WorldWideScience

Sample records for particle emitting radionuclides

  1. Radiosensitivity of Prostate Cancer Cell Lines for Irradiation from Beta Particle-emitting Radionuclide ¹⁷⁷Lu Compared to Alpha Particles and Gamma Rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgqvist, Jörgen; Timmermand, Oskar Vilhelmsson; Larsson, Erik; Strand, Sven-Erik

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the radiosensitivity of the prostate cancer cell lines LNCaP, DU145, and PC3 when irradiated with beta particles emitted from (177)Lu, and to compare the effect with irradiation using alpha particles or gamma rays. Cells were irradiated with beta particles emitted from (177)Lu, alpha particles from (241)Am, or gamma rays from (137)Cs. A non-specific polyclonal antibody was labeled with (177)Lu and used to irradiate cells in suspension with beta particles. A previously described in-house developed alpha-particle irradiator based on a (241)Am source was used to irradiate cells with alpha particles. External gamma-ray irradiation was achieved using a standard (137)Cs irradiator. Cells were irradiated to absorbed doses equal to 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, or 10 Gy. The absorbed doses were calculated as mean absorbed doses. For evaluation of cell survival, the tetrazolium-based WST-1 assay was used. After irradiation, WST-1 was added to the cell solutions, incubated, and then measured for level of absorbance at 450 nm, indicating the live and viable cells. LNCaP, DU145, and PC3 cell lines all had similar patterns of survival for the different radiation types. No significant difference in surviving fractions were observed between cells treated with beta-particle and gamma-ray irradiation, represented for example by the surviving fraction values (mean±SD) at 2, 6, and 10 Gy (SF2, SF6, and SF10) for DU145 after beta-particle irradiation: 0.700±0.090, 0.186±0.050 and 0.056±0.010, respectively. A strong radiosensitivity to alpha particles was observed, with SF2 values of 0.048±0.008, 0.018±0.006 and 0.015±0.005 for LNCaP, DU145, and PC3, respectively. The surviving fractions after irradiation using beta particles or gamma rays did not differ significantly at the absorbed dose levels and dose rates used. Irradiation using alpha particles led to a high level of cell killing. The results show that the beta-particle emitter

  2. Alpha Emitting Radionuclides and Radiopharmaceuticals for Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chérel, Michel; Barbet, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Today, cancer treatments mainly rely on surgery or external beam radiation to remove or destroy bulky tumors. Chemotherapy is given when tumours cannot be removed or when dissemination is suspected. However, these approaches cannot permanently treat all cancers and relapse occurs in up to 50% of the patients’ population. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) and peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) are effective against some disseminated and metastatic diseases, although they are rarely curative. Most preclinical and clinical developments in this field have involved electron-emitting radionuclides, particularly iodine-131, yttrium-90 and lutetium-177. The large range of the electrons emitted by these radionuclides reduces their efficacy against very small tumour cell clusters or isolated tumour cells present in residual disease and in many haematological tumours (leukaemia, myeloma). The range of alpha particles in biological tissues is very short, less than 0.1 mm, which makes alpha emitters theoretically ideal for treatment of such isolated tumour cells or micro-clusters of malignant cells. Thus, over the last decade, a growing interest for the use of alpha-emitting radionuclides has emerged. Research on targeted alpha therapy (TAT) began years ago in Nantes through cooperation between Subatech, a nuclear physics laboratory, CRCNA, a cancer research centre with a nuclear oncology team and ITU (Karlsruhe, Germany). CD138 was demonstrated as a potential target antigen for Multiple Myeloma, which is a target of huge clinical interest particularly suited for TAT because of the disseminated nature of the disease consisting primarily of isolated cells and small clusters of tumour cells mainly localized in the bone marrow. Thus anti-CD138 antibodies were labelled with bismuth-213 from actinium-225/bismuth-213 generators provided by ITU and used to target multiple myeloma cells. In vitro studies showed cell cycle arrest, synergism with chemotherapy and very little induction

  3. Toxicity of inhaled alpha-emitting radionuclides - Status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Mewhinney, J.A.; Guilmette, R.A.; Gillett, N.A.; Diel, J.H.; Lundgren, D.L.; Hahn, F.F.; Boecker, B.B.; McClellan, R.O.

    1988-01-01

    The toxicity of inhaled alpha-emitting radionuclides is being investigated in a series of interrelated dose-response studies. Dogs, rodents, and nonhuman primates have been exposed to monodisperse or polydisperse aerosols of the oxides of 239 Pu, 238 Pu, 241 Am, or 244 Cm to measure the relative importance of average organ dose, local dose around particles, specific activity, chemical form, particle size, and number of particles inhaled to the development of biological effects. The influence of animal species, age at exposure, and pre-existing lung disease, as well as the effects of repeated exposure, are also being studied, because they may influence the toxicity of these radionuclides. (author)

  4. Toxicity of inhaled alpha-emitting radionuclides - Status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muggenburg, B A; Mewhinney, J A; Guilmette, R A; Gillett, N A; Diel, J H; Lundgren, D L; Hahn, F F; Boecker, B B; McClellan, R O

    1988-12-01

    The toxicity of inhaled alpha-emitting radionuclides is being investigated in a series of interrelated dose-response studies. Dogs, rodents, and nonhuman primates have been exposed to monodisperse or polydisperse aerosols of the oxides of {sup 239}Pu, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 241}Am, or {sup 244}Cm to measure the relative importance of average organ dose, local dose around particles, specific activity, chemical form, particle size, and number of particles inhaled to the development of biological effects. The influence of animal species, age at exposure, and pre-existing lung disease, as well as the effects of repeated exposure, are also being studied, because they may influence the toxicity of these radionuclides. (author)

  5. Toxicity studies of inhaled beta-emitting radionuclides - Status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, F F; Boeker, B B; Gillett, N A; Griffith, W C; Lundgren, D L; McClellan, R O; Muggenburg, B A; Snipes, M B

    1988-12-01

    The effects of beta-emitting radionuclides inhaled in either a relatively soluble form ({sup 90}SrCl{sub 2}, {sup 144}CeCl{sub 3}, {sup 91}yl{sub 3}, or {sup 137}CsCl) or in a relatively insoluble form ({sup 90}Y, {sup 91}Y, {sup 144}Ce or {sup 90}Sr in fused aluminosilicate particles [FAP]) have been studied in laboratory animals. The results showed that the total beta dose and the dose-rate pattern can modify both the neoplastic and non-neoplastic effects of inhaled beta-emitting radionuclides. In addition, the solubility and chemical characteristics of the radionuclides influence which organs are affected. Effects are seen primarily in organs where the radionuclide is ultimately accumulated, e.g., lung, bone, liver, or tracheobronchial lymph nodes. In addition, effects may be seen in organs where there is little accumulation, but where the radiation dose may still be high, e.g., nasal epithelium and heart. Studies of inhaled {sup 144}Ce-FAP in four different species showed that, compared to mice and dogs, lung tumor risk factors are very low for Syrian hamsters and high for rats. Studies of mice, Syrian hamsters, rats, and dogs repeatedly exposed to aerosols of {sup 144}Ce-FAP showed that lung tumor incidence correlates better with cumulative dose to the lung than with dose rate. Most of the studies in this program are nearing completion and full analyses are in progress. (author)

  6. Positron emitting radionuclides for South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wynchbank, S.; Van der Walt, T.N.; Sharpey-Shafer, J.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: In South Africa there are currently two projects underway to supply and utilise positron emitting radionuclides for imaging in clinical nuclear medicine facilities. The advantages and applications of such radio nuclides are numerous and well known. However the premier initial application will be to employ 1BF, at first in the compound fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 F)-FDG, for patients with cancers and neoplasms. The two projects are sited at iThemba LABS, where production of a generator supplying 66 Ga and the provision of ( 18 F]-FDG, are in an advanced state of planning; the former already fully financed by the Innovation Fund of the National Research Foundation. The two positron emitting radionuclides, 18 F and 68 Ge, will be produced using a cyclotron induced reaction on 1802 and Ga, respectively, at iThemba LABS. The 68 Ge/ 68 Ga generator consists of an anion exchanger loaded with 68 Ge, which decays to 68 Ga. The resulting radiopharmaceuticals, ( 18 F]-FDG and 68 Ga citrate, will be produced by the Radionuclide Production Group of iThemba LABS, using well described methods. However the structures and processes to be used in the generator to provide 68 Ga are novel and will be explained. Initially provision of the CBF]-FDG will be to selected clinical medicine facilities in the Western Cape and Gauteng. It should be noted that the logistical problems of providing this radiopharmaceutical (which are much complicated by its short half life of 109.7 min) to Gauteng, were shown to be surmountable in the 1970s, by a regular delivery of 18 F between Gauteng and Cape Town, after the advent of a commercial service using jet aircraft. The obvious requirement that there should be appropriate nuclear medicine facilities to image patients, at the sites to which the positron emitting radiopharmaceuticals will be supplied, has been addressed. Proposed solutions will be outlined, in terms of a dedicated positron emission tomography (PET) camera and a gamma

  7. The sources and fate of radionuclides emitted to the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandalls, J.

    2001-01-01

    The thesis represents an account of the sources and fate of radionuclides entering the atmosphere, and indicates where the candidate, through his own work, has contributed to the overall picture. The sources of the natural and man-made radionuclides found in the atmosphere are identified. New data on emissions from UK coal-fired power stations and UK steel works are reported. Radionuclides produced in nuclear fission and released to the atmosphere in the detonation of nuclear weapons, in nuclear accidents, and through routine discharges from nuclear sites have added to the atmospheric burden of radioactive materials; both acute and chronic low-level emissions are discussed. The various natural processes which remove radionuclides from the atmosphere are described. Soon after release, many radioactive materials become attached to the atmospheric aerosol, but others undergo gas-phase reactions. Some gases are sufficiently long-lived in the troposphere as to find their way into the stratosphere where their fate may be determined by the short-wave radiation from the sun. The nature of the particles of fuel emitted to the atmosphere in the explosion and fire at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986 are discussed, together with the associated environmental problems. The ground is the major sink for radionuclides leaving the atmosphere, and the behaviour of the more radiologically important radionuclides following deposition is described with special reference to: (i) fallout in both the urban and living environments; (ii) the pathways which may lead to contamination of the food chain; (iii) how the fuel particle fallout from Chernobyl was unique in nuclear accidents; (iv) soil-to-plant transfer of radioelements and (v) how radiation exposure of man can be mitigated in both the contaminated urban and rural environments. (author)

  8. Metabolism and biological effects of alpha-emitting radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bair, W. J.

    1979-05-01

    The emphasis of much of the current and planned research on the toxicity of alpha-emitting radionuclides is directed toward the complexities of actual and potential conditions of occupational environmental exposures of human beings. These, as well as the more limited studies on mechanisms of biological transport and effects, should increase our ability to predict health risks more accurately and to deal more confidently with human exposures, if and when they occur.

  9. Lifetime health risks from internally deposited beta-emitting radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boecker, B.B.; Griffith, W.C.; Hahn, F.F.; Nikula, K.J.; Lundgren, D.L.; Muggenburg, B.A.

    1997-01-01

    Much of our knowledge on the lifetime health risks resulting from internal depositions of beta- and gamma-emitting radionuclides has come from studies in laboratory animals conducted to provide information not available from human epidemiological studies. This paper is focused primarily on results of experiments in which laboratory animals (dogs and rodents) were exposed once, briefly, by inhalation or intravenous injection to an individual fission-product radionuclide and were studied for radionuclide metabolism, dosimetry, and lifetime health effects. The relative importance of many dose- and effect-modifying factors was studied. The main long-term biological effects were cancers in the organs and tissues receiving the highest doses. Results for three different patterns of irradiation (skeleton, lung, and whole-body) are presented. The risks of bone cancers produced by 90 Sr are compared with those from 238 Pu in dogs. Lung cancer risks for several beta emitters inhaled in a relatively insoluble form by dogs are compared with results for 144 CeO 2 inhaled by rats. Late-occurring biological effects from the relatively uniform whole-body irradiation from intravenously injected 137 Cs are also presented. In addition to radionuclide-specific results, cross-cutting analyses of these studies provide valuable information on broader issues such as dose protraction, relative biological effectiveness, threshold considerations, and inter-species comparisons including extrapolation to human exposure situations. (authors)

  10. Direct measurement of γ-emitting radionuclides in waste drum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Ruwei; Mao Yong; Zhang Xiuzhen; Xia Xiaobin; Guo Caiping; Han Yueqin

    1993-01-01

    The low-level rad waste produced from nuclear power plant, nuclear facilities, and in the process of their decommissioning is stored in waste depository. For the safety of transport and storage of these wastes, some test must be done. One of them is to analyse the kinds and activities of radionuclides in each waste drum. Segmented scanning gamma spectrum analysis can be used for direct measurement of gamma-emitting radionuclides in drum. Gamma emitters such as Co-60, Cs-137, Ra-226 can be measured directly from outside of drum. A method and system for direct measuring gamma emitters in waste drum are described, and measuring apparatus and measurement results as well

  11. Report of a Technical Meeting on ''Alpha emitting radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals for therapy''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Considering the high potential of α-emitters for future development of radionuclide therapy, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) organized a Technical Meeting on ‘Alpha Emitting Radionuclides and Radiopharmaceuticals for Therapy’, from June 24 to 28, 2013, at IAEA Headquarters in Vienna with the purpose of gathering eminent Experts in the field and discuss with them the status and future perspectives of the field. Sixteen Experts and two External Observers from ten different countries, and four IAEA Technical Officers attended this meeting. Outstanding lectures have been presented covering all relevant aspects of α-therapy, which were followed by extensive discussions and analysis. Selected arguments encompassed production methods and availability of alpha-emitting radionuclides, labelling chemistry of alpha-emittting radioelements, design and development of target-specific radiopharmaceuticals, physical principles of alpha-particle dosimetry and advanced dosimetric models, biological effects of alpha radiation at the cellular level, on-going preclinical and clinical studies with new radiopharmaceuticals, results of clinical trials on the use of radium-223 chloride solutions for the treatment of metastatic bone cancer. The broad scientific background of invited components of the Experts’ panel conferred a strong interdisciplinary trait to the overall discussion and stimulated a critical analysis of this emerging unexplored field. Results of this comprehensive overview on alpha therapy, including recommendations to the Agency on suitable initiatives that may help to promote and spread the knowledge to Members States on this emerging therapeutic modality, are summarized in the present Report

  12. Measurements of radionuclide activity by the (e-α, β, γ, Lx) coincidence method using electrons with energies of a few eV emitted from radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frolov, E.A.

    1994-01-01

    A study was made of the possibility of measuring radionuclide activities by the method of coincidence of electrons with energies of a few eV emitted from the valence shells of radioactive atoms with nuclear radiations. The low energy electrons were detected with a detector equipped with microchannel plates with trochoidal focusing of an original design. Photons were detected with NaI(TI) detectors. A 100 μm thick plastic scintillator was used to detect beta- and alpha-particles. The investigation shows that it is possible to use this method for accurate measurements of radionuclide activity. (orig.)

  13. Particle Accelerators for PET radionuclides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mikael

    2012-01-01

    The requirements set for particle accelerators for production of radioactive isotopes for PET can easily be derived from first principles. The simple general need is for proton beams with energy in the region 10–20 MeV and current 20–100 microAmps. This is most reliably and cost-effectively achie......The requirements set for particle accelerators for production of radioactive isotopes for PET can easily be derived from first principles. The simple general need is for proton beams with energy in the region 10–20 MeV and current 20–100 microAmps. This is most reliably and cost......-effectively achieved by the well proven technology of the compact medical cyclotron, presently available from several companies. The main features of these cyclotrons are essential similar: resistive, sector focused iron magnets, internal negative ion sources and stripping extraction. The remaining differences between...... different manufacturers will be discussed the light of what is actually needed for a given PET site operation. Alternatives to the conventional cyclotron have been proposed and tested but have at present very limited use. These alternatives will be discussed, as well as the future possibilities of supplying...

  14. Gamma emitting radionuclides of the Test Reactor Area leaching ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millard, J.B.; Whicker, F.W.; Markham, O.D.

    1978-01-01

    Radioactive leaching ponds adjacent to the Test Reactor Area (TRA) located on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Site were investigated to determine the seasonal distribution and ecological behavior of gamma emitting radionuclides. The potential hazards to man and the environment were considered through the biological export of radioactive materials from the ponds. Both biotic and abiotic pond compartments were sampled. Fall and winter biomass estimates showed that benthic periphyton comprised 52%, macrophytes and littoral vegetation 35%, and seston 10% of the total for all biotic compartments. Concentrations and concentration factors (CFs) for fall and winter are presented for Cr-51, Co-60, Zr-95, I-131, Cs-137, Ba-140, and Ce-141. Concentrations and CFs ranged over seven orders of magnitude for the various nuclides and compartments. Seston and zooplankton had the highest concentrations followed by periphyton, sediment, macrophytes, littoral plants, willow, and filtered water. Arthropods had variable concentrations and CFs. Significant seasonal differences were observed for concentrations and CFs in seston, macrophytes, and littoral vegetation. A compartmental inventory of total gamma emitting activity accounted for 254 Ci (9.25 TBq) of the 731 Ci (24.8 TBq) estimated to remain in the ponds at the time of sampling. Filtered water and surface sediments contained 99% of the total radioactivity, while periphyton and seston had most of the remaining 1%. An estimate of the avian export rate of radioactivity from the TRA ponds showed that potentially harvestable mourning doves had the lowest rate with 0.02 μCi/y. External tissues of migratory waterfowl were found to contribute 90% of the total exported activity for all birds. The total avian export rate was estimated to be 1350 μCi/y during 1975

  15. Deposition of particle-bound radionuclides in dry weather, fog, rain and snowfall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberschachtsiek, D.; Sparmacher, H.; Kreh, R.; Adam, M.; Fuelber, K.; Stegger, J.; Bonka, H.

    1992-01-01

    Radionuclides emitted from nuclear plants and installations are transported in dry weather, because of turbulences and sedimentations, to plant parts above ground and near the ground and to other areas, and deposited there. The deposited activity is proportional to the activity concentration near the deposition area. In the case of particle-bound radionuclides it depends on the aerodynamic particle diameter, surface quality and other factors. In a large number of experiments deposition velocity was measured. In fog the particles to which radionuclides are bound grow by coagulation and condensation. The aerosol size spectrum changes with increasing distance from the place of emission. The type of the fog and the form of the emitted spectrum are important factors which influence this process. With normal activity distributions as a function of the aerodynamic particle diameter, the deposition velocity increases with the distance from the place of emission, up to a final value, due to the shift of the spectrum to larger diameters. (orig.) [de

  16. Aero particles characterization emitted by mobile sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas V, A.; Romero G, E. T.; Lopez G, H.

    2009-01-01

    In our country, the mobile sources that conform most of the emissions at the atmosphere, are concentrated on the urban areas. For the present work, samples coming from the escapes of terrestrial transport were obtained, such as: passenger buses, load transport and particular vehicles of the Metropolitan area of the Toluca valley. The material was analyzed by means of scanning electron microscopy of low vacuum and X-ray diffraction. The objective was to characterize the emitted particles by mobile sources, morphological and chemically to know the structure, size and elements that compose them. (Author)

  17. Method of measuring the disintegration rate of a beta-emitting radionuclide in a liquid sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horrocks, D.L.

    1980-01-01

    A novel liquid scintillation counting method of measuring the disintegration rate of a beta-emitting radionuclide is described which involves counting the sample at at least two different quench levels. (UK)

  18. The distribution and abundance of gamma emitting radionuclides in Lake Ontario sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinley, R.S.

    1985-03-01

    The distribution of gamma emitting radionuclides in Lake Ontario sediments was investigated. Samples were collected using a systematic design in the vicinity of Pickering and Darlington, and supplemented by lakewide offshore samples. Naturally occurring 40 K was the predominant source of gamma activity. 60 Co was the only potentially CANDU released radionuclide which showed a distributional association with the Pickering 'A' NGS discharge

  19. Analyses of human exposures to alpha-emitting radionuclides from nuclear fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuddihy, R.G.; McClellan, R.O.; Griffith, W.C.; Hoover, M.D.

    1977-01-01

    Human populations may potentially be exposed to alpha-emitting radionuclides released to the environment from a variety of activities associated with nuclear fuel cycles. Generally, the most important exposure pathway is by way of inhalation. This can occur soon after release of these substances or after they have been deposited on ground surfaces and resuspended with soil particles. Estimating the potential magnitude of these exposures is usually done through the use of mathematical models accounting for the dispersion of the released material through the environment and its uptake by people living near the nuclear facilities. Studies described in this paper suggest that these exposures can probably be estimated within a factor of 10 based upon our previous experience with measured human organ levels of other trace metals taken up from the environment. It should also be noted that variability among individuals within the population may result in a few percent accumulating more than 10 times the geometric mean of the internal organ radionuclide burdens

  20. Dosimetry of beta emitting radionuclides for use in balloon angioplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    The dose at varying distances from the surface of an infinite cylinder containing 90 Y, 32 P and 188 Re respectively is calculated using published scaled point dose kernels for these three radionuclides. It is shown that all are suitable radionuclides for use in the irradiation of arteries subsequent to balloon angioplasty. All three may be used as a radioactive liquid in the angioplasty balloon, thereby simplifying the procedure and enabling a uniform radiation dose to be given to the arterial wall. It is however shown that there is a rapid reduction in dose with distance from the arterial wall which demands careful specification of the prescribed radiation dose. A similar rapid reduction with distance is also found with a central radioactive wire or with a radioactive stent containing the same radionuclides. (author)

  1. Comparison of bone tumors induced by beta-emitting or alpha-emitting radionuclides: Schemes of pathogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillett, N.A.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Pool, R.R.; Hahn, F.F.

    1988-01-01

    Life-span studies in Beagle dogs have documented the occurrence of bone tumors following exposure to bone-seeking alpha- or beta-emitting radionuclides administered by different routes of exposure. Bone tumors from dogs in four different life-span studies were analyzed according to tumor phenotype, tumor location, radiographic appearance, incidence of metastasis, and association with radiation osteodystrophy. Marked differences in these parameters were observed that did not correlate with differences in radionuclide type, route of exposure, or duration of radionuclide uptake. Radiation osteodystrophy, which is postulated to be a preneoplastic lesion, was not a significant component in one of the studies. Analysis of the data from these four studies suggests that at least two different mechanisms of bone tumor pathogenesis occur for radiation-induced bone tumors. (author)

  2. Hot beta particles in the lung: Results from dogs exposed to fission product radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, F.F.; Griffith, W.C.; Hobbs, C.H. [and others

    1995-12-01

    The Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident resulted in the release of uranium dioxide fuel and fission product radionuclides into the environment with the fallout of respirable, highly radioactive particles that have been termed {open_quotes}hot beta particles.{close_quotes} There is concern that these hot beta particles (containing an average of 150-20,000 Bq/particle), when inhaled and deposited in the lung, may present an extraordinary hazard for the induction of lung cancer. We reviewed data from a group of studies in dogs exposed to different quantities of beta-emitting radionuclides with varied physical half-lives to determine if those that inhaled hot beta particles were at unusual risk for lung cancer. This analysis indicates that the average dose to the lung is adequate to predict biologic effects of lung cancer for inhaled beta-emitting radionuclides in the range of 5-50 Gy to the lung and with particle activities in the range of 0.10-50 Bq/particle.

  3. Natural gamma-emitting radionuclides in egyptian cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Arabi, A.M.; Abbady, A.; El Kamel, A.H.; Nosier, A.; Moustafa, A.

    2005-01-01

    Samples of cement manufactured in Egypt and the various raw materials, which compose the product, have been analyzed using gamma-spectroscopy, in order to determine the concentration of natural radionuclides and associated radiological hazard. The mean of specific activity due to all the three radionuclides (226 R a, 232 T h and 40 K ) were found to be 20±4 , 11± 2, 320 ± 18 (gypsum), 41 ±8, 27± 5, 410± 27 (clay), 58 ± 11, 18 3, 321± 20 (Iron ore) and 37.6 ± 6, 11.8 ± 3, 178.6 ± 15 Bq.kg-1 (Portland cement), respectively. 40 K concentration could not be detected in Slag; limestone; Sulphate resistant cement; Clinker and White cement, while the mean activity concentrations of 226 R a and 232 T h are 239 ± 16, 48.7 ± 7; 31.5 ±5, 10 ± 2; 47 ± 7, 20 ± 4; 23 ± 5, 10.4 ± 3 and 23 ± 5, 11 ±3 Bq.kg-1, respectively. The measured activity concentrations of these natural radionuclides were compared with data of some countries. The present values are in the same range and sometimes less than those in other countries

  4. Natural gamma-emitting radionuclides in egyptian cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Arabi, A.M.; Abbady, A.; El-Kamel, A.H.; Nosier, A.; Moustafa, A.

    2005-01-01

    Samples of cement manufactured in Egypt and the various raw materials, which compose the product, have been analyzed using gamma-spectroscopy, in order to determine the concentration of natural radionuclides and associated radiological hazard. The mean of specific activity due to all the three radionuclides (226 R a, 232 T h and 40 K ) were found to be 20 ± 4 , 11 ± 2, 320 ± 18 (gypsum), 41 ± 8, 27 ± 5, 410 ± 27 (clay), 58 ± 11, 18 3, 321 ± 20 (Iron ore) and 37.6 ± 6, 11.8 ± 3, 178.6 ± 15 Bq.kg-1 (Portland cement), respectively. 40 K concentration could not be detected in Slag; limestone; Sulphate resistant cement; Clinker and White cement, while the mean activity concentrations of 226 R a and 232 T h are 239 ± 16, 48.7 ± 7; 31.5 ± 5, 10 ± 2; 47 3 ± 7, 20 ± 4; 23 ± 5, 10.4 ± 3 and 23 ± 5, 11 ± 3 Bq.kg-1, respectively. The measured activity concentrations of these natural radionuclides were compared with data of some countries. The present values are in the same range and sometimes less than those in other countries

  5. ''Strong gammas''. List of strong gamma-rays emitted from radionuclides. Documentation of the PC diskette

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichimiya, T.; Narita, T.; Kitao, K.

    1994-01-01

    The PC diskette containing the ''List of strong gamma-rays emitted from radionuclides'' as published by T. Narita et al. in the report JAERI-M-94-059, March 1994, is described. The diskette is available from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section, costfree, upon request. (author)

  6. Activity concentrations and mean annual effective dose from gamma-emitting radionuclides in the Lebanese diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasreddine, L.; Hwalla, N.; El Samad, O.; Baydoun, R.; Hamze, M.; Parent-Massin, D.

    2008-01-01

    Since the primary factor contributing to the internal effective dose in the human organism is contaminated food, the control of radionuclides in food represents the most important means of protection. This study was conducted to determine the levels of the dietary exposure of the Lebanese population to gamma-emitting radioisotopes. The activity concentrations of gamma-emitting radioisotopes have been measured in food samples that represent the market basket of an adult urban population in Lebanon. The artificial radionuclide 137 Cs was measured above detection limits in only fish, meat and milk-based deserts. The most abundant natural radionuclide was 40 K (31-121 Bq kg -1 ), with the highest content in fish and meat samples. The annual mean effective dose contributed by 40 K in the reference typical diet was estimated equal to 186 μSv y -1 , a value reasonably consistent with findings reported by several other countries. (authors)

  7. The separation of radionuclide migration by solution and particle transport in LLRW repository buffer material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torok, J.; Buckley, L.P.; Woods, B.L.

    1989-01-01

    Laboratory-scale lysimeter experiments were performed with simulated waste forms placed in candidate buffer materials which have been chosen for a low-level radioactive waste repository. Radionuclide releases into the effluent water and radionuclide capture by the buffer material were determined. The results could not be explained by traditional solution transport mechanisms, and transport by particles released from the waste form and/or transport by buffer particles were suspected as the dominant mechanism for radionuclide release from the lysimeters. To elucidate the relative contribution of particle and solution transport, the waste forms were replaced by a wafer of neutron-activated buffer soaked with selected soluble isotopes. Particle transport was determined by the movement of gamma-emitting neutron-activation products through the lysimeter. Solution transport was quantified by comparing the migration of soluble radionuclides relative to the transport of neutron activation products. The new approach for monitoring radionuclide migration in soil is presented. It facilitates the determination of most of the fundamental coefficients required to model the transport process

  8. Estimate of S-values for children due to six positron emitting radionuclides used in PET examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belinato, Walmir; Santos, William S.; Perini, Ana P.; Neves, Lucio P.; Caldas, Linda V. E.; Souza, Divanizia N.

    2017-11-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) has revolutionized the diagnosis of cancer since its conception. When combined with computed tomography (CT), PET/CT performed in children produces highly accurate diagnoses from images of regions affected by malignant tumors. Considering the high risk to children when exposed to ionizing radiation, a dosimetric study for PET/CT procedures is necessary. Specific absorbed fractions (SAF) were determined for monoenergetic photons and positrons, as well as the S-values for six positron emitting radionuclides (11C, 13N, 18F, 68Ga, 82Rb, 15O), and 22 source organs. The study was performed for six pediatric anthropomorphic hybrid models, including the newborn and 1 year hermaphrodite, 5 and 10-year-old male and female, using the Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended code (MCNPX, version 2.7.0). The results of the SAF in source organs and S-values for all organs showed to be inversely related to the age of the phantoms, which includes the variation of body weight. The results also showed that radionuclides with higher energy peak emission produces larger auto absorbed S-values due to local dose deposition by positron decay. The S-values for the source organs are considerably larger due to the interaction of tissue with non-penetrating particles (electrons and positrons) and present a linear relationship with the phantom body masses. The results of the S-values determined for positron-emitting radionuclides can be used to assess the radiation dose delivered to pediatric patients subjected to PET examination in clinical settings. The novelty of this work is associated with the determination of auto absorbed S-values, in six new pediatric virtual anthropomorphic phantoms, for six emitting positrons, commonly employed in PET exams.

  9. Bioaccumulation of gamma emitting radionuclides in Polysiphonia fucoides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamara Zalewska

    2014-01-01

    The article presents the results of a study on the bioaccumulation abilities of Polysiphonia fucoides, a red algae specific to the southern Baltic Sea, towards (of) gamma emitting isotopes. A laboratory experiment was carried out to determine changes in the activities of some isotopes - 54 Mn, 57 Co, 65 Zn, 110m Ag, 113 Sn, 134 Cs, 137 Cs and 241 Am - occurring in P. fucoides exposed to a seawater medium containing these isotopes over the course of 1 month. All analyzed isotopes showed the greatest increase of radioactive activity in plant tissue in the first 24 h of exposure. The temporary concentration factors of cesium isotopes were increasing linearly during the experiment from 114 to 274 in the case of 137 Cs, and from 144 to 351 in the case of 134 Cs. The level of the initial concentration factor of cesium isotopes in the plant proved to be independent of the initial concentration of the isotope in seawater and it took the lowest (125 dm 3 kg -1 ) level among the studied isotopes. In the case of a mixture of gamma emitting isotopes, a linear relation between the individual isotope activity in P. fucoides and its initial concentration in seawater was established after the first day of exposure; the isotopes initial concentration factors ranged from 767 to 874 dm 3 kg -1 . Having reached the maximal concentration level, a statistically significant decline in radioactivity concentrations of the five isotopes in the plant tissue was observed. A half-life of biological removal of the isotopes from the plant tissue was established at: 3.8 days in the case of 54 Mn, 4 days- 57 Co, 4 days- 60 Co, 4.2 days- 137 Cs and 241 Am-3.5 days. (author)

  10. Physico-chemical properties of radionuclides emitted as particulate matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Kasper Grann

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents work done to improve the representation in European decision support tools of physico-chemical forms of radiocontaminants released to the atmosphere from a major nuclear power plant accident. The task is to accommodate those types of scenarios where fuel particles are at play....

  11. An improved in situ method for determining depth distributions of gamma-ray emitting radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benke, R.R.; Kearfott, K.J.

    2001-01-01

    In situ gamma-ray spectrometry determines the quantities of radionuclides in some medium with a portable detector. The main limitation of in situ gamma-ray spectrometry lies in determining the depth distribution of radionuclides. This limitation is addressed by developing an improved in situ method for determining the depth distributions of gamma-ray emitting radionuclides in large area sources. This paper implements a unique collimator design with conventional radiation detection equipment. Cylindrically symmetric collimators were fabricated to allow only those gamma-rays emitted from a selected range of polar angles (measured off the detector axis) to be detected. Positioned with its axis normal to surface of the media, each collimator enables the detection of gamma-rays emitted from a different range of polar angles and preferential depths. Previous in situ methods require a priori knowledge of the depth distribution shape. However, the absolute method presented in this paper determines the depth distribution as a histogram and does not rely on such assumptions. Other advantages over previous in situ methods are that this method only requires a single gamma-ray emission, provides more detailed depth information, and offers a superior ability for characterizing complex depth distributions. Collimated spectrometer measurements of buried area sources demonstrated the ability of the method to yield accurate depth information. Based on the results of actual measurements, this method increases the potential of in situ gamma-ray spectrometry as an independent characterization tool in situations with unknown radionuclide depth distributions

  12. The radiological significance of beta emitting hot particles released from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, W.; Crawford-Brown, D.J.; Martonen, T.B.

    1988-01-01

    In order to assess radiological hazards associated with inhalation of beta emitting hot particles detected in fall-out from the Chernobyl incident, radiation doses and lung cancer risk are calculated for a hot particle composed entirely of 103 Ru. Lung cancer risk estimates are based upon an initiation-promotion model of carcinogenesis. In the immediate vicinity of a hot particle, calculations indicate that doses may be extremely high, so that all cells are killed and no tumour will arise. At intermediate distances, however, the probability for lung cancer induction exhibits a distinct maximum. Risk enhancement factors, computed relative to a uniform radionuclide distribution of equal activity, are highest for intermediate activities and hot particles moving in the lung. While the risk from inhalation of 103 Ru hot particles might, indeed, exceed that from all other exposure pathways of the Chernobyl fall-out, it still lies within normal fluctuations of radon progeny induced lung cancer risk. (author)

  13. Dendrimer-coated magnetic particles for radionuclide separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grüttner, Cordula; Böhmer, Volker; Casnati, Alessandro; Dozol, Jean-Francois; Reinhoudt, David; Reinoso garcia, M.M.; Rudershausen, Sandra; Teller, Joachim; Ungaro, Rocco; Verboom, Willem; Wang, Pingshan

    2005-01-01

    Magnetic particles were synthesised for radionuclide removal from nuclear wastes by magnetic separation. Dendrimers with terminal amino groups attached to the particle surface were used to bind chelating groups for lanthanides and actinides. This led to a 50–400-fold increase of the distribution

  14. Determination of γ-rays emitting radionuclides in surface water: application of a quantitative biosensing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolterbeek, H. Th.; Van der Meer, A. J. G. M.

    1995-01-01

    A quantitative biosensing method has been developed for the determination of γ-rays emitting radionuclides in surface water. The method is based on the concept that at equilibrium the specific radioactivity in the biosensor is equal to the specific radioactivity in water. The method consists of the measurement of both the radionuclide and the related stable isotope (element) in the biosensor and the determination of the element in water. This three-way analysis eliminates problems such as unpredictable biosensor behaviour, effects of water elemental composition or further abiotic parameters on accumulation levels: what remains is the generally high enrichment (bioaccumulation factor BCF) of elements and radionuclides in the biosensor material. Using water plants, the method is shown to be three to five orders of magnitude more sensitive than the direct analysis of water. (author)

  15. Determination of {gamma}-rays emitting radionuclides in surface water: application of a quantitative biosensing method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolterbeek, H Th; Van der Meer, A. J. G. M. [Delft University of Technology, Interfaculty Reactor Institute, Mekelweg 15, 2629 JB Delft (Netherlands)

    1995-12-01

    A quantitative biosensing method has been developed for the determination of {gamma}-rays emitting radionuclides in surface water. The method is based on the concept that at equilibrium the specific radioactivity in the biosensor is equal to the specific radioactivity in water. The method consists of the measurement of both the radionuclide and the related stable isotope (element) in the biosensor and the determination of the element in water. This three-way analysis eliminates problems such as unpredictable biosensor behaviour, effects of water elemental composition or further abiotic parameters on accumulation levels: what remains is the generally high enrichment (bioaccumulation factor BCF) of elements and radionuclides in the biosensor material. Using water plants, the method is shown to be three to five orders of magnitude more sensitive than the direct analysis of water. (author)

  16. Surface charge accumulation of particles containing radionuclides in open air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Ha; Yiacoumi, Sotira; Tsouris, Costas

    2015-05-01

    Radioactivity can induce charge accumulation on radioactive particles. However, electrostatic interactions caused by radioactivity are typically neglected in transport modeling of radioactive plumes because it is assumed that ionizing radiation leads to charge neutralization. The assumption that electrostatic interactions caused by radioactivity are negligible is evaluated here by examining charge accumulation and neutralization on particles containing radionuclides in open air. A charge-balance model is employed to predict charge accumulation on radioactive particles. It is shown that particles containing short-lived radionuclides can be charged with multiple elementary charges through radioactive decay. The presence of radioactive particles can significantly modify the particle charge distribution in open air and yield an asymmetric bimodal charge distribution, suggesting that strong electrostatic particle interactions may occur during short- and long-range transport of radioactive particles. Possible effects of transported radioactive particles on electrical properties of the local atmosphere are reported. The study offers insight into transport characteristics of airborne radionuclides. Results are useful in atmospheric transport modeling of radioactive plumes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Preliminary proposals for extending the ENDF format to allow incident charged particles and energy-angle correlation for emitted particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacFarlane, R.E.; Stewart, L.; Hale, G.M.; Dunford, C.L.

    1984-04-01

    This rewrite of Data Formats and Procedures for the Evaluated Nuclear Data File, ENDF pertains to the latest version, ENDF/B-VI. Earlier versions provided representations for neutron cross sections and distributions, photon production from neutron reactions, a limited amount of charged-particle production from neutron reactions, photo-atomic interaction data, thermal neutron scattering data, and radionuclide production and decay data (including fission products). This version allows higher incident energies, adds more complete descriptions of the distributions of emitted particles, and provides for incident charged particles and photo-nuclear data by partitioning the ENDF library into sublibraries. Decay data, fission product yield data, thermal scattering data, and photo-atomic data have also been formally placed in sublibraries. In addition, this rewrite represents an extensive update to the Version V manual

  18. Calibration and operation of continuous air monitors for alpha-emitting radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoover, M.D.; Newton, G.J.

    1993-01-01

    Spectrometer-based continuous air monitors have improved our capabilities for detecting aerosols of alpha-emitting radionuclides. This paper describes basic requirements and statistical limitations in the sensitivity of alpha continuous air monitors, and presents a technical basis for selecting the energy window for detection of uranium and plutonium aerosols, correcting for interference from airborne dust, selecting filters with low pressure drop and good front surface collection characteristics, and properly using electroplated calibration sources. Sensitivity limits are described for detecting uranium or plutonium aerosols in the presence of increased concentrations of naturally occurring, alpha-emitting radon progeny radionuclides. Decreasing the lower energy boundary of the detection window from 4.3 MeV to 2.7 MeV improves by a factor of three the detection of plutonium in the presence of dust, while causing minimal additional interference from ambient radon progeny. Selection of the Millipore Fluoropore teflon membrane filter reduces both pressure drop and interference from ambient radon progeny by up to a factor of two. Field collection of ambient radon progeny can be used to verify the proper energy of alpha emissions from electroplated calibration sources. In the absence of energy verification, errors in instrument calibration may result from solid state diffusion of the electroplated calibration radionuclide into the substrate plate

  19. Investigation of some approximation used in promptly emitted particle models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leray, S.; La Rana, G.; Lucas, R.; Ngo, C.; Barranco, M.; Pi, M.; Vinas, X.

    1984-01-01

    We investigate three effects which can be taken into account in a model for promptly emitted particles: the Pauli blocking, the velocity of the window separating the two ions with respect to each of the fragments and the spatial extension of the window

  20. Dosimetric characterization of radionuclides for systemic tumor therapy: Influence of particle range, photon emission, and subcellular distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uusijaervi, Helena; Bernhardt, Peter; Ericsson, Thomas; Forssell-Aronsson, Eva

    2006-01-01

    Various radionuclides have been proposed for systemic tumor therapy. However, in most dosimetric analysis of proposed radionuclides the charged particles are taken into consideration while the potential photons are ignored. The photons will cause undesirable irradiation of normal tissue, and increase the probability of toxicity in, e.g., the bone marrow. The aim of this study was to investigate the dosimetric properties according to particle range, photon emission, and subcellular radionuclide distribution, of a selection of radionuclides used or proposed for radionuclide therapy, and to investigate the possibility of dividing radionuclides into groups according to their dosimetric properties. The absorbed dose rate to the tumors divided by the absorbed dose rate to the normal tissue (TND) was estimated for different tumor sizes in a mathematical model of the human body. The body was simulated as a 70-kg ellipsoid and the tumors as spheres of different sizes (1 ng-100 g). The radionuclides were either assumed to be uniformly distributed throughout the entire tumor and normal tissue, or located in the nucleus or the cytoplasm of the tumor cells and on the cell membrane of the normal cells. Fifty-nine radionuclides were studied together with monoenergetic electrons, positrons, and alpha particles. The tumor and normal tissue were assumed to be of water density. The activity concentration ratio between the tumor and normal tissue was assumed to be 25. The radionuclides emitting low-energy electrons combined with a low photon contribution, and the alpha emitters showed high TND values for most tumor sizes. Electrons with higher energy gave reduced TND values for small tumors, while a higher photon contribution reduced the TND values for large tumors. Radionuclides with high photon contributions showed low TND value for all tumor sizes studied. The radionuclides studied could be divided into four main groups according to their TND values: beta emitters, Auger electron

  1. Seasonal distribution and uptake of gamma emitting radionuclides at the test reactor area leaching ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millard, J.B.

    1986-01-01

    Radioactive leaching ponds adjacent to the Test Reactor Area (TRA) located on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) site were investigated to determine the seasonal distribution and ecological behavior of gamma emitting radionuclides in various pond compartments. The physical, chemical and biological properties of the TRA ponds were documented including basic morphometry, water chemistry and species identification. Penetrating radiation exposure rates at the ponds ranged from 35 to 65 mR/d at the water surface and up to 3400 mR/d one meter above bottom sediments. Seasonal concentrations and concentration ratios were determined for 16 principle radionuclides in filtered water, sediment, seston, zooplankton, net plankton, nannoplankton, periphyton, macrophytes, thistle, speedwell and willow. Seston and nannoplankton had the highest concentration ratios with substantial decreases observed for higher trophic level compartments. Significant (P < 0.01 to P < 0.001) seasonal effects wee found for concentration ratios. Radionuclides without nutrient analogs had the highest ratios in spring for periphyton, macrophytes and littoral plants. Concentration ratios were highest in summer, fall or winter for radionuclides with nutrient analogs

  2. Final report proficiency test on the determination of α, β and γ-emitting radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakhashiro, A.; Trinkl, A.; Benesch, T.; Sansone, U.

    2005-06-01

    A proficiency test on the determination of α, β and γ-emitting radionuclides was organised within the frame of the Technical Cooperation project: RAS/9/024 'Environmental Radiation Monitoring and Regional Data Base' to evaluate the analytical performance of 14 laboratories from 12 Asian countries. This report summarises the performance evaluation of the participating laboratories. Analytical data evaluation of this proficiency test showed that 58% of all reported results obtained a 'Passed' final score for both the trueness and precision criteria applied to this exercise. (author)

  3. Preliminary identification of contaminating α- and β-emitting radionuclides in nuclear facilities to be decommissioned through Digital Autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haudebourg, Raphael; Fichet, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    In previous publications, we presented how Digital Autoradiography (DA) could be of the most useful help in a preparation to decommissioning context: with this technique, a radiological mapping of the facility to dismantle can be obtained at a rate of around 2 weeks/100 m 2 . The technique is sensitive to all types of radioactivity (including α and 3 H- or 14 C-emitted β) and to both labile and fixed radioactivity. The method (radiosensitive screens exposure followed by a scanning step at the laboratory in a small-size device) neither involves nuclear material transportation, neither produces wastes, nor requires operators' presence during signal acquisition. The purpose is to accurately locate possible contamination spots, in order to relevantly perform targeted sampling and thus limit destructive analyses runs at the laboratory. In the latest developments, additional methods were implemented to analyze various nuclear samples (wastes, blocks, rubbles, pieces of furniture, drilled cores...) through this technique, to preliminary check for contamination, and to evaluate contamination location, homogeneity, and activity. These methods have proven themselves relevant and useful to build appropriate analyses and optimized decontamination protocols at the LASE (Laboratory of Analyses and Operators' Support). In this paper, we propose a new autoradiographic tool providing the identification of the contaminating radionuclide of a sample or an area, based on the stacking of several screens. The decrease of the signal screen after screen could be considered specific to one radionuclide. Modeling results obtained through Monte Carlo N-Particle transport code (MCNP) were in excellent agreement with experimental results obtained with sealed sources. Moreover, a method was developed to scan all the screens in the stack in only one run (instead of as many runs as screens) to shorten analysis duration. In the case of non-penetrating radiations (α particles, 3 H- or

  4. Application of Monte Carlo simulation to the standardization of positron emitting radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tongu, Margareth Lika Onishi

    2009-01-01

    Since 1967, the Nuclear Metrology Laboratory (LNM) at the Nuclear and Energy Research (IPEN) in Sao Paulo, Brazil, has developed radionuclide standardization methods and measurements of the Gamma-ray emission probabilities per decay by means of 4πβ-γ coincidence system, a high accuracy primary method for determining disintegration rate of radionuclides of interest. In 2001 the LNM started a research field on modeling, based on Monte Carlo method, of all the system components, including radiation detectors and radionuclide decay processes. This methodology allows the simulation of the detection process in a 4πβ-γ system, determining theoretically the observed activity as a function of the 4πβ detector efficiency, enabling the prediction of the behavior of the extrapolation curve and optimizing a detailed planning of the experiment before starting the measurements. One of the objectives of the present work is the improvement of the 4π proportional counter modeling, presenting a detailed description of the source holder and radioactive source material, as well as absorbers placed around the source. The simulation of radiation transport through the detectors has been carried out using code MCNPX. The main focus of the present work is on Monte Carlo modeling of the standardization of positron emitting radionuclides associated (or not) with electron capture and accompanied (or not) by the emission of Gamma radiation. One difficulty in this modeling is to simulate the detection of the annihilation Gamma ray, which arise in the process of positron absorption within the 4π detector. The methodology was applied to radionuclides 18 F and 22 Na. (author)

  5. Interactions of radionuclides with sediments and suspended particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, R.

    1997-01-01

    This chapter reviews fundamental principles of the rates and extents of radionuclide uptake by sedimentary and suspended particles, defines sediment-water partition coefficients, and shows how they can explain first order features of radionuclide partitioning in aquatic environments. It then explains how sediment accumulation and mixing rates can be calculated from profiles of radionuclide activity measured in sediment cores. Such rates can be combined with profiles of other chemicals to establish the extent of temporal changes in chemical composition of the overlying water body. Since sediment processing and counting in the laboratory take much longer than the time required to collect the sample, suggestions are made to ensure that the sediment samples are not ruined or comprised during collection and handling in the field, and so are worth all the subsequent time and effort to analyze. (author)

  6. Measurement of beta emitting radionuclides in dose calibrators routinely used in nuclear medicine departments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tastan, S.; Soylu, A.; Kucuk, O.; Ibis, E.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Radionuclides for diagnostics purposes like Tc-99m, Tl-201, Ga-67 and In-111 are measured by using ionization type of dose calibrators. Therapeutic radionuclides, which emit both beta and gamma rays are detected by the same type of dose calibrators. Other therapeutic products like Y-90, P-32 and Sr-89 are pure beta emitters and they are gaining wider utility because various new therapy radiopharmaceuticals are being developed. The type of container material, like glass or plastic, may seriously affect radioactivity measurement due to attenuation, Since it is crucial to give the exact amount of radioactivity to the patient for therapy purposes, dedicated dose calibrators are specially manufactured for the measurement of these radionuclides. But these measuring systems are not widely available in nuclear medicine centers where therapy is applied to the patient. It is a known fact that dose calibrators routinely used in nuclear medicine departments can be calibrated for vials and syringes using standard sources of the same radioisotope. The method of calibration of Y-90 measurement for two ionization chamber dose calibrators available in the institute will be summarized in this presentation

  7. Measurement of beta emitting radionuclides in dose calibrators routinely used in nuclear medicine departments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tastan, S.; Soylu, A.; Kucuk, O.; Ibis, E.

    2004-01-01

    Radionuclides for diagnostics purposes like Tc-99m, Tl-201, Ga-67 and In-111 are measured by using ionization type of dose calibrators. Therapeutic radionuclides, which emit both beta and gamma rays are detected by the same type of dose calibrators. Other therapeutic products like Y-90, P-32 and Sr-89 are pure beta emitters and they are gaining wider utility because various new therapy radiopharmaceuticals are being developed. The type of container material, like glass or plastic, may seriously affect radioactivity measurement due to attenuation, Since it is crucial to give the exact amount of radioactivity to the patient for therapy purposes, dedicated dose calibrators are specially manufactured for the measurement of these radionuclides. But these measuring systems are not widely available in nuclear medicine centers where therapy is applied to the patient. It is a known fact that dose calibrators routinely used in nuclear medicine departments can be calibrated for vials and syringes using standard sources of the same radioisotope. The method of calibration of Y-90 measurement for two ionization chamber dose calibrators available in the institute will be summarized in this presentation. (author)

  8. Tracking the complete revolution of surface westerlies over Northern Hemisphere using radionuclides emitted from Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernández-Ceballos, M.A.; Hong, G.H.; Lozano, R.L.; Kim, Y.I.; Lee, H.M.; Kim, S.H.; Yeh, S.-W.; Bolívar, J.P.; Baskaran, M.

    2012-01-01

    Massive amounts of anthropogenic radionuclides were released from the nuclear reactors located in Fukushima (northeastern Japan) between 12 and 16 March 2011 following the earthquake and tsunami. Ground level air radioactivity was monitored around the globe immediately after the Fukushima accident. This global effort provided a unique opportunity to trace the surface air mass movement at different sites in the Northern Hemisphere. Based on surface air radioactivity measurements around the globe and the air mass backward trajectory analysis of the Fukushima radioactive plume at various places in the Northern Hemisphere by employing the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory model, we show for the first time, that the uninterrupted complete revolution of the mid-latitude Surface Westerlies took place in less than 21 days, with an average zonal velocity of > 60 km/h. The position and circulation time scale of Surface Westerlies are of wide interest to a large number of global researchers including meteorologists, atmospheric researchers and global climate modellers. -- Highlights: ► Evidence of the South Korea contamination with released radiocesium from Fukushima. ► Field samples and air mass analysis were utilized to elucidate the transport of those radionuclides. ► Characterization of the air mass movements at different sites at the Earth's surface. ► Verification of the uninterrupted complete revolution of the artificial radionuclides released in Fukushima. ► Quantification of the velocity of the artificial radionuclides released in Fukushima.

  9. Tracking the complete revolution of surface westerlies over Northern Hemisphere using radionuclides emitted from Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Ceballos, M.A. [Department of Applied Physics, University of Huelva, Huelva (Spain); Hong, G.H. [Korea Ocean Research and Development Institute, Ansan 426-744 (Korea, Republic of); Lozano, R.L. [Department of Applied Physics, University of Huelva, Huelva (Spain); Kim, Y.I. [Korea Ocean Research and Development Institute, Uljin 767-813 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, H.M.; Kim, S.H. [Korea Ocean Research and Development Institute, Ansan 426-744 (Korea, Republic of); Yeh, S.-W. [Department of Environmental Marine Science, Hanyang University, Ansan, 426-791 (Korea, Republic of); Bolivar, J.P., E-mail: bolivar@uhu.es [Department of Applied Physics, University of Huelva, Huelva (Spain); Baskaran, M. [Department of Geology, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Massive amounts of anthropogenic radionuclides were released from the nuclear reactors located in Fukushima (northeastern Japan) between 12 and 16 March 2011 following the earthquake and tsunami. Ground level air radioactivity was monitored around the globe immediately after the Fukushima accident. This global effort provided a unique opportunity to trace the surface air mass movement at different sites in the Northern Hemisphere. Based on surface air radioactivity measurements around the globe and the air mass backward trajectory analysis of the Fukushima radioactive plume at various places in the Northern Hemisphere by employing the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory model, we show for the first time, that the uninterrupted complete revolution of the mid-latitude Surface Westerlies took place in less than 21 days, with an average zonal velocity of > 60 km/h. The position and circulation time scale of Surface Westerlies are of wide interest to a large number of global researchers including meteorologists, atmospheric researchers and global climate modellers. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Evidence of the South Korea contamination with released radiocesium from Fukushima. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Field samples and air mass analysis were utilized to elucidate the transport of those radionuclides. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Characterization of the air mass movements at different sites at the Earth's surface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Verification of the uninterrupted complete revolution of the artificial radionuclides released in Fukushima. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quantification of the velocity of the artificial radionuclides released in Fukushima.

  10. Influence of variations in dose and dose rates on biological effects of inhaled beta-emitting radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClellan, R.O.; Benjamin, S.A.; Boecker, B.B.; Hahn, F.F.; Hobbs, C.H.; Jones, R.K.; Lundgren, D.L.

    1976-01-01

    The biological effects of inhaled β-emitting radionuclides, 90 Y, 91 Y, 144 Ce and 90 Sr, are being investigated in beagle dogs that received single acute exposures at 12 to 14 months of age. The aerosols studied have included 91 YC1 3 , 144 CeC1 3 , 90 SrC1 2 , and 90 Y, 91 Y, 144 Ce or 90 Sr in aluminosilicate particles. Thus, 91 YCl 3 , 144 CeCl 3 and the aluminosilicate containing radionuclide particles all resulted in significant exposures to lung; 91 YC1 3 , 144 CeC1 3 an 90 SrC1 2 resulted in significant exposures to bone; 91 YC1 3 and 144 CeC1 3 resulted in significant exposures to liver. The higher initial doserate exposures have been more effective than low dose-rate exposures on a per-rad basis in producing early effects. To date ( 144 CeO 2 , it was observed that, on a μCi initial lung burden per kilogram body weight basis, mice did not develop pulmonary tumours whereas beagle dogs did. To fid out the reason for this observation mice have been repeatedly exposed by inhalation to 144 CeO 2 to maintain lung burdens of 144 Ce that resulted in radiation dose rates similar to that observed in beagle dogs. Several of the repeatedly exposed mice developed malignant pulmonary tumours. Thus, with similar dose rates and cumulative doses to the lung, mice and dogs responded in a similar manner to chronic β radiation

  11. Particle size and radionuclide levels in some west Cumbrian soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livens, F.R.

    1988-01-01

    Four west Cumbrian soils of contrasting types, together with an estuarine silt sample, were separated into different particle size fractions by a combination of sieving and settling techniques. These sub-samples were analysed by quantitative gamma-ray spectrometry for several nuclides, principally 137 Cs, 106 Ru and 241 Am, followed by chemical separation and alpha spectrometric determination of 238,239,240 Pu. A simple empirical method of correction for differing sample sizes, and hence counting geometries, was developed for gamma spectrometry and found to give good results. The radionuclides were concentrated into the finer size fractions, with clay-sized ( 137 Cs from 3 to 35 times. The enhancement was greatest for all radionuclides in a sandy soil with a very low clay content (0.2% by weight) and it was found that, as the abundance of fine particles increased, so the concentration effect decreased. No evidence was found for a simple relationship between organic content and radionuclide activity, although the organic matter does have some effect. 17 refs.; 3 figs.; 6 tabs

  12. NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS (NESHAP) SUBPART H RADIONUCLIDES POTENTIAL TO EMIT CALCULATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EARLEY JN

    2008-07-23

    This document provides an update of the status of stacks on the Hanford Site and the potential radionuclide emissions, i.e., emissions that could occur with no control devices in place. This review shows the calculations that determined whether the total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) received by the maximum public receptor as a result of potential emissions from any one of these stacks would exceed 0.1 millirem/year. Such stacks require continuous monitoring of the effluent, or other monitoring, to meet the requirements of Washington Administrative code (WAC) 246-247-035(1)(a)(ii) and WAC 246-247-075(1), -(2), and -(6). This revised update reviews the potential-to-emit (PTE) calculations of 31 stacks for Fluor Hanford, Inc. Of those 31 stacks, 11 have the potential to cause a TEDE greater than 0.1 mrem/year.

  13. NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS (NESHAP) SUBPART H; RADIONUCLIDES POTENTIAL-TO-EMIT CALCULATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EARLEY JN

    2008-01-01

    This document provides an update of the status of stacks on the Hanford Site and the potential radionuclide emissions, i.e., emissions that could occur with no control devices in place. This review shows the calculations that determined whether the total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) received by the maximum public receptor as a result of potential emissions from any one of these stacks would exceed 0.1 millirem/year. Such stacks require continuous monitoring of the effluent, or other monitoring, to meet the requirements of Washington Administrative code (WAC) 246-247-035(1)(a)(ii) and WAC 246-247-075(1), -(2), and -(6). This revised update reviews the potential-to-emit (PTE) calculations of 31 stacks for Fluor Hanford, Inc. Of those 31 stacks, 11 have the potential to cause a TEDE greater than 0.1 mrem/year

  14. Method for measuring the disintegration rate of a beta-emitting radionuclide in a liquid sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    A method of measuring the distintegration rate of a beta-emitting radionuclide in a liquid sample by counting at least two differently quenched versions of the sample. In each counting operation the sample is counted in the presence of and in the absence of a standard radioactive source. A pulse height (PH) corresponding to a unique point on the pulse height spectrum generated in the presence of the standard is determined. A zero threshold sample count rate (CPM) is derived by counting the sample once in a counting window having a zero threshold lower limit. Normalized values of the measured pulse heights (PH) are developed and correlated with the corresponding counts (CPM) to determine the pulse count for a normalized pulse height value of zero and hence the sample disintegration rate

  15. External tandem target system for efficient production of short-lived positron emitting radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, K.; Dwyer, J.; Finn, R.; Sheh, Y.; Sinnreich, J.; Wooten, T.

    1983-01-01

    Recent developments in radiopharmaceutical chemistry allow the incorporation of short-lived, positron-emitting radionuclides into a variety of compounds which when used with a positron emission tomograph provide a means of monitoring physiological disorders by a standard technique. To effectively meet the increased ''in-house'' clinical demands while maintaining a production schedule, a tandem target was designed and has been installed for the simultaneous ''on-line'' preparation of oxygen-15 labelled compounds such as CO 2 15 , H 2 O 15 ; and nitrogen-13 labelled compounds such as 13 NH 3 , 13 N 2 O, and 13 N 2 . The processing time required for the synthesis of the nitrogen-13 products as compared to the essentially instantaneous formation of oxygen-15 labelled compounds has provided the necessary time delay for clinical utilization. The characterisitcs of this external tandem target system as well as the automation for the dual processing are presented

  16. Method of measuring the disinteration rate of beta-emitting radionuclide in a liquid sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horrocks, D.L.

    1977-01-01

    A method of measuring the disintegration rate of a beta-emitting radionuclide in a liquid sample by counting at least two differently quenched versions of the sample is described. In each counting operation the sample is counted in the presence of and in the absence of a standard radioactive source. A pulse height (PH) corresponding to a unique point on the pulse height spectrum generated in the presence of the standard is determined. A zero threshold sample count rate (CPM) is derived by counting the sample once in a counting window having a zero threshold lower limit. Normalized values of the measured pulse heights (PH) are developed and correlated with the corresponding pulse counts (CPM) to determine the pulse count for a normalized pulse height value of zero and hence the sample disintegration rate

  17. Health effect of exposure to internally deposited alpha-emitting radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwata, Shiro

    1989-01-01

    The health effect of exposure on human population to internally deposited alpha-emitting radionuclides and their decay products has been considered as most hazardous radiation effect. However, the harmful late effects by the intake of radioactive nuclides are not definite in the epidemiological and clinical viewpoint. Only two cases, radium and thorium, have since long been noted for their deletrious effects to man. As the former, it has been first reported that dial workers in USA using 226 Ra can suffer from 'radiumjaw' which is a cancer of the bone of jaws. Another radium isotope, 224 Ra, was used for a medical reason as therapy against turberculosis of bone to German children during the years 1946∼1950, and has given rise to bone cancer. As the latter, Thorotrast (the commercial name of a colloidal thorium dioxide preparation), introduced for angiography in 1929 and utilized until about 1950, was found to cause malignant hepatic tumors, liver cirrhosis and blood diseases such as some kinds of leukemia and anemia. In Japan, the former cases have seldom found though, the latter cases are assumed over 1000. Especially, Thorotrast administered war-wounded ex-servicemen in World War II have been beyond 300 persons. The epidemiological and clinico-pathological studies have been demonstrated by the research Group on Biological Effect of Thorium in Special Project Research on Energy, Japan, as a fundamental study of the safe treatment of nuclear fuel materials. The resultant data of the study and risk evaluation of liver cancer for Japanese Thorotrast administered patients are reviewed related to that of another alpha-emitting radionuclides. (author)

  18. Number and mass analysis of particles emitted by aircraft engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasiński Remigiusz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Exhaust emissions from aircraft is a complex issue because of the limited possibility of measurements in flight conditions. Most of the studies on this subject were performed on the basis of stationary test. Engine certification data is used to calculate total emissions generated by air transport. However, it doesnt provide any information about the local effects of air traffic. The main threat to local communities is particulate matter emissions, which adversely affects human health. Emissions from air transport affect air quality, particularly in the vicinity of the airports; it also contributes to the greenhouse effect. The article presents the measurement results of the concentration and size distribution of particles emitted during aircraft landing operation. Measurements were carried out during the landings of aircraft at a civilian airport. It was found that a single landing operation causes particle number concentration value increase of several ten-fold in a short period of time. Using aircraft engine certification data, the methodology for determination of the total number of particles emitted during a single landing operation was introduced.

  19. The effect of dose protraction on the incidence of lung carcinomas in beagle dogs with internally deposited β-emitting radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, W.C.; Boecker, B.B.; Hahn, F.F.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Snipes, M.B.

    1992-01-01

    Studies using Beagle dogs were conducted to understand health effects when lung is the primary organ irradiated after inhaling insoluble radioactive particles containing one of four β-emitting radionuclides, 90 Y, 91 Y, 144 Ce, or 90 Sr. The low-LET β irradiation was delivered over a wide range of total doses and dose rate patterns that protracted the dose to lung from about 1 wk to several years. The tumor incidence rates for lung carcinomas were estimated using a proportional hazard rate model. These studies suggest that dose protraction only affects production of lung carcinomas at doses above 50 Gy

  20. Monte Carlo simulation of different positron emitting radionuclides incorporated in a soft tissue volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olaya D, H.; Martinez O, S. A.; Sevilla M, A. C.; Vega C, H. R.

    2015-10-01

    Monte Carlo calculations were carried out where compounds with positron-emitters radionuclides, like FDG ( 18 F), Acetate ( 11 C), and Ammonium ( 13 N), were incorporated into a soft tissue volume, in the aim to estimate the type of particles produced their energies, their mean free paths, and the absorbed dose at different distances with respect to the center of the volume. The volume was modeled with a radius larger than the maximum range of positrons in order to produce 0.511 keV annihilation gamma-ray photons. With the obtained results the equivalent dose, in various organs and tissues able to metabolize different radiopharmaceutical drugs, can be estimated. (Author)

  1. Continuous air monitor for alpha-emitting aerosol particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarland, A.R.; Ortiz, C.A.; Rodgers, J.C.; Nelson, D.C.

    1991-01-01

    A new alpha continuous air monitor (CAM) sampler is being developed for use in detecting the presence of alpha-emitting aerosol particles. The effort involves design, fabrication and evaluation of systems for the collection of aerosol and for the processing of data to speciate and quantify the alpha emitters of the interest. At the present time the authors have a prototype of the aerosol sampling system and they have performed wind tunnel tests to characterize the performance of the device for different particle sizes, wind speeds, flow rates and internal design parameters. The results presented herein deal with the aerosol sampling aspects of the new CAM sampler. Wind tunnel tests show that ≥ 50% of 10 μm aerodynamic equivalent diameter (AED) particles penetrate the flow system from the ambient air to the collection filter when the flow rate is 57 L/min (2 cfm) and the wind speed is 1 m/s. The coefficient of variation of deposits of 10 μm AED aerosol particles on the collection filter is 7%. An inlet fractionator for removing high mobility background aerosol particles has been designed and successfully tested. The results show that it is possible to strip 95% of freshly formed radon daughters and 33% of partially aged radon daughters from the aerosol sample. This approach offers the opportunity to improve the signal-to-noise ratio in the alpha energy spectrum region of interest thereby enhancing the performance of background compensation algorithms

  2. Radionuclide composition in the surface layer of particles in the troposphere and stratosphere falls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokof'ev, O.N.

    1977-01-01

    Radionuclide content in troposphere and stratosphere fall-outs as well as radionuclide washing-off from fall-out particle; are important to determine internal irradiation doses received by separate critical organs of human body. In surface-contaminated products (floury products of grain contaminated while in ears, vegetables, fruits, berries, noncovered or insufficiently covered products during fall-outs) radionuclides initially (in an initial state) are connected with fall-out particles. Radionuclides in biologically contaminated products (milk, meat etc.) are not connected with the particles and have the assimilable form. However, the degree of radionuclide transition from forage (grasses, hay etc.) surface-contaminated as a results of fall-outs into animal produce (milk, meat etc.) also depends on radionuclide washing-off from fall-out particles, which in the latter results from the formation nature and a kind of particles of the main substance. Radionuclide washing-off degree (and, consequently, biological availability) by glazed silicate particles is caused by radionuclide distribution between particle volume and surface in an appropriate sample. According to Israel Yu.A. method calculated were the shares of surface-bound atoms for all the particle totality in an explosion cloud for mass chains, which composition includes biologically important radionuclides. Particle solidification time is taken to equal 7 and 40s. Independent yields of chain radionuclides and its total yield are taken for 228 U fission under 14 MeV neutron effect. The calculation results are presented in the tables

  3. Investigation of radionuclide distribution in soil particles in different landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkinev, V. M.; Korobova, E. M.; Linnik, V. G.

    2012-04-01

    Russian and foreign publications have been analyzed for understanding the role of micro- and nano- particles in distribution and migration of technogenic elements in soils in different landscape conditions. A technique for application of various fractionation methods to separate and study -particles of different size down to micro- and nano-level has been developed. The dry sit method on the first stage of particle separation is recommend to be followed by the membrane filtration method. For obtaining more comprehensive information, combinations of fractionation technique should be chosen taking into account that (1) the efficiency of particles' separation using subsequent technique would be higher than using the preceding one; (2) separation methods should preferably be based on different principles (separation according size, density, charge etc.); (3) initial fractionation should separate particles according to their size, that makes possible to create an even scale for various samples. A study of distribution and balance of technogenic radionuclides' in soil particles of the size intervals 1.0—0.25, 0.25-0.1, 0.1-0.05, 0.05-0.01, 0.01-0.005, 0.005-0.001 and soil layers. Contribution of the silt particles (0,05-0,01 mm) to Cs-137 contamination ranged from 26 to 33,8%, 45% maximum due to "optimal" combination of both factors. Clay fraction was responsible for approximately 30% of Cs-137 contained in soil horizons due to higher sorption capacity. Relatively high correlation between the activity of 152,154Eu and 60 and the content of silt and clay allowed suggesting their incorporation mainly in clay fraction. Selected experimental plots near the Kola NPP (northern taiga) were used to compare soil particles (fractions 140-71; 71-40 and radioactivity found in soil litter appeared to be related to the Chernobyl contamination. Concentration of s-137 was higher in small size fractions. Obtained results were considered to be useful for understanding of radionuclide

  4. Gamma-emitting radionuclides in the bottom sediments of some Finnish lakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilus, E.; Puhakainen, M.; Saxen, R.

    1993-10-01

    In 1988 and 1990 bottom sediment and surface water samples were taken from eight large lakes representing all five categories of deposition regions contaminated by the chernobyl fallout in Finland. All samples were analysed for gamma-emitting radionuclides. The 137 Cs concentrations in surface waters varied in 1988 from 20 to 310 Bq/m 3 and in 1990 from 78 to 170 Bq/m 3 . The other radionuclides of Chernobyl origin detected in water samples were 106 Ru, 125 Sb and 134 Cs. In the sediments the total amount of 137 Cs per square metre varied in 1988 from 1100 to 160 000 Bq/m 2 and in 1990 from 14 000 to 250 000 Bq/m 2 . The maximum values were in Lake Pyhaejaervi. The maximum concentration of 137 Cs in the surface layer of sediment (0-2cm) was 55 700 Bq/kg dry wt in Lake Naesijaervi. In addition to the cesium isotopes 137 Cs and 134 Cs , Chernobyl derived 106 Ru, 125 Sb amd 144 Ce were detected i the surface layer of sediment in most lakes. 54 Mn, 60 Co and 110m Ag were also detected in some lakes situated in the regions most contaminated by the Chernobyl fallout. In 1988 the maximum concentrations of 137 Cs and 134 Cs were in the uppermost layer of sediment (0-2cm) at almost all stations. In 1990, the cesium peaks already occurred at many stations in the second slice (2-5cm), which may indicate downward diffusion of cesium in sediments or mixing of sediment layers during sampling. The most important factors affecting cesium values in sediments were the local amount of deposition and the type of sediment. This study did not reveal any correletion between the maximum depth of the lake and the area of the lake with the cesium amounts in the sediments. (orig.). (23 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.)

  5. Properties of the particles emitted at mid-rapidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefort, T.; Cussol, D; Peter, J.; Bocage, F.; Bougault, R.; Brou, R.; Colin, J; Durand, D.; Genouin-Duhamel, E.; Gulminelli, F.; Lecolley, J.F.; Le Neindre, N.; Lopez, O.; Louvel, M.; Nguyen, A.D.; Steckmeyer, J. C.; Tamain, B.; Vient, E.

    1997-01-01

    Mid-rapidity emission studies allow the access at the very first instances of collision between two nuclei. Its study as a function of the energy of incident projectile permits to follow the evolution of the phenomena in the entrance channel from the lowest energies where these phenomena are essentially collective up to high energies where they are essentially governed by nucleon-nucleon collisions. The first method called the 'method E' consists in evaluating first the contribution of the quasi-projectile to the rapidity distribution and then to subtract it from the total spectrum to obtain the contribution from the mid-rapidity particles. For light particles the mid-rapidity emissions have a spectrum extended up to rapidities close to that of the quasi-projectile. This method under-estimates the contribution due to mid-rapidity. The second method called the 'method M' consists in determining directly the contribution from the mid-rapidity particles supposing that their rapidity spectrum is homothetic to the triton spectrum. This method over-estimates the contribution of mid-rapidity particles to the measure where the rapidity spectrum of the evaporated particles may extend up to Y nn , the rapidity of the nucleon-nucleon frame. The relative proportion of the particles coming from mid-rapidity emissions as a function of the experimental impact parameter and incident energy for the system Ar+Ni is shown. Also, results concerning the energy spectrum of light particles emitted at mid-rapidity as a function of the excitation energy of quasi-projectile are shown for the same system. Conclusions concerning the mid-rapidity emission are the following: the amount of particles depends essentially on the geometric overlap between the projectile and the target; these particles are issued out of a zone richer in neutrons than the total system; the energy per nucleon stored in this zone is independent of the violence of collision what indicates a production process essentially

  6. Uptake and dosimetry of Auger emitting diagnostic radionuclides (in particular indium-111) in human male germ cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nettleton, J.S.; Lawson, R.S.; Prescott, M.C.; Hoyes, K.P.; Morris, I.D.

    2000-01-01

    This paper concerns the uptake and dosimetry of Auger electron emitting radionuclides which are used during routine diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures, in human testes and spermatozoa (sperm). A computer model was developed to calculate the doses to sperm heads from cellular localisation of the Auger electron emitting radionuclides 99m Tc, 111 In, 123 I and 201 Tl. An assumption of ellipsoidal geometry was made to approximate the sperm head. S Factors were determined for differing sub-cellular localisations of radionuclide. The S-Factors determined were then combined with in-vitro data for quantification of radionuclide uptake for 99m Tc pertechnetate, 111 In chloride and 201 Tl chloride, to estimate in-vivo doses to sperm heads following intravenous administration of radionuclide in typical diagnostic quantities. The uptake and resulting cellular radiation dose of 111 In (from the chloride) was significantly larger than the other radionuclides in the chemical forms investigated. Further investigations were carried out to determine localisation of 111 In on sperm. The results of these experiments indicate that the radiation dose to mature sperm following administration of 111 In pharmaceuticals for diagnostic purposes might be large enough to result in DNA damage which is not expressed until after fertilisation of an oocyte. Consideration should therefore be given to providing some contraceptive advice following diagnostic administrations of this radionuclide. In order to consider the possible effects of these radionuclides on other spermatogenic cells, further studies were undertaken to obtain in-vivo data for quantification of 111 In chloride and 201 Tl chloride uptake into the human testis following intravenous administration. Conventional dosimetry was then used to estimate testicular radiation dose using our values of percentage uptake. The results obtained indicate that the values of testicular radiation doses quoted by ICRP for 111 In might be too low by

  7. Monte Carlo simulation of different positron emitting radionuclides incorporated in a soft tissue volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olaya D, H.; Martinez O, S. A. [Universidad Pedagogica y Tecnologica de Colombia, Grupo de Fisica Nuclear Aplicada y Simulacion, Av. Central del Norte 39-115, 150003 Tunja, Boyaca (Colombia); Sevilla M, A. C. [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Departamento de Fisica, Grupo CRYOMAG, 111321 Bogota D. C. (Colombia); Vega C, H. R., E-mail: grupo.finuas@uptc.edu.co [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98060 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    Monte Carlo calculations were carried out where compounds with positron-emitters radionuclides, like FDG ({sup 18}F), Acetate ({sup 11}C), and Ammonium ({sup 13}N), were incorporated into a soft tissue volume, in the aim to estimate the type of particles produced their energies, their mean free paths, and the absorbed dose at different distances with respect to the center of the volume. The volume was modeled with a radius larger than the maximum range of positrons in order to produce 0.511 keV annihilation gamma-ray photons. With the obtained results the equivalent dose, in various organs and tissues able to metabolize different radiopharmaceutical drugs, can be estimated. (Author)

  8. The relative effectiveness of inhaled alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides in producing lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boecker, B.B.; Hahn, F.F.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Guilmetter, R.A.; Griffith, W.C.; McClellan, R.O.

    1988-01-01

    Proper assessment of a long-term human health risks associated with inhaled radionuclides requires knowledge of dose to critical cells and tissues and relationships between dose and effect for different biological end points. Results from epidemiological studies of exposed human populations provided important information for such assessments. However, because the types of exposures are limited, these results need to be supplemented with more detailed information on dosimetry and biological effects available through studies in laboratory animals and in vitro systems. To provide health risk information for inhaled fission product and actinide aerosols, life-span studies are being conducted using beagle dogs and other species at the Lovelace Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute (ITRI). Results of two life-span studies in dogs involving inhalation of the beta emitter 91 Y in fused aluminosilicate particles or the alpha emitter 239 PuO 2 are reported here

  9. Induction of cancers in the rat after inhalation of alpha-emitting radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morin, M.; Nenot, J.C.; Masse, R.; Nolibe, D.; Metivier, H.; Lafuma, J.

    1976-01-01

    Experiments have been conducted for several years on the toxic action of inhaled alpha-emitters on laboratory rats. The inhaled radionuclides were 239 Pu, 238 Pu and 241 Am in oxide and nitrate form. The initial alveolar activities varied to give total activities ranging from 1 to 200 thousand million alpha-particles per gram of lung. Variations, depending on the physico-chemical form of the nuclides, in the space and time distributions of the dose are observed. The influence of the two parameters on life span reduction, latency time and frequency of cancer occurrence, initial location of tumours and their histological types were studied. A theoretical model relating the cancerogenous effect to the dose is compared with experimental data. (author)

  10. Influence of radiation-dose pattern from inhaled beta--gamma-emitting radionuclides on canine peripheral lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.K.; Boecker, B.B.; Pickrell, J.A.; Hobbs, C.H.; McClellan, R.O.

    1976-01-01

    As part of studies assess the biological hazards associated with inhaled radionuclides, periodic hematologic evaluations were performed on beagle dogs given a single nose-only exposure to aerosols of beta--gamma-emitting isotopes. The physical form and specific radionuclides selected produced radiation-dose patterns representative of those which might be encountered in the event of human accidental exposures. Dogs received graded lung burdens of either 90 Y, 91 Y, 144 Ce, or 90 Sr, each in fused clay. Differences in the effective half-lives of these radionuclides resulted in a spectrum of cumulative radiation doses to lung delivered at a variety of dose rates. Since the form in which the radionuclides were inhaled was relatively insoluble, the lung and intrathoracic tissues represented the primary recipient of the dose. Regardless of the effective half-life of radionuclide retention, a dose-related depression of peripheral lymphocytes was observed at various times after inhalation exposure. The time at which maximum depression and subsequent recovery occurred, however, was most directly related to the effective half-life of the radionuclide. Of special interest was the persistence of lymphopenia through 2 1 / 2 years after exposure to 144 Ce and 90 Sr in fused clay where, other than tracheobronchial lymph nodes, the lymphoid tissue received very little radiation dose. The possible mechanisms responsible for lymphocyte depression from these various radiation-dose patterns are discussed

  11. An determination of man-made γ-emitting radionuclides in coal fly ash and standard solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Cuihua; Zhou Qiang

    2004-01-01

    We participated an international comparison on the determination of man-made γ-emitting radionuclides in coal fly ash and in standard solution organized by the Analytical Quality Control Service of the IAEA in 2002. The sample was dispensed in 100.0 ± 0.1 g aliquots in plastic container and was spiked with known amounts of certified standard γ-emitting radionuclides 54 Mn, 57 Co, 60 Co, 65 Zn, 88 Y, 134 Cs, 137 Cs and 241 Am. The determination of the anthropogenic )γ-emitting radionuclides in the test samples was carried out with an ORTEC gamma-ray spectrometry system coupled with a HPGe detector with resolution of 1.75 keV and relative efficiency of 55% for 137 Cs, located in a 10 cm thick lead container. The energy and efficiency calibration were with home-made volume calibration sources containing some of the radionuclides to be analyzed. The analysis procedure is described elsewhere. Table 1 lists the results of the determination and the comparisons with IAEA reference data and evaluation. Overall our results are agreeable in ±8.6% with the IAEA reference data, except for 60 Co. The differences for 60 Co was -10.8%. It may be caused by the 60 Co calibration source made with residual of quiet old standard solution. The difference for 241 Am is due to self-absorption in the fly ash sample. This bias was small for the solution sample. For standard solution sample, the results are agreeable within ±3.7% for all radionuclides except for 60 Co, being 12%. (authors)

  12. Accelerator based production of auger-electron-emitting isotopes for radionuclide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thisgaard, H.

    2008-08-01

    In this research project the focus has been on the identification and production of new, unconventional Auger-electron-emitting isotopes for targeted radionuclide therapy of cancer. Based on 1st principles dosimetry calculations on the subcellular level, the Auger-emitter 119Sb has been identified as a potent candidate for therapy. The corresponding imaging analogue 117Sb has been shown from planar scintigraphy and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) to be suitable for SPECT-based dosimetry of a future Sb-labeled radiopharmaceutical. The production method of these radioisotopes has been developed using a low-energy cyclotron via the nuclear reactions 119Sn(p,n)119Sb and 117Sn(p,n)117Sb including measurements of the excitation function for the former reaction. Moreover, a new high-yield radiochemical separation method has been developed to allow the subsequent separation of the produced 119Sb from the enriched 119Sn target material with high radionuclidic- and chemical purity. A method that also allows efficient recovery of the 119Sn for recycling. To demonstrate the ability of producing therapeutic quantities of 119Sb and other radioisotopes for therapy with a low-energy cyclotron, two new 'High Power' cyclotron targets were developed in this study. The target development was primarily based on theoretical thermal modeling calculations using finite-element-analysis software. With these targets, I have shown that it will be possible to produce several tens of GBq of therapeutics isotopes (e.g. 119Sb or 64Cu) using the PETtrace cyclotron commonly found at the larger PET-centers in the hospitals. Finally, research in a new method to measure the radiotoxicity of Auger-emitters invitro using cellular microinjection has been carried out. The purpose of this method is to be able to experimentally evaluate and compare the potency of the new and unconventional Auger-emitters (e.g. 119Sb). However, due to experimental complications, the development of this

  13. Accelerator based production of auger-electron-emitting isotopes for radionuclide therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thisgaard, H.

    2008-08-15

    In this research project the focus has been on the identification and production of new, unconventional Auger-electron-emitting isotopes for targeted radionuclide therapy of cancer. Based on 1st principles dosimetry calculations on the subcellular level, the Auger-emitter 119Sb has been identified as a potent candidate for therapy. The corresponding imaging analogue 117Sb has been shown from planar scintigraphy and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) to be suitable for SPECT-based dosimetry of a future Sb-labeled radiopharmaceutical. The production method of these radioisotopes has been developed using a low-energy cyclotron via the nuclear reactions 119Sn(p,n)119Sb and 117Sn(p,n)117Sb including measurements of the excitation function for the former reaction. Moreover, a new high-yield radiochemical separation method has been developed to allow the subsequent separation of the produced 119Sb from the enriched 119Sn target material with high radionuclidic- and chemical purity. A method that also allows efficient recovery of the 119Sn for recycling. To demonstrate the ability of producing therapeutic quantities of 119Sb and other radioisotopes for therapy with a low-energy cyclotron, two new 'High Power' cyclotron targets were developed in this study. The target development was primarily based on theoretical thermal modeling calculations using finite-element-analysis software. With these targets, I have shown that it will be possible to produce several tens of GBq of therapeutics isotopes (e.g. 119Sb or 64Cu) using the PETtrace cyclotron commonly found at the larger PET-centers in the hospitals. Finally, research in a new method to measure the radiotoxicity of Auger-emitters invitro using cellular microinjection has been carried out. The purpose of this method is to be able to experimentally evaluate and compare the potency of the new and unconventional Auger-emitters (e.g. 119Sb). However, due to experimental complications, the development

  14. Development of positron emitting radionuclides for imaging with improved positron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yano, Y.

    1976-10-01

    Recent advances in positron cameras and positron ring detectors for transverse section reconstruction have created renewed interest in positron emitting radionuclides. This paper reports on: generator-produced 82 Rb; cyclotron-produced 62 Zn; and reactor-produced 64 Cu. Investigation of the 82 Sr (25 d)-- 82 Rb (75 s) generator determined the elution characteristics for Bio-Rex 70, a weakly acidic carboxylic cation exchanger, using 2% NaCl as the eluent. The yield of 82 Rb and the breakthrough of 82 Sr were determined for newly prepared columns and for long term elution conditions. Spallation-produced 82 Sr was used to charge a compact 82 Rb generator to obtain multi-millicurie amounts of 82 Rb for myocardial imaging. Zinc accumulates in the islet cells of the pancreas and in the prostate. Zinc-62 was produced by protons on Cu foil and separated by column chromatography. Zinc-62 was administered as the amino acid chelates and as the ZnCl 2 to tumor and normal animals. Tissue distribution was determined for various times after intravenous injection. Pancreas-liver images of 62 Zn-histidine uptake were obtained in animals with the gamma camera and the liver uptake of /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid was computer subtracted to image the pancreas alone. The positron camera imaged uptake of 62 Zn-histidine in the prostate of a dog at 20 h. 64 Cu was chelated to asparagine, a requirement of leukemic cells, and administered to lymphoma mice. Uptake in tumor and various tissues was determined and compared with the uptake of 67 Ga citrate under the same conditions. 64 Cu-asparagine had better tumor-to-soft tissue ratios than 67 Ga-citrate

  15. Atmospheric transport of radionuclides emitted due to wildfires near the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangeliou, Nikolaos; Zibtsev, Sergey; Myroniuk, Viktor; Zhurba, Marina; Hamburger, Thomas; Stohl, Andreas; Balkanski, Yves; Paugam, Ronan; Mousseau, Timothy A.; Møller, Anders P.; Kireev, Sergey I.

    2016-04-01

    In 2015, two major fires in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (CEZ) have caused concerns about the secondary radioactive contamination that might have spread over Europe. The total active burned area was estimated to be about 15,000 hectares, of which 9000 hectares burned in April and 6000 hectares in August. The present paper aims to assess, for the first time, the transport and impact of these fires over Europe. For this reason, direct observations of the prevailing deposition levels of 137Cs and 90Sr, 238Pu, 239Pu, 240Pu and 241Am in the CEZ were processed together with burned area estimates. Based on literature reports, we made the conservative assumption that 20% of the deposited labile radionuclides 137Cs and 90Sr, and 10% of the more refractory 238Pu, 239Pu, 240Pu and 241Am, were resuspended by the fires. We estimate that about 10.9 TBq of 137Cs, 1.5 TBq of 90Sr, 7.8 GBq of 238Pu, 6.3 GBq of 239Pu, 9.4 GBq of 240Pu and 29.7 GBq of 241Am were released from both fire events. These releases could be classified as of "Level 3" on the relative INES (International Nuclear Events Scale) scale, which corresponds to a serious incident, in which non-lethal deterministic effects are expected from radiation. To simulate the dispersion of the resuspended radionuclides in the atmosphere and their deposition onto the terrestrial environment, we used a Lagrangian dispersion model. Spring fires redistributed radionuclides over the northern and eastern parts of Europe, while the summer fires also affected Central and Southern Europe. The more labile elements escaped more easily from the CEZ and then reached and deposited in areas far from the source, whereas the larger refractory particles were removed more efficiently from the atmosphere and thus did mainly affect the CEZ and its vicinity. For the spring 2015 fires, we estimate that about 80% of 137Cs and 90Sr and about 69% of 238Pu, 239Pu, 240Pu and 241Am were deposited over areas outside the CEZ. 93% of the labile and 97% of

  16. A sensitive and quantitative biosensing method for the determination of {gamma}-ray emitting radionuclides in surface water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolterbeek, H.Th.; Meer, A.J.G.M. van der [Technische Univ. Delft (Netherlands). Interfacultair Reactor Inst.

    1996-11-01

    A quantitative and sensitive biosensing method has been developed for the determination of {gamma}-ray emitting radionuclides in surface water. The method is based on the concept that at equilibrium the specific radioactivity in the biosensor is equal to the specific radioactivity in water. The method consists of the measurement of both the radionuclide and the element in the biosensor and the determination of the element level in water. This three-way analysis eliminates problems such as unpredictable biosensor behaviour, effects of water elemental composition or further abiotic parameters: what remains is the generally high enrichment (bioaccumulation factor BCF) of elements and radionuclides in the biosensor material. Measurements were performed with floating water plants (Azolla filiculoides Lamk., Spirodela polyrhiza/Lemna sp.) and the fully submerged water plant Ceratophyllum demersum L., which were sampled from ditch water. Concentrations of elements and radionuclides were determined in both water and biosensor plants, using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA), ICP-MS, and {gamma}-ray spectrometry, respectively. For the latter, both 1 litre samples (Marinelli-geometry) and 1 cm{sup 3} samples (well-type detectors) were applied in measurements. (author).

  17. A sensitive and quantitative biosensing method for the determination of γ-ray emitting radionuclides in surface water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolterbeek, H.Th.; Meer, A.J.G.M. van der

    1996-01-01

    A quantitative and sensitive biosensing method has been developed for the determination of γ-ray emitting radionuclides in surface water. The method is based on the concept that at equilibrium the specific radioactivity in the biosensor is equal to the specific radioactivity in water. The method consists of the measurement of both the radionuclide and the element in the biosensor and the determination of the element level in water. This three-way analysis eliminates problems such as unpredictable biosensor behaviour, effects of water elemental composition or further abiotic parameters: what remains is the generally high enrichment (bioaccumulation factor BCF) of elements and radionuclides in the biosensor material. Measurements were performed with floating water plants (Azolla filiculoides Lamk., Spirodela polyrhiza/Lemna sp.) and the fully submerged water plant Ceratophyllum demersum L., which were sampled from ditch water. Concentrations of elements and radionuclides were determined in both water and biosensor plants, using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA), ICP-MS, and γ-ray spectrometry, respectively. For the latter, both 1 litre samples (Marinelli-geometry) and 1 cm 3 samples (well-type detectors) were applied in measurements. (author)

  18. Labeling suspended aerosol particles with short-lived radionuclides for determination of particle deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.F.; Bryant, S.; Welch, S.; Digenis, G.A.

    1984-01-01

    Radiotracer techniques were developed to examine parameters that characterize pressurized aerosols designed to deliver insoluble particles suspended in the aerosol formulation. Microaggregated bovine serum albumin microspheres that were to be suspended were labeled with iodine-131 (t1/2 . 8 d). This iodination procedure (greater than 80% effective) is also applicable to iodine-123, which possesses superior characteristics for external imaging and further in vivo studies. This report shows that for pressurized aerosols containing suspended particles, each metered dose is approximately equal (not including the priming doses and the emptying doses). Increase in the delivery of the albumin particles out of the canister was best achieved by pretreating the valve assembly with a solution of 2% (w/v) bovine serum albumin in phosphate buffer. Use of a cascade impactor delineated the particle size distribution of the micropheres, with the majority of particles ranging in size from 2 to 8 microns. The data disclosed here indicate that the techniques developed with short-lived radionuclides can be used to quantitate each metered dose, characterize the particle size distribution profile of the aerosol contents, and determine the extent of deposition of the particles in the aerosol canister and all of its components

  19. Alpha-emitting 'hot particles' in the vicinity of BNFL Sellafield, Cumbria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittall, A.J.; Tossell, P.J.

    2000-01-01

    In a survey of environmental samples in the vicinity of BNFL Sellafield, two alpha-emitting radioactive particles were found in samples of grass. One particle appears to be of mineral origin, the other was not definitively identified, but may be a fragment of fuel cladding. Conservative estimates of the activities of these particles are very low. The abundance of radioactive particles in the terrestrial food chain appears to be low, with no evidence for any alpha-emitting hot particles in foodstuffs for consumption by humans. Results suggest that there is no significant dose to man through inhalation or ingestion pathways. (author)

  20. Life-span health effects of relatively soluble forms of internally deposited beta-emitting radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boecker, B.B.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Hahn, F.F.; Nikula, K.J.; Griffith, W.C.

    1991-01-01

    As part of a large research effort to study the lifetime health risks of inhaled radionuclides, Beagle dogs inhaled 90 SrCl 2 or 144 CeCl 3 or were injected intravenously with 137 CsCl. Because these three compounds were soluble in body fluids, the resulting widely differing patterns of radionuclide distribution and dose reflected tissue affinities of the elements involved. Long-term health effects, predominantly cancers, were seen in the organs receiving the highest doses. Investigations are continuing on the extent to which other less irradiated organs may have also been affected

  1. ALMERA Proficiency Test: Determination of Gamma Emitting Radionuclides in Simulated Air Filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The activity concentration of radionuclides in air is a critical factor in assessing the air quality and the potential impact of possible pollutants. Air is in fact one of the main pathways for human exposure to radioactivity. Radioactivity may be present in the atmosphere due to natural processes; intentional (low level) anthropogenic release; or as a consequence of nuclear or radiological incident. The resulting environmental impact should be considered carefully to ensure safety and compliance with environmental regulations. A reliable determination of radionuclides in air is necessary for regular monitoring of air quality to comply with radiation protection and environmental regulations. This proficiency test (PT) is one of the series of the ALMERA network proficiency tests organised on regular basis by the Terrestrial Environment Laboratory in Seibersdorf, designed to assess the technical capacity of ALMERA Members in analysing radionuclides to identify any analytical problems and to support ALMERA laboratories to maintain their preparedness to provide rapid and reliable analytical results. The range of simulated air filters used in this PT for analysis has been mainly at environmental level. The PT set consisted of four filters. The participating laboratories were requested to analyze Mn-54, Co-57, Fe-59, Co-60, Zn-65, Cd-109, Ba-133, Cs-134, Cs-137, Eu-152 and Am-241 in filters 01, 02 and 03. The participants were informed that only some of the listed radionuclides were present in the filters and the levels of the radionuclides were such that they could be measured within a 6-hour measurement period using a conventional HPGe gammaspectrometer of 35% relative efficiency. Filter 04, was containing only Co-60 and Ba-133 with known activities to the participants, had to be used as a control for the efficiency calibration. The tasks of IAEA were to prepare and distribute the simulated air filters to the participating laboratories, to collect and interpret

  2. Harvard--MIT research program in short-lived radiopharmaceuticals. Progress report, September 1, 1977--April 30, 1978. [/sup 99m/Tc, positron-emitting radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adelstein, S.J.; Brownell, G.L.

    1978-05-01

    Progress is reported on the following studies: chemistry studies designed to achieve a more complete understanding of the fundamental chemistry of technetium in order to facilitate the design of future radiopharmaceuticals incorporating the radionuclide /sup 99m/Tc; the development of new radiopharmaceuticals intended to improve image quality and lower radiation doses by the use of short-lived radionuclides and disease-specific agents; the development of short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides which offer advantages in transverse section imaging of regional physiological processes; and studies of the toxic effects of particulate radiation.

  3. A review of measurement and characterisation of airborne long-lived alpha-emitting radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigu, J.

    1993-01-01

    Sampling principles, monitoring instrumentation and characterisation of Long-Lived Radioactive Dust (LLRD) generated in U-Th mine and mill operations are discussed. Methods and techniques for the quantification, radionuclide identification and the study of other important characteristics of LLRD (e.g., electrical charge) are reviewed. Furthermore, field and laboratory measurements and methods of radiation dose assessment are revised. Some emphasis is placed in this work on occupational worker exposure assessment and the principles, methods and techniques of 'external' radiation exposure, internal dosimetry, and dosimetric models. It is clear that in spite of constant advances in the several areas which are the subject of this paper, there is still considerable room for improvement. For example, there is no universally accepted sampling protocol and sampler for routine LLRD monitoring for occupational hygiene exposure calculation purposes. Other areas for improvement could include calibration of instrumentation and improved sensitivity in radionuclide quantification and identification. 105 refs., 6 tabs., 3 figs

  4. Gamma emitting radionuclides in fruits and vegetables produced in the Canary Islands: domestic consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triguero-Perez, M.; Duarte-Rodriguez, X.; Lopez-Perez, M.; Hernandez-Armas, J.

    2011-01-01

    Determine the possible effects due to ingestion of radionuclides that can be found in health food is of interest from the viewpoint of radiation protection of the population. these determinations and analysis of the consequences on the health of people and jobs has led to studies that have had consequences in the form of rules to follow and values have to be attended to limit dictated by national and international agencies. (Author)

  5. External exposure doses due to gamma emitting natural radionuclides in some Egyptian building materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moharram, B M; Suliman, M N; Zahran, N F; Shennawy, S E; El Sayed, A R

    2012-01-01

    Using of building materials containing naturally occurring radionuclides as (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K and their progeny results in an external exposures of the housing of such buildings. In the present study, indoor dose rates for typical Egyptian rooms are calculated using the analytical method and activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in some building materials. Uniform chemical composition of the walls, floor and ceiling as well as uniform mass concentrations of the radionuclides in walls, floor and ceiling assumed. Different room models are assumed to discuss variation of indoor dose rates according to variation in room construction. Activity concentrations of (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K content in eight samples representative Clay soil and different building materials used in most recent Egyptian building were measured using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The specific activity for (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K, from the selected samples, were in the range 14.15-60.64, 2.75-84.66 and 7.35-554.4Bqkg(-1), respectively. The average indoor absorbed dose rates in air ranged from 0.005μGyh(-1) to 0.071μGyh(-1) and the corresponding population-weighted annual effective dose due to external gamma radiation varies from 0.025 to 0.345mSv. An outdoor dose rate for typical building samples in addition to some radiological hazards has been introduced for comparison. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Method for measuring the decay rate of a radionuclide emitting β-rays in a liquid sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horrocks, D.

    1977-01-01

    With this method the decay rate of a radionuclide emitting β-rays, e.g. 3 H or 14 C, in a liquid sample can be measured by means of liquid scintillation counters, at least two different versions of the sample being used with quench effect (shifting of the Compton spectrum). For this purpose each sample is counted with and without a radioactive standard source, e.g. 137 Cs. Then a pulse height will be determined corresponding to a selected point in the pulse height spectrum if the standard source is present. The determination of a zero-threshold sample count rate is then performed by counting the sample in a counting window. In addition standardized values of the measured pulse heights are derived and put in mathematical relation to corresponding pulse count rates, the pulse count rate for a standardized pulse height value thus becoming zero and the sample decay rate in this way being determined. (DG) 891 HP [de

  7. Considerations on the determining factors of the angular distribution of emitted particles in laser ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konomi, I.; Motohiro, T.; Kobayashi, T.; Asaoka, T.

    2010-01-01

    Simulations of particles which are emitted in laser ablation have been performed by the method of Direct Simulation Monte Carlo to investigate the deposition profiles of the emitted particles. The influences of the temperature, pressure and stream velocity of the initial evaporated layer formed during laser ablation process on the profile of the deposited film have been examined. It is found that the temperature gives a minor influence on the deposition profile, whereas the stream velocity and the pressure of the initial evaporated layer have a greater impact on the deposition profile. The energy in the direction of surface normal (E perpendicular ) and that in the parallel direction of the surface (E || ) are shown to increase and decrease, respectively after the laser irradiation due to collisions between the emitted particles, and this trend is magnified as the pressure increases. As a consequence, the stream velocity in the direction of surface normal increases with the increase in the pressure. A mechanism of the phenomenon that a metal with a lower sublimation energy shows a broader angular distribution of emitted particles is presented. It is suggested that low density of evaporated layer of a metal with a low sublimation energy at its melting point decreases the number of collisions in the layer, leading to the low stream velocity in the direction of surface normal, which results in the broader deposition profile of the emitted particles.

  8. Accelerator based Production of Auger-Electron-emitting Isotopes for Radionuclide Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thisgaard, Helge

    Sb from the enriched 119Sn target material with high radionuclidic- and chemical purity. A method that also allows efficient recovery of the 119Sn for recycling. To demonstrate the ability of producing therapeutic quantities of 119Sb and other radioisotopes for therapy with a low-energy cyclotron...... isotopes (e.g. 119Sb or 64Cu) using the PETtrace cyclotron commonly found at the larger PET-centers in the hospitals. Finally, research in a new method to measure the radiotoxicity of Auger-emitters invitro using cellular microinjection has been carried out. The purpose of this method is to be able...

  9. Deep UV emitting scintillators for alpha and beta particle detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Y. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30606 (United States); Jia, D.D.; Lewis, L.A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Feofilov, S.P. [A.F. Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, St. Petersburg, 194021 (Russian Federation); Meltzer, R.S., E-mail: rmeltzer@physast.uga.ed [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30606 (United States)

    2011-03-21

    Several deep UV emitting scintillators, whose emission falls in the solar blind region of the spectrum (200-280 nm), are described and their scintillator properties are characterized. They include LaPO{sub 4}:Pr, YPO{sub 4}:Pr, YAlO{sub 3}:Pr, Pr(PO{sub 3}){sub 3}, YPO{sub 4}:Bi and ScPO{sub 4}. These materials would facilitate the detection of ionizing radiation in open areas, even during the daylight hours, and could be used to support large area surveys that monitor for the presence of ionization radiation due, for example, to system leaks or transfer contamination. These materials can be used in the form of powders, thin films or paints for radiation detection. They are characterized for both beta radiation using electron beams (2-35 keV) and {sup 137}Cs and alpha radiations using {sup 241}Am sources. Their absolute light yields are estimated and are compared to that of Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5}:Ce. Their light yields decrease as a function of electron energy but at 10 keV they approach 8000 ph/MeV.

  10. Monte Carlo simulation of age-dependent radiation dose from alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides to critical trabecular bone and bone marrow targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dant, James T.; Richardson, Richard B.; Nie, Linda H.

    2013-05-01

    Alpha (α) particles and low-energy beta (β) particles present minimal risk for external exposure. While these particles can induce leukemia and bone cancer due to internal exposure, they can also be beneficial for targeted radiation therapies. In this paper, a trabecular bone model is presented to investigate the radiation dose from bone- and marrow-seeking α and β emitters to different critical compartments (targets) of trabecular bone for different age groups. Two main issues are addressed with Monte Carlo simulations. The first is the absorption fractions (AFs) from bone and marrow to critical targets within the bone for different age groups. The other issue is the application of 223Ra for the radiotherapy treatment of bone metastases. Both a static model and a simulated bone remodeling process are established for trabecular bone. The results show significantly lower AFs from radionuclide sources in the bone volume to the peripheral marrow and the haematopoietic marrow for adults than for newborns and children. The AFs from sources on the bone surface and in the bone marrow to peripheral marrow and haematopoietic marrow also varies for adults and children depending on the energy of the particles. Regarding the use of 223Ra as a radionuclide for the radiotherapy of bone metastases, the simulations show a significantly higher dose from 223Ra and its progeny in forming bone to the target compartment of bone metastases than that from two other more commonly used β-emitting radiopharmaceuticals, 153Sm and 89Sr. There is also a slightly lower dose from 223Ra in forming bone to haematopoietic marrow than that from 153Sm and 89Sr. These results indicate a higher therapy efficiency and lower marrow toxicity from 223Ra and its progeny. In conclusion, age-related changes in bone dimension and cellularity seem to significantly affect the internal dose from α and β emitters in the bone and marrow to critical targets, and 223Ra may be a more efficient

  11. The assessment of low-level contamination from gamma-emitting radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, P.W.

    1989-01-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate a new analytical technique to improve the radionuclide activity estimate from area measurements of small-area spectral peaks obtained using multi-channel spectrometry. These improvements are based on the application of Bayesian peak fitting, a method of peak fitting that allows the information contained in a spectrum to be used more fully than is possible with the method of gross counting currently employed. The study carried out showed that activity estimates and confidence intervals for activity could be more precisely defined, and the time-related costs reduced up to 50% when making activity measurements by the peak-fitting method (for a fixed detection limit) instead of gross counting. Testing of the method under real conditions would be the logical follow-up to the work achieved

  12. Assessment of gamma, beta and alpha-particle-emitting nuclides in marine samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, E.

    1997-01-01

    Depending on the physical properties of radionuclides different systems must be used for their measurement. Most convenient is if gamma spectrometry can be used by germanium, Silicon or Scintillation detectors (eg. NaI). If, however, the main emission consists of beta or alpha particles or low-energy photons as is the case for radionuclides decaying by electron capture, radiochemical separation and specific source preparations must be undertaken. In such cases also the radiochemical yield must be determined. The radiochemical part mainly follows the lines presented by prof. T. Jaakkola, Department of Radiochemistry, Helsinki, Finland, at a course in radioecology in Lurid, 1991. For very long-lived radionuclides other methods such as mass spectrometry are superior although often associated with sophisticated expensive instrumentation. (author)

  13. Direct internal dosimetry. A new way for routine incorporation monitoring of γ-emitting radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerfel, H.

    1996-01-01

    The INDOS detector system offers the following advantages with respect to routine incorporation monitoring: The measurement is performed automatically and there is no need for trained staff. The measuring time is short and thus a relative large number of persons may be monitored with a relative high measuring frequency. First estimates of the individual effective dose equivalent rate are available immediately after the measurement. 1) The direct determination of the dose equivalent in principle is more precise than the conventional procedures for internal dosimetry, because (i) the retention of radionuclides in the body may be measured explicitly and (ii) the dependence of the dose equivalent on the body proportions is corrected implicitly. 2) The measuring procedure is comparable to the external dosimetry with respect to accuracy and lower limit of detection. Thus, the results of internal and external dosimetry can be summed up in an easy and reasonable manner. 3) The detector system can be installed in any building; it also can be installed as a mobile unit in a car or a container for long distance transportation by aircraft or train. 4) Last but not least, the cost for monitoring with INDOS is much lower than for the conventional monitoring procedures using whole body counters. (author)

  14. Strand breaks in plasmid DNA following positional changes of Auger-electron-emitting radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adelstein, S.J.; Kassis, A.I.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of our studies is to elucidate the kinetics of DNA strand breaks caused by low-energy Auger electron emitters in close proximity to DNA. Previously we have studied the DNA break yields in plasmids after the decay of indium-111 bound to DNA or free in solution. In this work, we compare the DNA break yields in supercoiled DNA of iodine-125 decaying close to DNA following DNA intercalation, minor-groove binding, or surface binding, and at a distance form DNA. Supercoiled DNA, stored at 4 C to accumulate radiation dose from the decay of 125 I, was then resolved by gel electrophoresis into supercoiled, nicked circular, and linear forms, representing undamaged DNA, single-strand breaks, and double-strand breaks respectively. DNA-intercalated or groove-bound 125 I is more effective than surface-bound radionuclide or 125 I free in solution. The hydroxyl radical scavenger DMSO protects against damage by 125 I free in solution but has minimal effect on damage by groove-bound 125 I. (orig.)

  15. Structural and fractal properties of particles emitted from spark ignition engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarty, Rajan K; Moosmüller, Hans; Arnott, W Patrick; Garro, Mark A; Walker, John

    2006-11-01

    Size, morphology, and microstructure of particles emitted from one light-duty passenger vehicle (Buick Century; model year 1990; PM (particulate matter) mass emission rate 3.1 mg/km) and two light-duty trucks (Chevrolet C2; model year 1973; PM mass emission rate 282 mg/km, and Chevrolet El Camino; model year 1976; PM mass emission rate 31 mg/km), running California's unified driving cycles (UDC) on a chassis dynamometer, were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM images yielded particle properties including three-dimensional density fractal dimensions, monomer and agglomerate number size distributions, and three different shape descriptors, namely aspect ratio, root form factor, and roundness. The density fractal dimension of the particles was between 1.7 and 1.78, while the number size distribution of the particles placed the majority of the particles in the accumulation mode (0.1-0.3 microm). The shape descriptors were found to decrease with increasing particle size. Partial melting of particles, a rare and previously unreported phenomenon, was observed upon exposure of particles emitted during phase 2 of the UDC to the low accelerating voltage electron beam of the SEM. The rate of melting was quantified for individual particles, establishing a near linear relationship between the melting rate and the organic carbon 1 to elemental carbon ratio.

  16. Production and Applications of Long-Lived Positron-Emitting Radionuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Stephen A.

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a medical imaging modality capable of determining the in vivo spatial distribution of a biologically relevant molecule which has been labeled with a positron-emitting isotope. The use of molecules such as monoclonal antibodies and nanoparticles for therapeutic and diagnostic applications has expanded preclinically in recent years. As these larger molecules tend to have longer circulation times and slow clearance kinetics, positron-emitting isotopes with half-lives longer than conventional medical radioisotopes are required for PET applications. This dissertation details methods for the production of 51Mn (t1/2: 45.4 min), 52gMn (t1/2: 5.59 d), 64Cu (t1/2: 12.7 h), 76Br (t1/2: 16.2 h), 89Zr (t1/2: 3.27 d), and 194Au (t1/2: 38.0 h) on low-energy medical cyclotrons, including targetry considerations, radiochemical separation methods, and analysis of resulting purity. Pursuant to the production of these isotopes, several instrumentation developments have been made including implementation of an automatic nuclide identification library for gamma spectroscopy; development of methods for dead time correction and background estimation in auto-gamma counting; and the creation of a new linearly-filled Derenzo-type PET phantom. Measurement of the radioactive half-lives of 51Mn and 52gMn are presented in addition to their use in a variety of preclinical molecular imaging applications, including immunoPET, stem cell tracking, functional beta-cell mass determination, and probing the impact of isoflurane on acute pancreatic function. An analytic model of effective specific activity is formed and tested against preliminary trace metal analysis results. Measurements of excitation functions for the large-scale production of medically relevant isotopes, including 52gMn, at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Isotope Production Facility (100 MeV p+) are presented. The results described herein have enabled and informed a variety of novel

  17. Radiotherapy Based On α Emitting Radionuclides: Geant4 For Dosimetry And Micro-/Nano-Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guatelli, Susanna

    2013-01-01

    Possible physics approaches to evaluate the efficacy of TAT are dosimetry, microdosimetry and nanodosimetry. Dosimetry is adequate when mean absorbed dose to a macroscopic target volume is important to understand the biological effect of radiation. General purpose Monte Carlo (MC) codes, based on condensed history approach, are a very useful, cost effective tool to solve dosimetric problems. The condensed history approach is based on the use of multiple scattering theories to calculate the energy losses and angular changes in the direction of the particle. The short α particle range and high LET make the microdosimetric approach more suitable than dosimetry to study TAT from first physics principles, as this approach takes into account the stochastic nature of energy deposition at cellular level

  18. Particle size distribution of airborne Aspergillus fumigatus spores emitted from compost using membrane filtration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deacon, L. J.; Pankhurst, L. J.; Drew, G. H.; Hayes, E. T.; Jackson, S.; Longhurst, P. J.; Longhurst, J. W. S.; Liu, J.; Pollard, S. J. T.; Tyrrel, S. F.

    Information on the particle size distribution of bioaerosols emitted from open air composting operations is valuable in evaluating potential health impacts and is a requirement for improved dispersion simulation modelling. The membrane filter method was used to study the particle size distribution of Aspergillus fumigatus spores in air 50 m downwind of a green waste compost screening operation at a commercial facility. The highest concentrations (approximately 8 × 10 4 CFU m -3) of culturable spores were found on filters with pore diameters in the range 1-2 μm which suggests that the majority of spores are emitted as single cells. The findings were compared to published data collected using an Andersen sampler. Results were significantly correlated ( p < 0.01) indicating that the two methods are directly comparable across all particles sizes for Aspergillus spores.

  19. Radiochemical and radioecological studies of natural and artificial alpha-emitting radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, E.; Persson, B.

    1980-01-01

    Transuranium elements, including uranium and thorium, were analyzed in both marine and terrestrial samples. Vertical profiles of 239+240 Pu, 241 Am, 230 Th, and 238 U, in the Pacific, the Mediterranean, and the Atlantic, measured by different investigators, were compared. Uptake of the fallout isotopes 241 Pu, 240+239 Pu, 238 Pu, and 241 Am in the lichen - reindeer food chain was studied. Americium and thorium exhibited similar biophysical behavior in the environment and in the water column, although the settling velocity for thorium was somewhat higher. Plutonium showed similar distribution in the water columns in different waters. The fraction of ingested plutonium which was retained in the body of reindeer was in good agreement with the value of 3 x 10 -5 predicted for man. Uranium showed a constant concentration in the water column, with a low affinity to particles in the water. The high concentration of uranium in reindeer tissues depended on high intake from drinking water and foodstuffs other than lichens

  20. Particles and solutes migration in porous medium : radionuclides and clayey particles simultaneous transport under the effect of a salinity gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faure, M.H.

    1994-01-01

    This work deals with the radiation protection of high-level and long-life radioactive waste storages. The colloids presence in ground waters can accelerate the radionuclides migration in natural geological deposits. The aim of this thesis is then to control particularly the particles motion in porous medium in order to anticipate quantitatively their migration. Liquid chromatography columns are filled with a clayey sand and fed with a decreasing concentration sodium chloride solution in order to study the particles outlet under a salinity gradient. When the porous medium undergoes a decrease of salinity it deteriorates. The adsorption of the cations : sodium 22, calcium 45, cesium 137 and neptunium 237 is then studied by the ions exchange method. The radionuclide solution is injected before the decrease of the feed solution salinity. The decrease of the sodium chloride concentration leads to the decrease of the radionuclides concentration because the adsorption competition between the sodium ion and the injected cation is lower. The particles transport, without fouling of the porous medium, is carried out in particular physical and chemical conditions which are described. (O.L.). 71 refs., 105 figs., 26 tabs

  1. On the Radio-emitting Particles of the Crab Nebula: Stochastic Acceleration Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Shuta J. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Konan University, 8-9-1 Okamoto, Kobe, Hyogo 658-8501 (Japan); Asano, Katsuaki, E-mail: sjtanaka@center.konan-u.ac.jp [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwa-no-ha, Kashiwa City, Chiba, 277-8582 (Japan)

    2017-06-01

    The broadband emission of pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) is well described by non-thermal emissions from accelerated electrons and positrons. However, the standard shock acceleration model of PWNe does not account for the hard spectrum in radio wavelengths. The origin of the radio-emitting particles is also important to determine the pair production efficiency in the pulsar magnetosphere. Here, we propose a possible resolution for the particle energy distribution in PWNe; the radio-emitting particles are not accelerated at the pulsar wind termination shock but are stochastically accelerated by turbulence inside PWNe. We upgrade our past one-zone spectral evolution model to include the energy diffusion, i.e., the stochastic acceleration, and apply the model to the Crab Nebula. A fairly simple form of the energy diffusion coefficient is assumed for this demonstrative study. For a particle injection to the stochastic acceleration process, we consider the continuous injection from the supernova ejecta or the impulsive injection associated with supernova explosion. The observed broadband spectrum and the decay of the radio flux are reproduced by tuning the amount of the particle injected to the stochastic acceleration process. The acceleration timescale and the duration of the acceleration are required to be a few decades and a few hundred years, respectively. Our results imply that some unveiled mechanisms, such as back reaction to the turbulence, are required to make the energies of stochastically and shock-accelerated particles comparable.

  2. Quantitative single-particle digital autoradiography with α-particle emitters for targeted radionuclide therapy using the iQID camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Brian W., E-mail: brian.miller@pnnl.gov [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354 and College of Optical Sciences, The University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85719 (United States); Frost, Sofia H. L.; Frayo, Shani L.; Kenoyer, Aimee L.; Santos, Erlinda; Jones, Jon C.; Orozco, Johnnie J. [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington 98109 (United States); Green, Damian J.; Press, Oliver W.; Pagel, John M.; Sandmaier, Brenda M. [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington 98109 and Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Hamlin, Donald K.; Wilbur, D. Scott [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Fisher, Darrell R. [Dade Moeller Health Group, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: Alpha-emitting radionuclides exhibit a potential advantage for cancer treatments because they release large amounts of ionizing energy over a few cell diameters (50–80 μm), causing localized, irreparable double-strand DNA breaks that lead to cell death. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) approaches using monoclonal antibodies labeled with α emitters may thus inactivate targeted cells with minimal radiation damage to surrounding tissues. Tools are needed to visualize and quantify the radioactivity distribution and absorbed doses to targeted and nontargeted cells for accurate dosimetry of all treatment regimens utilizing α particles, including RIT and others (e.g., Ra-223), especially for organs and tumors with heterogeneous radionuclide distributions. The aim of this study was to evaluate and characterize a novel single-particle digital autoradiography imager, the ionizing-radiation quantum imaging detector (iQID) camera, for use in α-RIT experiments. Methods: The iQID camera is a scintillator-based radiation detection system that images and identifies charged-particle and gamma-ray/x-ray emissions spatially and temporally on an event-by-event basis. It employs CCD-CMOS cameras and high-performance computing hardware for real-time imaging and activity quantification of tissue sections, approaching cellular resolutions. In this work, the authors evaluated its characteristics for α-particle imaging, including measurements of intrinsic detector spatial resolutions and background count rates at various detector configurations and quantification of activity distributions. The technique was assessed for quantitative imaging of astatine-211 ({sup 211}At) activity distributions in cryosections of murine and canine tissue samples. Results: The highest spatial resolution was measured at ∼20 μm full width at half maximum and the α-particle background was measured at a rate as low as (2.6 ± 0.5) × 10{sup −4} cpm/cm{sup 2} (40 mm diameter detector area

  3. Quantitative single-particle digital autoradiography with α-particle emitters for targeted radionuclide therapy using the iQID camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Brian W; Frost, Sofia H L; Frayo, Shani L; Kenoyer, Aimee L; Santos, Erlinda; Jones, Jon C; Green, Damian J; Hamlin, Donald K; Wilbur, D Scott; Fisher, Darrell R; Orozco, Johnnie J; Press, Oliver W; Pagel, John M; Sandmaier, Brenda M

    2015-07-01

    Alpha-emitting radionuclides exhibit a potential advantage for cancer treatments because they release large amounts of ionizing energy over a few cell diameters (50-80 μm), causing localized, irreparable double-strand DNA breaks that lead to cell death. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) approaches using monoclonal antibodies labeled with α emitters may thus inactivate targeted cells with minimal radiation damage to surrounding tissues. Tools are needed to visualize and quantify the radioactivity distribution and absorbed doses to targeted and nontargeted cells for accurate dosimetry of all treatment regimens utilizing α particles, including RIT and others (e.g., Ra-223), especially for organs and tumors with heterogeneous radionuclide distributions. The aim of this study was to evaluate and characterize a novel single-particle digital autoradiography imager, the ionizing-radiation quantum imaging detector (iQID) camera, for use in α-RIT experiments. The iQID camera is a scintillator-based radiation detection system that images and identifies charged-particle and gamma-ray/x-ray emissions spatially and temporally on an event-by-event basis. It employs CCD-CMOS cameras and high-performance computing hardware for real-time imaging and activity quantification of tissue sections, approaching cellular resolutions. In this work, the authors evaluated its characteristics for α-particle imaging, including measurements of intrinsic detector spatial resolutions and background count rates at various detector configurations and quantification of activity distributions. The technique was assessed for quantitative imaging of astatine-211 ((211)At) activity distributions in cryosections of murine and canine tissue samples. The highest spatial resolution was measured at ∼20 μm full width at half maximum and the α-particle background was measured at a rate as low as (2.6 ± 0.5) × 10(-4) cpm/cm(2) (40 mm diameter detector area). Simultaneous imaging of multiple tissue sections was

  4. Mass spectra features of biomass burning boiler and coal burning boiler emitted particles by single particle aerosol mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiao; Li, Mei; Shi, Guoliang; Wang, Haiting; Ma, Xian; Wu, Jianhui; Shi, Xurong; Feng, Yinchang

    2017-11-15

    In this study, single particle mass spectra signatures of both coal burning boiler and biomass burning boiler emitted particles were studied. Particle samples were suspended in clean Resuspension Chamber, and analyzed by ELPI and SPAMS simultaneously. The size distribution of BBB (biomass burning boiler sample) and CBB (coal burning boiler sample) are different, as BBB peaks at smaller size, and CBB peaks at larger size. Mass spectra signatures of two samples were studied by analyzing the average mass spectrum of each particle cluster extracted by ART-2a in different size ranges. In conclusion, BBB sample mostly consists of OC and EC containing particles, and a small fraction of K-rich particles in the size range of 0.2-0.5μm. In 0.5-1.0μm, BBB sample consists of EC, OC, K-rich and Al_Silicate containing particles; CBB sample consists of EC, ECOC containing particles, while Al_Silicate (including Al_Ca_Ti_Silicate, Al_Ti_Silicate, Al_Silicate) containing particles got higher fractions as size increase. The similarity of single particle mass spectrum signatures between two samples were studied by analyzing the dot product, results indicated that part of the single particle mass spectra of two samples in the same size range are similar, which bring challenge to the future source apportionment activity by using single particle aerosol mass spectrometer. Results of this study will provide physicochemical information of important sources which contribute to particle pollution, and will support source apportionment activities. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Particle and solute migration in porous media. Modeling of simultaneous transport of clay particles and radionuclides in a salinity gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faure, M.H.

    1994-03-01

    Understanding the mechanisms which control the transient transport of particles and radionuclides in natural and artificial porous media is a key problem for the assessment of safety of radioactive waste disposals. An experimental study has been performed to characterize the clayey particle mobility in porous media: a laboratory- made column, packed with an unconsolidated sand bentonite (5% weight) sample, is flushed with a salt solution. An original method of salinity gradient allowed us to show and to quantify some typical behaviours of this system: threshold effects in the peptization of particles, creation of preferential pathways, formation of immobile water zones induce solute-transfer limitation. The mathematical modelling accounts for a phenomenological law, where the distribution of particles between the stagnant water zone and the porous medium is a function of sodium chloride concentration. This distribution function is associated with a radionuclide adsorption model, and is included in a convective dispersive transport model with stagnant water zones. It allowed us to simulate the particle and solute transport when the salt environment is modified. The complete model has been validated with experiments involving cesium, calcium and neptunium in a sodium chloride gradient. (author). refs., figs., tabs

  6. The average angular distribution of emitted particles in multi-step compound processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonetti, R.; Carlson, B.V.; Hussein, M.S.; Toledo, A.S. de

    1983-05-01

    A simple model for the differential cross-section that describes the angular distribution of emitted particles in heavy-ion induced multi-step compound reactions, is constructed. It is suggested that through a careful analysis of the deviations of the experimental data from the pure Hauser-Feshbach behaviour may shed light on the physical nature of the pre-compound, heavy-ion configuration. (Author) [pt

  7. Overview of insoluble radioactive cesium particles emitted from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satou, Yukihiko

    2017-04-01

    . Radioactive ratio of Cs-134/Cs-137 of group A and B is completely different. Group B particles shown 0.92 (mean value) of Cs ratio, and specific radioactivity are much lowers than group A particles. In contrast, activity ratio in group A particles shown 1.0 (mean value), and it was consistent with previous studies by Adachi (2013). The location of soil samples, which was containing group B particles, has been contaminated with radioactive materials from Unit 1 with hydrogen explosion on 12 March (Satou et al. 2014, Chino et al. 2016). More than 300 um of diameter particles has been transported from the Unit 1 of F1NPS. This result shown that the insoluble radioactive cesium particles are emitted from not only Units 2 and/or 3 on 15 March but also Unit 1 on 12 March. The insoluble radioactive Cs particles were spread widely, and it is require to evaluation for particulate percentage of contribution in total emitted radioactive cesium, and long term monitoring of these behaviors.

  8. Sediment studies at Bikini Atoll part 3. Inventories of some long-lived gamma-emitting radionuclides associated with lagoon surface sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noshkin, V.E.

    1997-12-01

    Surface sediment samples were collected during 1979 from 87 locations in the lagoon at Bikini Atoll. The collections were made to better define the concentrations and distribution of long-lived radionuclides associated with the bottom material and to show what modifications occurred to the composition of the surface sediment from the nuclear testing program conducted by the United States at the Atoll between 1946 and 1958. This is the last of three reports on Bikini sediment studies. In this report, we discuss the concentrations and inventories of the residual long-lived gamma-emitting radionuclides in sediments from the lagoon. The gamma-emitting radionuclides detected most frequently in sediments collected in 1979, in addition to Americium-241 ({sup 241}Am) (discussed in the second report of this series), included Cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs), Bismuth-207 ({sup 207}Bi), Europium-155 ({sup 155}Eu), and Cobalt-60 ({sup 60}Co). Other man-made, gamma-emitting radionuclides such as Europium-152,154 ({sup 152,154}Eu), Antimony-125 ({sup 125}Sb), and Rhodium-101,102m ({sup 101,102m}Rh) were occasionally measured above detection limits in sediments near test site locations. The mean inventories for {sup 137}Cs, {sup 207}Ei, {sup 155}Eu, and {sup 60}Co in the surface 4 cm of the lagoon sediment to be 1.7, 0.56, 7.76, and 0.74 TBq, respectively. By June 1997, radioactive decay would reduce these values to 1.1, 0.38, 0.62, and 0.07 TBq, respectively. Some additional loss results from a combination of different processes that continuously mobilize and return some amount of the radionuclides to the water column. The water and dissolved constituents are removed from the lagoon through channels and exchange with the surface waters of the north equatorial Pacific Ocean. Highest levels of these radionuclides are found in surface deposits lagoonward of the Bravo Crater. Lowest concentrations and inventories are associated with sediment lagoonward of the eastern reef. The quantities in

  9. Characterizing gas-particle interactions of phthalate plasticizer emitted from vinyl flooring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benning, Jennifer L; Liu, Zhe; Tiwari, Andrea; Little, John C; Marr, Linsey C

    2013-03-19

    Phthalates are widely used as plasticizers, and improved ability to predict emissions of phthalates is of interest because of concern about their health effects. An experimental chamber was used to measure emissions of di-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate (DEHP) from vinyl flooring, with ammonium sulfate particles introduced to examine their influence on the emission rate and to measure the partitioning of DEHP onto airborne particles. When particles were introduced to the chamber at concentrations of 100 to 245 μg/m(3), the total (gas + particle) DEHP concentrations increased by a factor of 3 to 8; under these conditions, emissions were significantly enhanced compared to the condition without particles. The measured DEHP partition coefficient to ammonium sulfate particles with a median diameter of 45 ± 5 nm was 0.032 ± 0.003 m(3)/μg (95% confidence interval). The DEHP-particle sorption equilibration time was demonstrated to be less than 1 min. Both the partition coefficient and equilibration time agree well with predictions from the literature. This study represents the first known measurements of the particle-gas partition coefficient for DEHP. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that the emission rate of DEHP is substantially enhanced in the presence of particles. The particles rapidly sorb DEHP from the gas phase, allowing more to be emitted from the source, and also appear to enhance the convective mass-transfer coefficient itself. Airborne particles can influence SVOC fate and transport in the indoor environment, and these mechanisms must be considered in evaluating exposure and human health.

  10. MONDO: A tracker for the characterization of secondary fast and ultrafast neutrons emitted in particle therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirabelli, R.; Battistoni, G.; Giacometti, V.; Patera, V.; Pinci, D.; Sarti, A.; Sciubba, A.; Traini, G.; Marafini, M.

    2018-01-01

    In Particle Therapy (PT) accelerated charged particles and light ions are used for treating tumors. One of the main limitation to the precision of PT is the emission of secondary particles due to the beam interaction with the patient: secondary emitted neutrons can release a significant dose far from the tumor. Therefore, a precise characterization of their flux, production energy and angle distribution is eagerly needed in order to improve the Treatment Planning Systems (TPS) codes. The principal aim of the MONDO (MOnitor for Neutron Dose in hadrOntherapy) project is the development of a tracking device optimized for the detection of fast and ultra-fast secondary neutrons emitted in PT. The detector consists of a matrix of scintillating square fibres coupled with a CMOS-based readout. Here, we present the characterization of the detector tracker prototype and CMOS-based digital SPAD (Single Photon Avalanche Diode) array sensor tested with protons at the Beam Test Facility (Frascati, Italy) and at the Proton Therapy Centre (Trento, Italy), respectively.

  11. Momenta of particles emitted by target at intensive irradiation by low-energy ions

    CERN Document Server

    Beshenkov, V G; Marchenko, V A

    2002-01-01

    One measured the aggregate momenta of the target emitted particles at the intensive sputtering by E sub 0 approx = 0.5 keV energy heavy inert gases. For liquid and being under premelting temperature Ga target the measured values are close to the expected momenta of sputtered metallic atoms and reflection ions, for Cu and Zr targets they are essentially higher. One assumes that sputtering of atoms of gas-diffuser implanted into the target causes the surplus momentum. The estimated average energy of these atoms approx = 20 eV. Under Ga irradiation the implanted atoms diffuse mainly towards the surface and are desorbed

  12. Hygroscopic properties of smoke-generated organic aerosol particles emitted in the marine atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Wonaschütz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available During the Eastern Pacific Emitted Aerosol Cloud Experiment (E-PEACE, a plume of organic aerosol was produced by a smoke generator and emitted into the marine atmosphere from aboard the R/V Point Sur. In this study, the hygroscopic properties and the chemical composition of the plume were studied at plume ages between 0 and 4 h in different meteorological conditions. In sunny conditions, the plume particles had very low hygroscopic growth factors (GFs: between 1.05 and 1.09 for 30 nm and between 1.02 and 1.1 for 150 nm dry size at a relative humidity (RH of 92%, contrasted by an average marine background GF of 1.6. New particles were produced in large quantities (several 10 000 cm−3, which lead to substantially increased cloud condensation nuclei (CCN concentrations at supersaturations between 0.07 and 0.88%. Ratios of oxygen to carbon (O : C and water-soluble organic mass (WSOM increased with plume age: from −3, respectively, while organic mass fractions decreased slightly (~ 0.97 to ~ 0.94. High-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS spectra show that the organic fragment m/z 43 was dominated by C2H3O+ in the small, new particle mode and by C3H7+ in the large particle mode. In the marine background aerosol, GFs for 150 nm particles at 40% RH were found to be enhanced at higher organic mass fractions: an average GF of 1.06 was observed for aerosols with an organic mass fraction of 0.53, and a GF of 1.04 for an organic mass fraction of 0.35.

  13. Which radionuclide, carrier molecule and clinical indication for alpha-immunotherapy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerard, F.; Barbet, J.; Cherel, M.; Chatal, J.-F.; Haddad, F.; Kraeber-Bodere, F.

    2015-01-01

    Beta-emitting radionuclides are not able to kill isolated tumor cells disseminated in the body, even if a high density of radiolabeled molecules can be targeted at the surface of these cells because the vast majority of emitted electrons deliver their energy outside the targeted cells. Alpha-particle emitting radionuclides may overcome this limitation. It is thus of primary importance to test and validate the radionuclide of choice, the most appropriate carrier molecule and the most promising clinical indication. Four α-particle emitting radionuclides have been or are clinically tested in phase I studies namely 213 Bi, 225 Ac, 212 Pb and 211 At. Clinical safety has been documented and encouraging efficacy has been shown for some of them ( 213 Bi and 211 At). 211 At has been the most studied and could be the most promising radionuclide but 225 Ac and 212 Pb are also of potential great interest. Any carrier molecule that has been labeled with β-emitting radionuclides could be labeled with alpha particle-emitting radionuclide using, for some of them, the same chelating agents. However, the physical half-life of the radionuclide should match the biological half-life of the radioconjugate or its catabolites. Finally everybody agrees, based on the quite short range of alpha particles, on the fact that the clinical indications for alpha-immunotherapy should be limited to the situation of disseminated minimal residual diseases made of small clusters of malignant cells or isolated tumor cells.

  14. High concentrations of coarse particles emitted from a cattle feeding operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Hiranuma

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Housing roughly 10 million head of cattle in the United States alone, open air cattle feedlots represent a significant but poorly constrained source of atmospheric particles. Here we present a comprehensive characterization of physical and chemical properties of particles emitted from a large representative cattle feedlot in the Southwest United States. In the summer of 2008, measurements and samplings were conducted at the upwind and downwind edges of the facility. A series of far-field measurements and samplings was also conducted 3.5 km north of the facility. Two instruments, a GRIMM Sequential Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS and a GRIMM Portable Aerosol Spectrometer (PAS, were used to measure particle size distributions over the range of 0.01 to 25 μm diameter. Raman microspectroscopy was used to determine the chemical composition of particles on a single particle basis. Volume size distributions of dust were dominated by coarse mode particles. Twenty-four hour averaged concentrations of PM10 (particulate matter with a diameter of 10 μm or less were as high as 1200 μg m−3 during the campaign. The primary constituents of the particulate matter were carbonaceous materials, such as humic acid, water soluble organics, and less soluble fatty acids, including stearic acid and tristearin. A significant fraction of the organic particles was present in internal mixtures with salts. Basic characteristics such as size distribution and composition of agricultural aerosols were found to be different than the properties of those found in urban and semi-urban aerosols. Failing to account for such differences may lead to errors in estimates of aerosol effects on local air quality, visibility, and public health.

  15. Hygroscopic behaviour of aerosol particles emitted from biomass fired grate boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rissler, Jenny; Swietlicki, Erik; Pagels, Joakim; Wierzbicka, Aneta; Bohgard, Mats; Strand, Michael; Lillieblad, Lena; Sanati, Mehri

    2005-01-01

    This study focuses on the hygroscopic properties of sub-micrometer aerosol particles emitted from two small-scale district heating combustion plants (1 and 1.5 MW) burning two types of biomass fuels (moist forest residue and pellets). The hygroscopic particle diameter growth was measured when taken from a dehydrated to a humidified state for particle diameters between 30-350 nm (dry size) using a Hygroscopic Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer (H-TDMA). Particles of a certain dry size all showed similar hygroscopic growth and the average diameter growth at RH=90% for 110/100 nm particles was 1.68 in the 1 MW boiler, and 1.52 in the 1.5 MW boiler. These growth factors are considerably higher in comparison to other combustion aerosol particles such as diesel exhaust, and are the result of the efficient combustion and the high concentration of alkali species in the fuel. The observed water uptake could be explained using the Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson (ZSR) mixing rule and a chemical composition of only potassium salts, taken from an Ion Chromatography analysis of filter sample (KCl, K 2 SO 4 , and K 2 CO 3 ). Agglomerated particles collapsed and became more spherical when initially exposed to a moderately high relative humidity. When diluting with hot particle-free air, the fractal-like structures remained intact until humidified in the HTDMA. A method is presented to by which to estimate the fractal dimension of the agglomerated combustion aerosol and correct the measured mobility diameter hygroscopic growth to the more useful property volume growth. The fractal dimension was estimated to be ∼2.5

  16. Hygroscopic behaviour of aerosol particles emitted from biomass fired grate boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rissler, Jenny; Swietlicki, Erik [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Div. of Nuclear Physics; Pagels, Joakim; Wierzbicka, Aneta; Bohgard, Mats [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Div. of Ergonomics and Aerosol Technology; Strand, Michael; Lillieblad, Lena; Sanati, Mehri [Vaexjoe Univ. (Sweden). Bioenergy Technology

    2005-02-01

    This study focuses on the hygroscopic properties of sub-micrometer aerosol particles emitted from two small-scale district heating combustion plants (1 and 1.5 MW) burning two types of biomass fuels (moist forest residue and pellets). The hygroscopic particle diameter growth was measured when taken from a dehydrated to a humidified state for particle diameters between 30-350 nm (dry size) using a Hygroscopic Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer (H-TDMA). Particles of a certain dry size all showed similar hygroscopic growth and the average diameter growth at RH=90% for 110/100 nm particles was 1.68 in the 1 MW boiler, and 1.52 in the 1.5 MW boiler. These growth factors are considerably higher in comparison to other combustion aerosol particles such as diesel exhaust, and are the result of the efficient combustion and the high concentration of alkali species in the fuel. The observed water uptake could be explained using the Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson (ZSR) mixing rule and a chemical composition of only potassium salts, taken from an Ion Chromatography analysis of filter sample (KCl, K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, and K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}). Agglomerated particles collapsed and became more spherical when initially exposed to a moderately high relative humidity. When diluting with hot particle-free air, the fractal-like structures remained intact until humidified in the HTDMA. A method is presented to by which to estimate the fractal dimension of the agglomerated combustion aerosol and correct the measured mobility diameter hygroscopic growth to the more useful property volume growth. The fractal dimension was estimated to be {approx}2.5.

  17. High concentrations of coarse particles emitted from a cattle feeding operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiranuma, N.; Brooks, S. D.; Gramann, J.; Auvermann, B. W.

    2011-08-01

    Housing roughly 10 million head of cattle in the United States alone, open air cattle feedlots represent a significant but poorly constrained source of atmospheric particles. Here we present a comprehensive characterization of physical and chemical properties of particles emitted from a large representative cattle feedlot in the Southwest United States. In the summer of 2008, measurements and samplings were conducted at the upwind and downwind edges of the facility. A series of far-field measurements and samplings was also conducted 3.5 km north of the facility. Two instruments, a GRIMM Sequential Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) and a GRIMM Portable Aerosol Spectrometer (PAS), were used to measure particle size distributions over the range of 0.01 to 25 μm diameter. Raman microspectroscopy was used to determine the chemical composition of particles on a single particle basis. Volume size distributions of dust were dominated by coarse mode particles. Twenty-four hour averaged concentrations of PM10 (particulate matter with a diameter of 10 μm or less) were as high as 1200 μg m-3 during the campaign. The primary constituents of the particulate matter were carbonaceous materials, such as humic acid, water soluble organics, and less soluble fatty acids, including stearic acid and tristearin. A significant fraction of the organic particles was present in internal mixtures with salts. Basic characteristics such as size distribution and composition of agricultural aerosols were found to be different than the properties of those found in urban and semi-urban aerosols. Failing to account for such differences may lead to errors in estimates of aerosol effects on local air quality, visibility, and public health.

  18. Alpha particles emitted from the surface of granite, clay, and its fired products, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aratani, Michi; Otsuka, Hideko

    1975-01-01

    As a part of an investigation on ''the effect of long-time irradiation from a trace amount of radioisotopes'', the emitting rate of alpha particles per unit surface area (apparent) coming from natural alpha-particle emitters has been measured. The samples measured were granite and its weathered product; clay, especially potter's clay, and its fired product; pottery ware. The values obtained were 39.1 +-0.9--0.73+-0.08 cpm/100 cm 2 in granite, 16.8+-0.4--6.4+-0.2 cpm/100cm 2 in potter's clay, and 1.36+-0.04--0.82+-0.04 cpm/100cm 2 in pottery ware on substrate, and 1.33+-0.05--0.32+-0.02 cpm/100cm 2 on glazer. (auth.)

  19. Application of Monte Carlo simulation to the standardization of positron emitting radionuclides; Aplicacao do metodo de Monte Carlo na padronizacao de radionuclideos emissores de positrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tongu, Margareth Lika Onishi

    2009-07-01

    Since 1967, the Nuclear Metrology Laboratory (LNM) at the Nuclear and Energy Research (IPEN) in Sao Paulo, Brazil, has developed radionuclide standardization methods and measurements of the Gamma-ray emission probabilities per decay by means of 4{pi}{beta}-{gamma} coincidence system, a high accuracy primary method for determining disintegration rate of radionuclides of interest. In 2001 the LNM started a research field on modeling, based on Monte Carlo method, of all the system components, including radiation detectors and radionuclide decay processes. This methodology allows the simulation of the detection process in a 4{pi}{beta}-{gamma} system, determining theoretically the observed activity as a function of the 4{pi}{beta} detector efficiency, enabling the prediction of the behavior of the extrapolation curve and optimizing a detailed planning of the experiment before starting the measurements. One of the objectives of the present work is the improvement of the 4{pi} proportional counter modeling, presenting a detailed description of the source holder and radioactive source material, as well as absorbers placed around the source. The simulation of radiation transport through the detectors has been carried out using code MCNPX. The main focus of the present work is on Monte Carlo modeling of the standardization of positron emitting radionuclides associated (or not) with electron capture and accompanied (or not) by the emission of Gamma radiation. One difficulty in this modeling is to simulate the detection of the annihilation Gamma ray, which arise in the process of positron absorption within the 4{pi} detector. The methodology was applied to radionuclides {sup 18}F and {sup 22}Na. (author)

  20. Determining the times and distances of particle transit in a mountain stream using fallout radionuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonniwell, Everett C.; Matisoff, Gerald; Whiting, Peter J.

    1999-02-01

    Targeting of erosion and pollution control programs is much more effective if the time for fine particles to be transported through a watershed, the travel distance, the proportions of old and new sediment in suspension, and the rate of erosion of the landscape can be estimated. In this paper we present a novel technique for tracing suspended sediment in a mountain stream using fallout radionuclides sorbed to sediment. Atmospherically-delivered 7Be, 210Pb, and 137Cs accumulate in the snowpack, are released with its melting and sorb to fine particulates, a portion of which are carried downslope into stream channels. The half-life of cosmogenic 7Be is short (53.4 days), thus, sediment residing on the stream bed should contain little of the radionuclide. The different signatures of newly delivered sediment from the landscape with its 7Be tag and older untagged sediment from the channel is the basis for the tracing. The total flux of such radionuclides, compared to the inventory in the soil, permits estimates of the rates of erosion of the landscape. Fine suspended particulates in the Gold Fork River, ID, are transported downstream through the drainage in one or more steps having lengths of tens of kilometers. Length of the step decreases from about 60 km near the peak of the hydrograph to about 12 km near baseflow. The percent of sediment in suspension that is `new' (i.e., recently delivered from the landscape) ranges from 96 to 12%. The remaining sediment is resuspended older channel sediment. Residence times for particulates range from 1.6 days, early in the hydrograph at the upper site, to 103 days late in the hydrograph at the lowest elevation location. Rates of erosion of fine sediment calculated from the flux of radionuclides average 0.0023 cm/year. The long distance transport of fine particles suggests that delivery through the Gold Fork drainage to the basin outlet is fairly rapid once particles reach the channel and perhaps is also rapid in similar and

  1. Transport and deposition of particles and radionuclides at the Puy de Dome, France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourcier, L.

    2009-01-01

    Aerosol particles play a key role both on air quality and on the radiative balance of the Earth. Their sources, as well as their deposition are key stages in their life cycle. This work is a contribution in a better knowledge of the chemical composition of particles, cloud droplets and rain droplets. The specificity of our study is to couple, on three sampling sites (Puy de Dome (1465 m a.s.l.), Opme (660 m a.s.l.) and Cezeaux (400 m a.s.l.)), observations on the chemical composition and the radionuclides activity in cloud/rain/aerosol phases. We observed, in aerosol phase, ionic and carbonaceous concentrations and radionuclides activity higher in summer than in winter at the Puy de Dome, inverse of the seasonal variation observed at the Cezeaux for chemical compounds. From these observations, we offer a representative composition de each mass air type. This work is supplemented by a study of cloud and rain liquid, which allow us to study the scavenging of the pollutants by the rain. The chemical composition of the rain reveals a similar behaviour to that of the particles at the Puy de Dome, indicating that the role of activation and scavenging of particles is preponderant in the composition of the rain. This is confirmed by a study of the environmental and structural factors of the rain which do not seem to influence the washout ratio in a significant manner. Our work highlights the role of long range transport of pollutants in the composition of atmospheric liquid phase. (author)

  2. The role of colloids and suspended particles in radionuclide transport in the Canadian concept for nuclear fuel waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilks, P.

    1994-02-01

    AECL Research is developing a concept for the permanent disposal of nuclear fuel waste in a deep engineered vault in plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield and is preparing an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) to document its case for the acceptability of the disposal concept. This report, one in a series of supporting documents for the EIS, addresses the role of particles in radionuclide transport. It summarizes our studies of natural particles in groundwater and presents the arguments used to justify the omission of particle-facilitated transport in the geosphere model that is based on the Whiteshell Research Area (WRA) and used in the postclosure assessment study case. Because radiocolloids formed in the vault will not be able to migrate through the clay buffer, radiocolloid formation in the geosphere will be determined by the sorption of radionuclides onto particles in groundwater. These particles consist of typical fracture-lining minerals, such as clays, micas and quartz; precipitated particles, such as colloidal silica and Fe-Si oxyhydroxides; and organic particles. In groundwater from the WRA, the average concentrations of colloids and suspended particles are 0.34 and 1.4 mg/L respectively. Particle-facilitated transport is not included in the geosphere model because the concentrations of particles in groundwater from the WRA are too low to have a significant impact on radionuclide transport. (author). 92 refs., 11 tabs., 13 figs

  3. Calibration of gamma cameras for the evaluation of accidental intakes of high-energy photon emitting radionuclides by humans based on urine samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degenhardt, A.L.; Lucena, E.A.; Reis, A.A. dos; Souza, W.O.; Dantas, A.L.A.; Dantas, B.M., E-mail: bmdantas@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Dosimetria

    2017-07-01

    The prompt response to emergency situations involving suspicion of intakes of radionuclides requires the use of simple and rapid methods of internal monitoring of the exposed individuals. The use of gamma cameras to estimate intakes and committed doses was investigated by the Centers for Disease Control and Preventions (CDC) of the USA in 2010.The present study aims to develop a calibration protocol for gamma cameras to be applied on internal monitoring based on urine samples to evaluate the incorporation of high-energy photon emitting radionuclides in emergency situations. A gamma camera available in a public hospital located in the city of Rio de Janeiro was calibrated using a standard liquid source of {sup 152}Eu supplied by the LNMRI of the IRD.'Efficiency vs Energy' curves at 10 and 30 cm were obtained. Calibration factors, Minimum Detectable Activities and Minimum Detectable Effective Doses of the gamma camera were calculated for {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co. The gamma camera evaluated in this work presents enough sensitivity to detect activities of such radionuclides at dose levels suitable to assess suspected accidental intakes. (author)

  4. Uptake of γ-emitting radionuclides by aquatic biota exposed to contaminated water before and after passage through the ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cushing, C.E.; Rickard, W.H.; Watson, D.G.

    1984-01-01

    Three experimental systems were designed to investigate the differential accumulation of radionuclides by biota from low-level aqueous effluents after passage through the ground. One system received river water (control), one received dilute low-level radioactive effluents (trench), and the third received the low-level effluents after it had percolated through about 260 m or porous gravel (springs). Biota studied included filamentous green algae, clams (Corbicula), goldfish (Carassius auratus), carp (Cyprinus carpio), and Veronica. Trophic level differences in accumulation of the various radionuclides from the diluted trench water were not consistent but generally followed the pattern algae > goldfish > molluscs > carp. Cobalt-60 was accumulated to the highest level of any radionuclide, and accumulation levels at the three sites were directly related to the concentration of 60 Co in the water. Manganese-54, 59 Fe, and 106 Ru were also accumulated to measurable levels in biota at the springs site indicating their bioavailability after passage through the ground

  5. Absorbed dose evaluation of Auger electron-emitting radionuclides: impact of input decay spectra on dose point kernels and S-values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falzone, Nadia; Lee, Boon Q; Fernández-Varea, José M; Kartsonaki, Christiana; Stuchbery, Andrew E; Kibédi, Tibor; Vallis, Katherine A

    2017-03-21

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of decay data provided by the newly developed stochastic atomic relaxation model BrIccEmis on dose point kernels (DPKs - radial dose distribution around a unit point source) and S-values (absorbed dose per unit cumulated activity) of 14 Auger electron (AE) emitting radionuclides, namely 67 Ga, 80m Br, 89 Zr, 90 Nb, 99m Tc, 111 In, 117m Sn, 119 Sb, 123 I, 124 I, 125 I, 135 La, 195m Pt and 201 Tl. Radiation spectra were based on the nuclear decay data from the medical internal radiation dose (MIRD) RADTABS program and the BrIccEmis code, assuming both an isolated-atom and condensed-phase approach. DPKs were simulated with the PENELOPE Monte Carlo (MC) code using event-by-event electron and photon transport. S-values for concentric spherical cells of various sizes were derived from these DPKs using appropriate geometric reduction factors. The number of Auger and Coster-Kronig (CK) electrons and x-ray photons released per nuclear decay (yield) from MIRD-RADTABS were consistently higher than those calculated using BrIccEmis. DPKs for the electron spectra from BrIccEmis were considerably different from MIRD-RADTABS in the first few hundred nanometres from a point source where most of the Auger electrons are stopped. S-values were, however, not significantly impacted as the differences in DPKs in the sub-micrometre dimension were quickly diminished in larger dimensions. Overestimation in the total AE energy output by MIRD-RADTABS leads to higher predicted energy deposition by AE emitting radionuclides, especially in the immediate vicinity of the decaying radionuclides. This should be taken into account when MIRD-RADTABS data are used to simulate biological damage at nanoscale dimensions.

  6. Doses of external exposure in Jordan house due to gamma-emitting natural radionuclides in building materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jundi, J; Ulanovsky, A; Pröhl, G

    2009-10-01

    The use of building materials containing naturally occurring radionuclides as (40)K, (232)Th, and (238)U and their progeny results in external exposures of the residents of such buildings. In the present study, indoor dose rates for a typical Jordan concrete room are calculated using Monte Carlo method. Uniform chemical composition of the walls, floor and ceiling as well as uniform mass concentrations of the radionuclides in walls, floor and ceiling are assumed. Using activity concentrations of natural radionuclides typical for the Jordan houses and assuming them to be in secular equilibrium with their progeny, the maximum annual effective doses are estimated to be 0.16, 0.12 and 0.22 mSv a(-1) for (40)K, (232)Th- and (238)U-series, respectively. In a total, the maximum annual effective indoor dose due to external gamma-radiation is 0.50 mSv a(-1). Additionally, organ dose coefficients are calculated for all organs considered in ICRP Publication 74. Breast, skin and eye lenses have the maximum equivalent dose rate values due to indoor exposures caused by the natural radionuclides, while equivalent dose rates for uterus, colon (LLI) and small intestine are found to be the smallest. More specifically, organ dose rates (nSv a(-1)per Bq kg(-1)) vary from 0.044 to 0.060 for (40)K, from 0.44 to 0.60 for radionuclides from (238)U-series and from 0.60 to 0.81 for radionuclides from (232)Th-series. The obtained organ and effective dose conversion coefficients can be conveniently used in practical dose assessment tasks for the rooms of similar geometry and varying activity concentrations and local-specific occupancy factors.

  7. Dosimetry of bone metastases in targeted radionuclide therapy with alpha-emitting {sup 223}Ra-dichloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacilio, Massimiliano [Azienda Ospealiera San Camillo Forlianini, Rome (Italy). Dept. of Medical Physics; Ventroni, Guido; Mango, Lucio [Azienda Ospealiera San Camillo Forlianini, Rome (Italy). Dept. of Nuclear Medicin; De Vincentis, Giuseppe; Di Castro, Elisabetta; Frantellizzi, Viviana; Follacchio, Giulia Anna; Garkavaya, Tatiana [Rome Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Radiological, Oncological and Anatomo Pathological Sciences; Cassano, Bartolomeo; Lorenzon, Leda [Rome Univ. (Italy). Postgraduate School of Medical Physics; Pellegrini, Rosanna; Pani, Roberto [Rome Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Molecular Medicine; Ialongo, Pasquale [Azienda Ospealiera San Camillo Forlianini, Rome (Italy). Dept. of Radiology

    2016-01-15

    Ra-dichloride is an alpha-emitting radiopharmaceutical used in the treatment of bone metastases from castration-resistant prostate cancer. Image-based dosimetric studies remain challenging because the emitted photons are few. The aim of this study was to implement a methodology for in-vivo quantitative planar imaging, and to assess the absorbed dose to lesions using the MIRD approach. The study included nine Caucasian patients with 24 lesions (6 humeral head lesions, 4 iliac wing lesions, 2 scapular lesions, 5 trochanter lesions, 3 vertebral lesions, 3 glenoid lesions, 1 coxofemoral lesion). The treatment consisted of six injections (one every 4 weeks) of 50 kBq per kg body weight. Gamma-camera calibrations for {sup 223}Ra included measurements of sensitivity and transmission curves. Patients were statically imaged for 30 min, using an MEGP collimator, double-peak acquisition, and filtering to improve the image quality. Lesions were delineated on {sup 99m}Tc-MDP whole-body images, and the ROIs superimposed on the {sup 223}Ra images after image coregistration. The activity was quantified with background, attenuation, and scatter correction. Absorbed doses were assessed deriving the S values from the S factors for soft-tissue spheres of OLINDA/EXM, evaluating the lesion volumes by delineation on the CT images. In 12 lesions with a wash-in phase the biokinetics were assumed to be biexponential, and to be monoexponential in the remainder. The optimal timing for serial acquisitions was between 1 and 5 h, between 18 and 24 h, between 48 and 60 h, and between 7 and 15 days. The error in cumulated activity neglecting the wash-in phase was between 2 % and 12 %. The mean effective half-life (T{sub 1/2eff}) of {sup 223}Ra was 8.2 days (range 5.5-11.4 days). The absorbed dose (D) after the first injection was 0.7 Gy (range 0.2-1.9 Gy). Considering the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of alpha particles (RBE = 5), D{sub RBE} = 899 mGy/MBq (range 340-2,450 mGy/MBq). The

  8. The formation of ultra-fine particles during ozone-initiated oxidations with terpenes emitted from natural paint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamorena, Rheo B.; Jung, Sang-Guen; Bae, Gwi-Nam; Lee, Woojin

    2007-01-01

    The formation of secondary products during the ozone-initiated oxidations with biogenic VOCs emitted from natural paint was investigated in this study. Mass spectrometry and infrared spectroscopy measurements have shown that the major components of gas-phase chemicals emitted from natural paint are monoterpenes including α- and β-pinenes, camphene, p-cymene, and limonene. A significant formation of gaseous carbonyl products and nano-sized particles (4.4-168 nm) was observed in the presence of ozone. Carboxylic acids were also observed to form during the reactions (i.e. formic acid at 0.170 ppm and acetic acid at 0.260 ppm). The formation of particles increased as the volume of paint introduced into a reaction chamber increased. A secondary increase in the particle number concentration was observed after 440 min, which suggests further partitioning of oxidation products (i.e. carboxylic acids) into the particles previously existing in the reaction chamber. The growth of particles increased as the mean particle diameter and particle mass concentrations increased during the reaction. The experimental results obtained in this study may provide insight into the potential exposure of occupants to irritating chemical compounds formed during the oxidations of biogenic VOCs emitted from natural paint in indoor environments

  9. Scattering and absorption of particles emitted by a point source in a cluster of point scatterers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liljequist, D.

    2012-01-01

    A theory for the scattering and absorption of particles isotropically emitted by a point source in a cluster of point scatterers is described and related to the theory for the scattering of an incident particle beam. The quantum mechanical probability of escape from the cluster in different directions is calculated, as well as the spatial distribution of absorption events within the cluster. A source strength renormalization procedure is required. The average quantum scattering in clusters with randomly shifting scatterer positions is compared to trajectory simulation with the aim of studying the validity of the trajectory method. Differences between the results of the quantum and trajectory methods are found primarily for wavelengths larger than the average distance between nearest neighbour scatterers. The average quantum results include, for example, a local minimum in the number of absorption events at the location of the point source and interference patterns in the angle-dependent escape probability as well as in the distribution of absorption events. The relative error of the trajectory method is in general, though not generally, of similar magnitude as that obtained for beam scattering.

  10. Chemical characteristics of fine particles emitted from different gas cooking methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, Siao Wei; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    Gas cooking is an important indoor source of fine particles (PM 2.5). The chemical characteristics of PM 2.5 emitted from different cooking methods, namely, steaming, boiling, stir-frying, pan-frying and deep-frying were investigated in a domestic kitchen. Controlled experiments were conducted to measure the mass concentration of PM 2.5 and its chemical constituents (elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), metals and ions) arising from these five cooking methods. To investigate the difference in particle properties of different cooking emissions, the amount and type of food, and the heat setting on the gas stove were kept constant during the entire course of the experiments. Results showed that deep-frying gave rise to the largest amount of PM 2.5 and most chemical components, followed by pan-frying, stir-frying, boiling, and steaming. Oil-based cooking methods released more organic pollutants (OC, PAHs, and organic ions) and metals, while water-based cooking methods accounted for more water-soluble (WS) ions. Their source profiles are also presented and discussed.

  11. Report on the IAEA-CU-2006-11 proficiency test on the determination of gamma emitting radionuclides in air filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakhashiro, A.; Kim, C.-K.; Sansone, U.; Ferrari, M.; Sill, D.

    2006-10-01

    This report summarises the results of the IAEA-CU-2006-11 proficiency test on the determination of gamma emitting radionuclides in air filters, organised within the frame of the IAEA Technical Cooperation project RER/8/009 ''Air Pollution Monitoring in the Mediterranean Region''. The proficiency test was conducted by the Reference Materials Group of the Chemistry Unit (Physics, Chemistry and Instrumentation Laboratory) of the IAEA's analytical laboratories located in Seibersdorf (Austria) in cooperation with the Radiological and Environmental Sciences Laboratory, Department of Energy in the United States of America. The objective of TC project RER/8/009 is to contribute to air quality improvement through the establishment of a network for air monitoring and the design of a remedial strategy where the monitoring shows poor air quality. A spiked air filter with known activities of gamma emitting radionuclides prepared by the Department of Energy of the United States of America was used in this proficiency test. 14 spiked filters were distributed to the participating laboratories in April 2006. The deadline for receiving the results from the participants was set at 31 July 2006. The participating laboratories were requested to analyse the samples employing the methods used in their routine work, so that their performance on the test samples could be directly related to the real performance of the laboratory. Each laboratory was given a confidential code to assure the anonymity of the evaluation results. From the 14 initially registered, 11 laboratories reported their results back to the IAEA. The analytical results of the participating laboratories were evaluated against the reference values assigned to the reference air filter, and a rating system was applied

  12. Basophil mediated pro-allergic inflammation in vehicle-emitted particles exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakharenko, Alexander M.; Engin, Ayse Basak; Chernyshev, Valery V.; Chaika, Vladimir V.; Ugay, Sergey M.; Rezaee, Ramin; Karimi, Gholamreza; Drozd, Vladimir A.; Nikitina, Anna V.; Solomennik, Sergey F.; Kudryavkina, Olga R.; Xin, Liu; Wenpeng, Yuan; Tzatzarakis, Manolis; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M.; Golokhvast, Kirill S.

    2017-01-01

    Despite of the fact that engine manufacturers develop a new technology to reduce exhaust emissions, insufficient attention given to particulate emissions. However, diesel exhaust particles are a major source of air-borne pollution, contain vast amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and may have deleterious effects on the immune system, resulting in the induction and enhancement of pro-allergic processes. In the current study, vehicle emitted particles (VEP) from 2 different types of cars (diesel - D and gasoline - G) and locomotive (L) were collected. Overall, 129 four-week-old, male SPF-class Kunming mice were subcutaneously instilled with either low dose 100, 250 or high dose, 500 mg/kg VEP and 15 mice were assigned as control group. The systemic toxicity was evaluated and alterations in the percentages of the CD3, CD4, CD8, CD16, CD25 expressing cells, basophils, eosinophils and neutrophils were determined. Basophil percentages were inversely associated with the PAH content of the VEPs, however basophil sensitization was more important than cell count in VEP exposure. Thus, the effects of VEP-PAHs emerge with the activation of basophils in an allergen independent fashion. Despite the increased percentage of CD4+ T cells, a sharp decrease in basophil counts at 500 mg/kg of VEP indicates a decreased inhibitory effect of CD16+ monocytes on the proliferation of CD4+ T cell and suppressed polarization into a Th2 phenotype. Therefore, although the restrictions for vehicles emissions differ between countries, follow up studies and strict regulations are needed. - Highlights: • Basophil sensitization is more important than cell count in VEP exposure. • CD16+ cells are more effective than basophils on CD4+ T cell proliferation. • CD16+ and CD16- monocytes respond to VEP exposure in opposite directions. • CD8+ T cell proliferation is inhibited by all doses of VEPs. • Globally, more stringent standards are needed for vehicle particle emissions.

  13. Basophil mediated pro-allergic inflammation in vehicle-emitted particles exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakharenko, Alexander M. [Far Eastern Federal University, Engineering School, Scientific Educational Centre of Nanotechnology, 690950, Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Engin, Ayse Basak [Gazi University, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Toxicology, 06330, Hipodrom, Ankara (Turkey); Chernyshev, Valery V.; Chaika, Vladimir V.; Ugay, Sergey M. [Far Eastern Federal University, Engineering School, Scientific Educational Centre of Nanotechnology, 690950, Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Rezaee, Ramin [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, School of Medicine, North Khorasan University of Medical Sciences, Bojnurd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Karimi, Gholamreza [Pharmaceutical Research Center, Department of Pharmacodynamics and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Drozd, Vladimir A.; Nikitina, Anna V.; Solomennik, Sergey F.; Kudryavkina, Olga R. [Far Eastern Federal University, Engineering School, Scientific Educational Centre of Nanotechnology, 690950, Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Xin, Liu; Wenpeng, Yuan [Biology Institute Shandong Academy of Science, Jinan 250014 (China); Tzatzarakis, Manolis [Department of Forensic Sciences and Toxicology, Medical School, University of Crete, Heraklion 71003 (Greece); Tsatsakis, Aristidis M., E-mail: aris@med.uoc.gr [Far Eastern Federal University, Engineering School, Scientific Educational Centre of Nanotechnology, 690950, Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Department of Forensic Sciences and Toxicology, Medical School, University of Crete, Heraklion 71003 (Greece); Golokhvast, Kirill S., E-mail: droopy@mail.ru [Far Eastern Federal University, Engineering School, Scientific Educational Centre of Nanotechnology, 690950, Vladivostok (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-15

    Despite of the fact that engine manufacturers develop a new technology to reduce exhaust emissions, insufficient attention given to particulate emissions. However, diesel exhaust particles are a major source of air-borne pollution, contain vast amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and may have deleterious effects on the immune system, resulting in the induction and enhancement of pro-allergic processes. In the current study, vehicle emitted particles (VEP) from 2 different types of cars (diesel - D and gasoline - G) and locomotive (L) were collected. Overall, 129 four-week-old, male SPF-class Kunming mice were subcutaneously instilled with either low dose 100, 250 or high dose, 500 mg/kg VEP and 15 mice were assigned as control group. The systemic toxicity was evaluated and alterations in the percentages of the CD3, CD4, CD8, CD16, CD25 expressing cells, basophils, eosinophils and neutrophils were determined. Basophil percentages were inversely associated with the PAH content of the VEPs, however basophil sensitization was more important than cell count in VEP exposure. Thus, the effects of VEP-PAHs emerge with the activation of basophils in an allergen independent fashion. Despite the increased percentage of CD4+ T cells, a sharp decrease in basophil counts at 500 mg/kg of VEP indicates a decreased inhibitory effect of CD16+ monocytes on the proliferation of CD4+ T cell and suppressed polarization into a Th2 phenotype. Therefore, although the restrictions for vehicles emissions differ between countries, follow up studies and strict regulations are needed. - Highlights: • Basophil sensitization is more important than cell count in VEP exposure. • CD16+ cells are more effective than basophils on CD4+ T cell proliferation. • CD16+ and CD16- monocytes respond to VEP exposure in opposite directions. • CD8+ T cell proliferation is inhibited by all doses of VEPs. • Globally, more stringent standards are needed for vehicle particle emissions.

  14. Elements and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in exhaust particles emitted by light-duty vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Célia A; Barbosa, Cátia; Rocha, Sónia; Calvo, Ana; Nunes, Teresa; Cerqueira, Mário; Pio, Casimiro; Karanasiou, Angeliki; Querol, Xavier

    2015-08-01

    The main purpose of this work was to evaluate the chemical composition of particulate matter (PM) emitted by eight different light-duty vehicles. Exhaust samples from petrol and diesel cars (Euro 3 to Euro 5) were collected in a chassis dynamometer facility. To simulate the real-world driving conditions, three ARTEMIS cycles were followed: road, to simulate a fluid traffic flow and urban with hot and cold starts, to simulate driving conditions in cities. Samples were analysed for the water-soluble ions, for the elemental composition and for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), respectively, by ion chromatography, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Nitrate and phosphate were the major water-soluble ions in the exhaust particles emitted from diesel and petrol vehicles, respectively. The amount of material emitted is affected by the vehicle age. For vehicles ≥Euro 4, most elements were below the detection limits. Sodium, with emission factors in the ranges 23.5-62.4 and 78.2-227μg km(-1), for petrol and diesel Euro 3 vehicles, respectively, was the major element. The emission factors of metallic elements indicated that diesel vehicles release three to five times more than petrol automobiles. Element emissions under urban cycles are higher than those found for on-road driving, being three or four times higher, for petrol vehicles, and two or three times, for diesel vehicles. The difference between cycles is mainly due to the high emissions for the urban cycle with hot start-up. As registered for elements, most of the PAH emissions for vehicles ≥Euro 4 were also below the detection limits. Regardless of the vehicle models or driving cycles, the two- to four-ring PAHs were always dominant. Naphthalene, with emission factors up to 925 μg km(-1), was always the most abundant PAH. The relative cancer risk associated with

  15. Particle count monitoring of reverse osmosis water treatment for removal of low-level radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moritz, E.J.; Hoffman, C.R.; Hergert, T.R.

    1995-01-01

    Laser diode particle counting technology and analytical measurements were used to evaluate a pilot-scale reverse osmosis (RO) water treatment system for removal of particulate matter and sub-picocurie low-level radionuclides. Stormwater mixed with Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP) effluent from the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), formerly a Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons production facility, were treated. No chemical pretreatment of the water was utilized during this study. The treatment system was staged as follows: multimedia filtration, granular activated carbon adsorption, hollow tube ultrafiltration, and reverse osmosis membrane filtration. Various recovery rates and two RO membrane models were tested. Analytical measurements included total suspended solids (TSS), total dissolved solids (TDS), gross alpha (α) and gross beta (β) activity, uranium isotopes 233/234 U and 238 U, plutonium 239/240 Pu, and americium 241 Am. Particle measurement between 1--150 microns (μ) included differential particle counts (DPC), and total particle counts (TPC) before and after treatment at various sampling points throughout the test. Performance testing showed this treatment system produced a high quality effluent in clarity and purity. Compared to raw water levels, TSS was reduced to below detection of 5 milligrams per liter (mg/L) and TDS reduced by 98%. Gross α was essentially removed 100%, and gross β was reduced an average of 94%. Uranium activity was reduced by 99%. TPC between 1-150μ were reduced by an average 99.8% to less than 1,000 counts per milliliter (mL), similar in purity to a good drinking water treatment plant. Raw water levels of 239/240 Pu and 241 Am were below reliable quantitation limits and thus no removal efficiencies could be determined for these species

  16. On the radiation emitted by a particle falling into a black hole in the semi-relativistic approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coretti, C.; Ferrari, V.

    1986-01-01

    In this paper the limits of applicability of the semi-relativistic approximation for estimating the radiation emitted in processes of capture of particles by black holes are discussed. It is shown that it gives reliable estimates in the case of spherically symmetric black holes, but it fails in the case of rotating black holes

  17. Activation cross sections of longer-lived radionuclides produced in germanium by alpha particle irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takács, S., E-mail: stakacs@atomki.hu [Institute for Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Atomki, 4026 Debrecen (Hungary); Takács, M.P.; Ditrói, F. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Atomki, 4026 Debrecen (Hungary); Aikawa, M. [Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Haba, H.; Komori, Y. [Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2016-09-15

    The cross sections of alpha particles induced nuclear reactions on natural germanium were investigated by using the standard stacked foil target technique, the activation method and high resolution gamma spectrometry. Targets with thickness of about 1 μm were prepared from natural Ge by vacuum evaporation onto 25 μm thick polyimide (Kapton) backing foils. Stacks were composed of Kapton-Ge-Ge-Kapton sandwich target foils and additional titanium monitor foils with nominal thickness of 11 μm to monitor the beam parameters using the {sup nat}Ti(α,x){sup 51}Cr reaction. The irradiations were done with E{sub α} = 20.7 and E{sub α} = 51.25 MeV, I{sub α} = 50 nA alpha particle beams for about 1 h. Direct or cumulative activation cross sections were determined for production of the {sup 72,73,75}Se, {sup 71,72,74,76,78}As, and {sup 69}Ge radionuclides. The obtained experimental cross sections were compared to the results of theoretical calculations taken from the TENDL data library based on the TALYS computer code. A comparison was made with available experimental data measured earlier. Thick target yields were deduced from the experimental cross sections and compared with the data published before.

  18. Reconstruction of the size of nuclear fuel particle aerosol by the investigation of a radionuclide behaviour in body of the Chernobyl accident witnesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutkov, V.A.

    1996-01-01

    As a result of the Chernobyl NPP (ChNPP) accident aerosol particles of dispersed nuclear fuel were released to the atmosphere. Inhalation of those aerosol became the source of internal exposure for witnesses of the Chernobyl accident. To assess correctly internal doses from a mixture of radionuclides present in air in the form of aerosol particles one mast assign each radionuclide to a certain inhalation class by its chemical speciation in aerosol and define the airborne characteristics (the activity median aerodynamic diameter, AMAD and the standard geometric deviation, fig) of that particular aerosol. Moreover, information on any particular radionuclide is useless for other components since, in such a mixture, the radionuclides are generally independent and may belong to different particles. On the contrary, all nuclear fuel particle (NFP) radionuclides belong to the same particle, being matrix-bound. The collective behaviour of the matrix-bound radionuclides in the environment and in the human barrier organs makes it possible to spread to the aerosol of NFP any estimates of AMAD and β g obtained for any particular NFP radionuclide. This is principal feature of NFP aerosol as distinguished from a mere mixture of aerosol particles carry different radionuclides. (author)

  19. The fate of particle-reactive radionuclides on the Amazon and Yangtze continental shelves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKee, B.A.

    1986-01-01

    Water column and seabed samples collected from the continental shelves adjacent to the Yangtze and Amazon Rivers were analyzed for particle-reactive radionuclides ( 234 Th, 228 Th, 210 Pb), and their respective parent nuclides ( 238 U, 228 Ra, 226 Ra). On the Amazon shelf, dissolved 238 U activities increase with increasing salinity to a shelf maximum (4.6 dpm 1 -1 ) that is much higher than the open-ocean value (2.5 dpm 1 -1 ) because uranium is desorbed from the ferric-oxyhydroxide coatings of bottom sediments and advected into the overlying water column during periodic resuspension events. As a result, measurement of only the riverine flux of dissolved 238 U underestimates (by a factor of 5) the flux of dissolved uranium from the Amazon shelf to the open ocean. K e values decrease with increased SSC and range from 10 5 ·10 6 ml g -1 for Th and from 10 4 ·10 6 ml g -1 for Po and Pb. The approach to equilibrium can best be described as a two-step process that is initially rapid (rate constants: 10-100 d -1 , during the first 30 minutes), but becomes less rapid (rate constants: 1-4 d -1 ) as equilibrium is attained. Distribution coefficients for 234 Th, 228 Th and 210 Pb exhibit large spatial variability on the Amazon shelf (range: 10 3 - 10 6 ml g -1 ) and on the Yangtze shelf (range: 10 4 - 10 6 ml g -1 ). On the Amazon shelf, particle residence time is short (2-3 hours) relative to scavenging residence time (15-20 hours) therefore, only 1-31% of equilibrium between dissolved and particulate thorium is attained. On the Yangtze shelf, particle residence time is long (12-89 hours) relative to scavenging time (2-23 hours) resulting in K d values near (97-100%) equilibrium

  20. Basophil mediated pro-allergic inflammation in vehicle-emitted particles exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharenko, Alexander M; Engin, Ayse Basak; Chernyshev, Valery V; Chaika, Vladimir V; Ugay, Sergey M; Rezaee, Ramin; Karimi, Gholamreza; Drozd, Vladimir A; Nikitina, Anna V; Solomennik, Sergey F; Kudryavkina, Olga R; Xin, Liu; Wenpeng, Yuan; Tzatzarakis, Manolis; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M; Golokhvast, Kirill S

    2017-01-01

    Despite of the fact that engine manufacturers develop a new technology to reduce exhaust emissions, insufficient attention given to particulate emissions. However, diesel exhaust particles are a major source of air-borne pollution, contain vast amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and may have deleterious effects on the immune system, resulting in the induction and enhancement of pro-allergic processes. In the current study, vehicle emitted particles (VEP) from 2 different types of cars (diesel - D and gasoline - G) and locomotive (L) were collected. Overall, 129 four-week-old, male SPF-class Kunming mice were subcutaneously instilled with either low dose 100, 250 or high dose, 500mg/kg VEP and 15 mice were assigned as control group. The systemic toxicity was evaluated and alterations in the percentages of the CD3, CD4, CD8, CD16, CD25 expressing cells, basophils, eosinophils and neutrophils were determined. Basophil percentages were inversely associated with the PAH content of the VEPs, however basophil sensitization was more important than cell count in VEP exposure. Thus, the effects of VEP-PAHs emerge with the activation of basophils in an allergen independent fashion. Despite the increased percentage of CD4+ T cells, a sharp decrease in basophil counts at 500mg/kg of VEP indicates a decreased inhibitory effect of CD16+ monocytes on the proliferation of CD4+ T cell and suppressed polarization into a Th2 phenotype. Therefore, although the restrictions for vehicles emissions differ between countries, follow up studies and strict regulations are needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A semi-classical model for the description of angular distribution of light particles emitted in nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jingshang

    1990-04-01

    A semi-classical model of multi-step direct and compound nuclear reactions has been proposed to describe the angular distributions of light particles emitted in reaction processes induced by nucleons with energies of several tens of MeV. The exact closed solution for the time-dependent master equation of the exciton model is applied. Based on the Fermi gas model, the scattering kernel for two-nucleon collisions includes the influence of the Fermi motion and the Pauli exclusion principle, which give a significant improvement in the description of the rise of the backward distributions. The angle-energy correlation for the first few steps of the collision process (multi-step direct process) yields further improvements in the description of the angular distribution. The pick-up mechanism is employed to describe the composite particle emission. This reasonable physical picture reproduces the experimental data of the energy spectra of composite particles satisfactorily. The angular distribution of the emitted composite particles is determined by an angular factor in terms of the momentum conservation of the nucleons forming the composite cluster. The generalized master equation is employed for the multi-step compound process. Thus a classical approach has been established to calculate the double differential cross sections for all kinds of particles emitted in multi-step nuclear reaction processes. (author). 19 refs, 6 figs, 1 tab

  2. Local energy deposited for alpha particles emitted from inhaled radon daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-affan, I.A.M.; Haque, A.K.M.M.

    1989-01-01

    An analytical method has been developed to calculate the local energy deposited by alpha particles emitted from radon daughters deposited on the mucus surface in the lung airways. For the particular case of 218 Po (Ra A) and 214 Bi (Ra C'), microdose spectra have been evaluated in test spheres of 1 μm diameter which were taken to lie within airways of diameters 18 000, 3500 and 600 μm. In each case, the contributions of the near and far wall were computed separately. The average microdosimetric parameters y-bar F and y-bar D have also been calculated. For the two smaller airways, y-bar F and y-bar D values were found to be about 110 and 135 keV μm -1 for 218 Po and about 87 and 107 keV μm -1 for 214 Bi respectively. The corresponding values were about 10% higher for the largest airway. (author)

  3. Determination of gamma emitting radionuclides in environmental air and precipitation samples with a Ge(Li) detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoetzl, H.; Rosner, G.; Winkler, R.; Sansoni, B.

    1977-01-01

    The concentrations of the radionuclides 7 Be, 54 Mn, 95 Zr, 95 Nb, 103 Ru, 106 Ru, 125 Sb, 137 Cs, 140 Ba/ 140 La, 141 Ce and 144 Ce in ground level air and of 7 Be, 95 Zr, 137 Cs and 144 Ce in precipitation were determined since 1970 and 1971 respectively at Neuherberg, 10 km north of Munich, by gamma spectrometry using a 60 cm 3 Ge(Li) detector. Dust samples were collected twice a month 1 m above ground from about 40,000 m 3 of air on 46 cm x 28 cm microsorbane filters and pressed to small cylinders of 35 cm 3 in size. Sensitivity of the procedure is of the order of 1 fCi/m 3 for air and of 10 pCi/m 2 per month for precipitation samples at a counting time of 1500 min. (author)

  4. JGOFS IV. Subproject: natural radionuclides as tracers for particle dynamics in the water column. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholten, J.C.; Fietzke, J.; Mangini, A.; Stoffers, P.

    2000-01-01

    As part of the German JOINT GLOBAL OCEAN FLUX STUDY (JGOFS) the aim of the project was to investigate the particle dynamics in the water column, especially to estimate the trapping efficiencies of sediment traps deployed in the eastern North Atlantic (L1: 33 N 21 W; L2: 47 N 19.5 W; L3: 54,4 N 21,1 W; ESTOC: 29,07 N 15,25 W; OMEX: 49 N 12,5 W). This investigation was based on measurements of the distribution of natural radionuclides in the water column and in sediment traps. In the upper water column (≤1000 m) the 230 Th concentrations are similar at all locations investigated and a reversible scavenging model was able to describe the 230 Th distribution. In the deep water-column at L2 and L3 the 230 Th concentrations were significantly lower than predicted from the reversible scavenging model. The 230 Th concentrations here could be described by a scavenging-mixing model which assumes an advection of 230 Th depleted water masses and a rapid ventilation between 3 and 25 years. Based on two models, a mass balance for 230 Th and 231 Pa and a constant removal model, sediment trap efficiencies were calculated to be between 9% and 143%. The lowest efficiencies (9%-36%) were determined in the 500 m and 1000 m traps and no direct relation between water currents velocities and trapping biases were observed. The correction for trapping biases were found to be important for the understanding of the regional differences in the particle flux in the eastern north Atlantic. (orig.) [de

  5. Computational modeling of particle transport and distribution emitted from a Laserjet printer in a ventilated room with different ventilation configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansaripour, Mehrzad; Abdolzadeh, Morteza; Sargazizadeh, Saleh

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The distribution of emitted particles form a laserjet printer was studied in the breathing zone. • Effects of different ventilation configurations on the breathing zone concentration were investigated. • Mixing ventilation system has a low mean particle concentration in the breathing zone. - Abstract: In the present research, computational modeling of particle transport and distribution emitted from a Laserjet printer was carried out in a ventilated room. A seated manikin was integrated into the study room and the manikin was evaluated in two cases: heated and unheated. Effects of different ventilation configurations of the room on the particle distribution were studied, including three displacement ventilation systems and a mixing ventilation system. The printer was located on different sides of the manikin and the particle concentrations in the breathing zone of the manikin due to the printer’s particles were evaluated in all the ventilation configurations. The averaged particle concentration in the breathing zone of the manikin was calculated and validated with the experimental and numerical data available in the literature. The results of the present study showed that in case of the heated manikin, the particle concentration due to the printer pollutants is significant in the breathing zone of the manikin. The results also showed that when the printer is located on the front side of the manikin, the particle concentration in the breathing zone is quite high in most of the used ventilation configurations. Furthermore, it was found that the mixing ventilation system has a lower mean particle concentration in the breathing zone compared to the most displacement ventilation systems.

  6. Auger Emitting Radiopharmaceuticals for Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falzone, Nadia; Cornelissen, Bart; Vallis, Katherine A.

    Radionuclides that emit Auger electrons have been of particular interest as therapeutic agents. This is primarily due to the short range in tissue, controlled linear paths and high linear energy transfer of these particles. Taking into consideration that ionizations are clustered within several cubic nanometers around the point of decay the possibility of incorporating an Auger emitter in close proximity to the cancer cell DNA has immense therapeutic potential thus making nuclear targeted Auger-electron emitters ideal for precise targeting of cancer cells. Furthermore, many Auger-electron emitters also emit γ-radiation, this property makes Auger emitting radionuclides a very attractive option as therapeutic and diagnostic agents in the molecular imaging and management of tumors. The first requirement for the delivery of Auger emitting nuclides is the definition of suitable tumor-selective delivery vehicles to avoid normal tissue toxicity. One of the main challenges of targeted radionuclide therapy remains in matching the physical and chemical characteristics of the radionuclide and targeting moiety with the clinical character of the tumor. Molecules and molecular targets that have been used in the past can be classified according to the carrier molecule used to deliver the Auger-electron-emitting radionuclide. These include (1) antibodies, (2) peptides, (3) small molecules, (4) oligonucleotides and peptide nucleic acids (PNAs), (5) proteins, and (6) nanoparticles. The efficacy of targeted radionuclide therapy depends greatly on the ability to increase intranuclear incorporation of the radiopharmaceutical without compromising toxicity. Several strategies to achieve this goal have been proposed in literature. The possibility of transferring tumor therapy based on the emission of Auger electrons from experimental models to patients has vast therapeutic potential, and remains a field of intense research.

  7. The assessment and management of risks associated with exposures to short-range Auger- and beta-emitting radionuclides. State of the art and proposals for lines of research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paquet, F; Biau, A; Barbey, P; Bardiès, M; Blanchardon, E; Chetioui, A; Lebaron-Jacobs, L; Pasquier, J L

    2013-01-01

    The assessment and management of risks associated with exposures to ionising radiation are defined by the general radiological protection system, proposed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). This system is regarded by a large majority of users as a robust system although there are a number of dissenting voices, claiming that it is not suitable for estimating the risks resulting from internal exposures. One of the specific issues of internal exposure involves short-range radiations such as Auger and beta particles. Auger- and beta-emitting radionuclides can be distributed preferentially in certain tissue structures and even in certain cellular organelles, according to their chemical nature and the vector with which they are associated. Given the limited range of the low-energy electrons in biological matter, this heterogeneous distribution can generate highly localised energy depositions and exacerbate radiotoxic responses at cellular level. These particularities in energy distribution and cellular responses are not taken into account by the conventional methods for the assessment of risk. Alternative systems have been proposed, based on dosimetry conducted at the cellular or even molecular level, whose purpose is to determine the energy deposition occurring within the DNA molecule. However, calculation of absorbed doses at the molecular level is not sufficient to ensure a better assessment of the risks incurred. Favouring such a microdosimetric approach for the risk assessments would require a comprehensive knowledge of the biological targets of radiation, the dose–response relationships at the various levels of organisation, and the mechanisms leading from cellular energy deposition to the appearance of a health detriment. The required knowledge is not fully available today and it is not yet possible to link an intracellular energy deposition to a probability of occurrence of health effects or to use methods based on cellular

  8. Shape of electron lines emitted by a fast particle in atomic collisions. Influence of the acceptance function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordenave-Montesquieu, A.; Gleizes, A.; Benoit-Cattin, P.; Boudjema, M.

    1980-01-01

    In order to explain the large energy broadening of the lines observed in energy spectra of electrons emitted by fast particles, an accurate knowledge of the angular acceptance function of the electron energy analyser is necessary. A simple method is proposed which can give an accurate function for most atomic collisions: the various approximations are discussed. It is also shown that the analyser transmission depends on the acceptance angle. (author)

  9. Distribution of artificial radionuclides in particle-size fractions of soil on fallout plumes of nuclear explosions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabdyrakova, A M; Lukashenko, S N; Mendubaev, A T; Kunduzbayeva, A Ye; Panitskiy, A V; Larionova, N V

    2018-06-01

    In this paper are analyzed the artificial radionuclide distributions ( 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 241 Am, 239+240 Pu) in particle-size fractions of soils from two radioactive fallout plumes at the Semipalatinsk Test Site. These plumes were generated by a low-yield surface nuclear test and a surface non-nuclear experiment with insignificant nuclear energy release, respectively, and their lengths are approximately 3 and 0,65 km. In contrast with the great majority of similar studies performed in areas affected mainly by global fallout where adsorbing radionuclides such as Pu are mainly associated with the finest soil fractions, in this study it was observed that along both analyzed plumes the highest activity concentrations are concentrated in the coarse soil fractions. At the plume generated by the surface nuclear test, the radionuclides are concentrated mainly in the 1000-500 μm soil fraction (enrichment factor values ranging from 1.2 to 3.8), while at the plume corresponding to the surface non-nuclear test is the 500-250 μm soil fraction the enriched one by technogenic radionuclides (enrichment factor values ranging from 1.1 to 5.1). In addition, the activity concentration distributions among the different soil size fractions are similar for all radionuclides in both plumes. All the obtained data are in agreement with the hypothesis indicating that enrichment observed in the coarse fractions is caused by the presence of radioactive particles resulted from the indicated nuclear tests. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of the effects of inhaled 239PuO2 and β- emitting radionuclides on the incidence of lung carcinomas in laboratory animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, F.F.; Griffith, W.C.; Boecker, B.B.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Lundgren, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    The health effects of inhaling radioactive particles when the lung is the primary organ irradiated were studied in rats and Beagle dogs. The animals were exposed to aerosols of 239 PuO 2 or fission-product radionuclides in insoluble forms and observed for their life span. Lung carcinomas were the primary late-occuring effect. The incidence rate for lung carcinomas was modeled using a proportional hazard rate model. Linear functions predominated below 5 Gy to the lung. The life-time risk for lung carcinomas per 10 4 Gy for beta emitters was 60 for rats and 65 for dogs, and for 239 PuO 2 it was 1500 for rats and 2300 for dogs

  11. Comparison of the effects of inhaled 239PuO2 and β-emitting radionuclides of the incidence of lung carcinomas in laboratory animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, F.F.; Griffith, W.C.; Boecker, B.B.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Lundgren, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    The health effects of inhaling radioactive particles when the lung is the primary organ irradiated were studied in rats and dogs. The animals were exposed to aerosols of 239 PuO 2 or fission-product radionuclides in insoluble forms and observed for their life span. Lung carcinomas were the primary late-occurring effect. The incidence rate for lung carcinomas was modeled using a proportional hazard rate model. Linear functions predominated below 5 Gy to the lung. The life-time risk for lung carcinomas per 10 4 Gy for beta emitters was 60 for rats and 65 for dogs, and for 239 PuO 2 it was 1500 for rats and 2300 for dogs. (author)

  12. Controls of internal contamination from gamma-emitting radionuclides performed whole-body counter measures on children's population from Bjelorussia, Russia and Ucraina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarroni, G.; Battisti, P.; Castellani, C.M.; Formignani, M.; Rampa, E.; Ticconi, R.

    1994-12-01

    This report summarizes the results obtained in 9 measurement campaigns, performed at the ENEA (Italian Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment) centres of Bologna and Roma-Casaccia from April 1991 to September 1992, for the assessment of internal contamination from gamma-emitting radionuclides. Homogeneous samples were selected for the controls, each one representing the children's population from given area. 15 areas were investigated and 24 examined; 20 of them were from Bjelorussia. 266 children, 124 male and 142 female subjects, were controlled. The instruments were intercalibrated according to the body size, from 20.25 kg to 81 kg. Body contamination only from 1 37 Cs and 1 34 Cs was detected. Evaluations were performed in order to test appropriate use of ICRP caesium biokynetic model for children aged 8 to 15 years. Statistical distribution of body activity data were carefully analyzed. It is demonstrated that the data are well fitted by lognormal distribution and a difference between sexes in terms of activity. A significant difference between sexes was found in terms of activity intake

  13. Report on the IAEA-CU-2006-03 world-wide open proficiency test on the determination of gamma emitting radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakhashiro, A.; Sansone, U.; Trinkl, A.; Makarewicz, M.; Yonezawa, C.; Kim, C.K.; Kis-Benedek, G.; Benesch, T.; Schorn, R.

    2007-05-01

    The results of analytical measurements play a vital role in our daily lives. Analytical data may be the basis upon which economic, legal or environmental management decisions are made, and they are essential in international trade, environmental protection, safe transportation, law enforcement, consumer safety and the preservation of human health. As an incorrect decision can be extremely costly and detrimental, it is essential that such measurements are accurate, reliable, cost effective and defensible. In addition, measurements performed by laboratories located worldwide should yield traceable and comparable results. Proficiency testing is a method for regularly assessing the accuracy of the analytical data produced by the laboratories of particular measurements. The IAEA-CU-2006-03 world-wide proficiency test (PT) on the determination of gamma emitting radionuclides in water grass and soil is conducted by the Chemistry Unit of the IAEA's Laboratories located in Seibersdorf (Austria), which is actively involved in the production and characterization of matrix reference materials of terrestrial origin, widely used for method validation and organization of proficiency tests and intercomparison studies. The Chemistry Unit is a part of the Physics, Chemistry and Instrumentation Laboratory. This report describes the sample preparation methodology, data evaluation approach, summary evaluation of each nuclide and individual evaluation report for each laboratory

  14. Radionuclide Sensors for Water Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grate, Jay W.; Egorov, Oleg B.; DeVol, Timothy A.

    2004-01-01

    Radionuclide contamination in the soil and groundwater at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites is a severe problem that requires monitoring and remediation. Radionuclide measurement techniques are needed to monitor surface waters, groundwater, and process waters. Typically, water samples are collected and transported to an analytical laboratory, where costly radiochemical analyses are performed. To date, there has been very little development of selective radionuclide sensors for alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides such as 90Sr, 99Tc, and various actinides of interest. The objective of this project is to investigate novel sensor concepts and materials for sensitive and selective determination of beta- and alpha-emitting radionuclide contaminants in water. To meet the requirements for loW--level, isotope-specific detection, the proposed sensors are based on radiometric detection. As a means to address the fundamental challenge of the short ranges of beta and alpha particle s in water, our overall approach is based on localization of preconcentration/separation chemistries directly on or within the active area of a radioactivity detector. Automated microfluidics is used for sample manipulation and sensor regeneration or renewal. The outcome of these investigations will be the knowledge necessary to choose appropriate chemistries for selective preconcentration of radionuclides from environmental samples, new materials that combine chemical selectivity with scintillating properties, new materials that add chemical selectivity to solid-state diode detectors, new preconcentrating column sensors, and improved instrumentation and signal processing for selective radionuclide sensors. New knowledge will provide the basis for designing effective probes and instrumentation for field and in situ measurements

  15. Assessment and management of risks associated with exposures to Auger- and beta-emitting radionuclides. Recommendations and proposals for lines of research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The assessment and management of risks associated with exposures to ionising radiation are defined by the general radiological protection system, proposed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). This system is regarded by a large majority of users as a robust system with well-established relevance for the management and prevention of exposures. Despite this, there are a number of dissenting voices, claiming that this system is not suitable for estimating the risks resulting from internal exposures, particularly when incorporated radionuclides decay, emitting electrons. Criticisms of the system particularly pertain to Auger- and beta-emitting radionuclides, the intake of which can occur during environmental and industrial exposures or, simply, during a medical use of ionising radiation for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. These debates result from a lack of data in the fields of dosimetry and toxicology of these radionuclides. Auger and beta emitters can be distributed preferentially in certain tissue structures and even in certain cellular organelles, according to the vector with which they are associated. Given the limited range of electrons in matter, this heterogeneous distribution can generate highly localised energy depositions, not taken into account in conventional dosimetry methods, which make the assumption of uniform energy depositions. These specific physical and biochemical features of some of these radionuclides seem to influence their cellular toxicity directly. It is thus established that intranuclear distribution of iodine-125 is more effective for the induction of mutations or even cell death than a cytosolic distribution. This point is explained by the very short range of Auger electrons in matter (around a few dozen nm), which, in the case of an intranuclear distribution, would deliver all of their energy in the vicinity of the DNA, which, if affected, would be detrimental to the survival of the cell. The observation

  16. Self-expandable covered metallic esophageal stent impregnated with beta-emitting radionuclide: an experimental study in canine esophagus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, Je Hwan; Lee, Jong Doo; Wang, Hee Jung; Kim, Gui-Eon; Kim, Bong Wan; Yim, Hyunee; Han, Sang Keon; Park, Chan H.; Joh, Chul Woo; Kim, Kyung-Hwa; Park, Kyung Bae; Shin, Kyong-Min

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: A specially designed self-expandable covered metallic stent impregnated with the β-emitting radioisotope 166 Ho ( 166 Ho, energy: 1.85 and 1.76 MeV, T((1)/(2)): 26.8 h) was developed at our institute for the purpose of intraluminal palliative brachytherapy, as well as for treating malignant esophageal stricture and swallowing difficulty. The aim of this study was to evaluate the tissue response to brachytherapy and the safety of the radioactive metallic stent with regard to the normal canine esophagus before clinical application. Methods and Materials: 166 Ho was impregnated into the polyurethane membrane (50 μ thickness) covering the outer surface of a self-expandable metallic stent (diameter, 18 mm; length, 40 mm). Stents with radioactivity 4.0-7.8 mCi (Group A, n=15), 1.0-1.8 mCi (Group B, n 5), and 0.5-0.7 mCi (Group C, n=5) were placed in the esophagi of 25 healthy beagle dogs, and the stents were tightly anchored surgically to prevent migration. The estimated radiation dose calculated by Monte Carlo simulation was 194-383 Gy in Group A, 48-90 Gy in Group B, and 23-32 Gy in Group C. The dogs were killed 8-12 weeks after insertion of the stents, and histologic examinations of the esophageal walls were performed. Results: In Group A, 3 of 15 dogs died of wound infection, so specimens were obtained from only 12 dogs; all 12 cases showed esophageal stricture with mucosal ulceration. Microscopically, severe fibrosis and degeneration of the muscular propria were found in 3 dogs, complete fibrosis of the entire esophageal wall was found in 7 dogs, and esophageal fibrosis with radiation damage within periesophageal soft tissue was found in 2 dogs. However, esophageal perforation did not develop, despite extremely high radiation doses. In Group B, glandular atrophy and submucosal fibrosis were found, but the muscular layer was intact. In Group C, no histologic change was found in 3 dogs, but submucosal inflammation and glandular atrophy with intact mucosa

  17. Radionuclide data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Chapter 8 presents tables on selected alpha, beta, gamma and x-ray emitters by increasing energy; information on specific activity for selected radionuclides; naturally occurring radionuclides; the natural decay series; and the artificially produced neptunium series. A table of alpha emitters is listed by increasing atomic number and by energy. The table of β emitters presented is useful in identifying β emitters whose energies and possibly half-lives have been determined by standard laboratory techniques. It is also a handy guide to β-emitting isotopes for applications requiring specific half-lives and/or energies. Gamma rays for radionuclides of importance to radiological assessments and radiation protection are listed by increasing energy. The energies and branching ratios are important for radionuclide determinations with gamma spectrometry detectors. This section also presents a table of x-ray energies which are useful for radiochemical analyses. A number of nuclides emit x-rays as part of their decay scheme. These x-rays may be counted with Ar proportional counters, Ge planar or n-type Ge co-axial detectors, or thin crystal NaI(T1) scintillation counters. In both cases, spectral measurements can be made and both qualitative and quantitative information obtained on the sample. Nuclear decay data (energy and probability by radiation type) for more than one hundred radionuclides that are important to health physicists are presented in a schematic manner

  18. Modelling the reworking effects of bioturbation on the incorporation of radionuclides into the sediment column: implications for the fate of particle-reactive radionuclides in Irish Sea sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cournane, S.; Leon Vintro, L.; Mitchell, P.I.

    2010-01-01

    A microcosm laboratory experiment was conducted to determine the impact of biological reworking by the ragworm Nereis diversicolor on the redistribution of particle-bound radionuclides deposited at the sediment-water interface. Over the course of the 40-day experiment, as much as 35% of a 137 Cs-labelled particulate tracer deposited on the sediment surface was redistributed to depths of up to 11 cm by the polychaete. Three different reworking models were employed to model the profiles and quantify the biodiffusion and biotransport coefficients: a gallery-diffuser model, a continuous sub-surface egestion model and a biodiffusion model. Although the biodiffusion coefficients obtained for each model were quite similar, the continuous sub-surface egestion model provided the best fit to the data. The average biodiffusion coefficient, at 1.8 ± 0.9 cm 2 y -1 , is in good agreement with the values quoted by other workers on the bioturbation effects of this polychaete species. The corresponding value for the biotransport coefficient was found to be 0.9 ± 0.4 cm y -1 . The effects of non-local mixing were incorporated in a model to describe the temporal evolution of measured 99 Tc and 60 Co radionuclide sediment profiles in the eastern Irish Sea, influenced by radioactive waste discharged from the Sellafield reprocessing plant. Reworking conditions in the sediment column were simulated by considering an upper mixed layer, an exponentially decreasing diffusion coefficient, and appropriate biotransport coefficients to account for non-local mixing. The diffusion coefficients calculated from the 99 Tc and 60 Co cores were in the range 2-14 cm 2 y -1 , which are consistent with the values found by other workers in the same marine area, while the biotransport coefficients were similar to those obtained for a variety of macrobenthic organisms in controlled laboratories and field studies. -- Research highlights: →N. diversicolor redistributes up to 35% particle

  19. A study of gamma-emitting radionuclides present into the sediments and algae of the ''Baie de l'Orne'' (Central Normandy Coast) collecting during the years 1980 - 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepy, M.C.

    1982-01-01

    The present status of some environmental effects of existing sources of gamma-emitting radionuclides, along the Central part of the Normandy Coast (Calvados shores and river Orne mouth) was determined. A systematic study was made on the behaviour of the marine sediments and brown alga 'Laminaria digitata' with regard to their properties as indicators of radioactive contamination. Marine sediments were collected into the river Orne at fixed locations and into the sea in and around the estuary from 1977 to 1982. Algae samples were picked up along the coast from 1980 to 1982, mostly on the western part of the Orne estuary. Dosimetry techniques employed have produced accurate and reliable results, despite the very low levels of activity involved. Gamma-emitting radionuclides present in the environment (chiefly 106 Ru, 137 Cs, 95 Zr) were identified and measured. Their behaviour into the marine sediments and into Laminaria Digitata were determined. This study provides evidence on the presence of numerous gamma-emitting radionuclides into the marine environment of the Central part of the Normandy coast, but, altogether with very low levels of radioactivity [fr

  20. Carbon Nanostructure of Diesel Soot Particles Emitted from 2 and 4 Stroke Marine Engines Burning Different Fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Won-Ju; Park, Seul-Hyun; Jang, Se-Hyun; Kim, Hwajin; Choi, Sung Kuk; Cho, Kwon-Hae; Cho, Ik-Soon; Lee, Sang-Min; Choi, Jae-Hyuk

    2018-03-01

    Diesel soot particles were sampled from 2-stroke and 4-stroke engines that burned two different fuels (Bunker A and C, respectively), and the effects of the engine and fuel types on the structural characteristics of the soot particle were analyzed. The carbon nanostructures of the sampled particles were characterized using various techniques. The results showed that the soot sample collected from the 4-stroke engine, which burned Bunker C, has a higher degree of order of the carbon nanostructure than the sample collected from the 2-stroke engine, which burned Bunker A. Furthermore, the difference in the exhaust gas temperatures originating from the different engine and fuel types can affect the nanostructure of the soot emitted from marine diesel engines.

  1. Blue-Emitting Small Silica Particles Incorporating ZnSe-Based Nanocrystals Prepared by Reverse Micelle Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanori Ando

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available ZnSe-based nanocrystals (ca. 4-5 nm in diameter emitting in blue region (ca. 445 nm were incorporated in spherical small silica particles (20–40 nm in diameter by a reverse micelle method. During the preparation, alkaline solution was used to deposit the hydrolyzed alkoxide on the surface of nanocrystals. It was crucially important for this solution to include Zn2+ ions and surfactant molecules (thioglycolic acid to preserve the spectral properties of the final silica particles. This is because these substances in the solution prevent the surface of nanocrystals from deterioration by dissolution during processing. The resultant silica particles have an emission efficiency of 16% with maintaining the photoluminescent spectral width and peak wavelength of the initial colloidal solution.

  2. Gamma-spectrometric examination of hot particles emitted during the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balashazy, I.; Szabadine-Szende, G.; Loerinc, M.; Zombori, P.

    1987-05-01

    Ge(Li) gamma-spectrometric examination of hot particles prepared from air filtered dust of Budapest air after the Chernobyl accident is presented. The method of separating hot particles is described and their concentration in the air is determined. The radioactive isotope composition of hot particles is discussed and compared with that of dust samples. Finally, the inhalation probability and radiation burden of hot particles are evaluated. (author)

  3. Development of positron emitting radionuclides for imaging with improved positron detectors. [/sup 82/Rb, /sup 62/Zn, /sup 64/Cu, /sup 67/Ga

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yano, Y.

    1976-10-01

    Recent advances in positron cameras and positron ring detectors for transverse section reconstruction have created renewed interest in positron emitting radionuclides. This paper reports on: generator-produced /sup 82/Rb; cyclotron-produced /sup 62/Zn; and reactor-produced /sup 64/Cu. Investigation of the /sup 82/Sr (25 d)--/sup 82/Rb (75 s) generator determined the elution characteristics for Bio-Rex 70, a weakly acidic carboxylic cation exchanger, using 2% NaCl as the eluent. The yield of /sup 82/Rb and the breakthrough of /sup 82/Sr were determined for newly prepared columns and for long term elution conditions. Spallation-produced /sup 82/Sr was used to charge a compact /sup 82/Rb generator to obtain multi-millicurie amounts of /sup 82/Rb for myocardial imaging. Zinc accumulates in the islet cells of the pancreas and in the prostate. Zinc-62 was produced by protons on Cu foil and separated by column chromatography. Zinc-62 was administered as the amino acid chelates and as the ZnCl/sub 2/ to tumor and normal animals. Tissue distribution was determined for various times after intravenous injection. Pancreas-liver images of /sup 62/Zn-histidine uptake were obtained in animals with the gamma camera and the liver uptake of /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid was computer subtracted to image the pancreas alone. The positron camera imaged uptake of /sup 62/Zn-histidine in the prostate of a dog at 20 h. /sup 64/Cu was chelated to asparagine, a requirement of leukemic cells, and administered to lymphoma mice. Uptake in tumor and various tissues was determined and compared with the uptake of /sup 67/Ga citrate under the same conditions. /sup 64/Cu-asparagine had better tumor-to-soft tissue ratios than /sup 67/Ga-citrate.

  4. Report on the IAEA-CU-2006-08 proficiency test on the determination of gamma emitting radionuclides in sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakhashiro, A.; Sansone, U.; Martin, P.; Makarewicz, M.; Mohagheghi, A.

    2007-03-01

    The Cooperative Monitoring Centre of Sandia National Laboratories of the United States (SNL) has initiated the Radiation Measurements Cross Calibration (RMCC) project. The RMCC aims to promote regional cooperation in the Middle East for preparedness for radiological emergencies. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is cooperating with Sandia National Laboratories in this project. On a practical level, the initial aim of the RMCC is to establish a network of experts to cooperatively standardize nuclear monitoring and measurement capabilities in the Middle East by applying internationally recognized standards for laboratory radiation measurements. One of the project activities is to assist selected radiation measurement laboratories to participate in a quality assurance program and proficiency tests. During the second Workshop of the RMCC Project, organised by Sandia National Laboratories in Doha, Qatar, 12-17 November 2005, it was agreed to request the Chemistry Unit at the Agency's Seibersdorf laboratories to organise a special Proficiency Test (PT) for participants, for gamma-emitters in sea water. It is well known that proficiency testing is a method for regularly assessing the accuracy of the analytical data produced by the laboratories of particular measurements. According to the requirements of the RMCC project the IAEA-CU-2006-08 proficiency test (PT) on the determination of gamma emitting radionuclides in sea water was conducted by the Chemistry Unit of the IAEA's Laboratories located in Seibersdorf (Austria). The Chemistry Unit is actively involved in the production and characterization of matrix reference materials of terrestrial origin, widely used for method validation and organization of proficiency tests and intercomparison studies. The Chemistry Unit is a part of the Physics, Chemistry and Instrumentation Laboratory. This report describes the sample preparation methodology, data evaluation approach, summary evaluation of each nuclide and

  5. Measurement of energy spectra of charged particles emitted after the absorption of stopped negative pions in carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechtersheimer, G.

    1978-06-01

    The energy spectra of charged particles (p,d,t, 3 He, 4 He and Li-nuclei) emitted after the absorption of stopped negative pions in carbon targets of different thickness (1.227, 0.307, 0.0202 g/cm 2 ) have been measured from the experimental threshold energy of about 0.5 MeV up to the kinematical limit of about 100 MeV. The experiments have been carried out at the biomedical pion channel πE3 of the Swiss Institute of Nuclear Research (SIN). (orig.) [de

  6. Radionuclides and particles in seawater with the large volume in situ filtration and concentration system in the coastal waters off Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aono, Tatsuo; Nakanishi, Takahiro; Okubo, Ayako; Zheng, Jian; Yamada, Masatoshi; Kusakabe, Masashi

    2008-01-01

    It is necessary to determine the radionuclides in dissolved and particulate state in order to clarify the distributions and behavior of these in seawater. Because the concentrations of radionuclides and particles are very low in the ocean, it is difficult to concentrate and fractionate the particulate matters with the filtration systems in seawater. The large volume in situ filtration and concentration system (LV-FiCS) was developed to collect various forms of trace radionuclides and particles in seawater. The LV-FiCS has been operated during several cruises in the coastal waters off Japan, and several m 3 of seawaters were filtered through different kinds of filters and then pass through the adsorbents to concentrate radionuclides simultaneously. This system could be shown the vertical profiles of thorium with the size-fractionated method and the behavior of these nuclides in the ocean. (author)

  7. The ENSDF based radionuclide source for MCNP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berlizov, A.N.; Tryshyn, V.V.

    2003-01-01

    A utility for generating source code of the Source subroutine of MCNP (a general Monte Carlo NxParticle transport code) on the basis of ENSDF (Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File) is described. The generated code performs statistical simulation of processes, accompanying radioactive decay of a chosen radionuclide through a specified decay branch, providing characteristics of emitted correlated particles on its output. At modeling the following processes are taken into account: emission of continuum energy electrons at beta - -decay to different exited levels of a daughter nucleus; annihilation photon emission accompanying beta + -decay; gamma-ray emission; emission of discrete energy electrons resulted from internal conversion process on atomic K- and L I,II,III -shells; K and LX-ray emission at single and double fluorescence, accompanying electron capture and internal conversion processes. Number of emitted particles, their types, energies and emission times are sampled according to characteristics of a decay scheme of a particular radionuclide as well as characteristics of atomic shells of mother and daughter nuclei. Angular correlations, calculated for a particular combination of nuclear level spins, mixing ratios and gamma-ray multipolarities, are taken into account at sampling of directional cosines of emitted gamma-rays. The paper contains examples of spectrometry system response simulation at measurements with real radionuclide sources. (authors)

  8. NIR-emitting molecular-based nanoparticles as new two-photon absorbing nanotools for single particle tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, J.; Godin, A. G.; Clermont, G.; Lounis, B.; Cognet, L.; Blanchard-Desce, M.

    2015-07-01

    In order to provide a green alternative to QDs for bioimaging purposes and aiming at designing bright nanoparticles combining both large one- and two-photon brightness, a bottom-up route based on the molecular engineering of dedicated red to NIR emitting dyes that spontaneously form fluorescent organic nanoparticles (FONs) has been implemented. These fully organic nanoparticles built from original quadrupolar dyes are prepared using a simple, expeditious and green protocol that yield very small molecular-based nanoparticles (radius ~ 7 nm) suspension in water showing a nice NIR emission (λem=710 nm). These FONs typically have absorption coefficient more than two orders larger than popular NIR-emitting dyes (such as Alexa Fluor 700, Cy5.5 ….) and much larger Stokes shift values (i.e. up to over 5500 cm-1). They also show very large two-photon absorption response in the 800-1050 nm region (up to about 106 GM) of major promise for two-photon excited fluorescence microscopy. Thanks to their brightness and enhanced photostability, these FONs could be imaged as isolated nanoparticles and tracked using wide-field imaging. As such, thanks to their size and composition (absence of heavy metals), they represent highly promising alternatives to NIR-emitting QDs for use in bioimaging and single particle tracking applications. Moreover, efficient FONs coating was achieved by using a polymeric additive built from a long hydrophobic (PPO) and a short hydrophilic (PEO) segment and having a cationic head group able to interact with the highly negative surface of FONs. This electrostatically-driven interaction promotes both photoluminescence and two-photon absorption enhancement leading to an increase of two-photon brightness of about one order of magnitude. This opens the way to wide-field single particle tracking under two-photon excitation

  9. Nano-particle based scattering layers for optical efficiency enhancement of organic light-emitting diodes and organic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hong-Wei; Lee, Jonghee; Hofmann, Simone; Hyun Kim, Yong; Müller-Meskamp, Lars; Lüssem, Björn; Wu, Chung-Chih; Leo, Karl; Gather, Malte C.

    2013-05-01

    The performance of both organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and organic solar cells (OSC) depends on efficient coupling between optical far field modes and the emitting/absorbing region of the device. Current approaches towards OLEDs with efficient light-extraction often are limited to single-color emission or require expensive, non-standard substrates or top-down structuring, which reduces compatibility with large-area light sources. Here, we report on integrating solution-processed nano-particle based light-scattering films close to the active region of organic semiconductor devices. In OLEDs, these films efficiently extract light that would otherwise remain trapped in the device. Without additional external outcoupling structures, translucent white OLEDs containing these scattering films achieve luminous efficacies of 46 lm W-1 and external quantum efficiencies of 33% (both at 1000 cd m-2). These are by far the highest numbers ever reported for translucent white OLEDs and the best values in the open literature for any white device on a conventional substrate. By applying additional light-extraction structures, 62 lm W-1 and 46% EQE are reached. Besides universally enhancing light-extraction in various OLED configurations, including flexible, translucent, single-color, and white OLEDs, the nano-particle scattering film boosts the short-circuit current density in translucent organic solar cells by up to 70%.

  10. Humidity affects the morphology of particles emitted from beclomethasone dipropionate pressurized metered dose inhalers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey, James W; Bhambri, Pallavi; Church, Tanya K; Lewis, David A; McDermott, Mark T; Elbayomy, Shereen; Finlay, Warren H; Vehring, Reinhard

    2017-03-30

    The effects of propellant type, cosolvent content, and air humidity on the morphology and solid phase of the particles produced from solution pressurized metered dose inhalers containing the corticosteroid beclomethasone dipropionate were investigated. The active ingredient was dissolved in the HFA propellants 134a and 227ea with varying levels of the cosolvent ethanol and filled into pressurized metered dose inhalers. Inhalers were actuated into an evaporation chamber under controlled temperature and humidity conditions and sampled using a single nozzle, single stage inertial impactor. Particle morphology was assessed qualitatively using field emission scanning electron microscopy and focused ion beam-helium ion microscopy. Drug solid phase was assessed using Raman microscopy. The relative humidity of the air during inhaler actuation was found to have a strong effect on the particle morphology, with solid spheroidal particles produced in dry air and highly porous particles produced at higher humidity levels. Air humidification was found to have no effect on the solid phase of the drug particles, which was predominantly amorphous for all tested formulations. A critical level of air relative humidity was required to generate porous particles for each tested formulation. This critical relative humidity was found to depend on the amount of ethanol used in the inhaler, but not on the type of propellant utilized. The results indicate that under the right circumstances water vapor saturation followed by nucleated water condensation or ice deposition occurs during particle formation from evaporating propellant-cosolvent-BDP droplets. This finding reveals the importance of condensed water or ice as a templating agent for porosity when particle formation occurs at saturated conditions, with possible implications on the pharmacokinetics of solution pMDIs and potential applications in particle engineering for drug delivery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Chemical characterization of freshly emitted particulate matter from aircraft exhaust using single particle mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abegglen, Manuel; Brem, B. T.; Ellenrieder, M.; Durdina, L.; Rindlisbacher, T.; Wang, J.; Lohmann, U.; Sierau, B.

    2016-06-01

    Non-volatile aircraft engine emissions are an important anthropogenic source of soot particles in the upper troposphere and in the vicinity of airports. They influence climate and contribute to global warming. In addition, they impact air quality and thus human health and the environment. The chemical composition of non-volatile particulate matter emission from aircraft engines was investigated using single particle time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The exhaust from three different aircraft engines was sampled and analyzed. The soot particulate matter was sampled directly behind the turbine in a test cell at Zurich Airport. Single particle analyses will focus on metallic compounds. The particles analyzed herein represent a subset of the emissions composed of the largest particles with a mobility diameter >100 nm due to instrumental restrictions. A vast majority of the analyzed particles was shown to contain elemental carbon, and depending on the engine and the applied thrust the elemental carbon to total carbon ratio ranged from 83% to 99%. The detected metallic compounds were all internally mixed with the soot particles. The most abundant metals in the exhaust were Cr, Fe, Mo, Na, Ca and Al; V, Ba, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, Mg, Mn, Si, Ti and Zr were also detected. We further investigated potential sources of the ATOFMS-detected metallic compounds using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry. The potential sources considered were kerosene, engine lubrication oil and abrasion from engine wearing components. An unambiguous source apportionment was not possible because most metallic compounds were detected in several of the analyzed sources.

  12. Utility of γH2AX as a molecular marker of DNA double-strand breaks in nuclear medicine: applications to radionuclide therapy employing auger electron-emitting isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Li-Jeen; Orlowski, Christian; Ververis, Katherine; El-Osta, Assam; Karagiannis, Tom C

    2011-01-01

    There is an intense interest in the development of radiopharmaceuticals for cancer therapy. In particular, radiopharmaceuticals which involve targeting radionuclides specifically to cancer cells with the use of monoclonal antibodies (radioimmunotherapy) or peptides (targeted radiotherapy) are being widely investigated. For example, the ultra-short range Auger electron-emitting isotopes, which are discussed in this review, are being considered in the context of DNAtargeted radiotherapy. The efficient quantitative evaluation of the levels of damage caused by such potential radiopharmaceuticals is required for assessment of therapeutic efficacy and determination of relevant doses for successful treatment. The DNA double-strand break surrogate marker, γH2AX, has emerged as a useful biomonitor of damage and thus effectiveness of treatment, offering a highly specific and sensitive means of assessment. This review will cover the potential applications of γH2AX in nuclear medicine, in particular radionuclide therapy.

  13. Hygroscopic properties of atmospheric particles emitted during wintertime biomass burning episodes in Athens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psichoudaki, Magda; Nenes, Athanasios; Florou, Kalliopi; Kaltsonoudis, Christos; Pandis, Spyros N.

    2018-04-01

    This study explores the Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN) activity of atmospheric particles during intense biomass burning periods in an urban environment. During a one-month campaign in the center of Athens, Greece, a CCN counter coupled with a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) and a high resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-AMS) were used to measure the size-resolved CCN activity and composition of the atmospheric aerosols. During the day, the organic fraction of the particles was more than 50%, reaching almost 80% at night, when the fireplaces were used. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) analysis revealed 4 factors with biomass burning being the dominant source after 18:00 until the early morning. The CCN-based overall hygroscopicity parameter κ ranged from 0.15 to 0.25. During the night, when the biomass burning organic aerosol (bbOA) dominated, the hygroscopicity parameter for the mixed organic/inorganic particles was on average 0.16. The hygroscopicity of the biomass-burning organic particles was 0.09, while the corresponding average value for all organic particulate matter during the campaign was 0.12.

  14. Hot spots effect on infrared spectral luminance emitted by carbon under plasma particles impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delchambre, E.; Reichle, R.; Mitteau, R.; Missirlian, M.; Gobin, R.

    2004-01-01

    During the last Tore Supra campaigns, an anomalous deformation in the near infrared spectrum of radiation has been observed on neutralizer underneath the Toroidal Pumped Limiter (TPL) on which we observed the growth of carbon layer. The consequence is the difficulty to asses the surface temperature of the components and the power loaded. Laboratory experiment has been performed, using an Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ions source, to reproduce, characterize and explain this phenomenon. The luminance emitted by Carbon Fibre Composite (CFC) and pyrolytic graphite, have been observed under 95 keV of H+ bombardments. The amplitude of the deformation was found to depend on the type of material used and the power density of the incident power loaded. This paper presents the possible hot spots explanation. The experimental luminance deformation is reproduced and these results are validated using a thermal model of dust in radiate equilibrium. (authors)

  15. Physical Properties and Lung Deposition of Particles Emitted from Five Major Indoor Sources.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tuan, V.Vu.; Ondráček, Jakub; Ždímal, Vladimír; Schwarz, Jaroslav; Delgado-Saborit, J.M.; Harrison, R. M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 1 (2016), s. 1-14 ISSN 1873-9318 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 315760 - HEXACOMM Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : indoor sources * particle size * hygroscopic growth Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.184, year: 2016

  16. How the Emitted Size Distribution and Mixing State of Feldspar Affect Ice Nucleating Particles in a Global Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlwitz, J. P.; Fridlind, A. M.; Knopf, D. A.; Miller, R. L.; Pérez García-Pando, C.

    2017-12-01

    The effect of aerosol particles on ice nucleation and, in turn, the formation of ice and mixed phase clouds is recognized as one of the largest sources of uncertainty in climate prediction. We apply an improved dust mineral specific aerosol module in the NASA GISS Earth System ModelE, which takes into account soil aggregates and their fragmentation at emission as well as the emission of large particles. We calculate ice nucleating particle concentrations from K-feldspar abundance for an active site parameterization for a range of activation temperatures and external and internal mixing assumption. We find that the globally averaged INP concentration is reduced by a factor of two to three, compared to a simple assumption on the size distribution of emitted dust minerals. The decrease can amount to a factor of five in some geographical regions. The results vary little between external and internal mixing and different activation temperatures, except for the coldest temperatures. In the sectional size distribution, the size range 2-4 μm contributes the largest INP number.

  17. How the Emitted Size Distribution and Mixing State of Feldspar Affect Ice Nucleating Particles in a Global Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlwitz, Jan P.; Fridlind, Ann M.; Knopf, Daniel A.; Miller, Ron L.; García-Pando, Carlos Perez

    2017-01-01

    The effect of aerosol particles on ice nucleation and, in turn, the formation of ice and mixed phase clouds is recognized as one of the largest sources of uncertainty in climate prediction. We apply an improved dust mineral specific aerosol module in the NASA GISS Earth System ModelE, which takes into account soil aggregates and their fragmentation at emission as well as the emission of large particles. We calculate ice nucleating particle concentrations from K-feldspar abundance for an active site parameterization for a range of activation temperatures and external and internal mixing assumption. We find that the globally averaged INP concentration is reduced by a factor of two to three, compared to a simple assumption on the size distribution of emitted dust minerals. The decrease can amount to a factor of five in some geographical regions. The results vary little between external and internal mixing and different activation temperatures, except for the coldest temperatures. In the sectional size distribution, the size range 24 micrometer contributes the largest INP number.

  18. Probability of bystander effect induced by alpha-particles emitted by radon progeny using the analytical model of tracheobronchial tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovanovic, B.; Nikezic, D.

    2010-01-01

    Radiation-induced biological bystander effects have become a phenomenon associated with the interaction of radiation with cells. There is a need to include the influence of biological effects in the dosimetry of the human lung. With this aim, the purpose of this work is to calculate the probability of bystander effect induced by alpha-particle radiation on sensitive cells of the human lung. Probability was calculated by applying the analytical model cylinder bifurcation, which was created to simulate the geometry of the human lung with the geometric distribution of cell nuclei in the airway wall of the tracheobronchial tree. This analytical model of the human tracheobronchial tree represents the extension of the ICRP 66 model, and follows it as much as possible. Reported probabilities are calculated for various targets and alpha-particle energies. Probability of bystander effect has been calculated for alpha particles with 6 and 7.69 MeV energies, which are emitted in the 222 Rn chain. The application of these results may enhance current dose risk estimation approaches in the sense of the inclusion of the influence of the biological effects. (authors)

  19. Diagnostics of Particles emitted from a Laser generated Plasma: Experimental Data and Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Giuseppe; Torrisi, Lorenzo

    2018-01-01

    The charge particle emission form laser-generated plasma was studied experimentally and theoretically using the COMSOL simulation code. The particle acceleration was investigated using two lasers at two different regimes. A Nd:YAG laser, with 3 ns pulse duration and 1010 W/cm2 intensity, when focused on solid target produces a non-equilibrium plasma with average temperature of about 30-50 eV. An Iodine laser with 300 ps pulse duration and 1016 W/cm2 intensity produces plasmas with average temperatures of the order of tens keV. In both cases charge separation occurs and ions and electrons are accelerated at energies of the order of 200 eV and 1 MeV per charge state in the two cases, respectively. The simulation program permits to plot the charge particle trajectories from plasma source in vacuum indicating how they can be deflected by magnetic and electrical fields. The simulation code can be employed to realize suitable permanent magnets and solenoids to deflect ions toward a secondary target or detectors, to focalize ions and electrons, to realize electron traps able to provide significant ion acceleration and to realize efficient spectrometers. In particular it was applied to the study two Thomson parabola spectrometers able to detect ions at low and at high laser intensities. The comparisons between measurements and simulation is presented and discussed.

  20. Size-segregated emissions and metal content of vehicle-emitted particles as a function of mileage: Implications to population exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golokhvast, Kirill S.; Chernyshev, Valery V.; Chaika, Vladimir V.; Ugay, Sergey M.; Zelinskaya, Elena V.; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M.; Karakitsios, Spyros P.; Sarigiannis, Denis A.

    2015-01-01

    The study aims at investigating the characteristics (size distribution, active surface and metal content) of particles emitted by cars as a function of mileage using a novel methodology for characterizing particulate emissions captured by Exhaust Gas Suspension (EGS). EGS was obtained by passing the exhaust gases through a container of deionized water. EGS analysis was performed using laser granulometry, electron scanning microscopy, and high resolution mass spectrometry. Implications of the differences in key features of the emitted particles on population exposure were investigated using numerical simulation for estimating size-segregated PM deposition across human respiratory tract (HRT). It was found that vehicle mileage, age and the respective emissions class have almost no effect on the size distribution of the exhaust gas particulate released into the environment; about half of the examined vehicles with low mileage were found to release particles of aerodynamic diameter above 10 μm. The exhaust gas particulate detected in the EGS of all cars can be classified into three major size classes: (1) 0.1–5 µm – soot and ash particles, metals (Au, Pt, Pd, Ir); (2) 10–30 µm – metal (Cr, Fe, Cu, Zr, Ni) and ash particles; (3) 400–1,000 µm – metal (Fe, Cr, Pb) and ash particles. Newer vehicles with low mileage are substantial sources of soot and metal particles with median diameter of 200 nm with a higher surface area (up to 89,871.16 cm 2 /cm 3 ). These tend to deposit in the lower part of the human respiratory tract. - Highlights: • Car mileage has virtually no effect on the size of the solid particles released. • Newer diesel vehicles emit particles of lower aerodynamic diameter. • Particle active surface emitted by newer vehicles is on average 3 times higher. • Real-life emissions were translated into actual internal PM exposure.

  1. Size-segregated emissions and metal content of vehicle-emitted particles as a function of mileage: Implications to population exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golokhvast, Kirill S.; Chernyshev, Valery V.; Chaika, Vladimir V.; Ugay, Sergey M. [Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Zelinskaya, Elena V. [National Research Irkutsk State Technical University, Irkutsk (Russian Federation); Tsatsakis, Aristidis M. [University of Crete, Medical School, Department of Toxicology and Forensic Science, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Karakitsios, Spyros P. [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Department of Chemical Engineering, Thessaloniki (Greece); Sarigiannis, Denis A., E-mail: denis@eng.auth.gr [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Department of Chemical Engineering, Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2015-10-15

    The study aims at investigating the characteristics (size distribution, active surface and metal content) of particles emitted by cars as a function of mileage using a novel methodology for characterizing particulate emissions captured by Exhaust Gas Suspension (EGS). EGS was obtained by passing the exhaust gases through a container of deionized water. EGS analysis was performed using laser granulometry, electron scanning microscopy, and high resolution mass spectrometry. Implications of the differences in key features of the emitted particles on population exposure were investigated using numerical simulation for estimating size-segregated PM deposition across human respiratory tract (HRT). It was found that vehicle mileage, age and the respective emissions class have almost no effect on the size distribution of the exhaust gas particulate released into the environment; about half of the examined vehicles with low mileage were found to release particles of aerodynamic diameter above 10 μm. The exhaust gas particulate detected in the EGS of all cars can be classified into three major size classes: (1) 0.1–5 µm – soot and ash particles, metals (Au, Pt, Pd, Ir); (2) 10–30 µm – metal (Cr, Fe, Cu, Zr, Ni) and ash particles; (3) 400–1,000 µm – metal (Fe, Cr, Pb) and ash particles. Newer vehicles with low mileage are substantial sources of soot and metal particles with median diameter of 200 nm with a higher surface area (up to 89,871.16 cm{sup 2}/cm{sup 3}). These tend to deposit in the lower part of the human respiratory tract. - Highlights: • Car mileage has virtually no effect on the size of the solid particles released. • Newer diesel vehicles emit particles of lower aerodynamic diameter. • Particle active surface emitted by newer vehicles is on average 3 times higher. • Real-life emissions were translated into actual internal PM exposure.

  2. Identification of specific sources of airborne particles emitted from within a complex industrial (steelworks) site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beddows, D. C. S.; Harrison, Roy M.

    2018-06-01

    A case study is provided of the development and application of methods to identify and quantify specific sources of emissions from within a large complex industrial site. Methods include directional analysis of concentrations, chemical source tracers and correlations with gaseous emissions. Extensive measurements of PM10, PM2.5, trace gases, particulate elements and single particle mass spectra were made at sites around the Port Talbot steelworks in 2012. By using wind direction data in conjunction with real-time or hourly-average pollutant concentration measurements, it has been possible to locate areas within the steelworks associated with enhanced pollutant emissions. Directional analysis highlights the Slag Handling area of the works as the most substantial source of elevated PM10 concentrations during the measurement period. Chemical analyses of air sampled from relevant wind directions is consistent with the anticipated composition of slags, as are single particle mass spectra. Elevated concentrations of PM10 are related to inverse distance from the Slag Handling area, and concentrations increase with increased wind speed, consistent with a wind-driven resuspension source. There also appears to be a lesser source associated with Sinter Plant emissions affecting PM10 concentrations at the Fire Station monitoring site. The results are compared with a ME2 study using some of the same data, and shown to give a clearer view of the location and characteristics of emission sources, including fugitive dusts.

  3. Carbon Nano-particle Synthesized by Pulsed Arc Discharge Method as a Light Emitting Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Ramin; Ahmadi, Mohamad Taghi; Ismail, Razali

    2018-04-01

    Owing to the specific properties such as high mobility, ballistic carrier transport and light emission, carbon nano-particles (CNPs) have been employed in nanotechnology applications. In the presented work, the CNPs are synthesized by using the pulsed arc discharge method between two copper electrodes. The rectifying behaviour of produced CNPs is explored by assuming an Ohmic contact between the CNPs and the electrodes. The synthesized sample is characterized by electrical investigation and modelling. The current-voltage (I-V) relationship is investigated and bright visible light emission from the produced CNPs was measured. The electroluminescence (EL) intensity was explored by changing the distance between two electrodes. An incremental behaviour on EL by a resistance gradient and distance reduction is identified.

  4. Doses rate in contact with plastic syringes of 1, 2 and 5 mL for different beta and gamma emitting radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres Berdeguez, Mirta; Ayra Pardo, Enrique; Falcon, Lazaro

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to calculate the dose rate in contact with plastic syringes of 1, 2 and 5 m L volume, unshielded and the dose rate in the same syringes after a lead or a Lucite shield of various thickness has been installed, depending on the emission of the radionuclide used. The radionuclides involved in the assessment were 32 P, 51 Cr, 90 Y, 99m Tc, 125 I, 131 I, 153 Sm, 186 Re, 188 Re, 169 Er and 177 Lu. The code used was the MCNP4C. The results are intended to be used by a Radiation Protection Officer wherever the radionuclides in question are handled to rapidly assess the dose in hands of the operators. (author)

  5. Health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis. Modification of models resulting from addition of effects of exposure to alpha-emitting radionuclides: Revision 1, Part 2, Scientific bases for health effects models, Addendum 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrahamson, S. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States); Bender, M.A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Boecker, B.B.; Scott, B.R. [Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Inhalation Toxicology Research Inst.; Gilbert, E.S. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-05-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has sponsored several studies to identify and quantify, through the use of models, the potential health effects of accidental releases of radionuclides from nuclear power plants. The Reactor Safety Study provided the basis for most of the earlier estimates related to these health effects. Subsequent efforts by NRC-supported groups resulted in improved health effects models that were published in the report entitled {open_quotes}Health Effects Models for Nuclear Power Plant Consequence Analysis{close_quotes}, NUREG/CR-4214, 1985 and revised further in the 1989 report NUREG/CR-4214, Rev. 1, Part 2. The health effects models presented in the 1989 NUREG/CR-4214 report were developed for exposure to low-linear energy transfer (LET) (beta and gamma) radiation based on the best scientific information available at that time. Since the 1989 report was published, two addenda to that report have been prepared to (1) incorporate other scientific information related to low-LET health effects models and (2) extend the models to consider the possible health consequences of the addition of alpha-emitting radionuclides to the exposure source term. The first addendum report, entitled {open_quotes}Health Effects Models for Nuclear Power Plant Accident Consequence Analysis, Modifications of Models Resulting from Recent Reports on Health Effects of Ionizing Radiation, Low LET Radiation, Part 2: Scientific Bases for Health Effects Models,{close_quotes} was published in 1991 as NUREG/CR-4214, Rev. 1, Part 2, Addendum 1. This second addendum addresses the possibility that some fraction of the accident source term from an operating nuclear power plant comprises alpha-emitting radionuclides. Consideration of chronic high-LET exposure from alpha radiation as well as acute and chronic exposure to low-LET beta and gamma radiations is a reasonable extension of the health effects model.

  6. The effects of fluvial transport on radionuclide concentrations on different particle size classes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyer, F.J.; Olley, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    This paper reports on the effects of grain abrasion and disaggregation on the distribution of 137 Cs with respect to particle size and the effects this may have on the use of 137 Cs for determining the origin of recent sediment. Cs-137 is a product of above ground nuclear testing and has been deposited on the earth's surface by rainfall. On contact with soil, 137 Cs is strongly adsorbed by soil particles and there is a direct correlation between 137 Cs concentration and decreasing particle size. Rapid adsorption means that 137 Cs is preferentially concentrated in surface soils, and it's subsequent redistribution by physical processes rather than chemical has lead to 137 Cs being widely used to study soil erosion

  7. Fractional energy absorption from beta-emitting particles in the rat lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snipes, M.B.

    1977-01-01

    Forty-four male, Fischer-344 rats were exposed nose-only to an aerosol of 144 Ce in fused aluminosilicate particles to obtain a relatively insoluble lung burden of this material. Twenty-eight rats, ages 12 to 25 weeks with body weights of 183 to 337 grams were analyzed seven to nine days after exposure; lung burdens were 13 to 82 nCi. An additional group of 16 rats was exposed when 12 weeks old and maintained for six months prior to analysis; body weights and lung burdens at six months after exposure ranged from 276 to 368 grams and 16 to 46 nCi, respectively. Lungs were analyzed, inflated and deflated in a 4π beta spectrometer to determine fractional energy absorption for 144 Ce. Over the relatively narrow range of sizes, 0.88 to 1.66 grams, for lungs in this study the average fractional energy absorption and its standard deviation was 0.23 +- 0.078 for the inflated lung and 0.40 +- 0.087 for the deflated lung

  8. Particle-borne radionuclides as tracers for sediment in the Susquehanna River and Chesapeake Bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donoghue, J F [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (USA). Dept. of Geology; Bricker, O P [Geological Survey, Reston, VA (USA). Water Resources Div.; Olsen, C R [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)

    1989-10-01

    The Chesapeake Bay receives nearly 1,000,000 tonnes of sediment annually from its major tributary, the Susquehanna River. The pattern of deposition of this sediment affects the lifetime of the estuarine resource and the fate of any sediment-borne contaminants. Previous estimates of the extent to which Susquehanna River sediment is transported down the Chesapeake have differed considerably. By use of reactor-generated radionuclides adsorbed on the river sediment, a sediment budget has been compiled for the upper Chesapeake Bay and the reservoirs on the lower Susquehanna. Reservoirs impound nearly 1,400,000 tonnes of sediment annually behind the power dams on the lower Susquehanna River. Without the dams, sediment delivery to the upper bay would more than double. The uppermost Chesapeake Bay, within and above the turbidity maximum, retains virtually all of the fluvial sediment delivered to it. The result is an annual sedimentation rate of approximately 3 mm yr{sup -1} in the upper bay, an infilling rate that is nearly equal to the regional rate of sea level rise. (author).

  9. Particle-borne radionuclides as tracers for sediment in the Susquehanna River and Chesapeake Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donoghue, J.F.

    1989-01-01

    The Chesapeake Bay receives nearly 1,000,000 tonnes of sediment annually from its major tributary, the Susquehanna River. The pattern of deposition of this sediment affects the lifetime of the estuarine resource and the fate of any sediment-borne contaminants. Previous estimates of the extent to which Susquehanna River sediment is transported down the Chesapeake have differed considerably. By use of reactor-generated radionuclides adsorbed on the river sediment, a sediment budget has been compiled for the upper Chesapeake Bay and the reservoirs on the lower Susquehanna. Reservoirs impound nearly 1,400,000 tonnes of sediment annually behind the power dams on the lower Susquehanna River. Without the dams, sediment delivery to the upper bay would more than double. The uppermost Chesapeake Bay, within and above the turbidity maximum, retains virtually all of the fluvial sediment delivered to it. The result is an annual sedimentation rate of approximately 3 mm yr -1 in the upper bay, an infilling rate that is nearly equal to the regional rate of sea level rise. (author)

  10. Synthesis and tissue distribution studies of two novel esters of haloperidol and the application of radiolabelling techniques using short-lived radionuclides in the study of the deposition characteristics of suspended aerosol particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.F.

    1982-01-01

    In the present work, the Schotten-Baumann reaction conditions were modified to esterify the tertiary hydroxyl group of haloperidol. The rapid synthesis (less than 20 min) makes this procedure applicable to the preparation of esters of haloperidol containing fluorine-18 (t/sup (1/2)/ 110 min), a γ-emitting radioisotope useful in external scintigraphy. In vivo distribution studies of the synthesized tritiated esters and haloperidol in the rat demonstrated that neither ester prodrug achieved overall higher brain concentration levels than haloperidol. In this study, radiotracer techniques were developed to examine parameters that characterize pressurized aerosols designed to utilize insoluble particles suspended in the aerosol formulation. The suspended micro-aggregated bovine albumin microspheres were labelled with iodine-131 (t/sup (1/2)/ 8 days). The techniques developed illustrate the use of short-lived radionuclides for: 1) quantitation of each metered dose; 2) characterization of particle size distribution by the aerosol; and 3) determination of the extent of deposition of the particles in the aerosol and all of its components

  11. CR-39 α track detector and its application in observing of the hot particles in environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Benchuan

    1992-01-01

    CR-39 α track detector is a new α remitting radionuclides plastic detector. It is audio-visual, convenient and economic in the detection of α particle track and the distribution of α emitting radionuclides in environmental samples. CR-39 α track detector is used to observe the hot particles in rock and the hot particles coming from the liquid effluents discharged by spent fuel reprocessing plant in UK in marine environment and got good results

  12. Nano-objects emitted during maintenance of common particle generators: direct chemical characterization with aerosol mass spectrometry and implications for risk assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Patrik T., E-mail: patrik.nilsson@design.lth.se; Isaxon, Christina [Lund University, Ergonomics and Aerosol Technology (Sweden); Eriksson, Axel C. [Lund University, Nuclear Physics (Sweden); Messing, Maria E. [Lund University, Solid State Physics (Sweden); Ludvigsson, Linus; Rissler, Jenny [Lund University, Ergonomics and Aerosol Technology (Sweden); Hedmer, Maria; Tinnerberg, Håkan [Lund University, Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Laboratory Medicine (Sweden); Gudmundsson, Anders [Lund University, Ergonomics and Aerosol Technology (Sweden); Deppert, Knut [Lund University, Solid State Physics (Sweden); Bohgard, Mats; Pagels, Joakim H. [Lund University, Ergonomics and Aerosol Technology (Sweden)

    2013-11-15

    Nanotechnology gives us materials with enhanced or completely new properties. At the same time, inhalation of manufactured nano-objects has been related to an array of adverse biological effects. We characterized particle emissions, which occurred during maintenance of common metal nanoparticle generators and contrasted the properties of the emitted particles with those originally produced by the generators. A new approach using online aerosol mass spectrometry (AMS), for time- and size-resolved measurements of the particle chemical composition, was applied in combination with more conventional techniques for particle sampling and analysis, including electron microscopy. Emissions during maintenance work, in terms of mass and surface area concentration in the size range of 0.02–10 μm, were dominated by large agglomerates (1–5 μm). With AMS, we show that the particle composition depends on both generator type and maintenance task being performed and that the instrument can be used for highly time-resolved selective studies of metal nanoparticle emissions. The emitted agglomerates have a relatively high probability to be deposited in the lower respiratory tract, since the mean particle diameter coincided with a peak in the lung deposition curve. Each of these agglomerates consisted of a very high number (10{sup 3}–10{sup 5}/agglomerate) of nanometer-sized primary particles originating from the particle synthesis process. This made them possess large surface areas, one of the key properties in nanotoxicology. Similar agglomerates may be emitted in a wide range of processes when nanoparticles are manufactured or handled. The fate of such agglomerates, once deposited in the respiratory tract, is unknown and should therefore be considered in future particle toxicological studies. Our results highlight the importance of including micrometer-sized particles in exposure and emission assessments.

  13. Nano-objects emitted during maintenance of common particle generators: direct chemical characterization with aerosol mass spectrometry and implications for risk assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, Patrik T.; Isaxon, Christina; Eriksson, Axel C.; Messing, Maria E.; Ludvigsson, Linus; Rissler, Jenny; Hedmer, Maria; Tinnerberg, Håkan; Gudmundsson, Anders; Deppert, Knut; Bohgard, Mats; Pagels, Joakim H.

    2013-01-01

    Nanotechnology gives us materials with enhanced or completely new properties. At the same time, inhalation of manufactured nano-objects has been related to an array of adverse biological effects. We characterized particle emissions, which occurred during maintenance of common metal nanoparticle generators and contrasted the properties of the emitted particles with those originally produced by the generators. A new approach using online aerosol mass spectrometry (AMS), for time- and size-resolved measurements of the particle chemical composition, was applied in combination with more conventional techniques for particle sampling and analysis, including electron microscopy. Emissions during maintenance work, in terms of mass and surface area concentration in the size range of 0.02–10 μm, were dominated by large agglomerates (1–5 μm). With AMS, we show that the particle composition depends on both generator type and maintenance task being performed and that the instrument can be used for highly time-resolved selective studies of metal nanoparticle emissions. The emitted agglomerates have a relatively high probability to be deposited in the lower respiratory tract, since the mean particle diameter coincided with a peak in the lung deposition curve. Each of these agglomerates consisted of a very high number (10 3 –10 5 /agglomerate) of nanometer-sized primary particles originating from the particle synthesis process. This made them possess large surface areas, one of the key properties in nanotoxicology. Similar agglomerates may be emitted in a wide range of processes when nanoparticles are manufactured or handled. The fate of such agglomerates, once deposited in the respiratory tract, is unknown and should therefore be considered in future particle toxicological studies. Our results highlight the importance of including micrometer-sized particles in exposure and emission assessments

  14. Radionuclide fluxes in the Arabian Sea: The role of particle composition

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Scholten, J.C.; Fietzke, J.; Mangini, A.; Stoffers, P.; Rixen, T.; Gaye-Haake, B.; Blanz, T.; Ramaswamy, V.; Sirocko, F.; Schulz, H.; Ittekkot, V.

    scavenging. 2. Methods Sediment trap samples were obtained from loca- tions WAST, CAST and EAST. Details on the locations, sampling intervals and average composition of the sediment trap material are given in Table 1. investigated Collection interruptions Ca... as they sink through the water column [11]. One of the basic methods when applying radio- high ratios are expected at continental margins (high particle flux), and such a boundary scavenging was observed in the surface sediments of the Pacific Ocean [13...

  15. Effect of Drive Cycle and Gasoline Particulate Filter on the Size and Morphology of Soot Particles Emitted from a Gasoline-Direct-Injection Vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffaripour, Meghdad; Chan, Tak W; Liu, Fengshan; Thomson, Kevin A; Smallwood, Gregory J; Kubsh, Joseph; Brezny, Rasto

    2015-10-06

    The size and morphology of particulate matter emitted from a light-duty gasoline-direct-injection (GDI) vehicle, over the FTP-75 and US06 transient drive cycles, have been characterized by transmission-electron-microscope (TEM) image analysis. To investigate the impact of gasoline particulate filters on particulate-matter emission, the results for the stock-GDI vehicle, that is, the vehicle in its original configuration, have been compared to the results for the same vehicle equipped with a catalyzed gasoline particulate filter (GPF). The stock-GDI vehicle emits graphitized fractal-like aggregates over all driving conditions. The mean projected area-equivalent diameter of these aggregates is in the 78.4-88.4 nm range and the mean diameter of primary particles varies between 24.6 and 26.6 nm. Post-GPF particles emitted over the US06 cycle appear to have an amorphous structure, and a large number of nucleation-mode particles, depicted as low-contrast ultrafine droplets, are observed in TEM images. This indicates the emission of a substantial amount of semivolatile material during the US06 cycle, most likely generated by the incomplete combustion of accumulated soot in the GPF during regeneration. The size of primary particles and soot aggregates does not vary significantly by implementing the GPF over the FTP-75 cycle; however, particles emitted by the GPF-equipped vehicle over the US06 cycle are about 20% larger than those emitted by the stock-GDI vehicle. This may be attributed to condensation of large amounts of organic material on soot aggregates. High-contrast spots, most likely solid nonvolatile cores, are observed within many of the nucleation-mode particles emitted over the US06 cycle by the GPF-equipped vehicle. These cores are either generated inside the engine or depict incipient soot particles which are partially carbonized in the exhaust line. The effect of drive cycle and the GPF on the fractal parameters of particles, such as fractal dimension and

  16. Gamma emitting radionuclides in fruits and vegetables produced in the Canary Islands: domestic consequences; Radionuclidos emisores gamma en frutas y hortalizas producidas en Canarias: consecuencias dosimetricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triguero-Perez, M.; Duarte-Rodriguez, X.; Lopez-Perez, M.; Hernandez-Armas, J.

    2011-07-01

    Determine the possible effects due to ingestion of radionuclides that can be found in health food is of interest from the viewpoint of radiation protection of the population. these determinations and analysis of the consequences on the health of people and jobs has led to studies that have had consequences in the form of rules to follow and values have to be attended to limit dictated by national and international agencies. (Author)

  17. Correlations analysis of the light particles emitted in the 129 Xe + 48 Ti reaction at 45 MeV/nucleon in the framework of a quantum mechanical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nouais, D.

    1996-01-01

    This thesis is composed of four chapter. The first one presents a quantum mechanical model able to describe the light particle correlations by taking into account the nuclear and Coulomb final state particle interactions as well as the influence of the Coulomb field of the emitting nucleus. This model was applied to the analysis of the experimental data obtained from the sequential di-excitation of a quasi-projectile formed in the 129 Xe + 48 Ti at 45 MeV/nucleon. An adaptation of the SPEG spectrometer allowed the measurements of the proton-proton coincidence studies in the range of very low relative momenta (1-10 MeV/c). For such values the proton-proton correlation function is sensible indeed to the proton emission time separation. In case of the protons, the analysis allowed to deduce a lifetime value exceeding 1500 fm/c while for the p-d, d-d and t-t particle couples, the lifetime values were much shorter. This study showed that the deuterons as well as the tritons and alpha particles are emitted prior to the proton emission. The limits of the description of particle emission from a static source have led to consider the influence of dynamical phenomena on the correlation function. This approach made use of a QMD transport model.. The important influence on the correlation function of the dynamic correlations between the momenta and space-time coordinates of the emitting particles was made evident. It is pointed out that the experimental proton-proton correlation function was not possible to be reproduced through QMD theoretical predictions. The momentum variations observed between the particle emission moment in a mean field and its asymptotical value, points to the necessity of a fine description of the interactions

  18. Engineered Modular Recombinant Transporters: Application of New Platform for Targeted Radiotherapeutic Agents to α-Particle Emitting 211At

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenkranz, Andrey A.; Vaidyanathan, Ganesan; Pozzi, Oscar R.; Lunin, Vladimir G.; Zalutsky, Michael R.; Sobolev, Alexander S.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To generate and evaluate a modular recombinant transporter (MRT) for targeting 211 At to cancer cells overexpressing the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Methods and Materials: The MRT was produced with four functional modules: (1) human epidermal growth factor as the internalizable ligand, (2) the optimized nuclear localization sequence of simian vacuolating virus 40 (SV40) large T-antigen, (3) a translocation domain of diphtheria toxin as an endosomolytic module, and (4) the Escherichia coli hemoglobin-like protein (HMP) as a carrier module. MRT was labeled using N-succinimidyl 3-[ 211 At]astato-5-guanidinomethylbenzoate (SAGMB), its 125 I analogue SGMIB, or with 131 I using Iodogen. Binding, internalization, and clonogenic assays were performed with EGFR-expressing A431, D247 MG, and U87MG.wtEGFR human cancer cell lines. Results: The affinity of SGMIB-MRT binding to A431 cells, determined by Scatchard analysis, was 22 nM, comparable to that measured before labeling. The binding of SGMIB-MRT and its internalization by A431 cancer cells was 96% and 99% EGFR specific, respectively. Paired label assays demonstrated that compared with Iodogen-labeled MRT, SGMIB-MRT and SAGMB-MRT exhibited more than threefold greater peak levels and durations of intracellular retention of activity. SAGMB-MRT was 10-20 times more cytotoxic than [ 211 At]astatide for all three cell lines. Conclusion: The results of this study have demonstrated the initial proof of principle for the MRT approach for designing targeted α-particle emitting radiotherapeutic agents. The high cytotoxicity of SAGMB-MRT for cancer cells overexpressing EGFR suggests that this 211 At-labeled conjugate has promise for the treatment of malignancies, such as glioma, which overexpress this receptor

  19. Distribution and dynamics of radionuclides and stable elements in the coastal waters off Rokkasho Village, Japan, prior to the opening of a nuclear reprocessing facility. Part 1. Sedimentation flux of suspended particles and elimination of radionuclides and stable elements from seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, K.; Kawabata, H.; Ueda, S.; Hasegawa, H.; Inaba, J.; Ohmomo, Y.; Mitamura, O.; Seike, Y.

    2004-01-01

    A nuclear fuel reprocessing facility is currently under construction in Rokkasho Village, Aomori, Japan. After completion and start-up, this facility will discharge radionuclides into the Pacific Ocean through an outlet pipe set on the seafloor offshore. For future assessments of the stability of these radionuclides in the environment, a sufficient understanding of the behavior of radionuclides in this ocean ecosystem before the start-up of the facility is necessary. To understand the processes by which radionuclides and various other types of elements are eliminated from seawater, we measured the sedimentation flux of suspended particles in the coastal waters off Rokkasho Village where the sea emissions pipes will be placed. (author)

  20. Exposure to radionuclides in smoke from vegetation fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Fernando P., E-mail: carvalho@itn.pt; Oliveira, João M.; Malta, Margarida

    2014-02-01

    Naturally occurring radionuclides of uranium, thorium, radium, lead and polonium were determined in bushes and trees and in the smoke from summer forest fires. Activity concentrations of radionuclides in smoke particles were much enriched when compared to original vegetation. Polonium-210 ({sup 210}Po) in smoke was measured in concentrations much higher than all other radionuclides, reaching 7255 ± 285 Bq kg{sup −1}, mostly associated with the smaller size smoke particles (< 1.0 μm). Depending on smoke particle concentration, {sup 210}Po in surface air near forest fires displayed volume concentrations up to 70 mBq m{sup −3}, while in smoke-free air {sup 210}Po concentration was about 30 μBq m{sup −3}. The estimated absorbed radiation dose to an adult member of the public or a firefighter exposed for 24 h to inhalation of smoke near forest fires could exceed 5 μSv per day, i.e, more than 2000 times above the radiation dose from background radioactivity in surface air, and also higher than the radiation dose from {sup 210}Po inhalation in a chronic cigarette smoker. It is concluded that prolonged exposure to smoke allows for enhanced inhalation of radionuclides associated with smoke particles. Due to high radiotoxicity of alpha emitting radionuclides, and in particular of {sup 210}Po, the protection of respiratory tract of fire fighters is strongly recommended. - Highlights: • Natural radionuclides in vegetation are in low concentrations. • Forest fires release natural radionuclides from vegetation and concentrate them in inhalable ash particles. • Prolonged inhalation of smoke from forest fires gives rise enhanced radiation exposure of lungs especially due to polonium. • Respiratory protection of fire fighters and members of public is highly recommended for radioprotection reasons.

  1. Radionuclides in radiation-induced bystander effect; may it share in radionuclide therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widel, M

    2017-01-01

    For many years in radiobiology and radiotherapy predominated the conviction that cellular DNA is the main target for ionizing radiation, however, the view has changed in the past 20 years. Nowadays, it is assumed that not only directed (targeted) radiation effect, but also an indirect (non-targeted) effect may contribute to the result of radiation treatment. Non-targeted effect is relatively well recognized after external beam irradiation in vitro and in vivo, and comprises such phenomena like radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE), genomic instability, adaptive response and abscopal (out of field) effect. These stress-induced and molecular signaling mediated phenomena appear in non-targeted cells as variety responses resembling that observed in directly hit cells. Bystander effects can be both detrimental and beneficial in dependence on dose, dose-rate, cell type, genetic status and experimental condition. Less is known about radionuclide-induced non-targeted effects in radionuclide therapy, although, based on characteristics of the radionuclide radiation, on experiments in vitro utilizing classical and 3-D cell cultures, and preclinical study on animals it seems obvious that exposure to radionuclide is accompanied by various bystander effects, mostly damaging, less often protective. This review summarizes existing data on radionuclide induced bystander effects comprising radionuclides emitting beta- and alpha-particles and Auger electrons used in tumor radiotherapy and diagnostics. So far, separation of the direct effect of radionuclide decay from crossfire and bystander effects in clinical targeted radionuclide therapy is impossible because of the lack of methods to assess whether, and to what extent bystander effect is involved in human organism. Considerations on this topic are also included.

  2. Search for alpha particles emitted at rest in the break-up of the 12C-α-12C molecule-like configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheurer, J.N.; Bertault, D.; Caussanel, M.; Quebert, J.L.; Fouan, J.P.

    1978-01-01

    A yield of alpha particles emitted at rest is clearly observed in 16 O+ 12 C at several incident energies. These alpha particles are detected by two methods: i) the alpha particle is considered as a missing mass in the detection of two 12 C nuclei in coincidence; ii) the alpha particle is detected at zero degree with a velocity due to centre of mass motion. Such a yield is assigned to a linear chain formation of the type 12 C-α- 12 C and an excitation function between 40 and 65 MeV is given. The emission due to Coulomb effects is emphasized in the discussion to give the chief explanation of the coincidence results

  3. Natural activity in Hudson River estuary samples and their influence on the detection limits for gamma emitting radionuclides using NaI gamma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrenn, M.E.; Jinks, S.M.; Hairr, L.M.; Paschoa, A.S.; Lentsch, J.W.

    1972-01-01

    Sources of natural radioactivity in Hudson River Estuary are described. The technique of analysis for gamma spectrometry of environmental samples is presented and its pros and cons discussed. The distribution of natural radioactivity in water, biota and sediment was reported as well as the role played by the vertical distribution of cesium-137 in sediments as an indicator of the rate of sedimentation. The effect of the presence of natural radionuclides on the detection limits of man-made nuclides in the Hudson River environment is thoroughly examined. The results obtained with a 4-in. sodium iodide well crystal housed in a low background mercury shielding compare favorably with a more sophisticated Ge(Li) system which uses anticoincidence, as far as the analysis of environmental samples is concerned. (U.S.)

  4. Exposure to radionuclides in smoke from vegetation fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Fernando P; Oliveira, João M; Malta, Margarida

    2014-02-15

    Naturally occurring radionuclides of uranium, thorium, radium, lead and polonium were determined in bushes and trees and in the smoke from summer forest fires. Activity concentrations of radionuclides in smoke particles were much enriched when compared to original vegetation. Polonium-210 ((210)Po) in smoke was measured in concentrations much higher than all other radionuclides, reaching 7,255 ± 285 Bq kg(-1), mostly associated with the smaller size smoke particles (fires displayed volume concentrations up to 70 m Bq m(-3), while in smoke-free air (210)Po concentration was about 30 μ Bq m(-3). The estimated absorbed radiation dose to an adult member of the public or a firefighter exposed for 24h to inhalation of smoke near forest fires could exceed 5 μSv per day, i.e, more than 2000 times above the radiation dose from background radioactivity in surface air, and also higher than the radiation dose from (210)Po inhalation in a chronic cigarette smoker. It is concluded that prolonged exposure to smoke allows for enhanced inhalation of radionuclides associated with smoke particles. Due to high radiotoxicity of alpha emitting radionuclides, and in particular of (210)Po, the protection of respiratory tract of fire fighters is strongly recommended. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Exposure to radionuclides in smoke from vegetation fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Fernando P.; Oliveira, João M.; Malta, Margarida

    2014-01-01

    Naturally occurring radionuclides of uranium, thorium, radium, lead and polonium were determined in bushes and trees and in the smoke from summer forest fires. Activity concentrations of radionuclides in smoke particles were much enriched when compared to original vegetation. Polonium-210 ( 210 Po) in smoke was measured in concentrations much higher than all other radionuclides, reaching 7255 ± 285 Bq kg −1 , mostly associated with the smaller size smoke particles ( 210 Po in surface air near forest fires displayed volume concentrations up to 70 mBq m −3 , while in smoke-free air 210 Po concentration was about 30 μBq m −3 . The estimated absorbed radiation dose to an adult member of the public or a firefighter exposed for 24 h to inhalation of smoke near forest fires could exceed 5 μSv per day, i.e, more than 2000 times above the radiation dose from background radioactivity in surface air, and also higher than the radiation dose from 210 Po inhalation in a chronic cigarette smoker. It is concluded that prolonged exposure to smoke allows for enhanced inhalation of radionuclides associated with smoke particles. Due to high radiotoxicity of alpha emitting radionuclides, and in particular of 210 Po, the protection of respiratory tract of fire fighters is strongly recommended. - Highlights: • Natural radionuclides in vegetation are in low concentrations. • Forest fires release natural radionuclides from vegetation and concentrate them in inhalable ash particles. • Prolonged inhalation of smoke from forest fires gives rise enhanced radiation exposure of lungs especially due to polonium. • Respiratory protection of fire fighters and members of public is highly recommended for radioprotection reasons

  6. Speciation analysis of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salbu, B.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Naturally occurring and artificially produced radionuclides in the environment can be present in different physico-chemical forms (i. e. radionuclide species) varying in size (nominal molecular mass), charge properties and valence, oxidation state, structure and morphology, density, complexing ability etc. Low molecular mass (LMM) species are believed to be mobile and potentially bioavailable, while high molecular mass (HMM) species such as colloids, polymers, pseudocolloids and particles are considered inert. Due to time dependent transformation processes such as mobilization of radionuclide species from solid phases or interactions of mobile and reactive radionuclide species with components in soils and sediments, however, the original distribution of radionuclides deposited in ecosystems will change over time and influence the ecosystem behaviour. To assess the environmental impact from radionuclide contamination, information on radionuclide species deposited, interactions within affected ecosystems and the time-dependent distribution of radionuclide species influencing mobility and biological uptake is essential. The development of speciation techniques to characterize radionuclide species in waters, soils and sediments should therefore be essential for improving the prediction power of impact and risk assessment models. The present paper reviews fractionation techniques which should be utilised for radionuclide speciation purposes. (author)

  7. Marine biogeochemistry of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, S.W.

    1997-01-01

    Radionuclides entering the ocean from runoff, fallout, or deliberate release rapidly become involved in marine biogeochemical cycles. Sources, sinks and transport of radionuclides and analogue elements are discussed with emphasis placed on how these elements interact with marine organisms. Water, food and sediments are the source terms from which marine biota acquire radionuclides. Uptake from water occurs by surface adsorption, absorption across body surfaces, or a combination of both. Radionuclides ingested with food are either assimilated into tissue or excreted. The relative importance of the food and water pathway in uptake varies with the radionuclide and the conditions under which exposure occurs. Evidence suggests that, compared to the water and food pathways, bioavailability of sediment-bound radionuclides is low. Bioaccumulation processes are controlled by many environmental and intrinsic factors including exposure time, physical-chemical form of the radionuclide, salinity, temperature, competitive effects with other elements, organism size, physiology, life cycle and feeding habits. Once accumulated, radionuclides are transported actively by vertical and horizontal movements of organisms and passively by release of biogenic products, e.g., soluble excreta, feces, molts and eggs. Through feeding activities, particles containing radionuclides are ''packaged'' into larger aggregates which are redistributed upon release. Most radionuclides are not irreversibly bound to such particles but are remineralized as they sink and/or decompose. In the pelagic zones, sinking aggregates can further scavenge particle-reactive elements thus removing them from the surface layers and transporting them to depth. Evidence from both radiotracer experiments and in situ sediment trap studies is presented which illustrates the importance of biological scavenging in controlling the distribution of radionuclides in the water column. (author)

  8. Null geodesics and red-blue shifts of photons emitted from geodesic particles around a noncommutative black hole space-time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuniyal, Ravi Shankar; Uniyal, Rashmi; Biswas, Anindya; Nandan, Hemwati; Purohit, K. D.

    2018-06-01

    We investigate the geodesic motion of massless test particles in the background of a noncommutative geometry-inspired Schwarzschild black hole. The behavior of effective potential is analyzed in the equatorial plane and the possible motions of massless particles (i.e. photons) for different values of impact parameter are discussed accordingly. We have also calculated the frequency shift of photons in this space-time. Further, the mass parameter of a noncommutative inspired Schwarzschild black hole is computed in terms of the measurable redshift of photons emitted by massive particles moving along circular geodesics in equatorial plane. The strength of gravitational fields of noncommutative geometry-inspired Schwarzschild black hole and usual Schwarzschild black hole in General Relativity is also compared.

  9. Development and characterization of an exposure platform suitable for physico-chemical, morphological and toxicological characterization of printer-emitted particles (PEPs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirela, Sandra V; Pyrgiotakis, Georgios; Bello, Dhimiter; Thomas, Treye; Castranova, Vincent; Demokritou, Philip

    2014-06-01

    An association between laser printer use and emissions of particulate matter (PM), ozone and volatile organic compounds has been reported in recent studies. However, the detailed physico-chemical, morphological and toxicological characterization of these printer-emitted particles (PEPs) and possible incorporation of engineered nanomaterials into toner formulations remain largely unknown. In this study, a printer exposure generation system suitable for the physico-chemical, morphological, and toxicological characterization of PEPs was developed and used to assess the properties of PEPs from the use of commercially available laser printers. The system consists of a glovebox type environmental chamber for uninterrupted printer operation, real-time and time-integrated particle sampling instrumentation for the size fractionation and sampling of PEPs and an exposure chamber for inhalation toxicological studies. Eleven commonly used laser printers were evaluated and ranked based on their PM emission profiles. Results show PM peak emissions are brand independent and varied between 3000 to 1 300 000 particles/cm³, with modal diameters ranging from 49 to 208 nm, with the majority of PEPs in the nanoscale (printer toner) raises questions about health implications to users. The presented PEGS platform will help in assessing the toxicological profile of PEPs and the link to the physico-chemical and morphological properties of emitted PM and toner formulations.

  10. Radiation-induced biologic bystander effect elicited in vitro by targeted radiopharmaceuticals labeled with alpha-, beta-, and auger electron-emitting radionuclides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Marie; Ross, Susan C; Dorrens, Jennifer; Fullerton, Natasha E; Tan, Ker Wei; Zalutsky, Michael R; Mairs, Robert J

    2006-06-01

    Recent studies have shown that indirect effects of ionizing radiation may contribute significantly to the effectiveness of radiotherapy by sterilizing malignant cells that are not directly hit by the radiation. However, there have been few investigations of the importance of indirect effects in targeted radionuclide treatment. Our purpose was to compare the induction of bystander effects by external beam gamma-radiation with those resultant from exposure to 3 radiohaloanalogs of metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG): (131)I-MIBG (low-linear-energy-transfer [LET] beta-emitter), (123)I-MIBG (potentially high-LET Auger electron emitter), and meta-(211)At-astatobenzylguanidine ((211)At-MABG) (high-LET alpha-emitter). Two human tumor cell lines-UVW (glioma) and EJ138 (transitional cell carcinoma of bladder)-were transfected with the noradrenaline transporter (NAT) gene to enable active uptake of MIBG. Medium from cells that accumulated the radiopharmaceuticals or were treated with external beam radiation was transferred to cells that had not been exposed to radioactivity, and clonogenic survival was determined in donor and recipient cultures. Over the dose range 0-9 Gy of external beam radiation of donor cells, 2 Gy caused 30%-40% clonogenic cell kill in recipient cultures. This potency was maintained but not increased by higher dosage. In contrast, no corresponding saturation of bystander cell kill was observed after treatment with a range of activity concentrations of (131)I-MIBG, which resulted in up to 97% death of donor cells. Cellular uptake of (123)I-MIBG and (211)At-MABG induced increasing recipient cell kill up to levels that resulted in direct kill of 35%-70% of clonogens. Thereafter, the administration of higher activity concentrations of these high-LET emitters was inversely related to the kill of recipient cells. Over the range of activity concentrations examined, neither direct nor indirect kill was observed in cultures of cells not expressing the NAT and, thus

  11. Exclusive experiment on nuclei with backward emitted particles by electron-nucleus collision in ∼ 10 GeV energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, T.; Takagi, F.

    1994-01-01

    Since the evidence of strong cross section in proton-nucleus backward scattering was presented in the early of 1970 years, this phenomena have been interested from the point of view to be related to information on the short range correlation between nucleons or on high momentum components of the wave function of the nucleus. In the analysis of the first experiment on protons from the carbon target under bombardment by 1.5-5.7 GeV protons, indications are found of an effect analogous to scaling in high-energy interactions of elementary particles with protons. Moreover it is found that the function f(p 2 )/σ tot , which describes the spectra of the protons and deuterons emitted backward from nuclei in the laboratory system, does not depend on the energy and the type of the incident particle or on the atomic number of the target nucleus. In the following experiments the spectra of the protons emitted from the nuclei C, Al, Ti, Cu, Cd and Pb were measured in the inclusive reactions with incident particles of negative pions (1.55-6.2 GeV/c) and protons (6.2-9.0 GeV/C). The cross section f is described by f = E/p 2 d 2 σ/dpdΩ = C exp (-Bp 2 ), where p is the momentum of hadron. The function f depends linearly on the atomic weight A of the target nuclei. The slope parameter B is independent of the target nucleus and of the sort and energy of the bombarding particles. The invariant cross section ρ = f/σ tot is also described by exponential A 0 exp (-A 1p 2 ), where p becomes independent of energy at initial particle energies ≥ 1.5 GeV for C nucleus and ≥ 5 GeV for the heaviest of the investigated Pb nuclei

  12. Development of a transportable system for radionuclide analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, W.C.; Anderson, D.L.; Lamont, W.H.; South, P.K.; Rury, M.A.; Beachley, G.M.; Ondov, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Transportable radioanalytical systems were assembled and tested for quantitative determination of γ-emitting radionuclides and screening of β- emitting radionuclides. Standard operating procedures (SOPs), including instructions for assembly, disassembly, operation, sample collection and analysis, and all other procedures needed, were developed. Foods, as well as National Institute of Standards and Technology, International Atomic Energy Agency, and in-house Reference Materials were analyzed. An SOP for γ-emitting radionuclides was successfully tested at 3 locations. (author)

  13. Modeling the migration of fallout radionuclides to quantify the contemporary transfer of fine particles in Luvisol profiles under different land uses and farming practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagercikova, M.; Balesdent, J.; Cornu, S.; Evrard, O.; Lefevre, I.

    2014-01-01

    Soil mixing and the downward movement of solid matter in soils are dynamic pedological processes that strongly affect the vertical distribution of all soil properties across the soil profile. These processes are affected by land use and the implementation of various farming practices, but their kinetics have rarely been quantified. Our objective was to investigate the vertical transfer of matter in Luvisols at long-term experimental sites under different land uses (cropland, grassland and forest) and different farming practices (conventional tillage, reduced tillage and no tillage). To investigate these processes, the vertical radionuclide distributions of 137 Cs and 210 Pb (xs) were analyzed in 9 soil profiles. The mass balance calculations showed that as much as 91± 9% of the 137 Cs was linked to the fine particles (2 mm). To assess the kinetics of radionuclide redistribution in soil, we modeled their depth profiles using a convection-diffusion equation. The diffusion coefficient represented the rate of bioturbation, and the convection velocity provided a proxy for fine particle leaching. Both parameters were modeled as either constant or variable with depth. The tillage was simulated using an empirical formula that considered the tillage depth and a variable mixing ratio depending on the type of tillage used. A loss of isotopes due to soil erosion was introduced into the model to account for the total radionuclide inventory. All of these parameters were optimized based on the 137 Cs data and were then subsequently applied to the 210 Pb (xs) data. Our results show that the 137 Cs isotopes migrate deeper under grasslands than under forests or croplands. Additionally, our results suggest that the diffusion coefficient decreased with depth and that it remained negligible below the tillage depth at the cropland sites, below 20 cm in the forest sites, and below 80 cm in the grassland sites. (authors)

  14. Dynamic and static small-animal SPECT in rats for monitoring renal function after 177Lu-labeled Tyr3-octreotate radionuclide therapy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melis, M.; Swart, J.; Visser, M. de; Berndsen, S.C.; Koelewijn, S.; Valkema, R.; Boerman, O.C.; Krenning, E.P.; Jong, M. de

    2010-01-01

    High kidney radiation doses during clinical peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) with beta-particle-emitting radiolabeled somatostatin analogs will lead to renal failure several months after treatment, urging the coinfusion of the cationic amino acids lysine and arginine to reduce the renal

  15. Assessment of the radionuclide composition of "hot particles" sampled in the Chernobyl nuclear power plant fourth reactor unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondarkov, Mikhail D; Zheltonozhsky, Viktor A; Zheltonozhskaya, Maryna V; Kulich, Nadezhda V; Maksimenko, Andrey M; Farfán, Eduardo B; Jannik, G Timothy; Marra, James C

    2011-10-01

    Fuel-containing materials sampled from within the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Unit 4 Confinement Shelter were spectroscopically studied for gamma and alpha content. Isotopic ratios for cesium, europium, plutonium, americium, and curium were identified, and the fuel burn-up in these samples was determined. A systematic deviation in the burn-up values based on the cesium isotopes in comparison with other radionuclides was observed. The studies conducted were the first ever performed to demonstrate the presence of significant quantities of 242Cm and 243Cm. It was determined that there was a systematic underestimation of activities of transuranic radionuclides in fuel samples from inside of the ChNPP Confinement Shelter, starting from 241Am (and going higher) in comparison with the theoretical calculations.

  16. Morphology and Chemical Composition of soot particles emitted by Wood-burning Cook-Stoves: a HRTEM, XPS and Elastic backscattering Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabali-Sandoval, G. A., Sr.; Castro, T.; Peralta, O.; De la Cruz, W.; Días, J.; Amelines, O.; Rivera-Hernández, M.; Varela, A.; Muñoz-Muñoz, F.; Policroniades, R.; Murillo, G.; Moreno, E.

    2014-12-01

    The morphology, microstructure and the chemical composition on surface of soot particles were studied by using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and elastic backscattering spectrometry. In order to obtain freshly soot particles emitted by home-made wood-burning cook stoves, copper grids for Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) were placed on the last two of an 8-stages MOUDI cascade impactor. The analysis of HRTEM micrographs revealed the nanostructure and the particle size of soot particles. The XPS survey spectra show a large carbon peak around 285 eV and the oxygen signal at 533 eV. Some differences observed in the carbon/oxygen (C/O) ratio of the particles probably depend on the combustion process efficiency of each cook-stove analyzed. The C-1s XPS spectra show an asymmetric broad peak and other with low intensity that corresponds to sp2 and sp3hybridization, which were fitted with a convolution using Gaussian functions. Elastic backscattering technique allows a chemical elemental analysis of samples and confirms the presence of C, O and Si observed by XPS. Additionally, the morphological properties of soot aggregates were analyzed calculating the border-based fractal dimension (Df). Particles exhibit complex shapes with high values of Df. Also, real-time absorption (σabs) and scattering (σsct) coefficients of fine (with aerodynamic diameter < 2.5 µm) soot particles were measured. The trend in σabs and σsct indicate that the cooking process has two important combustion stages which varied in its flaming strength, being vigorous in the first stage and soft in the second one.

  17. Indoor exposure to particles emitted by biomass-burning heating systems and evaluation of dose and lung cancer risk received by population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabile, L; Buonanno, G; Avino, P; Frattolillo, A; Guerriero, E

    2018-04-01

    Homes represent a critical microenvironment in terms of air quality due to the proximity to main particle sources and the lack of proper ventilation systems. Biomass-fed heating systems are still extensively used worldwide, then likely emitting a significant amount of particles in indoor environments. Nonetheless, research on biomass emissions are limited to their effects on outdoor air quality then not properly investigating the emission in indoor environments. To this purpose, the present paper aims to evaluate the exposure to different airborne particle metrics (including both sub- and super-micron particles) and attached carcinogenic compounds in dwellings where three different heating systems were used: open fireplaces, closed fireplaces and pellet stoves. Measurements in terms of particle number, lung-deposited surface area, and PM fraction concentrations were measured during the biomass combustion activities, moreover, PM 10 samples were collected and chemically analyzed to obtain mass fractions of carcinogenic compounds attached onto particles. Airborne particle doses received by people exposed in such environments were evaluated as well as their excess lung cancer risk. Most probable surface area extra-doses received by people exposed to open fireplaces on hourly basis (56 mm 2  h -1 ) resulted one order of magnitude larger than those experienced for exposure to closed fireplaces and pellet stoves. Lifetime extra risk of Italian people exposed to the heating systems under investigation were larger than the acceptable lifetime risk (10 -5 ): in particular, the risk due to the open fireplace (8.8 × 10 -3 ) was non-negligible when compared to the overall lung cancer risk of typical Italian population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Electron Microscopy Study of Stainless Steel Radiation Damage Due to Long-Term Irradation by Alpha Particles Emitted From Plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unlu, Kenan [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Rios-Martinez, Carlos [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Saglam, Mehmet [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Hart, Ron R. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Shipp, John D. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Rennie, John [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1998-04-16

    Radiation damage and associated surface and microstructural changes produced in stainless steel encapsulation by high-fluence alpha particle irradiations from weapons-grade plutonium of 316-stainless steel are being investigated.

  19. Characterization of Spatial Impact of Particles Emitted from a Cement Material Production Facility on Outdoor Particle Deposition in the Surrounding Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chang Ho; Fan, Zhihua Tina; McCandlish, Elizabeth; Stern, Alan H; Lioy, Paul J

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the contribution of a facility that processes steel production slag into raw material for cement production to local outdoor particle deposition in Camden, NJ. A dry deposition sampler that can house four 37-mm quartz fiber filters was developed and used for the collection of atmospheric particle deposits. Two rounds of particle collection (3-4 weeks each) were conducted in 8-11 locations 200-800 m downwind of the facility. Background samples were concurrently collected in a remote area located ∼2 km upwind from the facility. In addition, duplicate surface wipe samples were collected side-by-side from each of the 13 locations within the same sampling area during the first deposition sampling period. One composite source material sample was also collected from a pile stored in the facility. Both the bulk of the source material and the particle deposition flux in the study area was higher (24-83 mg/m 2 ·day) than at the background sites (13-17 mg/m 2 ·day). The concentration of Ca, a major element in the cement source production material, was found to exponentially decrease with increasing downwind distance from the facility (P particle deposition. The contribution of the facility to outdoor deposited particle mass was further estimated by three independent models using the measurements obtained from this study. The estimated contributions to particle deposition in the study area were 1.8-7.4% from the regression analysis of the Ca concentration in particle deposition samples against the distance from the facility, 0-11% from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) source-receptor model, and 7.6-13% from the EPA Industrial Source Complex Short Term (ISCST3) dispersion model using the particle-size-adjusted permit-based emissions estimates. [Box: see text].

  20. Effects of fresh lubricant oils on particle emissions emitted by a modern gasoline direct injection passenger car.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirjola, Liisa; Karjalainen, Panu; Heikkilä, Juha; Saari, Sampo; Tzamkiozis, Theodoros; Ntziachristos, Leonidas; Kulmala, Kari; Keskinen, Jorma; Rönkkö, Topi

    2015-03-17

    Particle emissions from a modern turbocharged gasoline direct injection passenger car equipped with a three-way catalyst and an exhaust gas recirculation system were studied while the vehicle was running on low-sulfur gasoline and, consecutively, with five different lubrication oils. Exhaust particle number concentration, size distribution, and volatility were determined both at laboratory and on-road conditions. The results indicated that the choice of lubricant affected particle emissions both during the cold start and warm driving cycles. However, the contribution of engine oil depended on driving conditions being higher during acceleration and steady state driving than during deceleration. The highest emission factors were found with two oils that had the highest metal content. The results indicate that a 10% decrease in the Zn content of engine oils is linked with an 11-13% decrease to the nonvolatile particle number emissions in steady driving conditions and a 5% decrease over the New European Driving Cycle. The effect of lubricant on volatile particles was even higher, on the order of 20%.

  1. Relativistic alpha-particles emitted in Fe-emulsion interactions at 1.7 A GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhalla, K.B.; Chaudhry, M.; Lokanathan, S.; Grover, R.K.; Daftari, I.K.; Mangotra, L.L.; Rao, N.K.; Garpman, S.; Otterlund, I.

    1981-02-01

    Relativistic α-particles have been studied in 423 Fe-emulsion interactions at 1.7 A Gev. Comparisons of the observed angular distribution with that from 16 O-emulsion reactions at 2.1 A GeV reveal that more α particles are observed at large angles in the Fe-emulsion reactions. The α particles with large angles connot be explained by fragmentation from a clean cut spectator. Comparison of the experimental data with moving relativistic Boltzmann distributions shows that a single Boltzmann distribution cannot fit the fragmentation peak and the tail simultaneously. A thermal source (fireball) explaining the tail part of the distribution need to be formed by a mechanism other than simple clean cut participant-spectator picture. A large transverse momentum transfer to spectator before fragmentation may explain the tail. (author)

  2. A comparative study of the number and mass of fine particles emitted with diesel fuel and marine gas oil (MGO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabi, Md. Nurun; Brown, Richard J.; Ristovski, Zoran; Hustad, Johan Einar

    2012-09-01

    The current investigation reports on diesel particulate matter emissions, with special interest in fine particles from the combustion of two base fuels. The base fuels selected were diesel fuel and marine gas oil (MGO). The experiments were conducted with a four-stroke, six-cylinder, direct injection diesel engine. The results showed that the fine particle number emissions measured by both SMPS and ELPI were higher with MGO compared to diesel fuel. It was observed that the fine particle number emissions with the two base fuels were quantitatively different but qualitatively similar. The gravimetric (mass basis) measurement also showed higher total particulate matter (TPM) emissions with the MGO. The smoke emissions, which were part of TPM, were also higher for the MGO. No significant changes in the mass flow rate of fuel and the brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC) were observed between the two base fuels.

  3. Light particles emitted in coincidence with evaporation residues in 79Br(930 MeV) + 27Al collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavez Lomeli, E.; Dacal, A.; Ortiz, M.E.; Gomez del Campo, J.; Kim, H.; Korolija, M.; Shapira, D.

    1993-01-01

    Exclusive measurements of light particles, deuterons, tritons and alphas, in coincidence with Evaporation Residues (ER), were performed at the Holified Heavy Ion Research Facility of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory using the large detector array HILI (Heavy Ion Light Ion). Heavy fragments produced in the reaction (Z 35), were stopped in the Ionisation Chamber, where their energy, atomic number (Z) and position were measured. Coincident light particles, were detected in the 192 element hodoscope placed behind the chamber, where its charge (Z) and energy were measured. Also the time of flight relative to the radio frequency of the cyclotron, allowed identification of protons deuterons and tritons

  4. Radionuclide trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    The deposition of radionuclides manganese-54, cobalt-58 and cobalt-60 from liquid sodium coolant is controlled by providing surfaces of nickel or high nickel alloys to extract the radionuclides from the liquid sodium, and by providing surfaces of tungsten, molybdenum or tantalum to prevent or retard radionuclide deposition

  5. Exclusive experiment on nuclei with backward emitted particles by electron-nucleus collision in {approximately} 10 GeV energy range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, T.; Takagi, F. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan)

    1994-04-01

    Since the evidence of strong cross section in proton-nucleus backward scattering was presented in the early of 1970 years, this phenomena have been interested from the point of view to be related to information on the short range correlation between nucleons or on high momentum components of the wave function of the nucleus. In the analysis of the first experiment on protons from the carbon target under bombardment by 1.5-5.7 GeV protons, indications are found of an effect analogous to scaling in high-energy interactions of elementary particles with protons. Moreover it is found that the function f(p{sup 2})/{sigma}{sub tot}, which describes the spectra of the protons and deuterons emitted backward from nuclei in the laboratory system, does not depend on the energy and the type of the incident particle or on the atomic number of the target nucleus. In the following experiments the spectra of the protons emitted from the nuclei C, Al, Ti, Cu, Cd and Pb were measured in the inclusive reactions with incident particles of negative pions (1.55-6.2 GeV/c) and protons (6.2-9.0 GeV/C). The cross section f is described by f = E/p{sup 2} d{sup 2}{sigma}/dpd{Omega} = C exp ({minus}Bp{sup 2}), where p is the momentum of hadron. The function f depends linearly on the atomic weight A of the target nuclei. The slope parameter B is independent of the target nucleus and of the sort and energy of the bombarding particles. The invariant cross section {rho} = f/{sigma}{sub tot} is also described by exponential A{sub 0} exp ({minus}A{sub 1p}{sup 2}), where p becomes independent of energy at initial particle energies {ge} 1.5 GeV for C nucleus and {ge} 5 GeV for the heaviest of the investigated Pb nuclei.

  6. Chemical characterization and oxidative potential of particles emitted from open burning of cereal straws and rice husk under flaming and smoldering conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fushimi, Akihiro; Saitoh, Katsumi; Hayashi, Kentaro; Ono, Keisuke; Fujitani, Yuji; Villalobos, Ana M.; Shelton, Brandon R.; Takami, Akinori; Tanabe, Kiyoshi; Schauer, James J.

    2017-08-01

    Open burning of crop residue is a major source of atmospheric fine particle emissions. We burned crop residues (rice straws, barley straws, wheat straws, and rice husks produced in Japan) in an outdoor chamber and measured particle mass, composition (elemental carbon: EC, organic carbon: OC, ions, elements, and organic species), and oxidative potential in the exhausts. The fine particulate emission factors from the literature were within the range of our values for rice straws but were 1.4-1.9 and 0.34-0.44 times higher than our measured values for barley straw and wheat straw, respectively. For rice husks and wheat straws, which typically lead to combustion conditions that are relatively mild, the EC content of the particles was less than 5%. Levoglucosan seems more suitable as a biomass burning marker than K+, since levoglucosan/OC ratios were more stable than K+/particulate mass ratios among crop species. Stigmasterol and β-sitosterol could also be used as markers of biomass burning with levoglucosan or instead of levoglucosan. Correlation analysis between chemical composition and combustion condition suggests that hot or flaming combustions enhance EC, K+, Cl- and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons emissions, while low-temperature or smoldering combustions enhance levoglucosan and water-soluble organic carbon emissions. Oxidative potential, measured with macrophage-based reactive oxygen species (ROS) assay and dithiothreitol (DTT) assay, of open burning fine particles per particulate mass as well as fine particulate emission factors were the highest for wheat straws and second highest for rice husks and rice straws. Oxidative potential per particulate mass was in the lower range of vehicle exhaust and atmosphere. These results suggest that the contribution of open burning is relatively small to the oxidative potential of atmospheric particles. In addition, oxidative potential (both ROS and DTT activities) correlated well with water-insoluble organic species

  7. Effects of neutral particle beam on nano-crystalline silicon thin films, with application to thin film transistor backplane for flexible active matrix organic light emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Jin Nyoung; Song, Byoung Chul; Lee, Dong Hyeok; Yoo, Suk Jae; Lee, Bonju; Hong, MunPyo

    2011-01-01

    A novel deposition process for nano-crystalline silicon (nc-Si) thin films was developed using neutral beam assisted chemical vapor deposition (NBaCVD) technology for the application of the thin film transistor (TFT) backplane of flexible active matrix organic light emitting diode (AMOLED). During the formation of a nc-Si thin film, the energetic particles enhance nano-sized crystalline rather microcrystalline Si in thin films. Neutral Particle Beam (NPB) affects the crystallinity in two ways: (1) NPB energy enhances nano-crystallinity through kinetic energy transfer and chemical annealing, and (2) heavier NPB (such as Ar) induces damage and amorphization through energetic particle impinging. Nc-Si thin film properties effectively can be changed by the reflector bias. As increase of NPB energy limits growing the crystalline, the performance of TFT supports this NPB behavior. The results of nc-Si TFT by NBaCVD demonstrate the technical potentials of neutral beam based processes for achieving high stability and reduced leakage in TFT backplanes for AMOLEDs.

  8. Alpha particle emitters in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, D.R.

    1989-09-01

    Radiation-induced cancer of bone, liver and lung has been a prominent harmful side-effect of medical applications of alpha emitters. In recent years, however, the potential use of antibodies labeled with alpha emitting radionuclides against cancer has seemed promising because alpha particles are highly effective in cell killing. High dose rates at high LET, effectiveness under hypoxic conditions, and minimal expectancy of repair are additional advantages of alpha emitters over antibodies labeled with beta emitting radionuclides for cancer therapy. Cyclotron-produced astatine-211 ( 211 At) and natural bismuth-212 ( 212 Bi) have been proposed and are under extensive study in the United States and Europe. Radium-223 ( 223 Ra) also has favorable properties as a potential alpha emitting label, including a short-lived daughter chain with four alpha emissions. The radiation dosimetry of internal alpha emitters is complex due to nonuniformly distributed sources, short particle tracks, and high relative specific ionization. The variations in dose at the cellular level may be extreme. Alpha-particle radiation dosimetry, therefore, must involve analysis of statistical energy deposition probabilities for cellular level targets. It must also account fully for nonuniform distributions of sources in tissues, source-target geometries, and particle-track physics. 18 refs., 4 figs

  9. Study of the light particles emitted in coincidence with quasi-projectiles in the Ar+Au reaction at 35 MeV per nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oubahadou, Ahmed

    1986-01-01

    The detection of numerous light particles forwardly emitted in nuclear reactions with heavy ions intermediate energies has originated the building of a scintillator multidetector (96 detectors) called the 'hodoscope' in G.A.N.I.L. (the largest national accelerator of heavy ions). The main problem of these multidetectors is the extraction of data. We have therefore established a simple technique to extract the charge and speed values from the amount of detected light and from the times of flight. The multidetector combined with a telescope has allowed us to carry out semi-exclusive measurements of the reaction products in Ar+Au system at 35 MeV per nucleon. This work is limited to detection through a telescope of the light fragments (quasi-projectiles); the analysis of energy spectra at different angles shows that the fragments seem to be emitted from two sources: one with a speed close to that of the projectile, the other with a half of that speed. For the study of coincidences we have grouped together the light particles of hodoscope into 4 classes according to their charge numbers and we have considered two special domains (the central part and the outer part). For the telescope we group too the incidents according to their charge (4 classes) and their speed ('rapid' or 'relaxed'). The multiplicity in each case is calculated and eventually allocated according to the speed measured in the telescope. The spectra are analysed in the framework of evaporation by moved Boltzmann hot sources. The origin of 'relaxed' fragments is studied in the context of different theoretical models. (author) [fr

  10. Alpha-emitting radionuclides in cigarette tobacco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neton, James W.; Ibrahim, Shawki Amin

    1978-01-01

    As part of general studies of the concentration of 239/240 Pu, 238 Pu and 228,230,232 Th in the tissues of non-occupationally exposed individuals, it became evident that there was little or no information on their content in cigarette tobacco. To better understand this possible route of intake and its potential for lung exposure we have measured these nuclides in tobacco samples, from the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), which have a well-known growing history, and in brand name cigarettes purchased commercially. The concentration of 239/240 Pu in both USDA and brand name tobacco has a range of 0.4-0.7 pCi/kg of tobacco while the 238 Pu concentration was ≤ 0.05 pCi/kg. The 228 Th concentration for USDA tobacco was 200 pCi/kg tobacco while the 232 Th was only 14 pCi/kg. The high 228/232 Th ratio may result from a lower uptake of 232 Th compared to that of 228 Ra. By comparing the concentration of these measured nuclides to other alpha emitters in tobacco that have been reported in the literature, i.e. 210 Po (400 pCi/kg) and 226 Ra (150 pCi/kg), it is apparent that 228 Th represents a significant fraction of the total alpha activity. It is also evident there is a much greater potential for exposure of the lung to radiation from 228 Th than from 239/240 Pu as a result of cigarette smoking. (author)

  11. Luminescence imaging using radionuclides: a potential application in molecular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jeong Chan; Il An, Gwang; Park, Se-Il; Oh, Jungmin; Kim, Hong Joo; Su Ha, Yeong; Wang, Eun Kyung; Min Kim, Kyeong; Kim, Jung Young; Lee, Jaetae; Welch, Michael J.; Yoo, Jeongsoo

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Nuclear and optical imaging are complementary in many aspects and there would be many advantages when optical imaging probes are prepared using radionuclides rather than classic fluorophores, and when nuclear and optical dual images are obtained using single imaging probe. Methods: The luminescence intensities of various radionuclides having different decay modes have been assayed using luminescence imaging and in vitro luminometer. Radioiodinated Herceptin was injected into a tumor-bearing mouse, and luminescence and microPET images were obtained. The plant dipped in [ 32 P]phosphate solution was scanned in luminescence mode. Radio-TLC plate was also imaged in the same imaging mode. Results: Radionuclides emitting high energy β + /β - particles showed higher luminescence signals. NIH3T6.7 tumors were detected in both optical and nuclear imaging. The uptake of [ 32 P]phosphate in plant was easily followed by luminescence imaging. Radio-TLC plate was visualized and radiochemical purity was quantified using luminescence imaging. Conclusion: Many radionuclides with high energetic β + or β - particles during decay were found to be imaged in luminescence mode due mainly to Cerenkov radiation. 'Cerenkov imaging' provides a new optical imaging platform and an invaluable bridge between optical and nuclear imaging. New optical imaging probes could be easily prepared using well-established radioiodination methods. Cerenkov imaging will have more applications in the research field of plant science and autoradiography.

  12. Mass size distribution of particles emitted by diesel engines and determination of the contribution of diesel particles to the atmospheric aerosol in Vienna by using a tracer suitable for activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norek, C.

    1985-01-01

    In Vienna a large fraction of light absorbing aerosols has been found. The traffic could be a source for the high absorption coefficients, since the time dependent absorption coefficients varise similar to the traffic densities. Diesel vehicles have high soot emissions, so they may contribute considerably to light absorption during the summer. The emission factors of the vehicles were estimated by measurements at different motor and driving conditions by the Constant-Volume-Sampling-Method. To determine the size distributions a 10-stage-low pressure impactor with a lower cut size of 0.015 μm aerodynamic particle diameter was used. In order to estimate the contribution of diesel vehicles to the total mass concentrations all diesel fuel sold in Vienna and its vincinity was marked with an organic Dysprosium compound. This rare earth tracer was emitted by vehicles together with the soot particles and collected at eleven stations in Vienna. The filter samples were extracted with diluted HNO 3 and the extraction was analysed for Dy by neutron activation analysis. The mass size distributions of the particles and the soot emitted from diesel engines are only slightly influenced by motor and driving parameters. The total mass emissions showed considerable variations, but the mean emission factor obtained from the tests was 2.43 g per litre fuel; knowing also the concentration of the tracer in the fuel, the contribution of diesel particles to the mass of the suspended particulates could be estimated. During the measuring period the contribution was c. 25% to the total mass and c. 40% to the absorbing matter in the atmosphere. (Author)

  13. Radioactive particles revealed by electron microscopy. Chemical and physical properties of radioactive particles in aerosol samples emitted during the early stage of Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Kouji

    2015-01-01

    Water-insoluble radioactive materials emitted during an early stage of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in 2011 were identified, and their chemical and physical properties were characterized as particulate matters. In this report, studies on radioactive particles collected from filter samples in Tsukuba on March 14–15, 2011 are summarized. Their compositions, chemical states, sizes, shapes, crystallinity, and hygroscopicity were analyzed using microscopic analyses such as electron microscopy and synchrotron with a micro-beam. The results indicate that they include Cs, Fe, and Zn as well as elements from fission products and are water insoluble, spherical-glassy particles with ca. 2 micrometer in size. Understanding of their detailed properties is significant to improve the numerical models during the accident and to understand their occurrences in soil as well as the accident itself. In addition to the water-insoluble radioactive materials, water-soluble radioactive materials, which were likely emitted in different events during the accident, should be investigated to have comprehensive understanding of the accident and its environmental effects. More samples from various environments such as soil will be needed, and more detailed chemical and physical analyses will help to understand their formation process, influences on human health, and long term decrements in ambient conditions. (author)

  14. Simple method for routine check of the constancy of radiation quality of bremsstrahlung emitted by therapeutic particle accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rassow, J; Eipper, H H; Krause, K [Essen Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany, F.R.). Abt. fuer Klinische Strahlenphysik; Staedtisches Krankenhaus Koeln-Merheim (Germany, F.R.). Roentgeninstitut und Strahlenklinik)

    1977-05-01

    The constancy of the radiation quality of therapeutically employed particle accelerators has to be checked at weekly intervals. Any change in radiation quality may have considerable therapeutic effects owing to its influence on dose distribution. It is recommended that measurements be made instead of, or in addition to, the axial reference-point measurement at 5 and 15 cm depth in the phantom, at 5 cm depth in the beam axis and at a reference-point about 1 cm within the geometric edge of the field, for checking the constancy of the radiation quality of bremsstrahlung. Only then, if routine checks carried out for the axial and the lateral reference-point dose ratios do not show any deviations greater than e.g. +-2 %, radiation quality is deemed to have remained sufficiently constant for radiotherapeutical applications.

  15. Radionuclide toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galle, P.

    1982-01-01

    The aim of this symposium was to review the radionuclide toxicity problems. Five topics were discussed: (1) natural and artificial radionuclides (origin, presence or emission in the environment, human irradiation); (2) environmental behaviour of radionuclides and transfer to man; (3) metabolism and toxicity of radionuclides (radioiodine, strontium, rare gas released from nuclear power plants, ruthenium-activation metals, rare earths, tritium, carbon 14, plutonium, americium, curium and einsteinium, neptunium, californium, uranium) cancerogenous effects of radon 222 and of its danghter products; (4) comparison of the hazards of various types of energy; (5) human epidemiology of radionuclide toxicity (bone cancer induction by radium, lung cancer induction by radon daughter products, liver cancer and leukaemia following the use of Thorotrast, thyroid cancer; other site of cancer induction by radionuclides) [fr

  16. Elliptic flow of charged pions, protons and strange particles emitted in Pb + Au collisions at top SPS energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamová, D.; Agakichiev, G.; Andronic, A.; Antończyk, D.; Appelshäuser, H.; Belaga, V.; Bielčíková, J.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Busch, O.; Cherlin, A.; Damjanović, S.; Dietel, T.; Dietrich, L.; Drees, A.; Dubitzky, W.; Esumi, S.I.; Filimonov, K.

    2012-01-01

    Differential elliptic flow spectra v 2 (p T ) of π - , K S 0 , p, Λ have been measured at √(s NN )=17.3 GeV around midrapidity by the CERN-CERES/NA45 experiment in mid-central Pb + Au collisions (10% of σ geo ). The p T range extends from about 0.1 GeV/c (0.55 GeV/c for Λ) to more than 2 GeV/c. Protons below 0.4 GeV/c are directly identified by dE/dx. At higher p T , proton elliptic flow is derived as a constituent, besides π + and K + , of the elliptic flow of positive pion candidates. This retrieval requires additional inputs: (i) of the particle composition, and (ii) of v 2 (p T ) of positive pions. For (i), particle ratios obtained by NA49 are adapted to CERES conditions; for (ii), the measured v 2 (p T ) of negative pions is substituted, assuming π + and π - elliptic flow magnitudes to be sufficiently close. The v 2 (p T ) spectra are compared to ideal-hydrodynamics calculations. In synopsis of the series π - -K S 0 -p-Λ, flow magnitudes are seen to fall with decreasing p T progressively even below hydro calculations with early kinetic freeze-out (T f =160 MeV) leaving not much time for hadronic evolution. The proton v 2 (p T ) data show a downward swing towards low p T with excursions into negative v 2 values. The pion-flow isospin asymmetry observed recently by STAR at RHIC, invalidating in principle our working assumption, is found in its impact on proton flow bracketed from above by the direct proton flow data, and not to alter any of our conclusions. Results are discussed in perspective of recent viscous hydrodynamics studies which focus on late hadronic stages.

  17. Elliptic flow of charged pions, protons and strange particles emitted in Pb + Au collisions at top SPS energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamová, D.; Agakichiev, G.; Andronic, A.; Antończyk, D.; Appelshäuser, H.; Belaga, V.; Bielčíková, J.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Busch, O.; Cherlin, A.; Damjanović, S.; Dietel, T.; Dietrich, L.; Drees, A.; Dubitzky, W.; Esumi, S. I.; Filimonov, K.; Fomenko, K.; Fraenkel, Z.; Garabatos, C.; Glässel, P.; Hering, G.; Holeczek, J.; Kalisky, M.; Krobath, G.; Kushpil, V.; Maas, A.; Marín, A.; Milošević, J.; Miśkowiec, D.; Panebrattsev, Y.; Petchenova, O.; Petráček, V.; Radomski, S.; Rak, J.; Ravinovich, I.; Rehak, P.; Sako, H.; Schmitz, W.; Schuchmann, S.; Sedykh, S.; Shimansky, S.; Stachel, J.; Šumbera, M.; Tilsner, H.; Tserruya, I.; Tsiledakis, G.; Wessels, J. P.; Wienold, T.; Wurm, J. P.; Yurevich, S.; Yurevich, V.; Ceres Collaboration

    Differential elliptic flow spectra v2(pT) of π-, KS0, p, Λ have been measured at √{sNN}=17.3 GeV around midrapidity by the CERN-CERES/NA45 experiment in mid-central Pb + Au collisions (10% of σgeo). The pT range extends from about 0.1 GeV/c (0.55 GeV/c for Λ) to more than 2 GeV/c. Protons below 0.4 GeV/c are directly identified by dE/dx. At higher pT, proton elliptic flow is derived as a constituent, besides π+ and K+, of the elliptic flow of positive pion candidates. This retrieval requires additional inputs: (i) of the particle composition, and (ii) of v2(pT) of positive pions. For (i), particle ratios obtained by NA49 are adapted to CERES conditions; for (ii), the measured v2(pT) of negative pions is substituted, assuming π+ and π- elliptic flow magnitudes to be sufficiently close. The v2(pT) spectra are compared to ideal-hydrodynamics calculations. In synopsis of the series π--KS0-p-Λ, flow magnitudes are seen to fall with decreasing pT progressively even below hydro calculations with early kinetic freeze-out (Tf=160 MeV) leaving not much time for hadronic evolution. The proton v2(pT) data show a downward swing towards low pT with excursions into negative v2 values. The pion-flow isospin asymmetry observed recently by STAR at RHIC, invalidating in principle our working assumption, is found in its impact on proton flow bracketed from above by the direct proton flow data, and not to alter any of our conclusions. Results are discussed in perspective of recent viscous hydrodynamics studies which focus on late hadronic stages.

  18. Low-level radioactive river sediment particles originating from the Chalk river nuclear site carry a mixture of radionuclides and metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lind, Ole Christian; Cagno, Simone; Salbu, Brit [Norwegian University of Life Sciences - NMBU, Center of Excellence in Environmental Radioactivity - CERAD, P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 Aas (Norway); Falkenberg, Gerald [Photon science, DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Janssens, Koen; Nuyts, Gert; Vanmeert, Frederik [AXIL, Department of Chemistry, University of Antwerpen (Belgium); Jaroszewicz, Jakub [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw (Poland); Priest, Nicholas D.; Audet, Marc [Nuclear Science Division, AECL Chalk River Laboratories (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    , Zr, Mo, Hf, Hg, Pb and Th in addition to U. Solid state speciation by means of micro-XRF/XRD tomography showed that the low-density sediment matrix was composed of kaolinite (A₂Si₂O₅(OH)₄), anatase / rutile (TiO₂) and calcite (CaCO₃). Metal species in the inclusions identified by micro-XRF/XRD tomography included molybdenite (MoS₂), meta-cinnabar (β-HgS) and UO₂. However, the white line of the U L3micro-XANES profiles was slightly shifted to the left compared to the UO₂ standard indicating that some U may be present in an inter-metallic form. To conclude, we have successfully isolated and characterised particles containing radionuclides and a suite of toxic metals from the Ottawa River utilizing state-of-the-art X-ray techniques. (authors)

  19. Natural radionuclides in the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal: distribution and evaluation of particle scavenging processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarin, M.M.; Rengarajan, R.; Somayajulu, B.L.K.

    1994-01-01

    Vertical and temporal variations in the activities of 234 Th, 210 Po and 210 Pb have been measured, in both dissolved and particulate phases, at several stations in the eastern Arabian Sea and north-central Bay of Bengal. A comparative study allows us to make inferences about the particle associated scavenging processes in these two seas having distinct biogeochemical properties. A common feature of the 234 Th profiles, in the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal, is that the dissolved as well as total (dissolved + particulate) activity of 234 Th is deficient in the surface 200 m with respect of its parent, 238 U. This gross deficiency is attributed to the preferential removal of 234 Th by adsorption onto settling particles which account for its net loss from the surface waters. The scavenging rates of dissolved 234 Th are comparable in these two basins. The temporal variations in the 234 Th- 238 U disequilibrium are significantly pronounced both in the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal indicating that the scavenging rates are more influenced by the increased abundance of particles rather than their chemical make-up. The Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea appear to be the regions of most intense particle moderated scavenging processes in the world oceans. This is evidenced by the gross disequilibria exhibited by the three isotope pairs used in this study. (author). 33 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs

  20. Elliptic flow of charged pions, protons and strange particles emitted in Pb+Au collisions at top SPS energy

    CERN Document Server

    Adamova, D.; Andronic, A.; Antonczyk, D.; Appelshauser, H.; Belaga, V.; Bielcikova, J.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Busch, O.; Cherlin, A.; Damjanovic, S.; Dietel, T.; Dietrich, L.; Drees, A.; Dubitzky, W.; Esumi, S.I.; Filimonov, K.; Fomenko, K.; Fraenkel, Z.; Garabatos, C.; Glassel, P.; Hering, G.; Holeczek, J.; Kalisky, M.; Krobath, G.; Kushpil, V.; Maas, A.; Marin, A.; Milosevic, J.; Miskowiec, D.; Panebrattsev, Y.; Petchenova, O.; Petracek, V.; Radomski, S.; Rak, J.; Ravinovich, I.; Rehak, P.; Sako, H.; Schmitz, W.; Schuchmann, S.; Sedykh, S.; Shimansky, S.; Stachel, J.; Sumbera, M.; Tilsner, H.; Tserruya, I.; Tsiledakis, G.; Wessels, J.P.; Wienold, T.; Wurm, J.P.; Yurevich, S.; Yurevich, V.

    2012-01-01

    Differential elliptic flow spectra v2(pT) of \\pi-, K0short, p, \\Lambda were measured at \\sqrt(s NN)= 17.3 GeV around midrapidity by the CERN-CERES/NA45 experiment in mid-central Pb+Au collisions (10% of \\sigma(geo)). The pT range extends from about 0.1 GeV/c (0.55 GeV/c for \\Lambda ) to more than 2 GeV/c. The proton v2(pT) is extracted from the sample of \\pi+ candidates using particle ratios from NA49 adapted to CERES acceptance and analysis cuts. The v2(pT) spectra are compared to ideal-hydrodynamics calculations. In synopsis, v2 in the series \\pi- - K0short - p - \\Lambda is seen to fall towards low pT increasingly below the hydro calculations even for kinetic freeze-out at Tf= 160 MeV which effectively suppress the hadronic evolution. The proton v2(pT) shows a downward swing towards low pT with excursions into negative values; the possible impact of a pion-flow isospin asymmetry observed by STAR at RHIC is found not to alter these conclusions. Results are discussed in perspective of recent viscous hydrodyna...

  1. Prospects for the methods of radionuclide production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karamyan, S.A.; Dmitriev, S.N.

    2014-01-01

    Methods of radionuclide production for the nuclear-medicine purposes are described. In a budget approach, the application of low-energy accelerators is especially advantageous. Intense flux of bremsstrahlung at electron accelerators or high-current cyclotron beams of alpha particles must supply a great yield for many isotopes. The choice of a target material and of the projectile energy provides enough variation for concrete species formation. The innovating procedures are here proposed for optimizing of methods, for instance, application of the noble-gas target for production and transport of activities. The known and new variants of the 'generator' scheme are discussed. Many isotopes are listed as promising in the context of the therapeutic and theragnostic applications. Among them are isotopes/isomers emitting soft radiation for the selective and careful body treatment, also the positron emitters for PET, and the halogen and alkali-metal species convenient for chemical separation.

  2. A study on vertical distribution of radionuclides in the soil layers 0-30 cm deep in relation to their particle size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megumi, K.; Sato, Y.; Matsunami, T.; Fukuda, K.; Ishiyama, T.; Kimura, S.; Tsujimoto, T.

    1991-01-01

    It is fundamentally important to have a detailed knowledge of distribution of radionuclides in soils in natural environments for an understanding of behavior of nuclides during a lengthy period beyond the limit of the possible in experimental systems. Core soil samples (30 cm) were taken from surface of the ground in the central parts (Osaka and Wakasa) of Japan. Each core sample was sliced into 5 cm sections and the parts of the soil larger than 10 mesh were excluded by standard sieves. Some of the samples were further sieved into four classes of soil particles, such as, 10-60, 60-100, 100-200 and more than 200 mesh. The concentrations of U-series nuclides ( 238 U, 226 Ra, 210 Pb), Th-series nuclides ( 232 Th, 228 Ra), 40 K and 137 Cs in the samples were determined by gamma ray spectrometry and photon activation analysis. The photon activation analysis with a planer type of Ge detector was made by irradiating the samples with bremsstrahlung of tungsten target from electron accelerator, 16 MeV, at Res. Inst. for Advanced Sci. and Tech., Univ. of Osaka Pref. Fallout 137 Cs and 210 Pb deposition in the soil layers showed vertical variation mainly depending on the organic substances contents, the ratios of water contents and particle sizes at each location. A good correlation was found between the concentrations of these two nuclides. This correlation is available to evaluate of the 137 Cs contamination levels in soils. The concentrations of 238 U, 226 Ra, 232 Th, 228 Ra and 40 K contained originally in soils, changed slightly with the depth and the vertical distributions of these nuclides were found to relate mainly to the soil particle size in the layer. This tendency was evidently observed in the soil originating from the weathering of granite rock. (author)

  3. Radionuclide cisternography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, H.H.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to show that radionuclide cisternography makes an essential contribution to the investigation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics, especially for the investigation of hydrocephalus. The technical details of radionuclide cisternography are discussed, followed by a description of the normal and abnormal radionuclide cisternograms. The dynamics of CFS by means of radionuclide cisternography were examined in 188 patients in whom some kind of hydrocephalus was suspected. This study included findings of anomalies associated with hydrocephalus in a number of cases, such as nasal liquorrhea, hygromas, leptomeningeal or porencephalic cysts. The investigation substantiates the value of radionuclide cisternography in the diagnosis of disturbances of CSF flow. The retrograde flow of radiopharmaceutical into the ventricular system (ventricular reflux) is an abnormal phenomenon indicating the presence of communicating hydrocephalus. (Auth.)

  4. Measurement of radionuclides in the environment via Cherenkov radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, H.H.

    1987-01-01

    The author has developed an alternate approach to the measurement of some beta-emitting nuclides that utilizes the luminescence generated by the Cherenkov process. The luminescence, now known as Cherenkov radiation, was shown to be generated when a charged particle passes through a transparent medium at a speed that exceeds the phase velocity of light in the same medium. Cherenkov emission is different from most other luminescence processes in that it is a purely physical phenomenon. One consequence of this is that Cherenkov systems are free of chemical quenching effects. Conventional methods of analysis for environmental levels of beta-emitting radionuclides are often tedious, time-consuming, and expensive. The Cherenkov method is fast, requires very little operator attention, and is much less expensive to perform

  5. Radionuclide table. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legrand, Jean; Perolat, J.-P.; Lagoutine, Frederic; Le Gallic, Yves.

    The evaluation of the following 29 radionuclides is presented: 22 Na, 24 Na, sup(24m)Na, 51 Cr, 54 Mn, 57 Co, 58 Co, sup(58m)Co, 60 Co, sup(60m)Co, 75 Se, 103 Ru, sup(103m)Rh, sup(110m)Ag- 110 Ag, 109 Cd, 125 Sb, sup(125mTe), 125 I, 133 Xe, sup(133m)Xe, 131 Cs, 134 Cs, sup(134m)Cs, 139 Ce, 144 Ce- 144 Pr, 144 Pr, 169 Er, 186 Re, 203 Hg. The introduction contains a brief description of radioactive processes and the evaluation rules followed. The best values and associated uncertainties are given for each radionuclide for the major parameters of the decay scheme and the radiation intensities emitted, together with a decay table. Gamma, X-rays and sometimes conversion electron spectra are also provided [fr

  6. Experimental study of the light charged particles emitted in coincidence with the main fragments from D.I.C. in the 40Ar (280 MeV) + 58Ni system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, S.; Babinet, R.; Cauvin, B.; Girard, J.; Auger, P.; Chiang, T.; Galin, J.; Gatty, B.; Guerreau, D.; Tarrago, X.

    1979-01-01

    The light charged particles emitted in coincidence with the main fragments from deep inelastic collisions in the 40 Ar (280 MeV) + 58 Ni have been studied. Both radial (in the reaction plane) and azimuthal angular distributions have been measured. For very asymmetric splitting, the radial angular distribution of the α particles shows two components one of which could be attributed to statistical evaporation by the heavy partner of the detected light fragment. The azimuthal distribution of that component clearly indicates a strong alignment of the spin of the emitting fragment with the orbital angular momentum and a preference for the 'sticking' limit. For symmetric splitting, some α particle energy spectra could not be explained in terms of statistical evaporation by either of the two main fragments. (orig.)

  7. Spatial distribution of radionuclides in soil around a coal-fired power plant: lead 210, polonium 210, radium 226, thorium 232, kalium 40 emitted with the fly ash and cesium 137 from the worldwide weapon testing fallout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunzl, K.; Hoetzl, H.; Rosner, G.; Winkler, R.

    1984-09-01

    To determine the effect of airborne emissions of radionuclides from coal-fired power plants on the environment, the concentrations of the most important radionuclides were measured in soil samples from the local environments (0.4-5.2 km) as well as in fly ash. The spatial distribution of the radionuclides in the soil did not indicate any significantly increased concentrations in the area downwind of the plant compared to other areas; the ratios lead 210/radium 226 and polonium 210/radium 226 were within the range observed for unaffected soils. The emissions from the plant, though present, are obviously too small to significantly change the natural local distribution pattern of the radionuclides in the soil. A highly significant correlation between potassium 40 and thorium 232 was observed which was independent of the different types of soils found in this area. The concentration of cesium 137 in topsoil, which is the result of worldwide fallout from nuclear weapons testing, varied at some places even within a small distance (approx. 2 km) by up to one order of magnitude. Furthermore, it was observed that the concentration of cesium 137 in soils from cropland was on average a factor of 2 less than in those from grassland. This variability has to be considered in planning monitoring programs around nuclear power plants, which may also release this radionuclide. (A.V.)

  8. Radionuclide carrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, F.A.; Kretschmar, H.C.; Tofe, A.J.

    1978-01-01

    A physiologically acceptable particulate radionuclide carrier is described. It comprises a modified anionic starch derivative with 0.1% to 1.5% by weight of a reducing agent and 1 to 20% by weight of anionic substituents

  9. Tidal and flood signatures of settling particles in the Gaoping submarine canyon (SW Taiwan) revealed from radionuclide and flow measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, C.-A.; Liu, J.T.; Lin, H.-L.; Xu, J. P.

    2009-01-01

    Sediment transport and sedimentation processes in the Gaoping submarine canyon were studied using sediment trap and current meter moorings deployed at a location during the winter (January-March) and the summer (July-September) months in 2008. At the end of each deployment, sediment cores were also collected from the canyon floor at the mooring site. Samples from sediment traps and sediment cores were analyzed for 210Pb and 234Th by gamma spectrometry. In conjunction with particle size and flow measurements, the datasets suggest that sediment transport in the canyon is tidally-modulated in the drier winter season and flood (river)-dominated in the wetter summer season. From the magnitude and temporal variation of sediment flux in the canyon with respect to the burial flux and sediment budget on the open shelf and slope region, we reaffirm that, on annual or longer timescales, the Gaoping submarine canyon is an effective conduit transporting sediments from the Gaoping River's drainage basin (the source) to the deep South China Sea (the ultimate sink). ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  10. Modifications in Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging Parameters After α-Particle-Emitting {sup 227}Th-trastuzumab Therapy of HER2-Expressing Ovarian Cancer Xenografts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heyerdahl, Helen, E-mail: Helen.Heyerdahl@rr-research.no [Department of Radiation Biology, Institute for Cancer Research, Oslo University Hospital - The Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Røe, Kathrine [Department of Oncology, Division of Medicine, Akershus University Hospital, Lørenskog (Norway); Brevik, Ellen Mengshoel [Department of Research and Development, Algeta ASA, Oslo (Norway); Dahle, Jostein [Nordic Nanovector AS, Oslo (Norway)

    2013-09-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of α-particle-emitting {sup 227}Th-trastuzumab radioimmunotherapy on tumor vasculature to increase the knowledge about the mechanisms of action of {sup 227}Th-trastuzumab. Methods and Materials: Human HER2-expressing SKOV-3 ovarian cancer xenografts were grown bilaterally in athymic nude mice. Mice with tumor volumes 253 ± 36 mm{sup 3} (mean ± SEM) were treated with a single injection of either {sup 227}Th-trastuzumab at a dose of 1000 kBq/kg body weight (treated group, n=14 tumors) or 0.9% NaCl (control group, n=10 tumors). Dynamic T1-weighted contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCEMRI) was used to study the effect of {sup 227}Th-trastuzumab on tumor vasculature. DCEMRI was performed before treatment and 1, 2, and 3 weeks after therapy. Tumor contrast-enhancement curves were extracted voxel by voxel and fitted to the Brix pharmacokinetic model. Pharmacokinetic parameters for the tumors that underwent radioimmunotherapy were compared with the corresponding parameters of control tumors. Results: Significant increases of k{sub ep}, the rate constant of diffusion from the extravascular extracellular space to the plasma (P<.05), and k{sub el,} the rate of clearance of contrast agent from the plasma (P<.01), were seen in the radioimmunotherapy group 2 and 3 weeks after injection, compared with the control group. The product of k{sub ep} and the amplitude parameter A, associated with increased vessel permeability and perfusion, was also significantly increased in the radioimmunotherapy group 2 and 3 weeks after injection (P<.01). Conclusions: Pharmacokinetic modeling of MRI contrast-enhancement curves evidenced significant alterations in parameters associated with increased tumor vessel permeability and tumor perfusion after {sup 227}Th-trastuzumab treatment of HER2-expressing ovarian cancer xenografts.

  11. Application of radionuclide sources for excitation in energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, P.

    1986-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis is in broad application in many fields of science where elemental determinations are necessary. Solid and liquid samples are analyzed by this method. Solids are introduced in thin or thick samples as melted glass, pellets, powders or as original specimen. The excitation of X-ray spectra can be performed by specific and polychromic radiation of X-ray tubes, by protons, deuterons, α-particles, heavy ions and synchrotron radiation from accelerators and by α-particles, X- and γ-rays and by bremsstrahlung generated by β - -particles from radionuclide sources. The radionuclides are devided into groups with respect to their decay mode and the energy of the emitted radiation. The broad application of radionuclides in XRF excitation is shown in examples as semi-quantitative analysis of glasses, as quantitative analysis of coarse ceramics and as quantitative determination of heavy elements (mainly actinides) in solutions. The advantages and disadvantages of radionuclide excitation in XRF analysis are discussed. (orig.) [de

  12. Dosimetric model for antibody targeted radionuclide therapy of tumor cells in cerebrospinal fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millar, W.T.; Barrett, A.

    1990-01-01

    Although encouraging results have been obtained using systemic radioimmunotherapy in the treatment of cancer, it is likely that regional applications may prove more effective. One such strategy is the treatment of central nervous system leukemia in children by intrathecal instillation of targeting or nontargeting beta particle emitting radionuclide carriers. The beta particle dosimetry of the spine is assessed, assuming that the spinal cord and the cerebrospinal fluid compartment can be adequately represented by a cylindrical annulus. The radionuclides investigated were 90 Y, 131 I, 67 Cu, and 199 Au. It is shown that the radiation dose to the cord can be significantly reduced using short range beta particle emitters and that there is little advantage in using targeting carriers with these radionuclides. 199 Au and 67 Cu also have the advantage of having a suitable gamma emission for imaging, permitting pretherapy imaging and dosimetric calculations to be undertaken prior to therapy. If these methods prove successful, it may be possible to replace the external beam component used in the treatment of central nervous system leukemia in children by intrathecal radionuclide therapy, thus reducing or avoiding side effects such as growth and intellectual impairment

  13. Calculated dose factors for the radiosensitive tissues in bone irradiated by surface-deposited radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiers, F.W.; Whitwell, J.R.; Beddoe, A.H.

    1978-01-01

    The method of calculating dose factors for the haemopoietic marrow and endosteal tissues in human trabecular bone, used by Whitwell and Spiers for volume-seeking radionuclides, has been developed for the case of radionuclides which are deposited as very thin layers on bone surfaces. The Monte Carlo method is again used, but modifications to the computer program are made to allow for a surface rather than a volume source of particle emission. The principal change is the introduction of a surface-orientation factor which is shown to have a value of approximately 2, varying slightly with bone structure. Results are given for β-emitting radionuclides ranging from 171 Tm(anti Esub(β) = 0.025 MeV) to 90 Y(anti Esub(β) = 0.93 MeV), and also for the α-emitter 239 Pu. It is shown that where the particle ranges are short compared with the dimensions of the bone structures the dose factors for the surface seekers are much greater than those for the volume seekers. For long range particles the dose factors for surface- and volume-seeking radionuclides converge. Comparisons are given relating the dose factors calculated in this paper on the basis of measured bone structures to those of other workers based on single plane geometry. (author)

  14. Radionuclide generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambrecht, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    The status of radionuclide generators for chemical research and applications related to the life sciences and biomedical research are reviewed. Emphasis is placed upon convenient, efficient and rapid separation of short-lived daughter radionuclides in a chemical form suitable for use without further chemical manipulation. The focus is on the production of the parent, the radiochemistry associated with processing the parent and daughter, the selection and the characteristic separation methods, and yields. Quality control considerations are briefly noted. The scope of this review includes selected references to applications of radionuclide generators in radiopharmaceutical chemistry, and the life sciences, particularly in diagnostic and therapeutic medicine. The 99 Mo-sup(99m)Tc generator was excluded. 202 references are cited. (orig.)

  15. Production of 68Ge, 64Cu, 86Y, 89Zr, 73Se, 77Br and 124I positron emitting radionuclides through future laser-accelerated proton beams at ELI-Beamlines for innovative PET diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Italiano

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of innovative production pathways for high-Z positron emitters is of great interest to enlarge the applicability of PET diagnostics, especially in view of the continuous development of new radiopharmaceuticals. We evaluated the theoretical yields of 64Cu, 86Y, 89Zr, 73Se, 77Br and 124I PET isotopes, plus the 68Ge isotope, parent of the 68Ga positron emitter, in the hypothesis of production through laser-accelerated proton sources expected at the ELI-Beamlines facility. By means of the TALYS software we simulated the nuclear reactions leading to the above radionuclides, hypothesizing three possible scenarios of broad proton spectra, with maximum energies of about 9, 40 and 100 MeV. The production yields of the studied radionuclides, within the expected fluences, appear to be suitable for pre-clinical applications.

  16. Measurements of gamma (γ)-emitting radionuclides with a high-purity germanium detector: the methods and reliability of our environmental assessments on the Fukushima 1 Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimura, Tetsuro; Mimura, Mari; Komiyama, Chiyo; Miyamoto, Masaaki; Kitamura, Akira

    2014-01-01

    The severe accident of Fukushima 1 Nuclear Power Plant due to the Tohoku Region Pacific Coast Earthquake in 11 March 2011 caused wide contamination and pollution by radionuclides in Fukushima and surrounding prefectures. In the current JPR symposium, a group of plant scientists attempted to examine the impact of the radioactive contamination on wild and cultivated plants. Measurements of gamma (γ) radiation from radionuclides in "Fukushima samples", which we called and collected from natural and agricultural areas in Fukushima prefecture were mostly done with a high-purity Ge detector in the Graduate School of Maritime Sciences, Kobe University. In this technical note, we describe the methods of sample preparation and measurements of radioactivity of the samples and discuss the reliability of our data in regards to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Interlaboratory comparisons and proficiency test (IAEA proficiency test).

  17. Treatment of HER2-positive breast carcinomatous meningitis with intrathecal administration of {alpha}-particle-emitting {sup 211}At-labeled trastuzumab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boskovitz, Abraham; McLendon, Roger E.; Okamura, Tatsunori [Department of Pathology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Sampson, John H. [Department of Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Bigner, Darell D. [Department of Pathology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Zalutsky, Michael R. [Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States)], E-mail: zalut001@mc.duke.edu

    2009-08-15

    Introduction: Carcinomatous meningitis (CM) is a devastating disease characterized by the dissemination of malignant tumor cells into the subarachnoid space along the brain and spine. Systemic treatment with monoclonal antibody (mAb) trastuzumab can be effective against HER2-positive systemic breast carcinoma but, like other therapies, is ineffective against CM. The goal of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic effect of {alpha}-particle emitting {sup 211}At-labeled trastuzumab following intrathecal administration in a rat model of breast carcinoma CM. Methods: Athymic rats were injected intrathecally with MCF-7/HER2-18 breast carcinoma cells through a surgically implanted indwelling intrathecal catheter. In Experiment 1, animals received 33 or 66 {mu}Ci {sup 211}At-labeled trastuzumab, cold trastuzumab or saline. In Experiment 2, animals were inoculated with a lower tumor burden and received 46 or 92 {mu}Ci {sup 211}At-labeled trastuzumab or saline. In Experiment 3, animals received 28 {mu}Ci {sup 211}At-labeled trastuzumab, 30 {mu}Ci {sup 211}At-labeled TPS3.2 control mAb or saline. Histopathological analysis of the neuroaxis was performed at the end of the study. Results: In Experiment 1, median survival increased from 21 days for the saline and cold trastuzumab groups to 45 and 48 days for 33 and 66 {mu}Ci {sup 211}At-labeled trastuzumab, respectively. In Experiment 2, median survival increased from 23 days for saline controls to 68 and 92 days for 46 and 92 {mu}Ci {sup 211}At-labeled trastuzumab, respectively. In Experiment 3, median survival increased from 20 days to 29 and 36 days for animals treated with {sup 211}At-labeled TPS3.2 and {sup 211}At-labeled trastuzumab, respectively. Long-term survivors were observed exclusively in the {sup 211}At-trastuzumab-treated groups. Conclusion: Intrathecal {sup 211}At-labeled trastuzumab shows promise as a treatment for patients with HER2-positive breast CM.

  18. Radionuclide generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambrecht, R.M.; Wollongong Univ.; Tomiyoshi, K.; Sekine, T.

    1997-01-01

    The present status and future directions of research and development on radionuclide generator technology are reported. The recent interest to develop double-neutron capture reactions for production of in vivo generators; neutron rich nuclides for radio-immunotherapeutic pharmaceuticals: and advances with ultra-short lived generators is highlighted. Emphasis is focused on: production of the parent radionuclide; the selection and the evaluation of support materials and eluents with respect to the resultant radiochemical yield of the daughter, and the breakthrough of the radionuclide parent: and, the uses of radionuclide generators in radiopharmaceutical chemistry, biomedical and industrial applications. The 62 Zn → 62 Cu, 66 Ni → 66 Cu, 103m Rh → 103 Rh, 188 W → 188 Re and the 225 Ac → 221 Fr → 213 Bi generators are predicted to be emphasized for future development. Coverage of the 99 Mo → 99m Tc generator was excluded, as it the subject of another review. The literature search ended June, 1996. (orig.)

  19. Radionuclide scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, B.

    1986-01-01

    Radionuclide scanning is the production of images of normal and diseased tissues and organs by means of the gamma-ray emissions from radiopharmaceutical agents having specific distributions in the body. The gamma rays are detected at the body surface by a variety of instruments that convert the invisible rays into visible patterns representing the distribution of the radionuclide in the body. The patterns, or images, obtained can be interpreted to provide or to aid diagnoses, to follow the course of disease, and to monitor the management of various illnesses. Scanning is a sensitive technique, but its specificity may be low when interpreted alone. To be used most successfully, radionuclide scanning must be interpreted in conjunction with other techniques, such as bone radiographs with bone scans, chest radiographs with lung scans, and ultrasonic studies with thyroid scans. Interpretation is also enhanced by providing pertinent clinical information because the distribution of radiopharmaceutical agents can be altered by drugs and by various procedures besides physiologic and pathologic conditions. Discussion of the patient with the radionuclide scanning specialist prior to the study and review of the results with that specialist after the study are beneficial

  20. Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahl, Linnea [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are produced, handled, store d, and potentially emitted . These facilities are subject to the EPA radioactive air emission regulations in 40 CFR 61, Subpart H (EPA 1989a). Radionuclides may be emitted from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or they may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2012, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]) . These minor sources include d about 140 stack sources and no diffuse sources . T here were no unplanned airborne radionuclide emissions from Berkeley Lab operations . Emissions from minor sources were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities used, received for use, or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building- specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA -approved computer code s, CAP88-PC and COMPLY , to calculate doses to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) at any offsite point where there is a residence, school, business, or office. Because radionuclides are used at three noncontiguous locations (the main site, Berkeley West Bio center, and Joint BioEnergy Institute), three different MEIs were identified.

  1. Artificial radionuclides in the atmosphere over Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lujaniene, G.; Sapolaite, J.; Remeikis, V.; Lujanas, V.; Aninkevicius, V.

    2006-01-01

    %). Accuracy and precision of analysis were tested using NIST SRM No 4350B and 4357 as well as in intercomparison runs, organized by the Riso National Laboratory, Denmark. Precision of 1 37Cs measurements by gamma spectrometry was ≤ 7% at 2σ, Pu ≤ 8 %, Am ≤ 10 %. 2 40Pu/ 2 39Pu ratio was determined by ICP-MS. For determination of chemical association of radionuclides with aerosol particles the sequential extraction methods were used. Measurements performed in Vilnius and Preila indicated transfer of resuspention and combustion products after the forest and peat bog fires in the Ukraine and Belarus when activity concentrations of 1 37Cs in the atmosphere increased up to 200μBq/m 3 . The measurements carried out on aerosol samples collected in Vilnius in 1997-1999 indicated the presence of alpha emitting radionuclides. The activity concentrations of 2 39, 2 40Pu and 2 41Am ranged from 0.4 to 18 and from 0.3 to 9.7 nBq/m 3 , respectively. The origin of contamination source was identified using meteorological data of backward trajectories, characteristic speciation, activity and atom ratio of radionuclides. For comparison measurements were performed on aerosol samples collected during the Chernobyl accident and the contaminated Chernobyl soil. In some samples the high activity ratio of 2 38Pu/ 2 39, 2 40Pu up to 0.5 was observed. The presence of the Chernobyl derived plutonium was confirmed by ICPMS (atom ratio 2 40Pu/ 2 39Pu up to 0.40 was found). Thus, the Chernobyl accident resulted in contamination of large areas of the Earth's surface and forests by radioactive substances. The redistribution of radionuclides mainly of Cs, from these regions to less contaminated areas takes place during the forest fires, because the aerosol particles generated in a different phase of fire have predominantly a submicronic size and are enriched by the volatile Cs due to its evaporation and condensation on condensation nuclei in the atmosphere (the increase of Cs/Sr and Cs/Pu ratio

  2. Study of alternative routes for the production of innovative radionuclides for medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchemin, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear medicine is a specialty that uses radioactive nuclei for therapy or diagnosis of diseases such as different types of cancer. These radionuclides are coupled to carrier molecules to target sick cells. Currently, only few isotopes are used in clinical practice. However, many others may be of medical interest due to their emitted radiation and/or their half-life that can be adapted to the carrier molecule transit time and to the pathology. The aim of this PhD thesis is to study the production of innovative radionuclides for therapy and diagnosis applications in collaboration with the GIP ARRONAX, which possesses a multi-particle high energy cyclotron. A fundamental physical parameter to access the production rate of a radionuclide is the production cross section. Experimental data were measured for a selection of radionuclides: photon emitter (Tc-99m) and positron emitter (Sc-44g) for diagnosis, as well as electron emitters (Re-186, Tb-155 and Sn-117m) and α particles emitters (Th-226, Ra-223 and Bi-213) for therapeutic applications. These acquired data are obtained using alternative production routes compared to the commonly used. Data related to the contaminants produced during the irradiations were also extracted. The experimental cross section values are compared with theoretical model predictions. The large set of data obtained contributes to the theoretical physicist studies allowing to constrain their models to improve and/or validate them. (author)

  3. Positron-emitting raionuclides: present and future status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambrecht, R.M.

    1979-01-01

    A tabulation of 157 positron-emitting radionuclides that have the physical characteristics deemed appropriate for radiopharmaceutical use in conjunction with positron emission tomography is provided. The most promising radionuclides are within the production capabilities of a variable-energy cyclotron accelerating protons to about 40 MeV and deuterons, helium-3, and helium-4 to compatable energies. To data only 27 positron-emitting radionuclides have been subjected to radiopharmaceutical consideration, whereas only 11 C, 13 N, 15 O, 18 F, 38 K, and 68 Ga have proved to be especially promising. 2 tables

  4. Radionuclide examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lentle, B.C.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on radionuclide examinations of the pancreas. The pancreas, situated retroperitonally high in the epigastrium, was a particularly difficult organ to image noninvasively before ultrasonography and computed tomography (CT) became available. Indeed the organ still remains difficult to examine in some patients, a fact reflected in the variety of methods available to evaluate pancreatic morphology. It is something of a paradox that the pancreas is metabolically active and physiologically important but that its examination by radionuclide methods has virtually ceased to have any role in day-to-day clinical practice. To some extent this is caused by the tendency of the pancreas's commonest gross diseases emdash carcinoma and pancreatitis, for example emdash to result in nonfunction of the entire organ. Disorders of pancreatic endocrine function have generally not required imaging methods for diagnosis, although an understanding of diabetes mellitus and its nosology has been advanced by radioimmunoassay of plasma insulin concentrations

  5. Measurement of radionuclides using ion chromatography and flow-cell scintillation counting with pulse shape discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeVol, T.A.; Fjeld, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    A project has been initiated at Clemson Univ. to develop a HPLC/flow- cell system for analysis of non-gamma emitting radionuclides in environmental samples; an important component is development of a low background flow-cell detector that counts alpha and beta particles separately through pulse shape discrimination. Objective of the work presented here is to provide preliminary results of an evaluation of the following scintillators: CaF 2 :Eu, scintillating glass, and BaF 2 . Slightly acidic aqueous solutions of the alpha emitter 233 U and the beta emitter 45 Ca were used. Detection efficiencies and minimum detectable activities were determined

  6. Radionuclide transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, G.B.

    1993-01-01

    The research project described here had the aim to obtain further information on the transfer of nuclides during pregnancy and lactation. The tests were carried out in mini-pigs and rats receiving unchanging doses of radionuclides with the food. The following findings were revealed for the elements examined: Fe, Se, Cs and Zn were characterized by very high transfer levels in the mother, infant and foetus. A substantial uptake by the mother alone was observed for Co, Ag and Mn. The uptake by the foetus and infant here was 1 to 10 times lower. A preferential concentration in certain tissues was seen for Sr and Tc; the thyroid levels of Tc were about equally high in mothers and infants, while Sr showed less accumulation in the maternal bone. The lanthanide group of substances (Ce, Eu and Gd as well as Y and Ru) were only taken up to a very limited extent. The uptake of the examined radionuclides (Fe, Co, Ag, Ce) with the food ingested was found here to be ten times greater in rats as compared to mini-pigs. This showed that great caution must be observed, if the behaviour of radionuclides in man is extrapolated from relevant data obtained in rodents. (orig./MG) [de

  7. Importance of coccolithophore-associated organic biopolymers for fractionating particle-reactive radionuclides (234Th, 233Pa, 210Pb, 210Po, and 7Be) in the ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Peng; Xu, Chen; Zhang, Saijin; Sun, Luni; Schwehr, Kathleen A.; Bretherton, Laura; Quigg, Antonietta; Santschi, Peter H.

    2017-08-01

    Laboratory incubation experiments using the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi were conducted in the presence of 234Th, 233Pa, 210Pb, 210Po, and 7Be to differentiate radionuclide uptake to the CaCO3 coccosphere from coccolithophore-associated biopolymers. The coccosphere (biogenic calcite exterior and its associated biopolymers), extracellular (nonattached and attached exopolymeric substances), and intracellular (sodium-dodecyl-sulfate extractable and Fe-Mn-associated metabolites) fractions were obtained by sequentially extraction after E. huxleyi reached its stationary growth phase. Radionuclide partitioning and the composition of different organic compound classes, including proteins, total carbohydrates (TCHO), and uronic acids (URA), were assessed. 210Po was closely associated with the more hydrophobic biopolymers (high protein/TCHO ratio, e.g., in attached exopolymeric substances), while 234Th and 233Pa showed similar partitioning behavior with most activity being distributed in URA-enriched, nonattached exopolymeric substances and intracellular biopolymers. 234Th and 233Pa were nearly undetectable in the coccosphere, with a minor abundance of organic components in the associated biopolymers. These findings provide solid evidence that biogenic calcite is not the actual main carrier phase for Th and Pa isotopes in the ocean. In contrast, both 210Pb and 7Be were found to be mostly concentrated in the CaCO3 coccosphere, likely substituting for Ca2+ during coccolith formation. Our results demonstrate that even small cells (E. huxleyi) can play an important role in the scavenging and fractionation of radionuclides. Furthermore, the distinct partitioning behavior of radionuclides in diatoms (previous studies) and coccolithophores (present study) explains the difference in the scavenging of radionuclides between diatom- and coccolithophore-dominated marine environments.

  8. 40 CFR 141.66 - Maximum contaminant levels for radionuclides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... beta particle and photon radioactivity from man-made radionuclides in drinking water must not produce.../year). (2) Except for the radionuclides listed in table A, the concentration of man-made radionuclides... may make this technology too complex for small surface water systems. e Removal efficiencies can vary...

  9. Particles and solutes migration in porous medium : radionuclides and clayey particles simultaneous transport under the effect of a salinity gradient; Migration de particules et de solutes en milieu poreux : modelisation du transport simultane de particules argileuses et de radionucleides sous l`effet d`un gradient de salinite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faure, M H

    1994-03-29

    This work deals with the radiation protection of high-level and long-life radioactive waste storages. The colloids presence in ground waters can accelerate the radionuclides migration in natural geological deposits. The aim of this thesis is then to control particularly the particles motion in porous medium in order to anticipate quantitatively their migration. Liquid chromatography columns are filled with a clayey sand and fed with a decreasing concentration sodium chloride solution in order to study the particles outlet under a salinity gradient. When the porous medium undergoes a decrease of salinity it deteriorates. The adsorption of the cations : sodium 22, calcium 45, cesium 137 and neptunium 237 is then studied by the ions exchange method. The radionuclide solution is injected before the decrease of the feed solution salinity. The decrease of the sodium chloride concentration leads to the decrease of the radionuclides concentration because the adsorption competition between the sodium ion and the injected cation is lower. The particles transport, without fouling of the porous medium, is carried out in particular physical and chemical conditions which are described. (O.L.). 71 refs., 105 figs., 26 tabs.

  10. Radiation protection in radionuclide investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    The subject is covered in sections: introduction; radiation and radioactivity; alpha particles; beta particles; neutrons; electromagnetic radiation; units of radioactivity and radiation; biological effects of radiation; the philosophy of radiation protection (ALARA principle); practical aspects of radiation protection; work with unsealed radiation sources; radionuclide studies in experimental animals; radiation safety during clinical investigations; legislative control of radiation work; radioactive waste disposal; emergency procedures; conclusion. (U.K.)

  11. Radionuclide radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarsbrook, A.F.; Graham, R.N.J.; Perriss, R.W.; Bradley, K.M.

    2006-01-01

    This is the fourth in a series of short reviews of internet-based radiological educational resources, and will focus on radionuclide radiology and nuclear medicine. What follows is a list of carefully selected websites to save time in searching them out. Most of the sites cater for trainee or non-specialist radiologists, but may also be of interest to specialists for use in teaching. This article may be particularly useful to radiologists interested in the rapidly expanding field of positron emission tomography computed tomography (PET-CT). Hyperlinks are available in the electronic version of this article and were all active at the time of going to press (February 2006)

  12. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiner, R.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, as directed by a written development plan (CRWMS M and O 1999a). This abstraction is the conceptual model that will be used to determine the rate of release of radionuclides from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ) in the total system performance assessment-license application (TSPA-LA). In particular, this model will be used to quantify the time-dependent radionuclide releases from a failed waste package (WP) and their subsequent transport through the EBS to the emplacement drift wall/UZ interface. The development of this conceptual model will allow Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) and its Engineered Barrier Performance Department to provide a more detailed and complete EBS flow and transport abstraction. The results from this conceptual model will allow PA0 to address portions of the key technical issues (KTIs) presented in three NRC Issue Resolution Status Reports (IRSRs): (1) the Evolution of the Near-Field Environment (ENFE), Revision 2 (NRC 1999a), (2) the Container Life and Source Term (CLST), Revision 2 (NRC 1999b), and (3) the Thermal Effects on Flow (TEF), Revision 1 (NRC 1998). The conceptual model for flow and transport in the EBS will be referred to as the ''EBS RT Abstraction'' in this analysis/modeling report (AMR). The scope of this abstraction and report is limited to flow and transport processes. More specifically, this AMR does not discuss elements of the TSPA-SR and TSPA-LA that relate to the EBS but are discussed in other AMRs. These elements include corrosion processes, radionuclide solubility limits, waste form dissolution rates and concentrations of colloidal particles that are generally represented as boundary conditions or input parameters for the EBS RT Abstraction. In effect, this AMR provides the algorithms for transporting radionuclides using the flow geometry and radionuclide concentrations determined by other

  13. Light charged particles emitted in coincidence with deeply inelastic collisions in the 280 MeV 40Ar + 58Ni reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerreau, D.; Galin, J.; Babinet, R.

    1979-01-01

    A detailed study was made of the light charged particles (mainly protons and alpha particles) in coincidence with the main fragments from deep inelastic collisions in the reaction 280 MeV 40 Ar + 58 Ni. A survey of relevant data is followed by a discussion of the origin of the light charged particles as it can be deduced from the p, α-fragment coincidence experiment. The results of out-of-plane distributions of the α-particles are presented and they are discussed in terms of the extreme sticking limit

  14. Metabolism of radionuclides in domestic animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirth, E.; Leising, C.

    1986-01-01

    The reactor accident at Chernobyl has shown that shortly after the contamination of the environment radionuclides can be found in animal products. The main contamination pathways of domestic animas are: uptake of radionuclides by foodstuffs; uptake of radionuclides by contaminated drinking water; uptake of radionuclides by inhalation; uptake of radionuclides through skin; uptake of radionuclides by ingestion of soil particles. Generally the uptake of radionuclides by food is the dominant exposure pathway. In rare cases the inhalation of radionuclides or the uptake by drinking water may be of importance. The metabolism of incorporated radionuclides is comparable to the respective metabolism of essential mass or trace elements or heavy metals. Radioisotopes of essential elements are for instance iron 55, manganese 54, cobalt 58 and cobalt 60. Other elements are typical antagonists to essential elements, e.g. strontium 90 is an antagonist to calcium or cesium 137 to potassium. Lead 210 and plutonium 239 behave similarly as heavy metals. Generally the knowledge of the metabolism of trace and mass elements, of antagonistic and synergistic elements and heavy metals can be applied to these radionuclides

  15. National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudin, M.J.; Garcia, R.S.

    1992-02-01

    This volume serves as an introduction to the National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series. This report includes discussions of radionuclides listed in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 61.55, Tables 1 and 2 (including alpha-emitting transuranics with half-lives greater than five years). Each report includes information regarding radiological and chemical characteristics of specific radionuclides. Information is also included discussing waste streams and waste forms that may contain each radionuclide, and radionuclide behavior in the environment and in the human body. Not all radionuclides commonly found at low-level radioactive waste sites are included in this report. The discussion in this volume explains the rationale of the radionuclide selection process

  16. Particle and solute migration in porous media. Modeling of simultaneous transport of clay particles and radionuclides in a salinity gradient; Migration de particules et de solutes en milieu poreux. Modelisation du transport simultane de particules argileuses et de radionucleides sous l`effet d`un gradient de salinite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faure, M H

    1994-03-01

    Understanding the mechanisms which control the transient transport of particles and radionuclides in natural and artificial porous media is a key problem for the assessment of safety of radioactive waste disposals. An experimental study has been performed to characterize the clayey particle mobility in porous media: a laboratory- made column, packed with an unconsolidated sand bentonite (5% weight) sample, is flushed with a salt solution. An original method of salinity gradient allowed us to show and to quantify some typical behaviours of this system: threshold effects in the peptization of particles, creation of preferential pathways, formation of immobile water zones induce solute-transfer limitation. The mathematical modelling accounts for a phenomenological law, where the distribution of particles between the stagnant water zone and the porous medium is a function of sodium chloride concentration. This distribution function is associated with a radionuclide adsorption model, and is included in a convective dispersive transport model with stagnant water zones. It allowed us to simulate the particle and solute transport when the salt environment is modified. The complete model has been validated with experiments involving cesium, calcium and neptunium in a sodium chloride gradient. (author). refs., figs., tabs.

  17. Drift-Scale Radionuclide Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houseworth, J.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this model report is to document the drift scale radionuclide transport model, taking into account the effects of emplacement drifts on flow and transport in the vicinity of the drift, which are not captured in the mountain-scale unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and transport models ''UZ Flow Models and Submodels'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169861]), ''Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 164500]), and ''Particle Tracking Model and Abstraction of Transport Process'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170041]). The drift scale radionuclide transport model is intended to be used as an alternative model for comparison with the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport model ''EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169868]). For that purpose, two alternative models have been developed for drift-scale radionuclide transport. One of the alternative models is a dual continuum flow and transport model called the drift shadow model. The effects of variations in the flow field and fracture-matrix interaction in the vicinity of a waste emplacement drift are investigated through sensitivity studies using the drift shadow model (Houseworth et al. 2003 [DIRS 164394]). In this model, the flow is significantly perturbed (reduced) beneath the waste emplacement drifts. However, comparisons of transport in this perturbed flow field with transport in an unperturbed flow field show similar results if the transport is initiated in the rock matrix. This has led to a second alternative model, called the fracture-matrix partitioning model, that focuses on the partitioning of radionuclide transport between the fractures and matrix upon exiting the waste emplacement drift. The fracture-matrix partitioning model computes the partitioning, between fractures and matrix, of diffusive radionuclide transport from the invert (for drifts without seepage) into the rock water. The invert is the structure constructed in a drift to provide the floor of the

  18. Producing new radionuclides for medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaut, C.

    2009-01-01

    The Arronax cyclotron, a new particle accelerator dedicated to the production of radionuclides for medicine and research has been commissioned in Nantes (France). Because of its unique features: an energy of 70 MeV and an intensity of 750 μA, Arronax will produce radionuclides that can not be produce in present cyclotrons. Among others it will produce Strontium-82 and Germanium-68 that are the precursors for Rubidium-82 and Gallium-68 respectively. 20 per cent of the research works will be dedicated to other domains like radioactive wastes, the radiation biological damage and the radiation damage on electronic devices. (A.C.)

  19. A new two-photon mechanism of the formation of a continuous spectrum of photons emitted by secondary emission products of atomic particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veksler, V.I.

    1986-01-01

    A two-photon mechanism of the formation of a continuous spectrum of photons emitted by products of metal sputtering is considered. The following process of the two-photon mechanism is considered: the continuous spectrum is formed under quadrupole two-photon transitions in sputtered excited atoms having vacancies at the d level in atoms of transition metals or at the of level in lanthanides found against the filled conduction band. It is shown that the suggested mechanism should play an essential role in the formation of the continuous spectrum of optical radiation

  20. Light charged particles emitted in coincidence with deeply inelastic collisions in the 280MeV 40Ar+58Ni reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerreau, D.; Galin, J.; Babinet, R.

    1979-01-01

    A detailed study of the light charged particles (mainly protons and alpha particles) has been undertaken in coincidence with the main fragments from DIC in the reaction 280 MeV 40 Ar + 58 Ni. This study is divided in three sections. The first one is a quick survey of the preexisting data on the 40 Ar + 58 Ni that are relevant to this particular experiment. The second one deals mainly with the origin of the light charged particles as it can be deduced from the p, α-fragments coincidence experiment. Finally, the third section is devoted to the tangential friction aspects. The results of the out-of-plane distributions of the α-particles are presented and they are discussed in term of the extreme sticking limit

  1. Cellular dosimetry for radon progeny alpha particles in bronchial tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, A.; Hofmann, W.; Balashazy, I.

    1996-01-01

    Inhaled radon progeny are deposited in different regions of the human bronchial tree as functions of particle size and flow rate. Following deposition and mucociliary clearance, the sensitive bronchial basal and secretory cells are irradiated by two different alpha particle sources: (i) radon progeny in the sol and/or gel phase of the mucous layer, and (ii) radon progeny within the bronchial epithelium. In the case of internally deposited radionuclides, direct measurement of the energy absorbed from the ionizing radiation emitted by the decaying radionuclides is rarely, if ever, possible. Therefore, one must rely on dosimetric models to obtain estimates of the spatial and temporal patterns of energy deposition in tissues and organs of the body. When the radionuclide is uniformly distributed throughout the volume of a tissue of homogeneous composition and when the size of the tissue is large compared to the range of the particulate emissions of the radionuclide, then the dose rate within the tissue is also uniform and the calculation of absorbed dose can proceed without complication. However, if non-uniformities in the spatial and temporal distributions of the radionuclide are coupled with heterogeneous tissue composition, then the calculation of absorbed dose becomes complex and uncertain. Such is the case with the dosimetry of inhaled radon and radon progeny in the respiratory tract. There are increasing demands to obtain a definitive explanation of the role of alpha particles emitted from radon daughters in the induction of lung cancer. Various authors have attempted to evaluate the dose to the bronchial region of the respiratory tract due to the inhalation of radon daughters

  2. Use of labelled dextran in radionuclide lymphography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kafka, P.; Kubicek, J.; Duska, F.; Vizda, J.

    1986-01-01

    Dextran labelled with 99m Tc is a new promising radiopharmaceutical for radionuclide lymphography. So far colloids were mainly used which either had an unsuitable type of emitted radiation or the particles were too large. Dextran with a molecular weight of 70,000 was used. This weight is optimal with regard to the quality of imaging and the risk of adverse reactions. The procedure of labelling is described in detail. The properties of labelled dextran were studied in experiments on dogs weighing 8 to 12 kg to whom 14.8 to 22.2 MBq was administered subcutaneously into the front or hind paws. Scans were made immediately on application and after 45 mins. A quick passage was detected of the labelled dextran from interstitial spaces to the lymphatic vessels. Lymph nodes were well visualized within 1 hour. The quality control of the prepared 99m Tc-dextran was made using paper chromatography; 10 to 20% of free technetium was found. The replacement of colloids used so far with the new preparation seems to be feasible. Examinations using colloids with 198 Au require the patient to be present for 2 days, while dextran tests will be a matter of 1 to 2 hours. (A.K.)

  3. ASSESSMENTOF BETA PARTICLE FLUX FROM SURFACE CONTAMINATION AS A RELATIVE INDICATOR FOR RADIONUCLIDE DISTRIBUTION ON EXTERNAL SURFACES OF A MULTI-STORY BUILDING IN PRIPYAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.

    2009-11-17

    How would we recover if a Radiological Dispersion Device (e.g., dirty bomb) or Improvised Nuclear Device were to detonate in a large city? In order to assess the feasibility of remediation following such an event, several issues would have to be considered, including the levels and characteristics of the radioactive contamination, the availability of the required resources to accomplish decontamination, and the planned future use of the city's structures and buildings. Presently little is known about the distribution, redistribution, and migration of radionuclides in an urban environment. However, Pripyat, a city substantially contaminated by the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident, may provide some answers. The main objective of this study was to determine the radionuclide distribution on a Pripyat multi-story building, which had not been previously decontaminated and therefore could reflect the initial fallout and its further natural redistribution on external surfaces. The 7-story building selected was surveyed from the ground floor to the roof on horizontal and vertical surfaces along seven ground-to-roof transections. Some of the results from this study indicate that the upper floors of the building had higher contamination levels than the lower floors. The authors consequently recommend that existing decontamination procedures for tall structures be re-examined and modified accordingly.

  4. Assessment and management of risks associated with exposures to Auger- and beta-emitting radionuclides. Recommendations and proposals for lines of research; L'evaluation et la gestion des risques associes aux expositions aux radionucleides emetteurs Auger et beta. Avis et propositions de pistes de recherche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The assessment and management of risks associated with exposures to ionising radiation are defined by the general radiological protection system, proposed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). This system is regarded by a large majority of users as a robust system with well-established relevance for the management and prevention of exposures. Despite this, there are a number of dissenting voices, claiming that this system is not suitable for estimating the risks resulting from internal exposures, particularly when incorporated radionuclides decay, emitting electrons. Criticisms of the system particularly pertain to Auger- and beta-emitting radionuclides, the intake of which can occur during environmental and industrial exposures or, simply, during a medical use of ionising radiation for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. These debates result from a lack of data in the fields of dosimetry and toxicology of these radionuclides. Auger and beta emitters can be distributed preferentially in certain tissue structures and even in certain cellular organelles, according to the vector with which they are associated. Given the limited range of electrons in matter, this heterogeneous distribution can generate highly localised energy depositions, not taken into account in conventional dosimetry methods, which make the assumption of uniform energy depositions. These specific physical and biochemical features of some of these radionuclides seem to influence their cellular toxicity directly. It is thus established that intranuclear distribution of iodine-125 is more effective for the induction of mutations or even cell death than a cytosolic distribution. This point is explained by the very short range of Auger electrons in matter (around a few dozen nm), which, in the case of an intranuclear distribution, would deliver all of their energy in the vicinity of the DNA, which, if affected, would be detrimental to the survival of the cell. The observation

  5. Alpha particle emitters in cancer therapy: establishing the rationale and overcoming the difficulties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sgouros, G.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: Once a tumor has metastasized, the possibility of cure is significantly diminished, if not excluded. Since metastatic spread arises due to the release of single tumor cells or tumor cell clusters, treatment regimens following an overt metastasis must include agents that eradicate individual tumor cells and cell clusters or that prevent their dissemination. Alpha particles may be highly effective in eradicating rapidly accessible disease. The effectiveness of alpha particles arises because the amount of energy deposited per unit distance traveled (linear energy transfer or LET) is approximately 400 times greater than that of beta particles (80 keV/μm vs. 0.2 keV/μm). Each traversal of an alpha particle through a cell nucleus results in a very highly ionizing track. Cell survival studies have shown that alpha-particle killing is independent of oxygenation state or cell-cycle during irradiation and that as few as 1 to 6 tracks across the nucleus may result in cell death. Most studies with alpha-particle emitting radionuclides for therapy have examined either bismuth-212 or astatine-211. Both radionuclides are short-lived with 61 minute and 7.2 hour half-lives, respectively, yielding intermediates with 3-minute and 32 year half-lives, respectively. Both emit alpha particles whose range is 40 to 80 μm. Alpha-particle emitting radionuclides have been attached to antibodies against tumor cell associated antigen. Antibodies have been the most widely used vehicle for delivery of alpha particles due to their specificity. Bismuth-212 has demonstrated a significant curative potential with minimal toxicity. In an ascites tumor mouse model, specific targeting and 80% cure following injection of Bi-212-labeled antibody has been observed (Macklis RM et al, Science, 240:1024-1026, 1988). It is important to define the realm of applicability for alpha particle emitting radionuclides. The short half-life of most currently available radionuclides, limits their use to

  6. Instant detection of incorporated radio-nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolgirev, E.I.; Porozov, N.V.

    1978-01-01

    A method is described for rapid estimation of radionuclides both in the whole human body and in individual human organs beginning from levels equal to 0.1-0.01 of the maxium permissible value of annual absorption by personnel. In post-accident radiation exposure surveys, the whole-body content of gamma-emitting nuclides is monitored by measuring the flow of gamma quanta by use of a gas-discharge counter cassette placed at a distance of 0.5 m from the subject. Relationships for determining radionuclides in the human body are presented

  7. Radionuclide accumulations in Clinch River fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oakes, T.W.; Easterly, C.E.; Shank, K.E.

    1976-01-01

    Fish samples were collected from several locations above Melton Hill Dam, which is upstream from the liquid effluent release point of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The sampling locations were chosen to determine the accumulation of natural and man-made radionuclides in fish from areas in the Clinch River not influenced by the Laboratory's liquid effluents. Bass, carp, crappie, shad, bluegill, and other sunfish were collected; ten fish per species were composited to form a single sample for each location. The gamma-emitting radionuclide concentrations were determined by gamma-ray spectroscopy. Estimates of radiological dose to man subsequent to ingestion of these fish are made

  8. Dosimetry in radionuclide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riccabona, G.

    2001-01-01

    While it is known that therapeutic effects of radionuclides are due to absorbed radiation dose and to radiosensitivity, individual dosimetry in 'Gy' is practiced rarely in clinical Nuclear Medicine but 'doses' are described in 'mCi' or 'MBq', which is only indirectly related to 'Gy' in the target. To estimate 'Gy', the volume of the target, maximum concentration of the radiopharmaceutical in it and residence time should be assessed individually. These parameters can be obtained usually only with difficulty, involving possibly also quantitative SPET or PET, modern imaging techniques (sonography, CT, MRT), substitution of y- or positron emitting radiotracers for β - emitting radiopharmaceuticals as well as whole-body distribution studies. Residence time can be estimated by obtaining data on biological half-life of a comparable tracer and transfer of these data in the physical characteristics of the therapeutic agent. With all these possibilities for gross dosimetry the establishment of a dose-response-relation should be possible. As distribution of the radiopharmaceutical in lesions is frequently inhomogenous and microdosimetric conditions are difficult to assess in vivo as yet, it could be observed since decades that empirically set, sometimes 'fixed' doses (mCi or MBq) can also be successful in many diseases. Detailed dosimetric studies, however, are work- and cost-intensive. Nevertheless, one should be aware at a time when more sophisticated therapeutic possibilities in Nuclear Medicine arise, that we should try to estimate radiation dose (Gy) in our new methods even as differences in individual radiosensitivity cannot be assessed yet and studies to define individual radiosensitivity in lesions should be encouraged. (author)

  9. Light particles emitted with very forward quasi-projectiles and the mechanism in the fragmentation of 44 MeV/a.m.u. 40Ar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roussel, P.; Bacri, Ch.O.; Borrel, V.; Stephan, C.; Tassan-Got, L.; Beaumel, D.; Bernas, M.; Clapier, F.; Mirea, M.

    1998-01-01

    The mechanism of projectile fragmentation in the Fermi-energy region has been investigated for fragments emitted in the incident beam direction by detecting fast protons and neutrons evaporated by the projectile-like fragments. The proton coincidence rate is shown to increase with fragment velocity loss. This increase is also correlated to the decrease of the fragment yield, with the coincident rate doubling when the yield decreases by a factor of 10. The coincidence rate is found to be also proportional to the fragment mass loss for fragments with the beam velocity. A two-step mechanism is sketched out to interpret these results. For fragments with the beam velocity, the projectile nucleon removal is equally shared between a first fast step and the second evaporative step, while for fragments at the tenth of the maximum yield, the nucleons are removed by evaporation. Finally, the experimental observation that the most probable velocity for forward fragments is very close to that of the beam may be the result of a strong forward/backward momentum asymmetry in a Goldhaber-type analysis. (author)

  10. Metallic radionuclides: applications in diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiner, R.E.; Thakur, M.L.

    1995-01-01

    Nuclear Medicine is a medical modality that utilizes radioactivity (radiopharmaceutical) to diagnose and treat disease. Radiopharmaceuticals contain a component which directs the radionuclide to the desire physiological target. For diagnostic applications, these nuclides must emit a γ ray that can penetrate the body and can be detected externally while for therapeutic purposes nuclides are preferred that emit β particles and deliver highly localized tissue damage. 67 Ga citrate is employed to detect chronic occult abscesses, Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, lung cancer, hepatoma and melanoma and localizes in these tissues utilizing iron-binding proteins. 201 Thallous chloride, a potassium analogue, used to diagnosis coronary artery disease, is incorporated in muscle tissue via the Na + -K + -ATPase. 111 In labeled autologous white blood cells, used for the diagnosis of acute infections and inflammations, takes advantage of the white cell's role in fighting infections. 111 In is incorporated in other radiopharmaceuticals e.g. polyclonal IgG, OncoScint CR/OV, OctreoScan and Myoscint by coupling diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid, a chelate, covalently to these molecules. OncoScint CR/OV and Myoscint localize by antigen-antibody interactions while OctreoScan is taken up by malignant cells in a receptor based process. Polyclonal IgG may share some localization characteristics with 67 Ga. 89 Sr, a pure β emitter, is used for palliation of bone pain due to metastatic bone lesions. Bone salts [Ca(PO) 4 ] are increased in these lesions and this radionuclide is taken up similarly to Ca 2+ . 186 Re and 153 Sm bound to polydentate phosphonate chelates are used similarly and follow the phosphate pathway in lesion incorporation. (orig.)

  11. Metallic radionuclides: Applications in diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, R.E.; Thakur, M. L.

    1997-01-01

    Nuclear Medicine is a medical modality that utilizes radioactivity (radiopharmaceutical) to diagnose and treat disease. Radiopharmaceuticals contain a component which directs the radionuclide to the desire physiological target. For diagnostic applications, these nuclides must emit a gamma ray that can penetrate the body and can be detected externally while for therapeutic purposes nuclides are preferred that emit beta particles and deliver highly localized tissue damage. sup 6 sup 7 Ga citrate is employed to detect chronic occult abscesses, Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, lung cancer, hepatoma and melanoma and localizes in these tissues utilizing iron-binding proteins. sup 2 sup 0 sup 1 Thallous chloride, a potassium analogue, used to diagnosis coronary artery disease, is incorporated in muscle tissue via the Na sup + -K sup + -ATPase. sup 1 sup 1 sup 1 In labeled autologous white blood cells, used for the diagnosis of acute infections and inflammations, takes advantage of the white cell's role in fighting infections. sup 1 sup 1 sup 1 In is incorporated in other radiopharmaceuticals e.g. polyclonal IgG, OncoScint CR/OV, OctreoScan and Myoscint by coupling diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid, a chelate, covalently to these molecules. OncoScint CR/OV and Myoscint localize by antigen-antibody interactions while OctreoScan is taken up by malignant cells in a receptor based process. Polyclonal IgG may share some localization characteristics with sup 6 sup 7 Ga. sup 8 sup 9 Sr, a pure beta emitter, is used for palliation of bone pain due to metastatic bone lesions. Bone salts [Ca(PO) sub 4] are increased in these lesions and this radionuclide is taken up similarly to Ca sup 2 sup +. sup 1 sup 8 sup 6 Re and sup 1 sup 5 sup 3 Sm bound to polydentate phosphonate chelates are used similarly and follow the phosphate pathway in lesion incorporation. (author)

  12. Monte Carlo calculation of correction factors for radionuclide neutron source emission rate measurement by manganese bath method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chunjuan; Liu Yi'na; Zhang Weihua; Wang Zhiqiang

    2014-01-01

    The manganese bath method for measuring the neutron emission rate of radionuclide sources requires corrections to be made for emitted neutrons which are not captured by manganese nuclei. The Monte Carlo particle transport code MCNP was used to simulate the manganese bath system of the standards for the measurement of neutron source intensity. The correction factors were calculated and the reliability of the model was demonstrated through the key comparison for the radionuclide neutron source emission rate measurements organized by BIPM. The uncertainties in the calculated values were evaluated by considering the sensitivities to the solution density, the density of the radioactive material, the positioning of the source, the radius of the bath, and the interaction cross-sections. A new method for the evaluation of the uncertainties in Monte Carlo calculation was given. (authors)

  13. Activity measurement of phosphorus-32 in the presence of pure beta-emitting impurities

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Simpson, B

    2006-02-27

    Full Text Available Activity measurements undertaken at the CSIR's National Metrology Laboratory (NML) on a solution of the pure beta-emitting radionuclide phosphorus-32, which formed part of an international key comparison, are described. Since exploratory source...

  14. On the spectrum emitted by excited particles ejected from the surface of a calcium target by a beam of Ar+ ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiyan, T.S.; Gritsyna, V.V.; Fogel, Ya.M.

    1976-01-01

    The spectrum of the luminous aureole near the calcium target radiated by excited particles ejected from its surface by a beam of Ar + (energy 30 keV, current density 200 μA/cm 2 ) was investigated. This spectrum contains lines of the singlet and triplet systems of the one-and-two-electron excited states of the calcium atom and some bands of CaO and O + 2 molecules. The width of a conductivity band of CaO was measured. Some information on oxidation processes on calcium in a residual gas and rarefied nitrogen atmosphere was obtained. (Auth.)

  15. Radionuclides in ground-level air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinkko, K.

    1987-01-01

    In the air surveillance programme the concentrations of artificial radionuclides are monitored in the air close to the ground to obtain the necessary basic data for estimating the exposure of the Finnish population to fall-out radionuclides and also to detect atmospheric traces of radioactive materials caused by their use or production. Airborne dust is collected on filters with high-volume air samplers and the concentrations of gamma-emitting radionuclides in the air are evaluated. In the first quarter of 1986 only long-lived cesium, caused by earlier atmospheric nuclear explosions was detected. The concentrations of cesium were very low. In January and March a small amount of short-lived, fresh fission and activation products were also observed

  16. Radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, S.E.; Horrill, A.D.; Howard, B.J.; Lowe, V.P.W.; Parkinson, J.A.

    1983-07-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: concentration and spatial distribution of radionuclides in grazed and ungrazed saltmarshes; incorporation of radionuclides by sheep grazing on an estuarine saltmarsh; inland transfer of radionuclides by birds feeding in the estuaries and saltmarshes at Ravenglass; radionuclides in contrasting types of coastal pastures and taken up by individual plant species found in west Cumbria; procedures developed and used for the measurement of alpha and gamma emitters in environmental materials. (U.K.)

  17. Optimization of production and quality control of therapeutic radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals. Final report of a co-ordinated research project 1994-1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-01

    The `renaissance` of the therapeutic applications of radiopharmaceuticals during the last few years was in part due to a greater availability of radionuclides with appropriate nuclear decay properties, as well as to the development of carrier molecules with improved characteristics. Although radionuclides such as {sup 32}P, {sup 89}Sr and {sup 131}I, were used from the early days of nuclear medicine in the late 1930s and early 1940s, the inclusion of other particle emitting radionuclides into the nuclear medicine armamentarium was rather late. Only in the early 1980s did the specialized scientific literature start to show the potential for using other beta emitting nuclear reactor produced radionuclides such as {sup 153}Sm, {sup 166} Ho, {sup 165}Dy and {sup 186-188}Re. Bone seeking agents radiolabelled with the above mentioned beta emitting radionuclides demonstrated clear clinical potential in relieving intense bone pain resulting from metastases of the breast, prostate and lung of cancer patients. Therefore, upon the recommendation of a consultants meeting held in Vienna in 1993, the Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on Optimization of the Production and quality control of Radiotherapeutic Radionuclides and Radiopharmaceuticals was established in 1994. The CRP aimed at developing and improving existing laboratory protocols for the production of therapeutic radionuclides using existing nuclear research reactors including the corresponding radiolabelling, quality control procedures; and validation in experimental animals. With the participation of ten scientists from IAEA Member States, several laboratory procedures for preparation and quality control were developed, tested and assessed as potential therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals for bone pain palliation. In particular, the CRP optimised the reactor production of {sup 153}Sm and the preparation of the radiopharmaceutical {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP (ethylene diamine tetramethylene phosphonate), as well as radiolabelling

  18. Optimization of production and quality control of therapeutic radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals. Final report of a co-ordinated research project 1994-1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-09-01

    The 'renaissance' of the therapeutic applications of radiopharmaceuticals during the last few years was in part due to a greater availability of radionuclides with appropriate nuclear decay properties, as well as to the development of carrier molecules with improved characteristics. Although radionuclides such as 32 P, 89 Sr and 131 I, were used from the early days of nuclear medicine in the late 1930s and early 1940s, the inclusion of other particle emitting radionuclides into the nuclear medicine armamentarium was rather late. Only in the early 1980s did the specialized scientific literature start to show the potential for using other beta emitting nuclear reactor produced radionuclides such as 153 Sm, 166 Ho, 165 Dy and 186-188 Re. Bone seeking agents radiolabelled with the above mentioned beta emitting radionuclides demonstrated clear clinical potential in relieving intense bone pain resulting from metastases of the breast, prostate and lung of cancer patients. Therefore, upon the recommendation of a consultants meeting held in Vienna in 1993, the Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on Optimization of the Production and quality control of Radiotherapeutic Radionuclides and Radiopharmaceuticals was established in 1994. The CRP aimed at developing and improving existing laboratory protocols for the production of therapeutic radionuclides using existing nuclear research reactors including the corresponding radiolabelling, quality control procedures; and validation in experimental animals. With the participation of ten scientists from IAEA Member States, several laboratory procedures for preparation and quality control were developed, tested and assessed as potential therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals for bone pain palliation. In particular, the CRP optimised the reactor production of 153 Sm and the preparation of the radiopharmaceutical 153 Sm-EDTMP (ethylene diamine tetramethylene phosphonate), as well as radiolabelling techniques and quality control methods for

  19. Preparation of Radiopharmaceuticals Labeled with Metal Radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, M.J.

    2012-02-16

    The overall goal of this project was to develop methods for the production of metal-based radionuclides, to develop metal-based radiopharmaceuticals and in a limited number of cases, to translate these agents to the clinical situation. Initial work concentrated on the application of the radionuclides of Cu, Cu-60, Cu-61 and Cu-64, as well as application of Ga-68 radiopharmaceuticals. Initially Cu-64 was produced at the Missouri University Research Reactor and experiments carried out at Washington University. A limited number of studies were carried out utilizing Cu-62, a generator produced radionuclide produced by Mallinckrodt Inc. (now Covidien). In these studies, copper-62-labeled pyruvaldehyde Bis(N{sup 4}-methylthiosemicarbazonato)-copper(II) was studied as an agent for cerebral myocardial perfusion. A remote system for the production of this radiopharmaceutical was developed and a limited number of patient studies carried out with this agent. Various other copper radiopharmaceuticals were investigated, these included copper labeled blood imaging agents as well as Cu-64 labeled antibodies. Cu-64 labeled antibodies targeting colon cancer were translated to the human situation. Cu-64 was also used to label peptides (Cu-64 octriatide) and this is one of the first applications of a peptide radiolabeled with a positron emitting metal radionuclide. Investigations were then pursued on the preparation of the copper radionuclides on a small biomedical cyclotron. A system for the production of high specific activity Cu-64 was developed and initially the Cu-64 was utilized to study the hypoxic imaging agent Cu-64 ATSM. Utilizing the same target system, other positron emitting metal radionuclides were produced, these were Y-86 and Ga-66. Radiopharmaceuticals were labeled utilizing both of these radionuclides. Many studies were carried out in animal models on the uptake of Cu-ATSM in hypoxic tissue. The hypothesis is that Cu-ATSM retention in vivo is dependent upon the

  20. Characterization of the activity of ultrasound emitted in a perpendicular liquid flow using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and electrochemical mass transfer measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthès, Magali; Mazue, Gerald; Bonnet, Dimitri; Viennet, Remy; Hihn, Jean-Yves; Bailly, Yannick

    2015-05-01

    The present work is dedicated to the study of the interactions between a liquid circulation and a perpendicular acoustic wave propagation. A specific experimental setup was designed to study one transducer operating at 20 kHz, with the help of electrochemical mass transfer measurements combined with Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) determination. Electrodes were located on the wall opposite to the acoustic emission. Experiments were performed for various Reynolds numbers: from 0 to 21700 (different liquid flow rates and viscosities). Both PIV and electrochemical measurements methods were found to be relevant, and had delivered complementary information. Even if PIV showed that the plume due to streaming was highly deflected by the additional flow, electrochemical measurements showed that there was still an activity, higher than in silent conditions, on the wall facing the transducer. Thus the ultrasound contribution remained noticeable on the surface opposite to the transducer even for a disturbed hydrodynamic environment due to the presence of a liquid circulation perpendicular to the wave propagation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Radiotoxicity of gadolinium-148 and radium-223 in mouse testes: Relative biological effectiveness of alpha-particle emitters in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, R.W.; Goddu, S.M.; Narra, V.R.

    1997-01-01

    The biological effects of radionuclides that emit α particles are of considerable interest in view of their potential for therapy and their presence in the environment. The present work is a continuation of our ongoing effort to study the radiotoxicity of α-particle emitters in vivo using the survival of murine testicular sperm heads as the biological end point. Specifically, the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of very low-energy α particles (3.2 MeV) emitted by 148 Gd is investigated and determined to be 7.4 ± 2.4 when compared to the effects of acute external 120 kVp X rays. This datum, in conjunction with our earlier results for 210 Po and 212 Pb in equilibrium with its daughters, is used to revise and extend the range of validity of our previous RBE-energy relationship for α particles emitted by tissue-incorporated radionuclides. The new empirical relationship is given by RBE α = 9.14 - 0.510 E α , where 3 α 223 Ra (in equilibrium with its daughters) experimentally in the same biological model and comparing the value obtained experimentally with the predicted value. The resulting RBE values are 5.4 ± 0.9 and 5.6, respectively. This close agreement strongly supports the adequacy of the empirical RBE-E α relationship to predict the biological effects of α-particle emitters in vivo. 42 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  2. Effect of indoor-generated airborne particles on radon progeny dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trassierra, C. Vargas [Department of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, University of Cassino and Southern Lazio, Cassino, FR (Italy); Stabile, L., E-mail: l.stabile@unicas.it [Department of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, University of Cassino and Southern Lazio, Cassino, FR (Italy); Cardellini, F.; Morawska, L. [National Institute of Ionizing Radiation Metrology (INMRI-ENEA), Rome (Italy); Buonanno, G. [Department of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, University of Cassino and Southern Lazio, Cassino, FR (Italy); International Laboratory for Air Quality and Health, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane (Australia)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Investigation of the interaction between particles and radon progeny dynamics. • Measurements of particles emitted by different indoor sources. • Tests performed in a controlled radon chamber. • Particle size strongly influences the radon progeny dynamics. • Particle surface area concentration is the key parameter of the radon-particle interaction. - Abstract: In order to investigate the interaction between radon progeny and particles, an experimental campaign was carried out in a radon chamber at the Italian National Institute of Ionizing Radiation Metrology, quantifying the amount of attached and unattached radon daughters present in air, as well as the equilibrium factor in the presence of particles generated through indoor sources. A fixed radon concentration was maintained, while particles were generated using incense sticks, mosquito coils and gas combustion. Aerosols were characterized in terms of particle concentrations and size distributions. Simultaneously, radon concentration and attached/unattached potential alpha energy concentration in the air were continuously monitored by two different devices, based on alpha spectroscopy techniques. The presence of particles was found to affect the attached fraction of radon decay products, in such a way that the particles acted as a sink for radionuclides. In terms of sources which emit large particles (e.g. incense, mosquito coils), which greatly increase particle surface area concentrations, the Equilibrium Factor was found to double with respect to the background level before particle generation sessions. On the contrary, the radon decay product dynamics were not influenced by gas combustion processes, mainly due to the small surface area of the particles emitted.

  3. Granulometric analysis of sediments containing transuranic radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.M.; Additon, M.K.

    1980-11-01

    A dry sieving technique using a sonic sifter was selected for the granulometric analysis of sediment samples containing radionuclide contamination. A sieve facility was established in the 234-5Z building for this purpose. Fifty-two contaminated sediment samples from the 216-Z-1A crib were sieved in the facility at a rate of two to four samples per day with no major problems. A comparison of particle size and radionuclide concentration indicated that there is no obvious benefit to particle size separation as a means of sediment decontamination, though an economic analysis will have to be conducted before a final decision can be made

  4. Hot particle dose calculations using the computer code VARSKIN Mod 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durham, J.S.

    1991-01-01

    The only calculational model recognised by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for hot particle dosimetry is VARSKIN Mod 1. Because the code was designed to calculate skin dose from distributed skin contamination and not hot particles, it is assumed that the particle has no thickness and, therefore, that no self-absorption occurs within the source material. For low energy beta particles such as those emitted from 60 Co, a significant amount of self-shielding occurs in hot particles and VARSKIN Mod 1 overestimates the skin dose. In addition, the presence of protective clothing, which will reduce the calculated skin dose for both high and low energy beta emitters, is not modelled in VARSKIN Mod 1. Finally, there is no provision in VARSKIN Mod 1 to calculate the gamma contribution to skin dose from radionuclides that emit both beta and gamma radiation. The computer code VARSKIN Mod 1 has been modified to model three-dimensional sources, insertion of layers of protective clothing between the source and skin, and gamma dose from appropriate radionuclides. The new code, VARSKIN Mod 2, is described and the sensitivity of the calculated dose to source geometry, diameter, thickness, density, and protective clothing thickness are discussed. Finally, doses calculated using VARSKIN Mod 2 are compared to doses measured from hot particles found in nuclear power plants. (author)

  5. Radionuclides: Accumulation and Transport in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, D K; Chatterjee, S; Datta, S; Voronina, A V; Walther, C

    Application of radioactive elements or radionuclides for anthropogenic use is a widespread phenomenon nowadays. Radionuclides undergo radioactive decays releasing ionizing radiation like gamma ray(s) and/or alpha or beta particles that can displace electrons in the living matter (like in DNA) and disturb its function. Radionuclides are highly hazardous pollutants of considerable impact on the environment, food chain and human health. Cleaning up of the contaminated environment through plants is a promising technology where the rhizosphere may play an important role. Plants belonging to the families of Brassicaceae, Papilionaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Poaceae, and Asteraceae are most important in this respect and offer the largest potential for heavy metal phytoremediation. Plants like Lactuca sativa L., Silybum marianum Gaertn., Centaurea cyanus L., Carthamus tinctorius L., Helianthus annuus and H. tuberosus are also important plants for heavy metal phytoremediation. However, transfer factors (TF) of radionuclide from soil/water to plant ([Radionuclide]plant/[Radionuclide]soil) vary widely in different plants. Rhizosphere, rhizobacteria and varied metal transporters like NRAMP, ZIP families CDF, ATPases (HMAs) family like P1B-ATPases, are involved in the radio-phytoremediation processes. This review will discuss recent advancements and potential application of plants for radionuclide removal from the environment.

  6. Selected radionuclides important to low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide information to state representatives and developers of low level radioactive waste (LLW) management facilities about the radiological, chemical, and physical characteristics of selected radionuclides and their behavior in the environment. Extensive surveys of available literature provided information for this report. Certain radionuclides may contribute significantly to the dose estimated during a radiological performance assessment analysis of an LLW disposal facility. Among these are the radionuclides listed in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 61.55, Tables 1 and 2 (including alpha emitting transuranics with half-lives greater than 5 years). This report discusses these radionuclides and other radionuclides that may be significant during a radiological performance assessment analysis of an LLW disposal facility. This report not only includes essential information on each radionuclide, but also incorporates waste and disposal information on the radionuclide, and behavior of the radionuclide in the environment and in the human body. Radionuclides addressed in this document include technetium-99, carbon-14, iodine-129, tritium, cesium-137, strontium-90, nickel-59, plutonium-241, nickel-63, niobium-94, cobalt-60, curium -42, americium-241, uranium-238, and neptunium-237

  7. Selected radionuclides important to low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide information to state representatives and developers of low level radioactive waste (LLW) management facilities about the radiological, chemical, and physical characteristics of selected radionuclides and their behavior in the environment. Extensive surveys of available literature provided information for this report. Certain radionuclides may contribute significantly to the dose estimated during a radiological performance assessment analysis of an LLW disposal facility. Among these are the radionuclides listed in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 61.55, Tables 1 and 2 (including alpha emitting transuranics with half-lives greater than 5 years). This report discusses these radionuclides and other radionuclides that may be significant during a radiological performance assessment analysis of an LLW disposal facility. This report not only includes essential information on each radionuclide, but also incorporates waste and disposal information on the radionuclide, and behavior of the radionuclide in the environment and in the human body. Radionuclides addressed in this document include technetium-99, carbon-14, iodine-129, tritium, cesium-137, strontium-90, nickel-59, plutonium-241, nickel-63, niobium-94, cobalt-60, curium -42, americium-241, uranium-238, and neptunium-237.

  8. Statistical analysis for the radiological characterization of radioactive waste in particle accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2085595; Luccioni, Catherine

    This thesis introduces a new method to characterize metallic very-low-level radioactive waste produced at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN). The method is based on: 1. the calculation of a preliminary radionuclide inventory, which is the list of the radionuclides that can be produced when particles interact with a surrounding medium, 2. the direct measurement of γ emitters and, 3. the quantification of pure-α, pure-β and low-energy X-ray emitters, called difficult-to-measure (DTM) radionuclides, using the so-called scaling factor (SF), correlation factor (CF) and mean activity (MA) techniques. The first stage of the characterization process is the calculation of the radionuclide inventory via either analytical or Monte Carlo codes. Once the preliminary radionuclide inventory is obtained, the γ-emitting radionuclides are measured via γ-ray spectrometry on each package of the waste population. The major γ-emitter, called key nuclide (KN), is also identified. The scaling factor method e...

  9. The role of particulates in radionuclide transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilks, P.; Bachinski, D.B.; Vandergraaf, T.T.

    1991-01-01

    The colloid program at AECL Research is focused on characterizing natural particles in groundwater to evaluate their potential role in radiocolloid formation and to form a database for particle migration studies. The main objective of this program has been the study of colloids (1 to 450 nm) and suspended particles (> 450 nm) in fractured granites and sandstone in various locations in Canada and Switzerland. Groundwater particles were found to consist of clay minerals, micas, quartz, feldspar, iron-silica oxides and organic material. In groundwaters from granite, sandstone and clay-rich rock colloid concentrations were less than 5 mg/L. Some of these groundwaters may contain up to 260 mg/L of suspended particles. However, these particles are not expected to be mobile under the natural flow regimes of deep groundwaters. Provided radiocolloid formation is reversible, it is shown that the colloid concentrations observed in groundwaters from granites will have a negligible effect on radionuclide transport even when making the conservative assumption that these particles travel with the velocity of groundwater. For the case of irreversible radiocolloid formation, an equation is presented to calculate the fraction of total radionuclides in the geosphere which will form radiocolloids. The significance of these radiocolloids will depend upon the total amount of radionuclides released to the geosphere and on particle migration properties. (author)

  10. Positron emitting radionuclides: manufacturing, labelling and examples of medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comar, D.; Maziere, M.; Berger, G.; Crouzel, C.; Soussaline, F.; Kellershohn, C.

    1979-01-01

    The only radioisotopes of carbon, oxygen and nitrogen which can be used in medicine are positrons emitters. They may be incorporated in organic molecules and detected in vivo by quantitative emission tomography. The manufacture of these short lived radioisotopes need a cyclotron to be set up in a hospital. The main procedures for making these radioisotopes are described so as their incorporation in complex molecules. Some medical applications in the field of the brain blood-flow, and oxygen consumption, the cerebral amino-acids metabolism and the brain distribution of psychoactive drugs are described [fr

  11. Gastrointestinal transit of gamma-emitting radionuclide labelled preparations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fell, J.T.; Hunter, E.; Sharma, H.

    1982-01-01

    This work is concerned with the behaviour of solid doses e.g. tablets and capsules in vivo. Methods of determining disintegration times and gastric emptying in the fasting and non-fasting states in an upright and in the supine positions are examined. Disintegration times in vivo and in vitro are compared. (U.K.)

  12. Present status and perspective of radiochemical analysis of radionuclides in Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Xiaolin; Olsson, Mattias; Togneri, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Radiochemical analysis plays a critical role in the determination of pure beta and alpha emitting radionuclides for environmental monitoring, radioecology, decommissioning, nuclear forensics and geological dating. A remarkable development on radiochemical analysis has been achieved in the past...... of radionuclides, especially in Nordic countries; some requirements from nuclear industries and research organizations, as well as perspectives on the development of radiochemical analysis are discussed....

  13. Modifications in dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging parameters after α-particle-emitting ²²⁷Th-trastuzumab therapy of HER2-expressing ovarian cancer xenografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyerdahl, Helen; Røe, Kathrine; Brevik, Ellen Mengshoel; Dahle, Jostein

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of α-particle-emitting (227)Th-trastuzumab radioimmunotherapy on tumor vasculature to increase the knowledge about the mechanisms of action of (227)Th-trastuzumab. Human HER2-expressing SKOV-3 ovarian cancer xenografts were grown bilaterally in athymic nude mice. Mice with tumor volumes 253 ± 36 mm(3) (mean ± SEM) were treated with a single injection of either (227)Th-trastuzumab at a dose of 1000 kBq/kg body weight (treated group, n=14 tumors) or 0.9% NaCl (control group, n=10 tumors). Dynamic T1-weighted contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCEMRI) was used to study the effect of (227)Th-trastuzumab on tumor vasculature. DCEMRI was performed before treatment and 1, 2, and 3 weeks after therapy. Tumor contrast-enhancement curves were extracted voxel by voxel and fitted to the Brix pharmacokinetic model. Pharmacokinetic parameters for the tumors that underwent radioimmunotherapy were compared with the corresponding parameters of control tumors. Significant increases of kep, the rate constant of diffusion from the extravascular extracellular space to the plasma (PTh-trastuzumab treatment of HER2-expressing ovarian cancer xenografts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Transverse section radionuclide scanning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhl, D.E.; Edwards, R.Q.

    1976-01-01

    This invention provides a transverse section radionuclide scanning system for high-sensitivity quantification of brain radioactivity in cross-section picture format in order to permit accurate assessment of regional brain function localized in three dimensions. High sensitivity crucially depends on overcoming the heretofore known raster type scanning, which requires back and forth detector movement involving dead-time or partial enclosure of the scan field. Accordingly, this invention provides a detector array having no back and forth movement by interlaced detectors that enclose the scan field and rotate as an integral unit around one axis of rotation in a slip ring that continuously transmits the detector data by means of laser emitting diodes, with the advantages that increased amounts of data can be continuously collected, processed and displayed with increased sensitivity according to a suitable computer program. 5 claims, 11 figures

  15. Other impacts of soil-borne radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheppard, S.C.; Macdonald, C.R.

    1996-01-01

    Soils surround us daily, and humans and animals are exposed to soil in more ways than simply through ingestion of plants. Despite strict personal and food-industry hygiene, some soil will always be present in our diet. This often involves the very fine soil particles known to be especially effective in sorbing radionuclides. The soil we ingest may come through skin contact or through soil adhering to crop plants and other foods. Inhalation of soil particles by humans and other animals must also be considered. Throughout the consideration of the impacts of soil-borne radionuclides, there must be recognition of potential impacts on non-human biota, and of non-radiological impacts. The chemical toxicity of long-lived radionuclides may be just as important as their radiological impact for non-human biota. These issues and associated assessment modelling approaches are discussed, with examples and data drawn from our research programs. (J.P.N.)

  16. Quantitative radionuclide angiocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholz, P.M.; Rerych, S.K.; Moran, J.F.; Newman, G.E.; Douglas, J.M.; Sabiston, D.C. Jr.; Jones, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    This study introduces a new method for calculating actual left ventricular volumes and cardiac output from data recorded during a single transit of a radionuclide bolus through the heart, and describes in detail current radionuclide angiocardiography methodology. A group of 64 healthy adults with a wide age range were studied to define the normal range of hemodynamic parameters determined by the technique. Radionuclide angiocardiograms were performed in patients undergoing cardiac catherization to validate the measurements. In 33 patients studied by both techniques on the same day, a close correlation was documented for measurement of ejection fraction and end-diastolic volume. To validate the method of volumetric cardiac output calcuation, 33 simultaneous radionuclide and indocyanine green dye determinations of cardiac output were performed in 18 normal young adults. These independent comparisons of radionuclide measurements with two separate methods document that initial transit radionuclide angiocardiography accurately assesses left ventricular function

  17. Relative biological effectiveness of alpha-particle emitters in vivo at low doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, R.W.; Azure, M.T.; Narra, V.R.; Rao, D.V.

    1994-01-01

    The therapeutic potential of radionuclides that emit α particles, as well as their associated health hazards, have attracted considerable attention. The 224 Ra daughters 212 Pb and 212 Bi, by virtue of their radiation properties which involve emission of α and β particles in their decay to stable 208 Pb, have been proposed as candidates for radioimmunotherapy. Using mouse testes as the experimental model and testicular spermhead survival as the biological end point, the present work examines the radiotoxicity of 212 Pb and its daughters. When 212 Pb, in equilibrium with its daughters 212 Bi, 212 Po and 208 Tl, was administered directly into the testis, the dose required to achieve 37% survival (D 37 ) was 0.143 ± 0.014 Gy and the corresponding RBE of the mixed radiation field was 4.7 when compared to the D 37 for acute external 120 kVp X rays. This datum, in conjunction with our earlier results for 210 Po, was used to obtain an RBE-LET relationship for α particles emitted by tissue-incorporated radionuclides: RBE α = 4.8 - 6.1 x 10 -2 LET + 1.0 x 10 -3 LET 2 . Similarly, the dependence of RBE on α-particle energy E α was given by RBE α = 22 E α -0.73 . These relationships, based on in vivo experimental data, may be valuable in predicting biological effects of α-particle emitters. 46 refs., 6 figs

  18. Study of the processes of radionuclides transfer, heavy metals and aero-particles among the solid, dissolved phase and the air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero G, E. T.; Ordonez R, E.; Reyes G, L. R.; Jose Y, M.

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter the investigations developed in the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) are presented, in collaboration with specialists in diverse fields of the science. In the first place, is presented the objective and an introduction of each one of the following projects: Study of the uranium migration through the not saturated area, and Synthesis and characterization of phosphate materials by conventional techniques, projects developed under the direction and collaboration of the Ph D. Eduardo Ordonez Regil. Identification of the chemical-morphologic composition of painting mural pigments: the blue Mayan, indigo blue, the secret of the color, and investigation of the physiochemical components of the asphaltenes and malthenes of heavy crudes and vacuum residual, with the supervision of the Ph D. Miguel Jose Yacaman. Evaluation of the water quality and type of sediments of the lake-crater The Pool: one of the seven stars of Santiago Valley, Guanajuato; Study of the sorption kinetics of Cr(Vi) in floor of a container of chromium residuals in Buenavista, Guanajuato, Mexico; Investigation of the underground water hydrochemistry of the basin of the Avenues River in Pachuca de Soto, Hidalgo, and Characterization of the particle material and modeled of the dispersion and pollutants transport in the air of the Metropolitan Area of the Toluca Valley, projects carried out under the direction and collaboration of the Ph D. Lazaro Raymundo Reyes Gutierrez. Finally, is presented the most representative of the obtained results, as well as a discussion of the same ones. (Author)

  19. External exposure to radionuclides in air, water, and soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckerman, K.F.; Ryman, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    Federal Guidance Report No. 12 tabulates dose coefficients for external exposure to photons and electrons emitted by radionuclides distributed in air, water, and soil. The dose coefficients are intended for use by Federal Agencies in calculating the dose equivalent to organs and tissues of the body

  20. All-union Conference. Principles and methods of regional and geochemical investigations into radionuclide migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khitrov, L.M.

    1989-01-01

    The collection presents abstracts of papers concerning landscape-geochemical research of radionuclides migration; aspects of 'hot particles' study; radionuclides forms and behaviour in soils, in soil-plant; soil-natural water systems, as well as in water ecosystems. Methods of natural objects artificial radioactivity study are reviewed. Distribution of natural radionuclides in soils. natural waters, etc. is discussed

  1. Determination of scaling factors to estimate the radionuclide inventory in waste with low and intermediate-level activity from the IEA-R1 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taddei, Maria Helena Tirollo

    2013-01-01

    Regulations regarding transfer and final disposal of radioactive waste require that the inventory of radionuclides for each container enclosing such waste must be estimated and declared. The regulatory limits are established as a function of the annual radiation doses that members of the public could be exposed to from the radioactive waste repository, which mainly depend on the activity concentration of radionuclides, given in Bq/g, found in each waste container. Most of the radionuclides that emit gamma-rays can have their activity concentrations determined straightforwardly by measurements carried out externally to the containers. However, radionuclides that emit exclusively alpha or beta particles, as well as gamma-rays or X-rays with low energy and low absolute emission intensity, or whose activity is very low among the radioactive waste, are generically designated as Difficult to Measure Nuclides (DTMs). The activity concentrations of these DTMs are determined by means of complex radiochemical procedures that involve isolating the chemical species being studied from the interference in the waste matrix. Moreover, samples must be collected from each container in order to perform the analyses inherent to the radiochemical procedures, which exposes operators to high levels of radiation and is very costly because of the large number of radioactive waste containers that need to be characterized at a nuclear facility. An alternative methodology to approach this problem consists in obtaining empirical correlations between some radionuclides that can be measured directly – such as 60 Co and 137 Cs, therefore designated as Key Nuclides (KNs) – and the DTMs. This methodology, denominated Scaling Factor, was applied in the scope of the present work in order to obtain Scaling Factors or Correlation Functions for the most important radioactive wastes with low and intermediate-activity level from the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor. (author)

  2. α-particle radioactivity of hot particles from the Esk estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, E.I.

    1981-01-01

    Transuranium radionuclides (Pu, Am and Cm) present in effluents discharged into the north-east Irish Sea by British Nuclear Fuels Limited, Windscale, Cumbria, UK, are found in sediment and biota of the Esk estuary approximately 10 km to the south. The site of the present investigation was at Newbiggin and the materials examined were suspended particulate debris samples at the sea surface, bottom sediments and some forms of biota collected in September 1977. It is shown here that hot particles (defined as small volumes of material emitting α particles recorded in a dielectric detector as dense clusters of tracks from a common origin) found in the estuary are likely to be original effluent debris derived from the processing of Magnox uranium fuel elements and not formed in situ as a result of natural processes common to the estuary. (author)

  3. Age-dependent effective doses for radionuclides uniformly distributed in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, Tran Van

    2014-01-01

    Age-dependent effective doses for external exposure to photons emitted by radionuclides uniformly distributed in air are reported. The calculations were performed for 160 radionuclides, which are important for safety assessment of nuclear facilities. The energies and intensities of photons emitted from radionuclides were taken from the decay data DECDC used for dose calculations. The results are tabulated in the form of effective dose per unit concentration and time (Sv per Bq s m -3 ) for 6 age groups: newborn, 1, 5, 10 and 15 years-old and adult. The effective doses for the adult are also compared to values given in the literature.

  4. Long-lived radionuclides in the marine environment of Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahapanyawong, S.; Sonsuk, M.; Polphong, P.; Milintawisamai, M.; Panyatipsakul, Y.

    1992-01-01

    Natural and artificial radionuclides in the environment of the Gulf of Thailand were studied during 1989-1991. In the study, surface water, sediment at 5 locations between latitudes 9 0 28' N and 13 0 15' N longitudes 100 0 35' E. and 5 species of marine biota were collected in 1989. In 1990 and 1991, 9 and 7 species of marine biota were collected from the Gulf of Thailand and the Andaman Sea respectively. These samples were prepared and analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides as well as some beta and alpha-emitting radionuclides such as C 14 , Sr 90 , Pu 239,240 , Po 210 etc. The results indicate the present status of radioactivity level of the environment of the gulf and the sea

  5. Long-lived radionuclides in the marine environment of Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahapanyawong, S; Sonsuk, M; Polphong, P; Milintawisamai, M; Panyatipsakul, Y

    1993-12-31

    Natural and artificial radionuclides in the environment of the Gulf of Thailand were studied during 1989-1991. In the study, surface water, sediment at 5 locations between latitudes 9 degree 28 minute N and 13 degree 15 minute N longitudes 100 degree 35 minute E. and 5 species of marine biota were collected in 1989. In 1990 and 1991, 9 and 7 species of marine biota were collected from the Gulf of Thailand and the Andaman Sea respectively. These samples were prepared and analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides as well as some beta and alpha-emitting radionuclides such as C-14, Sr-90, Pu-239,240, Po-210 etc. The results indicate the present status of radioactivity level of the environment of the gulf and the sea

  6. Long-lived radionuclides in the marine environment of Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahapanyawong, S.; Sonsuk, M.; Polphong, P.; Milintawisamai, M.; Panyatipsakul, Y.

    1992-01-01

    Natural and artificial radionuclides in the environment of the Gulf of Thailand were studied during 1989-1991. In the study, surface water, sediment at 5 locations between latitudes 9 degree 28 minute N and 13 degree 15 minute N longitudes 100 degree 35 minute E. and 5 species of marine biota were collected in 1989. In 1990 and 1991, 9 and 7 species of marine biota were collected from the Gulf of Thailand and the Andaman Sea respectively. These samples were prepared and analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides as well as some beta and alpha-emitting radionuclides such as C-14, Sr-90, Pu-239,240, Po-210 etc. The results indicate the present status of radioactivity level of the environment of the gulf and the sea

  7. Long-lived radionuclides in the marine environment of Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahapanyawong, S; Sonsuk, M; Polphong, P; Milintawisamai, M; Panyatipsakul, Y

    1993-12-31

    Natural and artificial radionuclides in the environment of the Gulf of Thailand were studied during 1989-1991. In the study, surface water, sediment at 5 locations between latitudes 9{sup 0} 28` N and 13{sup 0} 15` N longitudes 100{sup 0} 35` E. and 5 species of marine biota were collected in 1989. In 1990 and 1991, 9 and 7 species of marine biota were collected from the Gulf of Thailand and the Andaman Sea respectively. These samples were prepared and analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides as well as some beta and alpha-emitting radionuclides such as C{sup 14}, Sr{sup 90}, Pu{sup 239,240}, Po{sup 210} etc. The results indicate the present status of radioactivity level of the environment of the gulf and the sea.

  8. Radiation emitting devices act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    This Act, entitled the Radiation Emitting Devices Act, is concerned with the sale and importation of radiation emitting devices. Laws relating to the sale, lease or import, labelling, advertising, packaging, safety standards and inspection of these devices are listed as well as penalties for any person who is convicted of breaking these laws

  9. Is the human nasal cavity at risk from inhaled radionuclides?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boecker, B.B.; Hahn, F.F.; Cuddihy, R.G.; Snipes, M.B.; McClellan, R.O.

    1986-01-01

    In a series of three life-span studies in which beagle dogs inhaled relatively soluble forms of beta-emitting radionuclides, a number of cancers of the nasal cavity have arisen at long times after the inhalation exposure. No such cancers were observed in the control dogs. Data obtained in other studies involving serial sacrifice of dogs that received these radionuclides in similar forms have shown that high local concentrations of the radionuclides can persist in nasal turbinates for long periods of time, depending on the physical half-life of the radionuclide inhaled. Several nasal carcinomas have also been observed in dogs injected with 137 CsCl in which the relative concentrations of beta activity in the turbinate region were not as pronounced as in the above studies. Similar risks of sinonasal cancer were calculated for dogs in each of these studies regardless of differences in radionuclide, dosimetry, and route of administration. Since sinonasal cancers have occurred in people exposed to alpha-emitting radionuclides, it is reasonable to assume this could occur with beta emitters as well. Radiation protection guidelines should account for the sinonasal region being at risk. 23 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs

  10. Beta particle dose rates to micro-organisms in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabir, M.; Spiers, F.W.; Iinuma, Takeshi.

    1977-01-01

    Studies were made to estimate the beta-particle dose rates to micro-organisms of various sizes in soil. The small insects and organisms living in soil are constantly exposed to beta-radiation arising from naturally occuring radionuclides in soil as in this case no overlying tissue shields them. The technique of measuring beta-particle dose rate consisted of using of a thin plastic scintillator to measure the pulse height distribution as the beta particle traverses the scintillator. The integrated response was determined by the number and size of the photomultiplier pulses. From the data of soil analyses it was estimated that typically about 29% of the beta particles emitted per gm. of soil were contributed by the U/Ra series, 21% by the Th series and about 50% by potassium. By combining the individual spectra of these three radionuclides in the proportion found in a typical soil, a resultant spectrum was computed representing the energy distribution of the beta particles. The dose rate received by micro-organisms of different shape and size in soil was derived from the equilibrium dose rates combined with a 'Geometrical Factor' of the organisms. For small organisms, the dose rates did not vary between the spherical and cylindrical types, but in the case of larger organisms, the dose rates were found to be greater for the spherical types of the same diameter. (auth.)

  11. Radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocock, K.L.

    1981-01-01

    This report summarizes information on the distribution and movement of radionuclides in semi-natural terrestrial ecosystems in north-west England with particular emphasis on inputs to, and outputs from ecosystems; on plant and soil aspects; and on radionuclides in fallout and in discharges by the nuclear industry. (author)

  12. Removal of radionuclides from household water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesterbacka, P.; Turtiainen, T.; Haemaelaeinen, K.; Salonen, L.; Arvela, H.

    2003-10-01

    Research upon methods for removing radionuclides from household water was initiated in Finland in 1995. Three research projects, of which two were carried out with National Technology Agency of Finland and one with CEC, have been completed by the end of 2002. One of the main objectives of the research was to compose a guidebook for consumers and water treatment companies. Radon can be removed from household water by aeration and by activated carbon filtration. Aerators that are well designed and set up can remove over 90% of waterborne radon. The best aerators have achieved removal efficiencies that are nearly 100%. However, setting up an aeration system requires thorough planning. Also, activated carbon filtration removes radon efficiently. The removal efficiencies have been over 90%, often nearly 100%. Depending on the water quality and usage, the carbon batch inside the filter needs to be changed every 2-3 years. Since activated carbon filters emit gamma radiation while in use, they should not be installed inside the dwelling but in a separate building or by the well. It is recommended that uranium be removed from drinking water by anion exchange, which is the most efficient removal method for this purpose. Typically, the removal efficiencies are nearly 100%. The one exception is the so called tap filter, the removal efficiency of which depends on uranium concentration in raw water and the rate of water flow. High saline concentration in water may extricate uranium from ion exchange resin. Changes in plumbing pressure or pH-value do not have any significant influence in uranium retention. Removal efficiencies of lead and polonium vary a lot depending on the chemical form in which they occur in water. They can be reliably removed from water by reverse osmosis only. Other treatment methods, such as ion exchange and activated carbon filtration, remove lead and polonium partly. Lead and polonium are removed more efficiently when they are bound onto smaller particles

  13. Removal of radionuclides from household water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesterbacka, P.; Turtiainen, T.; Haemaelaeinen, K.; Salonen, L.; Arvela, H.

    2007-02-01

    Research upon methods for removing radionuclides from household water was initiated in Finland in 1995. Three research projects, of which two were carried out with National Technology Agency of Finland and one with CEC, have been completed by the end of 2002. One of the main objectives of the research was to compose a guidebook for consumers and water treatment companies. Radon can be removed from household water by aeration and by activated carbon filtration. Aerators that are well designed and set up can remove over 90% of waterborne radon. The best aerators have achieved removal efficiencies that are nearly 100%. However, setting up an aeration system requires thorough planning. Also, activated carbon filtration removes radon efficiently. The removal efficiencies have been over 90%, often nearly 100%. Depending on the water quality and usage, the carbon batch inside the filter needs to be changed every 2 - 3 years. Since activated carbon filters emit gamma radiation while in use, they should not be installed inside the dwelling but in a separate building or by the well. It is recommended that uranium be removed from drinking water by anion exchange, which is the most efficient removal method for this purpose. Typically, the removal efficiencies are nearly 100%. The one exception is the so called tap filter, the removal efficiency of which depends on uranium concentration in raw water and the rate of water flow. High saline concentration in water may extricate uranium from ion exchange resin. Changes in plumbing pressure or pH-value do not have any significant influence in uranium retention. Removal efficiencies of lead and polonium vary a lot depending on the chemical form in which they occur in water. They can be reliably removed from water by reverse osmosis only. Other treatment methods, such as ion exchange and activated carbon filtration, remove lead and polonium partly. Lead and polonium are removed more efficiently when they are bound onto smaller

  14. Transport of radionuclides in the atmosphere during complex meteorological conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antic, D.; Telenta, B.

    1991-01-01

    Radionuclides from various sources (nuclear and fossil fuel power plants, nuclear facilities, medical facilities, etc.) are being released to the atmosphere. The meteorological conditions determine the atmospheric turbulence, dispersion, and removal processes of the radionuclides. A two-dimensional version of the cloud model based on the Klemp-Wilhelmson dynamic and Lin et al.'s microphysics and thermodynamics has been adapted and used to simulate the transport of radionuclides emitted from a power plant or other source to the atmosphere. Calculations of the trajectories and radii for a few puffs are included in this paper. These numerical investigations show that the presented model can be used for the transport simulation of radionuclides and for the assessment of the radiological impact of power plants and other sources in safety assessments and comparative studies. Because it can simulate puff trajectories, this model is especially valuable in the presence of complex meteorological conditions

  15. Nuclear decay data for radionuclides occurring in routine releases from nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocher, D.C.

    1977-08-01

    This report gives tabulations of the atomic and nuclear radiations emitted by 240 radionuclides. Most of the radionuclides are those expected to occur in routine releases of effluents from nuclear fuel cycle facilities. For each radionuclide are given the half-life and recommended values for the energies, intensities, and equilibrium absorbed-dose constants for each of the atomic and nuclear radiations. Also given are the daughter radionuclides produced and recommended values for decay branching ratios, where applicable. The radioactivity decay chains and branching ratios are displayed in diagram form.

  16. Nuclear decay data for radionuclides occurring in routine releases from nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.

    1977-08-01

    This report gives tabulations of the atomic and nuclear radiations emitted by 240 radionuclides. Most of the radionuclides are those expected to occur in routine releases of effluents from nuclear fuel cycle facilities. For each radionuclide are given the half-life and recommended values for the energies, intensities, and equilibrium absorbed-dose constants for each of the atomic and nuclear radiations. Also given are the daughter radionuclides produced and recommended values for decay branching ratios, where applicable. The radioactivity decay chains and branching ratios are displayed in diagram form

  17. Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahl, Linnea

    2010-06-01

    Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the EPA radioactive air emission regulations in 40CFR61, Subpart H (EPA 1989). Radionuclides may be emitted from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or they may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2009, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]). These minor sources included more than 100 stack sources and one source of diffuse emissions. There were no unplanned emissions from the Berkeley Lab site. Emissions from minor sources (stacks and diffuse emissions) either were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities used, received for use, or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The effective dose equivalent from all sources at Berkeley Lab in 2009 is 7.0 x 10{sup -3} mrem/yr (7.0 x 10{sup -5} mSv/yr) to the MEI, well below the 10 mrem/yr (0.1 mSv/yr) dose standard. The location of the MEI is at the University of California (UC) Lawrence Hall of Science, a public science museum about 1500 ft (460 m) east of Berkeley Lab's Building 56. The estimated collective effective dose equivalent to persons living within 50 mi (80 km) of Berkeley Lab is 1.5 x 10{sup -1} person-rem (1.5 x 10{sup -3} person-Sv) attributable to the Lab's airborne emissions in 2009.

  18. Process for encapsulating radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brownell, L.E.; Isaacson, R.E.

    1976-01-01

    Radionuclides are immobilized in virtually an insoluble form by reacting at a temperature of at least 90 0 C as an aqueous alkaline mixture having a solution pH of at least 10, containing a source of silicon, the radionuclide waste, and a metal cation. The molar ratio of silicon to the metal cation is on the order of unity to produce a gel from which complex metalosilicates crystallize to entrap the radionuclides within the resultant condensed crystal lattice. The product is a silicious stone-like material which is virtually insoluble and nonleachable in alkaline or neutral environment. One embodiment provides for the formation of the complex metalo-silicates, such as synthetic pollucite, by gel formation with subsequent calcination to the solid product; another embodiment utilizes a hydrothermal process, either above ground or deep within basalt caverns, at greater than atmospheric pressures and a temperature between 90 and 500 0 C to form complex metalo-silicates, such as strontium aluminosilicate. Another embodiment provides for the formation of complex metalo-silicates, such as synthetic pollucite, by slurrying an alkaline mixture of bentonite or kaolinite with a source of silicon and the radionuclide waste in salt form. In each of the embodiments a mobile system is achieved whereby the metalo-silicate constituents reorient into a condensed crystal lattice forming a cage structure with the condensed metalo-silicate lattice which completely surrounds the radionuclide and traps the radionuclide therein; thus rendering the radionuclide virtually insoluble

  19. Top emitting white OLEDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitag, Patricia; Luessem, Bjoern; Leo, Karl [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Institut fuer Angewandte Photophysik, George-Baehr-Strasse 1, 01069 Dresden (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Top emitting organic light emitting diodes (TOLEDs) provide a number of interesting opportunities for new applications, such as the opportunity to fabricate ITO-free devices by using opaque substrates. This makes it possible to manufacture low cost OLEDs for signage and lighting applications. A general top emitting device consists of highly reflecting metal contacts as anode and semitransparent cathode, the latter one for better outcouling reasons. In between several organic materials are deposited as charge transporting, blocking, and emission layers. Here, we show a top emitting white organic light emitting diode with silver electrodes arranged in a p-i-n structure with p- and n-doped charge transport layers. The centrical emission layer consists of two phosphorescent (red and green) and one fluorescent (blue) emitter systems separated by an ambipolar interlayer to avoid mutual exciton quenching. By adding an additional dielectric capping layer on top of the device stack, we achieve a reduction of the strong microcavity effects which appear due to the high reflection of both metal electrodes. Therefore, the outcoupled light shows broad and nearly angle-independent emission spectra, which is essential for white light emitting diodes.

  20. Radionuclide characterization of environmental air around nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gede Sutresna Wijaya; Anung Muharini

    2015-01-01

    Air is an important environmental component in human life. Presence of air pollutants or contaminants will have a negative impact on human health. According to the existence of a nuclear facility in Yogyakarta, the characterization of radionuclides in the air is absolutely necessary to ensure the safety of people and the environment and also to supervise the safe operation of the facility. In this research the characterization of radionuclides in the air was carried through the air sampling by using High Volume Air Sampler equipped with filter TFA 2133, followed by analysis using combination of a gamma and alpha spectrometers. The concentration of radioactivity in the air fluctuates depending on the time and duration of sampling. Characterization of gamma emitting radionuclides in the air is dominated by radon progeny radionuclides such as 214 Pb, 214 Bi with activity 20.09 ± 1.23 until 32.91 ± 4.87 Bq/m 3 and 31.22 ± 1.76 until 44.25 ± 4.91 Bq/m 3 . Alpha emitter radionuclide was dominated by 214 Po (7.69 MeV) which is also radon progeny and a primordial radionuclides. It can be concluded that the presence of radionuclides in the environmental air not as a product resulting from the operation of nuclear facilities in Yogyakarta. (author)

  1. Foodstuffs, radionuclides, monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denisikov, A.I.

    2000-01-01

    Radionuclide contamination of water and food stuffs as a result of the Chernobyl accident and permissible contents of 90 Sr and 137 Cs are considered in brief. A method of radiation monitoring of food stuffs and water for the radionuclides mentioned is suggested. The method permits employment of the simplest and cheapest radiometric equipment for analysis, whole the high degree of radionuclide concentration using fiber sorbents permits using the instrumentation without expensive shields against external radiation. A description of ion-exchange unit for radiation monitoring of liquid samples of food stuffs or water, is provided [ru

  2. Generator for radionuclide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisner, P.S.; Forrest, T.R.F.

    1985-01-01

    This invention provides a radionuclide generator of the kind in which a parent radionuclide, adsorbed on a column of particulate material, generates a daughter radionuclide which is periodically removed from the column. This invention is particularly concerned with technetium generators using single collection vials. The generator comprises a column, a first reservoir for the eluent, a second reservoir to contain the volume of eluent required for a single elution, and means connecting the first reservoir to the second reservoir and the second reservoir to the column. Such a generator is particularly suitable for operation by vacuum elution

  3. Distribution of natural radionuclides in sediment around Sultan Azlan Shah coal-fired power plant coastal water area in Manjung, Perak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaini Hamzah; Anisa Abdullah; Abdul Khalik Wood; Ahmad Saat

    2013-01-01

    Full-text: A rapid and simple analytical method for the determination of the natural radionuclides in sediment around Sultan Azlan Shah Coal-Fired Power Plant coastal water area in Manjung, Perak of Malaysia was carried out by Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) technique. The concentration of radionuclides contents in the marine ecosystem can be adversely affect human health and the environment when exposed through food chain. Furthermore, radionuclide is an atom with an unstable nucleus and they are naturally origin undergoes radioactive decay and emits a gamma ray or subatomic particles radiated from a coal fired power plant activity that contained in raw coal, fly ash and bottom ash, where a potential risk exposed into the atmosphere. However, coal is a heat source for electric power generation and operation of a coal burning power plant is one of the sources radiation contaminations and leads to a distributes of natural radionuclides. Sediment particle is a common pollutant that settles at the bottom of body water can be degrades water quality and demanding of oxygen in the marine ecosystem. Ten points of sediment cores will be taken along the coastal area in the study. The results of present study showed the concentration of natural radionuclides 238 U and 232 Th in surface sediment samples were in the ranged between 2.47 to 3.80 mg/ kg and 8.84 to 12.49 mg/ kg respectively. Thus, based on the concentration value obtained it can be determines assessment of potential hazard and radioactivity level in the future. (author)

  4. The fate and importance of radionuclides produced in nuclear events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shore, B; Anspaugh, L; Chertok, R; Gofman, J; Harrison, F; Heft, R; Koranda, J; Ng, Y; Phelps, P; Potter, G; Tamplin, A [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1969-07-01

    Some of the major program at the Bio-Medical Division concerned with the fate and importance of the fission products, the radionuclides induced in the device materials, the radionuclides induced in the environment surrounding the device, and the tritium produced in Plowshare cratering events will be discussed. These programs include (1) critical unknowns in predicting organ and body burdens from radionuclides produced in cratering events; (2) the analysis with a high-resolution solid state gamma ray spectrometer of radionuclides in complex biological and environmental samples; (3) the characterization of radioactive particles from cratering detonation; (4) the biological availability to beagles, pigs and goats of radionuclides in Plowshare debris; (5) the biological availability to aquatic animals of radionuclides in Plowshare and other nuclear debris and the biological turnover of critical nuclides in specific aquatic animals; (6) the biological availability of Plowshare and other nuclear debris radionuclides to dairy cows and the transplacental transport of debris radionuclides in the dairy cow; (7) the persistence and behavior of radionuclides, particularly tritium, at sites of Plowshare and other nuclear detonations; and (8) somatic effects of Low Dose Radiation: Chromosome studies. (author)

  5. The fate and importance of radionuclides produced in nuclear events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shore, B.; Anspaugh, L.; Chertok, R.; Gofman, J.; Harrison, F.; Heft, R.; Koranda, J.; Ng, Y.; Phelps, P.; Potter, G.; Tamplin, A.

    1969-01-01

    Some of the major program at the Bio-Medical Division concerned with the fate and importance of the fission products, the radionuclides induced in the device materials, the radionuclides induced in the environment surrounding the device, and the tritium produced in Plowshare cratering events will be discussed. These programs include (1) critical unknowns in predicting organ and body burdens from radionuclides produced in cratering events; (2) the analysis with a high-resolution solid state gamma ray spectrometer of radionuclides in complex biological and environmental samples; (3) the characterization of radioactive particles from cratering detonation; (4) the biological availability to beagles, pigs and goats of radionuclides in Plowshare debris; (5) the biological availability to aquatic animals of radionuclides in Plowshare and other nuclear debris and the biological turnover of critical nuclides in specific aquatic animals; (6) the biological availability of Plowshare and other nuclear debris radionuclides to dairy cows and the transplacental transport of debris radionuclides in the dairy cow; (7) the persistence and behavior of radionuclides, particularly tritium, at sites of Plowshare and other nuclear detonations; and (8) somatic effects of Low Dose Radiation: Chromosome studies. (author)

  6. Polystyrene-Core, Silica-Shell Scintillant Nanoparticles for Low-Energy Radionuclide Quantification in Aqueous Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janczak, Colleen M; Calderon, Isen A C; Mokhtari, Zeinab; Aspinwall, Craig A

    2018-02-07

    β-particle emitting radionuclides are useful molecular labels due to their abundance in biomolecules. Detection of β-emission from 3 H, 35 S, and 33 P, important biological isotopes, is challenging due to the low energies (E max ≤ 300 keV) and short penetration depths (≤0.6 mm) in aqueous media. The activity of biologically relevant β-emitters is usually measured in liquid scintillation cocktail (LSC), a mixture of energy-absorbing organic solvents, surfactants, and scintillant fluorophores, which places significant limitations on the ability to acquire time-resolved measurements directly in aqueous biological systems. As an alternative to LSC, we developed polystyrene-core, silica-shell nanoparticle scintillators (referred to as nanoSCINT) for quantification of low-energy β-particle emitting radionuclides directly in aqueous solutions. The polystyrene acts as an absorber for energy from emitted β-particles and can be loaded with a range of hydrophobic scintillant fluorophores, leading to photon emission at visible wavelengths. The silica shell serves as a hydrophilic shield for the polystyrene core, enabling dispersion in aqueous media and providing better compatibility with water-soluble analytes. While polymer and inorganic scintillating microparticles are commercially available, their large size and/or high density complicates effective dispersion throughout the sample volume. In this work, nanoSCINT nanoparticles were prepared and characterized. nanoSCINT responds to 3 H, 35 S, and 33 P directly in aqueous solutions, does not exhibit a change in scintillation response between pH 3.0 and 9.5 or with 100 mM NaCl, and can be recovered and reused for activity measurements in bulk aqueous samples, demonstrating the potential for reduced production of LSC waste and reduced total waste volume during radionuclide quantification. The limits of detection for 1 mg/mL nanoSCINT are 130 nCi/mL for 3 H, 8 nCi/mL for 35 S, and <1 nCi/mL for 33 P.

  7. Radionuclides in analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tousset, J.

    1984-01-01

    Applications of radionuclides in analytical chemistry are reviewed in this article: tracers, radioactive sources and activation analysis. Examples are given in all these fields and it is concluded that these methods should be used more widely [fr

  8. Radionuclide Basics: Iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Centers Radiation Protection Contact Us Share Radionuclide Basics: Iodine Iodine (chemical symbol I) is a chemical element. ... in the environment Iodine sources Iodine and health Iodine in the Environment All 37 isotopes of iodine ...

  9. Transfer of radionuclides to plants[Radioecology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Sven P. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    2006-04-15

    Sampling of Water Horsetail and Bracken Fern including upper soil layer (0-10 cm) and water was carried out in Torahult, Sweden, in Almindingen on Bornholm, in Asserbo and Arresoe on Zealand and in Sdr. Hostrup and Nydam mose in Jutland. Furthermore, sampling was carried out in 2004 for seawater, seaweed and shrimps at locations in Danish waters at Bornholm (Svenskehavn), at Zealand (Klint), at Lolland/Falster (Guldborgsund) and on the west coast of Jutland (Hirtshals, Agger, Hvide Sande and Roemoe). Concentrations of gamma-emitting radionuclides and uranium were determined in Bracken Fern, Water Horsetail and soil samples. The concentration ratios (CR) are highest for {sup 40}K in both plant species and show the lowest variability across locations. The CR's for 40K range from 1 to 2, while the CR's for the other radionuclides range one to three orders of magnitude lower. The CR's for {sup 137}Cs show particularly high variability across locations. The CR's were analysed in a two-way ANOVA on the log-transformed values to test differences between plant species and radionuclides. The difference between radionuclides was highly significant, p<0.01, whereas the difference between plant species was not significant. The concentration ratios are listed by radionuclide showing geometric mean values and geometric standard deviations. Analyses were made of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 99}Tc in marine samples. Concentration ratios calculated from the analysed samples are presented. The concentration ratios for {sup 99}Tc agree with those reported elsewhere in the Indofern Project. The concentration ratios for {sup 137}Cs in Fucus show a correlation to salinity with higher values in low salinity water at Bornholm than in high salinity water on the west coast of Jutland. (LN)

  10. 2006 LANL Radionuclide Air Emissions Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David P. Fuehne

    2007-06-30

    This report describes the impacts from emissions of radionuclides at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for calendar year 2006. This report fulfills the requirements established by the Radionuclide National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (Rad-NESHAP). This report is prepared by LANL's Rad-NESHAP compliance team, part of the Environmental Protection Division. The information in this report is required under the Clean Air Act and is being reported to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to an off-site member of the public was calculated using procedures specified by the EPA and described in this report. LANL's EDE was 0.47 mrem for 2006. The annual limit established by the EPA is 10 mrem per year. During calendar year 2006, LANL continuously monitored radionuclide emissions at 28 release points, or stacks. The Laboratory estimates emissions from an additional 58 release points using radionuclide usage source terms. Also, LANL uses a network of air samplers around the Laboratory perimeter to monitor ambient airborne levels of radionuclides. To provide data for dispersion modeling and dose assessment, LANL maintains and operates meteorological monitoring systems. From these measurement systems, a comprehensive evaluation is conducted to calculate the EDE for the Laboratory. The EDE is evaluated as any member of the public at any off-site location where there is a residence, school, business, or office. In 2006, this location was the Los Alamos Airport Terminal. The majority of this dose is due to ambient air sampling of plutonium emitted from 2006 clean-up activities at an environmental restoration site (73-002-99; ash pile). Doses reported to the EPA for the past 10 years are shown in Table E1.

  11. Abscess detection with radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alavi, J.B.

    1988-01-01

    Radionuclide studies may aid in the diagnosis and localization of intra-abdominal infections. Despite the introduction of new radiographic and ultrasound methods, there are several clinical situations in which radionuclide scans have proved useful. Those include detection of postoperative intra-abdominal abscess, evaluation of liver abscess, differentiation between pancreatic pseudocyst or abscess, evaluation of fever of unknown origin, and evaluation of inflammatory bowel disease. Each clinical situation is discussed separately here

  12. Anthropogenic radionuclide fluxes and distribution in bottom sediments of the cooling basin of the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marčiulionienė, D.; Mažeika, J.; Lukšienė, B.; Jefanova, O.; Mikalauskienė, R.; Paškauskas, R.

    2015-01-01

    Based on γ-ray emitting artificial radionuclide spectrometric measurements, an assessment of areal and vertical distribution of 137 Cs, 60 Co and 54 Mn activity concentrations in bottom sediments of Lake Drūkšiai was performed. Samples of bottom sediments from seven monitoring stations within the cooling basin were collected in 1988–1996 and 2007–2010 (in July–August). For radionuclide areal distribution analysis, samples from the surface 0–5 cm layer were used. Multi sample cores sliced 2 cm, 3 cm or 5 cm thick were used to study the vertical distribution of radionuclides. The lowest 137 Cs activity concentrations were obtained for two stations that were situated close to channels with radionuclide discharges, but with sediments that had a significantly smaller fraction of organic matter related to finest particles and consequently smaller radionuclide retention potential. The 137 Cs activity concentration was distributed quite evenly in the bottom sediments from other investigated monitoring stations. The highest 137 Cs activity concentrations in the bottom sediments of Lake Drūkšiai were measured in the period of 1988–1989; in 1990, the 137 Cs activity concentrations slightly decreased and they varied insignificantly over the investigation period. The obtained 238 Pu/ 239,240 Pu activity ratio values in the bottom sediments of Lake Drūkšiai represented radioactive pollution with plutonium from nuclear weapon tests. Higher 60 Co and 54 Mn activity concentrations were observed in the monitoring stations that were close to the impact zones of the technical water outlet channel and industrial rain drainage system channel. 60 Co and 54 Mn activity concentrations in the bottom sediments of Lake Drūkšiai significantly decreased when operations at both INPP reactor units were stopped. The vertical distribution of radionuclides in bottom sediments revealed complicated sedimentation features, which may have been affected by a number of natural and

  13. Transport and accumulation of radionuclides in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frissel, M.J.; Jakubick, A.T.; Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe G.m.b.H.

    1979-01-01

    The movement of radioactive isotopes through the water phase of soils is by far the most important. Most of the water-transported radioactive isotopes (radionuclides) occur via their dissolved salts, while the rest is carried by small soil particles to which the radionuclides are adsorbed. In the case of many chemicals, it is possible to calculate the movement or migration through soil from adsorption measurements made in the laboratory and from knowledge of the flow pattern of soil water. With increasing complexity of the chemical-soil-water system predictions become more uncertain. In the case of radionuclides the amounts expressed in units of weight are extremely small. This renders terms such as 'soluble' or 'insoluble' inapplicable. In these cases transport of 'radiocolloids' and adsorbed particles as 'insoluble' compounds may be more significant. For fallout strontium and cesium reliable predictive models have been developed. For fallout plutonium such models are under development. For calculations or predictions of the migration of radioactive material from deep soil layers to the soil surface fewer mathematical models are available. Many laboratory studies cannot yet be made due to lack of suitable soil samples from the sites under study. Nevertheless safety studies already carried out in a preliminary way are reliable, since factos such as adsorption of radionuclides on soils are neglected; consequently most safety studies overestimate possible risks. Further studies are required to ascertain how 'pessimistic' are the present safety criteriy. (orig./MG) [de

  14. Radionuclide imaging of spinal infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gemmel, Filip; Dumarey, Nicolas; Palestro, Christopher J.

    2006-01-01

    The diagnosis of spinal infection, with or without implants, has been a challenge for physicians for many years. Spinal infections are now being recognised more frequently, owing to aging of the population and the increasing use of spinal-fusion surgery. The diagnosis in many cases is delayed, and this may result in permanent neurological damage or even death. Laboratory evidence of infection is variable. Conventional radiography and radionuclide bone imaging lack both sensitivity and specificity. Neither in vitro labelled leucocyte scintigraphy nor 99m Tc-anti-granulocyte antibody scintigraphy is especially useful, because of the frequency with which spinal infection presents as a non-specific photopenic area on these tests. Sequential bone/gallium imaging and 67 Ga-SPECT are currently the radionuclide procedures of choice for spinal osteomyelitis, but these tests lack specificity, suffer from poor spatial resolution and require several days to complete. [ 18 F]Fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) PET is a promising technique for diagnosing spinal infection, and has several potential advantages over conventional radionuclide tests. The study is sensitive and is completed in a single session, and image quality is superior to that obtained with single-photon emitting tracers. The specificity of FDG-PET may also be superior to that of conventional tracers because degenerative bone disease and fractures usually do not produce intense FDG uptake; moreover, spinal implants do not affect FDG imaging. However, FDG-PET images have to be read with caution in patients with instrumented spinal-fusion surgery since non-specific accumulation of FDG around the fusion material is not uncommon. In the future, PET-CT will likely provide more precise localisation of abnormalities. FDG-PET may prove to be useful for monitoring response to treatment in patients with spinal osteomyelitis. Other tracers for diagnosing spinal osteomyelitis are also under investigation, including radiolabelled

  15. Radionuclide imaging of spinal infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gemmel, Filip [Ghent Maria-Middelares, General Hospital, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Ghent (Belgium); Medical Center Leeuwarden (MCL), Division of Nuclear Medicine, Henri Dunantweg 2, Postbus 888, Leeuwarden (Netherlands); Dumarey, Nicolas [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Hopital Erasme, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Brussels (Belgium); Palestro, Christopher J. [Long Island Jewish Medical Center, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Long Island, NY (United States)

    2006-10-15

    The diagnosis of spinal infection, with or without implants, has been a challenge for physicians for many years. Spinal infections are now being recognised more frequently, owing to aging of the population and the increasing use of spinal-fusion surgery. The diagnosis in many cases is delayed, and this may result in permanent neurological damage or even death. Laboratory evidence of infection is variable. Conventional radiography and radionuclide bone imaging lack both sensitivity and specificity. Neither in vitro labelled leucocyte scintigraphy nor {sup 99m}Tc-anti-granulocyte antibody scintigraphy is especially useful, because of the frequency with which spinal infection presents as a non-specific photopenic area on these tests. Sequential bone/gallium imaging and {sup 67}Ga-SPECT are currently the radionuclide procedures of choice for spinal osteomyelitis, but these tests lack specificity, suffer from poor spatial resolution and require several days to complete. [{sup 18}F]Fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) PET is a promising technique for diagnosing spinal infection, and has several potential advantages over conventional radionuclide tests. The study is sensitive and is completed in a single session, and image quality is superior to that obtained with single-photon emitting tracers. The specificity of FDG-PET may also be superior to that of conventional tracers because degenerative bone disease and fractures usually do not produce intense FDG uptake; moreover, spinal implants do not affect FDG imaging. However, FDG-PET images have to be read with caution in patients with instrumented spinal-fusion surgery since non-specific accumulation of FDG around the fusion material is not uncommon. In the future, PET-CT will likely provide more precise localisation of abnormalities. FDG-PET may prove to be useful for monitoring response to treatment in patients with spinal osteomyelitis. Other tracers for diagnosing spinal osteomyelitis are also under investigation, including

  16. Bilateral Comparison CIEMAT-CENTIS-DMR for radionuclide activity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oropesa Verdecia, P.; Garcia-Torano, E.

    2004-01-01

    We present the results of a bilateral comparison of radionuclide activity measurements between the Radionuclide Metrology Department of the Center of Isotopes of Cuba (CENTIS-DMR), and the Ionising Radiation Metrology Laboratory (LMRI) of the Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT) of Spain. The aim of the comparison was to establish the comparability of the measurement instruments and methods used to obtain radioactive reference materials of some gamma-emitting nuclides at CENTIS-DMR. The results revealed that there are no statistically significant differences between the data reported by both laboratories. (Author) 7 refs

  17. Power output and efficiency of beta-emitting microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheneler, David; Ward, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Current standard methods to calculate the dose of radiation emitted during medical applications by beta-minus emitting microspheres rely on an over-simplistic formalism. This formalism is a function of the average activity of the radioisotope used and the physiological dimensions of the patient only. It neglects the variation in energy of the emitted beta particle due to self-attenuation, or self-absorption, effects related to the finite size of the sphere. Here it is assumed the sphere is comprised of a pure radioisotope with beta particles being emitted isotropically throughout the material. The full initial possible kinetic energy distribution of a beta particle is taken into account as well as the energy losses due to scattering by other atoms in the microsphere and bremsstrahlung radiation. By combining Longmire’s theory of the mean forward range of charged particles and the Rayleigh distribution to take into account the statistical nature of scattering and energy straggling, the linear attenuation, or self-absorption, coefficient for beta-emitting radioisotopes has been deduced. By analogy with gamma radiation transport in spheres, this result was used to calculate the rate of energy emitted by a beta-emitting microsphere and its efficiency. Comparisons to standard point dose kernel formulations generated using Monte Carlo data show the efficacy of the proposed method. Yttrium-90 is used as a specific example throughout, as a medically significant radioisotope, frequently used in radiation therapy for treating cancer. - Highlights: • Range-energy relationship for the beta particles in yttrium-90 is calculated. • Formalism for the semi-analytical calculation of self-absorption coefficients. • Energy-dependent self-absorption coefficient calculated for yttrium-90. • Flux rate of beta particles from a self-attenuating radioactive sphere is shown. • The efficiency of beta particle emitting radioactive microspheres is calculated

  18. Transfer parameters of radionuclides in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    To increase the accuracy of estimation of exposure dose by radionuclides in the marine, the informations of environmental parameter data in the marine were collected, arranged and discussed. The informations were discussed by 'a sectional committee of marine suspended solids and sediment'. The following problems were investigated and the studies were recorded in this report, clear explanation about the distribution factor (kd), the estimation method of kd, the fluctuating factor of kd data (properties of suspension and sediment, differences among the experimental methods), the physical and chemical behavior of radionuclides, sediment of radionuclides by means of sorption to the suspended particles in the marine, sorption of radionuclides into the marine soil (sediment), re-eluent of radionuclides sorpted in the marine soil (sediment), and relation between marine organism and marine suspended materials and sediment. (S.Y.)

  19. Radiation emitting devices regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    The Radiation Emitting Devices Regulations are the regulations referred to in the Radiation Emitting Devices Act and relate to the operation of devices. They include standards of design and construction, standards of functioning, warning symbol specifications in addition to information relating to the seizure and detention of machines failing to comply with the regulations. The radiation emitting devices consist of the following: television receivers, extra-oral dental x-ray equipment, microwave ovens, baggage inspection x-ray devices, demonstration--type gas discharge devices, photofluorographic x-ray equipment, laser scanners, demonstration lasers, low energy electron microscopes, high intensity mercury vapour discharge lamps, sunlamps, diagnostic x-ray equipment, ultrasound therapy devices, x-ray diffraction equipment, cabinet x-ray equipment and therapeutic x-ray equipment

  20. Oceanic distributions of radionuclides from nuclear weapons testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, V.T.

    1977-01-01

    Data on the transport of fallout radionuclides in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans are reviewed. Relevance of water column fallout data to the disposal of radioactive waste in marine locations is discussed. It is pointed out that regional patterns of delivery of soluble radionuclides must be assumed to persist at least for decades, in spite of the homogenizing action of ocean current systems and that, although there are delays in relation to density discontinuities in the water column, particle-associated radionuclides are generally delivered directly to the sediment surface. The chemistry of particle association appears increasingly complex, in relation both to the element selectivity among kinds of particles, and the stability of the associations once formed, and regional conditions may lead to retention of Pu (and possibly other nuclides) in discrete layers or throughout the water column, in opposition to its general tendency to associate with particles

  1. Radionuclide fixation mechanisms in rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, S.

    1991-01-01

    In the safety evaluation of the radioactive waste disposal in geological environment, the mass balance equation for radionuclide migration is given. The sorption of radionuclides by geological formations is conventionally represented by the retardation of the radionuclides as compared with water movement. In order to quantify the sorption of radionuclides by rocks and sediments, the distribution ratio is used. In order to study quantitatively the long term behavior of waste radionuclides in geological environment, besides the distribution ratio concept in short term, slower radionuclide retention reaction involving mineral transformation should be considered. The development of microspectroscopic method for long term reaction path modeling, the behavior of iron during granite and water interaction, the reduction precipitation of radionuclides, radionuclide migration pathways, and the representative scheme of radionuclide migration and fixation in rocks are discussed. (K.I.)

  2. Method of separating short half-life radionuclides from a mixture of radionuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, L.A.; Ryan, J.L.

    1999-03-23

    The present invention is a method of removing an impurity of plutonium, lead or a combination thereof from a mixture of radionuclides that contains the impurity and at least one parent radionuclide. The method has the steps of (a) insuring that the mixture is a hydrochloric acid mixture; (b) oxidizing the acidic mixture and specifically oxidizing the impurity to its highest oxidation state; and (c) passing the oxidized mixture through a chloride form anion exchange column whereupon the oxidized impurity absorbs to the chloride form anion exchange column and the {sup 229}Th or {sup 227}Ac ``cow`` radionuclide passes through the chloride form anion exchange column. The plutonium is removed for the purpose of obtaining other alpha emitting radionuclides in a highly purified form suitable for medical therapy. In addition to plutonium, lead, iron, cobalt, copper, uranium, and other metallic cations that form chloride anionic complexes that may be present in the mixture are removed from the mixture on the chloride form anion exchange column. 8 figs.

  3. Traversal of cells by radiation and absorbed fraction estimates for electrons and alpha particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckerman, K.F.; Ryman, J.C.; Taner, A.C.; Kerr, G.D.

    1986-01-01

    Consideration of the pathlength which radiation traverses in a cell is central to algorithms for estimating energy deposition on a cellular level. Distinct pathlength distributions occur for radionuclides: (1) uniformly distributed in space about the cell (referred to as μ-randomness); (2) uniformly distributed on the surface of the cell (S-randomness); and (3) uniformly distributed within the cell volume (I-randomness). For a spherical cell of diameter d, the mean pathlengths are 2/3d, and 3/4d, respectively, for these distributions. Algorithms for simulating the path of radiation through a cell are presented and the absorbed fraction in the cell and its nucleus are tabulated for low energy electrons and alpha particles emitted on the surface of spherical cells. The algorithms and absorbed fraction data should be of interest to those concerned with the dosimetry of radionuclide-labeled monoclonal antibodies. 8 references, 3 figures, 2 tables

  4. Traversal of cells by radiation and absorbed fraction estimates for electrons and alpha particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckerman, K.F.; Ryman, J.C.; Taner, A.C.; Kerr, G.D.

    1985-01-01

    Consideration of the pathlength which radiation traverses in a cell is central to algorithms for estimating energy deposition on a cellular level. Distinct pathlength distributions occur for radionuclides: (1) uniformly distributed in space about the cell (referred to as μ-randomness); (2) uniformly distributed on the surface of the cell (S-randomness); and (3) uniformly distributed within the cell volume (I-randomness). For a spherical cell of diameter d, the mean pathlengths are 2/3d, 1/2d, and 3/4d, respectively, for these distributions. Algorithms for simulating the path of radiation through a cell are presented and the absorbed fraction in the cell and its nucleus are tabulated for low energy electrons and alpha particles emitted on the surface of spherical cells. The algorithms and absorbed fraction data should be of interest to those concerned with the dosimetry of radionuclide-labeled monoclonal antibodies. 8 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Radionuclide transfer from soil to plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teufel, D.; Steinhilber-Schwab, B.; Hoepfner, U.; Ratka, R.; Sand, H. van de; Franke, B.

    1979-01-01

    The planned nuclear reprocessing plant (NEZ) Gorleben will fundamentally differ from actually operating nuclear power plants with regard to its radioactive emissions because relatively long-life isotopes will play a greater role in the emissions. The longevity of the radionuclides emitted in the planned NEZ implies that there will be an accumulation of radionuclides in the surroundings of the plant and long-term effects of the plant on the environment will get higher significance. As radionuclides mainly reach milk and meat via the food of farm animals the transfer of cesium and strontium from the ground into plants was amply investigated. The results show that the correlation calculations are suitable to describe the effect of different parameters on the transfer factor. They are not suited for a forecast of the transfer conditions on a certain location for the reasons explained before. Location-specific measurements seem to be indispensable for these purposes. Besides the greenhouse tests open air measurements of fall-out nuclides with and without elimination of external contamination seem to represent a realistic possibility for the determination of transfer factors. Great attention has to be paid in this kind of tests to the growth conditions (especially fertilization) which have to be accurately registered. (orig./MG) [de

  6. Radionuclide content of Las Vegas wash sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudin, M.J.; Meyers, A.M.; Johnson, W.H.

    1996-01-01

    The Las Vegas Wash is an excavated waterway channel which drains all surface water and effluent discharge from sewage-treatment facilities from the greater Las Vegas Metropolitan Area to Lake Mead. Runoff and erosion processes are expected to transport man-made radioactivity that was deposited over the past several decades in the Las Vegas Valley. Additionally, radionuclides disposed of via the city's sanitary system are expected to accumulate in the Wash sediments. Fine and coarse sediment samples were collected at 100 m intervals and analyzed to determine the distribution of alpha- and gamma-emitting radionuclides in the lower 5,500 in of the Las Vegas Wash. Results indicate little accumulation of long-lived fission products in upstream Wash sediments. However, trace amounts of fission products measured in downstream sediments suggest the resuspension and transport of radioactive particulate matter within the Wash. Levels of naturally-occurring radionuclides found in Wash sediments were found to be consistent with levels typically found in southeast Nevada soils

  7. Radioactivity: radionuclides in foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, R.E.; Baratta, E.J.; Jelinek, C.F.

    1977-01-01

    The results are summarized of the analysis for strontium-90, cesium-137, iodine-131, ruthenium-106, and potassium-40, a naturally occurring radionuclide, in samples of total diet and selected import commodities in the foods compliance program of the Food and Drug Administration. On the basis of the radionuclide intake guidelines established by the Federal Radiation Council (FRC), the low content of radionuclides found in the total diet samples for fiscal years 1973 and 1974 demonstrates the need for surveillance only at the present level. The low levels of radionuclides found in a limited number of edible imported commodities indicate that their contribution to the total diet would not increase the levels of these radionuclides above those recommended for only periodic surveillance by the FRC. The potassium levels, determined from potassium-40 activity, found in meats and fish agree with the value for normal muscle tissue for the reference man reported by the International Commission on Radiation Protection. Of the other commodities, nuts contained the highest levels, while sugar, beverages, and processed foods contained the lowest levels of potassium. Although cesium and potassium are chemical analogs with similar metabolic properties, because of their variable content in some leafy samples as a result of surface contamination, a correlation between cesium-137 levels and the cesium-137-to-potassium ratio was inconclusive

  8. Light-Emitting Pickles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, M.; Mollmann, K-P.

    2015-01-01

    We present experiments giving new insights into the classical light-emitting pickle experiment. In particular, measurements of the spectra and temperatures, as well as high-speed recordings, reveal that light emission is connected to the polarity of the electrodes and the presence of hydrogen.

  9. Absorbed fractions for alpha particles in ellipsoidal volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amato, Ernesto; Baldari, Sergio; Italiano, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Internal dosimetry of alpha particles is gaining attention due to the increasing applications in cancer treatment and also for the assessment of environmental contamination from radionuclides. We developed a Monte Carlo simulation in GEANT4 in order to calculate the absorbed fractions for monoenergetic alpha particles in the energy interval between 0.1 and 10 MeV, uniformly distributed in ellipsoids made of soft tissue. For each volume, we simulated a spherical shape, three oblate and three prolate ellipsoids, and one scalene shape. For each energy and for every geometrical configuration, an analytical relationship between the absorbed fraction and a ‘generalized radius’ was found; and the dependence of the fit parameters on the alpha energy is discussed and fitted by parametric functions. With the proposed formulation, the absorbed fraction for alpha particles in the energy range explored can be calculated for volumes and for ellipsoidal shapes of practical interest. This method can be applied to the evaluation of absorbed fraction from alpha-emitting radionuclides. The contribution to the deposited energy coming from electron and photon emissions can be accounted for exploiting the specific formulations previously introduced. As an example of application, the dosimetry of 213 Bi and its decay chain in ellipsoids is reported. (paper)

  10. Radionuclides in house dust

    CERN Document Server

    Fry, F A; Green, N; Hammond, D J

    1985-01-01

    Discharges of radionuclides from the British Nuclear Fuel plc (BNFL) reprocessing plant at Sellafield in Cumbria have led to elevated concentrations radionuclides in the local environment. The major routes of exposure of the public are kept under review by the appropriate Government departments and monitoring is carried out both by the departments and by BNFL itself. Recently, there has been increasing public concern about general environmental contamination resulting from the discharges and, in particular, about possible exposure of members of the public by routes not previously investigated in detail. One such postulated route of exposure that has attracted the interest of the public, the press and Parliament arises from the presence of radionuclides within houses. In view of this obvious and widespread concern, the Board has undertaken a sampling programme in a few communities in Cumbria to assess the radiological significance of this source of exposure. From the results of our study, we conclude that, alt...

  11. Confirmation of selected milk and meat radionuclide-transfer coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, G.M.; Johnson, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    The elements selected for study of their transfer coefficients to eggs, poultry meat, milk and beef were Mo, Tc, Te, and Ba. The radionuclides used in the study were the gamma-emitting radionuclides 99 Mo, /sup 123m/Te and 133 Ba. 133 Ba was selected because 140 Ba- 140 La is produced infrequently and availability was uncertain. 133 Ba has a great advantage for our type of experiment because of its longer physical half-life. 99 Tc is a pure beta-emitter and was used in the first three animal experiments because we could not obtain the gamma-emitting /sup 95m/Tc. A supply of this nuclide was recently obtained, however, for the second cow experiment

  12. Theoretical estimation of absorbed dose to organs in radioimmunotherapy using radionuclides with multiple unstable daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamacher, K.A.; Sgouros, G.

    2001-01-01

    The toxicity and clinical utility of long-lived alpha emitters such as Ac-225 and Ra-223 will depend upon the fate of alpha-particle emitting unstable intermediates generated after decay of the conjugated parent. For example, decay of Ac-225 to a stable element yields four alpha particles and seven radionuclides. Each of these progeny has its own free-state biodistribution and characteristic half-life. Therefore, their inclusion for a more accurate prediction of absorbed dose and potential toxicity requires a formalism that takes these factors into consideration as well. To facilitate the incorporation of such intermediates into the dose calculation, a previously developed methodology (model 1) has been extended. Two new models (models 2 and 3) for allocation of daughter products are introduced and are compared with the previously developed model. Model 1 restricts the transport to a function that yields either the place of origin or the place(s) of biodistribution depending on the half-life of the parent radionuclide. Model 2 includes the transient time within the bloodstream and model 3 incorporates additional binding at or within the tumor. This means that model 2 also allows for radionuclide decay and further daughter production while moving from one location to the next and that model 3 relaxes the constraint that the residence time within the tumor is solely based on the half-life of the parent. The models are used to estimate normal organ absorbed doses for the following parent radionuclides: Ac-225, Pb-212, At-211, Ra-223, and Bi-213. Model simulations are for a 0.1 g rapidly accessible tumor and a 10 g solid tumor. Additionally, the effects of varying radiolabled carrier molecule purity and amount of carrier molecules, as well as tumor cell antigen saturation are examined. The results indicate that there is a distinct advantage in using parent radionuclides such as Ac-225 or Ra-223, each having a half-life of more than 10 days and yielding four alpha

  13. Radionuclides in foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report contains data on the levels of radionuclides in the UK foodchain. Most data derive from monitoring programmes that exist around nuclear sites, and in some cases date back to the 1960s. Some comparative data from site operator and government-run programmes are included. Data from monitoring undertaken after the Chernobyl accident are summarised. General monitoring of the foodchain for both artificial and natural radionuclides, and the results of relevant government-sponsored research are also described. The report includes basic information on radioactivity in the environment, radiation protection standards and describes what measures are taken to routinely monitor the foodchain and assess public risk. (Author)

  14. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cheng

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Targeted radiotherapy is an evolving and promising modality of cancer treatment. The killing of cancer cells is achieved with the use of biological vectors and appropriate radionuclides. Among the many advantages of this approach are its selectiveness in delivering the radiation to the target, relatively less severe and infrequent side effects, and the possibility of assessing the uptake by the tumor prior to the therapy. Several different radiopharmaceuticals are currently being used by various administration routes and targeting mechanisms. This article aims to briefly review the current status of targeted radiotherapy as well as to outline the advantages and disadvantages of radionuclides used for this purpose.

  15. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ersahin, Devrim, E-mail: devrimersahin@yahoo.com; Doddamane, Indukala; Cheng, David [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, School of Medicine, Yale University, 333 Cedar St., New Haven, CT 06520 (United States)

    2011-10-11

    Targeted radiotherapy is an evolving and promising modality of cancer treatment. The killing of cancer cells is achieved with the use of biological vectors and appropriate radionuclides. Among the many advantages of this approach are its selectiveness in delivering the radiation to the target, relatively less severe and infrequent side effects, and the possibility of assessing the uptake by the tumor prior to the therapy. Several different radiopharmaceuticals are currently being used by various administration routes and targeting mechanisms. This article aims to briefly review the current status of targeted radiotherapy as well as to outline the advantages and disadvantages of radionuclides used for this purpose.

  16. Radionuclide deposition control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    A method is described for controlling the deposition, on to the surfaces of reactor components, of the radionuclides manganese-54, cobalt-58 and cobalt-60 from a liquid stream containing the radionuclides. The method consists of disposing a getter material (nickel) in the liquid stream, and a non-getter material (tantalum, tungsten or molybdenum) as a coating on the surfaces where deposition is not desired. The process is described with special reference to its use in the coolant circuit in sodium cooled fast breeder reactors. (U.K.)

  17. Radionuclide examination in rheumatology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streda, A.; Kolar, J.; Valesova, M.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of twenty years of experience with the use of radionuclides in bone and articular rheumatic diseases indications for such examinations are summed up. The main advantage of the use of radionuclide methods is that they bring forward early diagnosis of tissue reconstruction which can thus be detected at the stage of microstructural changes. They also provide earlier and more reliable detection of the degree of the pathological process than is provided by X-ray examination. In some cases scintiscan may also be found useful as a method for following up the results of treatment of rheumatic diseases. (author)

  18. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ersahin, Devrim; Doddamane, Indukala; Cheng, David

    2011-01-01

    Targeted radiotherapy is an evolving and promising modality of cancer treatment. The killing of cancer cells is achieved with the use of biological vectors and appropriate radionuclides. Among the many advantages of this approach are its selectiveness in delivering the radiation to the target, relatively less severe and infrequent side effects, and the possibility of assessing the uptake by the tumor prior to the therapy. Several different radiopharmaceuticals are currently being used by various administration routes and targeting mechanisms. This article aims to briefly review the current status of targeted radiotherapy as well as to outline the advantages and disadvantages of radionuclides used for this purpose

  19. Cells at risk from bone-seeking radionuclides: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, E.G.; Jee, W.S.S.

    1976-01-01

    Although it is possible that any cell within range of an α-emitting radionuclide ( 239 Pu and 226 Ra) residing at a bone surface might be transformed into a bone forming neoplastic cell, the three most likely candidates are the the osteoprogenitor cell, the osteoblast, and the reticular cell of the marrow. These cells all possess osteogenic capability, proliferative activity, and resemblance to bone tumor cells

  20. A random walk model to simulate the atmospheric dispersion of radionuclide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Jun; Huang, Liuxing; Niu, Shengli; Xie, Honggang; Kuang, Feihong

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the atmospheric dispersion of radionuclide in large-medium scale, a numerical simulation method based on random walk model for radionuclide atmospheric dispersion was established in the paper. The route of radionuclide migration and concentration distribution of radionuclide can be calculated out by using the method with the real-time or historical meteorological fields. In the simulation, a plume of radionuclide is treated as a lot of particles independent of each other. The particles move randomly by the fluctuations of turbulence, and disperse, so as to enlarge the volume of the plume and dilute the concentration of radionuclide. The dispersion of the plume over time is described by the variance of the particles. Through statistical analysis, the relationships between variance of the particles and radionuclide dispersion characteristics can be derived. The main mechanisms considered in the physical model are: (1) advection of radionuclide by mean air motion, (2) mixing of radionuclide by atmospheric turbulence, (3) dry and wet deposition, (4) disintegration. A code named RADES was developed according the method. And then, the European Tracer Experiment (ETEX) in 1994 is simulated by the RADES and FLEXPART codes, the simulation results of the concentration distribution of tracer are in good agreement with the experimental data.

  1. Postshot distribution and movement of radionuclides in nuclear crater ejecta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koranda, John J; Martin, John R; Wikkerink, Robert; Stuart, Marshall [Bio-Medical Division, Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1970-05-01

    The distribution and postshot movement of radionuclides in nuclear crater ejecta are discussed in this report. Continuing studies of tritium movement in ejecta at SEDAN crater demonstrate that variations in tritium concentration are correlated with seasonal rainfall and soil water movements. Losses of 27 mCi H{sup 3}/ft{sup 2} are evident on SEDAN crater lip at the end of a three year period of measurements in -which an unusually large flux of rain was received. The distribution of gamma emitting radionuclides and tritium is described in the recently created SCHOONER crater ejecta field. The specific activity of radionuclides in the SCHOONER ejecta continuum is shown for ejecta collected from the crater lip to 17 miles from GZ. The movement of W{sup 181} and tritium into the sub-ejecta preshot soil is described at a site 3000 feet from GZ. (author)

  2. Radionuclides in peat bogs and energy peat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helariutta, K.; Rantavaara, A.; Lehtovaara, J.

    2000-06-01

    The study was aimed at improving the general view on radionuclides contents in energy peat produced in Finland. The annual harvest of fuel peat in 1994 was studied extensively. Also thirteen peat bogs used for peat production and one bog in natural condition were analysed for vertical distributions of several radionuclides. These distributions demonstrate the future change in radioactivity of energy peat. Both natural nuclides emitting gamma radiation ( 238 U, 235 U, 232 Th, 226 Ra, 40 K) and radiocaesium ( 137 Cs, 134 Cs) origin in fallout from a nuclear power plant accident (1986) and in atmospheric nuclear weapon tests were analysed. The beta and alpha active natural nuclides of lead and polonium ( 210 Pb, 210 Po) were determined on a set of peat samples. These nuclides potentially contribute to radiation exposure through inhalation when partially released to atmosphere during combustion of peat. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides often increased towards the deepest peat bog layers whereas the radioactive caesium deposited from atmosphere was missing in the deep layers. In undisturbed surface layers of a natural bog and peat production bogs the contents of 210 Pb and 210 Po exceeded those of the deeper peat layers. The nuclides of the uranium series in the samples were generally not in radioactive equilibrium, as different environmental processes change their activity ratios in peat. Radiation exposure from handling and utilisation of peat ash was estimated with activity indices derived from the data for energy peat harvested in 1994. Intervention doses were exceeded in a minor selection of samples due to 137 Cs, whereas natural radionuclides contributed very little to the doses. (orig.)

  3. Characterization study of cesium concentrated particles in the soils near the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satou, Yukihiko; Sueki, Keisuke; Sasa, Kimikazu; Adachi, Kouji; Igarashi, Yasuhito

    2015-04-01

    Radionuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident contaminated a vast area. Two types of contamination, spread and spot types, were observed in soils with autoradiography using an imaging plate. Other samples such as dust filters, vegetation, X-ray films, and so on, also indicate the spot type contamination in the early stage of the FDNPP accident. The source of spot type contamination is well known as hot particles at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) accident in 1986. Hot particles were divided into two groups, fuel hot particles and fission product particles, and they were emitted directly from reactor core with phreatic explosion and fire. In contrast, the official reports of the FDNPP accident did not conforme core explosion. In addition, the emitted total amount of Uranium was very few (Yamamoto et al., 2014). Thus, the spot type contaminations were not identified as the same of hot particles yet. Therefore, the present study aimed to pick up and identify the spot contaminations in soils. Surface soil samples were collected at 20 km northwest from the FDNPP in June 2013. Soils were spread in plastic bags for autoradiography with imaging plate analysis. Then, the soil particles were collected on a sticky carbon tape and analyzed by SEM-EDS to detect radioactive particles. Finally, particles were confirmed to contain photo peaks in the γ-spectrum by a germanium semiconductor detector. Four radioactive particles were isolated from the soil samples in the present study. Detected γ-ray emission radionuclides were only Cs-134 and Cs-137. The X-ray spectra on the SEM-EDS of all particles showed a Cs peak as well as O, Fe, Zn, and Rb peaks, and these elements were distributed uniformly within the particles. In addition, uniform distribution of Si was also shown. Moreover, U was detected from one of the particles, but U concentration was very low and existed locally in the particle. These characters are very similar to previous

  4. Understanding Radionuclide Interactions with Layered Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Layered materials play an important role in nuclear waste management and environmental cleanup. Better understanding of radionuclide interactions with those materials is critical for engineering high-performance materials for various applications. This presentation will provide an overview on radionuclide interactions with two general categories of layered materials - cationic clays and anionic clays - from a perspective of nanopore confinement. Nanopores are widely present in layered materials, either as the interlayers or as inter-particle space. Nanopore confinement can significantly modify chemical reactions in those materials. This effect may cause the preferential enrichment of radionuclides in nanopores and therefore directly impact the mobility of the radionuclides. This effect also implies that conventional sorption measurements using disaggregated samples may not represent chemical conditions in actual systems. The control of material structures on ion exchange, surface complexation, and diffusion in layered materials will be systematically examined, and the related modeling approaches will be discussed. This work was performed at Sandia National Laboratories, which is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed-Martin Company, for the DOE under contract DE-AC04-94AL8500.

  5. Taking radionuclides to heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleynhans, P.H.T.; Lotter, M.G.; Van Aswegen, A.; Minnaar, P.C.; Iturralde, M.; Herbst, C.P.; Marx, D.

    1980-01-01

    Ischaemic heart disease is a main cause of death in South Africa. Non-invasive ECG gated radionuclide bloodpool imaging plays an increasingly useful role in the evalution of the function of the heart as a pump, and the extent of heart muscle perfusion defects is further pinpointed by invasive krypton-81m studies to improve patient management

  6. Radionuclides deposition over Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pourchet, M.; Magand, O.; Frezzotti, M.; Ekaykin, A.; Winther, J.-G.

    2003-01-01

    A detailed and comprehensive map of the distribution patterns for both natural and artificial radionuclides over Antarctica has been established. This work integrates the results of several decades of international programs focusing on the analysis of natural and artificial radionuclides in snow and ice cores from this polar region. The mean value (37±20 Bq m -2 ) of 241 Pu total deposition over 28 stations is determined from the gamma emissions of its daughter 241 Am, presenting a long half-life (432.7 yrs). Detailed profiles and distributions of 241 Pu in ice cores make it possible to clearly distinguish between the atmospheric thermonuclear tests of the fifties and sixties. Strong relationships are also found between radionuclide data ( 137 Cs with respect to 241 Pu and 210 Pb with respect to 137 Cs), make it possible to estimate the total deposition or natural fluxes of these radionuclides. Total deposition of 137 Cs over Antarctica is estimated at 760 TBq, based on results from the 90-180 deg. East sector. Given the irregular distribution of sampling sites, more ice cores and snow samples must be analyzed in other sectors of Antarctica to check the validity of this figure

  7. Soil burden by radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, W.E.H.; Wenzel, W.W.

    1989-01-01

    Natural radioactivity - half-lifes and radiation type of man-made nuclides, radionuclide behaviour in soils, effects on soil condition and soil functions are described. The only mode of decontamination is by decay and thus primarily dependent on the half-life of nuclides

  8. Radionuclides in house dust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fry, F A; Green, N; Dodd, N J; Hammond, D J

    1985-04-01

    Discharges of radionuclides from the British Nuclear Fuel plc (BNFL) reprocessing plant at Sellafield in Cumbria have led to elevated concentrations radionuclides in the local environment. The major routes of exposure of the public are kept under review by the appropriate authorising Government departments and monitoring is carried out both by the departments and by BNFL itself. Recently, there has been increasing public concern about general environmental contamination resulting from the discharges and, in particular, about possible exposure of members of the public by routes not previously investigated in detail. One such postulated route of exposure that has attracted the interest of the public, the press and Parliament arises from the presence of radionuclides within houses. In view of this obvious and widespread concern, the Board has undertaken a sampling programme in a few communities in Cumbria to assess the radiological significance of this source of exposure. From the results of our study, we conclude that, although radionuclides originating rom the BNFL site can be detected in house dust, this source of contamination is a negligible route of exposure for members of the public in West Cumbria. This report presents the results of the Board's study of house dust in twenty homes in Cumbria during the spring and summer of 1984. A more intensive investigation is being carried out by Imperial College. (author)

  9. Radionuclide body function imager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoddart, H.F.

    1983-01-01

    A transverse radionuclide scan field imaging apparatus is claimed. It comprises: a plurality of highly focused closely laterally adjacent collimators arranged inwardly focused in an array which surrounds a scan field, each collimator being moveable relative to its adjacent collimator; means for rotating the array about the scan field and means for imparting travel to the collimators

  10. The behavior of radionuclides in the soils of Rocky Flats, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litaor, M I [Tel-Hai Rodman Coll., Upper Galilee (Israel); Barth, G; Zika, E M; Litus, G; Moffitt, J; Daniels, H [Colorado Univ., Civil and Environmental Engineering Dept., Boulder, CO (United States)

    1998-05-01

    Radionuclide contamination of soils in Rocky Flats, Colorado, resulted from leaking drums of Pu-contaminated oil stored at an outdoor area. To evaluated the mechanisms of radionuclide transport from the contaminated soils to groundwater, an advanced monitoring system was installed across a toposequence. The impact of natural rain, snowmelt, and large-scale rain simulations on the mobility and distribution of the radionuclides in soil interstitial water was studied. The distribution of radionuclides during the monitoring period from 1993 to 1995 suggested that Pu-239 + 240 and Am-241 are largely immobile in semi-arid soils. Fractionation of Pu-239 + 240 and Am-241 to different particle sizes in the soil interstitial water suggested that most of the radionuclides (83-97%) were associated with suspended particles, whereas the level of radionuclides associated with colloidal (0.45 {mu}m > X > 1 nm) and nonfilterable (< 1 nm) fractions ranged from 1.5 to 15%. (author).

  11. Top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Simone; Thomschke, Michael; Lüssem, Björn; Leo, Karl

    2011-11-07

    We review top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), which are beneficial for lighting and display applications, where non-transparent substrates are used. The optical effects of the microcavity structure as well as the loss mechanisms are discussed. Outcoupling techniques and the work on white top-emitting OLEDs are summarized. We discuss the power dissipation spectra for a monochrome and a white top-emitting OLED and give quantitative reports on the loss channels. Furthermore, the development of inverted top-emitting OLEDs is described.

  12. Preparation of Radiopharmaceuticals Labeled with Metal Radionuclides. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    The overall goal of this project was to develop methods for the production of metal-based radionuclides, to develop metal-based radiopharmaceuticals and in a limited number of cases, to translate these agents to the clinical situation. Initial work concentrated on the application of the radionuclides of Cu, Cu-60, Cu-61 and Cu-64, as well as application of Ga-68 radiopharmaceuticals. Initially Cu-64 was produced at the Missouri University Research Reactor and experiments carried out at Washington University. A limited number of studies were carried out utilizing Cu-62, a generator produced radionuclide produced by Mallinckrodt Inc. (now Covidien). In these studies, copper-62-labeled pyruvaldehyde Bis(N 4 -methylthiosemicarbazonato)-copper(II) was studied as an agent for cerebral myocardial perfusion. A remote system for the production of this radiopharmaceutical was developed and a limited number of patient studies carried out with this agent. Various other copper radiopharmaceuticals were investigated, these included copper labeled blood imaging agents as well as Cu-64 labeled antibodies. Cu-64 labeled antibodies targeting colon cancer were translated to the human situation. Cu-64 was also used to label peptides (Cu-64 octriatide) and this is one of the first applications of a peptide radiolabeled with a positron emitting metal radionuclide. Investigations were then pursued on the preparation of the copper radionuclides on a small biomedical cyclotron. A system for the production of high specific activity Cu-64 was developed and initially the Cu-64 was utilized to study the hypoxic imaging agent Cu-64 ATSM. Utilizing the same target system, other positron emitting metal radionuclides were produced, these were Y-86 and Ga-66. Radiopharmaceuticals were labeled utilizing both of these radionuclides. Many studies were carried out in animal models on the uptake of Cu-ATSM in hypoxic tissue. The hypothesis is that Cu-ATSM retention in vivo is dependent upon the oxygen

  13. In vivo measurements of bone-seeking radionuclides. Progress report, September 1, 1977--February 28, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, N.

    1978-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following research projects: estimation of the skeletal burden of bone-seeking radionuclides from in vivo scintillation measurements of their content in the skull; contribution from radionuclides in the thoracic skeleton to in vivo measurements of activity in the lung; design and optimization characterictics of in vivo detection system; development of a calibration phantom structure for determining activity deposited in the thoracic skeleton; computer assisted in vivo measurements of internally deposited radionuclides using dual-crystal scintillation detectors; low energy, photon-emitting nuclides; reference spectra library; and in vivo measurements of exposed individuals

  14. Preliminary study of radionuclide corrosion products in primary cooling water at RSG-GAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lestari, D.E.; Pudjojanto, M.S.; Subiharto; Budi, S.

    1998-01-01

    Analysis of radionuclides emitting gamma rays at the primary cooling water at RSG-GAS has been carried out. The water coolant samples was performed using a low level background gamma spectrometer unit, including of high resolution of gamma detector HP-Ge Tennelec and Multichannel Analyzer (MCA) ADCAM 100 ORTEC. The result indicated Na-24 and Mn-56 radionuclides that may be as corrosion product and should studied deeply in the future. The expected activity concentration radionuclide for Mn-56 is lower than those written in the Safety Analysis Report (SAR), while for Na-24 is in agreement

  15. In vivo measurements of bone-seeking radionuclides. Progress report, September 1, 1977--February 28, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, N.

    1978-11-01

    Progress is reported on the following research projects: estimation of the skeletal burden of bone-seeking radionuclides from in vivo scintillation measurements of their content in the skull; contribution from radionuclides in the thoracic skeleton to in vivo measurements of activity in the lung; design and optimization characterictics of in vivo detection system; development of a calibration phantom structure for determining activity deposited in the thoracic skeleton; computer assisted in vivo measurements of internally deposited radionuclides using dual-crystal scintillation detectors; low energy, photon-emitting nuclides; reference spectra library; and in vivo measurements of exposed individuals. (HLW)

  16. Radionuclide cardiography in medical practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strangfeld, D.; Mohnike, W.; Schmidt, J.; Heine, H.; Correns, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    This publication is a compendium on all aspects of radionuclide diagnostics concerning cardiovascular system diseases. Starting with introductory remarks on the control of cardiovascular diseases the contribution of radionuclide cardiology to functional cardiovascular diagnostics as well as pathophysiological and pathobiochemical aspects of radiocardiography are outlined. Radiopharmaceuticals used in radiocardiography, physical and technical problems in application of radionuclides and their measuring techniques are discussed. In individual chapters radionuclide ventriculography, myocardial scintiscanning, circulatory diagnostics, radionuclide diagnostics of arterial hypertension, of thrombosis and in vitro diagnostics of thrombophilia are treated in the framework of clinical medicine

  17. Production of medical short-lived radionuclides in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiebe, L.I.

    1985-01-01

    The production of radionuclides for medical and biomedical research in Canada has been reviewed with respect to the national geographic and demographic characteristics which influence their use. The types of facilities available for the production of short-lived radionuclides have been summarized, and a tabulation of the radionuclides that are produced has been presented. In broad terms production facilities can be classified as belonging to one of two groups, nuclear reactor or charged-particle accelerators. The charged-particle accelerators produce the more neutron-deficient and (because of the resultant decay properties) the more useful radionuclides for medical application. The nuclear reactor facilities for radionuclide production range in size and capacity from the high-flux research reactors of AECL to the six SLOWPOKE reactors, five of which are located on university campuses across the country. The McMaster University reactor is used to produce curie quantities of fluorine-18 weekly. Millicurie amounts of a large number of radionuclides, most of which have half-lives ranging from 2 to 50 hr, are produced in the low-flux reactors, in support of basic medical research

  18. Extreme radionuclide accumulation on alpine glaciers in cryoconites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lettner, H.; Wilflinger, T.; Hubmer, A.K.; Bossew, P.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Under environmental conditions when radionuclide fallout will not be diluted by media like soil or water, radionuclides deposited may accumulate to unusual high activities. On glacier surfaces conditions as such exist for aerosols and airborne dust deposited with anthropogenic and natural radionuclides attached on their surfaces. In the course of agglomeration processes initiated by melting and redistribution, these particles may concentrate in small depressions, ice pockets, ablation edges etc. and form substances called cryoconites ('ice dust'). As there is no other matrix than the original aerosol particles, cryoconites are a sink for radionuclides and airborne pollutants and their activity levels are among the highest produced by natural processes observed in environmental media. 137 Cs activities found on glaciers in the Austrian alps are between 255 and 136.000 Bq/kg and predominantly derived from Chernobyl, but also from global fallout. Further anthropogenic radionuclides detected are 134 Cs, 90 Sr, 238,239+240 Pu, 241 Am, 125 Sb, 154 Eu, 60 Co and 207 Bi. In combination with the naturally occurring radionuclides 7 Be and 210 Pb and isotopic ratios such as 134 Cs/ 137 Cs, identification and discrimination of the sources, the nuclear weapon tests and the Chernobyl fallout, can be carried out. (author)

  19. Biological accessibility of Chernobyl radionuclides and aspects of environmental rehabilitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolik, G.A.; Leinova, S.L.; Ivanova, T.G.; Duksina, V.V.; Rubinchik, S.Ya.; Zaharenkov, V.V.

    1998-01-01

    The redistribution of 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 239,240 Pu and 241 Am within natural ecosystems and the determination of natural and artificial factors influencing on processes of radionuclide migration on biogeochemical chains were investigated. There are three main directions of investigation. The first of them is to estimate the intensity of self-purification of damaged region soil cover, taking into account landscape, soil, land-use differentiation and also peculiarities of physico-chemical occurrence forms of the radioactive fallout. In particular, the change dynamics of radionuclide physico-chemical state and vertical migration in soil of different genesis were estimated, the soil varieties with high and low rate of radionuclide migration were discovered, the peculiarities of 'hot' particles destruction, the change of their dispersity and structure composition under the influence of natural reagents were studied, the radionuclide bond strength with some components of different soil types was determined. The second problem is to estimate the biological accessibility of radionuclides. In particular, the radionuclide contamination of different components of forest and meadow phytocenoses was investigated, the change of radionuclide accumulation coefficients in system 'soil-plant' was estimated. The third problem is ecological and practice measures for environmental rehabilitation. In particular, the soil self-purification hypothesis in different natural conditions were created and the permissible criterion's of interference in natural processes were developed

  20. Radionuclides in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Gomez, Isis Maria

    2008-01-01

    The sources of the presence of radionuclides in food are presented: natural radiation and artificial radiation. The transfer of radionuclides through food chains, intakes of radionuclides to the body with its partners effective doses and typical consumption of basic foods of a rural adult population are exposed as main topics. Also the radiation doses from natural sources and exposure to man by ingestion of contaminated food with radionuclides of artificial origin are shown. The contribution of the food ingestion to the man exposure depends on: characteristics of radionuclide, natural conditions, farming practices and eating habits of the population. The principal international organizations in charge of setting guide levels for radionuclides in food are mentioned: standards, rules and the monitoring. It establishes that a guide is necessary for the food monitoring; the alone CODEX ALIMENTARIUS is applicable to emergency situations and the generic action levels proposed by the CODEX not satisfy all needs (no guiding international levels for planned or existing situations such as NORM). There are handled mainly socio-economic and political aspects. Among the actions to be taken are: to assure a public comprehensive information over the risk evaluation in food; to reinforce the collaboration among the different international organizations (WHO, IAEA, ICRP, EC) in relation with the food of set; to give follow-up to the control of the drinkable water and NORM's presence in the food. In addition, it is possible to create the necessary mechanisms to reduce the number of irrelevant measures and bureaucratic useless steps (certificates); to promote the exchange between the different institutions involved in the topic of the food, with relation to the acquired experiences and learned lessons. Likewise, it might examine the possibility of a multidisciplinary approximation (radioactive and not radioactive pollutants); to elaborate a technical guide to assure the

  1. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. Prouty

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport

  2. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Prouty

    2006-07-14

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport

  3. Initial Radionuclide Inventories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. Miller

    2004-09-19

    The purpose of this analysis is to provide an initial radionuclide inventory (in grams per waste package) and associated uncertainty distributions for use in the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) in support of the license application for the repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This document is intended for use in postclosure analysis only. Bounding waste stream information and data were collected that capture probable limits. For commercially generated waste, this analysis considers alternative waste stream projections to bound the characteristics of wastes likely to be encountered using arrival scenarios that potentially impact the commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste stream. For TSPA-LA, this radionuclide inventory analysis considers U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) high-level radioactive waste (DHLW) glass and two types of spent nuclear fuel (SNF): CSNF and DOE-owned (DSNF). These wastes are placed in two groups of waste packages: the CSNF waste package and the codisposal waste package (CDSP), which are designated to contain DHLW glass and DSNF, or DHLW glass only. The radionuclide inventory for naval SNF is provided separately in the classified ''Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program Technical Support Document'' for the License Application. As noted previously, the radionuclide inventory data presented here is intended only for TSPA-LA postclosure calculations. It is not applicable to preclosure safety calculations. Safe storage, transportation, and ultimate disposal of these wastes require safety analyses to support the design and licensing of repository equipment and facilities. These analyses will require radionuclide inventories to represent the radioactive source term that must be accommodated during handling, storage and disposition of these wastes. This analysis uses the best available information to identify the radionuclide inventory that is expected at the last year of last emplacement

  4. ANEMOS: A computer code to estimate air concentrations and ground deposition rates for atmospheric nuclides emitted from multiple operating sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, C.W.; Sjoreen, A.L.; Begovich, C.L.; Hermann, O.W.

    1986-11-01

    This code estimates concentrations in air and ground deposition rates for Atmospheric Nuclides Emitted from Multiple Operating Sources. ANEMOS is one component of an integrated Computerized Radiological Risk Investigation System (CRRIS) developed for the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for use in performing radiological assessments and in developing radiation standards. The concentrations and deposition rates calculated by ANEMOS are used in subsequent portions of the CRRIS for estimating doses and risks to man. The calculations made in ANEMOS are based on the use of a straight-line Gaussian plume atmospheric dispersion model with both dry and wet deposition parameter options. The code will accommodate a ground-level or elevated point and area source or windblown source. Adjustments may be made during the calculations for surface roughness, building wake effects, terrain height, wind speed at the height of release, the variation in plume rise as a function of downwind distance, and the in-growth and decay of daughter products in the plume as it travels downwind. ANEMOS can also accommodate multiple particle sizes and clearance classes, and it may be used to calculate the dose from a finite plume of gamma-ray-emitting radionuclides passing overhead. The output of this code is presented for 16 sectors of a circular grid. ANEMOS can calculate both the sector-average concentrations and deposition rates at a given set of downwind distances in each sector and the average of these quantities over an area within each sector bounded by two successive downwind distances. ANEMOS is designed to be used primarily for continuous, long-term radionuclide releases. This report describes the models used in the code, their computer implementation, the uncertainty associated with their use, and the use of ANEMOS in conjunction with other codes in the CRRIS. A listing of the code is included in Appendix C

  5. ANEMOS: A computer code to estimate air concentrations and ground deposition rates for atmospheric nuclides emitted from multiple operating sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, C.W.; Sjoreen, A.L.; Begovich, C.L.; Hermann, O.W.

    1986-11-01

    This code estimates concentrations in air and ground deposition rates for Atmospheric Nuclides Emitted from Multiple Operating Sources. ANEMOS is one component of an integrated Computerized Radiological Risk Investigation System (CRRIS) developed for the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for use in performing radiological assessments and in developing radiation standards. The concentrations and deposition rates calculated by ANEMOS are used in subsequent portions of the CRRIS for estimating doses and risks to man. The calculations made in ANEMOS are based on the use of a straight-line Gaussian plume atmospheric dispersion model with both dry and wet deposition parameter options. The code will accommodate a ground-level or elevated point and area source or windblown source. Adjustments may be made during the calculations for surface roughness, building wake effects, terrain height, wind speed at the height of release, the variation in plume rise as a function of downwind distance, and the in-growth and decay of daughter products in the plume as it travels downwind. ANEMOS can also accommodate multiple particle sizes and clearance classes, and it may be used to calculate the dose from a finite plume of gamma-ray-emitting radionuclides passing overhead. The output of this code is presented for 16 sectors of a circular grid. ANEMOS can calculate both the sector-average concentrations and deposition rates at a given set of downwind distances in each sector and the average of these quantities over an area within each sector bounded by two successive downwind distances. ANEMOS is designed to be used primarily for continuous, long-term radionuclide releases. This report describes the models used in the code, their computer implementation, the uncertainty associated with their use, and the use of ANEMOS in conjunction with other codes in the CRRIS. A listing of the code is included in Appendix C.

  6. Effects of culinary preparation on radionuclide levels in vegetable foodstuffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkins, B.T.; Bradley, E.J.; Dodd, N.J.

    1987-01-01

    Vegetables contaminated by fall-out from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident have been used to investigate how simple culinary methods can affect the levels of various radionuclides in the portion consumed by man. Only ..gamma.. ray emitting radionuclides were investigated. Those parts of vegetables normally considered inedible, for example coarse outer leaves, foliage or roots, can account for between 50% and 97% of the total radionuclide content. Washing of the edible parts of vegetables can reduce the levels still further, although the efficacy is dependent on both the radionuclide and the vegetable type. These normal domestic procedures can reduce intakes of recently deposited radionuclides on vegetables by about an order of magnitude. The results have implications for the scope of monitoring programmes that might follow any future accidental release. They also reinforce very strongly the requirement for measurements on edible parts rather than whole samples as a direct input to dose evaluation. These results further suggest that there is no need to revise the general assumptions made in accident consequence models regarding losses of activity between harvest and consumption. However, more rigorous assessments of dose should take account of vegetable type and probable means of preparation.

  7. Fukushima Daiichi Radionuclide Inventories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoni, Jeffrey N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jankovsky, Zachary Kyle [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Radionuclide inventories are generated to permit detailed analyses of the Fukushima Daiichi meltdowns. This is necessary information for severe accident calculations, dose calculations, and source term and consequence analyses. Inventories are calculated using SCALE6 and compared to values predicted by international researchers supporting the OECD/NEA's Benchmark Study on the Accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (BSAF). Both sets of inventory information are acceptable for best-estimate analyses of the Fukushima reactors. Consistent nuclear information for severe accident codes, including radionuclide class masses and core decay powers, are also derived from the SCALE6 analyses. Key nuclide activity ratios are calculated as functions of burnup and nuclear data in order to explore the utility for nuclear forensics and support future decommissioning efforts.

  8. Production of .sup.68./sup.Ge, .sup.64./sup.Cu, .sup.86./sup.Y, .sup.89./sup.Zr, .sup.73./sup.Se, .sup.77./sup.Br and .sup.124./sup.I positron emitting radionuclides through future laser-accelerated proton beams at Eli-Beamlines for innovative PET diagnostics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Italiano, A.; Amato, E.; Minutoli, F.; Margarone, Daniele; Baldari, S.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 94, č. 2 (2016), 2-10, č. článku A2. ISSN 0365-0359 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EF15_008/0000162; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-02964S; GA MŠk LQ1606 Grant - others:ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/15_008/0000162 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : PET diagnostics * accelerator applications * radionuclides Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  9. Radionuclide co-precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruno, J.; Sandino, A.

    1987-12-01

    The thermodynamic and kinetic behaviour of the minor components of the spent fuel matrix has been theoretically and experimentally investigated. Two different situations have been studied: Part I, the near field scenario, where the release and migration of the minor components is dependent on the solubility behaviour of UO 2 (s); Part II, the far field, where the solubility and transport of the radionuclides is related to the major geochemical processes occurring. (orig.)

  10. Radionuclide fate and effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    The studies reported here deal with the full range of contaminant behavior and fate, from the initial physicochemical factors that govern radionuclide availability in terrestrial and aquatic environments to studies of contaminant transport by biological means. By design, we focus more on the biologically and chemically mediated transport processes and food-chain pathways than on the purely physical forms of contaminant transport, such as transport by wind and water

  11. Respiratory tract carcinogenesis induced by radionuclides in the Syrian hamister

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.M.; Thomas, R.G.; Anderson, E.C.

    1979-01-01

    Syrian hamsters were exposed to lung irradiation by various modalities that differed in degree of localization and the fraction of lung exposed. The animals were given alpha emitters under several exposure conditions: intratracheal (IT) instillation of 210 Po and 239 PuO 2 -ZrO 2 microspheres; inhalation (INH) of 238 239 PuO 2 -ZrO 2 particles; and/or intravenous (IV) injection of 238 239 PuO 2 -ZrO 2 microspheres. Beta-emitting 147 Pm was also administered; the radionuclide was incorporated into 10 μm diameter ZrO 2 microspheres and deposited in the lungs via the jugular vein. These microspheres lodge quantitatively in the pulmonary capillary bed for the duration of the animal's life span. Total IV Pu microsphere lung burdens have ranged from 0.14 nCi to 484 nCi and the number of spheres from 1500 to 880 000. Pu burdens from inhalation have ranged from 8 nCi to 101 nCi, IT Po burdens from 25 to 122 nCi, and Pm-laden microsphere burdens from 427 to 15 750 nCi. Intratracheal instillation of 210 Po solution gave nearly uniform alpha irradiation of the entire lung, intravenous injection of large numbers of ZrO 2 microspheres laden with 147 Pm gave whole lung exposures to low LET radiation, and IV injection of Pu-microspheres provided a gradation of focal alpha exposures. The Po and Pm exposures were highly tumorigenic, whereas the Pu microspheres produced tumors only when a large fraction of the lung was exposed to large radiation doses. However, Pu-ZrO 2 administered via inhalation was very carcinogenic and resulted in tumor incidences of 50% in some experiments. The IT instillation of Fe 2 O 3 following IV or IT Pu-ZrO 2 microsphere administration dramatically enhanced lung tumor induction

  12. Effects of emitted electron temperature on the plasma sheath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheehan, J. P.; Kaganovich, I. D.; Wang, H.; Raitses, Y.; Sydorenko, D.; Hershkowitz, N.

    2014-01-01

    It has long been known that electron emission from a surface significantly affects the sheath surrounding that surface. Typical fluid theory of a planar sheath with emitted electrons assumes that the plasma electrons follow the Boltzmann relation and the emitted electrons are emitted with zero energy and predicts a potential drop of 1.03T e /e across the sheath in the floating condition. By considering the modified velocity distribution function caused by plasma electrons lost to the wall and the half-Maxwellian distribution of the emitted electrons, it is shown that ratio of plasma electron temperature to emitted electron temperature significantly affects the sheath potential when the plasma electron temperature is within an order of magnitude of the emitted electron temperature. When the plasma electron temperature equals the emitted electron temperature the emissive sheath potential goes to zero. One dimensional particle-in-cell simulations corroborate the predictions made by this theory. The effects of the addition of a monoenergetic electron beam to the Maxwellian plasma electrons were explored, showing that the emissive sheath potential is close to the beam energy only when the emitted electron flux is less than the beam flux

  13. Charged particle detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagen, R.D.

    1975-01-01

    A device for detecting the emission of charged particles from a specimen is described. The specimen is placed within an accumulator means which statically accumulates any charged particles emitted from the specimen. The accumulator means is pivotally positioned between a first capacitor plate having a positive electrical charge and a second capacitor plate having a negative electrical charge. The accumulator means is attracted to one capacitor plate and repelled from the other capacitor plate by an amount proportional to the amount and intensity of charged particles emitted by the specimen. (auth)

  14. Geochemistry and radionuclide migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isherwood, D.

    1978-01-01

    Theoretically, the geochemical barrier can provide a major line of defense in protecting the biosphere from the hazards of nuclear waste. The most likely processes involved are easily identified. Preliminary investigations using computer modeling techniques suggest that retardation is an effective control on radionuclide concentrations. Ion exchange reactions slow radionuclide migration and allow more time for radioactive decay and dispersion. For some radionuclides, solubility alone may limit concentrations to less than the maximum permissible now considered acceptable by the Federal Government. The effectiveness of the geochemical barrier is ultimately related to the repository site characteristics. Theory alone tells us that geochemical controls will be most efficient in an environment that provides for maximum ion exchange and the precipitation of insoluble compounds. In site selection, consideration should be given to rock barriers with high ion exchange capacity that might also act as semi-permeable membranes. Also important in evaluating the site's potential for effective geochemical controls are the oxidation potentials, pH and salinity of the groundwater

  15. Radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, B.J.; Kennedy, V.H.; Nelson, A.

    1983-06-01

    A bibliographical database has been developed to provide quick access to research and background literature in the field of radioecology. This is a development of an earlier database described by Nelson (Bocock 1981). ITE's particular fields of interest have led to a subject bias in the bibliography towards studies in Cumbria, especially those concerned with radionuclides originating from the reprocessing plant at Sellafield, and towards ecological research studies that are complementary to radionuclide studies. Other subjects covered, include the chemistry of radionuclides, budgets and transfers within ecosystems and techniques for the analysis of environmental samples. ITE's research objectives have led to the establishment of a specialized database which is intended to complement rather than compete with the large international databases made available by suppliers such as IRS-DIALTECH or DIALOG. Currently the database holds about 1900 references which are stored on a 2 1/2 megabyte hard disk on a Digital PDP11/34 computer operating under a time shared system. The references follow a standard format. (author)

  16. Radionuclides in marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Teruyuki

    2001-01-01

    The concentration and accumulation of radionuclides in marine organisms were explained in this paper. Secular change of the radioactivity concentration of 137 Cs in seaweed in coastal area of Japan showed more than 5Bq/kg-fresh in the first half of 1960, but decreased less than 1 Bq/kg-fresh after then and attained to less than 0.1 Bq/kg-fresh in 1990s. However, the value increased a while in 1986, which indicated the effect of Chernobyl accident. The accident increased 137 Cs of shellfish near Japan. The concentration of 239+240 Pu was the lowest value in muscles of fish, but increased from 1.7 to 42.3 mBq/kg wet wt in seaweed in 1999. 99 Tc concentration of seaweed showed from 100 to 1000 times as much as that of seawater. Radionuclides in the Irish Sea are originated from Sellafield reprocessing plant. The concentration factors of macro-algae and surface water fish (IAEA,1985) were shown. Analytical results of U in 61 kinds of marine organs showed that the concentration was different in the part of organ. The higher concentration of U was observed in hard tissue of fish. The concentration factor was different between chemical substances with the same radionuclides. (S.Y.)

  17. Proficiency testing for radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faanhof, A.; Kotze, O.; Louw, I.

    2010-01-01

    Proficiency testing in general is only useful when it suites a certain purpose. With regards to radionuclides basically three fields of interest can be identified: (I)Foodstuffs-Introduced in the early 1960's to monitor the fall-out of nuclear tests and eventually the pathway to foodstuffs fit for human consumption. The demand for analysis increased substantially after the Chernobyl accident. (II) Natural radioactivity-Associated with mining and mineral processing of uranium and thorium baring mineral resources throughout the world where the radionuclides from the natural uranium and thorium decay series are found to pose concern for professional and public exposure. (III) Artificial radioactivity-This category covers mostly the long-lived nuclides generated by nuclear fission of the fuel used in nuclear power plants, research reactors and nuclear bomb tests. All three categories require a specific approach for laboratories to test their ability to analyze specific radio nuclides of interest in a variety of matrices. In this lecture I will give a compiled overview of the required radioanalytical skills, analysis sensitivity needed and radionuclides of interest, with more specific emphasis on QAQC of water sources and the recommended monitoring approach. And provide information on available reference materials and organizations/institutes that provide regular exercises for participating laboratories. I will also briefly communicate on the advantages and disadvantages of ISO/IEC 17025 accreditation for test laboratories, which is these days a prerequisite in national and international trade especially where foodstuffs and mineral products are concerned.

  18. Radionuclides in thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahadev, V.

    1980-01-01

    The three main areas of application of radionuclides in thyroid disease will be reviewed. Firstly thyroid radionuclide imaging in thyroid swellings, in relationship to lumps in the neck and ectopic thyroid tissue such as retrosternal goitre, and lingual goitre will be described. Future developments in the field including tomographic scanning, using the coded aperture method, and fluorescent scans and ultrasound are reviewed. The second area of application is the assessment and evaluation of thyroid function and the therapy of Grave's Disease and Plummer's Disease using radioiodine. The importance of careful collection of the line of treatment, results of treatment locally and the follow-up of patients after radioiodine therapy will be described. The third area of application is in the diagnosis and therapy of thyroid cancer. Investigation of thyroid swelling, and the diagnosis of functioning metastases are reported. The therapeutic iodine scan as the sole evidence of functioning metastatic involvement is recorded. Histological thyroid cancer appears to be increasingly encountered in clinical practice and the plan of management in relation to choice of cases for therapeutic scanning is discussed with case reports. Lastly the role of whole body scanning in relationship to biochemical markers is compared. In the changing field of nuclear medicine radionuclide applications in thyroid disease have remained pre-eminent and this is an attempt to reassess its role in the light of newer developments and local experience in the Institute of Radiotherapy, Oncology and Nuclear Medicine. (author)

  19. Electromigration of carrier-free radionuclides. 15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roesch, F.; Reimann, T.; Buglanov, G.V.; Milanov, M.; Khalkin, V.A.; Dreyer, R.

    1988-01-01

    Using a special type of on line electromigration measurements of γ-emitting radionuclides in homogeneous electrolytes free of supporting materials the hydrolysis and the complex formations of carrier-free 249 Cf-Cf(III) with oxalate in diluted perchlorate electrolytes, T = 2.98.1(1) K, were studied. Stoichiometric hydrolysis constants of pβ 3 18.6(9) and pK 1 = 6.2(2) were calculated in μ = 0.10 electrolytes. For the formation of anionic hydrolysis products a limitation of pK 4 ≥ 13.9(3) was derived. The stoichiometric stability constants of the oxalato complexes are lgK 1 4.80(8) and lgK 2 = 3.55(11), μ = 0.01. (author)

  20. Respiratory tract tumors in Syrian hamsters following inhalation of Pu--ZrO2 particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R.G.; Smith, D.M.

    1979-01-01

    Inhalation of radionuclide-bearing particles remains one of the most intensely pursued problems concerning the nuclear industry. This route of entry is generally accepted as the most probable, in case of human exposure, with ingestion being the other prominent source of concern. Many laboratory investigations, such as those reported here, continue to evaluate the possible consequences that may present health problems to the public domain. Syrian hamsters of both sexes received either inhaled (INH) PuO 2 /ZrO 2 particles, intravenous (IV) PuO 2 /ZrO 2 microspheres, a combination of INH PuO 2 /ZrO 2 particles and injected PuO 2 /ZrO 2 microspheres, or no radionuclides (controls). The INH particles and IV microspheres were tagged with γ-emitting 57 Co to facilitate whole body counting and establishment of retention curves. Total lung burdens ranged from 8 nCi to 143 nCi. Significant numbers of primary lung tumors (5 to 50% per group) were induced in those animals that received INH exposures. Additional α radiation administered via Pu-laden IV microspheres had little or no effect on tumor production or nonneoplastic, degenerative changes in the respiratory tract

  1. Radionuclides and the normal bone scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mettler, F.A. Jr.; Monsein, L.; Rosenberg, R.D.

    1988-01-01

    Recently, Eisenhut and co-workers have described development of iodine-131 labeled diphosphonates for palliative treatment of bone metastases. The compound labeled was alpha-amino (4-hydroxybenzylidene) diphosphonate (BDP3). Other beta-emitting radionuclides have been used for treatment of intractable pain secondary to bone metastases. These include strontium-89, which has some difficulties, particularly in terms of disposal of the excretions due to the long physical half-life of the life of the radionuclide. Yttrium-90 has also been used but has a relatively high hepatic uptake. Phosphorus-32 labeled compounds have also been used. Although palliation has been described, bone marrow depression has also occurred. Rhenium-186 also has been suggested, however, high renal uptake is a problem. At present, the iodine-131 labeled BDP3 appears to be the best of the available therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals. One of the major disadvantages in use of this compound is the production of gamma photons. While undesirable from a dosimetry viewpoint, gamma photons do, however, permit imaging if desired

  2. Partitioning behaviour of natural radionuclides during combustion of coal in thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahu, S.K.; Tiwari, M.; Bhangare, R.C.; Ajmal, P.Y.; Pandit, G.G.

    2014-01-01

    All fossil fuels contain low levels of naturally occurring radioactive substances. The environmental impact of radionuclide-containing waste products from coal combustion is an important issue. These radionuclides vaporize in the hot portions of the coal combustor and then return to the solid phase in cooler downstream zones. Indian coal used in power plants generally has high ash yield (35-45%) and is of low quality. In the burning process of coal, minerals undergo thermal decomposition, fusion, disintegration, and agglomeration. A major portion of elements in the boiler enter into slag or bottom ash, and the rest of the inorganic materials find their way into the flue gas, in fly ash or vapor. Fly and bottom ash are significant sources of exposure to these radionuclides. In the present study, coal and ash samples collected from six thermal power stations were analyzed to determine their natural radioactivity content and the partitioning behavior of these radionuclides was carried out by tracing their activities in fly and bottom ashes. The partitioning of radionuclides is strongly dependent on the size of associated ash particle. Polonium-210 was mostly associated with the finest fraction and showed large variation with particle size whereas 232 Th showed least dependence on the particle size. The high activities of all radionuclides in fly ashes than that of bottom ashes thus may be due to strong affinity of the nuclides towards the finer particle fractions. All the radionuclide distribution favored small particle sizes

  3. Retardation characteristics of radionuclides in geologic media through batch and packed column experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hun Hwee; Han, Kyung Won; Han, Pil Soo; Lee, Jae Owan; Park, Chung Kyun; Yang, Ho Yeon

    1988-03-01

    Batch and packed column experiments are performed to investigate the retardation characteristics of radionuclide,i.e, Cs-137 in geologic media. In batch experiment, the effects of important parameters on the sorption of radionuclide in geologic media, such as nuclide concentration, pH, and particle size are examined. The Kd value obtained from breakthrough curve was compared with that from the batch sorption experiment to investigate the applicability of the Kd value from batch experiment to prediction of radionuclide migration in dynamic flow through porous media. The proposed model of radionuclide migration in porous media is also verified using the experimental results. (Author)

  4. Vitamins as radioprotectors in vivo II. protection by vitamin A and soybean oil against radiation damage caused by internal radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harapanhalli, R.S.; Narra, V.R.; Yaghmai, V.; Azure, M.T.; Goddu, M.; Howell, R.W.; Rao, D.V.

    1994-01-01

    Tissue-incorporated radionuclides impart radiation energy over extended periods of time depending on their effective half-lives. The capacity of vitamin A dissolved in soybean oil to protect against the biological effects caused by internal radionuclides is investigated. The radiochemicals examined are DNA-binding 125 IdU, cytoplasmically localized H 125 IPDM and the α-particle emitter 210 Po citrate. As in our previous studies, spermatogenesis in mice is used as the experimental model and spermatogonial cell survival is the biological end point. Surprisingly, soybean oil itself provides substantial and equal protection against the Auger effect of 125 IdU, which is comparable to a high-LET radiation effect, as well as the low-LET effects of H 125 IPDM, the dose modification factors (DMFs) being 3.6 ± 0.9 (SEM) and 3.4 ± 0.9, respectively. The protection afforded by the oil against the effects of 5.3 MeV α particles emitted by 210Po is also significant (DMF = 2.2 ± 0.4). The presence of vitamin A in the oil further enhanced the radioprotection against the effect of 125 IdU (DMF = 4.8 ± 1.3) and H 125 IKPDM (DMF = 5.1 ± 0.6); however, no enhancement is provided against the effects of α particles. These interesting results with soybean oil and vitamin A, together with data on the subcellular distribution of the protectors, provide clues regarding the mechanistic aspects of the protection. In addition, the data for vitamin A reaffirm our earlier conclusion that the mechanism by which DNA-bound Auger emitters impart biological damage is primarily indirect in nature. 29 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Environmental impact of natural radionuclides from the fossil fuel power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antic, D.

    1989-01-01

    A set of experimental data for selected coals in Yugoslavia is used for this study. The impact of natural radionuclides emitted from the coal fired power plants with these coals is analysed. Simple models are used to asses annual doses at the maximum concentration points. The calculated values are compared with the values from the literature for similar calculations (author)

  6. Trinuc: a fortran program for the identification, and the energy and momentum determination of the light charged particles (p,d,t) and neutrons emitted after the absorption at the rest of negative pions in light nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rui, R.

    1982-01-01

    Energy, momentum and missing mass spectra, angular distribution of two particles (n,n), (p,p), (n,d) and (n,t) detected in coincidence experiments, have been calculated with this program. At this moment only π - absorption reactions on 12 C nuclei have been studied, even if the program is adaptable to execute these calculations for any kind of target nucleus. The π - + 12 C experiment was performed at the triumf meson facility - Vancouver B.C., Canada -, under the supervision of prof. C. Cernigoi. The instrumental apparatus used to perform the experiment consisted of a beam telescope (ref. 1), of four large are a plastic counters NC (ref. 2) and of a large telescope plastic counter RT (ref.3). The tecniques of time of flight (TOF) e x de (only for charged particles) have been used to deduce the energy and identify the mass of the detected particles

  7. Chapter 2. Radionuclides in the biosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toelgyessy, J.; Harangozo, M.

    2000-01-01

    This is a chapter of textbook of radioecology for university students. In this chapter authors deal with role of radionuclides in the biosphere. Chapter consists of next parts: (1) Natural radionuclides in biosphere; (2) Man-made radionuclides in the biosphere; (3) Ecologically important radionuclides; (4) Natural background; (5) Radiotoxicity and (6) Paths of transfer of radionuclides from the source to human

  8. Radionuclide diagnosis of emergency states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishmukhametov, A.I.

    1985-01-01

    Solution of emergency state radionuclide diagnostics from the technical point of view is provided by the application of the mobile quick-operating equipment in combination with computers, by the use of radionuclides with acceptable for emergency medicine characteristics and by development of radionuclide investigation data propcessing express-method. Medical developments include the study of acute disease and injury radioisotope semiotics, different indication diagnostic value determining, comparison of the results, obtained during radionuclide investigation, with clinicolaboratory and instrumental data, separation of methodical complex series

  9. History of medical radionuclide production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ice, R D

    1995-11-01

    Radionuclide production for medical use originally was incidental to isotope discoveries by physicists and chemists. Once the available radionuclides were identified they were evaluated for potential medical use. Hevesy first used 32P in 1935 to study phosphorous metabolism in rats. Since that time, the development of cyclotrons, linear accelerators, and nuclear reactors have produced hundreds of radionuclides for potential medical use. The history of medical radionuclide production represents an evolutionary, interdisciplinary development of applied nuclear technology. Today the technology is represented by a mature industry and provides medical benefits to millions of patients annually.

  10. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.D. Schreiber

    2005-08-25

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport

  11. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.D. Schreiber

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers

  12. 'Serial review on clinical PET tracers'. Manufacturing and quality control of positron emitting radiopharmaceuticals produced by in-house cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saji, Hideo

    2009-01-01

    In order to establish PET diagnosis as a routine clinical tool, manufacture's compliance with regulations under the Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) principle for PET radiopharmaceuticals is necessary. For this purpose, the Sub-committee on Medical Application of Positron Emitting Radionuclides, Medical Science and Pharmaceutical Committee of Japan Radioisotopes Association has proposed 'Standards for Compounds Labeled with Emitting Radionuclides Approved as Established Techniques for Medical Use'. This guideline includes the general notices, general rules for preparations, general tests for the quality control, quality of each PET agents, guideline for manufacturing environment and manufacturing process at manufacturing facilities of PET agents. Each facility should have a committee and establish an internal system to account for manufacturing compounds labeled with positron emitting radionuclides produced in the facility, and compile standards by referring to the 'Established Standard Techniques of Labeling Compounds with Emitting Radionuclides for use as Radiopharmaceuticals: approved by the Subcommittee on Medical Application of Cyclotron-Produced Radionuclides (revised in 2009)', in order to maintain the quality of radiopharmaceuticals. (author)

  13. Determination of scaling factors to estimate the radionuclide inventory in waste with low and intermediate-level activity from the IEA-R1 reactor; Determinacao de fatores de escala para estimativa do inventario de radionuclideos em rejeitos de media e baixa atividades do reator IEA-R1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taddei, Maria Helena Tirollo

    2013-07-01

    Regulations regarding transfer and final disposal of radioactive waste require that the inventory of radionuclides for each container enclosing such waste must be estimated and declared. The regulatory limits are established as a function of the annual radiation doses that members of the public could be exposed to from the radioactive waste repository, which mainly depend on the activity concentration of radionuclides, given in Bq/g, found in each waste container. Most of the radionuclides that emit gamma-rays can have their activity concentrations determined straightforwardly by measurements carried out externally to the containers. However, radionuclides that emit exclusively alpha or beta particles, as well as gamma-rays or X-rays with low energy and low absolute emission intensity, or whose activity is very low among the radioactive waste, are generically designated as Difficult to Measure Nuclides (DTMs). The activity concentrations of these DTMs are determined by means of complex radiochemical procedures that involve isolating the chemical species being studied from the interference in the waste matrix. Moreover, samples must be collected from each container in order to perform the analyses inherent to the radiochemical procedures, which exposes operators to high levels of radiation and is very costly because of the large number of radioactive waste containers that need to be characterized at a nuclear facility. An alternative methodology to approach this problem consists in obtaining empirical correlations between some radionuclides that can be measured directly – such as {sup 60}Co and {sup 137}Cs, therefore designated as Key Nuclides (KNs) – and the DTMs. This methodology, denominated Scaling Factor, was applied in the scope of the present work in order to obtain Scaling Factors or Correlation Functions for the most important radioactive wastes with low and intermediate-activity level from the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor. (author)

  14. Removal of heavy metals and radionuclides by seeded magnetic filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibler, J.P.; Norrell, G.; Hemmings, R.L.; Bradbury, D.; Dunn, M.J.; Kalinauskas, G.L.

    1991-01-01

    Removal of traces of heavy metal or radionuclide contamination from solution at high flow rate presents a considerable technical challenge. Low flow methods of treatment such as particle gravity settling require expensive large volume equipment, whereas traditional methods of filtration can cause significant energy costs. Magnetic filtration can be used to provide a low cost method of solid-liquid separation at high flow rate, provided contaminants can be selectively bound to a magnetic solid particle. This paper describes the use of such selective magnetic particles made up of inorganic particles coupled with organic polymers

  15. Radionuclide adsorption characteristics around coastal water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Young Il; Chung, Yang Geun; Hong, Sung Yul; Lee, Gab Bock

    1999-01-01

    The adsorption capacity of radionuclides onto suspended sediment was experimented on each of the coastal seawater sampled around the Kori and the Wolsung nuclear power plant. During the experiment the quantity and size fraction of suspended sediment were adjusted and the seawater and sediment chemistry is approximated to the expected field condition. Because the sorption capacity depends on the specific minerals, ocean chemistry and radionuclide involved, it is necessary to analyze sediment mineralogy. Clay mineral is dominant in seabed mineral and suspended sediment as the result of x-ray diffraction. Radionuclide sorbed to silty-clay mineral can be rather transported to ocean than scavenged to seabed because of low quantity and fine grained suspended sediment in the coast around the Kori and the Wolsung. The result of adsorption examinations shows that 139 Ce and 51 Cr and 110m Ag are strongly sorbed to suspended particle, while 137 Cs is less sorbed and 60 Co uptake is varied with experiment condition, which can be inferred from various biological factors. (author). 9 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs

  16. Radionuclide transport and retardation in tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vine, E.N.; Bayhurst, B.P.; Daniels, W.R.; DeVilliers, S.J.; Erdal, B.R.; Lawrence, F.O.; Wolfsberg, K.

    1980-01-01

    Batch measurements provide an understanding of which experimental variables are important. For example, sorption ratios vary little with particle size (and surface area); however, groundwater composition and rock composition are quite important. A general correlation has been identified between mineralogy (major phases) and degree of sorption for strontium, cesium, and barium. Although these are approximate, a more detailed analysis may be possible as more samples are studied and the data base increased. Data from crushed tuff columns indicate that, except in simple cases where sorption coefficients are relatively low, and ion-exchange equilibria not only exist but are the dominant mechanism for removal of radioisotopes from solution, the simple relation between the sorption ratio R/sub d/ (or K/sub d/) and the relative velocity of radionuclides with respect to groundwater velocity may be insufficient to permit accurate modeling of the retardation of radionuclides. Additional work on whole core columns and larger blocks of intact material is required to better understand radionuclide sorption and transport through rock

  17. Interaction between water, sediments and radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snodgrass, W.J.; McKee, P.; Garnett, J.; Stieff, L.

    1988-08-01

    A model-based measurements program was carried out to evaluate the primary mechanisms controlling transport of uranium 238 and thorium 232 decay chain radionuclides in Quirke Lake, a water body draining much of the uranium mining and milling district near Elliot Lake, Ontario. This program included studies of radionuclide accumulation in sediments, particle settling and lake mass-balance studies. Also, sediment studies were undertaken to evaluate chemical fractionation, mineralogical associations, and sediment-water adsorption and release. A limnocorral experiment was conducted in an isolated portion of a lake to measure radium 226 removal from the water column and diffusion from the sediments back to the water. Modelling studies were made to assess the data. Substantial agreement was obtained using the model originally developed for the AECB between model predictions and observations for Quirke Lake and for the limnocorrals. Further work is required to complete the studies undertaken in this project to assess the significance of the efflux of radionuclides from the sediments. These studies include a laboratory program to measure kinetics of adsorption, sediment-water modelling studies of the results and a field measurement program to develop a mass-balance analysis for thorium. (numerous refs)

  18. Modified inorganic nanoparticles as vehicles for alpha emitters in radionuclide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piotrowska, A.; Leszczuk, E.; Koźmiński, P.; Bilewicz, A.; Morgenstern, A.; Bruchertseifer, F.

    2014-01-01

    The TiO 2 nanoparticles have unique properties like: high specific surface, high affinity for multivalent cations and simple way of synthesis, which are useful in the process of labelling. Commercially available (e.g. P-25 Degussa) and synthesised in our laboratory nanoparticles were used in experiments. The nanoparticles were characterized by TEM, SEM, DLS and NanoSight techniques. In the experiments, two different methods of labeling are tested. The first one was based on the possibility of formation strong bonds with certain cations on the surface of the nanoparticles. In the 65 second one, TiO 2 nanoparticles were doped with 225 Ac during the process of synthesis. In both cases, high yields of labelling (>99%) was obtained. Afterwards, the stability of labelled nanoparticles was examined in 0.9 % NaCl, 10 -3 M EDTA, solutions of biologically active substances (cysteine, glutathione) and human serum. In case of TiO 2 nanoparticles labelled with 225 Ac, which was built in the crystalline structure, the leakage of 225 Ac and its daughter radionuclides was not significant in any of solutions, even when the incubation time was extended to 10 days. In the case of nanoparticles with adsorbed 225 Ac on surface the leakage in serum was slightly higher, but still insignificant. Also the NaA nanozeolite as a carrier for radium radionuclides has been studied. 224 Ra and 225 Ra, the α-particle emitting radionuclides, have been absorbed in the nanometer-sized NaA zeolite through simple ion-exchange. 224,225 Ra-nanozeolites have shown very good stability in solutions containing: physiological salt, EDTA, amino acid and human serum. To make NaA nanozeolite particles dispersed in water their surface has been modified with silane coupling agent containing poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) molecules. To obtain conjugates specific for receptors on glioma cancer cells short peptide substance P were covalently attached to the PEG-TiO 2 and PEG-nanozeolite surface. The obtained

  19. Osteopetrosis: Radiological & Radionuclide Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sit, Cherry; Agrawal, Kanhaiyalal; Fogelman, Ignac; Gnanasegaran, Gopinath

    2015-01-01

    Osteopetrosis is a rare inherited bone disease where bones harden and become abnormally dense. While the diagnosis is clinical, it also greatly relies on appearance of the skeleton radiographically. X-ray, radionuclide bone scintigraphy and magnetic resonance imaging have been reported to identify characteristics of osteopetrosis. We present an interesting case of a 59-year-old man with a history of bilateral hip fractures. He underwent 99m Tc-methylene diphosphonate whole body scan supplemented with single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography of spine, which showed increased uptake in the humeri, tibiae and femora, which were in keeping with osteopetrosis

  20. Modifying radionuclide effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasser, L.B.

    1983-01-01

    This project involves a study of the relationship of physiological and environmental factors to the metabolism and effects of radionuclides. We have studied placental transfer and suckling as pathways of americium entry into the newborn or juvenile rat. Rats were injected intravenously with 5 μCi of 241 Am while nulliparous (30 days prior to mating), pregnant (day 19 of gestation), or lactating (1 day after parturition), and subsequent litters were killed to determine 241 Am retention. A deficit in reproductive performance was observed in the group injected before mating, as evidenced by reduced number and weight of offspring

  1. Radionuclides in the sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1971-07-01

    Water covers a little more than two-thirds of the earth's surface. What is thrown into the sea from a ship may be washed up on a shore thousands of miles away; wastes discharged into the seas or into rivers flowing into them can affect marine life and possibly also the health of man. The study, prevention and control of pollution of the seas and oceans by radionuclides introduced as by-products of man's use of nuclear energy is thus of global interest. (author)

  2. Sherlock Holmes for radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitzer, C.

    2002-01-01

    At the end of 2001 ARC Seibersdorf research has taken the management of the first worldwide certified laboratory to control the realization of the international Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). Altogether there will be 16 CTBT certified laboratories worldwide; therefore a global network of radionuclides measurements stations and test laboratories as well as seismic, radiation and hydroacustic measurements stations is necessary . In the future air samples will be taken from these stations and analyzed in one of these certified laboratories, when appears the suspicion that an atomic test was carried out. (nevyjel)

  3. Compilation of nuclear decay data used for dose calculations. Data for radionuclides not listed in ICRP publication 38

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endo, Akira; Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Tamura, Tsutomu

    1999-07-01

    Nuclear decay data used for dose calculations were compiled for 162 nuclides with half-lives greater than or equal to 10 min that are not listed in ICRP Publication 38 (Publ. 38) and their 28 daughter nuclides. Additional 14 nuclides that are considered to be important in fusion reactor facilities were also included. The data were compiled using decay data sets of the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF), the latest version in August 1997. Investigations of the data sets were performed to check their consistency by referring to recent literature and NUBASE, the database for nuclear and decay properties of nuclides, and by using the utility programs of ENSDF. Possible revisions of the data sets were made for their format and syntax errors, level schemes, normalization records, and so on. The revised data sets were processed by EDISTR in order to calculate the energies and intensities of {alpha} particles, {beta} particles, {gamma} rays including annihilation photons, internal conversion electrons, X rays, and Auger electrons emitted in nuclear transformations of the radionuclides. For spontaneously fissioning nuclides, the average energies and intensities of neutrons, fission fragments, prompt {gamma} rays, delayed {gamma} rays, and {beta} particles were also calculated. The compiled data were presented in two types of format; Publ. 38 and NUCDECAY formats. This report provides the decay data in the Publ. 38 format along with decay scheme drawings. The data will be widely used for internal and external dose calculations in radiation protection. (author)

  4. Determination of radionuclides present in the relation of waste plant storage of El Cabril

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez, J.A.; Rodriguez Alcala, M.; Estartero, A.G.; Pina, G.; Gascon, J.L.

    1997-03-01

    Different waste streams of low and medium level radioactive are generated from the operation of Nuclear Power Plants with light water reactors. The most important waste streams are: spent ion exchange resin, used to purify the water of the reactor coolant and the evaporator concentrates produced in the evaporation of some liquid radioactive waste. In this paper are show the improvement and development of the analytical methods of all these radionuclides, performed in the CIEMAT project about Characterization of Radioactive Wastes and Materials. The alpha, beta and low energy gamma-emitting radionuclides are analyzed after the separation procedure by alpha-spectrometry, liquid scintillation counting and low-energy gamma spectrometry. The high energy gamma-emitting radionuclides (>50 keV) are analyzed by gamma spectrometry without separation. This work has been developed within the framework of the CIEMAT-ENRESA Association Agreement. (Author) 12 refs

  5. Application of the linear-quadratic model with incomplete repair to radionuclide directed therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millar, W.T.; Glasgow Univ.

    1991-01-01

    The LQ model has now been extended to include a general time varying dose rate profile, and the equations can be readily evaluated if an exponential radiation damage repair process is assumed. These equations are applicable to radionuclide directed therapy, including brachytherapy. Kinetic uptake data obtained during radionuclide directed therapy may therefore be used to determine the radiobiological dosimetry of the target and non-target tissues. Also, preliminary tracer studies may be used to pre-plan the radionuclide directed therapy, provided that tracer and therapeutic amounts of the radionuclide carrier are identically processed by the tissues. It is also shown that continuous radionuclide therapy will induce less damage in late-responding tissues than 2 Gy/fraction external beam therapy if the ratio of the maximum dose rate and the sublethal damage repair half-life in the tissue is less than 1.0 Gy. Similar inequalities may be derived for β-particle radionuclide directed therapy. (author)

  6. Speciation Analysis of Radionuclides in the Environment - NSK-B SPECIATION project report 2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Xiaolin; Aldahan, Ala; Possnert, Göran

    . Speciation of radionuclides in soils and sediments includes: Sequential extraction of radionuclides in sediments and of trace elements in soil samples. Sequential extraction of radionuclides in aerosols and particles has also been performed. Further-more, sorption experiments have been performed......, sediments, particles); and (3) Intercomparison excise for speciation analysis of radionu-clides in soil and sediment. This report summarizes the work completed in the project partners’ laboratories, Method developments include: Development of an rapid and in-suit separation method for the speciation...... analysis of 129I in seawater samples; Development of a simple method for the speciation analysis of 129I in fresh water and seawater samples; Development of an on-line HPLC-ICP-MS method for the direct speciation analysis of 127I in water and leachate samples; Speciation of radionuclides in water includes...

  7. Radionuclide Therapy. Chapter 19

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flux, G.; Du, Yong [Royal Marsden Hospital and Institute of Cancer Research, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-15

    Cancer has been treated with radiopharmaceuticals since the 1940s. The radionuclides originally used, including 131I and 32P, are still in use. The role of the physicist in radionuclide therapy encompasses radiation protection, imaging and dosimetry. Radiation protection is of particular importance given the high activities of the unsealed sources that are often administered, and must take into account medical staff, comforters and carers, and, as patients are discharged while still retaining activity, members of the public. Regulations concerning acceptable levels of exposure vary from country to country. If the administered radiopharmaceutical is a γ emitter, then imaging can be performed which may be either qualitative or quantitative. While a regular system of quality control must be in place to prevent misinterpretation of image data, qualitative imaging does not usually rely on the image corrections necessary to determine the absolute levels of activity that are localized in the patient. Accurate quantitative imaging is dependent on these corrections and can permit the distribution of absorbed doses delivered to the patient to be determined with sufficient accuracy to be clinically beneficial.

  8. Intervention procedures for radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adelstein, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    As in the case of smoking and lung cancer, for large radionuclide releases, an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure. On the other hand, we feel compelled to do something sensible after an accident even if the principal benefit of intervention may be to comfort the population at risk. Of course, for populations near the site of an accident, evacuation should be considered, but it is unreasonable to apply this measure to distant populations, e.g., large segments of the European community could not be moved about as we observe the shifting of a radioactive cloud in response to changing winds. If the radionuclides are delivered as particulates, bringing people indoors and employing primitive air filters can temporarily reduce exposures, but these stratagems are not very effective against gaseous or volatile elements. What, then, can be done for populations downwind of a radioactive release whose air, water, and/or food supply are, or are about to become contaminated? 5 refs

  9. Marine sediments as a sink, and contaminated sediments as a diffuse source of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salbu, B.; Borretzen, P.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: Marine sediments may act as a sink for radionuclides originating from atmospheric fallout (e.g. Chernobyl accident), for radionuclides in discharges from nuclear installations (e.g. Sellafield, UK) for river transported radionuclides, and radionuclides released from nuclear waste dumped at sea (e.g. fjords at Novaya Zemlya). In order to assess short and long term consequences of radionuclides entering the marine ecosystem, the role of sediments as a relatively permanent sink and the potential for contaminated sediments to act as a diffuse source should be focused. The retention of radionuclides in sediments will depend on the source term, i.e. the physico-chemical forms of radionuclides entering the system and on interactions with various sediment components. Radionuclides associated with particles or aggregating polymers are removed from the water phase by sedimentation, while sorption to surface sediment layers is of relevance for ionic radionuclide species including negatively charged colloids. With time, transformation processes will influence the mobility of radionuclides in sediments. The diffusion into mineral lattices will increase fixation, while the influence of for instance red/ox conditions and bio-erosion may mobilize radionuclides originally fixed in radioactive particles. Thus, information of radionuclides species, surface interactions, transformation processes and kinetics is essential for reducing the uncertainties in marine transfer models. Dynamic model experiments where chemically well defined tracers are added to a sea water-marine sediment system are useful for providing information on time dependent interactions and distribution coefficients. When combined with sequential extraction techniques, information on mobility and rate of fixation is subsequently attained. In the present work experimental results from the Irish Sea and the Kara Sea will be discussed

  10. Does antimatter emit a new light?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santilli, Ruggero Maria

    1997-01-01

    Contemporary theories of antimatter have a number of insufficiencies which stimulated the recent construction of the new isodual theory based on a certain anti-isomorphic map of all (classical and quantum) formulations of matter called isoduality. In this note we show that the isodual theory predicts that antimatter emits a new light, called isodual light, which can be distinguished from the ordinary light emitted by matter via gravitational interactions (only). In particular, the isodual theory predicts that all stable antiparticles such as the isodual photon, the positron and the antiproton experience antigravity in the field of matter (defined as the reversal of the sign of the curvature tensor). The antihydrogen atom is therefore predicted to: experience antigravity in the field of Earth; emit the isodual photon; and have the same spectroscopy of the hydrogen atom, although subjected to an anti-isomorphic isodual map. In this note we also show that the isodual theory predicts that bound states of elementary particles and antiparticles (such as the positronium) experience ordinary gravitation in both fields of matter and antimatter, thus bypassing known objections against antigravity. A number of intriguing and fundamental, open theoretical and experimental problems of 'the new physics of antimatter' are pointed out

  11. Does antimatter emit a new light?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santilli, Ruggero Maria [Instituto per la Ricerca di Base (Italy)

    1997-08-15

    Contemporary theories of antimatter have a number of insufficiencies which stimulated the recent construction of the new isodual theory based on a certain anti-isomorphic map of all (classical and quantum) formulations of matter called isoduality. In this note we show that the isodual theory predicts that antimatter emits a new light, called isodual light, which can be distinguished from the ordinary light emitted by matter via gravitational interactions (only). In particular, the isodual theory predicts that all stable antiparticles such as the isodual photon, the positron and the antiproton experience antigravity in the field of matter (defined as the reversal of the sign of the curvature tensor). The antihydrogen atom is therefore predicted to: experience antigravity in the field of Earth; emit the isodual photon; and have the same spectroscopy of the hydrogen atom, although subjected to an anti-isomorphic isodual map. In this note we also show that the isodual theory predicts that bound states of elementary particles and antiparticles (such as the positronium) experience ordinary gravitation in both fields of matter and antimatter, thus bypassing known objections against antigravity. A number of intriguing and fundamental, open theoretical and experimental problems of 'the new physics of antimatter' are pointed out.

  12. Does antimatter emit a new light?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santilli, R.M.

    1996-01-01

    Contemporary theories of antimatter have a number of insufficiencies which stimulated the recent construction of the new isodual theory based on a certain anti-isomorphic map of all (classical and quantum) formulations of matter called isoduality. In this note we show that the isodual theory predicts that antimatter emits a new light, called isodual light, which can be distinguished from the ordinary light emitted by matter via gravitational interactions (only). In particular, the isodual theory predicts that all stable antiparticles such as the isodual photon, the positron and the antiproton experience antigravity in the field of matter (defined as the reversal of the sign of the curvature tensor). The antihydrogen atom is therefore predicted to: experience antigravity in the field of Earth; emit the isodual photon; and have the same spectroscopy of the hydrogen atom, although subjected to an anti-isomorphic isodual map. In this note we also show that the isodual theory predicts that bound states of elementary particle sand antiparticles (such as the positronium) experience ordinary gravitation in both fields of matter and antimatter, thus by passing known objections against antigravity. A number of intriguing and fundamental, open theoretical and experimental problems of 'the new physics of antimatter' are pointed out. 16 refs

  13. Table of radionuclides (Vol. 5 - A = 22 to 244)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Be, M.M.; Chiste, V.; Dulieu, C.; Mougeot, X.; Browne, E.; Chechev, V.; Kuzmenko, N.; Kondev, F.; Luca, A.; Galan, M.; Arinc, A.; Huang, X.

    2010-01-01

    This monograph is one of several published in a series by the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) on behalf of the Comite Consultatif des Rayonnements Ionisants (CCRI), previously known as the Comite Consultatif pour les Etalons de Mesure des Rayonnements Ionisants (CCEMRI). The aim of this series of publications is to review topics that are of importance for the measurement of ionizing radiation and especially of radioactivity, in particular those techniques normally used by participants in international comparisons. It is hoped that these publications will prove to be useful reference volumes both for those who are already engaged in this field and for those who are approaching such measurements for the first time. The purpose of this monograph is to present the recommended values of nuclear and decay data for a wide range of radionuclides. Activity measurements for more than forty of these radionuclides have already been the subject of comparisons under the auspices of Section II of the CCRI. The material for this monograph is now covered in four volumes. The first two volumes contain the primary recommended data relating to half-lives, decay modes, x-rays, gamma-rays, electron emissions; alpha- and beta-particle transitions and emissions, and their uncertainties for a set of sixty-eight radionuclides: Volume 1 for those radionuclides with mass number up to and including 150, and Volume 2 for those radionuclides with mass number over 150. Volume 3 contains the equivalent data for twenty-six additional radionuclides and re-evaluations for 125 Sb and 153 Sm; Volume 4 contains the data for a further thirty-one radionuclides with re-evaluation for 226 Ra while the present Volume 5 includes 17 new radionuclide evaluations and 8 re-evaluations of previous data as identified in the contents page. The data have been collated and evaluated by an international working group (Decay Data Evaluation Project) led by the LNE-LNHB. The evaluators have agreed on the

  14. Polymer light emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautier-Thianche, Emmmanuelle

    1998-01-01

    We study sandwich type semiconducting polymer light emitting diodes; anode/polymer/cathode. ITO is selected as anode, this polymer is a blend of a commercially available polymer with a high hole transport ability: polyvinyl-carbazole and a laser dye: coumarin-515. Magnesium covered with silver is chosen for the anode. We study the influence of polymer thickness and coumarin doping ratio on electroluminescence spectrum, electric characteristics and quantum efficiency. An important drawback is that diodes lifetime remains low. In the second part of our study we determine degradations causes with X-Ray reflectivity experiments. It may be due to ITO very high roughness. We realize a new type of planar electroluminescent device: a channel type electroluminescent device in which polymer layer is inserted into an aluminium channel. Such a device is by far more stable than using classical sandwich structures with the same polymer composition: indeed, charges are generated by internal-field ionization and there is no injection from the electrode to the polymer. This avoids electrochemical reactions at electrodes, thus reducing degradations routes. (author) [fr

  15. Some parameters of radionuclide kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokof'ev, O.N.; Smirnov, V.A.; Belen'kij, E.I.

    1978-01-01

    Numerical values of the rates of radionuclide absorption into, and elimination from, bovine organs were determined. Kinetic rate constants of radionuclides such as 89 Sr, 99 Mo, 131 I, 132 Tl, and 140 Be were calculated. The calculations were done for muscle, liver, and kidney

  16. Radionuclide - Soil Organic Matter Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Lars

    1985-01-01

    Interactions between soil organic matter, i.e. humic and fulvic acids, and radionuclides of primary interest to shallow land burial of low activity solid waste have been reviewed and to some extent studied experimentally. The radionuclides considered in the present study comprise cesium, strontium...

  17. Chapter 13. Radionuclides in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toelgyessy, J.; Harangozo, M.

    2000-01-01

    This is a chapter of textbook of radioecology for university students. In this chapter authors deal with problems connected with using of radionuclides in medicine. Methods of treatment with using of radionuclides are reviewed. Chapter consists of next parts: (1) Remotion of thyroid gland; (2) Treatment of cerebrally tumour in nuclear reactor; (3) Artificial heart

  18. Natural radionuclides in the environment. A contribution for the localization and characterization of natural hot particles in solid samples; Natuerliche Radionuklide in der Umwelt. Ein Beitrag zur Lokalisierung und Charakterisierung natuerlicher Heisser Teilchen in festen Proben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehnke, A.

    2006-07-01

    In the present thesis appearance, spreading, origin, and mineralogical properties of natural hot particles are studied and the radioecological relevance of these particles judged. For this first relevent quaestions on radioactivity in the environment and on hot particles are theoretically treated. In the following detailedly the method of the autoradiography and solid-state track detectors is considered, which make possible to quote the precise position, the number and distribution of radioactive particles on the cutting area or surface of a sample. Basing on these methodical considerations by laboratory experiments determined track pattern formations of alpha emitters are documentated and interpreted. Starting from the knowledge obtained from this in the further part of the thesis a detection technique is developed, by means of which it is possible, to determine and mark the position of natural hot particles in sold samples. Thereafter follows a description of the electron-microscopical studies for the identification of the localized natural hot particles. Using the developed detection technique, as well as the electron-microscopical methods, a broad spectrum of samples - anthropogeneous depositions (industrial residues, industry products, by-products) and natural depositions (rocks, sediments, minerals) - is studied.

  19. Toxicity of particles emitted by the traffic: follow-up and bibliographic synthesis final report; Toxicite des particules emises par la circulation automobile: suivi et synthese bibliographique rapport final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tissot, S.

    1999-12-01

    This study compiles the data published recently concerning the diesel and petrol motor emissions toxicity and in particular the effects of the particles phase. The aim of the work is to give a synthetical overview of the state of knowledge in this domain to allow a scientific argumentation concerning the toxicity risks assessment from these pollutants. The data concern epidemiological studies and also experimental studies in vivo and in vitro. (A.L.B.)

  20. Syringe calibration factors and volume correction factors for the NPL secondary standard radionuclide calibrator

    CERN Document Server

    Tyler, D K

    2002-01-01

    The activity assay of a radiopharmaceutical administration to a patient is normally achieved via the use of a radionuclide calibrator. Because of the different geometries and elemental compositions between plastic syringes and glass vials, the calibration factors for syringes may well be significantly different from those for the glass containers. The magnitude of these differences depends on the energies of the emitted photons. For some radionuclides variations have been observed of 70 %, it is therefore important to recalibrate for syringes or use syringe calibration factors. Calibration factors and volume correction factors have been derived for the NPL secondary standard radionuclide calibrator, for a variety of commonly used syringes and needles, for the most commonly used medical radionuclide.

  1. Optimal beta-ray shielding thicknesses for different therapeutic radionuclides and shielding materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Yong In; Kim, Ja Mee; Kim, Jung Hoon

    2017-01-01

    To better understand the distribution of deposited energy of beta and gamma rays according to changes in shielding materials and thicknesses when radionuclides are used for therapeutic nuclear medicine, a simulation was conducted. The results showed that due to the physical characteristics of each therapeutic radionuclide, the thicknesses of shielding materials at which beta-ray shielding takes place varied. Additional analysis of the shielding of gamma ray was conducted for radionuclides that emit both beta and gamma rays simultaneously with results showing shielding effects proportional to the atomic number and density of the shielding materials. Also, analysis of bremsstrahlung emission after beta-ray interactions in the simulation revealed that the occurrence of bremsstrahlung was relatively lower than theoretically calculated and varied depending on different radionuclides. (authors)

  2. Radionuclide voiding cystography in intrarenal reflux detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizzoni, G.; Perale, R.; Bui, F.; Pitter, M.; Pavanello, L.; Boscolo, R.; Passerini Glazel, G.; Macri, C.

    1986-01-01

    In order to evaluate the possibility of detecting intra-renal reflux (IRR) with a more sensitive procedure, 48 children with recurrent urinary tract infections underwent intravenous urography (IVU) and voiding cystourethrogram (VCU) using a solution containing contrast medium and sup(99m)Tc-sulfur colloid particles which are known to persist in the renal parenchyma for a long time. Scintigraphic images were taken at 5 and 20 hours after VCU. 18 children had no vesico-ureteral reflux, 11 showed unilateral and 19 bilateral VUR, which was therefore present in 49 renal units. Among the 49 renal refluxing units (RRUs) IRR was detected radiologically in 8; of these isotopic activity in the renal area was present in all 6 RRUs who were examined at 20 hours. Of the remaining 41 RRUs with no radiologically detectable IRR 24 were evaluated at 20 hours and 5 (21%) showed renal radioactivity. Renal scars were significantly more frequent in kidneys with radioisotopic activity at 20 hours. The results of this study indicate that radionuclide cystography using sup(99m)Tc-sulfur colloid is a reliable procedure for demonstrating IRR, and to this end is more sensitive than X-ray VCU. Radionuclide cystography with sulfur colloid particles should therefore be considered a simple and useful complementary procedure, which is more sensitive than X-ray VCU in the diagnosis and follow-up of IRR

  3. Positron emitting pharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajan, M.G.R.

    2012-01-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging of physiology at the molecular level bridges the gap between laboratory science and clinical medicine by providing the most specific and sensitive means for imaging molecular pathways and interactions in tissues of man. PET-imaging requires the use Positron Emitting Radiopharmaceuticals (PRPs), which are radioactively labeled 'true metabolites' i.e., sugars, amino acids, fatty acids etc., essentially made of H, C, N and O which the cells in the body can metabolize. The PET-isotopes: 11 C, 15 O, 13 N and 18 F (instead of H) are cyclotron produced and are short-lived, which places several constraints on the synthesis time for the PRPs, quality control and their clinical use as compared to the conventional 99m Tc- and other SPECT-RPs widely used in nuclear medicine. There are large number of published reports showing the utility of several PRPs labeled with 18 F (T 1/2 = 110 min) and 11 C (T 1/2 = 20 min). A few PRPs have been labeled with 13 N (T 1/2 = 10 min). 15 O (T 1/2 = 2min) is used mostly as H 2 15 O, C 15 or C 15 O 2 . 18 F-radiopharmaceuticals can be made at a medical cyclotron facility and sent to PET -imaging centres, which can be reached in a couple of hours. The sensitivity of PET -imaging has encouraged R and D in several other PRPs, labeled with viz., 68 Ga (generator produced, T 1/2 68 min), 124 I (cyclotron, T 1/2 4.2 d), 82 Rb (generator, T 1/2 75s), 64 Cu (cyclotron, T 1/2 12h), and 94m Tc (cyclotron, T 1/2 52 min). Due to its relevance in several diseases, particularly cancer, PET-imaging has made major scientific contribution to drug development, particularly for neurological diseases and cancer treatment. (author)

  4. Radionuclide transverse section imager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoddart, H.F.

    1980-01-01

    A radioisotope scanning apparatus for use in nuclear medicine is described in detail. The apparatus enables the quantification and spatial location of the radioactivity in a body section of a patient to be determined with high sensitivity. It consists of an array of highly focussed collimators arranged such that adjacent collimators move in the same circumferential but opposite radial directions. The explicit movements of the gantry are described in detail and may be controlled by a general purpose computer. The use of highly focussed collimators allows both a reasonable solid angle of acceptance and also high target to background images; additionally, dual radionuclide pharmaceutical studies can be performed simultaneously. It is claimed that the high sensitivity of the system permits the early diagnosis of pathological changes and the images obtained show accurately the location and shape of physiological abnormalities. (UK)

  5. Radioactivity, radionuclides, radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Magill, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    RADIOACTIVITY – RADIONUCLIDES – RADIATION is suitable for a general audience interested in topical environmental and human health radiological issues such as radiation exposure in aircraft, food sterilisation, nuclear medicine, radon gas, radiation dispersion devices ("dirty bombs")… It leads the interested reader through the three Rs of nuclear science, to the forefront of research and developments in the field. The book is also suitable for students and professionals in the related disciplines of nuclear and radiochemistry, health physics, environmental sciences, nuclear and astrophysics. Recent developments in the areas of exotic decay modes (bound beta decay of ‘bare’ or fully ionized nuclei), laser transmutation, nuclear forensics, radiation hormesis and the LNT hypothesis are covered. Atomic mass data for over 3000 nuclides from the most recent (2003) evaluation are included.

  6. Deep sea radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanisch, G.; Vobach, M.

    1993-01-01

    Every year since 1979, either in sping or in summer, the fishing research vessel 'Walther Herwig' goes to the North Atlantic disposal areas of solid radioactive wastes, and, for comparative purposes, to other areas, in order to collect water samples, plankton and nekton, and, from the deep sea bed, sediment samples and benthos organisms. In addition to data on the radionuclide contents of various media, information about the plankton, nekton and benthos organisms living in those areas and about their biomasses could be gathered. The investigations are aimed at acquiring scientifically founded knowledge of the uptake of radioactive substances by microorganisms, and their migration from the sea bottom to the areas used by man. (orig.) [de

  7. Radionuclide reporter gene imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Jung Joon

    2004-01-01

    Recent progress in the development of non-invasive imaging technologies continues to strengthen the role of molecular imaging biological research. These tools have been validated recently in variety of research models, and have been shown to provide continuous quantitative monitoring of the location(s), magnitude, and time-variation of gene expression. This article reviews the principles, characteristics, categories and the use of radionuclide reporter gene imaging technologies as they have been used in imaging cell trafficking, imaging gene therapy, imaging endogenous gene expression and imaging molecular interactions. The studies published to date demonstrate that reporter gene imaging technologies will help to accelerate model validation as well as allow for clinical monitoring of human diseases

  8. Radionuclide reporter gene imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Jung Joon [School of Medicine, Chonnam National Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-04-01

    Recent progress in the development of non-invasive imaging technologies continues to strengthen the role of molecular imaging biological research. These tools have been validated recently in variety of research models, and have been shown to provide continuous quantitative monitoring of the location(s), magnitude, and time-variation of gene expression. This article reviews the principles, characteristics, categories and the use of radionuclide reporter gene imaging technologies as they have been used in imaging cell trafficking, imaging gene therapy, imaging endogenous gene expression and imaging molecular interactions. The studies published to date demonstrate that reporter gene imaging technologies will help to accelerate model validation as well as allow for clinical monitoring of human diseases.

  9. Natural radionuclides in groundwaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laul, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    The U-234 and Th-230 radionuclides are highly retarded by factors of 10 4 to 10 5 in basalt groundwater (Hanford) and briny groundwaters from Texas and geothermal brine from the Salton Sea Geothermal Field (SSGF). In basalt groundwaters (low ionic strength), Ra is highly sorbed, while in brines (high ionic strength), Ra is soluble. This is probably because the sorption sites are saturated with Na + and Cl - ions and RaCl 2 is soluble in brines. Pb-210 is soluble in SSGF brine, probably as a chloride complex. The U-234/Th-230 ratios in basalt groundwaters and brines from Texas and SSGF are nearly unity, indicating that U is in the +4 state, suggesting a reducing environment for these aquifers. 19 refs., 3 figs

  10. Natural radionuclides in groundwaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laul, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The 234 U and 230 Th radionuclides are highly retarded by factors of 10 4 to 10 5 in basalt groundwater (Hanford) and briny groundwaters from Texas, and geothermal brine form the Salton Sea Geothermal Field (SSGF). In basalt groundwaters (low ionic strength), Ra is highly sorbed, while in brines (high ionic strength), Ra is soluble. This is probably because the sorption sites are saturated with Na + and Cl - ions, and RaCl 2 is soluble in brines. 210 Pb is soluble in SSGF brine, probably as a chloride complex. The 234 U/ 230 Th ratios in basalt groundwaters and brines from Texas and SSGF are nearly unity, indicating that U is in the +4 state, suggesting a reducing environment for these aquifers. (author) 19 refs.; 3 figs

  11. Significant Radionuclides Determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo A. Ziegler

    2001-07-31

    The purpose of this calculation is to identify radionuclides that are significant to offsite doses from potential preclosure events for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste expected to be received at the potential Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). In this calculation, high-level radioactive waste is included in references to DOE SNF. A previous document, ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' (CRWMS M&O 1999b), calculated the source terms and offsite doses for Department of Energy (DOE) and Naval SNF for use in design basis event analyses. This calculation reproduces only DOE SNF work (i.e., no naval SNF work is included in this calculation) created in ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' and expands the calculation to include DOE SNF expected to produce a high dose consequence (even though the quantity of the SNF is expected to be small) and SNF owned by commercial nuclear power producers. The calculation does not address any specific off-normal/DBE event scenarios for receiving, handling, or packaging of SNF. The results of this calculation are developed for comparative analysis to establish the important radionuclides and do not represent the final source terms to be used for license application. This calculation will be used as input to preclosure safety analyses and is performed in accordance with procedure AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'', and is subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (DOE 2000) as determined by the activity evaluation contained in ''Technical Work Plan for: Preclosure Safety Analysis, TWP-MGR-SE-000010'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b) in accordance with procedure AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''.

  12. Radionuclide calibrators performance evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora Ramirez, E.; Zeledon Fonseca, P.; Jimenez Cordero, M.

    2008-01-01

    Radionuclide calibrators are used to estimate accurately activity prior to administration to a patient, so it is very important that this equipment meets its performance requirements. The purpose of this paper is to compare the commercially available 'Calicheck' (Calcorp. Inc), used to assess linearity, versus the well-known source decay method, and also to show our results after performing several recommended quality control tests. The parameters that we wanted to evaluate were carried on using the Capintec CRC-15R and CRC-15 β radionuclide calibrators. The evaluated tests were: high voltage, display, zero adjust, background, reproducibility, source constancy, accuracy, precision and linearity. The first six tests were evaluated on the daily practice, here we analyzed the 2007 recorded data; and the last three were evaluated once a year. During the daily evaluation both calibrators performance were satisfactory comparing with the manufacture's requirements. The accuracy test show result within the ± 10% allowed for a field instrument. Precision performance is within the ± 1 % allowed. On the other hand, the linearity test shows that using the source decay method the relative coefficient is 0.9998, for both equipment and using the Calicheck the relative coefficient is 0.997. However, looking the percentage of error, during the 'Calicheck' test, its range goes from 0.0 % up to -25.35%, and using the source decay method, the range goes from 0.0 % up to -31.05 %, taking into account both instruments. Checking the 'Calicheck' results we can see that the results varying randomly, but using the source decay method the percentage of error increase as the source activity decrease. We conclude that both devices meet its manufactures requirements, in the case of the linearity using the decay method, decreasing the activity source, increasing the percentage of error, this may happen because of the equipment age. (author)

  13. Combined method for the fast determination of pure beta emitting radioisotopes in food samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabai, Eva; Savkin, Birgit; Mehlsam, Isabell; Poppitz-Spuhler, Angela

    2017-01-01

    Fast radioanalytical methods are essential for a rapid response of decision makers. A fast method for the simultaneous determination of the pure beta emitting radionuclides 89 Sr/ 90 Sr and 99 Tc in food samples was developed. It includes the precipitation of fat and proteins with trichloroacetic acid for milk and dairy products and microwave digestion for other food products, followed by an anion exchange step to separate strontium from technetium. The purification steps for strontium and technetium are done using Sr-resin and TEVA-resin, respectively. Typical chemical yields are around 70 % for both radionuclides. The whole determination takes only around 20 h. (author)

  14. Geomorphological applications of environmental radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quine, T.A.; Walling, D.

    1998-01-01

    Geomorphologists have shown increasing interest in environmental radionuclides since pioneering studies by Ritchie and McHenry in the USA and Campbell, Longmore and Loughran in Australia. Environmental radionuclides have attracted this interest because they provide geomorphologists with the means to trace sediment movement within the landscape. They, therefore, facilitate investigation of subjects at the core of geomorphology, namely the rates and patterns of landscape change. Most attention has been focussed on the artificial radionuclide caesium-137 ( 137 Cs) but more recently potential applications of the natural radionuclides lead-210 ( 210 Pb) and beryllium-7( 7 Be) have been investigated (Walling et al., 1995; Wallbrink and Murray, 1996a, 1996b). The origin, characteristics and applications of these radionuclides are summarised. These radionuclides are of value as sediment tracers because of three important characteristics: a strong affinity for sediment; a global distribution and the possibility of measurement at low concentration. Geomorphological applications of environmental radionuclides provide unique access to detailed qualitative data concerning landscape change over a range of timescales

  15. Erosion of atmospherically deposited radionuclides as affected by soil disaggregation mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claval, D.; Garcia-Sanchez, L.; Real, J.; Rouxel, R.; Mauger, S.; Sellier, L.

    2004-01-01

    The interactions of soil disaggregation with radionuclide erosion were studied under controlled conditions in the laboratory on samples from a loamy silty-sandy soil. The fate of 134 Cs and 85 Sr was monitored on soil aggregates and on small plots, with time resolution ranging from minutes to hours after contamination. Analytical experiments reproducing disaggregation mechanisms on aggregates showed that disaggregation controls both erosion and sorption. Compared to differential swelling, air explosion mobilized the most by producing finer particles and increasing five-fold sorption. For all the mechanisms studied, a significant part of the contamination was still unsorbed on the aggregates after an hour. Global experiments on contaminated sloping plots submitted to artificial rainfalls showed radionuclide erosion fluctuations and their origin. Wet radionuclide deposition increased short-term erosion by 50% compared to dry deposition. A developed soil crust when contaminated decreased radionuclide erosion by a factor 2 compared to other initial soil states. These erosion fluctuations were more significant for 134 Cs than 85 Sr, known to have better affinity to soil matrix. These findings confirm the role of disaggregation on radionuclide erosion. Our data support a conceptual model of radionuclide erosion at the small plot scale in two steps: (1) radionuclide non-equilibrium sorption on mobile particles, resulting from simultaneous sorption and disaggregation during wet deposition and (2) later radionuclide transport by runoff with suspended matter

  16. Development of Reagents for Application of At-211 to Targeted Radionuclide Therapy of Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilbur, D. Scott

    2011-01-01

    This grant covered only a period of 4 months as the major portion of the award was returned to DOE due to an award of funding from NIH that covered the same research objectives. A letter regarding the termination of the research is attached as the last page of the Final Report. The research conducted was limited due to the short period of this grant, but the results obtained in that period are outlined in the Final Report. The studies addressed in the research effort were directed at a problem that is of critical importance to the in vivo application of the alpha-particle emitting radionuclide At-211. That problem, low in vivo stability of many astatinated molecules, severely limits the use of At-211 in therapeutic applications. The advances sought in the studies were expected to expand the types of biomolecules that can be used as carriers of At-211, and provide improved in vivo targeting of the radiation dose compared with the dose delivered to normal tissue.

  17. Lunar radionuclide records of average solar-cosmic-ray fluxes over the last ten million years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reedy, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    Because changes in solar activity can modify the fluxes of cosmic-ray particles in the solar system, the nature of the galactic and solar cosmic rays and their interactions with matter are described and used to study the ancient sun. The use of cosmogenic nuclides in meteorites and lunar samples as detectors of past cosmic-ray variations are discussed. Meteorite records of the history of the galactic cosmic rays are reviewed. The fluxes of solar protons over various time periods as determined from lunar radionuclide data are presented and examined. The intensities of solar protons emitted during 1954 to 1964 (11-year solar cycle number 19) were much larger than those for 1965 to 1975 (solar cycle 20). Average solar-proton fluxes determined for the last one to ten million years from lunar 26 Al and 53 Mn data show little variation and are similar to the fluxes for recent solar cycles. Lunar activities of 14 C (and preliminary results for 81 Kr) indicate that the average fluxes of solar protons over the last 10 4 (and 10 5 ) years are several times larger than those for the last 10 6 to 10 7 years; however, cross-section measurements and other work are needed to confirm these flux variations

  18. SCATTER: Source and Transport of Emplaced Radionuclides: Code documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longsine, D.E.

    1987-03-01

    SCATTER simulated several processes leading to the release of radionuclides to the site subsystem and then simulates transport via the groundwater of the released radionuclides to the biosphere. The processes accounted for to quantify release rates to a ground-water migration path include radioactive decay and production, leaching, solubilities, and the mixing of particles with incoming uncontaminated fluid. Several decay chains of arbitrary length can be considered simultaneously. The release rates then serve as source rates to a numerical technique which solves convective-dispersive transport for each decay chain. The decay chains are allowed to have branches and each member can have a different radioactive factor. Results are cast as radionuclide discharge rates to the accessible environment

  19. Hydrology and radionuclide migration program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, K.V.

    1992-02-01

    This report presents results from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's participation in the Hydrology and Radionuclide Migration Program at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) during fiscal year 1988. The report discusses studies at a new well 100 m down the hydrologic gradient from the previous sampling point at the Cheshire site; laboratory investigations of the mineralogical composition of NTS colloids; the strength of colloidal deposits and parameters affecting their formation and release; accelerator mass spectrometric measurements of 129 I in water from the Cheshire stie; 222 Rn concentrations in water from several pumped wells at the NTS; and a description of a new well (PM3) drilled off the NTS near Area 20. Further studies on groundwater sampled show that both technetium and iodine are quite mobile; both closely track the trend of the decreasing tritium concentration with increasing distance. Antimony and cesium concentrations decrease much more rapidly than tritium, and europium was not detected at all in the new well. Colloidal particles found in water collected from the Cheshire cavity are in size range of 0.050 to 0.003 μm and are dominated by quartz and (Ca, K) feldspars. A new well was drilled on US Air Force land adjacent to the NTS Area 20. Static water level measurements and geochemical data from this well will help to determine the extent to which Pahute Mesa base flow infiltrates Oasis Valley. Preliminary results indicate tritium concentrations in water samples from this well to be in the range of 0.1 to 0.4 pCi/ml as measured under field conditions

  20. Radionuclides in Canada goose eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rickard, W.H.; Sweany, H.A.

    1975-01-01

    Low levels of radionuclides were measured in Canada goose eggs taken from deserted nests from Columbia River islands on the Energy Research and Development Administration's Hanford Reservation. Potassium-40, a naturally occurring radionuclide, was the most abundant radionuclide measured in egg contents and egg shell. Strontium-90 was incorporated into egg shells and cesium-137 into inner egg contents. Manganese-54, cobalt-60, and zinc-65 were more abundant in inner egg contents than in egg shell. Cerium-144 was detected in egg shell but not in inner shell

  1. Radionuclide migration in water reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodionova, L.F.

    1983-01-01

    Toxicity degree and radiation effect of different radionuclides depend on multiple factors, whose interaction can strengthen or weaken the effects through the mechanism of nuclide accumulation by hydrobiontes. Stage of development of an aquatic organism, its age, mass and sex as well as lifetime and residence time of the organism in the given medium are of importance. The radionuclide build up depends on illumination, locale of the bioobject residence, on the residence nature. The concentration of radionuclides in aquatic organisms and bionts survival depend on a season, temperature of the residence medium, as well as salinity and mineral composition of water influence

  2. Tunable radiation emitting semiconductor device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    A tunable radiation emitting semiconductor device includes at least one elongated structure at least partially fabricated from one or more semiconductor materials exhibiting a bandgap characteristic including one or more energy transitions whose energies correspond to photon energies of light

  3. Assessment of forms finding of Chernobyl radionuclides in bottom sediments of cooling pond of the ChNPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Protsak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of forms finding of radionuclides 90Sr, 137Cs, 238Pu, 239,240Pu, 241Am and dispersal composition of fuel particles in bottom sediments of cooling pond of the ChNPP is carried out. According to the results of re-search in the year of 2012 more than 98 % of radionuclides in bottom sediments were in non-exchange (ex-changeable state, while in the composition of the fuel particles can be contained about 70% 90Sr and more than 80 % 241Am and of the plutonium isotopes. Obtained results indicate the selective leaching of radionuclides from the matrix of fuel particles.

  4. The contamination of the oceans by anthropogenic radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueira, Rubens C.L.; Cunha, Ieda I.L.

    1998-01-01

    Several hundreds of artificial of artificial radionuclides are produced as the result of human activities, such as the applications of nuclear reactors and particle accelerators, testing of nuclear weapons and nuclear accidents. Many of these radionuclides are short-lived and decay quickly after their production, but some of them are longer-lived and are released into the environment. From the radiological point of view the most important radionuclides are cesium-137, strontium-90 and plutonium-239, due to their chemical and nuclear characteristics. The two first radioisotopes present long half life (30 and 28 years), high fission yields and chemical behaviour similar to potassium and calcium, respectively. No stable element exists for plutonium-239, that presents high radiotoxity, longh half-life (24000 years) and some marine organisms accumulate plutonium at high levels. The radionuclides introduced into marine environment undergo various physical, chemical and biological processes taking place in the sea. These processes may be due to physical, dispersion or complicated chemical and biological interactions of the radionuclides with inorganic and organic suspend matter, variety of living organism, bottom sediments, etc. The behaviour of radionuclides in the sea depends primarily on their chemical properties, but it may also be influenced by properties of interacting matrices and other environmental factors. The major route of radiation exposure of man to artificial radionuclides occuring in th