits. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects and Mechanisms of Radiofrequency Ablation of Renal Sympathetic Nerve on Anti-Hypertension in Canine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Radiofrequency ablation of renal sympathetic nerve (RDN shows effective BP reduction in hypertensive patients while the specific mechanisms remain unclear. Objective: We hypothesized that abnormal levels of norepinephrine (NE and changes in NE-related enzymes and angiotensinconverting enzyme 2 (ACE2, angiotensin (Ang-(1-7 and Mas receptor mediate the anti-hypertensive effects of RDN. Methods: Mean values of systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP and mean arterial pressure (MAP were assessed at baseline and follow-up. Plasma and renal norepinephrine (NE concentrations were determined using highperformance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection, and levels of NE-related enzyme and ACE2-Ang(1-7- Mas were measured using real time PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemistry or Elisa in a hypertensive canine model fed with high-fat diet and treated with RDN. The parameters were also determined in a sham group treated with renal arteriography and a control group fed with normal diet. Results: RDN decreased SBP, DBP, MAP, plasma and renal NE. Compared with the sham group, renal tyrosine hydroxylase (TH expression was lower and renalase expression was higher in the RDN group. Compared with the control group, renal TH and catechol-o-methyl transferase (COMT were higher and renalase was lower in the sham group. Moreover, renal ACE2, Ang-(1-7 and Mas levels of the RDN group were higher than those of the sham group, which were lower than those of the control group. Conclusion: RDN shows anti-hypertensive effect with reduced NE and activation of ACE2-Ang(1-7-Mas, indicating that it may contribute to the anti-hypertensive effect of RDN.

  16. Layered double hydroxides as supports for intercalation and sustained release of antihypertensive drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Shengjie; Ni Zheming; Xu Qian; Hu Baoxiang; Hu Jun

    2008-01-01

    Zn/Al layered double hydroxides (LDHs) were intercalated with the anionic antihypertensive drugs Enalpril, Lisinopril, Captopril and Ramipril by using coprecipitation or ion-exchange technique. TG-MS analyses suggested that the thermal stability of Ena - , Lis - (arranged with monolayer, resulted from X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR) analysis was enhanced much more than Cap - and Ram - (arranged with bilayer). The release studies show that the release rate of all samples markedly decreased in both pH 4.25 and 7.45. However, the release time of Ena - , Lis - were much longer compared with Cap - , Ram - in both pH 4.25 and 7.45, it is possible that the intercalated guests, arranged with monolayer in the interlayer, show lesser repulsive force and strong affinity with the LDH layers. And the release data followed both the Higuchi-square-root law and the first-order equation well. Based on the analysis of batch release, intercalated structural models as well as the TG-DTA results, we conclude that for drug-LDH, stronger the affinity between intercalated anions and the layers is, better the thermal property and the stability to the acid attack of drug-LDH, and the intercalated anions are easier apt to monolayer arrangement within the interlayer, were presented. - Graphical abstract: A series of antihypertensive drugs including Enalpril, Lisinopril, Captopril and Ramipril were intercalated into Zn/Al-NO 3 -LDHs successfully by coprecipitation or ion-exchange technique. We focus on the structure, thermal property and low/controlled release property of as-synthesized drug-LDH composite intended for the possibility of applying these LDH-antihypertensive nanohybrids in drug delivery and controlled release systems

  17. Are SGLT2 inhibitors reasonable antihypertensive drugs and renoprotective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovshin, J A; Gilbert, R E

    2015-06-01

    By eliminating glucose in the urine, the sodium-glucose-linked cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors act as osmotic diuretics to lower blood pressure in addition to reducing plasma glucose and assisting with weight loss. While not approved as antihypertensive agents, the ability of this new class of antihyperglycemic agents to lower blood pressure is not insubstantial, and while not used primarily for this indication, they may assist diabetic individuals in attaining currently recommended blood pressure targets. In addition to lowering systemic pressure, preclinical and exploratory human studies suggest that SGLT2 inhibitors may also lower intraglomerular pressure, potentially reducing the rate of GFR decline in patients with diabetic nephropathy. However, given the lack of clinically meaningful endpoint data, the use of SGLT2 inhibitors, primarily, as either antihypertensive or renoprotective agents would, at present, be premature. Fortunately, further insight will be garnered from large, randomized controlled trials that will assess the effects of various SGLT2 inhibitors on cardiovascular and renal outcomes.

  18. Efficacy, safety and tolerability of sildenafil in Brazilian hypertensive patients on multiple antihypertensive drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denilson C. Albuquerque

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy, safety and tolerability of sildenafil among Brazilian patients with hypertension treated with combinations of anti-hypertensive drugs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred twenty hypertensive men aged 30 to 81 years old under treatment with 2 or more anti-hypertensive drugs and with erectile dysfunction (ED lasting for at least 6 months were enrolled at 7 research centers in Brazil. Patients were randomized to receive treatment with either sildenafil or placebo taken 1 hour before sexual intercourse (initial dose of 50 mg, adjusted to 25 mg or 100 mg according to efficacy and toxicity. During the following 8 weeks, patients were evaluated regarding vital signs, adverse events, therapeutic efficacy, satisfaction with treatment and use of concurrent medications. RESULTS: The primary evaluation of efficacy, which was based on responses to questions 3 and 4 of the International Index of Erectile Function, showed significant differences regarding treatment with sildenafil (p = 0.0002 and p < 0.0001, respectively. In the assessment of global efficacy, 87% of the patients treated with sildenafil reported improved erections, as compared with 37% of patients given placebos (p < 0.0001. The other secondary evaluations supported the results favoring sildenafil. The most frequent adverse events among patients treated with sildenafil were headaches (11.4%, vasodilation (11.4% and dyspepsia (6.5%. There were no significant changes in blood pressure measurements in both groups. CONCLUSION: Sildenafil is efficacious and safe for the treatment of hypertensive patients with ED who receive concurrent combinations of anti-hypertensive drugs.

  19. Resistant and Refractory Hypertension: Antihypertensive Treatment Resistance vs Treatment Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Mohammed; Dudenbostel, Tanja; Calhoun, David A.

    2017-01-01

    Resistant or difficult to treat hypertension is defined as high blood pressure that remains uncontrolled with 3 or more different antihypertensive medications, including a diuretic. Recent definitions also include controlled blood pressure with use of 4 or more medications as also being resistant to treatment. Recently, refractory hypertension, an extreme phenotype of antihypertensive treatment failure has been defined as hypertension uncontrolled with use of 5 or more antihypertensive agents, including a long-acting thiazide diuretic and a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist. Patients with resistant vs refractory hypertension share similar characteristics and comorbidities, including obesity, African American race, female sex, diabetes, coronary heart disease, chronic kidney disease, and obstructive sleep apnea. Patients with refractory vs resistant hypertension tend to be younger and are more likely to have been diagnosed with congestive heart failure. Refractory hypertension might also differ from resistant hypertension in terms of underlying cause. Preliminary evidence suggests that refractory hypertension is more likely to be neurogenic in etiology (ie, heightened sympathetic tone), vs a volume-dependent hypertension that is more characteristic of resistant hypertension in general. PMID:26514749

  20. Prevalence of the use of antihypertensive medications in Greenland: a study of quality of care amongst patients treated with antihypertensive drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, M.; Jarbol, D. E.; Paulsen, M. S.

    2012-01-01

    in January 2011. Only patients aged 20 or above were included. The age-and gender-specific prevalence of patients in antihypertensive treatment was calculated using the population as it was 1 January 2010 in Greenland as background population. A subsample consisting of patients in antihypertensive treatment...... and blood pressure level, respectively. Results. The total number of patients in treatment with antihypertensive drugs was 4,462 (1,998 males and 2,464 females) corresponding to a prevalence of 11.4% (4,462/39,231). The prevalence was higher among females than among males. The prevalence increased with age...... and differed among the 5 health regions. The percentage of patients in antihypertensive treatment with minimum 1 follow-up visit within 1 year (blood pressure measured and registered in a health clinic) was only 77.7%. Some 45% of patients in antihypertensive treatment achieved blood pressure below 140/90 mm...

  1. Male infertility during antihypertensive therapy: are we addressing correctly the problem?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Simone Laganà

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Male fertility significantly decreased in the last 50 years, as showed in several studies reporting a reduction of sperm counts per ml in the seminal fluid. Several “acute” pharmacological treatments, as antibiotics, could cause subclinical and temporary reduction of male fertility; conversely, long-term medical treatment may severely affect male fertility, although this effect could be considered transient in most of the cases. Thus, nowadays, several long-term pharmacological treatments may represent a clinical challenge. The association between several kind of antihypertensive drugs and reduction of male fertility has been showed in the mouse model, although the modification(s which may alter this fine-regulated machinery are still far to be elucidated. Furthermore, well-designed observational studies and randomized controlled trials are needed to accurately define this association in human model, meaning a narrative overview synthesizing the findings of literature retrieved from searches of computerized databases. We strongly solicit future human studies (both observational and randomized clinical trials on large cohorts with adequate statistical power which may clarify this possible association and the effects (reversible or permanent of each drug. Furthermore, we suggest a close collaboration between general practitioners, cardiologists, and andrologists in order to choose the most appropriate antihypertensive therapy considering also patient’s reproductive desire and possible risk for his fertility.

  2. Antihypertensive Effects of Roselle-Olive Combination in L-NAME-Induced Hypertensive Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Rahman, Rehab F; Hessin, Alyaa F; Abdelbaset, Marwan; Ogaly, Hanan A; Abd-Elsalam, Reham M; Hassan, Salah M

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the antihypertensive efficacy of a new combination therapy of Hibiscus sabdariffa and Olea europaea extracts (2 : 1; Roselle-Olive), using N(G)-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester- (L-NAME-) induced hypertensive model. Rats received L-NAME (50 mg/kg/day, orally) for 4 weeks. Concurrent treatment with Roselle-Olive (500, 250, and 125 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks) resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, reversed the L-NAME-induced suppression in serum nitric oxide (NO), and improved liver and kidney markers, lipid profile, and oxidative status. Furthermore, Roselle-Olive significantly lowered the elevated angiotensin-converting enzyme activity (ACE) and showed a marked genoprotective effect against oxidative DNA damage in hypertensive rats. Roselle-Olive ameliorated kidney and heart lesions and reduced aortic media thickness. Real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry showed an enhanced endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene and protein expression in both heart and kidney of Roselle-Olive-treated rats. To conclude, our data revealed that Roselle-Olive is an effective combination in which H. sabdariffa and O. europaea synergistically act to control hypertension. These effects are likely to be mediated by antioxidant and genoprotective actions, ACE inhibition, and eNOS upregulation by Roselle-Olive constituents. These findings provide evidences that Roselle-Olive combination affords efficient antihypertensive effect with a broad end-organ protective influence.

  3. Male Infertility during Antihypertensive Therapy: Are We Addressing Correctly The Problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laganà, Antonio Simone; Vitale, Salvatore Giovanni; Iaconianni, Paola; Gatti, Simona; Padula, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Male fertility significantly decreased in the last 50 years, as showed in several studies reporting a reduction of sperm counts per ml in the seminal fluid. Several "acute" pharmacological treatments, as antibiotics, could cause subclinical and temporary reduction of male fertility; conversely, long-term medical treatment may severely affect male fertility, although this effect could be considered transient in most of the cases. Thus, nowadays, several long-term pharmacological treatments may represent a clinical challenge. The association between several kind of antihypertensive drugs and reduction of male fertility has been showed in the mouse model, although the modification(s) which may alter this fine-regulated machinery are still far to be elucidated. Furthermore, well-designed observational studies and randomized controlled trials are needed to accurately define this association in human model, meaning a narrative overview synthesizing the findings of literature retrieved from searches of computerized databases. We strongly solicit future human studies (both observational and randomized clinical trials) on large cohorts with adequate statistical power which may clarify this possible association and the effects (reversible or permanent) of each drug. Furthermore, we suggest a close collaboration between general practitioners, cardiologists, and andrologists in order to choose the most appropriate antihypertensive therapy considering also patient's reproductive desire and possible risk for his fertility.

  4. Evaluation Of Prescription Pattern And Medication Adherence Of Antihypertensive Drugs In Stage 1 Essential Hypertensive Patients At Rural Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital Of Central India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chetan S. Urade

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives- To study the prescription pattern of antihypertensive drugs and analyze the medication adherence to antihypertensive drugs at rural tertiary care teaching hospital.Materials and Methods- Prospective, observational, 12 weeks, questionnaire based study, conducted in rural tertiary care teaching hospital of central India. 214 antihypertensive prescriptions were analyzed by Morisky medication adherence scale. Statistical analysis was done by MS Excel and Graph pad prism 6.0.Results- 28.03% patients were not aware about the medicines taken, 29.90% patients were unacquainted about dose and route of administration whereas 32.71% patients were unfamiliar about frequency of administration of medicines. 53.27% patients were unaware about precautions to be taken while consuming medicines.  58.68% & 12.67% patients consumed amlodipine & atenolol respectively. In 16.43% patients, atenolol + amlodipine combination therapy was prescribed.  Amongst 214 patients 12, 58 & 144 showed high, medium & low adherence respectively.  No significant difference was found on gender basis at any level of adherence.Conclusion- In this study, physicians given preference to amlodipine than other antihypertensive drugs. However, thiazide is a first line drug in stage 1 hypertension, recommended by JNC VII guideline. This indicates that there is need of creating awareness about current management of hypertension to clinicians by organizing various workshops. We observed only 5.60% patients showed high adherence to antihypertensive therapy. Therefore educational strategies must be carried out for physicians focusing on causes for nonadherence to antihypertensive medications. Also raising patient trust in their physicians may improve patient motivation to prescribed medication. 

  5. Nutraceutical Value of Black Cherry Prunus serotina Ehrh. Fruits: Antioxidant and Antihypertensive Properties

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    Francisco J. Luna-Vázquez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In Mexico black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh. fruits are consumed fresh, dried or prepared in jam. Considering the evidence that has linked intake of fruits and vegetables rich in polyphenols to cardiovascular risk reduction, the aim of this study was to characterize the phenolic profile of black cherry fruits and to determine their antioxidant, vasorelaxant and antihypertensive effects. The proximate composition and mineral contents of these fruits were also assessed. Black cherry fruits possess a high content of phenolic compounds and display a significant antioxidant capacity. High-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometric analysis indicated that hyperoside, anthocyanins and chlorogenic acid were the main phenolic compounds found in these fruits. The black cherry aqueous extract elicited a concentration-dependent relaxation of aortic rings and induced a significant reduction on systolic blood pressure in L-NAME induced hypertensive rats after four weeks of treatment. Proximate analysis showed that black cherry fruits have high sugar, protein, and potassium contents. The results derived from this study indicate that black cherry fruits contain phenolic compounds which elicit significant antioxidant and antihypertensive effects. These findings suggest that these fruits might be considered as functional foods useful for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  6. Marketing research on the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors antihypertensive medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    BOBOIA, ANAMARIA; GRIGORESCU, MARIUS RAREŞ; TURCU - ŞTIOLICĂ, ADINA

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims The research aimed at investigating sales trends of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors antihypertensive medicines, both in terms of quantity and value, in ten community pharmacies, for a period of three years. The research on the antihypertensive medicines consumption is important for highlighting the ever increasing impact of hypertension among the population. Methods The methods used in this research were the following: marketing research, method of sampling, descriptive methods, retrospective analysis, method of comparison. Results The results showed that the drugs containing the active substances of the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors class had had significant increases in quantitative and value sales, bringing substantial revenues to pharmacies. From the quantitative perspective, the best-selling products were those containing Enalaprilum, while in terms of value, the best-selling medicines were those containing Perindoprilum. We evidenced that spectacular sales were also achieved for products that have Lisinoprilum, respectively Captoprilum, as active substances. The largest quantities were marketed for the Captopril Terapia® product and the highest earnings were recorded for the Prestarium® medicine. Conclusion This paper approaches an interesting and topical issue, which can be helpful to professionals (pharmacists, doctors) and other categories, such as economists, statisticians, representatives of companies manufacturing medicines, as well as to hypertensive patients, as it could be used to warn population regarding the incidence of cardiovascular diseases, and, at the same time, trace sales trends in order to accomplish profitable business plans. PMID:28246502

  7. Marketing research on the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors antihypertensive medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boboia, Anamaria; Grigorescu, Marius Rareş; Turcu-Ştiolică, Adina

    2017-01-01

    The research aimed at investigating sales trends of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors antihypertensive medicines, both in terms of quantity and value, in ten community pharmacies, for a period of three years. The research on the antihypertensive medicines consumption is important for highlighting the ever increasing impact of hypertension among the population. The methods used in this research were the following: marketing research, method of sampling, descriptive methods, retrospective analysis, method of comparison. The results showed that the drugs containing the active substances of the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors class had had significant increases in quantitative and value sales, bringing substantial revenues to pharmacies. From the quantitative perspective, the best-selling products were those containing Enalaprilum, while in terms of value, the best-selling medicines were those containing Perindoprilum. We evidenced that spectacular sales were also achieved for products that have Lisinoprilum, respectively Captoprilum, as active substances. The largest quantities were marketed for the Captopril Terapia® product and the highest earnings were recorded for the Prestarium® medicine. This paper approaches an interesting and topical issue, which can be helpful to professionals (pharmacists, doctors) and other categories, such as economists, statisticians, representatives of companies manufacturing medicines, as well as to hypertensive patients, as it could be used to warn population regarding the incidence of cardiovascular diseases, and, at the same time, trace sales trends in order to accomplish profitable business plans.

  8. Translating data on antihypertensive drugs into clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, M A

    1998-06-01

    Two problems in the treatment of hypertension continue to be largely unsolved. The first, and more simple, is our inability to adequately control blood pressure in the majority of hypertensive patients. This not only reflects the difficulty of retaining patients in effective treatment programs, but also of convincing physicians to strive for optimal blood pressure levels. There is a continuing need for new antihypertensive drugs and combinations to help accomplish these goals. The second major problem is that the major clinical endpoints, including coronary events and renal failure, have not been adequately reduced by traditional therapies. Standard regimens, particularly those including diuretics, have protected against strokes and heart failure. Our improved understanding of vascular biology in hypertension has directed interest to the mechanisms in hypertensive patients that might accelerate atherosclerosis and vascular events in these individuals. This involves addressing the concomitant metabolic risk factors that comprise the "Hypertension Syndrome," and, perhaps of equal importance, finding therapies that directly inhibit unwanted types of growth and proliferative activities within the walls of critical arteries. Many substances within the endothelium and the vascular wall may participate as initiators or mediators of pathology, but most information thus far has focused on the renin-angiotensin system. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (and potentially angiotensin receptor blockers) have provided coronary and renal protection in various cardiovascular conditions, though not yet in formal hypertension trials. Calcium channel blockers have also shown promise, including recent stroke and cardiovascular benefits in patients with isolated systolic hypertension, but, again, definitive coronary data in hypertension are awaited. Unless concomitant conditions mandate the selection of a particular antihypertensive drug class, physicians currently have a dilemma

  9. VASCULAR REMODELING AND HEART RATE VARIABILITY IN DIFFERENT ANTIHYPERTENSIVE THERAPIES

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    E. D. Golovanova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the effect of the long-term antihypertensive monotherapy with indapamide (Arifon Retard, 1,5 mg/d, metoprolol tartrate (Egilok Retard, 50 mg/d and combined therapy with indapamide and perindopril (Noliprel Forte, 1 tab/d: perindopril 4 mg and indapamide 1,25 mg on pulse wave velocity (PWV, cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI and the sympathetic system activity.Material and methods. 88 patients, aged 30-59 y.o. (32 normotensive patients, 56 with arterial hypertension [HT] of 1-2 grades were examined. Biological age (BA was determined by the linear regression and the vascular wall age (VWA was estimated with the use of volume sphygmography (“VaSera-1000”, “Fucuda Denshi”, Japan. 39 patients with HT were randomized into 3 parallel groups with studied therapies lasted for 6 months. PWV, CAVI of the vessels of elastic, muscular and mixed types, blood pressure, measured in upper and lower extremities and heart rate variability (HRV were determined before and at the end of the therapies.Results. BA and VWA were elevated in all of patients with HT as compared with normotensive patients. The reduction in PWV and CAVI of the vessels of elastic and mixed types, HRV increase were found in patients with Arifon Retard monotherapy. Monotherapy with metoprolol significantly improved HVR without any influence on the vascular remodeling. Noliprel Forte significantly decreased in blood pressure in the upper and lower extremities, PWV and CAVI of the vessels of all types, decreased in VWA and increased in parasympathetic drive.Conclusion. Long-term therapy with Arifon Retard and Noliprel Forte resulted in decrease in vascular remodeling and increase in HRV simultaneously with significant antihypertensive effect in patients with HT. Metoprolol low doses therapy resulted in normalization of autonomic drive independently on antihypertensive action.

  10. The efficacy of antihypertensive drugs in chronic intermittent hypoxia conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diogo, Lucilia N.; Monteiro, Emília C.

    2014-01-01

    Sleep apnea/hypopnea disorders include centrally originated diseases and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). This last condition is renowned as a frequent secondary cause of hypertension (HT). The mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of HT can be summarized in relation to two main pathways: sympathetic nervous system stimulation mediated mainly by activation of carotid body (CB) chemoreflexes and/or asphyxia, and, by no means the least important, the systemic effects of chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH). The use of animal models has revealed that CIH is the critical stimulus underlying sympathetic activity and hypertension, and that this effect requires the presence of functional arterial chemoreceptors, which are hyperactive in CIH. These models of CIH mimic the HT observed in humans and allow the study of CIH independently without the mechanical obstruction component. The effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), the gold standard treatment for OSA patients, to reduce blood pressure seems to be modest and concomitant antihypertensive therapy is still required. We focus this review on the efficacy of pharmacological interventions to revert HT associated with CIH conditions in both animal models and humans. First, we explore the experimental animal models, developed to mimic HT related to CIH, which have been used to investigate the effect of antihypertensive drugs (AHDs). Second, we review what is known about drug efficacy to reverse HT induced by CIH in animals. Moreover, findings in humans with OSA are cited to demonstrate the lack of strong evidence for the establishment of a first-line antihypertensive regimen for these patients. Indeed, specific therapeutic guidelines for the pharmacological treatment of HT in these patients are still lacking. Finally, we discuss the future perspectives concerning the non-pharmacological and pharmacological management of this particular type of HT. PMID:25295010

  11. Prognostic value of microalbuminuria during antihypertensive treatment in essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, Jose Maria; Rodilla, Enrique; Costa, Jose Antonio; Garcia-Escrich, Miguel; Gonzalez, Carmen; Redon, Josep

    2014-12-01

    Whether changes over time of urinary albumin excretion have prognostic value is a matter of discussion. The objective was to assess the prognostic value of changes in urinary albumin excretion over time in cardiovascular risk during antihypertensive treatment. Follow-up study of 2835 hypertensives in the absence of previous cardiovascular disease (mean age 55 years, 47% men, BP 138/80 mm Hg, 19.1% diabetics, and calibrated systemic coronary risk estimation 5 or >10.6%). Usual-care of antihypertensive treatment was implemented to maintain blood pressure<140/90 mm Hg. Urinary albumin excretion was assessed yearly, and the values were expressed as the creatinine ratio. Incidence of cardiovascular events, fatal and nonfatal, was recorded during the follow-up. During a median follow-up of 4.7 years (17 028 patients-year), 294 fatal and first nonfatal cardiovascular events were recorded (1.73 CVD per 100 patients/year). Independently of blood pressure, estimated glomerular filtration rate, level of cardiovascular risk, and antihypertensive treatment, microalbuminuria at baseline and at any time during the follow-up resulted in higher risk for events, hazard ratio (HR) 1.35 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08-1.79) and HR 1.49 (95% CI, 1.14-1.94), respectively. Likewise, development of microalbuminuria (HR 1.60; 95% CI, 1.04-2.46) or persistence from the beginning (1.53; 95% CI, 1.13-2.06) had a significantly higher rate of events than if remained normoalbuminuric (HR 1) or regress to normoalbuminuria (HR 1.37; 95% CI, 0.92-2.06) with an 18%, 18%, 8%, and 11% events, respectively, P<0.001. The study supports the value of urinary albumin excretion assessment as a prognostic factor for cardiovascular risk, but also opens the way to consider it as an intermediate objective in hypertension. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Synthesis of Benzimidazole Derivatives: As Anti-hypertensive Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jat Rakesh Kumar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A new series of non peptide angiotensin(A-II receptor antagonist has been prepared. This N-(biphenyl methyl imidazoles e.g. 5-substituted (amino -2- phenyl-1-(2ʼcarboxy biphenyl-4-yl benzimidazoles differ from the previously reported and related compounds in that they produce a potent hypertensive effect upon oral administration. The earlier series were generally active only when administered intravenously. It has been found that 2’-position of biphenyl is essential. Only ortho substituted acid possess both high affinity for the AII receptor and oral anti-hypertensive potency.

  13. Antioxidant and Antihypertensive Potential of Protein Fractions from Flour and Milk Substitutes from Canary Seeds (Phalaris canariensis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, María Elena; Orona-Tamayo, Domancar; Nieto-Rendón, Blanca; Paredes-López, Octavio

    2017-03-01

    Canary seed (Phalaris canariensis) is used to feed birds but it has been recently considered a promising cereal with nutraceutical potential for humans. The aim of this work was to analyze the protein fractions from canary seed flour and from milk substitutes (prepared by soaking the seeds in water 12 and 24 h), and to evaluate antioxidant and antihypertensive capacity of peptides obtained after in vitro digestion. Prolamins were the major protein fraction, followed by glutelins. After digestion, albumins and prolamins fractions from milks presented higher levels of peptides than flour, globulins showed more peptides in flour and glutelins were found in similar concentrations in all samples; 24 h milk prolamins had the highest concentration of peptides. Purification by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), sequencing of peptides, in vitro antioxidant ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis, 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) assays, and antihypertensive capacity (angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) assay), indicated that peptides from canary seed prolamins were the most efficient compounds with antioxidant and antihypertensive activity. Canary seeds may be considered an accessible and cheap source to prepare milk substitutes with high contents of bioactive peptides with remarkable functional properties to promote better human health and healthy ageing.

  14. Antihypertensive medication classes used among medicare beneficiaries initiating treatment in 2007-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Shia T; Shimbo, Daichi; Huang, Lei; Diaz, Keith M; Kilgore, Meredith L; Oparil, Suzanne; Muntner, Paul

    2014-01-01

    After the 2003 publication of the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC 7) guidelines, there was a 5-10% increase in patients initiating antihypertensive medication with a thiazide-type diuretic, but most patients still did not initiate treatment with this class. There are few contemporary published data on antihypertensive medication classes filled by patients initiating treatment. We used the 5% random Medicare sample to study the initiation of antihypertensive medication between 2007 and 2010. Initiation was defined by the first antihypertensive medication fill preceded by 365 days with no antihypertensive medication fills. We restricted our analysis to beneficiaries ≥ 65 years who had two or more outpatient visits with a hypertension diagnosis and full Medicare fee-for-service coverage for the 365 days prior to initiation of antihypertensive medication. Between 2007 and 2010, 32,142 beneficiaries in the 5% Medicare sample initiated antihypertensive medication. Initiation with a thiazide-type diuretic decreased from 19.2% in 2007 to 17.9% in 2010. No other changes in medication classes initiated occurred over this period. Among those initiating antihypertensive medication in 2010, 31.3% filled angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-Is), 26.9% filled beta blockers, 17.2% filled calcium channel blockers, and 14.4% filled angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs). Initiation with >1 antihypertensive medication class decreased from 25.6% in 2007 to 24.1% in 2010. Patients initiated >1 antihypertensive medication class most commonly with a thiazide-type diuretic and either an ACE-I or ARB. These results suggest that JNC 7 had a limited long-term impact on the choice of antihypertensive medication class and provide baseline data prior to the publication of the 2014 Evidence-Based Guideline for the Management of High Blood Pressure in Adults from the Panel Members Appointed to

  15. Impedance cardiography – optimization and efficacy evaluation of antihypertensive treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Panasiuk-Kamińska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background . Hypertension is a civilization disease which currently affects about 10.5 m people in Poland. The number of patients with diagnosed, untreated hypertension amounts to 18%, and as many as 45% of patients are treated ineffectively whereas only 26% are treated effectively. Impedance cardiography (IC is an important tool both in diagnostics and the treatment of hypertensive patients, particularly in the case of antihypertensive treatment resistance. This method allows for the individualized treatment of each patient on the basis of hemodynamic parameters, monitoring of hypertensive patients in the outpatient care setting, and the assessment of cardiovascular risk factors. Objectives . The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of hypotensive medications in patients with hypertension using impedance cardiography. Material and methods. The study involved 60 hypertensive patients, treated with antihypertensives, who failed to achieve the required blood pressure values. The modification of hypertension therapy was based on EBM (evidence-based medicine and on hemodynamic parameters obtained using impedance cardiography. Results . It was found that high blood pressure therapy based on impedance cardiography parameters has a significant influence on blood pressure reduction compared to EM B-based therapy: below 140/90: 66.8 vs. 55.1% and below 130/80: 23.5 vs. 18.9%. Conclusions . On the basis of this study it was confirmed that impedance cardiography allows for a significant reduction of hypertension and the selection of the most effective therapeutic strategy, providing for the optimization and efficacy of hypertension treatment.

  16. Hypertension Prevalence, Cardiac Complications, and Antihypertensive Medication Use in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Craig P; Eide, Matilda; Nylund, Cade M

    2015-07-01

    To determine the prevalence of hypertension diagnosis in children of US military members and quantify echocardiography evaluations, cardiac complications, and antihypertensive prescriptions in the post-2004 guideline era. Using billing data from military health insurance (TRICARE) enrollees, hypertension cases were defined as 2 or more visits with a primary or unspecified hypertension diagnosis during any calendar year or 1 such visit if with a cardiologist or nephrologist. During 2006-2011, the database contained an average 1.3 million subjects aged 2-18 years per year. A total of 16 322 met the definition of hypertension (2.6/1000). The incidence of hypertension increased by 17% between 2006 and 2011 (from 2.3/1000 to 2.7/1000; P Hypertension was more common in adolescents aged 12-18 years than in younger children (5.4/1000 vs 0.9/1000). Among patients with hypertension, 5585 (34%) underwent echocardiography. The frequency of annual echocardiograms increased from 22.7% to 27.7% (P hypertension, 6353 (38.9%) received an antihypertensive medication. The prevalence of hypertension in children has increased. Compliance with national guidelines is poor. Of pediatric patients with hypertension who receive an echocardiogram, 1 in 12 had identified cardiac complications, supporting the current recommendations for echocardiography in children with hypertension. Less than one-half of children with hypertension are treated with medication. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Effect of antihypertensive treatment on progression of incipient diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Cramer; Mogensen, C E

    1985-01-01

    of urinary albumin excretion before and during 2.6 years +/- 1.0 (SD) of treatment. The blood pressure was depressed by the treatment (systolic blood pressure from 135 mm Hg +/- 8.6 to 124 mm Hg +/- 6.2, NS; mean blood pressure from 107 mm Hg +/- 7.6 to 97 mm Hg +/- 3.4, 2p less than 0.05; diastolic blood......The aim of the study was to clarify whether antihypertensive treatment with a selective beta blocker would have an effect on the progression rate of kidney disease in patients with incipient diabetic nephropathy. Six male patients with juvenile-onset diabetes with incipient nephropathy (urinary...... albumin excretion above 15 micrograms/min and total protein excretion below 0.5 g/24 hr) were treated with metoprolol (200 mg daily). At the start of the antihypertensive treatment the mean age was 32 years +/- 4.2 (SD). The patients were followed a mean 5.4 years +/- 3.1 (SD) with repeated measurements...

  18. [Generic drugs and the consumption trends of antihypertensives in Morocco].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrada El Azizi, Ghizlane; Ahid, Samir; Ghanname, Imane; Ghannam, Imane; Belaiche, Abdelmajid; Hassar, Mohammed; Cherrah, Yahia

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the evolution of consumption of antihypertensive drugs generic among 1991-2010, to assess the impacts after the institution of Mandatory Health Insurance and the marketing of generic drugs. We used sales data from the Moroccan subsidiary of IMS Health Intercontinental Marketing Service. Consumption of generic antihypertensive drugs increased from 0.08 to 10.65 DDD/1 000 inhabitants/day between 1991 and 2010. In 2010, generic of the calcium channel blockers (CCBs) represented 4.08 DDD/1 000 inhabitants/day (82.09%), followed by angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) by 2.40 DDD/1 000 inhabitants/day (48.29%). The generics market of CCBs is the most dominant and represented in 2010, 79.21% in volume and 62.58% in value. In developing countries like Morocco, the generic drug is a key element for access to treatment especially for the poor population. © 2013 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  19. In Silico Investigations of Chemical Constituents of Clerodendrum colebrookianum in the Anti-Hypertensive Drug Targets: ROCK, ACE, and PDE5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Hemant; Syed, Safiulla Basha; Singh, Sorokhaibam Sureshkumar; Ampasala, Dinakar R; Coumar, Mohane Selvaraj

    2017-06-16

    Understanding the molecular mode of action of natural product is a key step for developing drugs from them. In this regard, this study is aimed to understand the molecular-level interactions of chemical constituents of Clerodendrum colebrookianum Walp., with anti-hypertensive drug targets using computational approaches. The plant has ethno-medicinal importance for the treatment of hypertension and reported to show activity against anti-hypertensive drug targets-Rho-associated coiled-coil protein kinase (ROCK), angiotensin-converting enzyme, and phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5). Docking studies showed that three chemical constituents (acteoside, martinoside, and osmanthuside β6) out of 21 reported from the plant to interact with the anti-hypertensive drug targets with good glide score. In addition, they formed H-bond interactions with the key residues Met156/Met157 of ROCK I/ROCK II and Gln817 of PDE5. Further, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of protein-ligand complexes suggest that H-bond interactions between acteoside/osmanthuside β6 and Met156/Met157 (ROCK I/ROCK II), acteoside and Gln817 (PDE5) were stable. The present investigation suggests that the anti-hypertensive activity of the plant is due to the interaction of acteoside and osmanthuside β6 with ROCK and PDE5 drug targets. The identified molecular mode of binding of the plant constituents could help to design new drugs to treat hypertension.

  20. Acute and chronic antihypertensive effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum stem bark methanol extract in L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyadjeu Paulin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous study showed that the aqueous extract of the stem bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum possesses antihypertensive and vasodilatory properties. The present work investigates the acute and chronic antihypertensive effects of the methanol extract of Cinnamomum zeylanicum stem bark (MECZ in L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats. Methods The acute antihypertensive effects of MECZ (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg administered intravenously were evaluated in rats in which acute arterial hypertension has been induced by intravenous administration of L-NAME (20 mg/kg. For chronic antihypertensive effects, animals were treated with L-NAME (40 mg/kg/day plus the vehicle or L-NAME (40 mg/kg/day in combination with captopril (20 mg/kg/day or MECZ (300 mg/kg/day and compared with control group receiving only distilled water. All drugs were administered per os and at the end of the experiment that lasted for four consecutive weeks, blood pressure was measured by invasive method and blood samples were collected for the determination of the lipid profile. The heart and aorta were collected, weighed and used for both histological analysis and determination of NO tissue content. Results Acute intravenous administration of C. zeylanicum extract (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg to L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats provoked a long-lasting decrease in blood pressure. Mean arterial blood pressure decreased by 12.5%, 26.6% and 30.6% at the doses of 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg, respectively. In chronic administration, MECZ and captopril significantly prevented the increase in blood pressure and organs’ weights, as well as tissue histological damages and were able to reverse the depletion in NO tissue’s concentration. The MECZ also significantly lower the plasma level of triglycerides (38.1%, total cholesterol (32.1% and LDL-cholesterol (75.3% while increasing that of HDL-cholesterol (58.4% with a significant low atherogenic index (1.4 versus 5.3 for L-NAME group. Conclusion MECZ

  1. PRESCRIBING OF ANTIHYPERTENSIVE AGENTS IN PUBLIC PRIMARY CARE CLINICS – IS IT IN ACCORDANCE WITH CURRENT EVIDENCE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAJARI J

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Large population surveys in Malaysia have consistently shown minimal improvement of blood pressure control rates over the last 10 years. Poor adherence to antihypertensive medication has been recognized as a major reason for poor control of hypertension. This study aimed to describe the prescribing pattern of antihypertensive agents in 2 public primary care clinics and assess its appropriateness in relation to current evidence and guidelines. Methods: A cross-sectional survey to describe the prescribing pattern of antihypertensive agents was carried out in 2 publicprimary care clinics in Selangor from May to June 2009. Hypertensive patients on pharmacological treatment for ≥1 year who attended the clinics within the study period of 7 weeks were selected. Appropriate use of antihypertensive agents was defined based on current evidence and the recommendations by the Malaysian Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPG on the Management of Hypertension, 2008. Data were obtained from patients’ medical records and were analysed using the SPSS software version 16.0. Results: A total of 400 hypertensive patients on treatment were included. Mean age was 59.5 years (SD ±10.9, range 28 to91 years, of which 52.8% were females and 47.2% were males. With regards to pharmacotherapy, 45.7% were on monotherapy,43.3% were on 2 agents and 11.0% were on ≥3 agents. Target blood pressure of <140/90mmHg was achieved in 51.4% of patients on monotherapy, and 33.2% of patients on combination of ≥2 agents. The commonest monotherapy agents being prescribed were β-blockers (atenolol or propranolol, followed by the short-acting calcium channel blocker (nifedipine. The commonest combination of 2-drug therapy prescribed was β-blockers and short-acting calcium channel blocker. Conclusion: This study shows that the prescribing pattern of antihypertensive agents in the 2 primary care clinics was not in accordance with current evidence and guidelines.

  2. Antihypertensive Effects of Roselle-Olive Combination in L-NAME-Induced Hypertensive Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehab F. Abdel-Rahman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the antihypertensive efficacy of a new combination therapy of Hibiscus sabdariffa and Olea europaea extracts (2 : 1; Roselle-Olive, using N(G-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester- (L-NAME- induced hypertensive model. Rats received L-NAME (50 mg/kg/day, orally for 4 weeks. Concurrent treatment with Roselle-Olive (500, 250, and 125 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, reversed the L-NAME-induced suppression in serum nitric oxide (NO, and improved liver and kidney markers, lipid profile, and oxidative status. Furthermore, Roselle-Olive significantly lowered the elevated angiotensin-converting enzyme activity (ACE and showed a marked genoprotective effect against oxidative DNA damage in hypertensive rats. Roselle-Olive ameliorated kidney and heart lesions and reduced aortic media thickness. Real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry showed an enhanced endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS gene and protein expression in both heart and kidney of Roselle-Olive-treated rats. To conclude, our data revealed that Roselle-Olive is an effective combination in which H. sabdariffa and O. europaea synergistically act to control hypertension. These effects are likely to be mediated by antioxidant and genoprotective actions, ACE inhibition, and eNOS upregulation by Roselle-Olive constituents. These findings provide evidences that Roselle-Olive combination affords efficient antihypertensive effect with a broad end-organ protective influence.

  3. ANTIHYPERTENSIVE THERAPY AND CLIMACTERIC DISORDERS IN POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kirichenko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study efficacy and tolerability of antihypertensive therapy with enalapril (Berlipril®, Berlin-Chemie AG/Menarini Group and diltiazem (Altiazem® PP, Berlin-Chemie AG/Menarini Group in postmenopausal women with arterial hypertension (HT and climacteric disorders.Material and methods. 60 postmenopausal women (aged 56,8±3,9 y.o. with HT of 1-3 degrees were included into the study. They were split in two groups. Patients of the first group (30 people received enalapril (Berlipril® 20 mg/daily, patients of the second group (30 people – diltiazem (Altiazem® PP 180-360 mg/daily. Observation period was 6 months. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM was performed before treatment and after 3 weeks, 1, 3 and 6 months of therapy. Climacteric syndrome severity and urodynamic disorders was estimated as well as psychic status according to score of depression and anxiety.Results. Office and ambulance blood pressure decreased after 6 months of therapy in all patients of both groups. A number of complaints on headache and giddiness reduced significantly. Severity of climacteric syndrome also decreased. Enalapril (Berlipril® monotherapy and especially combined therapy with hydrochlorothiazide led to aggravation of urodinamic disorders. On the contrary both monotherapy with diltiazem (Altiazem® PP or its combination with hydrochlorothiazide had positive effect on urodinamics. Both therapies reduced depression and anxiety levels significantly.Conclusion. All spectrum of pharmacology effects should be taken into account during antihypertensive therapy of patients with climacteric disorders.

  4. Cost-utility analysis of antihypertensive medications in Nigeria: a decision analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekwunife Obinna Ikechukwu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many drugs are available for control of hypertension and its sequels in Nigeria but some are not affordable for majority of the populace. This serious pharmacoeconomic question has to be answered by the nation’s health economists. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of drugs from 4 classes of antihypertensive medications commonly used in Nigeria in management of hypertension without compelling indication to use a particular antihypertensive drug. Methods The study employed decision analytic modeling. Interventions were obtained from a meta-analysis. The Markov process model calculated clinical outcomes and costs during a life cycle of 30 years of 1000 hypertensive patients stratified by 3 cardiovascular risk groups, under the alternative intervention scenarios. Quality adjusted life year (QALY was used to quantify clinical outcome. The average cost of treatment for the 1000 patient was tracked over the Markov cycle model of the alternative interventions and results were presented in 2010 US Dollars. Probabilistic cost-effectiveness analysis was performed using Monte Carlo simulation, and results presented as cost-effectiveness acceptability frontiers. Expected value of perfect information (EVPI and expected value of parameter perfect information (EVPPI analyses were also conducted for the hypothetical population. Results Thiazide diuretic was the most cost-effective option across the 3 cardiovascular risk groups. Calcium channel blocker was the second best for Moderate risk and high risk with a willingness to pay of at least 2000$/QALY. The result was robust since it was insensitive to the parameters alteration. Conclusions The result of this study showed that thiazide diuretic followed by calcium channel blocker could be a feasible strategy in order to ensure that patients in Nigeria with hypertension are better controlled.

  5. Healthy lifestyle status, antihypertensive treatment and the risk of heart failure among Finnish men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yujie; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Jousilahti, Pekka; Antikainen, Riitta; Mähönen, Markku; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Hu, Gang

    2013-11-01

    To compare the association between antihypertensive drug treatment and heart failure (HF) risk with the association between engaging in a healthy lifestyle and HF risk. We prospectively investigated the single and joint associations of lifestyle factors and awareness, treatment, blood pressure control status with HF risk among 38 075 Finns, who were 25-74 years old and free of HF at baseline. During a median follow-up of 14.1 years, 638 men and 445 women developed HF. Engaging in a healthy lifestyle was associated with an decreased risk of HF. Compared with normotensive people, hypertensive patients with and without antihypertensive treatment had a higher risk of HF. Hypertensive patients who used antihypertensive drugs but did not engage in a healthy lifestyle had a significantly higher risk of HF [HR 1.75; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.39-2.21] than hypertensive patients who did not use antihypertensive drugs but engaged in a healthy lifestyle. In addition, compared with hypertensive patients who used antihypertensive drugs and engaged in a healthy lifestyle, hypertensive patients who did not use antihypertensive drug or engage in a healthy lifestyle had a significantly higher risk of HF (HR 1.55; 95% CI 1.24-1.95). The present study demonstrates that HF risk was lower in hypertensive patients who engaged in a healthy lifestyle but higher in hypertensive people using antihypertensive drug treatment.

  6. More hypotension in patients taking antihypertensives preoperatively during shoulder surgery in the beach chair position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trentman, Terrence L; Fassett, Sharon L; Thomas, Justin K; Noble, Brie N; Renfree, Kevin J; Hattrup, Steven J

    2011-11-01

    Hypotension is common in patients undergoing surgery in the sitting position under general anesthesia, and the risk may be exacerbated by the use of antihypertensive drugs taken preoperatively. The purpose of this study was to compare hypotensive episodes in patients taking antihypertensive medications with normotensive patients during shoulder surgery in the beach chair position. Medical records of all patients undergoing shoulder arthroscopy during a 44-month period were reviewed retrospectively. The primary endpoint was the number of moderate hypotensive episodes (systolic blood pressure ≤ 85 mmHg) during the intraoperative period. Secondary endpoints included the frequency of vasopressor administration, total dose of vasopressors, and fluid administered. Values are expressed as mean (standard deviation). Of 384 patients who underwent shoulder surgery, 185 patients were taking no antihypertensive medication, and 199 were on at least one antihypertensive drug. The antihypertensive medication group had more intraoperative hypotensive episodes [1.7 (2.2) vs 1.2 (1.8); P = 0.01] and vasopressor administrations. Total dose of vasopressors and volume of fluids administered were similar between groups. The timing of the administration of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and of angiotensin receptor antagonists (≤ 10 hr vs > 10 hr before surgery) had no impact on intraoperative hypotension. Preoperative use of antihypertensive medication was associated with an increased incidence of intraoperative hypotension. Compared with normotensive patients, patients taking antihypertensive drugs preoperatively are expected to require vasopressors more often to maintain normal blood pressure.

  7. Is the use of ABPM justified in patients on 1 or 2 antihypertensive medications?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Gaurav; Prasad, Rachana; Robinson, Anne; Rodrigues, Erwin; Wong, Peter

    2008-03-28

    We studied the utility of ABPM in patients with elevated clinic BP on 1-2 antihypertensive medications (group B, N=117), compared with those on no medications (group A, N=76) and on > or =3 medications (group C, N=110). 35% of patients in group B had adequately controlled 24-h BP based on ABPM, compared with 22.4% in group A (P=0.06) and 19.1% in group C (P=0.007). Antihypertensive treatment was not escalated in patients with adequately controlled BP. This suggests that ABPM has an important role in therapeutic decision-making for patients on 1-2 antihypertensive medications.

  8. The antihypertensive effect of fermented milk in individuals with prehypertension or borderline hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Usinger, Lotte; Jensen, L T; Flambard, B

    2010-01-01

     Hg have been reported in spontaneously hypertensive rats fed FM. Results from human studies of the antihypertensive effect are inconsistent. However, many studies suffer from methodological weaknesses, as insufficient blinding and the use of office BP measurements. We conducted a randomised, double......, which could be compatible with a minor antihypertensive effect. Heart rate and lipids remained unchanged between groups. Hence, our study does not support earlier studies measuring office BP-measurements, reporting antihypertensive effect of FM. Based on straight performed 24-h ambulatory BP...

  9. Antioxidative and antihypertensive activities of pig meat before and after cooking and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion: Comparison between Italian autochthonous pig Suino Nero Lucano and a modern crossbred pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonetti, Amalia; Gambacorta, Emilio; Perna, Annamaria

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare antioxidative and antihypertensive activities of Longissimus dorsi muscle from Suino Nero Lucano (SNL) and a modern crossbred (CG) pigs, before and after cooking and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. Pig meat showed antioxidative and antihypertensive activities, heat treatment decreased the thiols content but at the same time increased angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity, and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion enhanced the biological activity of meat. Autochthonous SNL meat showed a higher nutraceutical quality compared to CG meat, highlighting a greater potential beneficial physiological effect on human health. The results of this study indicate that the pig meat, in particular autochthonous pig meat, may be considered a functional food since it is a good source of antioxidative and antihypertensive peptides. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. prescription pattern of anti-hypertensive drugs in a tertiary health

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emmanuel Ameh

    co.uk, Tel.: +234-8054693770. Abstract. Objective: This study examined the pattern of physicians' prescription of antihypertensive drugs and its possible effects on blood pressure control as well as physicians' compliance with recommended.

  11. Antihypertensive medication classes used among medicare beneficiaries initiating treatment in 2007-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shia T Kent

    Full Text Available After the 2003 publication of the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC 7 guidelines, there was a 5-10% increase in patients initiating antihypertensive medication with a thiazide-type diuretic, but most patients still did not initiate treatment with this class. There are few contemporary published data on antihypertensive medication classes filled by patients initiating treatment.We used the 5% random Medicare sample to study the initiation of antihypertensive medication between 2007 and 2010. Initiation was defined by the first antihypertensive medication fill preceded by 365 days with no antihypertensive medication fills. We restricted our analysis to beneficiaries ≥ 65 years who had two or more outpatient visits with a hypertension diagnosis and full Medicare fee-for-service coverage for the 365 days prior to initiation of antihypertensive medication. Between 2007 and 2010, 32,142 beneficiaries in the 5% Medicare sample initiated antihypertensive medication. Initiation with a thiazide-type diuretic decreased from 19.2% in 2007 to 17.9% in 2010. No other changes in medication classes initiated occurred over this period. Among those initiating antihypertensive medication in 2010, 31.3% filled angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-Is, 26.9% filled beta blockers, 17.2% filled calcium channel blockers, and 14.4% filled angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs. Initiation with >1 antihypertensive medication class decreased from 25.6% in 2007 to 24.1% in 2010. Patients initiated >1 antihypertensive medication class most commonly with a thiazide-type diuretic and either an ACE-I or ARB.These results suggest that JNC 7 had a limited long-term impact on the choice of antihypertensive medication class and provide baseline data prior to the publication of the 2014 Evidence-Based Guideline for the Management of High Blood Pressure in Adults from the Panel

  12. Cerebral blood flow autoregulation in hypertension and effects of antihypertensive drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barry, David; Lassen, N A

    1984-01-01

    If antihypertensive treatment, especially emergency blood pressure lowering, is always to be safe, more thought should be given to autoregulation of cerebral blood in the hypertensive patient. This topic is reviewed in the present article, in the hypertensive patient. This topic is reviewed...... in the present article, particular emphasis being placed on the resetting of the lower limit of autoregulation to higher pressure in hypertension and the effects of acute administration of anti-hypertensive drugs on CBF and CBF-autoregulation....

  13. Marketing research on the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors antihypertensive medicines

    OpenAIRE

    BOBOIA, ANAMARIA; GRIGORESCU, MARIUS RARE?; TURCU - ?TIOLIC?, ADINA

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims The research aimed at investigating sales trends of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors antihypertensive medicines, both in terms of quantity and value, in ten community pharmacies, for a period of three years. The research on the antihypertensive medicines consumption is important for highlighting the ever increasing impact of hypertension among the population. Methods The methods used in this research were the following: marketing research, method of sampling, descr...

  14. Prescribing patterns of antihypertensive drugs in geriatric population in tertiary care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renoy Philip

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is one of the major chronic diseases with high mortality and morbidity in the today’s world. Present study was to assess the prescribing pattern of antihypertensive medications in geriatric population suffering mainly from hypertension with or without co morbidities like Diabetes Mellitus (DM. A prospective observational study was carried out for a period of six months in an in-patient general medicine department. Elderly patients who have been diagnosed with pure hypertension as per JNC 7 guidelines and hypertension with co- morbid condition like diabetes mellitus and patients receiving or prescribed with antihypertensive drugs were included. A total of 150 prescriptions were analyzed. The present study revealed that there were 93 patients with pure Hypertension and 57 patients with co morbid conditions like Diabetes Mellitus (DM. Among antihypertensive drugs in pure hypertensive cases, 53.76% of cases were prescribed with monotherapy, followed by 46.23% by combination therapy. The commonly prescribed antihypertensive monotherapy is calcium channel blockers. The most commonly prescribed combination therapy in severe cases was angiotensin receptor blockers with diuretics. This prescribing pattern of antihypertensives was as per Joint National Committee-7report on hypertension. In case of geriatric patients suffering from hypertension with Type 2 diabetes mellitus, most commonly prescribed antihypertensive as monotherapy was found to be amlodipine and combination therapy was telmisartan + hydrochlorothiazide.

  15. Baseline Antihypertensive Drug Count and Patient Response to Hypertension Medication Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Matthew J; Olsen, Maren K; Woolson, Sandra L; King, Heather A; Oddone, Eugene Z; Bosworth, Hayden B

    2016-04-01

    Telemedicine-based medication management improves hypertension control, but has been evaluated primarily in patients with low antihypertensive drug counts. Its impact on patients taking three or more antihypertensive agents is not well-established. To address this evidence gap, the authors conducted an exploratory analysis of an 18-month, 591-patient trial of telemedicine-based hypertension medication management. Using general linear models, the effect of medication management on blood pressure for patients taking two or fewer antihypertensive agents at study baseline vs those taking three or more was compared. While patients taking two or fewer antihypertensive agents had a significant reduction in systolic blood pressure with medication management, those taking three or more had no such response. The between-subgroup effect difference was statistically significant at 6 months (-6.4 mm Hg [95% confidence interval, -12.2 to -0.6]) and near significant at 18 months (-6.0 mm Hg [95% confidence interval, -12.2 to 0.2]). These findings suggest that baseline antihypertensive drug count may impact how patients respond to hypertension medication management and emphasize the need to study management strategies specifically in patients taking three or more antihypertensive medications. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  16. [Abpm and duration of the antihypertensive effect: a study with a new formulation of sustained release losartan (CRONOS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendersky, Mario; Juncos, Luis; Waisman, Gabriel Dario; Piskorz, Daniel; Lopez-Santi, Ricardo; Montaña, Oscar; Caruso, Gustavo; Kotetzky, Martin; Penna, Maria; Gomez, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Antihypertensive drugs action should last at least 24 h in order to enhance adherence, with positive impact on CV morbimortality. ABPM allow us to evaluate duration of action of drugs, against placebo, using Trough:Peak Ratio, antihypertensive effect in the last 4 h interdosis, and calculating the rate of BP morning surge. Losartán is an Antagonist At1 with good antihypertensive efficacy and renal, cardiac and cerebrovascular protection. Some studies shows less than 24 hs of action, that suggest twice a day dosing. The merge of a new formulation, Losartan Cronos, a bilayer tablet containing 50 mg of Losartan immediate release (IR) and 50 mg extended release (ER) would allow 24 h coverage, maintaining the previous advantages. To assess antihypertensive duration of action of Losartán Cronos in patients with essential hypertension throughout a 24-h dosing interval, using ABPM and response rates, AASI and Smoothness Index. 97 essential hypertensives, where included and received a single morning dose of Losartán Cronos (50 mg of regular release and 50 mg of controlled and retarded release) during 8 weeks. Performed valid ABPM post placebo and post active treatment. Results Mean age 58 (26-86), 60% women. 63% treatment naïve. The mean reduction in BP from baseline to week 8 (end of treatment) was statistically significant for all times analyzed (24 hours, daytime, night-time, and last 4 hours monitoring). There were no significant changes in 24h heart rate. BP morning surge (mmHg/hour) decreased from 4.53 to 3,68 (p=0.03).T:P Ratio was 0.91 for SBP and 1.14 for DBP. Smoothness Index: SBP 2.86 (95% CI 1.84-3.7) - DBP 3.17 (95% CI 2.03-3.9) 19 patients had adverse events, no-one cough, all mild, without discontinuations. Conclusion Losartán Cronos demonstrated efficacy and safety, decreases BP without significant effects in heart rate, it reduces the pulse pressure, and its effect lasts for 24 hs, assessed by T:P ratio, last 4 hours effects, decreasing morning surge

  17. Vasorelaxing and antihypertensive activities of synthesized peptides derived from computer-aided simulation of pepsin hydrolysis of yam dioscorin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yin-Shiou; Lu, Yeh-Lin; Wang, Guei-Jane; Liang, Hong-Jen; Hou, Wen-Chi

    2014-12-01

    We reported that yam dioscorin and its peptic hydrolysates exhibited ACE inhibition and antihypertensive effects on SHRs, however, the active peptides are not really isolated until now. Using ACE inhibitory screenings, two penta-peptides, KTCGY and KRIHF, were selected for ex vivo and in vivo experiments. KTCGY, KRIHF, and captopril were shown to have similar vasodilating effects against phenylephrine (PE)-induced tensions in rat endothelium-dependent thoracic aortic rings, however, KTCGYKTCGY (two-repeated KTCGY) and TCGYTCGY (two-repeated TCGY) were showed endothelium-independent vasodilating effects against PE-induced tensions. KTCGY, KRIHF (10 or 20 mg/kg), and captopril (10 mg/kg) were used to evaluate antihypertensive activity during 24-h after a single oral administration to spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). The KTCGY and KRIHF showed significantly different and reduced the systolic blood pressure of SHRs compared to the blank. These results suggest that KTCGY and KRIHF may contribute important roles in yam dioscorin for regulating blood pressure in vivo.

  18. Tissue distribution in mice of BPP 10c, a potent proline-rich anti-hypertensive peptide of Bothrops jararaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Carlos A; Portaro, Fernanda C V; Fernandes, Beatriz L; Ianzer, Danielle A; Guerreiro, Juliano R; Gomes, Claudiana L; Konno, Katsuhiro; Serrano, Solange M T; Nascimento, Nanci; Camargo, Antonio C M

    2008-03-15

    The snake venom proline-rich peptide BPP 10c is an active somatic angiotensin-converting enzyme (sACE) inhibitors. Recently we demonstrated that the anti-hypertensive effect of BPP 10c is not related to the inhibition of sACE alone, thus suggesting that this enzyme is not its only target for blood pressure reduction. In the present work, a biodistribution study in Swiss mice of [(125)I]-BPP 10c in the absence or in the presence of a saturating concentration of captopril, a selective active-site inhibitor of sACE, demonstrated that: (1) [(125)I]-BPP 10c was present in several organs and the renal absorption was significantly high; (2) [(125)I]-BPP 10c showed a clear preference for the kidney, maintaining a high concentration in this organ in the presence of captopril for at least 3h; (3) The residual amount of [(125)I]-BPP 10c in the kidney of animals simultaneously treated with captopril suggest that the peptide can interact with other targets different from sACE in this organ. We also showed that Cy3-labeled BPP 10c was internalized by human embryonic kidney cells (HEK-293T). Taken together, these results suggest that sACE inhibition by captopril affects the tissue distribution of [(125)I]-BPP 10c and that the anti-hypertensive effects of BPP 10c are not only dependent on sACE inhibition.

  19. Chemical study, antioxidant, anti-hypertensive, and cytotoxic/cytoprotective activities of Centaurea cyanus L. petals aqueous extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escher, Graziela Bragueto; Santos, Jânio Sousa; Rosso, Neiva Deliberali; Marques, Mariza Boscacci; Azevedo, Luciana; do Carmo, Mariana Araújo Vieira; Daguer, Heitor; Molognoni, Luciano; Prado-Silva, Leonardo do; Sant'Ana, Anderson Souza; da Silva, Marcia Cristina; Granato, Daniel

    2018-05-19

    This study aimed to optimise the experimental conditions of extraction of the phytochemical compounds and functional properties of Centaurea cyanus petals. The following parameters were determined: the chemical composition (LC-ESI-MS/MS), the effects of pH on the stability and antioxidant activity of anthocyanins, the inhibition of lipid peroxidation, antioxidant activity, anti-hemolytic activity, antimicrobial, anti-hypertensive, and cytotoxic/cytoprotective effect, and the measurements of intracellular reactive oxygen species. Results showed that the temperature and time influenced (p ≤ 0.05) the content of flavonoids, anthocyanins, and FRAP. Only the temperature influenced the total phenolic content, non-anthocyanin flavonoids, and antioxidant activity (DPPH). The statistical approach made it possible to obtain the optimised experimental extraction conditions to increase the level of bioactive compounds. Chlorogenic, caffeic, ferulic, and p-coumaric acids, isoquercitrin, and coumarin were identified as the major compounds in the optimised extract. The optimised extract presented anti-hemolytic and anti-hypertensive activity in vitro, in addition to showing stability and reversibility of anthocyanins and antioxidant activity with pH variation. The C. cyanus extract exhibited high IC 50 and GI 50 (>900 μg/mL) values for all cell lines, meaning low cytotoxicity. Based on the stress oxidative assay, the extract exhibited pro-oxidant action (10-100 μg/mL) but did not cause damage or cell death. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Influence of antihypertensive therapy on cerebral perfusion in patients with metabolic syndrome: relationship with cognitive function and 24-h arterial blood pressure monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efimova, Nataliya Y; Chernov, Vladimir I; Efimova, Irina Y; Lishmanov, Yuri B

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the regional cerebral blood flow, cognitive function, and parameters of 24-h arterial blood pressure monitoring in patients with metabolic syndrome before and after combination antihypertensive therapy. The study involved 54 patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS) investigated by brain single-photon emission computed tomography, 24-h blood pressure monitoring (ABPM), and comprehensive neuropsychological testing before and after 24 weeks of combination antihypertensive therapy. Patients with metabolic syndrome had significantly poorer regional cerebral blood flow compared with control group: by 7% (P = 0.003) in right anterior parietal cortex, by 6% (P = 0.028) in left anterior parietal cortex, by 8% (P = 0.007) in right superior frontal lobe, and by 10% (P = 0.00002) and 7% (P = 0.006) in right and left temporal brain regions, correspondingly. The results of neuropsychological testing showed 11% decrease in mentation (P = 0.002), and 19% (P = 0.011) and 20% (P = 0.009) decrease in immediate verbal and visual memory in patients with MetS as compared with control group. Relationships between the indices of ABPM, cerebral perfusion, and cognitive function were found. Data showed an improvement of regional cerebral blood flow, ABPM parameters, and indicators of cognitive functions after 6 months of antihypertensive therapy in patients with MetS. The study showed the presence of diffuse disturbances in cerebral perfusion is associated with cognitive disorders in patients with metabolic syndrome. Combination antihypertensive treatment exerts beneficial effects on the 24-h blood pressure profile, increases cerebral blood flow, and improves cognitive function in patients with MetS. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Mechanism of antihypertensive effect of Mucuna pruriens L. seed extract and its isolated compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad Yaseen; Kumar, Vimal

    2017-06-21

    Background In the search of safe and effective lead molecules from natural sources, Mucuna pruriens (MP) L. (Fabaceae) seeds were utilized for exploring the antihypertensive potential. Traditionally, it is used as diuretic and hypotensive. Methods Bioassay-guided fractions were utilized for the isolation of active compounds by column chromatography. IC50 value, enzyme kinetics and inhibition mechanism were determined. In vivo time and dose-dependent hypotensive study followed by changes in mean arterial pressure (MAP) induced by angiotensin I (3 nmol/kg), angiotensin II (3 nmol/kg), and bradykinin (10 nmol/kg) in anesthetized rats was done. Plasma and tissue angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) activities were also determined. Results Phytochemical analysis by spectroscopic techniques revealed the presence of known compounds like genistein, ursolic acid and L-DOPA from the ethyl acetate and water fraction, respectively. In vitro study revealed MP ethyl acetate (MPEA) fraction and genistein as the most active fraction (IC50 156.45 µg/mL) and compound (IC50 253.81 µM), respectively. Lineweaver-Burk plots revealed a non-competitive mode of inhibition. ACE protein precipitation was the suggested mechanism for inhibition. The extract showed a time- and dose-dependent decrease in MAP. Genistein was able to dose-dependently reduce the MAP, up to 53±1.5 mmHg (40 mg/kg, i.v.). As compared to control, it showed a dose-dependent decrease in plasma ACE activity of 40.61 % and 54.76 % at 10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg, respectively. It also decreased the ACE activity in the aorta (107.67nM/ml min at 10 mg, p<0.001; 95.33nM/ml min at 20 mg p<0.001). Captopril was used as a standard for various in vitro and in vivo assays. Conclusions The study revealed the antihypertensive potential of MP seed compounds via ACE inhibition.

  2. Antihypertensive and cardioprotective effects of pumpkin seed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Mosallamy, Aliaa E M K; Sleem, Amany A; Abdel-Salam, Omar M E; Shaffie, Nermeen; Kenawy, Sanaa A

    2012-02-01

    Pumpkin seed oil is a natural product commonly used in folk medicine for treatment of prostatic hypertrophy. In the present study, the effects of treatment with pumpkin seed oil on hypertension induced by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(ω)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME) (50 mg /kg/day) in rats were studied and compared with those of the calcium channel blocker amlodipine. Pumpkin seed oil (40 or 100 mg/kg), amlodipine (0.9 mg/kg), or vehicle (control) was given once daily orally for 6 weeks. Arterial blood pressure (BP), heart rate, electrocardiogram (ECG) changes, levels of serum nitric oxide (NO) (the concentrations of nitrite/nitrate), plasma malondialdehyde (MDA), blood glutathione, and erythrocytic superoxide dismutase activity were measured. Histopathological examination of heart and aorta was conducted as well. L-NAME administration resulted in a significant increase in BP starting from the second week. Pumpkin seed oil or amlodipine treatment significantly reduced the elevation in BP by L-NAME and normalized the L-NAME-induced ECG changes-namely, prolongation of the RR interval, increased P wave duration, and ST elevation. Both treatments significantly decreased the elevated levels of MDA and reversed the decreased levels of NO metabolites to near normal values compared with the L-NAME-treated group. Amlodipine also significantly increased blood glutathione content compared with normal (but not L-NAME-treated) rats. Pumpkin seed oil as well as amlodipine treatment protected against pathological alterations in heart and aorta induced by L-NAME. In conclusion, this study has shown that pumpkin seed oil exhibits an antihypertensive and cardioprotective effects through a mechanism that may involve generation of NO.

  3. Factors predicting incremental administration of antihypertensive boluses during deep brain stimulator placement for Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Shobana; Deogaonkar, Milind; Kaw, Roop; Nada, Eman Ms; Hernandez, Adrian V; Ebrahim, Zeyd; Avitsian, Rafi

    2014-10-01

    Hypertension is common in deep brain stimulator (DBS) placement predisposing to intracranial hemorrhage. This retrospective review evaluates factors predicting incremental antihypertensive use intraoperatively. Medical records of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients undergoing DBS procedure between 2008-2011 were reviewed after Institutional Review Board approval. Anesthesia medication, preoperative levodopa dose, age, preoperative use of antihypertensive medications, diabetes mellitus, anxiety, motor part of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale score and PD duration were collected. Univariate and multivariate analysis was done between each patient characteristic and the number of antihypertensive boluses. From the 136 patients included 60 were hypertensive, of whom 32 were on angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB), told to hold on the morning of surgery. Antihypertensive medications were given to 130 patients intraoperatively. Age (relative risk [RR] 1.01; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.00-1.02; p=0.005), high Joint National Committee (JNC) class (p10 years (RR 1.2; 95%CI 1.1-1.3; p=0.001) were independent predictors for antihypertensive use. No difference was noted in the mean dose of levodopa (p=0.1) and levodopa equivalent dose (p=0.4) between the low (I/II) and high severity (III/IV) JNC groups. Addition of dexmedetomidine to propofol did not influence antihypertensive boluses required (p=0.38). Intraoperative hypertension during DBS surgery is associated with higher age group, hypertensive, diabetic patients and longer duration of PD. Withholding ACEI or ARB is an independent predictor of hypertension requiring more aggressive therapy. Levodopa withdrawal and choice of anesthetic agent is not associated with higher intraoperative antihypertensive medications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Vasorelaxant activity of extracts obtained from Apium graveolens:Possible source for vasorelaxant molecules isolation with potential antihypertensive effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vergara-Galicia Jorge; Jimenez-Ramirez Luis ngel; Tun-Suarez Adrin; Aguirre-Crespo Francisco; Salazar-Gmez Anuar; Estrada-Soto Samuel; Sierra-Ovando ngel; Hernandez-Nuez Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the vasorelaxant effect of organic extracts from Apium graveolens (A. graveolens) which is a part of a group of plants subjected to pharmacological and phytochemical study with the purpose of offering it as an ideal source for obtaining lead compounds for designing new therapeutic agents with potential vasorelaxant and antihypertensive effects. Methods:An ex vivo method was employed to assess the vasorelaxant activity. This consisted of using rat aortic rings with and without endothelium precontracted with norepinephrine. Results:All extracts caused concentration-dependent relaxation in precontracted aortic rings with and without endothelium;the most active extracts were Dichloromethane and Ethyl Acetate extracts from A. graveolens. These results suggested that secondary metabolites responsible for the vasorelaxant activity belong to a group of compounds of medium polarity. Also, our evidence showed that effect induced by dichloromethane and ethyl acetate extracts from A. graveolens is mediated probably by calcium antagonism. Conclusions: A. graveolens represents an ideal source for obtaining lead compounds for designing new therapeutic agents with potential vasorelaxant and antihypertensive effects.

  5. Antihypertensive drug treatment and circadian blood pressure rhythm: a review of the role of chronotherapy in hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillaci, Giuseppe; Battista, Francesca; Settimi, Laura; Schillaci, Luca; Pucci, Giacomo

    2015-01-01

    Elevated nighttime blood pressure (BP) and a reduced day-night BP fall ("nondipping" condition) are strong predictors of cardiovascular complications, both in hypertension and in the general population. A reduced or inverted nocturnal BP fall might also be theoretically used to define the most appropriate timing for drug administration. In a systematic review of the available evidence, we show that bedtime dosing of antihypertensive medication reduces nocturnal BP and increases day-night BP fall more than standard morning dosing. The effects of such an approach on average 24-hour BP are more modest and less univocal, with a considerable between-center heterogeneity. Admittedly, the mechanisms underlying non-dipping condition have not been fully understood yet, and it is still a matter of debate whether restorating a dipping pattern may reduce the cardiovascular risk associated with non-dipping independently from the effects on 24-hour BP. Under this regard, evidence from a single trial strongly suggests that bedtime dosing of antihypertensive medications may greatly reduce cardiovascular morbidity in hypertensive patients. The provocative results of that trial deserve to be explored further in larger intervention trials.

  6. How Ghanaian, African-Surinamese and Dutch patients perceive and manage antihypertensive drug treatment: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Beune, E.J.A.J.; Haafkens, J.A.; Agyemang, C.; Schuster, J.S.; Willems, D.L.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To explore and compare how Ghanaian, African-Surinamese (Surinamese), and White-Dutch patients perceive and manage antihypertensive drug treatment in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. METHODS: Qualitative study was conducted using detailed interviews with a purposive sample of 46 hypertensive patients without comorbidity who were prescribed antihypertensives. RESULTS: Patients in all the ethnic groups actively decided how to manage their prescribed antihypertensive regimens. In all the ...

  7. BPP-5a produces a potent and long-lasting NO-dependent antihypertensive effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianzer, Danielle; Xavier, Carlos Henrique; Fraga, Fabiana Costa; Lautner, Roberto Queiroga; Guerreiro, Juliano Rodrigo; Machado, Leonor Tapias; Mendes, Elizabeth Pereira; de Camargo, Andônio Carlos Martins; Santos, Robson Augusto Souza

    2011-12-01

    The bradykinin potentiating peptides (BPPs) are oligopeptides found in different animal venoms. BPPs isolated from Bothrops jararaca venom were the first natural inhibitors described for somatic angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE). They were used in the structural modeling for captopril development, a classical ACE inhibitor widely used to treat human hypertension. We evaluated the effect of BPP-5a on cardiovascular parameters of conscious Wistar (WTs) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). In SHR, BPP-5a showed potent cardiovascular effects, at doses ranging from 0.47 to 710 nmol/kg. The maximal changes in mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were found at the dose of 2.37 nmol/kg (Δ MAP: -38 ± 4 mmHg, p BPP-5a upon argininosuccinate synthetase and B(1), B(2), AT(1), AT(2) or Mas receptors. Ex vivo assays showed that BPP-5a induced endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in isolated aortic rings of SHRs and WTs. Although the BPP-5a is considered an ACE inhibitor, our results indicate that its antihypertensive effect is exerted via a unique target, a nitric-oxide-dependent mechanism.

  8. Design and Characterization of Buccoadhesive Liquisolid System of an Antihypertensive Drug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilesh P. Kala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nifedipine is an antihypertensive BCS class II drug which has poor bioavailability when given orally. The objective of the present study was to increase the bioavailability of nifedipine, by formulation and evaluation of a buccoadhesive liquisolid system using magnesium aluminium silicate (Neusilin as both carrier and coating material and dissolution media were selected based on the solubility studies. A mixture of carboxymethylcellulose sodium and carbomer was used as mucoadhesive polymers. Buccoadhesive tablets were prepared by direct compression. FTIR studies confirmed no interaction between drug and excipients. XRD studies indicated change/reduction in crystallinity of drug. The powder characteristics were evaluated by different flow parameters to comply with pharmacopoeial specifications. The dissolution studies for liquisolid compacts and tablet formulations were carried out and it was found that nifedipine liquisolid tablets formulated from bioadhesive polymers containing 49% liquisolid system, 17.5% carbomer, and 7.5% carboxymethylcellulose sodium showed the best results in terms of dissolution properties. Prepared formulation batches were evaluated for swelling, bioadhesion strength, ex vivo residence time, and permeability studies. The optimized batch was showing promising features of the system. Formulating nifedipine as a buccoadhesive tablet allows reduction in dose and offers better control over the plasma levels.

  9. Essential Oil Composition, Antioxidant, Antidiabetic and Antihypertensive Properties of Two Afromomum Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adefegha, Stephen Adeniyi; Olasehinde, Tosin Abiola; Oboh, Ganiyu

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the antioxidant, antidiabetic and antihypertensive effects of essential oils from A. melegueta and A. danielli seeds. The essential oils were extracted via hydrodistillation, dried with anhydrous Na 2 SO 4 and characterized using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Antioxidant properties and inhibition of some pro-oxidant induced lipid peroxidation in rats' pancreas and heart homogenates were also determined. The results revealed that eugenol, eucalyptol, α-terpineol, α-caryophyllene and β-caryophyllene were the most abundant components in A. melegueta and A. danielli seeds. The essential oils inhibited α-amylase, α-glucosidase and angiotensin-I-converting enzyme in vitro. A.melegueta oil showed a higher α-amylase and α- glucosidase inhibitory activities with EC 50 values of 139.00 µL/mL and 91.83 µL/mL respectively than A. danielli. However, A. danielli oil (EC 50 = 48.73 µL/mL) showed the highest ACE inhibitory acivity. The highest NO radical scavenging ability was observed in A. melegueta oil while A. danielli had the highest OH radical scavenging and Fe 2+ - chelating ability. Furthermore, both essential oils inhibited SNP and Fe 2+ - induced lipid peroxidation in rats' pancreas and heart respectively in a dose dependent manner. This study reveals the biochemical principle by which essential oils from A. danielli and A.melegueta seed elicits their therapeutic effects on type-2 diabetes and hypertension.

  10. Non-compliance to anti-hypertensive medication and its associated factors among hypertensives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilal, A.; Riaz, M.; Shafiq, N.U.; Ahmed, M.; Sheikh, S.; Rasheed, S.

    2015-01-01

    Non-compliance to anti-hypertensive drugs can have negative impact on cardiovascular outcome. Various studies have been conducted on the issue but the factors are not yet explored properly, particularly in Pakistan. This study was conducted to determine the frequency and factors associated with non-compliance to anti-hypertensive medications in Karachi. Methods: This descriptive cross sectional study was conducted on 113 indoor hypertensive patients included by purposive sampling, aged 30 years and above diagnosed at least 6 months back in public sector tertiary care institutes of Karachi from March to October 2011. Data was collected through a questionnaire in Urdu. Demographic data, hypertension diagnosis, medical co-morbidity, current number of anti-hypertensive medicines, frequency of missing prescribed antihypertensive therapy and other factors affecting compliance pertaining to medicines, patient, physician and health care centre were included in the questionnaire. Results: This study revealed that 68.14% patients were non-compliant. Non-compliance was found to be associated with gender and socioeconomic status. Duration of hypertension, duration between follow up visits to physician, number of drugs, careless attitude, role of physician and limiting access to health care center are found to be important factors in non-compliance. Conclusions: Multiple factors including patients, medicine and health care system related, which can be prevented with simple measures, were found responsible for higher prevalence of non-compliance against anti-hypertensive medicines. (author)

  11. Hypertension resistant to antihypertensive agents commonly occurs with the progression of diabetic nephropathy in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a prospective observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ito Hiroyuki

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated 1 the frequency of hypertension in patients with type 2 diabetes graded by the new classification of chronic kidney disease (CKD reported by the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO and 2 the number of antihypertensive agents needed to achieve treatment goals using a prospective observational study. Methods A population of 2018 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus was recruited for the study. The CKD stage was classified according to the eGFR and the urinary albumin excretion levels. Results Hypertension was found in 1420 (70% of the patients, and the proportion of subjects showing a blood pressure  Conclusions Hypertension resistant to antihypertensive agents was common in the patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and increased with the progression of CKD. Although powerful combination therapy using antihypertensive agents is considered necessary for the strict control of blood pressure, this became difficult in individuals who were in advanced stages as graded based on the eGFR and the urinary albumin excretion levels.

  12. Photostabilization studies of antihypertensive 1,4-dihydropyridines using polymeric containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Michele; Ioele, Giuseppina; Spatari, Claudia; Ragno, Gaetano

    2016-05-30

    1,4-dihydropyridine antihypertensives (DHPs) are almost all dispensed in solid pharmaceutical formulations for their easy lability when exposed to light. This paper reports a study on the photoprotective effect of containers in different glassy or polymeric matrices with regard to four known DHPs when in solutions. The samples were subjected to forced degradation by means of a Xenon lamp, in accordance with the international rules on drug stability evaluation. The simultaneous determination of the drugs and their photoproducts was carried out by applying the multivariate curve resolution (MCR) methodology to the spectral data recorded along the irradiation test. This technique was able to determine the kinetic parameters and resolve the spectra of the photoproducts. The time required to reduce by 10% the concentration of the drug (t0.1) was adopted as a criterion to compare the protective ability of the containers. A significant photoprotection for all drugs tested was obtained by the use of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) containers. The best result was achieved for the felodipine solution in blue PET transparent bottle of 0.6mm thickness, reaching an almost complete stabilization up to six hours under stressing irradiation. In contrast, the glass containers, whether or not coloured, did not provide a satisfactory photoprotection of the drugs, showing in any case t0.1 values under 24min. These results can be a good opportunity to design new photoprotective pharmaceutical packaging for DHPs in liquid dosage form. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Characterization of Imidazoline Receptors in Blood Vessels for the Development of Antihypertensive Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Fen Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been indicated that activation of peripheral imidazoline I2-receptor (I-2R may reduce the blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs. Also, guanidinium derivatives show the ability to activate imidazoline receptors. Thus, it is of special interest to characterize the I-2R using guanidinium derivatives in blood vessels for development of antihypertensive agent(s. Six guanidinium derivatives including agmatine, amiloride, aminoguanidine, allantoin, canavanine, and metformin were applied in this study. Western blot analysis was used for detecting the expression of imidazoline receptor in tissues of Wistar rats. The isometric tension of aortic rings isolated from male rats was also estimated. The expression of imidazoline receptor on rat aorta was identified. However, guanidinium derivatives for detection of aortic relaxation were not observed except agmatine and amiloride which induced a marked relaxation in isolated aortic rings precontracted with phenylephrine or KCl. Both relaxations induced by agmatine and amiloride were attenuated by glibenclamide at concentration enough to block ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP channels. Meanwhile, only agmatine-induced relaxation was abolished by BU224, a selective antagonist of imidazoline I2-receptors. Taken together, we suggest that agmatine can induce vascular relaxation through activation of peripheral imidazoline I2-receptor to open KATP channels. Thus, agmatine-like compound has the potential to develop as a new therapeutic agent for hypertension in the future.

  14. Interactions of renin-angiotensin system gene polymorphisms and antihypertensive effect of benazepril in Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qing; Yu, Can-Qing; Tang, Xun; Chen, Da-Fang; Tian, Jun; Cao, Yang; Fan, Wen-Yi; Cao, Wei-Hua; Zhan, Si-Yan; Lv, Jun; Guo, Xiao-Xia; Hu, Yong-Hua; Lee, Li-Ming

    2011-05-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors are widely used antihypertensive drugs with individual response variation. We studied whether interactions of AGT, AGTR1 and ACE2 gene polymorphisms affect this response. Our study is based on a 3-year field trial with 1831 hypertensive patients prescribed benazepril. Generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction was used to explore interaction models and logistic regressions were used to confirm them. A two-locus model involving the AGT and ACE2 genes was found in males, the sensitive genotypes showed an odds ratio (OR) of 1.9 (95% CI: 1.3-2.8) when compared with nonsensitive genotypes. Two AGT-AGTR1 models were found in females, with an OR of 3.5 (95% CI: 2.0-5.9) and 3.1 (95% CI: 1.8-5.3). Gender-specific gene-gene interactions of the AGT, AGTR1 and ACE2 genes were associated with individual variation of response to benazepril. Further studies are needed to confirm this finding.

  15. Kidney function after withdrawal of long-term antihypertensive treatment in diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H P; Nielsen, F S; Rossing, P

    1997-01-01

    ) [median (range)] with diabetic nephropathy receiving antihypertensive treatment (angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition, N = 30) for 5 years (1 to 20 years). The following variables were measured the last day on antihypertensive treatment and one month after withdrawal of treatment; GFR (51Cr-EDTA), 24......-hour arterial blood pressure (24 hr MABP, Takeda TM2420) and albuminuria (ELISA); the mean 24-hour MABP rose from 102 +/- 11 to 111 +/- 10 (P ... +/- 25 to 70 +/- 26 ml.min-1.1.73 m-2, P = 0.21), after withdrawal of antihypertensive treatment. A significant correlation between the relative change in the 24 hour MABP measurement and the relative change in GFR (r = 0.44, P

  16. Effect of a Modest Weight Loss in Normalizing Blood Pressure in Obese Subjects on Antihypertensive Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Gilardini

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the effect of a lifestyle intervention in lowering/normalizing blood pressure (BP levels in hypertensive (controlled or not obese patients. Methods: In this prospective observational study, 490 obese hypertensive patients, 389 controlled (BP Results: 18.9% of CH and 20.0% of UH were on ≥ 3 antihypertensive drugs. Weight change (average -4.9 ± 2.7% was independent of the antihypertensive drugs employed. Systolic BP (SBP decreased by 23 mm Hg and diastolic BP (DBP by 9 mm Hg, in patients with UH most of whom (89% normalized BP levels (in 49% after a weight loss Conclusion: Lifestyle interventions are useful for all obese hypertensive patients in most of whom a modest weight loss is sufficient to normalize BP levels avoiding the aggressive use of multiple antihypertensive drugs.

  17. Change in antihypertensive drug prescribing after guideline implementation: a controlled before and after study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helin-Salmivaara Arja

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antihypertensive drug choices and treatment levels are not in accordance with the existing guidelines. We aimed to assess the impact of a guideline implementation intervention on antihypertensive drug prescribing. Methods In this controlled before and after study, the effects of a multifaceted (education, audit and feedback, local care pathway quality programme was evaluated. The intervention was carried out in a health centre between 2002 and 2003. From each health care unit (n = 31, a doctor-nurse pair was trained to act as peer facilitators in the intervention. All antihypertensive drugs prescribed by 25 facilitator general practitioners (intervention GPs and 53 control GPs were retrieved from the nationwide Prescription Register for three-month periods in 2001 and 2003. The proportions of patients receiving specific antihypertensive drugs and multiple antihypertensive drugs were measured before and after the intervention for three subgroups of hypertension patients: hypertension only, with coronary heart disease, and with diabetes. Results In all subgroups, the use of multiple concurrent medications increased. For intervention patients with hypertension only, the odds ratio (OR was 1.12 (95% CI 0.99, 1.25; p = 0.06 and for controls 1.13 (1.05, 1.21; p = 0.002. We observed no statistically significant differences in the change in the prescribing of specific antihypertensive agents between the intervention and control groups. The use of agents acting on the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system increased in all subgroups (hypertension only intervention patients OR 1.19 (1.06, 1.34; p = 0.004 and controls OR 1.24 (1.15, 1.34; p Conclusions A multifaceted guideline implementation intervention does not necessarily lead to significant changes in prescribing performance. Rigorous planning of the interventions and quality projects and their evaluation are essential.

  18. Assessment of postoperative changes in antihypertensive drug consumption in patients with primary aldosteronism using the defined daily dose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takanobu Utsumi

    2014-10-01

    Conclusion: The defined daily dose is a useful tool for assessing total changes in the consumption of antihypertensive drugs in patients with primary aldosteronism. Using the defined daily dose, clinicians could explain in detail to patients with primary aldosteronism the predicted postoperative change in antihypertensive drug consumption.

  19. Improved pregnancy outcome in type 1 diabetic women with microalbuminuria or diabetic nephropathy: effect of intensified antihypertensive therapy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene Ringholm; Damm, Peter; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R

    2009-01-01

    To describe pregnancy outcome in type 1 diabetic women with normoalbuminuria, microalbuminuria, or diabetic nephropathy after implementation of an intensified antihypertensive therapeutic strategy.......To describe pregnancy outcome in type 1 diabetic women with normoalbuminuria, microalbuminuria, or diabetic nephropathy after implementation of an intensified antihypertensive therapeutic strategy....

  20. Antihypertensive and antioxidant effects of hydroalcoholic extract from the aerial parts of Kelussia odoratissima Mozaff. in dexamethasone-induced hypertensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Safaeian

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: These results suggest antihypertensive and antioxidant effects of K. odoratissima extract in Dex-induced hypertension. Further studies are needed to elucidate the exact mechanism of the antihypertensive effect of this herbal medicine.

  1. Long-term organ protection by doxazosin and/or quinapril as antihypertensive therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego-Delgado, Julio; Lazaro, Alberto; Gomez-Garre, Dulcenombre; Osende, Julio I; Gonzalez-Rubio, Maria L; Herraiz, Marta; Manzarbeitia, Félix; Fortes, José; Fernandez-Cruz, Arturo; Egido, Jesús

    2006-01-01

    Even with optimal blood pressure control, organ protection may also depend on the selected therapeutic regime. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors have been shown to provide excellent organ protection in hypertension, and may show dose-dependent protective effects. Adrenergic alpha blockers have been associated with an increased rate of heart failure in the Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT) and Vasodilator-Heart Failure Trial (V-HeFT). This has been related to a proapoptotic effect of this drug in cardiomyocytes. Our purpose is to compare the heart and renal protection of a high quinapril dose, with a combined low quinapril dose plus doxazosin, in an animal model of chronic hypertension. Uninephrectomized spontaneously hypertensive 12-week-old rats were treated for 36 weeks with either quinapril or a combination of doxazosin plus a low quinapril dose. Tight blood pressure control was achieved with both treatments. Renal and cardiac protection was assessed by different parameters, and cardiac apoptosis was evaluated by active caspase-3, apoptotic protein and heat shock protein levels. Untreated hypertensive and normotensive rats were included as controls. Both treatments showed significant heart and renal protection compared with untreated animals. Both therapeutic regimes showed similar protection in renal and cardiac pathology, coronary media fibrosis, myocardial apoptosis and cardiac index. Proteinuria and left ventricular hypertrophy regression were significantly lower in the quinapril group compared with the combined treatment group. Blood pressure control with a high quinapril dose provided higher organ protection than a combined therapy with a lower quinapril dose. This effect was not due to a deleterious effect of doxazosin.

  2. Antihypertensive Properties of a Pea Protein Hydrolysate during Short- and Long-Term Oral Administration to Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girgih, Abraham T; Nwachukwu, Ifeanyi D; Onuh, John O; Malomo, Sunday A; Aluko, Rotimi E

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated short-term (24 h) and long-term (5 wk) systolic blood pressure (SBP)-lowering effects in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) of a 5 kDa membrane pea protein hydrolysate permeate (PPH-5) produced through thermoase hydrolysis of pea protein isolate (PPI). Amino acid analysis showed that the PPH-5 had lower contents of sulfur-containing amino acids than the PPI. Size-exclusion chromatography indicated mainly low molecular weight (pea products decreased in the 4th and 5th wk, though SBP values of the treated rats were still lower than the untreated control. We conclude that the antihypertensive potency of PPH-5 may have been due to the presence of easily absorbed hydrophilic peptides. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  3. [Medical expert consensus in AH on the clinical use of triple fixed-dose antihypertensive therapy in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazón, P; Galve, E; Gómez, J; Gorostidi, M; Górriz, J L; Mediavilla, J D

    The opinion of experts (different specialties) on the triple fixed-dose antihypertensive therapy in clinical practice may differ. Online questionnaire with controversial aspects of the triple therapy answered by panel of experts in hypertension (HT) using two-round modified Delphi method. The questionnaire was completed by 158 experts: Internal Medicine (49), Nephrology (26), Cardiology (83). Consensus was reached (agreement) on 27/45 items (60%); 7 items showed differences statistically significant. Consensus was reached regarding: Predictive factors in the need for combination therapy and its efficacy vs. increasing the dose of a pretreatment, and advantage of triple therapy (prescription/adherence/cost/pressure control) vs. free combination. This consensus provides an overview of the clinical use of triple therapy in moderate-severe and resistant/difficult to control HT. Copyright © 2016 SEH-LELHA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Carotid angiodysplasia complicated by the use of anti-hypertensive drugs during pregnancy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavares Beatriz

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Hypertensive syndromes in pregnancy are one of the leading causes of obstetric admissions into intensive care units. They are related to changes in the central nervous system caused by a decrease in cerebral perfusion pressure, indicated by an increase in intracranial pressure. These changes in pressure usually result from acute injuries or a decrease in the mean arterial pressure due to iatrogenic action or shock. However, other vascular disorders may contribute to similar occurrences. Case presentation A 15-year-old girl was admitted to our hospital complaining of severe headaches since the eighth month of pregnancy, and presented with an arterial blood pressure of 180/120 mmHg. The diagnostic hypothesis was pre-eclampsia. Our patient's blood pressure levels remained elevated, and she was submitted to a cesarean section. After the procedure, she was referred to our infirmary, presenting with a blank distant look and with no interaction with the environment, dyslalia, and labial and upper and lower right limb paresis. She was confused and unable to speak, but responded to painful stimuli as she conveyed abdominal pain at superficial and deep palpation. The hypothesis of post-partum psychosis was suggested. She was then transferred to our intensive care unit, maintaining an impassive attitude in bed but reacting to external stimuli. Results of a computed tomography scan revealed ischemic infarction of the territory of her left middle cerebral artery. A selective cerebral arteriography showed bilateral occlusion of her internal carotid artery in the intracranial position, prebifurcation and angiodysplasia in the cervical segments of her internal carotid artery. Sixteen days after hospital admission, our patient died. Conclusion This data shows the need for careful monitoring of hypertensive syndromes in pregnancy cases, especially in cases with a history of chronic hypertension or with vascular alterations, It also

  5. Probiotics Blunt the Anti-Hypertensive Effect of Blueberry Feeding in Hypertensive Rats without Altering Hippuric Acid Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanton, Cynthia; He, Zhengcheng; Gottschall-Pass, Katherine T; Sweeney, Marva I

    2015-01-01

    Previously we showed that feeding polyphenol-rich wild blueberries to hypertensive rats lowered systolic blood pressure. Since probiotic bacteria produce bioactive metabolites from berry polyphenols that enhance the health benefits of berry consumption, we hypothesized that adding probiotics to a blueberry-enriched diet would augment the anti-hypertensive effects of blueberry consumption. Groups (n = 8) of male spontaneously hypertensive rats were fed one of four AIN '93G-based diets for 8 weeks: Control (CON); 3% freeze-dried wild blueberry (BB); 1% probiotic bacteria (PRO); or 3% BB + 1% PRO (BB+PRO). Blood pressure was measured at weeks 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 by the tail-cuff method, and urine was collected at weeks 4 and 8 to determine markers of oxidative stress (F2-isoprostanes), nitric oxide synthesis (nitrites), and polyphenol metabolism (hippuric acid). Data were analyzed using mixed models ANOVA with repeated measures. Diet had a significant main effect on diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.046), with significantly lower measurements in the BB- vs. CON-fed rats (p = 0.035). Systolic blood pressure showed a similar but less pronounced response to diet (p = 0.220), again with the largest difference between the BB and CON groups. Absolute increase in blood pressure between weeks 0 and 8 tended to be smaller in the BB and PRO vs. CON and BB+PRO groups (systolic increase, p = 0.074; diastolic increase, p = 0.185). Diet had a significant main effect on hippuric acid excretion (pblueberry-enriched diet does not enhance and actually may impair the anti-hypertensive effect of blueberry consumption. However, probiotic bacteria are not interfering with blueberry polyphenol metabolism into hippuric acid.

  6. Impact of overweight and obesity on cardiac benefit of antihypertensive treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerdts, E; de Simone, G; Lund, Birthe

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Increased body mass index (BMI) has been associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in hypertension. Less is known about the impact of BMI on improvement in left ventricular (LV) structure and function during antihypertensive treatment. METHODS AND RESULTS...

  7. Time course of the antiproteinuric and antihypertensive effects of direct renin inhibition in type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, F; Rossing, P; Schjoedt, K J

    2008-01-01

    Inhibition of renin with an active site inhibitor, aliskiren, lowers blood pressure (BP) in diabetic patients. Here, we studied the time course of the antihypertensive and antiproteinuric effect of renin inhibition in 15 patients with type 2 diabetes and elevated urinary albumin/creatinine ratios...

  8. Quality of life before and during antihypertensive treatment : A comparative study of celiprolol and atenolol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cleophas, TJM; vanderMey, N; vanderMeulen, J; Niemeyer, MG

    Background: The well-being of hypertensive patients may be adversely affected by the disease itself, its complications, and other concomitant processes such as anxiety, sedation, and side effects of the prescribed drugs. Some recently developed antihypertensive agents have been suggested to be

  9. Drug-Gene Interactions of Antihypertensive Medications and Risk of Incident Cardiovascular Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bis, Joshua C; Sitlani, Colleen; Irvin, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a major risk factor for a spectrum of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), including myocardial infarction, sudden death, and stroke. In the US, over 65 million people have high blood pressure and a large proportion of these individuals are prescribed antihypertensive medica...

  10. What role does African ancestry play in how hypertensive patients respond to certain antihypertensive drug therapy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seedat, Yackoob K.; Brewster, Lizzy M.

    2014-01-01

    This article is a summary of the response of the four commonly used antihypertensive agents in African ancestry patients. They are thiazide like diuretics or indapamide, calcium channel blockers (CCB), angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) or angiotensin receptor blockers, and β-adrenergic

  11. Current prescription status of antihypertensive drugs with special reference to the use of diuretics in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibaraki, Ai; Goto, Wataru; Iura, Rie; Tominaga, Mitsuhiro; Tsuchihashi, Takuya

    2017-02-01

    The guidelines for the management of hypertension recommend the inclusion of diuretics, especially when three or more antihypertensive drugs are used. The present study investigated the current prescription status of antihypertensive drugs with a particular focus on the use of diuretics in a local district in Japan. Prescriptions, including antihypertensive drugs, were collected from a dispensing pharmacy of the Yahata Pharmacist Association, located in Kitakyushu City, in October 2014. Of the 10 585 prescriptions, calcium channel blockers (CCBs) were prescribed in 73.5%, followed by angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB, 62.7%), diuretics (16.5%) and β-blockers (13.6%). The average number of drugs used was 1.80. The rates of prescription of diuretics for patients with one, two, three and four drugs were 0.6%, 13.1%, 55.2% and 82.6%, respectively. Diuretics were more frequently prescribed in elderly patients, and the prescription rate of doctors in hospitals was significantly higher than that of general practitioners (19.1% vs. 15.7%, Pdiuretics were prescribed combination tablets of hydrochlorothiazide with ARB, whereas trichlormethiazide (34.9%) and indapamide (19.8%) were used in other patients. Based on these findings, the use of diuretics remains limited, even among patients taking multiple antihypertensive drugs.

  12. COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT STRATEGIES OF ANTIHYPERTENSIVE THERAPY IN OUT-PATIENT CLINIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Plejko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To compare different strategies of start antihypertensive therapy in out-patients.Material and methods. 120 out-patients with arterial hypertension (HT 1-2 stages were included in the study and randomized in 3 groups. Patients of group «A» received start treatment in compliance with age, clinical features and mechanisms of hypertension. Patients of group «B» received step-by-step start antihypertensive therapy based on doses titration and addition of the second (third drug if necessary. Patients of group «C» received fixed drug combination with addition of other antihypertensive medicines if necessary. Decrease of BP level and number of visits were used as criteria of therapy efficacy. Pharmacoeconomic analysis of antihypertensive therapy was done in all groups.Results. Strategy of HT start therapy in group «C» had advantages in speed of blood pressure normalization, number of necessary visits and in pharmacoeconomic efficacy in comparison with the strategies in group «A» and «B».Conclusion. HT start therapy with implementation of fixed low dose combination leads to the best result in comparison with other strategy based on step-by-step drug replacement (as well as their combining or monotherapy dose titration.

  13. Use of Antihypertensive Drugs and Ischemic Stroke Severity - Is There a Role for Angiotensin-II?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hwong, Wen Yea; Bots, Michiel L.; Selvarajah, Sharmini; Aziz, Zariah Abdul; Sidek, Norsima Nazifah; Spiering, Wilko; Kappelle, L. Jaap; Vaartjes, Ilonca

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The increase in angiotensin II (Ang II) formation by selected antihypertensive drugs is said to exhibit neuroprotective properties, but this translation into improvement in clinical outcomes has been inconclusive. We undertook a study to investigate the relationship between types of

  14. Sex differences in antihypertensive drug use : determinants of the choice of medication for hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klungel, O.H.; de Boer, A; Paes, A.H.P.; Seidell, J C; Bakker, A

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe and explain sex differences in antihypertensive drug use. DESIGN AND METHODS: From 1987 to 1995, two cross-sectional population-based surveys of cardiovascular disease risk factors in The Netherlands were carried out among 56026 men and women aged 20-59 years. Polytomous

  15. Blood Pressure Variability and Outcome in Patients with Acute Nonlobar Intracerebral Hemorrhage following Intensive Antihypertensive Treatment

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    Jin Pyeong Jeon

    2018-01-01

    Conclusions: The MAC of SBP is associated with hematoma growth, and SD and COV are correlated with 3-month poor outcome in patients with supratentorial nonlobar ICH. Therefore, sustained SBP control, with a reduction in SBP variability is essential to reinforce the beneficial effect of intensive antihypertensive treatment.

  16. One-Week Antihypertensive Effect of Ile-Gln-Pro in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Jun; Sawano, Yoriko; Miyakawa, Takuya; Xue, You-Lin; Cai, Mu-Yi; Egashira, Yukari; Ren, Di-Feng; Tanokura, Masaru

    2011-01-01

    The antihypertensive effect of an angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptide lie-Gin-Pro (IQP), whose sequence was derived from Spirulina platensis, was investigated in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) for 1 week. The weighted systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood

  17. Safety of Temporary Discontinuation of Antihypertensive Medication in Patients With Difficult-to-Control Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeftink, Martine M A; van der Sande, Nicolette G C; Bots, Michiel L; Doevendans, Pieter A; Blankestijn, Peter J; Visseren, Frank L J; Voskuil, Michiel; Spiering, Wilko

    2017-05-01

    Successful control of blood pressure relies on identification of secondary causes and contributing factors of hypertension. As antihypertensive medication can interfere with diagnostic investigations, temporary discontinuation of medication is advised. However, there are concerns about the safety of temporary discontinuation of antihypertensive medication in patients with difficult-to-control hypertension. We assessed the occurrence of adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events potentially attributable to temporary discontinuation of antihypertensive medication between February 2010 and March 2016 (n=604) in our Analysis of Complicated Hypertension screening program. A reference group (n=604) was extracted from the SMART study (Second Manifestations of Arterial Disease) cohort (comprising a similar cohort at our hospital in whom medication was not stopped) and individually matched for blood pressure, age, sex, and history of cardiovascular disease. Discontinuation of medication was well tolerated; 62% reported no complaints, 24% had mild discomfort that could be left untreated, and 14% experienced complaints that required prescription of antihypertensive escape medication. Three major adverse events were observed in the Analysis of Complicated Hypertension group between discontinuation of medication and 30 days after restart of medication (event rate=31.2 events per 1000 patient-year). In the reference cohort, 5 cardiovascular events were observed during a similar follow-up period (event rate=51.2 events per 1000 patient-year). In conclusion, discontinuation of antihypertensive medication for the diagnostic evaluation of hypertension does not increase the acute risk of cardiovascular events when performed in a well-controlled setting in specialized hospitals with appropriate protocols for monitoring safety. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Early antihypertensive treatment and clinical outcomes in acute ischemic stroke: subgroup analysis by baseline blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, William J; Zhong, Chongke; Xu, Tan; Wang, Dali; Sun, Yingxian; Bu, Xiaoqing; Chen, Chung-Shiuan; Wang, Jinchao; Ju, Zhong; Li, Qunwei; Zhang, Jintao; Geng, Deqin; Zhang, Jianhui; Li, Dong; Li, Yongqiu; Yuan, Xiaodong; Zhang, Yonghong; Kelly, Tanika N

    2018-06-01

    We studied the effect of early antihypertensive treatment on death, major disability, and vascular events among patients with acute ischemic stroke according to their baseline SBP. We randomly assigned 4071 acute ischemic stroke patients with SBP between 140 and less than 220 mmHg to receive antihypertensive treatment or to discontinue all antihypertensive medications during hospitalization. A composite primary outcome of death and major disability and secondary outcomes were compared between treatment and control stratified by baseline SBP levels of less than 160, 160-179, and at least 180 mmHg. At 24 h after randomization, differences in SBP reductions were 8.8, 8.6 and 7.8 mmHg between the antihypertensive treatment and control groups among patients with baseline SBP less than 160, 160-179, and at least 180 mmHg, respectively (P baseline SBP subgroups on death (P = 0.02): odds ratio (95% CI) of 2.42 (0.74-7.89) in patients with baseline SBP less than 60 mmHg and 0.34 (0.11-1.09) in those with baseline SBP at least 180 mmHg. At the 3-month follow-up, the primary and secondary clinical outcomes were not significantly different between the treatment and control groups by baseline SBP levels. Early antihypertensive treatment had a neutral effect on clinical outcomes among acute ischemic stroke patients with various baseline SBP levels. Future clinical trials are warranted to test BP-lowering effects in acute ischemic stroke patients by baseline SBP levels. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01840072.

  19. Workplace social capital and adherence to antihypertensive medication: a cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuula Oksanen

    Full Text Available While hypertension is a common and treatable health problem, adherence to antihypertensive medication remains a challenge. This study examines the hypothesis that workplace social capital may influence adherence to antihypertensive medication among hypertensive employees.We linked survey responses to nationwide pharmacy records for a cohort of 3515 hypertensive employees (mean age 53.9 years, 76% women who required continuous antihypertensive drug therapy (the Finnish Public Sector study. A standard scale was used to measure workplace social capital from co-workers' assessments and self-reports in 2000-2004. Non-adherence to antihypertensive medication was determined based on the number of days-not-treated at the year following the survey using comprehensive prescription records. Negative binomial regression models were conducted adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics, duration of hypertension, behaviour-related risk factors, and co-morbid conditions. The overall rate of days-not-treated was 20.7 per person-year (78% had no days-not-treated. Higher age, obesity, and presence of somatic co-morbidities were all associated with better adherence, but this was not the case for co-worker-assessed or self-reported workplace social capital. The rate of days-not-treated was 19.7 per person-year in the bottom fourth of co-worker-assessed workplace social capital, compared to 20.4 in the top fourth. The corresponding rate ratio from the fully-adjusted model was 0.95 (95% confidence interval (CI 0.58-1.56. In a subgroup of 907 new users of antihypertensive medication this rate ratio was 0.98 (95% CI 0.42-2.29.We found no consistent evidence to support the hypothesized effect of workplace social capital on adherence to drug therapy among employees with chronic hypertension.

  20. Repurposing and Rescuing of Mibefradil, an Antihypertensive, for Cancer: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krouse, Andrew J; Gray, Lloyd; Macdonald, Timothy; McCray, John

    2015-12-01

    The expanding "valley of death" in drug development is leaving potentially life-saving new chemical entities and molecular targets fallow. This situation is forcing early-stage companies to think creatively about moving their technologies forward, especially as institutional investors show more interest in later stages of development. Drug repurposing, a strategy to examine existing drugs for therapeutic value against different diseases, is an emerging method to bring an off-market drug back onto the market. Tau Therapeutics LLC identified the role of T-type calcium channel blockers (Cav3) in cancer proliferation, but the company was unable to attract funding while having both a nonvalidated drug target and new chemical entities. To change the risk profile of the company, Tau set out to repurpose the known Cav3 drug mibefradil as a proof of concept for the treatment of cancer. Mibefradil was launched for hypertension in the 1990s but withdrawn because of drug-drug interactions. A new sequential combination treatment, termed Interlaced Therapy™, uses short-term administration of mibefradil to enhance the overall therapeutic potential of conventional anticancer agents. Mibefradil is currently in a phase Ib clinical trial with the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Adult Brain Tumor Consortium. Mibefradil has been repurposed from an abandoned antihypertensive to a targeted solid tumor treatment, and it has been rescued from drug-drug interactions by using short-term dose exposure. Tau is using the early success of mibefradil as a proof of concept to build a platform technology of Cav3 blockers for broad antitumor applications in combination with new targeted cancer therapies, well-established chemotherapies, and radiation.

  1. Isolation and structural analysis of antihypertensive peptides that exist naturally in Gouda cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, T; Nakamura, T; Kitazawa, H; Kawai, Y; Itoh, T

    2000-07-01

    Seven kinds of ripened cheeses (8-mo-aged and 24-mo-aged Gouda, Emmental, Blue, Camembert, Edam, and Havarti) were homogenized with distilled water, and water-soluble peptides were prepared by C-18 hydrophobic chromatography. The inhibitory activity to angiotensin I-converting enzyme and decrease in the systolic blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats were measured before and after oral administration of each peptide sample. The strongest depressive effect in the systolic blood pressure (-24.7 mm Hg) and intensive inhibitory activity to angiotensin I-converting enzyme (75.7%) were detected in the peptides from 8-mo-aged Gouda cheese. Four peptides were isolated by HPLC with reverse-phase and gel filtration modes. Their chemical structures and origins, clarified by combination analyses of protein sequencing, amino acid composition, and mass spectrometry, were as follows: peptide A, Arg-Pro-Lys-His-Pro-Ile-Lys-His-Gln [alpha(s1)-casein (CN), B-8P; f 1-9]; peptide B, Arg-Pro-Lys-His-Pro-Ile-Lys-His-Gln-Gly-Leu-Pro-Gln (alpha(s1)-CN, B-8P; f 1-13); peptide F, Tyr-Pro-Phe-Pro-Gly-Pro-Ile-Pro-Asn (beta-CN, A2-5P; f 60-68); and peptide G, Met-Pro-Phe-Pro-Lys-Tyr-Pro-Val-Gln-Pro-Phe (beta-CN, A2-5P; f 109-119). Peptides A and F, which were chemically synthesized, showed potent angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory activity with little antihypertensive effects.

  2. Antihypertensive effects of continuous oral administration of nattokinase and its fragments in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Mitsugu; Ohnishi, Katsunori; Takaoka, Shinsaku; Ogasawara, Kazuya; Fukuyama, Ryo; Nakamuta, Hiromichi

    2011-01-01

    To determine whether the antihypertensive effect of nattokinase is associated with the protease activity of this enzyme, we compared nattokinase with the fragments derived from nattokinase, which possessed no protease activity, in terms of the effect on hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). In the continuous oral administration test, the groups were given a basic diet alone (control), the basic diet containing nattokinase (0.2, 2.6 mg/g diet) or the basic diet containing the fragments derived from nattokinase (0.2, 0.6 mg/g diet). The group fed the basic diet containing high-dosage nattokinase (2.6 mg/g diet) showed significant reductions in systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and plasma fibrinogen level, compared with control group and no influence on activities of renin and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE, EC 3.4.15.1), and plasma angiotensin II level in the renin-angiotensin system. The treatment of the basic diet containing high-dosage fragments (0.6 mg/g diet) significantly decreased SBP, DBP and plasma angiotensin II level in plasma but the treatment did not influence on plasma fibrinogen level. These results suggest that nattokinase and its fragments are different from each other in the mechanism to reduce hypertension. Nattokinase, retained its protease activity after absorbance across the intestines, may decrease blood pressure through cleavage of fibrinogen in plasma. The fragments, which absorbed as nattokinase-degradation products, prevents the elevation of plasma angiotensin II level to suppress hypertension.

  3. The Combined Effect of High Ambient Temperature and Antihypertensive Treatment on Renal Function in Hospitalized Elderly Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iftach Sagy

    Full Text Available The aging kidney manifests structural, functional as well as pharmacological changes, rendering elderly patients more susceptible to adverse environmental influences on their health, dehydration in particular.Higher temperature is associated with renal function impairment in patients 65 years and older who routinely take thiazide and/or ACE-inhibitors/ARBs.We obtained health data of patients older than 65 who were admitted to a large tertiary center during the years 2006-2011, with a previous diagnosis of hypertension, and treated with thiazide, ACE-inhibitors/ARBs or both. We collected environmental data of daily temperature, available from collaborative public and governmental institutions. In order to estimate the effect of daily temperature on renal function we performed linear mixed models, separately for each treatment group and creatinine change during hospital admission.We identified 26,286 admissions for 14, 268 patients with a mean age of 75.6 (±6.9 years, of whom 53.6% were men. Increment in daily temperature on admission of 5°C had significant effect on creatinine increase in the no treatment (baseline creatinine adjusted 0.824 mg/dL, % change 1.212, % change 95% C.I 0.082-2.354 and dual treatment groups (baseline creatinine adjusted 1.032mg/dL, % change 3.440, % change 95% C.I 1.227-5.700. Sub-analysis stratified by advanced age, chronic kidney disease and primary diagnosis on hospital admission, revealed a significant association within patients admitted due to acute infection and treated with dual therapy.Whereas previous studies analyzed sporadic climate effects during heat waves and/or excluded older population taking anti-hypertensive medications, the present study is novel by showing a durable association of temperature and decreased renal function specifically in elderly patients taking anti-hypertensive medications.

  4. Discovery of Anti-Hypertensive Oligopeptides from Adlay Based on In Silico Proteolysis and Virtual Screening

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    Liansheng Qiao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Adlay (Coix larchryma-jobi L. was the commonly used Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM with high content of seed storage protein. The hydrolyzed bioactive oligopeptides of adlay have been proven to be anti-hypertensive effective components. However, the structures and anti-hypertensive mechanism of bioactive oligopeptides from adlay were not clear. To discover the definite anti-hypertensive oligopeptides from adlay, in silico proteolysis and virtual screening were implemented to obtain potential oligopeptides, which were further identified by biochemistry assay and molecular dynamics simulation. In this paper, ten sequences of adlay prolamins were collected and in silico hydrolyzed to construct the oligopeptide library with 134 oligopeptides. This library was reverse screened by anti-hypertensive pharmacophore database, which was constructed by our research team and contained ten anti-hypertensive targets. Angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE was identified as the main potential target for the anti-hypertensive activity of adlay oligopeptides. Three crystal structures of ACE were utilized for docking studies and 19 oligopeptides were finally identified with potential ACE inhibitory activity. According to mapping features and evaluation indexes of pharmacophore and docking, three oligopeptides were selected for biochemistry assay. An oligopeptide sequence, NPATY (IC50 = 61.88 ± 2.77 µM, was identified as the ACE inhibitor by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC assay. Molecular dynamics simulation of NPATY was further utilized to analyze interactive bonds and key residues. ALA354 was identified as a key residue of ACE inhibitors. Hydrophobic effect of VAL518 and electrostatic effects of HIS383, HIS387, HIS513 and Zn2+ were also regarded as playing a key role in inhibiting ACE activities. This study provides a research strategy to explore the pharmacological mechanism of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM proteins based on

  5. Left ventricular hypertrophy in normoalbuminuric type 2 diabetic patients not taking antihypertensive treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sato, A; Tarnow, L; Nielsen, F S

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is an independent risk factor for myocardial ischaemia, cardiac arrhythmia, sudden death, and heart failure, all common findings in patients with type 2 diabetes. AIM: To determine the prevalence of, and risk factors for, LVH in normoalbuminuric type 2...... diabetic patients not taking antihypertensive treatment. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: From 1994 to 1998, M-mode echocardiography was performed by one experienced examiner in 262 consecutive, normoalbuminuric Caucasian type 2 diabetic patients, all with blood pressure ... of diabetes and blood pressure were not. Similar results were obtained for left ventricular mass index. DISCUSSION: LVH was frequent in our normoalbuminuric type 2 diabetic patients not taking antihypertensive treatment. Several potentially modifiable risk factors, such as raised BMI, poor glycaemic control...

  6. What role does African ancestry play in how hypertensive patients respond to certain antihypertensive drug therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seedat, Yackoob K; Brewster, Lizzy M

    2014-02-01

    This article is a summary of the response of the four commonly used antihypertensive agents in African ancestry patients. They are thiazide like diuretics or indapamide, calcium channel blockers (CCB), angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) or angiotensin receptor blockers, and β-adrenergic blockers (ARB). Response was superior in African ancestry patients on a thiazide like diuretic or indapamide and CCB, while the response to β-adrenergic blockers and ACEI are attenuated. Available data are very limited but self-defined ancestry seems to be the best predictor of individual responses to antihypertensive drugs. Knowledge of the factors like economic and social consideration affect the lower rate of detection, treatment and control of hypertension in the African ancestry population of the USA. For regions in which health care resources are particularly scarce, investment in population-based primary prevention strategies may yield the largest benefit.

  7. Does the rising placebo response impact antihypertensive clinical trial outcomes? An analysis of data from the Food and Drug Administration 1990-2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahl Mar, Kaysee; Schilling, Joshua; Brown, Walter A.

    2018-01-01

    Background Recent studies show that placebo response has grown significantly over time in clinical trials for antidepressants, ADHD medications, antiepileptics, and antidiabetics. Contrary to expectations, trial outcome measures and success rates have not been impacted. This study aimed to see if this trend of increasing placebo response and stable efficacy outcome measures is unique to the conditions previously studied or if it occurs in trials for conditions with physiologically-measured symptoms, such as hypertension. Method For this reason, we evaluated the efficacy data reported in the US Food and Drug Administration Medical and Statistical reviews for 23 antihypertensive programs (32,022 patients, 63 trials, 142 treatment arms). Placebo and medication response, effect sizes, and drug-placebo differences were calculated for each treatment arm and examined over time using meta-regression. We also explored the relationship of sample size, trial duration, baseline blood pressure, and number of treatment arms to placebo/drug response and efficacy outcome measures. Results Like trials of other conditions, placebo response has risen significantly over time (R2 = 0.093, p = 0.018) and effect size (R2 = 0.013, p = 0.187) drug-placebo difference (R2 = 0.013, p = 0.182) and success rate (134/142, 94.4%) have remained unaffected, likely due to a significant compensatory increase in antihypertensive response (R2 = 0.086, parms are likely overpowered with sample sizes increasing over time (R2 = 0.387, pblood pressure, and number of treatment arms yielded mixed results unlikely to explain the pattern of placebo response and efficacy outcomes over time. The magnitude of placebo response had no relationship to effect size (p = 0.877), antihypertensive-placebo differences (p = 0.752), or p-values (p = 0.963) but was correlated with antihypertensive response (R2 = 0.347, p<0.0001). Conclusions As hypothesized, this study shows that placebo response is increasing in clinical

  8. Anti-hypertensive drug treatment of patients with and the metabolic syndrome and obesity: a review of evidence, meta-analysis, post hoc and guidelines publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Jonathan G; Reisin, Efrain

    2015-06-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown an increasing prevalence of obesity and the metabolic syndrome worldwide. Lifestyle modifications that include dietary changes, weight reduction, and exercise are the cornerstones in the treatment of this pathology. However, adherence to this approach often meets with failure in clinical practice; therefore, drug therapy should not be delayed. The ideal pharmacological antihypertensive regimen should target the underlying mechanisms involved in this syndrome, including sympathetic activation, increased renal tubular sodium reabsorption, and overexpression of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system by the adipocyte. Few prospective trials have been conducted in the search of the ideal antihypertensive regimen in patients with obesity and the metabolic syndrome. We summarize previously published ad hoc studies, prospective studies, and guideline publications regarding the treatment of hypertension in patients with obesity and the metabolic syndrome. We conclude that the optimal antihypertensive drug therapy in these patients has not been defined. Though caution exists regarding the use of thiazide diuretics due to potential metabolic derangements, there is insufficient data to show worsened cardiovascular or renal outcomes in patients treated with these drugs. In regard to beta blockers, the risk of accelerating conversion to diabetes and worsening of inflammatory mediators described in patients treated with traditional beta blockers appears much less pronounced or absent when using the vasodilating beta blockers. Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibition with an ACE or an ARB and treatment with calcium channel blockers appears safe and well tolerated in obesity-related hypertension and in patients with metabolic syndrome. Future prospective pharmacological studies in this population are needed.

  9. Similarity between generic and brand-name antihypertensive drugs for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease: evidence from a large population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrao, Giovanni; Soranna, Davide; Merlino, Luca; Mancia, Giuseppe

    2014-10-01

    Although generic and earlier brand-name counterparts are bioequivalent, their equivalence in preventing relevant clinical outcomes is of concern. To compare effectiveness of generic and brand-name antihypertensive drugs for preventing the onset of cardiovascular (CV) outcomes. A population-based, nested case-control study was carried out by including the cohort of 78 520 patients from Lombardy (Italy) aged 18 years or older who were newly treated with antihypertensive drugs during 2005. Cases were the 2206 patients who experienced a hospitalization for CV disease from initial prescription until 2011. One control for each case was randomly selected from the same cohort that generated cases. Logistic regression was used to model the CV risk associated with starting on and/or continuing with generic or brand-name agents. There was no evidence that patients who started on generics experienced different CV risk than those on brand-name product (OR 0·86; 95% CI 0·63-1·17). Patients at whom generics were main dispensed had not significantly difference in CV outcomes than those mainly on brand-name agents (OR 1·19; 95% CI 0·86-1·63). Compared with patients who kept initial brand-name therapy, those who experienced brand-to-generic or generic-to-brand switches, and those always on generics, did not show differential CV risks, being the corresponding ORs (and 95% CIs), 1·18 (0·96-1·47), 0·87 (0·63-1·21) and 1·08 (0·80-1·46). Our findings do not support the notion that brand-name antihypertensive agents are superior to generics for preventing CV outcomes in the real-world clinical practice. © 2014 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  10. Blood pressure reduction, persistence and costs in the evaluation of antihypertensive drug treatment – a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasford Joerg

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Blood pressure lowering drugs are usually evaluated in short term trials determining the absolute blood pressure reduction during trough and the duration of the antihypertensive effect after single or multiple dosing. A lack of persistence with treatment has however been shown to be linked to a worse cardiovascular prognosis. This review explores the blood pressure reduction and persistence with treatment of antihypertensive drugs and the cost consequences of poor persistence with pharmaceutical interventions in arterial hypertension. Methods We have searched the literature for data on blood pressure lowering effects of different antihypertensive drug classes and agents, on persistence with treatment, and on related costs. Persistence was measured as patients' medication possession rate. Results are presented in the form of a systematic review. Results Angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARBs have a competitive blood pressure lowering efficacy compared with ACE-inhibitors (ACEi and calcium channel blockers (CCBs, beta-blockers (BBs and diuretics. 8 studies describing the persistence with treatment were identified. Patients were more persistent on ARBs than on ACEi and CCBs, BBs and diuretics. Thus the product of blood pressure lowering and persistence was higher on ARBs than on any other drug class. Although the price per tablet of more recently developed drugs (ACEi, ARBs is higher than that of older ones (diuretics and BBs, the newer drugs result in a more favourable cost to effect ratio when direct drug costs and indirect costs are also considered. Conclusion To evaluate drugs for the treatment of hypertension several key variables including the blood pressure lowering effect, side effects, compliance/persistence with treatment, as well as drug costs and direct and indirect costs of medical care have to be considered. ARBs, while nominally more expensive when drug costs are considered only, provide substantial cost savings

  11. Home blood pressure-guided antihypertensive therapy in chronic kidney disease: more data are needed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgianos, Panagiotis I; Champidou, Eleni; Liakopoulos, Vassilios; Balaskas, Elias V; Zebekakis, Pantelis E

    2018-04-01

    In the era of newly introduced hypertension guidelines recommending lower blood pressure (BP) targets for drug-treated hypertensives, the necessity for optimized management of hypertension becomes even more urgent. The concept of home BP-guided antihypertensive therapy is for long suggested as a simple and feasible approach to improve BP control rates and optimize the management of hypertension. Home BP-guided antihypertensive therapy is particularly applicable to hypertensives with chronic kidney disease (CKD) for several reasons including the following: (1) difficult-to-control BP and high BP variability in the CKD setting; (2) poor accuracy of office BP in determining hypertension control status and detecting "white-coat" and "masked" hypertension; (3) poor value of routine office BP recordings in predicting the longitudinal progression of target-organ damage; and (4) superiority of home BP over office BP recordings in prognosticating the risk of incident end-stage renal disease or death. The concept of home BP-guided antihypertensive therapy is even more relevant for those on hemodialysis, given the high intradialytic and interdialytic BP variability and poor value of conventional peridialytic BP recordings in estimating the actual BP load recorded outside of dialysis with the use of home or ambulatory BP monitoring. Randomized trials comparing home BP-guided antihypertensive therapy versus usual care are warranted to prove the feasibility and effectiveness of this therapeutic approach and convince clinicians for using home BP monitoring as the standard of care when managing hypertension, particularly in people with CKD or end-stage renal disease. Copyright © 2018 American Heart Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Appropriateness of Bolus Antihypertensive Therapy for Elevated Blood Pressure in the Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joseph B; Arter, Andrew; Wilson, Suprat S; Janke, Alexander T; Brody, Aaron; Reed, Brian P; Levy, Phillip D

    2017-08-01

    While moderate to severely elevated blood pressure (BP) is present in nearly half of all emergency department (ED) patients, the incidence of true hypertensive emergencies in ED patients is low. Administration of bolus intravenous (IV) antihypertensive treatment to lower BP in patients without a true hypertensive emergency is a wasteful practice that is discouraged by hypertension experts; however, anecdotal evidence suggests this occurs with relatively high frequency. Accordingly, we sought to assess the frequency of inappropriate IV antihypertensive treatment in ED patients with elevated BP absent a hypertensive emergency. We performed a retrospective cohort study from a single, urban, teaching hospital. Using pharmacy records, we identified patients age 18-89 who received IV antihypertensive treatment in the ED. We defined treatment as inappropriate if documented suspicion for an indicated cardiovascular condition or acute end-organ injury was lacking. Data abstraction included adverse events and 30-day readmission rates, and analysis was primarily descriptive. We included a total of 357 patients over an 18-month period. The mean age was 55; 51% were male and 93% black, and 127 (36.4%) were considered inappropriately treated. Overall, labetalol (61%) was the most commonly used medication, followed by enalaprilat (18%), hydralazine (18%), and metoprolol (3%). There were no significant differences between appropriate and inappropriate BP treatment groups in terms of clinical characteristics or adverse events. Hypotension or bradycardia occurred in three (2%) patients in the inappropriate treatment cohort and in two (1%) patients in the appropriately treated cohort. Survival to discharge and 30-day ED revisit rates were equivalent. More than one in three patients who were given IV bolus antihypertensive treatment in the ED received such therapy inappropriately by our definition, suggesting that significant resources could perhaps be saved through education of

  13. Appropriateness of Bolus Antihypertensive Therapy for Elevated Blood Pressure in the Emergency Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph B. Miller

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: While moderate to severely elevated blood pressure (BP is present in nearly half of all emergency department (ED patients, the incidence of true hypertensive emergencies in ED patients is low. Administration of bolus intravenous (IV antihypertensive treatment to lower BP in patients without a true hypertensive emergency is a wasteful practice that is discouraged by hypertension experts; however, anecdotal evidence suggests this occurs with relatively high frequency. Accordingly, we sought to assess the frequency of inappropriate IV antihypertensive treatment in ED patients with elevated BP absent a hypertensive emergency. Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study from a single, urban, teaching hospital. Using pharmacy records, we identified patients age 18–89 who received IV antihypertensive treatment in the ED. We defined treatment as inappropriate if documented suspicion for an indicated cardiovascular condition or acute end-organ injury was lacking. Data abstraction included adverse events and 30-day readmission rates, and analysis was primarily descriptive. Results: We included a total of 357 patients over an 18-month period. The mean age was 55; 51% were male and 93% black, and 127 (36.4% were considered inappropriately treated. Overall, labetalol (61% was the most commonly used medication, followed by enalaprilat (18%, hydralazine (18%, and metoprolol (3%. There were no significant differences between appropriate and inappropriate BP treatment groups in terms of clinical characteristics or adverse events. Hypotension or bradycardia occurred in three (2% patients in the inappropriate treatment cohort and in two (1% patients in the appropriately treated cohort. Survival to discharge and 30-day ED revisit rates were equivalent. Conclusion: More than one in three patients who were given IV bolus antihypertensive treatment in the ED received such therapy inappropriately by our definition, suggesting that significant

  14. Use of antihypertensive medications and diagnostic tests among privately insured adolescents and young adults with primary versus secondary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Esther Y; Cohn, Lisa; Freed, Gary; Rocchini, Albert; Kershaw, David; Ascione, Frank; Clark, Sarah

    2014-07-01

    To compare the use of antihypertensive medications and diagnostic tests among adolescents and young adults with primary versus secondary hypertension. We conducted retrospective cohort analysis of claims data for adolescents and young adults (12-21 years of age) with ≥3 years of insurance coverage (≥11 months/year) in a large private managed care plan during 2003-2009 with diagnosis of primary hypertension or secondary hypertension. We examined their use of antihypertensive medications and identified demographic characteristics and the presence of obesity-related comorbidities. For the subset receiving antihypertensive medications, we examined their diagnostic test use (echocardiograms, renal ultrasounds, and electrocardiograms). The study sample included 1,232 adolescents and young adults; 84% had primary hypertension and 16% had secondary hypertension. The overall prevalence rate of hypertension was 2.6%. One quarter (28%) with primary hypertension had one or more antihypertensive medications, whereas 65% with secondary hypertension had one or more antihypertensive medications. Leading prescribers of antihypertensives for subjects with primary hypertension were primary care physicians (80%), whereas antihypertensive medications were equally prescribed by primary care physicians (43%) and sub-specialists (37%) for subjects with secondary hypertension. The predominant hypertension diagnosis among adolescents and young adults is primary hypertension. Antihypertensive medication use was higher among those with secondary hypertension compared with those with primary hypertension. Further study is needed to determine treatment effectiveness and patient outcomes associated with differential treatment patterns used for adolescents and young adults with primary versus secondary hypertension. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Short-term Risk of Serious Fall Injuries in Older Adults Initiating and Intensifying Treatment with Antihypertensive Medication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimbo, Daichi; Bowling, C. Barrett; Levitan, Emily B.; Deng, Luqin; Sim, John J.; Huang, Lei; Reynolds, Kristi; Muntner, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Background Antihypertensive medication use has been associated with an increased risk of falls in some but not all studies. Few data are available on the short-term risk of falls following antihypertensive medication initiation and intensification. Methods and Results We examined the association between initiating and intensifying antihypertensive medication and serious fall injuries in a case-crossover study of 90,127 Medicare beneficiaries who were ≥65 years old and had a serious fall injury between July 1, 2007 and December 31, 2012, based on emergency department and inpatient claims. Antihypertensive medication initiation was defined by a prescription fill with no fills in the prior year. Intensification was defined by the addition of a new antihypertensive class, and, separately, titration by the addition of a new class or increase in dosage of a current class. Exposures were ascertained for the 15 days before the fall (case period) and six 15-day earlier periods (control periods). Overall, 272, 1508, and 3113 Medicare beneficiaries initiated, added a new class of antihypertensive medication or titrated therapy, respectively, within 15 days of their serious fall injury. The odds for a serious fall injury was increased during the 15 days following antihypertensive medication initiation [odds ratio, OR, 1.36 (95% CI 1.19, 1.55)], adding a new class [OR 1.16 (95% CI 1.10, 1.23)], and titration [OR 1.13 (95% CI 1.08, 1.18)]. These associations were attenuated beyond 15 days. Conclusions Antihypertensive medication initiation and intensification was associated with a short-term, but not long-term, increased risk of serious fall injuries among older adults. PMID:27166208

  16. Molecular Targets of Antihypertensive Peptides: Understanding the Mechanisms of Action Based on the Pathophysiology of Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaustav Majumder

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There is growing interest in using functional foods or nutraceuticals for the prevention and treatment of hypertension or high blood pressure. Although numerous preventive and therapeutic pharmacological interventions are available on the market, unfortunately, many patients still suffer from poorly controlled hypertension. Furthermore, most pharmacological drugs, such as inhibitors of angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE, are often associated with significant adverse effects. Many bioactive food compounds have been characterized over the past decades that may contribute to the management of hypertension; for example, bioactive peptides derived from various food proteins with antihypertensive properties have gained a great deal of attention. Some of these peptides have exhibited potent in vivo antihypertensive activity in both animal models and human clinical trials. This review provides an overview about the complex pathophysiology of hypertension and demonstrates the potential roles of food derived bioactive peptides as viable interventions targeting specific pathways involved in this disease process. This review offers a comprehensive guide for understanding and utilizing the molecular mechanisms of antihypertensive actions of food protein derived peptides.

  17. Effectiveness of malic acid 1% in patients with xerostomia induced by antihypertensive drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardia, Javier; Aguilar-Salvatierra, Antonio; Cabrera-Ayala, Maribel; Maté-Sánchez de-Val, José E.; Calvo-Guirado, José L.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Assessing the clinical effectiveness of a topical sialogogue on spray (malic acid, 1%) in the treatment of xerostomia induced by antihypertensive drugs. Study Design: This research has been carried out through a randomized double-blind clinical trial. 45 patients suffering from hypertensive drugs-induced xerostomia were divided into 2 groups: the first group (25 patients) received a topical sialogogue on spray (malic acid, 1%) whereas the second group (20 patients) received a placebo. Both of them were administered on demand for 2 weeks. Dry Mouth Questionnaire (DMQ) was used in order to evaluate xerostomia levels before and after product/placebo application. Unstimulated and stimulated salivary flows rates, before and after application, were measured. All the statistical analyses were performed by using SPSS software v17.0. Different DMQ scores at the earliest and final stage of the trial were analysed by using Mann-Whitney U test, whereas Student’s T-test was used to analyse salivary flows. Critical p-value was established at p0.05) after placebo application. After two weeks of treatment with malic acid, unstimulated salivary flow increased from 0.17 to 0.242 mL/min whereas the stimulated one increased from 0.66 to 0.92 mL/min (p0.05). Conclusions: Malic acid 1% spray improved antihypertensive-induced xerostomia and stimulated the production of saliva. Key words:Xerostomia, hyposialia, malic acid, antihypertensive drugs. PMID:22926481

  18. Factors Affecting Compliance to Antihypertensive Treatment among Adults in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Mumbai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ayushi Jayesh; Singh, Vijaykumar; Patil, Subita P; Gadkari, Mithila R; Ramchandani, Varun; Doshi, Karan Janak

    2018-01-01

    Compliance to antihypertensive therapy reduces the risk of complications. It is important to understand the factors affecting compliance in patients so that the goal of successful treatment is not jeopardized. To determine the proportion of participants' compliant to treatment and various factors associated with compliance of antihypertensive treatment. A cross-sectional study of 330 hypertensive patients on treatment attending the outpatient department of a tertiary care hospital in Mumbai. It was conducted over 8 weeks using a validated, pretested questionnaire including information on the individual's sociodemographic profile, compliance to antihypertensive therapy and lifestyle advice assessed using a 4-point Likert scale. Data were entered into MS Excel 2007 and analyzed using SPSS 20. Participants' mean age was 55.2 ± 12.6 years. 39.4% were compliant to their treatment. Common reasons for frequently skipping the dose - forgetfulness (41.2%) and discontinued the medication when feeling well (30.3%). Factors positively associated with compliance were gender and illiteracy. The proportion of noncompliance among smokers and alcoholics was statistically significant. Forgetfulness and subjective feeling of wellness were the prevalent reasons for noncompliance. Controlling habits such as smoking and alcohol may prove as key factors for compliance.

  19. Evaluation of Hypotensive and Antihypertensive Effects of Velvet Bean (Mucuna pruriens L.) Hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chel-Guerrero, Luis; Galicia-Martínez, Saulo; Acevedo-Fernández, Juan José; Santaolalla-Tapia, Jesus; Betancur-Ancona, David

    2017-01-01

    Hypertension could cause significant worldwide health problems that affect 15-20% of all adults; according to National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, about 29% of the adult population in the United States are hypertensive. Recent research has shown that peptides derived from the hydrolysis of food proteins can decrease blood pressure. This study was carried out to evaluate the hypotensive and antihypertensive potential of Mucuna pruriens protein hydrolysates in in vitro and in vivo models. M. pruriens protein concentrate was prepared by wet fractionation and enzymatically hydrolyzed using Alcalase ® , Flavourzyme ® , and the sequential system Alcalase-Flavourzyme at different times (5-120 min). The biological potential was measured in vitro based on the IC 50 value as well as in vivo effect, measuring the systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure in normotensive and antihypertensive Wistar-Kyoto rats by the tail-cuff method. Hydrolysis of M. pruriens protein concentrates with commercial enzymes generated extensive hydrolysates with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE-I) inhibitory activity (IC 50 : 0.589-0.993 mg/mL) and hypotensive (SBP: 0.6-47.43%, DBP: 1.94-43.47%) and antihypertensive (SBP: 8.84-27.29% DBP: 16.1-29.37%) effect. These results indicate that Mucuna pruriens protein hydrolysate (MPPH) could be used as a functional ingredient to prevent blood pressure increase.

  20. What are the ideal properties for functional food peptides with antihypertensive effect? A computational peptidology approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Peng; Yang, Chao; Ren, Yanrong; Wang, Congcong; Tian, Feifei

    2013-12-01

    Peptides with antihypertensive potency have long been attractive to the medical and food communities. However, serving as food additives, rather than therapeutic agents, peptides should have a good taste. In the present study, we explore the intrinsic relationship between the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition and bitterness of short peptides in the framework of computational peptidology, attempting to find out the appropriate properties for functional food peptides with satisfactory bioactivities. As might be expected, quantitative structure-activity relationship modeling reveals a significant positive correlation between the ACE inhibition and bitterness of dipeptides, but this correlation is quite modest for tripeptides and, particularly, tetrapeptides. Moreover, quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics analysis of the structural basis and energetic profile involved in ACE-peptide complexes unravels that peptides of up to 4 amino acids long are sufficient to have efficient binding to ACE, and more additional residues do not bring with substantial enhance in their ACE-binding affinity and, thus, antihypertensive capability. All of above, it is coming together to suggest that the tripeptides and tetrapeptides could be considered as ideal candidates for seeking potential functional food additives with both high antihypertensive activity and low bitterness. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Safety and Antihypertensive Effect of Selara® (Eplerenone: Results from a Postmarketing Surveillance in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoko Takahashi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Prospective postmarketing surveillance of Selara (eplerenone, a selective mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist, was performed to confirm its safety and efficacy for hypertension treatment in Japan. The change in blood pressure after initiation of eplerenone treatment was also examined. Patients with essential hypertension who were eplerenone-naïve were recruited regardless of the use of other antihypertensive drugs. For examination of changes in blood pressure, patients were excluded if eplerenone was contraindicated or used off-label. Patients received 50–100 mg of eplerenone once daily and were observed for 12 weeks. No treatments including antihypertensive drugs were restricted during the surveillance period. Across Japan, 3,166 patients were included for safety analysis. The incidence of adverse drug reactions was 2.4%. The major adverse drug reactions observed were hyperkalemia (0.6%, dizziness, renal impairment, and increased serum potassium (0.2% each. The mean systolic blood pressure decreased from 152.1±19.0 mmHg to 134.8±15.2 mmHg at week 12, and the mean diastolic blood pressure decreased from 85.8±13.7 mmHg to 77.7±11.4 mmHg. There were no significant new findings regarding the type or incidence of adverse reactions, and eplerenone had a clinically significant antihypertensive effect, leading to favorable blood pressure control.

  2. Factors affecting compliance to antihypertensive treatment among adults in a tertiary care hospital in Mumbai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayushi Jayesh Shah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Compliance to antihypertensive therapy reduces the risk of complications. It is important to understand the factors affecting compliance in patients so that the goal of successful treatment is not jeopardized. Objectives: To determine the proportion of participants' compliant to treatment and various factors associated with compliance of antihypertensive treatment. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study of 330 hypertensive patients on treatment attending the outpatient department of a tertiary care hospital in Mumbai. Subjects and Methods: It was conducted over 8 weeks using a validated, pretested questionnaire including information on the individual's sociodemographic profile, compliance to antihypertensive therapy and lifestyle advice assessed using a 4-point Likert scale. Statistical Analysis: Data were entered into MS Excel 2007 and analyzed using SPSS 20. Results: Participants' mean age was 55.2 ± 12.6 years. 39.4% were compliant to their treatment. Common reasons for frequently skipping the dose – forgetfulness (41.2% and discontinued the medication when feeling well (30.3%. Factors positively associated with compliance were gender and illiteracy. The proportion of noncompliance among smokers and alcoholics was statistically significant. Conclusion: Forgetfulness and subjective feeling of wellness were the prevalent reasons for noncompliance. Controlling habits such as smoking and alcohol may prove as key factors for compliance.

  3. Mechanisms of remodelling of small arteries, antihypertensive therapy and the immune system in hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffrin, Ernesto L

    2015-12-04

    This review summarizes my lecture for the 2015 Distinguished Scientist Award from the Canadian Society of Clinical Investigation, and is based mainly on studies in my laboratory on the mechanisms of remodelling of small arteries in experimental animal and human hypertension and on treatments that lower blood pressure and improve structure and function of resistance vessels. Small resistance arteries undergo either inward eutrophic or hypertrophic remodelling, which raises blood pressure and impairs tissue perfusion. These vascular changes are corrected by some antihypertensive drugs, which may lead to improved outcomes. Vasoconstriction, growth, oxidative stress and inflammation are some of the mechanisms, within the vascular wall, that can be beneficially affected by antihypertensive agents. These antihypertensive-sensitive mechanisms are reviewed in this review, together with the inflammatory and immune mechanisms that may participate in hypertension and associated cardiovascular injury. Molecular studies, based on this research, will hopefully identify novel diagnostic and therapeutic targets, which will improve our ability to prevent and treat hypertension and cardiovascular disease.

  4. Antihypertensive agents and risk of Parkinson's disease, essential tremor and dementia: a population-based prospective study (NEDICES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Elan D; Benito-León, Julián; Bermejo-Pareja, Félix

    2009-01-01

    Recent interest in antihypertensive agents, especially calcium channel blockers, has been sparked by the notion that these medications may be neuroprotective. A modest literature, with mixed results, has examined whether these medications might lower the odds or risk of Parkinson's disease (PD) or dementia. There are no data for essential tremor (ET). To examine the association between antihypertensive use (defined broadly and by individual subclasses) and ET, PD and dementia. For each disorder, we used cross-sectional data (association with prevalent disease) and prospective data (association with incident disease). Prospective population-based study in Spain enrolling 5,278 participants at baseline. Use of antihypertensive medications (aside from beta-blockers) was similar in prevalent ET cases and controls. Baseline use of antihypertensive agents was not associated with reduced risk of incident ET. Antihypertensive medication use was not associated with prevalent or incident PD. Calcium channel blocker use was marginally reduced in prevalent dementia cases (OR(adjusted) = 0.63, p = 0.06) but was not associated with reduced risk of incident dementia (RR(adjusted) = 1.02, p = 0.95). We did not find evidence of a protective effect of antihypertensive medications in these three neurodegenerative disorders. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Effects of intense aerobic exercise and/or antihypertensive medication in individuals with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Jimenez, M; Morales-Palomo, F; Ortega, J F; Mora-Rodriguez, R

    2018-05-17

    We studied the blood pressure lowering effects of a bout of exercise and/or antihypertensive medicine with the goal of studying if exercise could substitute or enhance pharmacologic hypertension treatment. Twenty-three hypertensive metabolic syndrome patients chronically medicated with angiotensin II receptor 1 blockade antihypertensive medicine underwent 24-hr monitoring in four separated days in a randomized order; a) after taking their habitual dose of antihypertensive medicine (AHM trial), b) substituting their medicine by placebo medicine (PLAC trial), c) placebo medicine with a morning bout of intense aerobic exercise (PLAC+EXER trial) and d) combining the exercise and antihypertensive medicine (AHM+EXER trial). We found that in trials with AHM subjects had lower plasma aldosterone/renin activity ratio evidencing treatment compliance. Before exercise, the trials with AHM displayed lower systolic (130±16 vs 133±15 mmHg; P=0.018) and mean blood pressures (94±11 vs 96±10 mmHg; P=0.036) than trials with placebo medication. Acutely (i.e., 30 min after treatments) combining AHM+EXER lowered systolic blood pressure (SBP) below the effects of PLAC+EXER (-8.1±1.6 vs -4.9±1.5 mmHg; P=0.015). Twenty-four hour monitoring revealed no differences among trials in body motion. However, PLAC+EXER and AHM lowered SBP below PLAC during the first 10 hours, time at which PLAC+EXER effects faded out (i.e., at 19 PM). Adding exercise to medication (i.e., AHM+EXER) resulted in longer reductions in SBP than with exercise alone (PLAC+EXER). In summary, one bout of intense aerobic exercise in the morning cannot substitute the long-lasting effects of antihypertensive medicine in lowering blood pressure, but their combination is superior to exercise alone. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Probiotics Blunt the Anti-Hypertensive Effect of Blueberry Feeding in Hypertensive Rats without Altering Hippuric Acid Production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Blanton

    Full Text Available Previously we showed that feeding polyphenol-rich wild blueberries to hypertensive rats lowered systolic blood pressure. Since probiotic bacteria produce bioactive metabolites from berry polyphenols that enhance the health benefits of berry consumption, we hypothesized that adding probiotics to a blueberry-enriched diet would augment the anti-hypertensive effects of blueberry consumption. Groups (n = 8 of male spontaneously hypertensive rats were fed one of four AIN '93G-based diets for 8 weeks: Control (CON; 3% freeze-dried wild blueberry (BB; 1% probiotic bacteria (PRO; or 3% BB + 1% PRO (BB+PRO. Blood pressure was measured at weeks 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 by the tail-cuff method, and urine was collected at weeks 4 and 8 to determine markers of oxidative stress (F2-isoprostanes, nitric oxide synthesis (nitrites, and polyphenol metabolism (hippuric acid. Data were analyzed using mixed models ANOVA with repeated measures. Diet had a significant main effect on diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.046, with significantly lower measurements in the BB- vs. CON-fed rats (p = 0.035. Systolic blood pressure showed a similar but less pronounced response to diet (p = 0.220, again with the largest difference between the BB and CON groups. Absolute increase in blood pressure between weeks 0 and 8 tended to be smaller in the BB and PRO vs. CON and BB+PRO groups (systolic increase, p = 0.074; diastolic increase, p = 0.185. Diet had a significant main effect on hippuric acid excretion (p<0.0001, with 2- and ~1.5-fold higher levels at weeks 4 and 8, respectively, in the BB and BB+PRO vs. PRO and CON groups. Diet did not have a significant main effect on F2-isoprostane (p = 0.159 or nitrite excretion (p = 0.670. Our findings show that adding probiotics to a blueberry-enriched diet does not enhance and actually may impair the anti-hypertensive effect of blueberry consumption. However, probiotic bacteria are not interfering with blueberry polyphenol metabolism into hippuric

  7. Show-Bix &

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The anti-reenactment 'Show-Bix &' consists of 5 dias projectors, a dial phone, quintophonic sound, and interactive elements. A responsive interface will enable the Dias projectors to show copies of original dias slides from the Show-Bix piece ”March på Stedet”, 265 images in total. The copies are...

  8. Diabetic nephropathy and arterial hypertension. The effect of antihypertensive treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parving, H H; Andersen, A R; Smidt, U M

    1983-01-01

    method for albumin determination. Our prospective studies in young insulin-dependent diabetics with diabetic nephropathy show that the rate of decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) varies considerably, with a mean of 0.75 ml/min/mo and a range from 0.1 to 1.50 ml/min/mo, and that an increase......Our longitudinal study of urinary albumin excretion rate in long-term insulin-dependent diabetics without proteinuria (negative albustix) suggests that early detection of patients at high and low risk of developing persistent proteinuria, i.e., diabetic nephropathy, is possible by using a sensitive...

  9. How Ghanaian, African-Surinamese and Dutch patients perceive and manage antihypertensive drug treatment: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beune, Erik J A J; Haafkens, Joke A; Agyemang, Charles; Schuster, John S; Willems, Dick L

    2008-04-01

    To explore and compare how Ghanaian, African-Surinamese (Surinamese), and White-Dutch patients perceive and manage antihypertensive drug treatment in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Qualitative study was conducted using detailed interviews with a purposive sample of 46 hypertensive patients without comorbidity who were prescribed antihypertensives. Patients in all the ethnic groups actively decided how to manage their prescribed antihypertensive regimens. In all the groups, confidence in the doctor and beneficial effects of medication were reasons for taking prescribed antihypertensive dosage. Particularly, ethnic-minority patients reported lowering or leaving off the prescribed medication dosage. Explanations for altering prescribed dosage comprised disliking chemical medications, fear of side effects and preference for alternative treatment. Surinamese and Ghanaian men also worried about the negative effects of antihypertensives on their sexual performance. Some Ghanaians mentioned fear of addiction or lack of money as explanations for altering prescribed dosage. Surinamese and Ghanaians often discontinued medication when visiting their homeland. Some respondents from all ethnic groups preferred natural treatments although treatment type varied. Patients' explanations for their decisions regarding the use of antihypertensives are often influenced by sociocultural issues and in ethnic-minority groups also by migration-related issues. Self-alteration of prescribed medication among Surinamese and Ghanaians may contribute to the low blood pressure (BP) control rate and high rate of malignant hypertension reported among these populations in the Netherlands. This study provides new information, which can help clinicians to understand how patients of diverse ethnic populations think about managing antihypertensive drug treatment and to address ethnic disparities in medication adherence and BP control.

  10. Blood Pressure, Antihypertensive Polypharmacy, Frailty, and Risk for Serious Fall Injuries Among Older Treated Adults With Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromfield, Samantha G; Ngameni, Cedric-Anthony; Colantonio, Lisandro D; Bowling, C Barrett; Shimbo, Daichi; Reynolds, Kristi; Safford, Monika M; Banach, Maciej; Toth, Peter P; Muntner, Paul

    2017-08-01

    Antihypertensive medication and low systolic blood pressure (BP) and diastolic BP have been associated with an increased falls risk in some studies. Many older adults have indicators of frailty, which may increase their risk for falls. We contrasted the association of systolic BP, diastolic BP, number of antihypertensive medication classes taken, and indicators of frailty with risk for serious fall injuries among 5236 REGARDS study (Reasons for Geographic and Racial Difference in Stroke) participants ≥65 years taking antihypertensive medication at baseline with Medicare fee-for-service coverage. Systolic BP and diastolic BP were measured, and antihypertensive medication classes being taken assessed through a pill bottle review during a study visit. Indicators of frailty included low body mass index, cognitive impairment, depressive symptoms, exhaustion, impaired mobility, and history of falls. Serious fall injuries were defined as fall-related fractures, brain injuries, or joint dislocations using Medicare claims through December 31, 2014. Over a median of 6.4 years, 802 (15.3%) participants had a serious fall injury. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio for a serious fall injury among participants with 1, 2, or ≥3 indicators of frailty versus no frailty indicators was 1.18 (95% confidence interval, 0.99-1.40), 1.49 (95% confidence interval, 1.19-1.87), and 2.04 (95% confidence interval, 1.56-2.67), respectively. Systolic BP, diastolic BP, and number of antihypertensive medication classes being taken at baseline were not associated with risk for serious fall injuries after multivariable adjustment. In conclusion, indicators of frailty, but not BP or number of antihypertensive medication classes, were associated with increased risk for serious fall injuries among older adults taking antihypertensive medication. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. In vivo antihypertensive and antidyslipidemic effects of the crude extracts and fractions of Moringa stenopetala (Baker f. Cufod. leaves in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekesho eGeleta

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Moringa stenopetala (Baker f. Cufod. is a medicinal plant that has been used in Ethiopian traditional medicine as a remedy for treatment of hypertension and diabetes. The aim of this study was to evaluate antihypertensive and antihyperlipidemic effect in fructose induced hypertensive rats.Rats were randomly divided into control and treatment groups (n=6. Treatment groups were given daily extracts (250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg orally with fructose. Whereas, positive, negative and normal control groups were received captopril (20 mg/kg/day with fructose, only fructose (66% w/v ad libitum and distilled water ad libitum for 15 days, respectively. The blood pressure was measured every 5th day using tail cuff blood pressure analyzer, and on the 16th day the blood was sampled to evaluate antihyperlipidemic effect using clinical chemistry analyzer. The study showed that aqueous and 70% ethanol extracts significantly prevented blood pressure increment in a dose dependent manner comparable to that of the standard drug. Similarly, the extracts suppressed increment in lipid profile (cholesterol, glucose and triglycerides compared with negative control. The biochemical test revealed that extracts produced a rise in liver but no effect on kidney function indicators compared with normal control.These findings revealed that both crude extracts of Moringa stenopetala (Baker f. Cufod. possess antihypertensive and antihyperlipidemic effect.

  12. PP042. Anti-hypertensive drugs hydralazine, clonidine and labetalol improve trophoblast integration into endothelial cellular networks in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, B; Charlton, F; Makris, A; Hennessy, A

    2012-07-01

    cell integration into all endothelial cellular networks (with TNF-a and TNF-a plus sFlt-1 treatment). There was no effect of any drug on the trophoblast invasion in the absence of TNF-a. In the conditioned medium, sFlt-1 was down-regulated by hydralazine and clonidine but not by labetalol. A decrease in PLGF was seen in normal endothelial cell groups but not seen in pre-TNF-a or pre-TNF-a plus sFlt-1 endothelial cell groups. VEGF was not changed in all treatment groups. Some anti-hypertensive drugs may improve the cellular interaction between trophoblast and endothelial cells during pregnancy. An increase in sFlt-1 seen in human preeclampsia may deteriorate this effect. Hydralazine and clonidine can reduce the sFlt-1 concentration in the medium. Labetalol could increase trophoblast integration without decreasing sFlt-1, suggesting a mechanism independent of sFlt-1. Our in-vitrodata show that there is a potential effect of these agents on placental maternal arterial modelling. The drug effect on arterial/trophoblast interactions can be related to altered production of sFlt-1. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Tailored antihypertensive drug therapy prescribed to older women attenuates circulating levels of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toledo JO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Juliana O Toledo,1 Clayton F Moraes,2,3 Vinícius C Souza,2 Audrey C Tonet-Furioso,2 Luís CC Afonso,4 Cláudio Córdova,3 Otávio T Nóbrega1,2 1Graduate Program in Health Sciences, 2Graduate Program in Medical Sciences, University of Brasília, Brasília, 3Graduate Program in Gerontology, Catholic University of Brasília, Brasília, 4Research Center in Biological Sciences, Federal University of Ouro Preto, Ouro Preto, Brazil Objective: To test the hypothesis that antihypertensive drug therapy produces anti-inflammatory effects in clinical practice, this study investigated circulating levels of selected proinflammatory mediators (interleukin-6 [IL-6], tumor necrosis factor-alpha [TNF-α], and interferon-γ [INF-γ] in response to multivariate drug directions for blood pressure (BP control.Methods: Prospective study involving 110 hypertensive, community-dwelling older women with different metabolic disorders. A short-term BP-lowering drug therapy was conducted according to current Brazilian guidelines on hypertension, and basal cytokine levels were measured before and after intervention.Results: Interventions were found to represent current hypertension-management practices in Brazil and corresponded to a significant reduction in systolic and diastolic BP levels in a whole-group analysis, as well as when users and nonusers of the most common therapeutic classes were considered separately. Considering all patients, mean IL-6 and TNF-α levels showed a significant decrease in circulating concentrations (P<0.01 at the endpoint compared with baseline, whereas the mean INF-γ level was not significantly different from baseline values. In separate analyses, only users of antagonists of the renin–angiotensin system and users of diuretics exhibited the same significant treatment-induced reduction in serum IL-6 and TNF-α observed in the whole group.Conclusion: Our data demonstrates that a clinically guided antihypertensive treatment is effective in

  14. A cohort study of possible risk factors for over-reporting of antihypertensive adherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Mei-Ling Ting

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The identification of poor medicinal adherence is difficult because direct observation of medication use is usually impractical. Up to 50% of individuals on chronic therapies may not be taking their medication as prescribed. This study is one of the first to explore possible risk factors for over-reporting of antihypertensive adherence using electronic medication monitoring. Methods The adherence of 286 individuals on single-drug antihypertensive therapy in a large managed care organization was electronically monitored for approximately three months. Questionnaires on socioeconomic background, adherence to therapy, health beliefs, and social support before and after adherence monitoring were completed. Over-reporting of antihypertensive adherence was assessed by comparing the self-reported frequency of noncompliance with that determined from electronic dosing records. Risk factors for over-reporting were identified by contingency table analysis and step-wise logistic regression. Results Although only 21% of participants acknowledged missing doses on one or more days per week, electronic monitoring documented nonadherence at this or a higher level in 42% of participants. The following variables were associated with over-reporting: >1 versus 1 daily dose (OR = 2.58; 95% CI = 1.50–4.41; p = .0006, lower perceived health risk from nonadherence (OR = 1.35; 95% CI = 1.10–1.64; p = .0035, and annual household income of $30,000 (OR = 2.64; 95% CI = 1.13–6.18; p = .025. Conclusions Over-reporting of adherence may be affected by factors related to dosing frequency, health beliefs and socioeconomic status. This topic deserves further investigation in other patient populations to elucidate possible underlying behavioral explanations.

  15. Effect of a Modest Weight Loss in Normalizing Blood Pressure in Obese Subjects on Antihypertensive Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilardini, Luisa; Redaelli, Gabriella; Croci, Marina; Conti, Antonio; Pasqualinotto, Lucia; Invitti, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    To assess the effect of a lifestyle intervention in lowering/normalizing blood pressure (BP) levels in hypertensive (controlled or not) obese patients. In this prospective observational study, 490 obese hypertensive patients, 389 controlled (BP < 140/90 mm Hg; CH) and 101 uncontrolled (BP ≥ 140/90 mm Hg; UH) attended a 3-month lifestyle intervention. Before and after the intervention we assessed weight, waist circumference, fat mass, BP, metabolic and renal variables, and physical activity. A multivariate regression model was used to determine the predictors of BP changes. 18.9% of CH and 20.0% of UH were on ≥ 3 antihypertensive drugs. Weight change (average -4.9 ± 2.7%) was independent of the antihypertensive drugs employed. Systolic BP (SBP) decreased by 23 mm Hg and diastolic BP (DBP) by 9 mm Hg, in patients with UH most of whom (89%) normalized BP levels (in 49% after a weight loss < 5%). Age, gender, whole and central obesity, concomitance of type 2 diabetes, chronic renal disease, physical activity intensification, and pharmacological therapy did not affect BP lowering. In the regression analysis with SBP change as dependent variable, weight reduction (β = 0.523, p = 0.005) and group (UH vs. CH, β = -19.40, p = 0.0005) remained associated with SBP reduction. When DBP change was entered as dependent variable, baseline uric acid remained associated with DBP reduction (β = 0.824, p < 0.05). Lifestyle interventions are useful for all obese hypertensive patients in most of whom a modest weight loss is sufficient to normalize BP levels avoiding the aggressive use of multiple antihypertensive drugs. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  16. Mobile phone text messaging improves antihypertensive drug adherence in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varleta, Paola; Acevedo, Mónica; Akel, Carlos; Salinas, Claudia; Navarrete, Carlos; García, Ana; Echegoyen, Carolina; Rodriguez, Daniel; Gramusset, Lissette; Leon, Sandra; Cofré, Pedro; Retamal, Raquel; Romero, Katerine

    2017-12-01

    Antihypertensive drug adherence (ADA) is a mainstay in blood pressure control. Education through mobile phone short message system (SMS) text messaging could improve ADA. The authors conducted a randomized study involving 314 patients with hypertension with Text messaging intervention improved ADA (risk ratio, 1.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.0-1.6 [Ptext messaging resulted in an increase in reporting ADA in this hypertensive Latino population. This approach could become an effective tool to overcome poor medication adherence in the community. ©2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Antihypertensive treatment with telmisartan in a cat with amlodipine-induced gingival hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lien Desmet

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Case summary Systemic arterial hypertension is commonly reported in middle-aged-to-older cats. Amlodipine is recommended as the initial antihypertensive drug in cats. In this case report, gingival hyperplasia secondary to the use of amlodipine in a cat is described. Benazepril as a monotherapy was unsuccessful in reducing blood pressure in this cat. After replacement of benazepril by telmisartan, gingival hyperplasia disappeared and blood pressure was well controlled. Relevance and novel information This case report describes the first reported case of reversible gingival hyperplasia as a result of the treatment with amlodipine. It also contains the first published data on the effect of telmisartan in a hypertensive cat.

  18. Antihypertensive and vasorelaxant effects of aqueous extract of Artemisia campestris L. from Eastern Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dib, Ikram; Tits, Monique; Angenot, Luc; Wauters, Jean Noel; Assaidi, Asmae; Mekhfi, Hassane; Aziz, Mohammed; Bnouham, Mohammed; Legssyer, Abdelkhaleq; Frederich, Michel; Ziyyat, Abderrahim

    2017-07-12

    Artemisia campestris L. (Asteraceae) has many traditional uses, among which treatment of diabetes and hypertension. This study was conducted in order to confirm the antihypertensive and hypotensive effects of A. campestris L. aqueous extract (AcAE) and to explore the underlying mechanism of action of its vasorelaxant effect, besides the acute toxicity. Also, the chemical composition of AcAE was investigated. the chemical content of AcAE was determined by using HPLC and NMR techniques. The antihypertensive effect was assessed indirectly by tail-cuff method on L-NAME induced hypertensive rats, while the hypotensive action was monitored intravenously by invasive method on normotensive rats. The vasorelaxant effect and vascular mechanism of action were studied in the presence of antagonists and blockers on aorta isolated from normotensive rats. On the other side, the acute toxicity was studied by oral feeding of extract to the mice. The global phytochemical profile of AcAE reveals the presence of several polyphenols as main components. A. campestris L. infusion was characterized by mono- and di-cinnamoyl compounds, with 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic (isochlorogenic A) acid being the main compound, followed by 5-caffeoylquinic (chlorogenic) acid. Vicenin-2 (apigenin 6,8-di-C-glucoside) appeared to be the most abundant compound among flavonoids. The daily treatment with AcAE at 150mg/kg/day prevented the installation of hypertension on L-NAME hypertensive rats, and reduced SBP from 172mmHg up to 144mmHg. At the dose 40mg/kg, AcAE provoked reduction of systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP), without affecting the heart rate. Also, AcAE (10 -2 -2mg/ml) relaxed the precontracted aorta by 95.8±1.3%. The denudation and preincubation of aorta with atropine, calmidazolium, L-NAME, hydroxycobalamin, ODQ, 8-RP-Br-PET-cGMP, thapsigargin and verapamil attenuated the vasorelaxant response, while the pre-treatment with 4-AP, TEA, glibenclamide and BaCl 2 did not

  19. Talking with TV shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Laursen, Ditte

    2014-01-01

    User interaction with radio and television programmes is not a new thing. However, with new cross-media production concepts such as X Factor and Voice, this is changing dramatically. The second-screen logic of these productions encourages viewers, along with TV’s traditional one-way communication...... mode, to communicate on interactive (dialogue-enabling) devices such as laptops, smartphones and tablets. Using the TV show Voice as our example, this article shows how the technological and situational set-up of the production invites viewers to engage in new ways of interaction and communication...

  20. Preclinical and Clinical Studies on Antioxidative, Antihypertensive and Cardioprotective Effect of Marine Proteins and Peptides—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida-Johanne Jensen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available High seafood consumption has traditionally been linked to a reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases, mainly due to the lipid lowering effects of the long chained omega 3 fatty acids. However, fish and seafood are also excellent sources of good quality proteins and emerging documentation show that, upon digestion, these proteins are sources for bioactive peptides with documented favorable physiological effects such as antioxidative, antihypertensive and other cardioprotective effects. This documentation is mainly from in vitro studies, but also animal studies are arising. Evidence from human studies evaluating the positive health effects of marine proteins and peptides are scarce. In one study, a reduction in oxidative stress after intake of cod has been documented and a few human clinical trials have been performed evaluating the effect on blood pressure. The results are, however, inconclusive. The majority of the human clinical trials performed to investigate positive health effects of marine protein and lean fish intake, has focused on blood lipids. While some studies have documented a reduction in triglycerides after intake of lean fish, others have documented no effects.

  1. Production of antihypertensive peptides by enzymatic zein hydrolysate from maize-zea mays ssp. mexicana introgression line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L.; Zhang, X.; Qiao, Y.; Qu, M.

    2014-01-01

    Teosintes are essential gene reservoir for maize breeding improvement, among which Zea mays ssp. mexicana has many valuable traits deserved to be transferred into maize genetic background. In this study, one maize-teosinte introgression line SD00100 was selected from the population of Zea mays ssp. mexicana as wild parent. This introgression line manifested the outstanding agricultural traits similar to maize parent Ye 515 and alien genetic material was identified by genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). To produce bioactive peptides with potent angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity, zein extracted from endosperm meal was then undergone enzymatic hydrolysis with thermolysin and the hydrolysate was then filtered through a 3 kDa cut-off membrane. ACE inhibitory activity of permeate from Ye 515 and SD00100 was evaluated by RP-HPLC. The IC50 values of the peptides obtained from maize parent and the introgression line were 96.9 micro g/ml and 22.9 micro g/ml, respectively, with significant difference between them. Our results showed that an outstanding inbred maize line was obtained for production of antihypertensive peptides as well as for further development of functional food. (author)

  2. Heterogeneity of Clinical Trials for Antihypertensive Drugs in Japan: Exploratory Analysis of Confirmatory Phase III Trials Used for Marketing Approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Reina; Sano, Kota; Ono, Shunsuke

    2018-07-01

    The results of pivotal trials, which provide a rationale for marketing approval decisions for new drugs, are considered for various comparative purposes in postmarketing analyses. Using meta-regression analysis of 91 randomized controlled trials of 61 approved antihypertensive drugs in Japan, we show that mean baseline blood pressure (BP) of each arm was associated with predetermined entry criteria (EC), age, and trial start year (TSY). BP changes following treatment were associated with EC, subject characteristics (e.g., age, complications, baseline BP), study design (e.g., concomitant drug use), and TSY. Effect sizes were generally larger in trials for the first and second drugs in the same class than in trials for follow-on drugs. Results of pivotal trials may vary depending on many factors, suggesting possible challenges associated with the comparison of these results indirectly. Due to the heterogeneity in pivotal trials, caution should be exercised when comparing approved drugs and conducting meta-analyses retrospectively. © 2017, The American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  3. Angiotensin-I converting enzyme inhibitory peptides from antihypertensive skate (Okamejei kenojei) skin gelatin hydrolysate in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Dai-Hung; Kang, Kyong-Hwa; Ryu, BoMi; Vo, Thanh-Sang; Jung, Won-Kyo; Byun, Hee-Guk; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate antihypertensive effect of bioactive peptides from skate (Okamejei kenojei) skin gelatin. The Alcalase/protease gelatin hydrolysate below 1 kDa (SAP) exhibited the highest angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition compared to other hydrolysates. SAP can decrease systolic blood pressure significantly in spontaneously hypertensive rats. SAP inhibited vasoconstriction via PPAR-γ expression, activation and phosphorylation of eNOS in lungs. Moreover, the expression levels of endothelin-1, RhoA, α-smooth muscle actin, cleaved caspase 3 and MAPK were decreased by SAP in lungs. Vascularity, muscularization and cellular proliferation in lungs were detected by immunohistochemical staining. Finally, two purified peptides (LGPLGHQ, 720Da and MVGSAPGVL, 829Da) showed potent ACE inhibition with IC50 values of 4.22 and 3.09 μM, respectively. These results indicate that bioactive peptides isolated from skate skin gelatin may serve as candidates against hypertension and could be used as functional food ingredients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. COMPARATIVE EFFICACY OF LONG-TERM ANTIHYPERTENSIVE MONOTHERAPY IN PATIENTS WITH ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION AT THE WORK PLACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. N. Antropova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To compare effects of 12-month monotherapy with nebivolol, enalapril and indapamide on blood pressure (BP, left ventricular hypertrophy and quality of life in the locomotive engineers and their assistants with stress-associated hypertension at the work place (HTwp.Material and methods. 96 locomotive engineers (20- 53 y.o and their assistants with HTwp were observed. The patients were randomized to receive nebivolol (1 group, enalapril (2 group or indapamide (3 group. 24-hour BP monitoring, echocardiography and quality of life interview with SF–36 questionnaire were performed at the start and after 12 months of the treatment.Results. Long-term therapy lead to achievement of target BP level, improved quality of life and reduced in left ventricular hypertrophy in patients with HTwp. Nebivolol reduced systolic “BP load” more significantly than indapamide did, exerted favorable influence on circadian BP rhythm and reduced heart rate. Monotherapy with nebivolol showed benefits in effect on quality of life.Conclusion. Nebivolol has some advantages in comparison with indapamide and enalapril in antihypertensive therapy of patients with stress-associated HT.

  5. Talk Show Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Mitzi Ruth

    1992-01-01

    Proposes having students perform skits in which they play the roles of the science concepts they are trying to understand. Provides the dialog for a skit in which hot and cold gas molecules are interviewed on a talk show to study how these properties affect wind, rain, and other weather phenomena. (MDH)

  6. Obesity in show cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbee, R J

    2014-12-01

    Obesity is an important disease with a high prevalence in cats. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain cat breeds has been suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, 268 cats of 22 different breeds investigated by determining their body condition score (BCS) on a nine-point scale by inspection and palpation, at two different cat shows. Overall, 45.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 5, and 4.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be related to the breed standards. Most overweight and obese cats were in the neutered group. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and cat show judges to come to different interpretations of the standards in order to prevent overweight conditions in certain breeds from being the standard of beauty. Neutering predisposes for obesity and requires early nutritional intervention to prevent obese conditions. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Honored Teacher Shows Commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratte, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    Part of the acceptance speech of the 1985 National Council for the Social Studies Teacher of the Year, this article describes the censorship experience of this honored social studies teacher. The incident involved the showing of a videotape version of the feature film entitled "The Seduction of Joe Tynan." (JDH)

  8. The energy show

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Energy Show is a new look at the problems of world energy, where our supplies come from, now and in the future. The programme looks at how we need energy to maintain our standards of living. Energy supply is shown as the complicated set of problems it is - that Fossil Fuels are both raw materials and energy sources, that some 'alternatives' so readily suggested as practical options are in reality a long way from being effective. (author)

  9. COMBINED ANTIHYPERTENSIVE THERAPY IN REAL CLINICAL PRACTICE. FOCUS ON FIXED COMBINATIONS OF ANTIHYPERTENSIVE DRUGS (According to the Data of Outpatient Registries RECVASA and PROFILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Martsevich

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available On Behalf of the Working Groups of the Registries PROFILE and REСVASA. Working Group of the PROFILE Registry: Akimova A.V., Voronina V.P., Dmitrieva N.A., Zakharova A.V., Zakharova N.A., Zagrebelnyy A.V., Kutishenko N.P., Lerman O.V., Lukina Yu.V., Tolpygina S.N., Martsevich S.Y.Working Group of the RECVASA Registry: Vorobyev A.N., Zagrebelnyy A.V., Kozminsky A.N., Lukina Yu.V., Loukianov M.M., Moseichuk K.A., Nikulina N.N., Pereverzeva K.G., Pravkina E.A., Boytsov S.A., Martsevich S.Yu., Yakushin S.S.Aim. To assess the frequency of prescription of different combinations of the main groups of antihypertensive drugs (AHD and their fixed combinations to patients with arterial hypertension by physicians according to two outpatient registries.Material and methods. Hypertension was diagnosed in 3648 (98.9% patients of the RECVASA registry and in 1230 patients of the PROFILE registry (80.3%. Data on doctor’s prescriptions reflected in the outpatient charts of patients of the both registries were analyzed. The following information of the prescribed antihypertensive therapy was studied in details: AHD, including fixed and free combinations, original and generic AHD. Data on the achievement/non-achievement of target blood pressure (BP level in patients with hypertension were also analyzed.Results. Women were predominated among hypertensive patients of the RECVASA registry, (71.9%. The ratio of men and women was close to 1:1 in the PROFILE registry. Patients of the registry RECVASA were older: the average age was 66.2±12.8 years compared to 63.7±11.4 years in patients of the PROFILE registry, respectively. The majority of patients in the RECVASA registry (61.4% had hypertension of the 3rd degree, patients of the PROFILE registry revealed mostly hypertension of the 2 degree (53.3%. Fixed combinations were prescribed to 14% of patients in the registry of RECVASA and to 16% of patients in the PROFILE registry. Doctors of the PROFILE registry often

  10. Individual and work-unit measures of psychological demands and decision latitude and the use of antihypertensive medication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, S; Andersen, J H; Grynderup, Matias Brødsgaard

    2015-01-01

    were associated with the purchase of prescribed antihypertensive medication among women. This effect was present on both the work-unit and the individual level. Among men there were no associations. The lack of interaction between psychological demands and decision latitude did not support the job......PURPOSE: To analyse whether psychological demands and decision latitude measured on individual and work-unit level were related to prescription of antihypertensive medication. METHODS: A total of 3,421 women and 897 men within 388 small work units completed a questionnaire concerning psychological...... working conditions according to the job strain model. Mean levels of psychological demands and decision latitude were computed for each work unit to obtain exposure measures that were less influenced by reporting bias. Dispensed antihypertensive medication prescriptions were identified in The Danish...

  11. Short communication: Assessing antihypertensive activity in native and model Queso Fresco cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, M; Van Hekken, D L

    2011-05-01

    Hispanic-style cheeses are one of the fastest growing varieties in the United States, making up approximately 2% of the total cheese production in this country. Queso Fresco is one of most popular Hispanic-style cheeses. Protein extracts from several varieties of Mexican Queso Fresco and model Queso Fresco were analyzed for potential antihypertensive activity. Many Quesos Frescos obtained from Mexico are made from raw milk and therefore the native microflora is included in the cheese-making process. Model Queso Fresco samples were made from pasteurized milk and did not utilize starter cultures. Water-soluble protein extracts from 6 Mexican Quesos Frescos and 12 model cheeses were obtained and assayed for their ability to inhibit angiotensin-converting enzyme, implying potential as foods that can help to lower blood pressure. All model cheeses displayed antihypertensive activity, but mainly after 8 wk of aging when they were no longer consumable, whereas the Mexican samples did display some angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory action after minimal aging. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Dissociation of antihypertensive and metabolic response to losartan and spironolactone in experimental rats with metabolic sindrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Hussen; Pinheiro, Helady Sanders; Terra, Marcella Martins; Guerra, Martha de Oliveira; de Paula, Rogerio Baumgratz; Peters, Vera Maria

    2012-01-01

    The treatment of arterial hypertension (AH) in patients with metabolic syndrome (MS) is a challenge, since non drug therapies are difficult to implement and optimal pharmacological treatment is not fully established. To assess the blockade of the rennin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) in blood pressure (BP) in renal function and morphology in an experimental model of MS induced by high fat diet. Wistar rats were fed on high fat diet from the fourth week of life, for 20 weeks. The groups received Losartan or Spironolactone from the eighth week of life. We weekly evaluated the body weight and BP by tail plethysmography. At the end of the experiment oral glucose tolerance, lipid profile, creatinine clearance tests, and the direct measurement of BP were performed. A morphometric kidney analysis was performed. The administration of high-fat diet was associated with the development of MS, characterized by central fat accumulation, hypertension, hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia. In this model there were no changes in renal histomorphometry. The blockade of angiotensin II (Ang II) receptor AT1 prevented the development of hypertension. The mineralocorticoid blockage did not have antihypertensive efficacy but was associated with reduction of abdominal fat. The dissociation of the antihypertensive response to the blockades of Ang II receptors and mineralocorticoid indicates the involvement of Ang II in the pathogenesis of hypertension associated with obesity. Reduction of central obesity with Spironolactone suggests the presence of mineralocorticoid adipogenic effect.

  13. Evaluation of the Possible Mechanisms of Antihypertensive Activity of Loranthus micranthus: An African Mistletoe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bamidele A. Iwalokun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Loranthus micranthus (LM, also called African mistletoe is a major Nigerian Loranthaceae plant used traditionally to treat hypertension. The methanolic leaf extract of the plant (LMME has been shown to elicit anti-hypertensive activity in rats but mechanism remains unclear. This study was undertaken to study the effect of LM on pressor-induced contraction of rat aorta smooth muscles and serum lipid profiles in mice. The LMME was partitioned to produce n-butanol (NBF-LMME, chloroform (CF-LMME, ethyl acetate (EAF-LMME and water (WF-LMME fractions. The median effective concentrations and maximum relaxation of the fractions were determined against epinephrine and KCl pre-contracted rat aorta ring model. Serum lipid profiles and nitric oxide (NO were determined spectrophotometrically in mice administered per orally 250 mg/kg b.w. of each fraction for 21 days. Data were analyzed statistically. NBF-LMME elicited the highest dose-dependent inhibitory effect on rat aorta pre-contracted with norepinephrine and KCl, followed in decreasing order by WF-LMME > CF-LMME > EAF-LMME. Similar order of activity was observed in the ability of these fractions to inhibit elevation in artherogenic lipids, raise serum nitric oxide and reduce cardiac arginase in mice. We conclude the anti-hypertensive activity of L. micranthus involve anti-artherogenic events, vasorelaxation, cardiac arginase reduction and NO elevation.

  14. Regression of left ventricular hypertrophy and microalbuminuria changes during antihypertensive treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodilla, Enrique; Pascual, Jose Maria; Costa, Jose Antonio; Martin, Joaquin; Gonzalez, Carmen; Redon, Josep

    2013-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess the regression of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) during antihypertensive treatment, and its relationship with the changes in microalbuminuria. One hundred and sixty-eight previously untreated patients with echocardiographic LVH, 46 (27%) with microalbuminuria, were followed during a median period of 13 months (range 6-23 months) and treated with lifestyle changes and antihypertensive drugs. Twenty-four-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, echocardiography and urinary albumin excretion were assessed at the beginning and at the end of the study period. Left ventricular mass index (LVMI) was reduced from 137 [interquartile interval (IQI), 129-154] to 121 (IQI, 104-137) g/m (P 50%) had the same odds of achieving regression of LVH as patients with normoalbuminuria (ORm 1.1; 95% CI 0.38-3.25; P = 0.85). However, those with microalbuminuria at baseline, who did not regress, had less probability of achieving LVH regression than the normoalbuminuric patients (OR 0.26; 95% CI 0.07-0.90; P = 0.03) even when adjusted for age, sex, initial LVMI, GFR, blood pressure and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE-I) or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) treatment during the follow-up. Patients who do not have a significant reduction in microalbuminuria have less chance of achieving LVH regression, independent of blood pressure reduction.

  15. Evaluation of antihyperglycemia and antihypertension potential of native Peruvian fruits using in vitro models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Marcia Da Silva; Ranilla, Lena Galvez; Apostolidis, Emmanouil; Lajolo, Franco Maria; Genovese, Maria Inés; Shetty, Kalidas

    2009-04-01

    Local food diversity and traditional crops are essential for cost-effective management of the global epidemic of type 2 diabetes and associated complications of hypertension. Water and 12% ethanol extracts of native Peruvian fruits such as Lucuma (Pouteria lucuma), Pacae (Inga feuille), Papayita arequipeña (Carica pubescens), Capuli (Prunus capuli), Aguaymanto (Physalis peruviana), and Algarrobo (Prosopis pallida) were evaluated for total phenolics, antioxidant activity based on 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay, and functionality such as in vitro inhibition of alpha-amylase, alpha-glucosidase, and angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) relevant for potential management of hyperglycemia and hypertension linked to type 2 diabetes. The total phenolic content ranged from 3.2 (Aguaymanto) to 11.4 (Lucuma fruit) mg/g of sample dry weight. A significant positive correlation was found between total phenolic content and antioxidant activity for the ethanolic extracts. No phenolic compound was detected in Lucuma (fruit and powder) and Pacae. Aqueous extracts from Lucuma and Algarrobo had the highest alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activities. Papayita arequipeña and Algarrobo had significant ACE inhibitory activities reflecting antihypertensive potential. These in vitro results point to the excellent potential of Peruvian fruits for food-based strategies for complementing effective antidiabetes and antihypertension solutions based on further animal and clinical studies.

  16. THE EVALUATION OF COMPLIANCE TO ANTIHYPERTENSIVE THERAPY IN PATIENTS AFTER STROKE AND POSTSTROKE DEPRESSION DURING ANTIDEPRESSANT THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. B. Fishman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the effect of the antidepressant paroxetine on the compliance to antihypertensive therapy in patients with arterial hypertension (HT and post-stroke depression.Material and methods. Patients (n=24 aged 55-73 with controlled HT (blood pressure, BP<140/90 mm Hg and with subclinical poststroke depression after rehabilitation course were included into the study. Patients were split into two groups. Patients of group 1 (n=12 received adequate antihypertensive therapy and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor paroxetine. Patients of group 2 (n=12 received antihypertensive therapy only. The study duration was 16 weeks. Patient compliance to antihypertensive therapy, BP and severity of depressive disorders, motor and intellectual functions was evaluated initially and after 16 weeks.Results. BP>140/80 mmHg after 16 weeks was found in 10 (41.6% patients. Clinical post-stroke depression was found in 7 (30.4% patients, 5 (41.6% of them were from group 2 (OR=0.35, 95% CI 0.12-0.78. High treatment compliance was in 15 (65.2% patients, and 9 (81.8% of them were from group 1. Nine (39.1% patients did not receive an adequate antihypertensive therapy, 5 (41.6% of them were from group 2 and could not explain their refusal from medication. General index of intellectual function was higher in patients of group 1 (p=0.034 than this in group 2; index of motor function did not change significantly (p>0.05.Conclusion. Reduction of compliance to antihypertensive therapy and rehabilitation in hypertensive patients after stroke is associated with unmotivated refusal from treatment because of clinical post-stroke depression.

  17. Showing Value (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available When Su Cleyle and I first decided to start Evidence Based Library and Information Practice, one of the things we agreed upon immediately was that the journal be open access. We knew that a major obstacle to librarians using the research literature was that they did not have access to the research literature. Although Su and I are both academic librarians who can access a wide variety of library and information literature from our institutions, we belong to a profession where not everyone has equal access to the research in our field. Without such access to our own body of literature, how can we ever hope for practitioners to use research evidence in their decision making? It would have been contradictory to the principles of evidence based library and information practice to do otherwise.One of the specific groups we thought could use such an open access venue for discovering research literature was school librarians. School librarians are often isolated and lacking access to the research literature that may help them prove to stakeholders the importance of their libraries and their role within schools. Certainly, school libraries have been in decline and the use of evidence to show value is needed. As Ken Haycock noted in his 2003 report, The Crisis in Canada’s School Libraries: The Case for Reform and Reinvestment, “Across the country, teacher-librarians are losing their jobs or being reassigned. Collections are becoming depleted owing to budget cuts. Some principals believe that in the age of the Internet and the classroom workstation, the school library is an artifact” (9. Within this context, school librarians are looking to our research literature for evidence of the impact that school library programs have on learning outcomes and student success. They are integrating that evidence into their practice, and reflecting upon what can be improved locally. They are focusing on students and showing the impact of school libraries and

  18. The regional localization of a new potent centrally acting antihypertensive agent R 28935 and its less active threo isomer R 29814 in the cat brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loonen, A.J.M.; Soudijn, W.; Van Rooy, H.H.; Van Wijngaarden, I.

    1977-01-01

    Systemic administration of the centrally acting antihypertensive agent R 28935 to cats resulted in a long lasting decrease of mean arterial pressure (±30%) whereas the same dose of the threo-isomer R 29814 was ineffective. The antihypertensive activity was due to the unaltered drug. In spite of an

  19. Controlled release and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition properties of an antihypertensive drug based on a perindopril erbumine-layered double hydroxide nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Al Ali SH

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Samer Hasan Hussein Al Ali1, Mothanna Al-Qubaisi2, Mohd Zobir Hussein1,3, Maznah Ismail2,4, Zulkarnain Zainal1, Muhammad Nazrul Hakim51Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, 2Laboratory of Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Bioscience, 3Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology, 4Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, 5Department of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, MalaysiaBackground: The intercalation of perindopril erbumine into Zn/Al-NO3-layered double hydroxide resulted in the formation of a host-guest type of material. By virtue of the ion-exchange properties of layered double hydroxide, perindopril erbumine was released in a sustained manner. Therefore, this intercalated material can be used as a controlled-release formulation.Results: Perindopril was intercalated into the interlayers and formed a well ordered, layered organic-inorganic nanocomposite. The basal spacing of the products was expanded to 21.7 Å and 19.9 Å by the ion-exchange and coprecipitation methods, respectively, in a bilayer and a monolayer arrangement, respectively. The release of perindopril from the nanocomposite synthesized by the coprecipitation method was slower than that of its counterpart synthesized by the ion-exchange method. The rate of release was governed by pseudo-second order kinetics. An in vitro antihypertensive assay showed that the intercalation process results in effectiveness similar to that of the antihypertensive properties of perindopril.Conclusion: Intercalated perindopril showed better thermal stability than its free counterpart. The resulting material showed sustained-release properties and can therefore be used as a controlled-release formulation.Keywords: perindopril erbumine, layered double hydroxides, ion-exchange, coprecipitation, sustained release, angiotensin-converting enzyme

  20. Mitral E wave deceleration time to peak E velocity ratio and cardiovascular outcome in hypertensive patients during antihypertensive treatment (from the LIFE echo-substudy)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chinali, Marcello; Aurigemma, Gerard P; de Simone, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    for mitral peak E-velocity (mitral deceleration index [MDI]) might better predict incident cardiovascular (CV) events in hypertensive patients during treatment compared to DTE alone or other traditional indexes of diastolic function, such as the mitral E/A ratio. We evaluated 770 hypertensive patients.......01). Unadjusted Cox regression analysis showed a positive association between the baseline MDI and CV events (hazard ratio 1.21, 95% confidence interval 1.07 to 1.37, p = 0.002). In the time-varied Cox models, a greater in-treatment MDI was associated with a greater rate of CV events (hazard ratio 1.43, 95...... findings of left ventricular hypertrophy, the MDI independently predicted future CV events. Normalization of DTE for E velocity might be preferred to other traditional diastolic function indexes in evaluating diastolic function during antihypertensive treatment....

  1. Enhancing hippocampal blood flow after cerebral ischemia and vasodilating basilar arteries: in vivo and in vitro neuroprotective effect of antihypertensive DDPH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available 1-(2,6-Dimethylphenoxy-2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenylethylamino-propane hydrochloride (DDPH is a novel antihypertensive agent based on structural characteristics of mexiletine and verapamine. We investigated the effect of DDPH on vasodilatation and neuroprotection in a rat model of cerebral ischemia in vivo, and a rabbit model of isolated basilar arteries in vitro. Our results show that DDPH (10 mg/kg significantly increased hippocampal blood flow in vivo in cerebral ischemic rats, and exerted dose-dependent relaxation of isolated basilar arteries contracted by histamine or KCl in the in vitro rabbit model. DDPH (3 × 10 -5 M also inhibited histamine-stimulated extracellular calcium influx and intracellular calcium release. Our findings suggest that DDPH has a vasodilative effect both in vivo and in vitro, which mediates a neuroprotective effect on ischemic nerve tissue.

  2. Efficacy and tolerability of antihypertensive drugs in diabetic and nondiabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aslam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives of the Study: The aim of the study was to compare the efficacy and tolerability of different classes of antihypertensive drugs in diabetic and nondiabetic patients (NDPs with essential hypertension. Material and Methods: The study was conducted in Mayo Hospital, Punjab Institute of Cardiology, and National Defence Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan, on 200 hypertensive patients with diabetes and 230 hypertensive patients without (Three hospitals diabetes. Both male and female patients of age between 30 and 80 years with systolic blood pressure (SBP above 130 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure (DBP above 80 mmHg were enrolled in the study. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI, beta-blocker (βB, calcium-channel blocker (CCB, diuretics (D, angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB as well as α-blocker classes of antihypertensive drugs were used. These drugs were used as monotherapy as well as combination therapy. The study was conducted for 4 months (July–October. After 4 months, patients were assessed for efficacy by monitoring blood pressure (BP and tolerability by assessing safety profile on renal function, liver function as well as lipid profile. Results: Significant control in mean BP by all drug groups was observed in “both groups that is patients with diabetes and without diabetes.” The efficacy and tolerability data revealed that in diabetic patients with hypertension, the highest decrease in SBP and DBP was observed using monotherapy with ACEI, two-drug combination therapy with ACEI plus diuretic, ARBs plus diuretic, ACEI plus CCBs, three-drug combination therapy with ACEI plus CCBs plus diuretic, and four drug combination therapy with ACEI plus CCBs plus diuretic plus βBs, ARB's plus CCBs plus diuretic plus βBs while in NDPs, monotherapy with diuretic, two-drug combination therapy with ACEI plus CCBs, ACEI plus βBs, three-drug combination therapy with βBs plus ACEI plus D was found more effective in controlling SBP as well

  3. Identification of validated questionnaires to measure adherence to pharmacological antihypertensive treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez-Escamilla B

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Beatriz Pérez-Escamilla,1 Lucía Franco-Trigo,1 Joanna C Moullin,2 Fernando Martínez-Martínez,1 José P García-Corpas1 1Academic Centre in Pharmaceutical Care, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Granada, Granada, Spain; 2Graduate School of Health, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia Background: Low adherence to pharmacological treatments is one of the factors associated with poor blood pressure control. Questionnaires are an indirect measurement method that is both economic and easy to use. However, questionnaires should meet specific criteria, to minimize error and ensure reproducibility of results. Numerous studies have been conducted to design questionnaires that quantify adherence to pharmacological antihypertensive treatments. Nevertheless, it is unknown whether questionnaires fulfil the minimum requirements of validity and reliability. The aim of this study was to compile validated questionnaires measuring adherence to pharmacological antihypertensive treatments that had at least one measure of validity and one measure of reliability. Methods: A literature search was undertaken in PubMed, the Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE, and the Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature database (Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde [LILACS]. References from included articles were hand-searched. The included papers were all that were published in English, French, Portuguese, and Spanish from the beginning of the database’s indexing until July 8, 2013, where a validation of a questionnaire (at least one demonstration of the validity and at least one of reliability was performed to measure adherence to antihypertensive pharmacological treatments. Results: A total of 234 potential papers were identified in the electronic database search; of these, 12 met the eligibility criteria. Within these 12 papers, six questionnaires were validated: the Morisky

  4. Trends in Prescription and Determinants of Persistence to Antihypertensive Therapy : The PAPEETE Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Francesco Vittorio; Degli Esposti, Luca; Cerra, Carlo; Veronesi, Chiara; Buda, Stefano

    2009-12-01

    To assess trends in prescriptions, determinants and timing of treatment discontinuation and/or changes in antihypertensive drug therapy in a cohort of hypertensive patients living in Pavia, a city in the north of Italy. The cohort included 61 493 patients aged ≥18 years who received their first antihypertensive drug prescription (monotherapy, fixed or extemporaneous combination) during the period 2003-6. Patients were classified as 'persistent' if 12 months after the beginning of treatment they were still taking a regular therapy (same drug = 'same therapy users', added one or more drugs = 'add-on therapy users', different drug = 'switchers'). Otherwise, they were classified as 'non-persistent' (stopping therapy after the first prescription = 'occasional users'; stopping treatment early = 'stoppers'; taking medicines in an erratic fashion = 'intermittent users'). ACE inhibitors were the most frequently prescribed drugs (22.8%), followed by β-adrenoceptor antagonists (β-blockers) [14.3%], diuretics (13.9%), Ca(2+) antagonists (11.4%) and angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonists (angiotensin receptor blockers [ARBs]) [9.3%]. After 12 months, persistent patients were only 11.2% (same therapy users 6.7%, switchers 3.2%, add-on therapy users 1.3%). Non-persistent patients were 88.8% (35.3% occasional users, 20.6% stoppers, 32.8% intermittent users). Patient-related predictors of persistence were older age, male sex, concomitant treatment with antidiabetic and hypolipidaemic drugs and previous hospitalizations for cardiovascular events. Highest level of persistence was seen in patients starting with ARBs (18.8%), followed by ACE inhibitors (11.4%), β-blockers (11.0%), Ca(2+) antagonists (10.8%) and diuretics (3.0%). Among ARBs, considering separately monotherapy and fixed-combination therapy, highest level of persistence was observed in patients starting with candesartan, irbesartan, valsartan and telmisartan given in monotherapy, and with valsartan and

  5. Assessment of cholecalciferol and antihypertensive therapy concominant use in people with arterial hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Yankouskaya

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. The purpose of the study was to assess the effect of cholecalciferol intake at a daily dose of 2,000 IU on the serum level of 25(ОНD total and blood pressure (BP against the background of antihypertensive therapy in people with arterial hypertension(AH stage II. Materials and methods. We performed a prospective, single-center study of 115 individuals with AH stage II (91 females and 24 males, mean age 50.7 ± 7.1 years. The duration of the follow-up period averaged 15.8 ± 1.8 months (from 12 to 18 months. The patients were receiving antihypertensive therapy according to the European guidelines: angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor antagonists — losartan, or diuretics (hydrochlorothiazide or indapamide as a part of combination therapy, or calcium antagonists — amlodipine, or beta-adrenergic blockers, or their combination. Every second patient was recommended to take vitamin D in the form of cholecalciferol at a dose of 2000 IU/d daily. All subjects were performed full blood count, clinical urine examination, measure of fasting blood sugar, serum urea, serum creatinine, office systolic and diastolic blood pressure, anthropometric data, electrocardiography. Serum level of total vitamin D was determined using immunoenzymatic assay. Statistical analysis was done by using software package STATISTICA 10.0 (SN AXAR207F394425FA-Q. Results. It was found that intake of diuretics (hydrochlorothiazide at a dose of 12.5–25.0 mg or indapamide 1.5 mg as part of combination antihypertensive therapy influenced the dynamics of serum 25(OHD (F = 5.35; p = 0.02 and its level (F = 11.8; p = 0.0009. Dynamic SBP value was highest (–27.4 ± 17.9 in the group receiving a diuretic and cholecalciferol, which was significantly (p < 0.001 different from the comparison group. In the same group, we established a correlation relationship between dynamic SBP and length of cholecalciferol intake (R = 0.42; p = 0.023. A

  6. Effect of antihypertensive therapy on aortic distensibility in patients with hypertension. Comparison with nicardipine and trichlormethiazide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honda, Toshio [Ehime Prefectural Iyomishima Hospital (Japan)

    1995-03-01

    To evaluate the aortic wall distensibility (AD) in patients with hypertension, AD was measured using cine magnetic resonance imaging in 37 hypertensive patients (HT) and 40 normal control subjects (NC). In addition, to evaluate the effect of antihypertensive drugs on AD, AD was measured before and after following antihypertensive treatments in 23 HT. Thirteen HT and 10 HT were treated for 12 weeks by 80 mg per day of nicardipine (group N) and 2-4 mg per day of trichlormethiazide (group T), respectively. Cine magnetic resonance imaging was performed at ascending (ASC) and descending (DESC) aortic levels. Aortic area was measured at the maximum and minimum frames. AD was calculated from the following formula: (Max. area - Min. area)/(Min. area x pulse pressure). AD was lower in HT than in NC both at ASC (p<0.01) and DESC (p<0.01). There was negative correlationship between age and AD in both HT and NC. After treatment of N and T, AD in all patients increased significantly. AD in ASC changed from 1.38{+-}0.99 to 5.29{+-}2.78 in HT treated by N, from 1.15{+-}0.70 to 2.48{+-}1.08 in HT treated by T, respectively. AD in DESC changed from 1.56{+-}0.87 to 5.53{+-}2.57 in HT treated by N, from 1.28{+-}0.59 to 2.67{+-}0.75 in HT treated by T, respectively. There were no significant differences in ADs of both ASC and DESC before treatment between HT treated by N and T. However, there were significant differences in ADs of both ASC and DESC after treatment between HT treated by N and T. There were no significant differences in systolic, diastolic and pulse pressures both before and after treatment between group N and group T. In conclusion, it is suspected that hypertension is the strong factor which promotes the aortic sclerosis. In addition, antihypertensive drugs have a beneficial effect on aortic distensibility, and its effect of nicardipine is stronger than that of trichlormethiazide. (author) 57 refs.

  7. Antihypertensive activities of the aqueous extract of Kalanchoe pinnata (Crassulaceae) in high salt-loaded rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bopda, Orelien Sylvain Mtopi; Longo, Frida; Bella, Thierry Ndzana; Edzah, Protais Marcellin Ohandja; Taïwe, Germain Sotoing; Bilanda, Danielle Claude; Tom, Esther Ngo Lemba; Kamtchouing, Pierre; Dimo, Theophile

    2014-04-28

    The leaves of Kalanchoe pinnata (Crassulaceae) are used in Cameroon folk medicine to manage many diseases such as cardiovascular dysfunctions. In this work, we aimed to evaluate the activities of aqueous leaf extract of Kalanchoe pinnata on the blood pressure of normotensive rat (NTR) and salt hypertensive rats (SHR), as well as its antioxidant properties. Hypertension was induced in rats by oral administration of 18% NaCl for 4 weeks. For the preventive study, three groups of rats received 18% NaCl solution and the plant extract at 25 mg/kg/day, 50 mg/kg/day or 100 mg/kg/day by gavage. Two positive control groups received 18% NaCl solution and either spironolactone (0.71 mg/kg/day) or eupressyl (0.86 mg/kg/day) by gavage for 4 weeks. At the end of this experimental period, systolic arterial pressure (SAP), diastolic arterial pressure (DAP) and heart rate (HR) were measured by the invasive method. Some oxidative stress biomarkers (reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), nitric monoxide (NO) were evaluated in heart, aorta, liver and kidney. NO level was indirectly evaluated by measuring nitrite concentration. Kalanchoe pinnata extract prevented significantly the increase of systolic and diastolic arterial pressures in high salt-loaded rats (SHR). In SHR, concomitant administration of Kalanchoe pinnata at 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg/day significantly prevented the increase in blood pressure by 32%, 24% and 47% (for SAP); 35%, 33% and 56% (for DAP), respectively. No significant change was recorded in heart rate of those rats. The plant extract improved antioxidant status in various organs, but more potently in aorta. Thus, antioxidant and modulatory effects of Kalanchoe pinnata at the vasculature might be of preponderant contribution to its overall antihypertensive activity. The work demonstrated that the concomitant administration of high-salt and the aqueous extract of Kalanchoe pinnata elicits prevention of salt-induced hypertension in rat. This

  8. Labetalol Versus Nifedipine as Antihypertensive Treatment for Chronic Hypertension in Pregnancy: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Louise M; Myers, Jenny E; Nelson-Piercy, Catherine; Harding, Kate; Cruickshank, J Kennedy; Watt-Coote, Ingrid; Khalil, Asma; Wiesender, Cornelia; Seed, Paul T; Chappell, Lucy C

    2017-11-01

    Data from randomized controlled trials to guide antihypertensive agent choice for chronic hypertension in pregnancy are limited; this study aimed to compare labetalol and nifedipine, additionally assessing the impact of ethnicity on treatment efficacy. Pregnant women with chronic hypertension (12 +0 -27 +6 weeks' gestation) were enrolled at 4 UK centers (August 2014 to October 2015). Open-label first-line antihypertensive treatment was randomly assigned: labetalol- (200-1800 mg/d) or nifedipine-modified release (20-80 mg/d). Analysis included 112 women (98%) who completed the study (labetalol n=55, nifedipine n=57). Maximum blood pressure after randomization was 161/101 mm Hg with labetalol versus 163/105 mm Hg with nifedipine (mean difference systolic: 1.2 mm Hg [-4.9 to 7.2 mm Hg], diastolic: 3.3 mm Hg [-0.6 to 7.3 mm Hg]). Mean blood pressure was 134/84 mm Hg with labetalol and 134/85 mm Hg with nifedipine (mean difference systolic: 0.3 mm Hg [-2.8 to 3.4 mm Hg], and diastolic: -1.9 mm Hg [-4.1 to 0.3 mm Hg]). Nifedipine use was associated with a 7.4-mm Hg reduction (-14.4 to -0.4 mm Hg) in central aortic pressure, measured by pulse wave analysis. No difference in treatment effect was observed in black women (n=63), but a mean 4 mm Hg reduction (-6.6 to -0.8 mm Hg; P =0.015) in brachial diastolic blood pressure was observed with labetalol compared with nifedipine in non-black women (n=49). Labetalol and nifedipine control mean blood pressure to target in pregnant women with chronic hypertension. This study provides support for a larger definitive trial scrutinizing the benefits and side effects of first-line antihypertensive treatment. URL: https://www.isrctn.com. Unique identifier: ISRCTN40973936. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Identification of validated questionnaires to measure adherence to pharmacological antihypertensive treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Escamilla, Beatriz; Franco-Trigo, Lucía; Moullin, Joanna C; Martínez-Martínez, Fernando; García-Corpas, José P

    2015-01-01

    Background Low adherence to pharmacological treatments is one of the factors associated with poor blood pressure control. Questionnaires are an indirect measurement method that is both economic and easy to use. However, questionnaires should meet specific criteria, to minimize error and ensure reproducibility of results. Numerous studies have been conducted to design questionnaires that quantify adherence to pharmacological antihypertensive treatments. Nevertheless, it is unknown whether questionnaires fulfil the minimum requirements of validity and reliability. The aim of this study was to compile validated questionnaires measuring adherence to pharmacological antihypertensive treatments that had at least one measure of validity and one measure of reliability. Methods A literature search was undertaken in PubMed, the Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE), and the Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature database (Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde [LILACS]). References from included articles were hand-searched. The included papers were all that were published in English, French, Portuguese, and Spanish from the beginning of the database’s indexing until July 8, 2013, where a validation of a questionnaire (at least one demonstration of the validity and at least one of reliability) was performed to measure adherence to antihypertensive pharmacological treatments. Results A total of 234 potential papers were identified in the electronic database search; of these, 12 met the eligibility criteria. Within these 12 papers, six questionnaires were validated: the Morisky–Green–Levine; Brief Medication Questionnaire; Hill-Bone Compliance to High Blood Pressure Therapy Scale; Morisky Medication Adherence Scale; Treatment Adherence Questionnaire for Patients with Hypertension (TAQPH); and Martín–Bayarre–Grau. Questionnaire length ranged from four to 28 items. Internal consistency, assessed by Cronbach’s α, varied from 0

  10. How Ghanaian, African-Surinamese and Dutch patients perceive and manage antihypertensive drug treatment: a qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beune, Erik J. A. J.; Haafkens, Joke A.; Agyemang, Charles; Schuster, John S.; Willems, Dick L.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To explore and compare how Ghanaian, African-Surinamese (Surinamese), and White-Dutch patients perceive and manage antihypertensive drug treatment in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. METHODS: Qualitative study was conducted using detailed interviews with a purposive sample of 46 hypertensive

  11. INFLUENCE OF COMBINED ANTIHYPERTENSIVE AND ANTIDEPRESSANT THERAPY ON LEFT VENTRICULAR REMODELING IN PATIENTS WITH ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION, ANXIETY AND DEPRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. Vasyuk

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess influence of combined antihypertensive (captopril or metoprolol and antidepressant (thianeptin or sertralin therapy on clinical status, blood pressure (BP and myocardial function in patients with arterial hypertension (HT and affective disorders (AD.Material and methods. 106 patients with HT were involved in the study. 64 patients (60,4% had concomitant AD. All patients were divided into 3 groups. 46 patients with HT and AD were included in the 1-st group. They received metoprolol or captopril in combination with tianeptine or sertaline. The 2-nd group included 18 patients with HT and AD who received only antihypertensive therapy. The 3-rd group consisted of 42 patients with HT without AD. They also received only antihypertensive therapy.Results. After 6 month therapy patients of the 1-st and the 3-rd groups had more significant clinical improvement and BP reduction (according to 24- hour BP monitoring as well as more farourable structural and functional changes of left ventricular in comparison with patients of the 2-nd group.Conclusion. In patients with HT and concomitant AD combined antihypertensive and antidepressant therapy result in favourable clinical changes, effectively reduce BP, improve left ventricular structure and function.

  12. NSAID-antihypertensive drug interactions: Which outpatients are at risk for a rise in systolic blood pressure?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Floor-Schreudering, Annemieke; De Smet, Peter Agm; Buurma, Henk; Kramers, Cornelis; Tromp, P. Chris; Belitser, Svetlana V.; Bouvy, Marcel L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Management guidelines for drug-drug interactions between non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and antihypertensives recommend blood pressure monitoring in hypertensive patients. We measured the short-term effect of initiating NSAIDs on systolic blood pressure (SBP) in users of

  13. NSAID-antihypertensive drug interactions: which outpatients are at risk for a rise in systolic blood pressure?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Floor-Schreudering, A.; Smet, P.A.G.M. de; Buurma, H.; Kramers, C.; Tromp, P.C.; Belitser, S.V.; Bouvy, M.L.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Management guidelines for drug-drug interactions between non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and antihypertensives recommend blood pressure monitoring in hypertensive patients. We measured the short-term effect of initiating NSAIDs on systolic blood pressure (SBP) in users of

  14. Drug-gene interaction between the insertion/deletion polymorphism of the angiotensin-converting enzyme gene and antihypertensive therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schelleman, Hedi; Klungel, Olaf H; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Witteman, Jacqueline C M; Hofman, Albert; de Boer, Anthonius; Stricker, Bruno H Ch

    BACKGROUND: Despite the availability of a variety of effective drugs, inadequate control of blood pressure is common. There are some indications that the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene modifies the response to antihypertensive drugs, but the results have been inconclusive. OBJECTIVE: To

  15. Reduced albuminuria during early and aggressive antihypertensive treatment of insulin-dependent diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parving, H H; Andersen, A R; Smidt, U M

    1981-01-01

    nephropathy. Mean age of the patients was 30 yr. All patients had a diastolic blood pressure greater than or equal to 95 mm Hg. Metoprolol, hydralazine, and furosemide or thiazide were used as antihypertensives. During the 12-mo treatment period, BP decreased from 151/104 to 133/85 mm Hg (P less than 0...

  16. Reduction in albuminuria predicts a beneficial effect on diminishing the progression of human diabetic nephropathy during antihypertensive treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossing, P; Hommel, E; Smidt, U M

    1994-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is the main cause of increased mortality and morbidity in IDDM patients. The effect of antihypertensive treatment on the progression of the nephropathy is highly variable. The aim of this study was to evaluate putative predictors of the progression in diabetic nephropathy dur...

  17. Acute and long-term effect of antihypertensive treatment on exercise-induced albuminuria in incipient diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Cramer; Mogensen, C E

    1986-01-01

    The aim of the study was to clarify whether antihypertensive treatment could affect the systolic blood pressure (SBP) and urinary albumin excretion (UAE) in diabetics during exercise (450 kpm/min, followed by 600 kpm/min, 20 min each). Young male insulin-dependent diabetics with normal UAE (n = 9...

  18. Antihypertensive mechanisms of chronic captopril (CPT) or N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) treatment in L-NAME hypertensive rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dobešová, Zdenka; Zicha, Josef; Pecháňová, Olga; Kuneš, Jaroslav

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 4 (2005), s. 912-913 ISSN 0194-911X. [Annual Meeting of the European Council for Cardiovascular Research (ECCR) /10./. 14.10.2005-16.10.2005, La Colle sur Loup] R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NR7786 Keywords : antihypertensive mechanism * captopril * N-Acetylcysteine * L-NAME hypertension Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  19. How Ghanaian, African-Surinamese and Dutch patients percieve and manage antihypertensive drug treatment: A qualitive study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beune, E.J.; Haafkens, J.; Agyeman, Ch.; Schuster, J.; Willems, D.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To explore and compare how Ghanaian, African-Surinamese (Surinamese), and White-Dutch patients perceive and manage antihypertensive drug treatment in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. METHODS: Qualitative study was conducted using detailed interviews with a purposive sample of 46 hypertensive

  20. The effect of how outcomes are framed on decisions about whether to take antihypertensive medication: a randomized trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl L L Carling

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We conducted an Internet-based randomized trial comparing three valence framing presentations of the benefits of antihypertensive medication in preventing cardiovascular disease (CVD for people with newly diagnosed hypertension to determine which framing presentation resulted in choices most consistent with participants' values. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In this second in a series of televised trials in cooperation with the Norwegian Broadcasting Company, adult volunteers rated the relative importance of the consequences of taking antihypertensive medication using visual analogue scales (VAS. Participants viewed information (or no information to which they were randomized and decided whether or not to take medication. We compared positive framing over 10 years (the number escaping CVD per 1000; negative framing over 10 years (the number that will have CVD and negative framing per year over 10 years of the effects of antihypertensive medication on the 10-year risk for CVD for a 40 year-old man with newly diagnosed hypertension without other risk factors. Finally, all participants were shown all presentations and detailed patient information about hypertension and were asked to decide again. We calculated a relative importance score (RIS by subtracting the VAS-scores for the undesirable consequences of antihypertensive medication from the VAS-score for the benefit of CVD risk reduction. We used logistic regression to determine the association between participants' RIS and their choice. 1,528 participants completed the study. The statistically significant differences between the groups in the likelihood of choosing to take antihypertensive medication in relation to different values (RIS increased as the RIS increased. Positively framed information lead to decisions most consistent with those made by everyone for the second, more fully informed decision. There was a statistically significant decrease in deciding to take antihypertensives on

  1. The effect of how outcomes are framed on decisions about whether to take antihypertensive medication: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carling, Cheryl L L; Kristoffersen, Doris Tove; Oxman, Andrew D; Flottorp, Signe; Fretheim, Atle; Schünemann, Holger J; Akl, Elie A; Herrin, Jeph; MacKenzie, Thomas D; Montori, Victor M

    2010-03-01

    We conducted an Internet-based randomized trial comparing three valence framing presentations of the benefits of antihypertensive medication in preventing cardiovascular disease (CVD) for people with newly diagnosed hypertension to determine which framing presentation resulted in choices most consistent with participants' values. In this second in a series of televised trials in cooperation with the Norwegian Broadcasting Company, adult volunteers rated the relative importance of the consequences of taking antihypertensive medication using visual analogue scales (VAS). Participants viewed information (or no information) to which they were randomized and decided whether or not to take medication. We compared positive framing over 10 years (the number escaping CVD per 1000); negative framing over 10 years (the number that will have CVD) and negative framing per year over 10 years of the effects of antihypertensive medication on the 10-year risk for CVD for a 40 year-old man with newly diagnosed hypertension without other risk factors. Finally, all participants were shown all presentations and detailed patient information about hypertension and were asked to decide again. We calculated a relative importance score (RIS) by subtracting the VAS-scores for the undesirable consequences of antihypertensive medication from the VAS-score for the benefit of CVD risk reduction. We used logistic regression to determine the association between participants' RIS and their choice. 1,528 participants completed the study. The statistically significant differences between the groups in the likelihood of choosing to take antihypertensive medication in relation to different values (RIS) increased as the RIS increased. Positively framed information lead to decisions most consistent with those made by everyone for the second, more fully informed decision. There was a statistically significant decrease in deciding to take antihypertensives on the second decision, both within groups and

  2. Antihypertensive drug Valsartan promotes dendritic spine density by altering AMPA receptor trafficking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Young In; Lee, Nathanael J.; Chung, Andrew; Saavedra, Juan M.; Turner, R. Scott; Pak, Daniel T. S.; Hoe, Hyang-Sook

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies demonstrated that the antihypertensive drug Valsartan improved spatial and episodic memory in mouse models of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) and human subjects with hypertension. However, the molecular mechanism by which Valsartan can regulate cognitive function is still unknown. Here, we investigated the effect of Valsartan on dendritic spine formation in primary hippocampal neurons, which is correlated with learning and memory. Interestingly, we found that Valsartan promotes spinogenesis in developing and mature neurons. In addition, we found that Valsartan increases the puncta number of PSD-95 and trends toward an increase in the puncta number of synaptophysin. Moreover, Valsartan increased the cell surface levels of AMPA receptors and selectively altered the levels of spinogenesis-related proteins, including CaMKIIα and phospho-CDK5. These data suggest that Valsartan may promote spinogenesis by enhancing AMPA receptor trafficking and synaptic plasticity signaling. PMID:24012668

  3. Nanotechnology Based Approaches for Enhancing Oral Bioavailability of Poorly Water Soluble Antihypertensive Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayank Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral administration is the most convenient route among various routes of drug delivery as it offers high patient compliance. However, the poor aqueous solubility and poor enzymatic/metabolic stability of drugs are major limitations in successful oral drug delivery. There are several approaches to improve problems related to hydrophobic drugs. Among various approaches, nanotechnology based drug delivery system has potential to overcome the challenges associated with the oral route of administration. Novel drug delivery systems are available in many areas of medicine. The application of these systems in the treatment of hypertension continues to broaden. The present review focuses on various nanocarriers available in oral drug administration for improving solubility profile, dissolution, and consequently bioavailability of hydrophobic antihypertensive drugs.

  4. Effect of antihypertensive agents - captopril and nifedipine - on the functional properties of rat heart mitochondria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Kancirová

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Investigation of acute effect on cellular bioenergetics provides the opportunity to characterize the possible adverse effects of drugs more comprehensively. This study aimed to investigate the changes in biochemical and biophysical properties of heart mitochondria induced by captopril and nifedipine antihypertensive treatment. Materials and Methods: Male, 12-week-old Wistar rats in two experimental models (in vivo and in vitro were used. In four groups, the effects of escalating doses of captopril, nifedipine and combination of captopril + nifedipine added to the incubation medium (in vitro or administered per os to rat (in vivo on mitochondrial ATP synthase activity and membrane fluidity were monitored. Results: In the in vitro model we observed a significant inhibitory effect of treatment on the ATP synthase activity (P

  5. Effects of autogenic training and antihypertensive agents on circadian and circaseptan variation of blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yoshihiko; Cornélissen, Germaine; Watanabe, Misako; Watanabe, Fumihiko; Otsuka, Kuniaki; Ohkawa, Shi-ichiro; Kikuchi, Takenori; Halberg, Franz

    2003-10-01

    Even when the daily blood pressure mean is acceptable, too large a circadian amplitude of blood pressure largely increases cardiovascular disease risk. Autogenic training (N = 11), a non-pharmacologic intervention capable of lowering an excessive blood pressure variability, may be well-suited for MESOR-normotensive patients diagnosed with circadian-hyper-amplitude-tension (CHAT). Not all anti-hypertensive drugs affect blood pressure variability. Accordingly, long-acting carteolol (N = 11) and/or atenolol (N = 8) may be preferred to captopril retard (N = 13), nilvadipine (N = 8), or amlodipine (N = 7) for midline-estimating statistic of rhythm (MESOR)-hypertensive patients with CHAT. Prospective outcome studies are needed to assess whether the relative merits of these treatments are in keeping with their effects on blood pressure and blood pressure variability.

  6. Hypertension, antihypertensive medication and risk of renal carcinoma in California Seventh-Day Adventists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, G E; Phillips, R L; Beeson, W L

    1990-12-01

    A longitudinal study of 34 198 non-Hispanic white California Seventh-day Adventists identified incident cases of renal carcinoma over six years of follow-up. The use of antihypertensive medications and self-reported hypertension had estimated age-sex adjusted incidence rate ratios of 4.51 and 2.90 respectively. These were relatively unchanged by stratifying on additional variables that may have been confounders. Cases diagnosed later during the follow-up period had the strongest association with hypertension, making the alternative explanation that the cancer may have caused the hypertension less likely. Being married in 1976 (amongst females at least) was also associated with a marked elevation of risk. Point estimates of effect suggested that frequent (greater than or equal to 3 week) consumption of fruit (RR = 0.21) and salad vegetables (RR = 0.34) may be protective for this cancer, although the 95% confidence interval did not quite exclude the null value.

  7. Factors associated with false-positive self-reported adherence to antihypertensive drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedla, Y G; Bautista, L E

    2017-05-01

    Self-reported medication adherence is known to overestimate true adherence. However, little is known about patient factors that may contribute to the upward bias in self-reported medication adherence. The objective of this study is to examine whether demographic, behavioral, medication and mood factors are associated with being a false-positive self-reported adherer (FPA) to antihypertensive drug treatment. We studied 175 patients (mean age: 50 years; 57% men) from primary-care clinics starting antihypertensive drug treatment. Self-reported adherence (SRA) was measured with the Medication Adherence Report Scale (MARS) and by the number of drug doses missed in the previous week/month, and compared with pill count adherence ratio (PCAR) as gold standard. Data on adherence, demographic, behavioral, medication and mood factors were collected at baseline and every 3 months up to 1 year. FPA was defined as being a non-adherer by PCAR and an adherer by self-report. Mixed effect logistic regression was used for the analysis. Twenty percent of participants were FPA. Anxiety increased (odds ratio (OR): 3.00; P=0.01), whereas smoking (OR: 0.40; P=0.03) and drug side effects (OR: 0.46, P=0.03) decreased the probability for FPA by MARS. Education below high-school completion increased the probability of being an FPA as measured by missing doses in the last month (OR: 1.66; P=0.04) and last week (OR: 1.88; P=0.02). The validity of SRA varies significantly according to drug side effects, behavioral factors and patient's mood. Careful consideration should be given to the use of self-reported measures of adherence among patients likely to be false-positive adherers.

  8. Validated HPTLC methods for determination of some selected antihypertensive mixtures in their combined dosage forms

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    Rasha A. Shaalan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Simple and selective HPTLC methods were developed for the simultaneous determination of the antihypertensive drugs; carvedilol and hydrochlorothiazide in their binary mixture (Mixture I and amlodipine besylate, valsartan, and hydrochlorothiazide in their combined ternary formulation (Mixture II. Effective chromatographic separation was achieved on Fluka TLC plates 20 × 20 cm aluminum cards, 0.2 mm thickness through linear ascending development. For Mixture I, the mobile phase composed of chloroform–methanol in the ratio 8:2 v/v. Detection was performed at 254 nm for both carvedilol and hydrochlorothiazide. For Mixture II, the mobile phase was chloroform–methanol–ammonia in the volume ratio 8:2:0.1. Detection was performed at 254 nm for valsartan and hydrochlorothiazide, and at 365 nm for amlodipine. Quantification was based on spectrodensitometric analysis. Analytical performance of the proposed HPTLC procedures was statistically validated with respect to linearity, ranges, precision, accuracy, specificity, robustness, detection and quantification limits. The linearity ranges were 0.05–1.0 and 0.1–2.0 μg/spot for carvedilol and hydrochlorothiazide, respectively in Mixture I, 0.1–2.0, 0.1–2.0 and 0.2–4.0 μg/spot for amlodipine, hydrochlorothiazide and valsartan, respectively in Mixture II, with correlation coefficients >0.9992. The validated HPTLC methods were applied to the analysis of the cited antihypertensive drugs in their combined pharmaceutical tablets. The proposed methods confirmed peak identity and purity.

  9. ANTIHYPERTENSIVE AND ANTIOXIDATIVE EFFECTS OF CARVEDILOL AND METOPROLOL IN HYPERTENSIVE PATIENTS WITH OVERWEIGHT/OBESITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Nevzorova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate an efficacy of the 24-week antihypertensive therapy based on the carvedilol or metoprolol and its influence on markers of blood oxidative status in hypertensive patients with overweight/obesity.Material and methods. The observation data of 20 hypertensive patients (aged 40-65 y.o. with overweight/obesity were analyzed. Blood pressure (BP dynamics at each visit and a rate of target BP achievement were evaluated. Blood oxidative status was evaluated by plasma malondialdehyde (MDA level and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD activity. Therapy safety was evaluated by adverse events registration.Results. Significant reduction in both systolic and diastolic BP compared with baseline values was found. BP targets were achieved in all patients in both groups. The therapy based on carvedilol had a greater effect on blood oxidative status in comparison with metoprolol therapy. Plasma MDA level reduced from 7.03 [6.49;7.41] to 3.23 [2.88;3.57] μM/l (p<0.05 vs from 6.95 [6.51;7.39] to 6.08 [5.46;6.71] μM/l, respectively, and erythrocyte SOD activity increased from 27,89 [25.29;30.49] to 40.18 [35.89;44.45]% (p<0.05 vs from 28.41 [25.18;31.64] to 33.45 [30.65;36.23]%, respectively.Conclusion. The high antihypertensive efficacy, positive effect on blood oxidative status and well tolerability of therapy based on carvedilol in everyday clinical practice is presented.

  10. Effect of lipid-lowering and anti-hypertensive drugs on plasma homocysteine levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jutta Dierkes

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Jutta Dierkes, Claus Luley, Sabine WestphalInstitute of Clinical Chemistry and Biochemistry, University Hospital Magdeburg, Germany Abstract: Elevated plasma concentrations of homocysteine, a sulfur-containing amino acid, are a risk factor for coronary, cerebral and peripheral artery disease. Next to other factors, drugs used for the prevention or treatment of cardiovascular disease may modulate plasma homocysteine levels. Thus, a drug induced homocysteine increase may counteract the desired cardioprotective effect. The aim is to summarize the current knowledge on the effect of two important classes of drugs, lipid-lowering drugs and anti-hypertensive drugs, on homocysteine metabolism. Among the lipid-lowering drugs, especially the fibric acid derivatives, which are used for treatment of hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL-cholesterol, are associated with an increase of homocysteine by 20%–50%. This increase can be reduced, but not totally avoided by the addition of folic acid, vitamin B12 and B6 to fibrates. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins do not influence homocysteine concentrations substantially. The effects of nicotinic acid and n3-fatty acids on the homocysteine concentrations are less clear, more studies are necessary to clarify their influence on homocysteine. Antihypertensive drugs have also been studied with respect to homocysteine metabolism. A homocysteine increase has been shown after treatment with hydrochlorothiazide, a lowering was observed after treatment with ß-blockers, but no effect with ACE-inhibitors. The clinical significance of the homocysteine elevation by fibrates and thiazides is not clear. However, individual patients use these drugs for long time, indicating that even moderate increases may be important.Keywords: homocysteine, fibrates, diuretics, cardiovascular disease

  11. Antihypertensive and cardioprotective effects of the dipeptide isoleucine-tryptophan and whey protein hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, M; Kopaliani, I; Jannasch, A; Mund, C; Todorov, V; Henle, T; Deussen, A

    2015-12-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors are treatment of choice in hypertensive patients. Clinically used inhibitors exhibit a structural similarity to naturally occurring peptides. This study evaluated antihypertensive and cardioprotective effects of ACE-inhibiting peptides derived from food proteins in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Isoleucine-tryptophan (in vitro IC50 for ACE = 0.7 μm), a whey protein hydrolysate containing an augmented fraction of isoleucine-tryptophan, or captopril was given to spontaneously hypertensive rats (n = 60) over 14 weeks. Two further groups, receiving either no supplement (Placebo) or intact whey protein, served as controls. Systolic blood pressure age-dependently increased in the Placebo group, whereas the blood pressure rise was effectively blunted by isoleucine-tryptophan, whey protein hydrolysate and captopril (-42 ± 3, -38 ± 5, -55 ± 4 mm Hg vs. Placebo). At study end, myocardial mass was lower in isoleucine-tryptophan and captopril groups but only partially in the hydrolysate group. Coronary flow reserve (1 μm adenosine) was improved in isoleucine-tryptophan and captopril groups. Plasma ACE activity was significantly decreased in isoleucine-tryptophan, hydrolysate and captopril groups, but in aortic tissue only after isoleucine-tryptophan or captopril treatment. This was associated with lowered expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2. Following isoleucine-tryptophan and captopril treatments, gene expression of renin was significantly increased indicating an active feedback within renin-angiotensin system. Whey protein hydrolysate and isoleucine-tryptophan powerfully inhibit plasma ACE resulting in antihypertensive effects. Moreover, isoleucine-tryptophan blunts tissue ACE activity, reduces matrix metalloproteinase-2 activity and improves coronary flow reserve. Thus, whey protein hydrolysate and particularly isoleucine-tryptophan may serve as innovative food additives with the goal of attenuating

  12. REFRACTORY HYPERTENSION: EVIDENCE OF HEIGHTENED SYMPATHETIC ACTIVITY AS A CAUSE OF ANTIHYPERTENSIVE TREATMENT FAILURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudenbostel, Tanja; Acelajado, Maria C.; Pisoni, Roberto; Li, Peng; Oparil, Suzanne; Calhoun, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Refractory hypertension is an extreme phenotype of treatment failure defined as uncontrolled blood pressure (BP) in spite of ≥5 classes of antihypertensive agents, including chlorthalidone and a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist. A prospective evaluation of possible mechanisms of refractory hypertension has not been done. The goal of this study was to test for evidence of heightened sympathetic tone as indicated by 24-hr urinary (U-) normetanephrine levels, clinic and ambulatory heart rate (HR), HR variability (HRV), arterial stiffness as indexed by pulse wave velocity (PWV), and systemic vascular resistance (SVR) compared to patients with controlled resistant hypertension. Forty-four consecutive patients, 15 with refractory and 29 with controlled resistant hypertension, were evaluated prospectively. Refractory hypertensive patients were younger (48±13.3 vs. 56.5±14.1 years, p=0.038) and more likely female (80.0 vs 51.9 %, p=0.047) compared to patients with controlled resistant hypertension. They also had higher U-normetanephrine levels (464.4±250.2 vs. 309.8±147.6 μg/24h, p=0.03), higher clinic HR (77.8±7.7 vs. 68.8±7.6 bpm, p=0.001) and 24-hr ambulatory HR (77.8±7.7 vs 68.8±7.6, p=0.0018), higher PWV (11.8±2.2 vs. 9.4±1.5 m/s, p=0.009), reduced HRV (4.48 vs. 6.11, p=0.03), and higher SVR (3795±1753 vs. 2382±349 dyne·sec·cm5·m2, p=0.008). These findings are consistent with heightened sympathetic tone being a major contributor to antihypertensive treatment failure and highlight the need for effective sympatholytic therapies in patients with refractory hypertension. PMID:25987662

  13. Phytochemical and in vitro and in vivo biological investigation on the antihypertensive activity of mango leaves (Mangifera indica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronchi, Silas Nascimento; Brasil, Girlandia Alexandre; do Nascimento, Andrews Marques; de Lima, Ewelyne Miranda; Scherer, Rodrigo; Costa, Helber B; Romão, Wanderson; Boëchat, Giovanna Assis Pereira; Lenz, Dominik; Fronza, Marcio; Bissoli, Nazaré Souza; Endringer, Denise Coutinho; de Andrade, Tadeu Uggere

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antihypertensive effect of leaves Mangifera indica L. using in vitro and in vivo assays. The ethanol extract of leaves of M. indica was fractionated to dichloromethanic, n-butyl alcohol and aqueous fractions. The chemical composition of ethanolic extract and dichloromethanic fraction were evaluated by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Antioxidant activity was evaluated in the DPPH scavenging activity assay. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity was investigated using in vitro and in vivo assays. The chronic antihypertensive assay was performed in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and Wistar rats treated with enalapril (10 mg/kg), dichloromethanic fraction (100 mg/kg; twice a day) or vehicle control for 30 days. The baroreflex sensitivity was evaluated through the use of sodium nitroprusside and phenylephrine. Cardiac hypertrophy was evaluated by morphometric analysis. The dichloromethanic fraction exhibited the highest flavonoid, total phenolic content and high antioxidant activity. Dichloromethanic fraction elicited ACE inhibitory activity in vitro (99 ± 8%) similar to captopril. LC-MS/MS analysis revealed the presence of ferulic acid (48.3 ± 0.04 µg/g) caffeic acid (159.8 ± 0.02 µg/g), gallic acid (142.5 ± 0.03 µg/g), apigenin (11.0 ± 0.01 µg/g) and quercetin (203.3 ± 0.05 µg/g). The chronic antihypertensive effects elicited by dichloromethanic fraction were similar to those of enalapril, and the baroreflex sensitivity was normalized in SHR. Plasma ACE activity and cardiac hypertrophy were comparable with animals treated with enalapril. Dichloromethanic fraction of M. indica presented an antihypertensive effect, most likely by ACE inhibition, with benefits in baroreflex sensitivity and cardiac hypertrophy. Altogether, the results of the present study suggest that the dichloromethanic fraction of M. indica leaves may have potential as a promoting

  14. Blood pressure and antihypertensive medication profile in a multiethnic Asian population of stable chronic kidney disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Boon Wee; Chua, Horng Ruey; Wong, Weng Kin; Haroon, Sabrina; Subramanian, Srinivas; Loh, Ping Tyug; Sethi, Sunil; Lau, Titus

    2016-05-01

    Clinical practice guidelines recommend different blood pressure (BP) goals for chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Usage of antihypertensive medication and attainment of BP targets in Asian CKD patients remain unclear. This study describes the profile of antihypertensive agents used and BP components in a multiethnic Asian population with stable CKD. Stable CKD outpatients with variability of serum creatinine levels 3 months apart, were recruited. Mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured using automated manometers, according to practice guidelines. Serum creatinine was assayed and the estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) calculated using the CKD Epidemiology Collaboration equation. BP and antihypertensive medication profile was examined using univariate analyses. 613 patients (55.1% male; 74.7% Chinese, 6.4% Indian, 11.4% Malay; 35.7% diabetes mellitus) with a mean age of 57.8 ± 14.5 years were recruited. Mean SBP was 139 ± 20 mmHg, DBP was 74 ± 11 mmHg, serum creatinine was 166 ± 115 µmol/L and GFR was 53 ± 32 mL/min/1.73 m(2). At a lower GFR, SBP increased (p < 0.001), whereas DBP decreased (p = 0.0052). Mean SBP increased in tandem with the number of antihypertensive agents used (p < 0.001), while mean DBP decreased when ≥ 3 antihypertensive agents were used (p = 0.0020). Different targets are recommended for each BP component in CKD patients. A majority of patients cannot attain SBP targets and/or exceed DBP targets. Research into monitoring and treatment methods is required to better define BP targets in CKD patients. Copyright: © Singapore Medical Association.

  15. Uso de antihipertensivos en Cantabria (1995-2002: el desfase con las evidencias Use of antihypertensive agents in Cantabria, Spain [1995-2002]: discrepancy with the published evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Vara

    2004-10-01

    thousand inhabitants and day (DID. Results: Consumption of antihypertensive agents was 130.2 DID in 1995 and was 235 DID in 2002. The contribution of diuretics to overall consumption fell from 34.3% in 1995 to 25.8% in 2002, and that of beta-blockers fell from 6.5% in 1995 to 5.9% in 2002. The most commonly used group in all years was angiotensin converting-enzyme inhibitors, which represented 36.8% of consumption in 2002. Angiotensin-II antagonists showed the biggest rise, accounting for 13.2% of prescriptions in 2002 and for 26% of expenditure on antihypertensive agents. The pattern of use of the drugs utilized in the major published trials during this period showed no change or even fell, except in the case of enalapril. Conclusions: The present study confirms that the prescription antihypertensive drugs has considerably increased and that the consumption pattern of these drugs has changed. The discrepancy between these findings and those of the major trials could have significant economic implications.

  16. Does the rising placebo response impact antihypertensive clinical trial outcomes? An analysis of data from the Food and Drug Administration 1990-2016.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Khan

    Full Text Available Recent studies show that placebo response has grown significantly over time in clinical trials for antidepressants, ADHD medications, antiepileptics, and antidiabetics. Contrary to expectations, trial outcome measures and success rates have not been impacted. This study aimed to see if this trend of increasing placebo response and stable efficacy outcome measures is unique to the conditions previously studied or if it occurs in trials for conditions with physiologically-measured symptoms, such as hypertension.For this reason, we evaluated the efficacy data reported in the US Food and Drug Administration Medical and Statistical reviews for 23 antihypertensive programs (32,022 patients, 63 trials, 142 treatment arms. Placebo and medication response, effect sizes, and drug-placebo differences were calculated for each treatment arm and examined over time using meta-regression. We also explored the relationship of sample size, trial duration, baseline blood pressure, and number of treatment arms to placebo/drug response and efficacy outcome measures.Like trials of other conditions, placebo response has risen significantly over time (R2 = 0.093, p = 0.018 and effect size (R2 = 0.013, p = 0.187 drug-placebo difference (R2 = 0.013, p = 0.182 and success rate (134/142, 94.4% have remained unaffected, likely due to a significant compensatory increase in antihypertensive response (R2 = 0.086, p<0.001. Treatment arms are likely overpowered with sample sizes increasing over time (R2 = 0.387, p<0.0001 and stable, large effect sizes (0.78 ±0.37. The exploratory analysis of sample size, trial duration, baseline blood pressure, and number of treatment arms yielded mixed results unlikely to explain the pattern of placebo response and efficacy outcomes over time. The magnitude of placebo response had no relationship to effect size (p = 0.877, antihypertensive-placebo differences (p = 0.752, or p-values (p = 0.963 but was correlated with antihypertensive response

  17. High-resolution crystal structures of Drosophila melanogaster angiotensin-converting enzyme in complex with novel inhibitors and antihypertensive drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akif, Mohd; Georgiadis, Dimitris; Mahajan, Aman; Dive, Vincent; Sturrock, Edward D; Isaac, R Elwyn; Acharya, K Ravi

    2010-07-16

    Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE), one of the central components of the renin-angiotensin system, is a key therapeutic target for the treatment of hypertension and cardiovascular disorders. Human somatic ACE (sACE) has two homologous domains (N and C). The N- and C-domain catalytic sites have different activities toward various substrates. Moreover, some of the undesirable side effects of the currently available and widely used ACE inhibitors may arise from their targeting both domains leading to defects in other pathways. In addition, structural studies have shown that although both these domains have much in common at the inhibitor binding site, there are significant differences and these are greater at the peptide binding sites than regions distal to the active site. As a model system, we have used an ACE homologue from Drosophila melanogaster (AnCE, a single domain protein with ACE activity) to study ACE inhibitor binding. In an extensive study, we present high-resolution structures for native AnCE and in complex with six known antihypertensive drugs, a novel C-domain sACE specific inhibitor, lisW-S, and two sACE domain-specific phosphinic peptidyl inhibitors, RXPA380 and RXP407 (i.e., nine structures). These structures show detailed binding features of the inhibitors and highlight subtle changes in the orientation of side chains at different binding pockets in the active site in comparison with the active site of N- and C-domains of sACE. This study provides information about the structure-activity relationships that could be utilized for designing new inhibitors with improved domain selectivity for sACE. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Reduced prevalence of early preterm delivery in women with Type 1 diabetes and microalbuminuria--possible effect of early antihypertensive treatment during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, L R; Kragh-Müller, Claus; Damm, P

    2006-01-01

    In normotensive women with Type 1 diabetes and microalbuminuria we previously found preterm delivery (pregnancies. Antihypertensive treatment was initiated in late pregnancy when preeclampsia was diagnosed and diastolic blood pressure > 90 mmHg. From April 2000 our routine...... was changed and early antihypertensive treatment with methyldopa was initiated if antihypertensive treatment was given prior to pregnancy, if urinary albumin excretion (UAE) was > 2 g/24 h, or blood pressure > 140/90 mmHg. The present study describes the impact of this more aggressive antiypertensive...

  19. Patterns of prescription antihypertensive drug utilization and adherence to treatment guidelines in the city of Novi Sad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomas, Ana; Tomić, Zdenko; Milijasević, Boris; Ban, Milica; Horvat, Olga; Vukmirović, Sasa; Sabo, Ana

    2016-06-01

    Hypertension is one of the leading causes of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and more than a half of all health insurance expenditures for reimbursed medicines are allocated to antihypertensive drugs in Serbia. The aim of this study was to identify the antihypertensive drug utilization patterns among hypertensive outpatients in the city of Novi Sad, Serbia, determine the adherence to clinical guidelines and address the economic aspects of current prescribing practices. This retrospective observational study was conducted in Novi Sad over a period of six months. The data on the number of packages, size their, and retail price of antihypertensives issued on prescription in outpatients with the diagnosis of essential arterial hypertension was collected from all state-owned pharmacies in Novi Sad. Drug consumption was analyzed using the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC)/ defined daily dose (DDD) methodology. Total consumption of antihypertensives issued on prescription over a 6-month period in the city of Novi sad, Serbia was 283.48 DDD per 1,000 inhabitans per day (DID). Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) were most commonly prescribed drugs, and were used 3 times more often than calcium channel blockers and 5 times more than beta-blockers. The consumption of diuretics and angiotensin receptor antagonists was low within all the groups of outpatients. Both national and international guidelines state superiority and effectiveness of diuretics in treatment of hypertension in the elderly, but their consumption was unreasonable low despite the fact that over 70% of all antihypertensive drugs in the city of Novi Sad were dispensed in people aged > 60. The use of more expensive ACEi was observed despite the guidelines deeming all the drugs of this class equally effective in treatment of hypertension. Large differences in utilization of different groups of antihypertensive agents were noted in this study. Underutilization of valuable, efficacious, and

  20. Compliance to antihypertensive drugs, salt restriction, exercise and control of systemic hypertension in hypertensive patients at abbottabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, N.; Waqas, A.; Khaliq, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Hypertension is one of the most important cardiovascular risk factor but its control is still a challenge for physicians all around the world. Control of blood pressure can reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, so the compliance to antihypertensive drugs and life style modification play an important role for the control of hypertension. This analytical (cross-sectional) study was conducted to assess prevalence of control of hypertension among hypertensive patients and to assess the relationship of control of hypertension with factors like compliance to antihypertensive drugs, salt restriction and exercise among the hypertensive patients. This study was conducted at outpatient clinic of medicine at Shahina Jamil Hospital Abbottabad from April 2007 to September 2007. Eighty-nine patients seen in the outpatient clinic of medicine were enrolled in the study. All the patients with age 15 years or above, diagnosed as a case of systemic hypertension were included. Among eighty nine patients, 67 were female and 22 were male with mean age of 55.8+-13.4 years, mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure of 160+-28.6 and 97.8+-14.1 mm Hg respectively, and pulse rate of 85.9+-11.4 per minutes. Out of 89 patients, 25.8% were having controlled hypertension, 48.3% were compliant and 51.7% were not compliant to antihypertensive drugs, 55.1% were having salt restriction and 44.9% were having no salt restriction and 23.6% were used to do physical activity while 76.4% were not used to do physical activity. In group A consisted of patients with controlled hypertension, 95.7% patients were compliant to antihypertensive patients, 95.7% were having salt restriction and 43.5% were used to do physical activity. In group B consisted of patients with uncontrolled hypertension, only 31.8% were compliant to antihypertensive drugs, 40.9% were having salt restriction, 16.7% were used to do physical activity. Hypertension can be controlled if the hypertensive patients have good compliance

  1. Extracts of Morinda oleifera (Moringaceae) show anti-retroviral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    2013-07-24

    Jul 24, 2013 ... medications in middle and low-income countries with high prevalence rate of ... et al., 1994), diuretic (Morton, 1991), antihypertensive. (Gilani et al., 1994), .... cellular toxicity (TC50) of the test extracts was calculated by non-.

  2. Validation of an abbreviated Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication (TSQM-9 among patients on antihypertensive medications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desrosiers Marie-Pierre

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 14-item Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication (TSQM Version 1.4 is a reliable and valid instrument to assess patients' satisfaction with medication, providing scores on four scales – side effects, effectiveness, convenience and global satisfaction. In naturalistic studies, administering the TSQM with the side effects domain could provoke the physician to assess the presence or absence of adverse events in a way that is clinically atypical, carrying the potential to interfere with routine medical care. As a result, an abbreviated 9-item TSQM (TSQM-9, derived from the TSQM Version 1.4 but without the five items of the side effects domain was created. In this study, an interactive voice response system (IVRS-administered TSQM-9 was psychometrically evaluated among patients taking antihypertensive medication. Methods A total of 3,387 subjects were invited to participate in the study from an online panel who self-reported taking a prescribed antihypertensive medication. The subjects were asked to complete the IVRS-administered TSQM-9 at the start of the study, along with the modified Morisky scale, and again within 7 to 14 days. Standard psychometric analyses were conducted; including Cronbach's alpha, intraclass correlation coefficients, structural equation modeling, Spearman correlation coefficients and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA. Results A total of 396 subjects completed all the study procedures. Approximately 50% subjects were male with a good racial/ethnic mix: 58.3% white, 18.9% black, 17.7% Hispanic and 5.1% either Asian or other. There was evidence of construct validity of the TSQM-9 based on the structural equation modeling findings of the observed data fitting the Decisional Balance Model of Treatment Satisfaction even without the side effects domain. TSQM-9 domains had high internal consistency as evident from Cronbach's alpha values of 0.84 and greater. TSQM-9 domains also demonstrated good test

  3. INFLUENCE OF CHRONOTHERAPY WITH DIFFERENT ANTIHYPERTENSIVE DRUGS ON CIRCADIAN BLOOD PRESSURE PATTERN

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    V. M. Gorbunov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To determine the value of different blood pressure (BP measurement methods for arterial hypertension (HT chronotherapy efficacy assessment. Material and methods. Two similar open, randomized, cross-over studies (morning vs evening intake were carried out. Duration of the initial wash-out period was 2 weeks; duration of both treatment courses — 3 weeks; the interval between courses — 1 week. Only patients with stable HT (mean day-time BP>135/85 mm Hg were included. Ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM was carried out prior to treatment and at the end of both treatment courses. The patients performed home BP monitoring (HBPM throughout the study. Pharmacokinetics of verapamil (n=14, mean daily dose — 240.0±16.3 mg was studied to assess compliance with verapamil therapy. In ramipril trial (n=30 its mean daily dose was 8.9±0.7 mg. The following main ABPM variables were analyzed: ABPM means and variability, maximal and minimal values, nocturnal BP fall, parameters of Fourier transformation and smoothness index. The morning and evening BP means and morning BP surge (morning – evening BP were assessed by HBPM. Student’s t-value and Mahalanobis distance were used to evaluate individual value of each variable (“morning” vs “evening” effect. This analysis was first done separately for each trial. After that, combined data were analyzed. Results. Overall antihypertensive effect was more intense with morning ramipril (p<0.05 intake and evening verapamil intake. The t-values ranged 2.2-2.3 for nocturnal BP fall; 2.0-2.1 for night-time BP variability; 3.8-4.3 for morning BP surge. The t-values of office and 24-hour BP were low (0.2-1.7. Conclusion. Morning BP surge based on HBPM is a good instrument for chronotherapy effect assessment. Evening administration of antihypertensive drugs causes nocturnal BP fall shift towards “dipper” status.

  4. Antihypertensive combination therapy in primary care offices: results of a cross-sectional survey in Switzerland

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    Roas S

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Susanne Roas,1 Felix Bernhart,2 Michael Schwarz,3 Walter Kaiser,4 Georg Noll5 1Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital, Zurich, 2Private Practice, Biberist, 3Ambulatorium Wiesendamm, Basel, 4Healthworld (Schweiz AG, Steinhausen, 5HerzKlinik Hirslanden, Zurich, Switzerland Background: Most hypertensive patients need more than one substance to reach their target blood pressure (BP. Several clinical studies indicate the high efficacy of antihypertensive combinations, and recent guidelines recommend them in some situations even as initial therapies. In general practice they seem widespread, but only limited data are available on their effectiveness under the conditions of everyday life. The objectives of this survey among Swiss primary care physicians treating hypertensive patients were: to know the frequency of application of different treatment modalities (monotherapies, free individual combinations, single-pill combinations; to see whether there are relationships between prescribed treatment modalities and patient characteristics, especially age, treatment duration, and comorbidities; and to determine the response rate (percentage of patients reaching target BP of different treatment modalities under the conditions of daily practice. Methods: This cross-sectional, observational survey among 228 randomly chosen Swiss primary care physicians analyzed data for 3,888 consecutive hypertensive patients collected at one single consultation. Results: In this survey, 31.9% of patients received monotherapy, 41.2% two substances, 20.9% three substances, and 4.7% more than three substances. By combination mode, 34.9% took free individual combinations and 30.0% took fixed-dose single-pill combinations. Combinations were more frequently given to older patients with a long history of hypertension and/or comorbidities. In total, 67.8% of patients achieved their BP target according to their physician's judgment. When compared, single

  5. Antihypertensive treatment with β-blockade in patients with asymptomatic aortic stenosis and association with cardiovascular events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Casper N.; Greve, Anders M.; Rossebø, Anne B.

    2017-01-01

    Background--Patients with aortic stenosis (AS) often have concomitant hypertension. Antihypertensive treatment with a β-blocker (Bbl) is frequently avoided because of fear of depression of left ventricular function. However, it remains unclear whether antihypertensive treatment with a Bbl...... is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events in patients with asymptomatic mild to moderate AS. Methods and Results--We did a post hoc analysis of 1873 asymptomatic patients with mild to moderate AS and preserved left ventricular ejection fraction in the SEAS (Simvastatin and Ezetimibe in Aortic...... Stenosis) study. Propensity-matched Cox regression and competing risk analyses were used to assess risk ratios for all-cause mortality, sudden cardiac death, and cardiovascular death. A total of 932 (50%) patients received Bbl at baseline. During a median follow-up of 4.3±0.9 years, 545 underwent aortic...

  6. Vasorelaxing and antihypertensive activities of synthesized peptides derived from computer-aided simulation of pepsin hydrolysis of yam dioscorin

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Yin-Shiou; Lu, Yeh-Lin; Wang, Guei-Jane; Liang, Hong-Jen; Hou, Wen-Chi

    2014-01-01

    Background We reported that yam dioscorin and its peptic hydrolysates exhibited ACE inhibition and antihypertensive effects on SHRs, however, the active peptides are not really isolated until now. Using ACE inhibitory screenings, two penta-peptides, KTCGY and KRIHF, were selected for ex vivo and in vivo experiments. Results KTCGY, KRIHF, and captopril were shown to have similar vasodilating effects against phenylephrine (PE)-induced tensions in rat endothelium-dependent thoracic aortic rings,...

  7. Investigation of the Relationship of Some Antihypertensive Drugs with Oxidant/Antioxidant Parameters and DNA Damage on Rat Uterus Tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa Talip Sener; Hamit Hakan Alp; Beyzagul Polat; Bunyamin Borekci; Yakup Kumtepe; Nesrin Gursan; Serkan Kumbasar; Suleyman Salman; Halis Suleyman

    2011-01-01

    Background In this study, we investigated the effects of treatment with chronic antihypertensive drugs (clonidine, methyldopa, amlodipine, ramipril and rilmenidine) on oxidant-antioxidant parameters and toxic effects on DNA in rat uterus tissue. In addition, uterus tissues were examined histopathologically. Materials and Methods A total of 36 albino Wistar rats were divided into the following six groups: 0.075 mg/kg clonidine group; 100 mg/kg methyldopa group; 2 mg/kg amlodipine group; 2.5 mg...

  8. Utilization Study of Antihypertensives in a South Indian Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital and Adherence to Standard Treatment Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Supratim

    2016-12-01

    Hypertension represents a major health problem primarily because of its role in contributing to the initiation and progression of major cardiovascular diseases. Concerns pertaining to hypertension and its sequelae can be substantially addressed and consequent burden of disease reduced by early detection and appropriate therapy of elevated blood pressure. This cross-sectional observational study aims at analyzing the utilization pattern of antihypertensives used for the treatment of hypertension at a tertiary care hospital in perspective of standard treatment guidelines. Prescriptions were screened for antihypertensives at the medicine outpatient department of a tertiary care teaching hospital. Medical records of the patients were scrutinized after which 286 prescriptions of patients suffering from hypertension were included. The collected data were sorted and analyzed on the basis of demographic characteristics and comorbidities. The calcium channel blockers were the most frequently used antihypertensive class of drugs (72.3%). Amlodipine (55.6%) was the single most frequently prescribed antihypertensive agent. The utilization of thiazide diuretics was 9%. Adherence to the National List of Essential Medicines (NLEMs) was 65%. The combination therapy was used more frequently (51.5%) than monotherapy (48.8%). The use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin 2 receptor blockers (ACE-I/ARB) was 41.4% in diabetes. The treatment pattern, in general, conformed to standard treatment guidelines. Few areas, however, need to be addressed such as the underutilization of thiazide diuretics, need for more awareness of drugs from the NLEMs and enhanced use of ACE-I/ARB in diabetic hypertensives.

  9. Continuing or Temporarily Stopping Prestroke Antihypertensive Medication in Acute Stroke:An Individual Patient Data Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Woodhouse, Lisa J.; Manning, Lisa; Potter, John F.; Berge, Eivind; Sprigg, Nikola; Wardlaw, Joanna; Lees, Kennedy R.; Bath, Philip M.; Robinson, Thompson G.; , Blood Pressure in Acute Stroke Collaboration (BASC)

    2017-01-01

    Over 50% of patients are already taking blood pressure-lowering therapy on hospital admission for acute stroke. An individual patient data meta-analysis from randomized controlled trials was undertaken to determine the effect of continuation versus temporarily stopping pre-existing antihypertensive medication in acute stroke. Key databases were searched for trials against the following inclusion criteria: randomized design; stroke onset ≤48 hours; investigating the effect of continuation vers...

  10. The apolipoprotein E epsilon4-allele and antihypertensive treatment are associated with increased risk of cerebral MRI white matter hyperintensities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgh, P; Garde, Ellen; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2007-01-01

    ) in a community-based sample of elderly subjects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From a cohort of 976 subjects born in 1914, APOE genotype was determined and MRI examinations were carried out in 75 subjects. WMH were rated using a standard semi-quantitative method. ANOVA and regression analyses were conducted to explore...... the relative importance of the potential risk factors. RESULTS: APOE genotype and antihypertensive treatment were significantly associated with severity of total WMH load (P Pharmaceutical treatment for arterial...

  11. The Antihypertensive Effects of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Allium Eriophyllum Leaves on Rats with Simultaneous Type 2 Diabetes and Renal Hypertension

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    Masoud Mozafari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Some species of Allium family are known to have antihypertensive, anti-diabetic, and lipid lowering effects. Objectives: This study aimed to examine the possible mechanisms of antihypertensive, anti-diabetic, and anti-lipid activities of Allium eriophyllum which grows in Fars province, Iran in a rat model of simultaneous type 2 diabetes and renal hypertension. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on six groups of male Spargue-Dawley rats each containing 8 - 10 animals, including a sham-control, a diabetic, a renal hypertensive, and three simultaneously hypertensive–diabetic groups receiving vehicle or 30 or 100 mg/kg/day hydroalcoholic extract of Allium eriophyllum. Four weeks after induction of diabetes, renal hypertension was induced and the animals started receiving the vehicle or extract for the subsequent four weeks. Afterwards, blood pressure, fasting blood sugar, serum cholesterol, triglyceride, and markers of oxidative stress were measured, and isolated studies were performed on aortic rings. Results: Systolic blood pressure, heart rate, fasting blood sugar, maximal response, and effective concentrations 50 (EC50 of phenylephrine and acetylcholine of the hypertensive-diabetic group receiving vehicle were significantly higher compared to those of the sham-control group, and treatment with the extract led to a significant reduction in these variables. Moreover, serum superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase and maximal response of acetylcholine were significantly lower in the hypertensive-diabetic group receiving vehicle in comparison to the sham-control group, and treatment with the extract significantly reduced these variables. Conclusions: The present study findings indicated that antihypertensive, anti-diabetic, and anti-lipid effects of the extract might be partly due to its antioxidant mechanism. It was also revealed that its antihypertensive effects may be additionally mediated by improving the release

  12. In silico analysis of the anti-hypertensive drugs impact on myocardial oxygen balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guala, A; Leone, D; Milan, A; Ridolfi, L

    2017-06-01

    Hypertension is a very common pathology, and its clinical treatment largely relies on different drugs. Some of these drugs exhibit specific protective functions in addition to those resulting from blood pressure reduction. In this work, we study the impact of commonly used anti-hypertensive drugs (RAAS, [Formula: see text] and calcium channel blockers) on myocardial oxygen supply-consumption balance, which plays a crucial role in type 2 myocardial infarction. To this aim, 42 wash-out hypertensive patients were selected, a number of measured data were used to set a validated multi-scale cardiovascular model to subject-specific conditions, and the administration of different drugs was suitably simulated. Our results ascribe the well-known major cardioprotective efficiency of [Formula: see text] blockers compared to other drugs to a positive change of myocardial oxygen balance due to the concomitant: (1) reduction in aortic systolic, diastolic and pulse pressures, (2) decrease in left ventricular work, diastolic cavity pressure and oxygen consumption, (3) increase in coronary flow and (4) ejection efficiency improvement. RAAS blockers share several positive outcomes with [Formula: see text] blockers, although to a reduced extent. In contrast, calcium channel blockers seem to induce some potentially negative effects on the myocardial oxygen balance.

  13. ANTIHYPERTENSIVE EFFICACY OF VERAPAMIL PLUS INDAPAMIDE IN PATIENTS WITH METABOLIC SYNDROME

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    E. M. Idrisova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study effect of combination of verapamil retard (Isoptinum SR with indapamide retard (Arifon retard on blood pressure (BP level as well as lipid profile, glucose and electrolytes serum level in patients with metabolic syndrome (MS.Material and methods. 20 women of 35-65 y.o. with MS were examined. The combination of verapamil retard and indapamide retard were prescribed to patients during 24 weeks. Ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM, lipide profile tests, electrolytes and glucose serum level tests were performed in all patients initially and after treatment.Results. Target systolic BP (SBP was achieved in 90% of patients. Target diastolic BP (DBP was achieved in 75% of patients. Drug combination effectively reduced SBP, DBP and pulse BP levels and improved other BP indices. This drug combination did not affect BP profile as well as glucose and electrolytes serum level, lipid profile.Conclusion. High antihypertensive efficacy and metabolic neutrality of verapamil retard and indapamide retard allows to use this combination in patients with MS.

  14. Interaction of antihypertensive drug amiloride with metal ions in micellar medium using fluorescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gujar, Varsha; Pundge, Vijaykumar; Ottoor, Divya

    2015-01-01

    Steady state and life time fluorescence spectroscopy have been employed to study the interaction of antihypertensive drug amiloride with biologically important metal ions i.e. Cu 2+ , Fe 2+ , Ni 2+ and Zn 2+ in various micellar media (anionic SDS (sodium dodecyl sulfate), nonionic TX-100 (triton X-100) and cationic CTAB (cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide)). It was observed that fluorescence properties of drug remain unaltered in the absence of micellar media with increasing concentration of metal ions. However, addition of Cu 2+ , Fe 2+ and Ni 2+ caused fluorescence quenching of amiloride in the presence of anionic micelle, SDS. Binding of drug with metal ions at the charged micellar interface could be the possible reason for this pH-dependent metal-mediated fluorescence quenching. There were no remarkable changes observed due to metal ions addition when drug was present in cationic and nonionic micellar medium. The binding constant and bimolecular quenching constant were evaluated and compared for the drug–metal complexes using Stern–Volmer equation and fluorescence lifetime values. - Highlights: • Interaction of amiloride with biologically important metal ions, Fe 2+ , Cu 2+ , Ni 2+ and Zn 2+ . • Monitoring the interaction in various micelle at different pH by fluorescence spectroscopy. • Micelles acts as receptor, amiloride as transducer and metal ions as analyte in the present system. • Interaction study provides pH dependent quenching and binding mechanism of drug with metal ions

  15. A risk stratification model for antihypertensive medication non-adherence among Chinese immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Wen Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to establish a risk stratification model for identifying Chinese immigrants at risk for non-adherence to antihypertensive medications. Questionnaires were self-administered to 200 Chinese immigrants in San Francisco, USA. Questionnaires included demographics, culture factors (e.g., Perceived Susceptibility in General, Perceived Benefits of Western Medication, Perceived Benefits of Chinese Herbs, and Health-Related Social Support, and medications adherence. Participants' mean age was 70.6 (±10.3 years. Three stratification factors were identified for non-adherence: Lower Perceived Susceptibility in General, lower Perceived Benefit of Western Medications, and longer Length of Stay in the United States. The probability of non-adherence was 77%, 62%, and 57% for lower perceived susceptibility, longer stay in the United States, and lower perceived benefits of Western medications, respectively. A combination of lower perceived susceptibility and lower perceived benefits of medication predicted 81% non-adherence and lower perceived susceptibility with longer stay in the United States predicted at 84%. All three factors combined predicted nearly 90%. Patients with all three factors had the highest risk for non-adherence. The second priority groups are patients with lower perceived susceptibility and those with lower perceived susceptibility combined with any of the other two factors. In the clinical setting, these three groups are a high priority for education on the importance of medication adherence.

  16. Predictive factor and antihypertensive usage of tyrosine kinase inhibitor-induced hypertension in kidney cancer patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    IZUMI, KOUJI; ITAI, SHINGO; TAKAHASHI, YOSHIKO; MAOLAKE, AERKEN; NAMIKI, MIKIO

    2014-01-01

    Hypertension (HT) is the common adverse event associated with vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (VEGFR-TKI). The present study was performed to identify the predictive factors of TKI-induced HT and to determine the classes of antihypertensive agents (AHTA) that demonstrate optimal efficacy against this type of HT. The charts of 50 cases of patients that had received VEGFR-TKI treatment were retrospectively examined. The association between patient background and TKI-induced HT, and the effect of administering AHTA were analyzed. High systolic blood pressure at baseline was identified to be a predictive factor for HT. In addition, there was no difference observed between calcium channel blockers (CCBs) and angiotensin receptor II blockers (ARBs) as first-line AHTA for the control of HT. The findings of the present study may aid with predicting the onset of TKI-induced HT, as well as for its management via the primary use of either CCBs or ARBs. PMID:24959266

  17. Adherence to antihypertensive treatment and its determinants among urban slum dwellers in Kolkata, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Subhasis; Sarma, P Sankara; Thankappan, Kavumpurathu R

    2015-03-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and predictors of adherence to modern antihypertensive pharmacotherapy among slum dwellers in Kolkata, India. Prevalence of adherence based on patient self-reports of consuming ≥80% of the prescribed medications over a recall period of 1 week was found to be 73% (95% confidence interval = 68%-78%). Compared with their counterparts, the following patients were more likely to be adherent to treatment: patients hypertensive for ≥5 years (2.98 times), those whose hypertension was detected during checkups for conditions related to hypertension (2.35 times), those living with ≤4 family members (2.01 times), those with family income of ≥3000 rupees (2.56 times), those who were getting free drugs (4.16 times), patients perceiving current blood pressure to be under control (2.23 times), and those satisfied with current treatment (3.77). Those adherent to their prescribed medications were 1.71 times more likely to achieve adequate control of hypertension compared with those who were not adherent. © 2011 APJPH.

  18. Home blood pressure monitoring and self-titration of antihypertensive medications: Proposed patient selection criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, James R

    2016-05-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that home blood pressure monitoring (HBPM), coupled with self-titration of medications is a viable intervention to control hypertension. There are currently no established criteria to evaluate patients for inclusion in such a program. The purpose of this discussion is to propose criteria for determining if a patient is appropriate to participate in a program of HBPM and self-titration. Inclusion criteria for two self-titration trials were examined, and additional factors in clinical practice were identified and discussed. Additional selection criteria were proposed to support the decision to enroll a patient in an antihypertensive self-titration program. Inclusion criteria from self-titration trials provide a reasonable starting point for choosing appropriate patients in clinical practice, but additional research is necessary. Adaptation of these criteria and consideration of the identified factors can be used to develop decision support instruments. Such instruments should be evaluated for effectiveness and reliability prior to use in clinical practice. HBPM combined with self-titration is an effective patient-centered approach for hypertension management. Decision support instruments to determine appropriate patients are necessary for safe and effective use in clinical practice. ©2015 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  19. Honey Supplementation in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats Elicits Antihypertensive Effect via Amelioration of Renal Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omotayo O. Erejuwa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis and/or maintenance of elevated blood pressure in hypertension. This study investigated the effect of honey on elevated systolic blood pressure (SBP in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR. It also evaluated the effect of honey on the amelioration of oxidative stress in the kidney of SHR as a possible mechanism of its antihypertensive effect. SHR and Wistar Kyoto (WKY rats were randomly divided into 2 groups and administered distilled water or honey by oral gavage once daily for 12 weeks. The control SHR had significantly higher SBP and renal malondialdehyde (MDA levels than did control WKY. The mRNA expression levels of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 and glutathione S-transferase (GST were significantly downregulated while total antioxidant status (TAS and activities of GST and catalase (CAT were higher in the kidney of control SHR. Honey supplementation significantly reduced SBP and MDA levels in SHR. Honey significantly reduced the activities of GST and CAT while it moderately but insignificantly upregulated the Nrf2 mRNA expression level in the kidney of SHR. These results indicate that Nrf2 expression is impaired in the kidney of SHR. Honey supplementation considerably reduces elevated SBP via amelioration of oxidative stress in the kidney of SHR.

  20. Antihypertensive Drug and Inner Ear Perfusion: An Otologist’s Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Pirodda

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A number of labyrinthine disorders with sensorineural hearing loss, vertigo, and tinnitus are known to occur to young people without vascular risk factors, thus being classified as “idiopathic” in the absence of satisfactory explanations; in the last decade, this phenomenon has found a reliable explanation by the adverse effect of a sharp decrease of blood pressure values followed by an abnormal vasomotor regulation. This model may not only be applied to healthy subjects, but even had some confirmation in conditions possibly affecting hemodynamic changes, such as heart failure or treated hypertension. In particular, the results of a recent study on the impact of different antihypertensive therapies, which was analyzed by monitoring the onset or enhancement of tinnitus as a symptom of inner ear sufferance, unequivocally demonstrated an increased prevalence of tinnitus in subjects submitted to more “aggressive” treatments. This seems in agreement with recent observations about the model of fluid homeostasis of the inner ear, and suggests, when possible, to resort to treatments with modulatory effects in order to maintain a steady perfusion to the labyrinth thus protecting its function.

  1. Critical appraisal of the differential effects of antihypertensive agents on arterial stiffness

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    Francesca Kum

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Francesca Kum, Janaka KarallieddeUnit for Metabolic Medicine, Cardiovascular Division, Kings College-Waterloo Campus, King’s College London, United KingdomAbstract: Increased central arterial stiffness, involving accelerated vascular ageing of the aorta, is a powerful and independent risk factor for early mortality and provides prognostic information above and beyond traditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD. Central arterial stiffness is an important determinant of pulse pressure; therefore, any pathological increase may result in left ventricular hypertrophy and impaired coronary perfusion. Central artery stiffness can be assessed noninvasively by measurement of aortic pulse wave velocity, which is the gold standard for measurement of arterial stiffness. Earlier, it was believed that changes in arterial stiffness, which are primarily influenced by long-term pressure-dependent structural changes, may be slowed but not reversed by pharmacotherapy. Recent studies with drugs that inhibit the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system, advanced glycation end products crosslink breakers, and endothelin antagonists suggest that blood pressure (BP-independent reduction and reversal of arterial stiffness are feasible. We review the recent literature on the differential effect of antihypertensive agents either as monotherapy or combination therapy on arterial stiffness. Arterial stiffness is an emerging therapeutic target for CVD risk reduction; however, further clinical trials are required to confirm whether BP-independent changes in arterial stiffness directly translate to a reduction in CVD events.Keywords: aortic pulse wave velocity, augmentation index, blood pressure, renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system

  2. The target-specific transporter and current status of diuretics as antihypertensive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Syed Salman; Sharma, Pramod Kumar; Garg, Vipin Kumar; Singh, Avnesh Kumar; Mondal, Sambhu Charan

    2012-04-01

    The currently available diuretics increase the urinary excretion of sodium chloride by selective inhibition of specific sodium transporters in the loop of Henle and distal nephron. In recent years, the molecular cloning of the diuretic-sensitive sodium transporters at distal convoluted tubule has improved our understanding of the cellular mechanisms of action of each class of diuretics. Diuretics are tools of considerable therapeutic importance. First, they effectively reduce blood pressure. Loop and thiazide diuretics are secreted from the proximal tubule via the organic anion transporter-1 and exert their diuretic action by binding to the Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) co-transporter type 2 in the thick ascending limb and the Na(+)-Cl(-) co-transporter in the distal convoluted tubule, respectively. Recent studies in animal models suggest that abundance of these ion transporters is affected by long-term diuretic administration. The WHO/ISH guidelines point out that diuretics enhance the efficacy of antihypertensive drugs and will most often be a component of combination therapy. © 2011 The Authors Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology © 2011 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  3. Pharmacological basis for the empirical use of Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae) as antihypertensive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consolini, A E; Baldini, O A; Amat, A G

    1999-07-01

    The rational basis for the use of Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae) as antihypertensive in Northeastern Argentina was assessed in normotensive rats. Intraperitoneal administration of the aqueous crude extract (ACE) decreased blood pressure (BP) of normotensive rats dose-dependently until 47.1 +/- 8.2% of control. The effective-dose 50 was 3.1 +/- 0.4 mg dried leaves/kg (d.l./kg) (yielding of ACE: 17% w/w). To determine the origin of hypotensive activity. Alpha-adrenergic antagonistic and vasorelaxant ACE activities were tested. The dose-response curve for phenylephrine on BP was inhibited non-competitively until 80% of its maximal effect (at 8 mg d.l. ACE/kg). Perfusion pressure (PP) of rat hindquarters (previously vasoconstricted by high-K+) was decreased by ACE in a concentration-dependent manner until -32.3 +/- 11.5% of tonic contraction at 1.2 g d.l. ACE/100 ml. In addition, A.C.E demonstrated diuretic activity at a dose (120 mg d.l./kg) higher than the hypotensive one. It was almost as potent as amiloride, but while amiloride induced loss of Na+ and saving of K+, ACE induced decrease in Na+ excretion. The results suggest that the empirical use of Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae) is mostly due to a hypotensive effect mediated by a direct vasodilating activity, and to a weak diuretic effect that could be related to an increase in renal blood flow.

  4. [Correlation of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 gene polymorphism with antihypertensive effects of benazepril].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qing; Tang, Xun; Yu, Can-qing; Chen, Da-fang; Tian, Jun; Cao, Yang; Fan, Wen-yi; Cao, Wei-hua; Zhan, Si-yan; Lv, Jun; Guo, Xiao-xia; Li, Li-ming; Hu, Yong-hua

    2010-06-18

    To explore the correlation of rs2106809 from angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 gene with antihypertensive effects of benazepril, as well as its interactions with polymorphisms of angiotensinogen(AGT) and angiotensin II type 1 receptor(AGTR1) gene. Correlation between rs2106809 and blood pressure reduction was estimated based on a field trail with 1 831 hypertensive patients using benazepril for 2 weeks. Generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction (GMDR) was used to explore the interactions of rs2106809 and 8 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of AGTR1 gene and 3 SNPs of AGT gene. rs2106809 was found to be associated with reduction in systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure in women, as well as pulse pressure reduction in men. T allele carriers presented more blood pressure reduction (1.4, 1.3 and 0.9 mmHg/T allele respectively). Gene-gene interactions involving rs2106809 were found in systolic blood pressure reduction of men, and the response to benazepril of non-sensitive genotypes carriers was 8.2 (95% confidence interval: 6.6-9.7) mmHg, lower than that of sensitive genotypes carriers. rs2106809 might act as an independent influencing factor or component of gene-gene interaction in blood pressure reducing effects of benazepril.

  5. Nephrogenic factors of resistance to antihypertensive treatment in patients with essential hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Teplova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the prevalence of renal and renovascular disorders in the development and progression of primary arterial hypertension (HT resistant to combination antihypertensive therapy (AHT in cardiac and therapeutic patients of general hospital.Material and methods. 286 patients with essential HT stages 1-3, including 105 patients with stages 2-3 with the signs of treatment resistance were included into the study. All patients were treated with personalized AHT in accordance with current guidelines for the management of HT. Laboratory and instrumental assessment of a functional status of kidneys was performed.Results. A group of patients with resistant HT made 36.7% of the total number of examined patients. The most significant distinction in patients with resistant HT was a high incidence of changes in renal vessels and infrarenal aorta. Deformation of the abdominal aorta (9.7%, renal arteries tortuosity (7.3%, vasourethral conflict (4.8% were detected in this group significantly more often.Conclusion. Congenital and acquired lesions of renal arteries are detected several times more often in patients with resistant essential HT.

  6. Nephrogenic factors of resistance to antihypertensive treatment in patients with essential hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Teplova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the prevalence of renal and renovascular disorders in the development and progression of primary arterial hypertension (HT resistant to combination antihypertensive therapy (AHT in cardiac and therapeutic patients of general hospital.Material and methods. 286 patients with essential HT stages 1-3, including 105 patients with stages 2-3 with the signs of treatment resistance were included into the study. All patients were treated with personalized AHT in accordance with current guidelines for the management of HT. Laboratory and instrumental assessment of a functional status of kidneys was performed.Results. A group of patients with resistant HT made 36.7% of the total number of examined patients. The most significant distinction in patients with resistant HT was a high incidence of changes in renal vessels and infrarenal aorta. Deformation of the abdominal aorta (9.7%, renal arteries tortuosity (7.3%, vasourethral conflict (4.8% were detected in this group significantly more often.Conclusion. Congenital and acquired lesions of renal arteries are detected several times more often in patients with resistant essential HT.

  7. Electronic monitoring of patient adherence to oral antihypertensive medical treatment: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Arne; Osterberg, Lars G; Hansen, Ebba Holme

    2009-08-01

    Poor patient adherence is often the reason for suboptimal blood pressure control. Electronic monitoring is one method of assessing adherence. The aim was to systematically review the literature on electronic monitoring of patient adherence to self-administered oral antihypertensive medications. We searched the Pubmed, Embase, Cinahl and Psychinfo databases and websites of suppliers of electronic monitoring devices. The quality of the studies was assessed according to the quality criteria proposed by Haynes et al. Sixty-two articles were included; three met the criteria proposed by Haynes et al. and nine reported the use of electronic adherence monitoring for feedback interventions. Adherence rates were generally high, whereas average study quality was low with a recent tendency towards improved quality. One study detected investigator fraud based on electronic monitoring data. Use of electronic monitoring of patient adherence according to the quality criteria proposed by Haynes et al. has been rather limited during the past two decades. Electronic monitoring has mainly been used as a measurement tool, but it seems to have the potential to significantly improve blood pressure control as well and should be used more widely.

  8. Availability, cost, and prescription patterns of antihypertensive medications in primary health care in China: a nationwide cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Meng; Zhang, Qiuli; Bai, Xueke; Wu, Chaoqun; Li, Yetong; Mossialos, Elias; Mensah, George A; Masoudi, Frederick A; Lu, Jiapeng; Li, Xi; Salas-Vega, Sebastian; Zhang, Anwen; Lu, Yuan; Nasir, Khurram; Krumholz, Harlan M; Jiang, Lixin

    2017-12-09

    Around 200 million adults in China have hypertension, but few are treated or achieve adequate control of their blood pressure. Available and affordable medications are important for successfully controlling hypertension, but little is known about current patterns of access to, and use of, antihypertensive medications in Chinese primary health care. We used data from a nationwide cross-sectional survey (the China Patient-Centered Evaluative Assessment of Cardiac Events Million Persons Project primary health care survey), which was undertaken between November, 2016 and May, 2017, to assess the availability, cost, and prescription patterns of 62 antihypertensive medications at primary health-care sites across 31 Chinese provinces. We surveyed 203 community health centres, 401 community health stations, 284 township health centres, and 2474 village clinics to assess variation in availability, cost, and prescription by economic region and type of site. We also assessed the use of high-value medications, defined as guideline-recommended and low-cost. We also examined the association of medication cost with availability and prescription patterns. Our study sample included 3362 primary health-care sites and around 1 million people (613 638 people at 2758 rural sites and 478 393 people at 604 urban sites). Of the 3362 sites, 8·1% (95% CI 7·2-9·1) stocked no antihypertensive medications and 33·8% (32·2-35·4) stocked all four classes that were routinely used. Village clinics and sites in the western region of China had the lowest availability. Only 32·7% (32·2-33·3) of all sites stocked high-value medications, and few high-value medications were prescribed (11·2% [10·9-11·6] of all prescription records). High-cost medications were more likely to be prescribed than low-cost alternatives. China has marked deficiencies in the availability, cost, and prescription of antihypertensive medications. High-value medications are not preferentially used. Future efforts to

  9. Adherence to Antihypertensive Treatment and the Blood Pressure-Lowering Effects of Renal Denervation in the Renal Denervation for Hypertension (DENERHTN) Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Michel; Pereira, Helena; Hamdidouche, Idir; Gosse, Philippe; Monge, Matthieu; Bobrie, Guillaume; Delsart, Pascal; Mounier-Véhier, Claire; Courand, Pierre-Yves; Lantelme, Pierre; Denolle, Thierry; Dourmap-Collas, Caroline; Girerd, Xavier; Michel Halimi, Jean; Zannad, Faiez; Ormezzano, Olivier; Vaïsse, Bernard; Herpin, Daniel; Ribstein, Jean; Chamontin, Bernard; Mourad, Jean-Jacques; Ferrari, Emile; Plouin, Pierre-François; Jullien, Vincent; Sapoval, Marc; Chatellier, Gilles

    2016-09-20

    The DENERHTN trial (Renal Denervation for Hypertension) confirmed the blood pressure-lowering efficacy of renal denervation added to a standardized stepped-care antihypertensive treatment for resistant hypertension at 6 months. We report the influence of adherence to antihypertensive treatment on blood pressure control. One hundred six patients with hypertension resistant to 4 weeks of treatment with indapamide 1.5 mg/d, ramipril 10 mg/d (or irbesartan 300 mg/d), and amlodipine 10 mg/d were randomly assigned to renal denervation plus standardized stepped-care antihypertensive treatment, or the same antihypertensive treatment alone. For standardized stepped-care antihypertensive treatment, spironolactone 25 mg/d, bisoprolol 10 mg/d, prazosin 5 mg/d, and rilmenidine 1 mg/d were sequentially added at monthly visits if home blood pressure was ≥135/85 mm Hg after randomization. We assessed adherence to antihypertensive treatment at 6 months by drug screening in urine/plasma samples from 85 patients. The numbers of fully adherent (20/40 versus 21/45), partially nonadherent (13/40 versus 20/45), or completely nonadherent patients (7/40 versus 4/45) to antihypertensive treatment were not different in the renal denervation and the control groups, respectively (P=0.3605). The difference in the change in daytime ambulatory systolic blood pressure from baseline to 6 months between the 2 groups was -6.7 mm Hg (P=0.0461) in fully adherent and -7.8 mm Hg (P=0.0996) in nonadherent (partially nonadherent plus completely nonadherent) patients. The between-patient variability of daytime ambulatory systolic blood pressure was greater for nonadherent than for fully adherent patients. In the DENERHTN trial, the prevalence of nonadherence to antihypertensive drugs at 6 months was high (≈50%) but not different in the renal denervation and control groups. Regardless of adherence to treatment, renal denervation plus standardized stepped-care antihypertensive treatment resulted in

  10. Consumption of antihypertensive drugs dispensed under the pharmacy benefit management program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Pereira Rocha

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacy benefit management (PBM programs provide attractive discounts for drug purchase, a relevant measure to address costs, mainly of drugs for the treatment of chronic diseases. This study investigated whether PBM may be used as a tool to provide information about the use of antihypertensive medications when they are purchased. The profile of medicines taken to treat high blood pressure by large IT company employees and their dependents was evaluated from January to December 2009. The mean rate of drug boxes purchased to control hypertension was 9.4 ± 10.0 in 2009. Men purchased more drugs than women. The number of drugs purchased for the treatment of hypertension was lower than expected in all age groups except for individuals aged 54-58 and >59 years. Among men, the purchase of drugs to treat hypertension was higher than expected in the 24-28, 34-38 and 54-58 age groups. Among women, results matched expectations, except for the age group 34-38 years, in which purchase was lower than expected. Individuals in the age group 0-18 years were found to consume antihypertensive drugs. Although the PBM system may be used to identify drugs purchased by users, it does not ensure patient adherence to recommended drug treatment to control hypertension.O objetivo do Programa de Benefícios em Medicamentos (PBM é proporcionar descontos atraentes para aquisição de medicamentos, um fator relevante para o custo, principalmente no tratamento de doenças crônicas. O objetivo deste estudo é comprovar se o PBM pode ser utilizado como ferramenta para o fornecimento de informações sobre o consumo de medicamentos antihipertensivos através da aquisição dos mesmos. Foi realizada análise do perfil de medicamentos adquiridos para o tratamento de hipertensão arterial sistêmica por funcionários e seus dependentes de uma empresa de grande porte na área de tecnologia de informação (TI no período compreendido entre janeiro a dezembro de 2009. A taxa de

  11. Antihypertension and anti-cardiovascular remodeling by phenylalanine in spontaneously hypertensive rats: effectiveness and mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, G; Li, Z; Gu, T

    2001-03-01

    To investigate mechanisms of anti-hypertension and anti-cardiovascular remodeling by phenylalanine (phe) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). The comparison of blood pressure (BP) increment with the ages and cardiovascular changes of SHRs was made between the 3% phe-intervented group (SHR-phe) and the control SHRs group. Detection of the structural changes with the VIDAS digital vedio-frequency processing technique and light and electron microscopy were made. The cell growth and proliferation of cultured smooth muscle cells (CSMCs) of the thoracic aortas or myocardial fibroblasts were evaluated by measuring the 3H-thymidine counts per minute (cpm) incorporated into the new synthesized desoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and determining the cell number with the crystal violet stain technique. The Ca2+ influx was measured in counts/min of 45CaCl2 after incubating it with 5 different concentrations of phenylalanine and the intracellular [Ca2+]i by Fura-II/Am indicator. The total messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) of the myocardium was extracted and Northern blot analysis was performed with the probe collagen alpha 2 (I) cDNA. The tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) activity was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with electrochemical detector after having reacted with its substrate tyrosine and other reagents. The catecholamine contents in brain homogenat were detected by HPLC method. The comparison of pharmacokinetics of phenylalanine among SHR-phe, SHRs and control Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats was made after intravenous injection of 3H-L-phe (1 ml/kg) by PK-GRAPH Program for kinetic calculation. The 3H-L-phe uptake by CSMCs after incubating for definite intervals was also detected and compared. Phenylalanine could prevent the increase of BP with ages and the heart weight (heart/body weight index). The aortic media thickness and the collagen content in the myocardium were decreased significantly in SHR-phe. Whereas the dearranged cardiovascular structure was

  12. Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring for the Effective Management of Antihypertensive Drug Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Eoin; Dolan, Eamon

    2016-10-01

    This purpose of this article is to review the current recommendations for ambulatory blood pressure measurement (ABPM) and the use of ABPM in assessing treatment. We review current international guidelines and undertake a critical review of evidence supporting the clinical use of ABPM in effectively managing antihypertensive drug treatment. Current guidelines emphasize the diagnostic superiority of ABPM, mainly from the ability of the technique to identify sustained hypertension by allowing for the exclusion of white-coat hypertension and by demonstrating the presence of masked hypertension. ABPM also offers diagnostic insights into nocturnal patterns of blood pressure, such as dipping and nondipping, reverse dipping, and excessive dipping, and the presence of nocturnal hypertension; although less attention is given to the nocturnal behavior of blood pressure in clinical practice, the nocturnal patterns of blood pressure have particular relevance in assessing the response to blood pressure-lowering medication. Surprisingly, although the current guidelines give detailed recommendations on the diagnostic potential and use of ABPM, there are scant recommendations on the benefits and application of the technique for the initiation of blood pressure-lowering therapy in clinical practice and virtually no recommendations on how it might be used to assess the efficacy of drug treatment. In view of a deficiency in the literature on the role of ABPM in assess the efficacy of drug treatment, we put forward proposals to correct this deficiency and guide the prescribing physician on the most appropriate drug administration and dosage over time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The antihypertensive effect of orally administered nifedipine-loaded nanoparticles in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y I; Fluckiger, L; Hoffman, M; Lartaud-Idjouadiene, I; Atkinson, J; Maincent, P

    1997-02-01

    1. The therapeutic use of nifedipine is limited by the rapidity of the onset of its action and its short biological half-life. In order to produce a form devoid of these disadvantages we made nanoparticles of nifedipine from three different polymers, poly-epsilon-caprolactone (PCL), polylactic and glycolic acid (1:1) copolymers (PLAGA), and Eudragit RL/RS (Eudragit). Nifedipine in polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG) solution was used as a control. 2. The average diameters of the nanoparticles ranged from 0.12 to 0.21 micron; the encapsulation ratio was 82% to 88%. 3. In spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), the initial rapid fall in systolic arterial blood pressure following oral administration of nifedipine in PEG solution (from 193 +/- 3 to 102 +/- 2 mmHg) was not seen following administration of the same dose in Eudragit nanoparticles (from 189 +/- 2 to 156 +/- 2 mmHg); with PCL and PLAGA nanoparticles the initial fall in blood pressure was significantly reduced (nadirs PCL 124 +/- 2 and PLAGA 113 +/- 2 mmHg). Ten hours following administration, blood pressure in rats administered the nifedipine/PEG preparation had returned to normal (183 +/- 3 mmHg) whereas that of animals given nifedipine in nanoparticles (PCL 170 +/- 3, PLAGA 168 +/- 2, Eudragit 160 +/- 3 mmHg) was still significantly reduced. 4. All of the nanoparticle dosage forms decreased Cmax and increased Tmax and the mean residence time (MRT) values. Relative bioavailability was significantly increased with Eudragit nanoparticles compared to the nifedipine/PEG solution. 5. There was an inverse linear correlation between the fall in blood pressure and plasma nifedipine concentration with all preparations. 6. The nanoparticle nifedipine preparations represent sustained release forms with increased bioavailability, a less pronounced initial antihypertensive effect and a long-lasting action.

  14. Interaction of antihypertensive drug amiloride with metal ions in micellar medium using fluorescence spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gujar, Varsha; Pundge, Vijaykumar; Ottoor, Divya, E-mail: divya@chem.unipune.ac.in

    2015-05-15

    Steady state and life time fluorescence spectroscopy have been employed to study the interaction of antihypertensive drug amiloride with biologically important metal ions i.e. Cu{sup 2+}, Fe{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+} and Zn{sup 2+} in various micellar media (anionic SDS (sodium dodecyl sulfate), nonionic TX-100 (triton X-100) and cationic CTAB (cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide)). It was observed that fluorescence properties of drug remain unaltered in the absence of micellar media with increasing concentration of metal ions. However, addition of Cu{sup 2+}, Fe{sup 2+} and Ni{sup 2+} caused fluorescence quenching of amiloride in the presence of anionic micelle, SDS. Binding of drug with metal ions at the charged micellar interface could be the possible reason for this pH-dependent metal-mediated fluorescence quenching. There were no remarkable changes observed due to metal ions addition when drug was present in cationic and nonionic micellar medium. The binding constant and bimolecular quenching constant were evaluated and compared for the drug–metal complexes using Stern–Volmer equation and fluorescence lifetime values. - Highlights: • Interaction of amiloride with biologically important metal ions, Fe{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+} and Zn{sup 2+}. • Monitoring the interaction in various micelle at different pH by fluorescence spectroscopy. • Micelles acts as receptor, amiloride as transducer and metal ions as analyte in the present system. • Interaction study provides pH dependent quenching and binding mechanism of drug with metal ions.

  15. Rifampicin and anti-hypertensive drugs in chronic kidney disease: Pharmacokinetic interactions and their clinical impact

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    A Agrawal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients on dialysis have an increased incidence of tuberculosis (TB. Rifampicin, a first-line antitubercular therapy (ATT drug, is a potent inducer of hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP. There is potential for pharmacokinetic interaction between rifampicin and anti-hypertensives that are CYP substrates: amlodipine and metoprolol. Therefore, hypertensive patients receiving rifampicin-based ATT are at risk for worsening of hypertension. However, this hypothesis has not yet been systematically studied. In this prospective study, hypertensive CKD 5D patients with TB were followed after rifampicin initiation. Blood pressure (BP was ≤140/90 mmHg with stable anti-HT requirement at inclusion. Serum amlodipine, metoprolol, and prazosin levels were estimated by high-performance liquid chromatography at baseline and 3, 7, 10, and 14 days after rifampicin initiation. BP and anti-HT requirement were monitored for 2 weeks or until stabilization. All 24 patients in the study had worsening of hypertension after rifampicin and 83.3% required increase in drugs to maintain BP 50% in all patients and became undetectable in 50-75%. Drug requirement increased from 4.5 ± 3.6 to 8.5 ± 6.4 units (P < 0.0001. Mean time to first increase in dose was 6.5 ± 3.6 days. Eleven (46% patients experienced a hypertensive crisis at 9.1 ± 3.8 days. Three of them had a hypertensive emergency with acute pulmonary edema. In two patients, rifampicin had to be discontinued to achieve BP control. In conclusion, rifampicin caused a significant decrease in blood levels of commonly used anti hypertensives. This decrease in levels correlated well with worsening of hypertension. Thus, we suggest very close BP monitoring in CKD patients after rifampicin initiation.

  16. Diuretics, first-line antihypertensive agents: are they always safe in the elderly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaconu, Camelia C; Balaceanu, Alice; Bartos, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    Diuretics are frequently recommended as antihypertensive agents. Some of the main side effects of diuretic therapy are hypokalaemia and hyponatremia. The objective of the study was to describe the frequency of hyponatremia in a group of elderly hypertensive patients treated with diuretics. The study included 202 elderly hypertensive patients (over 65 years old), treated with diuretics at least 4 weeks before hospitalization, consecutivly admitted in the Internal Medicine Clinic of the Clinical Emergency Hospital of Bucharest during a period of 4 months. The distribution by sex: 103 (52.28%) men and 94 (47.71%) women. The mean age of the patients was 72 ± 8 years. Incidence of hyponatremia was 24.87% (49 patients) in the whole group. From the 49 hyponatremic patients, 31 (63.26%) were women and 18 (36.73%) men. The distribution by age of hypertensive hyponatremic female patients was: between 65-70 years old--4 patients (12.90%), between 70-75 years old--7 patients (22.58%), over 75 years old--20 patients (64.51%). The distribution by age of hypertensive hyponatremic male patients was: between 65-70 years old--3 patients (16.66%), between 70-75 years old--2 patients(11.11%), over 75 years old--13 patients (72.22%). Most of the patients affected (73.46%) used a thiazide-type diuretic, the other 26.54% being on loop diuretics. Elderly hypertensive patients were more likely to develop hyponatremia after age 75. Female patients had a higher frequency of hyponatremia than male patients. The main cause of hyponatremia in patients treated with diuretics was thiazide.

  17. Antihypertensive drug use in resistant and nonresistant hypertension and in controlled and uncontrolled resistant hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Sierra, Alejandro; Armario, Pedro; Oliveras, Anna; Banegas, José R; Gorostidi, Manuel; Vinyoles, Ernest; de la Cruz, Juan J; Segura, Julián; Ruilope, Luis M

    2018-07-01

    Treatment-resistant hypertension (TRH) is associated with particular clinical features, nonadherence, and suboptimal treatment. We assessed possible associations of antihypertensive drug classes, specific agents inside each class, and types of combinations, with the presence of non-TRH vs. TRH, and with controlled vs. uncontrolled TRH. Comparisons were done in 14 264 patients treated with three drugs (non-TRH: 2988; TRH: 11 276) and in 6974 treated with at least four drugs (controlled TRH: 1383; uncontrolled TRH: 5591). Associations were adjusted for age, sex, and previous cardiovascular event. In both groups of patients treated with three or with at least four drugs, aldosterone antagonists among drug classes [adjusted odds ratio (OR): 1.82 and 1.41, respectively], and ramipril (OR: 1.28 and 1.30), olmesartan (OR: 1.31 and 1.37), and amlodipine (OR: 1.11 and 1.41) inside each class were significantly associated with blood pressure control (non-TRH or controlled TRH). In patients treated with three drugs, non-TRH was also associated with the use of chlorthalidone (OR: 1.50) and bisoprolol (OR: 1.19), whereas in patients treated with at least four drugs, controlled TRH was significantly associated with the triple combination of a renin-angiotensin system blocker, a calcium channel blocker, and a diuretic (OR: 1.17). The use of aldosterone antagonists is associated with blood pressure control in patients treated with three or more drugs. Similar results are observed with specific agents inside each class, being ramipril, olmesartan, chlorthalidone, amlodipine, and bisoprolol those exhibiting significant results. An increased use of these drugs might probably reduce the burden of TRH.

  18. Cost-effectiveness of Antihypertensive Medication: Exploring Race and Sex Differences Using Data From the REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajeu, Gabriel S; Mennemeyer, Stephen; Menachemi, Nir; Weech-Maldonado, Robert; Kilgore, Meredith

    2017-06-01

    Antihypertensive medication decreases risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events in adults with hypertension. Although black adults have higher prevalence of hypertension and worse CVD outcomes compared with whites, limited attention has been given to the cost-effectiveness of antihypertensive medication for blacks. To compare the cost-effectiveness of antihypertensive medication treatment versus no-treatment in white and black adults. We constructed a State Transition Model to assess the costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) associated with either antihypertensive medication treatment or no-treatment using data from the REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study and published literature. CVD events and health states considered in the model included stroke, coronary heart disease, heart failure, chronic kidney disease, and end-stage renal disease. White and black adults with hypertension in the United States, 45 years of age and above. Yearly risk of CVD was determined using REGARDS data and published literature. Antihypertensive medication costs were determined using Medicare claims. Event and health state costs were estimated from published literature. All costs were adjusted to 2012 US dollars. Effectiveness was assessed using QALYs. Antihypertensive medication treatment was cost-saving and increased QALYs compared with no-treatment for white men ($7387; 1.14 QALYs), white women ($7796; 0.89 QALYs), black men ($8400; 1.66 QALYs), and black women ($10,249; 1.79 QALYs). Antihypertensive medication treatment is cost-saving and increases QALYs for all groups considered in the model, particularly among black adults.

  19. Free Radicals Scavenging Capacity, Antidiabetic and Antihypertensive Activities of Flavonoid-Rich Fractions from Leaves of Trichilia emetica and Opilia amentacea in an Animal Model of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiessoun Konaté

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichilia emetica and Opilia amentacea traditional Burkinabe medicinal plants were investigated to determine their therapeutic potential to inhibit key enzymes in carbohydrate metabolism, which has relevance to the management of type 2 diabetes. In vitro and in vivo antioxidant and antihypertensive potential and antilipidemia and antihyperglycemia activities in an animal model of type 2 diabetes mellitus have been studied. The antioxidant activity of the flavonoids from leaves of Trichilia emetica and Opilia amentacea has been evaluated using β-carotene-linoleic acid system, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl inhibitory activity, chelation of iron (II ions, and lipid peroxidation which showed more pronounced antioxidant capacities of Trichilia emetica. Total cholesterol concentrations decreased in an animal model of type 2 diabetes mellitus under effects of flavonoid-rich fractions from leaves of Trichilia emetica and Opilia amentacea has been observed. Extract of flavonoid-rich fractions from Trichilia emetica shown maximum radical scavenging activity and possessed marked antiamylase activity which may be due to the presence of certain secondary metabolites. Suggested better antihyperglycemia, antilipidemia, and antihypertensive properties of flavonoid-rich fractions from Trichilia emetica compared to the extract of Opilia amentacea are demonstrating antidiabetic potential of Trichilia emetica as therapeutic targets for the management of type 2 diabetes.

  20. Antihypertensive medication adherence in chronic type B aortic dissection is an important consideration in the management debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Guy; Patel, Nandesh; Grant, Yasmin; Jenkins, Michael; Gibbs, Richard; Bicknell, Colin

    2018-03-31

    Early aortic stenting in chronic type B aortic dissection (TBAD) may lead to long-term benefit, although the optimal treatment strategy is hotly debated. A robust comparison to outcomes seen in medically managed patients is challenging as the rate of antihypertensive medication adherence is unknown. The aims of this study were therefore to identify the rate of antihypertensive medication adherence and predictors of adherence in TBAD. This was a cross-sectional mixed methods study of patients with TBAD. Medication adherence was assessed by the eight-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale together with an assessment of demographic, behavioral, and psychological variables and disease-specific knowledge. There were 47 patients (mean age, 59 years; 81% male) who were recruited from a tertiary vascular unit. The mean total number of medications taken was 5.8 (2-14), and the mean number of antihypertensive medications was 1.9 (1-6). Of the 47 patients, 20 (43%) reported high levels of medication adherence, 17 (36%) reported moderate adherence, and 10 (21%) reported low adherence. Previous aortic surgery was associated with higher levels of adherence (β = 0.332; P = .03), as was taking a greater number of medications (β = 0.332; P = .026), perceived benefit from treatment (β = 0.486; P debate; one cannot robustly compare two strategies when half of a treatment group may not be receiving the stated intervention. To develop an evidence-based treatment strategy for TBAD, we must take into account the direct and indirect effects of medical therapy and thoracic endovascular aortic repair. Further work to improve medication adherence and to understand its impact on disease progression is vital to inform the debate and to deliver the best outcomes for patients. Copyright © 2018 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Anti-hypertensive drugs and skin cancer risk: a review of the literature and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandini, Sara; Palli, Domenico; Spadola, Giuseppe; Bendinelli, Benedetta; Cocorocchio, Emilia; Stanganelli, Ignazio; Miligi, Lucia; Masala, Giovanna; Caini, Saverio

    2018-02-01

    Several anti-hypertensive drugs have photosensitizing properties, however it remains unclear whether long-term users of these drugs are also at increased risk of skin malignancies. We conducted a literature review and meta-analysis on the association between use of anti-hypertensive drugs and the risk of cutaneous melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Google Scholar and the Cochrane Library, and included observational and experimental epidemiological studies published until February 28th, 2017. We calculated summary relative risk (SRR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) through random effect models to estimate the risk of skin malignancies among users of the following classes of anti-hypertensive drugs: thiazide diuretics, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi), angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB), calcium channel blockers (CCB) and β-blockers. We conducted sub-group and sensitivity analysis to explore causes of between-studies heterogeneity, and assessed publication bias using a funnel-plot based approach. Nineteen independent studies were included in the meta-analysis. CCB users were at increased skin cancer risk (SRR 1.14, 95% CI 1.07-1.21), and β-blockers users were at increased risk of developing cutaneous melanoma (SRR 1.21, 95% CI 1.05-1.40), with acceptable between-studies heterogeneity (I 2  skin cancer risk. We found no evidence of publication bias affecting the results. Family doctors and clinicians should inform their patients about the increased risk of skin cancer associated with the use of CCB and β-blockers and instruct them to perform periodic skin self-examination. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the observed associations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Drug-Gene Interactions of Antihypertensive Medications and Risk of Incident Cardiovascular Disease: A Pharmacogenomics Study from the CHARGE Consortium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua C Bis

    Full Text Available Hypertension is a major risk factor for a spectrum of cardiovascular diseases (CVD, including myocardial infarction, sudden death, and stroke. In the US, over 65 million people have high blood pressure and a large proportion of these individuals are prescribed antihypertensive medications. Although large long-term clinical trials conducted in the last several decades have identified a number of effective antihypertensive treatments that reduce the risk of future clinical complications, responses to therapy and protection from cardiovascular events vary among individuals.Using a genome-wide association study among 21,267 participants with pharmaceutically treated hypertension, we explored the hypothesis that genetic variants might influence or modify the effectiveness of common antihypertensive therapies on the risk of major cardiovascular outcomes. The classes of drug treatments included angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, and diuretics. In the setting of the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE consortium, each study performed array-based genome-wide genotyping, imputed to HapMap Phase II reference panels, and used additive genetic models in proportional hazards or logistic regression models to evaluate drug-gene interactions for each of four therapeutic drug classes. We used meta-analysis to combine study-specific interaction estimates for approximately 2 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in a discovery analysis among 15,375 European Ancestry participants (3,527 CVD cases with targeted follow-up in a case-only study of 1,751 European Ancestry GenHAT participants as well as among 4,141 African-Americans (1,267 CVD cases.Although drug-SNP interactions were biologically plausible, exposures and outcomes were well measured, and power was sufficient to detect modest interactions, we did not identify any statistically significant interactions from the four

  3. Impact of Empagliflozin on Blood Pressure in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Hypertension by Background Antihypertensive Medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancia, Giuseppe; Cannon, Christopher P; Tikkanen, Ilkka; Zeller, Cordula; Ley, Ludwin; Woerle, Hans J; Broedl, Uli C; Johansen, Odd Erik

    2016-12-01

    In the EMPA-REG BP trial, empagliflozin 10 mg and 25 mg once daily reduced glycohemoglobin, blood pressure (BP), and weight versus placebo in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Patients received placebo (n=271), empagliflozin 10 mg (n=276), or empagliflozin 25 mg (n=276) for 12 weeks (n=full analysis set). This present analysis investigated changes from baseline to week 12 in mean 24-hour systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) in patients receiving 0, 1, or ≥2 antihypertensive medications and patients receiving/not receiving diuretics or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers. Compared with placebo, empagliflozin 10 mg and 25 mg reduced mean 24-hour SBP/DBP in patients receiving 0 (10 mg: -3.89/-2.58 mm Hg; 25 mg: -3.77/-2.45 mm Hg), 1 (10 mg: -4.74/-1.97 mm Hg; 25 mg: -4.27/-1.81 mm Hg), or ≥2 (10 mg: -2.36/-0.68 mm Hg; 25 mg: -4.17/-1.54 mm Hg) antihypertensives. The effect of empagliflozin was not significantly different between subgroups by number of antihypertensives for changes in SBP (interaction P value 0.448) or DBP (interaction P value 0.498). Empagliflozin reduced 24-hour mean SBP/DBP irrespective of diuretic or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker use, with no significant difference between subgroups by use/no use of diuretics (interaction P values 0.380 [systolic]; 0.240 [diastolic]) or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers (interaction P values 0.900 [systolic]; 0.359 [diastolic]). In conclusion, in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension, empagliflozin for 12 weeks reduced SBP and DBP versus placebo, irrespective of the number of antihypertensives and use of diuretics or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers. URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01370005. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Characteristics Associated With Antihypertensive Treatment and Blood Pressure Control: A Population-Based Follow-Up Study in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala-Loayza, J Alfredo; Benziger, Catherine Pastorius; Cárdenas, María Kathia; Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Gilman, Robert H; Checkley, William; Miranda, J Jaime

    2016-03-01

    Over one-quarter of the world's adult population has hypertension, yet achieving adequate treatment or control targets remains a challenge. This study sought to identify, longitudinally, characteristics associated with antihypertensive treatment and blood pressure (BP) control among individuals with hypertension. Data from individuals enrolled in the population-based CRONICAS Cohort Study (adults ≥35 years, living in 4 different rural/urban and coastal/high-altitude Peruvian settings) with hypertension at baseline were used. Antihypertensive treatment and BP control were assessed at baseline and at 15 months. Multinomial logistic regressions were used to estimate relative risk ratios (RRR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of factors associated with antihypertensive treatment and BP control at follow-up. At baseline, among 717 individuals with hypertension (53% women, mean age 61.5 ± 12.4 years), 28% were unaware of their hypertension status, 30% were aware but untreated, 16% were treated but uncontrolled, and 26% were treated and controlled. At follow-up, 89% of unaware and 82% of untreated individuals persisted untreated, and only 58% of controlled individuals remained controlled. Positive predictors of receiving treatment and being controlled at follow-up included age (RRR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.73 to 0.91 for every 5 years) and family history of a chronic disease (RRR: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.31 to 0.92 vs. no history); whereas Puno rural site (RRR: 16.51; 95% CI: 1.90 to 143.56 vs. Lima) and male sex (RRR: 2.59; 95% CI: 1.54 to 4.36) were risk factors. Systolic BP at baseline (RRR: 1.27; 95% CI: 1.16 to 1.39 for every 5 mm Hg) and male sex (RRR: 1.75, 95% CI: 1.02 to 2.98) were risk factors for being treated but uncontrolled at follow-up. Large gaps in treatment of hypertension were observed. Targeting specific populations such as men, younger individuals, or those without family history of disease may increase coverage of antihypertensive treatment. Also, targeting

  5. [Clinical observation on controlling antihypertension with the general anesthesia of TEAS and anesthetics in endoscopic endonasal surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wensheng; Zhao Xian; Li, Jinjin; Fang, Jianqiao

    2015-12-01

    To study whether the dose of controlling antihypertensive drug is reduced by transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation (TEAS) and the anesthetics, as well as the control of blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) in endoscopic endonasal surgery with general anesthesia. Sixty patients for selective endoscopic endonasal surgery with general anesthetics and controlling antihypertension involved were selected and randomized into a TEAS group, a sham-TEAS group, 30 cases in each one. The electric pads were attached to bilateral Hegu (LI 4), Zusanli (ST 36), Sanyinjiao (SP 6) and Quchi (LI 11), stimulated with Hans-200 apparatus, 3 to 5 mA, 2 Hz/100 Hz in the TEAS group based on the patients' response to comfort. No electric stimulation was applied to the sham-TEAS group. The general anesthesia started after 30 min intervention and lasted till the end of surgery. The BP and HR were observed and recorded at the end of monitoring in operation room, 10 min after tranquilization (T0), 30 min after intervention (Tj, after induction~of general anestiesa (T2), 30 min after surgery start (T3), 60 min after surgery start (T4) and 30 min after extubation (T5). The doses of vecuronium bromide, propofol and nitroglycerin were recorded statistically in surgery, as well as the operative bleeding volume, the operative time, the resuscitation time and the visual analogue scale (VAS) score after resuscitation. Compared with that at T0, the mean arterial pressure (MAP) at T2, T3, T4 and T5 in the TEAS group and at T3 and T4 in the sham-TEAS group was all reduced, indicating the significant difference (all P 0.05). HR was different at T2 to Ts in the sham-TEAS group statistically (all P 0.05). The general anesthesia with TEAS and anesthetics involved for controlling antihypertension contributes to the control of BP and HR in the patients in endoscopic endonasal surgery. The impacts are not obvious on the doses of antihypertensive drug, the general anesthetics, the operative bleeding

  6. Justification of a dose of diuretics in antihypertensive treatment of patients with essential hypertension stage II-III

    OpenAIRE

    Plesh, I. A.; Boreyko, L. D.; Slyvka, N. O.; Kshanovska, G. I.

    2017-01-01

    "Pressor natriuresis" coefficient in  ratio of daily urinary sodium excretion (ENadob) by means of  electrometric method using ionselective electrodes (SINO - 005) to average of median arterial pressure (MAPdob) a day  and character of circadian rhytm, by the method of daily monitoring of blood pressure (hardware «Solvaig») to optimize the dose of a diuretic in combined antihypertensive treatment was determened іn 65 patients with essential  hypertension (EH II-III stage and 26 control (normo...

  7. Synergistic Antihypertensive Effect of Carthamus tinctorius L. Extract and Captopril in l-NAME-Induced Hypertensive Rats via Restoration of eNOS and AT1R Expression

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    Putcharawipa Maneesai

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effect of Carthamus tinctorius (CT extract plus captopril treatment on blood pressure, vascular function, nitric oxide (NO bioavailability, oxidative stress and renin-angiotensin system (RAS in Nω-Nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME-induced hypertension. Rats were treated with l-NAME (40 mg/kg/day for five weeks and given CT extract (75 or 150 or 300 or 500 mg/kg/day: captopril (5 mg/kg/day or CT extract (300 mg/kg/day plus captopril (5 mg/kg/day for two consecutive weeks. CT extract reduced blood pressure dose-dependently, and the most effective dose was 300 mg/kg/day. l-NAME-induced hypertensive rats showed abnormalities including high blood pressure, high vascular resistance, impairment of acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation in isolated aortic rings and mesenteric vascular beds, increased vascular superoxide production and plasma malondialdehyde levels, downregulation of eNOS, low level of plasma nitric oxide metabolites, upregulation of angiotensin II type 1 receptor and increased plasma angiotensin II. These abnormalities were alleviated by treatment with either CT extract or captopril. Combination treatment of CT extract and captopril normalized all the abnormalities found in hypertensive rats except endothelial dysfunction. These data indicate that there are synergistic antihypertensive effects of CT extract and captopril. These effects are likely mediated by their anti-oxidative properties and their inhibition of RAS.

  8. Economic evaluation for first-line anti-hypertensive medicines: applications for the Philippines

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    Geroy Lester Sam Araneta

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medicines to control hypertension, a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, are a major component of health expenditures in the Philippines. This study aims to review economic studies for first line anti-hypertensive medical treatment without co-morbidities; and discuss practical, informational and policy implications on the use of economic evaluation in the Philippines. Methods A systematic literature review was performed using the following databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, BIOSIS, PubMed, The Cochrane Library, Health Economics Evaluations Database (HEED and the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination – NHS NICE. Six existing economic analytical frameworks were reviewed and one framework for critical appraisal was developed. Results Out of 1336 searched articles, 12 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The studies were summarized according to their background characteristics (year, journal, intervention and comparators, objective/study question, target audience, economic study type, study population, setting and country and source of funding/conflict of interest and technical characteristics (perspective, time horizon, methodology/modeling, search strategy for parameters, costs, effectiveness measures, discounting, assumptions and biases, results, cost-effectiveness ratio, endpoints, sensitivity analysis, generalizability, strengths and limitations, conclusions, implications and feasibility and recommendations. The studies represented different countries, perspectives and stakeholders. Conclusions Diuretics were the most cost-effective drug class for first-line treatment of hypertension without co-morbidities. Although the Philippine Health Insurance Corporation may apply the recommendations given in previous studies (i.e. to subsidize diuretics, ACE inhibitors and calcium channel blockers, it is uncertain how much public funding is justified. There is an information gap on clinical data (transition probabilities, relative risks

  9. EFFICACY OF COMBINED ANTIHYPERTENSIVE THERAPY IN ACHIEVEMENT OF TARGET BLOOD PRESSURE IN DIABETIC PATIENTS

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    O. A. Koshel'skaya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the efficacy of long-term combined antihypertensive therapy (AHT based on renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS blockers, indapamide and calcium channel blocker (CCB in hypertensive patients with diabetes mellitus (DM in accordance with target blood pressure (BP <130/80 mm Hg achievement rate, dynamics of 24-hour BP profile, metabolic indices, and local stiffness of the main arteries. Besides, to study the effects of the CCB addition to dual therapy on these parameters. Material and methods. Patients (16 men, 31 women, 57.2±6.6 years old with arterial hypertension degrees 1–3 and mild to moderate DM type 2 were included into the study. The patients were treated with perindopril (5–10 mg/day or valsartan (80–160 mg/day in combination with indapamide SR (1.5 mg/day and amlodipine (5–10 mg/day. Examination included office BP measurement and ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM, common carotid arteries sonarography , evaluation of serum levels of potassium, creatinine, uric acid, glucose metabolism and lipid profile parameters, calculation of insulin resistance index (HOMA at baseline and after 30–32 weeks of treatment. Results. Target BP was achieved in 86.7% of patients. Evenly reduction of day and night BP without reflex tachycardia and hypotension episodes was observed. Office BP decreased from 149.5±12.0/90.0±8.3 to 125.0±7.6/76.8±4.9 mm Hg (p<0.05 and average daily BP (ABPM decreased to 120.1±10.0/71.7±6.9 mmHg. Three drugs were needed to achieve target BP in baseline systolic BP >150 mm Hg (office or >134 mmHg (ABPM. Marked beneficial effect on the morphological and functional characteristics of the vascular wall and its elastic properties, improvement of glycemic control, tissue insulin sensitivity and lipids profile were found. These effects were associated mainly with amlodipine inclusion into the therapy. Conclusion. The combined AHT based on RAAS blockers, indapamide SR and CCB provides achievement of

  10. EFFICACY OF COMBINED ANTIHYPERTENSIVE THERAPY IN ACHIEVEMENT OF TARGET BLOOD PRESSURE IN DIABETIC PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Koshel'skaya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the efficacy of long-term combined antihypertensive therapy (AHT based on renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS blockers, indapamide and calcium channel blocker (CCB in hypertensive patients with diabetes mellitus (DM in accordance with target blood pressure (BP <130/80 mm Hg achievement rate, dynamics of 24-hour BP profile, metabolic indices, and local stiffness of the main arteries. Besides, to study the effects of the CCB addition to dual therapy on these parameters. Material and methods. Patients (16 men, 31 women, 57.2±6.6 years old with arterial hypertension degrees 1–3 and mild to moderate DM type 2 were included into the study. The patients were treated with perindopril (5–10 mg/day or valsartan (80–160 mg/day in combination with indapamide SR (1.5 mg/day and amlodipine (5–10 mg/day. Examination included office BP measurement and ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM, common carotid arteries sonarography , evaluation of serum levels of potassium, creatinine, uric acid, glucose metabolism and lipid profile parameters, calculation of insulin resistance index (HOMA at baseline and after 30–32 weeks of treatment. Results. Target BP was achieved in 86.7% of patients. Evenly reduction of day and night BP without reflex tachycardia and hypotension episodes was observed. Office BP decreased from 149.5±12.0/90.0±8.3 to 125.0±7.6/76.8±4.9 mm Hg (p<0.05 and average daily BP (ABPM decreased to 120.1±10.0/71.7±6.9 mmHg. Three drugs were needed to achieve target BP in baseline systolic BP >150 mm Hg (office or >134 mmHg (ABPM. Marked beneficial effect on the morphological and functional characteristics of the vascular wall and its elastic properties, improvement of glycemic control, tissue insulin sensitivity and lipids profile were found. These effects were associated mainly with amlodipine inclusion into the therapy. Conclusion. The combined AHT based on RAAS blockers, indapamide SR and CCB provides achievement of

  11. Antihypertensive therapy: nocturnal dippers and nondippers. Do we treat them differently?

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    Mahabala C

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Chakrapani Mahabala,1 Padmanabha Kamath,2 Unnikrishnan Bhaskaran,3 Narasimha D Pai,2 Aparna U Pai41Department of Medicine, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Mangalore, Karnataka State, India; 2Department of Cardiology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Mangalore, Karnataka State, India; 3Department of Community Medicine, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Mangalore, Karnataka State, India; 4Department of Radiodiagnosis, Vivekananda Institute of Medical Sciences, Kolkata, West Bengal State, IndiaAbstract: Hypertension is a major independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Management of hypertension is generally based on office blood pressure since it is easy to determine. Since casual blood pressure readings in the office are influenced by various factors, they do not represent basal blood pressure. Dipping of the blood pressure in the night is a normal physiological change that can be blunted by cardiovascular risk factors and the severity of hypertension. Nondipping pattern is associated with disease severity, left ventricular hypertrophy, increased proteinuria, secondary forms of hypertension, increased insulin resistance, and increased fibrinogen level. Long-term observational studies have documented increased cardiovascular events in patients with nondipping patterns. Nocturnal dipping can be improved by administering the antihypertensive medications in the night. Long-term clinical trials have shown that cardiovascular events can be reduced by achieving better dipping patterns by administering medications during the night. Identifying the dipping pattern is useful for decisions to investigate for secondary causes, initiating treatment, necessity of chronotherapy, withdrawal or reduction of unnecessary medications, and monitoring after treatment initiation. Use of this concept at the primary care level has been limited because 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring has been the only method

  12. Different antihypertensive effect of beta-blocking drugs in low and normal-high renin hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kralberg, B E; Tolagen, K

    1976-05-31

    The treatment response to beta-adrenoceptor blocking drugs was compared in two groups of patients with primary (essential) hypertension and different renin levels. Each group consisted of 25 patients and was equally distributed regarding age, severity and stage of hypertension. In the first group (group 1), the mean upright plasma renin activity was 0.8 ng ml-1h-1 (range 0.3 to 1.5) and the patients were considered to have low renin hypertension. In the other group (group 2) the patients had a mean plasma renin activity of 2.1 ng ml-1h-1 (range 1.1 to 5.1) and were considered to have normal to high renin hypertension. In both groups the patients were initially treated with beta-blocking drugs; in group 1 with a beta-blocker corresponding to an average dose of 311 mg propranolol a day for at least eight weeks and in group 2 with propranolol 320 mg a day in a fixed dose for eight weeks. The hypotensive response differed significantly between the two groups (p less than 0.001). In group 1 the pretreatment blood pressure was 197/117 mm Hg supine and 198/120 mm Hg standing. During treatment blood pressure decreased only 5/3 mm Hg supine and 9/5 mm Hg standing. The pretreatment blood pressure in group 2 was 187/114 mm Hg supine and 186/117 mm Hg standing. Beta-blocking therapy reduced blood pressure 36/23 and 34/18 mm Hg, respectively (both p less than 0.001). Pulse rates fell significantly in the two groups, both in the lying and standing positions. In 17 patients with low renin hypertension (group 1), a volume-depleting drug was added (spironolactone, 14 patients; thiazides, 3 patients) and this achieved a marked fall in blood pressure levels of 38/16 mm Hg supine and 37/19 mm Hg standing (both p less than 0.001). These results suggest the following: (1) Most patients with normal to high plasma renin activity respond well to moderate doses of propranolol. (2) Propranolol given in the same doses is almost without antihypertensive effect in patients with low renin

  13. EFFECT OF ANTIHYPERTENSIVE THERAPY BASED ON NEW METHOD OF INDIVIDUAL CHOICE OF DRUGS ON LEFT VENTRICULAR HYPERTROPHY IN ELDERLY PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. I. Pshenichkin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the effects of antihypertensive therapy based on consideration of individual heart rhythm variability (HRV on left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH in hypertensive elderly patients.Material and methods. 60 hypertensive elderly patients with LVH were included in the study. They were split in two groups (30 people in each one. Patients of the group-I had common antihypertensive therapy. Patients of group-II received medications prescribed with consideration of individual heart rate variability. Holter monitoring with analysis of HRV, 24-hour blood pressure monitoring and ultrasonography were conducted initially and 18 months after treatment beginning.Results. BP control was reached in the majority of patients of both groups. The patients of group-II in comparison with patients of group-I had reduction of low- high frequency power ratio (LF/HF and higher rate of LVH reduction. Relationship between LVH dynamics and ratio LF/HF was found.Conclusion. Arterial hypertension therapy considering individual HRV contributes in LVH reduction in elderly patients.

  14. Social adversity experience and blood pressure control following antihypertensive medication use in a community sample of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainwright, Nicholas W J; Levy, Sheldon; Pico, Jose; Luben, Robert N; Surtees, Paul G; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2014-06-01

    Psychosocial stress is a risk factor for hypertension and has been shown to affect response to treatment for psychiatric illnesses. We investigate the relationship between a history of social adversity experience and blood pressure control following antihypertensive medication use. A total of 1,186 participants selected from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer-Norfolk study (531 men and 655 women, aged 42 to 80 years) had attended two health checks at which blood pressure measurements were taken; were taking antihypertensive medication at the second, but not the first health check; and had completed a questionnaire assessment of their social and psychological circumstances which included details of traumatic experiences in childhood and of adverse life events, long-term difficulties, and perceived stress in adulthood. Experience of recent loss events in adulthood was associated with a smaller reduction in systolic blood pressure after starting hypertension treatment (β = 1.78, 95 % confidence interval 0.15-3.40, per life event), independently of age, sex, preexisting health conditions, cigarette smoking history, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and obesity. Results from this study suggest that stress caused by recent losses may be associated with reduced effectiveness of treatment for hypertension. Subject to replication, these findings may help determine the specific physiological mechanisms by which medication treatment effectiveness is affected by stress.

  15. Evaluation of the antihypertensive properties of yellow passion fruit pulp (Passiflora edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Deg.) in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konta, Eliziane Mieko; Almeida, Mara Ribeiro; do Amaral, Cátia Lira; Darin, Joana Darc Castania; de Rosso, Veridiana V; Mercadante, Adriana Zerlotti; Antunes, Lusânia Maria Greggi; Bianchi, Maria Lourdes Pires

    2014-01-01

    Various species of the genus Passiflora have been extensively used in traditional medicine as sedatives, anxiolytics, diuretics and analgesics. In the present study, after the identification and quantification of phytochemical compounds from yellow passion fruit pulp by liquid chromatography-photodiode array-mass spectrometry (HPLC-PDA-MS/MS), its antihypertensive effect was investigated on spontaneously hypertensive rats. Additionally, the renal function, evaluated by kidney/body weight, serum creatinine, proteinuria, urinary flow, reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and mutagenicity in bone marrow cells were assessed to evaluate the safety of passion fruit consumption. Yellow passion fruit pulp (5, 6 or 8 g/kg b.w.) was administered by gavage once a day for 5 consecutive days. HLPC-PDA-MS/MS analysis revealed that yellow passion fruit pulp contains phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid, carotenoids and flavonoids. The highest dose of passion fruit pulp significantly reduced the systolic blood pressure, increased the GSH levels and decreased TBARS. There were no changes in renal function parameters or the frequency of micronuclei in bone marrow cells. In conclusion, the antihypertensive effect of yellow passion fruit pulp, at least in part, might be due to the enhancement of the antioxidant status. The exact mechanisms responsible by this effect need further investigation. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Interactions between the adducin 2 gene and antihypertensive drug therapies in determining blood pressure in people with hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barkley Ruth

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As part of the NHLBI Family Blood Pressure Program, the Genetic Epidemiology Network of Arteriopathy (GENOA recruited 575 sibships (n = 1583 individuals from Rochester, MN who had at least two hypertensive siblings diagnosed before age 60. Linkage analysis identified a region on chromosome 2 that was investigated using 70 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs typed in 7 positional candidate genes, including adducin 2 (ADD2. Method To investigate whether blood pressure (BP levels in these hypertensives (n = 1133 were influenced by gene-by-drug interactions, we used cross-validation statistical methods (i.e., estimating a model for predicting BP levels in one subgroup and testing it in a different subgroup. These methods greatly reduced the chance of false positive findings. Results Eight SNPs in ADD2 were significantly associated with systolic BP in untreated hypertensives (p-value Conclusion Our findings suggest that hypertension candidate gene variation may influence BP responses to specific antihypertensive drug therapies and measurement of genetic variation may assist in identifying subgroups of hypertensive patients who will benefit most from particular antihypertensive drug therapies.

  17. Serum Metabolomics Study Based on LC-MS and Antihypertensive Effect of Uncaria on Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

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    Ana Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Our previous studies have shown that Uncaria has an important role in lowering blood pressure, but its intervention mechanism has not been clarified completely in the metabolic level. Therefore, in this study, a combination method of HPLC-TOF/MS-based metabolomics and multivariate statistical analyses was employed to explore the mechanism and evaluate the antihypertensive effect of Uncaria. Serum samples were analyzed and identified by HPLC-TOF/MS, while the acquired data was further processed by partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA to discover the perturbed metabolites. A clear cluster among the different groups was obtained, and 7 significantly changed potential biomarkers were screened out. These biomarkers were mainly associated with lipid metabolism (dihydroceramide, ceramide, PC, LysoPC, and TXA2 and vitamin and amino acids metabolism (nicotinamide riboside, 5-HTP. The result indicated that Uncaria could decrease the blood pressure effectively, partially by regulating the above biomarkers and metabolic pathways. Analyzing and verifying the specific biomarkers, further understanding of the therapeutic mechanism and antihypertensive effect of Uncaria was acquired. Metabolomics provided a new insight into estimate of the therapeutic effect and dissection of the potential mechanisms of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM in treating hypertension.

  18. Drug-Drug Multicomponent Solid Forms: Cocrystal, Coamorphous and Eutectic of Three Poorly Soluble Antihypertensive Drugs Using Mechanochemical Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haneef, Jamshed; Chadha, Renu

    2017-08-01

    The present study deals with the application of mechanochemical approach for the preparation of drug-drug multicomponent solid forms of three poorly soluble antihypertensive drugs (telmisartan, irbesartan and hydrochlorothiazide) using atenolol as a coformer. The resultant solid forms comprise of cocrystal (telmisartan-atenolol), coamorphous (irbesartan-atenolol) and eutectic (hydrochlorothiazide-atenolol). The study emphasizes that solid-state transformation of drug molecules into new forms is a result of the change in structural patterns, diminishing of dimers and creating new facile hydrogen bonding network based on structural resemblance. The propensity for heteromeric or homomeric interaction between two different drugs resulted into diverse solid forms (cocrystal/coamorphous/eutectics) and become one of the interesting aspects of this research work. Evaluation of these solid forms revealed an increase in solubility and dissolution leading to better antihypertensive activity in deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) salt-induced animal model. Thus, development of these drug-drug multicomponent solid forms is a promising and viable approach to addressing the issue of poor solubility and could be of considerable interest in dual drug therapy for the treatment of hypertension.

  19. [Implementation of ontology-based clinical decision support system for management of interactions between antihypertensive drugs and diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong Eun; Kim, Hwa Sun; Chang, Min Jung; Hong, Hae Sook

    2014-06-01

    The influence of dietary composition on blood pressure is an important subject in healthcare. Interactions between antihypertensive drugs and diet (IBADD) is the most important factor in the management of hypertension. It is therefore essential to support healthcare providers' decision making role in active and continuous interaction control in hypertension management. The aim of this study was to implement an ontology-based clinical decision support system (CDSS) for IBADD management (IBADDM). We considered the concepts of antihypertensive drugs and foods, and focused on the interchangeability between the database and the CDSS when providing tailored information. An ontology-based CDSS for IBADDM was implemented in eight phases: (1) determining the domain and scope of ontology, (2) reviewing existing ontology, (3) extracting and defining the concepts, (4) assigning relationships between concepts, (5) creating a conceptual map with CmapTools, (6) selecting upper ontology, (7) formally representing the ontology with Protégé (ver.4.3), (8) implementing an ontology-based CDSS as a JAVA prototype application. We extracted 5,926 concepts, 15 properties, and formally represented them using Protégé. An ontology-based CDSS for IBADDM was implemented and the evaluation score was 4.60 out of 5. We endeavored to map functions of a CDSS and implement an ontology-based CDSS for IBADDM.

  20. Williams syndrome predisposes to vascular stiffness modified by antihypertensive use and copy number changes in NCF1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozel, Beth A; Danback, Joshua R; Waxler, Jessica L; Knutsen, Russell H; de Las Fuentes, Lisa; Reusz, Gyorgy S; Kis, Eva; Bhatt, Ami B; Pober, Barbara R

    2014-01-01

    Williams syndrome is caused by the deletion of 26 to 28 genes, including elastin, on human chromosome 7. Elastin insufficiency leads to the cardiovascular hallmarks of this condition, namely focal stenosis and hypertension. Extrapolation from the Eln(+/-) mouse suggests that affected people may also have stiff vasculature, a risk factor for stroke, myocardial infarction, and cardiac death. NCF1, one of the variably deleted Williams genes, is a component of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase complex and is involved in the generation of oxidative stress, making it an interesting candidate modifier for vascular stiffness. Using a case-control design, vascular stiffness was evaluated by pulse wave velocity in 77 Williams cases and matched controls. Cases had stiffer conducting vessels than controls (PWilliams syndrome. Pulse wave velocity increased with age at comparable rates in cases and controls, and although the degree of vascular stiffness varied, it was seen in both hypertensive and normotensive Williams participants. Use of antihypertensive medication and extension of the Williams deletion to include NCF1 were associated with protection from vascular stiffness. These findings demonstrate that vascular stiffness is a primary vascular phenotype in Williams syndrome and that treatment with antihypertensives or agents inhibiting oxidative stress may be important in managing patients with this condition, potentially even those who are not overtly hypertensive.

  1. Low blood pressure and antihypertensive treatment are independently associated with physical and mental health status in patients with arterial disease: the SMART study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, M; Jochemsen, H M; Visseren, F L J; Grool, A M; Launer, L J; van der Graaf, Y; Geerlings, M I

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the independent effects of antihypertensive treatment and blood pressure (BP) levels on physical and mental health status in patients with arterial disease. Cross-sectional analyses were conducted within the single-centre Secondary Manifestations of ARTerial disease (SMART) study, in a hospital care setting. A total of 5877 patients (mean age 57 years) with symptomatic and asymptomatic arterial disease underwent standardized vascular screening. The primary outcome was self-rated physical and mental health assessed using the 36-item short-form health survey. In the total population, antihypertensive drug use and increased intensity of antihypertensive treatment were associated with poorer health status independent of important confounders including BP levels; adjusted mean differences [95% confidence interval (CI)] in physical and mental health between n = 0 and n ≥ 3 antihypertensives were -1.2 (-2.1; -0.3) and -3.5 (-4.4; -2.6), respectively. Furthermore, both lower systolic and lower diastolic BP levels were related to poorer physical and mental health status independent of antihypertensive treatment. Mean differences (95% CI) in physical and mental health status per SD decrease in systolic BP were -0.56 (-0.84; -0.27) and -0.32 (-0.61; -0.03) and per SD decrease in diastolic BP were -0.50 (-0.78; -0.23) and -0.08 (-0.36; 0.20), respectively. The association between low BP and poor health status was particularly present in patients with coronary artery disease. In a population of patients with asymptomatic and symptomatic arterial disease, antihypertensive treatment and lower BP levels are independently associated with poorer self-rated physical and mental health. These findings suggest that different underlying mechanisms may explain these independent associations. © 2013 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  2. The Cost-Effectiveness of Low-Cost Essential Antihypertensive Medicines for Hypertension Control in China: A Modelling Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongfeng Gu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is China's leading cardiovascular disease risk factor. Improved hypertension control in China would result in result in enormous health gains in the world's largest population. A computer simulation model projected the cost-effectiveness of hypertension treatment in Chinese adults, assuming a range of essential medicines list drug costs.The Cardiovascular Disease Policy Model-China, a Markov-style computer simulation model, simulated hypertension screening, essential medicines program implementation, hypertension control program administration, drug treatment and monitoring costs, disease-related costs, and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs gained by preventing cardiovascular disease or lost because of drug side effects in untreated hypertensive adults aged 35-84 y over 2015-2025. Cost-effectiveness was assessed in cardiovascular disease patients (secondary prevention and for two blood pressure ranges in primary prevention (stage one, 140-159/90-99 mm Hg; stage two, ≥160/≥100 mm Hg. Treatment of isolated systolic hypertension and combined systolic and diastolic hypertension were modeled as a reduction in systolic blood pressure; treatment of isolated diastolic hypertension was modeled as a reduction in diastolic blood pressure. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses explored ranges of antihypertensive drug effectiveness and costs, monitoring frequency, medication adherence, side effect severity, background hypertension prevalence, antihypertensive medication treatment, case fatality, incidence and prevalence, and cardiovascular disease treatment costs. Median antihypertensive costs from Shanghai and Yunnan province were entered into the model in order to estimate the effects of very low and high drug prices. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios less than the per capita gross domestic product of China (11,900 international dollars [Int$] in 2015 were considered cost-effective. Treating hypertensive adults with prior

  3. Reduced prevalence of early preterm delivery in women with Type 1 diabetes and microalbuminuria--possible effect of early antihypertensive treatment during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, L R; Kragh-Müller, Claus; Damm, P

    2006-01-01

    In normotensive women with Type 1 diabetes and microalbuminuria we previously found preterm delivery (treatment was initiated in late pregnancy when preeclampsia was diagnosed and diastolic blood pressure > 90 mmHg. From April 2000 our routine...... treatment in the prevalence of preterm delivery....... was changed and early antihypertensive treatment with methyldopa was initiated if antihypertensive treatment was given prior to pregnancy, if urinary albumin excretion (UAE) was > 2 g/24 h, or blood pressure > 140/90 mmHg. The present study describes the impact of this more aggressive antiypertensive...

  4. The right choice of antihypertensives protects primary human hepatocytes from ethanol- and recombinant human TGF-β1-induced cellular damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehnert S

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Sabrina Ehnert,1 Teresa Lukoschek,2 Anastasia Bachmann,2 Juan J Martínez Sánchez,1 Georg Damm,3 Natascha C Nussler,4 Stefan Pscherer,5 Ulrich Stöckle,1 Steven Dooley,2 Sebastian Mueller,6 Andreas K Nussler11Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen, BG Trauma Center, Tübingen, Germany; 2Mol Hepatology - Alcohol Associated Diseases, Department of Medicine II, Medical Faculty, Mannheim, Germany; 3Department of General, Visceral, and Transplantation Surgery, Charité University Medicine, Berlin, Germany; 4Clinic for General, Visceral, Endocrine Surgery and Coloproctology, Clinic Neuperlach, Städtisches Klinikum München GmbH, Munich, Germany; 5Department of Diabetology, Klinikum Traunstein, Kliniken Südostbayern AG, Traunstein, Germany; 6Department of Medicine, Salem Medical Center, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität, Heidelberg, GermanyBackground: Patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD often suffer from high blood pressure and rely on antihypertensive treatment. Certain antihypertensives may influence progression of chronic liver disease. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the impact of the commonly used antihypertensives amlodipine, captopril, furosemide, metoprolol, propranolol, and spironolactone on alcohol-induced damage toward human hepatocytes (hHeps.Methods: hHeps were isolated by collagenase perfusion. Reactive oxygen species (ROS were measured by fluorescence-based assays. Cellular damage was determined by lactate-dehydrogenase (LDH-leakage. Expression analysis was performed by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Transforming growth factor (TGF-β signaling was investigated by a Smad3/4-responsive luciferase-reporter assay.Results: Ethanol and TGF-β1 rapidly increased ROS in hHeps, causing a release of 40%–60% of total LDH after 72 hours. All antihypertensives dose dependently reduced ethanol-mediated oxidative stress and cellular damage. Similar results were observed for TGF-β1-dependent

  5. Risk Aversion in Game Shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten I.

    2008-01-01

    We review the use of behavior from television game shows to infer risk attitudes. These shows provide evidence when contestants are making decisions over very large stakes, and in a replicated, structured way. Inferences are generally confounded by the subjective assessment of skill in some games......, and the dynamic nature of the task in most games. We consider the game shows Card Sharks, Jeopardy!, Lingo, and finally Deal Or No Deal. We provide a detailed case study of the analyses of Deal Or No Deal, since it is suitable for inference about risk attitudes and has attracted considerable attention....

  6. Measuring performance at trade shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kåre

    2004-01-01

    Trade shows is an increasingly important marketing activity to many companies, but current measures of trade show performance do not adequately capture dimensions important to exhibitors. Based on the marketing literature's outcome and behavior-based control system taxonomy, a model is built...... that captures a outcome-based sales dimension and four behavior-based dimensions (i.e. information-gathering, relationship building, image building, and motivation activities). A 16-item instrument is developed for assessing exhibitors perceptions of their trade show performance. The paper presents evidence...

  7. Antihypertensive treatment, high triglycerides, and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and risk of ischemic heart disease mortality: a 16-year follow-up in the Copenhagen male study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suadicani, Poul; Hein, Hans Ole; Gyntelberg, Finn

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that metabolic syndrome dyslipidemia is a major risk factor for ischemic heart disease (IHD) mortality among men taking antihypertensive medication.......The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that metabolic syndrome dyslipidemia is a major risk factor for ischemic heart disease (IHD) mortality among men taking antihypertensive medication....

  8. Catheter-based renal denervation in patients with uncontrolled hypertension in the absence of antihypertensive medications (SPYRAL HTN-OFF MED): a randomised, sham-controlled, proof-of-concept trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Raymond R; Mahfoud, Felix; Kandzari, David E; Kario, Kazuomi; Pocock, Stuart; Weber, Michael A; Ewen, Sebastian; Tsioufis, Konstantinos; Tousoulis, Dimitrios; Sharp, Andrew S P; Watkinson, Anthony F; Schmieder, Roland E; Schmid, Axel; Choi, James W; East, Cara; Walton, Anthony; Hopper, Ingrid; Cohen, Debbie L; Wilensky, Robert; Lee, David P; Ma, Adrian; Devireddy, Chandan M; Lea, Janice P; Lurz, Philipp C; Fengler, Karl; Davies, Justin; Chapman, Neil; Cohen, Sidney A; DeBruin, Vanessa; Fahy, Martin; Jones, Denise E; Rothman, Martin; Böhm, Michael

    2017-11-11

    Previous randomised renal denervation studies did not show consistent efficacy in reducing blood pressure. The objective of our study was to evaluate the effect of renal denervation on blood pressure in the absence of antihypertensive medications. SPYRAL HTN-OFF MED was a multicentre, international, single-blind, randomised, sham-controlled, proof-of-concept trial. Patients were enrolled at 21 centres in the USA, Europe, Japan, and Australia. Eligible patients were drug-naive or discontinued their antihypertensive medications. Patients with an office systolic blood pressure (SBP) of 150 mm Hg or greater and less than 180 mm Hg, office diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of 90 mm Hg or greater, and a mean 24-h ambulatory SBP of 140 mm Hg or greater and less than 170 mm Hg at second screening underwent renal angiography and were randomly assigned to renal denervation or sham control. Patients, caregivers, and those assessing blood pressure were blinded to randomisation assignments. The primary endpoint, change in 24-h blood pressure at 3 months, was compared between groups. Drug surveillance was done to ensure patient compliance with absence of antihypertensive medication. The primary analysis was done in the intention-to-treat population. Safety events were assessed at 3 months. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02439749. Between June 25, 2015, and Jan 30, 2017, 353 patients were screened. 80 patients were randomly assigned to renal denervation (n=38) or sham control (n=42) and followed up for 3 months. Office and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure decreased significantly from baseline to 3 months in the renal denervation group: 24-h SBP -5·5 mm Hg (95% CI -9·1 to -2·0; p=0·0031), 24-h DBP -4·8 mm Hg (-7·0 to -2·6; prenal denervation for 3-month change in both office and 24-h blood pressure from baseline: 24-h SBP -5·0 mm Hg (95% CI -9·9 to -0·2; p=0·0414), 24-h DBP -4·4 mm Hg (-7·2 to -1·6; p=0·0024), office SBP -7·7 mm Hg (-14·0

  9. Tokyo Motor Show 2003; Tokyo Motor Show 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joly, E.

    2004-01-01

    The text which follows present the different techniques exposed during the 37. Tokyo Motor Show. The report points out the great tendencies of developments of the Japanese automobile industry. The hybrid electric-powered vehicles or those equipped with fuel cells have been highlighted by the Japanese manufacturers which allow considerable budgets in the research of less polluting vehicles. The exposed models, although being all different according to the manufacturer, use always a hybrid system: fuel cell/battery. The manufacturers have stressed too on the intelligent systems for navigation and safety as well as on the design and comfort. (O.M.)

  10. Physician adherence to hypertension treatment guidelines and drug acquisition costs of antihypertensive drugs at the cardiac clinic: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulameer SA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Shaymaa Abdalwahed Abdulameer1, Mohanad Naji Sahib1, Noorizan Abd Aziz1,2, Yahaya Hassan1,2, Hadeer Akram Abdul AlRazzaq1, Omar Ismail31School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Minden, Penang, Malaysia; 2Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM, 42300 Puncak Alam, Selangor, Malaysia; 3Hospital Pulau Pinang, 10900, Penang, MalaysiaAbstract: Prescribing pattern surveys are one of the pharmacoepidemiological techniques that provide an unbiased picture of prescribing habits. Prescription surveys permit the identification of suboptimal prescribing patterns for further evaluation. The aims of this study were to determine the prescribing trend, adherence of the prescribers to the guideline, and the impact of drug expenditure on drug utilization at the cardiac clinic of Penang Hospital, Malaysia. This was a cross-sectional study. Demographic data of the patients, diagnoses and the drugs prescribed were recorded. The average drug acquisition costs (ADAC were calculated for each antihypertensive drug class on a daily and annual basis. Adherence to the guideline was calculated as a percentage of the total number of patients. A total of 313 individuals fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The average age of the study population was 59.30 ± 10.35 years. The mean number of drugs per prescription in the study was 2.09 ± 0.78. There were no significant differences in the demographic data. Antihypertensive drugs were used in monotherapy and polytherapy in 20.8% and 79.2% of the patients, respectively. Adherence to the guideline regarding prescription occurred in 85.30% of the patients. The lowest priced drug class was diuretics and the highest was angiotensin-receptor blockers. In conclusion, the total adherence to the guideline was good; the adherence percentage only slightly decreased with a co-existing comorbidity (such as diabetes mellitus. The use of thiazide diuretics was encouraged because they are well tolerated and

  11. Characteristics of Patients That Do Not Initially Respond to Intravenous Antihypertensives in the Emergency Department: Subanalysis of the CLUE Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freiermuth, Caroline E.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hypertensive emergency has a high mortality risk and the treatment goal is to quickly lower blood pressure with intravenous (IV medications. Characteristics that are associated with non-response to IV antihypertensives have not been identified. The objective is to identify patient characteristics associated with resistance to IV antihypertensives. Methods: This was a subanalysis of patients enrolled in the previously described comparative effectiveness trial of IV nicardipine vs. labetalol use in the emergency department (CLUE study, a randomized trial of nicardipine vs. labetalol. Non-responders were defined as those patients who did not achieve target systolic blood pressure (SBP, as set by the treating physician, within thirty minutes of IV antihypertensive medication, +/- 20mmHg. Stepwise logistic regression was used to identify covariates associated with the measurement outcomes. Results: CLUE enrolled 226 patients, 52.7% female, 76.4% black, mean age of 52.6±14.6 years, of whom 110 were treated with nicardipine and 116 with labetalol. The median (IQR initial systolic blood pressure was 211mmHg (198, 226, 210 (200, 230, and 211mmHg (198, 226, for the total, non-responder, and responder cohorts, respectively (p-value=0.65, 95% CI [-5.8-11.3]. Twenty-nine were non-responders, 9 in the nicardipine and 20 in the labetalol group. In univariate analysis, several symptoms suggestive of end organ damage were associated with non-response. After multiple variable logistic regression (AUC = 0.72, treatment with labetalol (OR 2.7, 95% CI [1.1-6.7], history of stroke (OR 5.4, 95% CI [1.6-18.5], and being male (OR 3.3, 95% CI [1.4-8.1] were associated with failure to achieve target blood pressure. Conclusion: Male gender and history of previous stroke are associated with difficult to control blood pressure. [West J Emerg Med. 2015;16(2:276–283.

  12. Reality show: um paradoxo nietzschiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana Feldman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available

    O fenômeno dos reality shows - e a subseqüente relação entre imagem e verdade - assenta-se sobre uma série de paradoxos. Tais paradoxos podem ser compreendidos à luz do pensamento do filósofo alemão Friedrich Nietzsche, que, através dos usos de formulações paradoxais, concebia a realidade como um mundo de pura aparência e a verdade como um acréscimo ficcional, como um efeito. A ficção é então tomada, na filosofia de Nietzsche, não em seu aspecto falsificante e desrealizador - como sempre pleiteou nossa tradição metafísica -, mas como condição necessária para que certa espécie de invenção possa operar como verdade. Sendo assim, a própria expressão reality show, através de sua formulação paradoxal, engendra explicitamente um mundo de pura aparência, em que a verdade, a parte reality da proposição, é da ordem do suplemento, daquilo que se acrescenta ficcionalmente - como um adjetivo - a show. O ornamento, nesse caso, passa a ocupar o lugar central, apontando para o efeito produzido: o efeito-de-verdade. Seguindo, então, o pensamento nietzschiano e sua atualização na contemporaneidade, investigaremos de que forma os televisivos “shows de realidade” operam paradoxalmente, em consonância com nossas paradoxais práticas culturais.

  13. The impact of serum potassium-influencing antihypertensive drugs on the risk of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest : A case–control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alharbi, Fawaz F; Souverein, Patrick C.; de Groot, Mark C.H.; Blom, Marieke T.; de Boer, Anthonius; Klungel, Olaf H.; Tan, Hanno L.

    2017-01-01

    Aims: Sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) is a complex multifactorial event and most commonly caused by ventricular tachycardia/ fibrillation (VT/ VF). Some antihypertensive drugs could induce hypokalaemia or hyperkalaemia, which may increase susceptibility to VT/VF and SCA. Objective: To assess the

  14. Antihypertensive therapy induces compartment-specific chemokine expression and a Th1 immune response in the clipped kidney of Goldblatt hypertensive rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinmetz, O. M.; Sadaghiani, S.; Panzer, U.; Krebs, C.; Meyer-Schwesinger, C.; Streichert, T.; Fehr, S.; Hamming, I.; van Goor, H.; Stahl, R. A. K.; Wenzel, U.

    The present study examined the pathogenesis of interstitial inflammation and fibrosis in antihypertensively treated rats with two-kidney, one-clip hypertension. Hypertensive rats were randomized into four groups: no treatment and moderate, intermediate, and intensified lowering of blood pressure

  15. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory and antihypertensive activities of protein hydrolysate from meat of Kacang goat (Capra aegagrus hircus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirdhayati, Irdha; Hermanianto, Joko; Wijaya, Christofora H; Sajuthi, Dondin; Arihara, Keizo

    2016-08-01

    The meat of Kacang goat has potential for production of a protein hydrolysate. Functional ingredients from protein hydrolysate of Kacang goat meat were determined by the consistency of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity and antihypertensive effect. This study examined the potency of Kacang goat protein hydrolysate in ACE inhibition and antihypertensive activity. Protein hydrolysates of Kacang goat meat were prepared using sequential digestion of endo-proteinase and protease complex at several concentrations and hydrolysis times. The highest ACE inhibitory activity resulted from a hydrolysate that was digested for 4 h with 5 g kg(-1) of both enzymes. An ACE inhibitory peptide was purified and a novel peptide found with a sequence of Phe-Gln-Pro-Ser (IC50 value of 27.0 µmol L(-1) ). Both protein hydrolysates and a synthesised peptide (Phe-Gln-Pro-Ser) demonstrated potent antihypertensive activities in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Protein hydrolysate of Kacang goat meat produced by sequential digestion with endo-proteinase and protease complex has great potential as a functional ingredient, particularly as an antihypertensive agent. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Stable fetal hemodynamics measured by Doppler flow after initiation of anti-hypertensive treatment with methyldopa in pregnant women with diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Berit Woetmann; Ringholm, Lene; Damm, Peter

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate whether initiation of anti-hypertensive treatment with methyldopa affects fetal hemodynamics in women with pregestational diabetes. METHODS: Prospective study of unselected singleton pregnant women with diabetes (seven type 1 and two type 2 diabetes), normal blood pressure and ki...

  17. The relationship between changes in health behaviour and initiation of lipid-lowering and antihypertensive medications in individuals at high risk of ischaemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hempler, Nana Folmann; Krasnik, Allan; Pisinger, Charlotta

    2012-01-01

    It has been hypothesised that health conscious individuals tend to take better care of themselves by greater adherence to preventive medications. We examined, whether long-term changes in dietary habits and physical activity were associated with initiation of lipid-lowering and antihypertensive...

  18. The impact of serum potassium-influencing antihypertensive drugs on the risk of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: A case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alharbi, Fawaz F.; Souverein, Patrick C.; de Groot, Mark C. H.; Blom, Marieke T.; de Boer, Anthonius; Klungel, Olaf H.; Tan, Hanno L.

    2017-01-01

    AimsSudden cardiac arrest (SCA) is a complex multifactorial event and most commonly caused by ventricular tachycardia/ fibrillation (VT/ VF). Some antihypertensive drugs could induce hypokalaemia or hyperkalaemia, which may increase susceptibility to VT/VF and SCA. ObjectiveTo assess the association

  19. The association of antihypertensives with postural blood pressure and falls among seniors residing in the community: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zia, Anam; Kamaruzzaman, Shahrul B; Myint, Phyo K; Tan, Maw P

    2015-10-01

    A drop in postural blood pressure (BP) may contribute to falls, while antihypertensives have been considered to induce postural drop or orthostatic hypotension (OH) and falls among older people. However, this relationship between antihypertensives, postural BP and the risk of falls has never been evaluated in a single study. To examine the association of postural BP changes and BP therapy with the risk of falls among community-dwelling older people in a case-control manner. Cases (n = 202) included participants aged ≥ 65 years with two falls or one injurious fall while controls (n = 156) included participants ≥ 65 years with no falls in the preceding 12 months. Antihypertensives usage and medical history were recorded. Supine BP measurements were obtained at 10 min rest and at 1, 2 and 3 min after standing. Orthostatic hypotension was defined as a reduction in BP of 20/10 mmHg within 3 min of standing. Individual antihypertensive classes were not associated with falls. Minimal standing systolic BP (SBP) was significantly lower among fallers [128 (± 27·3) vs. 135·7 (± 24·7) mmHg; P = 0·01], but fallers were not more likely to fulfil the diagnostic criteria for OH. Diuretics were associated with OH and α-blockers were associated with minimal standing SBP. Univariate analysis revealed that the use of ≥ 2 antihypertensives was associated with recurrent and injurious falls [OR,1.97;CI,1.2-3.1], which was no longer significant aftermultivariateadjustment for age and number of comorbidities [OR, 1.6; CI, 0.95-2.6]. Minimal standing SBP or a lower SBP at 2 or 3minutes standing was associated with falls rather than OH using consensus definition. Association between ≥ 2 antihypertensives and falls was attenuated by increasing age and comorbidities. Our findings challenge previous assumptions that OH or the use of antihypertensives is associated with falls. Future studies should now seek to link these findings prospectively with falls in order to guide decision

  20. Voltammetric Determination of Anti-Hypertensive Drug Hydrochlorothiazide Using Screen-Printed Electrodes Modified with L-Glutamic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo González-Vargas

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the development of screen-printed carbon electrodes modified with L-glutamic acid via two different approaches: electropolymerization (SPCE/PGA and aryl diazonium electrochemical grafting (SPCE/EGA. SPCE/PGA and SPCE/EGA were analytically compared in the determination of hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ by differential pulse voltammetry. Both electrochemical characterization and analytical performance indicate that SPCE/EGA is a much better sensor for HCTZ. The detection and quantification limits were at the level of μmol L−1 with a very good linearity in the studied concentration range. In addition, the proposed SPCE/EGA was successfully applied for the determination of HCTZ in an anti-hypertensive drug with high reproducibility and good trueness.

  1. Acute and long-term effect of antihypertensive treatment on exercise-induced albuminuria in incipient diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Cramer; Mogensen, C E

    1986-01-01

    . In the acute study, using placebo/metoprolol 10 mg i.v. in patients with normal UAE, the maximal SBP at 600 kpm/min was reduced by 17 mmHg +/- 10 (SD) (2p less than 1.0%) and the maximal SBP at 600 kpm/min in the patients with incipient nephropathy was reduced by 15 mmHg +/- 11 (SD) (2p less than 1.......0%). However, no difference was observed in UAE, in patients with normal UAE or those with incipient nephropathy. Five of the patients with incipient nephropathy were followed with repeated exercise tests before and during 2.6 years of antihypertensive treatment, using metoprolol 200 mg/24 h and subsequently...

  2. Vegetable foods: a cheap source of proteins and peptides with antihypertensive, antioxidant, and other less occurrence bioactivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, M C; Puchalska, P; Esteve, C; Marina, M L

    2013-03-15

    Despite less explored than foods from animal origin, plant derived foods also contain biologically active proteins and peptides. Bioactive peptides can be present as an independent entity in the food or, more frequently, can be in a latent state as part of the sequence of a protein. Release from that protein requires protein hydrolysis by enzymatic digestion, fermentation or autolysis. Different methodologies have been used to test proteins and peptides bioactivities. Fractionation, separation, and identification techniques have also been employed for the isolation and identification of bioactive proteins or peptides. In this work, proteins and peptides from plant derived foods exerting antihypertensive, antioxidant, hypocholesterolemic, antithrombotic, and immunostimulating capacities or ability to reduce food intake have been reviewed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of Discontinuation of Antihypertensive Treatment in Elderly People on Cognitive Functioning-the DANTE Study Leiden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moonen, Justine E F; Foster-Dingley, Jessica C; de Ruijter, Wouter

    2015-01-01

    whether discontinuation of antihypertensive treatment in older persons with mild cognitive deficits improves cognitive, psychological, and general daily functioning. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A community-based randomized clinical trial with a blinded outcome assessment at the 16-week follow...... in secondary outcomes, including differences (95% CIs) in change in compound scores of the 3 cognitive domains (executive function, -0.07 [-0.29 to 0.15; P = .52], memory, 0.08 [-0.12 to 0.29; P = .43], and psychomotor speed, -0.85 [-1.72 to 0.02; P = .06]), symptoms of apathy (0.17 [-0.65 to 0.99; P = .68...

  4. Monitoring of Adverse Drug Reactions Associated with Antihypertensive Medicines at a University Teaching Hospital in New Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fowad Khurshid

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim To monitor the adverse drug reactions (ADRs caused by antihypertensive medicines prescribed in a university teaching hospital.Methods:he present work was an open, non-comparative, observational study conducted on hypertensive patients attending the Medicine OPD of Majeedia Hospital, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, India by conducting patient interviews and recording the data on ADR monitoring form as recommended by Central Drugs Standard Control Organization (CDSCO, Government of India.Results:A total of 21 adverse drug reactions were observed in 192 hypertensive patients. Incidence of adverse drug reactions was found to be higher in patients more than 40 years in age, and females experienced more ADRs (n = 14, 7.29 % than males, 7 (3.64 %. Combination therapy was associated with more number of adverse drug reactions (66.7 % as against monotherapy (33.3 %. Calcium channel blockers were found to be the most frequently associated drugs with adverse drug reactions (n = 7, followed by diuretics (n = 5, and beta- blockers (n = 4. Among individual drugs, amlodipine was found to be the commonest drug associated with adverse drug reactions (n = 7, followed by torasemide (n = 3. Adverse drug reactions associated with central nervous system were found to be the most frequent (42.8 % followed by musculo-skeletal complaints (23.8 % and gastro-intestinal disorders (14.3 %. Conclusions:The present pharmacovigilance study represents the adverse drug reaction profile of the antihypertensive medicines prescribed in our university teaching hospital. The above findings would be useful for physicians in rational prescribing. Calcium channel blockers were found to be the most frequently associated drugs with adverse drug reactions.

  5. Antihypertensive activity of blueberries fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum DSM 15313 and effects on the gut microbiota in healthy rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrén, Irini Lazou; Xu, Jie; Önning, Gunilla; Olsson, Crister; Ahrné, Siv; Molin, Göran

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present animal study was to examine the anti-hypertensive capacity of two probiotic products combining blueberries and the tannase producing probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum DSM 15313 and to investigate if such an effect is linked to a change in the gut microbiota. Male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into six groups of nine each. Three groups of the animals were treated with N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) in the drinking water (40 mg/L) to induce a hypertensive state, and the other three groups were not treated with L-NAME (healthy rats). Two blueberry products differing in their phenolic acid content were tested and each rat received 2 g/day of the fermented blueberry powders for 4 weeks. The effects of the study products on the blood pressure, blood lipids, inflammatory markers, organ weights as well as caecal microbiota of the healthy (non-L-NAME-treated) rats were analyzed. After four weeks, healthy rats consuming freeze dried fermented blueberries with probiotics had a significant reduction in blood pressure compared to the control rats. In rats with L-NAME induced hypertension there was a significant reduction of the blood pressure after two weeks treatment. The probiotic product with a higher content of phenolic acids reduced ALAT in the healthy rats. Furthermore, ingestion of the probiotic blueberry products resulted in changes of the gut microbiota in the healthy rats. Blueberries fermented with the tannase producing bacteria L. plantarum DSM 15313 have anti-hypertensive properties and may reduce the risk for cardiovascular diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparative effectiveness of fourth-line anti-hypertensive agents in resistant hypertension: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnott, Sarah-Jo; Tomlinson, Laurie A; Root, Adrian A; Mathur, Rohini; Mansfield, Kathryn E; Smeeth, Liam; Douglas, Ian J

    2017-02-01

    Aim We assessed the effectiveness of fourth-line mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists in comparison with other fourth-line anti-hypertensive agents in resistant hypertension. Methods and results We systematically searched Medline, EMBASE and the Cochrane library from database inception until January 2016. We included randomised and non-randomised studies that compared mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists with other fourth-line anti-hypertensive agents in patients with resistant hypertension. The outcome was change in systolic blood pressure, measured in the office, at home or by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Secondary outcomes were changes in serum potassium and occurrence of hyperkalaemia. We used random effects models and assessed statistical heterogeneity using the I 2 test and corresponding 95% confidence intervals. From 2,506 records, 5 studies met our inclusion criteria with 755 included patients. Two studies were randomised and three were non-randomised. Comparative fourth-line agents included bisoprolol, doxazosin, furosemide and additional blockade of the renin angiotensin-aldosterone system. Using data from randomised studies, mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists reduced blood pressure by 7.4 mmHg (95%CI 3.2 - 11.6) more than the active comparator. When limited to non-randomised studies, mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists reduced blood pressure by 11.9 mmHg (95% CI 9.3 - 14.4) more than the active comparator. Conclusion On the basis of this meta-analysis, mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists reduce blood pressure more effectively than other fourth-line agents in resistant hypertension. Effectiveness stratified by ethnicity and comorbidities, in addition to information on clinical outcomes such as myocardial infarction and stroke, now needs to be determined.

  7. Using Clinical Data, Hypothesis Generation Tools and PubMed Trends to Discover the Association between Diabetic Retinopathy and Antihypertensive Drugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senter, Katherine G [ORNL; Sukumar, Sreenivas R [ORNL; Patton, Robert M [ORNL; Chaum, Ed [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a leading cause of blindness and common complication of diabetes. Many diabetic patients take antihypertensive drugs to prevent cardiovascular problems, but these drugs may have unintended consequences on eyesight. Six common classes of antihypertensive drug are angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, alpha blockers, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), -blockers, calcium channel blockers, and diuretics. Analysis of medical history data might indicate which of these drugs provide safe blood pressure control, and a literature review is often used to guide such analyses. Beyond manual reading of relevant publications, we sought to identify quantitative trends in literature from the biomedical database PubMed to compare with quantitative trends in the clinical data. By recording and analyzing PubMed search results, we found wide variation in the prevalence of each antihypertensive drug in DR literature. Drug classes developed more recently such as ACE inhibitors and ARBs were most prevalent. We also identified instances of change-over-time in publication patterns. We then compared these literature trends to a dataset of 500 diabetic patients from the UT Hamilton Eye Institute. Data for each patient included class of antihypertensive drug, presence and severity of DR. Graphical comparison revealed that older drug classes such as diuretics, calcium channel blockers, and -blockers were much more prevalent in the clinical data than in the DR and antihypertensive literature. Finally, quantitative analysis of the dataset revealed that patients taking -blockers were statistically more likely to have DR than patients taking other medications, controlling for presence of hypertension and year of diabetes onset. This finding was concerning given the prevalence of -blockers in the clinical data. We determined that clinical use of -blockers should be minimized in diabetic patients to prevent retinal damage.

  8. Patients undergoing long-term treatment with antihypertensive eye drops responded positively with respect to their ocular surface disorder to oral supplementation with antioxidants and essential fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbis-Estrada, Carmen; Pinazo-Durán, Maria D; Cantú-Dibildox, Jorge; Marco-Ramírez, Carla; Díaz-Llópis, Manuel; Benítez-del-Castillo, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Glaucoma and dry eye disorders (DEDs) are frequent comorbidities. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids have been extensively studied in relation to eye diseases. Our objective was to determine the effects of oral supplementation with a combined formulation of antioxidants and essential polyunsaturated fatty acids on expression of cytokines and chemokines in tears from patients with DEDs or primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). Participants (n = 97) were distributed into three groups: (1) individuals with nonsevere DEDs (DEDG), (2) individuals with nonadvanced POAG (POAGG), and (3) healthy controls. These groups were randomized into two subgroups: one received a daily antioxidant and essential polyunsaturated fatty acid supplement (two pills) for 3 months (+S), and the other did not (-NS). Participants were interviewed and ophthalmologically examined. Concentrations of specific cytokines and chemokines in reflex tears were determined by multiplexed particle-based flow cytometry. The data were analyzed statistically (SPSS version 15.0). Comparison of the results from the DEDG and POAGG patients showed significant differences in tear expression of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (P = 0.008), tumor necrosis factor α (P = 0.005), vascular endothelial growth factor (P = 0.038), interleukin-4 (P = 0.030), and interleukin-6 (P = 0.044). The main signs and symptoms of dry eyes such as dryness, burning, photophobia, eye heaviness, and blurred vision, as well as positive changes in eyelashes, hair, nails and skin, were significantly improved in DEDG +S and POAGG +S patients relative to unsupplemented patients. Inflammation biomarkers were differentially expressed in glaucomatous tears, but the differences changed upon antioxidant/essential polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation. Chronic instillation of antihypertensive eye drops must be considered for integrating protocols to glaucoma standards of care.

  9. Novel augmented reality solution for improving health literacy around antihypertensives in people living with type 2 diabetes mellitus: protocol of a technology evaluation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadvand, Alireza; Drennan, Judy; Burgess, Jean; Clark, Michele; Kavanagh, David; Burns, Kara; Howard, Sarah; Kelly, Fleur; Campbell, Chris; Nissen, Lisa

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Low health literacy is common in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) (up to 40%), associated with decreased self-efficacy in managing T2DM and its important complications, mainly hypertension. This study introduces, for the first time, an easy-to-use solution based on augmented reality (AR) on smartphones, to enhance health literacy around antihypertensive medicines. It assesses the feasibility of the solution for improving health literacy, oriented specifically to angiotensin II receptor blockers; embedding the health literacy improvement into the use cycle of angiotensin II receptor blockers and providing continuous access to information as a form of patient engagement. Methods and analysis This is a technology evaluation study with one technology group (AR plus usual care) and one non-technology group (usual care). Both groups receive face-to-face communications with community pharmacists regarding angiotensin II receptor blockers; the technology group receive additional AR-enhanced digital consumer medicine information throughout the use of their medications. The primary outcome is the change in health literacy and the hypothesis is that the proportions of people who show high health literacy will be larger in the technology group. Mixed effects models will be used to analyse solution effectiveness on outcomes. Multiple regression models will be used to find additional variables that might affect the relationship between health literacy and the AR solution. Ethics and dissemination Queensland University of Technology (QUT) Human Research Ethics Committee has approved the study as a low-risk technology evaluation study (approval number: 1700000275). Findings will be disseminated via attending scientific conferences and publishing in peer-reviewed journals. Facilitated by QUT, two press releases have been published in public media and two presentations have been made in university classrooms. PMID:29705754

  10. Novel augmented reality solution for improving health literacy around antihypertensives in people living with type 2 diabetes mellitus: protocol of a technology evaluation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadvand, Alireza; Drennan, Judy; Burgess, Jean; Clark, Michele; Kavanagh, David; Burns, Kara; Howard, Sarah; Kelly, Fleur; Campbell, Chris; Nissen, Lisa

    2018-04-28

    Low health literacy is common in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) (up to 40%), associated with decreased self-efficacy in managing T2DM and its important complications, mainly hypertension. This study introduces, for the first time, an easy-to-use solution based on augmented reality (AR) on smartphones, to enhance health literacy around antihypertensive medicines. It assesses the feasibility of the solution for improving health literacy, oriented specifically to angiotensin II receptor blockers; embedding the health literacy improvement into the use cycle of angiotensin II receptor blockers and providing continuous access to information as a form of patient engagement. This is a technology evaluation study with one technology group (AR plus usual care) and one non-technology group (usual care). Both groups receive face-to-face communications with community pharmacists regarding angiotensin II receptor blockers; the technology group receive additional AR-enhanced digital consumer medicine information throughout the use of their medications. The primary outcome is the change in health literacy and the hypothesis is that the proportions of people who show high health literacy will be larger in the technology group. Mixed effects models will be used to analyse solution effectiveness on outcomes. Multiple regression models will be used to find additional variables that might affect the relationship between health literacy and the AR solution. Queensland University of Technology (QUT) Human Research Ethics Committee has approved the study as a low-risk technology evaluation study (approval number: 1700000275). Findings will be disseminated via attending scientific conferences and publishing in peer-reviewed journals. Facilitated by QUT, two press releases have been published in public media and two presentations have been made in university classrooms. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All

  11. The effect of anti-hypertensive drugs on the obstructive pancreatitis in rats Efeitos de fármacos anti-hipertensivos sobre pancreatite obstrutiva em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto de Barros Silva

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of ACE inhibitor, lisinopril and AT1 blocker, losartan, on the obstructive pancreatitis in rat. METHODS: Acute pancreatitis in rats (n=21 was induced for a common hepatic duct were ligated proximal to its entry into the pancreas and the common bile - pancreatic duct were also ligated near its junction with the duodenum, under ether anesthesia, after which the abdomen were closed. The animals was divided in tree groups, being two treated and control group. The animals was treated with Losartan and Lisinopril at the dose of 10µg/Kg body weight per day, i.p., in a proportional volume, for five days, before and after treatement. RESULTS: The inflammation, collagen deposition in the pancreas of treated animals were smaller, suggesting that the use of antihypertensive agents interfered positively in the depletion of the injury of the pancreas. Scythe showed a correlation between activity of pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs lower in treated animals when compared to control. CONCLUSION: The pancreatic stellate cells strength are involved in collagen production during acute pancreatitis and why antihypertensive drugs such as lisinopril and losartan may possibly have beneficial effects in reducing pancreatic fibrosis in models of experimental obstructive pancreatitis.OBJETIVO: Investigar o efeito de um inibidor da ECA, lisinopril e bloqueador AT1, losartan, a pancreatite obstrutiva em ratos. MÉTODOS: Pancreatite aguda em ratos (n = 21 foi induzida por um ducto hepático comum foram ligados proximal à sua entrada no pâncreas e da bílis comum - ducto pancreático também foram ligados perto de sua junção com o duodeno, sob anestesia com éter, após o que abdome foram fechadas. Os animais foram divididos em três grupos, sendo dois tratados eo grupo controle. Os animais foram tratados com lisinopril e losartan na dose de 10µg/Kg de peso corporal por dia, IP, em um volume proporcional, por cinco dias, antes e depois

  12. [Effect of various types of antihypertensive therapy on elasticity of arterial wall in elderly patients with hypertensive disease and nonvalvular atrial fibrillation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevelev, V I; Kanorskiĭ, S G

    2012-01-01

    Basing on the data of ultrasound study we compared effects of various antihypertensive therapies on elastic properties of common carotid arteries and the thoracic aorta in 133 patients aged 65-80 years with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF). The use of perindopril, lercanidipin, valsartan and its combination with rosuvastatin was associated with elevation of the distensibility index of common carotid artery and lowering of coefficient of stiffness of aortic wall compared with the initial state. Combination of valsartan (80-160 mg/day) with rosuvastatin 10 (mg/day) produced most pronounced effect on compliance of vascular wall compared with other variants of treatment. Combination of valsartan and rosuvastatin can be considered an optimal strategy of antihypertensive therapy allowing to improve elastic properties of arterial wall in elderly patients with nonvalvular AF.

  13. Antihypertensive activity of 80% methanol seed extract of Calpurnia aurea (Ait.) Benth. subsp. aurea (Fabaceae) is mediated through calcium antagonism induced vasodilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getiye, Yohannes; Tolessa, Tesfaye; Engidawork, Ephrem

    2016-08-02

    Calpurnia aurea (Ait.) Benth. subsp. aurea (CASA) (Fabaceae) seeds are used to treat hypertension in Ethiopian folklore medicine, particularly by Shinasha, Agew-awi and Amhara people in northwest Ethiopia. However, the claim has so far not been substantiated scientifically. The study was conducted to evaluate the antihypertensive activity of 80% methanol extract of CASA in animal model of hypertension as well as its vasorelaxant effect and possible underlying mechanisms in isolated guinea pig aorta. Hypotensive and antihypertensive effect of CASA extract was determined in vivo through the intravenous (iv) route in normotensive and hypertensive anesthetized rats using 2-kidney-1-clip (2K1C) rat model. Ex vivo, guinea pig thoracic aortic rings were isolated and suspended in organ bath, and the vasodepressor effects as well as the mechanism of action of the extract were studied by means of isometric tension recording experiments. The blood pressure fell dose-dependently and significantly in renal hypertensive and normotensive rats following i.v. administration, suggesting that the hydroalcoholic extract possesses hypotensive and antihypertensive effects. The extract also caused a dose-dependent relaxation of aorta pre-contracted with KCl at a concentration of 5-250mg/L, with a maximum relaxation of 92.1% achieved at 250mg/L. The relaxation mechanism was found to be independent of the muscarinic receptors, histamine receptors, ATP dependent K(+) channels, cyclooxygenase enzymes, cGMP/NO pathway and the endothelium system. The extract caused rightward shift of the Ca(++) dose-response curves, similar to that caused by verapamil, indicating that it produced vasorelaxation by inhibiting extracellular Ca(2+) influx. The findings demonstrate that the plant is endowed with antihypertensive effect, providing evidence for its traditional use. The effect may be, at least in part, due to dilation of blood vessels through blockage of Ca(2+) channels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier

  14. Trends in prescribing and persistence with antihypertensive therapy: results of the study PAPEETE (Population-based Analysis of Persistence and Economics of treatment with telmisartan study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Vittorio Costa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the results of the PAPEETE study (Population-based Analysis of PErsistence with treatment and Economics of TElmisartan that assessed trends in prescriptions, determinants and timing of treatment discontinuation and/or changes in antihypertensive drug therapy in a cohort of hypertensive patients living in Pavia. In the study were included all new users 18 years old or over receiving a first prescription for diuretics, beta-blockers, calcium channel-blockers, ACE inhibitors (ACEi or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs between 1 January 2003 and 31 December 2006. The follow-up period for each patient was 12 months starting from enrolment date. Based in the presence of continuous therapy, patients were defined as persistent and non-persistent users. A total of 61,493 patients was included in the study of whom 11.2% were persistent. Persistence with the treatment seems to be associated with patient-related factors and with the class of anti-hypertensive drug initially prescribed with the lowest persistence to antihypertensive treatment with diuretics (3.0% and the highest with ARBs (18.8%.

  15. Micellar Enhanced Three-Dimensional Excitation-Emission Matrix Fluorescence for Rapid Determination of Antihypertensives in Human Plasma with Aid of Second-Order Calibration Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Yan Fu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A highly sensitive three-dimensional excitation-emission fluorescence method was proposed to determine antihypertensives including valsartan and amlodipine besylate in human plasma with the aid of second-order calibration methods based on parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC and alternating trilinear decomposition (ATLD algorithms. Antihypertensives with weak fluorescent can be transformed into a strong fluorescent property by changing microenvironment in samples using micellar enhanced surfactant. Both the adopted algorithms with second-order advantage can improve the resolution and directly attain antihypertensives concentration even in the presence of potential strong intrinsic fluorescence from human plasma. The satisfactory results can be achieved for valsartan and amlodipine besylate in complicated human plasma. Furthermore, some statistical parameters and figures of merit were evaluated to investigate the performance of the proposed method, and the accuracy and precision of the proposed method were also validated by the elliptical joint confidence region (EJCR test and repeatability analysis of intraday and interday assay. The proposed method could not only light a new avenue to directly determine valsartan or amlodipine besylate in human plasma, but also hold great potential to be extended as a promising alternative for more practical applications in the determination of weak fluorescent drugs.

  16. Follow-up of Antihypertensive Therapy Improves Blood Pressure Control: Results of HYT (HYperTension survey) Follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fici, F; Seravalle, G; Koylan, N; Nalbantgil, I; Cagla, N; Korkut, Y; Quarti-Trevano, F; Makel, W; Grassi, G

    2017-09-01

    Although improved during the past few years, blood pressure control remains sub optimal. The impact of follow-up assessment on blood pressure control was evaluated in a group of patients of the HYT (HYperTension survey), treated with a combination of different dihydropyridine calcium-channel blockers (CCBs regimen) and inhibitors of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and with uncontrolled blood pressure. This was obtained assessing (a) the rate of blood pressure control at 3 and 6 months of follow-up in the whole group of patients, (b) the rate of blood pressure control and the average blood pressure values in subjects treated with different DHP-CCBs regimen. From the 4993 patients with uncontrolled blood pressure, (BP ≥ 140/90 or ≥140/85 in patients with diabetes), 3729 (mean age 61.2 ± 11.5 years), maintained CCBs regimen combined wih RAAS blockers and were evaluated at 3 and 6 months follow-up. At each visit BP (semiautomatic device, Omron-M6, 3 measurements), heart rate, adverse events and treatment persistence were collected. At 1st and 2nd follow-up the rate of controlled BP was 63.5 and 72.8% respectively (p blood pressure control; (b) there is no significant difference in the antihypertensive effect between different CCBs regimen; (c) lipophilic CCBs induce less ankle edema.

  17. The effects of anti-hypertensives and type 2 diabetes on salivary flow and total antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djukić, L J; Roganović, J; Brajović, M D; Bokonjić, D; Stojić, D

    2015-07-01

    The present cross-sectional study aimed to determine the effect of first-line anti-hypertensive drugs (enalapril, metoprolol, and combinations of enalapril with metoprolol and/or hydrochlorothiazide) on salivary gland function and salivary total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in hypertensive patients with/without diabetes mellitus (DM) type 2. Salivary gland function was measured as xerostomia (interview) and unstimulated whole saliva flow rate (UWSFR) in 447 subjects (387 hypertensive and 60 healthy). Salivary TAC was evaluated by spectrophotometric assay. Enalapril is not xerogenic, while metoprolol and drug combinations are. In the presence of DM type 2, all drugs, except metoprolol, had pronounced xerogenic effect. Binary logistic regression analysis found enalapril to be significantly associated with decreased risk of xerogenic effect development, while DM type 2 with increased risk. In the presence of enalapril in hypertensive patients with/without DM type 2 salivary TAC was similar to that in healthy subjects, while for metoprolol was reduced. Enalapril is not xerogenic but is antioxidant, which moderately reduces the risk of xerogenic effect development even in the presence of DM type 2. However, metoprolol and drug combinations exhibit xerogenic effect. In DM type 2, xerogenic effect of all drugs was pronounced except of metoprolol. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Investigation of the Relationship of Some Antihypertensive Drugs with Oxidant/Antioxidant Parameters and DNA Damage on Rat Uterus Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Talip Sener

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In this study, we investigated the effects of treatment with chronic antihypertensivedrugs (clonidine, methyldopa, amlodipine, ramipril and rilmenidine on oxidant-antioxidantparameters and toxic effects on DNA in rat uterus tissue. In addition, uterus tissues were examinedhistopathologically.Materials and Methods: A total of 36 albino Wistar rats were divided into the following six groups:0.075 mg/kg clonidine group; 100 mg/kg methyldopa group; 2 mg/kg amlodipine group; 2.5 mg/kgramipril group; 0.5 mg/kg rilmenidine group; and the healthy group. Rats underwent chronic drugadministration for 30 days and at the end, biochemical and histopathological examinations wereperformed. All data were subjected to one-way ANOVA test.Results: We divided these drugs into the following three groups according to their effects on ratuteri: (I mild negative effects (clonidine, (II moderate negative effects (rilmenidine, methyldopaand (III drugs which had severe negative effects (amlodipine, ramipril.Conclusion: These data may help with selection of antihypertensive drugs, in order to determinewhich drugs have the lowest toxicity in pregnant and non-pregnant (pre-pregnancy women.

  19. Effect of Clonidine (an Antihypertensive Drug Treatment on Oxidative Stress Markers in the Heart of Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

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    Nik Syamimi Nik Yusoff

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is a risk factor for several cardiovascular diseases and oxidative stress suggested to be involved in the pathophysiology. Antihypertensive drug Clonidine action in ameliorating oxidative stress was not well studied. Therefore, this study investigate the effect of Clonidine on oxidative stress markers and nitric oxide (NO in SHR and nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME administered SHR. Male rats were divided into four groups [SHR, SHR+Clonidine (SHR-C, SHR+L-NAME, SHR+Clonidine+L-NAME(SHRC+L-NAME]. Rats (SHRC were administered with Clonidine (0.5 mg kg−1 day−1 from 4 weeks to 28 weeks in drinking water and L-NAME (25 mg kg−1 day−1 from 16 weeks to 28 weeks to SHRC+L-NAME. Systolic blood pressure (SBP was measured. At the end of 28 weeks, all rats were sacrificed and in their heart homogenate, oxidative stress parameters and NO was assessed. Clonidine treatment significantly enhanced the total antioxidant status (TAS (P<0.001 and reduced the thibarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS (P<0.001 and protein carbonyl content (PCO (P<0.05. These data suggest that oxidative stress is involved in the hypertensive organ damage and Clonidine not only lowers the SBP but also ameliorated the oxidative stress in the heart of SHR and SHR+L-NAME.

  20. Clinical Trials of Blood Pressure Lowering and Antihypertensive Medication: is Cognitive Measurement State-Of-The-Art?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Merrill F; Torres, Rachael V; Davey, Adam

    2018-02-22

    Randomized controlled trials of blood pressure (BP) lowering and antihypertensive medication use on cognitive outcomes have often been disappointing, reporting mixed findings and small effect sizes. We evaluate the extent to which cognitive assessment protocols used in these trials approach state-of-the-art. Overall, we find that a primary focus on cognition and the systematic selection of cognitive outcomes across trials take a backseat to other trial goals. Twelve trials investigating change in cognitive functioning were examined and none met criteria for state-of-the-art assessment, including use of at least 4 tests indexing 2 cognitive domains. Four trials investigating incident dementia were also examined. Each trial used state-of-the-art diagnostic criteria to assess dementia, although follow-up periods were relatively short, with only 2 trials lasting for at least 3 years. Weaknesses in each trial may act to obscure or weaken the positive effects of BP lowering on cognitive functioning. Improving trial designs in terms of cognitive outcomes selected and length of follow-up periods employed could lead to more promising findings. We offer logical steps to achieve state-of-the-art assessment protocols, with examples, in hopes of improving future trials.

  1. Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling of the antihypertensive interaction between azilsartan medoxomil and chlorthalidone in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar Puttrevu, Santosh; Ramakrishna, Rachumallu; Bhateria, Manisha; Jain, Moon; Hanif, Kashif; Bhatta, Rabi Sankar

    2017-05-01

    A pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) model was developed to describe the time course of blood pressure following oral administration of azilsartan medoxomil (AZM) and/or chlorthalidone (CLT) in spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rats. The drug concentration and pharmacological effects, including systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and tail-cuff manometry, respectively. Sequential PK-PD analysis was performed, wherein the plasma concentration-time data was modeled by one compartmental analysis. Subsequently PD parameters were calculated to describe the time-concentration-response relationship using indirect response (IDR) PK-PD model. The combination of AZ and CLT had greater BP lowering effect compared to AZ or CLT alone, despite of no pharmacokinetic interaction between two drugs. These findings suggest synergistic antihypertensive pharmacodynamic interaction between AZ and CLT noncompetitively, which was simulated by inhibitory function of AZ and stimulatory function of CLT after concomitant administration of the two drugs. The present model was able to capture the turnover of blood pressure adequately at different time points at two different dose levels. The current PK-PD model was successfully utilized in the simulation of PD effect at a dose combination of 0.5 and 2.5 mg/kg for AZ and CLT, respectively. The developed preclinical PK-PD model may provide guidance in the optimization of dose ratio of individual drugs in the combined pharmacotherapy of AZ and CLT at clinical situations.

  2. Angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitory activity and antihypertensive effect in spontaneously hypertensive rats of cobia (Rachycentron canadum) head papain hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ping; Jiang, Yuchuan; Hong, Pengzhi; Cao, Wenhong

    2013-06-01

    Cobia head protein hydrolysate (CHPH) with angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity was prepared with papain. The 3 kDa ultrafiltration filtrate CHPH-IV of the hydrolysate exerted a potent ACE inhibitory activity with IC50 being 0.24 mg/mL. The fractions with molecular weight located between 1749 Da and 173 Da represented up 66.96% of CHPH-IV, and those between 494 Da and 173 Da represented up 31.37% of CHPH-IV. It was found that the ACE inhibitory activity of CHPH-IV was intensified from IC50 0.24 mg/mL to 0.17 mg/mL after incubation with gastrointestinal proteases. The CHPH-IV significantly decreased the systolic blood pressure in a dose-dependent manner after oral administration to spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) at dose of 150 mg/kg, 600 mg/kg and 1200 mg/kg body weight. These results suggested that CHPH-IV from cobia head protein hydrolysate by papain could serve as a source of peptides with antihypertensive activity in functional food industry.

  3. It's all a matter of necessity and concern: A structural equation model of adherence to antihypertensive medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Marcel; Rief, Winfried; Doering, Bettina K

    2018-03-01

    Hypertension is often treated pharmacologically, yet adherence is poor. Beliefs about antihypertensive medicine, i.e., the necessity-concern framework (NCF), are valuable for explaining adherence. Therefore, a model structure is transferred from hypercholesterolemia to hypertension, assuming a mediating role of the NCF. Patients with hypertension (n=273) were surveyed online about demographics, health- and treatment-related factors, control beliefs, necessity and concern beliefs about their medication, and adherence. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM). Necessity was positively (β=0.26, p=0.009) and concern was negatively (β=-0.51, p=0.020) associated with adherence. The NCF mediated the influence of background variables on adherence. Necessity was associated with comorbidity (β=-0.36, pConcern was associated with side effects (β=0.38, pconcern framework as a mediating factor was confirmed in hypertension, explaining more variance than previous approaches (23%). A personalized, emotionally supportive doctor-patient communication could be key to addressing beliefs about medicine and therefore to increasing adherence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Small artery structure adapts to vasodilatation rather than to blood pressure during antihypertensive treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiassen, Ole N.; Buus, Niels H.; Larsen, Mogens L

    2007-01-01

    . RESULTS: In group A, mean ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) fell from 119 +/- 2 (SE) to 103 +/- 2 mmHg (P ABP was unchanged in group B (100 +/- 1 to 99 +/- 1 mmHg, P = NS). Both groups showed similar reductions in Rrest (-33.4 and -28.5%, respectively) and in Rmin (-15.4 and -15...

  5. Patients undergoing long-term treatment with antihypertensive eye drops responded positively with respect to their ocular surface disorder to oral supplementation with antioxidants and essential fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galbis-Estrada C

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Carmen Galbis-Estrada,1,* Maria D Pinazo-Durán,1,* Jorge Cantú-Dibildox,2 Carla Marco-Ramírez,1 Manuel Díaz-Llópis,1,3 Javier Benítez-del-Castillo21Ophthalmic Research Unit Santiago Grisolia, Department of Surgery/Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Hospital of Jerez, Jerez de la Frontera, Cádiz, Spain; 3University and Polytechnic Hospital La Fe, Valencia, Spain*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Glaucoma and dry eye disorders (DEDs are frequent comorbidities. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids have been extensively studied in relation to eye diseases.Objective: Our objective was to determine the effects of oral supplementation with a combined formulation of antioxidants and essential polyunsaturated fatty acids on expression of cytokines and chemokines in tears from patients with DEDs or primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG.Methods: Participants (n = 97 were distributed into three groups: (1 individuals with nonsevere DEDs (DEDG, (2 individuals with nonadvanced POAG (POAGG, and (3 healthy controls. These groups were randomized into two subgroups: one received a daily antioxidant and essential polyunsaturated fatty acid supplement (two pills for 3 months (+S, and the other did not (−NS. Participants were interviewed and ophthalmologically examined. Concentrations of specific cytokines and chemokines in reflex tears were determined by multiplexed particle-based flow cytometry. The data were analyzed statistically (SPSS version 15.0.Results: Comparison of the results from the DEDG and POAGG patients showed significant differences in tear expression of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (P = 0.008, tumor necrosis factor α (P = 0.005, vascular endothelial growth factor (P = 0.038, interleukin-4 (P = 0.030, and interleukin-6 (P = 0.044. The main signs and symptoms of dry eyes such

  6. The Importance of G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 4 (GRK4 in Pathogenesis of Salt Sensitivity, Salt Sensitive Hypertension and Response to Antihypertensive Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Rayner

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Salt sensitivity is probably caused by either a hereditary or acquired defect of salt excretion by the kidney, and it is reasonable to consider that this is the basis for differences in hypertension between black and white people. Dopamine acts in an autocrine/paracrine fashion to promote natriuresis in the proximal tubule and thick ascending loop of Henle. G-protein receptor kinases (or GRKs are serine and threonine kinases that phosphorylate G protein-coupled receptors in response to agonist stimulation and uncouple the dopamine receptor from its G protein. This results in a desensitisation process that protects the cell from repeated agonist exposure. GRK4 activity is increased in spontaneously hypertensive rats, and infusion of GRK4 antisense oligonucleotides attenuates the increase in blood pressure (BP. This functional defect is replicated in the proximal tubule by expression of GRK4 variants namely p.Arg65Leu, p.Ala142Val and p.Val486Ala, in cell lines, with the p.Ala142Val showing the most activity. In humans, GRK4 polymorphisms were shown to be associated with essential hypertension in Australia, BP regulation in young adults, low renin hypertension in Japan and impaired stress-induced Na excretion in normotensive black men. In South Africa, GRK4 polymorphisms are more common in people of African descent, associated with impaired Na excretion in normotensive African people, and predict blood pressure response to Na restriction in African patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension. The therapeutic importance of the GRK4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs was emphasised in the African American Study of Kidney Disease (AASK where African-Americans with hypertensive nephrosclerosis were randomised to receive amlodipine, ramipril or metoprolol. Men with the p.Ala142Val genotype were less likely to respond to metoprolol, especially if they also had the p.Arg65Leu variant. Furthermore, in the analysis of response to treatment in

  7. Excessive daytime sleepiness and adherence to antihypertensive medications among Blacks: analysis of the counseling African Americans to control hypertension (CAATCH trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams NJ

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Natasha J Williams,1 Girardin Jean-Louis,1 Abhishek Pandey,2 Joseph Ravenell,1 Carla Boutin-Foster,3 Gbenga Ogedegbe1 1Center for Healthful Behavior Change, Division of Internal Medicine, NYU Medical Center, New York, 2Department of Family Medicine, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, 3Center of Excellence in Disparities Research, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, USA Background: Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS often occurs as a result of insufficient sleep, sleep apnea, illicit substance use, and other medical and psychiatric conditions. This study tested the hypothesis that blacks exhibiting EDS would have poorer self-reported adherence to hypertensive medication using cross-sectional data from the Counseling African-Americans to Control Hypertension (CAATCH trial. Methods: A total of 1,058 hypertensive blacks (average age 57±12 years participated in CAATCH, a randomized controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness of a multilevel intervention for participants who receive care from community health centers in New York City. Data analyzed in this study included baseline sociodemographics, medical history, EDS, and medication adherence. We used the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, with a cutoff score of ≥10, to define EDS. Medication adherence was measured using an abbreviated Morisky Medication Adherence scale, with a score >0 indicating nonadherence. Results: Of the sample, 71% were female, 72% received at least a high school education, 51% reported a history of smoking, and 33% had a history of alcohol consumption. Overall, 27% of the participants exhibited EDS, and 44% of those who exhibited EDS were classified as adherent to prescribed antihypertensive medications. Multivariable logistic regression analysis, adjusting for effects of age, body mass index, sex, education, and smoking and drinking history indicated that participants who exhibited EDS were more than twice as likely to be nonadherent (odds ratio 2.28, 95

  8. Characterization of antidiabetic and antihypertensive properties of canary seed (Phalaris canariensis L.) peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Salas, Patricia A; Montero-Morán, Gabriela M; Martínez-Cuevas, Pedro P; González, Carmen; Barba de la Rosa, Ana P

    2014-01-15

    Canary grass is used as traditional food for diabetes and hypertension treatment. The aim of this work is to characterize the biological activity of encrypted peptides released after gastrointestinal digestion of canary seed proteins. Canary peptides showed 43.5% inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV) and 73.5% inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity. An isolated perfused rat heart system was used to evaluate the canary seed vasoactive effect. Nitric oxide (NO), a major vasodilator agent, was evaluated in the venous effluent from isolated perfused rat heart. Canary seed peptides (1 μg/mL) were able to induce the production of NO (12.24 μM) in amounts similar to those induced by captopril (CPT) and bradykinin (BK). These results show that encrypted peptides in canary seed have inhibitory activity against DPPIV and ACE, enzymes that are targets for diabetes and hypertension treatments.

  9. Male infertility during antihypertensive therapy: are we addressing correctly the problem?

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Simone Laganà; Salvatore Giovanni Vitale; Paola Iaconianni; Simona Gatti; Francesco Padula

    2016-01-01

    Male fertility significantly decreased in the last 50 years, as showed in several studies reporting a reduction of sperm counts per ml in the seminal fluid. Several ?acute? pharmacological treatments, as antibiotics, could cause subclinical and temporary reduction of male fertility; conversely, long-term medical treatment may severely affect male fertility, although this effect could be considered transient in most of the cases. Thus, nowadays, several long-term pharmacological treatments may...

  10. Pharmaceutical Composition of Valsartan: β-Cyclodextrin: Physico–Chemical Characterization and Anti-Hypertensive Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo de Matos Jensen

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Valsartan, a water-insoluble drug, is mainly used in the treatment of hypertension albeit with reduced oral bioavailability. The aim of work was to develop a valsartan:β-cyclodextrin (VAL:β-CD pharmaceutical composition in order to improve its water solubility and bioavailability. The VAL:β-CD complexes were prepared by the kneading, solid dispersion and freeze-drying methods, of which the freeze-drying method (FDY was found to be the best to prepare an inclusion complex. A physical mixtyure PM was also prepared. Complexes were characterized by thermal analysis, Fourier transformed- infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, Powder X-ray diffractometry, intrinsic dissolution and NMR (2D-ROESY. Phase-solubility analysis showed AL-type diagrams with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD. Microcalorimetric titrations suggested the formation of 1:1 inclusion complex between VAL and β-CD. The apparent stability constants K1:1 calculated from phase-solubility plots were 165.4 M-1 (298 K, 145.0 M-1 (303 K and 111.3 M-1 (310 K. In vivo experiments in rats showed that reduction in arterial pressure for the FDY complex is better than with valsartan used alone. The better activity of FDY can be attributed to the higher solubility of valsartan after inclusion in the cyclodextrin cavity, as suggest by the intrinsic dissolution studies.

  11. Impact of Power Ultrasound on Antihypertensive Activity, Functional Properties, and Thermal Stability of Rapeseed Protein Hydrolysates

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    Asif Wali

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of power ultrasound pretreatments on the degree of hydrolysis (DH, angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitory activity, amino acid composition, surface hydrophobicity, protein solubility, and thermal stability of ACE inhibition of rapeseed protein hydrolysates were evaluated. Ultrasonic pretreatments before enzymolysis in terms of power and exposure time increased the DH and ACE inhibitory activities over the control (without sonication. In this study, maximum DH 22.07% and ACE inhibitory activity 72.13% were achieved at 600 W and 12 min pretreatment. Compared to the hydrolysates obtained without sonication, the amino acid profile of ultrasound pretreated hydrolysates showed significant changes particularly in the proline content and hydrophobic amino acids with an increased rate of 2.47% and 6.31%, respectively. Ultrasound pretreatment (600 watts, 12 min improved functional properties of protein hydrolysates over control by enhancing surface hydrophobicity and solubility index with an increased rate of 130.76% and 34.22%. Moreover, the stability test showed that the ACE inhibitory activity remains stable against heat treatments. However, extensive heat, prolonged heating time, and alkaline conditions were not in the favor of stability test, while under mild heat and acidic conditions their ACE inhibitory activities were not significantly different from unheated samples.

  12. Health-related quality of life in persons with apparent treatment-resistant hypertension on at least four antihypertensives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carris, N W; Ghushchyan, V; Libby, A M; Smith, S M

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about the impact of treatment-resistant hypertension (TRH) on health-related quality of life (HrQoL). We aimed to compare HrQoL measures in adults with apparent TRH (aTRH) and non-resistant hypertension among nationally representative US Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data pooled from 2000 to 2011. Cohorts compared were adults with aTRH (⩾2 unique fills from ⩾4 antihypertensive classes during a year) versus non-resistant hypertension (those with hypertension not meeting the aTRH definition). Key outcomes were cohort differences in SF-12v2 physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS) scores and disease-state utility using the SF-6D. Of 57 150 adults with hypertension, 2501 (4.4%) met criteria for aTRH. Persons with aTRH, compared with non-resistant hypertension, were older (mean, 68 vs 61 years), had a higher BMI (30.9 vs 29.7 kg m(-)(2)) and were more likely to be Black (20% vs 14%), but less likely to be female (46% vs 54%). Persons with aTRH, compared with non-resistant hypertension, had lower mean PCS scores (35.8 vs 43.2; Phypertension. In conclusion, aTRH was associated with substantially lower HrQoL in physical functioning and health utility, but not in mental functioning, compared with non-resistant hypertension. The multivariable-adjusted reduction in physical functioning was similar in magnitude to previous observations comparing hypertension with no hypertension.

  13. The therapeutic advantage of combination antihypertensive drug therapy using amlodipine and irbesartan in hypertensive patients: Analysis of the post-marketing survey data from PARTNER (Practical combination therapy of Amlodin and angiotensin II Receptor blocker; safety and efficacy in patients with hypertension) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishimitsu, Toshihiko; Fukuda, Hirofumi; Uchida, Masako; Ishibashi, Kazushi; Sato, Fusako; Nukui, Kazuhiko; Nagao, Munehiko

    2015-01-01

    Two-thirds of hypertensive patients need a combination antihypertensive therapy to achieve the target blood pressure (BP). The PARTNER (Practical combination therapy of Amlodin and angiotensin II Receptor blocker; Safety and efficacy in paTieNts with hypERtension) study is a prospective specific clinical use survey examining the efficacy and safety of 12-week treatment with amlodipine (AML) and Angiotensin II Receptor Blocker (ARB) in 5900 hypertensive patients. The current analysis was performed as to the BP control, adverse reactions, and the effects on laboratory data in patients treated with the combination of AML and irbesartan (IRB), namely the patients added AML to already taking IRB (AML add-on group, n = 1202) and the patients added IRB to AML (IRB add-on group, n = 1050). Both study groups showed distinct decreases in office BP at 4 week (p 7 mg/dl. The incidence of adverse reactions was as few as 1.11% and there were no severe adverse reactions which hampered the continuation of combination therapy. In conclusion, combination antihypertensive therapy with AML and IRB effectively lowers BP without particular safety problems, reduces serum uric acid especially in patients with hyperuricemia and exhibits renoprotective effects in patients with chronic kidney disease.

  14. Studies on the antihypertensive and antidyslipidemic activities of Viola odorata leaves extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddiqi Hasan S

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was undertaken to provide pharmacological basis for the medicinal use of Viola odorata Linn. in hypertension and dyslipidemia using the in vivo and in vitro assays. Results Viola odorata leaves extract (Vo.Cr, which tested positive for alkaloids, saponins, tannins, phenolics, coumarins and flavonoids, caused a dose-dependent (0.1-1.0 mg/kg decrease in mean arterial blood pressure in anaesthetized rats. In isolated guinea-pig atria, Vo.Cr equally inhibited force and rate of spontaneous atrial contractions. On the baseline of rat thoracic aortae (endothelium-intact and denuded, the plant extract caused phentolamine-sensitive vasoconstriction. When tested on phenylephrine (PE, 1 μM and K+ (80 mM-induced vasoconstriction, Vo.Cr caused a concentration-dependent relaxation and also caused a rightward shift of Ca++ concentration-response curves as well as suppression of PE (1 μM control peaks in Ca++-free medium, similar to that caused by verapamil. In the presence of L-NAME, the relaxation curve of Vo.Cr was partially inhibited showing involvement of Nitric oxide (NO mediated pathway. In Tyloxapol-induced dyslipidemia, Vo.Cr caused reduction in total cholesterol and triglyceride levels. In high-fat diet-induced dyslipidemia model, the plant extract caused a significant decrease in total cholesterol, LDL-C, atherogenic index and prevented the increase in average body weights, while it increased HDL-C. Conclusions These data indicate that the vasodilator effect of the plant extract is mediated through multiple pathways like inhibition of Ca++ influx via membranous Ca++ channels, its release from intracellular stores and NO-mediated pathways, which possibly explain the fall in BP. The plant also showed reduction in body weight and antidyslipidemic effect which may be due to the inhibition of synthesis and absorption of lipids and antioxidant activities. Thus, this study provides a pharmacologic rationale to the medicinal

  15. [Use of the EvalObs® adherence scale in an unselected French population of treated subjects with antihypertensive, hypolipemiants or oral antidiabetics medications: The FLAHS 2017 adherence survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girerd, X; Hanon, O; Vaïsse, B

    2018-05-18

    A Visual Analog Scale (VAS) is useful for diagnosing medication nonadherence and its validity has been evaluated using electronic pillbox as the gold standard. We have developed the EvaLobs ® scale for use on paper or on smartphone and the aim of the study was to administrate the scale among FLAHS 2017 participants treated for an hypertension, a dyslipidemia or diabetes. In subjects treated with antihypertensive medications, participants completed the 6-item Girerd Scale and EvaLobs ® . The French League Against Hypertension Survey (FLAHS) are carried out by self-questionnaire sent by mail to individuals from the French Kantar Health sampling frame (representative panel of the population living in metropolitan France). In 2017, FLAHS was conducted in 4783 subjects aged 35 and over. The EvaLobs ® has a scale from 0 to 15 and the use instruction is "how many days have you taken the drug in the past 15 days". A score>12 indicates a "good compliance". The 6-item Girerd scale was also completed. "Good adherence" was determined for a score of 0 to 2 and "nonadherence" for a score of 3 or more. The agreement between EvaLobs ® and the 6-item Girerd scale was evaluated in treated hypertensives. The survey included 4783 subjects with 1308 treated hypertensives, 942 subjects treated with lipid-lowering drugs and 405 subjects treated with anti-diabetics. EVALOBS ® indicates "Good adherence" in 96% of subjects and the 6 questions questionnaire indicates "good adherence" in 95% of subjects. An excellent agreement is noted in 93.8%. An EvaLobs ® score indicating nonadherence or an absence of response to EvaLobs ® is observed in 3.6% [CI 95, 2.5-4.7] of hypertensives, in 6.0% [CI 95, 3.9-8.1] of diabetics and in 8.2% [CI 95, 6.5-9.9] of dyslipidemic patients. In the population living in France and in unselected patients treated for metabolic disease or hypertension, non-adherence is lowest for antihypertensive medications and highest for statins. EvaLobs ® , which shows

  16. THE EFFECT OF COMBINED ANTIHYPERTENSIVE THERAPY ON THE BASIC PARAMETERS OF THE LEFT VENTRICLE MYOCARDIUM STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION IN WOMEN WITH METABOLIC SYNDROME AND HYPOTHYROIDISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Skibitskiy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the effect of combined antihypertensive therapy on the basic parameters of the left ventricle (LV myocardium structure and function in women with arterial hypertension (HT, metabolic syndrome (MS and hypothyroidism. Material and methods. Women (n=196 with HT grade 2–3 and MS were included into the study. Standard clinical examination including an assessment of thyroid status, ambulatory blood pressure (BP monitoring and echocardiography was performed at baseline and after 6 months. The patients were split into 3 groups: control (without hypothyroidism with subclinical and manifested (symptomatic hypothyroidism (SH and MH. Depending on baseline heart rate (HR patients of each group received a combination of amlodipine+losartan (A+L in HR <85/min or a combination of amlodipine+moxonidine (A+M in in HR ≥85/min. Results. The significant antihypertensive effect was found in patients of the control group due to both A+L and A+M combination (target BP was reached in 85.7 and 88.2%, respectively. In patients with hypothyroidism significant antihypertensive effects was observed only during A+M therapy (target BP in SH and MH was achieved in 82.8 and 82.4%, respectively. In the control group A+L and A+M combinations increased a number of patients with normal LV geometry (85.7 and 86.7, respectively and diastolic function (78.6 and 80%, respectively. In hypothyroidism A+M therapy resulted in more prominent increase in a number of patients with normal LV geometry (75% in both SH and MH and diastolic function (in SH and MH 83.3 и 85.7%, respectively than these in A+L therapy (р<0.05. Conclusion. The combination of A+M has advantages over A+L combination in antihypertensive efficacy as well as in the effect on the structural and functional state of the LV myocardium in women with HT and MS associated with hypothyroidism.

  17. THE EFFECT OF COMBINED ANTIHYPERTENSIVE THERAPY ON THE BASIC PARAMETERS OF THE LEFT VENTRICLE MYOCARDIUM STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION IN WOMEN WITH METABOLIC SYNDROME AND HYPOTHYROIDISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Skibitskiy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the effect of combined antihypertensive therapy on the basic parameters of the left ventricle (LV myocardium structure and function in women with arterial hypertension (HT, metabolic syndrome (MS and hypothyroidism. Material and methods. Women (n=196 with HT grade 2–3 and MS were included into the study. Standard clinical examination including an assessment of thyroid status, ambulatory blood pressure (BP monitoring and echocardiography was performed at baseline and after 6 months. The patients were split into 3 groups: control (without hypothyroidism with subclinical and manifested (symptomatic hypothyroidism (SH and MH. Depending on baseline heart rate (HR patients of each group received a combination of amlodipine+losartan (A+L in HR <85/min or a combination of amlodipine+moxonidine (A+M in in HR ≥85/min. Results. The significant antihypertensive effect was found in patients of the control group due to both A+L and A+M combination (target BP was reached in 85.7 and 88.2%, respectively. In patients with hypothyroidism significant antihypertensive effects was observed only during A+M therapy (target BP in SH and MH was achieved in 82.8 and 82.4%, respectively. In the control group A+L and A+M combinations increased a number of patients with normal LV geometry (85.7 and 86.7, respectively and diastolic function (78.6 and 80%, respectively. In hypothyroidism A+M therapy resulted in more prominent increase in a number of patients with normal LV geometry (75% in both SH and MH and diastolic function (in SH and MH 83.3 и 85.7%, respectively than these in A+L therapy (р<0.05. Conclusion. The combination of A+M has advantages over A+L combination in antihypertensive efficacy as well as in the effect on the structural and functional state of the LV myocardium in women with HT and MS associated with hypothyroidism.

  18. ANTIHYPERTENSIVE EFFICACY AND INFLUENCE ON SEXUAL FUNCTION OF VALSARTAN AND VALSARTAN AND HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE COMBINATION IN SMOKERS VERSUS NON-SMOKERS WITH ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Podzolkov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study antihypertensive efficacy and safety of valsartan-based therapy as well as influence of treatment on several aspects of sexual function.Material and methods. Hypertensive patients (n=650 in 53 medical institutions of Russia were enrolled to the prospective multicenter observation study, 37.5% of smokers and 62.5% non-smokers. The evaluation of therapy efficacy was based on analysis of systolic (SBP and diastolic (DBP blood pressure (BP changes. Safety and compliance of treatment was also analyzed. The evaluation of sexual function was performed with 5 universal questions selected form the International Index of Erectile Function. These ques- tions could be asked in both men and women. The valsartan dose was 80–320 mg OD. A combination of the valsartan with hydrochlorothiazide (12.5–25 mg/d, amlodipine (5–10 mg/d or any other antihypertensive was allowed.Results. Significant similar decrease of SBP and DBP was observed in smoking and non-smoking patients (37.4/17.8 and 36.7/16.5 mm Hg respectively, р<0.01 vs baseline. Differences in SBP and DBP changes were not significant between groups. Target BP level (<140/90 mmHg was reached in 81.9% smokers and 76.0% non-smokers.After 20 weeks of treatment the number of patients without sexual activity and with 1–2 successful sexual attempts in the last 4 weeks significantly decreased from 44.7 to 32.8% and from 29.1% to 23.2%, respectively (р<0.05. Significant increase in the number of patients with 5–6 and 7–10 successful sexual attempts was observed (from 6.1 to 13.6% and from 3.2 to 5.9% respectively, р<0.05. The treatment resulted in significant increase in the number of patients, who evaluated their sexual life satisfaction as ″very satisfied″ (from 8.2 to 14.8%, <0.01.Conclusion. Comparable antihypertensive efficacy and safety were demonstrated for valsartan based therapy in smoking and non-smoking patients. During the course of treatment there was a significant

  19. ANTIHYPERTENSIVE EFFICACY AND INFLUENCE ON SEXUAL FUNCTION OF VALSARTAN AND VALSARTAN AND HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE COMBINATION IN SMOKERS VERSUS NON-SMOKERS WITH ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Podzolkov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study antihypertensive efficacy and safety of valsartan-based therapy as well as influence of treatment on several aspects of sexual function.Material and methods. Hypertensive patients (n=650 in 53 medical institutions of Russia were enrolled to the prospective multicenter observation study, 37.5% of smokers and 62.5% non-smokers. The evaluation of therapy efficacy was based on analysis of systolic (SBP and diastolic (DBP blood pressure (BP changes. Safety and compliance of treatment was also analyzed. The evaluation of sexual function was performed with 5 universal questions selected form the International Index of Erectile Function. These ques- tions could be asked in both men and women. The valsartan dose was 80–320 mg OD. A combination of the valsartan with hydrochlorothiazide (12.5–25 mg/d, amlodipine (5–10 mg/d or any other antihypertensive was allowed.Results. Significant similar decrease of SBP and DBP was observed in smoking and non-smoking patients (37.4/17.8 and 36.7/16.5 mm Hg respectively, р<0.01 vs baseline. Differences in SBP and DBP changes were not significant between groups. Target BP level (<140/90 mmHg was reached in 81.9% smokers and 76.0% non-smokers.After 20 weeks of treatment the number of patients without sexual activity and with 1–2 successful sexual attempts in the last 4 weeks significantly decreased from 44.7 to 32.8% and from 29.1% to 23.2%, respectively (р<0.05. Significant increase in the number of patients with 5–6 and 7–10 successful sexual attempts was observed (from 6.1 to 13.6% and from 3.2 to 5.9% respectively, р<0.05. The treatment resulted in significant increase in the number of patients, who evaluated their sexual life satisfaction as ″very satisfied″ (from 8.2 to 14.8%, <0.01.Conclusion. Comparable antihypertensive efficacy and safety were demonstrated for valsartan based therapy in smoking and non-smoking patients. During the course of treatment there was a significant

  20. An evaluation of the impact of patient cost sharing for antihypertensive medications on adherence, medication and health care utilization, and expenditures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pesa JA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Jacqueline A Pesa1, Jill Van Den Bos2, Travis Gray2, Colleen Hartsig2, Robert Brett McQueen3, Joseph J Saseen3, Kavita V Nair31Janssen Scientific Affairs, LLC, Louisville, CO, USA; 2Milliman, Inc, Denver, CO, USA; 3University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, USAObjective: To assess the impact of patient cost-sharing for antihypertensive medications on the proportion of days covered (PDC by antihypertensive medications, medical utilization, and health care expenditures among commercially insured individuals assigned to different risk categories.Methods: Participants were identified from the Consolidated Health Cost Guidelines (CHCG database (January 1, 2006–December 31, 2008 based on a diagnosis (index claim for hypertension, continuous enrollment ≥12 months pre- and post-index, and no prior claims for antihypertensive medications. Participants were assigned to: low-risk group (no comorbidities, high-risk group (1+ selected comorbidities, or very high-risk group (prior hospitalization for 1+ selected comorbidities. The relationship between patient cost sharing and PDC by antihypertensive medications was assessed using standard linear regression models, controlling for risk group membership, and various demographic and clinical factors. The relationship between PDC and health care service utilization was subsequently examined using negative binomial regression models.Results: Of the 28,688 study patients, 66% were low risk. The multivariate regression model supported a relationship between patient cost sharing per 30-day fill and PDC in the following year. For every US$1.00 increase in cost sharing, PDC decreased by 1.1 days (P < 0.0001. Significant predictors of PDC included high risk, older age, gender, Charlson Comorbidity Index score, geography, and total post-index insurer- and patient-paid costs. An increase in PDC was associated with a decrease in all-cause and hypertension-related inpatient, outpatient, and emergency

  1. Antihypertensive neutral lipid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, F.L.; Blank, M.L.

    1984-10-26

    The invention relates to the discovery of a class of neutral acetylated either-linked glycerolipids having the capacity to lower blood presure in warm-blooded animals. This physiological effect is structure sensitive requiring a long chain alkyl group at the sn-1 position and a short carbon chain acyl group (acetyl or propionyl) at the sn-2 position, and a hydroxyl group at the sn-3 position.

  2. Antihypertensive Effect of Radix Paeoniae Alba in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats and Excessive Alcohol Intake and High Fat Diet Induced Hypertensive Rats

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    Chen Su-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Radix Paeoniae Alba (Baishao, RPA has long been used in traditional Chinese medicine formulation to treat hypertension by repression the hyperfunction of liver. However, whether the RPA itself has the antihypertensive effect or not is seldom studied. This study was to evaluate the protective effect of RPA on hypertensive rats. Alcohol in conjunction with a high fat diet- (ACHFD- induced hypertensive rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR was constantly received either RPA extract (25 or 75 mg/kg or captopril (15 mg/kg all along the experiments. As a result, RPA extract (75 mg/kg could significantly reduce systolic blood pressure of both ACHFD-induced hypertensive rats and SHR after 9-week or 4-week treatment. In ACHFD-induced hypertensive rats, the blood pressure was significantly increased and the lipid profiles in serum including triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol were significantly deteriorated. Also, hepatic damage was manifested by a significant increase in alanine transaminase (ALT and aspartate transaminase (AST in serum. The RPA extract significantly reversed these parameters, which revealed that it could alleviate the liver damage of rats. In SHR, our result suggested that the antihypertensive active of RPA extract may be related to its effect on regulating serum nitric oxide (NO and endothelin (ET levels.

  3. Isolation of an Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Protein with Antihypertensive Effect in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats from the Edible Wild Mushroom Leucopaxillus tricolor

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    Xueran Geng

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available An 86-kDa homodimeric angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitory protein designated as LTP was isolated from fruit bodies of the mushroom Leucopaxillus tricolor. The isolation procedure involved ultrafiltration through a membrane with a molecular weight cutoff of 10-kDa, ion exchange chromatography on Q-Sepharose, and finally fast protein liquid chromatography-gel filtration on Superdex 75. LTP exhibited an IC50 value of 1.64 mg∙mL−1 for its ACE inhibitory activity. The unique N-terminal amino acid sequence of LTP was disclosed by Edman degradation to be DGPTMHRQAVADFKQ. In addition, seven internal sequences of LTP were elucidated by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS analysis. Results of the Lineweaver-Burk plot suggested that LTP competitively inhibited ACE. Both LTP and the water extract of L. tricolor exhibited a clear antihypertensive effect on spontaneously hypertensive rats.

  4. Job Strain and Casual Blood Pressure Distribution: Looking beyond the Adjusted Mean and Taking Gender, Age, and Use of Antihypertensives into Account. Results from ELSA-Brasil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvanhol, Leidjaira Lopes; Melo, Enirtes Caetano Prates; Carvalho, Marilia Sá; Chor, Dóra; Mill, José Geraldo; Griep, Rosane Härter

    2017-01-01

    Methodological issues are pointed to as the main sources of inconsistencies in studies about the association between job strain and blood pressure (BP)/hypertension. Our aim was to analyze the relationship between job strain and the whole BP distribution, as well as potential differences by gender, age, and use of antihypertensives. Additionally, we addressed issues relating to the operationalization of the exposure and outcome variables that influence the study of their inter-relations. We evaluated the baseline date of 12,038 participants enrolled in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) (2008–2010), a multicenter cohort study of 35–74-year-old civil servants. Job strain was assessed by the Demand-Control-Support Questionnaire. The distribution of casual BP by categories of job strain was compared by a combination of exploratory techniques. Participants were classified into three subgroups (normotensives, medicated hypertensives, and unmedicated hypertensives), and analyses were stratified by gender and age. The relationship between job strain and casual BP varied along the whole outcome distribution. Hypertensive participants had greater differences in casual BP by job strain category, especially medicated hypertensives. Differences in casual BP were also greater for systolic than for diastolic BP and for older participants. No differences were encountered by gender. The exclusion of participants susceptible to misclassification for the exposure and outcome variables increased the differences observed between the categories of low and high job strain. In conclusion, the relationship between job strain and casual BP varied along the whole outcome distribution and by use of antihypertensive drugs, age, and BP parameter evaluated. Misclassification for exposure and outcome variables should be considered in analyses of this topic. PMID:28441727

  5. Extent and reasons for nonadherence to antihypertensive, cholesterol, and diabetes medications: the association with depressive symptom burden in a sample of American veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weidenbacher HJ

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Hollis J Weidenbacher,1 Christopher A Beadles,1,2 Matthew L Maciejewski,1,3 Bryce B Reeve,2 Corrine I Voils1,3 1Center for Health Services Research in Primary Care, Durham Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA; 2Department of Health Policy and Management, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 3Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA Objective: Persons with depressive symptoms generally have higher rates of medication nonadherence than persons without depressive symptoms. However, little is known about whether this association differs by comorbid medical condition or whether reasons for nonadherence differ by depressive symptoms or comorbid medical condition. Methods: Self-reported extent of nonadherence, reasons for nonadherence, and depressive symptoms among 1,026 veterans prescribed medications for hypertension, dyslipidemia, and/or type 2 diabetes were assessed. Results: In multivariable logistic regression adjusted for clinical and demographic factors, the odds of nonadherence were higher among participants with high depressive symptom burden for dyslipidemia (n=848; odds ratio [OR]: 1.42, P=0.03 but not hypertension (n=916; OR: 1.24, P=0.15, or type 2 diabetes (n=447; OR: 1.15, P=0.51. Among participants reporting nonadherence to antihypertensive and antilipemic medications, those with greater depressive symptom burden had greater odds of endorsing medication nonadherence reasons related to negative expectations and excessive economic burden. Neither extent of nonadherence nor reasons for nonadherence differed by depressive symptom burden among patients with diabetes. Conclusion: These findings suggest that clinicians may consider tailoring interventions to improve adherence to antihypertensive and antilipemic medications to specific medication concerns of participants with depressive symptoms

  6. THE ANALYSIS OF DIFFERENCES IN DOCTORS PREFERENCES IN THE PRESCRIPTIONS OF ANTIHYPERTENSIVE DRUGS IN FOUR REGIONS OF THE FAR EASTERN FEDERAL DISTRICT

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    M. S. Soboleva

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study regional features and preferences of specialists in the choice of drug therapy of arterial hypertension in four subjects of the Far Eastern Federal District.Material and methods. Statistical data, demographic indicators, state and municipal drug procurements in Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, the Sakha Republic (Yakutia, the Magadan Region, and Kamchatka Krai were analyzed. The studied period was 2012-2016. Dynamics of the use (procurements of five main therapeutic classes of antihypertensive drugs was studied.Results. Among β-blockers the leaders were metoprolol (from 2% to 30.8% and bisoprolol (from 2.4% to 20.3%, in group of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors – enalapril (from 3.6% to 27%, lisinopril (from 4.4% to 23.9% and perindopril (from 0.9% to 7.8%, among calcium channel blockers – amlodipine (from 5.6% to 11.3%, in group of diuretics – indapamide (from 2.5% to 13% and spironolactone (from 3% to 12.5%, and in group of angiotensin II antagonists – losartan (from 0.4% to 15.6%. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors were the most used therapeutic class of antihypertensive drugs in Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, the Magadan region and Kamchatka Krai. At the same time, β-blockers accounted for more than a half of state and municipal procurements in the Sakha Republic (Yakutia.Conclusion. It is necessary to study regional aspects and approaches to therapy to assess the extent and specificity of the implementation of research results, standards and recommendations in real clinical practice.

  7. UV Photography Shows Hidden Sun Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mcat1=de12", ]; for (var c = 0; c UV photography shows hidden sun damage A UV photograph gives ... developing skin cancer and prematurely aged skin. Normal photography UV photography 18 months of age: This boy's ...

  8. Educational Outreach: The Space Science Road Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, N. L. J.

    2002-01-01

    The poster presented will give an overview of a study towards a "Space Road Show". The topic of this show is space science. The target group is adolescents, aged 12 to 15, at Dutch high schools. The show and its accompanying experiments would be supported with suitable educational material. Science teachers at schools can decide for themselves if they want to use this material in advance, afterwards or not at all. The aims of this outreach effort are: to motivate students for space science and engineering, to help them understand the importance of (space) research, to give them a positive feeling about the possibilities offered by space and in the process give them useful knowledge on space basics. The show revolves around three main themes: applications, science and society. First the students will get some historical background on the importance of space/astronomy to civilization. Secondly they will learn more about novel uses of space. On the one hand they will learn of "Views on Earth" involving technologies like Remote Sensing (or Spying), Communication, Broadcasting, GPS and Telemedicine. On the other hand they will experience "Views on Space" illustrated by past, present and future space research missions, like the space exploration missions (Cassini/Huygens, Mars Express and Rosetta) and the astronomy missions (Soho and XMM). Meanwhile, the students will learn more about the technology of launchers and satellites needed to accomplish these space missions. Throughout the show and especially towards the end attention will be paid to the third theme "Why go to space"? Other reasons for people to get into space will be explored. An important question in this is the commercial (manned) exploration of space. Thus, the questions of benefit of space to society are integrated in the entire show. It raises some fundamental questions about the effects of space travel on our environment, poverty and other moral issues. The show attempts to connect scientific with

  9. 2008 LHC Open Days Physics: the show

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    A host of events and activities await visitors to the LHC Open Days on 5 and 6 April. A highlight will be the physics shows funded by the European Physical Society (EPS), which are set to surprise and challenge children and adults alike! School children use their experience of riding a bicycle to understand how planets move around the sun (Copyright : Circus Naturally) Participating in the Circus Naturally show could leave a strange taste in your mouth! (Copyright : Circus Naturally) The Rino Foundation’s experiments with liquid nitrogen can be pretty exciting! (Copyright: The Rino Foundation)What does a bicycle have in common with the solar system? Have you ever tried to weigh air or visualise sound? Ever heard of a vacuum bazooka? If you want to discover the answers to these questions and more then come to the Physics Shows taking place at the CERN O...

  10. Online Italian fandoms of American TV shows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Benecchi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Internet has changed media fandom in two main ways: it helps fans connect with each other despite physical distance, leading to the formation of international fan communities; and it helps fans connect with the creators of the TV show, deepening the relationship between TV producers and international fandoms. To assess whether Italian fan communities active online are indeed part of transnational online communities and whether the Internet has actually altered their relationship with the creators of the original text they are devoted to, qualitative analysis and narrative interviews of 26 Italian fans of American TV shows were conducted to explore the fan-producer relationship. Results indicated that the online Italian fans surveyed preferred to stay local, rather than using geography-leveling online tools. Further, the sampled Italian fans' relationships with the show runners were mediated or even absent.

  11. Duchenne muscular dystrophy models show their age

    OpenAIRE

    Chamberlain, Jeffrey S.

    2010-01-01

    The lack of appropriate animal models has hampered efforts to develop therapies for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). A new mouse model lacking both dystrophin and telomerase (Sacco et al., 2010) closely mimics the pathological progression of human DMD and shows that muscle stem cell activity is a key determinant of disease severity.

  12. Show Them You Really Want the Job

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlmutter, David D.

    2012-01-01

    Showing that one really "wants" the job entails more than just really wanting the job. An interview is part Broadway casting call, part intellectual dating game, part personality test, and part, well, job interview. When there are 300 applicants for a position, many of them will "fit" the required (and even the preferred) skills listed in the job…

  13. A Talk Show from the Past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Arlene F.

    1991-01-01

    Describes a two-day activity in which elementary students examine voting rights, the right to assemble, and women's suffrage. Explains the game, "Assemble, Reassemble," and a student-produced talk show with five students playing the roles of leaders of the women's suffrage movement. Profiles Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott, Susan…

  14. Laser entertainment and light shows in education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabaratnam, Andrew T.; Symons, Charles

    2002-05-01

    Laser shows and beam effects have been a source of entertainment since its first public performance May 9, 1969, at Mills College in Oakland, California. Since 1997, the Photonics Center, NgeeAnn Polytechnic, Singapore, has been using laser shows as a teaching tool. Students are able to exhibit their creative skills and learn at the same time how lasers are used in the entertainment industry. Students will acquire a number of skills including handling three- phase power supply, operation of cooling system, and laser alignment. Students also acquire an appreciation of the arts, learning about shapes and contours as they develop graphics for the shows. After holography, laser show animation provides a combination of the arts and technology. This paper aims to briefly describe how a krypton-argon laser, galvanometer scanners, a polychromatic acousto-optic modulator and related electronics are put together to develop a laser projector. The paper also describes how students are trained to make their own laser animation and beam effects with music, and at the same time have an appreciation of the operation of a Class IV laser and the handling of optical components.

  15. The Last Great American Picture Show

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, Thomas; King, Noel; Horwath, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    The Last Great American Picture Show brings together essays by scholars and writers who chart the changing evaluations of the American cinema of the 1970s, sometimes referred to as the decade of the lost generation, but now more and more recognized as the first New Hollywood, without which the

  16. Reality, ficción o show

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Ruíz Moreno

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Para tener un punto de vista claro y objetivo frente a la polémica establecida en torno al programa “Protagonistas de novela” y la tendiente proliferación de los reality show en las parrillas de programación de la televisión colombiana, se realizó un análisis de texto y contenido de dicho programa, intentando definirlo desde sus posibilidades de realidad, ficción y show. Las unidades de análisis y el estudio de su tratamiento arrojaron un alto contenido que gira en torno a las emociones del ser humano relacionadas con la convivencia, tratadas a manera de show y con algunos aportes textuales de ficción, pero sin su elemento mediador básico, el actor, quitándole toda la posibilidad de tener un tratamiento con la profundidad, distancia y ética que requieren los temas de esta índole. El resultado es un formato que sólo busca altos índices de sintonía y que pertenece más a la denominada televisión “trash”, que a una búsqueda de realidad del hombre y mucho menos de sociedad.

  17. Myopes show increased susceptibility to nearwork aftereffects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciuffreda, K J; Wallis, D M

    1998-09-01

    Some aspects of accommodation may be slightly abnormal (or different) in myopes, compared with accommodation in emmetropes and hyperopes. For example, the initial magnitude of accommodative adaptation in the dark after nearwork is greatest in myopes. However, the critical test is to assess this initial accommodative aftereffect and its subsequent decay in the light under more natural viewing conditions with blur-related visual feedback present, if a possible link between this phenomenon and clinical myopia is to be considered. Subjects consisted of adult late- (n = 11) and early-onset (n = 13) myopes, emmetropes (n = 11), and hyperopes (n = 9). The distance-refractive state was assessed objectively using an autorefractor immediately before and after a 10-minute binocular near task at 20 cm (5 diopters [D]). Group results showed that myopes were most susceptible to the nearwork aftereffect. It averaged 0.35 D in initial magnitude, with considerably faster posttask decay to baseline in the early-onset (35 seconds) versus late-onset (63 seconds) myopes. There was no myopic aftereffect in the remaining two refractive groups. The myopes showed particularly striking accommodatively related nearwork aftereffect susceptibility. As has been speculated and found by many others, transient pseudomyopia may cause or be a precursor to permanent myopia or myopic progression. Time-integrated increased retinal defocus causing axial elongation is proposed as a possible mechanism.

  18. Ancient bacteria show evidence of DNA repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Sarah Stewart; Hebsgaard, Martin B; Christensen, Torben R

    2007-01-01

    -term survival of bacteria sealed in frozen conditions for up to one million years. Our results show evidence of bacterial survival in samples up to half a million years in age, making this the oldest independently authenticated DNA to date obtained from viable cells. Additionally, we find strong evidence...... geological timescales. There has been no direct evidence in ancient microbes for the most likely mechanism, active DNA repair, or for the metabolic activity necessary to sustain it. In this paper, we couple PCR and enzymatic treatment of DNA with direct respiration measurements to investigate long...... that this long-term survival is closely tied to cellular metabolic activity and DNA repair that over time proves to be superior to dormancy as a mechanism in sustaining bacteria viability....

  19. Microbiological and environmental issues in show caves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2012-07-01

    Cultural tourism expanded in the last half of the twentieth century, and the interest of visitors has come to include caves containing archaeological remains. Some show caves attracted mass tourism, and economical interests prevailed over conservation, which led to a deterioration of the subterranean environment and the rock art. The presence and the role of microorganisms in caves is a topic that is often ignored in cave management. Knowledge of the colonisation patterns, the dispersion mechanisms, and the effect on human health and, when present, over rock art paintings of these microorganisms is of the utmost importance. In this review the most recent advances in the study of microorganisms in caves are presented, together with the environmental implications of the findings.

  20. EFFECT OF THE COMBINED ANTIHYPERTENSIVE THERAPY WITH TARGET BLOOD PRESSURE ACHIEVEMENT ON INTRARENAL BLOOD FLOW IN PATIENTS WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Koshel'skaya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To compare the dynamics of intrarenal vascular resistance (IRVR, circadian blood pressure (BP profile and glomerular filtration rate (GFR in patients with arterial hypertension (HT and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM who achieved the target BP levels (<130/80 mmHg due to long-term combined antihypertensive therapy with or without renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS inhibitors. Material and methods. Patients (n=61 with HT and DM without clinical symptoms of nephroangiopathy were included into the open randomized study , 59 of these patients completed study. Patients of Group 1 (n=41 received therapy with valsartan (n=20, 80–160 mg/day , or perindopril (n=21, 5–10 mg/day , in combination with indapamide retard, 1.5 mg/day , and amlodipine, 5–10 mg/day. Patients of Group 2 (n=18 received amlodipine (5–10 mg/day in combination with indapamide retard (1.5 mg/day and metoprolol succinate (50–100 mg/day. Initially and after 30–32 weeks of therapy the following examinations were performed: duplex ultrasound scanning of the main renal (MRA and intrarenal arteries (IRA with resistive index (RI calculation, ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM, GFR calculation (by Cockcroft-Gault formula. Results. The target BP levels were achieved in all patients of both groups. Patient’s baseline characteristics including age, sex, duration of disease, office BP , GFR, RI in MRA and IRA did not differ in the groups as well as decrease in office BP due to treatment. However patients of Group 2 had higher levels of systolic BP and systolic BP load at night time than these in patients of Group 1 during all period of the treatment. In patients of Group 2 RI in MRA and arcuate IRA were increased from 0.67±0.06 to 0.69±0.06 (p=0.02 and from 0.62±0.07 to 0.64±0.06 (p=0.02, respectively. The increase in IRA was positively associated with systolic BP at night time in these patients (r=0.6; p=0.01. There were no significant changes of IRA in Group 1 totally

  1. EFFECT OF THE COMBINED ANTIHYPERTENSIVE THERAPY WITH TARGET BLOOD PRESSURE ACHIEVEMENT ON INTRARENAL BLOOD FLOW IN PATIENTS WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Koshel'skaya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To compare the dynamics of intrarenal vascular resistance (IRVR, circadian blood pressure (BP profile and glomerular filtration rate (GFR in patients with arterial hypertension (HT and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM who achieved the target BP levels (<130/80 mmHg due to long-term combined antihypertensive therapy with or without renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS inhibitors. Material and methods. Patients (n=61 with HT and DM without clinical symptoms of nephroangiopathy were included into the open randomized study , 59 of these patients completed study. Patients of Group 1 (n=41 received therapy with valsartan (n=20, 80–160 mg/day , or perindopril (n=21, 5–10 mg/day , in combination with indapamide retard, 1.5 mg/day , and amlodipine, 5–10 mg/day. Patients of Group 2 (n=18 received amlodipine (5–10 mg/day in combination with indapamide retard (1.5 mg/day and metoprolol succinate (50–100 mg/day. Initially and after 30–32 weeks of therapy the following examinations were performed: duplex ultrasound scanning of the main renal (MRA and intrarenal arteries (IRA with resistive index (RI calculation, ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM, GFR calculation (by Cockcroft-Gault formula. Results. The target BP levels were achieved in all patients of both groups. Patient’s baseline characteristics including age, sex, duration of disease, office BP , GFR, RI in MRA and IRA did not differ in the groups as well as decrease in office BP due to treatment. However patients of Group 2 had higher levels of systolic BP and systolic BP load at night time than these in patients of Group 1 during all period of the treatment. In patients of Group 2 RI in MRA and arcuate IRA were increased from 0.67±0.06 to 0.69±0.06 (p=0.02 and from 0.62±0.07 to 0.64±0.06 (p=0.02, respectively. The increase in IRA was positively associated with systolic BP at night time in these patients (r=0.6; p=0.01. There were no significant changes of IRA in Group 1 totally

  2. Antihypertensive efficacy and tolerability of lercanidipine in daily clinical practice. The ELYPSE Study. Eficacia de Lercanidipino y su Perfil de Seguridad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Vivencio; Navarro, Angel; Esteras, Antonio; Luque, Manuel; Romero, Joaquima; Tamargo, Juan; Prieto, Luis; Carrasco, Jose Luis; Herranz, Inmaculada; Navarro-Cid, Josefa; Ruilope, Luis M

    2002-01-01

    Lercanidipine, a long-acting dihydropyridine with a good antihypertensive efficacy and tolerability in clinical use. With the aim to determine the efficacy and tolerability of this drug in usual clinical practice we performed the ELYPSE trial. Grade 1 or 2 essential hypertensive patients in whom their physicians considered to prescribe a dihydropyridine were conferred to Lercanidipine 10 mg once daily with a 3-month follow-up; 9059 patients were included (age: 63 +/- 11 years; 58% women, 60% over 60 years, 56% grade 2 hypertensives and 69% previously treated with other antihypertensive drugs). A subgroup of 1267 patients (14%) who were included in the study had experienced adverse reactions with other drugs. Electronic case-report forms and a central database (Internet) were used in this trial. At baseline, blood pressure (BP) was 160.1 +/- 10.2/95.6 +/- 6.6 mmHg; and heart rate (HR) 77.3 +/- 9.3 beats/min. Significant reductions in both systolic and diastolic BP were attained at 1 month with slight additional decreases 2 months later. At 3 months, BP was 141.4 +/- 11.3/ 83.1 +/- 6.9 mmHg, and HR 75.2 +/- 8.2 beats/min (p < 0.001 versus baseline). At the study end. 64% of the patients achieved a diastolic BP < 90 mmHg, BP control (< 140/90 mmHg) was attained in 32%. In the subgroup of diabetics (n = 1269) an adequate BP control (< 130/85) was attained in only 16.4%. The overall incidence of adverse events was 6.5%, of which the most frequent were headache (2.9%), ankle oedema (1.2%), flushing (1.1%) and palpitations (0.6%). Withdrawal rate was < 1%. The efficacy and tolerability in the subgroup of patients included in the study due to adverse events with other drugs were similar to the whole study group. In this study Lercanidipine has shown a good efficacy and tolerability in daily clinical practice. These findings are concordant with those reported in randomized controlled trials.

  3. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory activity of Lactobacillus helveticus strains from traditional fermented dairy foods and antihypertensive effect of fermented milk of strain H9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yongfu; Liu, Wenjun; Xue, Jiangang; Yang, Jie; Chen, Xia; Shao, Yuyu; Kwok, Lai-yu; Bilige, Menghe; Mang, Lai; Zhang, Heping

    2014-11-01

    Hypertension is a major global health issue which elevates the risk of a large world population to chronic life-threatening diseases. The inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is an effective target to manage essential hypertension. In this study, the fermentation properties (titratable acidity, free amino nitrogen, and fermentation time) and ACE-inhibitory (ACEI) activity of fermented milks produced by 259 Lactobacillus helveticus strains previously isolated from traditional Chinese and Mongolian fermented foods were determined. Among them, 37 strains had an ACEI activity of over 50%. The concentrations of the antihypertensive peptides, Ile-Pro-Pro and Val-Pro-Pro, were further determined by ultra performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The change of ACEI activity of the fermented milks of 3 strains exhibiting the highest ACEI activity upon gastrointestinal protease treatment was assayed. Fermented milks produced by strain H9 (IMAU60208) had the highest in vitro ACEI activity (86.4 ± 1.5%), relatively short fermentation time (7.5 h), and detectable Val-Pro-Pro (2.409 ± 0.229 µM) and Ile-Pro-Pro (1.612 ± 0.114 µM) concentrations. Compared with the control, a single oral dose of H9-fermented milk significantly attenuated the systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressure of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) by 15 to 18 mmHg during the 6 to 12 h after treatment. The long-term daily H9-fermented milk intake over 7 wk exerted significant antihypertensive effect to SHR, but not normotensive rats, and the systolic and diastolic blood pressure were significantly lower, by 12 and 10 mmHg, respectively, compared with the control receiving saline. The feeding of H9-fermented milk to SHR resulted in a significantly higher weight gain at wk 7 compared with groups receiving saline, commercial yogurt, and captopril. Our study identified a novel probiotic L. helveticus strain originated from kurut sampled from Tibet

  4. NASA GIBS Use in Live Planetarium Shows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmart, C. B.

    2015-12-01

    The American Museum of Natural History's Hayden Planetarium was rebuilt in year 2000 as an immersive theater for scientific data visualization to show the universe in context to our planet. Specific astrophysical movie productions provide the main daily programming, but interactive control software, developed at AMNH allows immersive presentation within a data aggregation of astronomical catalogs called the Digital Universe 3D Atlas. Since 2006, WMS globe browsing capabilities have been built into a software development collaboration with Sweden's Linkoping University (LiU). The resulting Uniview software, now a product of the company SCISS, is operated by about fifty planetariums around that world with ability to network amongst the sites for global presentations. Public presentation of NASA GIBS has allowed authoritative narratives to be presented within the range of data available in context to other sources such as Science on a Sphere, NASA Earth Observatory and Google Earth KML resources. Specifically, the NOAA supported World Views Network conducted a series of presentations across the US that focused on local ecological issues that could then be expanded in the course of presentation to national and global scales of examination. NASA support of for GIBS resources in an easy access multi scale streaming format like WMS has tremendously enabled particularly facile presentations of global monitoring like never before. Global networking of theaters for distributed presentations broadens out the potential for impact of this medium. Archiving and refinement of these presentations has already begun to inform new types of documentary productions that examine pertinent, global interdependency topics.

  5. Geoscience is Important? Show Me Why

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    "The public" is not homogenous and no single message or form of messaging will connect the entire public with the geosciences. One approach to promoting trust in, and engagement with, the geosciences is to identify specific sectors of the public and then develop interactions and communication products that are immediately relevant to that sector's interests. If the content and delivery are appropriate, this approach empowers people to connect with the geosciences on their own terms and to understand the relevance of the geosciences to their own situation. Federal policy makers are a distinct and influential subgroup of the general public. In preparation for the 2016 presidential election, the American Geosciences Institute (AGI) in collaboration with its 51 member societies prepared Geoscience for America's Critical Needs: Invitation to a National Dialogue, a document that identified major geoscience policy issues that should be addressed in a national policy platform. Following the election, AGI worked with eight other geoscience societies to develop Geoscience Policy Recommendations for the New Administration and the 115th Congress, which outlines specific policy actions to address national issues. State and local decision makers are another important subgroup of the public. AGI has developed online content, factsheets, and case studies with different levels of technical complexity so people can explore societally-relevant geoscience topics at their level of technical proficiency. A related webinar series is attracting a growing worldwide audience from many employment sectors. Partnering with government agencies and other scientific and professional societies has increased the visibility and credibility of these information products with our target audience. Surveys and other feedback show that these products are raising awareness of the geosciences and helping to build reciprocal relationships between geoscientists and decision makers. The core message of all

  6. Bacteriophages show promise as antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alisky, J; Iczkowski, K; Rapoport, A; Troitsky, N

    1998-01-01

    The emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria has prompted interest in alternatives to conventional drugs. One possible option is to use bacteriophages (phage) as antimicrobial agents. We have conducted a literature review of all Medline citations from 1966-1996 that dealt with the therapeutic use of phage. There were 27 papers from Poland, the Soviet Union, Britain and the U.S.A. The Polish and Soviets administered phage orally, topically or systemically to treat a wide variety of antibiotic-resistant pathogens in both adults and children. Infections included suppurative wound infections, gastroenteritis, sepsis, osteomyelitis, dermatitis, empyemas and pneumonia; pathogens included Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Klebsiella, Escherichia, Proteus, Pseudomonas, Shigella and Salmonella spp. Overall, the Polish and Soviets reported success rates of 80-95% for phage therapy, with rare, reversible gastrointestinal or allergic side effects. However, efficacy of phage was determined almost exclusively by qualitative clinical assessment of patients, and details of dosages and clinical criteria were very sketchy. There were also six British reports describing controlled trials of phage in animal models (mice, guinea pigs and livestock), measuring survival rates and other objective criteria. All of the British studies raised phage against specific pathogens then used to create experimental infections. Demonstrable efficacy against Escherichia, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas and Staphylococcus spp. was noted in these model systems. Two U.S. papers dealt with improving the bioavailability of phage. Phage is sequestered in the spleen and removed from circulation. This can be overcome by serial passage of phage through mice to isolate mutants that resist sequestration. In conclusion, bacteriophages may show promise for treating antibiotic resistant pathogens. To facilitate further progress, directions for future research are discussed and a directory of authors from the reviewed

  7. An open-label, multicenter, flexible dose study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Viagra (sildenafil citrate) in Korean men with erectile dysfunction and arterial hypertension who are taking antihypertensive agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyun Jun; Park, Nam Cheol; Shim, Hong Bang; Park, Jong Kwan; Lee, Sung Won; Park, Kwangsung; Kim, Sae Woong; Moon, Ki Hak; Lee, Dong Hyeon; Yoon, Sang Jin

    2008-10-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is common among men taking antihypertensive agents to control blood pressure. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of sildenafil citrate in men with ED taking antihypertensive agents. A total of 198 male subjects, aged 20 years and older were enrolled. This study was conducted for 10 weeks as an open-label, multicenter and flexible dose trial with a 2-week screening period and an 8-week treatment phase. Subjects were asked to complete Event Log Worksheets, as well as the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) and the Global Efficacy Assessment Questions (GEAQ) questionnaires during the study period. The average age among the 167 subjects who completed the study was 55.8 (31.7 to 77.1). The scores for questions 3 and 4 of IIEF improved from 2.3 and 1.8 at baseline to 3.7 and 3.4 at week 4 and 3.8 and 3.4 at week 8, respectively. There were 86.3% of the patients reported improved erectile function at week 8; 88.3% of the patients reported improved ability to achieve sexual intercourse at week 8. There were no significant differences observed in the responses to questions 3 and 4 of IIEF and GEAQ by the number of antihypertensive agents taken. The adverse events were facial flushing (20.1%), headache (11.7%), palpitation (5.0%), rhinitis (2.8%), URI (2.8%), dizziness (2.2%), dyspnea (2.2%), and nausea (1.7%). Sildenafil citrate is an effective treatment for ED; it is safe and well tolerated by patients with ED taking multiple antihypertensive agents for arterial hypertension.

  8. The SPYRAL HTN Global Clinical Trial Program: Rationale and design for studies of renal denervation in the absence (SPYRAL HTN OFF-MED) and presence (SPYRAL HTN ON-MED) of antihypertensive medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandzari, David E; Kario, Kazuomi; Mahfoud, Felix; Cohen, Sidney A; Pilcher, Garrett; Pocock, Stuart; Townsend, Raymond; Weber, Michael A; Böhm, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Renal sympathetic activation plays a key role in the pathogenesis of hypertension, as demonstrated by high renal norepinephrine spillover into plasma of patients with essential hypertension. Renal denervation has demonstrated a significant reduction in blood pressure in unblinded studies of hypertensive patients. The SYMPLICITY HTN-3 trial, the first prospective, masked, randomized study of renal denervation versus sham control, failed its primary efficacy end point and raised important questions around potentially confounding factors, such as drug changes and adherence, study population, and procedural methods. The SPYRAL HTN Global Clinical Trial Program is designed to address limitations associated with predicate studies and provide insight into the impact of pharmacotherapy on renal denervation efficacy. The 2 initial trials of the program focus on the effect of renal denervation using the Symplicity Spyral multielectrode renal denervation catheter in hypertensive patients in the absence (SPYRAL HTN OFF-MED) and presence (SPYRAL HTN ON-MED) of antihypertensive medications. The SPYRAL HTN ON-MED study requires patients to be treated with a consistent triple therapy antihypertensive regimen, whereas the SPYRAL HTN OFF-MED study includes a 3- to 4-week drug washout period followed by a 3-month efficacy and safety end point in the absence of antihypertensive medications. The studies will randomize patients with combined systolic-diastolic hypertension to renal denervation or sham procedure. Both studies allow renal denervation treatments in renal artery branches and accessories. These studies will inform the design of the second pivotal phase of the program, which will more definitively analyze the antihypertensive effect of renal denervation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Impact of long-term antihypertensive and antidiabetic medications on the prognosis of post-surgical colorectal cancer: the Fujian prospective investigation of cancer (FIESTA) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Feng; Hu, Dan; Lin, Xiandong; Liang, Binying; Chen, Ying; Zhang, Hejun; Xia, Yan; Lin, Jinxiu; Zheng, Xiongwei; Niu, Wenquan

    2018-05-24

    Hypertension and diabetes mellitus are common comorbidities of colorectal cancer. We designed a prospective cohort study aiming to investigate the impact of long-term antihypertensive and antidiabetic medications on colorectal cancer-specific survival and recurrence among 713 post-surgical patients. All participants received radical resection for colorectal cancer during 2000-08, and they were followed up until July 2017. Colorectal cancer patients without hypertension had better survival than those with hypertension (median survival time [MST]: 190.3 months versus 99.0 months, p colorectal cancer survival was statistically significant, that is, patients receiving antidiabetic medications had longer survival time than untreated diabetic patients (MST: 135.8 months versus 80.2 months, p : 0.007), whereas the prognosis was greatly improved in colorectal cancer patients without diabetes mellitus ( p colorectal cancer relative to those without medications, respectively. Our data indicate that long-term antidiabetic medications can significantly prolong the survival and improve the prognosis of post-surgical colorectal cancer.

  10. Mean centering of ratio spectra and concentration augmented classical least squares in a comparative approach for quantitation of spectrally overlapped bands of antihypertensives in formulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegazy, Maha Abdel Monem; Fayez, Yasmin Mohammed

    2015-04-01

    Two different methods manipulating spectrophotometric data have been developed, validated and compared. One is capable of removing the signal of any interfering components at the selected wavelength of the component of interest (univariate). The other includes more variables and extracts maximum information to determine the component of interest in the presence of other components (multivariate). The applied methods are smart, simple, accurate, sensitive, precise and capable of determination of spectrally overlapped antihypertensives; hydrochlorothiazide (HCT), irbesartan (IRB) and candesartan (CAN). Mean centering of ratio spectra (MCR) and concentration residual augmented classical least-squares method (CRACLS) were developed and their efficiency was compared. CRACLS is a simple method that is capable of extracting the pure spectral profiles of each component in a mixture. Correlation was calculated between the estimated and pure spectra and was found to be 0.9998, 0.9987 and 0.9992 for HCT, IRB and CAN, respectively. The methods were successfully determined the three components in bulk powder, laboratory-prepared mixtures, and combined dosage forms. The results obtained were compared statistically with each other and to those of the official methods.

  11. Antihypertensive treatment and control according to gender, education, country of birth and psychiatric disorder: the Swedish Primary Care Cardiovascular Database (SPCCD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljungman, C; Kahan, T; Schiöler, L; Hjerpe, P; Wettermark, B; Boström, K B; Manhem, K

    2015-06-01

    The reasons why women and men are treated with different antihypertensive drugs are not clear. Whether socioeconomic factors influence prescription patterns and blood pressure control differently in women and men has not been investigated. This cross-sectional study performed in a cohort of hypertensive patients from the Swedish Primary Care Cardiovascular Database (SPCCD) examined the influence of educational level, country of birth, gender and concomitant psychiatric disorder on prescription pattern and blood pressure control in 40,825 hypertensive patients. Men were more often than women treated with calcium channel blocker and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI), irrespective of education, country of birth and psychiatric disorder. Educational level influenced the prescription pattern to some extent, where the gender differences were reduced in patients with a higher educational level. In women, but not in men, high educational level and concomitant psychiatric disorder were associated with a higher proportion reaching target blood pressure. The predominant use of ACEI and calcium channel blockers in men is not influenced by educational level, country of birth or psychiatric disorder. Thus other explanations must be considered such as gender differences in side effects. Educational level seems to have a greater impact on reaching target blood pressure in women compared with men.

  12. Lower blood pressure and apathy coincide in older persons with poorer functional ability: the Discontinuation of Antihypertensive Treatment in Elderly People (DANTE) Study Leiden.

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    Moonen, Justine E F; Bertens, Anne Suzanne; Foster-Dingley, Jessica C; Smit, Roelof A J; van der Grond, Jeroen; de Craen, Anton J M; de Ruijter, Wouter; van der Mast, Roos C

    2015-01-01

    To examine the association between blood pressure (BP) measures and symptoms of apathy and depression in older adults with various levels of functional ability. Cross-sectional study using baseline data from the Discontinuation of Antihypertensive Treatment in Elderly people (DANTE) Study Leiden. Primary care setting, the Netherlands. Community-dwelling individuals aged 75 and older (N = 430). Systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were measured during home visits. Symptoms of apathy and depression were assessed using the Apathy Scale and the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15), respectively. Stratified linear regression was performed in participants with better and worse functional ability according to the median of the Groningen Activity Restriction Scale. In participants with lower functional ability, each 10-mmHg lower SBP, DBP, and MAP was associated with higher Apathy Scale scores (0.63, 0.92, and 0.94 points, respectively, all P < .005) but not with GDS-15 scores. In participants with higher functional ability, BP measures were not associated with Apathy Scale or GDS-15 scores. In older participants with poorer functional ability, lower BP was associated with more symptoms of apathy but not depression. © 2015, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.

  13. Marketed nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, antihypertensives, and human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitors: as-yet-unused weapons of the oncologists’ arsenal

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    Papanagnou P

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Panagiota Papanagnou,1 Panagiotis Baltopoulos,2 Maria Tsironi1 1Department of Nursing, Faculty of Human Movement and Quality of Life Sciences, University of Peloponnese, Sparta, 2Department of Sports Medicine and Biology of Physical Activity, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Science, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece Abstract: Experimental data indicate that several pharmacological agents that have long been used for the management of various diseases unrelated to cancer exhibit profound in vitro and in vivo anticancer activity. This is of major clinical importance, since it would possibly aid in reassessing the therapeutic use of currently used agents for which clinicians already have experience. Further, this would obviate the time-consuming process required for the development and the approval of novel antineoplastic drugs. Herein, both pre-clinical and clinical data concerning the antineoplastic function of distinct commercially available pharmacological agents that are not currently used in the field of oncology, ie, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antihypertensive agents, and anti-human immunodeficiency virus agents inhibiting viral protease, are reviewed. The aim is to provide integrated information regarding not only the molecular basis of the antitumor function of these agents but also the applicability of the reevaluation of their therapeutic range in the clinical setting. Keywords: repositioning, tumorigenesis, pleiotropy, exploitation

  14. [Changes of twenty-four-hour profile blood pressure and its correction of patients with arterial hypertension on the background of combined antihypertensive therapy application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomennchuk, T M; Slaba, N A; Prots'ko, V V; Bedzaĭ, A O

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was the study of efficiency and endurance antihypertensive therapy on the basis of fixed combination of enalapril and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) and enalapril and HCTZ in combination with amlodipine according to the twenty-four-hour (? day-and-night) monitoring of blood pressure (? 24H BPM) of patients with arterial hypertension (AH) 2-3 severity. The study included 33 patients with 2-3 grade of hypertension (average age--54,40 ± 3.45 years). All patients performed ? 24H BPM before treatment and after 12 weeks of therapy. The combination of enalapril and HCTZ allowed to achieve target levels of blood pressure in 79% of patients, amlodipine additional purpose--in 86% of patients. We found that this therapy has a corrective effect on daily blood pressure profile, significantly reducing the load pressure and blood pressure variability. During treatment with the combination of enalapril and HCTZ combination of enalapril, HCTZ with amlodipine optimal daily profile of blood pressure after 12 weeks of reaching respectively 63.1% and 71.4% of patients. The treatment with combination of enalapril and HCTZ and adding of amlodipine is characterized by good endurance and high adherence to treatment.

  15. [The effect of prolonged treatment of hypertensive rats with antihypertensive drugs of various actions on the arterial tension and noradrenaline level in the myocardium, brain and aortal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiriakov, A; Khlebarova, M; Staneva-stoicheva, D; Panova, I

    1975-01-01

    The authors examined the changes in arterial blood pressure and the content of Noradrenaline in the myocardium, brain and aorta of rats with hypertension due to nephrectomy and treatment with desoxycorticosterone and NaCl, and after a chronic 6-month treatment of hypertension with various antihypertensive means. The most significant reduction of noradrenaline in the three of the examined tissues was found in rats, which received dic. sulfyram (100 mg/kg per os). Clondine (10 mkg/kg, per os) manifested the strongest hypotensive effect and lowered the level of noradrenaline in the myocardium, while it was raised in the aorta. Reserpine (10 mkg/kg, s. c) induced a clear reduction of Noradrenaline content in the brain, but an increase in the other two tissues. Insignificant hypotensive effect was observed in animals, treated with guanetidine (0.5 mg/kg, per os), which did not affect substantially noradrenaline in the examined organs. The increase of noradrenaline level was established in the three of the organs of animals, treated with alpha-methyl-DOFA (25 mg/kg, per os). Furosemide (1 mg/kg, s.c.) induced a statistically significant elevation of noradrenaline in the aorta, but was noneffective to noradrenaline in the myocardium and brain.

  16. Safety, Tolerability, and Antihypertensive Effect of SER100, an Opiate Receptor-Like 1 (ORL-1) Partial Agonist, in Patients With Isolated Systolic Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantola, Ilkka; Scheinin, Mika; Gulbrandsen, Trygve; Meland, Nils; Smerud, Knut T

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of the present trial was to evaluate safety, tolerability, and effect on systolic blood pressure (SBP) of SER100 in a small group of patients with isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) in treatment with at least 1 antihypertensive drug. Eligible patients were randomized to either SER100 (10 mg) or placebo in a crossover design, and 2 doses were given subcutaneously (SC), 8 hours apart, on 2 consecutive days. On all treatment days patients were monitored with an ambulatory blood pressure measurement device for 12 daytime hours. Seventeen patients completed treatment. There were no serious or severe adverse events. Relative to placebo SER100 induced an average reduction of SBP during the 2 treatment days of 7.0 mm Hg (P = 0.0032), whereas the average reduction of diastolic blood pressure (DBP) over the same period was 3.8 mm Hg (P = 0.0011). For patients with ISH, this short-term cross-over study of SC SER100 demonstrated an acceptable safety profile and consistent, significant lowering of SBP and DBP. As initial clinical proof of concept for a new class of drugs, a nociceptin agonist peptide, the results were encouraging and warrant further research. © 2016, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  17. Treatment-resistant hypertension and the incidence of cardiovascular disease and end-stage renal disease: results from the Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntner, Paul; Davis, Barry R; Cushman, William C; Bangalore, Sripal; Calhoun, David A; Pressel, Sara L; Black, Henry R; Kostis, John B; Probstfield, Jeffrey L; Whelton, Paul K; Rahman, Mahboob

    2014-11-01

    Apparent treatment-resistant hypertension (aTRH) is defined as uncontrolled hypertension despite the use of ≥3 antihypertensive medication classes or controlled hypertension while treated with ≥4 antihypertensive medication classes. Although a high prevalence of aTRH has been reported, few data are available on its association with cardiovascular and renal outcomes. We analyzed data on 14 684 Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT) participants to determine the association between aTRH (n=1870) with coronary heart disease, stroke, all-cause mortality, heart failure, peripheral artery disease, and end-stage renal disease. We defined aTRH as blood pressure not at goal (systolic/diastolic blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg) while taking ≥3 classes of antihypertensive medication or taking ≥4 classes of antihypertensive medication with blood pressure at goal during the year 2 ALLHAT study visit (1996-2000). Use of a diuretic was not required to meet the definition of aTRH. Follow-up occurred through 2002. The multivariable adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) comparing participants with versus without aTRH were as follows: coronary heart disease (1.44 [1.18-1.76]), stroke (1.57 [1.18-2.08]), all-cause mortality (1.30 [1.11-1.52]), heart failure (1.88 [1.52-2.34]), peripheral artery disease (1.23 [0.85-1.79]), and end-stage renal disease (1.95 [1.11-3.41]). aTRH was also associated with the pooled outcomes of combined coronary heart disease (hazard ratio, 1.47; 95% confidence interval, 1.26-1.71) and combined cardiovascular disease (hazard ratio, 1.46; 95% confidence interval, 1.29-1.64). These results demonstrate that aTRH increases the risk for cardiovascular disease and end-stage renal disease. Studies are needed to identify approaches to prevent aTRH and reduce risk for adverse outcomes among individuals with aTRH. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Chronobiological analysis by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring of the hyperbaric and hypobaric indexes for evaluation of the antihypertensive effect of long-acting nifedipine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Shingo; Taniguchi, Masayuki; Ohsawa, Shingo; Koga, Atsushi; Ito, Takashi; Kunoh, Mamoru; Imamoto, Satoshi; Miyazaki, Hidekazu; Takeda, Satoshi; Iwano, Keiji; Satoh, Chikashi; Kanae, Kiyoshi; Mochizuki, Seibu

    2005-10-01

    It has been suggested that chronobiology can provide new insights into the evaluation and treatment of cardiovascular disease. In the present study the hyperbaric index (hyperBI) and hypobaric index (hypoBI) were compared with the mean blood pressure (BP) over 24 h to evaluate the antihypertensive effect of long-acting nifedipine on essential hypertension. Fourteen patients were treated with nifedipine CR (20-40 mg/day) for 6 months. Ambulatory BP monitoring was performed before and after treatment. The hyperBI (mmHg . h/day) was calculated as the integrated BP area above the conventional upper limit (140/90 mmHg for the daytime and 120/80 mmHg at night), and the hypoBI was calculated as the integrated BP area below the conventional lower limit (110/60 mmHg for the daytime and 100/50 mmHg at night). At baseline, both the systolic and diastolic 24-h hyperBI values closely correlated with the 24-h mean BP (r=0.994 and 0.935, p<0.0001). Treatment with nifedipine significantly lowered both the 24-h mean systolic and diastolic BP (143+/-14/89 +/-12 to 124+/-16/80+/-8 mmHg, p<0.001/p=0.001), as well as the casual BP (167+/-11/101 +/-8 to 140+/-13/86+/-10 mmHg, p<0.001/p<0.01). Reduction of both the systolic and diastolic hyperBI values was statistically significant over the 24-h period (274+/-266 to 90+/-155, p=0.009; 145+/-187 to 41+/-63, p=0.024), as well as during the daytime (200+/-181 to 66+/-116, p=0.014; 105+/-120 to 24+/-38, p=0.017) and at night (systolic, 74+/-106 to 24+/-52, p=0.021). The 24-h mean BP was normalized, but a small excess BP load persisted despite treatment. There was no significant increase of systolic hypoBI during the 24-h period (1+/-2 to 25+/-30, p=0.065), the daytime (0+/-0 to 14+/-38, p=0.20), or at night (1+/-3 to 11+/-19, p=0,052). Similar findings were obtained for diastolic hypoBI. Nifedipine CR improved the 24-h hyperBI and mean BP without causing excessive hypotension. These 2 parameters have a close relationship when assessment is

  19. Optimum and stepped care standardised antihypertensive treatment with or without renal denervation for resistant hypertension (DENERHTN): a multicentre, open-label, randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Michel; Sapoval, Marc; Gosse, Philippe; Monge, Matthieu; Bobrie, Guillaume; Delsart, Pascal; Midulla, Marco; Mounier-Véhier, Claire; Courand, Pierre-Yves; Lantelme, Pierre; Denolle, Thierry; Dourmap-Collas, Caroline; Trillaud, Hervé; Pereira, Helena; Plouin, Pierre-François; Chatellier, Gilles

    2015-05-16

    Conflicting blood pressure-lowering effects of catheter-based renal artery denervation have been reported in patients with resistant hypertension. We compared the ambulatory blood pressure-lowering efficacy and safety of radiofrequency-based renal denervation added to a standardised stepped-care antihypertensive treatment (SSAHT) with the same SSAHT alone in patients with resistant hypertension. The Renal Denervation for Hypertension (DENERHTN) trial was a prospective, open-label randomised controlled trial with blinded endpoint evaluation in patients with resistant hypertension, done in 15 French tertiary care centres specialised in hypertension management. Eligible patients aged 18-75 years received indapamide 1·5 mg, ramipril 10 mg (or irbesartan 300 mg), and amlodipine 10 mg daily for 4 weeks to confirm treatment resistance by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring before randomisation. Patients were then randomly assigned (1:1) to receive either renal denervation plus an SSAHT regimen (renal denervation group) or the same SSAHT alone (control group). The randomisation sequence was generated by computer, and stratified by centres. For SSAHT, after randomisation, spironolactone 25 mg per day, bisoprolol 10 mg per day, prazosin 5 mg per day, and rilmenidine 1 mg per day were sequentially added from months two to five in both groups if home blood pressure was more than or equal to 135/85 mm Hg. The primary endpoint was the mean change in daytime systolic blood pressure from baseline to 6 months as assessed by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. The primary endpoint was analysed blindly. The safety outcomes were the incidence of acute adverse events of the renal denervation procedure and the change in estimated glomerular filtration rate from baseline to 6 months. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01570777. Between May 22, 2012, and Oct 14, 2013, 1416 patients were screened for eligibility, 106 of those were randomly assigned to treatment

  20. Behavior of sartans (antihypertensive drugs) in wastewater treatment plants, their occurrence and risk for the aquatic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Anne; Asner, Robert; Schüssler, Walter; Kopf, Willi; Weiß, Klaus; Sengl, Manfred; Letzel, Marion

    2014-09-01

    Pharmaceuticals and other anthropogenic trace contaminants reach wastewaters and are often not satisfactorily eliminated in sewage treatment plants. These contaminants and/or their degradation products may reach surface waters, thus influencing aquatic life. In this study, the behavior of five different antihypertonic pharmaceuticals from the sartan group (candesartan, eprosartan, irbesartan, olmesartan and valsartan) is investigated in lab-scale sewage plants. The elimination of the substances with related structures varied broadly from 17 % for olmesartan up to 96 % for valsartan. Monitoring data for these drugs in wastewater effluents of six different sewage treatment plants (STPs) in Bavaria, and at eight rivers, showed median concentrations for, e.g. valsartan of 1.1 and 0.13 μg L(-1), respectively. Predicted environmental concentrations (PEC) were calculated and are mostly consistent with the measured environmental concentrations (MEC). The selected sartans and the mixture of the five sartans showed no ecotoxic effects on aquatic organisms in relevant concentrations. Nevertheless, the occurrence of pharmaceuticals in the environment should be reduced to minimize the risk of their distribution in surface waters, ground waters and bank filtrates used for drinking water.

  1. Show Horse Welfare: Horse Show Competitors' Understanding, Awareness, and Perceptions of Equine Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Melissa A; Hiney, Kristina; Richardson, Jennifer C; Waite, Karen; Borron, Abigail; Brady, Colleen M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of stock-type horse show competitors' understanding of welfare and level of concern for stock-type show horses' welfare. Data were collected through an online questionnaire that included questions relating to (a) interest and general understanding of horse welfare, (b) welfare concerns of the horse show industry and specifically the stock-type horse show industry, (c) decision-making influences, and (d) level of empathic characteristics. The majority of respondents indicated they agree or strongly agree that physical metrics should be a factor when assessing horse welfare, while fewer agreed that behavioral and mental metrics should be a factor. Respondent empathy levels were moderate to high and were positively correlated with the belief that mental and behavioral metrics should be a factor in assessing horse welfare. Respondents indicated the inhumane practices that most often occur at stock-type shows include excessive jerking on reins, excessive spurring, and induced excessive unnatural movement. Additionally, respondents indicated association rules, hired trainers, and hired riding instructors are the most influential regarding the decisions they make related to their horses' care and treatment.

  2. Relationships of different types of event to cardiovascular death in trials of antihypertensive treatment: an aid to definition of total cardiovascular disease risk in hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambon, Antonella; Arfè, Andrea; Corrao, Giovanni; Zanchetti, Alberto

    2014-03-01

    Guidelines for management of cardiovascular diseases stratify absolute cardiovascular risk into categories with a high-risk threshold defined at a 20% cardiovascular events risk in 10 years, but it is unclear whether only major events or the Framingham-extended definition should be considered. The 2013 ESH-ESC hypertension guidelines, instead, define cardiovascular risk as a risk of cardiovascular death in 10 years, as in the SCORE model, setting the threshold for high risk at the 5% level. It would be therefore convenient to know the quantitative relationship between the risks of the different outcomes adopted by the different guidelines, especially because some outcome definitions include serious nonfatal cardiovascular events relevant in cardiovascular prevention. We have therefore analysed these relationships in trials of antihypertensive therapy as an aid to defining total cardiovascular risk in hypertensive patients. Sixty-one trials were identified, and 51 retained for analysis of the relationship of cardiovascular death to the incidence of all-cause death, major cardiovascular events and inclusive (Framingham) cardiovascular events. The relationship between cardiovascular death rates and each type of event rates was explored by fitting flexible regression models. The included trials provided 15164 cardiovascular deaths and 1674427 patient-years. The relation of each event rate to cardiovascular death rate was best explained by a model considering the logarithm of each event rate as a dependent variable and the logarithm of cardiovascular death rate as a predictor. Mean patients' age and treatment were also predictors, but to a minor extent. The increase of the incidence rates of all types of events was less steep the higher the CV death rate: the rate ratios of all-cause death to cardiovascular death were 2.2, 1.9 and 1.8 at low-moderate (cardiovascular death hypertensive patients whose cardiovascular death risk is calculated by the SCORE model.

  3. Prospective direct comparison of antihypertensive effect and safety between high-dose amlodipine or indapamide in hypertensive patients uncontrolled by standard doses of angiotensin receptor blockers and amlodipine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, Keisuke; Shirai, Kazuyuki; Totake, Nao; Okuda, Tetsu; Urata, Hidenori

    2018-01-01

    When hypertension is uncontrolled by routine treatment with an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) and the calcium channel blocker amlodipine (5 mg), the dose of amlodipine can be increased or a diuretic can be added. We investigated the more effective option in a prospective multicenter open-label study. Hypertensive patients were recruited if the target blood pressure (BP) in The Japanese Society of Hypertension 2009 guideline could not be achieved with standard-dose ARB therapy and amlodipine (5 mg). Patients were divided into three groups. Group-1 was switched to a combination of irbesartan (100 mg) and amlodipine (10 mg). Group-2A was changed to a combination of irbesartan (100 mg), amlodipine (5 mg), and indapamide, while Group-2B received a standard-dose ARB and amlodipine (5 mg) plus indapamide. Patients were assigned by their attending physicians and were followed for 6 months. The primary endpoint was the antihypertensive effect of each regimen. Group-1 contained 85 patients, Group-2A had 49 patients, and Group-2B had 4 patients. We only analyzed Group-1 and Group-2A due to the small size of Group-2B. In both groups, systolic BP and diastolic BP were significantly decreased up to 6 months (all p < 0.001). Reduction of systolic BP was greater in Group-1 than Group-2A after 1 month and 6 months (both p < 0.05). Uric acid was increased in Group-2A after 3 months, but not at 6 months. Although both regimens were effective for reducing BP, increasing amlodipine to 10 mg daily controlled hypertension without elevation of serum uric acid.

  4. COMPARATIVE CONTROLLED STUDY OF ANTIHYPERTENSIVE EFFICACY AND SAFETY OF CARVEDILOL IN PATIENTS WITH HYPERTENSION AND OBESITY OR DIABETES 2 TYPE (BASED ON RESULTS OF MULTICENTER TRIAL ACCORD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Yu.V. Lukina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study efficacy and safety of beta-blocker with vasodilating properties carvedilol (Acridilole, Akrihin, Russia as a part of the combined therapy of patients with arterial hypertension (HT and diabetes mellitus 2 type (DM2 and/or obesity.Material and methods. 592 patients: 176 men (29,7% and 416 women (70,3% with HT were examined. 194 patients had D2 and 398 patients had obesity. Patients were randomized for carvedilol therapy (n=291 or control group (n=301. Carvedilol was prescribed additionally to current therapy in dose of 6,25 mg BID, in 2 weeks the dose was increased to 12,5 mg BID if it was necessary. Blood pressure (BP and heart rate, number of angina attacks were registered at visits. ECG, laboratory analysis (plasma lipide profile, serum glucose, glycolised haemoglobin, serum K+ and Na+, evaluation of depression and anxiety status (according to special questionnaires were performed on the first and the last visits.Results. 582 patients completed the study. 7 patients dropped out from carvedilol group and 3 patients - from control group. The levels of systolic BP (SBP and diastolic BP (DBP were decreased during study, more significantly in carvedilol group (р<0,0001. SBP decreased on 24,8 mm Hg in patients of carvedilol group and on 21,4 mm Hg in patients of control group. DBP decreased on 12,5 mm Hg and 11 mm Hg respectively. Angina attacks were registered less often in patients of carvedilol group (р=0,001. Serum glucose and lipid spectrum did not change in both groups. Depression level decreased in patients receiving carvedilol. 17 side effects were registered in carvedilol group and 15 - in control group (р=0,575Conclusion. High antihypertensive efficacy of carvedilol is confirmed in hypertensive patients with DM2 and/or obesity. Good tolerability and metabolic neutrality of carvedilol is also observed.

  5. COMPARATIVE CONTROLLED STUDY OF ANTIHYPERTENSIVE EFFICACY AND SAFETY OF CARVEDILOL IN PATIENTS WITH HYPERTENSION AND OBESITY OR DIABETES 2 TYPE (BASED ON RESULTS OF MULTICENTER TRIAL ACCORD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Yu.V. Lukina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study efficacy and safety of beta-blocker with vasodilating properties carvedilol (Acridilole, Akrihin, Russia as a part of the combined therapy of patients with arterial hypertension (HT and diabetes mellitus 2 type (DM2 and/or obesity.Material and methods. 592 patients: 176 men (29,7% and 416 women (70,3% with HT were examined. 194 patients had D2 and 398 patients had obesity. Patients were randomized for carvedilol therapy (n=291 or control group (n=301. Carvedilol was prescribed additionally to current therapy in dose of 6,25 mg BID, in 2 weeks the dose was increased to 12,5 mg BID if it was necessary. Blood pressure (BP and heart rate, number of angina attacks were registered at visits. ECG, laboratory analysis (plasma lipide profile, serum glucose, glycolised haemoglobin, serum K+ and Na+, evaluation of depression and anxiety status (according to special questionnaires were performed on the first and the last visits.Results. 582 patients completed the study. 7 patients dropped out from carvedilol group and 3 patients - from control group. The levels of systolic BP (SBP and diastolic BP (DBP were decreased during study, more significantly in carvedilol group (р<0,0001. SBP decreased on 24,8 mm Hg in patients of carvedilol group and on 21,4 mm Hg in patients of control group. DBP decreased on 12,5 mm Hg and 11 mm Hg respectively. Angina attacks were registered less often in patients of carvedilol group (р=0,001. Serum glucose and lipid spectrum did not change in both groups. Depression level decreased in patients receiving carvedilol. 17 side effects were registered in carvedilol group and 15 - in control group (р=0,575Conclusion. High antihypertensive efficacy of carvedilol is confirmed in hypertensive patients with DM2 and/or obesity. Good tolerability and metabolic neutrality of carvedilol is also observed.

  6. Influence of Gestational Age at Initiation of Antihypertensive Therapy: Secondary Analysis of CHIPS Trial Data (Control of Hypertension in Pregnancy Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pels, Anouk; Mol, Ben Willem J; Singer, Joel; Lee, Terry; von Dadelszen, Peter; Ganzevoort, Wessel; Asztalos, Elizabeth; Magee, Laura A

    2018-06-01

    For hypertensive women in CHIPS (Control of Hypertension in Pregnancy Study), we assessed whether the maternal benefits of tight control could be achieved, while minimizing any potentially negative effect on fetal growth, by delaying initiation of antihypertensive therapy until later in pregnancy. For the 981 women with nonsevere, chronic or gestational hypertension randomized to less-tight (target diastolic blood pressure, 100 mm Hg), or tight (target, 85 mm Hg) control, we used mixed-effects logistic regression to examine whether the effect of less-tight (versus tight) control on major outcomes was dependent on gestational age at randomization, adjusting for baseline factors as in the primary analysis and including an interaction term between gestational age at randomization and treatment allocation. Gestational age was considered categorically (quartiles) and continuously (linear or quadratic form), and the optimal functional form selected to provide the best fit to the data based on the Akaike information criterion. Randomization before (but not after) 24 weeks to less-tight (versus tight) control was associated with fewer babies with birth weight 48 hours ( P interaction =0.354). For the mother, less-tight (versus tight) control was associated with more severe hypertension at all gestational ages but particularly so before 28 weeks ( P interaction =0.076). In women with nonsevere, chronic, or gestational hypertension, there seems to be no gestational age at which less-tight (versus tight) control is the preferred management strategy to optimize maternal or perinatal outcomes. URL: https://www.isrctn.com. Unique identifier: ISRCTN71416914. © 2018 The Authors.

  7. Laboratory monitoring of patients treated with antihypertensive drugs and newly exposed to non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: a cohort study.

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    Jean-Pascal Fournier

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Drug-Drug Interactions between Non Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs and Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors (ACEIs, Angiotensin Receptor Blocker (ARBs or diuretics can lead to renal failure and hyperkalemia. Thus, monitoring of serum creatinine and potassium is recommended when a first dispensing of NSAID occur in patients treated with these drugs. METHODS: We conducted a pharmacoepidemiological retrospective cohort study using data from the French Health Insurance Reimbursement Database to evaluate the proportion of serum creatinine and potassium laboratory monitoring in patients treated with ACEI, ARB or diuretic and receiving a first dispensing of NSAID. We described the first dispensing of NSAID among 3,500 patients of a 4-year cohort (6,633 patients treated with antihypertensive drugs and analyzed serum creatinine and potassium laboratory monitoring within the 3 weeks after the first NSAID dispensing. RESULTS: General Practitioners were the most frequent prescribers of NSAIDs (85.5%, 95% CI: 84.3-86.6. The more commonly prescribed NSAIDs were ibuprofen (20%, ketoprofen (15%, diclofenac (15% and piroxicam (12%. Serum creatinine and potassium monitoring was 10.7% (95% CI: 9.5-11.8 in patients treated by ACEIs, ARBs or diuretics. Overall, monitoring was more frequently performed to women aged over 60, treated with digoxin or glucose lowering drugs, but not to patients treated with ACEIs, ARBs or diuretics. Monitoring was more frequent when NSAIDs' prescribers were cardiologists or anesthesiologists. CONCLUSION: Monitoring of serum creatinine and potassium of patients treated with ACEIs, ARBs or diuretics and receiving a first NSAID dispensing is insufficiently performed and needs to be reinforced through specific interventions.

  8. [Control of blood pressure mean and its correlation with renal function in patients with severe preeclampsia treated with three oral antihypertensive agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez Rodríguez, Juan Gustavo

    2009-05-01

    In severe preeclampsia, the lack of blood pressure average is a factor for adverse renal function. To describe the control of blood pressure mean and its correlation with the endogenous creatinine clearance in severe preeclampsia treated with three oral antihypertensive agents cross-sectional study on 123 pregnant women with severe preeclampsia, treated with 500 mg every 8 h methyldopa, hydralazine 50 mg every 6 h, or 100 mg of metoprolol every 12 hours from admission to the unit intensive care to the care delivery. At time of delivery were compared blood pressure average, endogenous creatinine clearance and the correlation between two of the 123 patients were divided into two groups with matching blood pressure treatment goal of 95 mmHg (98 cases, 79.67%). Was used to measures of central tendency and dispersion, T-test and Pearson correlation coefficient (r). Blood pressure mean (mmHg) initial vs final of all patients was similar (114.64 +/- 4.54 vs 103.88 +/- 10.65, p = 1.46) but not the medial blood group A vs B (89.16 +/- 4.54 vs 107.63 +/- 8.22, p = 0.05). Endogenous creatinine clearance (mL/min/1.73 m2 SC) of the total was similar (101.88 +/- 28.48 vs 98.73 +/- 29.96, p = 0.40) in group A increased by 2.5 (p = 0.71) and decreased in group B 5.69 (p = 0.0056). R of the total income to the intensive care unit was 0.11 and the birth of 0.06, 0.0033 in groupA and -0.44 and 0.13 in group B and 0.16, respectively. The satisfactory control of blood pressure was achieved in 20.33% of cases. The correlation between blood pressure mean and endogenous creatinine clearance was very low.

  9. Influence of antihypertensive therapy, sodium intake and the concentration of potassium in plasma on concentration of aldosterone and plasma renin activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalić Tijana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Primary aldosteronism (PA is a group of disorders which are characterized by inadequate and non-suppressible production of aldosterone. The prevalence of PA is increasing in hypertensive population. The golden standard of screening for primary aldosteronism, determination of aldosterone/plasma renin activity (ARR, is influenced by numerous exogenous and endogenous factors. Testing cannot always be conducted under optimal conditions. Objective: To determine influence of antihypertensive drugs and concentrations of potassium and sodium in blood and urine on values of aldosterone and plasma renin activity. Methods: In this retrospective study, we analyzed medical reports of patients admitted to Department of thyroid gland disease in the period from 2009 to 2011, with increased risk for primary aldosteronism. Body weight and height, sodium and potassium in serum and urine, plasma aldosterone concentrations and plasma renin activity, data on medicines and comorbidity were analyzed in all patients. In processing data, statistical methods descriptive analysis, Student T test and univariate linear regression were applied. Result: Of 137 patients, there were more patients with resistant hypertension (53,28% than with adrenal tumors (46,72%. Most patients used calcium channel blockers. Treatment with alpha blockers and calcium channel blockers does not influence ARR. Beta blockers and ACE inhibitors can influence ARR and diuretics and vasodilatators have definite influence. Diabetes mellitus can have higher risk of false negative results. Urine sodium excretion is significantly correlated with plasma aldosteron and serum potassium. Plasma aldosteron and PRA are significantly correlated with concentrations of electrolites in urine. Conclusion: Increased prevalence of primary aldosteronism necessitates need for accurate and better diagnostics.

  10. Dietary Patterns, Nutrition Knowledge, Lifestyle, and Health-Related Quality of Life: Associations with Anti-Hypertension Medication Adherence in a Sample of Australian Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalesi, Saman; Irwin, Christopher; Sun, Jing

    2017-12-01

    Poor anti-hypertension medication (AHT) adherence can increase disease costs and adverse outcomes. Hypertensive individuals who have a better nutrition knowledge may lead a healthier lifestyle, have a better health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and greater confidence to change behaviour. On this basis, they may have better treatment adherence. To explore the association between the above-mentioned variables and AHT adherence in a group of Australian adults with high blood pressure (BP) in a cross-sectional clinical and community-based study. Adults with high BP (n = 270) completed a questionnaire including: food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), nutrition knowledge, HRQoL, self-efficacy of diet and exercise, lifestyle and AHT adherence sections. Bivariate analysis and hierarchical logistic regression were used to explore the data. Three dietary patterns were identified from the FFQ, using factor and cluster analyses (Western, Snack and Alcohol, and Balanced). We observed that following a Western dietary pattern, having lower exercise self-efficacy and shorter sleep duration were more dominant in the poor AHT adherence individuals compared to their counterparts. A positive association was observed between self-efficacy and sleep duration with AHT adherence. A Western dietary pattern was prevalent in high BP participants which slightly reduced the likelihood of good adherence. A healthier dietary pattern, better exercise self-efficacy and adequate sleep (more than six hours a night) may increase the likelihood of AHT adherence in individuals with high BP. Interventions focusing on improving these variables are required to confirm the findings of this study.

  11. Antihypertensive drug prescription patterns and their impact on outcome of blood pressure in Ethiopia: a hospital-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abegaz, Tadesse Melaku; Tefera, Yonas Getaye; Abebe, Tamrat Befekadu

    2017-01-01

    Irrational prescription is strongly associated with poor control of hypertension. The present study aimed to evaluate antihypertensive drug prescription trends and to measure their impact on the level of blood pressure (BP) control in Gondar University Hospital, Gondar, Ethiopia. A hospital-based retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted from May 30 to June 30, 2016. All hypertensive patients on medication were included. A structured data abstraction form was prepared to gather the necessary information. The prescription patterns and BP level were measured retrospectively. A binary logistic regression was computed to determine the effect of different prescription patterns on BP control. A total of 596 hypertension patients were recruited for the study; of them, 561(94%) met the study criteria. The mean age of the respondents was 55.96±14.6 years. Females constituted 58.2% of the study population. Approximately fifty percent of the prescriptions were monotherapies. Twice-daily dosing was associated with lower risk of uncontrolled hypertension (crude odds ratio [COR] =0.51[0.15-0.73], adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =0.69[0.163-0.91]). Monthly appointment was linked with a nearly 90% reduced incidence of uncontrolled BP (COR =0.15[0.04-0.73], AOR =0.093[0.024-0.359]). Monotherapies were the most frequently prescribed regimens. Twice-daily dosing and monthly appointments were associated with low incidence of uncontrolled BP. Clinicians should be vigilant in adjusting the frequency of dosing and should fix appointment date in consultation with their patients.

  12. Rational Prescribing in Primary care (RaPP: process evaluation of an intervention to improve prescribing of antihypertensive and cholesterol-lowering drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oxman Andrew D

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A randomised trial of a multifaceted intervention for improving adherence to clinical practice guidelines for the pharmacological management of hypertension and hypercholesterolemia increased prescribing of thiazides, butdetected no impact onthe use of cardiovascular risk assessment toolsor achievement of treatment targets. We carried out a predominantly quantitative process evaluation to help explain and interpret the trial-findings. Methods Several data-sources were used including: questionnaires completed by pharmacists immediately after educational outreach visits, semi-structured interviews with physicians subjected to the intervention, and data extracted from their electronic medical records. Multivariate regression analyses were conducted to explore the association between possible explanatory variables and the observed variation across practices for the three main outcomes. Results The attendance rate during the educational sessions in each practice was high; few problems were reported, and the physicians were perceived as being largely supportive of the recommendations we promoted, except for some scepticism regarding the use of thiazides as first-line antihypertensive medication. Multivariate regression models could explain only a small part of the observed variation across practices and across trial-outcomes, and key factors that might explain the observed variation in adherence to the recommendations across practices were not identified. Conclusion This study did not provide compelling explanations for the trial results. Possible reasons for this include a lack of statistical power and failure to include potential explanatory variables in our analyses, particularly organisational factors. More use of qualitative research methods in the course of the trial could have improved our understanding.

  13. L-type Ca²⁺ channel blockade with antihypertensive medication disrupts VTA synaptic plasticity and drug-associated contextual memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degoulet, M; Stelly, C E; Ahn, K-C; Morikawa, H

    2016-03-01

    Drug addiction is driven, in part, by powerful and enduring memories of sensory cues associated with drug intake. As such, relapse to drug use during abstinence is frequently triggered by an encounter with drug-associated cues, including the drug itself. L-type Ca(2+) channels (LTCCs) are known to regulate different forms of synaptic plasticity, the major neural substrate for learning and memory, in various brain areas. Long-term potentiation (LTP) of NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-mediated glutamatergic transmission in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) may contribute to the increased motivational valence of drug-associated cues triggering relapse. In this study, using rat brain slices, we found that isradipine, a general LTCC antagonist used as antihypertensive medication, not only blocks the induction of NMDAR LTP but also promotes the reversal of previously induced LTP in the VTA. In behaving rats, isradipine injected into the VTA suppressed the acquisition of cocaine-paired contextual cue memory assessed using a conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. Furthermore, administration of isradipine or a CaV1.3 subtype-selective LTCC antagonist (systemic or intra-VTA) before a single extinction or reinstatement session, while having no immediate effect at the time of administration, abolished previously acquired cocaine and alcohol (ethanol) CPP on subsequent days. Notably, CPP thus extinguished cannot be reinstated by drug re-exposure, even after 2 weeks of withdrawal. These results suggest that LTCC blockade during exposure to drug-associated cues may cause unlearning of the increased valence of those cues, presumably via reversal of glutamatergic synaptic plasticity in the VTA.

  14. State of a large vessels and microcirculation - a new target for antihypertensive therapy in patients with hypertension and type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Statsenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the effect of 12 weeks of complex therapy with the fixed combination of enalapril and indapamide on indicators of vascular stiffness of large arteries and parameters of skin microcirculation (MC in patients with arterial hypertension (HT and diabetes mellitus (DM type 2.Material and methods. 30 patients with HT stage II-III in combination with DM type 2 aged 40-70 years were included into the study. The fixed combination of enalapril and indapamide in addition to lipid-lowering and hypoglycemic therapy was prescribed to all patients. Elastic properties of large arteries were assessed by analyzing the pulse wave velocity (PWV and the calculation of the index of aortic stiffness (IAS. Skin MC and level of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c were also determined.Results. After the 12-week treatment all patients reached the target values of blood pressure (BP. Office systolic and diastolic BP levels decreased by 18.8 and 13.1% (p<0.05 for both, respectively. The treatment did not have a negative effect on glucose metabolism – HbA1C concentration decreased by 2.7%. PWV in the vessels of elastic and muscular types decreased by 10.8 and 10.1% (p<0.05 for both, respectively, and IAS decreased by 27.4% (p<0.05. Significant growth in factor myogenic regulation of MC and reduction in bypass indicator by 21.8% were found.Conclusion. Combined therapy with the inclusion of a fixed combination of enalapril and indapamide for 12 weeks had a high antihypertensive efficacy and good tolerability in patients with HT and DM type 2. Treatment significantly reduced the vascular stiffness of large arteries and improved the MC indices in these patients.

  15. Aliskiren, a Direct Renin Inhibitor, Improves Vascular Endothelial Function in Patients on Hemodialysis Independent of Antihypertensive Effect ∼ a Pilot Study∼

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidekazu Moriya

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Aliskiren inhibits the first step in the renin-angiotensin system (RAS and recently has been shown to modulate vascular diseases via RAS-dependent and independent pathways. This study aimed to determine the effect of aliskiren-associated direct renin inhibition on endothelial function in patients on hemodialysis via flow-mediated dilatation (FMD and platelet-derived microparticles (PDMP, as biomarkers of atherosclerosis. Methods: A 12-week prospective study was performed with 24 patients on hemodialysis who were administered 150 mg orally aliskiren once daily for 12 weeks. Results: No significant difference were observed between pre-dialysis, home, and weekly averaged blood pressure at baseline and at 12 weeks (151.5 ± 8.5/80.9 ± 12.9 mmHg vs 150.3 ± 15.3/78.9 ± 21.2 mmHg, 151.4 ± 9.7/82.3 ± 14.7 mmHg vs 151.2 ± 17.7/81.4 ± 10.6 mmHg, and 156.0 ± 18.3/81.9 ± 9.4 mmHg vs 152.5 ± 18.9/81.7 ± 12.3 mmHg, respectively. FMD significantly increased from 2.54% ± 1.45% at baseline to 3.11% ± 1.37% at 12 weeks (P = 0.0267, and PDMP significantly decreased from 13.9 ± 5.8 U/mL at baseline to 10.9 ± 4.5 U/mL at 12 weeks (P = 0.0002. Conclusion: Aliskiren improved vascular endothelial function and platelet-endothelium activation in patients on hemodialysis independent of antihypertensive effect.

  16. Best in show but not best shape: a photographic assessment of show dog body condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Such, Z R; German, A J

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies suggest that owners often wrongly perceive overweight dogs to be in normal condition. The body shape of dogs attending shows might influence owners' perceptions, with online images of overweight show winners having a negative effect. This was an observational in silico study of canine body condition. 14 obese-prone breeds and 14 matched non-obese-probe breeds were first selected, and one operator then used an online search engine to identify 40 images, per breed, of dogs that had appeared at a major national UK show (Crufts). After images were anonymised and coded, a second observer subjectively assessed body condition, in a single sitting, using a previously validated method. Of 1120 photographs initially identified, 960 were suitable for assessing body condition, with all unsuitable images being from longhaired breeds. None of the dogs (0 per cent) were underweight, 708 (74 per cent) were in ideal condition and 252 (26 per cent) were overweight. Pugs, basset hounds and Labrador retrievers were most likely to be overweight, while standard poodles, Rhodesian ridgebacks, Hungarian vizslas and Dobermanns were least likely to be overweight. Given the proportion of show dogs from some breeds that are overweight, breed standards should be redefined to be consistent with a dog in optimal body condition. British Veterinary Association.

  17. Antihypertensive and Antihypertrophic Effects of Acupuncture at PC6 Acupoints in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats and the Underlying Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan-Juan Xin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to investigate the effect of electroacupuncture (EA at PC6 on the hypertension and myocardial hypertrophy in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs. Thirty SHRs were randomized into model, SHR + EA, and SHR + Sham EA group with WKY rats as normal control. EA was applied once a day in 8 consecutive weeks. The blood pressure (BP, cardiac function, and hypertrophy as well as the underlying mechanisms were investigated. After EA treatment, the enhanced BP in SHR + EA group was significantly lower compared to both the period before EA and model group. Echocardiographic, morphological studies showed that the enhanced left ventricular anterior and posterior wall end-diastolic (LVAWd and LVPWd thickness, diameters and cross-sectional area (CSA of cardiac myocyte, as well as the ratio of heart weight to body weight (HW/BW, were markedly diminished in SHR + EA group, while the reduced left ventricular ejection fraction, left ventricular short axis fraction shortening, and E/A ratio were significantly ameliorated. The levels of Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE and Angiotensin II Type 1 and 2 receptors (AT1R, AT2R in SHRs were also significantly attenuated by EA. The results suggest that EA at bilateral PC6 could arrest the hypertension development and ameliorate the cardiac hypertrophy and malfunction in SHRs, which might be mediated by the regulation of ACE, AT1R, and AT2R.

  18. Enhancement of the bioavailability of an antihypertensive drug by transdermal protransfersomal system: formulation and in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsi, Nadia M; Aboelwafa, Ahmed A; Dawoud, Marwa H S

    2018-06-01

    Timolol Maleate (TiM), a nonselective β-adrenergic blocker, is a potent highly effective agent for management of hypertension. The drug suffers from poor oral bioavailability (50%) due to its first pass effect and a short elimination half-life of 4 h; resulting in its frequent administration. Transdermal formulation may circumvent these problems in the form of protransfersomes. The aim of this study is to develop and optimize transdermal protransfersomal system of Timolol Maleate by film deposition on carrier method where protransfersomes were converted to transfersomes upon skin hydration following transdermal application under occlusive conditions. Two 2 3 full factorial designs were employed to investigate the influence of three formulation variables which were; phosphatidyl choline: surfactant molar ratio, carrier: mixture and the type of SAA each on particle size, drug entrapment efficiency and release rate. The optimized formulation was evaluated regarding permeation through hairless rat skin and compared with oral administration of aqueous solution on male Wistar rats. Optimized protransfersomal system had excellent permeation rate through shaved rat skin (780.69 μg/cm 2 /h) and showed six times increase in relative bioavailability with prolonged plasma profile up to 72 h. A potential protransfresomal transdermal system was successfully developed and factorial design was found to be a smart tool in its optimization.

  19. Study of determinants of nonadherence to anti-hypertensive medications in essential hypertension at a Teaching Hospital in Southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R C Kumaraswamy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hypertension is a chronic asymptomatic disease, often goes unnoticed for decades before it presents to the medical fraternity with devastating consequences. Low patient adherence is amenable for modification for better control of hypertension, if factors contributing to it are understood. Study was undertaken with the aims of assessing the factors responsible and their relative contributions toward nonadherence among hypertensives. Materials and Methods: We conducted a prospective observational study from August 2013 to August 2014. We included those, who attended the medicine outpatient department with a diagnosis of essential hypertension of more than 1 year duration. Results: A total of 516 patients were enrolled in the study, of which 132 (25.58% were nonadherent. Marital status (P = 0.017, socioeconomic status (P = 0.000, level of education (P = 0.034, such as, illiteracy was associated with highest level of nonadherence compared with those with pre-matric and undergraduate education, whereas those with post graduate level of education showed absolute adherence to drugs and domiciliary status (P = 0.045 had statistically significant association with nonadherence. Other factors like younger age and male sex were associated with a higher degree of nonadherence, however statistical significance could not be obtained.

  20. New potentially antihypertensive peptides liberated in milk during fermentation with selected lactic acid bacteria and kombucha cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkhtab, Ebrahim; El-Alfy, Mohamed; Shenana, Mohamed; Mohamed, Abdelaty; Yousef, Ahmed E

    2017-12-01

    Compounds with the ability to inhibit angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) are used medically to treat human hypertension. The presence of such compounds naturally in food is potentially useful for treating the disease state. The goal of this study was to screen lactic acid bacteria, including species commonly used as dairy starter cultures, for the ability to produce new potent ACE-inhibiting peptides during milk fermentation. Strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactococcus lactis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, and Pediococcus acidilactici were tested in this study. Additionally, a symbiotic consortium of yeast and bacteria, used commercially to produce kombucha tea, was tested. Commercially sterile milk was inoculated with lactic acid bacteria strains and kombucha culture and incubated at 37°C for up to 72 h, and the liberation of ACE-inhibiting compounds during fermentation was monitored. Fermented milk was centrifuged and the supernatant (crude extract) was subjected to ultrafiltration using 3- and 10-kDa cut-off filters. Crude and ultrafiltered extracts were tested for ACE-inhibitory activity. The 10-kDa filtrate resulting from L. casei ATCC 7469 and kombucha culture fermentations (72 h) showed the highest ACE-inhibitory activity. Two-step purification of these filtrates was done using HPLC equipped with a reverse-phase column. Analysis of HPLC-purified fractions by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry identified several new peptides with potent ACE-inhibitory activities. Some of these peptides were synthesized, and their ACE-inhibitory activities were confirmed. Use of organisms producing these unique peptides in food fermentations could contribute positively to human health. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Tomato Fruits Show Wide Phenomic Diversity but Fruit Developmental Genes Show Low Genomic Diversity.

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    Vijee Mohan

    Full Text Available Domestication of tomato has resulted in large diversity in fruit phenotypes. An intensive phenotyping of 127 tomato accessions from 20 countries revealed extensive morphological diversity in fruit traits. The diversity in fruit traits clustered the accessions into nine classes and identified certain promising lines having desirable traits pertaining to total soluble salts (TSS, carotenoids, ripening index, weight and shape. Factor analysis of the morphometric data from Tomato Analyzer showed that the fruit shape is a complex trait shared by several factors. The 100% variance between round and flat fruit shapes was explained by one discriminant function having a canonical correlation of 0.874 by stepwise discriminant analysis. A set of 10 genes (ACS2, COP1, CYC-B, RIN, MSH2, NAC-NOR, PHOT1, PHYA, PHYB and PSY1 involved in various plant developmental processes were screened for SNP polymorphism by EcoTILLING. The genetic diversity in these genes revealed a total of 36 non-synonymous and 18 synonymous changes leading to the identification of 28 haplotypes. The average frequency of polymorphism across the genes was 0.038/Kb. Significant negative Tajima'D statistic in two of the genes, ACS2 and PHOT1 indicated the presence of rare alleles in low frequency. Our study indicates that while there is low polymorphic diversity in the genes regulating plant development, the population shows wider phenotype diversity. Nonetheless, morphological and genetic diversity of the present collection can be further exploited as potential resources in future.

  2. CHALLENGING PROBLEMS OF HYPERTENSION MANAGEMENT: THE EFFECT OF INCREASED HEART RATE AND COMORBIDITIES ON THE CHOICE OF ANTIHYPERTENSIVE THERAPY IN PRACTICE OF CARDIOLOGIST AND THERAPIST. The Conclusion of the Expert Council

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Arutyunov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The conclusion of the Expert Council "Challenging problems of hypertension management: the effect of increased heart rate and comorbidities on the choice of antihypertensive therapy in practice of cardiologist and therapist" is presented. Topical issues of hypertensive patient’s treatment, the role of heart rate in hypertension and ways to influence it are considered. The possibility of treatment of hypertensive patients with trandolapril/verapamil SR fixed combination is analyzed separately. The data on the clinical efficacy and protective effects of trandolapril/verapamil SR fixed combination are presented.

  3. Health services research in the public healthcare system in Hong Kong: an analysis of over 1 million antihypertensive prescriptions between 2004-2007 as an example of the potential and pitfalls of using routinely collected electronic patient data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Martin C S; Jiang, Johnny Y; Tang, Jin-ling; Lam, Augustine; Fung, Hong; Mercer, Stewart W

    2008-06-25

    Increasing use is being made of routinely collected electronic patient data in health services research. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential usefulness of a comprehensive database used routinely in the public healthcare system in Hong Kong, using antihypertensive drug prescriptions in primary care as an example. Data on antihypertensive drug prescriptions were retrieved from the electronic Clinical Management System (e-CMS) of all primary care clinics run by the Health Authority (HA) in the New Territory East (NTE) cluster of Hong Kong between January 2004 and June 2007. Information was also retrieved on patients' demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, visit type (new or follow-up), and relevant diseases (International Classification of Primary Care, ICPC codes). 1,096,282 visit episodes were accessed, representing 93,450 patients. Patients' demographic and socio-economic details were recorded in all cases. Prescription details for anti-hypertensive drugs were missing in only 18 patients (0.02%). However, ICPC-code was missing for 36,409 patients (39%). Significant independent predictors of whether disease codes were applied included patient age > or = 70 years (OR 2.18), female gender (OR 1.20), district of residence (range of ORs in more rural districts; 0.32-0.41), type of clinic (OR in Family Medicine Specialist Clinics; 1.45) and type of visit (OR follow-up visit; 2.39). In the 57,041 patients with an ICPC-code, uncomplicated hypertension (ICPC K86) was recorded in 45,859 patients (82.1%). The characteristics of these patients were very similar to those of the non-coded group, suggesting that most non-coded patients on antihypertensive drugs are likely to have uncomplicated hypertension. The e-CMS database of the HA in Hong Kong varies in quality in terms of recorded information. Potential future health services research using demographic and prescription information is highly feasible but for disease-specific research dependant

  4. Baseline Quality of Life and Risk of Stroke in the ALLHAT Study (Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Tanzila; Auchus, Alexander P; Oparil, Suzanne; Wright, Clinton B; Wright, Jackson; Furlan, Anthony J; Sila, Cathy A; Davis, Barry R; Pressel, Sara; Yamal, Jose-Miguel; Einhorn, Paula T; Lerner, Alan J

    2017-11-01

    The visual analogue scale is a self-reported, validated tool to measure quality of life (QoL). Our purpose was to determine whether baseline QoL predicted strokes in the ALLHAT study (Antihypertensive and Lipid Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial) and evaluate determinants of poststroke change in QoL. In the ALLHAT study, among the 33 357 patients randomized to treatment arms, 1525 experienced strokes; 1202 (79%) strokes were nonfatal. This study cohort includes 32 318 (97%) subjects who completed the baseline visual analogue scale QoL estimate. QoL was measured on a visual analogue scale and adjusted using a Torrance transformation (transformed QoL [TQoL]). Kaplan-Meier curves and adjusted proportional hazards analyses were used to estimate the effect of TQoL on the risk of stroke, on a continuous scale (0-1) and by quartiles (≤0.81, >0.81≤0.89, >0.89≤0.95, >0.95). We analyzed the change from baseline to first poststroke TQoL using adjusted linear regression. After adjusting for multiple stroke risk factors, the hazard ratio for stroke events for baseline TQoL was 0.93 (95% confidence interval, 0.89-0.98) per 0.1 U increase. The lowest baseline TQoL quartile had a 20% increased stroke risk (hazard ratio=1.20 [95% confidence interval, 1.00-1.44]) compared with the reference highest quartile TQoL. Poststroke TQoL change was significant within all treatment groups ( P ≤0.001). Multivariate regression analysis revealed that baseline TQoL was the strongest predictor of poststroke TQoL with similar results for the untransformed QoL. The lowest baseline TQoL quartile had a 20% higher stroke risk than the highest quartile. Baseline TQoL was the only factor that predicted poststroke change in TQoL. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00000542. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Lactotripeptides Show No Effect on Human Blood Pressure: Results from a double-blind randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engberink, M.F.; Schouten, E.G.; Kok, F.J.; Mierlo, van L.A.J.; Brouwer, I.A.; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Milk-derived peptides with ACE-inhibiting properties may have antihypertensive effects in humans. We conducted a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial to examine the blood pressure lowering potential of 2 ACE-inhibiting lactotripeptides, ie, Isoleucine-Proline-Proline and

  6. Payload specialist Reinhard Furrer show evidence of previous blood sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Payload specialist Reinhard Furrer shows evidence of previous blood sampling while Wubbo J. Ockels, Dutch payload specialist (only partially visible), extends his right arm after a sample has been taken. Both men show bruises on their arms.

  7. Uudised : Otsman taas Riias show'l. Rokkstaarist ministriks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Drag-kabareeartist Erkki Otsman esineb detsembris Riias "Sapnu Fabrikas" toimuval jõulu-show'l. Austraalia rokkansambli Midnight Oil endine laulja Peter Garrett nimetati valitsuse keskkonnaministriks

  8. Time dependent patient no-show predictive modelling development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Li; Hanauer, David A

    2016-05-09

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to develop evident-based predictive no-show models considering patients' each past appointment status, a time-dependent component, as an independent predictor to improve predictability. Design/methodology/approach - A ten-year retrospective data set was extracted from a pediatric clinic. It consisted of 7,291 distinct patients who had at least two visits along with their appointment characteristics, patient demographics, and insurance information. Logistic regression was adopted to develop no-show models using two-thirds of the data for training and the remaining data for validation. The no-show threshold was then determined based on minimizing the misclassification of show/no-show assignments. There were a total of 26 predictive model developed based on the number of available past appointments. Simulation was employed to test the effective of each model on costs of patient wait time, physician idle time, and overtime. Findings - The results demonstrated the misclassification rate and the area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic gradually improved as more appointment history was included until around the 20th predictive model. The overbooking method with no-show predictive models suggested incorporating up to the 16th model and outperformed other overbooking methods by as much as 9.4 per cent in the cost per patient while allowing two additional patients in a clinic day. Research limitations/implications - The challenge now is to actually implement the no-show predictive model systematically to further demonstrate its robustness and simplicity in various scheduling systems. Originality/value - This paper provides examples of how to build the no-show predictive models with time-dependent components to improve the overbooking policy. Accurately identifying scheduled patients' show/no-show status allows clinics to proactively schedule patients to reduce the negative impact of patient no-shows.

  9. Entertaining politics, seriously?! : How talk show formats blur conceptual boundaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schohaus, Birte

    2017-01-01

    What happens behind the scenes of a talk show? Why do some politicians seem to appear on every show while others are hardly ever seen? Birte Schohaus conducted a multi-layered research in which she conducted interviews with journalists, producers, PR advisors and (former) politicians and combined

  10. Effects of TV Crime Shows on Behavioural Development of Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Mudassar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Television crime dramas and shows are very popular all over the world. This popularity is not bound to a certain age group, rather all the TV viewers like these shows very much. Like other countries, dozens of TV channels are telecasting these crime shows in Pakistan. Furthermore, few of the channels telecast crime shows at prime time which attests the popularity of such genre. Some of the media contents behave in morally disputed ways. The crime depictions as re-enactments of TV crime shows are questionable in the field of research signifying diverse cultural contexts. A large number of people are habitual to watch these shows, which may probably come out with negative behavioural outcomes. Especially the children who are at their behavioural developmental phase; are more susceptible to adopt negative behavioural leanings. In this research effort, introduction and detail of TV crime shows in Pakistan are provided, the literature concerning “media as risk factor“ in children development is discussed, and relevant theories inferences are deliberated.it was found that media has powerful role in behaviour formulating of children and violence media portrayal (TV crime shows may appear with grave concerns. Previous scientific literature was reviewed to find and discuss the problem in hand. In the research effort, the literature review provides research propositions to explore further dimensions to TV crime shows’ effects and possible negative or positive behavioural outcomes in children behaviour.

  11. The Presentation of Science in Everyday Life: The Science Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watermeyer, Richard

    2013-01-01

    This paper constitutes a case-study of the "science show" model of public engagement employed by a company of science communicators focused on the popularization of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) subject disciplines with learner constituencies. It examines the potential of the science show to foster the interest…

  12. "The Daily Show with Jon Stewart": Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trier, James

    2008-01-01

    Comedy Central's popular program "The Daily Show With Jon Stewart" is the best critical media literacy program on television, and it can be used in valuable ways in the classroom as part of a media literacy pedagogy. This Media Literacy column provides an overview of the show and its accompanying website and considers ways it might be used in the…

  13. The Daily Show with Jon Stewart: Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trier, James

    2008-01-01

    "The Daily Show With Jon Stewart" is one of the best critical literacy programs on television, and in this Media Literacy column the author suggests ways that teachers can use video clips from the show in their classrooms. (For Part 1, see EJ784683.)

  14. 16 CFR 5.57 - Order to show cause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Order to show cause. 5.57 Section 5.57 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE STANDARDS OF CONDUCT Disciplinary Actions Concerning Postemployment Conflict of Interest § 5.57 Order to show cause. (a...

  15. Efficacy and tolerability of a single-pill combination of telmisartan 80 mg and hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg according to age, gender, race, hypertension severity, and previous antihypertensive use: planned analyses of a randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu D

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Dingliang Zhu,1 Harold Bays,2 Pingjin Gao,1 Michaela Mattheus,3 Birgit Voelker,3 Luis M Ruilope4 1Shanghai Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 2Louisville Metabolic and Atherosclerosis Research Center Inc, Louisville, KY, USA; 3Boehringer Ingelheim International GmbH, Ingelheim, Germany; 4Hospital 12 de Octubre, Madrid, Spain Background: The purpose of this work was to describe the efficacy and safety of a telmisartan 80 mg + hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg (T80/H25 single-pill combination therapy in patients with moderate-severe hypertension (mean seated trough cuff systolic blood pressure [BP] ≥ 160 mmHg and diastolic BP ≥ 100 mmHg in specific patient subpopulations. Methods: This was a planned analysis of a double-blind, multicenter, parallel-group trial that demonstrated the superiority of a single-pill combination of T80/H25 versus T80 monotherapy in terms of systolic BP change from baseline to week 7. Subpopulations included older (aged ≥ 65 years versus younger, gender, race, hypertension severity, and prior antihypertensive therapy. Endpoints were change from baseline in mean seated trough cuff systolic and diastolic BP, proportion of patients achieving their BP goal (systolic/diastolic BP 30 mmHg and >40 mmHg. Results: Across all subgroups, the T80/H25 single-pill combination provided consistently greater systolic and diastolic BP reductions than T80 and more patients had systolic BP reductions of >30 mmHg. In the T80 and T80/H25 groups, BP control was achieved in 34.1% and 48.8% of men, 35.5% and 62.7% of women, 34.5% and 56.6% of Asians, 22.6% and 38.6% of blacks, 36.7% and 57.8% of whites, 36.9% and 57.5% of patients < 65 years, 29.3% and 49.3% ≥65 years, 44.2% and 66.2% of those with grade 2 hypertension, 20.4% and 39.4% of those with grade 3 hypertension, 38.9% and 53.2% of previously untreated patients, 38.1% and 62.5% of patients previously treated with one antihypertensive, and 29.7% and 48.9% of patients

  16. Davedan Show Di Amphi Theatre Nusa Dua Bali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Made Ruastiti

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Artikel ini disusun dari hasil penelitian yang bertujuan untuk dapat memahami pertunjukan Davedan Show di Amphi Theatre Nusa Dua Bali. Penelitian ini dilakukan karena adanya ketimpangan antara asumsi dan kenyataan di lapangan. Pada umumnya wisatawan yang datang ke Bali hanya senang dan antusias menonton seni pertunjukan pariwisata berbasis seni budaya lokal saja. Tetapi kenyataan ini berbeda. Walaupun Davedan Show tidak dibangun dari seni budaya lokal saja, tetapi kenyataannya wisatawan sangat senang menonton pertunjukan tersebut. Pertanyaannya: bagaimanakah bentuk pertunjukan Davedan Show tersebut?; mengapa wisatawan senang menonton pertunjukan itu?; apa implikasinya bagi pelaku, masyarakat, dan industri pariwisata di Nusa Dua, Bali?. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode penelitian kualitatif, khususnya implementatif partisipatoris yang mengutamakan kerjasama antara periset dengan para informan terkait. Sumber data penelitian ini adalah pertunjukan Davedan itu sendiri, pihak manajemen, para penari, penonton, hasil-hasil penelitian yang telah ada sebelumnya. Seluruh data yang telah dikumpulkan dengan teknik observasi, wawancara, FGD, dan studi kepustakaan itu dianalisis secara kritis dengan menggunakan teori estetika postmodern, teori praktik, dan teori relasi kuasa pengetahuan. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa: (1 Davedan Show disajikan dalam bentuk oratorium. Hal itu dapat dilihat dari cara penyajian, koreografi, dan iringan pertunjukannya. Davedan Show yang menampilkan tema Treasure of The Archipelago, membuka gerbang petualangan baru itu diiringi musik rekaman etnik Nusantara secara medley, berkelanjutan dengan struktur pertunjukan: seni budaya Bali, Sumatra, Sunda, Solo, Kalimantan, dan seni budaya Papua; (2 Davedan Show banyak diminati wisatawan manca negara karena penciptaan pertunjukan itu dilatari oleh ideologi pasar, ideologi estetika, dan ideologi budaya Nusantara; (3 Hingga kini Davedan Show berkembang secara berkelanjutan di Nusa Dua

  17. QLab 3 show control projects for live performances & installations

    CERN Document Server

    Hopgood, Jeromy

    2013-01-01

    Used from Broadway to Britain's West End, QLab software is the tool of choice for many of the world's most prominent sound, projection, and integrated media designers. QLab 3 Show Control: Projects for Live Performances & Installations is a project-based book on QLab software covering sound, video, and show control. With information on both sound and video system basics and the more advanced functions of QLab such as MIDI show control, new OSC capabilities, networking, video effects, and microphone integration, each chapter's specific projects will allow you to learn the software's capabilitie

  18. The impact of a multidisciplinary self-care management program on quality of life, self-care, adherence to anti-hypertensive therapy, glycemic control, and renal function in diabetic kidney disease: A Cross-over Study Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helou, Nancy; Talhouedec, Dominique; Shaha, Maya; Zanchi, Anne

    2016-07-19

    Diabetic kidney disease, a global health issue, remains associated with high morbidity and mortality. Previous research has shown that multidisciplinary management of chronic disease can improve patient outcomes. The effect of multidisciplinary self-care management on quality of life and renal function of patients with diabetic kidney disease has not yet been well established. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of a multidisciplinary self-care management program on quality of life, self-care behavior, adherence to anti-hypertensive treatment, glycemic control, and renal function of adults with diabetic kidney disease. A uniform balanced cross-over design is used, with the objective to recruit 40 adult participants with diabetic kidney disease, from public and private out-patient settings in French speaking Switzerland. Participants are randomized in equal number into four study arms. Each participant receives usual care alternating with the multidisciplinary self- care management program. Each treatment period lasts three months and is repeated twice at different time intervals over 12 months depending on the cross-over arm. The multidisciplinary self-care management program is led by an advanced practice nurse and adds nursing and dietary consultations and follow-ups, to the habitual management provided by the general practitioner, the nephrologist and the diabetologist. Data is collected every three months for 12 months. Quality of life is measured using the Audit of Diabetes-Dependent Quality of Life scale, patient self-care behavior is assessed using the Revised Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities, and adherence to anti-hypertensive therapy is evaluated using the Medication Events Monitoring System. Blood glucose control is measured by the glycated hemoglobin levels and renal function by serum creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate and urinary albumin/creatinine ratio. Data will be analyzed using STATA version 14. The cross

  19. marker development for two novel rice genes showing differential ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-08-19

    Aug 19, 2014 ... School of Crop Improvement, College of PostGraduate Studies, Central Agricultural University, ... from the root transcriptome data for tolerance to low P. .... Values show a representative result of three independent experiments ...

  20. Do men and women show love differently in marriage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Elizabeth A; Bredow, Carrie A; Huston, Ted L

    2012-11-01

    In Western societies, women are considered more adept than men at expressing love in romantic relationships. Although scholars have argued that this view of love gives short shrift to men's ways of showing love (e.g., Cancian, 1986; Noller, 1996), the widely embraced premise that men and women "love differently" has rarely been examined empirically. Using data collected at four time points over 13 years of marriage, the authors examined whether love is associated with different behaviors for husbands and wives. Multilevel analyses revealed that, counter to theoretical expectations, both genders were equally likely to show love through affection. But whereas wives expressed love by enacting fewer negative or antagonistic behaviors, husbands showed love by initiating sex, sharing leisure activities, and doing household work together with their wives. Overall, the findings indicate that men and women show their love in more nuanced ways than cultural stereotypes suggest.

  1. Army Study Shows Decline In Behavioral Health Stigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Army Study Shows Decline in Behavioral Health Stigma By Rob McIlvaine Army News Service WASHINGTON, Jan. 20, 2012 - A newly released Army study on...conference yesterday. The three-year study outlines the problem of suicide in the Army and related issues of substance abuse, spouse abuse and child abuse...REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2012 to 00-00-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Army Study Shows Decline In Behavioral Health Stigma 5a. CONTRACT

  2. Dolphin shows and interaction programs: benefits for conservation education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, L J; Zeigler-Hill, V; Mellen, J; Koeppel, J; Greer, T; Kuczaj, S

    2013-01-01

    Dolphin shows and dolphin interaction programs are two types of education programs within zoological institutions used to educate visitors about dolphins and the marine environment. The current study examined the short- and long-term effects of these programs on visitors' conservation-related knowledge, attitude, and behavior. Participants of both dolphin shows and interaction programs demonstrated a significant short-term increase in knowledge, attitudes, and behavioral intentions. Three months following the experience, participants of both dolphin shows and interaction programs retained the knowledge learned during their experience and reported engaging in more conservation-related behaviors. Additionally, the number of dolphin shows attended in the past was a significant predictor of recent conservation-related behavior suggesting that repetition of these types of experiences may be important in inspiring people to conservation action. These results suggest that both dolphin shows and dolphin interaction programs can be an important part of a conservation education program for visitors of zoological facilities. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Pedagogical Techniques Employed by the Television Show "MythBusters"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavrel, Erik

    2016-11-01

    "MythBusters," the long-running though recently discontinued Discovery Channel science entertainment television program, has proven itself to be far more than just a highly rated show. While its focus is on entertainment, the show employs an array of pedagogical techniques to communicate scientific concepts to its audience. These techniques include: achieving active learning, avoiding jargon, employing repetition to ensure comprehension, using captivating demonstrations, cultivating an enthusiastic disposition, and increasing intrinsic motivation to learn. In this content analysis, episodes from the show's 10-year history were examined for these techniques. "MythBusters" represents an untapped source of pedagogical techniques, which science educators may consider availing themselves of in their tireless effort to better reach their students. Physics educators in particular may look to "MythBusters" for inspiration and guidance in how to incorporate these techniques into their own teaching and help their students in the learning process.

  4. Implications of the Goal Theory on air show programs planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewald Venter

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Events have long played an important role in human society (Shone & Parry, 2010: 3. The toils and efforts of daily lives have often been broken up by events of all kinds as humans seek an escape from the harsh reality of existence and events provide the outlet. Events are classified into four categories according to Shone and Parry (2010: 5 namely leisure (sport, recreation, personal (weddings, birthdays, cultural (art, folklore and organizational (politics, commercial. Successful events either match or exceed visitor motives and goals. It is critical that data be collected from visitors to determine their motives and goals in order to satisfy them and thereby encouraging repeat visits. One such event is the annual air show held at the Zwartkop Air Force Base (AFB in Pretoria, South Africa. Zwartkop AFB is also home to the South African Air Force (SAAF museum that also the hosts of the air show. Much of the museum‟s funds are generated through hosting the air show and sponsor contributions. Visitor goal satisfaction should therefore be of critically importance to the program planners. Military hardware has long held a fascination for those who used them and inspired the imagination of young and old. Such hardware often serves as a remembrance of times passed and as a testament to those who perished. For many visiting museums and air shows, curiosity plays a big role. The particular focus of this article will be on how the goal theory of leisure travel can be utilized by the air show organizers to enhance visitor experience to an air show.

  5. CERN cars drive by the Geneva Motor Show

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    One of CERN's new gas-fuelled cars was a special guest at the press days of the Geneva motor show this year. The car enjoyed a prominent position on the Gazmobil stand, right next to the latest Mazeratis and Ferraris. Journalists previewing the motor show could discover CERN's support for green technologies and also find out more about the lab - home to the fastest racetrack on the planet, with protons in the LHC running at 99.9999991% of the speed of light.    

  6. The Biochemistry Show: a new and fun tool for learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.H Ono

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The traditional methods to teach biochemistry in most universities are based on the memorization of chemical structures,  biochemical  pathways  and  reagent  names,  which  is  many  times  dismotivating  for  the  students.  We presently describe an innovative, interactive and alternative method for teaching biochemistry to medical and nutrition undergraduate students, called the Biochemistry Show (BioBio Show.The Biobio show is based on active participation of the students. They are divided in groups and the groups face each other. One group faces another one group at a time, in a game based on true or false questions that involve subjects of applied biochemistry (exercise, obesity, diabetes, cholesterol, free radicals, among others. The questions of the Show are previously elaborated by senior students. The Biobio Show has four phases, the first one is a selection exam, and from the second to the fourth phase, eliminatory confrontations happen. On a confrontation, the first group must select a certain quantity of questions for the opponent to answer.  The group who choses the questions must know how to answer and justify the selected questions. This procedure is repeated on all phases of the show. On the last phase, the questions used are taken from an exam previously performed by the students: either the 9-hour biochemistry exam (Sé et al. A 9-hour biochemistry exam. An iron man competition or a good way of evaluating undergraduate students? SBBq 2005, abstract K-6 or the True-or-False exam (TFE (Sé et al. Are tutor-students capable of writing good biochemistry exams? SBBq 2004, abstract K-18. The winner group receives an extra 0,5 point on the final grade. Over 70% of the students informed on a questionnaire that the Biobio Show is a valuable tool for learning biochemistry.    That is a new way to enrich the discussion of biochemistry in the classroom without the students getting bored. Moreover, learning

  7. The relationship between visfatin and HOMA-IR in hypertensive patients, and the effect of antihypertensive drugs on visfatin and HOMA-IR in hypertensive patients with insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Jianjun; Chen, Xiaoni; Chen, Xiaoping; Wang, Si; Zhang, Xin; Wu, Kai; He, Sen; Peng, Yong; Jiang, Lingyun; Li, Longxin; Wan, Liyan

    2011-10-01

    To investigate the correlation between serum visfatin and insulin resistance (IR) in non-diabetic essential hypertensive (EH) patients with and without IR, and to evaluate the effect of antihypertensive treatment on serum visfatin and IR in these patients. A total of 81 non-diabetic EH patients, including 54 with IR and 27 without IR, were enrolled. After two weeks wash-out, patients with IR were randomly assigned to telmisartan (group T) or amlodipine (group A) for 6 months. Blood samples were taken before and after treatment for measurement of routine biochemical parameters, visfatin and insulin resistance (measured by HOMA-IR). Visfatin was independently correlated with HOMA-IR (r=0.845, P=0.000). After 6 months of treatment, both drugs lowered HOMA-IR, more significantly so in group T than group A (P=0.010). Serum visfatin levels increased in group T but decreased in group A. Serum visfatin levels were higher in non-diabetic EH patients with IR compared with those without IR. Visfatin is independently correlated with HOMA-IR. Telmisartan lowers HOMA-IR to a greater extent than amlodipine. Interestingly, serum visfatin increased with telmisartan yet decreased with amlodipine treatment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Predictors of cardiac morbidity in diabetic, new-onset diabetic and non-diabetic high-risk hypertensive patients: The Valsartan Antihypertensive Long-term Use Evaluation (VALUE) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksnes, Tonje A; Kjeldsen, Sverre E; Rostrup, Morten; Holzhauer, Björn; Hua, Tsushung A; Julius, Stevo

    2016-08-01

    Diabetic and new-onset diabetic patients with hypertension have higher cardiac morbidity than patients without diabetes. We aimed to investigate whether baseline predictors of cardiac morbidity, the major constituent of the primary endpoint in the Valsartan Antihypertensive Long-term Use Evaluation (VALUE) trial, were different in patients with diabetes and new-onset diabetes compared to patients without diabetes. In total, 15,245 high-risk hypertensive patients in the VALUE trial were followed for an average of 4.2 years. At baseline, 5250 patients were diabetic by the 1999 World Health Organization criteria, 1298 patients developed new-onset diabetes and 8697 patients stayed non-diabetic during follow-up. Cardiac morbidity was defined as a composite of myocardial infarction and heart failure requiring hospitalization, and baseline predictors were identified by univariate and multivariate stepwise Cox regression analyses. History of coronary heart disease (CHD) and age were the most important predictors of cardiac morbidity in both diabetic and non-diabetic patients. History of CHD, history of stroke and age were the only significant predictors of cardiac morbidity in patients with new-onset diabetes. Predictors of cardiac morbidity, in particular history of CHD and age, were essentially the same in high-risk hypertensive patients with diabetes, new-onset diabetes and without diabetes who participated in the VALUE trial.

  9. An autopsied case of tuberculous meningitis showing interesting CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abiko, Takashi; Higuchi, Hiroshi; Imada, Ryuichi; Nagai, Kenichi

    1983-01-01

    A 61-year-old female patient died of a neurological disorder of unknown origin one month after the first visit and was found to have had tuberculous meningitis at autopsy. CT revealed a low density area showing an enlargement of the cerebral ventricle but did not reveal contrast enhancement in the basal cistern peculiar to tuberculous meningitis. (Namekawa, K.)

  10. Auditory temporal-order thresholds show no gender differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kesteren, Marlieke T. R.; Wierslnca-Post, J. Esther C.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Several studies on auditory temporal-order processing showed gender differences. Women needed longer inter-stimulus intervals than men when indicating the temporal order of two clicks presented to the left and right ear. In this study, we examined whether we could reproduce these results in

  11. Auditory temporal-order thresholds show no gender differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kesteren, Marlieke T R; Wiersinga-Post, J Esther C

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: Several studies on auditory temporal-order processing showed gender differences. Women needed longer inter-stimulus intervals than men when indicating the temporal order of two clicks presented to the left and right ear. In this study, we examined whether we could reproduce these results in

  12. An Easy Way to Show Memory Color Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzel, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    This study proposes and evaluates a simple stimulus display that allows one to measure memory color effects (the effect of object knowledge and memory on color perception). The proposed approach is fast and easy and does not require running an extensive experiment. It shows that memory color effects are robust to minor variations due to a lack of color calibration.

  13. Polypyridyl iron(II) complexes showing remarkable photocytotoxicity ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    aditya

    Polypyridyl iron(II) complexes showing remarkable photocytotoxicity in visible light. ADITYA GARAI a. , UTTARA BASU a. , ILA PANT b. , PATURU KONDAIAH*. ,b. AND. AKHIL R. CHAKRAVARTY*. ,a a. Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. 560012, India. E-mail: ...

  14. Manumycin from a new Streptomyces strain shows antagonistic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Manumycin from a new Streptomyces strain shows antagonistic effect against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)/vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) strains from Korean Hospitals. Yun Hee Choi, Seung Sik Cho, Jaya Ram Simkhada, Chi Nam Seong, Hyo Jeong Lee, Hong Seop Moon, Jin Cheol Yoo ...

  15. Five kepler target stars that show multiple transiting exoplanet candidates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffen..[], Jason H.; Batalha, N. M.; Broucki, W J.

    2010-01-01

    We present and discuss five candidate exoplanetary systems identified with the Kepler spacecraft. These five systems show transits from multiple exoplanet candidates. Should these objects prove to be planetary in nature, then these five systems open new opportunities for the field of exoplanets a...

  16. Your Town Television Show: SMART Program (Part 1) [video

    OpenAIRE

    Naval Postgraduate School, (U.S.); Sanders, John; Millsaps, Knox; Shifflett, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    From "Your Town" television show. SMART Scholarship Program featured on Your Town television program in Monterey, California. Host John Sanders, Special Collections Manager of the Naval Postgraduate School's Dudley Knox Library, interviews Dr. Knox Millsaps, Executive Agent for the SMART Program, and Deborah Shifflett, SMART Program Manager.

  17. Your Town Television Show: SMART Program (Part 3) [video

    OpenAIRE

    Naval Postgraduate School, (U.S.); Sanders, John; Millsaps, Knox; Shifflett, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    From "Your Town" television show. SMART Scholarship Program featured on Your Town television program in Monterey, California. Host John Sanders, Special Collections Manager of the Naval Postgraduate School's Dudley Knox Library, interviews Dr. Knox Millsaps, Executive Agent for the SMART Program, and Deborah Shifflett, SMART Program Manager.

  18. A Progress Evaluation of Four Bilingual Children's Television Shows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Stephen P.; And Others

    An evaluation of a bilingual education TV series was conducted involving 6-year-old English speaking, Spanish speaking, and bilingual children at four sites. Children were assigned to control and experimental groups with the latter group seeing four 30 minute shows. A pretest-posttest design was employed with the pretest serving as the covariate…

  19. The neonicotinoid imidachloprid shows high chronic toxicity to mayfly nymphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roessink, I.; Merga, L.B.; Zweers, A.J.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2013-01-01

    The present study evaluated the acute and chronic toxicity of imidacloprid to a range of freshwater arthropods. Mayfly and caddisfly species were most sensitive to short-term imidacloprid exposures (10 tests), whereas the mayflies showed by far the most sensitive response to long-term exposure of

  20. An Easy Way to Show Memory Color Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Witzel, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    This study proposes and evaluates a simple stimulus display that allows one to measure memory color effects (the effect of object knowledge and memory on color perception). The proposed approach is fast and easy and does not require running an extensive experiment. It shows that memory color effects are robust to minor variations due to a lack of color calibration.

  1. 36 CFR 14.24 - Showing as to citizenship required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... INTERIOR RIGHTS-OF-WAY Procedures § 14.24 Showing as to citizenship required. (a) Individuals. An individual applicant applying for a right-of-way under any right-of-way act, except the Act of March 3, 1891... applicant resided in the United States thereafter while a minor, should be furnished. Where the husband and...

  2. Mice lacking neuropeptide Y show increased sensitivity to cocaine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Gunnar; Woldbye, David Paul Drucker

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing data implicating neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the neurobiology of addiction. This study explored the possible role of NPY in cocaine-induced behavior using NPY knockout mice. The transgenic mice showed a hypersensitive response to cocaine in three animal models of cocaine addiction...

  3. Television Judge Shows: Nordic and U.S. Perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porsdam, Helle

    2017-01-01

    Legal discourse is language that people use in a globalizing and multicultural society to negotiate acceptable behaviors and values. We see this played out in popular cultural forums such as judicial television dramas. In the American context, television judge shows are virtually synonymous...

  4. Mixed cultures of Kimchi lactic acid bacteria show increased cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ufuoma

    anaerobic organisms that are highly resistant to salts. Probiotic cultures for use in ... kimchi have a superior ability to decompose and utilize nutrients, and show ... citrate, 5 g sodium acetate, 1 g Tween, 2 g K2HPO4, 0.2 g. MgSO4•7H2O, 0.2 g ...

  5. Teaching Job Interviewing Skills with the Help of Television Shows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Janel

    2011-01-01

    Because of its potential for humor and drama, job interviewing is frequently portrayed on television. This article discusses how scenes from popular television series such as "Everybody Loves Raymond," "Friends," and "The Mary Tyler Moore Show" can be used to teach effective job interview skills in business communication courses. Television…

  6. Airline Overbooking Problem with Uncertain No-Shows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunxiao Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers an airline overbooking problem of a new single-leg flight with discount fare. Due to the absence of historical data of no-shows for a new flight, and various uncertain human behaviors or unexpected events which causes that a few passengers cannot board their aircraft on time, we fail to obtain the probability distribution of no-shows. In this case, the airlines have to invite some domain experts to provide belief degree of no-shows to estimate its distribution. However, human beings often overestimate unlikely events, which makes the variance of belief degree much greater than that of the frequency. If we still regard the belief degree as a subjective probability, the derived results will exceed our expectations. In order to deal with this uncertainty, the number of no-shows of new flight is assumed to be an uncertain variable in this paper. Given the chance constraint of social reputation, an overbooking model with discount fares is developed to maximize the profit rate based on uncertain programming theory. Finally, the analytic expression of the optimal booking limit is obtained through a numerical example, and the results of sensitivity analysis indicate that the optimal booking limit is affected by flight capacity, discount, confidence level, and parameters of the uncertainty distribution significantly.

  7. Triphala, a formulation of traditional Ayurvedic medicine, shows

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Triphala, a formulation of traditional Ayurvedic medicine, shows protective effect against X-radiation in HeLa cells. YUKI TAKAUJI KENSUKE ... with the cellscultured in vitro. The simple bioassay system with human cultured cells would facilitate the understanding of themolecular basis for the beneficial effects of Triphala.

  8. Bilinguals Show Weaker Lexical Access during Spoken Sentence Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shook, Anthony; Goldrick, Matthew; Engstler, Caroline; Marian, Viorica

    2015-01-01

    When bilinguals process written language, they show delays in accessing lexical items relative to monolinguals. The present study investigated whether this effect extended to spoken language comprehension, examining the processing of sentences with either low or high semantic constraint in both first and second languages. English-German…

  9. Soil bacteria show different tolerance ranges to an unprecedented disturbance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nunes, Ines Marques; Jurburg, Stephanie; Jacquiod, Samuel Jehan Auguste

    2018-01-01

    stress doses. FRG1, the most sensitive group, was dominated by Actinobacteria. FRG2 and FRG3, with intermediate tolerance, displayed prevalence of Proteobacteria, while FRG4, the most resistant group, was driven by Firmicutes. While the most sensitive FRGs showed predictable responses linked to changes...

  10. Genoa Boat Show – Good Example of Event Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunja Demirović

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available International Boat Show, a business and tourist event, has been held annually in Italian city of Genoa since 1962. The fair is one of the oldest, largest and best known in the field of boating industry worldwide, primarily due to good management of the event and it can serve as case study for domestic fair organizers to improve the quality of their business and services. Since Belgrade is the city of fairs, but compared to Genoa still underdeveloped in terms of trade shows, the following tasks imposed naturally in this study: to determine the relationship of the organizers of Genoa Boat Show in the sector of preparation and fair offer, in the sector of selection and communication with specific target groups (especially visitors, services during the fair and functioning of the city during the fair. During the research the authors have mostly used historical method, comparison, synthesis and the interview method. The results of theoretical research, in addition, may help not only managers of fair shows and of exhibitions, but also to organizers of other events in our country

  11. Recurrent and multiple bladder tumors show conserved expression profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindgren, David; Fioretos, Thoas; Månsson, Wiking; Höglund, Mattias; Gudjonsson, Sigurdur; Jee, Kowan Ja; Liedberg, Fredrik; Aits, Sonja; Andersson, Anna; Chebil, Gunilla; Borg, Åke; Knuutila, Sakari

    2008-01-01

    Urothelial carcinomas originate from the epithelial cells of the inner lining of the bladder and may appear as single or as multiple synchronous tumors. Patients with urothelial carcinomas frequently show recurrences after treatment making follow-up necessary. The leading hypothesis explaining the origin of meta- and synchronous tumors assumes a monoclonal origin. However, the genetic relationship among consecutive tumors has been shown to be complex in as much as the genetic evolution does not adhere to the chronological appearance of the metachronous tumors. Consequently, genetically less evolved tumors may appear chronologically later than genetically related but more evolved tumors. Forty-nine meta- or synchronous urothelial tumors from 22 patients were analyzed using expression profiling, conventional CGH, LOH, and mutation analyses. We show by CGH that partial chromosomal losses in the initial tumors may not be present in the recurring tumors, by LOH that different haplotypes may be lost and that detected regions of LOH may be smaller in recurring tumors, and that mutations present in the initial tumor may not be present in the recurring ones. In contrast we show that despite apparent genomic differences, the recurrent and multiple bladder tumors from the same patients display remarkably similar expression profiles. Our findings show that even though the vast majority of the analyzed meta- and synchronous tumors from the same patients are not likely to have originated directly from the preceding tumor they still show remarkably similar expressions profiles. The presented data suggests that an expression profile is established early in tumor development and that this profile is stable and maintained in recurring tumors

  12. New Inspiring Planetarium Show Introduces ALMA to the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    As part of a wide range of education and public outreach activities for the International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA2009), ESO, together with the Association of French Language Planetariums (APLF), has produced a 30-minute planetarium show, In Search of our Cosmic Origins. It is centred on the global ground-based astronomical Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) project and represents a unique chance for planetariums to be associated with the IYA2009. ESO PR Photo 09a/09 Logo of the ALMA Planetarium Show ESO PR Photo 09b/09 Galileo's first observations with a telescope ESO PR Photo 09c/09 The ALMA Observatory ESO PR Photo 09d/09 The Milky Way band ESO PR Video 09a/09 Trailer in English ALMA is the leading telescope for observing the cool Universe -- the relic radiation of the Big Bang, and the molecular gas and dust that constitute the building blocks of stars, planetary systems, galaxies and life itself. It is currently being built in the extremely arid environment of the Chajnantor plateau, at 5000 metres altitude in the Chilean Andes, and will start scientific observations around 2011. ALMA, the largest current astronomical project, is a revolutionary telescope, comprising a state-of-the-art array of 66 giant 12-metre and 7-metre diameter antennas observing at millimetre and submillimetre wavelengths. In Search of our Cosmic Origins highlights the unprecedented window on the Universe that this facility will open for astronomers. "The show gives viewers a fascinating tour of the highest observatory on Earth, and takes them from there out into our Milky Way, and beyond," says Douglas Pierce-Price, the ALMA Public Information Officer at ESO. Edited by world fulldome experts Mirage3D, the emphasis of the new planetarium show is on the incomparable scientific adventure of the ALMA project. A young female astronomer guides the audience through a story that includes unique animations and footage, leading the viewer from the first observations by Galileo

  13. HUBBLE VISION: A Planetarium Show About Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Carolyn Collins

    1995-05-01

    In 1991, a planetarium show called "Hubble: Report From Orbit" outlining the current achievements of the Hubble Space Telescope was produced by the independent planetarium production company Loch Ness Productions, for distribution to facilities around the world. The program was subsequently converted to video. In 1994, that program was updated and re-produced under the name "Hubble Vision" and offered to the planetarium community. It is periodically updated and remains a sought-after and valuable resource within the community. This paper describes the production of the program, and the role of the astronomical community in the show's production (and subsequent updates). The paper is accompanied by a video presentation of Hubble Vision.

  14. Political Show-Technology in the Post-Soviet Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. E. Grishin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the modern political process of Russia actively used technology show. With their help, political actors can influence public opinion and shape the public interest in certain issues. In Russia, these technologies are relevant, and are especially well developed. The pressing of the problem is due to a new round of information war on the territory of Ukraine. Inclusion in the information space, and discuss the pressing issues of modern Ukraine by media people such as C. Shuster and V. Solovyov, suggests that the political show has entertainment figures, actuality, the ambiguity of the proposed conclusions. At the same time it becomes part of the information war and political reality of the normal state.

  15. Migraine patients consistently show abnormal vestibular bedside tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Teixeira Maranhão

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Migraine and vertigo are common disorders, with lifetime prevalences of 16% and 7% respectively, and co-morbidity around 3.2%. Vestibular syndromes and dizziness occur more frequently in migraine patients. We investigated bedside clinical signs indicative of vestibular dysfunction in migraineurs.Objective To test the hypothesis that vestibulo-ocular reflex, vestibulo-spinal reflex and fall risk (FR responses as measured by 14 bedside tests are abnormal in migraineurs without vertigo, as compared with controls.Method Cross-sectional study including sixty individuals – thirty migraineurs, 25 women, 19-60 y-o; and 30 gender/age healthy paired controls.Results Migraineurs showed a tendency to perform worse in almost all tests, albeit only the Romberg tandem test was statistically different from controls. A combination of four abnormal tests better discriminated the two groups (93.3% specificity.Conclusion Migraine patients consistently showed abnormal vestibular bedside tests when compared with controls.

  16. Migraine patients consistently show abnormal vestibular bedside tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranhão, Eliana Teixeira; Maranhão-Filho, Péricles; Luiz, Ronir Raggio; Vincent, Maurice Borges

    2016-01-01

    Migraine and vertigo are common disorders, with lifetime prevalences of 16% and 7% respectively, and co-morbidity around 3.2%. Vestibular syndromes and dizziness occur more frequently in migraine patients. We investigated bedside clinical signs indicative of vestibular dysfunction in migraineurs. To test the hypothesis that vestibulo-ocular reflex, vestibulo-spinal reflex and fall risk (FR) responses as measured by 14 bedside tests are abnormal in migraineurs without vertigo, as compared with controls. Cross-sectional study including sixty individuals - thirty migraineurs, 25 women, 19-60 y-o; and 30 gender/age healthy paired controls. Migraineurs showed a tendency to perform worse in almost all tests, albeit only the Romberg tandem test was statistically different from controls. A combination of four abnormal tests better discriminated the two groups (93.3% specificity). Migraine patients consistently showed abnormal vestibular bedside tests when compared with controls.

  17. CT findings of rectosigmoid carcinoma showing exophytic growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohgi, Kazuyuki; Kohno, Atsushi; Higuchi, Mutsumi

    1987-01-01

    CT findings of 7 rectosigmoid carcinomas showing exophytic growth were evaluated. All cases had bulky masses, ranging from 6.0 to 11.5 cm in maximum diameter. All masses were difficult to differentiate from the other pelvic masses on CT, presumably due to their exophytic growth and/or invasion to the surrounding organs. However, 3 out of 7 cases showed diffuse rectosigmoidal wall thickening adjacent to the primary tumor, and it is considered to be valuable in the determination of primary site. All female cases had gynecological symptom such as genital bleeding, due to uterine and/or vaginal invasion. When indeterminate pelvic mass is revealed by CT, rectosigmoid carcinoma should be considered into differential diagnosis. (author)

  18. Preschoolers show less trust in physically disabled or obese informants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara eJaffer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research examined whether preschool-aged children show less trust in physically disabled or obese informants. In Study 1, when learning about novel physical activities and facts, 4- and 5-year-olds preferred to endorse the testimony of a physically abled, non-obese informant rather than a physically disabled or obese one. In Study 2, after seeing that the physically disabled or obese informant was previously reliable whereas the physically abled, non-obese one was unreliable, 4- and 5-year-olds did not show a significant preference for either informant. We conclude that in line with the literature on children’s negative stereotypes of physically disabled or obese others, preschoolers are biased against these individuals as potential sources of new knowledge. This bias is robust in that past reliability might undermine its effect on children, but cannot reverse it.

  19. El reality show a la hora de la merienda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lic. Rosa María Ganga Ganga

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Los programas de testimonio, inscritos dentro del género televisivo del Reality Show, son una variante del más amplio subgénero del Talk Show y tienen ya una cierta tradición en nuestro país. El presente trabajo se centrará en este tipo de programas de testimonio que basan su estrategia discursiva en la presentación y representación del relato autobiográfico del hombre o la mujer anónimos, integrándose de esta forma en las corrientes más recientes de la sociología y la historiografía, y persigue esclarecer algunas de sus características y funciones, especialmente su función socializadora, a través del mecanismo biográfico y del concepto de habitus tomado de Pierre Bourdieu.

  20. High-frequency parameters of magnetic films showing magnetization dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidorenkov, V.V.; Zimin, A.B.; Kornev, Yu.V.

    1988-01-01

    Magnetization dispersion leads to skewed resonance curves shifted towards higher magnetizing fields, together with considerable reduction in the resonant absorption, while the FMR line width is considerably increased. These effects increase considerably with frequency, in contrast to films showing magnetic-anisotropy dispersion, where they decrease. It is concluded that there may be anomalies in the frequency dependence of the resonance parameters for polycrystalline magnetic films

  1. Persistent cannabis users show neuropsychological decline from childhood to midlife

    OpenAIRE

    Meier, Madeline H.; Caspi, Avshalom; Ambler, Antony; Harrington, HonaLee; Houts, Renate; Keefe, Richard S. E.; McDonald, Kay; Ward, Aimee; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2012-01-01

    Recent reports show that fewer adolescents believe that regular cannabis use is harmful to health. Concomitantly, adolescents are initiating cannabis use at younger ages, and more adolescents are using cannabis on a daily basis. The purpose of the present study was to test the association between persistent cannabis use and neuropsychological decline and determine whether decline is concentrated among adolescent-onset cannabis users. Participants were members of the Dunedin Study, a prospecti...

  2. Bonobos (Pan paniscus) show an attentional bias toward conspecifics' emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kret, Mariska E; Jaasma, Linda; Bionda, Thomas; Wijnen, Jasper G

    2016-04-05

    In social animals, the fast detection of group members' emotional expressions promotes swift and adequate responses, which is crucial for the maintenance of social bonds and ultimately for group survival. The dot-probe task is a well-established paradigm in psychology, measuring emotional attention through reaction times. Humans tend to be biased toward emotional images, especially when the emotion is of a threatening nature. Bonobos have rich, social emotional lives and are known for their soft and friendly character. In the present study, we investigated (i) whether bonobos, similar to humans, have an attentional bias toward emotional scenes compared with conspecifics showing a neutral expression, and (ii) which emotional behaviors attract their attention the most. As predicted, results consistently showed that bonobos' attention was biased toward the location of the emotional versus neutral scene. Interestingly, their attention was grabbed most by images showing conspecifics such as sexual behavior, yawning, or grooming, and not as much-as is often observed in humans-by signs of distress or aggression. The results suggest that protective and affiliative behaviors are pivotal in bonobo society and therefore attract immediate attention in this species.

  3. An Undergraduate Endeavor: Assembling a Live Planetarium Show About Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, Allison M.

    2016-10-01

    Viewing the mysterious red planet Mars goes back thousands of years with just the human eye but in more recent years the growth of telescopes, satellites and lander missions unveil unrivaled detail of the Martian surface that tells a story worth listening to. This planetarium show will go through the observations starting with the ancients to current understandings of the Martian surface, atmosphere and inner-workings through past and current Mars missions. Visual animations of its planetary motions, display of high resolution images from the Hi-RISE (High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment) and CTX (Context Camera) data imagery aboard the MRO (Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter) as well as other datasets will be used to display the terrain detail and imagery of the planet Mars with a digital projection system. Local planetary scientists and Mars specialists from the Lunar and Planetary Lab at the University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ) will be interviewed and used in the show to highlight current technology and understandings of the red planet. This is an undergraduate project that is looking for collaborations and insight in order gain structure in script writing that will teach about this planetary body to all ages in the format of a live planetarium show.

  4. AirShow 1.0 CFD Software Users' Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohler, Stanley R., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    AirShow is visualization post-processing software for Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Upon reading binary PLOT3D grid and solution files into AirShow, the engineer can quickly see how hundreds of complex 3-D structured blocks are arranged and numbered. Additionally, chosen grid planes can be displayed and colored according to various aerodynamic flow quantities such as Mach number and pressure. The user may interactively rotate and translate the graphical objects using the mouse. The software source code was written in cross-platform Java, C++, and OpenGL, and runs on Unix, Linux, and Windows. The graphical user interface (GUI) was written using Java Swing. Java also provides multiple synchronized threads. The Java Native Interface (JNI) provides a bridge between the Java code and the C++ code where the PLOT3D files are read, the OpenGL graphics are rendered, and numerical calculations are performed. AirShow is easy to learn and simple to use. The source code is available for free from the NASA Technology Transfer and Partnership Office.

  5. Five Kepler target stars that show multiple transiting exoplanet candidates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steffen, Jason H.; /Fermilab; Batalha, Natalie M.; /San Jose State U.; Borucki, William J.; /NASA, Ames; Buchhave, Lars A.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys. /Bohr Inst.; Caldwell, Douglas A.; /NASA, Ames /SETI Inst., Mtn. View; Cochran, William D.; /Texas U.; Endl, Michael; /Texas U.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Fressin, Francois; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Ford, Eric B.; /Florida U.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; /UC, Santa Cruz, Phys. Dept. /NASA, Ames

    2010-06-01

    We present and discuss five candidate exoplanetary systems identified with the Kepler spacecraft. These five systems show transits from multiple exoplanet candidates. Should these objects prove to be planetary in nature, then these five systems open new opportunities for the field of exoplanets and provide new insights into the formation and dynamical evolution of planetary systems. We discuss the methods used to identify multiple transiting objects from the Kepler photometry as well as the false-positive rejection methods that have been applied to these data. One system shows transits from three distinct objects while the remaining four systems show transits from two objects. Three systems have planet candidates that are near mean motion commensurabilities - two near 2:1 and one just outside 5:2. We discuss the implications that multitransiting systems have on the distribution of orbital inclinations in planetary systems, and hence their dynamical histories; as well as their likely masses and chemical compositions. A Monte Carlo study indicates that, with additional data, most of these systems should exhibit detectable transit timing variations (TTV) due to gravitational interactions - though none are apparent in these data. We also discuss new challenges that arise in TTV analyses due to the presence of more than two planets in a system.

  6. Compliance With Recommended Food Safety Practices in Television Cooking Shows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Nancy L; Olson, Rita Brennan

    Examine compliance with recommended food safety practices in television cooking shows. Using a tool based on the Massachusetts Food Establishment Inspection Report, raters examined 39 episodes from 10 television cooking shows. Chefs demonstrated conformance with good retail practices for proper use and storage of utensils in 78% of episodes; preventing contamination (62%), and fingernail care (82%). However, 50% to 88% of episodes were found to be out of compliance with other personal hygiene practices, proper use of gloves and barriers (85% to 100%), and maintaining proper time and temperature controls (93%). Over 90% failed to conform to recommendations regarding preventing contamination through wiping cloths and washing produce. In only 13% of episodes were food safety practices mentioned. There appears to be little attention to food safety during most cooking shows. Celebrity and competing chefs have the opportunity to model and teach good food safety practices for millions of viewers. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Architectures for Quantum Simulation Showing a Quantum Speedup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermejo-Vega, Juan; Hangleiter, Dominik; Schwarz, Martin; Raussendorf, Robert; Eisert, Jens

    2018-04-01

    One of the main aims in the field of quantum simulation is to achieve a quantum speedup, often referred to as "quantum computational supremacy," referring to the experimental realization of a quantum device that computationally outperforms classical computers. In this work, we show that one can devise versatile and feasible schemes of two-dimensional, dynamical, quantum simulators showing such a quantum speedup, building on intermediate problems involving nonadaptive, measurement-based, quantum computation. In each of the schemes, an initial product state is prepared, potentially involving an element of randomness as in disordered models, followed by a short-time evolution under a basic translationally invariant Hamiltonian with simple nearest-neighbor interactions and a mere sampling measurement in a fixed basis. The correctness of the final-state preparation in each scheme is fully efficiently certifiable. We discuss experimental necessities and possible physical architectures, inspired by platforms of cold atoms in optical lattices and a number of others, as well as specific assumptions that enter the complexity-theoretic arguments. This work shows that benchmark settings exhibiting a quantum speedup may require little control, in contrast to universal quantum computing. Thus, our proposal puts a convincing experimental demonstration of a quantum speedup within reach in the near term.

  8. Eccentric muscle challenge shows osteopontin polymorphism modulation of muscle damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barfield, Whitney L; Uaesoontrachoon, Kitipong; Wu, Chung-Sheih; Lin, Stephen; Chen, Yue; Wang, Paul C; Kanaan, Yasmine; Bond, Vernon; Hoffman, Eric P

    2014-08-01

    A promoter polymorphism of the osteopontin (OPN) gene (rs28357094) has been associated with multiple inflammatory states, severity of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and muscle size in healthy young adults. We sought to define the mechanism of action of the polymorphism, using allele-specific in vitro reporter assays in muscle cells, and a genotype-stratified intervention in healthy controls. In vitro reporter constructs showed the G allele to respond to estrogen treatment, whereas the T allele showed no transcriptional response. Young adult volunteers (n = 187) were enrolled into a baseline study, and subjects with specific rs28357094 genotypes enrolled into an eccentric muscle challenge intervention [n = 3 TT; n = 3 GG/GT (dominant inheritance model)]. Female volunteers carrying the G allele showed significantly greater inflammation and increased muscle volume change as determined by magnetic resonance imaging T1- and T2-weighted images after eccentric challenge, as well as greater decrement in biceps muscle force. Our data suggest a model where the G allele enables enhanced activities of upstream enhancer elements due to loss of Sp1 binding at the polymorphic site. This results in significantly greater expression of the pro-inflammatory OPN cytokine during tissue remodeling in response to challenge in G allele carriers, promoting muscle hypertrophy in normal females, but increased damage in DMD patients. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  9. Fat stigmatization in television shows and movies: a content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himes, Susan M; Thompson, J Kevin

    2007-03-01

    To examine the phenomenon of fat stigmatization messages presented in television shows and movies, a content analysis was used to quantify and categorize fat-specific commentary and humor. Fat stigmatization vignettes were identified using a targeted sampling procedure, and 135 scenes were excised from movies and television shows. The material was coded by trained raters. Reliability indices were uniformly high for the seven categories (percentage agreement ranged from 0.90 to 0.98; kappas ranged from 0.66 to 0.94). Results indicated that fat stigmatization commentary and fat humor were often verbal, directed toward another person, and often presented directly in the presence of the overweight target. Results also indicated that male characters were three times more likely to engage in fat stigmatization commentary or fat humor than female characters. To our knowledge, these findings provide the first information regarding the specific gender, age, and types of fat stigmatization that occur frequently in movies and television shows. The stimuli should prove useful in future research examining the role of individual difference factors (e.g., BMI) in the reaction to viewing such vignettes.

  10. Radon in Austrian tourist mines and show caves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringer, W.; Graeser, J.

    2009-01-01

    The radon situation in tourist mines and show caves is barely investigated in Austria. This paper investigates the influence of its determining factors, such as climate, structure and geology. For this purpose, long-term time-resolved measurements over 6 to 12 months in 4 tourist mines and 2 show caves - with 5 to 9 measuring points each - have been carried out to obtain the course of radon concentration throughout the year. In addition, temperature and air-pressure were measured and compared to the data outside where available. Results suggest that the dominating factors of the average radon concentration are structure and location (geology) of the tunnel-system, whereas the diurnal and annual variation is mainly caused by the changing airflow, which is driven by the difference in temperature inside and outside. Downcast air is connected with very low radon concentrations, upcast air with high concentrations. In some locations the maximum values appear when the airflow ceases. But airflow can be different in different parts of mines and caves. Systems close to the surface show generally lower radon levels than the ones located deeper underground. Due to variation of structure, geology and local climate, the radon situation in mines and caves can only be described by simultaneous measurements at several measuring points. (orig.)

  11. Remembering Operación Triunfo: a Latin Music Reality Show in the Era of Talent Shows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savini, Paola

    2016-01-01

    abstractThe music format Operación Triunfo (2001–2011), which aired on RTVE for the first time in 2001, started as a television (TV) and musical success in Spain and today is one of the most famous shows around the world as well as an incredible socio-economic phenomenon in Spanish TV. This paper

  12. Perforating pilomatrixoma showing atypical presentation: A rare clinical variant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevra Seyhan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Pilomatrixoma, also known as calcifying epithelioma of Malherbe, is a rare benign skin tumor arising from hair follicle stem cells. The most common localization is the head and neck region. Female/male ratio is 3/2. It shows deep subcutaneous placement and occurs in the first two decades of life. Its diameter ranges from 0.5 cm to 3 cm. Multiple lesions are rarely seen. Histopathologically it is characterized by basoloid and ghost cells. Perforating type is a rare clinical variant. Treatment is surgical excision. Our case is presented to draw attention to a rare clinical variant of pilomatrixioma.

  13. PROTOTIPE VIDEO EDITOR DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN DIRECT X DAN DIRECT SHOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djoni Haryadi Setiabudi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Technology development had given people the chance to capture their memorable moments in video format. A high quality digital video is a result of a good editing process. Which in turn, arise the new need of an editor application. In accordance to the problem, here the process of making a simple application for video editing needs. The application development use the programming techniques often applied in multimedia applications, especially video. First part of the application will begin with the video file compression and decompression, then we'll step into the editing part of the digital video file. Furthermore, the application also equipped with the facilities needed for the editing processes. The application made with Microsoft Visual C++ with DirectX technology, particularly DirectShow. The application provides basic facilities that will help the editing process of a digital video file. The application will produce an AVI format file after the editing process is finished. Through the testing process of this application shows the ability of this application to do the 'cut' and 'insert' of video files in AVI, MPEG, MPG and DAT formats. The 'cut' and 'insert' process only can be done in static order. Further, the aplication also provide the effects facility for transition process in each clip. Lastly, the process of saving the new edited video file in AVI format from the application. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Perkembangan teknologi memberi kesempatan masyarakat untuk mengabadikan saat - saat yang penting menggunakan video. Pembentukan video digital yang baik membutuhkan proses editing yang baik pula. Untuk melakukan proses editing video digital dibutuhkan program editor. Berdasarkan permasalahan diatas maka pada penelitian ini dibuat prototipe editor sederhana untuk video digital. Pembuatan aplikasi memakai teknik pemrograman di bidang multimedia, khususnya video. Perencanaan dalam pembuatan aplikasi tersebut dimulai dengan pembentukan

  14. Pseudo Random Coins Show More Heads Than Tails