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Sample records for particle identification device

  1. The DIRC counter: A new type of particle identification device for B factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coyle, P.; Lu, A.

    1992-07-01

    A very thin, solid radiator, totally internally reflecting, imaging Cherenkov counter (DIRC) is described. this device is well matched to the hadronic charged particle identification requirements at an asymmetric e + e - B Factory

  2. The DIRC counter: A new type of particle identification device for B factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratcliff, B.

    1993-01-01

    A very thin, solid radiator, totally internally reflecting, imaging Cherenkov counter (DIRC) is described. This device is well matched to the hadronic charged particle identification requirements at an asymmetric e + e - B Factory

  3. A neural network device for on-line particle identification in cosmic ray experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scrimaglio, R.; Finetti, N.; D'Altorio, L.; Rantucci, E.; Raso, M.; Segreto, E.; Tassoni, A.; Cardarilli, G.C.

    2004-01-01

    On-line particle identification is one of the main goals of many experiments in space both for rare event studies and for optimizing measurements along the orbital trajectory. Neural networks can be a useful tool for signal processing and real time data analysis in such experiments. In this document we report on the performances of a programmable neural device which was developed in VLSI analog/digital technology. Neurons and synapses were accomplished by making use of Operational Transconductance Amplifier (OTA) structures. In this paper we report on the results of measurements performed in order to verify the agreement of the characteristic curves of each elementary cell with simulations and on the device performances obtained by implementing simple neural structures on the VLSI chip. A feed-forward neural network (Multi-Layer Perceptron, MLP) was implemented on the VLSI chip and trained to identify particles by processing the signals of two-dimensional position-sensitive Si detectors. The radiation monitoring device consisted of three double-sided silicon strip detectors. From the analysis of a set of simulated data it was found that the MLP implemented on the neural device gave results comparable with those obtained with the standard method of analysis confirming that the implemented neural network could be employed for real time particle identification

  4. SYMPOSIUM: Particle identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1989-07-15

    Typical elementary particle experiments consist of a source of interactions (an external beam and a fixed target or two colliding beams) and a detector system including most of the following components: a tracking system and analysis magnet, calorimetry (measurement of energy deposition), hadron and electron identification, muon detection, trigger counters and processors, and data acquisition electronics. Experiments aimed at future high luminosity hadron collider (proton-proton or proton-antiproton) projects such as an upgraded Tevatron at Fermilab, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) idea at CERN, and the proposed US Superconducting Supercollider (SSC), must ideally cover the entire solid angle and be capable of not only surviving the collisions, but also providing high resolution event information at incredible interaction rates. The Symposium on Particle Identification at High Luminosity Hadron Colliders held at Fermilab from 5-7 April (sponsored by Fermilab, the US Department of Energy, and the SSC Central Design Group) focused on this single facet of detector technology.

  5. Neutron particle injection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Kiyoshi.

    1997-01-01

    Plasma particles are used as target particles for converting ions to neutral particles by a charge exchange reaction in a neutralization cell, and a neutralization cell is disposed in adjacent with drawing electrodes. In addition, a magnetic field generation means is disposed additionally for generating magnetic rays substantially in parallel with the drawing electrode at the downmost stream in the progressing direction of the ions. The intensity of electric fields between the drawing electrode at the downmost stream and the nearest electrode, among electrodes present at the upstream, is made smaller than the intensity of electric fields between other electrodes. Since magnetic rays substantially in parallel with the drawing electrode at the downmost stream in the progressing direction of the ions are generated, the ions are prevented from being accelerated in the direction reverse to the progressing direction thereby further enhancing the neutralization efficiency of the neutralizing cell. Then, there can be provided effects that the constitution of the electrode of NBI (Neutral particle Beam Injector) can be simplified and the power source for preventing acceleration of neutral particles can be saved. (N.H.)

  6. Particle supply and recovery device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Kimio; Okazaki, Takashi.

    1988-01-01

    This invention concerns a particle supply and recovery device suitable to the supply of fuels and exhaustion of reaction products in a tokamak device. The divertor chamber is divided into an inner side and an outer side, in which only the outer side is constituted as a tightly closed structure. Particles are supplied from the inside of main plasmas and exhausted from the outer side of the divertor chamber. In the divertor equilibrium arrangement, particles escaping from the main plasmas are conveyed mainly passing through the outer side scrape-off layer to the divertor chamber. The particle density is higher at the outer side and lower at the inner side of the scrape-off layer. By making the outer side as a tightly closed structure, the pressure is increased and the particle exhaustion efficiency is improved. Since the particle density is low in the inner scrape-layer, the particle supply efficiency to the main plasma is increased by supplying the particles from the inside. Further, particles ionized in the inner scrape-off layer are returned to the main plasma chamber and then supplied again since the inner divertor chamber is not closed. Accordingly, the particle supply efficiency can further be improved. (K.M.)

  7. RFQ device for accelerating particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, K.W.; Delayen, J.R.

    1995-06-06

    A superconducting radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) device includes four spaced elongated, linear, tubular rods disposed parallel to a charged particle beam axis, with each rod supported by two spaced tubular posts oriented radially with respect to the beam axis. The rod and post geometry of the device has four-fold rotation symmetry, lowers the frequency of the quadrupole mode below that of the dipole mode, and provides large dipole-quadrupole mode isolation to accommodate a range of mechanical tolerances. The simplicity of the geometry of the structure, which can be formed by joining eight simple T-sections, provides a high degree of mechanical stability, is insensitive to mechanical displacement, and is particularly adapted for fabrication with superconducting materials such as niobium. 5 figs.

  8. RFQ device for accelerating particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, Kenneth W. (Park Ridge, IL); Delayen, Jean R. (Naperville, IL)

    1995-01-01

    A superconducting radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) device includes four spaced elongated, linear, tubular rods disposed parallel to a charged particle beam axis, with each rod supported by two spaced tubular posts oriented radially with respect to the beam axis. The rod and post geometry of the device has four-fold rotation symmetry, lowers the frequency of the quadrupole mode below that of the dipole mode, and provides large dipole-quadrupole mode isolation to accommodate a range of mechanical tolerances. The simplicity of the geometry of the structure, which can be formed by joining eight simple T-sections, provides a high degree of mechanical stability, is insensitive to mechanical displacement, and is particularly adapted for fabrication with superconducting materials such as niobium.

  9. Particle identification at an asymmetric B Factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coyle, P.; Eigen, G.; Hitlin, D.; Oddone, P.; Ratcliff, B.; Roe, N.; Va'vra, J.; Ypsilantis, T.

    1991-09-01

    Particle identification systems are an important component of any detector at a high-luminosity, asymmetric B Factory. In particular, excellent hadron identification is required to probe CP violation in B 0 decays to CP eigenstates. The particle identification systems discussed below also provide help in separating leptons from hadrons at low momenta. We begin this chapter with a discussion of the physics motivation for providing particle identification, the inherent limitations due to interactions and decays in flight, and the requirements for hermiticity and angular coverage. A special feature of an asymmetric B Factory is the resulting asymmetry in the momentum distribution as a function of polar angle; this will also be quantified and discussed. In the next section the three primary candidates, time-of-flight (TOF), energy loss (dE/dx), and Cerenkov counters, both ring-imaging and threshold, will be briefly described and evaluated. Following this, one of the candidates, a long-drift Cerenkov ring-imaging device, is described in detail to provide a reference design. Design considerations for a fast RICH are then described. A detailed discussion of aerogel threshold counter designs and associated R ampersand D conclude the chapter. 56 refs., 64 figs., 13 tabs

  10. Neutral particles identification at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Quintana, Boris Julien

    2018-01-01

    Important analyses of the core LHCb physics program rely on calorimetry to identify photons, high-energy neutral pions and electrons. For this purpose, the LHCb calorimeter system is composed of a scintillating pad plane, a preshower detector, an electromagnetic and a hadronic sampling calorimeters. The interaction of a given particle in these detectors leaves a specific signature. This is exploited for particle identification (PID) by combining calorimeters and tracking information into multi-variate classifiers. In this contribution, we focus on the identification of photons against high-energy neutral pion and hadronic backgrounds. Performance on Run 1 data will be shown. Small discrepancies with simulation predictions are then discussed, with special emphasis on the methods to correctly estimate PID cut efficiencies by means of large calibration samples of abundant beauty and charm decays to final states with photons. Finally, the technical aspects of the collection of these samples in Run 2 are presented...

  11. Multiplication circuit for particle identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerlier, Jean

    1962-01-01

    After having commented some characteristics of the particles present in a cyclotron, and their interactions, this report addresses the development and the implementation of a method and a device for selecting and counting particles. The author presents the principle and existing techniques of selection. In comparison with an existing device, the proportional counter and the scintillator are replaced by junctions: a surface barrier type junction (a silicon N layer with a very thin oxygen layer playing the role of the P layer), and lithium-based junction (a silicon P type layer made intrinsic by migration of lithium). The author then describes the developed circuit and assembly (background of the choice of a multiplication circuit), and their operation. In the next part, he presents the performed tests and discuses the obtained results. He finally outlines the benefits of the herein presented circuit [fr

  12. Comments on particle identification at the B factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratcliff, B.N.

    1992-01-01

    The importance of particle identification at an asymmetric B Factory is discussed, and the general status of a number of particle identification technologies which might be included in B Factory detectors is briefly reviewed. It is generally agreed that high quality hadronic particle identification is fundamental to the central mission of understanding CP violation at the B Factory, but there is as yet no clear open-quotes consensusclose quotes solution for such a detector. In a sense, this lack of a particle identification solution is a matter of definition. There is, in fact, a perfectly reasonable, open-quotes conventional technologyclose quotes, particle identification system which makes use of a large tracking chamber with excellent (i.e., relativistic rise quality) dE/dx surrounded by a good TOF with a rather long flight path. The chamber must be rather large (around 2 meters in outer radius) and perhaps high pressure as well, but similar devices are rather well understood and it would appear to be possible to meet the particle identification performance required at B Factory momenta. This solution has not been embraced by any of the detector groups, however, because of the effect it has on the electromagnetic calorimetry. open-quotes Everyoneclose quotes wants high quality calorimetry (such as can be provided by CsI crystals), but such devices cost a great deal per unit volume, and the cost scales roughly like the inner radius squared. Moreover, no one wants to see the high quality (expensive) calorimetry compromised by excessive mass in front. Thus, the essence of the particle identification problem is that there is no approximately massless, very thin particle identification device known with adequate performance. Of course, it might equally well be said that there is no high quality calorimeter known which is sufficiently cost-effective to be placed outside an appropriately sized tracking plus particle identification system

  13. The CPLEAR particle identification detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelopoulos, A.; Apostolakis, A.; Rozaki, E.; Sakeliou, L.; Backenstoss, G.; Kuzminski, J.; Rickenbach, R.; Wildi, M.; Carlson, P.; Francis, D.; Jansson, K.; Jon-And, K.; Kerek, A.; Szilagyi, S.; Carvalho, J.; Cobbaert, H.; Ferreira-Marques, R.; Machado, E.; Onofre, A.; Pinto da Cunha, J.; Policarpo, A.; Charalambous, S.; Chardalas, M.; Dedoussis, S.; Touramanis, C.; Fassnacht, P.; Pelucchi, F.; Fetcher, W.; Gerber, H.J.; Fuglesang, C.; Kesseler, G.; Montanet, F.; Go, A.; Lawry, T.; Miller, J.; Roberts, B.L.; Varner, G.; Warner, D.; Zimmerman, D.; Kokkas, P.; Pavlopoulos, P.; Sarigiannis, K.; Triantis, F.

    1992-01-01

    The CPLEAR experiment will measure CP violation parameters in the neutral kaon system, using a low energy antiproton beam from the Low Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR) at CERN. One of its subdetectors, the Particle Identification Detector (PID), makes a fast separation of pions and kaons, which is essential for the experiment. This article describes the design of the PID and its performance during beam tests and during initial runs at LEAR. A pion rejection efficiency of 99.7% for the first level trigger (after 60 ns) is found in the relevant momentum region. (orig.)

  14. The CPLEAR particle identification detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelopoulos, A.; Apostolakis, A.; Rozaki, E.; Sakeliou, L. (Univ. Athens (Greece)); Backenstoss, G.; Kuzminski, J.; Rickenbach, R.; Wildi, M. (Univ. Basel (Switzerland)); Carlson, P.; Francis, D.; Jansson, K.; Jon-And, K.; Kerek, A.; Szilagyi, S. (Manne Siegbahn Inst. Stockholm (Sweden)); Carvalho, J.; Cobbaert, H.; Ferreira-Marques, R.; Machado, E.; Onofre, A.; Pinto da Cunha, J.; Policarpo, A. (Univ. Coimbra, LIP (Portugal) Technical Univ., Delft (Netherlands)); Charalambous, S.; Chardalas, M.; Dedoussis, S.; Touramanis, C. (Univ. Thessaloniki (Greece)); Fassnacht, P.; Pelucchi, F. (CPPM, Marseille (France) CSNSM, Orsay (France) P. Scherrer Inst., Villingen (Switzerland) DPhPe, CEN-Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)); Fetcher, W.; Gerber, H.J. (Inst. fuer Mittelenergiephysik, ETH Villingen (Switzerland)); Fuglesang, C.; Kesseler, G.; Montanet, F. (CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)); Go, A.; Lawry, T.; Miller, J.; Roberts, B.L.; Varner, G.; Warner, D.; Zimmerman, D. (Univ. Boston,; CPLEAR Collaboration

    1992-01-01

    The CPLEAR experiment will measure CP violation parameters in the neutral kaon system, using a low energy antiproton beam from the Low Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR) at CERN. One of its subdetectors, the Particle Identification Detector (PID), makes a fast separation of pions and kaons, which is essential for the experiment. This article describes the design of the PID and its performance during beam tests and during initial runs at LEAR. A pion rejection efficiency of 99.7% for the first level trigger (after 60 ns) is found in the relevant momentum region. (orig.).

  15. Multivariate methods for particle identification

    CERN Document Server

    Visan, Cosmin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to evaluate several MultiVariate methods in order to determine which one, if any, offers better results in Particle Identification (PID) than a simple n$\\sigma$ cut on the response of the ALICE PID detectors. The particles considered in the analysis were Pions, Kaons and Protons and the detectors used were TPC and TOF. When used with the same input n$\\sigma$ variables, the results show similar perfoance between the Rectangular Cuts Optimization method and the simple n$\\sigma$ cuts. The method MLP and BDT show poor results for certain ranges of momentum. The KNN method is the best performing, showing similar results for Pions and Protons as the Cuts method, and better results for Kaons. The extension of the methods to include additional input variables leads to poor results, related to instabilities still to be investigated.

  16. Particle identification for beauty physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludlam, T.

    1987-01-01

    We look briefly at the requirements for particle identification for possible beauty experiments at the Tevatron, both in the fixed target and the collider mode. Techniques presently in use in high energy physics experiments, and under development, should make sensitive experiments feasible. However, in all cases the present state of the art must be advanced to meet the necessary requirements for segmentation andor rate capability. The most fundamentally difficult challenges appear to be the efficient tagging of soft electrons (for the collider experiment) and the need to handle interaction rates up to /approximately/ 10 9 HZ in the fixed target mode. In both cases we can find ''in principle'' demonstrations that the requirements can be met. We have considered only the most basic prooperties of detectors, however, and the real answers will come from careful studies of details. 20 refs., 10 figs

  17. Particle identification in ALICE: a Bayesian approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adam, J.; Adamova, D.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Rinella, G. Aglieri; Agnello, M.; Agrawal, N.; Ahammed, Z.; Ahn, S. U.; Aiola, S.; Akindinov, A.; Alam, S. N.; Albuquerque, D. S. D.; Aleksandrov, D.; Alessandro, B.; Alexandre, D.; Alfaro Molina, R.; Alici, A.; Alkin, A.; Almaraz, J. R. M.; Alme, J.; Alt, T.; Altinpinar, S.; Altsybeev, I.; Alves Garcia Prado, C.; Andrei, C.; Andronic, A.; Anguelov, V.; Anticic, T.; Antinori, F.; Antonioli, P.; Aphecetche, L.; Appelshaeuser, H.; Arcelli, S.; Arnaldi, R.; Arnold, O. W.; Arsene, I. C.; Arslandok, M.; Audurier, B.; Augustinus, A.; Averbeck, R.; Azmi, M. D.; Badala, A.; Baek, Y. W.; Bagnasco, S.; Bailhache, R.; Bala, R.; Balasubramanian, S.; Baldisseri, A.; Baral, R. C.; Barbano, A. M.; Barbera, R.; Barile, F.; Barnafoeldi, G. G.; Barnby, L. S.; Barret, V.; Bartalini, P.; Barth, K.; Bartke, J.; Bartsch, E.; Basile, M.; Bastid, N.; Bathen, B.; Batigne, G.; Camejo, A. Batista; Batyunya, B.; Batzing, P. C.; Bearden, I. G.; Beck, H.; Bedda, C.; Behera, N. K.; Belikov, I.; Bellini, F.; Bello Martinez, H.; Bellwied, R.; Belmont, R.; Belmont-Moreno, E.; Belyaev, V.; Benacek, P.; Bencedi, G.; Beole, S.; Berceanu, I.; Bercuci, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Berenyi, D.; Bertens, R. A.; Berzano, D.; Betev, L.; Bhasin, A.; Bhat, I. R.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattacharjee, B.; Bhom, J.; Bianchi, L.; Bianchi, N.; Bianchin, C.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bilandzic, A.; Biro, G.; Biswas, R.; Biswas, S.; Bjelogrlic, S.; Blair, J. T.; Blau, D.; Blume, C.; Bock, F.; Bogdanov, A.; Boggild, H.; Boldizsar, L.; Bombara, M.; Book, J.; Borel, H.; Borissov, A.; Borri, M.; Bossu, F.; Botta, E.; Bourjau, C.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Bregant, M.; Breitner, T.; Broker, T. A.; Browning, T. A.; Broz, M.; Brucken, E. J.; Bruna, E.; Bruno, G. E.; Budnikov, D.; Buesching, H.; Bufalino, S.; Buncic, P.; Busch, O.; Buthelezi, Z.; Butt, J. B.; Buxton, J. T.; Cabala, J.; Caffarri, D.; Cai, X.; Caines, H.; Diaz, L. Calero; Caliva, A.; Calvo Villar, E.; Camerini, P.; Carena, F.; Carena, W.; Carnesecchi, F.; Castellanos, J. Castillo; Castro, A. J.; Casula, E. A. R.; Sanchez, C. Ceballos; Cepila, J.; Cerello, P.; Cerkala, J.; Chang, B.; Chapeland, S.; Chartier, M.; Charvet, J. L.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chauvin, A.; Chelnokov, V.; Cherney, M.; Cheshkov, C.; Cheynis, B.; Barroso, V. Chibante; Chinellato, D. D.; Cho, S.; Chochula, P.; Choi, K.; Chojnacki, M.; Choudhury, S.; Christakoglou, P.; Christensen, C. H.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Cicalo, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Cleymans, J.; Colamaria, F.; Colella, D.; Collu, A.; Colocci, M.; Balbastre, G. Conesa; del Valle, Z. Conesa; Connors, M. E.; Contreras, J. G.; Cormier, T. M.; Morales, Y. Corrales; Cortes Maldonado, I.; Cortese, P.; Cosentino, M. R.; Costa, F.; Crochet, P.; Cruz Albino, R.; Cuautle, E.; Cunqueiro, L.; Dahms, T.; Dainese, A.; Danisch, M. C.; Danu, A.; Das, I.; Das, S.; Dash, A.; Dash, S.; De, S.; De Caro, A.; de Cataldo, G.; de Conti, C.; de Cuveland, J.; De Falco, A.; De Gruttola, D.; De Marco, N.; De Pasquale, S.; Deisting, A.; Deloff, A.; Denes, E.; Deplano, C.; Dhankher, P.; Di Bari, D.; Di Mauro, A.; Di Nezza, P.; Corchero, M. A. Diaz; Dietel, T.; Dillenseger, P.; Divia, R.; Djuvsland, O.; Dobrin, A.; Gimenez, D. Domenicis; Doenigus, B.; Dordic, O.; Drozhzhova, T.; Dubey, A. K.; Dubla, A.; Ducroux, L.; Dupieux, P.; Ehlers, R. J.; Elia, D.; Endress, E.; Engel, H.; Epple, E.; Erazmus, B.; Erdemir, I.; Erhardt, F.; Espagnon, B.; Estienne, M.; Esumi, S.; Eum, J.; Evans, D.; Evdokimov, S.; Eyyubova, G.; Fabbietti, L.; Fabris, D.; Faivre, J.; Fantoni, A.; Fasel, M.; Feldkamp, L.; Feliciello, A.; Feofilov, G.; Ferencei, J.; Fernandez Tellez, A.; Ferreiro, E. G.; Ferretti, A.; Festanti, A.; Feuillard, V. J. G.; Figiel, J.; Figueredo, M. A. S.; Filchagin, S.; Finogeev, D.; Fionda, F. M.; Fiore, E. M.; Fleck, M. G.; Floris, M.; Foertsch, S.; Foka, P.; Fokin, S.; Fragiacomo, E.; Francescon, A.; Frankenfeld, U.; Fronze, G. G.; Fuchs, U.; Furget, C.; Furs, A.; Girard, M. Fusco; Gaardhoje, J. J.; Gagliardi, M.; Gago, A. M.; Gallio, M.; Gangadharan, D. R.; Ganoti, P.; Gao, C.; Garabatos, C.; Garcia-Solis, E.; Gargiulo, C.; Gasik, P.; Gauger, E. F.; Germain, M.; Gheata, A.; Gheata, M.; Gianotti, P.; Giubellino, P.; Giubilato, P.; Gladysz-Dziadus, E.; Glaessel, P.; Gomez Coral, D. M.; Ramirez, A. Gomez; Gonzalez, A. S.; Gonzalez, V.; Gonzalez-Zamora, P.; Gorbunov, S.; Goerlich, L.; Gotovac, S.; Grabski, V.; Grachov, O. A.; Graczykowski, L. K.; Graham, K. L.; Grelli, A.; Grigoras, A.; Grigoras, C.; Grigoriev, V.; Grigoryan, A.; Grigoryan, S.; Grinyov, B.; Grion, N.; Gronefeld, J. M.; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J. F.; Grosso, R.; Guber, F.; Guernane, R.; Guerzoni, B.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gunji, T.; Gupta, A.; Haake, R.; Haaland, O.; Hadjidakis, C.; Haiduc, M.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamar, G.; Hamon, J. C.; Harris, J. W.; Harton, A.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hayashi, S.; Heckel, S. T.; Hellbaer, E.; Helstrup, H.; Herghelegiu, A.; Herrera Corral, G.; Hess, B. A.; Hetland, K. F.; Hillemanns, H.; Hippolyte, B.; Horak, D.; Hosokawa, R.; Hristov, P.; Humanic, T. J.; Hussain, N.; Hussain, T.; Hutter, D.; Hwang, D. S.; Ilkaev, R.; Inaba, M.; Incani, E.; Ippolitov, M.; Irfan, M.; Ivanov, M.; Ivanov, V.; Izucheev, V.; Jacazio, N.; Jadhav, M. B.; Jadlovska, S.; Jadlovsky, J.; Jahnke, C.; Jakubowska, M. J.; Jang, H. J.; Janik, M. A.; Jayarathna, P. H. S. Y.; Jena, C.; Jena, S.; Bustamante, R. T. Jimenez; Jones, P. G.; Jusko, A.; Kalinak, P.; Kalweit, A.; Kamin, J.; Kaplin, V.; Kar, S.; Uysal, A. Karasu; Karavichev, O.; Karavicheva, T.; Karayan, L.; Karpechev, E.; Kebschull, U.; Keidel, R.; Keijdener, D. L. D.; Keil, M.; Khan, M. Mohisin; Khan, P.; Khan, S. A.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kharlov, Y.; Kileng, B.; Kim, D. W.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, D.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, M.; Kim, T.; Kirsch, S.; Kisel, I.; Kiselev, S.; Kisiel, A.; Kiss, G.; Klay, J. L.; Klein, C.; Klein-Boesing, C.; Klewin, S.; Kluge, A.; Knichel, M. L.; Knospe, A. G.; Kobdaj, C.; Kofarago, M.; Kollegger, T.; Kolojvari, A.; Kondratiev, V.; Kondratyeva, N.; Kondratyuk, E.; Konevskikh, A.; Kopcik, M.; Kostarakis, P.; Kour, M.; Kouzinopoulos, C.; Kovalenko, O.; Kovalenko, V.; Kowalski, M.; Meethaleveedu, G. Koyithatta; Kralik, I.; Kravcakova, A.; Krivda, M.; Krizek, F.; Kryshen, E.; Krzewicki, M.; Kubera, A. M.; Kucera, V.; Kuijer, P. G.; Kumar, J.; Kumar, L.; Kumar, S.; Kurashvili, P.; Kurepin, A.; Kurepin, A. B.; Kuryakin, A.; Kweon, M. J.; Kwon, Y.; La Pointe, S. L.; La Rocca, P.; Ladron de Guevara, P.; Lagana Fernandes, C.; Lakomov, I.; Langoy, R.; Lara, C.; Lardeux, A.; Lattuca, A.; Laudi, E.; Lea, R.; Leardini, L.; Lee, G. R.; Lee, S.; Lehas, F.; Lemmon, R. C.; Lenti, V.; Leogrande, E.; Monzon, I. Leon; Leon Vargas, H.; Leoncino, M.; Levai, P.; Lien, J.; Lietava, R.; Lindal, S.; Lindenstruth, V.; Lippmann, C.; Lisa, M. A.; Ljunggren, H. M.; Lodato, D. F.; Loenne, P. I.; Loginov, V.; Loizides, C.; Lopez, X.; Torres, E. Lopez; Lowe, A.; Luettig, P.; Lunardon, M.; Luparello, G.; Lutz, T. H.; Maevskaya, A.; Mager, M.; Mahajan, S.; Mahmood, S. M.; Maire, A.; Majka, R. D.; Malaev, M.; Maldonado Cervantes, I.; Malinina, L.; Mal'Kevich, D.; Malzacher, P.; Mamonov, A.; Manko, V.; Manso, F.; Manzari, V.; Marchisone, M.; Mares, J.; Margagliotti, G. V.; Margotti, A.; Margutti, J.; Marin, A.; Markert, C.; Marquard, M.; Martin, N. A.; Blanco, J. Martin; Martinengo, P.; Martinez, M. I.; Garcia, G. Martinez; Pedreira, M. Martinez; Mas, A.; Masciocchi, S.; Masera, M.; Masoni, A.; Mastroserio, A.; Matyja, A.; Mayer, C.; Mazer, J.; Mazzoni, M. A.; Mcdonald, D.; Meddi, F.; Melikyan, Y.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Meninno, E.; Perez, J. Mercado; Meres, M.; Miake, Y.; Mieskolainen, M. M.; Mikhaylov, K.; Milano, L.; Milosevic, J.; Mischke, A.; Mishra, A. N.; Miskowiec, D.; Mitra, J.; Mitu, C. M.; Mohammadi, N.; Mohanty, B.; Molnar, L.; Montano Zetina, L.; Montes, E.; De Godoy, D. A. Moreira; Moreno, L. A. P.; Moretto, S.; Morreale, A.; Morsch, A.; Muccifora, V.; Mudnic, E.; Muehlheim, D.; Muhuri, S.; Mukherjee, M.; Mulligan, J. D.; Munhoz, M. G.; Munzer, R. H.; Murakami, H.; Murray, S.; Musa, L.; Musinsky, J.; Naik, B.; Nair, R.; Nandi, B. K.; Nania, R.; Nappi, E.; Naru, M. U.; Natal da Luz, H.; Nattrass, C.; Navarro, S. R.; Nayak, K.; Nayak, R.; Nayak, T. K.; Nazarenko, S.; Nedosekin, A.; Nellen, L.; Ng, F.; Nicassio, M.; Niculescu, M.; Niedziela, J.; Nielsen, B. S.; Nikolaev, S.; Nikulin, S.; Nikulin, V.; Noferini, F.; Nomokonov, P.; Nooren, G.; Noris, J. C. C.; Norman, J.; Nyanin, A.; Nystrand, J.; Oeschler, H.; Oh, S.; Oh, S. K.; Ohlson, A.; Okatan, A.; Okubo, T.; Olah, L.; Oleniacz, J.; Oliveira Da Silva, A. C.; Oliver, M. H.; Onderwaater, J.; Oppedisano, C.; Orava, R.; Oravec, M.; Ortiz Velasquez, A.; Oskarsson, A.; Otwinowski, J.; Oyama, K.; Ozdemir, M.; Pachmayer, Y.; Pagano, D.; Pagano, P.; Paic, G.; Pal, S. K.; Pan, J.; Papikyan, V.; Pappalardo, G. S.; Pareek, P.; Park, W. J.; Parmar, S.; Passfeld, A.; Paticchio, V.; Patra, R. N.; Paul, B.; Pei, H.; Peitzmann, T.; Da Costa, H. Pereira; Peresunko, D.; Lara, C. E. Perez; Lezama, E. Perez; Peskov, V.; Pestov, Y.; Petracek, V.; Petrov, V.; Petrovici, M.; Petta, C.; Piano, S.; Pikna, M.; Pillot, P.; Pimentel, L. O. D. L.; Pinazza, O.; Pinsky, L.; Piyarathna, D. B.; Ploskon, M.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Pochybova, S.; Podesta-Lerma, P. L. M.; Poghosyan, M. G.; Polichtchouk, B.; Poljak, N.; Poonsawat, W.; Pop, A.; Porteboeuf-Houssais, S.; Porter, J.; Pospisil, J.; Prasad, S. K.; Preghenella, R.; Prino, F.; Pruneau, C. A.; Pshenichnov, I.; Puccio, M.; Puddu, G.; Pujahari, P.; Punin, V.; Putschke, J.; Qvigstad, H.; Rachevski, A.; Raha, S.; Rajput, S.; Rak, J.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Ramello, L.; Rami, F.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Raesaenen, S. S.; Rascanu, B. T.; Rathee, D.; Read, K. F.; Redlich, K.; Reed, R. J.; Reichelt, P.; Reidt, F.; Ren, X.; Renfordt, R.; Reolon, A. R.; Reshetin, A.; Reygers, K.; Riabov, V.; Ricci, R. A.; Richert, T.; Richter, M.; Riedler, P.; Riegler, W.; Riggi, F.; Ristea, C.; Rocco, E.; Rodriguez Cahuantzi, M.; Manso, A. Rodriguez; Roed, K.; Rogochaya, E.; Rohr, D.; Roehrich, D.; Ronchetti, F.; Ronflette, L.; Rosnet, P.; Rossi, A.; Roukoutakis, F.; Roy, A.; Roy, C.; Roy, P.; Montero, A. J. Rubio; Rui, R.; Russo, R.; Ryabinkin, E.; Ryabov, Y.; Rybicki, A.; Saarinen, S.; Sadhu, S.; Sadovsky, S.; Safarik, K.; Sahlmuller, B.; Sahoo, P.; Sahoo, R.; Sahoo, S.; Sahu, P. K.; Saini, J.; Sakai, S.; Saleh, M. A.; Salzwedel, J.; Sambyal, S.; Samsonov, V.; Sandor, L.; Sandoval, A.; Sano, M.; Sarkar, D.; Sarkar, N.; Sarma, P.; Scapparone, E.; Scarlassara, F.; Schiaua, C.; Schicker, R.; Schmidt, C.; Schmidt, H. R.; Schuchmann, S.; Schukraft, J.; Schulc, M.; Schutz, Y.; Schwarz, K.; Schweda, K.; Scioli, G.; Scomparin, E.; Scott, R.; Sefcik, M.; Seger, J. E.; Sekiguchi, Y.; Sekihata, D.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Senosi, K.; Senyukov, S.; Serradilla, E.; Sevcenco, A.; Shabanov, A.; Shabetai, A.; Shadura, O.; Shahoyan, R.; Shahzad, M. I.; Shangaraev, A.; Sharma, M.; Sharma, M.; Sharma, N.; Sheikh, A. I.; Shigaki, K.; Shou, Q.; Shtejer, K.; Sibiriak, Y.; Siddhanta, S.; Sielewicz, K. M.; Siemiarczuk, T.; Silvermyr, D.; Silvestre, C.; Simatovic, G.; Simonetti, G.; Singaraju, R.; Singh, R.; Singha, S.; Singhal, V.; Sinha, B. C.; Sinha, T.; Sitar, B.; Sitta, M.; Skaali, T. B.; Slupecki, M.; Smirnov, N.; Snellings, R. J. M.; Snellman, T. W.; Song, J.; Song, M.; Song, Z.; Soramel, F.; Sorensen, S.; de Souza, R. D.; Sozzi, F.; Spacek, M.; Spiriti, E.; Sputowska, I.; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, M.; Stachel, J.; Stan, I.; Stankus, P.; Stenlund, E.; Steyn, G.; Stiller, J. H.; Stocco, D.; Strmen, P.; Suaide, A. A. P.; Sugitate, T.; Suire, C.; Suleymanov, M.; Suljic, M.; Sultanov, R.; Sumbera, M.; Sumowidagdo, S.; Szabo, A.; Szanto de Toledo, A.; Szarka, I.; Szczepankiewicz, A.; Szymanski, M.; Tabassam, U.; Takahashi, J.; Tambave, G. J.; Tanaka, N.; Tarhini, M.; Tariq, M.; Tarzila, M. G.; Tauro, A.; Tejeda Munoz, G.; Telesca, A.; Terasaki, K.; Terrevoli, C.; Teyssier, B.; Thaeder, J.; Thakur, D.; Thomas, D.; Tieulent, R.; Timmins, A. R.; Toia, A.; Trogolo, S.; Trombetta, G.; Trubnikov, V.; Trzaska, W. H.; Tsuji, T.; Tumkin, A.; Turrisi, R.; Tveter, T. S.; Ullaland, K.; Uras, A.; Usai, G. L.; Utrobicic, A.; Vala, M.; Palomo, L. Valencia; Vallero, S.; Van Der Maarel, J.; Van Hoorne, J. W.; van Leeuwen, M.; Vanat, T.; Vyvre, P. Vande; Varga, D.; Vargas, A.; Vargyas, M.; Varma, R.; Vasileiou, M.; Vasiliev, A.; Vauthier, A.; Vechernin, V.; Veen, A. M.; Veldhoen, M.; Velure, A.; Vercellin, E.; Vergara Limon, S.; Vernet, R.; Verweij, M.; Vickovic, L.; Viesti, G.; Viinikainen, J.; Vilakazi, Z.; Baillie, O. Villalobos; Villatoro Tello, A.; Vinogradov, A.; Vinogradov, L.; Vinogradov, Y.; Virgili, T.; Vislavicius, V.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vodopyanov, A.; Voelkl, M. A.; Voloshin, K.; Voloshin, S. A.; Volpe, G.; von Haller, B.; Vorobyev, I.; Vranic, D.; Vrlakova, J.; Vulpescu, B.; Wagner, B.; Wagner, J.; Wang, H.; Watanabe, D.; Watanabe, Y.; Weiser, D. F.; Westerhoff, U.; Whitehead, A. M.; Wiechula, J.; Wikne, J.; Wilk, G.; Wilkinson, J.; Williams, M. C. S.; Windelband, B.; Winn, M.; Yang, H.; Yano, S.; Yasin, Z.; Yokoyama, H.; Yoo, I. -K.; Yoon, J. H.; Yurchenko, V.; Yushmanov, I.; Zaborowska, A.; Zaccolo, V.; Zaman, A.; Zampolli, C.; Zanoli, H. J. C.; Zaporozhets, S.; Zardoshti, N.; Zarochentsev, A.; Zavada, P.; Zaviyalov, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zgura, I. S.; Zhalov, M.; Zhang, C.; Zhao, C.; Zhigareva, N.; Zhou, Y.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, H.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, A.; Zimmermann, M. B.; Zinovjev, G.; Zyzak, M.

    2016-01-01

    We present a Bayesian approach to particle identification (PID) within the ALICE experiment. The aim is to more effectively combine the particle identification capabilities of its various detectors. After a brief explanation of the adopted methodology and formalism, the performance of the Bayesian

  18. Particles separation in a cyclone device cone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilevsky Michail

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The improvement of the methods for calculating the efficiency for particles separation in these devices is the subject of article. Finding data show that the particles are discharged from the central zone to periphery by diffusive transport in the zone of high centripetal accelerations. It is found that the central zone is the ejection effect zone on the paraxial flow and intense discharge particle zone. The concentrations distribution and distribution of fractional efficiencies are presented.

  19. α-particle shielding of semiconductor device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKeown, P.J.A.; Perry, J.P.; Waddell, J.M.; Barker, K.D.

    1981-01-01

    Soft errors in semiconductor devices, e.g. random access memories, arising from the bombardment of the device by alpha particles produced by the disintegration of minute traces of uranium or thorium in the packaging materials are prevented by coating the active surface of the semiconductor chip with a thin layer, e.g. 20 to 100 microns of an organic polymeric material, this layer being of sufficient thickness to absorb the particles. Typically, the polymer is a poly-imide formed by u.v. electron-beam or thermal curing of liquid monomer applied to the chip surface. (author)

  20. Particle identification by silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Denison de Souza

    1997-01-01

    A method is developed for the evaluation of the energy loss, dE/dx, of a charged particle traversing a silicon strip detector. The method is applied to the DELPHI microvertex detector leading to diagrams of dE/dx versus momentum for different particles. The specific case of pions and protons is treated and the most probable value of dE/dx and the width of the dE/dx distribution for those particles in the momentum range of 0.2 GeV/c to 1.5 GeV/c, are obtained. The resolution found is 13.4 % for particles with momentum higher than 2 GeV/c and the separation power is 2.9 for 1.0 GeV/c pions and protons. (author)

  1. Neutral particle kinetics in fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tendler, M.; Heifetz, D.

    1986-05-01

    The theory of neutral particle kinetics treats the transport of mass, momentum, and energy in a plasma due to neutral particles which themselves are unaffected by magnetic fields. This transport affects the global power and particle balances in fusion devices, as well as profile control and plasma confinement quality, particle and energy fluxes onto device components, performance of pumping systems, and the design of diagnostics and the interpretation of their measurements. This paper reviews the development of analytic, numerical, and Monte Carlo methods of solving the time-independent Boltzmann equation describing neutral kinetics. These models for neutral particle behavior typically use adaptations of techniques developed originally for computing neutron transport, due to the analogy between the two phenomena, where charge-exchange corresponds to scattering and ionization to absorption. Progress in the field depends on developing multidimensional analytic methods, and obtaining experimental data for the physical processes of wall reflection, the neutral/plasma interaction, and for processes in fusion devices which are directly related to neutral transport, such as H/sub α/ emission rates, plenum pressures, and charge-exchange emission spectra

  2. Neutral particle kinetics in fusion devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tendler, M.; Heifetz, D.

    1986-05-01

    The theory of neutral particle kinetics treats the transport of mass, momentum, and energy in a plasma due to neutral particles which themselves are unaffected by magnetic fields. This transport affects the global power and particle balances in fusion devices, as well as profile control and plasma confinement quality, particle and energy fluxes onto device components, performance of pumping systems, and the design of diagnostics and the interpretation of their measurements. This paper reviews the development of analytic, numerical, and Monte Carlo methods of solving the time-independent Boltzmann equation describing neutral kinetics. These models for neutral particle behavior typically use adaptations of techniques developed originally for computing neutron transport, due to the analogy between the two phenomena, where charge-exchange corresponds to scattering and ionization to absorption. Progress in the field depends on developing multidimensional analytic methods, and obtaining experimental data for the physical processes of wall reflection, the neutral/plasma interaction, and for processes in fusion devices which are directly related to neutral transport, such as H/sub ..cap alpha../ emission rates, plenum pressures, and charge-exchange emission spectra.

  3. 78 FR 58785 - Unique Device Identification System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... the UDI system because they are controlled in the supply chain by the kit rather than by constituent... reduce existing obstacles to the adequate identification of medical devices used in the United States. By... stated, ``We support FDA's objective to substantially reduce existing obstacles to the adequate...

  4. Identification of digitized particle trajectories

    CERN Document Server

    Grote, H; Lassalle, J C; Zanella, P

    1973-01-01

    High-energy Physics Laboratories make increasing use of particle detectors which directly produce digital measurements of trajectories at very high rates. Data collected in vast amounts during experiments are then analysed by computer programs whose first task is the recognition of tracks and reconstruction of the interesting events. This paper discusses the applicability of various Pattern Recognition approaches. Examples are given of the problems and the practical achievements in this field.

  5. Uses of particle identification for supercollider physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quigg, C.

    1989-05-01

    I summarize the basic characteristics of the Superconducting Super Collider and describe the experimental environment of its high- luminosity interaction regions. I then review some of the discovery possibilities opened by the SSC, with special attention to the advantages conferred by particle identification. 16 refs., 8 figs

  6. Fuel number identification method and device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, Takami; Seno, Makoto; Kikuchi, Takashi; Sakamoto, Hiromi; Takahashi, Masaki; Tanaka, Keiji.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a method of and a device for automatically identifying fuel numbers impressed on fuel assemblies disposed in a fuel reprocessing facility, power plant and a reactor core at a high speed and at a high identification rate. Namely, three or more character images are photographed for one fuel assembly as an object of the identification under different illumination conditions. As a result, different character images by the number of the illumination directions can be obtained for identical impressed characters. Learning on a neural network system is applied to the images of all of the characters impressed on the fuel assembly obtained under illumination of predetermined directions. Then, result of the identification by the number of the illumination directions can be obtained for each of the characters as an object of the identification. As a result, since the result of the identification is determined based on a theory of decision of majority, highly automatic identification can be realized. (I.S.)

  7. Particle identification methods in High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Va' Vra, J.

    2000-01-27

    This paper deals with two major particle identification methods: dE/dx and Cherenkov detection. In the first method, the authors systematically compare existing dE/dx data with various predictions available in the literature, such as the Particle Data group recommendation, and judge the overall consistency. To my knowledge, such comparison was not done yet in a published form for the gaseous detectors used in High-Energy physics. As far as the second method, there are two major Cherenkov light detection techniques: the threshold and the Ring imaging methods. The authors discuss the recent trend in these techniques.

  8. Decision Tree Technique for Particle Identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quiller, Ryan

    2003-01-01

    Particle identification based on measurements such as the Cerenkov angle, momentum, and the rate of energy loss per unit distance (-dE/dx) is fundamental to the BaBar detector for particle physics experiments. It is particularly important to separate the charged forms of kaons and pions. Currently, the Neural Net, an algorithm based on mapping input variables to an output variable using hidden variables as intermediaries, is one of the primary tools used for identification. In this study, a decision tree classification technique implemented in the computer program, CART, was investigated and compared to the Neural Net over the range of momenta, 0.25 GeV/c to 5.0 GeV/c. For a given subinterval of momentum, three decision trees were made using different sets of input variables. The sensitivity and specificity were calculated for varying kaon acceptance thresholds. This data was used to plot Receiver Operating Characteristic curves (ROC curves) to compare the performance of the classification methods. Also, input variables used in constructing the decision trees were analyzed. It was found that the Neural Net was a significant contributor to decision trees using dE/dx and the Cerenkov angle as inputs. Furthermore, the Neural Net had poorer performance than the decision tree technique, but tended to improve decision tree performance when used as an input variable. These results suggest that the decision tree technique using Neural Net input may possibly increase accuracy of particle identification in BaBar

  9. New application of (ΔE-E) technique for particle identification and dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mineev, Yu.V.

    1998-01-01

    The modified method of charged particle identification is described. It is based on the simultaneous measurement of the energy E and the specific losses ΔE with the application of semiconductor detectors as well as programmed semiconductor memory devices for the storage of the preset calculated dependence ΔE(E) for each particle kinds. The comparison of expected and measured values ΔE at the measured energy value E defines completely the particle kind. New possibilities of the method for identification as well as separate and simultaneous detection of different particles (electrons, protons, alpha-particles, nuclei with Z ≤ 12 and gamma-radiation) are analyzed

  10. DIRC, a new type of particle identification system For BABAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwiening, J.

    1997-12-01

    The DIRC, a new type of Cherenkov imaging device, has been selected as the primary particle identification system for the BABAR detector at the asymmetric B-factory, PEP-II. It is based on total internal reflection and uses long, rectangular bars made from synthetic fused silica as Cherenkov radiators and light guides. In this paper, the principles of the DIRC ring imaging Cherenkov technique are explained and results from the prototype program are presented. The studies of the optical properties and radiation hardness of the quartz radiators are described, followed by a discussion of the detector design

  11. Particle identification in ALICE: a Bayesian approach

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, Jaroslav; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan; Aglieri Rinella, Gianluca; Agnello, Michelangelo; Agrawal, Neelima; Ahammed, Zubayer; Ahmad, Shakeel; Ahn, Sang Un; Aiola, Salvatore; Akindinov, Alexander; Alam, Sk Noor; Silva De Albuquerque, Danilo; Aleksandrov, Dmitry; Alessandro, Bruno; Alexandre, Didier; Alfaro Molina, Jose Ruben; Alici, Andrea; Alkin, Anton; Millan Almaraz, Jesus Roberto; Alme, Johan; Alt, Torsten; Altinpinar, Sedat; Altsybeev, Igor; Alves Garcia Prado, Caio; Andrei, Cristian; Andronic, Anton; Anguelov, Venelin; Anticic, Tome; Antinori, Federico; Antonioli, Pietro; Aphecetche, Laurent Bernard; Appelshaeuser, Harald; Arcelli, Silvia; Arnaldi, Roberta; Arnold, Oliver Werner; Arsene, Ionut Cristian; Arslandok, Mesut; Audurier, Benjamin; Augustinus, Andre; Averbeck, Ralf Peter; Azmi, Mohd Danish; Badala, Angela; Baek, Yong Wook; Bagnasco, Stefano; Bailhache, Raphaelle Marie; Bala, Renu; Balasubramanian, Supraja; Baldisseri, Alberto; Baral, Rama Chandra; Barbano, Anastasia Maria; Barbera, Roberto; Barile, Francesco; Barnafoldi, Gergely Gabor; Barnby, Lee Stuart; Ramillien Barret, Valerie; Bartalini, Paolo; Barth, Klaus; Bartke, Jerzy Gustaw; Bartsch, Esther; Basile, Maurizio; Bastid, Nicole; Basu, Sumit; Bathen, Bastian; Batigne, Guillaume; Batista Camejo, Arianna; Batyunya, Boris; Batzing, Paul Christoph; Bearden, Ian Gardner; Beck, Hans; Bedda, Cristina; Behera, Nirbhay Kumar; Belikov, Iouri; Bellini, Francesca; Bello Martinez, Hector; Bellwied, Rene; Belmont Iii, Ronald John; Belmont Moreno, Ernesto; Belyaev, Vladimir; Benacek, Pavel; Bencedi, Gyula; Beole, Stefania; Berceanu, Ionela; Bercuci, Alexandru; Berdnikov, Yaroslav; Berenyi, Daniel; Bertens, Redmer Alexander; Berzano, Dario; Betev, Latchezar; Bhasin, Anju; Bhat, Inayat Rasool; Bhati, Ashok Kumar; Bhattacharjee, Buddhadeb; Bhom, Jihyun; Bianchi, Livio; Bianchi, Nicola; Bianchin, Chiara; Bielcik, Jaroslav; Bielcikova, Jana; Bilandzic, Ante; Biro, Gabor; Biswas, Rathijit; Biswas, Saikat; Bjelogrlic, Sandro; Blair, Justin Thomas; Blau, Dmitry; Blume, Christoph; Bock, Friederike; Bogdanov, Alexey; Boggild, Hans; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Bombara, Marek; Book, Julian Heinz; Borel, Herve; Borissov, Alexander; Borri, Marcello; Bossu, Francesco; Botta, Elena; Bourjau, Christian; Braun-Munzinger, Peter; Bregant, Marco; Breitner, Timo Gunther; Broker, Theo Alexander; Browning, Tyler Allen; Broz, Michal; Brucken, Erik Jens; Bruna, Elena; Bruno, Giuseppe Eugenio; Budnikov, Dmitry; Buesching, Henner; Bufalino, Stefania; Buncic, Predrag; Busch, Oliver; Buthelezi, Edith Zinhle; Bashir Butt, Jamila; Buxton, Jesse Thomas; Cabala, Jan; Caffarri, Davide; Cai, Xu; Caines, Helen Louise; Calero Diaz, Liliet; Caliva, Alberto; Calvo Villar, Ernesto; Camerini, Paolo; Carena, Francesco; Carena, Wisla; Carnesecchi, Francesca; Castillo Castellanos, Javier Ernesto; Castro, Andrew John; Casula, Ester Anna Rita; Ceballos Sanchez, Cesar; Cepila, Jan; Cerello, Piergiorgio; Cerkala, Jakub; Chang, Beomsu; Chapeland, Sylvain; Chartier, Marielle; Charvet, Jean-Luc Fernand; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Chattopadhyay, Sukalyan; Chauvin, Alex; Chelnokov, Volodymyr; Cherney, Michael Gerard; Cheshkov, Cvetan Valeriev; Cheynis, Brigitte; Chibante Barroso, Vasco Miguel; Dobrigkeit Chinellato, David; Cho, Soyeon; Chochula, Peter; Choi, Kyungeon; Chojnacki, Marek; Choudhury, Subikash; Christakoglou, Panagiotis; Christensen, Christian Holm; Christiansen, Peter; Chujo, Tatsuya; Chung, Suh-Urk; Cicalo, Corrado; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, Federico; Cleymans, Jean Willy Andre; Colamaria, Fabio Filippo; Colella, Domenico; Collu, Alberto; Colocci, Manuel; Conesa Balbastre, Gustavo; Conesa Del Valle, Zaida; Connors, Megan Elizabeth; Contreras Nuno, Jesus Guillermo; Cormier, Thomas Michael; Corrales Morales, Yasser; Cortes Maldonado, Ismael; Cortese, Pietro; Cosentino, Mauro Rogerio; Costa, Filippo; Crochet, Philippe; Cruz Albino, Rigoberto; Cuautle Flores, Eleazar; Cunqueiro Mendez, Leticia; Dahms, Torsten; Dainese, Andrea; Danisch, Meike Charlotte; Danu, Andrea; Das, Debasish; Das, Indranil; Das, Supriya; Dash, Ajay Kumar; Dash, Sadhana; De, Sudipan; De Caro, Annalisa; De Cataldo, Giacinto; De Conti, Camila; De Cuveland, Jan; De Falco, Alessandro; De Gruttola, Daniele; De Marco, Nora; De Pasquale, Salvatore; Deisting, Alexander; Deloff, Andrzej; Denes, Ervin Sandor; Deplano, Caterina; Dhankher, Preeti; Di Bari, Domenico; Di Mauro, Antonio; Di Nezza, Pasquale; Diaz Corchero, Miguel Angel; Dietel, Thomas; Dillenseger, Pascal; Divia, Roberto; Djuvsland, Oeystein; Dobrin, Alexandru Florin; Domenicis Gimenez, Diogenes; Donigus, Benjamin; Dordic, Olja; Drozhzhova, Tatiana; Dubey, Anand Kumar; Dubla, Andrea; Ducroux, Laurent; Dupieux, Pascal; Ehlers Iii, Raymond James; Elia, Domenico; Endress, Eric; Engel, Heiko; Epple, Eliane; Erazmus, Barbara Ewa; Erdemir, Irem; Erhardt, Filip; Espagnon, Bruno; Estienne, Magali Danielle; Esumi, Shinichi; Eum, Jongsik; Evans, David; Evdokimov, Sergey; Eyyubova, Gyulnara; Fabbietti, Laura; Fabris, Daniela; Faivre, Julien; Fantoni, Alessandra; Fasel, Markus; Feldkamp, Linus; Feliciello, Alessandro; Feofilov, Grigorii; Ferencei, Jozef; Fernandez Tellez, Arturo; Gonzalez Ferreiro, Elena; Ferretti, Alessandro; Festanti, Andrea; Feuillard, Victor Jose Gaston; Figiel, Jan; Araujo Silva Figueredo, Marcel; Filchagin, Sergey; Finogeev, Dmitry; Fionda, Fiorella; Fiore, Enrichetta Maria; Fleck, Martin Gabriel; Floris, Michele; Foertsch, Siegfried Valentin; Foka, Panagiota; Fokin, Sergey; Fragiacomo, Enrico; Francescon, Andrea; Frankenfeld, Ulrich Michael; Fronze, Gabriele Gaetano; Fuchs, Ulrich; Furget, Christophe; Furs, Artur; Fusco Girard, Mario; Gaardhoeje, Jens Joergen; Gagliardi, Martino; Gago Medina, Alberto Martin; Gallio, Mauro; Gangadharan, Dhevan Raja; Ganoti, Paraskevi; Gao, Chaosong; Garabatos Cuadrado, Jose; Garcia-Solis, Edmundo Javier; Gargiulo, Corrado; Gasik, Piotr Jan; Gauger, Erin Frances; Germain, Marie; Gheata, Andrei George; Gheata, Mihaela; Ghosh, Premomoy; Ghosh, Sanjay Kumar; Gianotti, Paola; Giubellino, Paolo; Giubilato, Piero; Gladysz-Dziadus, Ewa; Glassel, Peter; Gomez Coral, Diego Mauricio; Gomez Ramirez, Andres; Sanchez Gonzalez, Andres; Gonzalez, Victor; Gonzalez Zamora, Pedro; Gorbunov, Sergey; Gorlich, Lidia Maria; Gotovac, Sven; Grabski, Varlen; Grachov, Oleg Anatolievich; Graczykowski, Lukasz Kamil; Graham, Katie Leanne; Grelli, Alessandro; Grigoras, Alina Gabriela; Grigoras, Costin; Grigoryev, Vladislav; Grigoryan, Ara; Grigoryan, Smbat; Grynyov, Borys; Grion, Nevio; Gronefeld, Julius Maximilian; Grosse-Oetringhaus, Jan Fiete; Grosso, Raffaele; Guber, Fedor; Guernane, Rachid; Guerzoni, Barbara; Gulbrandsen, Kristjan Herlache; Gunji, Taku; Gupta, Anik; Gupta, Ramni; Haake, Rudiger; Haaland, Oystein Senneset; Hadjidakis, Cynthia Marie; Haiduc, Maria; Hamagaki, Hideki; Hamar, Gergoe; Hamon, Julien Charles; Harris, John William; Harton, Austin Vincent; Hatzifotiadou, Despina; Hayashi, Shinichi; Heckel, Stefan Thomas; Hellbar, Ernst; Helstrup, Haavard; Herghelegiu, Andrei Ionut; Herrera Corral, Gerardo Antonio; Hess, Benjamin Andreas; Hetland, Kristin Fanebust; Hillemanns, Hartmut; Hippolyte, Boris; Horak, David; Hosokawa, Ritsuya; Hristov, Peter Zahariev; Humanic, Thomas; Hussain, Nur; Hussain, Tahir; Hutter, Dirk; Hwang, Dae Sung; Ilkaev, Radiy; Inaba, Motoi; Incani, Elisa; Ippolitov, Mikhail; Irfan, Muhammad; Ivanov, Marian; Ivanov, Vladimir; Izucheev, Vladimir; Jacazio, Nicolo; Jacobs, Peter Martin; Jadhav, Manoj Bhanudas; Jadlovska, Slavka; Jadlovsky, Jan; Jahnke, Cristiane; Jakubowska, Monika Joanna; Jang, Haeng Jin; Janik, Malgorzata Anna; Pahula Hewage, Sandun; Jena, Chitrasen; Jena, Satyajit; Jimenez Bustamante, Raul Tonatiuh; Jones, Peter Graham; Jusko, Anton; Kalinak, Peter; Kalweit, Alexander Philipp; Kamin, Jason Adrian; Kang, Ju Hwan; Kaplin, Vladimir; Kar, Somnath; Karasu Uysal, Ayben; Karavichev, Oleg; Karavicheva, Tatiana; Karayan, Lilit; Karpechev, Evgeny; Kebschull, Udo Wolfgang; Keidel, Ralf; Keijdener, Darius Laurens; Keil, Markus; Khan, Mohammed Mohisin; Khan, Palash; Khan, Shuaib Ahmad; Khanzadeev, Alexei; Kharlov, Yury; Kileng, Bjarte; Kim, Do Won; Kim, Dong Jo; Kim, Daehyeok; Kim, Hyeonjoong; Kim, Jinsook; Kim, Minwoo; Kim, Se Yong; Kim, Taesoo; Kirsch, Stefan; Kisel, Ivan; Kiselev, Sergey; Kisiel, Adam Ryszard; Kiss, Gabor; Klay, Jennifer Lynn; Klein, Carsten; Klein, Jochen; Klein-Boesing, Christian; Klewin, Sebastian; Kluge, Alexander; Knichel, Michael Linus; Knospe, Anders Garritt; Kobdaj, Chinorat; Kofarago, Monika; Kollegger, Thorsten; Kolozhvari, Anatoly; Kondratev, Valerii; Kondratyeva, Natalia; Kondratyuk, Evgeny; Konevskikh, Artem; Kopcik, Michal; Kostarakis, Panagiotis; Kour, Mandeep; Kouzinopoulos, Charalampos; Kovalenko, Oleksandr; Kovalenko, Vladimir; Kowalski, Marek; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, Greeshma; Kralik, Ivan; Kravcakova, Adela; Krivda, Marian; Krizek, Filip; Kryshen, Evgeny; Krzewicki, Mikolaj; Kubera, Andrew Michael; Kucera, Vit; Kuhn, Christian Claude; Kuijer, Paulus Gerardus; Kumar, Ajay; Kumar, Jitendra; Kumar, Lokesh; Kumar, Shyam; Kurashvili, Podist; Kurepin, Alexander; Kurepin, Alexey; Kuryakin, Alexey; Kweon, Min Jung; Kwon, Youngil; La Pointe, Sarah Louise; La Rocca, Paola; Ladron De Guevara, Pedro; Lagana Fernandes, Caio; Lakomov, Igor; Langoy, Rune; Lara Martinez, Camilo Ernesto; Lardeux, Antoine Xavier; Lattuca, Alessandra; Laudi, Elisa; Lea, Ramona; Leardini, Lucia; Lee, Graham Richard; Lee, Seongjoo; Lehas, Fatiha; Lemmon, Roy Crawford; Lenti, Vito; Leogrande, Emilia; Leon Monzon, Ildefonso; Leon Vargas, Hermes; Leoncino, Marco; Levai, Peter; Li, Shuang; Li, Xiaomei; Lien, Jorgen Andre; Lietava, Roman; Lindal, Svein; Lindenstruth, Volker; Lippmann, Christian; Lisa, Michael Annan; Ljunggren, Hans Martin; Lodato, Davide Francesco; Lonne, Per-Ivar; Loginov, Vitaly; Loizides, Constantinos; Lopez, Xavier Bernard; Lopez Torres, Ernesto; Lowe, Andrew John; Luettig, Philipp Johannes; Lunardon, Marcello; Luparello, Grazia; Lutz, Tyler Harrison; Maevskaya, Alla; 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Nomokonov, Petr; Nooren, Gerardus; Cabanillas Noris, Juan Carlos; Norman, Jaime; Nyanin, Alexander; Nystrand, Joakim Ingemar; Oeschler, Helmut Oskar; Oh, Saehanseul; Oh, Sun Kun; Ohlson, Alice Elisabeth; Okatan, Ali; Okubo, Tsubasa; Olah, Laszlo; Oleniacz, Janusz; Oliveira Da Silva, Antonio Carlos; Oliver, Michael Henry; Onderwaater, Jacobus; Oppedisano, Chiara; Orava, Risto; Oravec, Matej; Ortiz Velasquez, Antonio; Oskarsson, Anders Nils Erik; Otwinowski, Jacek Tomasz; Oyama, Ken; Ozdemir, Mahmut; Pachmayer, Yvonne Chiara; Pagano, Davide; Pagano, Paola; Paic, Guy; Pal, Susanta Kumar; Pan, Jinjin; Pandey, Ashutosh Kumar; Papikyan, Vardanush; Pappalardo, Giuseppe; Pareek, Pooja; Park, Woojin; Parmar, Sonia; Passfeld, Annika; Paticchio, Vincenzo; Patra, Rajendra Nath; Paul, Biswarup; Pei, Hua; Peitzmann, Thomas; Pereira Da Costa, Hugo Denis Antonio; Peresunko, Dmitry Yurevich; Perez Lara, Carlos Eugenio; Perez Lezama, Edgar; Peskov, Vladimir; Pestov, Yury; Petracek, Vojtech; Petrov, Viacheslav; Petrovici, Mihai; Petta, Catia; Piano, Stefano; Pikna, Miroslav; Pillot, Philippe; Ozelin De Lima Pimentel, Lais; Pinazza, Ombretta; Pinsky, Lawrence; Piyarathna, Danthasinghe; Ploskon, Mateusz Andrzej; Planinic, Mirko; Pluta, Jan Marian; Pochybova, Sona; Podesta Lerma, Pedro Luis Manuel; Poghosyan, Martin; Polishchuk, Boris; Poljak, Nikola; Poonsawat, Wanchaloem; Pop, Amalia; Porteboeuf, Sarah Julie; Porter, R Jefferson; Pospisil, Jan; Prasad, Sidharth Kumar; Preghenella, Roberto; Prino, Francesco; Pruneau, Claude Andre; Pshenichnov, Igor; Puccio, Maximiliano; Puddu, Giovanna; Pujahari, Prabhat Ranjan; Punin, Valery; Putschke, Jorn Henning; Qvigstad, Henrik; Rachevski, Alexandre; Raha, Sibaji; Rajput, Sonia; Rak, Jan; Rakotozafindrabe, Andry Malala; Ramello, Luciano; Rami, Fouad; Raniwala, Rashmi; Raniwala, Sudhir; Rasanen, Sami Sakari; Rascanu, Bogdan Theodor; Rathee, Deepika; Read, Kenneth Francis; Redlich, Krzysztof; Reed, Rosi Jan; Rehman, Attiq Ur; Reichelt, Patrick Simon; Reidt, Felix; Ren, Xiaowen; Renfordt, Rainer Arno Ernst; Reolon, Anna Rita; Reshetin, Andrey; Reygers, Klaus Johannes; Riabov, Viktor; Ricci, Renato Angelo; Richert, Tuva Ora Herenui; Richter, Matthias Rudolph; Riedler, Petra; Riegler, Werner; Riggi, Francesco; Ristea, Catalin-Lucian; Rocco, Elena; Rodriguez Cahuantzi, Mario; Rodriguez Manso, Alis; Roeed, Ketil; Rogochaya, Elena; Rohr, David Michael; Roehrich, Dieter; Ronchetti, Federico; Ronflette, Lucile; Rosnet, Philippe; Rossi, Andrea; Roukoutakis, Filimon; Roy, Ankhi; Roy, Christelle Sophie; Roy, Pradip Kumar; Rubio Montero, Antonio Juan; Rui, Rinaldo; Russo, Riccardo; Ryabinkin, Evgeny; Ryabov, Yury; Rybicki, Andrzej; Saarinen, Sampo; Sadhu, Samrangy; Sadovskiy, Sergey; Safarik, Karel; Sahlmuller, Baldo; Sahoo, Pragati; Sahoo, Raghunath; Sahoo, Sarita; Sahu, Pradip Kumar; Saini, Jogender; Sakai, Shingo; Saleh, Mohammad Ahmad; Salzwedel, Jai Samuel Nielsen; Sambyal, Sanjeev Singh; Samsonov, Vladimir; Sandor, Ladislav; Sandoval, Andres; Sano, Masato; Sarkar, Debojit; Sarkar, Nachiketa; Sarma, Pranjal; Scapparone, Eugenio; Scarlassara, Fernando; Schiaua, Claudiu Cornel; Schicker, Rainer Martin; Schmidt, Christian Joachim; Schmidt, Hans Rudolf; Schuchmann, Simone; Schukraft, Jurgen; Schulc, Martin; Schutz, Yves Roland; Schwarz, Kilian Eberhard; Schweda, Kai Oliver; Scioli, Gilda; Scomparin, Enrico; Scott, Rebecca Michelle; Sefcik, Michal; Seger, Janet Elizabeth; Sekiguchi, Yuko; Sekihata, Daiki; Selyuzhenkov, Ilya; Senosi, Kgotlaesele; Senyukov, Serhiy; Serradilla Rodriguez, Eulogio; Sevcenco, Adrian; Shabanov, Arseniy; Shabetai, Alexandre; Shadura, Oksana; Shahoyan, Ruben; Shahzad, Muhammed Ikram; Shangaraev, Artem; Sharma, Ankita; Sharma, Mona; Sharma, Monika; Sharma, Natasha; Sheikh, Ashik Ikbal; Shigaki, Kenta; Shou, Qiye; Shtejer Diaz, Katherin; Sibiryak, Yury; Siddhanta, Sabyasachi; Sielewicz, Krzysztof Marek; Siemiarczuk, Teodor; Silvermyr, David Olle Rickard; Silvestre, Catherine Micaela; Simatovic, Goran; Simonetti, Giuseppe; 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Zaporozhets, Sergey; Zardoshti, Nima; Zarochentsev, Andrey; Zavada, Petr; Zavyalov, Nikolay; Zbroszczyk, Hanna Paulina; Zgura, Sorin Ion; Zhalov, Mikhail; Zhang, Haitao; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhang, Yonghong; Chunhui, Zhang; Zhang, Zuman; Zhao, Chengxin; Zhigareva, Natalia; Zhou, Daicui; Zhou, You; Zhou, Zhuo; Zhu, Hongsheng; Zhu, Jianhui; Zichichi, Antonino; Zimmermann, Alice; Zimmermann, Markus Bernhard; Zinovjev, Gennady; Zyzak, Maksym

    2016-05-25

    We present a Bayesian approach to particle identification (PID) within the ALICE experiment. The aim is to more effectively combine the particle identification capabilities of its various detectors. After a brief explanation of the adopted methodology and formalism, the performance of the Bayesian PID approach for charged pions, kaons and protons in the central barrel of ALICE is studied. PID is performed via measurements of specific energy loss (dE/dx) and time-of-flight. PID efficiencies and misidentification probabilities are extracted and compared with Monte Carlo simulations using high purity samples of identified particles in the decay channels ${\\rm K}_{\\rm S}^{\\rm 0}\\rightarrow \\pi^+\\pi^-$, $\\phi\\rightarrow {\\rm K}^-{\\rm K}^+$ and $\\Lambda\\rightarrow{\\rm p}\\pi^-$ in p–Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\rm NN}}= 5.02$TeV. In order to thoroughly assess the validity of the Bayesian approach, this methodology was used to obtain corrected $p_{\\rm T}$ spectra of pions, kaons, protons, and D$^0$ mesons in pp coll...

  12. Fuel number identification method and device therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, Takami; Seno, Makoto; Tanaka, Keiji

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a method of and a device for automatically identifying the number on the upper surface of a fuel of a fuel assembly in a PWR type reactor. Namely, the number on the upper surface of the fuel assembly of the PWR is not arranged in a row, but indent letters are dispersed to predetermined positions of the surface to be indented. Accordingly, the identification of letters is difficult. In the present invention, the letters are identified by the following procedures. Procedure (1): the letters are detected while having a corner portion of the upper surface of a fuel assembly where the number is indented as characteristic points. A procedure (2): a letter region is determined to a relative position based on the characteristic points while determining indent letters having the same direction as one group. A procedure (3): a letter identification treatment is applied to the letter images in the above-mentioned letter region to identify them. A neural network is used for the letter identification treatment. (N.H.)

  13. A Very High Momentum Particle Identification Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Acconcia, T.V.; Barile, F.; Barnaföldi, G.G.; Bellwied, R.; Bencedi, G.; Bencze, G.; Berenyi, D.; Boldizsar, L.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Cindolo, F.; Chinellato, D.D.; D'Ambrosio, S.; Das, D.; Das, K.; Das-Bose, L.; Dash, A.K.; De Cataldo, G.; De Pasquale, S.; Di Bari, D.; Di Mauro, A.; Futo, E.; Garcia, E.; Hamar, G.; Harton, A.; Iannone, G.; Jimenez, R.T.; Kim, D.W.; Kim, J.S.; Knospe, A.; Kovacs, L.; Levai, P.; Nappi, E.; Markert, C.; Martinengo, P.; Mayani, D.; Molnar, L.; Olah, L.; Paic, G.; Pastore, C.; Patimo, G.; Patino, M.E.; Peskov, V.; Pinsky, L.; Piuz, F.; Pochybova, S.; Sgura, I.; Sinha, T.; Song, J.; Takahashi, J.; Timmins, A.; Van Beelen, J.B.; Varga, D.; Volpe, G.; Weber, M.; Xaplanteris, L.; Yi, J.; Yoo, I.K.

    2014-01-01

    The construction of a new detector is proposed to extend the capabilities of ALICE in the high transverse momentum (pT) region. This Very High Momentum Particle Identification Detector (VHMPID) performs charged hadron identification on a track-by-track basis in the 5 GeV/c < p < 25 GeV/c momentum range and provides ALICE with new opportunities to study parton-medium interactions at LHC energies. The VHMPID covers up to 30% of the ALICE central barrel and presents sufficient acceptance for triggered- and tagged-jet studies, allowing for the first time identified charged hadron measurements in jets. This Letter of Intent summarizes the physics motivations for such a detector as well as its layout and integration into ALICE.

  14. Stochastic motion of particles in tandem mirror devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Y.H.; Kamimura, T.

    1982-01-01

    Stochastic motion of particles in tandem mirror devices is examined on basis of a nonlinear mapping of particle positions on the equatorial plane. Local stability analysis provides detailed informations on particle trajectories. The rate of stochastic plasma diffusion is estimated from numerical observations of motions of particles over a large number of time steps. (author)

  15. A device for transferring, in particular, small particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    The invention relates to a transfer device, in particular for transferring small particles, comprising a helical channel made in the tube inner surface, a device for causing the tube to rotate about its longitudinal axis, a rotating joint adapted to close one of the tube extremities, a device for inserting a substance in the form of granules or of fluid particles into said tube through said joint, and a device for collecting and discharging said substance at the tube opposite end. This can applied to the transfer of small spherical particles e.g. of fuel [fr

  16. Particles identification using nuclear emulsion in OPERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manai, K.

    2007-10-01

    The Opera experiment will try to confirm the ν μ → ν τ oscillations by the appearance of the ν τ in a pure ν μ beam. Indeed, a neutrino beam almost pure is produced at CERN (CNGS Beam) and sent to the Opera detector. The detector is composed of two muons spectrometers and a target formed by walls of bricks. Each brick is an alternation of lead plates and emulsions. This modular structure allows to reconstruct the kink topology of the τ lepton decay with a high spatial resolution. The great challenge of the Opera experiment is to detect the ν τ interactions with the less uncertainty. To reduce this uncertainty it is essential to identify with the greatest efficiency any background event not including a tau particle. My work permits to reduce background. My principal contribution concerns the selection development, the reconstruction and the muons identification at low energy. This work is based on the setting of variables related to the deposit energy and the multiple scattering. Previously, only deposit energy was used in the analyses of pion/muon separation. This study allows doubling the muon identification efficiency at low energy. This leads to increase the background events rejection in Opera and to decrease the contamination by 30%. I also studied the nuclear emulsions capacity to identify charged particles through the analysis of a test beam carried out by the Nagoya group. This test contains protons and pions with different energies. My work proves that the European scan system gives comparable results with those obtained by the Japanese scan system. (author)

  17. A Bayesian statistical method for particle identification in shower counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takashimizu, N.; Kimura, A.; Shibata, A.; Sasaki, T.

    2004-01-01

    We report an attempt on identifying particles using a Bayesian statistical method. We have developed the mathematical model and software for this purpose. We tried to identify electrons and charged pions in shower counters using this method. We designed an ideal shower counter and studied the efficiency of identification using Monte Carlo simulation based on Geant4. Without having any other information, e.g. charges of particles which are given by tracking detectors, we have achieved 95% identifications of both particles

  18. Performance of PC-based charged particle multi-channel spectrometer utilising particle identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palla, G.; Sziklai, J.; Trajber, Cs.

    1993-12-01

    A collaterally expandable charged particle spectrometer based on PC control and particle identification is described. A typical system configuration consisting of two channels are used to test the system performance. (author) 7 refs.; 5 figs

  19. Radiological dispersal device outdoor simulation test: Cesium chloride particle characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Don, E-mail: lee.sangdon@epa.gov [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Snyder, Emily G.; Willis, Robert [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Fischer, Robert; Gates-Anderson, Dianne; Sutton, Mark [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Viani, Brian [Simbol Mining Corp., Pleasanton, CA 94566 (United States); Drake, John [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH 45268 (United States); MacKinney, John [U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC 20528 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    Particles were generated from the detonation of simulated radiological dispersal devices (RDDs) using non-radioactive CsCl powder and explosive C4. The physical and chemical properties of the resulting particles were characterized. Two RDD simulation tests were conducted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory: one of the simulated RDDs was positioned 1 m above a steel plate and the other was partially buried in soil. Particles were collected with filters at a distance of 150 m from the origin of the RDD device, and particle mass concentrations were monitored to identify the particle plume intensity using real time particle samplers. Particles collected on filters were analyzed via computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (CCSEM/EDX) to determine their size distribution, morphology, and chemical constituents. This analysis showed that particles generated by the detonation of explosives can be associated with other materials (e.g., soil) that are in close proximity to the RDD device and that the morphology and chemical makeup of the particles change depending on the interactions of the RDD device with the surrounding materials.

  20. Radiological dispersal device outdoor simulation test: Cesium chloride particle characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Don; Snyder, Emily G.; Willis, Robert; Fischer, Robert; Gates-Anderson, Dianne; Sutton, Mark; Viani, Brian; Drake, John; MacKinney, John

    2010-01-01

    Particles were generated from the detonation of simulated radiological dispersal devices (RDDs) using non-radioactive CsCl powder and explosive C4. The physical and chemical properties of the resulting particles were characterized. Two RDD simulation tests were conducted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory: one of the simulated RDDs was positioned 1 m above a steel plate and the other was partially buried in soil. Particles were collected with filters at a distance of 150 m from the origin of the RDD device, and particle mass concentrations were monitored to identify the particle plume intensity using real time particle samplers. Particles collected on filters were analyzed via computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (CCSEM/EDX) to determine their size distribution, morphology, and chemical constituents. This analysis showed that particles generated by the detonation of explosives can be associated with other materials (e.g., soil) that are in close proximity to the RDD device and that the morphology and chemical makeup of the particles change depending on the interactions of the RDD device with the surrounding materials.

  1. Particle identification for a future EIC detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilieva, Y.; Allison, L.; Barber, C.; Cao, T.; Del Dotto, A.; Gleason, C.; He, X.; Kalicy, G.; McKisson, J.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Park, K.; Rapoport, J.; Schwarz, C.; Schwiening, J.; Wong, C. P.; Zhao, Zh.; Zorn, C.

    2018-03-01

    In its latest Long Range Plan for Nuclear Science Research in the U.S., the Nuclear Science Advisory Committee to the Department of Energy recommended that in regards to new nuclear-physics facilities, the construction of an Electron Ion Collider (EIC) be of the highest priority after the completion of the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams. In order to carry out key aspects of the scientific program of the EIC, the EIC central detector must be capable of hadron particle identification (PID) over a broad momentum range of up to 50 GeV/c. The goal of the EIC-PID consortium is to develop an integrated program for PID at EIC, which employs several different technologies for imaging Cherenkov detectors. Here we discuss the conceptual designs and the expected PID performance of two of these detectors, as well as the newest results of gain evaluation studies of photon sensors that are good candidates to read out these detectors. Development of a gas-aerogel dual-radiator Ring Imaging Cherenkov (dRICH) detector with outward focusing mirrors is being pursued for the hadron endcap. Simulations demonstrate that the dRICH can provide a continuous >= 3σ π /K/p separation from 2.5 GeV/c to 50 GeV/c. A modular aerogel Ring Imaging Cherenkov (mRICH) detector with a Fresnel lens as a focusing element is being pursued for the electron endcap. The design provides for hadron identification over a momentum range of 3 GeV/c-10 GeV/c. The working principle of the mRICH design has been proven in a beam test with a first prototype. The location of the sensor readout planes of the Cherenkov detectors in the magnetic field of the central-detector solenoid, which is expected to be within 1.5 T-3 T, makes is necessary to evaluate the limit of the acceptable performance of commercially available photosensors, such as microchannel-plate photomultipliers (MCP PMTs). Here we present the results of gain evaluation of multi-anode MCP PMTs with a pore size of 10 μm. Overall, our preliminary results

  2. Device for sampling HTGR recycle fuel particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suchomel, R.R.; Lackey, W.J.

    1977-03-01

    Devices for sampling High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor fuel microspheres were evaluated. Analysis of samples obtained with each of two specially designed passive samplers were compared with data generated by more common techniques. A ten-stage two-way sampler was found to produce a representative sample with a constant batch-to-sample ratio

  3. Sampling and identification of gaseous and particle bounded air pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kettrup, A.

    1993-01-01

    Air pollutants are gaseous, components of aerosols or particle bounded. Sampling, sample preparation, identification and quantification of compounds depend from kind and chemical composition of the air pollutants. Quality assurance of analytical data must be guaranted. (orig.) [de

  4. Particle Identification in Cherenkov Detectors using Convolutional Neural Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Theodore, Tomalty

    2016-01-01

    Cherenkov detectors are used for charged particle identification. When a charged particle moves through a medium faster than light can propagate in that medium, Cherenkov radiation is released in the shape of a cone in the direction of movement. The interior of the Cherenkov detector is instrumented with PMTs to detect this Cherenkov light. Particles, then, can be identified by the shapes of the images on the detector walls.

  5. 77 FR 40735 - Unique Device Identification System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-10

    ... lessons learned from these pilot activities. FDA also solicited input through public meetings; a public... used to identify devices, and no assurance that different companies are using a given term in the same... weaknesses or problems in our implementation of the UDI system and to make appropriate mid-course corrections...

  6. Engineering and evaluating drug delivery particles in microfluidic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björnmalm, Mattias; Yan, Yan; Caruso, Frank

    2014-09-28

    The development of new and improved particle-based drug delivery is underpinned by an enhanced ability to engineer particles with high fidelity and integrity, as well as increased knowledge of their biological performance. Microfluidics can facilitate these processes through the engineering of spatiotemporally highly controlled environments using designed microstructures in combination with physical phenomena present at the microscale. In this review, we discuss microfluidics in the context of addressing key challenges in particle-based drug delivery. We provide an overview of how microfluidic devices can: (i) be employed to engineer particles, by providing highly controlled interfaces, and (ii) be used to establish dynamic in vitro models that mimic in vivo environments for studying the biological behavior of engineered particles. Finally, we discuss how the flexible and modular nature of microfluidic devices provides opportunities to create increasingly realistic models of the in vivo milieu (including multi-cell, multi-tissue and even multi-organ devices), and how ongoing developments toward commercialization of microfluidic tools are opening up new opportunities for the engineering and evaluation of drug delivery particles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Particle and impurity control in toroidal fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wootton, A.J.

    1986-01-01

    A review of working particle and impurity control techniques used in and proposed for magnetic fusion devices is presented. The requirements of both present-day machines and envisaged fusion reactors are considered. The various techniques which have been proposed are characterized by whether they affect sources, sinks, or fluxes; in many cases a particular method or device can appear in more than one category. Examples are drawn from published results. The solutions proposed for the large devices which will be operating during the next 5 years are discussed

  8. TOF for heavy stable particle identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, C.Y.

    1983-01-01

    Searching for heavy stable particle production in a new energy region of hadron-hadron collisions is of fundamental theoretical interest. Observation of such particles produced in high energy collisions would indicate the existence of stable heavy leptons or any massive hadronic system carrying new quantum numbers. Experimentally, evidence of its production has not been found for PP collisions either at FNAL or at the CERN ISR for √S = 23 and 62 GeV respectively. However, many theories beyond the standard model do predict its existence on a mass scale ranging from 50 to a few hundred GeV. If so, it would make a high luminosity TeV collider an extremely ideal hunting ground for searching the production of such a speculated object. To measure the mass of a heavy stable charged particle, one usually uses its time of flight (TOF) and/or dE/dX information. For heavy neutral particle, one hopes it may decay at some later time after its production. Hence a pair of jets or a jet associated with a high P/sub t/ muon originated from some places other than the interacting point (IP) of the colliding beams may be a good signal. In this note, we examine the feasibility of TOF measurement on a heavy stable particle produced in PP collisions at √S = 1 TeV and a luminosity of 10 33 cm -2 sec -1 with a single arm spectrometer pointing to the IP

  9. Vibration-type particle separation device with piezoceramic vibrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooe, Katsutoshi; Doi, Akihiro

    2008-12-01

    During hemanalysis, it is necessary to separate blood cells from whole blood. Many blood separation methods, for example, centrifugation and filtering, are in practical use. However, the use of these methods involves problems from the perspectives of processing speed and processing volume. We develop new types of blood separation devices that use piezo-ceramic vibrators. The first device uses a capillary. One end of the capillary is fixed to the device frame, and the other is fixed to a piezo-ceramic vibrator. The vibrator transmits bending waves to the capillary. This device can process only a small amount of solution; therefore, it is not suitable for hemanalysis. In order to solve this problem, we developed a second device; this device has a pair of thin glass plates with a small gap as a substitute for the capillary used in the first device. These devices are based on the fact that particles heavier than water move toward transverse velocity antinodes while those lighter than water move toward velocity nodes. In this report, we demonstrate the highspeed separation of silica microbeads and 50-vol% glycerol water by using these devices. The first device can separate the abovementioned solution within 3 min while the second can separate it within 1 min. Both devices are driven by a rectangular wave of 15 to 20 Vpp. Furthermore, it has been confirmed that red blood cells are separated from diluted whole blood using the first device within approximately 1 min. These devices have transparency, so they can compose as the analysis system with the chemical analyzer easily.

  10. Morphology of bone particles after harvesting with 4 different devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, Dimitrios E V; Schmidt, Erich C; Caton, Jack G; Romanos, Georgios E

    2013-04-01

    Autogenous bone is routinely used for regeneration of osseous defects around teeth and implants, and different instruments are available for bone harvesting. The purpose of this study was to describe the morphology of bone particles after harvesting with 4 different instruments. Bone particles were harvested from fresh cow ribs with 2 different types of back action chisels, a safescraper and a sonic device. The samples were examined morphologically using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The bone particles after the back action chisel I had an appearance similar to "pencil shavings." With the back action chisel II, they were like thin paper with an "accordion bellows" appearance. After removal with the safescraper, they had an irregular shape (with an irregular surface) resembling "crushed stone." Finally, the appearance of the bone particles obtained with the sonic device was homogenous, condensed and continuous, and had a "seaweed" appearance. Harvesting of bone particles with 4 different devices produce distinctly difference sizes and shapes, which may influence the results of grafting procedures.

  11. Particle identification system based on dense aerogel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnyakov, A.Yu. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 11, akademika Lavrentieva prospect, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Barnyakov, M.Yu. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 11, akademika Lavrentieva prospect, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State Technical University, 20, Karl Marx prospect, Novosibirsk, 630092 (Russian Federation); Beloborodov, K.I., E-mail: K.I.Beloborodov@inp.nsk.su [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 11, akademika Lavrentieva prospect, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, 2, Pirogova Street, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Bobrovnikov, V.S.; Buzykaev, A.R. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 11, akademika Lavrentieva prospect, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Danilyuk, A.F. [Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, 5, akademika Lavrentieva prospect, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Golubev, V.B. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 11, akademika Lavrentieva prospect, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, 2, Pirogova Street, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Gulevich, V.V. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 11, akademika Lavrentieva prospect, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Kononov, S.A.; Kravchenko, E.A. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 11, akademika Lavrentieva prospect, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, 2, Pirogova Street, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Onuchin, A.P.; Martin, K.A. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 11, akademika Lavrentieva prospect, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State Technical University, 20, Karl Marx prospect, Novosibirsk, 630092 (Russian Federation); Serednyakov, S.I. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 11, akademika Lavrentieva prospect, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, 2, Pirogova Street, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); and others

    2013-12-21

    A threshold Cherenkov counter based on dense aerogel with refraction index n=1.13 is described. This counter is used for kaon identification at momenta below 1 GeV/c in the SND detector, which takes data at the VEPP-2000 e{sup +}e{sup −} collider. The results of measurements of the counter efficiency using electrons, muons, pions, and kaons produced in e{sup +}e{sup −} annihilation are presented.

  12. Particle identification in ALICE: a Bayesian approach

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adam, J.; Adamová, Dagmar; Benáček, Pavel; Bielčík, J.; Bielčíková, Jana; Brož, M.; Čepila, J.; Contreras, J. G.; Eyyubova, G.; Ferencei, Jozef; Horák, D.; Křížek, Filip; Kučera, Vít; Mareš, Jiří A.; Petráček, V.; Pospíšil, Jan; Schulc, M.; Špaček, M.; Šumbera, Michal; Vaňát, Tomáš; Závada, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 131, č. 5 (2016), s. 168 ISSN 2190-5444 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG13031 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61389005 Keywords : ALICE collaboration * heavy ion collisions Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders; BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics (FZU-D) Impact factor: 1.753, year: 2016

  13. Authentication of Radio Frequency Identification Devices Using Electronic Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnappa Gounder Periaswamy, Senthilkumar

    2010-01-01

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) tags are low-cost devices that are used to uniquely identify the objects to which they are attached. Due to the low cost and size that is driving the technology, a tag has limited computational capabilities and resources. This limitation makes the implementation of conventional security protocols to prevent…

  14. Novel strategies at Lhcb for particle identification

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrari, Fabio

    2017-01-01

    The LHCb experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is performing high precision measurements in the avour sector. An excellent performance of the particle identication (PID) detectors as well as the development of new data taking techniques are of fundamental importance in order to cope with increasingly harder challenges posed by the LHC Run 2. The approach of data-driven calibration of particle identication performance at LHCb has changed significantly from Run 1 to Run 2 and calibration samples are now selected directly in the LHCb high-level trigger. This change of data-taking paradigm enables larger calibration samples with respect to Run 1 to be collected, giving access to low-level detector informations useful for studies of systematic effects, while retaining the same (or improving) the PID performances observed Run 1.

  15. WIND EROSION INTENSITY DETERMINATION USING SOIL PARTICLE CATCHER DEVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Lackóová

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available To analyze wind erosion events in the real terrain conditions, we proposed to construct a prototype of soil particle catcher devices to trap soil particles. With these devices we are able to measure the intensity of wind erosion at six different heights above the soil surface in one location or at three different heights in two places. It is possible to use them for six different places at the same time as well. We performed field measurements to determine the amount of soil particles transported by the wind between 26th – 31st March 2012. Each measuring took 60 minutes. After this time the soil particle catchers were emptied and further measurements carried out. At the beginning we selected two places for measurement (soil HPJ 16 and 37 at two heights, one above the other. Then we used two measuring systems 40 m apart at two sites (D2 and D4 and the soil captured at two heights (0, 1. The maximum weight of soil particles trapped in measuring system D2 at height (0 was 1242.7 g at a wind speed of 9.6 ms-1. At measurement height (1 the maximum weight was 72.7 g trapped at the same average hourly rate, but during different measurement events. The measuring system at D4 trapped the highest amount of soil at a wind speed of 8.9 ms-1 (1141.7 g at height (0 and at a speed of 9.3 ms-1 (22.3 g at height (1. During the measurements with the two basic measuring systems D4 and D2, we measured the wind erosion intensity together with soil particle catchers D1 and D3. D3 was placed between devices D4 and D2, D1 was 20 m ahead D2. Soil particle catchers were placed on the soil surface at height position (0. We measured increasing soil erosion downwind on four locations spaced at 20 m. The results show that with there is an increasing quantity of particles collected as the erosive surface length increases, due to the so-called snowball effect. We analyzed selected trapped soil samples in order to determine the size of the soil particles and their proportion

  16. Communications device identification methods, communications methods, wireless communications readers, wireless communications systems, and articles of manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Kerry D [Kennewick, WA; Anderson, Gordon A [Benton City, WA; Gilbert, Ronald W [Morgan Hill, CA

    2011-02-01

    Communications device identification methods, communications methods, wireless communications readers, wireless communications systems, and articles of manufacture are described. In one aspect, a communications device identification method includes providing identification information regarding a group of wireless identification devices within a wireless communications range of a reader, using the provided identification information, selecting one of a plurality of different search procedures for identifying unidentified ones of the wireless identification devices within the wireless communications range, and identifying at least some of the unidentified ones of the wireless identification devices using the selected one of the search procedures.

  17. Particle identification via transition radiation and detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorytchev, V.; Saveliev, V.; Aplin, S.J.

    2000-01-01

    Transition radiation detectors show great promise for the purposes of lepton identification in existing and future experiments in high-energy physics such as HERA-B, ATLAS, ALICE in high-luminosity environment. More high performance can be expected in low-luminosity conditions - neutrino experiments (NOMAD), and ideal condition for the use of transition radiation detectors in flying and space high-energy experiments (AMS). This paper discusses the practical theory of transition radiation, basic equation and algorithm suitable for detailed analysis of transition radiation and optimization of transition radiation detectors in the area of experimental high-energy physics. The results are based on detailed Monte Carlo simulation of transition radiation introduced in GEANT and experimental results

  18. Particle identification via transition radiation and detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Egorytchev, V; Aplin, S J

    2000-01-01

    Transition radiation detectors show great promise for the purposes of lepton identification in existing and future experiments in high- energy physics such as HERA-B, ATLAS, ALICE in high-luminosity environment. More high performance can be expected in low-luminosity conditions-neutrino experiments (NOMAD), and the ideal condition for the use of transition radiation detectors in flying and space high- energy experiments (AMS). This paper discusses the practical theory of transition radiation, basic equation and algorithm suitable for detailed analysis of transition radiation and optimization of transition radiation detectors in the area of experimental high- energy physics. The results are based on detailed Monte Carlo simulation of transition radiation introduced in GEANT and experimental results. (12 refs).

  19. Evaluation of charge coupled devices as alpha particle detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pace, R.; Haskard, M.; Watts, S.; Holmes-Siedle, A.; Solanky, M.

    1996-01-01

    The ability of the Charge Coupled Device (CCD) to provide spectroscopic and flux information for highly ionising radiation has been investigated. CCDs and related imaging chips are becoming increasingly affordable. In addition advances in technology are producing smaller and better devices. Since imaging chips are based on some variation of the pn-diode structure it is expected and known that they are sensitive to ionising radiation as well as light. Indeed specially designed CCDs are able to be used to image X-rays. This paper reports on the response of CCDs to alpha particles. (author)

  20. MODAL TRACKING of A Structural Device: A Subspace Identification Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Candy, J. V. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Franco, S. N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ruggiero, E. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Emmons, M. C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Lopez, I. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Stoops, L. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-03-20

    Mechanical devices operating in an environment contaminated by noise, uncertainties, and extraneous disturbances lead to low signal-to-noise-ratios creating an extremely challenging processing problem. To detect/classify a device subsystem from noisy data, it is necessary to identify unique signatures or particular features. An obvious feature would be resonant (modal) frequencies emitted during its normal operation. In this report, we discuss a model-based approach to incorporate these physical features into a dynamic structure that can be used for such an identification. The approach we take after pre-processing the raw vibration data and removing any extraneous disturbances is to obtain a representation of the structurally unknown device along with its subsystems that capture these salient features. One approach is to recognize that unique modal frequencies (sinusoidal lines) appear in the estimated power spectrum that are solely characteristic of the device under investigation. Therefore, the objective of this effort is based on constructing a black box model of the device that captures these physical features that can be exploited to “diagnose” whether or not the particular device subsystem (track/detect/classify) is operating normally from noisy vibrational data. Here we discuss the application of a modern system identification approach based on stochastic subspace realization techniques capable of both (1) identifying the underlying black-box structure thereby enabling the extraction of structural modes that can be used for analysis and modal tracking as well as (2) indicators of condition and possible changes from normal operation.

  1. Boosted jet identification using particle candidates and deep neural networks

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    This note presents developments for the identification of hadronically decaying top quarks using deep neural networks in CMS. A new method that utilizes one dimensional convolutional neural networks based on jet constituent particles is proposed. Alternative methods using boosted decision trees based on jet observables are compared. The new method shows significant improvement in performance.

  2. Particle Identification Studies with an ALICE Test TPC

    CERN Document Server

    Christiansen, P

    2007-01-01

    Using a test TPC, consisting of the ALICE TPC field cage prototype in combination with the final ALICE TPC readout and electronics, the energy loss distribution and resolution were measured for identified protons. The measurements were compared to theoretical calculations and good quantitative agreement was found when detector effects were taken into account. The implications for particle identification are discussed.

  3. Particle identification using three angular distribution of transition radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deutschmann, M; Struczinski, W [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany, F.R.). Lehrstuhl fuer Experimentalphysik 3B und 3. Physikalisches Inst.; Fabjan, C W; Willis, W [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland); Gavrilenko, I; Maiburov, S; Shmeleva, A; Vasiliev, P [AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Fiziki; Tchernyatin, V; Dolgoshein, B [Moskovskij Inzhenerno-Fizicheskij Inst. (USSR)

    1981-04-01

    An electronic detector has been built which measures the angle of emission of transition radiation photons, as well as the energy deposit. A significant gain in the efficiency of particle identification is obtained for ..gamma.. approx. equal to 10/sup 3/.

  4. A portable air jet actuator device for mechanical system identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belden, Jesse; Staats, Wayne L.; Mazumdar, Anirban; Hunter, Ian W.

    2011-03-01

    System identification of limb mechanics can help diagnose ailments and can aid in the optimization of robotic limb control parameters and designs. An interesting fluid phenomenon—the Coandă effect—is utilized in a portable actuator to provide a stochastic binary force disturbance to a limb system. The design of the actuator is approached with the goal of creating a portable device which could be deployed on human or robotic limbs for in situ mechanical system identification. The viability of the device is demonstrated by identifying the parameters of an underdamped elastic beam system with fixed inertia and stiffness and variable damping. The nonparametric compliance impulse response yielded from the system identification is modeled as a second-order system and the resultant parameters are found to be in excellent agreement with those found using more traditional system identification techniques. The current design could be further miniaturized and developed as a portable, wireless, unrestrained mechanical system identification instrument for less intrusive and more widespread use.

  5. Particle collector scoops for improved exhaust in ''axisymmetric'' devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conn, R.W.; Wolf, G.H.

    1987-11-01

    Application of particle collector scoops in front of the pumping ducts of axisymmetric divertor/magnetic limiter configurations is proposed. These scoops should enclose a significant fraction of the recycling particles. The resulting increase in natural particle pressure in front of the pumping ducts leads to an improved exhaust efficiency. This can permit an extension of the operational margin for density control. Alternatively, aiming at a prescribed exhaust flow in reactor-type devices such as INTOR, the pumping ducts could be reduced in aperture, leaving valuable space for other components. The lay-out of the proposed scheme depends on the heat load on the leading edge in front of the scoop and on the deflector in front of the pumping ducts. 14 refs., 5 figs

  6. Biometric identification devices -- Laboratory testing vs. real life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahrens, J.S.

    1997-01-01

    For over fifteen years Sandia National Laboratories has been involved in laboratory testing of biometric identification devices. The key concept of biometric identification devices is the ability for the system to identify some unique aspect of the individual rather than some object a person may be carrying or some password they are required to know. Tests were conducted to verify manufacturer's performance claims, to determine strengths/weaknesses of devices, and to determine devices that meet the US Department of energy's needs. However, during recent field installation, significantly different performance was observed than was predicted by laboratory tests. Although most people using the device believed it operated adequately, the performance observed was over an order of magnitude worse than predicted. The search for reasons behind this gap between the predicted and the actual performance has revealed many possible contributing factors. As engineers, the most valuable lesson to be learned from this experience is the value of scientists and engineers with (1) common sense, (2) knowledge of human behavior, (3) the ability to observe the real world, and (4) the capability to realize the significant differences between controlled experiments and actual installations

  7. Acoustic Devices for Particle and Cell Manipulation and Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqiang Qiu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available An emerging demand for the precise manipulation of cells and particles for applications in cell biology and analytical chemistry has driven rapid development of ultrasonic manipulation technology. Compared to the other manipulation technologies, such as magnetic tweezing, dielectrophoresis and optical tweezing, ultrasonic manipulation has shown potential in a variety of applications, with its advantages of versatile, inexpensive and easy integration into microfluidic systems, maintenance of cell viability, and generation of sufficient forces to handle particles, cells and their agglomerates. This article briefly reviews current practice and reports our development of various ultrasonic standing wave manipulation devices, including simple devices integrated with high frequency (>20 MHz ultrasonic transducers for the investigation of biological cells and complex ultrasonic transducer array systems to explore the feasibility of electronically controlled 2-D and 3-D manipulation. Piezoelectric and passive materials, fabrication techniques, characterization methods and possible applications are discussed. The behavior and performance of the devices have been investigated and predicted with computer simulations, and verified experimentally. Issues met during development are highlighted and discussed. To assist long term practical adoption, approaches to low-cost, wafer level batch-production and commercialization potential are also addressed.

  8. Identification of Particles in Parenteral Drug Raw Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kathryn; Lankers, Markus; Valet, Oliver

    2018-04-18

    Particles in drug products are not good and are therefore regulated. These particles can come from the very beginning of the manufacturing process, from the raw materials. To prevent particles, it is important to understand what they are and where they come from so the raw material quality, processing, and shipping can be improved. Thus, it is important to correctly identify particles seen in raw materials. Raw materials need to be of a certain quality with respect to physical and chemical composition, and need to have no contaminants in the form of particles which could contaminate the product or indicate the raw materials are not pure enough to make a good quality product. Particles are often seen when handling raw materials due to color, size, or shape characteristics different from those in the raw materials. Particles may appear to the eye to be very different things than they actually are, so microscope, chemical, and elemental analyses are required for accuracy in proper identification. This paper shows how using three different spectroscopy tools correctly and together can be used to identify particles from extrinsic, intrinsic, and inherent particles. Sources of materials can be humans and the environment (extrinsic), from within the process (intrinsic), and part of the formulation (inherent). Microscope versions of Raman spectroscopy, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), and IR spectroscopy are excellent tools for identifying particles because they are fast and accurate techniques needing minimal sample preparation that can provide chemical composition as well as images that can be used for identification. The micro analysis capabilities allow for easy analysis of different portions of samples so multiple components can be identified and sample preparation can be reduced. Using just one of these techniques may not be sufficient to give adequate identification results so that the source of contamination can be adequately identified. The

  9. Particle identification algorithms for the PANDA Endcap Disc DIRC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, M.; Ali, A.; Belias, A.; Dzhygadlo, R.; Gerhardt, A.; Götzen, K.; Kalicy, G.; Krebs, M.; Lehmann, D.; Nerling, F.; Patsyuk, M.; Peters, K.; Schepers, G.; Schmitt, L.; Schwarz, C.; Schwiening, J.; Traxler, M.; Böhm, M.; Eyrich, W.; Lehmann, A.; Pfaffinger, M.; Uhlig, F.; Düren, M.; Etzelmüller, E.; Föhl, K.; Hayrapetyan, A.; Kreutzfeld, K.; Merle, O.; Rieke, J.; Wasem, T.; Achenbach, P.; Cardinali, M.; Hoek, M.; Lauth, W.; Schlimme, S.; Sfienti, C.; Thiel, M.

    2017-12-01

    The Endcap Disc DIRC has been developed to provide an excellent particle identification for the future PANDA experiment by separating pions and kaons up to a momentum of 4 GeV/c with a separation power of 3 standard deviations in the polar angle region from 5o to 22o. This goal will be achieved using dedicated particle identification algorithms based on likelihood methods and will be applied in an offline analysis and online event filtering. This paper evaluates the resulting PID performance using Monte-Carlo simulations to study basic single track PID as well as the analysis of complex physics channels. The online reconstruction algorithm has been tested with a Virtex4 FGPA card and optimized regarding the resulting constraints.

  10. TOP counter for particle identification at the Belle II experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inami, Kenji

    2014-12-01

    Ring imaging Cherenkov counter, named TOP counter, utilizing precise photon detection timing has been developed as a particle identification detector for the Belle II experiment. The real size prototype has been produced and tested with 2 GeV positrons at Spring-8 LEPS beam line. The quartz radiator production and assembling with microchannel plate photomultipliers was successfully carried out. The beam test data shows good agreement with full Monte-Carlo simulation results in the ring image and the distribution of number of detected photons and timing information. - Highlights: • TOP counter was developed as a particle identification detector for the Belle II experiment. • The real size prototype was produced and tested with 2 GeV positrons. • The quartz radiator production and assembling with MCP-PMT was successfully carried out. • The beam test data shows good agreement with full Monte-Carlo simulation results.

  11. Particle identification using artificial neural networks at BESIII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Gang; Lv Junguang; Bian Jianming; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing

    2008-01-01

    A multilayered perceptrons' neural network technique has been applied in the particle identification at BESIII. The networks are trained in each sub-detector level. The NN output of sub-detectors can be sent to a sequential network or be constructed as PDFs for a likelihood. Good muon-ID, electron-ID and hadron-ID are obtained from the networks by using the simulated Monte Carlo samples. (authors)

  12. Investigating User Identification in Remote Patient Monitoring Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondiege, Brian; Clarke, Malcolm

    2017-09-13

    With the increase in the number of people having a chronic disease, there is an increase in households having more than a single person suffering from the same chronic illness. One problem of monitoring such patients in their own home is that current devices have a limitation in the number of people who can use a single device. This study investigates the use of Near Field Communication (NFC) for identification in a multi-user environment. A mixed-method qualitative and quantitative approach was adopted, including focus groups, observations and a field trial. Data were collected in three phases. In Phase 1, five focus groups were conducted with patients to determine their beliefs, concerns and issues with using identification in remote patient monitoring devices. In Phase 2, participants were given a blood pressure monitor modified to include an NFC reader to enable identification. The modified device was given to patients living as a couple in the same household and both suffering from hypertension. Both patients used the device for a period of two weeks to observe their acceptance of the technology and determine their experience of usage. A total of 40 (20 couples) patients participated in the trial. Non-adherence to the full monitoring regimen was low and was mainly due to usability issues or commitments taking them away from the home and thus unable to take readings. After the trial period participants were invited to discuss their experiences with the technology in a focus group discussion (Phase 3), a total of five focus groups were conducted. Focus group discussions with the patients revealed that most participants liked using the system and were not apprehensive towards Healthcare Information Technology (HIT). The participants also had suggestions for improvements that could be made to the modified blood pressure monitor (such as, rechargeable in place batteries, integrate the components, easier to use cuff, and increased sensitivity of the NFC reader) that

  13. High Resolution Spectrometer (HRS) particle-identification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, J.C.; Spencer, J.E.; Whitten, C.A.

    1977-08-01

    The functions of the particle-identification system (PIDS) designed for the High Resolution Spectrometer facility (HRS) at LAMPF are described, together with the mechanical layout, counter hardware, and associated electronics. The system was designed for easy use and to be applicable to currently proposed experiments at HRS. The several strobe signals that can be generated correspond to different event types or characteristics, and logic configuration and timing can be remotely controlled by computer. Concepts of discrete pattern recognition and multidimensional, analog pulse discrimination are used to distinguish between different event types

  14. The DIRC, the particle identification detector of BaBar

    CERN Document Server

    Yéche, C

    1999-01-01

    A novel particle identification detector (PID) has been developed for the BABAR experiment which will operate at the PEP-II B factory at SLAC. The principles of this new concept of PID called the DIRC, based on ring imaging $9 Cherenkov techniques, are briefly described. The results obtained with a large scale prototype and pion, kaon and proton beams at CERN are presented. The performances of this prototype are compared to the Monte-Carlo simulations and $9 the BABAR requirements. (4 refs).

  15. A Bayesian approach to particle identification in ALICE

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Among the LHC experiments, ALICE has unique particle identification (PID) capabilities exploiting different types of detectors. During Run 1, a Bayesian approach to PID was developed and intensively tested. It facilitates the combination of information from different sub-systems. The adopted methodology and formalism as well as the performance of the Bayesian PID approach for charged pions, kaons and protons in the central barrel of ALICE will be reviewed. Results are presented with PID performed via measurements of specific energy loss (dE/dx) and time-of-flight using information from the TPC and TOF detectors, respectively. Methods to extract priors from data and to compare PID efficiencies and misidentification probabilities in data and Monte Carlo using high-purity samples of identified particles will be presented. Bayesian PID results were found consistent with previous measurements published by ALICE. The Bayesian PID approach gives a higher signal-to-background ratio and a similar or larger statist...

  16. Improved identification of primary biological aerosol particles using single-particle mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Zawadowicz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of primary biological aerosol particles (PBAP, especially at altitudes relevant to cloud formation, are scarce. Single-particle mass spectrometry (SPMS has been used to probe aerosol chemical composition from ground and aircraft for over 20 years. Here we develop a method for identifying bioaerosols (PBAP and particles containing fragments of PBAP as part of an internal mixture using SPMS. We show that identification of bioaerosol using SPMS is complicated because phosphorus-bearing mineral dust and phosphorus-rich combustion by-products such as fly ash produce mass spectra with peaks similar to those typically used as markers for bioaerosol. We have developed a methodology to differentiate and identify bioaerosol using machine learning statistical techniques applied to mass spectra of known particle types. This improved method provides far fewer false positives compared to approaches reported in the literature. The new method was then applied to two sets of ambient data collected at Storm Peak Laboratory and a forested site in Central Valley, California to show that 0.04–2 % of particles in the 200–3000 nm aerodynamic diameter range were identified as bioaerosol. In addition, 36–56 % of particles identified as biological also contained spectral features consistent with mineral dust, suggesting internal dust–biological mixtures.

  17. A Bayesian approach to particle identification in ALICE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkinson, Jeremy [Physikalisches Institut, Ruprecht-Karls-Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany); Collaboration: ALICE-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    Particle identification (PID) is one of the major strengths of the ALICE detector at the LHC, and provides essential insight into quark-gluon plasma formation in heavy-ion collisions. PID is most effective when complementary identification techniques (such as specific energy loss in the Time Projection Chamber, or flight times measured by the Time Of Flight detector) are combined, however with standard PID techniques it can be difficult to combine these signals, especially when detectors with non-Gaussian responses are used. Here, an alternative probabilistic PID approach based on Bayes' theorem will be presented. This method facilitates the combination of different detector technologies based on the combined probability of a particle type to produce the signals measured in various detectors. The Bayesian PID approach will be briefly outlined, and benchmark analyses will be presented for high-purity samples of pions, kaons, and protons, as well as for the two-pronged decay D{sup 0} → K{sup -}π{sup +}, comparing the performance of the standard PID approach with that of the Bayesian approach. Finally, prospects for measuring the Λ{sub c} baryon in the three-pronged decay channel Λ{sub c}{sup +} → pK{sup -}π{sup +} are presented.

  18. Verification of Gyrokinetic Particle of Turbulent Simulation of Device Size Scaling Transport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Zhihong; S. ETHIER; T. S. HAHM; W. M. TANG

    2012-01-01

    Verification and historical perspective are presented on the gyrokinetic particle simulations that discovered the device size scaling of turbulent transport and indentified the geometry model as the source of the long-standing disagreement between gyrokinetic particle and continuum simulations.

  19. Identification and quantification of particle growth channels during new particle formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Pennington

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric new particle formation (NPF is a key source of ambient ultrafine particles that may contribute substantially to the global production of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN. While NPF is driven by atmospheric nucleation, its impact on CCN concentration depends strongly on atmospheric growth mechanisms since the growth rate must exceed the loss rate due to scavenging in order for the particles to reach the CCN size range. In this work, chemical composition measurements of 20 nm diameter particles during NPF in Hyytiälä, Finland, in March–April 2011 permit identification and quantitative assessment of important growth channels. In this work we show the following: (A sulfuric acid, a key species associated with atmospheric nucleation, accounts for less than half of particle mass growth during this time period; (B the sulfate content of a growing particle during NPF is quantitatively explained by condensation of gas-phase sulfuric acid molecules (i.e., sulfuric acid uptake is collision-limited; (C sulfuric acid condensation substantially impacts the chemical composition of preexisting nanoparticles before new particles have grown to a size sufficient to be measured; (D ammonium and sulfate concentrations are highly correlated, indicating that ammonia uptake is driven by sulfuric acid uptake; (E sulfate neutralization by ammonium does not reach the predicted thermodynamic end point, suggesting that a barrier exists for ammonia uptake; (F carbonaceous matter accounts for more than half of the particle mass growth, and its oxygen-to-carbon ratio (~ 0.5 is characteristic of freshly formed secondary organic aerosol; and (G differences in the overall growth rate from one formation event to another are caused by variations in the growth rates of all major chemical species, not just one individual species.

  20. Demonstration of the Robotic Gamma Locating and Isotopic Identification Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.O.; Conner, C.C.; Daniel, V.E.; McKay, M.D.; Yancey, N.A.

    2002-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) continually seeks safer and more cost-effective technologies for use in decontaminating and decommissioning nuclear facilities. To this end, the Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area of DOE's Office of Science and Technology sponsors Large-Scale Demonstration and Deployment Projects (LSDDP) to test new technologies. As part of these projects, developers and vendors showcase new products designed to decrease health and safety risks to personnel and the environment, increase productivity, and lower costs. As part of the FY 2000 and 2001 LSDDP, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) collaborated with the Russian Research and Development Institute of Construction Technology (NIKIMT). This collaboration resulted in the development of the Robotic Gamma Locating and Isotopic Identification Device (RGL and IID) which integrated DOE Robotics Crosscutting (Rbx) technology with NIKIMT Russian gamma locating and isotopic identification technology. This paper will discuss the technologies involved in this integration and results from the demonstration including reduction of personnel exposure, increase in productivity, and reduced risk

  1. 21 CFR 866.2660 - Microorganism differentiation and identification device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices... impregnated with test reagents, that are usually contained in individual compartments and used to...

  2. Polycrystalline CVD diamond device level modeling for particle detection applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozzi, A.; Passeri, D.; Kanxheri, K.; Servoli, L.; Lagomarsino, S.; Sciortino, S.

    2016-12-01

    Diamond is a promising material whose excellent physical properties foster its use for radiation detection applications, in particular in those hostile operating environments where the silicon-based detectors behavior is limited due to the high radiation fluence. Within this framework, the application of Technology Computer Aided Design (TCAD) simulation tools is highly envisaged for the study, the optimization and the predictive analysis of sensing devices. Since the novelty of using diamond in electronics, this material is not included in the library of commercial, state-of-the-art TCAD software tools. In this work, we propose the development, the application and the validation of numerical models to simulate the electrical behavior of polycrystalline (pc)CVD diamond conceived for diamond sensors for particle detection. The model focuses on the characterization of a physically-based pcCVD diamond bandgap taking into account deep-level defects acting as recombination centers and/or trap states. While a definite picture of the polycrystalline diamond band-gap is still debated, the effect of the main parameters (e.g. trap densities, capture cross-sections, etc.) can be deeply investigated thanks to the simulated approach. The charge collection efficiency due to β -particle irradiation of diamond materials provided by different vendors and with different electrode configurations has been selected as figure of merit for the model validation. The good agreement between measurements and simulation findings, keeping the traps density as the only one fitting parameter, assesses the suitability of the TCAD modeling approach as a predictive tool for the design and the optimization of diamond-based radiation detectors.

  3. Polycrystalline CVD diamond device level modeling for particle detection applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozzi, A.; Passeri, D.; Kanxheri, K.; Servoli, L.; Lagomarsino, S.; Sciortino, S.

    2016-01-01

    Diamond is a promising material whose excellent physical properties foster its use for radiation detection applications, in particular in those hostile operating environments where the silicon-based detectors behavior is limited due to the high radiation fluence. Within this framework, the application of Technology Computer Aided Design (TCAD) simulation tools is highly envisaged for the study, the optimization and the predictive analysis of sensing devices. Since the novelty of using diamond in electronics, this material is not included in the library of commercial, state-of-the-art TCAD software tools. In this work, we propose the development, the application and the validation of numerical models to simulate the electrical behavior of polycrystalline (pc)CVD diamond conceived for diamond sensors for particle detection. The model focuses on the characterization of a physically-based pcCVD diamond bandgap taking into account deep-level defects acting as recombination centers and/or trap states. While a definite picture of the polycrystalline diamond band-gap is still debated, the effect of the main parameters (e.g. trap densities, capture cross-sections, etc.) can be deeply investigated thanks to the simulated approach. The charge collection efficiency due to β -particle irradiation of diamond materials provided by different vendors and with different electrode configurations has been selected as figure of merit for the model validation. The good agreement between measurements and simulation findings, keeping the traps density as the only one fitting parameter, assesses the suitability of the TCAD modeling approach as a predictive tool for the design and the optimization of diamond-based radiation detectors.

  4. Particle Trajectories in Rotating Wall Cell Culture Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran N.; Downey, J. P.

    1999-01-01

    Cell cultures are extremely important to the medical community since such cultures provide an opportunity to perform research on human tissue without the concerns inherent in experiments on individual humans. Development of cells in cultures has been found to be greatly influenced by the conditions of the culture. Much work has focused on the effect of the motions of cells in the culture relative to the solution. Recently rotating wall vessels have been used with success in achieving improved cellular cultures. Speculation and limited research have focused on the low shear environment and the ability of rotating vessels to keep cells suspended in solution rather than floating or sedimenting as the primary reasons for the improved cellular cultures using these devices. It is widely believed that the cultures obtained using a rotating wall vessel simulates to some degree the effect of microgravity on cultures. It has also been speculated that the microgravity environment may provide the ideal acceleration environment for culturing of cellular tissues due to the nearly negligible levels of sedimentation and shear possible. This work predicts particle trajectories of cells in rotating wall vessels of cylindrical and annular design consistent with the estimated properties of typical cellular cultures. Estimates of the shear encountered by cells in solution and the interactions with walls are studied. Comparisons of potential experiments in ground and microgravity environments are performed.

  5. Particle Identification algorithm for the CLIC ILD and CLIC SiD detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Nardulli, J

    2011-01-01

    This note describes the algorithm presently used to determine the particle identification performance for single particles for the CLIC ILD and CLIC SiD detector concepts as prepared in the CLIC Conceptual Design Report.

  6. Particle mis-identification rate algorithm for the CLIC ILD and CLIC SiD detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Nardulli, J

    2011-01-01

    This note describes the algorithm presently used to determine the particle mis- identification rate and gives results for single particles for the CLIC ILD and CLIC SiD detector concepts as prepared for the CLIC Conceptual Design Report.

  7. Application of digital sampling techniques to particle identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardelli, L.; Poggi, G.; Bini, M.; Carraresi, L.; Pasquali, G.; Taccetti, N.

    2003-01-01

    An application of digital sampling techniques is presented which can greatly simplify experiments involving sub-nanosecond time-mark determinations and energy measurements with nuclear detectors, used for Pulse Shape Analysis and Time of Flight measurements in heavy ion experiments. In this work a 100 M Sample/s, 12 bit analog to digital converter has been used: examples of this technique applied to Silicon and CsI(Tl) detectors in heavy-ions experiments involving particle identification via Pulse Shape analysis and Time of Flight measurements are presented. The system is suited for applications to large detector arrays and to different kinds of detectors. Some preliminary results regarding the simulation of current signals in Silicon detectors are also discussed. (authors)

  8. Particle identification by nuclear emulsions in the OPERA experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manai, Kais

    2007-01-01

    The OPERA experiment will try to confirm the ν μ →ν τ oscillations by the appearance of the ν τ in a pure ν μ beam. Indeed, a neutrino beam almost pure is produced at CERN (CNGS Beam) and sent to the OPERA detector. The detector is composed of two muons spectrometers and a target formed by walls of bricks. Each brick is an alternation of lead plates and emulsions. This modular structure allows to reconstruct the kink topology of the τ lepton decay with a high spatial resolution. The great challenge of the OPERA experiment is to detect the ν τ interactions with the less uncertainty. To reduce this uncertainty it is essential to identify with the greatest efficiency any background event not including a tau particle. My work permits to reduce background. My principal contribution concerns the selection development, the reconstruction and the muons identification at low energy. This work is based on the setting of variables related to the deposit energy and the multiple scattering. Previously, only deposit energy was used in the analyses of pion/muon separation. This study allows doubling the muon identification efficiency at low energy. This leads to increase the background events rejection in OPERA and to decrease the contamination by 30 pour cent. I also studied the nuclear emulsions capacity to identify charged particles through the analysis of a test beam carried out by the Nagoya group. This test contains protons and pions with different energies. My work proves that the European scan system gives comparable results with those obtained by the Japanese scan system. (Author)

  9. Identification of high-energetic particles by transition radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struczinski, W.

    1986-01-01

    This thesis gives a comprehensive survey on the application of the transition radiation for the particle identification. After a short historical review on the prediction and the detection of the transition radiation its theoretical foundations are more precisely explained. They form the foundations for the construction of an optimal transition radiation detector the principal construction of which is described. The next chapter shows some experiments by which the main predictions of the transition-radiation theory are confirmed. Then the construction and operation of two transition-radiation detectors are described which were applied at the ISR respectively SPS in the CERN in Geneva in complex experiments. The detector applied at the ISR served for the e ± identification. With two lithium radiators which were followed by xenon-filled proportional chambers an e/π separation of ≅ 10 -2 could be reached. The transition-radiation detector applied in the SPS was integrated into the European Hybrid Spectrometer. It served for the identification of high-energetic pions (> or approx. 90 GeV) against kaons and protons. With twenty units of carbon-fiber radiators which were followed by xenon-filled proportional chambers a π/K, p separation of better than 1:20 for momenta above 100 GeV could be reached. The cluster-counting method is then presented. Finally, a survey on the contemporary status in the development of transition-radiation detectors for the e/π separation is given. It is shown that by an about half a meter long detector the radiators of which consist of carbon fibers an e/π separation in the order of magnitude of ≅ 10 -2 can be reached. (orig./HSI) [de

  10. Ultrasonic device for real-time sewage velocity and suspended particles concentration measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abda, F; Azbaid, A; Ensminger, D; Fischer, S; François, P; Schmitt, P; Pallarès, A

    2009-01-01

    In the frame of a technological research and innovation network in water and environment technologies (RITEAU, Réseau de Recherche et d'Innovation Technologique Eau et Environnement), our research group, in collaboration with industrial partners and other research institutions, has been in charge of the development of a suitable flowmeter: an ultrasonic device measuring simultaneously the water flow and the concentration of size classes of suspended particles. Working on the pulsed ultrasound principle, our multi-frequency device (1 to 14 MHz) allows flow velocity and water height measurement and estimation of suspended solids concentration. Velocity measurements rely on the coherent Doppler principle. A self developed frequency estimator, so called Spectral Identification method, was used and compared to the classical Pulse-Pair method. Several measurements campaigns on one wastewater collector of the French city of Strasbourg gave very satisfactory results and showed smaller standard deviation values for the Doppler frequency extracted by the Spectral Identification method. A specific algorithm was also developed for the water height measurements. It relies on the water surface acoustic impedance rupture and its peak localisation and behaviour in the collected backscattering data. This algorithm was positively tested on long time measurements on the same wastewater collector. A large part of the article is devoted to the measurements of the suspended solids concentrations. Our data analysis consists in the adaptation of the well described acoustic behaviour of sand to the behaviour of wastewater particles. Both acoustic attenuation and acoustic backscattering data over multiple frequencies are analyzed for the extrapolation of size classes and respective concentrations. Under dry weather conditions, the massic backscattering coefficient and the overall size distribution showed similar evolution whatever the measurement site was and were suggesting a global

  11. Method and device for the separation of particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rem, P.C.; Van Kooy, L.A.

    2004-01-01

    The invention relates to a method of in a liquid separating a mixture of particles that within chosen limits have different physical property values, wherein the particles to be separated are supplied via a feeder to a screen upon which a layer of facilitating particles is disposed, the size of the

  12. Particle-Based Microfluidic Device for Providing High Magnetic Field Gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Adam Y. (Inventor); Wong, Tak S. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A microfluidic device for manipulating particles in a fluid has a device body that defines a main channel therein, in which the main channel has an inlet and an outlet. The device body further defines a particulate diverting channel therein, the particulate diverting channel being in fluid connection with the main channel between the inlet and the outlet of the main channel and having a particulate outlet. The microfluidic device also has a plurality of microparticles arranged proximate or in the main channel between the inlet of the main channel and the fluid connection of the particulate diverting channel to the main channel. The plurality of microparticles each comprises a material in a composition thereof having a magnetic susceptibility suitable to cause concentration of magnetic field lines of an applied magnetic field while in operation. A microfluidic particle-manipulation system has a microfluidic particle-manipulation device and a magnet disposed proximate the microfluidic particle-manipulation device.

  13. Charge-coupled devices for particle detection with high spatial resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farley, F.J.; Damerell, C.J.S.; Gillman, A.R.; Wickens, F.J.

    1980-10-01

    The results of a study of the possible application of a thin microelectronic device (the charge-coupled device) to high energy physics as particle detectors with good spatial resolution which can distinguish between tracks emerging from the primary vertex and those from secondary vertices due to the decay of short lived particles with higher flavours, are reported. Performance characteristics indicating the spatial resolution, particle discrimination, time resolution, readout time and lifetime of such detectors have been obtained. (U.K.)

  14. The plastic ball spectrometer - an electronic 4π detector with particle identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baden, A.; Poskanzer, A.M.; Renner, T.; Riedesel, H.

    1982-04-01

    For the high multiplicity events occuring in relativistic nuclear collisions an electronic 4π detector with particle identification has been built. It consists of 815 ΔE-E telescopes and 176 TOF telescopes covering 97% of 4π. Very good particle identification has been obtained for hydrogen and helium isotopes and also π + have been detected with high efficiency. (orig.)

  15. Oscillating microbubbles for selective particle sorting in acoustic microfluidic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Priscilla; Xu, Lin; Neild, Adrian

    2012-05-01

    In this study, acoustic waves were used to excite a microbubble for selective particle trapping and sorting. Excitation of the bubble at its volume resonance, as necessary to drive strong fluid microstreaming, resulted in the particles being either selectively attracted to the bubble or continuing to follow the local microstreamlines. The operating principle exploited two acoustic phenomena acting on the particle suspension: the drag force arising from the acoustic microstreaming and the secondary Bjerknes force, i.e. the attractive radiation force produced between an oscillating bubble and a non-buoyant particle. It was also found that standing wave fields within the fluid chamber could be used to globally align bubbles and particles for local particle sorting by the bubble.

  16. 9 CFR 354.2 - Designation of official certificates, memoranda, marks, other identifications, and devices for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., memoranda, marks, other identifications, and devices for purposes of the Agricultural Marketing Act. 354.2... Agricultural Marketing Act. Subsection 203(h) of the Agricultural Marketing Act of 1946, as amended by Pub. L... device means a stamping appliance, branding device, stencil, printed label, or any other mechanically or...

  17. Identification of Bodies by Unique Serial Numbers on Implanted Medical Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blessing, Melissa M; Lin, Peter T

    2018-05-01

    Visual identification is the most common identification method used by medical examiners but is not always possible. Alternative methods include X-ray, fingerprint, or DNA comparison, but these methods require additional resources. Comparison of serial numbers on implanted medical devices is a rapid and definitive method of identification. To assess the practicality of using this method, we reviewed 608 consecutive forensic autopsies performed at a regional medical examiner office. Of these, 56 cases required an alternative method of identification due to decomposition (n = 35), gunshot wound (n = 9), blunt trauma (n = 6), or charring (n = 6). Of these 56 cases, eight (14.3%) were known to have an implanted medical device. Of these eight cases, five (63%) could be positively identified by comparing serial numbers. If an implanted medical device is known to be present, and medical records are available, identification by medical device serial number should be a first-line method. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  18. Method for fluidizing and coating ultrafine particles, device for fluidizing and coating ultrafine particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Liu, Yung Y

    2015-01-20

    The invention provides a method for dispersing particles within a reaction field, the method comprising confining the particles to the reaction field using a standing wave. The invention also provides a system for coating particles, the system comprising a reaction zone; a means for producing fluidized particles within the reaction zone; a fluid to produce a standing wave within the reaction zone; and a means for introducing coating moieties to the reaction zone. The invention also provides a method for coating particles, the method comprising fluidizing the particles, subjecting the particles to a standing wave; and contacting the subjected particles with a coating moiety.

  19. Exploration of Uninitialized Configuration Memory Space for Intrinsic Identification of Xilinx Virtex-5 FPGA Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Sander

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available SRAM-based fingerprinting uses deviations in power-up behaviour caused by the CMOS fabrication process to identify distinct devices. This method is a promising technique for unique identification of physical devices. In the case of SRAM-based hardware reconfigurable devices such as FPGAs, the integrated SRAM cells are often initialized automatically at power-up, sweeping potential identification data. We demonstrate an approach to utilize unused parts of configuration memory space for device identification. Based on a total of over 200,000 measurements on nine Xilinx Virtex-5 FPGAs, we show that the retrieved values have promising properties with respect to consistency on one device, variety between different devices, and stability considering temperature variation and aging.

  20. Evaluation of salt particle collection device for preventing SCC on canister - Effect on particle collection rate by electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, H.; Saegusa, T.

    2013-01-01

    Now, in Japan, while metal casks are used for spent nuclear fuel storage, a practical use of concrete casks is under review because of its cost effectiveness and procurement easiness. In reviewing the practical use, stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of a canister container in the concrete cask becomes an issue and is needed to be resolved soon. A natural ventilation system is generally adopted for the storage facilities, especially in Japan where facilities are built near coasts so that the cooling air includes sea salt particles. Therefore, the occurrence of SCC is concerned when the sea salt particles adhere to welded parts of the canisters. In this study, we proposed a salt particle collection device with low pressure loss which does not interfere with the air flow into the building or the concrete casks. The device is composed of a stack of 10 parallel stainless steel plates, the air is free to circulate in the space between them. Pressure loss tests in a laboratory and salt particle collection tests in the field have been performed. It has been clarified that the pressure loss of the device is one-thirtieth to one-twentieth of that of a commercial filter and 40% of the particles in the air could be collected and the device would not influence the heat removal performance. Moreover, we evaluated the effect of electric field on the particle collection under supposing the particle charge. In the case of electric field over 10 3 kV/m the particle collection rate could be improved dramatically

  1. Particles identification using nuclear emulsion in OPERA; Identification des particules par les emulsions nucleaires dans OPERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manai, K

    2007-10-15

    The Opera experiment will try to confirm the {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub {tau}} oscillations by the appearance of the {nu}{sub {tau}} in a pure {nu}{sub {mu}} beam. Indeed, a neutrino beam almost pure is produced at CERN (CNGS Beam) and sent to the Opera detector. The detector is composed of two muons spectrometers and a target formed by walls of bricks. Each brick is an alternation of lead plates and emulsions. This modular structure allows to reconstruct the kink topology of the {tau} lepton decay with a high spatial resolution. The great challenge of the Opera experiment is to detect the {nu}{sub {tau}} interactions with the less uncertainty. To reduce this uncertainty it is essential to identify with the greatest efficiency any background event not including a tau particle. My work permits to reduce background. My principal contribution concerns the selection development, the reconstruction and the muons identification at low energy. This work is based on the setting of variables related to the deposit energy and the multiple scattering. Previously, only deposit energy was used in the analyses of pion/muon separation. This study allows doubling the muon identification efficiency at low energy. This leads to increase the background events rejection in Opera and to decrease the contamination by 30%. I also studied the nuclear emulsions capacity to identify charged particles through the analysis of a test beam carried out by the Nagoya group. This test contains protons and pions with different energies. My work proves that the European scan system gives comparable results with those obtained by the Japanese scan system. (author)

  2. Physics-based mathematical models for quantum devices via experimental system identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schirmer, S G; Oi, D K L; Devitt, S J [Department of Applied Maths and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Rd, Cambridge, CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); SUPA, Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); National Institute of Informatics, 2-1-2 Hitotsubashi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-8430 (Japan)], E-mail: sgs29@cam.ac.uk

    2008-03-15

    We consider the task of intrinsic control system identification for quantum devices. The problem of experimental determination of subspace confinement is considered, and simple general strategies for full Hamiltonian identification and decoherence characterization of a controlled two-level system are presented.

  3. Load power device, system and method of load control and management employing load identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Luebke, Charles John; Schoepf, Thomas J.

    2018-01-09

    A load power device includes a power input, at least one power output for at least one load, a plurality of sensors structured to sense voltage and current at the at least one power output, and a processor. The processor provides: (a) load identification based upon the sensed voltage and current, and (b) load control and management based upon the load identification.

  4. Particle interaction and displacement damage in silicon devices operated in radiation environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroy, Claude; Rancoita, Pier-Giorgio

    2007-01-01

    Silicon is used in radiation detectors and electronic devices. Nowadays, these devices achieving submicron technology are parts of integrated circuits of large to very large scale integration (VLSI). Silicon and silicon-based devices are commonly operated in many fields including particle physics experiments, nuclear medicine and space. Some of these fields present adverse radiation environments that may affect the operation of the devices. The particle energy deposition mechanisms by ionization and non-ionization processes are reviewed as well as the radiation-induced damage and its effect on device parameters evolution, depending on particle type, energy and fluence. The temporary or permanent damage inflicted by a single particle (single event effect) to electronic devices or integrated circuits is treated separately from the total ionizing dose (TID) effect for which the accumulated fluence causes degradation and from the displacement damage induced by the non-ionizing energy-loss (NIEL) deposition. Understanding of radiation effects on silicon devices has an impact on their design and allows the prediction of a specific device behaviour when exposed to a radiation field of interest

  5. A feature point identification method for positron emission particle tracking with multiple tracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiggins, Cody, E-mail: cwiggin2@vols.utk.edu [University of Tennessee-Knoxville, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 1408 Circle Drive, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Santos, Roque [University of Tennessee-Knoxville, Department of Nuclear Engineering (United States); Escuela Politécnica Nacional, Departamento de Ciencias Nucleares (Ecuador); Ruggles, Arthur [University of Tennessee-Knoxville, Department of Nuclear Engineering (United States)

    2017-01-21

    A novel detection algorithm for Positron Emission Particle Tracking (PEPT) with multiple tracers based on optical feature point identification (FPI) methods is presented. This new method, the FPI method, is compared to a previous multiple PEPT method via analyses of experimental and simulated data. The FPI method outperforms the older method in cases of large particle numbers and fine time resolution. Simulated data show the FPI method to be capable of identifying 100 particles at 0.5 mm average spatial error. Detection error is seen to vary with the inverse square root of the number of lines of response (LORs) used for detection and increases as particle separation decreases. - Highlights: • A new approach to positron emission particle tracking is presented. • Using optical feature point identification analogs, multiple particle tracking is achieved. • Method is compared to previous multiple particle method. • Accuracy and applicability of method is explored.

  6. Application of digital sampling techniques to particle identification in scintillation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardelli, L.; Bini, M.; Poggi, G.; Taccetti, N.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the use of a fast digitizing system for identification of fast charged particles with scintillation detectors is discussed. The three-layer phoswich detectors developed in the framework of the FIASCO experiment for the detection of light charged particles (LCP) and intermediate mass fragments (IMF) emitted in heavy-ion collisions at Fermi energies are briefly discussed. The standard analog electronics treatment of the signals for particle identification is illustrated. After a description of the digitizer designed to perform a fast digital sampling of the phoswich signals, the feasibility of particle identification on the sampled data is demonstrated. The results obtained with two different pulse shape discrimination analyses based on the digitally sampled data are compared with the standard analog signal treatment. The obtained results suggest, for the present application, the replacement of the analog methods with the digital sampling technique

  7. Particle identification method in the CsI(Tl) scintillator used for the CHIMERA 4 pi detector

    CERN Document Server

    Alderighi, M; Basssini, R; Berceanu, I; Blicharska, J; Boiano, C; Borderie, B; Bougault, R; Bruno, M; Cali, C; Cardella, G; Cavallaro, S; D'Agostino, M; D'andrea, M; Dayras, R; De Filippo, E; Fichera, F; Geraci, E; Giustolisi, F; Grzeszczuk, A; Guardone, N; Guazzoni, P; Guinet, D; Iacono-Manno, M; Kowalski, S; La Guidara, E; Lanchais, A L; Lanzalone, G; Lanzanò, G; Le Neindre, N; Li, S; Maiolino, C; Majka, Z; Manfredi, G; Nicotra, D; Paduszynski, T; Pagano, A; Papa, M; Petrovici, C M; Piasecki, E; Pirrone, S; Politi, G; Pop, A; Porto, F; Rivet, M F; Rosato, E; Sacca, G; Sechi, G; Simion, V; Sperduto, M L; Steckmeyer, J C; Trifiró, A; Trimarchi, M; Urso, S; Vannini, G; Vigilante, M; Wilczynski, J; Wu, H; Xiao, Z; Zetta, L; Zipper, W

    2002-01-01

    The charged particle identification obtained by the analysis of signals coming from the CsI(Tl) detectors of the CHIMERA 4 pi heavy-ion detector is presented. A simple double-gate integration method, with the use of the cyclotron radiofrequency as reference time, results in low thresholds for isotopic particle identification. The dependence of the identification quality on the gate generation timing is discussed. Isotopic identification of light ions up to Beryllium is clearly seen. For the first time also the identification of Z=5 particles is observed. The identification of neutrons interacting with CsI(Tl) by (n,alpha) and (n,gamma) reactions is also discussed.

  8. Feature Selection and Classifier Development for Radio Frequency Device Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    248 Table C-5: p-values vs Test Statistic for Wine Quality. ................................................. 248 Table C-6...p-values vs Test Statistic for Wisconsin Breast Cancer. .............................. 249 Table C-7: p-values vs Test Statistic for Wine ...electronic devices, such as RF-DNA. A brief review of the various approaches is considered to illustrate the benefits of the RF-DNA approach. 40

  9. Output channel design for collecting closely-spaced particle streams from spiral inertial separation devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caffiyar Mohamed Yousuff

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in inertial microfluidics designs have enabled high throughput, label-free separation of cells for a variety of bioanalytical applications. Various device configurations have been proposed for binary separation with a focus on enhancing the separation distance between particle streams to improve the efficiency of separate particle collection. These configurations have not demonstrated scaling beyond 3 particle streams either because the channel width is a constraint at the collection outlets or particle streams would be too closely spaced to be collected separately. We propose a method to design collection outlets for inertial focusing and separation devices which can collect closely-spaced particle streams and easily scale to an arbitrary number of collection channels without constraining the outlet channel width, which is the usual cause of clogging or cell damage. According to our approach, collection outlets are a series of side-branching channels perpendicular to the main channel of egress. The width and length of the outlets can be chosen subject to constraints from the position of the particle streams and fluidic resistance ratio computed from fluid dynamics simulations. We show the efficacy of this approach by demonstrating a successful collection of upto 3 particle streams of 7μm, 10μm and 15μm fluorescent beads which have been focused and separated by a spiral inertial device with a separation distance of only 10μm -15μm. With a throughput of 1.8mL/min, we achieved collection efficiency exceeding 90% for each particle at the respective collection outlet. The flexibility to use wide collection channels also enabled us to fabricate the microfluidic device with an epoxy mold that was created using xurography, a low cost, and imprecise fabrication technique.

  10. The use of silicon devices (diodes, RAMs, etc.) for alpha particle detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agosteo, S.; Foglio Para, A.

    1993-01-01

    Silicon electronic devices (diodes, random access memories (RAMs), etc.) can be employed in alpha particle detection and spectroscopy with a good energy resolution. The detection mechanisms are first discussed; the performances of these devices operating in the pulse and in the current mode are then described starting from the pioneering works of the last decade. Some peculiar applications of RAMs are finally reported. (author). 7 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  11. Device-Free Passive Identity Identification via WiFi Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Jiguang; Yang, Wu; Man, Dapeng

    2017-11-02

    Device-free passive identity identification attracts much attention in recent years, and it is a representative application in sensorless sensing. It can be used in many applications such as intrusion detection and smart building. Previous studies show the sensing potential of WiFi signals in a device-free passive manner. It is confirmed that human's gait is unique from each other similar to fingerprint and iris. However, the identification accuracy of existing approaches is not satisfactory in practice. In this paper, we present Wii, a device-free WiFi-based Identity Identification approach utilizing human's gait based on Channel State Information (CSI) of WiFi signals. Principle Component Analysis (PCA) and low pass filter are applied to remove the noises in the signals. We then extract several entities' gait features from both time and frequency domain, and select the most effective features according to information gain. Based on these features, Wii realizes stranger recognition through Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) and identity identification through a Support Vector Machine (SVM) with Radial Basis Function (RBF) kernel. It is implemented using commercial WiFi devices and evaluated on a dataset with more than 1500 gait instances collected from eight subjects walking in a room. The results indicate that Wii can effectively recognize strangers and can achieves high identification accuracy with low computational cost. As a result, Wii has the potential to work in typical home security systems.

  12. Device-Free Passive Identity Identification via WiFi Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiguang Lv

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Device-free passive identity identification attracts much attention in recent years, and it is a representative application in sensorless sensing. It can be used in many applications such as intrusion detection and smart building. Previous studies show the sensing potential of WiFi signals in a device-free passive manner. It is confirmed that human’s gait is unique from each other similar to fingerprint and iris. However, the identification accuracy of existing approaches is not satisfactory in practice. In this paper, we present Wii, a device-free WiFi-based Identity Identification approach utilizing human’s gait based on Channel State Information (CSI of WiFi signals. Principle Component Analysis (PCA and low pass filter are applied to remove the noises in the signals. We then extract several entities’ gait features from both time and frequency domain, and select the most effective features according to information gain. Based on these features, Wii realizes stranger recognition through Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM and identity identification through a Support Vector Machine (SVM with Radial Basis Function (RBF kernel. It is implemented using commercial WiFi devices and evaluated on a dataset with more than 1500 gait instances collected from eight subjects walking in a room. The results indicate that Wii can effectively recognize strangers and can achieves high identification accuracy with low computational cost. As a result, Wii has the potential to work in typical home security systems.

  13. Counterpropagating wave acoustic particle manipulation device for the effective manufacture of composite materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Marc-S; Drinkwater, Bruce W; Llewellyn-Jones, Thomas M; Trask, Richard S

    2015-10-01

    An ultrasonic assembly device exhibiting broadband behavior and a sacrificial plastic frame is described. This device is used to assemble a variety of microscopic particles differing in size, shape, and material into simple patterns within several host fluids. When the host fluid is epoxy, the assembled materials can be cured and the composite sample extracted from the sacrificial frame. The wideband performance means that within a single device, the wavelength can be varied, leading to control of the length scale of the acoustic radiation force field. We show that glass fibers of 50 μm length and 14 μm diameter can be assembled into a series of stripes separated by hundreds of microns in a time of 0.3 s. Finite element analysis is used to understand the attributes of the device which control its wideband characteristics. The bandwidth is shown to be governed by the damping produced by a combination of the plastic frame and the relatively large volume of the fluid particle mixture. The model also reveals that the acoustic radiation forces are a maximum near the substrate of the device, which is in agreement with experimental observations. The device is extended to 8-transducers and used to assemble more complex particle distributions.

  14. Automatic Adviser on stationary devices status identification and anticipated change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabelnikov, A. N.; Liabakh, N. N.; Gibner, Ya M.; Pushkarev, E. A.

    2018-05-01

    A task is defined to synthesize an Automatic Adviser to identify the automation systems stationary devices status using an autoregressive model of changing their key parameters. An applied model type was rationalized and the research objects monitoring process algorithm was developed. A complex of mobile objects status operation simulation and prediction results analysis was proposed. Research results are commented using a specific example of a hump yard compressor station. The work was supported by the Russian Fundamental Research Fund, project No. 17-20-01040.

  15. Identification of radioactive sources and devices. Reference manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This publication is intended to be a basic guide and not a comprehensive tool kit to identify and provide detailed emergency handling instructions for radioactive sources, devices and transport containers. In addition, this publication helps to identify sources and highlight the risks they present, and provides information on appropriate action. It is a small but significant step in the international community's continuing efforts to strengthen control of radioactive sources and nuclear material, increase safety and security, and thereby make the benefits of radioactive sources ever more broadly accessible. This publication was partly funded through the Nuclear Security Fund established under the Nuclear Security Plan

  16. High Tc superconducting three-terminal device under quasi-particle injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, K.; Kabasawa, U.; Tonouchi, M.; Kobayashi, T.

    1988-01-01

    A new type of the current injection type three terminal device was fabricated using the high Tc YBaCuO thin epitaxial films, wherein the hot quasi-particle injection effect on the superconducting current was closely examined. The zero bias drain current was efficiently suppressed by the injection of the hot quasi-particles through the gate electrode. Though it is speculative, a comparison of the experimental results and analyses based on the familiar BCS theory intimates that the main mechanism of the current modulation is the non-equilibrium superconductivity due to accumulation of the excess quasi-particles

  17. Analysis of the particle stability in a new designed ultrasonic levitation device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Sebastian; Andrade, Marco A B; Esen, Cemal; Adamowski, Julio Cezar; Schweiger, Gustav; Ostendorf, Andreas

    2011-10-01

    The use of acoustic levitation in the fields of analytical chemistry and in the containerless processing of materials requires a good stability of the levitated particle. However, spontaneous oscillations and rotation of the levitated particle have been reported in literature, which can reduce the applicability of the acoustic levitation technique. Aiming to reduce the particle oscillations, this paper presents the analysis of the particle stability in a new acoustic levitator device. The new acoustic levitator consists of a piezoelectric transducer with a concave radiating surface and a concave reflector. The analysis is conducted by determining numerically the axial and lateral forces that act on the levitated object and by measuring the oscillations of a sphere particle by a laser Doppler vibrometer. It is shown that the new levitator design allows to increase the lateral forces and reduce significantly the lateral oscillations of the levitated object.

  18. Identification of nuclear power plant transients using the Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canedo Medeiros, Jose Antonio Carlos; Schirru, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    In order to help nuclear power plant operator reduce his cognitive load and increase his available time to maintain the plant operating in a safe condition, transient identification systems have been devised to help operators identify possible plant transients and take fast and right corrective actions in due time. In the design of classification systems for identification of nuclear power plants transients, several artificial intelligence techniques, involving expert systems, neuro-fuzzy and genetic algorithms have been used. In this work we explore the ability of the Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm (PSO) as a tool for optimizing a distance-based discrimination transient classification method, giving also an innovative solution for searching the best set of prototypes for identification of transients. The Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm was successfully applied to the optimization of a nuclear power plant transient identification problem. Comparing the PSO to similar methods found in literature it has shown better results

  19. Identification of nuclear power plant transients using the Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canedo Medeiros, Jose Antonio Carlos [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, PEN/COPPE, UFRJ, Ilha do Fundao s/n, CEP 21945-970 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)], E-mail: canedo@lmp.ufrj.br; Schirru, Roberto [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, PEN/COPPE, UFRJ, Ilha do Fundao s/n, CEP 21945-970 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)], E-mail: schirru@lmp.ufrj.br

    2008-04-15

    In order to help nuclear power plant operator reduce his cognitive load and increase his available time to maintain the plant operating in a safe condition, transient identification systems have been devised to help operators identify possible plant transients and take fast and right corrective actions in due time. In the design of classification systems for identification of nuclear power plants transients, several artificial intelligence techniques, involving expert systems, neuro-fuzzy and genetic algorithms have been used. In this work we explore the ability of the Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm (PSO) as a tool for optimizing a distance-based discrimination transient classification method, giving also an innovative solution for searching the best set of prototypes for identification of transients. The Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm was successfully applied to the optimization of a nuclear power plant transient identification problem. Comparing the PSO to similar methods found in literature it has shown better results.

  20. Endovascular Device Testing with Particle Image Velocimetry Enhances Undergraduate Biomedical Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Priya; Ankeny, Casey J.; Ryan, Justin; Okcay, Murat; Frakes, David H.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the use of a new system, HemoFlow™, which utilizes state of the art technologies such as particle image velocimetry to test endovascular devices as part of an undergraduate biomedical engineering curriculum. Students deployed an endovascular stent into an anatomical model of a cerebral aneurysm and measured intra-aneurysmal flow…

  1. The ALICE TPC, a high resolution device for ultra-high particle multiplicities. Past, present and future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, Marian [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH (Germany); Collaboration: ALICE-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The Time Projection Chamber (TPC) of the ALICE apparatus is a large 3-dimensional tracking and particle identification device for ultra-high multiplicity collision events. It has been operated successfully at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, recording data from pp, p-Pb, and Pb-Pb collisions. Presently, LHC is in its first long shutdown (LS1), the next round of data taking will start in summer 2015 at or close to the LHC design energy and luminosity. During the second long shutdown (LS2), LHC will undergo a further increase in the Pb-Pb luminosity together with a major upgrade of ALICE. After the upgrade, the ALICE TPC will operate with Pb-Pb collisions at an interaction rate of 50 kHz. We present the performance in operation, calibration and reconstruction with the ALICE TPC together with ongoing work and plans for the near future and the coming 10 years.

  2. LHCb Particle Identification Strategy and Performance in Run 2

    CERN Multimedia

    Tilley, Matthew James

    2018-01-01

    For Run 2 of LHCb data taking, the selection of PID calibration samples is implemented in the high level trigger. A further processing is needed to provide calibration samples used for the determination the PID performance, which is achieved through a centralised production that makes highly efficient use of LHCb computing resources. This poster presents the major steps of the production procedure and the charged particle PID performance measured using these calibration samples.

  3. Boosted decision trees as an alternative to artificial neural networks for particle identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roe, Byron P.; Yang Haijun; Zhu Ji; Liu Yong; Stancu, Ion; McGregor, Gordon

    2005-01-01

    The efficacy of particle identification is compared using artificial neutral networks and boosted decision trees. The comparison is performed in the context of the MiniBooNE, an experiment at Fermilab searching for neutrino oscillations. Based on studies of Monte Carlo samples of simulated data, particle identification with boosting algorithms has better performance than that with artificial neural networks for the MiniBooNE experiment. Although the tests in this paper were for one experiment, it is expected that boosting algorithms will find wide application in physics

  4. Identification of charged particles by etching the solid state nuclear track detectors in successive intervals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randhawa, G.S.; Virk, H.S.

    1997-01-01

    The suitability of the method of charged particle identification by etching the samples in successive intervals developed by Grabez et al. has been checked in CR-39 exposed to heavy ions 238 U, 208 Pb, 197 Au and 132 Xe in the interval 11.0 to 17.0 MeV/u. A similar study has been made on soda glass detectors irradiated by 238 U, 132 Xe, 56 Fe and 48 Ti ions having energy 4.0 to 6.0 MeV/u. It is concluded that this method of particle identification can be used successfully in CR-39 and soda glass detectors. (author)

  5. Tracking and Particle Identification at LHCb and Strange Hadron Production in Events with Z Boson

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00392146; Serra, N.; Mueller, K; Steinkamp, O

    The Lhcb experiment, located at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, is a high energy particle physics experiment dedicated to precision measurements of events containing beauty and charm quarks. The detector is built as a single-arm forward spectrometer. It uses tracking stations upstream and downstream of its dipole magnet to measure the trajectories and momenta of charged particles. This thesis describes the improvements to the track reconstruction algorithm, which were implemented for the second run of the LHC that started in spring 2015. Furthermore, the method to confirm the performance numbers on data is presented. In addition to the tracking system, the detector uses two Ring Imaging Cherenkov detectors, upstream and downstream of the dipole magnet, together with the calorimeter and muon system, for particle identification. The detector response for the particle identification is known to be poorly modelled, since the dependence on environmental variables like temperature and pressure inside the gas mo...

  6. Particle identification with the OPAL jet chamber in the region of the relativistic rise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breuker, H; Fischer, H M; Hauschild, M; Hartmann, H; Wuensch, B; Boerner, H; Burckhart, H J; Dittmar, M; Hammarstroem, R; Heuer, R D

    1987-10-15

    An important goal of the OPAL jet chamber is particle identification at high momenta by exploiting the relativistic rise of the energy loss. Extensive tests have been performed with the full scale prototype of the OPAL jet chamber to measure the energy loss in an argon-methane-isobutane mixture as function of momentum and particle species. The measurements were done under various operating conditions in order to optimise the operationg point, to investigate sources of systematic errors, to monitor the stability of the energy loss measurement and to develop calibration procedures. The particle separation capability in the region of relativistic rise has been studied at gas pressures of 3 and 4 bar. The adopted operation point represents a reasonable compromise between the requirements for particle identification and tracking accuracy.

  7. A wearable device for a fully automated in-hospital staff and patient identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalleri, M; Morstabilini, R; Reni, G

    2004-01-01

    In the health care context, devices for automated staff / patient identification provide multiple benefits, including error reduction in drug administration, an easier and faster use of the Electronic Health Record, enhanced security and control features when accessing confidential data, etc. Current identification systems (e.g. smartcards, bar codes) are not completely seamless to users and require mechanical operations that sometimes are difficult to perform for impaired subjects. Emerging wireless RFID technologies are encouraging, but cannot still be introduced in health care environments due to their electromagnetic emissions and the need for large size antenna to operate at reasonable distances. The present work describes a prototype of wearable device for automated staff and patient identification which is small in size and complies with the in-hospital electromagnetic requirements. This prototype also implements an anti-counterfeit option. Its experimental application allowed the introduction of some security functions for confidential data management.

  8. Design of the TORCH detector: A Cherenkov based Time-of-Flight system for particle identification

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2078663; Rademacker, Jonas

    The LHCb detector at the LHC collider has been very successfully operated over the past years, providing new and profound insights into the Standard Model, in particular through study of $b$-hadrons to achieve a better understanding of CP violation. One of the key components of LHCb is its particle identification system, comprised of two RICH detectors, which allow for high precision separation of particle species over a large momentum range. In order to retain and improve the performance of the particle identification system in light of the LHCb upgrade, the TORCH detector has been proposed to supplement the RICH system at low momentum (2-10 GeV/c). The TORCH detector provides (charged) particle identification through precision timing of particles passing through it. Assuming a known momentum from the tracking, it is possible to derive the species of a particle from the time of flight from its primary vertex. This measurement is achieved by timing and combining photons generated in a solid radiator. The geom...

  9. A particle identification technique for large acceptance spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappuzzello, F.; Cavallaro, M.; Cunsolo, A.; Foti, A.; Carbone, D.; Orrigo, S.E.A.; Rodrigues, M.R.D.

    2010-01-01

    A technique to identify the heavy ions produced in nuclear reactions is presented. It is based on the use of a hybrid detector, which measures the energy loss, the residual energy, the position and angle of the ions at the focal plane of a magnetic spectrometer. The key point is the use of a powerful algorithm for the reconstruction of the ion trajectory, which makes the technique reliable even with large acceptance optical devices. Experimental results with the MAGNEX spectrometer show a remarkable resolution of about 1/160 in the mass parameter.

  10. A Novel Biometric Identification Based on a User's Input Pattern Analysis for Intelligent Mobile Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojin Seo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available As intelligent mobile devices become more popular, security threats targeting them are increasing. The resource constraints of mobile devices, such as battery life and computing power, however, make it harder to handle such threats effectively. The existing physical and behavioural biometric identification methods - looked upon as good alternatives - are unsuitable for the current mobile environment. This paper proposes a specially designed biometric identification method for intelligent mobile devices by analysing the user's input patterns, such as a finger's touch duration, pressure level and the touching width of the finger on the touch screen. We collected the input pattern data of individuals to empirically test our method. Our testing results show that this method effectively identifies users with near a 100% rate of accuracy.

  11. What are the benefits and risks of fitting patients with radiofrequency identification devices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Levine

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available In 2004, the United States Food and Drug Administration approved a radiofrequency identification (RFID device that is implanted under the skin of the upper arm of patients and that stores the patient's medical identifier. When a scanner is passed over the device, the identifier is displayed on the screen of an RFID reader. An authorized health professional can then use the identifier to access the patient's clinical information, which is stored in a separate, secure database. Such RFID devices may have many medical benefits--such as expediting identification of patients and retrieval of their medical records. But critics of the technology have raised several concerns, including the risk of the patient's identifying information being used for nonmedical purposes.

  12. What are the benefits and risks of fitting patients with radiofrequency identification devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Mark; Adida, Ben; Mandl, Kenneth; Kohane, Isaac; Halamka, John

    2007-11-27

    In 2004, the United States Food and Drug Administration approved a radiofrequency identification (RFID) device that is implanted under the skin of the upper arm of patients and that stores the patient's medical identifier. When a scanner is passed over the device, the identifier is displayed on the screen of an RFID reader. An authorized health professional can then use the identifier to access the patient's clinical information, which is stored in a separate, secure database. Such RFID devices may have many medical benefits--such as expediting identification of patients and retrieval of their medical records. But critics of the technology have raised several concerns, including the risk of the patient's identifying information being used for nonmedical purposes.

  13. A versatile analog device for identifying charged particles by their energies and ionizing powers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmanci, Ali Emre

    1971-06-01

    The various methods of identification previously used are discussed; particular attention is given to an ΔE-E telescope. The usual approximations of the equation of Beth-Livingstone are examined and a more universal formula is given. It is shown that when this formula is applied to the case of light particles (p, d, t, H e 3 , α) identification over a wide energy range is possible. The equipment operates logarithmically using analog operators. The identifier possesses certain number of special features, especially concerning the logarithmic converters and the base line restorers. High accuracy, speed, and a good performance at high counting rates have been achieved. Experimental results confirm the performance of the equipment and the validity of the formulas used. A large number of particles corresponding to Z = 8, were identified. (author) [fr

  14. A supplemental device to return escaping particles to a magnetic mirror reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagata, Mitsuaki [Nippon Electronic Engineering College, Noboribetsu-shi, Hokkaido (Japan); Sawada, Keiichi [Soft Creator Company, Kyoto (Japan)

    2018-12-15

    Cyclotron resonance is now applied as one of the important means for heating plasma in a fusion reactor. We examined this phenomenon from the viewpoint of electron gyration orbits through a solution of the linearized relativistic equation of motion. We found a powerful term that accelerates a relativistic charged particle largely at a resonance point when a magnetic field strength is very large. In this study, aiming an effect of this term, we consider applying a resonance phenomenon to reducing the number of charged particles that escape from a magnetic mirror reactor. We install a long supplemental device at the exit of a main magnetic bottle and make a cyclotron resonance space within the device, as shown in Fig. 7. If velocities (perpendicular to a magnetic field) of charged particles are accelerated largely within the cyclotron resonance space, the reflection efficiency of a magnetic mirror behind the resonance space ought to be improved. Based on this idea, we discuss such a supplemental device for recovering the maximum number of escaping charged particles. (orig.)

  15. DIRC - a particle identification system for BaBar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoecker, A.

    1999-10-01

    The DIRC (an acronym for Detection of Internally Reflected Cherenkov light) is a novel type of Cherenkov imaging device that has been developed, built and installed as part of the BaBar detector at the asymmetric B-factory PEP-II at SLAC. The DIRC is based on total internal reflection of Cherenkov photons produced and guided within thin, rectangular quartz bars covering the barrel region of BaBar. The photon detector is an array of photomultiplier tubes covering the photon phase space at the backward end of the bars. In its first few months of operation the DIRC performance has been found to achieve the design requirements. This note presents results from cosmic ray data and an analysis of the first beam collision runs. (author)

  16. Lepton identification at particle flow oriented detector for the future e+e- Higgs factories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dan; Ruan, Manqi; Boudry, Vincent; Videau, Henri

    2017-09-01

    The lepton identification is essential for the physics programs at high-energy frontier, especially for the precise measurement of the Higgs boson. For this purpose, a toolkit for multivariate data analysis (TMVA) based lepton identification (LICH) has been developed for detectors using high granularity calorimeters. Using the conceptual detector geometry for the Circular Electron-Positron Collider (CEPC) and single charged particle samples with energy larger than 2 GeV, LICH identifies electrons/muons with efficiencies higher than 99.5% and controls the mis-identification rate of hadron to muons/electrons to better than 1/0.5%. Reducing the calorimeter granularity by 1-2 orders of magnitude, the lepton identification performance is stable for particles with E > 2 GeV. Applied to fully simulated eeH/μ μ H events, the lepton identification performance is consistent with the single particle case: the efficiency of identifying all the high energy leptons in an event, is 95.5-98.5%.

  17. Raman, Infrared, and Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy Identification of Particles in Raw Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kathryn; Lankers, Markus; Valet, Oliver

    2018-02-01

    Raw materials need to be of a certain quality with respect to physical and chemical composition. They also need to have no contaminants, including particles, because these could indicate raw material impurities or contaminate the product. Particle identification allows determination of process conditions that caused them and whether the quality of the final product is acceptable. Particles may appear to the eye to be very different things than they actually are. They may be coated with the raw material and may consist of several components; therefore, chemical and elemental analyses are required for accuracy in proper identification and definitive information about their source. Thus, microscope versions of Raman spectroscopy, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), and infrared (IR) spectroscopy are excellent tools for identifying particles in materials. Those tools are fast and accurate, and can provide chemical and elemental composition as well as images that can aid identification. The micro-analysis capabilities allow for easy analysis of different portions of samples so that multiple components can be identified and sample preparation can be reduced or eliminated. The differences in sensitivities of Raman and IR spectroscopies to different functional groups as well as the elemental analysis provided by LIBS and the image analysis provided by the microscopy makes these complementary techniques and provides the advantage of identifying various chemical components. Proper spectral searching techniques and interpretation of the results are important for interpretation and identification of trace contaminants.

  18. The DIRC Particle Identification System for the BaBar Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, I

    2004-06-30

    A new type of ring-imaging Cherenkov detector is being used for hadronic particle identification in the BABAR experiment at the SLAC B Factory (PEP-II). This detector is called DIRC, an acronym for Detection of Internally Reflected Cherenkov (Light). This paper will discuss the construction, operation and performance of the BABAR DIRC in detail.

  19. Measurement methods for high energy particle identification in gaseous mixture detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchand, Patrick.

    1981-01-01

    In this work, we discuss some methods for high energy particle identification. We study and design a MWPC equipped with a preamplifier gap for increased resolution. In addition, we propose a new mehod of counting primary collisions. The electronic system used for multiplexing analog wire signals is also described [fr

  20. Device for fracturing silicon-carbide coatings on nuclear-fuel particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, L.J.; Willey, M.G.; Tiegs, S.M.; Van Cleve, J.E. Jr.

    This invention is a device for fracturing particles. It is designed especially for use in hot cells designed for the handling of radioactive materials. In a typical application, the device is used to fracture a hard silicon-carbide coating present on carbon-matrix microspheres containing nuclear-fuel materials, such as uranium or thorium compounds. To promote remote control and facilitate maintenance, the particle breaker is pneumatically operated and contains no moving parts. It includes means for serially entraining the entrained particles on an anvil housed in a leak-tight chamber. The flow rate of the gas is at a value effecting fracture of the particles; preferably, it is at a value fracturing them into product particulates of fluidizable size. The chamber is provided with an outlet passage whose cross-sectional area decreases in the direction away from the chamber. The outlet is connected tangentially to a vertically oriented vortex-flow separator for recovering the product particulates entrained in the gas outflow from the chamber. The invention can be used on a batch or continuous basis to fracture the silicon-carbide coatings on virtually all of the particles fed thereto.

  1. A Pressure Controlled Pinched Flow Fractionation Device for Continuous Particle Separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas Lehrmann; Trosborg, Jacqueline; Tanzi, Simone

    2012-01-01

    In this work the problem of separating small particles of di↵erent sizes is solved by developing a simple microfluidic device using pinched flow fractionation (PFF), a technique originally presented by Yamada et al. in 2004 [1]. The present work takes the concept of PFF to the next level by makin...... Polymers GmbH) using a micro machined silicon master. The functionality of the device was confirmed using polymer beads, and by adjusting the pressure accordingly a complete separation of 2 μm and 4.5 μm beads was demonstrated....

  2. arXiv Particle identification studies with a full-size 4-GEM prototype for the ALICE TPC upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00180720; Aiola, S.; Alme, J.; Alt, T.; Amend, W.; Andronic, A.; Anguelov, V.; Appelshäuser, H.; Arslandok, M.; Averbeck, R.; Ball, M.; Barnaföldi, G.G.; Bartsch, E.; Bellwied, R.; Bencedi, G.; Berger, M.; Bialas, N.; Bialas, P.; Bianchi, L.; Biswas, S.; Boldizsár, L.; Bratrud, L.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Bregant, M.; Britton, C.L.; Brucken, E.J.; Caines, H.; Castro, A.J.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Christiansen, P.; Clonts, L.G.; Cormier, T.M.; Das, S.; Dash, S.; Deisting, A.; Dittrich, S.; Dubey, A.K.; Ehlers, R.; Erhardt, F.; Ezell, N.B.; Fabbietti, L.; Frankenfeld, U.; Gaardhøje, J.J.; Garabatos, C.; Gasik, P.; Gera, A.; Ghosh, P.; Ghosh, S.K.; Glässel, P.; Grachov, O.; Grein, A.; Gunji, T.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamar, G.; Harris, J.W.; Hehner, J.; Hellbär, E.; Helstrup, H.; Hilden, T.E.; Hohlweger, B.; Ivanov, M.; Jung, M.; Just, D.; Kangasaho, E.; Keidel, R.; Ketzer, B.; Khan, S.A.; Kirsch, S.; Klemenz, T.; Klewin, S.; Knospe, A.G.; Kowalski, M.; Kumar, L.; Lang, R.; Langoy, R.; Lautner, L.; Liebske, F.; Lien, J.; Lippmann, C.; Ljunggren, H.M.; Llope, W.J.; Mahmood, S.; Mahmoud, T.; Majka, R.; Malzacher, P.; Marín, A.; Markert, C.; Masciocchi, S.; Mathis, A.; Matyja, A.; Meres, M.; Mihaylov, D.L.; Miskowiec, D.; Mitra, J.; Mittelstaedt, T.; Morhardt, T.; Mulligan, J.; Munzer, R.H.; Münning, K.; Munhoz, M.G.; Muhuri, S.; Murakami, H.; Nandi, B.K.; Natal da Luz, H.; Nattrass, C.; Nayak, T.K.; Negrao De Oliveira, R.A.; Nicassio, M.; Nielsen, B.S.; Oláh, L.; Oskarsson, A.; Otwinowski, J.; Oyama, K.; Paić, G.; Patra, R.N.; Peskov, V.; Pikna, M.; Pinsky, L.; Planinic, M.; Poghosyan, M.G.; Poljak, N.; Pompei, F.; Prasad, S.K.; Pruneau, C.A.; Putschke, J.; Raha, S.; Rak, J.; Rasson, J.; Ratza, V.; Read, K.F.; Rehman, A.; Renfordt, R.; Richert, T.; Røed, K.; Röhrich, D.; Rudzki, T.; Sahoo, R.; Sahoo, S.; Sahu, P.K.; Saini, J.; Schaefer, B.; Schambach, J.; Scheid, S.; Schmidt, C.; Schmidt, H.R.; V Schmidt, N.; Schulte, H.; Schweda, K.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Sharma, N.; Silvermyr, D.; Singaraju, R.N.; Sitar, B.; Smirnov, N.; Sorensen, S.P.; Sozzi, F.; Stachel, J.; Stenlund, E.; Strmen, P.; Szarka, I.; Tambave, G.; Terasaki, K.; Timmins, A.; Ullaland, K.; Utrobicic, A.; Varga, D.; Varma, R.; Velure, A.; Vislavicius, V.; Voloshin, S.; Voss, B.; Vranic, D.; Wiechula, J.; Winkler, S.; Wikne, J.; Windelband, B.; Zhao, C.

    A large Time Projection Chamber is the main device for tracking and charged-particle identification in the ALICE experiment at the CERN LHC. After the second long shutdown in 2019/20, the LHC will deliver Pb beams colliding at an interaction rate of about 50 kHz, which is about a factor of 50 above the present readout rate of the TPC. This will result in a significant improvement on the sensitivity to rare probes that are considered key observables to characterize the QCD matter created in such collisions. In order to make full use of this luminosity, the currently used gated Multi-Wire Proportional Chambers will be replaced. The upgrade relies on continuously operated readout detectors employing Gas Electron Multiplier technology to retain the performance in terms of particle identification via the measurement of the specific energy loss by ionization d$E$/d$x$. A full-size readout chamber prototype was assembled in 2014 featuring a stack of four GEM foils as an amplification stage. The performance of the pr...

  3. Charged particle identification including Pions by pulse-shape discrimination with an NE213 liquid scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamoto, T.; Ishibashi, K.; Matsufuji, N.; Shigyo, N.; Maehata, K.

    1995-01-01

    Particles emitted from spallation reactions induced by protons having GeV energies were measured with an NE213 liquid scintillator, 12.7 cm in diameter and 12.7 cm thick. The pulse-shape discrimination (PSD) was carried out for charged particle identification by the two-gate integration method. Pions having energies up to 60 MeV were clearly discriminated from protons and electrons. On the contrary, pions with higher energies could not be identified since they escaped from the detector. The advantage of PSD for charged particle identification is that there is no requirement for a ΔE detector in the measurements. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  4. The HERMES recoil detector. Particle identification and determination of detector efficiency of the scintillating fiber tracker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Xianguo

    2009-11-15

    HERMES is a fixed target experiment using the HERA 27.6 GeV polarized electron/positron beams. With the polarized beams and its gas targets, which can be highly polarized, HERMES is dedicated to study the nucleon spin structure. One of its current physics programs is to measure deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS). In order to detect the recoiling proton the Recoil Detector was installed in the target region in the winter of 2005, taking data until the HERA-shutdown in the summer of 2007. The Recoil Detector measured energy loss of the traversing particles with its sub-detectors, including the silicon strip detector and the scintillating fiber tracker. This enables particle identification for protons and pions. In this work a systematic particle identification procedure is developed, whose performance is quantified. Another aspect of this work is the determination of the detector efficiency of the scintillating fiber tracker. (orig.)

  5. Particle detection and identification through Cerenkov effect in silica aerogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelmann, J.J.; Cantin, M.

    1978-01-01

    Cerenkov counters are largely used in high energy physics and in nuclear astrophysics to identify the charge of high energy particles and to measure their velocity. Good velocity resolution is obtained only near the Cerenkov threshold, which is directly dependent on the refractive index of the radiator. It is therefore very important to dispose of materials of various refractive indices. The silica aerogel allows to cover a range of indices between 1.015 and 1.2 which is intermediate between the indices given by gas and liquids. The samples most often built until now are hexagonal blocks of 1.06 refractive index and 0.24 g/cm 3 density. Blocks of one liter in volume have been assembled to form a mosaic of large dimension. For lower refractive indices, 1.015 for instance, the material becomes too brittle. So we have been led to use an aerogel sand made of aerogel grains of controlled granulometry. Radiators of both types blocks and sand are used in the franco-danish experiment to be launched aboard the NASA satellite HEAO-C in July 1979 [fr

  6. Very high momentum particle identification in ALICE at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Agocs, A; Barnafoldi, G G; Boldizsar, L; Cuautle, E; De Cataldo, G; Di Bari, D; Di Mauro, A; Dominguez, I; Fodor, Z; Futo, E; Garcia, E; Hamar, G; Harris, J W; Levai, P; Martinengo, P; Mayani, D; Molnar, L; Nappi, E; Ortiz, A; Paic, G; Perini, D; Perrino, D; Peskov, V; Piuz, F; Smirnov, N; Varga, D; Volpe, G

    2010-01-01

    We propose to construct and install a limited acceptance detector to identify hadrons (pions, K, p) up to 30 GeV/c on a track-by-track basis in space available in ALICE. Details and PID performance simulation results will be presented for two possible options, including a high transverse momentum (pT) trigger for this detector. The first option is a RICH design with a C4F10 gas UV-photon radiator, UV-mirror, quartz window and pad-readout. This design requires additional tracking detectors to enable high pT triggering. A second option is a combination of three detectors: a RICH with CF4 gas both as a UV-photon radiator and as a gas amplification medium (a windowless approach); and a threshold Cherenkov detector (C4F10) with a quartz window and pad readout. The response for minimum ionizing particles (MIP) and UV-photons in these detectors can be well separated. With an additional tracking detector this design will also provide high pT triggering. The simulation includes UV-photon production due to CF4 scintill...

  7. Recent advances in particle and droplet manipulation for lab-on-a-chip devices based on surface acoustic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhuochen; Zhe, Jiang

    2011-04-07

    Manipulation of microscale particles and fluid liquid droplets is an important task for lab-on-a-chip devices for numerous biological researches and applications, such as cell detection and tissue engineering. Particle manipulation techniques based on surface acoustic waves (SAWs) appear effective for lab-on-a-chip devices because they are non-invasive, compatible with soft lithography micromachining, have high energy density, and work for nearly any type of microscale particles. Here we review the most recent research and development of the past two years in SAW based particle and liquid droplet manipulation for lab-on-a-chip devices including particle focusing and separation, particle alignment and patterning, particle directing, and liquid droplet delivery.

  8. Kalman and particle filtering methods for full vehicle and tyre identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanski, Karol; Best, Matthew C.

    2018-05-01

    This paper considers identification of all significant vehicle handling dynamics of a test vehicle, including identification of a combined-slip tyre model, using only those sensors currently available on most vehicle controller area network buses. Using an appropriately simple but efficient model structure, all of the independent parameters are found from test vehicle data, with the resulting model accuracy demonstrated on independent validation data. The paper extends previous work on augmented Kalman Filter state estimators to concentrate wholly on parameter identification. It also serves as a review of three alternative filtering methods; identifying forms of the unscented Kalman filter, extended Kalman filter and particle filter are proposed and compared for effectiveness, complexity and computational efficiency. All three filters are suited to applications of system identification and the Kalman Filters can also operate in real-time in on-line model predictive controllers or estimators.

  9. Pseudo-random number generation for Brownian Dynamics and Dissipative Particle Dynamics simulations on GPU devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, Carolyn L.; Anderson, Joshua A.; Glotzer, Sharon C.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Molecular Dynamics codes implemented on GPUs have achieved two-order of magnitude computational accelerations. → Brownian Dynamics and Dissipative Particle Dynamics simulations require a large number of random numbers per time step. → We introduce a method for generating small batches of pseudorandom numbers distributed over many threads of calculations. → With this method, Dissipative Particle Dynamics is implemented on a GPU device without requiring thread-to-thread communication. - Abstract: Brownian Dynamics (BD), also known as Langevin Dynamics, and Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) are implicit solvent methods commonly used in models of soft matter and biomolecular systems. The interaction of the numerous solvent particles with larger particles is coarse-grained as a Langevin thermostat is applied to individual particles or to particle pairs. The Langevin thermostat requires a pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) to generate the stochastic force applied to each particle or pair of neighboring particles during each time step in the integration of Newton's equations of motion. In a Single-Instruction-Multiple-Thread (SIMT) GPU parallel computing environment, small batches of random numbers must be generated over thousands of threads and millions of kernel calls. In this communication we introduce a one-PRNG-per-kernel-call-per-thread scheme, in which a micro-stream of pseudorandom numbers is generated in each thread and kernel call. These high quality, statistically robust micro-streams require no global memory for state storage, are more computationally efficient than other PRNG schemes in memory-bound kernels, and uniquely enable the DPD simulation method without requiring communication between threads.

  10. Facial expression identification using 3D geometric features from Microsoft Kinect device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dongxu; Al Jawad, Naseer; Du, Hongbo

    2016-05-01

    Facial expression identification is an important part of face recognition and closely related to emotion detection from face images. Various solutions have been proposed in the past using different types of cameras and features. Microsoft Kinect device has been widely used for multimedia interactions. More recently, the device has been increasingly deployed for supporting scientific investigations. This paper explores the effectiveness of using the device in identifying emotional facial expressions such as surprise, smile, sad, etc. and evaluates the usefulness of 3D data points on a face mesh structure obtained from the Kinect device. We present a distance-based geometric feature component that is derived from the distances between points on the face mesh and selected reference points in a single frame. The feature components extracted across a sequence of frames starting and ending by neutral emotion represent a whole expression. The feature vector eliminates the need for complex face orientation correction, simplifying the feature extraction process and making it more efficient. We applied the kNN classifier that exploits a feature component based similarity measure following the principle of dynamic time warping to determine the closest neighbors. Preliminary tests on a small scale database of different facial expressions show promises of the newly developed features and the usefulness of the Kinect device in facial expression identification.

  11. External circuit integration with electromagnetic particle in cell modeling of plasma focus devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seng, Y. S.; Lee, P.; Rawat, R. S.

    2015-01-01

    The pinch performance of a plasma focus (PF) device is sensitive to the physical conditions of the breakdown phase. It is therefore essential to model and study the initial phase in order to optimize device performance. An external circuit is self consistently coupled to the electromagnetic particle in cell code to model the breakdown and initial lift phase of the United Nations University/International Centre for Theoretical Physics (UNU-ICTP) plasma focus device. Gas breakdown during the breakdown phase is simulated successfully, following a drop in the applied voltage across the device and a concurrent substantial rise in the circuit current. As a result, the plasma becomes magnetized, with the growing value of the magnetic field over time leading to the gradual lift off of the well formed current sheath into the axial acceleration phase. This lifting off, with simultaneous outward sheath motion along the anode and vertical cathode, and the strong magnetic fields in the current sheath region, was demonstrated in this work, and hence validates our method of coupling the external circuit to PF devices. Our method produces voltage waveforms that are qualitatively similar to the observed experimental voltage profiles of the UNU-ICTP device. Values of the mean electron energy before and after voltage breakdown turned out to be different, with the values after breakdown being much lower. In both cases, the electron energy density function turned out to be non-Maxwellian

  12. Identification of Multiple-Mode Linear Models Based on Particle Swarm Optimizer with Cyclic Network Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Hyoung Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the metaheuristic optimizer-based direct identification of a multiple-mode system consisting of a finite set of linear regression representations of subsystems. To this end, the concept of a multiple-mode linear regression model is first introduced, and its identification issues are established. A method for reducing the identification problem for multiple-mode models to an optimization problem is also described in detail. Then, to overcome the difficulties that arise because the formulated optimization problem is inherently ill-conditioned and nonconvex, the cyclic-network-topology-based constrained particle swarm optimizer (CNT-CPSO is introduced, and a concrete procedure for the CNT-CPSO-based identification methodology is developed. This scheme requires no prior knowledge of the mode transitions between subsystems and, unlike some conventional methods, can handle a large amount of data without difficulty during the identification process. This is one of the distinguishing features of the proposed method. The paper also considers an extension of the CNT-CPSO-based identification scheme that makes it possible to simultaneously obtain both the optimal parameters of the multiple submodels and a certain decision parameter involved in the mode transition criteria. Finally, an experimental setup using a DC motor system is established to demonstrate the practical usability of the proposed metaheuristic optimizer-based identification scheme for developing a multiple-mode linear regression model.

  13. Study of a charge-coupled device for high-energy-particle detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhuiya, A.H.

    1983-05-01

    This presentation is based on measurements made to evaluate the application of charge-coupled devices as detectors of high-energy particles. The experiment was performed with a Fairchild Linear 256-Cell CCD111 array (size 8μm x 17 μm/cell), utilizing a light source instead of a particle beam. It was observed that the minimum detectable signal was limited to approx. 488 electrons at -50 0 C, where the readout and exposure times were about 260 ms and 400 ms respectively. The transfer inefficiency of the CCD111 was determined to be approx. 10 -4 . It has been concluded that at a lower temperature (approx. -100 0 C) or with faster readout (approx. 10 ms), the CCD111 would be able to detect the total deposited energy of minimum-ionizing charged particles

  14. Design of a device for simultaneous particle size and electrostatic charge measurement of inhalation drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Kewu; Ng, Wai Kiong; Shen, Shoucang; Tan, Reginald B H; Heng, Paul W S

    2008-11-01

    To develop a device for simultaneous measurement of particle aerodynamic diameter and electrostatic charge of inhalation aerosols. An integrated system consisting of an add-on charge measurement device and a liquid impinger was developed to simultaneously determine particle aerodynamic diameter and electrostatic charge. The accuracy in charge measurement and fine particle fraction characterization of the new system was evaluated. The integrated system was then applied to analyze the electrostatic charges of a DPI formulation composed of salbutamol sulphate-Inhalac 230 dispersed using a Rotahaler. The charge measurement accuracy was comparable with the Faraday cage method, and incorporation of the charge measurement module had no effect on the performance of the liquid impinger. Salbutamol sulphate carried negative charges while the net charge of Inhalac 230 and un-dispersed salbutamol sulphate was found to be positive after being aerosolized from the inhaler. The instantaneous current signal was strong with small noise to signal ratio, and good reproducibility of charge to mass ratio was obtained for the DPI system investigated. A system for simultaneously measuring particle aerodynamic diameter and aerosol electrostatic charges has been developed, and the system provides a non-intrusive and reliable electrostatic charge characterization method for inhalation dosage forms.

  15. Load power device and system for real-time execution of hierarchical load identification algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Madane, Mayura Arun; Zambare, Prachi Suresh

    2017-11-14

    A load power device includes a power input; at least one power output for at least one load; and a plurality of sensors structured to sense voltage and current at the at least one power output. A processor is structured to provide real-time execution of: (a) a plurality of load identification algorithms, and (b) event detection and operating mode detection for the at least one load.

  16. A device for identification of respective images in orthogonal localization roentgenograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganchev, M.

    1977-01-01

    Some problems which might be solved with the device, originally intended for localization of implanted radioactive wires, include: conjugation check-up of orthogonal localization roentgenograms; localization of partially screened radioactive sources in the patient body; localization of Fletcher's trapezium points in the pelvis; identification of the respective images of contrast filled lymph nodes and localization of some bone hallmarks, visible only on one of two localization roentgenograms. (author)

  17. A transition radiation detector for RHIC featuring accurate tracking and dE/dx particle identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Brien, E.; Lissauer, D.; McCorkle, S.; Polychronakos, V.; Takai, H. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Chi, C.Y.; Nagamiya, S.; Sippach, W.; Toy, M.; Wang, D.; Wang, Y.F.; Wiggins, C.; Willis, W. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Cherniatin, V.; Dolgoshein, B. [Moscow Institute of Physics and Engineering, (Russian Federation); Bennett, M.; Chikanian, A.; Kumar, S.; Mitchell, J.T.; Pope, K. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)

    1991-12-31

    We describe the results of a test ran involving a Transition Radiation Detector that can both distinguish electrons from pions which momenta greater titan 0.7 GeV/c and simultaneously track particles passing through the detector. The particle identification is accomplished through a combination of the detection of Transition Radiation from the electron and the differences in electron and pion energy loss (dE/dx) in the detector. The dE/dx particle separation is most, efficient below 2 GeV/c while particle ID utilizing Transition Radiation effective above 1.5 GeV/c. Combined, the electron-pion separation is-better than 5 {times} 10{sup 2}. The single-wire, track-position resolution for the TRD is {approximately}230 {mu}m.

  18. A transition radiation detector which features accurate tracking and dE/dx particle identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, E.; Lissauer, D.; McCorkle, S.; Polychronakos, V.; Takai, H.; Chi, C.Y.; Nagamiya, S.; Sippach, W.; Toy, M.; Wang, D.; Wang, Y.F.; Wiggins, C.; Willis, W.; Cherniatin, V.; Dolgoshein, B.; Bennett, M.; Chikanian, A.; Kumar, S.; Mitchell, J.T.; Pope, K.

    1991-01-01

    We describe the results of a test run involving a Transition Radiation Detector that can both distinguish electrons from pions with momenta greater than 0.7 GeV/c and simultaneously track particles passing through the detector. The particle identification is accomplished through a combination of the detection of Transition Radiation from the electron and the differences in electron and pion energy loss (dE/dx) in the detector. The dE/dx particle separation is most efficient below 2 GeV/c while particle ID utilizing Transition Radiation is effective above 1.5 GeV/c. Combined, the electron-pion separation is better than 5 x l0 2 . The single-wire, track-position resolution for the TRD is ∼230μm

  19. Charged particle identification with the liquid Xenon calorimeter of the CMD-3 detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, V.L.; Fedotovich, G.V.; Anisenkov, A.V.; Grebenuk, A.A.; Mikhailov, K.Yu.; Kozyrev, A.A.; Shebalin, V.E.; Ruban, A.A.; Bashtovoy, N.S.

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes a procedure of particle identification with the liquid Xenon calorimeter of the CMD-3 detector currently being developed. The procedure uses the boosted decision tree classification method with specific energy losses of charged particles in the liquid Xenon calorimeter as input variables. The efficiency of the procedure is illustrated by an example of the measurement of the cross section of the process e + e − → K + K − in the center-of-mass energy range from 1.8 to 2.0 GeV.

  20. Charged Particle Identification using the Liquid Xenon Calorimeter of the CMD-3 Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Akhmetshin, R R; Anisenkov, A V; Aulchenko, V M; Banzarov, V Sh; Bashtovoy, N S; Bondar, A E; Bragin, A V; Eidelman, S I; Epifanov, D A; Epshteyn, L B; Erofeev, A L; Fedotovich, G V; Gayazov, S E; Grebenuk, A A; Gribanov, S S; Grigoriev, D N; Ignatov, F V; Ivanov, V L; Karpov, S V; Kazanin, V F; Korobov, A A; Kovalenko, O A; Kozyrev, A N; Kozyrev, E A; Krokovny, P P; Kuzmenko, A E; Kuzmin, A S; Logashenko, I B; Lukin, P A; Mikhailov, K Yu; Okhapkin, V S; Pestov, Yu N; Popov, A S; Razuvaev, G P; Ruban, A A; Ryskulov, N M; Ryzhenenkov, A E; Shebalin, V E; Shemyakin, D N; Shwartz, B A; Sibidanov, A L; Solodov, E P; Talyshev, A A; Titov, V M; Vorobiov, A I; Yudin, Yu V

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes a currently being developed procedure of the charged particle identification for CMD-3 detector, installed at the VEPP-2000 collider. The procedure is based on the application of the boosted decision trees classification method, and uses as input variables, among others, the specific energy losses of charged particle in the layers of the liquid Xenon calorimeter. The efficiency of the procedure is demonstrated by an example of the extraction of events of e+e- to K+K- process in the center of mass energy range from 1.8 to 2.0 GeV.

  1. Particle identification at LHCb: new calibration techniques and machine learning classification algorithms

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    Particle identification (PID) plays a crucial role in LHCb analyses. Combining information from LHCb subdetectors allows one to distinguish between various species of long-lived charged and neutral particles. PID performance directly affects the sensitivity of most LHCb measurements. Advanced multivariate approaches are used at LHCb to obtain the best PID performance and control systematic uncertainties. This talk highlights recent developments in PID that use innovative machine learning techniques, as well as novel data-driven approaches which ensure that PID performance is well reproduced in simulation.

  2. Particle identification aerogel counter with n=1.13 for {pi}/K separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnyakov, A.Yu.; Barnyakov, M.Yu. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 11, akademika Lavrentieva prospect, Novosobirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Beloborodov, K.I., E-mail: K.I.Beloborodov@inp.nsk.s [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 11, akademika Lavrentieva prospect, Novosobirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, 2, Pirogova Street, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Bobrovnikov, V.S.; Buzykaev, A.R. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 11, akademika Lavrentieva prospect, Novosobirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Danilyuk, A.F. [Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, 5, akademika Lavrentieva prospect, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Golubev, V.B. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 11, akademika Lavrentieva prospect, Novosobirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, 2, Pirogova Street, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Kirillov, V.L. [Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, 5, akademika Lavrentieva prospect, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Kononov, S.A. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 11, akademika Lavrentieva prospect, Novosobirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Kravchenko, E.A. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 11, akademika Lavrentieva prospect, Novosobirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, 2, Pirogova Street, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Onuchin, A.P. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 11, akademika Lavrentieva prospect, Novosobirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Martin, K.A. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 11, akademika Lavrentieva prospect, Novosobirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State Technical University, 20, Karl Marx prospect, Novosibirsk 630092 (Russian Federation); Serednyakov, S.I. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 11, akademika Lavrentieva prospect, Novosobirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, 2, Pirogova Street, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)

    2010-11-01

    The paper is devoted to the cosmic muon tests of particle identification system for the SND detector at the new VEPP-2000 e{sup +}e{sup -} collider. The goal of the tests is to measure average signal for the relativistic particles. The measurements of the average signal were done at five different points of the counter. Obtained values of the signal are close to 10 photoelectrons. Preliminary results for misidentification probability for {pi} and K mesons with the energy of 1000 MeV are presented.

  3. Particle identification in the relativistic rise region using a longitudinal drift chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arai, R; Bensinger, J; Boerner, H; Fukushima, Y; Hayashi, K; Ishihara, N; Inaba, S; Kohriki, T; Nakamura, S; Ogawa, K [National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Oho, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1983-09-01

    Particle identification by energy loss measurement was tested using a longitudinal drift chamber equipped with a 25 MHz flash ADC. For 3 GeV/c pions the resolution sigmasub(E)/E was about 5%. The separation between pions and protons at this momentum was about 4 standard deviations. The influence of a magnetic field was examined. The deterioration of the separation was less than 15% up to a field strength of 5.2 kG.

  4. Simulations and measurements of coupling impedance for modern particle accelerator devices

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2158523; Biancacci, Nicolò; Mostacci, Andrea

    In this document it has been treated the study of the coupling impedance in modern devices, already installed or not, in different particle accelerators. In the specific case: • For a device in-phase of project, several simulations for impedance calculation have been done. • For a component already realized and used, measurements of coupling impedance value have been done. Simulations are used to determine the impact of the interconnect between to magnets, designed for the future particle accelerator FCC, on the overall impedance of the machine which is about 100 km long. In particular has been done a check between theory, simulations and measurements of components already built, allowing a better and deeper study of the component we have analysed. Controls that probably will be helpful to have a clear guideline in future works. The measurements instead concern in an existing component that was already used in LHC, the longest particle accelerator ever realised on the planet, 27 km long. The coupling impe...

  5. Charge identification of highly ionizing particles in desensitized nuclear emulsion using high speed read-out system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toshito, T.; Kodama, K.; Yusa, K.; Ozaki, M.; Amako, K.; Kameoka, S.; Murakami, K.; Sasaki, T.; Aoki, S.; Ban, T.; Fukuda, T.; Naganawa, N.; Nakamura, T.; Natsume, M.; Niwa, K.; Takahashi, S.; Kanazawa, M.; Kanematsu, N.; Komori, M.; Sato, S.; Asai, M.; Koi, T.; Fukushima, C.; Ogawa, S.; Shibasaki, M.; Shibuya, H.

    2006-01-01

    We performed an experimental study of charge identification of heavy ions from helium to carbon having energy of about 290MeV/u using an emulsion chamber. Emulsion was desensitized by means of forced fading (refreshing) to expand a dynamic range of response to highly charged particles. For the track reconstruction and charge identification, the fully automated high speed emulsion read-out system, which was originally developed for identifying minimum ionizing particles, was used without any modification. Clear track by track charge identification up to Z=6 was demonstrated. The refreshing technique has proved to be a powerful technique to expand response of emulsion film to highly ionizing particles

  6. A Portable, Air-Jet-Actuator-Based Device for System Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Wayne; Belden, Jesse; Mazumdar, Anirban; Hunter, Ian

    2010-11-01

    System identification (ID) of human and robotic limbs could help in diagnosis of ailments and aid in optimization of control parameters and future redesigns. We present a self-contained actuator, which uses the Coanda effect to rapidly switch the direction of a high speed air jet to create a binary stochastic force input to a limb for system ID. The design of the actuator is approached with the goal of creating a portable device, which could deployed on robot or human limbs for in situ identification. The viability of the device is demonstrated by performing stochastic system ID on an underdamped elastic beam system with fixed inertia and stiffness, and variable damping. The non-parametric impulse response yielded from the stochastic system ID is modeled as a second order system, and the resultant parameters are found to be in excellent agreement with those found using more traditional system ID techniques. The current design could be further miniaturized and developed as a portable, wireless, on-site multi-axis system identification system for less intrusive and more widespread use.

  7. Wearable Vibrotactile Biofeedback Device Allowing Identification of Different Floor Conditions for Lower-Limb Amputees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Anson H; Wong, Duo W; Ma, Christina Z; Zhang, Ming; Lee, Winson C

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate a newly developed biofeedback device enabling lower-limb amputees to identify various floor conditions. Self-control with repeated measures (with and without the biofeedback device) within the amputee group, and group control comparing between amputee and nonamputee groups. University locomotion laboratory. Five lower-limb amputees and 8 nonamputees (N=13). A wearable biofeedback device, which identified different floor conditions by analyzing the force patterns under the prosthetic feet and provided vibration cues in response to different floor conditions, was provided to the amputees. The subjects stepped on a foam platform concealing a small object or no object at 1 of the 4 locations of the foot sole. Subjects were asked whether there was a small object under their feet and the location of the object if it existed. The test was repeated with 4 different object types and 4 object locations. The success rate of floor identification was evaluated. Without the biofeedback device, nonamputee subjects (76.56%) identified floor conditions better than amputees (22.5%) significantly (Pdevice, the amputees significantly improved (Pdevice, amputees significantly improved their abilities in identifying different floor conditions. Future attempts could configure the device to allow it to provide warning signals in response to fall-inducing conditions. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Study on edge plasma physics and particle control in the Heliotron-E device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizuuchi, T; Obiki, T; Noda, N; Matsuura, H; Kondo, K; Akaishi, K; Motojima, O; Kaneko, H; Zushi, H; Takeiri, Y

    1989-04-01

    The edge plasma physics and the particle control under the intrinsic magnetic limiter configuration of a helical system have been studied with the Heliotron-E device, where currentless plasmas of T/sub e//le/1-2 keV, T/sub i//le/1 keV and anti n/sub e//le/2x10/sup 20//m/sup 3/ are produced by a combination of ECRH, NBI and/or ICRH. It is indicated that the separatrix region of the heliotron device is able to act as a divertor magnetic field. According to calculations of the magnetic field line in the edge region, the separatrix region has some different characteristics from the scrape-off layer in tokamak devices; the existence of a fine structure in the separatrix region and asymmetry of the region in toroidal and poloidal directions are observed. A localized pattern of the heat load on the first wall is experimentally observed. This agrees with the heat-load profile expected from the magnetic configuration and the distribution of the plasma in the edge region. A carbonization of the first wall is successfully applied to the Heliotron E device for reduction of metallic impurity contents. The heat load at the divertor trace decreased and that on the other part of the first wall increased in the high recycling conditions after the carbonization. (orig.).

  9. Automatic cell identification and visualization using digital holographic microscopy with head mounted augmented reality devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Timothy; Rawat, Siddharth; Markman, Adam; Javidi, Bahram

    2018-03-01

    We propose a compact imaging system that integrates an augmented reality head mounted device with digital holographic microscopy for automated cell identification and visualization. A shearing interferometer is used to produce holograms of biological cells, which are recorded using customized smart glasses containing an external camera. After image acquisition, segmentation is performed to isolate regions of interest containing biological cells in the field-of-view, followed by digital reconstruction of the cells, which is used to generate a three-dimensional (3D) pseudocolor optical path length profile. Morphological features are extracted from the cell's optical path length map, including mean optical path length, coefficient of variation, optical volume, projected area, projected area to optical volume ratio, cell skewness, and cell kurtosis. Classification is performed using the random forest classifier, support vector machines, and K-nearest neighbor, and the results are compared. Finally, the augmented reality device displays the cell's pseudocolor 3D rendering of its optical path length profile, extracted features, and the identified cell's type or class. The proposed system could allow a healthcare worker to quickly visualize cells using augmented reality smart glasses and extract the relevant information for rapid diagnosis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the integration of digital holographic microscopy with augmented reality devices for automated cell identification and visualization.

  10. Study of the loss cone feature using neutral particle analyzer in large helical device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, T.; Goncharov, P.; Sudo, S.; Sanuki, H.; Watanabe, T.; Murakami, S.

    2005-01-01

    It is very important to control the trapped particle by the helical ripple to realize the helical type plasma fusion device. High-energy particles generated by the ion cyclotron resonance heating and the neutral beam injection (NBI) heating have a wide pitch angle distribution by the initial heating mechanism and the atomic process in plasma. The particle with large pitch angle has a complicated orbit, sometimes the loss orbit at certain energy and pitch angle, although the particle with large parallel component against magnetic field line is well confined along the magnetic surface. The loss region in the phase space, so call a loss cone, can be clarified by measuring the pitch angle distribution of the high-energy particle. To this purpose, the lost ion has been directly measured near the plasma. Here the charge exchange neutral particle between the high-energy ion and the background neutral is measured to obtain the pitch angle of the high-energy ion in the plasma. In the large helical device (LHD), we have used two different neutral particle analyzers, the time-of-flight (TOF-NPA) and the silicon detector (SD-NPA) neutral particle analyzer. NBI heating in long discharge is suitable for this purpose in LHD. Three NBIs are tangentially injected to minimize the particle number toward the loss cone region in LHD. The energy of the high-energy ion supplied from NBI decreases by the plasma electron. The pitch angle scattering is occurred by the plasma ion at the energy of the several times of the electron temperature. Therefore we can easily compare the experimental pitch angle distribution with the simulation result, which is obtained by considering the initial pitch angle distribution and the atomic process. The pitch angle distribution from 40 to 100 degrees can be obtained by horizontal scanning the TOF-NPA during the long discharge over 100 seconds sustained by the NBI 2 (co-injection) at the magnetic axis (R ax ) of 3.6 m. The trapped particle by the helical

  11. Identification of microfluidic two-phase flow patterns in lab-on-chip devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhaochu; Dong, Tao; Halvorsen, Einar

    2014-01-01

    This work describes a capacitive sensor for identification of microfluidic two-phase flow in lab-on-chip devices. With interdigital electrodes and thin insulation layer utilized, this sensor is capable of being integrated with the microsystems easily. Transducing principle and design considerations are presented with respect to the microfluidic gas/liquid flow patterns. Numerical simulation results verify the operational principle. And the factors affecting the performance of the sensor are discussed. Besides, a feasible process flow for the fabrication is also proposed.

  12. Identification performance of homeland security pocket and fixed devices for masking scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulcz, Francis; Gunnink, Ray; Giribaldi, Vincent; Ellenboegen, Michal

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The paper presents the principle and results of recent tests of the spectrometric pocket radiation detector PDS100GN/ID and of the spectrometric portal SPIR-Ident. We have first considered the masking scenarios listed in the relevant standards of illicit trafficking. Then we considered a larger choice of realistic masking scenarios in particular, popular medical isotopes mixed with special nuclear material. We estimated through direct measurements or by simulation based on recorded or synthesized spectra the limit of imbalance that can be detected. The consequences about the use and settings of the detection and identification devices are discussed. (author)

  13. Image Information Obtained Using a Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) Camera During an Immersion Liquid Evaporation Process for Measuring the Refractive Index of Solid Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niskanen, Ilpo; Sutinen, Veijo; Thungström, Göran; Räty, Jukka

    2018-06-01

    The refractive index is a fundamental physical property of a medium, which can be used for the identification and purity issues of all media. Here we describe a refractive index measurement technique to determine simultaneously the refractive index of different solid particles by monitoring the transmittance of light from a suspension using a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. An important feature of the measurement is the liquid evaporation process for the refractive index matching of the solid particle and the immersion liquid; this was realized by using a pair of volatile and non-volatile immersion liquids. In this study, refractive indices of calcium fluoride (CaF 2 ) and barium fluoride (BaF 2 ) were determined using the proposed method.

  14. Partial fingerprint identification algorithm based on the modified generalized Hough transform on mobile device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jin; Tang, Siqi; Han, Congying; Guo, Tiande

    2018-04-01

    Partial fingerprint identification technology which is mainly used in device with small sensor area like cellphone, U disk and computer, has taken more attention in recent years with its unique advantages. However, owing to the lack of sufficient minutiae points, the conventional method do not perform well in the above situation. We propose a new fingerprint matching technique which utilizes ridges as features to deal with partial fingerprint images and combines the modified generalized Hough transform and scoring strategy based on machine learning. The algorithm can effectively meet the real-time and space-saving requirements of the resource constrained devices. Experiments on in-house database indicate that the proposed algorithm have an excellent performance.

  15. Phase identification of individual crystalline particles by combining EDX and EBSD: application to workplace aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ervik, Torunn Kringlen; Benker, Nathalie; Weinbruch, Stephan; Skogstad, Asbjørn; Thomassen, Yngvar; Ellingsen, Dag G; Berlinger, Balázs

    2018-04-01

    This paper discusses the combined use of electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX) to identify unknown phases in particulate matter from different workplace aerosols. Particles of α-silicon carbide (α-SiC), manganese oxide (MnO) and α-quartz (α-SiO 2 ) were used to test the method. Phase identification of spherical manganese oxide particles from ferromanganese production, with diameter less than 200 nm, was unambiguous, and phases of both MnO and Mn 3 O 4 were identified in the same agglomerate. The same phases were identified by selected area electron diffraction (SAED) in transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The method was also used to identify the phases of different SiC fibres, and both β-SiC and α-SiC fibres were found. Our results clearly demonstrate that EBSD combined with EDX can be successfully applied to the characterisation of workplace aerosols. Graphical abstract Secondary electron image of an agglomerate of manganese oxide particles collected at a ferromanganese smelter (a). EDX spectrum of the particle highlighted by an arrow (b). Indexed patterns after dynamic background subtraction from three particles shown with numbers in a (c).

  16. System-on-fluidics immunoassay device integrating wireless radio-frequency-identification sensor chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazawa, Yoshiaki; Oonishi, Tadashi; Watanabe, Kazuki; Shiratori, Akiko; Funaoka, Sohei; Fukushima, Masao

    2014-09-01

    A simple and sensitive point-of-care-test (POCT) device for chemiluminescence (CL) immunoassay was devised and tested. The device consists of a plastic flow-channel reactor and two wireless-communication sensor chips, namely, a photo-sensor chip and a temperature-sensor chip. In the flow-channel reactor, a target antigen is captured by an antibody immobilized on the inner wall of the flow-channel and detected with enzyme labeled antibody by using CL substrate. The CL signal corresponding to the amount of antigen is measured by a newly developed radio-frequency-identification (RFID) sensor, which enables batteryless operation and wireless data communication with an external reader. As for the POCT device, its usage environment, especially temperature, varies for each measurement. Hence, temperature compensation is a key issue in regard to eliminating dark-signal fluctuation, which is a major factor in deterioration of the precision of the POCT device. A two-stage temperature-compensation scheme was adopted. As for the first stage, the signals of two photodiodes, one with an open window and one with a sealed window, integrated on the photo-sensor chip are differentiated to delete the dark signal. As for the second stage, the differentiated signal fluctuation caused by a temperature variation is compensated by using the other sensor chip (equipped with a temperature sensor). The dark-level fluctuation caused by temperature was reduced from 0.24 to 0.02 pA/°C. The POCT device was evaluated as a CL immunoassay of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). The flow rate of the CL reagent in the flow channel was optimized. As a result, the detection limit of the POCT device was 0.08 ng/ml (i.e., 0.4 μIU/ml). Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. On the efficiency of high-energy particle identification statistical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chilingaryan, A.A.

    1982-01-01

    An attempt is made to analyze the statistical methods of making decisions on the high-energy particle identification. The Bayesian approach is shown to provide the most complete account of the primary discriminative information between the particles of various tupes. It does not impose rigid requirements on the density form of the probability function and ensures the account of the a priori information as compared with the Neyman-Pearson approach, the mimimax technique and the heristic rules of the decision limits construction in the variant region of the specially chosen parameter. The methods based on the concept of the nearest neighbourhood are shown to be the most effective one among the local methods of the probability function density estimation. The probability distances between the training sample classes are suggested to make a decision on selecting the high-energy particle detector optimal parameters. The method proposed and the software constructed are tested on the problem of the cosmic radiation hadron identification by means of transition radiation detectors (the ''PION'' experiment)

  18. Acoustic streaming in the transducer plane in ultrasonic particle manipulation devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Junjun; Glynne-Jones, Peter; Hill, Martyn

    2013-06-07

    In acoustofluidic manipulation and sorting devices, Rayleigh streaming flows are typically found in addition to the acoustic radiation forces. However, experimental work from various groups has described acoustic streaming that occurs in planar devices in a plane parallel to the transducer face. This is typically a four-quadrant streaming pattern with the circulation parallel to the transducer. Understanding its origins is essential for creating designs that limit or control this phenomenon. The cause of this kind of streaming pattern has not been previously explained as it is different from the well-known classical streaming patterns such as Rayleigh streaming and Eckart streaming, whose circulation planes are generally perpendicular to the face of the acoustic transducer. In order to gain insight into these patterns we present a numerical method based on Nyborg's limiting velocity boundary condition that includes terms ignored in the Rayleigh analysis, and verify its predictions against experimental PIV results in a simple device. The results show that the modelled particle trajectories match those found experimentally. Analysis of the dominant terms in the driving equations shows that the origin of this kind of streaming pattern is related to the circulation of the acoustic intensity.

  19. Approach for the Development of a Framework for the Identification of Activities of Daily Living Using Sensors in Mobile Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pombo, Nuno

    2018-01-01

    Sensors available on mobile devices allow the automatic identification of Activities of Daily Living (ADL). This paper describes an approach for the creation of a framework for the identification of ADL, taking into account several concepts, including data acquisition, data processing, data fusion, and pattern recognition. These concepts can be mapped onto different modules of the framework. The proposed framework should perform the identification of ADL without Internet connection, performing these tasks locally on the mobile device, taking in account the hardware and software limitations of these devices. The main purpose of this paper is to present a new approach for the creation of a framework for the recognition of ADL, analyzing the allowed sensors available in the mobile devices, and the existing methods available in the literature. PMID:29466316

  20. Approach for the Development of a Framework for the Identification of Activities of Daily Living Using Sensors in Mobile Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Ivan Miguel; Garcia, Nuno M; Pombo, Nuno; Flórez-Revuelta, Francisco; Spinsante, Susanna

    2018-02-21

    Sensors available on mobile devices allow the automatic identification of Activities of Daily Living (ADL). This paper describes an approach for the creation of a framework for the identification of ADL, taking into account several concepts, including data acquisition, data processing, data fusion, and pattern recognition. These concepts can be mapped onto different modules of the framework. The proposed framework should perform the identification of ADL without Internet connection, performing these tasks locally on the mobile device, taking in account the hardware and software limitations of these devices. The main purpose of this paper is to present a new approach for the creation of a framework for the recognition of ADL, analyzing the allowed sensors available in the mobile devices, and the existing methods available in the literature.

  1. Particle Identification performance for leptons in jets for the CLIC ILD and CLIC SiD detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Nardulli, J

    2011-01-01

    This note describes the particle identification performance for particles in jets for the CLIC ILD and CLIC SiD detector concepts as prepared in the CLIC Conceptual Design Report. The results are presented with and without the presence of the γγ → hadrons background events.

  2. Chaotic System Identification Based on a Fuzzy Wiener Model with Particle Swarm Optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong, Li; Ying-Gan, Tang

    2010-01-01

    A fuzzy Wiener model is proposed to identify chaotic systems. The proposed fuzzy Wiener model consists of two parts, one is a linear dynamic subsystem and the other is a static nonlinear part, which is represented by the Takagi–Sugeno fuzzy model. Identification of chaotic systems is converted to find optimal parameters of the fuzzy Wiener model by minimizing the state error between the original chaotic system and the fuzzy Wiener model. Particle swarm optimization algorithm, a global optimizer, is used to search the optimal parameter of the fuzzy Wiener model. The proposed method can identify the parameters of the linear part and nonlinear part simultaneously. Numerical simulations for Henón and Lozi chaotic system identification show the effectiveness of the proposed method

  3. The high energy multicharged particle exposure of the microbial ecology evaluation device on board the Apollo 16 spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, E. V.; Henke, R. P.

    1973-01-01

    The high energy multicharged cosmic-ray-particle exposure of the Microbial Ecology Evaluation Device package on board the Apollo 16 spacecraft was monitored using cellulose nitrate, Lexan polycarbonate, nuclear emulsion, and silver chloride crystal nuclear-track detectors. The results of the analysis of these detectors include the measured particle fluences, the linear energy transfer spectra, and the integral atomic number spectrum of stopping particle density. The linear energy transfer spectrum is used to compute the fractional cell loss in human kidney (T1) cells caused by heavy particles. Because the Microbial Ecology Evaluation Device was better shielded, the high-energy multicharged particle exposure was less than that measured on the crew passive dosimeters.

  4. Particle identification using dE/dx in the Mark II detector at the SLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyarski, A.; Coupal, D.P.; Feldman, G.J.; Hanson, G.; Nash, J.; O'Shaughnessy, K.F.; Rankin, P.; Van Kooten, R.

    1989-04-01

    The central drift chamber in the Mark II detector at the SLAC Linear Collider has been instrumented with 100-MHz Flash-ADCs. Pulse digitization provides particle identification through the measurement of average ionization loss in the chamber. We present the results of a study of system performance and outline the systematic corrections that optimize resolution. The data used are from a short test run at PEP with one-third of the FADCs installed and an extensive cosmic ray sample with the fully instrumented chamber. 11 refs., 9 figs

  5. Modified Particle Swarm Optimization for Blind Deconvolution and Identification of Multichannel FIR Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanagha Ali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Blind identification of MIMO FIR systems has widely received attentions in various fields of wireless data communications. Here, we use Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO as the update mechanism of the well-known inverse filtering approach and we show its good performance compared to original method. Specially, the proposed method is shown to be more robust against lower SNR scenarios or in cases with smaller lengths of available data records. Also, a modified version of PSO is presented which further improves the robustness and preciseness of PSO algorithm. However the most important promise of the modified version is its drastically faster convergence compared to standard implementation of PSO.

  6. Multiparticle magnetic spectrometer with dE/dx and TRD particle identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindenbaum, S.J.; Longacre, R.S.

    1981-01-01

    Recent advances in detector development by BNL, CCNY and other groups have made possible new designs of fast high resolution large effective solid angle magnetic multiparticle spectrometers with excellent particle tracking, momentum measurement, and identification capability. These new spectrometers are relatively compact and relatively low cost electronics have been developed for them. Thus the cost is relatively low. These techniques are applied here primarily for design of spectrometers for low p/sub t/ and other physics (at moderate and even high p/sub t/) in the ISABELLE small angle hall. However, one should keep in mind that these techniques can be utilized in many other applications

  7. Particle identification by means of fine sampling dE/dX measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imanishi, A; Ishii, T; Ohshima, T; Okuno, H; Shiino, K [Tokyo Univ., Tanashi (Japan). Inst. for Nuclear Study; Naito, F [Tokyo Univ. of Agriculture and Technology, Koganei (Japan). Faculty of Technology; Matsuda, T [Osaka Univ., Toyonaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering Science

    1983-04-01

    Identification of relativistic charged particles by means of fine sampling d E/d X measurements with a longitudinal drift chamber has been studied. Using a fast-sampling ADC (25 MHz), dE/dX was measured in a 1.4 mm gas thickness over an electron drift space of 51 mm. For the simulated 1 m long tracks of pions and electrons of 500 MeV/c, a particle separation of 10sigma - 12sigma has been obtained, where sigma is the r.m.s. resolution of the dE/dX measurement. This result with fine sampling is better by a factor of 1.7 compared to the dE/dX measurement, with 21 mm sampling thickness. Further improvement achievable by reducing the correlation between neighbouring samples and simplification of electronics by use of the delta-ray clipping method are also discussed.

  8. Particle Identification in Jets and High-Multiplicity pp Events with the ALICE TPC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)683272; Vogelsang, Werner

    The spectra of identified particles in a collision experiment comprise crucial information about the underlying physical processes. The ALICE experiment has powerful Particle IDentification (PID) capabilities, which are unique at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). In this thesis, a statistical PID method based on the specific energy loss d$E$/d$x$ in the ALICE Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is developed: the TPC Multi-Template Fit (MTF). The MTF allows for the extraction of identified charged particle spectra in a wide momentum range, which extends from about 150 MeV/$c$ to above 20 GeV/$c$. The TPC PID requires a detailed modelling of the TPC d$E$/d$x$ response for momenta above 2-3 GeV/$c$. A framework is developed that allows for the determination of the model parameters and for evaluating the PID information of charged particles. With the MTF, the transverse momentum $p_{\\mathrm{T}}$ spectra of charged pions, kaons and protons at mid-rapidity ($|\\eta| < 0.9$) are measured for pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ ...

  9. Mechanical engineering and design of silicon-based particle tracking devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, W.O.; Thompson, T.C.; Gamble, M.T.; Reid, R.S.; Woloshun, K.A.; Dransfield, G.D.; Ziock, H.J.

    1990-01-01

    The Mechanical Engineering and Electronics Division of the Los Alamos National Laboratory has been investigating silicon-based particle tracking device technology as part of the Superconducting Super Collider-sponsored silicon subsystem collaboration. Structural, thermal, and materials issues have been addressed. This paper discussed detector structural integrity and stability, including detailed finite element models of the silicon chip support and predictive methods used in designing with advanced composite materials. Electronic thermal loading and efficient dissipation of such energy using heat pipe technology has been investigated. The use of materials whose coefficients of thermal expansion are engineered to match silicon or to be near zero, as appropriate, have been explored. Material analysis and test results from radiation, chemical, and static loading are compared with analytical predictions and discussed. 1 ref., 2 figs., 1 tab

  10. Method and device for monochromatization of the internal accelerated particles beam in isochronous cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enchevich, I.B.; Dinev, D.H.

    1988-01-01

    The invention assures a reduced size of the supplementary electrode which leads to economy of a material and a more effective use of the accelerator space, where the elements of an axial injection system of the cyclotron particles can be situated. The amplitude homogeneity of the supplementary accelerating field is also improved. To the main high-frequency field, covering the whole scope of the acceleration radiuses, an additional accelerating high-frequency field is introduced comprising a part of the scope of the acceleration radiuses. The frequency of this additional accelerating high frequency field is a third harmonics of the main field frequency. The device consists of a supplementary accelerating electrode, connected to an additional resonator and an additional exciting high-frequency generator. 2 cls., 7 figs

  11. Micro-fabricated silicon devices for advanced thermal management and integration of particle tracking detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Romagnoli, Giulia; Gambaro, Carla

    Since their first studies targeting the cooling of high-power computing chips, micro-channel devices are proven to provide a very efficient cooling system. In the last years micro-channel cooling has been successfully applied to the cooling of particle detectors at CERN. Thanks to their high thermal efficiency, they can guarantee a good heat sink for the cooling of silicon trackers, fundamental for the reduction of the radiation damage caused by the beam interactions. The radiation damage on the silicon detector is increasing with temperature and furthermore the detectors are producing heat that should be dissipated in the supporting structure. Micro-channels guarantee a distributed and uniform thermal exchange, thanks to the high flexibility of the micro-fabrication process that allows a large variety of channel designs. The thin nature of the micro-channels etched inside silicon wafers, is fulfilling the physics requirement of minimization of the material crossed by the particle beam. Furthermore micro-chan...

  12. Ghost Particle Velocimetry implementation in millimeters devices and comparison with μPIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccomi, Marco; Alberini, Federico; Brunazzi, Elisabetta; Vigolo, Daniele

    2016-11-01

    Micro/milli-fluidic devices are becoming an important reference for several disciplines and are quickly increasing their applications in scientific, as well as industrial, environment. As a consequence, the development of techniques able to analyse these kinds of systems is required to allow their progress. Here we show the implementation of the Ghost Particle Velocimetry (GPV) for the flow velocity field investigation in milli-fluidic devices. This innovative technique has been recently introduced, and has been already proven to be useful in describing rapid phenomenon at a small scale. In this work, the GPV has been used to characterize the trapping of light suspended material in a branching junction. Experiments have been performed to identify the flow velocity field close to a millimeters scale T-junction, at different Reynolds numbers. Particularly interesting are the complex structures, such as vortices and recirculation zones, induced by the vortex breakdown phenomenon. The results obtained have been deeply validated and compared with the well-established μPIV, highlighting the differences in terms of qualitative and quantitative parameters. A performance comparison has been designed to underline the strengths and weaknesses of the two experimental techniques.

  13. Possibility of simulation experiments for fast particle physics in the large helical device (LHD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, K.N.; Murakami, S.; Nakajima, N.; Itoh, K.

    1995-01-01

    The confinement of fusion produced or high energy particles is one of the most important issues to be studied in the helical confinement system. A preliminary study has been carried out on the possibility of developing techniques for simulation experiments for the study of high energy particle physics in the Large Helical Device (LHD) project. Candidate methods have been considered as follows: (a) a high energy (∼ 3.5 MeV) He 0 beam injection method; (b) a medium energy (∼ 200 keV) H 0 beam injection method; (c) a method involving high energy tail production by an ICRF wave and/or a method of reaction rate enhancement by an ICRF wave; and (d) a method involving the combination of neutral beam injection and ICRF wave. Various features of each method have been considered. Although the high energy He 0 beam injection method has some advantages, the technique for production of this beam is extremely difficult because of the difficulties of the production of both negative helium and ground state neutral helium by neutralization. It is pointed out, on the other hand, that a wide range of simulation experiments for fast particle physics may be carried out even by the medium energy beam method, because the typical orbit deviation (e.g. equivalent super-banana size in a classical sense) can be largely controlled by controlling the magnetic field configuration in the case of a helical system, for example by shifting the magnetic axis. This is one of the unique features of a helical system in contrast to an axisymmetric system. (author). 12 refs, 6 figs, 2 tabs

  14. Dynamic Parameter Identification of Tool-Spindle Interface Based on RCSA and Particle Swarm Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhua Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to ensure the stability of machining processes, the tool point frequency response functions (FRFs should be obtained initially. By the receptance coupling substructure analysis (RCSA, the tool point FRFs can be generated quickly for any combination of holder and tool without the need of repeated measurements. A major difficulty in the sub-structuring analysis is to determine the connection parameters at the tool-holder interface. This study proposed an identification method to recognize the connection parameters at the tool-holder interface by using RCSA and particle swarm optimization (PSO. In this paper, the XHK machining center is divided into two components, which are the tool and the spindle assembly firstly. After that, the end point FRFs of the tool are achieved by mode superposition method. The end receptances of the spindle assembly with complicated structure are obtained by impacting test method. Through translational and rotational springs and dampers, the tool point FRF of the machining center is obtained by coupling the two components. Finally, PSO is adopted to identify the connection parameters at the tool-holder interface by minimizing the difference between the predicted and the measured tool point FRFs. Comparison results between the predicted and measured tool point FRFs show a good agreement and demonstrate that the identification method is valid in the identification of connection parameters at the tool-holder interface.

  15. Output power fluctuations due to different weights of macro particles used in particle-in-cell simulations of Cerenkov devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao, Rong; Li, Yongdong; Liu, Chunliang; Wang, Hongguang

    2016-01-01

    The output power fluctuations caused by weights of macro particles used in particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of a backward wave oscillator and a travelling wave tube are statistically analyzed. It is found that the velocities of electrons passed a specific slow-wave structure form a specific electron velocity distribution. The electron velocity distribution obtained in PIC simulation with a relative small weight of macro particles is considered as an initial distribution. By analyzing this initial distribution with a statistical method, the estimations of the output power fluctuations caused by different weights of macro particles are obtained. The statistical method is verified by comparing the estimations with the simulation results. The fluctuations become stronger with increasing weight of macro particles, which can also be determined reversely from estimations of the output power fluctuations. With the weights of macro particles optimized by the statistical method, the output power fluctuations in PIC simulations are relatively small and acceptable.

  16. Conjugate heat transfer analysis of an energy conversion device with an updated numerical model obtained through inverse identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hey, Jonathan; Malloy, Adam C.; Martinez-Botas, Ricardo; Lamperth, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Conjugate heat transfer analysis of an electric machine. • Inverse identification method for estimating the model parameters. • Experimentally determined thermal properties and electromagnetic losses. • Coupling of inverse identification method with a numerical model. • Improved modeling accuracy through introduction of interface material. - Abstract: Energy conversion devices undergo thermal loading during their operation as a result of inefficiencies in the energy conversion process. This will eventually lead to degradation and possible failure of the device if the heat generated is not properly managed. The ability to accurately predict the thermal behavior of such a device during the initial developmental stage is an important requirement. However, accurate predictions of critical temperature is challenging due to the variation of heat transfer parameters from one device to another. The ability to determine the model parameters is key to accurately representing the heat transfer in such a device. This paper presents the use of an inverse identification technique to estimate the model parameters of an energy conversion device designed for vehicular applications. To simulate the imperfect contact and the presence of insulating materials in the permanent magnet electric machine, thin material are introduced at the component interface of the numerical model. The proposed inverse identification method is used to estimate the equivalent thermal conductance of the thin material. In addition, the electromagnetic losses generated in the permanent magnet is also derived indirectly from the temperature measurement using the same method. With the thermal properties and input parameters of the numerical model obtained from the inverse identification method, the critical temperature of the device can be predicted more accurately. The deviation between the maximum measured and predicted winding temperature is less than 2.4%

  17. Optimization of FIBMOS Through 2D Silvaco ATLAS and 2D Monte Carlo Particle-based Device Simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, J.; He, X.; Vasileska, D.; Schroder, D. K.

    2001-01-01

    Focused Ion Beam MOSFETs (FIBMOS) demonstrate large enhancements in core device performance areas such as output resistance, hot electron reliability and voltage stability upon channel length or drain voltage variation. In this work, we describe an optimization technique for FIBMOS threshold voltage characterization using the 2D Silvaco ATLAS simulator. Both ATLAS and 2D Monte Carlo particle-based simulations were used to show that FIBMOS devices exhibit enhanced current drive ...

  18. Registered particles onboard identification in the various apertures of GAMMA-400 space gamma-telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhangelskaja, Irene

    2016-07-01

    GAMMA-400 (Gamma Astronomical Multifunctional Modular Apparatus) will be the gamma-telescope onboard international satellite gamma-observatory designed for particle registration in the wide energy band. Its parameters are optimized for detection of gamma-quanta with the energy ˜ 100 GeV in the main aperture. The main scientific goals of GAMMA-400 are to investigate fluxes of γ-rays and the electron-positron cosmic ray component possibly generated by dark matter particles decay or annihilation and to search for and study in detail discrete γ-ray sources, to investigate the energy spectra of Galactic and extragalactic diffuse γ-rays, and to study γ-ray bursts and γ-emission from the active Sun. This article presents analysis of detected events identification procedures and energy resolution in three apertures provide particles registration both from upper and lateral directions based on GAMMA-400 modeling due special designed software. Time and segmentation methods are used to reject backsplash (backscattering particles created when high energy γ-rays interact with the calorimeter's matter and move in the opposite direction) in the main aperture while only energy deposition analysis allows to reject this effect in the additional and lateral ones. The main aperture provides the best angular (all strip layers information analysis) and energy (energy deposition in the all detectors studying) resolution in the energy range 0.1 - 3 × 10^{3} GeV. The energy resolution in this band is 1%. Triggers in the main aperture will be formed using information about particle direction provided by time of flight system and presence of charged particle or backsplash signal formed according to analysis of energy deposition in combination of all two-layers anticoincidence systems individual detectors. In the additional aperture gamma-telescope allows to register events in the energy band 10 × 10^{-3} - 3 × 10^{3} GeV. The additional aperture energy resolution provides due to

  19. Numerical study on the complete blood cell sorting using particle tracing and dielectrophoresis in a microfluidic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Haider; Park, Cheol Woo

    2016-11-01

    In this study, a numerical model of a microfluidic device with particle tracing and dielectrophoresis field-flow fractionation was employed to perform a complete and continuous blood cell sorting. A low voltage was applied to electrodes to separate the red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets based on their cell size. Blood cell sorting and counting were performed by evaluating the cell trajectories, displacements, residence times, and recovery rates in the device. A novel numerical technique was used to count the number of separated blood cells by estimating the displacement and residence time of the cells in a microfluidic device. For successful blood cell sorting, the value of cells displacement must be approximately equal to or higher than the corresponding maximum streamwise distance. The study also proposed different outlet designs to improve blood cell separation. The basic outlet design resulted in a higher cells recovery rate than the other outlets design. The recovery rate decreased as the number of inlet cells and flow rates increased because of the high particle-particle interactions and collisions with walls. The particle-particle interactions significantly affect blood cell sorting and must therefore be considered in future work.

  20. R and D on high momentum particle identification with a pressurized Cherenkov radiator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agócs, A.G. [Wigner RCP of the HAS, Budapest (Hungary); Barile, F. [INFN Sezione di Bari and Universit´a degli Studi di Bari, Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica M. Merlin, Bari (Italy); Barnaföldi, G.G. [Wigner RCP of the HAS, Budapest (Hungary); Bellwied, R. [University of Houston, Houston (United States); Bencédi, G.; Bencze, G.; Berényi, D.; Boldizsár, L. [Wigner RCP of the HAS, Budapest (Hungary); Chattopadhyay, S. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata (India); Chinellato, D.D. [University of Houston, Houston (United States); Cindolo, F. [University of Salerno, Salerno (Italy); Cossyleon, K. [Chicago State University, Chicago, IL (United States); Das, D.; Das, K.; Das-Bose, L. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata (India); De Cataldo, G.; Di Bari, D. [INFN Sezione di Bari and Universit´a degli Studi di Bari, Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica M. Merlin, Bari (Italy); Di Mauro, A. [CERN, CH1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Futó, E. [Wigner RCP of the HAS, Budapest (Hungary); Garcia-Solis, E. [Chicago State University, Chicago, IL (United States); and others

    2014-12-01

    We report on the R and D results for a Very High Momentum Particle Identification (VHMPID) detector, which was proposed to extend the charged hadron track-by-track identification in the momentum range from 5 to 25 GeV/c in the ALICE experiment at CERN. It is a RICH detector with focusing geometry using pressurized perfluorobutane (C{sub 4}F{sub 8}O) as a Cherenkov radiator. A MWPC with a CsI photocathode was investigated as the baseline option for the photon detector. The results of beam tests performed on RICH prototypes using both liquid C{sub 6}F{sub 14} radiator (in proximity focusing geometry for reference measurements) and pressurized C{sub 4}F{sub 8}O gaseous radiator will be shown in this paper. In addition, we present studies of a CsI based gaseous photon detector equipped with a MWPC having an adjustable anode–cathode gap, aiming at the optimization of the chamber layout and performance in the detection of single photoelectrons. - Highlights: • Pressurized and heated C{sub 4}F{sub 8}O was used as Cherenkov radiator gas. • A Cherenkov angle resolution of 1.5 mrad was achieved. • The separation of electrons, pions, and kaons in a large momentum range is shown.

  1. Effects of particle's off-axis position, shape, orientation and entry position on resistance changes of micro Coulter counting devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Zhenpeng; Zhe, Jiang; Wang, Guo-Xiang

    2011-01-01

    With the recent advance in micro/nano-fabrication technology, micro Coulter counters have been widely used in detecting and characterizing micro- and nanoscale objects. In this paper, the electrical resistance change during translocation of a non-conducting particle through a channel is studied numerically. The numerical results are validated by proven analytical results available in the literature. The effects of particle's off-axis position, shape and orientation, and entry position are studied for particles with a large dynamic range. From the numerical results, a new fitted correlation is proposed that can accurately predict the resistance change caused by off-axis spherical particles regardless of their size. The shape and orientation effects of the electrical resistance change are studied by changing the axis ratio of spheroid particles and their orientation angles. Results show that a particle's shape and orientation have a significant influence on the resistance change. Simulation of an entry effect indicates that a particle starts to induce a resistance change before it enters the channel and still causes a resistance change even after the particle exits the channel completely. This study will offer some guidelines in designing and implementing Coulter counting devices and experiments, and provide insights into explaining experimental results

  2. Lepton identification at particle flow oriented detector for the future e{sup +}e{sup -} Higgs factories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Dan [IHEP, Beijing (China); LLR, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France); Ruan, Manqi [IHEP, Beijing (China); Boudry, Vincent; Videau, Henri [LLR, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France)

    2017-09-15

    The lepton identification is essential for the physics programs at high-energy frontier, especially for the precise measurement of the Higgs boson. For this purpose, a toolkit for multivariate data analysis (TMVA) based lepton identification (LICH) has been developed for detectors using high granularity calorimeters. Using the conceptual detector geometry for the Circular Electron-Positron Collider (CEPC) and single charged particle samples with energy larger than 2 GeV, LICH identifies electrons/muons with efficiencies higher than 99.5% and controls the mis-identification rate of hadron to muons/electrons to better than 1/0.5%. Reducing the calorimeter granularity by 1-2 orders of magnitude, the lepton identification performance is stable for particles with E > 2 GeV. Applied to fully simulated eeH/μμH events, the lepton identification performance is consistent with the single particle case: the efficiency of identifying all the high energy leptons in an event, is 95.5-98.5%. (orig.)

  3. Light microscopic identification and semiquantification of polyethylene particles in methylmethacrylate and paraffin-embedded experimental bone implant specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek, O; Kold, S; Overgaard, S

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the identification of polyethylene (PE) particles in relatively thick methylmethacrylate (MMA) sections widely used in bone implant research. The sensitivity and specificity were compared between decalcified paraffin-embedded oil red O (ORO) stained and MMA-e...

  4. Measures of stress corrosion cracking in the canister storage facility of spent nuclear fuel. Vol.3. Development of salt particle collection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Hirofumi; Saegusa, Toshiari

    2009-01-01

    A natural ventilation system is generally adopted for storage facilities of spent nuclear fuel. At the storage facilities of concrete casks built near the seashore, the air including the sea salt particles comes into the concrete casks and could cause SCC to the canister made of stainless steel. In this study, we proposed a salt particle collection device with a low flow resistance which does not block the air flow into the building. The effect of the device was evaluated quantitatively in laboratory experiments and in field tests. Obtained results are as follows: (1) The pressure loss of the device is smaller than one-sevenths of pressure loss of a filter used in a forced ventilation system and the efficiency of salt particle collection is more than 80% in both laboratory experiments and field tests. However, the efficiency of salt particle collection depends on the diameter of a salt particle. (2) It was clarified the diameter of the particle which can be collected by the device under the condition of the size of the device, the density and velocity of the particle. And the pressure loss of the device was evaluated. In the case of setting the device in the air inlet of a concrete cask, salt particles lager than 27μm in diameter can be collected by the device under the condition of the same pressure loss of a bard screen which opening ratio is 80%. (author)

  5. Comparison of visual and electronic devices for individual identification of dromedary camels under different farming conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caja, G; Díaz-Medina, E; Salama, A A K; Salama, O A E; El-Shafie, M H; El-Metwaly, H A; Ayadi, M; Aljumaah, R S; Alshaikh, M A; Yahyahoui, M H; Seddik, M M; Hammadi, M; Khorchani, T; Amann, O; Cabrera, S

    2016-08-01

    The camel industry uses traditional (i.e., iron brands and ear tags) and modern (i.e., microchips) identification (ID) systems without having performance results of reference. Previously iron-branded ( = 45; 1 yr) and microchipped ( = 59; 7 yr) camels showed problems of healing (8.6% of brands) and reading (only 42.9% of brands and 69.5% of microchips were readable), which made their use inadvisable. With the aim of proposing suitable ID systems for different farming conditions, an on-field study was performed using a total of 528 dromedaries at 4 different locations (Egypt, = 83; Spain, = 304; Saudi Arabia, = 90; and Tunisia, = 51). The ID devices tested were visual (button ear tags, 28.5 mm diameter, = 178; double flag ear tags, 50 by 15 mm, = 83; both made of polyurethane) and electronic (ear tags, = 90, and rumen boluses, = 555). Electronic ear tags were polyurethane-loop type (75 by 9 mm) with a container in which a 22-mm transponder of full-duplex technology was lodged. Electronic boluses of 7 types, varying in dimensions (50 to 76 mm length, 11 to 21 mm width, and 12.7 to 82.1 g weight) and specific gravity (SG; 1.49 to 3.86) and each of them containing a 31-mm transponder of half-duplex technology, were all administered to the dromedaries at the beginning of the study. When a low-SG bolus was lost, a high-SG bolus was readministered. Readability rates of each ID system were evaluated during 1 to 3 yr, according to device and location, and yearly values were estimated for comparison. On a yearly basis, visual ear tag readability was not fully satisfactory; it was lower for rectangular ear tags (66.3%) than for button ear tags (80.9%). Yearly readability of electronic ear tags was 93.7%. Bolus readability dramatically varied according to their SG; the SG 3.0 boluses were efficiently retained (99.6 to 100%) at all locations. In conclusion, according to the expected long lifespan of camels, low ID performances were observed for iron brands, injectable

  6. RADIO FREQUENCY IDENTIFICATION DEVICES: EFFECTIVENESS IN IMPROVING SAFEGUARDS AT GAS-CENTRIFUGE URANIUM-ENRICHMENT PLANTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JOE, J.

    2007-01-01

    Recent advances in radio frequency identification devices (RFIDs) have engendered a growing interest among international safeguards experts. Potentially, RFIDs could reduce inspection work, viz. the number of inspections, number of samples, and duration of the visits, and thus improve the efficiency and effectiveness of international safeguards. This study systematically examined the applications of RFIDs for IAEA safeguards at large gas-centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs). These analyses are expected to help identify the requirements and desirable properties for RFIDs, to provide insights into which vulnerabilities matter most, and help formulate the required assurance tests. This work, specifically assesses the application of RFIDs for the ''Option 4'' safeguards approach, proposed by Bruce Moran, U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), for large gas-centrifuge uranium-enrichment plants. The features of ''Option 4'' safeguards include placing RFIDs on all feed, product and tails (F/P/T) cylinders, along with WID readers in all FP/T stations and accountability scales. Other features of Moran's ''Option 4'' are Mailbox declarations, monitoring of load-cell-based weighing systems at the F/P/T stations and accountability scales, and continuous enrichment monitors. Relevant diversion paths were explored to evaluate how RFIDs improve the efficiency and effectiveness of safeguards. Additionally, the analysis addresses the use of RFIDs in conjunction with video monitoring and neutron detectors in a perimeter-monitoring approach to show that RFIDs can help to detect unidentified cylinders

  7. In-Born Radio Frequency Identification Devices for Safeguards Use at Gas-Centrifuge Enrichment Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, R.; Rosenthal, M.

    2009-01-01

    Global expansion of nuclear power has made the need for improved safeguards measures at Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plants (GCEPs) imperative. One technology under consideration for safeguards applications is Radio Frequency Identification Devices (RFIDs). RFIDs have the potential to increase IAEA inspector's efficiency and effectiveness either by reducing the number of inspection visits necessary or by reducing inspection effort at those visits. This study assesses the use of RFIDs as an integral component of the 'Option 4' safeguards approach developed by Bruce Moran, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), for a model GCEP [1]. A previous analysis of RFIDs was conducted by Jae Jo, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), which evaluated the effectiveness of an RFID tag applied by the facility operator [2]. This paper presents a similar evaluation carried out in the framework of Jo's paper, but it is predicated on the assumption that the RFID tag is applied by the manufacturer at the birth of the cylinder, rather than by the operator. Relevant diversion scenarios are examined to determine if RFIDs increase the effectiveness and/ or efficiency of safeguards in these scenarios. Conclusions on the benefits offered to inspectors by using in-born RFID tagging are presented.

  8. Development of corrosion condition sensing and monitoring system using radio-frequency identification devices (RFID)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, G.P.; Zheng, W. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Materials Technology Laboratory

    2008-05-15

    This study discussed the development of a corrosion sensing and monitoring system for military land vehicles. Radio-frequency identification device (RFID) technology uses radio waves to identify individual masses with RFID tags attached. A corrosion-sensing element was integrated with the RFID technology, which incorporated a galvanic corrosion cell designed to trigger RFID tags. Corrosion severity was then related to the galvanic current. The tag recorded the sensor reading and transmitted the data to an RFID reader. The tags consisted of a microchip and an antenna. A software development kit has also been developed to interface RFID data with existing applications. While it is currently not possible to modify the RFID tags to prevent security risks, further research is being conducted to assemble a data-logger system with corrosion probes to measure humidity, electrical resistance, and linear polarization resistance. Studies will also be conducted to assemble an active tag reader system and investigate potential modifications. 4 refs., 1 fig., 1 appendix.

  9. Device for the separation of spherically shaped fuel or breeding material particles for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyarmati, E.; Muenzer, R.

    1974-01-01

    Spherical fuel or blanket material particles are graded by diameter. The particles, which are present in a loose pebble bed, are singulized by means of a drum and by pneumatic suction. Next they pass through a drop section past an optical barrier which generates pulses corresponding to the number of particles. The particles then run through an eccentric wheel. This generates an electric voltage across a potentiometer which corresponds to the size of the particles. The slider of the potentiometer is connected with the axle of the eccentric wheel whose distance to the wall of the drop canal varies between the largest and the smallest possible diameters of the particles over half a revolution. Another barrier downstream of the eccentric wheel causes the particles to be graded in different containers in accordance with their diameters determined in this way. (DG) [de

  10. Development of an optimal filter substrate for the identification of small microplastic particles in food by micro-Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oßmann, Barbara E; Sarau, George; Schmitt, Sebastian W; Holtmannspötter, Heinrich; Christiansen, Silke H; Dicke, Wilhelm

    2017-06-01

    When analysing microplastics in food, due to toxicological reasons it is important to achieve clear identification of particles down to a size of at least 1 μm. One reliable, optical analytical technique allowing this is micro-Raman spectroscopy. After isolation of particles via filtration, analysis is typically performed directly on the filter surface. In order to obtain high qualitative Raman spectra, the material of the membrane filters should not show any interference in terms of background and Raman signals during spectrum acquisition. To facilitate the usage of automatic particle detection, membrane filters should also show specific optical properties. In this work, beside eight different, commercially available membrane filters, three newly designed metal-coated polycarbonate membrane filters were tested to fulfil these requirements. We found that aluminium-coated polycarbonate membrane filters had ideal characteristics as a substrate for micro-Raman spectroscopy. Its spectrum shows no or minimal interference with particle spectra, depending on the laser wavelength. Furthermore, automatic particle detection can be applied when analysing the filter surface under dark-field illumination. With this new membrane filter, analytics free of interference of microplastics down to a size of 1 μm becomes possible. Thus, an important size class of these contaminants can now be visualized and spectrally identified. Graphical abstract A newly developed aluminium coated polycarbonate membrane filter enables automatic particle detection and generation of high qualitative Raman spectra allowing identification of small microplastics.

  11. High resolution time-of-flight (TOF) detector for particle identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, Merlin; Lehmann, Albert; Pfaffinger, Markus; Uhlig, Fred [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg (Germany); Collaboration: PANDA-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    Several prototype tests were performed with the PANDA DIRC detectors at the CERN T9 beam line. A mixed hadron beam with pions, kaons and protons was used at momenta from 2 to 10 GeV/c. For these tests a good particle identification was mandatory. We report about a high resolution TOF detector built especially for this purpose. It consists of two stations each consisting of a Cherenkov radiator read out by a Microchannel-Plate Photomultiplier (MCP-PMT) and a Scintillating Tile (SciTil) counter read out by silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs). With a flight path of 29 m a pion/kaon separation up to 5 GeV/c and a pion/proton separation up to 10 GeV/c was obtained. From the TOF resolutions of different counter combinations the time resolution (sigma) of the individual MCP-PMTs and SciTils was determined. The best counter reached a time resolution of 50 ps.

  12. Effects of nasal drug delivery device and its orientation on sprayed particle deposition in a realistic human nasal cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xuwen; Dong, Jingliang; Shang, Yidan; Inthavong, Kiao; Tu, Jiyuan

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the effects of nasal drug delivery device and the spray nozzle orientation on sprayed droplets deposition in a realistic human nasal cavity were numerically studied. Prior to performing the numerical investigation, an in-house designed automated actuation system representing mean adults actuation force was developed to produce realistic spray plume. Then, the spray plume development was filmed by high speed photography system, and spray characteristics such as spray cone angle, break-up length, and average droplet velocity were obtained through off-line image analysis. Continuing studies utilizing those experimental data as boundary conditions were applied in the following numerical spray simulations using a commercially available nasal spray device, which was inserted into a realistic adult nasal passage with external facial features. Through varying the particle releasing direction, the deposition fractions of selected particle sizes on the main nasal passage for targeted drug delivery were compared. The results demonstrated that the middle spray direction showed superior spray efficiency compared with upper or lower directions, and the 10µm agents were the most suitable particle size as the majority of sprayed agents can be delivered to the targeted area, the main passage. This study elaborates a comprehensive approach to better understand nasal spray mechanism and evaluate its performance for existing nasal delivery practices. Results of this study can assist the pharmaceutical industry to improve the current design of nasal drug delivery device and ultimately benefit more patients through optimized medications delivery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Structure of zinc particles formed by condensation for transportation to an analytic device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barone, T.; Wochele, J.; Ludwig, C.; Schuler, A.J.; Ketterer, B.

    2002-03-01

    Aerosol containing small particles with homogeneous structural characteristics are desired for analysis in Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometer (ICP-OES). To investigate heavy metal evaporation behaviour during thermal treatment a laboratory on-line elemental analyzer has been developed. The analyzer consists of a Condensation Interface (CI) for the generation of aerosols and an ICP-OES as detector. The settings at the CI can strongly influence the particle formation, and therefore the quality of the measurements. To improve the method preliminary experiments were conducted to investigate the characteristics of zinc particles formed in the evaporation/condensation process. System conditions, such as vaporization temperature, carrier gas, and flow rate, were varied to investigate their influence on particle size, homogeneity and shape. The experiments suggest that particles vary most with temperature, lower vaporization temperatures resulted in the formation of smaller particles. (author)

  14. Influence of the pulse wave in the stratification of high density particles in a JIG device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel A. Ospina-Alarcón

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of particle motion subjected to four different pulsation profiles on a pulsated fluidized bed jig concentrator was carried out. The profiles used in the simulation were – sinusoidal, triangle, sawtooth-backward and sawtooth-forward. Two-dimensional local velocities of the water flow field were calculated from the continuity and momentum equations by CFD techniques implementing SIMPLE algorithm. The particle motion is modeled by a forces balance applying the Newton’s second law of motion. Liquid-solid interactions forces are calculated by the mathematical Euler-Lagrangian model extended to a particle suspension having a wide size and density distribution. To analyze the particle motion in jig, we derived a trajectory equation for the response time of particle that include virtual mass, gravity, pressure gradient, drag and Basset forces. The study demonstrates significant differences in the particle trajectories for various pulsation profiles applied to the boundary condition at the inlet to the jig chamber.

  15. Apparatus and method for removing particle species from fusion-plasma-confinement devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, G.W.

    1981-10-26

    In a mirror fusion plasma confinement apparatus, method and apparatus are provided for selectively removing (pumping) trapped low energy (thermal) particle species from the end cell region, without removing the still useful high energy particle species, and without requiring large power input to accomplish the pumping. Perturbation magnets are placed in the thermal barrier region of the end cell region at the turning point characteristic of trapped thermal particles, thus deflecting the thermal particles from their closed trajectory, causing them to drift sufficiently to exit the thermal barrier.

  16. A Parallel Implementation of a Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics Method on Graphics Hardware Using the Compute Unified Device Architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong Unhong; Wong Honcheng; Tang Zesheng

    2010-01-01

    The smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH), which is a class of meshfree particle methods (MPMs), has a wide range of applications from micro-scale to macro-scale as well as from discrete systems to continuum systems. Graphics hardware, originally designed for computer graphics, now provide unprecedented computational power for scientific computation. Particle system needs a huge amount of computations in physical simulation. In this paper, an efficient parallel implementation of a SPH method on graphics hardware using the Compute Unified Device Architecture is developed for fluid simulation. Comparing to the corresponding CPU implementation, our experimental results show that the new approach allows significant speedups of fluid simulation through handling huge amount of computations in parallel on graphics hardware.

  17. Optically sensitive devices based on Pt nano particles fabricated by atomic layer deposition and embedded in a dielectric stack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikhelashvili, V.; Padmanabhan, R.; Eisenstein, G. [Electrical Engineering Department, Technion, Haifa 3200 (Israel); Russell Berrie Nanotechnology Institute, Technion, Haifa 3200 (Israel); Meyler, B.; Yofis, S.; Weindling, S.; Salzman, J. [Electrical Engineering Department, Technion, Haifa 3200 (Israel); Atiya, G.; Cohen-Hyams, Z.; Kaplan, W. D. [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Technion, Haifa 3200 (Israel); Russell Berrie Nanotechnology Institute, Technion, Haifa 3200 (Israel); Ankonina, G. [Russell Berrie Nanotechnology Institute, Technion, Haifa 3200 (Israel); Photovoltaic Laboratory, Technion, Haifa 3200 (Israel)

    2015-10-07

    We report a series of metal insulator semiconductor devices with embedded Pt nano particles (NPs) fabricated using a low temperature atomic layer deposition process. Optically sensitive nonvolatile memory cells as well as optical sensors: (i) varactors, whose capacitance-voltage characteristics, nonlinearity, and peak capacitance are strongly dependent on illumination intensity; (ii) highly linear photo detectors whose responsivity is enhanced due to the Pt NPs. Both single devices and back to back pairs of diodes were used. The different configurations enable a variety of functionalities with many potential applications in biomedical sensing, environmental surveying, simple imagers for consumer electronics and military uses. The simplicity and planar configuration of the proposed devices makes them suitable for standard CMOS fabrication technology.

  18. Optically sensitive devices based on Pt nano particles fabricated by atomic layer deposition and embedded in a dielectric stack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhelashvili, V.; Padmanabhan, R.; Eisenstein, G.; Meyler, B.; Yofis, S.; Weindling, S.; Salzman, J.; Atiya, G.; Cohen-Hyams, Z.; Kaplan, W. D.; Ankonina, G.

    2015-01-01

    We report a series of metal insulator semiconductor devices with embedded Pt nano particles (NPs) fabricated using a low temperature atomic layer deposition process. Optically sensitive nonvolatile memory cells as well as optical sensors: (i) varactors, whose capacitance-voltage characteristics, nonlinearity, and peak capacitance are strongly dependent on illumination intensity; (ii) highly linear photo detectors whose responsivity is enhanced due to the Pt NPs. Both single devices and back to back pairs of diodes were used. The different configurations enable a variety of functionalities with many potential applications in biomedical sensing, environmental surveying, simple imagers for consumer electronics and military uses. The simplicity and planar configuration of the proposed devices makes them suitable for standard CMOS fabrication technology

  19. Implanting inequality: empirical evidence of social and ethical risks of implantable radio-frequency identification (RFID) devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, Torin; Fisher, Jill A

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess empirically the social and ethical risks associated with implantable radio-frequency identification (RFID) devices. Qualitative research included observational studies in twenty-three U.S. hospitals that have implemented new patient identification systems and eighty semi-structured interviews about the social and ethical implications of new patient identification systems, including RFID implants. The study identified three primary social and ethical risks associated with RFID implants: (i) unfair prioritization of patients based on their participation in the system, (ii) diminished trust of patients by care providers, and (iii) endangerment of patients who misunderstand the capabilities of the systems. RFID implants may aggravate inequalities in access to care without any clear health benefits. This research underscores the importance of critically evaluating new healthcare technologies from the perspective of both normative ethics and empirical ethics.

  20. Pseudo-random number generation for Brownian Dynamics and Dissipative Particle Dynamics simulations on GPU devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Carolyn L.; Anderson, Joshua A.; Glotzer, Sharon C.

    2011-08-01

    Brownian Dynamics (BD), also known as Langevin Dynamics, and Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) are implicit solvent methods commonly used in models of soft matter and biomolecular systems. The interaction of the numerous solvent particles with larger particles is coarse-grained as a Langevin thermostat is applied to individual particles or to particle pairs. The Langevin thermostat requires a pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) to generate the stochastic force applied to each particle or pair of neighboring particles during each time step in the integration of Newton's equations of motion. In a Single-Instruction-Multiple-Thread (SIMT) GPU parallel computing environment, small batches of random numbers must be generated over thousands of threads and millions of kernel calls. In this communication we introduce a one-PRNG-per-kernel-call-per-thread scheme, in which a micro-stream of pseudorandom numbers is generated in each thread and kernel call. These high quality, statistically robust micro-streams require no global memory for state storage, are more computationally efficient than other PRNG schemes in memory-bound kernels, and uniquely enable the DPD simulation method without requiring communication between threads.

  1. An innovative device for powders classification based on combined aerodynamic and electrostatic separation of particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piriou, Bruno; Mayer-Laigle, Claire; Maalel, Firas; Plissot, Jorys; Rouau, Xavier

    2017-06-01

    An innovative separator have been developed which aims at sorting out powders fractions according to aerodynamic and electrostatic properties of particles. The prototype is composed of a projection unit, a separation module and a classification/collection zone. The projection part is ensured by a pressurized gun. The separation module is conceived to disperse particles according to front and transverse directions. At the output of the gun, electrodes can be disposed to deviate the trajectory of charged particles. The classification part is made of a series of collecting bins. Starch, fine ash powders, and mixtures of these two materials were used to test the working of the separator. The efficiency of the separation was assessed by yields and particle sizes distribution of the collected fractions in the different bins. An aerodynamic classification was achieved along the main axis, with the finest particles crossing larger distances. With a blend of starch and ash, particles from both materials were unevenly distributed in the classifyier, opening the way to a possible separation based simply on aerodynamic properties. When an electric deviation was applied in addition to the projection of powders, the distribution of particles in the collecting part was modified.

  2. An innovative device for powders classification based on combined aerodynamic and electrostatic separation of particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piriou Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An innovative separator have been developed which aims at sorting out powders fractions according to aerodynamic and electrostatic properties of particles. The prototype is composed of a projection unit, a separation module and a classification/collection zone. The projection part is ensured by a pressurized gun. The separation module is conceived to disperse particles according to front and transverse directions. At the output of the gun, electrodes can be disposed to deviate the trajectory of charged particles. The classification part is made of a series of collecting bins. Starch, fine ash powders, and mixtures of these two materials were used to test the working of the separator. The efficiency of the separation was assessed by yields and particle sizes distribution of the collected fractions in the different bins. An aerodynamic classification was achieved along the main axis, with the finest particles crossing larger distances. With a blend of starch and ash, particles from both materials were unevenly distributed in the classifyier, opening the way to a possible separation based simply on aerodynamic properties. When an electric deviation was applied in addition to the projection of powders, the distribution of particles in the collecting part was modified.

  3. Study on the performance of the Particle Identification Detectors at LHCb after the LHC First Long Shutdown (LS1)

    CERN Document Server

    Fontana, Marianna

    2016-01-01

    During the First Long Shutdown (LS1), the LHCb experiment has introduced major modification in the data-processing procedure and modified part of the detector to deal with the increased energy and the increased heavy-hadron production cross-section. In this contribution we review the performance of the particle identification detectors at LHCb, Rich, Calorimeters, and Muon system, after the LS1

  4. The High Momentum Particle IDentification (HMPID) detector PID performance and its contribution to the ALICE physics program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Giacomo; ALICE Collaboration

    2017-12-01

    The ALICE apparatus is dedicated to study the properties of strongly interacting matter under extremely high temperature and energy density conditions. For this, enhanced particle identification (PID) capabilities are required. Among the PID ALICE detectors, the ALICE-HMPID (High Momentum Particle IDentification) detector is devoted to the identification of charged hadrons, exploiting the Cherenkov effect. It consists of seven identical RICH modules, with liquid C6F14 as Cherenkov radiator (n ≈1.298 at λ=175 nm). Photon and charged particle detection is performed by a MWPC, coupled with a pad segmented CsI coated photo-cathode. The total CsI active area is 10.3 m2. The HMPID provides 3 sigma separation for pions and kaons up to pT = 3 GeV / c and for kaons and (anti-)protons up to pT = 5 GeV / c . A review of the HMPID PID performance, in particular in the challenging central Pb-Pb collisions, and its contribution to the ALICE physics program, using the LHC RUN1 (2010-2013) and RUN2 (2015) data, are presented.

  5. Filtration device for rapid separation of biological particles from complex matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangil; Naraghi-Arani, Pejman; Liou, Megan

    2018-01-09

    Methods and systems for filtering of biological particles are disclosed. Filtering membranes separate adjacent chambers. Through osmotic or electrokinetic processes, flow of particles is carried out through the filtering membranes. Cells, viruses and cell waste can be filtered depending on the size of the pores of the membrane. A polymer brush can be applied to a surface of the membrane to enhance filtering and prevent fouling.

  6. Controlled and tunable polymer particles' production using a single microfluidic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoyav, Benzion; Benny, Ofra

    2018-04-01

    Microfluidics technology offers a new platform to control liquids under flow in small volumes. The advantage of using small-scale reactions for droplet generation along with the capacity to control the preparation parameters, making microfluidic chips an attractive technology for optimizing encapsulation formulations. However, one of the drawback in this methodology is the ability to obtain a wide range of droplet sizes, from sub-micron to microns using a single chip design. In fact, typically, droplet chips are used for micron-dimension particles, while nanoparticles' synthesis requires complex chips design (i.e., microreactors and staggered herringbone micromixer). Here, we introduce the development of a highly tunable and controlled encapsulation technique, using two polymer compositions, for generating particles ranging from microns to nano-size using the same simple single microfluidic chip design. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA 50:50) or PLGA/polyethylene glycol polymeric particles were prepared with focused-flow chip, yielding monodisperse particle batches. We show that by varying flow rate, solvent, surfactant and polymer composition, we were able to optimize particles' size and decrease polydispersity index, using simple chip designs with no further related adjustments or costs. Utilizing this platform, which offers tight tuning of particle properties, could offer an important tool for formulation development and can potentially pave the way towards a better precision nanomedicine.

  7. Application of a particle separation device to reduce inductively coupled plasma-enhanced elemental fractionation in laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillong, Marcel; Kuhn, Hans-Rudolf; Guenther, Detlef

    2003-01-01

    The particle size distribution of laser ablation aerosols are a function of the wavelength, the energy density and the pulse duration of the laser, as well as the sample matrix and the gas environment. Further the size of the particles affects the vaporization and ionization efficiency in the inductively coupled plasma (ICP). Some matrices produce large particles, which are not completely vaporized and ionized in the ICP. The previous work has shown that analytical results such as matrix-independent calibration, accuracy and precision can be significantly influenced by the particle sizes of the particles. To minimize the particle size related incomplete conversion of the sample to ions in the ICP a particle separation device was developed, which allows effective particle separation using centrifugal forces in a thin coiled tube. In this device, the particle cut-off size is varied by changing the number of turns in the coil, as well as by changing the gas flow and the tube diameter. The interaction of the laser with the different samples leads to varying particle size distributions. When carrying out quantitative analysis with non-matrix matched calibration reference materials, it was shown that different particle cut-off sizes were required depending on the ICP conditions and the instrument used for analysis. Various sample materials were investigated in this study to demonstrate the applicability of the device. For silicate matrices, the capability of the ICP to produce ions was significantly reduced for particles larger than 0.5 μm, and was dependent on the element monitored. To reduce memory effects caused by the separated particles, a washout procedure was developed, which additionally allowed the analysis of the trapped particles. These results clearly demonstrate the very important particle size dependent ICP-MS signal response and the potential of the described particle size based separator for the reduction of ICP induced elemental fractionation

  8. An on-line identification device for coal and gangue based on dual-energy γ-ray transmission and microcontroller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Guojie; Zhu Xing

    2004-01-01

    The operating principle, hardware design, software design and stabled-spectrum method of on-line identification device for coal and gangue based on dual-energy γ-ray transmission and microcontroller are introduced. The integrated linear amplifier and integrated single channel pulse height analyzer are analyzed. The on-line identification device has advantages of small size, low cost as well stabilization. (authors)

  9. The ionisation loss of relativistic charged particles in thin gas samples and its use for particle identification. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobb, J.H.; Allison, W.W.M.; Bunch, J.N.

    1976-01-01

    A brief review shows a significant discrepancy between available data and theoretical predictions on the ionisation loss of charged particles in thin gas-filled proportional counters. The discrepancy related both to the increase of the most probable loss at relativistic velocities (relativistic rise) and to the spectrum of such losses at a given velocity (the Landau distribution). The origin of this relativistic rise is discussed in simple terms and related to the phenomena of transition radiation and Cherenkov radiation. It is shown that the failure of the prediction is due to the small number of ionising collisions in a gas. This problem is overcome by using a Monte Carlo method rather than a continuous integral over the spectrum of single collision processes. A specific mode of the atomic form factors is used with a modified Born approximation to yield the differential cross sections needed for the calculation. The new predictions give improved agreement with experiment and are used to investigate the problem of identifying particles of known momenta in the relativistic region. It is shown that by measuring the ionisation loss of each particle several hundred times over 5m or more, kaon, pion and proton separation with good confidence level may be achieved. Many gases are considered and a comparison is made. The results are also compared with the velocity resolution achievable by measuring primary ionisation. (Auth.)

  10. Final report of the IAEA advisory group meeting on accelerator-based nuclear analytical techniques for characterization and source identification of aerosol particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The field of aerosol characterization and source identification covers a wide range of scientific and technical activities in many institutions, in both developed and developing countries. This field includes research and applications on urban air pollution, source apportionment of suspended particulate matter, radioactive aerosol particles, organic compounds carried on particulate matter, elemental characterization of particles, and other areas. The subject of this AGM focused on the use of accelerator-based nuclear analytical techniques for determination of elemental composition of particles (by either bulk or single particle analysis) and the use of accumulated knowledge for source identification.

  11. Final report of the IAEA advisory group meeting on accelerator-based nuclear analytical techniques for characterization and source identification of aerosol particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The field of aerosol characterization and source identification covers a wide range of scientific and technical activities in many institutions, in both developed and developing countries. This field includes research and applications on urban air pollution, source apportionment of suspended particulate matter, radioactive aerosol particles, organic compounds carried on particulate matter, elemental characterization of particles, and other areas. The subject of this AGM focused on the use of accelerator-based nuclear analytical techniques for determination of elemental composition of particles (by either bulk or single particle analysis) and the use of accumulated knowledge for source identification

  12. Development of a PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission) analysis device using an extracted proton beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saidi, A.

    1989-01-01

    The experimental device described allows the extention of the PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission) method to the analysis, by means of proton beams, of solid or liquid samples, which can not be analyzed under vacuum conditions. The homogeneity of the surfaces to be analysed and elements (in the atmosphere) which absorb X-rays must be taken into account. Liquid samples do not need special care. The results show that: at high energies, the extracted beam sensibility is of the same order of magnitude as those obtained under vacuum; at low energies, the performance under vacuum conditions is better. The particles energy losses, at the exit membrane and in the outer atmosphere, decrease the X-rays production efficiency [fr

  13. Process and devices of detection of hard electromagnetic or particle radiations using a superconducting element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drukier, A.K.; Valette, Claude; Waysand, Georges.

    1975-01-01

    The invention relates to processes and systems for the detection of hard electromagnetic or particle radiations and the sensors fitted to these systems. 'Hard radiations' means those whose energy is greater than a variable threshold, depending on the applications, but always more than 5 keV. The use of these sensors and the associated systems can therefore be envisaged in radiography and also in emission gammagraphy in the biological, anatomic and medical fields. In these processes, in order to detect a photon or a radiation particle, use is made of the transition phenomenon of a homogeneous grain of superconducting material of the first kind, from the metastable superconducting state to the normal state, under the effect of a photoelectron ejected by the impact of the photon or of the particle on the grain of superconducting material [fr

  14. Possible control scenario of radial electric field by loss-cone-particle injection into helical device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motojima, Osamu; Shishkin, A.A.; Inagaki, Shigeru; Watanabe, Kiyomasa

    1999-08-01

    The possibility of controlling the radial electric field of toroidal plasmas by injecting high energy electrons along the reversible loss cone orbit of the helical magnetic traps is investigated. It is well known that the radial electric field plays an important role in the confinement improvement scenario especially in the low collisional regime under the physics picture of neoclassical theory. For this purpose, it is made clear that the most suitable particles are transit particles, which show a transition from helically trapped orbits to blocked ones. It is also found that a parallel AC electric field launched from outside assists this transition and makes it possible for particles to penetrate deeply into the plasma. In addition we clarify that the viscosity of the plasma coupled with the helical field configuration provide a bifurcation of plasma states and its stable solution results in confinement improvement. (author)

  15. Studying fluid-to-particle heat transfer coefficients in vessel cooking processes using potatoes as measuring devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feyissa, Aberham Hailu; Christensen, Martin Gram; Pedersen, Søren Juhl

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents and demonstrates a novel idea of using spherical potatoes as a dispensable, cheap device for determining the fluid-to-particle heat transfer coefficient, hfp in vessel cooking processes. The transmission of heat through the potato can be traced by measuring the distance from...... that the method is rather precise at relevant values of hfp in vessel cooking (100–300 [W/m2K]), allowing a prediction of the centre temperature within ±0.6°C....

  16. Axisymmetric charge-conservative electromagnetic particle simulation algorithm on unstructured grids: Application to microwave vacuum electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Dong-Yeop; Omelchenko, Yuri A.; Moon, Haksu; Borges, Ben-Hur V.; Teixeira, Fernando L.

    2017-10-01

    We present a charge-conservative electromagnetic particle-in-cell (EM-PIC) algorithm optimized for the analysis of vacuum electronic devices (VEDs) with cylindrical symmetry (axisymmetry). We exploit the axisymmetry present in the device geometry, fields, and sources to reduce the dimensionality of the problem from 3D to 2D. Further, we employ 'transformation optics' principles to map the original problem in polar coordinates with metric tensor diag (1 ,ρ2 , 1) to an equivalent problem on a Cartesian metric tensor diag (1 , 1 , 1) with an effective (artificial) inhomogeneous medium introduced. The resulting problem in the meridian (ρz) plane is discretized using an unstructured 2D mesh considering TEϕ-polarized fields. Electromagnetic field and source (node-based charges and edge-based currents) variables are expressed as differential forms of various degrees, and discretized using Whitney forms. Using leapfrog time integration, we obtain a mixed E - B finite-element time-domain scheme for the full-discrete Maxwell's equations. We achieve a local and explicit time update for the field equations by employing the sparse approximate inverse (SPAI) algorithm. Interpolating field values to particles' positions for solving Newton-Lorentz equations of motion is also done via Whitney forms. Particles are advanced using the Boris algorithm with relativistic correction. A recently introduced charge-conserving scatter scheme tailored for 2D unstructured grids is used in the scatter step. The algorithm is validated considering cylindrical cavity and space-charge-limited cylindrical diode problems. We use the algorithm to investigate the physical performance of VEDs designed to harness particle bunching effects arising from the coherent (resonance) Cerenkov electron beam interactions within micro-machined slow wave structures.

  17. 7 CFR 54.2 - Designation of official certificates, memoranda, marks, other identifications, and devices for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Official device means any roller, stamp, brand or other device used under the regulations to mark any... the provisions in this part, the terms listed below shall have the respective meanings specified: (a) Official certificate means any form of certification, either written or printed, used under the regulations...

  18. Particle and energy transport studies on TFTR and implications for helium ash in future fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synakowski, E.J.; Efthimion, P.C.; Rewoldt, G.; Stratton, B.C.; Tang, W.M.; Bell, R.E.; Grek, B.; Hulse, R.A.; Johnson, D.W.; Hill, K.W.; Mansfield, D.K.; McCune, D.; Mikkelsen, D.R.; Park, H.K.; Ramsey, A.T.; Scott, S.D.; Taylor, G.; Timberlake, J.; Zarnstorff, M.C.

    1992-01-01

    Particle and energy transport in tokamak plasmas have long been subjects of vigorous investigation. Present-day measurement techniques permit radially resolved studies of the transport of electron perturbations, low- and high-Z impurities, and energy. In addition, developments in transport theory provide tools that can be brought to bear on transport issues. Here, we examine local particle transport measurements of electrons, fully-stripped thermal helium, and helium-like iron in balanced-injection L-mode and enhanced confinement deuterium plasmas on TFTR of the same plasma current, toroidal field, and auxiliary heating power. He 2+ and Fe 24+ transport has been studied with charge exchange recombination spectroscopy, while electron transport has been studied by analyzing the perturbed electron flux following the same helium puff used for the He 2+ studies. By examining the electron and He 2+ responses following the same gas puff in the same plasmas, an unambiguous comparison of the transport of the two species has been made. The local energy transport has been examined with power balance analysis, allowing for comparisons to the local thermal fluxes. Some particle and energy transport results from the Supershot have been compared to a transport model based on a quasilinear picture of electrostatic toroidal drift-type microinstabilities. Finally, implications for future fusion reactors of the observed correlation between thermal transport and helium particle transport is discussed

  19. Development of corrosion condition sensing and monitoring system using radio-frequency identification devices (RFID) : progress report 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, G.P.; Li, J.; Liu, P.; Bibby, D.; Zheng, W.; Lo, J. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Materials Technology Laboratory

    2008-12-15

    The development of a corrosion severity monitoring system that used radio-frequency identification device (RIFD) technology was discussed. A corrosion monitoring sensor was integrated with a tag modified to partially block the radio frequency signal. The metallic coating caused a frequency shift of the device's reader antenna in order to allow for the accurate characterization of metal coatings. Communications between the tag and the reader were re-established as the corrosion process gradually deteriorated the coating. The method was tested experimentally with 3 RFID systems using both active and passive tags were assembled. A passive tag was covered in aluminum foil. Results of the experiment showed that the metallic coating interfered with RFID signals. A cold-spray technology was used to coat tags with metal alloys. The surface morphology of the coatings was tested to determine optimum coating parameters. Further studies are being conducted to develop software for the technology. 4 refs., 11 figs.

  20. WE-G-204-08: Optimized Digital Radiographic Technique for Lost Surgical Devices/Needle Identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorman, A; Seabrook, G; Brakken, A; Dubois, M; Marn, C; Wilson, C; Jacobson, D; Liu, Y

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Small surgical devices and needles are used in many surgical procedures. Conventionally, an x-ray film is taken to identify missing devices/needles if post procedure count is incorrect. There is no data to indicate smallest surgical devices/needles that can be identified with digital radiography (DR), and its optimized acquisition technique. Methods: In this study, the DR equipment used is a Canon RadPro mobile with CXDI-70c wireless DR plate, and the same DR plate on a fixed Siemens Multix unit. Small surgical devices and needles tested include Rubber Shod, Bulldog, Fogarty Hydrogrip, and needles with sizes 3-0 C-T1 through 8-0 BV175-6. They are imaged with PMMA block phantoms with thickness of 2–8 inch, and an abdomen phantom. Various DR techniques are used. Images are reviewed on the portable x-ray acquisition display, a clinical workstation, and a diagnostic workstation. Results: all small surgical devices and needles are visible in portable DR images with 2–8 inch of PMMA. However, when they are imaged with the abdomen phantom plus 2 inch of PMMA, needles smaller than 9.3 mm length can not be visualized at the optimized technique of 81 kV and 16 mAs. There is no significant difference in visualization with various techniques, or between mobile and fixed radiography unit. However, there is noticeable difference in visualizing the smallest needle on a diagnostic reading workstation compared to the acquisition display on a portable x-ray unit. Conclusion: DR images should be reviewed on a diagnostic reading workstation. Using optimized DR techniques, the smallest needle that can be identified on all phantom studies is 9.3 mm. Sample DR images of various small surgical devices/needles available on diagnostic workstation for comparison may improve their identification. Further in vivo study is needed to confirm the optimized digital radiography technique for identification of lost small surgical devices and needles

  1. Simultaneous identification of optical constants and PSD of spherical particles by multi-wavelength scattering-transmittance measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun-You; Qi, Hong; Ren, Ya-Tao; Ruan, Li-Ming

    2018-04-01

    An accurate and stable identification technique is developed to retrieve the optical constants and particle size distributions (PSDs) of particle system simultaneously from the multi-wavelength scattering-transmittance signals by using the improved quantum particle swarm optimization algorithm. The Mie theory are selected to calculate the directional laser intensity scattered by particles and the spectral collimated transmittance. The sensitivity and objective function distribution analysis were conducted to evaluate the mathematical properties (i.e. ill-posedness and multimodality) of the inverse problems under three different optical signals combinations (i.e. the single-wavelength multi-angle light scattering signal, the single-wavelength multi-angle light scattering and spectral transmittance signal, and the multi-angle light scattering and spectral transmittance signal). It was found the best global convergence performance can be obtained by using the multi-wavelength scattering-transmittance signals. Meanwhile, the present technique have been tested under different Gaussian measurement noise to prove its feasibility in a large solution space. All the results show that the inverse technique by using multi-wavelength scattering-transmittance signals is effective and suitable for retrieving the optical complex refractive indices and PSD of particle system simultaneously.

  2. Active particle control experiments and critical particle flux discriminating between the wall pumping and fuelling in the compact plasma wall interaction device CPD spherical tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zushi, H.; Sakamoto, M.; Yoshinaga, T.; Higashizono, Y.; Hanada, K.; Yoshida, N.; Tokunaga, K.; Kawasaki, S.; Sato, K. N.; Nakamura, K.; Idei, H.; Hirooka, Y.; Bhattacharyay, R.; Okamoto, K.; Miyazaki, T.; Honma, H.; Nakashima, Y.; Nishino, N.; Kado, S.; Shikama, T.

    2009-01-01

    Two approaches associated with wall recycling have been performed in a small spherical tokamak device CPD (compact plasma wall interaction experimental device), that is, (1) demonstration of active particle recycling control, namely, 'active wall pumping' using a rotating poloidal limiter whose surface is continuously gettered by lithium and (2) a basic study of the key parameters which discriminates between 'wall pumping and fuelling'. For the former, active control of 'wall pumping' has been demonstrated during 50 kW RF current drive discharges whose pulse length is typically ∼300 ms. Although the rotating limiter is located at the outer board, as soon as the rotating drum is gettered with lithium, hydrogen recycling measured with H α spectroscopy decreases by about a factor of 3 not only near the limiter but also in the centre stack region. Also, the oxygen impurity level measured with O II spectroscopy is reduced by about a factor of 3. As a consequence of the reduced recycling and impurity level, RF driven current has nearly doubled at the same vertical magnetic field. For the latter, global plasma wall interaction with plasma facing components in the vessel is studied in a simple torus produced by electron cyclotron waves with I p -4 to ∼0.1 x 10 -4 Torr during the experimental campaign (∼3000 shots). In the wall pumping pressure range the wall pumping fraction is reduced with increasing surface temperature up to 150 deg. C.

  3. Functionality of road safety devicesidentification and analysis of factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeliński Łukasz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Road safety devices are designed to protect road users from the risk of injury or death. The principal type of restraint is the safety barrier. Deployed on sites with the highest risk of run-off-road accidents, safety barriers are mostly found on bridges, flyovers, central reservations, and on road edges which have fixed obstacles next to them. If properly designed and installed, safety barriers just as other road safety devices, should meet a number of functional features. This report analyses factors which may deteriorate functionality, ways to prevent this from happening and the thresholds for loss of road safety device functionality.

  4. Water and sludge treatment device provided with a system for irradiating by accelerated charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azam, Guy; Bensussan, Andre; Levaillant, Claude; Huber, Harry; Mevel, Emile; Tronc, Dominique.

    1977-01-01

    Treatment system for a fluid made up of water and sludge, provided with a system for irradiating the fluid by a beam of accelerated charged particles comprising means for obtaining a constant flow of the fluid to be treated, facilities for monitoring this flow, an irradiation channel located on the path of the beam, in which the fluid to be treated can flow, a portion of this channel having at least one window transparent to the beam of accelerated particles. A safety system associated with the system for monitoring the characteristics of the beam and with the system for monitoring the flow of the fluid to be treated, stops the flow of the fluid and the recycling of the fluid defectively treated [fr

  5. Experimental and analytical characterization of the 3D motion of particles in acoustofluidic devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossi, M.; Barnkob, Rune; Augustsson, P.

    2012-01-01

    and to examine the accuracy of analytical force predictions. Polystyrene spheres with diameter of 0.5µm and 5µm were displaced under controlled conditions in a long straight rectangular acoustofluidic microchannel, actuated in its 2-MHz resonance mode, a transverse half-wavelength standing acoustic wave......In this work we present an experimental and analytical study of the acoustophoretic motion of spherical polystyrene particles of different sizes. The primary aim is to understand the three-dimensional extension of the acoustic radiation force and the acoustic streaming-induced drag force...... for the smaller 0.5-µm particles. The experimental 3D data is used to validate new theoretical predictions of the streaming velocity....

  6. Detection of Soot Using a Resistivity Sensor Device Employing Thermophoretic Particle Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doina Lutic

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Results are reported for thermophoretic deposition of soot particles on resistivity sensors as a monitoring technique for diesel exhaust particles with the potential of improved detection limit and sensitivity. Soot with similar characteristics as from diesel exhausts was generated by a propane flame and diluted in stages. The soot in a gas flow at 240–270C∘ was collected on an interdigitated electrode structure held at a considerably lower temperature, 105–125C∘. The time delay for reaching measurable resistance values, the subsequent rate, and magnitude of resistance decrease were a function of the distance between the fingers in the electrodes and the degree of dilution of the soot containing flow. Soot deposition and subsequent removal by heating the sensor support was also performed in a real diesel exhaust. Good similarities between the behavior in our laboratory system and the real diesel exhaust were noticed.

  7. Phase identification of quasi-periodic flow measured by particle image velocimetry with a low sampling rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Chong; Wang, Hongping; Wang, Jinjun

    2013-01-01

    This work mainly deals with the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) time coefficient method used for extracting phase information from quasi-periodic flow. The mathematical equivalence between this method and the traditional cross-correlation method is firstly proved. A two-dimensional circular cylinder wake flow measured by time-resolved particle image velocimetry within a range of Reynolds numbers is then used to evaluate the reliability of this method. The effect of both the sampling rate and Reynolds number on the identification accuracy is finally discussed. It is found that the POD time coefficient method provides a convenient alternative for phase identification, whose feasibility in low-sampling-rate measurement has additional advantages for experimentalists. (paper)

  8. Application of the reduction of scale range in a Lorentz boosted frame to the numerical simulation of particle acceleration devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vay, J.; Fawley, W.M.; Geddes, C.G.; Cormier-Michel, E.; Grote, D.P.

    2009-01-01

    It has been shown that the ratio of longest to shortest space and time scales of a system of two or more components crossing at relativistic velocities is not invariant under Lorentz transformation. This implies the existence of a frame of reference minimizing an aggregate measure of the ratio of space and time scales. It was demonstrated that this translated into a reduction by orders of magnitude in computer simulation run times, using methods based on first principles (e.g., Particle-In-Cell), for particle acceleration devices and for problems such as: free electron laser, laser-plasma accelerator, and particle beams interacting with electron clouds. Since then, speed-ups ranging from 75 to more than four orders of magnitude have been reported for the simulation of either scaled or reduced models of the above-cited problems. In it was shown that to achieve full benefits of the calculation in a boosted frame, some of the standard numerical techniques needed to be revised. The theory behind the speed-up of numerical simulation in a boosted frame, latest developments of numerical methods, and example applications with new opportunities that they offer are all presented

  9. Using the combination CsI(Tl) + photodiode for identification and energy measurement of light particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guinet, D.; Chambon, B.; Cheynis, B.; Demeyer, A.; Drain, D.; Hu, X.C.; Pastor, C.; Vagneron, L.; Zaid, K.; Giorni, A.; Heuer, D.; Lleres, A.; Viano, J.B.

    1989-01-01

    The feasibility of discriminating light charged particles in charge and mass using the CsI(Tl) + photodiode combination is demonstrated. Experiment layout and results for a test using a beam of 30 MeV/nucleon α particles impinging on self-supporting gold and aluminium targets are shown

  10. α/β-particle radiation identification based on fuzzy C-means clustering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yijianxia; Yang Lu; Li Wenqiang

    2013-01-01

    A pulse shape recognition method based on fuzzy C-means clustering for the discrimination of α/βparticle was presented. A detection circuit to isolate α/β-particles is designed. Using a single probe scintillating detector to acquire α/β particles. By comparing the results to pulse amplitude analysis, it is shown that by Fuzzy C-means clustering α-particle count rate increased by 42.9% and the cross-talk ratio of α-β is decreased by 15.9% for 6190 cps 0420 αsource; β-particle count rate increased by 31.8% and the cross -talk ratio of β-α is decreased by 7.7% for 05-05β source. (authors)

  11. System Identification of a Heaving Point Absorber: Design of Experiment and Device Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Bacelli

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Empirically based modeling is an essential aspect of design for a wave energy converter. Empirically based models are used in structural, mechanical and control design processes, as well as for performance prediction. Both the design of experiments and methods used in system identification have a strong impact on the quality of the resulting model. This study considers the system identification and model validation process based on data collected from a wave tank test of a model-scale wave energy converter. Experimental design and data processing techniques based on general system identification procedures are discussed and compared with the practices often followed for wave tank testing. The general system identification processes are shown to have a number of advantages, including an increased signal-to-noise ratio, reduced experimental time and higher frequency resolution. The experimental wave tank data is used to produce multiple models using different formulations to represent the dynamics of the wave energy converter. These models are validated and their performance is compared against one another. While most models of wave energy converters use a formulation with surface elevation as an input, this study shows that a model using a hull pressure measurement to incorporate the wave excitation phenomenon has better accuracy.

  12. High Momentum Particle Identification Detector The Study of Cesium Iodide Quantum Efficiency Dependency on Substrate Material, Temperature and Quartz Window

    CERN Document Server

    Wisna, Gde Bimananda M

    2014-01-01

    The Cesium Iodide (CsI) is used as a material for detecting Cherenkov radiation produced by high momentum particle in High Momentum Particle Identification Detector (HMPID) at ALICE Experiment at CERN. This work provides investigation and analysis of The Quantum Efficiency (QE) result of CsI which is deposited on five samples substrates such as copper passivated red, copper passivated yellow, aluminium, copper coated with nickel and copper coated with nickel then coated with gold. The measurement of five samples is held under temperature $60^{0}$ C and $25^{0}$ C (room temperature) and also with optical quartz window which can be adjusted to limit the wavelength range which reach the CsI. The result shows there are dependency of substrate, temperature due to enhancement effect and also quartz windows usage on QE of CsI. The results of five samples is then compared and analyzed.

  13. Particle identification using digital pulse shape discrimination in a nTD silicon detector with a 1 GHz sampling digitizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahata, K.; Shrivastava, A.; Gore, J. A.; Pandit, S. K.; Parkar, V. V.; Ramachandran, K.; Kumar, A.; Gupta, S.; Patale, P.

    2018-06-01

    In beam test experiments have been carried out for particle identification using digital pulse shape analysis in a 500 μm thick Neutron Transmutation Doped (nTD) silicon detector with an indigenously developed FPGA based 12 bit resolution, 1 GHz sampling digitizer. The nTD Si detector was used in a low-field injection setup to detect light heavy-ions produced in reactions of ∼ 5 MeV/A 7Li and 12C beams on different targets. Pulse height, rise time and current maximum have been obtained from the digitized charge output of a high bandwidth charge and current sensitive pre-amplifier. Good isotopic separation have been achieved using only the digitized charge output in case of light heavy-ions. The setup can be used for charged particle spectroscopy in nuclear reactions involving light heavy-ions around the Coulomb barrier energies.

  14. Identification of sources of aerosol particles in three locations in eastern Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimidza, S.; Moloi, K.

    2000-07-01

    Airborne particles have been collected using a dichotomous virtual impactor at three different locations in the eastern part of Botswana: Serowe, Selibe-Phikwe, and Francistown. The particles were separated into two fractions (fine and coarse). Sampling at the three locations was done consecutively during the months of July and August, which are usually dry and stable. The sampling time for each sample was 12 hours during the day. For elemental composition, energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence technique was used. Correlations and principal component analysis with varimax rotation were used to identify major sources of aerosol particles. In all the three places, soil was found to be the main source of aerosol particles. A copper-nickel mine and smelter at Selibe-Phikwe was found to be not only a source of copper and nickel particles in Selibe-Phikwe but also a source of these particles in far places like Serowe. In Selibe-Phikwe and Francistown, car exhaust was found to be the major source of fine particles of lead and bromine.

  15. Particle identification by time-of-flight measurement in the SAPHIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann-Rothe, P.

    1993-02-01

    Using photoproduction data which have been measured with the SAPHIR-detector with different target materials (C H 2 solid , H 2 liquid , D 2 liquid ) a detailed investigation and discussion of the detectors performance to measure the time of flight of charged particles and to separate between particles of different mass has been accomplished. A FORTRAN program has been written which provides a calibration of the scintillator panels of the TOF hodoscopes, calculates correction factors for the time-walk effect an finally, by combining the time of flight with track momentum measurement, determines particle masses. The current configuration of the detector makes it possible to separate between proton and pion up to a particle momentum of 1.6 GeV/c. Proton and kaon can be separated up to a momentum of 1.3 GeV/c, kaon and pion up to a momentum of 0.85 GeV/c. (prog.) [de

  16. Particle identification by silicon detectors; Identificacao de particulas por detetores de silicio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Denison de Souza

    1997-07-01

    A method is developed for the evaluation of the energy loss, dE/dx, of a charged particle traversing a silicon strip detector. The method is applied to the DELPHI microvertex detector leading to diagrams of dE/dx versus momentum for different particles. The specific case of pions and protons is treated and the most probable value of dE/dx and the width of the dE/dx distribution for those particles in the momentum range of 0.2 GeV/c to 1.5 GeV/c, are obtained. The resolution found is 13.4 % for particles with momentum higher than 2 GeV/c and the separation power is 2.9 for 1.0 GeV/c pions and protons. (author)

  17. In Vitro Capture of Small Ferrous Particles with a Magnetic Filtration Device Designed for Intravascular Use with Intraarterial Chemotherapy: Proof-of-Concept Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabray, Marc C; Lillaney, Prasheel; Sze, Chia-Hung; Losey, Aaron D; Yang, Jeffrey; Kondapavulur, Sravani; Liu, Derek; Saeed, Maythem; Patel, Anand; Cooke, Daniel; Jun, Young-Wook; El-Sayed, Ivan; Wilson, Mark; Hetts, Steven W

    2016-03-01

    To establish that a magnetic device designed for intravascular use can bind small iron particles in physiologic flow models. Uncoated iron oxide particles 50-100 nm and 1-5 µm in size were tested in a water flow chamber over a period of 10 minutes without a magnet (ie, control) and with large and small prototype magnets. These same particles and 1-µm carboxylic acid-coated iron oxide beads were likewise tested in a serum flow chamber model without a magnet (ie, control) and with the small prototype magnet. Particles were successfully captured from solution. Particle concentrations in solution decreased in all experiments (P particles in water with a large magnet), 97% (50-100-nm particles in water with a small magnet), 99% (1-5-µm particles in water with a large magnet), 99% (1-5-µm particles in water with a small magnet), 95% (50-100-nm particles in serum with a small magnet), 92% (1-5-µm particles in serum with a small magnet), and 75% (1-µm coated beads in serum with a small magnet) lower compared with matched control runs. This study demonstrates the concept of magnetic capture of small iron oxide particles in physiologic flow models by using a small wire-mounted magnetic filter designed for intravascular use. Copyright © 2016 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Particle identification with Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) detector with high detection threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, S.; Maulik, A.; Raha, Sibaji; Saha, Swapan K.; Syam, D.

    2014-10-01

    In the present work we describe the results of studies, using accelerator data, to determine the accuracy with which particles can be identified and their energies determined with a commercially available polymer (PET) used as a Nuclear Track Detector (NTD). The achieved charge resolution was ± 1 . The initial energy of stopping particle in PET was determined with an accuracy of 10 % for ion energies above the Bragg peak.

  19. Particle identification with Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) detector with high detection threshold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dey, S. [Centre for Astroparticle Physics and Space Science, Bose Institute, Kolkata 700 091 (India); Maulik, A., E-mail: atanu.maulik@gmail.com [Centre for Astroparticle Physics and Space Science, Bose Institute, Kolkata 700 091 (India); Raha, Sibaji; Saha, Swapan K. [Centre for Astroparticle Physics and Space Science, Bose Institute, Kolkata 700 091 (India); Department of Physics, Bose Institute, Kolkata 700 009 (India); Syam, D. [Department of Physics, Barasat Government College, Kolkata 700 124 (India)

    2014-10-01

    In the present work we describe the results of studies, using accelerator data, to determine the accuracy with which particles can be identified and their energies determined with a commercially available polymer (PET) used as a Nuclear Track Detector (NTD). The achieved charge resolution was ±1. The initial energy of stopping particle in PET was determined with an accuracy of 10% for ion energies above the Bragg peak.

  20. Carbon Nano-particle Synthesized by Pulsed Arc Discharge Method as a Light Emitting Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Ramin; Ahmadi, Mohamad Taghi; Ismail, Razali

    2018-04-01

    Owing to the specific properties such as high mobility, ballistic carrier transport and light emission, carbon nano-particles (CNPs) have been employed in nanotechnology applications. In the presented work, the CNPs are synthesized by using the pulsed arc discharge method between two copper electrodes. The rectifying behaviour of produced CNPs is explored by assuming an Ohmic contact between the CNPs and the electrodes. The synthesized sample is characterized by electrical investigation and modelling. The current-voltage (I-V) relationship is investigated and bright visible light emission from the produced CNPs was measured. The electroluminescence (EL) intensity was explored by changing the distance between two electrodes. An incremental behaviour on EL by a resistance gradient and distance reduction is identified.

  1. Recent progress of ultrahigh voltage SiC devices for particle accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Kenji; Tsuji, Takashi; Shiomi, Hiromu; Mizushima, Tomonori; Yonezawa, Yoshiyuki; Kondo, Chikara; Otake, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) is the promising material for next power electronics technology used in the field such as HEV, EV, and railway, electric power infrastructure. SiC enables power devices with low loss to easily operate in an ultrahigh-voltage region because of the high breakdown electric field of SiC. In this paper, we report static and dynamic electric performances of 3300 V class SiC SBDs, IE-MOSFETs, >10 kV PiN diodes and IE-IGBTs. Especially, the electrical characteristics of IE-IGBT with the blocking voltage of 16.5 kV indicate the sufficient ability to convert the thyratron in high power RF system of an accelerator. (author)

  2. Identification, investigation and analysis of end-of-wind protection devices for vertical and incline shafts.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ottermann, RW

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence and cause of overwind and underwind events in underground mining were investigated in conjunction with devices, which are at present being applied to prevent and control such incidents. Proposals for in-shaft systems to protect...

  3. 76 FR 43691 - Unique Device Identification for Postmarket Surveillance and Enforcement; Public Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-21

    ... limited and, therefore, FDA may limit the number of participants from each organization. If time and space... with device interoperability. 15. The current and future state of MMIS and RTLS systems to support safe.... Any lessons learned that can be applied from documenting medication use. 24. How the documentation of...

  4. Identification of proteins involved in the adhesionof Candida species to different medical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-Beltrán, Arianna; López-Romero, Everardo; Cuéllar-Cruz, Mayra

    2017-06-01

    Adhesion is the first step for Candida species to form biofilms on medical devices implanted in the human host. Both the physicochemical nature of the biomaterial and cell wall proteins (CWP) of the pathogen play a determinant role in the process. While it is true that some CWP have been identified in vitro, little is known about the CWP of pathogenic species of Candida involved in adhesion. On this background, we considered it important to investigate the potential role of CWP of C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei and C. parapsilosis in adhesion to different medical devices. Our results indicate that the four species strongly adher to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) devices, followed by polyurethane and finally by silicone. It was interesting to identify fructose-bisphosphate aldolase (Fba1) and enolase 1 (Eno1) as the CWP involved in adhesion of C. albicans, C. glabrata and C. krusei to PVC devices whereas phosphoglycerate kinase (Pgk) and Eno1 allow C. parapsilosis to adher to silicone-made implants. Results presented here suggest that these CWP participate in the initial event of adhesion and are probably followed by other proteins that covalently bind to the biomaterial thus providing conditions for biofilm formation and eventually the onset of infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Raman spectroscopic identification of size-selected airborne particles for quantitative exposure assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steer, Brian; Gorbunov, Boris; Price, Mark C; Podoleanu, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present a method for the quantification of chemically distinguished airborne particulate matter, required for health risk assessment. Rather than simply detecting chemical compounds in a sample, we demonstrate an approach for the quantification of exposure to airborne particles and nanomaterials. In line with increasing concerns over the proliferation of engineered particles we consider detection of synthetically produced ZnO crystals. A multi-stage approach is presented whereby the particles are first aerodynamically size segregated from a lab-generated single component aerosol in an impaction sampler. These size fractionated samples are subsequently analysed by Raman spectroscopy. Imaging analysis is applied to Raman spatial maps to provide chemically specific quantification of airborne exposure against background which is critical for health risk evaluation of exposure to airborne particles. Here we present a first proof-of-concept study of the methodology utilising particles in the 2–4 μm aerodynamic diameter range to allow for validation of the approach by comparison to optical microscopy. The results show that the combination of these techniques provides independent size and chemical discrimination of particles. Thereby a method is provided to allow quantitative and chemically distinguished measurements of aerosol concentrations separated into exposure relevant size fractions. (paper)

  6. A Microfluidic Device with an Integrated Waveguide Beam Splitter for Velocity Measurements of Flowing Particles by Fourier Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Klaus Bo; Kwok, Y.C.; Eijkel, J.C.T.

    2003-01-01

    A microfabricated capillary electrophoresis device for velocity measurements of flowing particles is presented. It consists of a 1 x 128 planar waveguide beam splitter monolithically integrated with an electrically insulated fluidic channel network for fluorescence excitation at multiple points...... optics. The integrated planar waveguide beam splitter was, furthermore, permanently connected to the light source by a glued-on optical fiber, to achieve a robust and alignment-free operation of the system. The velocity was measured using a Fourier transformation with a Shah function, since the response...... of the fight array was designed to approximate a square profile. Deviations from this response were observed as a result of the multimode nature of the integrated waveguides....

  7. Molecular identification of polymers and anthropogenic particles extracted from oceanic water and fish stomach - A Raman micro-spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosal, Sutapa; Chen, Michael; Wagner, Jeff; Wang, Zhong-Min; Wall, Stephen

    2018-02-01

    Pacific Ocean trawl samples, stomach contents of laboratory-raised fish as well as fish from the subtropical gyres were analyzed by Raman micro-spectroscopy (RMS) to identify polymer residues and any detectable persistent organic pollutants (POP). The goal was to access specific molecular information at the individual particle level in order to identify polymer debris in the natural environment. The identification process was aided by a laboratory generated automated fluorescence removal algorithm. Pacific Ocean trawl samples of plastic debris associated with fish collection sites were analyzed to determine the types of polymers commonly present. Subsequently, stomach contents of fish from these locations were analyzed for ingested polymer debris. Extraction of polymer debris from fish stomach using KOH versus ultrapure water were evaluated to determine the optimal method of extraction. Pulsed ultrasonic extraction in ultrapure water was determined to be the method of choice for extraction with minimal chemical intrusion. The Pacific Ocean trawl samples yielded primarily polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP) particles >1 mm, PE being the most prevalent type. Additional microplastic residues (1 mm - 10 μm) extracted by filtration, included a polystyrene (PS) particle in addition to PE and PP. Flame retardant, deca-BDE was tentatively identified on some of the PP trawl particles. Polymer residues were also extracted from the stomachs of Atlantic and Pacific Ocean fish. Two types of polymer related debris were identified in the Atlantic Ocean fish: (1) polymer fragments and (2) fragments with combined polymer and fatty acid signatures. In terms of polymer fragments, only PE and PP were detected in the fish stomachs from both locations. A variety of particles were extracted from oceanic fish as potential plastic pieces based on optical examination. However, subsequent RMS examination identified them as various non-plastic fragments, highlighting the importance

  8. Expanding Single Particle Mass Spectrometer Analyses for the Identification of Microbe Signatures in Sea Spray Aerosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Camille M; Al-Mashat, Hashim; Prather, Kimberly A

    2017-10-03

    Ocean-derived microbes in sea spray aersosol (SSA) have the potential to influence climate and weather by acting as ice nucleating particles in clouds. Single particle mass spectrometers (SPMSs), which generate in situ single particle composition data, are excellent tools for characterizing aerosols under changing environmental conditions as they can provide high temporal resolution and require no sample preparation. While SPMSs have proven capable of detecting microbes, these instruments have never been utilized to definitively identify aerosolized microbes in ambient sea spray aersosol. In this study, an aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer was used to analyze laboratory generated SSA produced from natural seawater in a marine aerosol reference tank. We present the first description of a population of biological SSA mass spectra (BioSS), which closely match the ion signatures observed in previous terrestrial microbe studies. The fraction of BioSS dramatically increased in the largest supermicron particles, consistent with field and laboratory measurements of microbes ejected by bubble bursting, further supporting the assignment of BioSS mass spectra as microbes. Finally, as supported by analysis of inorganic ion signals, we propose that dry BioSS particles have heterogeneous structures, with microbes adhered to sodium chloride nodules surrounded by magnesium-enriched coatings. Consistent with this structure, chlorine-containing ion markers were ubiquitous in BioSS spectra and identified as possible tracers for distinguishing recently aerosolized marine from terrestrial microbes.

  9. Identification of tasks performed by stroke patients using a mobility assistive device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hester, Todd; Sherrill, Delsey M; Hamel, Mathieu

    2006-01-01

    of these devices. In this study, we propose the use of wearable sensors to identify tasks performed by stroke patients with a mobility assistive device. Subjects performed ten tasks with a three-axis accelerometer attached to their ankle and a neural network was trained to identify the task being performed...... tasks associated with the use of a cane. Therefore, we envision that the methodology presented in this paper could be used to evaluate the use of a cane in the context of the task being performed........ Results from 15 stroke patients indicated that these motor tasks can be reliably identified with a median sensitivity of 90 % at a median specificity of 95%. These results indicate that it is possible to use a single module with a three-axis accelerometer attached to the ankle to reliably identify motor...

  10. Simulation analysis of dust-particle transport in the peripheral plasma in the Large Helical Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoji, Mamoru; Masuzaki, Suguru; Kawamura, Gakushi; Yamada, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Yasunori; Uesugi, Yoshihiko; Pigarov, Alexander Yu.; Smirnov, Roman D.

    2014-01-01

    The function of the peripheral plasma in the Large Helical Device (LHD) on transport of dusts is investigated using a dust transport simulation code (DUSTT) in a non-axisymmetric geometry. The simulation shows that the transport of the dusts is dominated by the plasma flow (mainly by ion drag force) formed in the peripheral plasma. The trajectories of dusts are investigated in two probable situations: release of spherical iron dusts from the inboard side of the torus, and drop of spherical carbon dusts from a divertor plate installed near an edge of an upper port. The trajectories in these two situations are calculated in various sized dust cases. From a viewpoint of protection of the main plasma from dust penetration, it proves that there are two functions in the LHD peripheral plasma. One is sweeping of dusts by the effect of the plasma flow in the divertor legs, and another one is evaporation/sublimation of dusts by heat load onto the dusts in the ergodic layer. (author)

  11. Real-time Identification System using Mobile Hand-held Devices: Mobile Biometrics Evaluation Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    test server, transmit five test cases over both WIFI and 3G , and receive accurate results. The second Study output, the Mobile Biometrics Evaluation...wired (USB), near field (Bluetooth), wireless (802.11) and cellular ( 2G / 3G ) connectivity. Satellite (BGAN) devices have been deployed, in conjunction...Wireless Connectivity: 802.11b, 802.11g, Bluetooth Cellular Connectivity: GSM [ 2G ], UMTS [ 3G ] Internal RAM (GB): 128 Internal Storage (GB): 128

  12. Particle identification with neural networks using a rotational invariant moment representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinkus, Ralph; Voss, Thomas

    1997-02-01

    A feed-forward neural network is used to identify electromagnetic particles based upon their showering properties within a segmented calorimeter. A preprocessing procedure is applied to the spatial energy distribution of the particle shower in order to account for the varying geometry of the calorimeter. The novel feature is the expansion of the energy distribution in terms of moments of the so-called Zernike functions which are invariant under rotation. The distributions of moments exhibit very different scales, thus the multidimensional input distribution for the neural network is transformed via a principal component analysis and rescaled by its respective variances to ensure input values of the order of one. This increases the sensitivity of the network and thus results in better performance in identifying and separating electromagnetic from hadronic particles, especially at low energies.

  13. Particle identification with neural networks using a rotational invariant moment representation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinkus, R.

    1997-01-01

    A feed-forward neural network is used to identify electromagnetic particles based upon their showering properties within a segmented calorimeter. A preprocessing procedure is applied to the spatial energy distribution of the particle shower in order to account for the varying geometry of the calorimeter. The novel feature is the expansion of the energy distribution in terms of moments of the so-called Zernike functions which are invariant under rotation. The distributions of moments exhibit very different scales, thus the multidimensional input distribution for the neural network is transformed via a principal component analysis and rescaled by its respective variances to ensure input values of the order of one. This increases the sensitivity of the network and thus results in better performance in identifying and separating electromagnetic from hadronic particles, especially at low energies. (orig.)

  14. Particle identification with neural networks using a rotational invariant moment representation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinkus, R.

    1997-01-01

    A feed-forward neural network is used to identify electromagnetic particles based upon their showering properties within a segmented calorimeter. The novel feature is the expansion of the energy distribution in terms of moments of the so-called Zernike functions which are invariant under rotation. The multidimensional input distribution for the neural network is transformed via a principle component analysis and rescaled by its respective variances to ensure input values of the order of one. This results is a better performance in identifying and separating electromagnetic from hadronic particles, especially at low energies. (orig.)

  15. A Comparison between Temperature-Controlled Laminar Airflow Device and a Room Air-Cleaner in Reducing Exposure to Particles While Asleep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spilak, Michal; Sigsgaard, Torben; Takai, Hisamitsu

    2016-01-01

    People spend approximately one third of their life sleeping. Exposure to pollutants in the sleep environment often leads to a variety of adverse health effects, such as development and exacerbation of asthma. Avoiding exposure to these pollutants by providing a sufficient air quality in the sleep...... was significantly lower with the TLA device compared to the room air cleaner. The TLA device provided a barrier which significantly reduced the introduction of airborne particles into the breathing zone. Further studies should be conducted for the understanding of the transport of resuspended particles between...

  16. Dynamic Parameter Identification of Tool-Spindle Interface Based on RCSA and Particle Swarm Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Erhua Wang; Bo Wu; Youmin Hu; Shuzi Yang; Yao Cheng

    2013-01-01

    In order to ensure the stability of machining processes, the tool point frequency response functions (FRFs) should be obtained initially. By the receptance coupling substructure analysis (RCSA), the tool point FRFs can be generated quickly for any combination of holder and tool without the need of repeated measurements. A major difficulty in the sub-structuring analysis is to determine the connection parameters at the tool-holder interface. This study proposed an identification method to reco...

  17. Comments on the soluble particle identification by the spot test technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podzimek, Josef

    2000-01-01

    The results of old and new measurements of salt nuclei are reviewed in order to estimate the effects of particle size and of environmental humidity or temperature on the size distribution of potential cloud condensation nuclei. Several possible improvements of the sampling and evaluation technique are discussed

  18. The iPad as a mobile device for CT display and interpretation: diagnostic accuracy for identification of pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Pamela T; Zimmerman, Stefan L; Heath, David; Eng, John; Horton, Karen M; Scott, William W; Fishman, Elliot K

    2012-08-01

    Recent software developments enable interactive, real-time axial, 2D and 3D CT display on an iPad by cloud computing from a server for remote rendering. The purpose of this study was to compare radiologists' interpretative performance on the iPad to interpretation on the conventional picture archive and communication system (PACS). Fifty de-identified contrast-enhanced CT exams performed for suspected pulmonary embolism were compiled as an educational tool to prepare our residents for night call. Two junior radiology attendings blindly interpreted the cases twice, one reader used the PACS first, and the other interpreted on the iPad first. After an interval of at least 2 weeks, the cases were reinterpreted in different order using the other display technique. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for identification of pulmonary embolism were compared for each interpretation method. Pulmonary embolism was present in 25 patients, ranging from main pulmonary artery to subsegmental thrombi. Both readers interpreted 98 % of cases correctly regardless of display platform. There was no significant difference in sensitivity (98 vs 100 %, p = 1.0), specificity (98 vs 96 %, p = 1.0), or accuracy (98 vs 98 %, p = 1.0) for interpretation with the iPad vs the PACS, respectively. CT interpretation on an iPad enabled accurate identification of pulmonary embolism, equivalent to display on the PACS. This mobile device has the potential to expand radiologists' availability for consultation and expedite emergency patient management.

  19. EMPLOYMENT OF ATMS TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICE DATA TO ASSIST IN IDENTIFICATION OF CRASH-PRONE INTERSECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin P. HWANG

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper employs information from the advanced traffic management system (ATMS of Kaohsiung, Taiwan to help differentiate those crash-prone intersections by discriminant analysis. From the 25,604 records of 2005, 1977 crashes that occurred at 119 intersections with traffic exposure data were compiled to calibrate and validate the model. The road attributes of crash records, traffic control devices and movement exposure are the three types of data used as predicting variables. The correct ratios for model calibration and validation range from 78.33% to 67.80%. if traffic movements are removed, the correct ratios become slightly lowered to 76.67% to 66.10%. Research findings reveal that with or without inclusion of exposure data in identifying high crash-prone intersections for an urban environment does not make a significant difference. in addition, layout and traffic control devices could possibly explain about 66.10 ∼ 78.33% of the possibility that an intersection will become a high crash intersection. it suggests that the developed approach could be a countermeasure for budget constraints and difficulties in continuation of exposure data collection, and the information of ATMS could help identify crash-prone urban intersections.

  20. A new wireless detection device for the in-situ identification of Salmonella Typhimurium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Yating; Wikle, Howard C.; Park, Mi-kyung; Horikawa, Shin; Hong, Xie; Chin, Bryan A.

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents a new device and method for the in-situ detection of Salmonella Typhimurium on tomato surfaces. This real-time in-situ detection was accomplished with phage-based magnetoelastic (ME) biosensors on fresh food surfaces. The E2 phage from a landscape phage library serves as the bio-recognition element that has the capability of binding specifically with S. Typhimurium. This mass-sensitive ME biosensor is wirelessly actuated into mechanical resonance by an externally applied time-varying magnetic field. When the biosensor binds with S. Typhimurium, the mass of the sensor increases, resulting in a decrease in the sensor's resonant frequency. Until now, ME sensors had to be collected from the tomato surface where they are exposed to S. Typhimurium and inserted into a measurement coil for the detection of the bacterium. In contrast, the newly designed test device allows the whole detection process to take place directly on the tomato. Changes in resonant frequency over time due to the accumulation of S. Typhimurium on the sensor were measured and are presented. Real-time in-situ detection of 20 minutes was achieved. In addition, this new methodology effectively decreases the measurement error and enables the simultaneous detection of multiple pathogens.

  1. Beam-Based Error Identification and Correction Methods for Particle Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)692826; Tomas, Rogelio; Nilsson, Thomas

    2014-06-10

    Modern particle accelerators have tight tolerances on the acceptable deviation from their desired machine parameters. The control of the parameters is of crucial importance for safe machine operation and performance. This thesis focuses on beam-based methods and algorithms to identify and correct errors in particle accelerators. The optics measurements and corrections of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), which resulted in an unprecedented low β-beat for a hadron collider is described. The transverse coupling is another parameter which is of importance to control. Improvement in the reconstruction of the coupling from turn-by-turn data has resulted in a significant decrease of the measurement uncertainty. An automatic coupling correction method, which is based on the injected beam oscillations, has been successfully used in normal operation of the LHC. Furthermore, a new method to measure and correct chromatic coupling that was applied to the LHC, is described. It resulted in a decrease of the chromatic coupli...

  2. Identification of hydrodynamic forces around 3D surrogates using particle image velocimetry in a microfluidic channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshar, Sepideh; Nath, Shubhankar; Demirci, Utkan; Hasan, Tayyaba; Scarcelli, Giuliano; Rizvi, Imran; Franco, Walfre

    2018-02-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that flow-induced shear stress induces a motile and aggressive tumor phenotype in a microfluidic model of 3D ovarian cancer. However, the magnitude and distribution of the hydrodynamic forces that influence this biological modulation on the 3D cancer nodules are not known. We have developed a series of numerical and experimental tools to identify these forces within a 3D microchannel. In this work, we used particle image velocimetry (PIV) to find the velocity profile using fluorescent micro-spheres as surrogates and nano-particles as tracers, from which hydrodynamic forces can be derived. The fluid velocity is obtained by imaging the trajectory of a range of florescence nano-particles (500-800 μm) via confocal microscopy. Imaging was done at different horizontal planes and with a 50 μm bead as the surrogate. For an inlet current rate of 2 μl/s, the maximum velocity at the center of the channel was 51 μm/s. The velocity profile around the sphere was symmetric which is expected since the flow is dominated by viscous forces as opposed to inertial forces. The confocal PIV was successfully employed in finding the velocity profile in a microchannel with a nodule surrogate; therefore, it seems feasible to use PIV to investigate the hydrodynamic forces around 3D biological models.

  3. Localisation and identification of radioactive particles in solid samples by means of a nuclear track technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehnke, Antje; Treutler, Hanns-Christian; Freyer, Klaus; Schubert, Michael; Holger Weiss

    2005-01-01

    This study is aimed to develop a generally applicable methodology of investigation that can be used for the localisation of single alpha-active particles in solid samples, such as industrial dust or natural soils, sediments and rocks by autoradiography using solid-state nuclear track detectors. The developed technique allows the detection of local enrichments of alpha-emitters in any solid material. The results of such an investigation are of interest from technical, biological and environmental points of view. The idea behind the methodology is to locate the position of alpha-active spots in a sample by attaching the track detector to the sample in a defined manner, thoroughly described in the paper. The located alpha-active particles are subsequently analysed by an electron microscope and an electron microprobe. An example of the application of this methodology is also given. An ultra-fine -grained ore-processing residue, which causes serious environmental pollution in the respective mining district and thus limits possible land use and affects quality of life in the area, was examined using the described technique. The investigation revealed considerable amounts of alpha-active particles in this material

  4. SEM-EDX IDENTIFICATION OF PARTICLES FROM FOG IN AN INDUSTRIALLY POLLUTED REGION OF CZECH REPUBLIC

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stoyanova, V.; Shoumkova, A.; Fišák, Jaroslav; Tsacheva, Ts.

    Vol. II - BUA32, č. 1 (2010), s. 269-276 ISSN 1314-2704. [International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference SGEM 2010 /10./. Albena, 20.06.2010-26.06.2010] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : SEM-EDX * solid atmospheric pollutants * trace elements * heavy metals * Czech Republic Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology http://www.ipc.bas.bg/PPages/Shoumkova/Publications/Articles/2010%20SEM-EDX%20identification%20of%20FP.pdf

  5. Muon Identification in Hadron Calorimeter at DELPHI and Muons as P robes of Particle Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Ridky, Jan

    2007-01-01

    The presented dissertation consists of the papers [A.1, A.2, A.3, A.4, A.5, A.6, A.7] on DELPHI hadron calorimeter (HAC) [B.1]. These papers deal with signal simulations, performance and major upgrade of HAC after the period LEP1 (production of Z 0 around the resonance peak). This upgrade resulted from extensive tests of streamer tube1 prop- erties and studies of possible utilisation of tube signals for data analysis. The aim was to improve the capabilities of HAC for the second period of the LEP collider operation, so called LEP200 program when the energy of e+ and e− beams has been gradually increased up to the energy 104 GeV per beam. The above mentioned studies led to the conclusion, that with the constraints imposed by HAC construction, the upgrade can improve signif- icantly the muon identification of DELPHI [A.7] and on this ground the upgrade project has been defended and realized in the years 1994-1996. The muon identification has been used in standard analyses (part 3.1). However, it turned out th...

  6. Particle Identification with the Cherenkov imaging technique using MPGD based Photon Detectors for Physics at COMPASS Experiment at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2070220; Martin, Anna

    A novel technology for the detection of single photons has been developed and implemented in 2016 in the Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detector of the COMPASS Experiment at CERN SPS. Some basic knowledge in the field of particle identification and RICH counters, Micro Pattern Gaseous Detectors (MPGDs) in general and their development for photon detection applications are provided. The characteristics of the COMPASS setup are summarized and the COMPAS RICH-1 detector is described and shown to provide hadron identification in the momentum range between 3 and 55 GeV/c. The THGEM technology is discussed illustrating their characterization as gas multipliers and as reflective photocathodes: large gains and efficient photodetection collections are achieved when using optimized parameters and conditions (hole diameter = THGEM thickness = 0.4 mm; hole pitch = 0.8 mm and no rim; CH4-rich gas mixtures and electric field values > 1 kV/cm at the CsI surface). The intense R\\&D program leading to the choice of a hybrid...

  7. Identification of non-HLA antibodies in ventricular assist device recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandy von Salisch

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Aims Recipients of ventricular assist devices (VADR have a higher incidence to develop antibodies (Abs against human leukocyte antigens (HLA. Non-HLA antibodies like major histocompatibility complex class I-related chain A (MICA and autoantibodies against angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R and endothelin receptor A (ETAR are also implicated in the pathogenesis of acute rejection and allograft vasculopathy. We monitored non-HLA- and HLA-Abs in VADR up to one year after implantation. Materials and methods Sera of 56 VADR (54.1±12.8 years old, 50 men were analyzed for Abs against HLA-, MICA-, AT1R- and ETAR several times over one year after implantation using ELISA and Luminex xMAP technology. Blood transfusions, gender and age were reviewed. Results Sera of 56 VADR (54.1±12.8 years old, 50 men were analyzed for Abs against HLA-, MICA-, AT1R- and ETAR several times over one year after implantation using ELISA and Luminex xMAP technology. Blood transfusions, gender and age were reviewed. Conclusion Beside HLA- and MICA-Abs, VADR showed high titres of Abs against AT1R or ETAR, which underlines the necessity for monitoring non-HLA antibodies in VADR prior heart transplantation.

  8. Microplastic particles in sediments of Lagoon of Venice, Italy: First observations on occurrence, spatial patterns and identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vianello, A.; Boldrin, A.; Guerriero, P.; Moschino, V.; Rella, R.; Sturaro, A.; Da Ros, L.

    2013-09-01

    In order to improve knowledge of the identification, distribution and abundances of microplastic particles of 1 mm or less (S-MPPs) in the coastal area of the Mediterranean region, a preliminary monitoring survey was carried out in a transitional environment along the north-eastern Italian coasts, the Lagoon of Venice. S-MPPs were evaluated in sediments collected from 10 sites chosen in shallow areas variously affected by natural conditions and anthropogenic influences (i.e., landward stations influenced by freshwater inputs, seaward areas near sea inlets, and sites influenced by the presence of aquaculture farms, industry and city centers). S-MPPs, extracted from bulk sediments by density separation, were counted and identified by Fourier-Transform Infrared Micro-spectroscopy (μFT-IR). The μFT-IR process included automatic surface chemical mapping and references to an infrared library database to identify the compositional spectra of particles. S-MPPs were recovered from all samples - a fact which emphasizes their extensive distribution throughout the Lagoon. Total abundances varied from 2175 to 672 S-MPPs kg-1 d.w., higher concentrations generally being observed in landward sites. Of the ten polymer types identified, the most abundant, accounting for more than 82% of total S-MPPs, were polyethylene and polypropylene. The most frequent size (93% of observed microplastics) was in the range 30-500 μm. Total S-MPP values were significantly correlated with the finer sediment fraction and with the metal pollution index.

  9. Study of a prototype module of a precision time-of-flight detector for particle identification at low momentum

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00388630

    In this thesis, Time Of internally Reflected Cherenkov light detector (TORCH), proposed for the LHCb Upgrade to perform three-sigma separation between kaon and pion up to 10$\\ \\rm{GeV}/\\textit{c}$, was studied. TORCH is designed to add significant particle identification capability to the existing LHCb system based on two gas Ring Imaging Cherenkov detectors. TORCH would be placed at $\\sim$ 10 m from the interaction point, where the flight time difference between a primary pion and kaon is 37.5 ps. TORCH will give a pion-kaon separation of three sigma at 10$\\ \\rm{GeV}/\\textit{c}$ from the flight time using the Cherenkov photons generated by the charged particle in a 1 cm-thick quartz plate. In order to calculate accurately the flight time in a busy LHCb environment, Cherenkov angle and photon detection time information, as well as the momentum information from the tracking detector are included in the analysis. For the required TORCH performance, the flight time difference must be measured with a resolution o...

  10. The role of RICH particle identification in B physics. Recent results and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battaglia, M.

    1999-01-01

    The use of RICH detectors for hadron identification at collider experiments has played a major role in a wide range of studies of production and decays of the b quark. These include the characterisation of the strange beauty meson B s 0 and beauty baryons, spectroscopy, analysis of neutral B meson oscillations and of rare decays. A selection of these results is presented and the analysis techniques developed are discussed. In addition to the contribution of these data to the understanding of the mechanisms of weak decays of the b quark, the experience gained in the use of RICH detectors in B physics is also relevant for the next generation of dedicated experiments relying on RICH detectors for the study of CP violation in the B system and of rare B decays

  11. Impurity identifications, concentrations and particle fluxes from spectral measurements of the EXTRAP T2R plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menmuir, S.; Kuldkepp, M.; Rachlew, E.

    2006-10-01

    An absolute intensity calibrated 0.5 m spectrometer with optical multi-channel analyser detector was used to observe the visible-UV radiation from the plasma in the EXTRAP T2R reversed field pinch experiment. Spectral lines were identified indicating the presence of oxygen, chromium, iron and molybdenum impurities in the hydrogen plasma. Certain regions of interest were examined in more detail and at different times in the plasma discharge. Impurity concentration calculations were made using the absolute intensities of lines of OIV and OV measured at 1-2 ms into the discharge generating estimates of the order of 0.2% of ne in the central region rising to 0.7% of ne at greater radii for OIV and 0.3% rising to 0.6% for OV. Edge electron temperatures of 0.5-5 eV at electron densities of 5-10×1011 cm-3 were calculated from the measured relative intensities of hydrogen Balmer lines. The absolute intensities of hydrogen lines and of multiplets of neutral chromium and molybdenum were used to determine particle fluxes (at 4-5 ms into the plasma) of the order 1×1016, 7×1013 and 3×1013 particles cm-2 s-1, respectively.

  12. Identification of specific sources of airborne particles emitted from within a complex industrial (steelworks) site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beddows, D. C. S.; Harrison, Roy M.

    2018-06-01

    A case study is provided of the development and application of methods to identify and quantify specific sources of emissions from within a large complex industrial site. Methods include directional analysis of concentrations, chemical source tracers and correlations with gaseous emissions. Extensive measurements of PM10, PM2.5, trace gases, particulate elements and single particle mass spectra were made at sites around the Port Talbot steelworks in 2012. By using wind direction data in conjunction with real-time or hourly-average pollutant concentration measurements, it has been possible to locate areas within the steelworks associated with enhanced pollutant emissions. Directional analysis highlights the Slag Handling area of the works as the most substantial source of elevated PM10 concentrations during the measurement period. Chemical analyses of air sampled from relevant wind directions is consistent with the anticipated composition of slags, as are single particle mass spectra. Elevated concentrations of PM10 are related to inverse distance from the Slag Handling area, and concentrations increase with increased wind speed, consistent with a wind-driven resuspension source. There also appears to be a lesser source associated with Sinter Plant emissions affecting PM10 concentrations at the Fire Station monitoring site. The results are compared with a ME2 study using some of the same data, and shown to give a clearer view of the location and characteristics of emission sources, including fugitive dusts.

  13. Identification of strategy parameters for particle swarm optimizer through Taguchi method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KHOSLA Arun; KUMAR Shakti; AGGARWAL K.K.

    2006-01-01

    Particle swarm optimization (PSO), like other evolutionary algorithms is a population-based stochastic algorithm inspired from the metaphor of social interaction in birds, insects, wasps, etc. It has been used for finding promising solutions in complex search space through the interaction of particles in a swarm. It is a well recognized fact that the performance of evolutionary algorithms to a great extent depends on the choice of appropriate strategy/operating parameters like population size,crossover rate, mutation rate, crossover operator, etc. Generally, these parameters are selected through hit and trial process, which is very unsystematic and requires rigorous experimentation. This paper proposes a systematic based on Taguchi method reasoning scheme for rapidly identifying the strategy parameters for the PSO algorithm. The Taguchi method is a robust design approach using fractional factorial design to study a large number of parameters with small number of experiments. Computer simulations have been performed on two benchmark functions-Rosenbrock function and Griewank function-to validate the approach.

  14. Biochemical systems identification by a random drift particle swarm optimization approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Finding an efficient method to solve the parameter estimation problem (inverse problem) for nonlinear biochemical dynamical systems could help promote the functional understanding at the system level for signalling pathways. The problem is stated as a data-driven nonlinear regression problem, which is converted into a nonlinear programming problem with many nonlinear differential and algebraic constraints. Due to the typical ill conditioning and multimodality nature of the problem, it is in general difficult for gradient-based local optimization methods to obtain satisfactory solutions. To surmount this limitation, many stochastic optimization methods have been employed to find the global solution of the problem. Results This paper presents an effective search strategy for a particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm that enhances the ability of the algorithm for estimating the parameters of complex dynamic biochemical pathways. The proposed algorithm is a new variant of random drift particle swarm optimization (RDPSO), which is used to solve the above mentioned inverse problem and compared with other well known stochastic optimization methods. Two case studies on estimating the parameters of two nonlinear biochemical dynamic models have been taken as benchmarks, under both the noise-free and noisy simulation data scenarios. Conclusions The experimental results show that the novel variant of RDPSO algorithm is able to successfully solve the problem and obtain solutions of better quality than other global optimization methods used for finding the solution to the inverse problems in this study. PMID:25078435

  15. Etch induction time in cellulose nitrate: a new particle identification parameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruddy, F.H.; Knowles, H.B.; Luckstead, S.C.; Tripard, G.E.

    1977-01-01

    By the use of a 'continuous etch' method, it has been ascertained that particle tracks do not appear in cellulose nitrate track detectors until a certain finite time after etch has been started: this etch induction time may provide a unique signal for distinguishing ions of different atomic number, Z, and possibly also resolving the mass, M, of such ions. Empirical relations between etch induction time and various experimental quantities are described, as is a simple theory of the cause of etch induction time, which can be related to experimental evidence on hand. There is reason to believe that etch induction time appears in other types of plastic track detectors and may indeed be a general phenomenon in all track detectors. (Auth.)

  16. Particle identification using the time-over-threshold method in the ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akesson, T.; Arik, E.; Assamagan, K.; Baker, K.; Barberio, E.; Barberis, D.; Bertelsen, H.; Bytchkov, V.; Callahan, J.; Catinaccio, A.; Danielsson, H.; Dittus, F.; Dolgoshein, B.; Dressnandt, N.; Ebenstein, W.L.; Eerola, P.; Farthouat, P.; Froidevaux, D.; Grichkevitch, Y.; Hajduk, Z.; Hansen, J.R.; Keener, P.T.; Kekelidze, G.; Konovalov, S.; Kowalski, T.; Kramarenko, V.A.; Krivchitch, A.; Laritchev, A.; Lichard, P.; Lucotte, A.; Lundberg, B.; Luehring, F.; Mailov, A.; Manara, A.; McFarlane, K.; Mitsou, V.A.; Morozov, S.; Muraviev, S.; Nadtochy, A.; Newcomer, F.M.; Olszowska, J.; Ogren, H.; Oh, S.H.; Peshekhonov, V.; Rembser, C.; Romaniouk, A.; Rousseau, D.; Rust, D.R.; Schegelsky, V.; Sapinski, M.; Shmeleva, A.; Smirnov, S.; Smirnova, L.N.; Sosnovtsev, V.; Soutchkov, S.; Spiridenkov, E.; Tikhomirov, V.; Van Berg, R.; Vassilakopoulos, V.; Wang, C.; Williams, H.H.

    2001-01-01

    Test-beam studies of the ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) straw tube performance in terms of electron-pion separation using a time-over-threshold method are described. The test-beam data are compared with Monte Carlo simulations of charged particles passing through the straw tubes of the TRT. For energies below 10 GeV, the time-over-threshold method combined with the standard transition-radiation cluster-counting technique significantly improves the electron-pion separation in the TRT. The use of the time-over-threshold information also provides some kaon-pion separation, thereby significantly enhancing the B-physics capabilities of the ATLAS detector

  17. Identification of relativistic charged particles by means of ionisation energy loss in proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, J.E.

    1978-12-01

    A method is described of obtaining a useful degree of improvement in the particle discrimination capability of multiwire proportional counters. The normal multiple sampling technique using a suitable bias to combat the small magnitude of the relativistic rise in the ionization energy loss and the wide pulse height distributions obtained in thin gas counters requires a large number of samples for useful discrimination. In the method reported, this number is reduced by suppressing the delta ray contribution to the total charge pulse from the anode wire. A monte carlo model convoluting the 'delta ray suppressed' data from a one sample detector shows that when it is required to separate pions and electrons at 1 GeV/C with a detection efficiency for the electron of 90%, a 'suppressor' circuit can achieve a pion rejection ratio of 250:1 with 82 samples, whereas the truncated mean approach (lowest 70% of samples) requires 100 samples. (UK)

  18. Laplace transform method in analysing the effect of amplifier parameter on identification of light charged particles with CsI(Tl) + PD (photodiodes) detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jinchuan; Xi Hongfei; Guo Zhongyan; Zhan Wenlong; Zhu Yongtai; Zhou Jianqun; Liu Guanhua; Su Hong

    1992-01-01

    Laplace transform method is applied to investigate the effect of the choice of amplifier parameter on identification of the light charged particles emitted from 12 C(46.7 MeV/u) + 58 Ni reaction. The significance of application of Laplace transformation method in heavy ion experimental nuclear physics is discussed as well

  19. (210)Pb as a tracer of soil erosion, sediment source area identification and particle transport in the terrestrial environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matisoff, Gerald

    2014-12-01

    Although (137)Cs has been used extensively to study soil erosion and particle transport in the terrestrial environment, there has been much less work using excess or unsupported (210)Pb ((210)Pbxs) to study the same processes. Furthermore, since (137)Cs activities in soils are decreasing because of radioactive decay, some locations have an added complication due to the addition of Chernobyl-derived (137)Cs, and the activities of (137)Cs in the southern hemisphere are low, there is a need to develop techniques that use (210)Pbxs to provide estimates of rates of soil erosion and particle transport. This paper reviews the current status of (210)Pbxs methods to quantify soil erosion rates, to identify and partition suspended sediment source areas, and to determine the transport rates of particles in the terrestrial landscape. Soil erosion rates determined using (210)Pbxs are based on the unsupported (210)Pb ((210)Pbxs) inventory in the soil, the depth distribution of (210)Pbxs, and a mass balance calibration ('conversion model') that relates the soil inventory to the erosion rate using a 'reference site' at which neither soil erosion nor soil deposition has occurred. In this paper several different models are presented to illustrate the effects of different model assumptions such as the timing, depth and rates of the surface soil mixing on the calculated erosion rates. The suitability of model assumptions, including estimates of the depositional flux of (210)Pbxs to the soil surface and the post-depositional mobility of (210)Pb are also discussed. (210)Pb can be used as one tracer to permit sediment source area identification. This sediment 'fingerprinting' has been extended far beyond using (210)Pb as a single radioisotope to include numerous radioactive and stable tracers and has been applied to identifying the source areas of suspended sediment based on underlying rock type, land use (roads, stream banks, channel beds, cultivated or uncultivated lands, pasture lands

  20. Very high Momentum Particle Identification detector for ALICE at the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Edmundo

    2009-01-01

    The anomalies observed at RHIC for the baryon-meson ratios have prompted a number of theoretical works on the nature of the hadrochemistry in the hadronisation stage of the pp collisions and in the evolution of the dense system formed in heavy ion collisions. Although the predictions differ in the theoretical approach, generally a substantial increase in the baryon production is predicted in the range 10-30 GeV/c. This raises the problem of baryon identification to much higher momenta than originally planned in the LHC experiments. After a review of the present status of theoretical predictions we will present the possibilities of a gas ring imaging Cherenkov detector of limited acceptance which would be able to identify track-by-track protons until 26 GeV/c. The physics capabilities of such a detector in conjunction with the ALICE experiment will be contemplated as well as the triggering options to enrich the sample of interesting events with a dedicated trigger or/and using the ALICE Electromagnetic Calorimeter. The use of the electromagnetic calorimeter opens interesting possibility to distinguish quark and gluon jets in gamma--jet events and subsequently the study of the probability of fragmentation in proton, kaon and pion or triggering on jets in the EMCAL. Such a detector would be identify pions until 14 GeV/c kaons from 9 till 14 GeV/c and protons from 18 till 24/GeV/c in a positive way and by absence of signal from 9-18 GeV/c.

  1. Identification of a Compound Spinel and Silicate Presolar Grain in a Chondritic Interplanetary Dust Particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, A. N.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Messenger, S.; Keller, L. P.; Kloeck, W.

    2014-01-01

    Anhydrous chondritic porous interplanetary dust particles (CP IDPs) have undergone minimal parent body alteration and contain an assemblage of highly primitive materials, including molecular cloud material, presolar grains, and material that formed in the early solar nebula [1-3]. The exact parent bodies of individual IDPs are not known, but IDPs that have extremely high abundances of presolar silicates (up to 1.5%) most likely have cometary origins [1, 4]. The presolar grain abundance among these minimally altered CP IDPs varies widely. "Isotopically primitive" IDPs distinguished by anomalous bulk N isotopic compositions, numerous 15N-rich hotspots, and some C isotopic anomalies have higher average abundances of presolar grains (375 ppm) than IDPs with isotopically normal bulk N (<10 ppm) [5]. Some D and N isotopic anomalies have been linked to carbonaceous matter, though this material is only rarely isotopically anomalous in C [1, 5, 6]. Previous studies of the bulk chemistry and, in some samples, the mineralogy of select anhydrous CP IDPs indicate a link between high C abundance and pyroxene-dominated mineralogy [7]. In this study, we conduct coordinated mineralogical and isotopic analyses of samples that were analyzed by [7] to characterize isotopically anomalous materials and to establish possible correlations with C abundance.

  2. A new dyed ECE track identification method for nuclear particle detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohrabi, M.; Bojd, S.S.

    1990-01-01

    A new procedure for obtaining highly contrasted red-dyed electrochemically etched recoil tracks in polymers such as polycarbonate (PC) and CR-39 has been successfully developed for spectrophotometry as applied to neutron dosimetry. The principal rationale in this method has been the provision of highly contrasted, photon-absorbing, large, dyed recoil tracks in an unaffected bulk material. The method consists of: (a) exposing the polymer to charged particles or neutrons; (b) electrochemical etching of the tracks; (c) acid sensitization; (d) dyeing with an appropriate dye. By investigation of the type, concentration, duration and temperature of the acid and the dye, optimized values of 20% by weight acrylic acid at 75 0 C for 3.5 h for sensitization, and 3% by weight eosin bluish dye at 95 0 C for 4 h for dyeing, provided a nearly 100% dyed-track efficiency. Spectrophotometry by UV and infrared radiation track counting, and optical densitometry were applied to the dyed samples. The results have shown some promise for UV absorbance measurements in routine large-scale applications. In this paper, the results of optimization studies and preliminary application of the technique to neutron dosimetry are presented and discussed. (author)

  3. Identification of Dark Matter particles with LHC and direct detection data

    CERN Document Server

    Bertone, Gianfranco; Fornasa, Mattia; de Austri, Roberto Ruiz; Trotta, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Dark matter (DM) is currently searched for with a variety of detection strategies. Accelerator searches are particularly promising, but even if Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) are found at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), it will be difficult to prove that they constitute the bulk of the DM in the Universe. We show that a significantly better reconstruction of the DM properties can be obtained with a combined analysis of LHC and direct detection (DD) data, by making a simple Ansatz on the WIMP local density, i.e. by assuming that the local density scales with the cosmological relic abundance. We demonstrate this method in an explicit example in the context of a 24-parameter supersymmetric model, with a neutralino LSP in the stau co-annihilation region. Our results show that future ton-scale DD experiments will allow to break degeneracies in the SUSY parameter space and achieve a significantly better reconstruction of the neutralino composition and its relic density than with LHC data alone.

  4. PIXE identification of fine and coarse particles of aerosol samples and their distribution across Beirut

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roumie, M., E-mail: mroumie@cnrs.edu.lb [Accelerator Laboratory, Lebanese Atomic Energy Commission, National Council for Scientific Research, P.O. Box 11-8281, Beirut (Lebanon); Saliba, N., E-mail: ns30@aub.edu.lb [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, American University of Beirut, Beirut (Lebanon); Nsouli, B., E-mail: bnsouli@cnrs.edu.lb [Accelerator Laboratory, Lebanese Atomic Energy Commission, National Council for Scientific Research, P.O. Box 11-8281, Beirut (Lebanon); Younes, M., E-mail: myriam_younis@hotmail.com [Accelerator Laboratory, Lebanese Atomic Energy Commission, National Council for Scientific Research, P.O. Box 11-8281, Beirut (Lebanon); Noun, M., E-mail: manale_noun@hotmail.com [Accelerator Laboratory, Lebanese Atomic Energy Commission, National Council for Scientific Research, P.O. Box 11-8281, Beirut (Lebanon); Massoud, R., E-mail: rm84@aub.edu.lb [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, American University of Beirut, Beirut (Lebanon)

    2011-12-15

    This study is the first national attempt to assess the levels of PMs in Beirut city and consequently understand air pollution distribution. Aerosol sampling was carried out using three PM{sub 10} and three PM{sub 2.5} samplers which were installed at three locations lying along the SE-NW direction over Beirut. The sampling of PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} was done during a period extending from May till December 2009. The random collection of the particles (1 in 6 days) was carried out on Teflon filters, for a period of 24-h. The elemental analysis of particulate matter was performed using proton induced X-ray emission technique PIXE at the Lebanese 1.7 MV Tandem-Pelletron accelerator of Beirut. Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S and Cl were quantified using 1 MeV proton beam, while K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb were determined using 3 MeV-energy of proton beam.

  5. From Data Acquisition to Data Fusion: A Comprehensive Review and a Roadmap for the Identification of Activities of Daily Living Using Mobile Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Ivan Miguel; Garcia, Nuno M.; Pombo, Nuno; Flórez-Revuelta, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the research on the state of the art for sensor fusion techniques, applied to the sensors embedded in mobile devices, as a means to help identify the mobile device user’s daily activities. Sensor data fusion techniques are used to consolidate the data collected from several sensors, increasing the reliability of the algorithms for the identification of the different activities. However, mobile devices have several constraints, e.g., low memory, low battery life and low processing power, and some data fusion techniques are not suited to this scenario. The main purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the state of the art to identify examples of sensor data fusion techniques that can be applied to the sensors available in mobile devices aiming to identify activities of daily living (ADLs). PMID:26848664

  6. From Data Acquisition to Data Fusion: A Comprehensive Review and a Roadmap for the Identification of Activities of Daily Living Using Mobile Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Miguel Pires

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the research on the state of the art for sensor fusion techniques, applied to the sensors embedded in mobile devices, as a means to help identify the mobile device user’s daily activities. Sensor data fusion techniques are used to consolidate the data collected from several sensors, increasing the reliability of the algorithms for the identification of the different activities. However, mobile devices have several constraints, e.g., low memory, low battery life and low processing power, and some data fusion techniques are not suited to this scenario. The main purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the state of the art to identify examples of sensor data fusion techniques that can be applied to the sensors available in mobile devices aiming to identify activities of daily living (ADLs.

  7. Identification of transformer fault based on dissolved gas analysis using hybrid support vector machine-modified evolutionary particle swarm optimisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Early detection of power transformer fault is important because it can reduce the maintenance cost of the transformer and it can ensure continuous electricity supply in power systems. Dissolved Gas Analysis (DGA) technique is commonly used to identify oil-filled power transformer fault type but utilisation of artificial intelligence method with optimisation methods has shown convincing results. In this work, a hybrid support vector machine (SVM) with modified evolutionary particle swarm optimisation (EPSO) algorithm was proposed to determine the transformer fault type. The superiority of the modified PSO technique with SVM was evaluated by comparing the results with the actual fault diagnosis, unoptimised SVM and previous reported works. Data reduction was also applied using stepwise regression prior to the training process of SVM to reduce the training time. It was found that the proposed hybrid SVM-Modified EPSO (MEPSO)-Time Varying Acceleration Coefficient (TVAC) technique results in the highest correct identification percentage of faults in a power transformer compared to other PSO algorithms. Thus, the proposed technique can be one of the potential solutions to identify the transformer fault type based on DGA data on site. PMID:29370230

  8. Identification of transformer fault based on dissolved gas analysis using hybrid support vector machine-modified evolutionary particle swarm optimisation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazlee Azil Illias

    Full Text Available Early detection of power transformer fault is important because it can reduce the maintenance cost of the transformer and it can ensure continuous electricity supply in power systems. Dissolved Gas Analysis (DGA technique is commonly used to identify oil-filled power transformer fault type but utilisation of artificial intelligence method with optimisation methods has shown convincing results. In this work, a hybrid support vector machine (SVM with modified evolutionary particle swarm optimisation (EPSO algorithm was proposed to determine the transformer fault type. The superiority of the modified PSO technique with SVM was evaluated by comparing the results with the actual fault diagnosis, unoptimised SVM and previous reported works. Data reduction was also applied using stepwise regression prior to the training process of SVM to reduce the training time. It was found that the proposed hybrid SVM-Modified EPSO (MEPSO-Time Varying Acceleration Coefficient (TVAC technique results in the highest correct identification percentage of faults in a power transformer compared to other PSO algorithms. Thus, the proposed technique can be one of the potential solutions to identify the transformer fault type based on DGA data on site.

  9. Handling missing data for the identification of charged particles in a multilayer detector: A comparison between different imputation methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riggi, S., E-mail: sriggi@oact.inaf.it [INAF - Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania (Italy); Riggi, D. [Keras Strategy - Milano (Italy); Riggi, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia - Università di Catania (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Catania (Italy)

    2015-04-21

    Identification of charged particles in a multilayer detector by the energy loss technique may also be achieved by the use of a neural network. The performance of the network becomes worse when a large fraction of information is missing, for instance due to detector inefficiencies. Algorithms which provide a way to impute missing information have been developed over the past years. Among the various approaches, we focused on normal mixtures’ models in comparison with standard mean imputation and multiple imputation methods. Further, to account for the intrinsic asymmetry of the energy loss data, we considered skew-normal mixture models and provided a closed form implementation in the Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm framework to handle missing patterns. The method has been applied to a test case where the energy losses of pions, kaons and protons in a six-layers’ Silicon detector are considered as input neurons to a neural network. Results are given in terms of reconstruction efficiency and purity of the various species in different momentum bins.

  10. Identification of transformer fault based on dissolved gas analysis using hybrid support vector machine-modified evolutionary particle swarm optimisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illias, Hazlee Azil; Zhao Liang, Wee

    2018-01-01

    Early detection of power transformer fault is important because it can reduce the maintenance cost of the transformer and it can ensure continuous electricity supply in power systems. Dissolved Gas Analysis (DGA) technique is commonly used to identify oil-filled power transformer fault type but utilisation of artificial intelligence method with optimisation methods has shown convincing results. In this work, a hybrid support vector machine (SVM) with modified evolutionary particle swarm optimisation (EPSO) algorithm was proposed to determine the transformer fault type. The superiority of the modified PSO technique with SVM was evaluated by comparing the results with the actual fault diagnosis, unoptimised SVM and previous reported works. Data reduction was also applied using stepwise regression prior to the training process of SVM to reduce the training time. It was found that the proposed hybrid SVM-Modified EPSO (MEPSO)-Time Varying Acceleration Coefficient (TVAC) technique results in the highest correct identification percentage of faults in a power transformer compared to other PSO algorithms. Thus, the proposed technique can be one of the potential solutions to identify the transformer fault type based on DGA data on site.

  11. ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT): Straw tubes for tracking and particle identification at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00220535; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) is the outermost of the three inner detector tracking subsystems and consists of ∼300,000 thin-walled drift tubes (“straw tubes”) that are 4 mm in diameter. The TRT system provides ∼30 space points with ∼130 micron resolution for charged tracks with |η| 0.5 GeV/c . The TRT also provides electron identification capability by detecting transition radiation (TR) X-ray photons in an Xe-based working gas mixture. Compared to Run 1, the LHC beams now provide a higher centre of mass energy (13 TeV), more bunches with a reduced spacing (25 ns), and more particles in each bunch leading to very challenging, higher occupancies in the TRT. Significant modifications of the TRT detector have been made for LHC Run 2 mainly to improve response to the expected much higher rate of hits and to mitigate leaks of the Xe-based active gas mixture. The higher rates required changes to the data acquisition system and introduction of validity gate to reject out-of-time hits. Man...

  12. ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT): Straw Tubes for Tracking and Particle Identification at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Mindur, Bartosz; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) is the outermost of the three inner detector tracking subsystems and consists of 300000 thin-walled drift tubes (“straw tubes”) that are 4 mm in diameter. The TRT system provides 30 space points with 130 micron resolution for charged tracks with |η| 0.5 GeV/c. The TRT also provides electron identification capability by detecting transition radiation (TR) X-ray photons in a Xe-based working gas mixture. Compared to Run 1, the LHC beams now provide a higher center of mass energy (13 TeV), more bunches with a reduced spacing (25 ns), and more particles in each bunch leading to very challenging, higher occupancies in the TRT. We will present TRT modifications made for Run 2 for in areas: to improve response to the expected much higher rate of hits and to mitigate leaks of the Xe-based active gas mixture. The higher rates required changes to the data acquisition system and introduction of validity gate to reject out-of-time hits. Radiation-induced gain changes in ...

  13. The cedar counters for particle identification in the SPS secondary beams: A description and an operation manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovet, C.; Maleyran, R.; Piemontese, L.; Placci, A.; Placidi, M.

    1982-01-01

    The Cerenkov Differential counter with Achromatic Ring Focus (Cedar) has been designed and a number built at Cern for the identification (and selection) of particles in the secondary beams of a high-energy accelerator. Cedar-N can separate kaons from pions up to 300 GeV/c but can detect protons only down to 60 GeV/c; Cedar-W can flag protons of 12 GeV/c and separate kaons from pions up to 150 GeV/c. After a brief account of the relevant physics of the Cerenkov effect, this report describes Cedars with emphasis on those characteristics and construction features that are of interest to the user. Details are given of the high-precision optical system, the mechanical construction to achieve uniform temperature (0.1 K) and rigidity, and the gas handling and measurement. The layout of the Cedars in the secondary beams of the Cern Super Proton Synchrotron is described. The signals provided to the user are listed and explained, together with the programs for on-line control of the counters. Details are given of the performances attained, together with various hints and suggestions on the procedure to follow in order to set-up, tune, and operate a Cedar. The dependence of the performance on beam optics is stressed. (orig.)

  14. Magnetic properties, microstructure and mineralogical phases of technogenic magnetic particles (TMPs) in urban soils: Their source identification and environmental implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Shenggao, E-mail: lusg@zju.edu.cn [College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Yu, Xiuling [College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Chen, Yuyin [Institute of Biological Resources, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China)

    2016-02-01

    Magnetic measurement is an effective method to determine spatial distribution and the degree of heavy metal pollution and to identify various anthropogenic sources of heavy metals. The objectives of this investigation are to characterize the magnetic properties, microstructure and mineralogical phases of technogenic magnetic particles (TMPs) in urban soils and to discuss their potential environmental implications. The TMPs are separated from the urban topsoils of Luoyang city, China. The magnetic properties, morphology, and mineral phase of TMPs are studied using mineral magnetic measurement, scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS), X-ray diffraction, and synchrotron–radiation-based microprobe. The content of TMPs in urban topsoils ranges from 0.05 to 1.95% (on average 0.32%). The magnetic susceptibility of TMPs ranges from 4559 × 10{sup −8} to 23,661 × 10{sup −8} m{sup 3} kg{sup −1} (on average 13,637 × 10{sup −8} m{sup 3} kg{sup −1}). Thermomagnetic and bulk X-ray diffraction analyses indicate that main magnetic minerals of TMPs are magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) and hematite (α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}). The morphology of TMPs observed by SEM includes three shape types: spherule, irregular-shaped, and aggregate particles. The size of spherical TMPs ranges from 30 to about 200 μm, with the largest percentage of 30–50 μm. Synchrotron–radiation-based microprobe (μ-XRF and μ-XRD) indicates that TMPs are enriched with heavy metals Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, and Cr, which are incorporated into lattice or adsorbed on the surface of magnetite/hematite. The content of TMPs significantly relates with the Tomlinson Pollution Load Index (PLI) (R{sup 2} = 0.467), suggesting that it can be used as proxy indicator of degree of heavy metal contamination in urban soils. The magnetic properties, microstructure and mineralogical phases of TMPs can serve as the identification of pollution sources in urban soils. - Graphical

  15. Parameter Identification with the Random Perturbation Particle Swarm Optimization Method and Sensitivity Analysis of an Advanced Pressurized Water Reactor Nuclear Power Plant Model for Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The ability to obtain appropriate parameters for an advanced pressurized water reactor (PWR unit model is of great significance for power system analysis. The attributes of that ability include the following: nonlinear relationships, long transition time, intercoupled parameters and difficult obtainment from practical test, posed complexity and difficult parameter identification. In this paper, a model and a parameter identification method for the PWR primary loop system were investigated. A parameter identification process was proposed, using a particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm that is based on random perturbation (RP-PSO. The identification process included model variable initialization based on the differential equations of each sub-module and program setting method, parameter obtainment through sub-module identification in the Matlab/Simulink Software (Math Works Inc., Natick, MA, USA as well as adaptation analysis for an integrated model. A lot of parameter identification work was carried out, the results of which verified the effectiveness of the method. It was found that the change of some parameters, like the fuel temperature and coolant temperature feedback coefficients, changed the model gain, of which the trajectory sensitivities were not zero. Thus, obtaining their appropriate values had significant effects on the simulation results. The trajectory sensitivities of some parameters in the core neutron dynamic module were interrelated, causing the parameters to be difficult to identify. The model parameter sensitivity could be different, which would be influenced by the model input conditions, reflecting the parameter identifiability difficulty degree for various input conditions.

  16. Parameter identification for continuous point emission source based on Tikhonov regularization method coupled with particle swarm optimization algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Denglong; Tan, Wei; Zhang, Zaoxiao; Hu, Jun

    2017-03-05

    In order to identify the parameters of hazardous gas emission source in atmosphere with less previous information and reliable probability estimation, a hybrid algorithm coupling Tikhonov regularization with particle swarm optimization (PSO) was proposed. When the source location is known, the source strength can be estimated successfully by common Tikhonov regularization method, but it is invalid when the information about both source strength and location is absent. Therefore, a hybrid method combining linear Tikhonov regularization and PSO algorithm was designed. With this method, the nonlinear inverse dispersion model was transformed to a linear form under some assumptions, and the source parameters including source strength and location were identified simultaneously by linear Tikhonov-PSO regularization method. The regularization parameters were selected by L-curve method. The estimation results with different regularization matrixes showed that the confidence interval with high-order regularization matrix is narrower than that with zero-order regularization matrix. But the estimation results of different source parameters are close to each other with different regularization matrixes. A nonlinear Tikhonov-PSO hybrid regularization was also designed with primary nonlinear dispersion model to estimate the source parameters. The comparison results of simulation and experiment case showed that the linear Tikhonov-PSO method with transformed linear inverse model has higher computation efficiency than nonlinear Tikhonov-PSO method. The confidence intervals from linear Tikhonov-PSO are more reasonable than that from nonlinear method. The estimation results from linear Tikhonov-PSO method are similar to that from single PSO algorithm, and a reasonable confidence interval with some probability levels can be additionally given by Tikhonov-PSO method. Therefore, the presented linear Tikhonov-PSO regularization method is a good potential method for hazardous emission

  17. ALICE Particle Identification

    CERN Document Server

    Hussein Ezzelarab, Nada

    2014-01-01

    During my stay at CERN, I have attended lectures mornings and worked on my research project under orienting guidance of my supervisors afternoons. The lectures were informative and pedagog- ically well-prepared and presented. Their contents was an excellent combination of theoretical and experimental topics in high-energy physics. Furthermore, I was privileged to visit the ALICE, CMS and LHCb detectors and the LINIAC accelerator. I have participated in workshop on ”MadGraph software”. I was furnished with excellent experiences and cultural exchanges with good colleagues from different countries. I got opportunities to know what the other students have done, in which projects they were involved and how they performed their scientific researches, especially regarding LHC data analysis. For my own project, I have to prove excellent experience with C++ and of course LINUX, ROOT and AliROOT. Tools such as Histograms, Graphs, Fitting, trees and many others were very essential. Furthermore, I am very proud getti...

  18. The circular thermo-phoretic spectrometer (CTSM), a new device for the study of the thermophoresis, Application on the fractals soot particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brugiere, E.

    2012-01-01

    This work aims to improve the understanding of soot particle deposition by thermophoresis. In order to show the influence of the morphology of a fractal aggregate on its thermo-phoretic behavior, a new experimental device has been developed; the SpectroMetre Thermophoretique Circulaire (SMTC). This instrument is used to measure the mean thermo-phoretic velocity of particles selected between a hot plate and a cold plate thanks to a transfer function based on the geometry of the radial flow differential mobility analyser RF-DMA or SMEC (Spectrometre de Mobilite Electrique Circulaire). For the experimental validation, effective thermo-phoretic velocities of monodispersed spherical latex particles for diameters ranging from 64 nm to 500 nm and a temperature gradient equal to 50 750 K/m are measured and compared with theoretical values. The good agreement between the experimental results and theoretical values of Beresnev and Chernyak (1995) helps us to validate the operation of the instrument. Then we compare experimental thermo-phoretic velocity obtained with the SMTC for spherical particles and aggregates produced by a combustion aerosol generator. Contrary to the results obtained with the PSL particles, we observe that the thermo-phoretic velocity of aggregates increases with the electrical mobility diameter. Thanks to a morphological study of the aggregates, we showed that the thermo-phoretic velocity depends on the number of primary particles of the aggregate. These experimental results confirm, for the first time, the theoretical data of Mackowski (2006) obtained by a Monte Carlo simulation. Moreover, a comparison with the experimental results of Messerer et al. (2003) shows that the thermo-phoretic velocity of aggregates seems independent of the primary particle size. (author)

  19. A study on the gas-solid particle flows in a needle-free drug delivery device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasel, Md. Alim Iftekhar; Taher, Md. Abu; Kim, H. D.

    2013-08-01

    Different systems have been used over the years to deliver drug particles to the human skin for pharmaceutical effect. Research has been done to improve the performance and flexibility of these systems. In recent years a unique system called the transdermal drug delivery has been developed. Transdermal drug delivery opened a new door in the field of drug delivery as it is more flexible and offers better performance than the conventional systems. The principle of this system is to accelerate drug particles with a high speed gas flow. Among different transdermal drug delivery systems we will concentrate on the contour shock tube system in this paper. A contoured shock tube is consists of a rupture chamber, a shock tube and a supersonic nozzle section. The drug particles are retained between a set of bursting diaphragm. When the diaphragm is ruptured at a certain pressure, a high speed unsteady flow is initiated through the shock tube which accelerates the particles. Computational fluid dynamics is used to simulate and analyze the flow field. The DPM (discrete phase method) is used to model the particle flow. As an unsteady flow is initiated though the shock tube the drag correlation proposed by Igra et al is used other than the standard drag correlation. The particle velocities at different sections including the nozzle exit are investigated under different operating conditions. Static pressure histories in different sections in the shock tube are investigated to analyze the flow field. The important aspects of the gas and particle dynamics in the shock tube are discussed and analyzed in details.

  20. Computation of many-particle quantum trajectories with exchange interaction: application to the simulation of nanoelectronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alarcón, A; Yaro, S; Cartoixà, X; Oriols, X

    2013-01-01

    Following Oriols (2007 Phys. Rev. Lett. 98 066803), an algorithm to deal with the exchange interaction in non-separable quantum systems is presented. The algorithm can be applied to fermions or bosons and, by construction, it exactly ensures that any observable is totally independent of the interchange of particles. It is based on the use of conditional Bohmian wave functions which are solutions of single-particle pseudo-Schrödinger equations. The exchange symmetry is directly defined by demanding symmetry properties of the quantum trajectories in the configuration space with a universal algorithm, rather than through a particular exchange–correlation functional introduced into the single-particle pseudo-Schrödinger equation. It requires the computation of N 2 conditional wave functions to deal with N identical particles. For separable Hamiltonians, the algorithm reduces to the standard Slater determinant for fermions (or permanent for bosons). A numerical test for a two-particle system, where exact solutions for non-separable Hamiltonians are computationally accessible, is presented. The numerical viability of the algorithm for quantum electron transport (in a far-from-equilibrium time-dependent open system) is demonstrated by computing the current and fluctuations in a nano-resistor, with exchange and Coulomb interactions among electrons. (paper)

  1. A multilayer concentric filter device to diminish clogging for separation of particles and microalgae based on size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Chung; Chen, Yu-An; Liu, Yi-Ju; Yao, Da-Jeng

    2014-04-21

    Microalgae species have great economic importance; they are a source of medicines, health foods, animal feeds, industrial pigments, cosmetic additives and biodiesel. Specific microalgae species collected from the environment must be isolated for examination and further application, but their varied size and culture conditions make their isolation using conventional methods, such as filtration, streaking plate and flow cytometric sorting, labour-intensive and costly. A separation device based on size is one of the most rapid, simple and inexpensive methods to separate microalgae, but this approach encounters major disadvantages of clogging and multiple filtration steps when the size of microalgae varies over a wide range. In this work, we propose a multilayer concentric filter device with varied pore size and is driven by a centrifugation force. The device, which includes multiple filter layers, was employed to separate a heterogeneous population of microparticles into several subpopulations by filtration in one step. A cross-flow to attenuate prospective clogging was generated by altering the rate of rotation instantly through the relative motion between the fluid and the filter according to the structural design of the device. Mixed microparticles of varied size were tested to demonstrate that clogging was significantly suppressed due to a highly efficient separation. Microalgae in a heterogeneous population collected from an environmental soil collection were separated and enriched into four subpopulations according to size in a one step filtration process. A microalgae sample contaminated with bacteria and insect eggs was also tested to prove the decontamination capability of the device.

  2. 3D imaging of magnetic particles using the 7-channel magnetoencephalography device without pre-magnetization or displacement of the sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polikarpov, M.A., E-mail: polikarpov_imp@mail.ru [National Research Center “Kurchatov Institute”, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ustinin, M.N.; Rykunov, S.D. [Institute of Mathematical Problems of Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino (Russian Federation); Yurenya, A.Y. [National Research Center “Kurchatov Institute”, Moscow (Russian Federation); Faculty of Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Naurzakov, S.P.; Grebenkin, A.P. [National Research Center “Kurchatov Institute”, Moscow (Russian Federation); Panchenko, V.Y. [National Research Center “Kurchatov Institute”, Moscow (Russian Federation); Faculty of Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-04-01

    SQUID-based magnetoencephalography device was used for the measurement of a magnetic noise generated by ferrofluid in the stationary standing vial. It was found that a free surface of the ferrofluid generates spontaneous magnetic field sufficient to detect the presence of nanoparticles in the experimental setup. The spatial distribution of elementary magnetic sources was reconstructed by the frequency-pattern analysis of multichannel time series. The localization of ferrofluids was performed based on the analysis of quasirandom time series in two cases of oscillation source. One of them was infrasound from outer noise, and another one was the human heartbeat. These results are prospective for 3D imaging of magnetic particles without pre-magnetization. - Highlights: • A new method of imaging of magnetic nanoparticles in human body is proposed. • The method uses quasi-random fluctuations of the particles in geomagnetic field. • The use of heartbeats as a source of such fluctuations is demonstrated.

  3. Particle detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Hilke, Hans Jürgen

    1992-01-01

    We shall discuss the principles of the main techniques applied to particle detection (including front-end electronics), the construction and performance of some of the devices presently in operation and a few ideas on future developments.

  4. Recent results on prototype aerogel threshold counters for particle identification in the region: 0.5 6 4.3 GeV / c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arisaka, K.; Borsato, E.; DalCorso, F.; Iacovella, F.; Morandin, M.; Posocco, M.; Stroili, R.; Torassa, DE.; Voci, C.; Boutigny, D.; Bonis, I. de; Favier, J.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lafaye, R.; Ferroni, F.; Mazzoni, M.A.; Morganti, S.; Piredda, G.; Santacesaria, R.; Oyang, J.

    1996-01-01

    The recent development of new processes has lead to the fabrication of small density silica aerogel with high optical quality. The BaBar experiment, in order to achieve its physics program, requires a good pion kaon identification capability up to 4.3 GeV/c able to work inside a 1.5 Tesla magnetic field. An aerogel threshold counter using thee combination of 2 refractive indices (1.055 and 1.007) can be used to complete the angular coverage of the particle identification system in the forward region. Different detector geometries read out by two photo-detectors types (fine mesh phototubes and Hybrid Photo-Diodes) have been considered and tested in CERN beam test. (author)

  5. Device for irradiation with electron and a magnetic lens for deviation of beams of charged particles, especially electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderberg, B.

    1990-01-01

    An electron beam is sweeping aver the object while this is moved forward. In order to achieve a uniform irradiation and compensate for geometric errors, an additional magnetic lens is located immediately beneath the exposed area. The magnetic lens refract the electron beam in such a manner that the particle trajectories become parallel or slightly convergent after the lens. The lens consists of two parallel permanent bar magnets, preferably laminated magnets. (L.F.)

  6. Container for waste, identification code reading device thereof, method and system for controlling waste by using them

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Takashi; Yoshida, Tomiji; Omote, Tatsuyuki.

    1991-01-01

    In the conventional method of controlling waste containers by labels attached thereto, the data relevant to wastes contained in the waste containers are limited. Further, if the label should be peeled off, there is a possibility that the wastes therein can no more be identified. Then, in the present invention, an identification plate is previously attached, to which mechanically readable codes or visually readable letters or numerical figures are written. Then, the identification codes can be read in a remote control manner at high speed and high reliability and the waste containers can be managed only by the identification codes of the containers. Further, the identification codes on the container are made so as to be free from aging degradation, thereby enabling to manage waste containers for long time storage. With such a constitution, since data can be inputted from an input terminal and a great amount of data such as concerning the source of wastes can be managed collectively on a software, the data can be managed easily. (T.M.)

  7. A high-order particle-in-cell method for low density plasma flow and the simulation of gyrotron resonator devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stock, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Within this thesis a parallelized, transient, three-dimensional, high-order discontinuous Galerkin Particle-in-Cell solver is developed and used to simulate the resonant cavity of a gyrotron. The high-order discontinuous Galerkin approach - a Finite-Element type method - provides a fast and efficient algorithm to numerically solve Maxwell's equations used within this thesis. Besides its outstanding dissipation and dispersion properties, the discontinuous Galerkin approach easily allows for using unstructured grids, as required to simulate complex-shaped engineering devices. The discontinuous Galerkin approach approximates a wavelength with significantly less degrees of freedom compared to other methods, e.g. Finite Difference methods. Furthermore, the parallelization capabilities of the discontinuous Galerkin framework are excellent due to the very local dependencies between the elements. These properties are essential for the efficient numerical treatment of the Vlasov-Maxwell system with the Particle-in-Cell method. This system describes the self-consistent interaction of charged particles and the electromagnetic field. As central application within this thesis gyrotron resonators are simulated with the discontinuous Galerkin Particle-in-Cell method on high-performance-computers. The gyrotron is a high-power millimeter wave source, used for the electron cyclotron resonance heating of magnetically confined fusion plasma, e.g. in the Wendelstein 7-X experimental fusion-reactor. Compared to state-of-the-art simulation tools used for the design of gyrotron resonators the Particle-in-Cell method does not use any significant physically simplifications w.r.t. the modelling of the particle-field-interaction, the geometry and the wave-spectrum. Hence, it is the method of choice for validation of current simulation tools being restricted by these simplifications. So far, the Particle-in-Cell method was restricted to be used for demonstration calculations only, because

  8. A high-order particle-in-cell method for low density plasma flow and the simulation of gyrotron resonator devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stock, Andreas

    2013-04-26

    Within this thesis a parallelized, transient, three-dimensional, high-order discontinuous Galerkin Particle-in-Cell solver is developed and used to simulate the resonant cavity of a gyrotron. The high-order discontinuous Galerkin approach - a Finite-Element type method - provides a fast and efficient algorithm to numerically solve Maxwell's equations used within this thesis. Besides its outstanding dissipation and dispersion properties, the discontinuous Galerkin approach easily allows for using unstructured grids, as required to simulate complex-shaped engineering devices. The discontinuous Galerkin approach approximates a wavelength with significantly less degrees of freedom compared to other methods, e.g. Finite Difference methods. Furthermore, the parallelization capabilities of the discontinuous Galerkin framework are excellent due to the very local dependencies between the elements. These properties are essential for the efficient numerical treatment of the Vlasov-Maxwell system with the Particle-in-Cell method. This system describes the self-consistent interaction of charged particles and the electromagnetic field. As central application within this thesis gyrotron resonators are simulated with the discontinuous Galerkin Particle-in-Cell method on high-performance-computers. The gyrotron is a high-power millimeter wave source, used for the electron cyclotron resonance heating of magnetically confined fusion plasma, e.g. in the Wendelstein 7-X experimental fusion-reactor. Compared to state-of-the-art simulation tools used for the design of gyrotron resonators the Particle-in-Cell method does not use any significant physically simplifications w.r.t. the modelling of the particle-field-interaction, the geometry and the wave-spectrum. Hence, it is the method of choice for validation of current simulation tools being restricted by these simplifications. So far, the Particle-in-Cell method was restricted to be used for demonstration calculations only, because

  9. Application of the Reduction of Scale Range in a Lorentz Boosted Frame to the Numerical Simulation of Particle Acceleration Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vay, J.-L.; Fawley, W.M.; Geddes, C.G.R.; Cormier-Michel, E.; Grote, D.P.

    2009-01-01

    It has been shown (1) that it may be computationally advantageous to perform computer simulations in a boosted frame for a certain class of systems: particle beams interacting with electron clouds, free electron lasers, and laser-plasma accelerators. However, even if the computer model relies on a covariant set of equations, it was also pointed out that algorithmic difficulties related to discretization errors may have to be overcome in order to take full advantage of the potential speedup (2) . In this paper, we focus on the analysis of the complication of data input and output in a Lorentz boosted frame simulation, and describe the procedures that were implemented in the simulation code Warp(3). We present our most recent progress in the modeling of laser wakefield acceleration in a boosted frame, and describe briefly the potential benefits of calculating in a boosted frame for the modeling of coherent synchrotron radiation.

  10. Identification and spectrometry of charged particles produced in reactions induced by 14 MeV neutrons. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellem, C.; Perroud, J.P.; Loude, J.F.

    1975-01-01

    A counter telescope consisting of gas proportional counters, a thin semiconductor detector and a thick one has been built and used for the study of the angular differential cross sections of (n, charged particles) reactions induced by 14 MeV neutrons. Detection of the α-particles emitted in the neutron production reaction 3 H(d,n) 4 He gives a time reference for the measurement of the time of flight of the charged particles and allows a precise monitoring of the intensity of the neutron beam. High energy protons, deuterons and tritons are identified by their energy losses in the thin semiconductor detector and in the thick one and by their time of flight. Low energy protons, deuterons, tritons and all α-particles stop in the thin semiconductor detector and are identified by their energy losses in this detector and in one gas proportional counter as well as by their time of flight. It is possible to identify and to measure the energy of all charged particles in the energy range of 2 to 15 MeV: a very low background results from the use of the time of flight. (Auth.)

  11. Observation of enhanced radial transport of energetic ion due to energetic particle mode destabilized by helically-trapped energetic ion in the Large Helical Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, K.; Isobe, M.; Kawase, H.; Nishitani, T.; Seki, R.; Osakabe, M.; LHD Experiment Group

    2018-04-01

    A deuterium experiment was initiated to achieve higher-temperature and higher-density plasmas in March 2017 in the Large Helical Device (LHD). The central ion temperature notably increases compared with that in hydrogen experiments. However, an energetic particle mode called the helically-trapped energetic-ion-driven resistive interchange (EIC) mode is often excited by intensive perpendicular neutral beam injections on high ion-temperature discharges. The mode leads to significant decrease of the ion temperature or to limiting the sustainment of the high ion-temperature state. To understand the effect of EIC on the energetic ion confinement, the radial transport of energetic ions is studied by means of the neutron flux monitor and vertical neutron camera newly installed on the LHD. Decreases of the line-integrated neutron profile in core channels show that helically-trapped energetic ions are lost from the plasma.

  12. Design and characterization of a device to quantify the magnetic drug targeting efficiency of magnetic nanoparticles in a tube flow phantom by magnetic particle spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radon, Patricia, E-mail: patricia.radon@ptb.de; Löwa, Norbert; Gutkelch, Dirk; Wiekhorst, Frank

    2017-04-01

    The aim of magnetic drug targeting (MDT) is to transfer a therapeutic drug coupled to magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) to desired disease locations (e.g. tumor region) with the help of magnetic field gradients. To transfer the MDT approach into clinical practice a number of important issues remain to be solved. We developed and characterized an in-vitro flow phantom to provide a defined and reproducible MDT environment. The tube system of the flow phantom is directed through the detection coil of a magnetic particle spectroscopy (MPS) device to determine the targeting efficiency. MPS offers an excellent temporal resolution of seconds and an outstanding specific sensitivity of some nanograms of iron. In the flow phantom different MNP types, magnet geometries and tube materials can be employed to vary physical parameters like diameter, flow rate, magnetic targeting gradient, and MNP properties. - Highlights: • Flow phantom for magnetic targeting. • MPS for quantitative MNP detection. • ng detection limit for MNP.

  13. A Prototype Combination TPC Cherenkov Detector with GEM Readout for Tracking and Particle Identification and its Potential Use at an Electron Ion Collider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woody Craig

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A prototype detector is being developed which combines the functions of a Time Projection Chamber for charged particle tracking and a Cherenkov detector for particle identification. The TPC consists of a 10×10×10 cm3 drift volume where the charge is drifted to a 10×10 cm2 triple GEM detector. The charge is measured on a readout plane consisting of 2×10 mm2 chevron pads which provide a spatial resolution ∼ 100 μm per point in the chevron direction along with dE/dx information. The Cherenkov portion of the detector consists of a second 10×10 cm2 triple GEM with a photosensitive CsI photocathode on the top layer. This detector measures Cherenkov light produced in the drift gas of the TPC by high velocity particles which are above threshold. CF4 or CF4 mixtures will be used as the drift gas which are highly transparent to UV light and can provide excellent efficiency for detecting Cherenkov photons. The drift gas is also used as the operating gas for both GEM detectors. The prototype detector has been constructed and is currently being tested in the lab with sources and cosmic rays, and additional tests are planned in the future to study the detector in a test beam.

  14. A Prototype Combination TPC Cherenkov Detector with GEM Readout for Tracking and Particle Identification and its Potential Use at an Electron Ion Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, Craig; Azmoun, Babak; Majka, Richard; Phipps, Michael; Purschke, Martin; Smirnov, Nikolai

    2018-02-01

    A prototype detector is being developed which combines the functions of a Time Projection Chamber for charged particle tracking and a Cherenkov detector for particle identification. The TPC consists of a 10×10×10 cm3 drift volume where the charge is drifted to a 10×10 cm2 triple GEM detector. The charge is measured on a readout plane consisting of 2×10 mm2 chevron pads which provide a spatial resolution ˜ 100 μm per point in the chevron direction along with dE/dx information. The Cherenkov portion of the detector consists of a second 10×10 cm2 triple GEM with a photosensitive CsI photocathode on the top layer. This detector measures Cherenkov light produced in the drift gas of the TPC by high velocity particles which are above threshold. CF4 or CF4 mixtures will be used as the drift gas which are highly transparent to UV light and can provide excellent efficiency for detecting Cherenkov photons. The drift gas is also used as the operating gas for both GEM detectors. The prototype detector has been constructed and is currently being tested in the lab with sources and cosmic rays, and additional tests are planned in the future to study the detector in a test beam.

  15. Modeling of beam customization devices in the pencil-beam splitting algorithm for heavy charged particle radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanematsu, Nobuyuki, E-mail: nkanemat@nirs.go.jp [Department of Accelerator and Medical Physics, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Department of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, School of Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6 Aramaki Aza Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)

    2011-03-07

    A broad-beam-delivery system for radiotherapy with protons or ions often employs multiple collimators and a range-compensating filter, which offer complex and potentially useful beam customization. It is however difficult for conventional pencil-beam algorithms to deal with fine structures of these devices due to beam-size growth during transport. This study aims to avoid the difficulty with a novel computational model. The pencil beams are initially defined at the range-compensating filter with angular-acceptance correction for upstream collimation followed by stopping and scattering. They are individually transported with possible splitting near the aperture edge of a downstream collimator to form a sharp field edge. The dose distribution for a carbon-ion beam was calculated and compared with existing experimental data. The penumbra sizes of various collimator edges agreed between them to a submillimeter level. This beam-customization model will be used in the greater framework of the pencil-beam splitting algorithm for accurate and efficient patient dose calculation.

  16. Modeling of beam customization devices in the pencil-beam splitting algorithm for heavy charged particle radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanematsu, Nobuyuki

    2011-03-07

    A broad-beam-delivery system for radiotherapy with protons or ions often employs multiple collimators and a range-compensating filter, which offer complex and potentially useful beam customization. It is however difficult for conventional pencil-beam algorithms to deal with fine structures of these devices due to beam-size growth during transport. This study aims to avoid the difficulty with a novel computational model. The pencil beams are initially defined at the range-compensating filter with angular-acceptance correction for upstream collimation followed by stopping and scattering. They are individually transported with possible splitting near the aperture edge of a downstream collimator to form a sharp field edge. The dose distribution for a carbon-ion beam was calculated and compared with existing experimental data. The penumbra sizes of various collimator edges agreed between them to a submillimeter level. This beam-customization model will be used in the greater framework of the pencil-beam splitting algorithm for accurate and efficient patient dose calculation.

  17. Coupled PIXE and RBS using a 6MeV 4He2+ external beam: A new experimental device for particle detection and dose monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathis, F.; Moignard, B.; Pichon, L.; Dubreuil, O.; Salomon, J.

    2005-01-01

    AGLAE (Accelerateur Grand Louvre d'Analyses Elementaire), the IBA facility of the 'Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France' (C2RMF) has been equipped for several years with an external micro-beam line, in order to perform ion beam analysis on materials relevant to cultural heritage. This beam line is undergoing constant improvement. Recently, a new extraction nozzle for the external beam of the accelerator has been designed in order to obtain simultaneously from the same spot: - detection of the X-ray emission by two detectors, for low and high energies; - detection of the backscattered particles for a backscattering angle between 170 and 175 deg., thanks to an annular surface barrier detector included in the nozzle; - particle current monitoring by intermittent beam deflection on a reference material included in the system. This technical development has been induced by the study of artificial patinas on archaeological copper-alloy objects and the attempt to characterize them with a 6MeV 4 He 2+ beam, an unusual beam for this type of investigation. A detailed description of the new device and some results on an application of the use of high-energy alpha beam in PIXE and RBS made on a Roman strigil are presented here

  18. Particle and power balances of hot-filament discharge plasmas in a multi-dipole device in the presence of a positively biased electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, M.H.; Hershkowitz, N.; Intrator, T.

    1989-01-01

    The plasma potential is typically assumed to float above an anode potential by a few times of an electron temperature (T /e). The difference between the plasma potential and the anode potential can be estimated by considering the particle production and loss. However, it has been reported experimentally that the plasma potential of a steady state plasma can be more negative than the anode potential with a potential dip (-- T /e) in front of the anode. This paper describes particle and power balances to estimate the bulk plasma potential of a hot-filament discharge plasma produced in a multi-dipole plasma device. The bulk plasma potential dependence on positive DC bias applied to an anode is analyzed, and the predicted characteristics of the plasma potential dependence are compared to the experiment. A steady state potential dip in front of an anode is experimentally observed using emissive probes with the zero emission inflection point method, and the conditions for the potential dip formation are derived

  19. GA/particle swarm intelligence based optimization of two specific varieties of controller devices applied to two-area multi-units automatic generation control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatt, Praghnesh [Department of Electrical Engineering, Charotar Institute of Technology, Changa 388 421, Gujarat (India); Roy, Ranjit [Department of Electrical Engineering, S.V. National Institute of Technology, Surat 395 007, Gujarat (India); Ghoshal, S.P. [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Durgapur 713 209, West Bengal (India)

    2010-05-15

    This paper presents the comparative performance analysis of the two specific varieties of controller devices for optimal transient performance of automatic generation control (AGC) of an interconnected two-area power system, having multiple thermal-hydro-diesels mixed generating units. The significant improvement of optimal transient performance is observed with the addition of a thyristor-controlled phase shifter (TCPS) in the tie-line or capacitive energy storage (CES) units fitted in both the areas. Three different optimization algorithms are adopted for the sake of comparison of optimal performances and obtaining the optimal values of the gain settings of the devices independently. Craziness based particle swarm optimization (CRPSO) proves to be moderately fast algorithm and yields true optimal gains and minimum overshoot, minimum undershoot and minimum settling time of the transient response for any system. Comparative studies of TCPS and CES by any algorithm reveals that the CES units fitted in both the areas improve the transient performance to a greater extent following small load disturbance(s) in both the areas. (author)

  20. Detection system for the identification of heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abriola, Daniel H.; Arazi, Andres; Achterberg, Erhard; Capurro, Oscar A.; Fernandez Niello, Jorge O.; Ferrero, Armando M. J.; Liberman, Rosa G.; Marti, Guillermo V.; Pacheco, Alberto J.; Ramirez, Marcelo C.; Testoni, Jorge E.

    1999-01-01

    The TANDAR laboratory has a magnetic spectrometer as one of its detection facilities. This device allows the separation of incident particles according to the relation between their lineal momentum and their charge state. To complete this identification there are two alternatives: 1) A system of three detectors consisting of a multiwire detector, an ionization chamber and scintillators; 2) A segmented anode ionization chamber. (author)

  1. Identification of metals into fine particles (PM2.5) during the dry cold season in the Toluca City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez P, A. A.; Aldape U, F.

    2008-01-01

    To know the elemental content of fine particles PM 2.5 that can affect people in the Toluca City, such as metals and another, it was made a campaign collection of fine particles during dry-cold ( November 2006-March 2007). The aerosol samples were collected on Teflon filters with an equipment BGI model PQ200 mark authorized by the Environment Protection Agency (EPA), every other day with a time resolution of 24 h. The determination of the elemental composition of the samples was performed by means of the technique Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE). The results of the analysis showed consistently 13 elements S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, as, throughout the collection period. We calculated the enrich factor that separates the elements of the natural component of the anthropogenic component. The correlation matrix shows the pairs of elements that are contained in the same air mass as Vanadium and Nickel. From the results it is concluded that the sources that gave rise to these particles are the burning of fossil fuels in motor vehicles, lubricants, additives and burning tires wear of automotive vehicles, besides the products used in agricultural activities. (Author)

  2. Academic Training: Particle Detectors - Principles and Techniques

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2005-01-01

    2004-2005 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES FOR POSTGRADUATE STUDENTS 11, 12, 13, 14 & 15 April from 11.00 to 12.00 hrs - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 Particle Detectors - Principles and Techniques C. JORAM, L. ROPELEWSKI, M. MOLL, C. D'AMBROSIO, T. GYS / CERN-PH The lecture series presents an overview of the physical principles and basic techniques of particle detection, applied to current and future high energy physics experiments. Illustrating examples, chosen mainly from the field of collider experiments, demonstrate the performance and limitations of the various techniques. Main topics of the series are: interaction of particles and photons with matter; particle tracking with gaseous and solid state devices, including a discussion of radiation damage and strategies for improved radiation hardness; scintillation and photon detection; electromagnetic and hadronic calorimetry; particle identification using specific energy loss dE/dx, time of flight, Cherenkov light and transition radi...

  3. 21 CFR 866.2580 - Gas-generating device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2580 Gas-generating device. (a) Identification. A gas-generating device is a device intended for medical purposes that produces...

  4. A Bayesian approach for the stochastic modeling error reduction of magnetic material identification of an electromagnetic device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdallh, A; Crevecoeur, G; Dupré, L

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic material properties of an electromagnetic device can be recovered by solving an inverse problem where measurements are adequately interpreted by a mathematical forward model. The accuracy of these forward models dramatically affects the accuracy of the material properties recovered by the inverse problem. The more accurate the forward model is, the more accurate recovered data are. However, the more accurate ‘fine’ models demand a high computational time and memory storage. Alternatively, less accurate ‘coarse’ models can be used with a demerit of the high expected recovery errors. This paper uses the Bayesian approximation error approach for improving the inverse problem results when coarse models are utilized. The proposed approach adapts the objective function to be minimized with the a priori misfit between fine and coarse forward model responses. In this paper, two different electromagnetic devices, namely a switched reluctance motor and an EI core inductor, are used as case studies. The proposed methodology is validated on both purely numerical and real experimental results. The results show a significant reduction in the recovery error within an acceptable computational time. (paper)

  5. Inaccuracy of transthoracic echocardiography for the identification of right-sided vegetation in patients with no history of intravenous drug abuse or cardiac device insertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jiang; Liu, Shuang; Yang, Jinghua; Xu, Jie; Zhu, Guangfa

    2014-06-01

    The use of transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) to identify right-sided infective endocarditis (RSIE) vegetation is controversial. Data are scarce for patients with no history of intravenous drug abuse (IVDA) or cardiac device insertion. This study analysed the consistency of presurgical echocardiographic results with surgical findings for vegetation identification, and the factors that influence accuracy of echocardiography. This retrospective trial divided infective endocarditis (IE) patients into three subgroups according to the results of their presurgical TTE: left-sided native IE (LSNIE), left-sided prosthetic valve IE (LSPIE) and RSIE. The accuracy of TTE was tested by comparing vegetation (number and location), detected presurgery by TTE, with actual findings during surgery. In total, 416 patients were analysed, 322 with LSNIE, 31 with LSPIE and 63 with RSIE. Consistency between TTE findings and surgical results was lower in the RSIE group compared with the LSPIE and LSNIE groups. Consistency was lowered by the presence of vegetation in multiple locations and atypical distribution--both of which were increased in the RSIE group. The chance of vegetation in both sides of the heart rose with increased numbers of vegetation locations in RSIE patients. A high proportion of RSIE patients had congenital heart defects, mostly ventricular septal defects. TTE may be unsuitable for RSIE patients with no history of IVDA or cardiac device insertion, because multifocal and atypically distributed vegetation may influence detection accuracy. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  6. Identification and verification of ultrafine particle affinity zones in urban neighbourhoods: sample design and data pre-processing.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Harris, Paul

    2009-01-01

    A methodology is presented and validated through which long-term fixed site air quality measurements are used to characterise and remove temporal signals in sample-based measurements which have good spatial coverage but poor temporal resolution. The work has been carried out specifically to provide a spatial dataset of atmospheric ultrafine particle (UFP < 100 nm) data for ongoing epidemiologic cohort analysis but the method is readily transferable to wider epidemiologic investigations and research into the health effects of other pollutant species.

  7. Particle detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Hilke, Hans Jürgen; Joram, Christian; CERN. Geneva

    1991-01-01

    Lecture 5: Detector characteristics: ALEPH Experiment cut through the devices and events - Discuss the principles of the main techniques applied to particle detection ( including front-end electronics), the construction and performance of some of the devices presently in operartion and a few ideas on the future performance. Lecture 4-pt. b Following the Scintillators. Lecture 4-pt. a : Scintillators - Used for: -Timing (TOF, Trigger) - Energy Measurement (Calorimeters) - Tracking (Fibres) Basic scintillation processes- Inorganic Scintillators - Organic Scintil - Discuss the principles of the main techniques applied to particle detection ( including front-end electronics), the construction and performance of some of the devices presently in operation and a fiew ideas on future developpement session 3 - part. b Following Calorimeters lecture 3-pt. a Calorimeters - determine energy E by total absorption of charged or neutral particles - fraction of E is transformed into measurable quantities - try to acheive sig...

  8. East Asian SO2 pollution plume over Europe – Part 1: Airborne trace gas measurements and source identification by particle dispersion model simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stohl

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A large SO2-rich pollution plume of East Asian origin was detected by aircraft based CIMS (Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry measurements at 3–7.5 km altitude over the North Atlantic. The measurements, which took place on 3 May 2006 aboard of the German research aircraft Falcon, were part of the INTEX-B (Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment-B campaign. Additional trace gases (NO, NOy, CO, H2O were measured and used for comparison and source identification. The atmospheric SO2 mole fraction was markedly increased inside the plume and reached up to 900 pmol/mol. Accompanying lagrangian FLEXPART particle dispersion model simulations indicate that the probed pollution plume originated at low altitudes from densely populated and industrialized regions of East Asia, primarily China, about 8–12 days prior to the measurements.

  9. Particle Identification in the T2K TPCs and study of the electron neutrino component in the T2K neutrino beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giganti, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    This thesis describes the work done on the TPCs of the Near Detector of the T2K experiment. T2K is an experiment installed in Japan and its main purpose is the measurement of the last angle of the neutrino mixing matrix, Θ 13 . The other two angles of the matrix have already been measured in the last years, through the phenomenon of the neutrino oscillations, showing that the neutrinos have masses different from zero. The measurement of the missing angle Θ 13 is of fundamental importance for the neutrino physics as, if this angle is different from zero, CP violation in the lepton sector can occur. Up to now only upper limits on the value of Θ 13 exist: the aim of T2K is to measure this angle or to put upper limits on it with a sensitivity 20 times better than the current limit. This measurement will be done measuring the appearance at the far detector, SuperKamiokande, of electron neutrinos in the muon neutrino beam produced at JPARC. The main background to the measurement of Θ 13 is the electron neutrinos produced together with the muon neutrinos in the beam: this component, expected to be of the order of 1% of the total neutrino flux, has to be measured at the T2K Near Detector, before the oscillations. This can be done selecting neutrino interactions in the Near Detector tracker and using the TPC particle identification capabilities to distinguish electrons from muons. This allows to select a sample of electron neutrino interactions and to measure their spectrum at the Near Detector. During this thesis I have developed the methods to perform the particle identification in the TPCs: the method is based on the measurement of the truncated mean of the energy deposited by the charged particles in the gas: at the typical energy of the T2K neutrinos the difference in the deposited energy between muons and electrons is of the order of 40% and for this reason a resolution better than 10% is needed to distinguish the two particles: as we will show in the thesis, with

  10. Multi-step ahead nonlinear identification of Lorenz's chaotic system using radial basis neural network with learning by clustering and particle swarm optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerra, Fabio A.; Coelho, Leandro dos S.

    2008-01-01

    An important problem in engineering is the identification of nonlinear systems, among them radial basis function neural networks (RBF-NN) using Gaussian activation functions models, which have received particular attention due to their potential to approximate nonlinear behavior. Several design methods have been proposed for choosing the centers and spread of Gaussian functions and training the RBF-NN. The selection of RBF-NN parameters such as centers, spreads, and weights can be understood as a system identification problem. This paper presents a hybrid training approach based on clustering methods (k-means and c-means) to tune the centers of Gaussian functions used in the hidden layer of RBF-NNs. This design also uses particle swarm optimization (PSO) for centers (local clustering search method) and spread tuning, and the Penrose-Moore pseudoinverse for the adjustment of RBF-NN weight outputs. Simulations involving this RBF-NN design to identify Lorenz's chaotic system indicate that the performance of the proposed method is superior to that of the conventional RBF-NN trained for k-means and the Penrose-Moore pseudoinverse for multi-step ahead forecasting

  11. Identification of Free-living and Particle-Associated Microbial Communities Present in Hadal regions of the Mariana Trench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan eTarn

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Relatively few studies have described the microbial populations present in ultra-deep hadal environments, largely as a result of difficulties associated with sampling. Here we report Illumina-tag V6 16S rRNA sequence-based analyses of the free-living and particle-associated microbial communities recovered from locations within two of the deepest hadal sites on Earth, the Challenger Deep (10,918 meters below surface-mbs and the Sirena Deep (10,667 mbs within the Mariana Trench, as well as one control site (Ulithi Atoll, 761 mbs. Seawater samples were collected using an autonomous lander positioned ~1m above the seafloor. The bacterial populations within the Mariana Trench bottom water samples were dissimilar to other deep-sea microbial communities, though with overlap with those of diffuse flow hydrothermal vents and deep-subsurface locations. Distinct particle-associated and free-living bacterial communities were found to exist. The hadal bacterial populations were also markedly different from one another, indicating the likelihood of different chemical conditions at the two sites. In contrast to the bacteria, the hadal archaeal communities were more similar to other less deep datasets and to each other due to an abundance of cosmopolitan deep-sea taxa. The hadal communities were enriched in thirty four bacterial and four archaeal operational taxonomic units (OTUs including members of the Gammaproteobacteria, Epsilonproteobacteria, Marinimicrobia, Cyanobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes, Atribacteria, Spirochaetes, and Euryarchaeota. Sequences matching cultivated piezophiles were notably enriched in the Challenger Deep, especially within the particle-associated fraction, and were found in higher abundances than in other hadal studies, where they were either far less prevalent or missing. Our results indicate the importance of heterotrophy, sulfur-cycling, and methane and hydrogen utilization within the bottom waters of the deeper

  12. Identification of Free-Living and Particle-Associated Microbial Communities Present in Hadal Regions of the Mariana Trench.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarn, Jonathan; Peoples, Logan M; Hardy, Kevin; Cameron, James; Bartlett, Douglas H

    2016-01-01

    Relatively few studies have described the microbial populations present in ultra-deep hadal environments, largely as a result of difficulties associated with sampling. Here we report Illumina-tag V6 16S rRNA sequence-based analyses of the free-living and particle-associated microbial communities recovered from locations within two of the deepest hadal sites on Earth, the Challenger Deep (10,918 meters below surface-mbs) and the Sirena Deep (10,667 mbs) within the Mariana Trench, as well as one control site (Ulithi Atoll, 761 mbs). Seawater samples were collected using an autonomous lander positioned ~1 m above the seafloor. The bacterial populations within the Mariana Trench bottom water samples were dissimilar to other deep-sea microbial communities, though with overlap with those of diffuse flow hydrothermal vents and deep-subsurface locations. Distinct particle-associated and free-living bacterial communities were found to exist. The hadal bacterial populations were also markedly different from one another, indicating the likelihood of different chemical conditions at the two sites. In contrast to the bacteria, the hadal archaeal communities were more similar to other less deep datasets and to each other due to an abundance of cosmopolitan deep-sea taxa. The hadal communities were enriched in 34 bacterial and 4 archaeal operational taxonomic units (OTUs) including members of the Gammaproteobacteria, Epsilonproteobacteria, Marinimicrobia, Cyanobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes, Atribacteria, Spirochaetes, and Euryarchaeota. Sequences matching cultivated piezophiles were notably enriched in the Challenger Deep, especially within the particle-associated fraction, and were found in higher abundances than in other hadal studies, where they were either far less prevalent or missing. Our results indicate the importance of heterotrophy, sulfur-cycling, and methane and hydrogen utilization within the bottom waters of the deeper regions of the Mariana Trench

  13. Advanced electron microscopic techniques applied to the characterization of irradiation effects and fission product identification of irradiated TRISO coated particles from the AGR-1 experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rooyen, I.J. van; Lillo, T.M.; Trowbridge, T.L.; Madden, J.M.; Wu, Y.Q.; Goran, D.

    2013-01-01

    Preliminary electron microscopy of coated fuel particles from the AGR-1 experiment was conducted using characterization techniques such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and wavelength dispersive spectroscopy (WDS). Microscopic quantification of fission-product precipitates was performed. Although numerous micro- and nano-sized precipitates observed in the coating layers during initial SEM characterization of the cross-sections, and in subsequent TEM diffraction patterns, were indexed as UPd 2 Si 2 , no Ag was conclusively found. Additionally, characterization of these precipitates highlighted the difficulty of measuring low concentrations of Ag in precipitates in the presence of significantly higher concentrations of Pd and U. The electron microscopy team followed a multi-directional and phased approach in the identification of fission products in irradiated TRISO fuel. The advanced electron microscopy techniques discussed in this paper, not only demonstrate the usefulness of the equipment (methods) as relevant research tools, but also provide relevant scientific results which increase the knowledge about TRISO fuel particles microstructure and fission products transport

  14. Identification of water soluble and particle bound compounds causing sublethal toxic effects. A field study on sediments affected by a chlor-alkali industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosch, Carme; Olivares, Alba; Faria, Melissa; Navas, Jose M.; Olmo, Ivan del; Grimalt, Joan O.; Pina, Benjamin; Barata, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    A combination of cost effective sublethal Daphnia magna feeding tests, yeast- and cell culture-based bioassays and Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) procedures was used to characterize toxic compounds within sediments collected in a river area under the influence of the effluents from a chlor-alkali industry (Ebro River, NE Spain). Tests were designed to measure and identify toxic compounds in the particulate and filtered water fractions of sediment elutriates. The combined use of bioassays responding to elutriates and dioxin-like compounds evidenced the existence of three major groups of hazardous contaminants in the most contaminated site: (A) metals such as cadmium and mercury bound to sediment fine particles that could be easily resuspended and moved downstream, (B) soluble compounds (presumably, lye) able to alkalinize water to toxic levels, and (C) organochlorine compounds with high dioxin-like activity. These results provided evidence that elutriate D. magna feeding responses can be used as surrogate assays for more tedious chronic whole sediment tests, and that the incorporation of such tests in sediment TIE procedures may improve the ability to identify the toxicity of particle-bound and water-soluble contaminants in sediments.

  15. Occurrence, identification and removal of microplastic particles and fibers in conventional activated sludge process and advanced MBR technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lares, Mirka; Ncibi, Mohamed Chaker; Sillanpää, Markus; Sillanpää, Mika

    2018-04-15

    Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are acting as routes of microplastics (MPs) to the environment, hence the urgent need to examine MPs in wastewaters and different types of sludge through sampling campaigns covering extended periods of time. In this study, the efficiency of a municipal WWTP to remove MPs from wastewater was studied by collecting wastewater and sludge samples once in every two weeks during a 3-month sampling campaign. The WWTP was operated based on the conventional activated sludge (CAS) process and a pilot-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR). The microplastic particles and fibers from both water and sludge samples were identified by using an optical microscope, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) microscope and Raman microscope. Overall, the retention capacity of microplastics in the studied WWTP was found to be 98.3%. Most of the MP fraction was removed before the activated sludge process. The efficiency of an advanced membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology was also examined. The main related finding is that MBR permeate contained 0.4 MP/L in comparison with the final effluent of the CAS process (1.0 MP/L). According to this study, both microplastic fibers and particles are discharged from the WWTP to the aquatic environment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Identification of aerosol particle sources in semi-rural area of Kwabenya, near Accra, Ghana, by EDXRF techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aboh, Innocent Joy Kwame; Henriksson, Dag; Laursen, Jens

    2009-01-01

    is frequently exposed to Harmattan dust from the Sahara-Sahel region. In total 171 filters each of PM2.5 and PM(2.5-10) were collected during 1 year. Levels of elements, black carbon (BC) and mass, were determined for both particle sizes. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed on the datasets from...... Harmattan and non-Harmattan periods. The daily average of PM10 was very high, 179 μgm-3 and the BC contents were 4 μgm-3. The presence of crustal elements was large in PM(2.5-10) as well as in PM2.5, and had amore than tenfold increase in PM(2.5-10) during the Harmattan period. Major characteristic elements...

  17. Crack identification method in beam-like structures using changes in experimentally measured frequencies and Particle Swarm Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatir, Samir; Dekemele, Kevin; Loccufier, Mia; Khatir, Tawfiq; Abdel Wahab, Magd

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, a technique is presented for the detection and localization of an open crack in beam-like structures using experimentally measured natural frequencies and the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) method. The technique considers the variation in local flexibility near the crack. The natural frequencies of a cracked beam are determined experimentally and numerically using the Finite Element Method (FEM). The optimization algorithm is programmed in MATLAB. The algorithm is used to estimate the location and severity of a crack by minimizing the differences between measured and calculated frequencies. The method is verified using experimentally measured data on a cantilever steel beam. The Fourier transform is adopted to improve the frequency resolution. The results demonstrate the good accuracy of the proposed technique.

  18. Application of particle image velocimetry measurement techniques to study turbulence characteristics of oscillatory flows around parallel-plate structures in thermoacoustic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Xiaoan; Jaworski, Artur J

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the development of the experimental setup and measurement methodologies to study the physics of oscillatory flows in the vicinity of parallel-plate stacks by using the particle image velocimetry (PIV) techniques. Parallel-plate configurations often appear as internal structures in thermoacoustic devices and are responsible for the hydrodynamic energy transfer processes. The flow around selected stack configurations is induced by a standing acoustic wave, whose amplitude can be varied. Depending on the direction of the flow within the acoustic cycle, relative to the stack, it can be treated as an entrance flow or a wake flow. The insight into the flow behaviour, its kinematics, dynamics and scales of turbulence, is obtained using the classical Reynolds decomposition to separate the instantaneous velocity fields into ensemble-averaged mean velocity fields and fluctuations in a set of predetermined phases within an oscillation cycle. The mean velocity field and the fluctuation intensity distributions are investigated over the acoustic oscillation cycle. The velocity fluctuation is further divided into large- and small-scale fluctuations by using fast Fourier transform (FFT) spatial filtering techniques

  19. Clinical accuracy of a PLEX-ID flu device for simultaneous detection and identification of influenza viruses A and B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yi-Wei; Lowery, Kristin S; Valsamakis, Alexandra; Schaefer, Virginia C; Chappell, James D; White-Abell, Jill; Quinn, Criziel D; Li, Haijing; Washington, Cicely A; Cromwell, Jenna; Giamanco, Chantel M; Forman, Michael; Holden, Jeffery; Rothman, Richard E; Parker, Michelle L; Ortenberg, Elaine V; Zhang, Lei; Lin, Yea-Lin; Gaydos, Charlotte A

    2013-01-01

    influenza A virus detection and H1N1-p subtyping. The PLEX-ID Flu assay demonstrated a high level of accuracy for the simultaneous detection and identification of influenza A and B viruses in patient specimens, providing a new laboratory tool for the rapid diagnosis and management of influenza A and B virus infections.

  20. Pinpointing particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, David J.

    1987-01-01

    The Conference on Position-Sensitive Detectors held at London's University College from 7-11 September highlighted the importance and the growing applications of these precision devices in many branches of science, underlining once again the high spinoff potential for techniques developed inside particle physics

  1. Pinpointing particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, David J.

    1987-10-15

    The Conference on Position-Sensitive Detectors held at London's University College from 7-11 September highlighted the importance and the growing applications of these precision devices in many branches of science, underlining once again the high spinoff potential for techniques developed inside particle physics.

  2. Effects of low speed wind on the recognition/identification and pass-through communication tasks of auditory situation awareness afforded by military hearing protection/enhancement devices and tactical communication and protective systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kichol; Casali, John G

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the effect of controlled low-speed wind-noise on the auditory situation awareness performance afforded by military hearing protection/enhancement devices (HPED) and tactical communication and protective systems (TCAPS). Recognition/identification and pass-through communications tasks were separately conducted under three wind conditions (0, 5, and 10 mph). Subjects wore two in-ear-type TCAPS, one earmuff-type TCAPS, a Combat Arms Earplug in its 'open' or pass-through setting, and an EB-15LE electronic earplug. Devices with electronic gain systems were tested under two gain settings: 'unity' and 'max'. Testing without any device (open ear) was conducted as a control. Ten subjects were recruited from the student population at Virginia Tech. Audiometric requirements were 25 dBHL or better at 500, 1000, 2000, 4000, and 8000 Hz in both ears. Performance on the interaction of communication task-by-device was significantly different only in 0 mph wind speed. The between-device performance differences varied with azimuthal speaker locations. It is evident from this study that stable (non-gusting) wind speeds up to 10 mph did not significantly degrade recognition/identification task performance and pass-through communication performance of the group of HPEDs and TCAPS tested. However, the various devices performed differently as the test sound signal speaker location was varied and it appears that physical as well as electronic features may have contributed to this directional result.

  3. Identification of platinum nanoparticles in road dust leachate by single particle inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folens, Karel; Van Acker, Thibaut; Bolea-Fernandez, Eduardo; Cornelis, Geert; Vanhaecke, Frank; Du Laing, Gijs; Rauch, Sebastien

    2018-02-15

    Elevated platinum (Pt) concentrations are found in road dust as a result of emissions from catalytic converters in vehicles. This study investigates the occurrence of Pt in road dust collected in Ghent (Belgium) and Gothenburg (Sweden). Total Pt contents, determined by tandem ICP-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS/MS), were in the range of 5 to 79ngg -1 , comparable to the Pt content in road dust of other medium-sized cities. Further sample characterization was performed by single particle (sp) ICP-MS following an ultrasonic extraction procedure using stormwater runoff for leaching. The method was found to be suitable for the characterization of Pt nanoparticles in road dust leachates. The extraction was optimized using road dust reference material BCR-723, for which an extraction efficiency of 2.7% was obtained by applying 144kJ of ultrasonic energy. Using this method, between 0.2% and 18% of the Pt present was extracted from road dust samples. spICP-MS analysis revealed that Pt in the leachate is entirely present as nanoparticles of sizes between 9 and 21nm. Although representing only a minor fraction of the total content in road dust, the nanoparticulate Pt leachate is most susceptible to biological uptake and hence most relevant in terms of bioavailability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Brain response pattern identification of fMRI data using a particle swarm optimization-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xinpei; Chou, Chun-An; Sayama, Hiroki; Chaovalitwongse, Wanpracha Art

    2016-09-01

    Many neuroscience studies have been devoted to understand brain neural responses correlating to cognition using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In contrast to univariate analysis to identify response patterns, it is shown that multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) of fMRI data becomes a relatively effective approach using machine learning techniques in the recent literature. MVPA can be considered as a multi-objective pattern classification problem with the aim to optimize response patterns, in which informative voxels interacting with each other are selected, achieving high classification accuracy associated with cognitive stimulus conditions. To solve the problem, we propose a feature interaction detection framework, integrating hierarchical heterogeneous particle swarm optimization and support vector machines, for voxel selection in MVPA. In the proposed approach, we first select the most informative voxels and then identify a response pattern based on the connectivity of the selected voxels. The effectiveness of the proposed approach was examined for the Haxby's dataset of object-level representations. The computational results demonstrated higher classification accuracy by the extracted response patterns, compared to state-of-the-art feature selection algorithms, such as forward selection and backward selection.

  5. Identification of SNP barcode biomarkers for genes associated with facial emotion perception using particle swarm optimization algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Li-Yeh; Lane, Hsien-Yuan; Lin, Yu-Da; Lin, Ming-Teng; Yang, Cheng-Hong; Chang, Hsueh-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Facial emotion perception (FEP) can affect social function. We previously reported that parts of five tested single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the MET and AKT1 genes may individually affect FEP performance. However, the effects of SNP-SNP interactions on FEP performance remain unclear. This study compared patients with high and low FEP performances (n = 89 and 93, respectively). A particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm was used to identify the best SNP barcodes (i.e., the SNP combinations and genotypes that revealed the largest differences between the high and low FEP groups). The analyses of individual SNPs showed no significant differences between the high and low FEP groups. However, comparisons of multiple SNP-SNP interactions involving different combinations of two to five SNPs showed that the best PSO-generated SNP barcodes were significantly associated with high FEP score. The analyses of the joint effects of the best SNP barcodes for two to five interacting SNPs also showed that the best SNP barcodes had significantly higher odds ratios (2.119 to 3.138; P < 0.05) compared to other SNP barcodes. In conclusion, the proposed PSO algorithm effectively identifies the best SNP barcodes that have the strongest associations with FEP performance. This study also proposes a computational methodology for analyzing complex SNP-SNP interactions in social cognition domains such as recognition of facial emotion.

  6. Fentanyl Iontophoretic Transdermal System (IONSYS(®)) can be Safely used in the Hospital Environment with X-Rays, Computerized Tomography and Radiofrequency Identification Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke, John; Sardariani, Edmond; Phipps, Joseph Bradley; Patel, Niki; Itri, Loretta M; Caravelli, James; Viscusi, Eugene R

    2016-09-01

    Fentanyl iontophoretic transdermal system (fentanyl ITS, IONSYS(®)) is a patient-controlled analgesia system used for the management of acute postoperative pain, designed to be utilized in a hospital setting. The objective of the two studies was to determine if fentanyl ITS could be safely used with X-rays, computerized tomography (CT) scans and radiofrequency identification (RFID) devices. The ITS system has two components: controller and drug unit; the studies utilized ITS systems without fentanyl, referred to as the ITS Placebo system. The first study evaluated the effect of X-radiation on the operation of an ITS Placebo system. Five ITS Placebo systems were exposed to X-rays (20 and 200 mSv total radiation dose-the 200 mSv radiation dose represents a tenfold higher exposure than in clinical practice) while operating in the Ready Mode and five were exposed while operating in the Dose Mode. The second study evaluated the effect of RFID (worst-case scenario of direct contact with an RFID transmitter) on the operation of an ITS Placebo system. During these tests, observations of the user interface and measurements of output voltage confirmed proper function throughout all operational modes (Ready Mode, Dose Mode, End-of-Use Mode, and End-of-Life Mode). The ITS Placebo system met all specifications and no functional anomalies were observed during and following X-ray exposure at two radiation dose levels or exposure at six different combinations of RFID frequencies and field strengths. The performance of the ITS system was unaffected by X-ray exposure levels well beyond those associated with diagnostic X-rays and CT scans, and by exposure to radiofrequency field strengths typically generated by RFID devices. These results provide added confidence to clinicians that the fentanyl ITS system does not need to be removed during diagnostic X-rays and CT scans and can also be utilized in close proximity to RFID devices. The studies and writing of this manuscript were

  7. Pulse-based electron spin transient nutation measurement of BaTiO3 fine particle: Identification of controversial signal around g = 2.00

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawai, Takatoshi; Yamaguchi, Yoji; Kitamura, Noriko; Date, Tomotsugu; Konishi, Shinya; Taga, Kazuya; Tanaka, Katsuhisa

    2018-05-01

    Two dimensional pulse-based electron spin transient nutation (2D-ESTN) spectroscopy is a powerful tool for determining the spin quantum number and has been applied to BaTiO3 fine powder in order to identify the origin of the continuous wave electron spin resonance (CW-ESR) signal around g = 2.00. The signal is frequently observed in BaTiO3 ceramics, and the correlation between the signal intensity and positive temperature coefficient of resistivity (PTCR) properties has been reported to date. The CW-ESR spectrum of BaTiO3 fine particles synthesized by the sol-gel method shows a typical asymmetric signal at g = 2.004. The 2D-ESTN measurements of the sample clearly reveal that the signal belongs to the S = 5/2 high spin state, indicating that the signal is not due to a point defect as suggested by a number of researchers but rather to a transition metal ion. Our elemental analysis, as well as previous studies, indicates that the origin of the g = 2.004 signal is due to the presence of an Fe3+ impurity. The D value (second-order fine structure parameter) reveals that the origin of the signal is an Fe3+ center with distant charge compensation. In addition, we show a peculiar temperature dependence of the CW-ESR spectrum, suggesting that the phase transition behavior of a BaTiO3 fine particle is quite different from that of a bulk single crystal. Our identification does not contradict a vacancy-mediated mechanism for PTCR. However, it is incorrect to use the signal at g = 2.00 as evidence to support the vacancy-mediated mechanism.

  8. Identification and energy measurement of charged particles in the 50-300 MeV energy range by means of a magnet-free hardron spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayukov, Yu D.; Bukiej, A.E.; Gavrilov, V.B.

    1980-01-01

    Studied are the main characteristics (efficiency, time delay and amplitude singal distribution) of a magnet-free hadron spectrometer, in which a plastic scintillator block is the main part. The plastic scintillator having the form of a cylinder of the 20 cm diameter and the 20 cm height is examined with a photomultiplier through a 50 cm light guide. The dependencies of the amplitude conversion coefficient and signal time delay on the distance between the scintillation point and the light guide are resented. The analysis of the results obtained has shown that the closer the beam passes to the light guide, the greater is the signal amplitude. The counter signal delay linearly increases with the distance increase between the beam and the light guide. The dependence of the spectrometer efficiency on the proton energy is measured as well. The investigations have proved possible utilization of the scintillation detector described for identification of charged particles in the 50-300 MeV range and measurement of their energy with the 3-8% accuracy

  9. Identification of inorganic improvised explosive devices by analysis of postblast residues using portable capillary electrophoresis instrumentation and indirect photometric detection with a light-emitting diode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Joseph P; Evenhuis, Christopher J; Johns, Cameron; Kazarian, Artaches A; Breadmore, Michael C; Macka, Miroslav; Hilder, Emily F; Guijt, Rosanne M; Dicinoski, Greg W; Haddad, Paul R

    2007-09-15

    (hydroxymethyl)aminomethane at pH 8.05. All 15 target anions were baseline separated in less than 9 min with limits of detection ranging from 0.24 to 1.15 mg/L (calculated at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3). Use of the portable instrumentation in the field was demonstrated by analyzing postblast residues in a mobile laboratory immediately after detonation of the explosive devices. Profiling the ionic composition of the inorganic IEDs allowed identification of the chemicals used in their construction.

  10. A Parallel Particle Swarm Optimizer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schutte, J. F; Fregly, B .J; Haftka, R. T; George, A. D

    2003-01-01

    .... Motivated by a computationally demanding biomechanical system identification problem, we introduce a parallel implementation of a stochastic population based global optimizer, the Particle Swarm...

  11. 21 CFR 882.5050 - Biofeedback device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Biofeedback device. 882.5050 Section 882.5050 Food... DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Therapeutic Devices § 882.5050 Biofeedback device. (a) Identification. A biofeedback device is an instrument that provides a visual or auditory signal corresponding to...

  12. Devices for separation of particle emissions from biofuel plants smaller than 10 MW - Today's technology and potential for development; Stoftreningsteknik foer biobraensleanlaeggningar mindre aen 10 MW - tekniklaege och utvecklingspotential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roennbaeck, Marie; Gustavsson, Lennart; Martinsson, Lars; Tullin, Claes; Johansson, Linda

    2002-09-01

    The objective of this report is to compile a survey of available technologies for separation of particles and to present research and development in the area of particle separation for biofuel plants smaller than 10 MW. Technical and economical opportunities to transfer the technologies used today in larger plants to smaller ones are discussed. As the health effects of aerosols are under investigation, the issue of separation of particle less than 1 {mu}m is especially scrutinised. Current research concerning the particle size distribution at different load is presented. The project has been realised partly as a literature survey, partly through contacts with scientists in the area and manufacturers of devices for flue gas cleaning and particle separation. The target group is owners of plants, manufacturers of devices and authorities with responsibility for air quality and energy planning. Fabric filters is an established technology that can perform low particle emissions (less than a few mg/m{sup 3}) at a low cost also at smaller plants. Also electrostatic precipitators can perform the same low emissions, but the cost for installation at smaller plants has to be reduced. Both these technologies can, properly designed, separate submicron particles. Cyclones can today as its best perform a little less than 100 mg/m{sup 3} at 13 % CO{sub 2}. Cyclones are used together with other technologies to achieve high separation at a low cost. Cyclones are attractive because of their simplicity and low price, but because they use inertia forces as separation mechanism, they can never separate submicron particles. Conventional scrubbers and flue gas condensers are capable of separation of submicron particles but the efficiency is lower compared with fabric filters and electrostatic precipitators. The emission level after a scrubber/flue gas condenser is about 70 - 80 mg/m{sup 3} at 13 % CO{sub 2}. New technologies for separation of particles oriented towards smaller plants and

  13. Electrophoresis device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, P. H.; Snyder, R. S. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A device for separating cellular particles of a sample substance into fractionated streams of different cellular species includes a casing having a distribution chamber, a separation chamber, and a collection chamber. The electrode chambers are separated from the separation chamber interior by means of passages such that flow variations and membrane variations around the slotted portion of the electrode chamber do not enduce flow perturbations into the laminar buffer curtain flowing in the separation chamber. The cellular particles of the sample are separated under the influence of the electrical field and the separation chamber into streams of different cellular species. The streams of separated cells enter a partition array in the collection chamber where they are fractionated and collected.

  14. Method and device for thermal control of biological and chemical reactions using magnetic particles or magnetic beads and variable magnetic fields

    OpenAIRE

    Zilch, C.; Gerdes, W.; Bauer, J.; Holschuh, K.

    2009-01-01

    The invention relates to a method for the thermal control of at least one temperature-dependent enzymatic reaction in the presence of magnetic particles, particularly nanoparticles, or magnetic beads, in vitro by heating the magnetic beads or magnetic particles to at least one defined target temperature using alternating magnetic fields. The thermally controllable enzymatic reaction carried out with the method according to the invention is preferably a PCR reaction or another reaction for elo...

  15. Acceleration of Cherenkov angle reconstruction with the new Intel Xeon/FPGA compute platform for the particle identification in the LHCb Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faerber, Christian

    2017-10-01

    The LHCb experiment at the LHC will upgrade its detector by 2018/2019 to a ‘triggerless’ readout scheme, where all the readout electronics and several sub-detector parts will be replaced. The new readout electronics will be able to readout the detector at 40 MHz. This increases the data bandwidth from the detector down to the Event Filter farm to 40 TBit/s, which also has to be processed to select the interesting proton-proton collision for later storage. The architecture of such a computing farm, which can process this amount of data as efficiently as possible, is a challenging task and several compute accelerator technologies are being considered for use inside the new Event Filter farm. In the high performance computing sector more and more FPGA compute accelerators are used to improve the compute performance and reduce the power consumption (e.g. in the Microsoft Catapult project and Bing search engine). Also for the LHCb upgrade the usage of an experimental FPGA accelerated computing platform in the Event Building or in the Event Filter farm is being considered and therefore tested. This platform from Intel hosts a general CPU and a high performance FPGA linked via a high speed link which is for this platform a QPI link. On the FPGA an accelerator is implemented. The used system is a two socket platform from Intel with a Xeon CPU and an FPGA. The FPGA has cache-coherent memory access to the main memory of the server and can collaborate with the CPU. As a first step, a computing intensive algorithm to reconstruct Cherenkov angles for the LHCb RICH particle identification was successfully ported in Verilog to the Intel Xeon/FPGA platform and accelerated by a factor of 35. The same algorithm was ported to the Intel Xeon/FPGA platform with OpenCL. The implementation work and the performance will be compared. Also another FPGA accelerator the Nallatech 385 PCIe accelerator with the same Stratix V FPGA were tested for performance. The results show that the Intel

  16. Particle acceleration by plasma waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, C.

    2006-01-01

    In an advanced particle accelerator particles are driven near by light velocity through ionized gas. Such plasma devices are compact, cost efficient and usable in many fields. Examples are given in detail. (GL)

  17. A Lab on a chip device for rapid identification of Avian Influenza virus by on-chip sample preparation and solid phase PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yi, Sun; Dhumpa, Raghuram; Bang, Dang Duong

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a novel lab-on-a-chip device for fast AIV screening by integrating DNA microarray-based solid phase PCR on microchip. The device can handle viral samples in an automatic way. Moreover, multiplex PCR and sequence detection are done in one-step, which greatly simplifies...

  18. Experimental data on study of cosmic ray particles in the E≥2 TeV energy range at the Kosmos-1713 satellite with the Sokol-2 device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanenko, I.P.; Rapoport, I.D.; Shestoperov, V.Ya.

    1989-01-01

    Primary data of results of experiment on studying the cosmic ray particles with energy in the range exceeding 2 TeV at the Kosmos-1713 satellite using the Sokol-2 equipment are presented in the tabular form. A brief description of the equipment is given. 4 refs.; 2 figs.; 1 tab

  19. Characterization of hydrometeors in Sahelian convective systems with an X-band radar and comparison with in situ measurements. Part I : Sensitivity of polarimetric radar particle identification retrieval and case study evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Cazenave, Frédéric; Gosset, Marielle; Kacou, M.; Alcoba, M.; Fontaine, E.; Duroure, C.; Dolan, B.

    2016-01-01

    The particle identification scheme developed by Dolan and Rutledge for X-band polarimetric radar is tested for the first time in Africa and compared with in situ measurements. The data were acquired during the Megha-Tropiques mission algorithm-validation campaign that occurred in Niger in 2010. The radar classification is compared with the in situ observations gathered by an instrumented aircraft for the 13 August 2010 squall-line case. An original approach has been developed for the radar-in...

  20. 21 CFR 892.2040 - Medical image hardcopy device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical image hardcopy device. 892.2040 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.2040 Medical image hardcopy device. (a) Identification. A medical image hardcopy device is a device that produces a visible printed record of a medical...

  1. 21 CFR 872.1740 - Caries detection device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Caries detection device. 872.1740 Section 872.1740...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 872.1740 Caries detection device. (a) Identification. The caries detection device is a device intended to show the existence of decay in a patient's tooth...

  2. Microchip Coulter particle counter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ulrik Darling; Blankenstein, Gert; Branebjerg, J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a micro device employing the Coulter principle for counting and sizing of living cells and particles in liquid suspension. The microchip Coulter particle counter (μCPC) has been employed in a planar silicon structure covered with glass, which enables detailed observation during...

  3. Particle Detectors: Research and Development at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabjan, C. W.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past 15 years a worldwide Detector R and D Programme has made the LHC experiments possible. These experiments operate at a new level of event rate and detection capabilities. Based on these advances, Detector R and D is continuing at CERN in close collaboration with University and Research Institutes. Several main directions are being pursued for solid-state and gaseous tracking devices, advanced crystal and noble liquid calorimetry, particle identification methods, and advanced signal-processing techniques. This effort is directed towards experiments at even higher collision rates at the LHC, the requirements for the next generation of linear electron-positron colliders and for applications outside particle physics, such as medical diagnostics instrumentation. We shall illustrate this challenging, stimulating and creative programme with examples and show how these developments are taking place in close collaboration between CERN and institutions around the globe

  4. Wirelessly powered microfluidic dielectrophoresis devices using printable RF circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Wen; Cho, Gyoujin; Lo, Yu-Hwa

    2011-03-21

    We report the first microfluidic device integrated with a printed RF circuit so the device can be wirelessly powered by a commercially available RFID reader. For conventional dielectrophoresis devices, electrical wires are needed to connect the electric components on the microchip to external equipment such as power supplies, amplifiers, function generators, etc. Such a procedure is unfamiliar to most clinicians and pathologists who are used to working with a microscope for examination of samples on microscope slides. The wirelessly powered device reported here eliminates the entire need for wire attachments and external instruments so the operators can use the device in essentially the same manner as they do with microscope slides. The integrated circuit can be fabricated on a flexible plastic substrate at very low cost using a roll-to-roll printing method. Electrical power at 13.56 MHz transmitted by a radio-frequency identification (RFID) reader is inductively coupled to the printed RFIC and converted into 10 V DC (direct current) output, which provides sufficient power to drive a microfluidic device to manipulate biological particles such as beads and proteins via the DC dielectrophoresis (DC-DEP) effect. To our best knowledge, this is the first wirelessly powered microfluidic dielectrophoresis device. Although the work is preliminary, the device concept, the architecture, and the core technology are expected to stimulate many efforts in the future and transform the technology to a wide range of clinical and point-of-care applications. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  5. Particle Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Health Particle Pollution Public Health Issues Particle Pollution Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Particle pollution — ... see them in the air. Where does particle pollution come from? Particle pollution can come from two ...

  6. Identification and Management of Pump Thrombus in the HeartWare Left Ventricular Assist Device System: A Novel Approach Using Log File Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorde, Ulrich P; Aaronson, Keith D; Najjar, Samer S; Pagani, Francis D; Hayward, Christopher; Zimpfer, Daniel; Schlöglhofer, Thomas; Pham, Duc T; Goldstein, Daniel J; Leadley, Katrin; Chow, Ming-Jay; Brown, Michael C; Uriel, Nir

    2015-11-01

    The study sought to characterize patterns in the HeartWare (HeartWare Inc., Framingham, Massachusetts) ventricular assist device (HVAD) log files associated with successful medical treatment of device thrombosis. Device thrombosis is a serious adverse event for mechanical circulatory support devices and is often preceded by increased power consumption. Log files of the pump power are easily accessible on the bedside monitor of HVAD patients and may allow early diagnosis of device thrombosis. Furthermore, analysis of the log files may be able to predict the success rate of thrombolysis or the need for pump exchange. The log files of 15 ADVANCE trial patients (algorithm derivation cohort) with 16 pump thrombus events treated with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) were assessed for changes in the absolute and rate of increase in power consumption. Successful thrombolysis was defined as a clinical resolution of pump thrombus including normalization of power consumption and improvement in biochemical markers of hemolysis. Significant differences in log file patterns between successful and unsuccessful thrombolysis treatments were verified in 43 patients with 53 pump thrombus events implanted outside of clinical trials (validation cohort). The overall success rate of tPA therapy was 57%. Successful treatments had significantly lower measures of percent of expected power (130.9% vs. 196.1%, p = 0.016) and rate of increase in power (0.61 vs. 2.87, p file parameters can potentially predict the likelihood of successful tPA treatments and if validated prospectively, could substantially alter the approach to thrombus management. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A laboratory flow reactor with gas particle separation and on-line MS/MS for product identification in atmospherically important reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Bennett

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A system to study the gas and particle phase products from gas phase hydrocarbon oxidation is described. It consists of a gas phase photochemical flow reactor followed by a diffusion membrane denuder to remove gases from the reacted products, or a filter to remove the particles. Chemical analysis is performed by an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. A diffusion membrane denuder is shown to remove trace gases to below detectable limits so the particle phase can be studied. The system was tested by examining the products of the oxidation of m-xylene initiated by HO radicals. Dimethylphenol was observed in both the gas and particle phases although individual isomers could not be identified. Two furanone isomers, 5-methyl-2(3Hfuranone and 3-methyl-2(5Hfuranone were identified in the particulate phase, but the isobaric product 2,5 furandione was not observed. One isomer of dimethyl-nitrophenol was identified in the particle phase but not in the gas phase.

  8. Laser Nanosoldering of Golden and Magnetite Particles and its Possible Application in 3D Printing Devices and Four-Valued Non-Volatile Memories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaworski Jacek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the 3D printing methods have been developing rapidly. This article presents researches about a new composite consisted of golden and magnetite nanoparticles which could be used for this technique. Preparation of golden nanoparticles by laser ablation and their soldering by laser green light irradiation proceeded in water environment. Magnetite was obtained on chemical way. During experiments it was tested a change of a size of nanoparticles during laser irradiation, surface plasmon resonance, zeta potential. The obtained golden - magnetite composite material was magnetic after laser irradiation. On the end there was considered the application it for 3D printing devices, water filters and four-valued non-volatile memories.

  9. HONO and Inorganic Fine Particle Composition in Typical Monsoon Region with Intensive Anthropogenic Emission: In-situ Observations and Source Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Y.; Nie, W.; Ding, A.; Huang, X.

    2015-12-01

    Yangtze River Delta (YRD) is one of the most typical monsoon area with probably the most largest population intensity in the world. With sharply economic development and the large anthropogenic emissions, fine particle pollution have been one of the major air quality problem and may further have impact on the climate system. Though a lot of control policy (sulfur emission have been decreasing from 2007) have been conducted in the region, studies showed the sulfate in fine particles still take major fraction as the nitrate from nitrogen oxides increased significantly. In this study, the role of inorganic chemical compositions in fine particles was investigated with two years in-situ observation. Sulfate and Nitrate contribute to fine particle mass equally in general, but sulfate contributes more during summer and nitrate played more important role in winter. Using lagrangian dispersion backward modeling and source contribution clustering method, the impact of airmass coming from different source region (industrial, dust, biogenic emissions, etc) on fine particle inorganic compositions were discussed. Furthermore, we found two unique cases showing in-situ implications for sulfate formation by nitrogen dioxide oxidation mechanisms. It was showed that the mixing of anthropogenic pollutants with long-range transported mineral dust and biomass burning plume would enhance the sulfate formation by different chemistry mechanisms. This study focus on the complex aspects of fine particle formation in airmasses from different source regions: . It highlights the effect of NOx in enhancing the atmospheric oxidization capacity and indicates a potentially very important impact of increasing NOx on air pollution formation and regional climate change in East Asia.

  10. Particle ID in LHCb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Particle identification (PID) is a fundamental requirement for LHCb and is provided by CALO, MUON and RICH sub-detectors. The Calorimeters provide identification of electrons, photons and hadrons in addition to the measurement of their energies and positions. As well as being part of the LHCb trigger, the MUON system provides identification of muons to a very high level of purity, essential for many CP-sensitive measurements that have J/ψ's in their final states. Hadron identification, in particular the ability to distinguish kaons and pions, is crucial to many LHCB analyses, particularly where the final states of interest are purely hadronic. The LHCb RICH system provides this, covering a momentum range between 1 and 100 GeV/c. To maintain the integrity of the LHCb physics performance, it is essential to measure and monitor the particle identification efficiency and mis-identification fraction over time. This can be done by using specific decays, such as K-shorts, φ's, Λ's, J/ψ's and D*'s, for which pure samples can be isolated using only kinematic quantities, due to their unique decay topologies. This allows for clean samples of known particle types to be selected, which can then be used to calibrate and monitor the PID performance from data. The procedures for performing this will be presented, together with preliminary results from the 2009 and 2010 LHC runs. (author)

  11. Dielectrokinetic chromatography devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirica, Gabriela S; Fiechtner, Gregory J; Singh, Anup K

    2014-12-16

    Disclosed herein are methods and devices for dielectrokinetic chromatography. As disclosed, the devices comprise microchannels having at least one perturber which produces a non-uniformity in a field spanning the width of the microchannel. The interaction of the field non-uniformity with a perturber produces a secondary flow which competes with a primary flow. By decreasing the size of the perturber the secondary flow becomes significant for particles/analytes in the nanometer-size range. Depending on the nature of a particle/analyte present in the fluid and its interaction with the primary flow and the secondary flow, the analyte may be retained or redirected. The composition of the primary flow can be varied to affect the magnitude of primary and/or secondary flows on the particles/analytes and thereby separate and concentrate it from other particles/analytes.

  12. Asphaltene based photovoltaic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chianelli, Russell R.; Castillo, Karina; Gupta, Vipin; Qudah, Ali M.; Torres, Brenda; Abujnah, Rajib E.

    2016-03-22

    Photovoltaic devices and methods of making the same, are disclosed herein. The cell comprises a photovoltaic device that comprises a first electrically conductive layer comprising a photo-sensitized electrode; at least one photoelectrochemical layer comprising metal-oxide particles, an electrolyte solution comprising at least one asphaltene fraction, wherein the metal-oxide particles are optionally dispersed in a surfactant; and a second electrically conductive layer comprising a counter-electrode, wherein the second electrically conductive layer comprises one or more conductive elements comprising carbon, graphite, soot, carbon allotropes or any combinations thereof.

  13. 21 CFR 872.1745 - Laser fluorescence caries detection device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Laser fluorescence caries detection device. 872... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 872.1745 Laser fluorescence caries detection device. (a) Identification. A laser fluorescence caries detection device is a laser, a...

  14. Real-time energy detector for relativistic charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piestrup, A.

    1988-01-01

    The objective of the research is to investigate the use of coherent transition radiation to measure the energy of ultra-relativistic charged particles. The research has possible applications for the detection and identification of these particles. It can also be used for beam diagnostics for both high-repetition-rate and single-pulse, high-current accelerators. The device is low cost and can operate in situ while causing little or no perturbation to the beam. Three such coherent radiators have been constructed and tested at two accelerators using electron beam energies ranging from 50 to 228 MeV. Soft x-ray emission (1 keV to 4 keV) was emitted in a circularly symmetrical annulus with half-angle divergence of 2.5 to 9.0 mr. By selecting foil thickness and spacing, it is possible to design radiators whose angle of emission varies radically over a range of charge-particle energies

  15. Continuous-Flow Detector for Rapid Pathogen Identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, Louise M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Microfluidics; Skulan, Andrew J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Microfluidics; Singh, Anup K. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Microfluidics; Cummings, Eric B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Microfluidics; Fiechtner, Gregory J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Microfluidics

    2006-09-01

    This report describes the continued development of a low-power, portable detector for the rapid identification of pathogens such as B. anthracis and smallpox. Based on our successful demonstration of the continuous filter/concentrator inlet, we believe strongly that the inlet section will enable differentiation between viable and non-viable populations, between types of cells, and between pathogens and background contamination. Selective, continuous focusing of particles in a microstream enables highly selective and sensitive identification using fluorescently labeled antibodies and other receptors such as peptides, aptamers, or small ligands to minimize false positives. Processes such as mixing and lysing will also benefit from the highly localized particle streams. The concentrator is based on faceted prisms to contract microfluidic flows while maintaining uniform flowfields. The resulting interfaces, capable of high throughput, serve as high-, low-, and band-pass filters to direct selected bioparticles to a rapid, affinity-based detection system. The proposed device is superior to existing array-based detectors as antibody-pathogen binding can be accomplished in seconds rather than tens of minutes or even hours. The system is being designed to interface with aerosol collectors under development by the National Laboratories or commercial systems. The focused stream is designed to be interrogated using diode lasers to differentiate pathogens by light scattering. Identification of particles is done using fluorescently labeled antibodies to tag the particles, followed by multiplexed laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detection (achieved by labeling each antibody with a different dye).

  16. A pilot study combining a GC-sensor device with a statistical model for the identification of bladder cancer from urine headspace.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanzeela Khalid

    Full Text Available There is a need to reduce the number of cystoscopies on patients with haematuria. Presently there are no reliable biomarkers to screen for bladder cancer. In this paper, we evaluate a new simple in-house fabricated, GC-sensor device in the diagnosis of bladder cancer based on volatiles. Sensor outputs from 98 urine samples were used to build and test diagnostic models. Samples were taken from 24 patients with transitional (urothelial cell carcinoma (age 27-91 years, median 71 years and 74 controls presenting with urological symptoms, but without a urological malignancy (age 29-86 years, median 64 years; results were analysed using two statistical approaches to assess the robustness of the methodology. A two-group linear discriminant analysis method using a total of 9 time points (which equates to 9 biomarkers correctly assigned 24/24 (100% of cancer cases and 70/74 (94.6% controls. Under leave-one-out cross-validation 23/24 (95.8% of cancer cases were correctly predicted with 69/74 (93.2% of controls. For partial least squares discriminant analysis, the correct leave-one-out cross-validation prediction values were 95.8% (cancer cases and 94.6% (controls. These data are an improvement on those reported by other groups studying headspace gases and also superior to current clinical techniques. This new device shows potential for the diagnosis of bladder cancer, but the data must be reproduced in a larger study.

  17. Fission products silver, palladium, and cadmium identification in neutron-irradiated SiC TRISO particles using a Cs-Corrected HRTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rooyen, I.J. van, E-mail: isabella.vanrooyen@inl.gov [Fuel Design and Development Department, Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID, 83415-6188 (United States); Olivier, E.J.; Neethling, J.H. [Centre for High Resolution Electron Microscopy, Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth (South Africa)

    2016-08-01

    Electron microscopy investigations of selected coated particles from the first advanced gas reactor experiment at Idaho National Laboratory provided important information on fission product distribution and chemical composition in the silicon-carbide (SiC) layer. Silver precipitates were nano-sized, and therefore high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) was used to provide more information at the atomic level. Based on gamma-ray analysis, this particle which was irradiated to an average burnup of 19.38% fissions per initial metal atom, may have released as much as 10% of its available Ag-110 m inventory during irradiation. The HRTEM investigation focused on silver, palladium, and cadmium due to interest in silver transport mechanisms and possible correlation with palladium and silver previously found. Palladium, silver, and cadmium were found to co-exist in some of the SiC grain boundaries and triple junctions. This study confirmed palladium both at inter and intragranular sites. Phosphor was identified in SiC grain boundaries and triple points. - Highlights: • First high resolution electron microscopy fission product nano-structural locations of irradiated TRISO coated particles. • Pd observed inside SiC grains in proximity to planar defects e.g. stacking faults. • Ag co-exists with Pd and Cd only may suggest a Pd-assisted transport mechanism. • First finding of neutron transmutation product P, in SiC layer of TRISO coated particles. No direct link to Ag transport. • No significant Pd corrosion of SiC observed even at this high resolution images.

  18. Identification of emission sources of particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the vicinity of the industrial zone of the city of Novi Sad

    OpenAIRE

    Jovčić Nataša S.; Radonić Jelena R.; Turk-Sekulić Maja M.; Vojinović-Miloradov Mirjana B.; Popov Srđan B.

    2013-01-01

    Data on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ambient air accessed at selected locations in the vicinity of the industrial zone of the city of Novi Sad, Serbia, have been presented and analyzed in order to determine seasonal and spatial variations and to identify emission sources of particle-bound PAHs. Previous studies have demonstrated that the major contributors of PAHs in urban areas are the emissions from vehicle exhaust, and emissions releases from industrial processes like a...

  19. CMOS-based avalanche photodiodes for direct particle detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stapels, Christopher J.; Squillante, Michael R.; Lawrence, William G.; Augustine, Frank L.; Christian, James F.

    2007-01-01

    Active Pixel Sensors (APSs) in complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology are augmenting Charge-Coupled Devices (CCDs) as imaging devices and cameras in some demanding optical imaging applications. Radiation Monitoring Devices are investigating the APS concept for nuclear detection applications and has successfully migrated avalanche photodiode (APD) pixel fabrication to a CMOS environment, creating pixel detectors that can be operated with internal gain as proportional detectors. Amplification of the signal within the diode allows identification of events previously hidden within the readout noise of the electronics. Such devices can be used to read out a scintillation crystal, as in SPECT or PET, and as direct-conversion particle detectors. The charge produced by an ionizing particle in the epitaxial layer is collected by an electric field within the diode in each pixel. The monolithic integration of the readout circuitry with the pixel sensors represents an improved design compared to the current hybrid-detector technology that requires wire or bump bonding. In this work, we investigate designs for CMOS APD detector elements and compare these to typical values for large area devices. We characterize the achievable detector gain and the gain uniformity over the active area. The excess noise in two different pixel structures is compared. The CMOS APD performance is demonstrated by measuring the energy spectra of X-rays from 55 Fe

  20. Methods for forming particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Robert V.; Zhang, Fengyan; Rodriguez, Rene G.; Pak, Joshua J.; Sun, Chivin

    2016-06-21

    Single source precursors or pre-copolymers of single source precursors are subjected to microwave radiation to form particles of a I-III-VI.sub.2 material. Such particles may be formed in a wurtzite phase and may be converted to a chalcopyrite phase by, for example, exposure to heat. The particles in the wurtzite phase may have a substantially hexagonal shape that enables stacking into ordered layers. The particles in the wurtzite phase may be mixed with particles in the chalcopyrite phase (i.e., chalcopyrite nanoparticles) that may fill voids within the ordered layers of the particles in the wurtzite phase thus produce films with good coverage. In some embodiments, the methods are used to form layers of semiconductor materials comprising a I-III-VI.sub.2 material. Devices such as, for example, thin-film solar cells may be fabricated using such methods.

  1. Particle identification in Lep-Delphi experience. Experimental study of photoelectron detection and of Cerenkov angle resolution with the Barrel Rich prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dracos, M.

    1987-06-01

    One of the four LEP experiments, DELPHI, will be equipped with Ring Cherenkov (RICH) detectors for hadrons identification. These detectors will provide pion, kaon, proton identification for momenta from 0.3 to 25 GeV/c over nearly all the solid angle. The technique of the long drift is used which combines liquid and gas radiators on opposite sides of a simple photosensitive drift volume. A full-scale prototype of the DELPHI Barrel RICH was built to study the feasibility and the performances of a big RICH system. We have obtained: - an absorption length of photoelectrons in the drift gas more than 10 m; - a merit factor of 53 cm -1 for the liquid radiator (perfluoro-hexane C 6 F 14 ) and 77 cm -1 for the gas radiator (isobutance iC 4 H 10 ) - a resolution of the single photon Cerenkov angle of 11.5 mrad for the liquid radiator and 4.5 mrad for the gas radiator [fr

  2. Design and Analysis of Double-Gate MOSFETs for Ultra-Low Power Radio Frequency Identification (RFID: Device and Circuit Co-Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony T. Kim

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently, double-gate MOSFETs (DGMOSFETs have been shown to be more optimal for ultra-low power circuit design due to the improved subthreshold slope and the reduced leakage current compared to bulk CMOS. However, DGMOSFETs for subthreshold circuit design have not been much explored in comparison to those for strong inversion-based design. In this paper, various configurations of DGMOSFETs, such as tied/independent gates and symmetric/asymmetric gate oxide thickness are explored for ultra-low power and high efficient radio frequency identification (RFID design. Comparison of bulk CMOS with DGMOSFETs has been conducted in ultra-low power subthreshold digital logic design and rectifier design, emphasizing the scope of the nano-scale DGMOSFET technology for future ultra-low power systems. The DGMOSFET-based subthreshold logic improves energy efficiency by more than 40% compared to the bulk CMOS-based logic at 32 nm. Among the various DGMOSFET configurations for RFID rectifiers, symmetric tied-gate DGMOSFET has the best power conversion efficiency and the lowest power consumption.

  3. The ''ATOS'' experimental device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyaev, V.A.; Dorovskij, A.P.; Dubrovin, M.M.; Khlopkin, A.N.

    1980-08-01

    This paper contains a brief description of the ATOS experimental device at the I.V. Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, USSR, which has been designed in accordance with the merged beam principle to investigate collisions between heavy atomic particles and multiply-charged ions of impurity elements - following the programme of the Joint IFRC/INDC Subcommittee on Atomic and Molecular Data for Fusion

  4. A programmable logic controller-based system for the recirculation of liquid C6F14 in the ALICE high momentum particle identification detector at the Large Hadron Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sgura, I.; Cataldo, G. de; Franco, A.; Pastore, C.; Volpe, G.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the design and the implementation of the Control System (CS) for the recirculation of liquid Perfluorohexane (C 6 F 14 ) for the ALICE High Momentum Particle Identification detector (HMPID). The HMPID is a detector of the ALICE experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It uses liquid C 6 F 14 as Cherenkov radiator medium in twenty-one quartz vessels for the measurement of the charged particles velocity. The primary task of the Liquid Circulation System (LCS) is to ensure the highest transparency of C 6 F 14 to the ultraviolet light. In order to provide safe long term operation a Programmable Logic Controller-based CS has been implemented. CS provides both automatic and manual operating modes, remotely or locally. Its finite state machine design minimizes the possible operator errors and provides a hierarchical control structure allowing the operation and monitoring down to a single radiator vessel. LCS is protected against unsafe working conditions by both active and passive measures. The passive ones are intrinsically guaranteed whereas the active ones are ensured via the control software running in the PLC. The human interface and data archiving are provided via PVSS, the Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) framework which integrates the full detector control. LCS under CS control proved to meet all designed requirements thus enabling HMPID detector to successfully collect data since the very beginning of LHC operation. (authors)

  5. Ionization particle detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ried, L.

    1982-01-01

    A new device is claimed for detecting particles in a gas. The invention comprises a low cost, easy to assemble, and highly accurate particle detector using a single ionization chamber to contain a reference region and a sensing region. The chamber is designed with the radioactive source near one electrode and the second electrode located at a distance less than the distance of maximum ionization from the radioactive source

  6. High-throughput screening using pseudotyped lentiviral particles: a strategy for the identification of HIV-1 inhibitors in a cell-based assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Jean-Michel; Gao, Anhui; He, Pei-Lan; Choi, Joyce; Tang, Wei; Bruzzone, Roberto; Schwartz, Olivier; Naya, Hugo; Nan, Fa-Jun; Li, Jia; Altmeyer, Ralf; Zuo, Jian-Ping

    2009-03-01

    Two decades after its discovery the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is still spreading worldwide and killing millions. There are 25 drugs formally approved for HIV currently on the market, but side effects as well as the emergence of HIV strains showing single or multiple resistances to current drug-therapy are causes for concern. Furthermore, these drugs target only 4 steps of the viral cycle, hence the urgent need for new drugs and also new targets. In order to tackle this problem, we have devised a cell-based assay using lentiviral particles to look for post-entry inhibitors of HIV-1. We report here the assay development, validation as well as confirmation of the hits using both wild-type and drug-resistant HIV-1 viruses. The screening was performed on an original library, rich in natural compounds and pure molecules from Traditional Chinese Medicine pharmacopoeia, which had never been screened for anti-HIV activity. The identified hits belong to four chemical sub-families that appear to be all non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs). Secondary tests with live viruses showed that there was good agreement with pseudotyped particles, confirming the validity of this approach for high-throughput drug screens. This assay will be a useful tool that can be easily adapted to screen for inhibitors of viral entry.

  7. Compatibility study of a parenteral microdose polyethylene glycol formulation in medical devices and identification of degradation impurity by 2D-LC/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Lulu; Yeh, Geoffrey K; Ran, Yingqing; Yehl, Peter; Zhang, Kelly

    2017-04-15

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) based formulation and polyvinylchloride (PVC) tubing are frequently used for drug delivery and administration. The compatibility of a parenteral drug microdose formulation in intravenous infusion (IV) devices was studied to support the clinical determination of absolute bioavailability by the microdosing method. The investigational microdose formulation containing PEG was found prone to significant loss of potency within hours of storage in the PVC IV tubing due to degradation. Degradation occurred only when both PEG and PVC tubing were present. The degradation product could not be detected by LC/MS due to the significant interference from the high concentration of PEG (4%) matrix and the extremely low level of drug (0.6ppm). To obtain structural information of the degradation impurity and understand the cause of the degradation, a simple heart-cutting 2D-LC/MS approach was utilized to effectively separate the impurity from the complex PEG oligomers and overcome the matrix interference, enabling mass spectrometric analysis of the impurity. An oxidation- dominated mechanism was proposed in which the combination of PEG auto-oxidation and dehydrochlorination of the PVC tubing yielded an oxidative environment that enhanced radical propagation and accelerated degradation of the investigational parent drug. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Identification of biomarkers of radioresponse and subsequent progression towards lung cancer in normal human bronchial epithelial cells after HZE particle irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story, Michael; Ding, Liang-Hao; Park, Seongmi; Minna, John

    Using variants of a non-oncogenically immortalized human bronchial epithelial cell line HBEC3-KT, we have examined global gene expression patterns after low and high LET irradiation up to 24h post-IR. Using supervised analyses we have identified 427 genes whoes expression can be used to discriminate the cellular response to γ-vs Si or Fe particles even when the biological outcome, cell death, is equivalent. Furthermore, genetic background also determines gene expression response. When HBEC3-KT is compared to the HBEC3-KT cells line where mutant k-RAS is over-expressed and p53 has been knocked down, HBEC-3KTr53, principal component analysis clearly shows that the response of each cell resides in a different 3-D space, that is, basal gene expression patterns as well as the gene expression response are unique to each cell type. Using regression analysis to examine these 427 genes show clusters of genes whose temporal expression patterns are the same and which are unique to a given radiation type. Ultimately, this approach will allow for the interrogation of gene promoters to identify response elements that drive how cells respond to different radiation types. We are extending our examination to O particles and are now examining gene expression as a function of beam quality. We have made substantial progress in the determination of cellular transformation by HZE particles for these cell lines. (Transformation as defined by the ability to grow in soft agar.) For HBEC-3KT, the spontaneous transformation frequency is about 10- 7.ExposuretoeitherF eorSiparticlesinc KT r53celllinedidnotshowanyincreaseintransf ormationf requencyaf terdosesof upto1Gy, however, thesp 3KT.W ehavenowisolatedover160individualf ocithatf ormedinsof tagarf romcellculturesthatwereirradia termcultureandthenre-introducedintosof tagartoassurethattheabilitytogrowinsof tagarisclonal.T odatew 30 With these cell isolates in hand we will begin to determine tumorigenicity by subcutaneous injections in nude

  9. Source identification and seasonal variation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons associated with atmospheric fine and coarse particles in the Metropolitan Area of Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Elba Calesso; Agudelo-Castañeda, Dayana M.; Fachel, Jandyra Maria Guimarães; Leal, Karen Alam; Garcia, Karine de Oliveira; Wiegand, Flavio

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in fine (PM2.5) and coarse particles (PM2.5-10) in an urban and industrial area in the Metropolitan Area of Porto Alegre (MAPA), Brazil. Sixteen U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured. Filters containing ambient air particulate were extracted with dichloromethane using Soxhlet. Extracts were later analyzed, for determining PAH concentrations, using a gaseous chromatograph coupled with a mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were more concentrated in PM2.5 with an average of 70% of total PAHs in the MAPA. The target PAH apportionment among the main emission sources was carried out by diagnostic PAH concentration ratios, and principal component analysis (PCA). PAHs with higher molecular weight showed higher percentages in the fine particles in the MAPA. Based on the diagnostic ratios and PCA analysis, it may be concluded that the major contribution of PAHs was from vehicular sources (diesel and gasoline), especially in the PM2.5 fraction, as well as coal and wood burning. The winter/summer ratio in the PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 fractions in the MAPA was 3.1 and 1.8, respectively, revealing the seasonal variation of PAHs in the two fractions. The estimated toxicity equivalent factor (TEF), used to assess the contribution of the carcinogenic potency, confirms a significant presence of the moderately active carcinogenic PAHs BaP and DahA in the samples collected in the MAPA.

  10. Elucidation of Formulation and Delivery Device-Related Effects on In Vitro Performance of Nasal Spray with Implication to Rational Product Specification Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grmaš, Jernej; Stare, Katarina; Božič, Dane; Injac, Rade; Dreu, Rok

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this work is to use an experimental design approach to identify and study influential formulation and delivery device properties, which can be controlled by final product manufacturer, to establish design space, within which desired in vitro performance can be reached. Combining three factors, viscosity of suspension, nozzle orifice diameter (OD), and shot weight (SW), at three levels resulted in D-optimal experimental design with 20 runs. Responses within this study were droplet size distribution (DSD) and spray pattern (SP) in vitro tests. In addition, the amount of mechanical work needed for actuation was integrated from force profiles and used as a response. Results were fit to quadratic model by regression, which allowed also for determination of second-order and interaction effects between factors. Models were further optimized by keeping significant terms only. Optimized models were used to create response surfaces and design space with confidence levels. Viscosity has a dominant effect on DSD and modest effect on SP, with lower viscosities related to generation of smaller DSD and larger SP. Orifice diameter was found to have the highest impact on SP, with larger diameter resulting in larger SP. This effect was additionally confirmed by results of Plume Geometry in vitro test. Shot weight factor exerts significant influence on all tested metrics. Work, however, did not vary greatly with suspension viscosity or orifice diameter. Shot weight is the most dominant factor for work and important for DSD having a positive effect on both responses. In the case of SP, its relationship with shot weight is described by second-order polynomial fit. Inspection of raw data revealed that density of droplets within SP area is different for different shot weights. Presented study elucidated an inherent relationship between factors and responses and established mathematical models (response surfaces) for predictive purposes to target specific in vitro performance

  11. Charged particle detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagen, R.D.

    1975-01-01

    A device for detecting the emission of charged particles from a specimen is described. The specimen is placed within an accumulator means which statically accumulates any charged particles emitted from the specimen. The accumulator means is pivotally positioned between a first capacitor plate having a positive electrical charge and a second capacitor plate having a negative electrical charge. The accumulator means is attracted to one capacitor plate and repelled from the other capacitor plate by an amount proportional to the amount and intensity of charged particles emitted by the specimen. (auth)

  12. Identification of emission sources of particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the vicinity of the industrial zone of the city of Novi Sad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovčić Nataša S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Data on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in ambient air accessed at selected locations in the vicinity of the industrial zone of the city of Novi Sad, Serbia, have been presented and analyzed in order to determine seasonal and spatial variations and to identify emission sources of particle-bound PAHs. Previous studies have demonstrated that the major contributors of PAHs in urban areas are the emissions from vehicle exhaust, and emissions releases from industrial processes like aluminium production, creosote and wood preservation, waste incineration, cement manufacture, petrochemical and related industries, commercial heat/power production etc. The sampling campaigns have been conducted at three sampling sites, during the two 14-day periods. The first site was situated near industrial area, with a refinery, power plant and heavy-traffic road in the vicinity. The second site was located nearby the heavy traffic area, especially busy during the rush hour. The third site was residential district. Summer sampling period lasted from June 26th to July 10th 2008, while sampling of ambient air during the winter was undertaken from January 22nd to February 5th 2009. Eighty-four (84 air samples were collected using a high volume air sampler TCR Tecora H0649010/ECHO. 16 US EPA polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were determined in all samples using a gas chromatographer with a mass spectrometer as a detector (Shimatzu MDGC/GCMS-2010. The total average concentrations of PAHs ranged from 1.21 to 1.77 ng/m3 during the summer period and from 6.31 to 7.25 ng/m3 in the winter. Various techniques, including diagnostic ratio (DR and principal component analysis (PCA, have been used to define and evaluate potential emission sources of PAHs. Diagnostic ratio analysis indicated that vehicles, diesel or/and gasoline, industrial and combustion emissions were sources of PAHs in the vicinity of the industrial zone. Additionally, principal component analysis was used

  13. Streamline-based microfluidic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Yu-Chong (Inventor); Zheng, Siyang (Inventor); Kasdan, Harvey (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention provides a streamline-based device and a method for using the device for continuous separation of particles including cells in biological fluids. The device includes a main microchannel and an array of side microchannels disposed on a substrate. The main microchannel has a plurality of stagnation points with a predetermined geometric design, for example, each of the stagnation points has a predetermined distance from the upstream edge of each of the side microchannels. The particles are separated and collected in the side microchannels.

  14. Identification of amino acid residues in protein SRP72 required for binding to a kinked 5e motif of the human signal recognition particle RNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zwieb Christian

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human cells depend critically on the signal recognition particle (SRP for the sorting and delivery of their proteins. The SRP is a ribonucleoprotein complex which binds to signal sequences of secretory polypeptides as they emerge from the ribosome. Among the six proteins of the eukaryotic SRP, the largest protein, SRP72, is essential for protein targeting and possesses a poorly characterized RNA binding domain. Results We delineated the minimal region of SRP72 capable of forming a stable complex with an SRP RNA fragment. The region encompassed residues 545 to 585 of the full-length human SRP72 and contained a lysine-rich cluster (KKKKKKKKGK at postions 552 to 561 as well as a conserved Pfam motif with the sequence PDPXRWLPXXER at positions 572 to 583. We demonstrated by site-directed mutagenesis that both regions participated in the formation of a complex with the RNA. In agreement with biochemical data and results from chymotryptic digestion experiments, molecular modeling of SRP72 implied that the invariant W577 was located inside the predicted structure of an RNA binding domain. The 11-nucleotide 5e motif contained within the SRP RNA fragment was shown by comparative electrophoresis on native polyacrylamide gels to conform to an RNA kink-turn. The model of the complex suggested that the conserved A240 of the K-turn, previously identified as being essential for the binding to SRP72, could protrude into a groove of the SRP72 RNA binding domain, similar but not identical to how other K-turn recognizing proteins interact with RNA. Conclusions The results from the presented experiments provided insights into the molecular details of a functionally important and structurally interesting RNA-protein interaction. A model for how a ligand binding pocket of SRP72 can accommodate a new RNA K-turn in the 5e region of the eukaryotic SRP RNA is proposed.

  15. Identification of amino acid residues in protein SRP72 required for binding to a kinked 5e motif of the human signal recognition particle RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakhiaeva, Elena; Iakhiaev, Alexei; Zwieb, Christian

    2010-11-13

    Human cells depend critically on the signal recognition particle (SRP) for the sorting and delivery of their proteins. The SRP is a ribonucleoprotein complex which binds to signal sequences of secretory polypeptides as they emerge from the ribosome. Among the six proteins of the eukaryotic SRP, the largest protein, SRP72, is essential for protein targeting and possesses a poorly characterized RNA binding domain. We delineated the minimal region of SRP72 capable of forming a stable complex with an SRP RNA fragment. The region encompassed residues 545 to 585 of the full-length human SRP72 and contained a lysine-rich cluster (KKKKKKKKGK) at postions 552 to 561 as well as a conserved Pfam motif with the sequence PDPXRWLPXXER at positions 572 to 583. We demonstrated by site-directed mutagenesis that both regions participated in the formation of a complex with the RNA. In agreement with biochemical data and results from chymotryptic digestion experiments, molecular modeling of SRP72 implied that the invariant W577 was located inside the predicted structure of an RNA binding domain. The 11-nucleotide 5e motif contained within the SRP RNA fragment was shown by comparative electrophoresis on native polyacrylamide gels to conform to an RNA kink-turn. The model of the complex suggested that the conserved A240 of the K-turn, previously identified as being essential for the binding to SRP72, could protrude into a groove of the SRP72 RNA binding domain, similar but not identical to how other K-turn recognizing proteins interact with RNA. The results from the presented experiments provided insights into the molecular details of a functionally important and structurally interesting RNA-protein interaction. A model for how a ligand binding pocket of SRP72 can accommodate a new RNA K-turn in the 5e region of the eukaryotic SRP RNA is proposed.

  16. Source identification of short-lived air pollutants in the Arctic using statistical analysis of measurement data and particle dispersion model output

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Hirdman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As a part of the IPY project POLARCAT (Polar Study using Aircraft, Remote Sensing, Surface Measurements and Models, of Climate Chemistry, Aerosols and Transport, this paper studies the sources of equivalent black carbon (EBC, sulphate, light-scattering aerosols and ozone measured at the Arctic stations Zeppelin, Alert, Barrow and Summit during the years 2000–2007. These species are important pollutants and climate forcing agents, and sulphate and EBC are main components of Arctic haze. To determine where these substances originate, the measurement data were combined with calculations using FLEXPART, a Lagrangian particle dispersion model. The climatology of atmospheric transport from surrounding regions on a twenty-day time scale modelled by FLEXPART shows that the stations Zeppelin, Alert and Barrow are highly sensitive to surface emissions in the Arctic and to emissions in high-latitude Eurasia in winter. Emission sensitivities over southern Asia and southern North America are small throughout the year. The high-altitude station Summit is an order of magnitude less sensitive to surface emissions in the Arctic whereas emissions in the southern parts of the Northern Hemisphere continents are more influential relative to the other stations. Our results show that for EBC and sulphate measured at Zeppelin, Alert and Barrow, northern Eurasia is the dominant source region. For sulphate, Eastern Europe and the metal smelting industry in Norilsk are particularly important. For EBC, boreal forest fires also contribute in summer. No evidence for any substantial contribution to EBC from sources in southern Asia is found. European air masses are associated with low ozone concentrations in winter due to titration by nitric oxides, but are associated with high ozone concentrations in summer due to photochemical ozone formation. There is also a strong influence of ozone depletion events in the Arctic boundary layer on measured ozone concentrations in spring

  17. Photovoltaic device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reese, Jason A; Keenihan, James R; Gaston, Ryan S; Kauffmann, Keith L; Langmaid, Joseph A; Lopez, Leonardo; Maak, Kevin D; Mills, Michael E; Ramesh, Narayan; Teli, Samar R

    2017-03-21

    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PV device"), more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device with a multilayered photovoltaic cell assembly and a body portion joined at an interface region and including an intermediate layer, at least one interconnecting structural member, relieving feature, unique component geometry, or any combination thereof.

  18. Photovoltaic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Jason A.; Keenihan, James R.; Gaston, Ryan S.; Kauffmann, Keith L.; Langmaid, Joseph A.; Lopez, Leonardo C.; Maak, Kevin D.; Mills, Michael E.; Ramesh, Narayan; Teli, Samar R.

    2015-06-02

    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PV device"), more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device with a multilayered photovoltaic cell assembly and a body portion joined at an interface region and including an intermediate layer, at least one interconnecting structural member, relieving feature, unique component geometry, or any combination thereof.

  19. Photovoltaic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Jason A.; Keenihan, James R.; Gaston, Ryan S.; Kauffmann, Keith L.; Langmaid, Joseph A.; Lopez, Leonardo C.; Maak, Kevin D.; Mills, Michael E.; Ramesh, Narayan; Teli, Samar R.

    2015-09-01

    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PV device"), more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device (10) with a multilayered photovoltaic cell assembly (100) and a body portion (200) joined at an interface region (410) and including an intermediate layer (500), at least one interconnecting structural member (1500), relieving feature (2500), unique component geometry, or any combination thereof.

  20. Methods of forming semiconductor devices and devices formed using such methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Robert V; Rodriguez, Rene G; Pak, Joshua

    2013-05-21

    Single source precursors are subjected to carbon dioxide to form particles of material. The carbon dioxide may be in a supercritical state. Single source precursors also may be subjected to supercritical fluids other than supercritical carbon dioxide to form particles of material. The methods may be used to form nanoparticles. In some embodiments, the methods are used to form chalcopyrite materials. Devices such as, for example, semiconductor devices may be fabricated that include such particles. Methods of forming semiconductor devices include subjecting single source precursors to carbon dioxide to form particles of semiconductor material, and establishing electrical contact between the particles and an electrode.

  1. Particle kickers

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2014-01-01

    These devices are designed to provide a current pulse of 5000 Amps which will in turn generate a fast magnetic pulse that steers the incoming beam into the LHC. Today, the comprehensive upgrade of the LHC injection kicker system is entering its final stages. The upgraded system will ensure the LHC can be refilled without needing to wait for the kicker magnets to cool, thus enhancing the performance of the whole accelerator.   An upgraded kicker magnet in its vacuum tank, with an upgraded beam screen. The LHC is equipped with two kicker systems installed at the injection points (near points 2 and 8, see schematic diagram) where the particle beams coming from the SPS are injected into the accelerator’s orbit. Each system comprises four magnets and four pulse generators in which the field rises to 0.12 Tesla in less than 900 nanoseconds and for a duration of approximately 8 microseconds. Although the injection kickers only pulse 12 times to fill the LHC up with beam, the LHC beam circ...

  2. Identification of tau leptons in the D0 experiment at the Tevatron and search for supersymmetric particles violating R-parity through decay; Identification des leptons taus dans l'experience D0 aupres du tevatron et recherche de particules supersymetriques se desintegrant avec R-parite violee (couplage {lambda}{sub 133})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Bihan, A.C

    2005-04-15

    This thesis concerns the search for supersymmetric particles in data collected by the D0 experiment in Run II at Fermilab Tevatron proton-antiproton collider. Data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 352 pb{sup -1} (2001-2004) at a center-of-mass energy of {radical}s=1.96 TeV have been used to search for two electrons plus hadronic tau final states accompanied by missing transverse energy. These topologies are expected to arise if R-parity is violated and the lightest neutralino is allowed to decay through a {lambda}{sub 133} coupling. The data seen is consistent with the Standard Model and with instrumental background expectations which suggests no evidence for supersymmetry with {lambda}{sub 133} coupling. Thus lower limits on the masses of the lightest chargino and neutralino have been set. A significant part of the work has been dedicated to identify decaying tau in an hadronic way. The developed method uses neural networks and exploits the narrowness and low particle multiplicity of tau jets by means of the calorimeter and tracker information. The efficiency and capability of this method have been measured and demonstrated in data using the Z {yields} {tau}{tau} {yields} {mu}{tau}(hadr) process. This algorithm allows us to reduce the important QCD background by a factor 100 for 50% tau identification efficiency. (author)

  3. Rare particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutschera, W.

    1984-01-01

    The use of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) to search for hypothetical particles and known particles of rare processes is discussed. The hypothetical particles considered include fractionally charged particles, anomalously heavy isotopes, and superheavy elements. The known particles produced in rare processes discussed include doubly-charged negative ions, counting neutrino-produced atoms in detectors for solar neutrino detection, and the spontaneous emission of 14 C from 223 Ra. 35 references

  4. Advancements in Particle Analysis Procedures and their Application to the Characterization of Reference Materials for Safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Admon, U.; Chinea-Cano, E.; Dzigal, N.; Vogt, K.S.; Halevy, I.; Boblil, E.; Elkayam, T.; Weiss, A.

    2015-01-01

    Two approaches may be employed in the preparation of Reference Materials (RMs) for use in micro analytical techniques: placement of characterized micro artefacts in bulk materials and characterization of certain classes of individual particles in existing materials. In November 2013, a collaborative project was launched with the aim of adding information about such individual particles in existing RMs. The motivation behind this project was to investigate and characterize micro-artefacts present in certain commercially available RM, making them available and fit for use in safeguards and several other nuclear applications. The implementation and development of new techniques for particle characterization in bulk materials are also part of this project. The strategy for that approach includes the following steps: 1. Sample preparation: Dispersion of particles on stubs and planchets by an in-house shock-wave device. 2. Particle-of-Interest identification and characterization: (a) Fission Track (FT) route: Mosaic imaging of detectors containing FT stars; Applying automatic pattern recognition and localization of FT stars in detectors; Using Laser Micro-Dissection (LMD) for retrieval of individual particles; Preparation of sampled particles for SEM observation and other analytical techniques. (b) Alpha Track (αT) route: Direct particle identification and localization using position sensitive detectors (instrumental auto-radiography). (c) The advanced SEM route: Integration of analytical SEM techniques for characterization of individual particles of interest: EDS, mass spectrometry, FIB, micro-Raman. Preliminary results of the ongoing efforts will be reported. Utilization of these hyphenated techniques and instruments represents an innovative approach to particle characterization for Safeguards applications. (author)

  5. 21 CFR 820.60 - Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Identification. 820.60 Section 820.60 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Identification and Traceability § 820.60 Identification. Each manufacturer shall...

  6. Memristor: the illusive device

    KAUST Repository

    Salama, Khaled N.

    2012-05-03

    The memristor (M) is considered to be the fourth two-terminal passive element in electronics, alongside the resistor (R), the capacitor (C), and the inductor (L). Its existence was postulated in 1971 but its first implementation was reported in 2008. Where was it hiding all that time and what can we do with it? Come and learn how the memristor completes the roster of electronic devices much like a missing particle that physicists seek to complete their tableaus.

  7. Memristor: the illusive device

    KAUST Repository

    Salama, Khaled N.

    2012-01-01

    The memristor (M) is considered to be the fourth two-terminal passive element in electronics, alongside the resistor (R), the capacitor (C), and the inductor (L). Its existence was postulated in 1971 but its first implementation was reported in 2008. Where was it hiding all that time and what can we do with it? Come and learn how the memristor completes the roster of electronic devices much like a missing particle that physicists seek to complete their tableaus.

  8. Rf superconducting devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartwig, W.H.; Passow, C.

    1975-01-01

    Topics discussed include (1) the theory of superconductors in high-frequency fields (London surface impedance, anomalous normal surface resistance, pippard nonlocal theory, quantum mechanical model, superconductor parameters, quantum mechanical calculation techniques for the surface, impedance, and experimental verification of surface impedance theories); (2) residual resistance (separation of losses, magnetic field effects, surface resistance of imperfect and impure conductors, residual loss due to acoustic coupling, losses from nonideal surfaces, high magnetic field losses, field emission, and nonlinear effects); (3) design and performance of superconducting devices (design considerations, materials and fabrication techniques, measurement of performance, and frequency stability); (4) devices for particle acceleration and deflection (advantages and problems of using superconductors, accelerators for fast particles, accelerators for particles with slow velocities, beam optical devices separators, and applications and projects under way); (5) applications of low-power superconducting resonators (superconducting filters and tuners, oscillators and detectors, mixers and amplifiers, antennas and output tanks, superconducting resonators for materials research, and radiation detection with loaded superconducting resonators); and (6) transmission and delay lines

  9. Sealing device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose

    2013-12-10

    A sealing device for sealing a gap between a dovetail of a bucket assembly and a rotor wheel is disclosed. The sealing device includes a cover plate configured to cover the gap and a retention member protruding from the cover plate and configured to engage the dovetail. The sealing device provides a seal against the gap when the bucket assemply is subjected to a centrifugal force.

  10. Microfluidic Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Yu-Chong (Inventor); Zheng, Siyang (Inventor); Lin, Jeffrey Chun-Hui (Inventor); Kasdan, Harvey L. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Described herein are particular embodiments relating to a microfluidic device that may be utilized for cell sensing, counting, and/or sorting. Particular aspects relate to a microfabricated device that is capable of differentiating single cell types from dense cell populations. One particular embodiment relates a device and methods of using the same for sensing, counting, and/or sorting leukocytes from whole, undiluted blood samples.

  11. Gauging device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qurnell, F.D.; Patterson, C.B.

    1979-01-01

    A gauge supporting device for measuring say a square tube comprises a pair of rods or guides in tension between a pair of end members, the end members being spaced apart by a compression member or members. The tensioned guides provide planes of reference for measuring devices moved therealong on a carriage. The device is especially useful for making on site dimensional measurements of components, such as irradiated and therefore radioactive components, that cannot readily be transported to an inspection laboratory. (UK)

  12. 77 FR 69393 - Unique Device Identification System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-19

    ... updated table 3 of this document. The total present value of domestic costs for all affected sectors would... Costs of the Proposed Rule [2010 dollars] 1 2 Total present value of cost over 10 Total annualized costs... Cost of the $625.4 $554.8 $71.1 $73.8. Proposed Rule. \\1\\ Present value and annualized costs calculated...

  13. Particle detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charpak, G.

    2000-01-01

    In this article G.Charpak presents the principles on which particle detection is based. Particle accelerators are becoming more and more powerful and require new detectors able to track the right particle in a huge flux of particles. The gigantic size of detectors in high energy physics is often due to the necessity of getting a long enough trajectory in a magnetic field in order to deduce from the curvature an accurate account of impulses in the reaction. (A.C.)

  14. Strange particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinowsky, W.

    1989-01-01

    Work done in the mid 1950s at Brookhaven National Laboratory on strange particles is described. Experiments were done on the Cosmotron. The author describes his own and others' work on neutral kaons, lambda and theta particles and points out the theoretical gap between predictions and experimental findings. By the end of the decade, the theory of strange particles was better understood. (UK)

  15. Ionization and excitation of lithium atoms by fast charged particle impact: identification of mechanisms for double K-shell vacancy production as a function of the projectile charge and velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangama, J.

    2002-11-01

    Ionization and excitation of lithium atoms by fast charged particle impact: identification of mechanisms for double K-shell vacancy production as a function of projectile charge and velocity. Auger electron spectroscopy is used for an experimental investigation of ionization and excitation of lithium atoms by ions (Kr34 + and Ar18 + ) and electrons at high impact velocities (from 6 to 60 a.u.). In particular, relative contributions of the mechanisms responsible for lithium K-shell ionization-excitation are determined for various projectile charges Zp and velocities vp. A large range of perturbation parameters |Zp|/vp is explored (|Zp|/vp = 0,05 - 0,7 a.u.). From single K-shell excitation results, it appears that the projectile-electron interaction gives mainly rise to a dipole-like transition 1s -> np Concerning K-shell ionization-excitation, the separation of the TS2 (two independent projectile-electron interactions) and TS1 (one projectile-electron interaction) mechanisms responsible for the formation of the 2snp 1,3P and 2sns 1,3S lithium states is performed. In TS1 process, the projectile-electron interaction can be followed by an electron-electron interaction (dielectronic process) or by an internal rearrangement of the residual target after a sudden potential change (shake process). From Born theory, ab initio calculations are performed. The good agreement between theoretical and experimental results confirms the mechanism identification. For the production of P states, TS1 is found to be strongly dominant for small |Zp|/vp values and TS2 is found to be most important for large |Zp|/vp values. Since P states cannot be formed significantly via a shake process, the TS1 and TS2 separation provides a direct signature of the dielectronic process. On the other hand, the TS1 process is shown to be the unique process for producing the S states. At the moment, only the shake aspect of the TS1 process can explain the fact that the 2s3s configuration is preferentially

  16. Beta particle measurement fundamentals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    The necessary concepts for understanding beta particle behavior are stopping power, range, and scattering. Dose as a consequence of beta particle interaction with tissue can be derived and explained by these concepts. Any calculations of dose, however, assume or require detailed knowledge of the beta spectrum at the tissue depth of calculation. A rudimentary knowledge of the incident spectrum can be of use in estimating dose, interpretating dose measuring devices and designing protection. The stopping power and range based on the csda will give a conservative estimate in cases of protection design, as scattering will reduce the range. Estimates of dose may be low because scattering effects were neglected

  17. Fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, T.K.

    1977-01-01

    Three types of thermonuclear fusion devices currently under development are reviewed for an electric utilities management audience. Overall design features of laser fusion, tokamak, and magnetic mirror type reactors are described and illustrated. Thrusts and trends in current research on these devices that promise to improve performance are briefly reviewed. Twenty photographs and drawings are included

  18. BRAKE DEVICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, T.J.

    1959-03-10

    A brake device is described for utilization in connection with a control rod. The device comprises a pair of parallelogram link mechanisms, a control rod moveable rectilinearly therebetween in opposite directions, and shoes resiliently supported by the mechanism for frictional engagement with the control rod.

  19. IMPLANT-ASSOCIATED PATHOLOGY: AN ALGORITHM FOR IDENTIFYING PARTICLES IN HISTOPATHOLOGIC SYNOVIALIS/SLIM DIAGNOSTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Krenn

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In histopathologic SLIM diagnostic (synovial-like interface membrane, SLIM apart from diagnosing periprosthetic infection particle identification has an important role to play. The differences in particle pathogenesis and variability of materials in endoprosthetics explain the particle heterogeneity that hampers the diagnostic identification of particles. For this reason, a histopathological particle algorithm has been developed. With minimal methodical complexity this histopathological particle algorithm offers a guide to prosthesis material-particle identification. Light microscopic-morphological as well as enzyme-histochemical characteristics and polarization-optical proporties have set and particles are defined by size (microparticles, macroparticles and supra- macroparticles and definitely characterized in accordance with a dichotomous principle. Based on these criteria, identification and validation of the particles was carried out in 120 joint endoprosthesis pathological cases. A histopathological particle score (HPS is proposed that summarizes the most important information for the orthopedist, material scientist and histopathologist concerning particle identification in the SLIM.

  20. 21 CFR 882.5940 - Electroconvulsive therapy device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electroconvulsive therapy device. 882.5940 Section 882.5940 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Electroconvulsive therapy device. (a) Identification. An electroconvulsive therapy device is a device used for...

  1. 21 CFR 864.9750 - Heat-sealing device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and Blood Products § 864.9750 Heat-sealing device. (a) Identification. A heat-sealing device is a device intended for medical purposes that uses heat to seal plastic bags containing blood or blood... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Heat-sealing device. 864.9750 Section 864.9750...

  2. PLASMA DEVICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gow, J.D.; Wilcox, J.M.

    1961-12-26

    A device is designed for producing and confining highenergy plasma from which neutrons are generated in copious quantities. A rotating sheath of electrons is established in a radial electric field and axial magnetic field produced within the device. The electron sheath serves as a strong ionizing medium to gas introdueed thereto and also functions as an extremely effective heating mechanism to the resulting plasma. In addition, improved confinement of the plasma is obtained by ring magnetic mirror fields produced at the ends of the device. Such ring mirror fields are defined by the magnetic field lines at the ends of the device diverging radially outward from the axis of the device and thereafter converging at spatial annular surfaces disposed concentrically thereabout. (AFC)

  3. Dielectrokinetic chromatography and devices thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirica, Gabriela S; Fiechtner, Gregory J; Singh, Anup K

    2014-04-22

    Disclosed herein are methods and devices for dielectrokinetic chromatography. As disclosed, the devices comprise microchannels having at least one perturber which produces a non-uniformity in a field spanning the width of the microchannel. The interaction of the field non-uniformity with a perturber produces a secondary flow which competes with a primary flow. By decreasing the size of the perturber the secondary flow becomes significant for particles/analytes in the nanometer-size range. Depending on the nature of a particle/analyte present in the fluid and its interaction with the primary flow and the secondary flow, the analyte may be retained or redirected. The composition of the primary flow can be varied to affect the magnitude of primary and/or secondary flows on the particles/analytes and thereby separate and concentrate it from other particles/analytes.

  4. Structure and application of galvanomagnetic devices

    CERN Document Server

    Weiss, H

    1969-01-01

    International Series of Monographs on Semiconductors, Volume 8: Structure and Application of Galvanomagnetic Devices focuses on the composition, reactions, transformations, and applications of galvanomagnetic devices. The book first ponders on basic physical concepts, design and fabrication of galvanomagnetic devices, and properties of galvanomagnetic devices. Discussions focus on changes in electrical properties on irradiation with high-energy particles, magnetoresistor field-plate, Hall generator, preparation of semiconductor films by vacuum deposition, structure of field-plate magnetoresist

  5. Multi-Device to Multi-Device (MD2MD Content-Centric Networking Based on Multi-RAT Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheolhoon Kim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method whereby a device can transmit and receive information using a beacon, and also describes application scenarios for the proposed method. In a multi-device to multi-device (MD2MD content-centric networking (CCN environment, the main issue involves searching for and connecting to nearby devices. However, if a device can’t find another device that satisfies its requirements, the connection is delayed due to the repetition of processes. It is possible to rapidly connect to a device without repetition through the selection of the optimal device using the proposed method. Consequently, the proposed method and scenarios are advantageous in that they enable efficient content identification and delivery in a content-centric Internet of Things (IoT environment, in which multiple mobile devices coexist.

  6. Charged particle identification: Cherenkov counters at ISABELLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etkin, A.; Kostoulas, I.; Leith, D.W.G.S.; Thun, R.

    1977-01-01

    A brief summary is given of a study of Cherenkov counters for ISABELLE. The study was certainy not exhaustive and was meant primarily to suggest future detector development. A substantial research effort is needed in order to insure that Cherenkov counters utilizing photoionization are fully exploited

  7. Current technology of particle physics detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludlam, T.W.

    1986-01-01

    A brief discussion is given of the characteristics required of new accelerator facilities, leading into a discussion of the required detectors, including position sensitive detectors, particle identification, and calorimeters

  8. Sealing devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulson, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    A sealing device for minimising the leakage of toxic or radioactive contaminated environments through a biological shield along an opening through which a flexible component moves that penetrates the shield. The sealing device comprises an outer tubular member which extends over a length not less than the maximum longitudinal movement of the component along the opening. An inner sealing block is located intermediate the length of the component by connectors and is positioned in the bore of the outer tubular member to slide in the bore and effect a seal over the entire longitudinal movement of the component. The cross-section of the device may be circular and the block may be of polytetrafluoroethylene or of nylon impregnated with molybdenum or may be metallic. A number of the sealing devices may be combined into an assembly for a plurality of adjacent longitudinally movable components, each adapted to sustain a tensile load, providing the various drives of a master-slave manipulator. (author)

  9. Particle therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raju, M.R.

    1993-09-01

    Particle therapy has a long history. The experimentation with particles for their therapeutic application got started soon after they were produced in the laboratory. Physicists played a major role in proposing the potential applications in radiotherapy as well as in the development of particle therapy. A brief review of the current status of particle radiotherapy with some historical perspective is presented and specific contributions made by physicists will be pointed out wherever appropriate. The rationale of using particles in cancer treatment is to reduce the treatment volume to the target volume by using precise dose distributions in three dimensions by using particles such as protons and to improve the differential effects on tumors compared to normal tissues by using high-LET radiations such as neutrons. Pions and heavy ions combine the above two characteristics.

  10. Particle therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raju, M.R.

    1993-01-01

    Particle therapy has a long history. The experimentation with particles for their therapeutic application got started soon after they were produced in the laboratory. Physicists played a major role in proposing the potential applications in radiotherapy as well as in the development of particle therapy. A brief review of the current status of particle radiotherapy with some historical perspective is presented and specific contributions made by physicists will be pointed out wherever appropriate. The rationale of using particles in cancer treatment is to reduce the treatment volume to the target volume by using precise dose distributions in three dimensions by using particles such as protons and to improve the differential effects on tumors compared to normal tissues by using high-LET radiations such as neutrons. Pions and heavy ions combine the above two characteristics

  11. Ferroelectric devices

    CERN Document Server

    Uchino, Kenji

    2009-01-01

    Updating its bestselling predecessor, Ferroelectric Devices, Second Edition assesses the last decade of developments-and setbacks-in the commercialization of ferroelectricity. Field pioneer and esteemed author Uchino provides insight into why this relatively nascent and interdisciplinary process has failed so far without a systematic accumulation of fundamental knowledge regarding materials and device development.Filling the informational void, this collection of information reviews state-of-the-art research and development trends reflecting nano and optical technologies, environmental regulat

  12. Detectors for Particle Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinknecht, Konrad

    1999-01-01

    This textbook provides a clear, concise and comprehensive review of the physical principles behind the devices used to detect charged particles and gamma rays, and the construction and performance of these many different types of detectors. Detectors for high-energy particles and radiation are used in many areas of science, especially particle physics and nuclear physics experiments, nuclear medicine, cosmic ray measurements, space sciences and geological exploration. This second edition includes all the latest developments in detector technology, including several new chapters covering micro-strip gas chambers, silicion strip detectors and CCDs, scintillating fibers, shower detectors using noble liquid gases, and compensating calorimeters for hadronic showers. This well-illustrated textbook contains examples from the many areas in science in which these detectors are used. It provides both a coursebook for students in physics, and a useful introduction for researchers in other fields.

  13. Particle cosmology

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    The understanding of the Universe at the largest and smallest scales traditionally has been the subject of cosmology and particle physics, respectively. Studying the evolution of the Universe connects today's large scales with the tiny scales in the very early Universe and provides the link between the physics of particles and of the cosmos. This series of five lectures aims at a modern and critical presentation of the basic ideas, methods, models and observations in today's particle cosmology.

  14. Particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamal, Anwar

    2014-01-01

    Provides step-by-step derivations. Contains numerous tables and diagrams. Supports learning and teaching with numerous worked examples, questions and problems with answers. Sketches also the historical development of the subject. This textbook teaches particle physics very didactically. It supports learning and teaching with numerous worked examples, questions and problems with answers. Numerous tables and diagrams lead to a better understanding of the explanations. The content of the book covers all important topics of particle physics: Elementary particles are classified from the point of view of the four fundamental interactions. The nomenclature used in particle physics is explained. The discoveries and properties of known elementary particles and resonances are given. The particles considered are positrons, muon, pions, anti-protons, strange particles, neutrino and hadrons. The conservation laws governing the interactions of elementary particles are given. The concepts of parity, spin, charge conjugation, time reversal and gauge invariance are explained. The quark theory is introduced to explain the hadron structure and strong interactions. The solar neutrino problem is considered. Weak interactions are classified into various types, and the selection rules are stated. Non-conservation of parity and the universality of the weak interactions are discussed. Neutral and charged currents, discovery of W and Z bosons and the early universe form important topics of the electroweak interactions. The principles of high energy accelerators including colliders are elaborately explained. Additionally, in the book detectors used in nuclear and particle physics are described. This book is on the upper undergraduate level.

  15. Magnetic particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Manchium (Inventor); Colvin, Michael S. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Magnetic polymer particles are formed by swelling porous, polymer particles and impregnating the particles with an aqueous solution of precursor magnetic metal salt such as an equimolar mixture of ferrous chloride and ferric chloride. On addition of a basic reagent such as dilute sodium hydroxide, the metal salts are converted to crystals of magnetite which are uniformly contained througout the pores of the polymer particle. The magnetite content can be increased and neutral buoyancy achieved by repetition of the impregnaton and neutralization steps to adjust the magnetite content to a desired level.

  16. Silicon Detectors-Tools for Discovery in Particle Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krammer, Manfred

    2009-01-01

    Since the first application of Silicon strip detectors in high energy physics in the early 1980ies these detectors have enabled the experiments to perform new challenging measurements. With these devices it became possible to determine the decay lengths of heavy quarks, for example in the fixed target experiment NA11 at CERN. In this experiment Silicon tracking detectors were used for the identification of particles containing a c-quark. Later on, the experiments at the Large Electron Positron collider at CERN used already larger and sophisticated assemblies of Silicon detectors to identify and study particles containing the b-quark. A very important contribution to the discovery of the last of the six quarks, the top quark, has been made by even larger Silicon vertex detectors inside the experiments CDF and D0 at Fermilab. Nowadays a mature detector technology, the use of Silicon detectors is no longer restricted to the vertex regions of collider experiments. The two multipurpose experiments ATLAS and CMS at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN contain large tracking detectors made of Silicon. The largest is the CMS Inner Tracker consisting of 200 m 2 of Silicon sensor area. These detectors will be very important for a possible discovery of the Higgs boson or of Super Symmetric particles. This paper explains the first applications of Silicon sensors in particle physics and describes the continuous development of this technology up to the construction of the state of the art Silicon detector of CMS.

  17. Particle accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ress, R.I.

    1976-01-01

    Charged particles are entrained in a predetermined direction, independent of their polarity, in a circular orbit by a magnetic field rotating at high speed about an axis in a closed cylindrical or toroidal vessel. The field may be generated by a cylindrical laser structure, whose beam is polygonally reflected from the walls of an excited cavity centered on the axis, or by high-frequency energization of a set of electromagnets perpendicular to the axis. In the latter case, a separate magnetostatic axial field limits the orbital radius of the particles. These rotating and stationary magnetic fields may be generated centrally or by individual magnets peripherally spaced along its circular orbit. Chemical or nuclear reactions can be induced by collisions between the orbiting particles and an injected reactant, or by diverting high-speed particles from one doughnut into the path of counterrotating particles in an adjoining doughnut

  18. Guide device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brammer, C.M. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Disclosed is a fuel handling guide tube centering device for use in nuclear reactors during fuel assembly handling operations. The device comprises an outer ring secured to the flange of a nuclear reactor pressure vessel, a rotatable table rotatably coupled to the outer ring, and a plurality of openings through the table. Truncated locating cones are positioned in each of the openings in the table, and the locating cones center the guide tube during fuel handling operations. The openings in the table are located such that each fuel assembly in the nuclear core may be aligned with one of the openings by a suitable rotation of the table. The locating cones thereby provide alignment between the fuel handling mechanism located in the guide tube and the individual fuel assemblies of the cone. The need for a device to provide alignment is especially critical for floating nuclear power plants, where wave motion may exist during fuel handling operations. 5 claims, 4 figures

  19. Reactor feedwater device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, Noboru.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To suppress soluble radioactive corrosion products in a feedwater device. Method: In a light water cooled nuclear reactor, an iron injection system is connected to feedwater pipeways and the iron concentration in the feedwater or reactor coolant is adjusted between twice and ten times of the nickel concentration. When the nickel/iron ratio in the reactor coolant or feedwater goes nearer to 1/2, iron ions are injected together with iron particles to the reactor coolant to suppress the leaching of stainless steels, decrease the nickel in water and increase the iron concentration. As a result, it is possible to suppress the intrusion of nickel as one of parent nuclide of radioactive nuclides. Further, since the iron particles intruded into the reactor constitute nuclei for capturing the radioactive nuclides to reduce the soluble radioactive corrosion products, the radioactive nuclides deposited uniformly to the inside of the pipeways in each of the coolant circuits can be reduced. (Kawakami, Y.)

  20. Reactor shutdown device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Toyokazu.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain a highly reliable reactor shutdown device capable of checking its function irrespective of the state whether shutdown or operation in a gas-cooled type reactor. Constitution: A hopper is disposed above a guide tube inserted into the reactor core and particulate neutron absorbers are contained in the hopper. An opening for falling particles is disposed to the bottom of the hopper in opposition to the upper end of the guide pipe and the opening is closed by a plug suspended by way of a weld line so as to be capable of dropping. A power source for supplying electrical current to the weld line is disposed. Accordingly, if the current is supplied to the weld line, the line is cut by welding to fall the plug so that the neutron-absorbing particles fall from the opening into the guide pipe to shutdown the reactor, whereby high reliability is obtained for the operation. (Seki, T.)

  1. Toroidal nuclear fusion device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Yutaka; Kasahara, Tatsuo; Takizawa, Teruhiro.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To design a device so as to be formed into a large-size and to arrange ports, through which neutral particles enter, in inclined fashion. Structure: Toroidal coils are wound about vacuum vessels which are divided into plural number. In the outer periphery of the vacuum vessels, ports are disposed inclined in the peripheral direction of the vacuum vessels and communicated with the vacuum vessels, and wall surfaces opposed to the ports of the toroidal coils adjacent at least the inclined sides of the ports are inclined substantially simularly to the port wall surfaces. (Kamimura, M.)

  2. WORKSHOP: Low temperature devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    With extraterrestrial neutrinos (whether from the sun or further afield) continuing to make science news, and with the search for the so far invisible 'dark matter' of the universe a continual preoccupation, physicists from different walks of life (solid state, low temperature, particles, astrophysics) gathered at a workshop on low temperature devices for the detection of neutrinos and dark matter, held from 12-13 March at Ringberg Castle on Lake Tegernsee in the Bavarian Alps, and organized by the Max Planck Institute for Physics and Astrophysics in Munich

  3. WORKSHOP: Low temperature devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1987-06-15

    With extraterrestrial neutrinos (whether from the sun or further afield) continuing to make science news, and with the search for the so far invisible 'dark matter' of the universe a continual preoccupation, physicists from different walks of life (solid state, low temperature, particles, astrophysics) gathered at a workshop on low temperature devices for the detection of neutrinos and dark matter, held from 12-13 March at Ringberg Castle on Lake Tegernsee in the Bavarian Alps, and organized by the Max Planck Institute for Physics and Astrophysics in Munich.

  4. Plasma physics via particle simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birdsall, C.K.

    1981-01-01

    Plasmas are studied by following the motion of many particles in applied and self fields, analytically, experimentally and computationally. Plasmas for magnetic fusion energy devices are very hot, nearly collisionless and magnetized, with scale lengths of many ion gyroradii and Debye lengths. The analytic studies of such plasmas are very difficult as the plasma is nonuniform, anisotropic and nonlinear. The experimental studies have become very expensive in time and money, as the size, density and temperature approach fusion reactor values. Computational studies using many particles and/or fluids have complemented both theories and experiments for many years and have progressed to fully three dimensional electromagnetic models, albeit with hours of running times on the fastest largest computers. Particle simulation methods are presented in some detail, showing particle advance from acceleration to velocity to position, followed by calculation of the fields from charge and current densities and then further particle advance, and so on. Limitations due to the time stepping and use of a spatial grid are given, to avoid inaccuracies and instabilities. Examples are given for an electrostatic program in one dimension of an orbit averaging program, and for a three dimensional electromagnetic program. Applications of particle simulations of plasmas in magnetic and inertial fusion devices continue to grow, as well as to plasmas and beams in peripheral devices, such as sources, accelerators, and converters. (orig.)

  5. Proton irradiation experiment for x-ray charge-coupled devices of the monitor of all-sky x-ray image mission onboard the international space station. 2. Degradation of dark current and identification of electron trap level

    CERN Document Server

    Miyata, E; Kamiyama, D

    2003-01-01

    We have investigated the radiation damage effects on a charge-coupled device (CCD) to be used for the Japanese X-ray mission, the monitor of all-sky X-ray image (MAXI), onboard the international space station (ISS). A temperature dependence of the dark current as a function of incremental dose is studied. We found that the protons having energy of >292 keV seriously increased the dark current of the devices. In order to improve the radiation tolerance of the devices, we have developed various device architectures to minimize the radiation damage in orbit. Among them, nitride oxide enables us to reduce the dark current significantly and therefore we adopted nitride oxide for the flight devices. We also compared the dark current of a device in operation and that out of operation during the proton irradiation. The dark current of the device in operation became twofold that out of operation, and we thus determined that devices would be turned off during the passage of the radiation belt. The temperature dependenc...

  6. The search for a standard model Higgs at the LHC and electron identification using transition radiation in the ATLAS tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egede, U.

    1998-01-01

    The large Hadron Collider (LHC) will be ready for proton-proton collisions in the year 2005 and the ATLAS detector will be one of the two experiments at the LHC which will explore a new and higher energy range for particle physics. In this thesis, an analysis of the power of the ATLAS detector to detect a Standard Model Higgs boson has been performed. It is shown that it will be possible to discover a Higgs particle across the complete mass range from the lower limit defined by the reach of the LEP2 collider experiments to the upper theoretical limit around 1 TeV. The role of the inner tracking detector of ATLAS for the detection of conversions and the identification of the primary vertex in the detection of a Higgs particle in the Higgs to two photon decay channel is demonstrated with a detailed detector simulation. The identification of a 1 TeV Higgs particle requires a good understanding of both the signal and the backgrounds. The related uncertainties are covered in detail and it is shown that the Higgs can be identified in the H→WW→lvjj, H→ZZ→llvv and H→ZZ→lljj decay channels. The Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) is a combined tracking and electron identification device which will be a part of the inner tracking detector of ATLAS. For a prototype of the TRT the electron identification performance is analysed and it is shown that the full scale TRT together with the calorimeters will provide the electron identification power required for a clean electron and photon signal at the LHC. For the prototype a rejection factor of 100 against pions was achieved with an electron efficiency of 90%. the importance of the TRT for a clear detection of a Higgs particle is demonstrated

  7. The search for a standard model Higgs at the LHC and electron identification using transition radiation in the ATLAS tracker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egede, U.

    1998-01-01

    The large Hadron Collider (LHC) will be ready for proton-proton collisions in the year 2005 and the ATLAS detector will be one of the two experiments at the LHC which will explore a new and higher energy range for particle physics. In this thesis, an analysis of the power of the ATLAS detector to detect a Standard Model Higgs boson has been performed. It is shown that it will be possible to discover a Higgs particle across the complete mass range from the lower limit defined by the reach of the LEP2 collider experiments to the upper theoretical limit around 1 TeV. The role of the inner tracking detector of ATLAS for the detection of conversions and the identification of the primary vertex in the detection of a Higgs particle in the Higgs to two photon decay channel is demonstrated with a detailed detector simulation. The identification of a 1 TeV Higgs particle requires a good understanding of both the signal and the backgrounds. The related uncertainties are covered in detail and it is shown that the Higgs can be identified in the H{yields}WW{yields}lvjj, H{yields}ZZ{yields}llvv and H{yields}ZZ{yields}lljj decay channels. The Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) is a combined tracking and electron identification device which will be a part of the inner tracking detector of ATLAS. For a prototype of the TRT the electron identification performance is analysed and it is shown that the full scale TRT together with the calorimeters will provide the electron identification power required for a clean electron and photon signal at the LHC. For the prototype a rejection factor of 100 against pions was achieved with an electron efficiency of 90%. the importance of the TRT for a clear detection of a Higgs particle is demonstrated. 82 refs, figs, tabs.

  8. Effective modelling of acoustofluidic devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ley, Mikkel Wennemoes Hvitfeld

    , and 3) acoustic streaming patterns in the devices considered in model 2). 1) We derive an effective model for numerical studies of hydrodynamic particle-particle interactions in microfluidic high-concentration suspensions. A suspension of microparticles placed in a microfluidic channel and influenced......, and of the momentum transfer between the particles and the suspension. 2) We derive a full 3D numerical model for the coupled acoustic fields in mm-sized water-filled glass capillaries, calculating pressure field in the liquid coupled to the displacement field of the glass channel, taking into account mixed standing...... for the acoustic field in glass capillary devices derived in 2), we make an effective model for calculating the acoustic streaming velocity in 3D. To do this, we use recent analytical results that allows calculation of the acoustic streaming field resulting from channel-wall oscillations in any direction...

  9. Medical Devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerke, Gijsbertus Jacob; Mahieu, H.F.; Geertsema, A.A.; Hermann, I.F.; van Horn, J.R.; Hummel, J. Marjan; van Loon, J.P.; Mihaylov, D.; van der Plaats, A.; Schraffordt Koops, H.; Schutte, H.K.; Veth, R.P.H.; de Vries, M.P.; Rakhorst, G.; Shi, Donglu

    2004-01-01

    The development of new medical devices is a very time-consuming and costly process. Besides the time between the initial idea and the time that manufacturing and testing of prototypes takes place, the time needed for the development of production facilities, production of test series, marketing,

  10. Electrochemical device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Patrick G.; Einstein, Harry; Bellows, Richard J.

    1988-01-12

    A tunnel protected electrochemical device features channels fluidically communicating between manifold, tunnels and cells. The channels are designed to provide the most efficient use of auxiliary power. The channels have a greater hydraulic pressure drop and electrical resistance than the manifold. This will provide a design with the optimum auxiliary energy requirements.

  11. Assistive Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you have a disability or injury, you may use a number of assistive devices. These are tools, products or types of equipment that help you perform tasks and activities. They may help you move around, see, communicate, eat, or get ...

  12. Detection device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J.E.

    1981-02-27

    The present invention is directed to a detection device comprising: (1) an entrance chamber; (2) a central chamber; and (3) an exit chamber. The central chamber includes an ionizing gas, anode, and means for connecting the anode with an external power supply and pulse counter.

  13. Zero-Power Radio Device.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brocato, Robert W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2018-02-01

    This report describes an unpowered radio receiver capable of detecting and responding to weak signals transmit ted from comparatively long distances . This radio receiver offers key advantages over a short range zero - power radio receiver previously described in SAND2004 - 4610, A Zero - Power Radio Receiver . The device described here can be fabricated as an integrated circuit for use in portable wireless devices, as a wake - up circuit, or a s a stand - alone receiver operating in conjunction with identification decoders or other electroni cs. It builds on key sub - components developed at Sandia National Laboratories over many years. It uses surface acoustic wave (SAW) filter technology. It uses custom component design to enable the efficient use of small aperture antennas. This device uses a key component, the pyroelectric demodulator , covered by Sandia owned U.S. Patent 7397301, Pyroelectric Demodulating Detector [1] . This device is also described in Sandia owned U.S. Patent 97266446, Zero Power Receiver [2].

  14. Cooling device in thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Tsutomu.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent loss of cooling effect over the entire torus structure directly after accidental toubles in a cooling device of a thermonuclear device. Constitution: Coolant recycling means of a cooling device comprises two systems, which are alternately connected with in-flow pipeways and exit pipeways of adjacent modules. The modules are cooled by way of the in-flow pipeways and the exist pipeways connected to the respective modules by means of the coolant recycling means corresponding to the respective modules. So long as one of the coolant recycling means is kept operative, since every one other modules of the torus structure is still kept cooled, the heat generated from the module put therebetween, for which the coolant recycling is interrupted, is removed by means of heat conduction or radiation from the module for which the cooling is kept continued. No back-up emergency cooling system is required and it can provide high economic reliability. (Kamimura, M.)

  15. Alpha particles (citations from the International Aerospace Abstracts data base). Report for 1974-July 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauk, S.C.

    1979-09-01

    This bibliography of citations to the international literature covers various aspects of alpha particles as applied to controlled fusion devices, solar activity, and geomagnetically trapped particles. Included are articles concerning Tokamak devices, plasma heating and control, plasma-particle interactions, solar particles, solar wind, solar flares, energy spectra, and magnetohydrodynamic stability. Articles concerning effects of alpha particles on different kinds of devices are also included

  16. A biometric approach to laboratory rodent identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Jens; Jacobson, Christina; Nilsson, Kenneth; Rögnvaldsson, Thorsteinn

    2007-03-01

    Individual identification of laboratory rodents typically involves invasive methods, such as tattoos, ear clips, and implanted transponders. Beyond the ethical dilemmas they may present, these methods may cause pain or distress that confounds research results. The authors describe a prototype device for biometric identification of laboratory rodents that would allow researchers to identify rodents without the complications of other methods. The device, which uses the rodent's ear blood vessel pattern as the identifier, is fast, automatic, noninvasive, and painless.

  17. Auroral particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, D.S.

    1987-01-01

    The problems concerning the aurora posed prior to the war are now either solved in principle or were restated in a more fundamental form. The pre-war hypothesis concerning the nature of the auroral particles and their energies was fully confirmed, with the exception that helium and oxygen ions were identified as participating in the auroral particle precipitation in addition to the protons. The nature of the near-Earth energization processes affecting auroral particles was clarified. Charged particle trajectories in various electric field geometries were modeled. The physical problems have now moved from determining the nature and geometry of the electric fields, which accelerate charged particles near the Earth, to accounting for the existence of these electric fields as a natural consequence of the solar wind's interaction with Earth. Ultimately the reward in continuing the work in auroral and magnetospheric particle dynamics will be a deeper understanding of the subtleties of classical electricity and magnetism as applied to situations not blessed with well-defined and invariant geometries

  18. Methods for forming particles from single source precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Robert V [Idaho Falls, ID; Rodriguez, Rene G [Pocatello, ID; Pak, Joshua [Pocatello, ID

    2011-08-23

    Single source precursors are subjected to carbon dioxide to form particles of material. The carbon dioxide may be in a supercritical state. Single source precursors also may be subjected to supercritical fluids other than supercritical carbon dioxide to form particles of material. The methods may be used to form nanoparticles. In some embodiments, the methods are used to form chalcopyrite materials. Devices such as, for example, semiconductor devices may be fabricated that include such particles. Methods of forming semiconductor devices include subjecting single source precursors to carbon dioxide to form particles of semiconductor material, and establishing electrical contact between the particles and an electrode.

  19. α-spectrometric device equipped with semi-conductors for direct measurement of transuranium elements on large area filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fessler, H.; Pawelzik, J.

    1984-10-01

    A device was developed with an array of 8 silicon surface barrier detectors inside a vacuum chamber containing a rotating sample holder for large areas (200 mm diameter) aerosol filters. It serves for quick identification of α-emitters on these aerosol filters, and allows to measure the α-particles with a relatively constant efficiency along a filter diameter. Thus, the radiochemical treatment of single filters can be avoided. Troubles appeared in the course of development of defective semiconductors and their temperature dependence. To suppress the influence of temperature a cooling device was built. During practical testing a cross-efficiency of 13.6% was measured. It is possible to identify α-emitting nuclides with an activity of 10 -1 Bq per sample during about 2 hours of measuring time. Appropriate methodes of calculation are indicated. The data output of the device is suited for transfer to a computer. (orig./HP) [de

  20. Coolant leakage detecting device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamauchi, Kiyoshi; Kawai, Katsunori; Ishihara, Yoshinao.

    1995-01-01

    The device of the present invention judges an amount of leakage of primary coolants of a PWR power plant at high speed. Namely, a mass of coolants contained in a pressurizer, a volume controlling tank and loop regions is obtained based on a preset relational formula and signals of each of process amount, summed up to determine the total mass of coolants for every period of time. The amount of leakage for every period of time is calculated by a formula of Karman's filter based on the total mass of the primary coolants for every predetermined period of time, and displays it on CRT. The Karman's filter is formed on every formula for several kinds of states formed based on the preset amount of the leakage, to calculate forecasting values for every mass of coolants. An adaptable probability for every preset leakage amount is determined based on the difference between the forecast value and the observed value and the scattering thereof. The adaptable probability is compared with a predetermined threshold value, which is displayed on the CRT. This device enables earlier detection of leakage and identification of minute leakage amount as compared with the prior device. (I.S.)

  1. Elementary particles and particle interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bethge, K.; Schroeder, U.E.

    1986-01-01

    This book is a textbook for an introductory course of elementary particle physics. After a general introduction the symmetry principles governing the interactions of elementary particles are discussed. Then the phenomenology of the electroweak and strong interactions are described together with a short introduction to the Weinberg-Salam theory respectively to quantum chromodynamics. Finally a short outlook is given to grand unification with special regards to SU(5) and cosmology in the framework of the current understanding of the fundamental principles of nature. In the appendix is a table of particle properties and physical constants. (HSI) [de

  2. Thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tezuka, Masaru.

    1993-01-01

    Protrusions and recesses are formed to a vacuum vessel and toroidal magnetic coils, and they are engaged. Since the vacuum vessel is generally supported firmly by a rack or the like by support legs, the toroidal magnetic field coils can be certainly supported against tumbling force. Then, there can be attained strong supports for the toroidal magnetic field coils, in addition to support by wedges on the side of inboard and support by share panels on the side of outboard, capable of withstanding great electromagnetic forces which may occur in large-scaled next-generation devices. That is, toroidal magnetic field coils excellent from a view point of deformation and stress can be obtained, to provide a thermonuclear device of higher reliability. (N.H.)

  3. Thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oosaki, Osamu; Masuda, Kenju.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To provide excellent electric properties and high reliability in a thermonuclear device by improving a current collecting board connected to a coil device. Constitution: A current collecting board element perforated with an opening for enserting a connecting terminal is sized to be inserted into a plating tank, and is surface treated in the plating tank. Only the current collecting board element preferably surface treated is picked up. A plurality of such current collecting board elements are connected and welded to form a large current collecting board. In this manner, the current collecting board having several m 2 to several ten order m 2 in area can be obtained as preferably surface treated at the connecting terminal hole. The current collecting board element can be determined in shape with the existing facility without increasing the size of a surface treating tank. (Kamimura, M.)

  4. Thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi, Yasuomi; Takahashi, Ken; Hashimoto, Hiroshi.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the plasma confining performances by bringing the irregular magnetic fields nearly to zero and decreasing the absolute value of the irregular magnetic fields at every positions. Constitution: The winding direction of a plurality of coil elements, for instance, double pan cake coils of toroidal coils in a torus type or mirror type thermonuclear device are reversed to each other in their laminating direction, whereby the irregular magnetic fields due to the coil-stepped portions in each toroidal coils are brought nearly to zero. This enables to bring the average irregular magnetic fields as a whole in the thermonuclear device nearly to zero, as well as, decrease the absolute value of the irregular magnetic fields in each positions. Thus, the plasma confining performances can be improved. (Moriyama, K.)

  5. "Distinvar" device

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1965-01-01

    The alignment of one of the accelerator magnets being checked by the AR Division survey group. A "distinvar" device, invented by the group, using calibrated invar wires stretched between the fixed survey pillar (on the left) and a fixed point on the magnet. In two days it is thus possible to measure the alignment of the 100 magnets with an accuracy better than 1/10.

  6. Latching device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, G. W. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    A latching device is suited for use in establishing a substantially motionless connection between a stationary receiver and a movable latching mechanism. The latching mechanism includes a pivotally supported restraining hook continuously urged into a capturing relationship with the receiver, characterized by a spring-biased pawl having a plurality of aligned teeth. The teeth are seated in the surface of the throat of the hook and positionable into restraining engagement with a rigid restraining shoulder projected from the receiver.

  7. Insertion devices at the advanced photon source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moog, E.R.

    1996-01-01

    The insertion devices being installed at the Advanced Photon Source cause the stored particle beam to wiggle, emitting x-rays with each wiggle. These x-rays combine to make an intense beam of radiation. Both wiggler and undulator types of insertion devices are being installed; the characteristics of the radiation produced by these two types of insertion devices are discussed, along with the reasons for those characteristics

  8. New preamplifier for particle detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarema, R.J.

    1984-11-01

    A new preamplifier for particle detectors has been designed and built for the Fermilab VTPC by Fujitsu of Japan. The device, designated MB43458, is a semi-custom monolithic assembled in a small, low mass package. The purpose of this report is to document the preliminary tests which have been done thus far. Tests are continuing to expand upon the results presented herein

  9. Cryogenic detectors for particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Mestres, L.; Perret-Gallix, D.

    1988-11-01

    A comprehensive introduction to cryogenic detector developments for particle physics is presented, covering conventional detectors cooled to low temperature (scintillators and semiconductors), superconductive and thermal sensitive devices, as well as the basics of cold electronics. After giving a critical overview of current work, we elaborate on possible new ways for further improvements and briefly evaluate the feasibility of the main proposed applications

  10. International Catalogue of Sealed Radioactive Sources and Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The international catalogue of sealed radioactive sources and devices have two major objectives. The first objective is to provide vital information for a wide range of individuals and organizations on industrially manufactured radioactive sources and devices. The second objective is to facilitate identification of design specifications based on limited information from orphan sources and devices to allow safe handling of these items.

  11. 21 CFR 872.2050 - Dental sonography device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... § 872.9. (b) Dental sonography device for interpretation and diagnosis—(1) Identification. A dental sonography device for interpretation and diagnosis is an electrically powered device, intended to interpret temporomandibular joint sounds for the diagnosis of temporomandibular joint disorders and associated orofacial pain...

  12. The effect of quadrupole fields on particle confinement in a field-reversed mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McColl, D.B.; Berk, H.L.; Hammer, J.; Morse, E.C.

    1982-01-01

    A particle simulation code has been modified to simulate particle loss caused by quadrupole magnetic fields on a field-reversed mirror plasma device. Since analytic fields are chosen for the equilibrium, the numerical algorithm is highly accurate for long-time integrations of particle orbits. The resultant particle loss due to the quadrupole fields can be competitive with collisional loss in the device

  13. Fluid and particle mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Michell, S J

    2013-01-01

    Fluid and Particle Mechanics provides information pertinent to hydraulics or fluid mechanics. This book discusses the properties and behavior of liquids and gases in motion and at rest. Organized into nine chapters, this book begins with an overview of the science of fluid mechanics that is subdivided accordingly into two main branches, namely, fluid statics and fluid dynamics. This text then examines the flowmeter devices used for the measurement of flow of liquids and gases. Other chapters consider the principle of resistance in open channel flow, which is based on improper application of th

  14. Biomarker detection of global infectious diseases based on magnetic particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carinelli, Soledad; Martí, Mercè; Alegret, Salvador; Pividori, María Isabel

    2015-09-25

    Infectious diseases affect the daily lives of millions of people all around the world, and are responsible for hundreds of thousands of deaths, mostly in the developing world. Although most of these major infectious diseases are treatable, the early identification of individuals requiring treatment remains a major issue. The incidence of these diseases would be reduced if rapid diagnostic tests were widely available at the community and primary care level in low-resource settings. Strong research efforts are thus being focused on replacing standard clinical diagnostic methods, such as the invasive detection techniques (biopsy or endoscopy) or expensive diagnostic and monitoring methods, by affordable and sensitive tests based on novel biomarkers. The development of new methods that are needed includes solid-phase separation techniques. In this context, the integration of magnetic particles within bioassays and biosensing devices is very promising since they greatly improve the performance of a biological reaction. The diagnosis of clinical samples with magnetic particles can be easily achieved without pre-enrichment, purification or pretreatment steps often required for standard methods, simplifying the analytical procedures. The biomarkers can be specifically isolated and preconcentrated from complex biological matrixes by magnetic actuation, increasing specificity and the sensitivity of the assay. This review addresses these promising features of the magnetic particles for the detection of biomarkers in emerging technologies related with infectious diseases affecting global health, such as malaria, influenza, dengue, tuberculosis or HIV. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Stable particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samios, N.P.

    1993-01-01

    I have been asked to review the subject of stable particles, essentially the particles that eventually comprised the meson and baryon octets. with a few more additions -- with an emphasis on the contributions made by experiments utilizing the bubble chamber technique. In this activity, much work had been done by the photographic emulsion technique and cloud chambers-exposed to cosmic rays as well as accelerator based beams. In fact, many if not most of the stable particles were found by these latter two techniques, however, the forte of the bubble chamber (coupled with the newer and more powerful accelerators) was to verify, and reinforce with large statistics, the existence of these states, to find some of the more difficult ones, mainly neutrals and further to elucidate their properties, i.e., spin, parity, lifetimes, decay parameters, etc

  16. Insertion device and method for accurate and repeatable target insertion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubeli, III, Joseph F.; Shinn, Michelle D.; Bevins, Michael E.; Dillon-Townes, Lawrence; Neil, George R.

    2017-07-04

    The present invention discloses a device and a method for inserting and positioning a target within a free electron laser, particle accelerator, or other such device that generates or utilizes a beam of energy or particles. The system includes a three-point registration mechanism that insures angular and translational accuracy and repeatability of positioning upon multiple insertions within the same structure.

  17. Particle physics

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Brian R

    2017-01-01

    An accessible and carefully structured introduction to Particle Physics, including important coverage of the Higgs Boson and recent progress in neutrino physics. Fourth edition of this successful title in the Manchester Physics series. Includes information on recent key discoveries including : An account of the discovery of exotic hadrons, beyond the simple quark model; Expanded treatments of neutrino physics and CP violation in B-decays; An updated account of ‘physics beyond the standard model’, including the interaction of particle physics with cosmology; Additional problems in all chapters, with solutions to selected problems available on the book’s website; Advanced material appears in optional starred sections.

  18. Magnethophoretic sorting of fluid catalytic cracking particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Solsona, Miguel; Nieuwelink, A. E.; Odijk, Mathieu; Meirer, Florian; Abelmann, Leon; Olthuis, Wouter; Weckhuysen, Bert M.; van den Berg, Albert; Lee, Abraham; DeVoe, Don

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate an on-chip particle activity sorter, focused on iron concentration and based on magnetophoresis. This device was used for fast sorting of stepwise homogenously distributed [Fe]s. The preliminary results are very encouraging. We show that we can sort particles on magnetic moment, with

  19. Damping device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banks, E.L. Jr.; Dowell, T.P.

    1976-01-01

    The description is given of a damper which includes a pair of telescopic components interconnected by relative linear movement one in relation to the other, by a screw and ball nut device, with a braking surface on one of the components, a brake engaging the braking surface, an inertia mass entrained by the other components, non-deformable and distinct brake actuating gear, independently mobile in relation to the other braking system and fixed and controlled by the inertia mass, positively to engage the braking surface. This damper is for retaining the parts of a nuclear power station so that can withstand earthquakes [fr

  20. Thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Toyokazu; Murata, Toru.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To shield superconducting coils for use in the generation of magnetic field against neutron irradiation thereby preventing tritium contamination. Constitution: The thermonuclear device comprises, in its inside, a vacuum container for containing plasmas, superconducting coils disposed to the outside of the vacuum container and neutron absorbers disposed between the super-conducting coils and the vacuum container. since neutrons issued from the plasma are absorbed by neutron absorbers and not irradiated to the superconducting coils, generation of tritium due to the reaction between 3 He in the liquid helium as the coolants for the super-conducting coils and the neutrons is prevented. (Aizawa, K.)