WorldWideScience

Sample records for particle analysis

  1. Blind Analysis in Particle Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roodman, A

    2003-01-01

    A review of the blind analysis technique, as used in particle physics measurements, is presented. The history of blind analyses in physics is briefly discussed. Next the dangers of and the advantages of a blind analysis are described. Three distinct kinds of blind analysis in particle physics are presented in detail. Finally, the BABAR collaboration's experience with the blind analysis technique is discussed

  2. Particle Analysis in Forensic Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisbing, R E; Schneck, W M

    2006-07-01

    Microscopic trace evidence includes particles from many sources such as biologicals, soil, building materials, metals, explosives, gunshot residues, and cosmetics. The particles are identified by morphological analysis, microscopy, and chemical analysis. Their identity is confirmed by comparison with reference materials or other comparison samples. The probative value of particles of forensic interest depends on their nature and the circumstances of their presence. Copyright © 2006 Central Police University.

  3. Spin analysis of supersymmetric particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, S.Y.; Martyn, H.U.

    2006-12-01

    The spin of supersymmetric particles can be determined at e + e - colliders unambiguously. This is demonstrated for a characteristic set of non-colored supersymmetric particles -- smuons, selectrons, and charginos/neutralinos. The analysis is based on the threshold behavior of the excitation curves for pair production in e + e - collisions, the angular distribution in the production process and decay angular distributions. In the first step we present the observables in the helicity formalism for the supersymmetric particles. Subsequently we confront the results with corresponding analyses of Kaluza-Klein particles in theories of universal extra space dimensions which behave distinctly different from supersymmetric theories. It is shown in the third step that a set of observables can be designed which signal the spin of supersymmetric particles unambiguously without any model assumptions. Finally in the fourth step it is demonstrated that the determination of the spin of supersymmetric particles can be performed experimentally in practice at an e + e - collider. (orig.)

  4. Lunar Regolith Particle Shape Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiekhaefer, Rebecca; Hardy, Sandra; Rickman, Douglas; Edmunson, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Future engineering of structures and equipment on the lunar surface requires significant understanding of particle characteristics of the lunar regolith. Nearly all sediment characteristics are influenced by particle shape; therefore a method of quantifying particle shape is useful both in lunar and terrestrial applications. We have created a method to quantify particle shape, specifically for lunar regolith, using image processing. Photomicrographs of thin sections of lunar core material were obtained under reflected light. Three photomicrographs were analyzed using ImageJ and MATLAB. From the image analysis measurements for area, perimeter, Feret diameter, orthogonal Feret diameter, Heywood factor, aspect ratio, sieve diameter, and sieve number were recorded. Probability distribution functions were created from the measurements of Heywood factor and aspect ratio.

  5. Charged-particle activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweikert, E.A.

    1978-01-01

    The paper discusses the methodology and application of nuclear activation with ion beams (1 9 via 16 O( 3 He,p) 18 F, 12 C( 3 He,α) 11 C and 14 N(p,α) 11 C respectively. Recently, triton activation has been shown to be inherently still superior to 3 He activation for the determination of oxygen [ 16 O( 3 H,n) 18 F]. Lithium, boron, carbon and sulphur can be detected rapidly, nondestructively and with high sensitivity (approximately 0.25ppm for Li and B) via ''quasi-prompt'' activation based on the detection of short-lived, high-energy beta emitters (10ms 1 H( 7 Li,n) 7 Be for example. Nondestructive multielement analysis: Proton activation has the inherent potential for meeting requirements of broad elemental coverage, sensitivity (ppm and sub-ppm range) and selectivity. Up to 30 elements have been determined in Al, Co, Ag, Nb, Rh, Ta and biological samples, using 12-MeV proton activation followed by gamma-ray spectrometry. These capabilities are further enhanced with the counting of X-ray emitters, 28 elements (26 9 ) and accuracy using proton activation. 204 Pb/ 206 Pb ratios can also be determined with a relative precision of a few per cent. Although charged-particle activation analysis is a well-established trace analysis technique, broad potential capabilities remain to be explored, e.g. those arising from ultrashort-lived nuclides, heavy ion interactions and the combination of delayed and prompt methods. (author)

  6. On the analysis of small particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vis, R.D.

    2002-01-01

    The analysis of small, micrometer or even submicrometer sized, particles represents a challenging problem. The whole analytical procedure, including quality assurance and control, needs careful planning. Even the sampling itself is in many cases not trivial at all and the question as to whether the sample is representative for the suite of particles on wants to measure is sometimes difficult to assess. The question of representativity is even more important if one performs single particle analysis. Only large numbers of such analyses will lead to meaningful and interpretable results. In this contribution a few aspects of the various steps in the analytical protocol will be described. Starting point is that it is the elemental composition of the particle that is of interest

  7. Automatic analysis of charged particle spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seres, Z.; Kiss, A.

    1975-11-01

    A computer program system is developed for off-line automatic analysis of a series of charged particle spectra measured by solid-state detectors and collected on magnetic tapes. The procedure results in complete angular distributions for the excited levels of the final nucleus up to about 15 MeV. (orig.) [de

  8. Analysis of particle kinematics in spheronization via particle image velocimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koester, Martin; Thommes, Markus

    2013-02-01

    Spheronization is a wide spread technique in pellet production for many pharmaceutical applications. Pellets produced by spheronization are characterized by a particularly spherical shape and narrow size distribution. The particle kinematic during spheronization is currently not well-understood. Therefore, particle image velocimetry (PIV) was implemented in the spheronization process to visualize the particle movement and to identify flow patterns, in order to explain the influence of various process parameters. The spheronization process of a common formulation was recorded with a high-speed camera, and the images were processed using particle image velocimetry software. A crosscorrelation approach was chosen to determine the particle velocity at the surface of the pellet bulk. Formulation and process parameters were varied systematically, and their influence on the particle velocity was investigated. The particle stream shows a torus-like shape with a twisted rope-like motion. It is remarkable that the overall particle velocity is approximately 10-fold lower than the tip speed of the friction plate. The velocity of the particle stream can be correlated to the water content of the pellets and the load of the spheronizer, while the rotation speed was not relevant. In conclusion, PIV was successfully applied to the spheronization process, and new insights into the particle velocity were obtained. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Fast Multispectral Radiometry for Particles Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharon, A.; Halevy, I.; Sattinger, D.; Yaar, I.; Krantz, L.; Pinhas, M.

    2014-01-01

    The radiological risk following detonation of radiological dispersal device (RDD) is highly depends the final particles’ size distribution remains after the detonation. In order to produce a realistic source term for the atmospheric dispersion model we should be able to predict the total fraction of aerosols created after the detonation as well as the respirable part of this fraction. The rest of the particles will not be dispersed downwind and hence them concentration will be calculated using much simpler models. The radiological risk out of radioactive (RA) material is highly depends on the particle size. Respirable size (<10 microns) of Alfa, Beta and Gamma emitters are all dangerous when inhaled into the body while larger aerosolos might be risky from a distance (Gamma emitters) or in an external body contact (Alfa, Beta and Gamma). Larger particles (which are not aerosols) are dangerous as fragments when penetrating the body (Alfa, Beta and Gamma) or when depositing on the ground as Gamma emitters. We show here that by using a fast multispectral radiometryfor the detonation fireball analysis it is possible to quantify the reduction of total amount of aerosols due to particles agglomeration with dirt

  10. Advanced analysis methods in particle physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhat, Pushpalatha C.; /Fermilab

    2010-10-01

    Each generation of high energy physics experiments is grander in scale than the previous - more powerful, more complex and more demanding in terms of data handling and analysis. The spectacular performance of the Tevatron and the beginning of operations of the Large Hadron Collider, have placed us at the threshold of a new era in particle physics. The discovery of the Higgs boson or another agent of electroweak symmetry breaking and evidence of new physics may be just around the corner. The greatest challenge in these pursuits is to extract the extremely rare signals, if any, from huge backgrounds arising from known physics processes. The use of advanced analysis techniques is crucial in achieving this goal. In this review, I discuss the concepts of optimal analysis, some important advanced analysis methods and a few examples. The judicious use of these advanced methods should enable new discoveries and produce results with better precision, robustness and clarity.

  11. Methods of charged-particle activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhri, M. Anwar; Chaudhri, M. Nasir; Jabbar, Q.; Nadeem, Q.

    2006-01-01

    The accuracy of Chaudhri's method for charged-particle activation analysis published in J. Radioanal. Chem. (1977) v. 37 p. 243 has been further demonstrated by extensive calculations. The nuclear reactions 12 C(d,n) 13 N, 63 Cu( 3 He,p) 65 Zn, 107 Ag(α,n) 110 In and 208 Pb(d,p) 209 Pb, the cross sections of which were easily available, have been examined for the detection of 12 C, 63 Cu, 107 Ag and 208 Pb, respectively, in matrices of Cu, Zr and Pb, at the bombarding energies of 4 - 22 MeV. The 'standard' is assumed to be in a carbon matrix. It has been clearly demonstrated that Chaudhri's method, which makes the charged particle activation analysis as simple as neutron activation analysis, provides results which are almost identical to, or only about 1-2 % different, from the results obtained using the full 'Activity Equation' involving solving complex integrals. It is valid even when the difference in the average atomic weights of matrices of the standard and the sample is large. (author)

  12. Improved nano-particle tracking analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, John G

    2012-01-01

    Nano-particle tracking is a method to estimate a particle size distribution by tracking the movements of individual particles, using multiple images of particles moving under Brownian motion. A novel method to recover a particle size distribution from nano-particle tracking data is described. Unlike a simple histogram-based method, the method described is able to account for the finite number of steps in each particle track and consequently for the measurement uncertainty in the step-length data. Computer simulation and experimental results are presented to demonstrate the performance of the approach compared with the current method. (paper)

  13. Toward automated analysis of particle holograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, H. J.

    1987-01-01

    A preliminary study of approaches for extracting and analyzing data from particle holograms is discussed. It concludes that: (1) for thin spherical particles, out-of-focus methods are optimum; (2) for thin nonspherical particles, out-of-focus methods are useful but must be supplemented by in-focus methods; (3) a complex method of projection and back projection can remove out-of-focus data for deep particles.

  14. Automatic size analysis of coated fuel particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallisch, K.; Koss, P.

    1977-01-01

    The determination of the diameter, coating thickness, and sphericity of coated fuel particles by conventional methods is very time consuming. Therefore, statistical data can only be obtained with limited accuracy. An alternative method is described that avoids these disadvantages by utilizing a fast optical data-collecting system of high accuracy. This system allows the determination of the diameter of particles in the range between 100 and 1500 μm, with an accuracy of better than +-2 μm and with a rate of 100 particles per second. The density and thickness of coating layers can be determined by comparing the data obtained before and after coating, taking into account the relative increase of weight. A special device allows the automatic determination of the sphericity of single particles as well as the distribution in a batch. This device measures 50 to 100 different diameters of each particle per second. An on-line computer stores the measured data and calculates all parameters required, e.g., number of particles measured, particle diameter, standard deviation, diameter limiting values, average particle volume, average particle surface area, and the distribution of sphericity in absolute and percent form

  15. XML-based analysis interface for particle physics data analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Jifeng; Lu Xiaorui; Zhang Yangheng

    2011-01-01

    The letter emphasizes on an XML-based interface and its framework for particle physics data analysis. The interface uses a concise XML syntax to describe, in data analysis, the basic tasks: event-selection, kinematic fitting, particle identification, etc. and a basic processing logic: the next step goes on if and only if this step succeeds. The framework can perform an analysis without compiling by loading the XML-interface file, setting p in run-time and running dynamically. An analysis coding in XML instead of C++, easy-to-understood arid use, effectively reduces the work load, and enables users to carry out their analyses quickly. The framework has been developed on the BESⅢ offline software system (BOSS) with the object-oriented C++ programming. These functions, required by the regular tasks and the basic processing logic, are implemented with both standard modules or inherited from the modules in BOSS. The interface and its framework have been tested to perform physics analysis. (authors)

  16. Microscopic analysis of Hopper flow with ellipsoidal particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sida; Zhou, Zongyan; Zou, Ruiping; Pinson, David; Yu, Aibing

    2013-06-01

    Hoppers are widely used in process industries. With such widespread application, difficulties in achieving desired operational behaviors have led to extensive experimental and mathematical studies in the past decades. Particularly, the discrete element method has become one of the most important simulation tools for design and analysis. So far, most studies are on spherical particles for computational convenience. In this work, ellipsoidal particles are used as they can represent a large variation of particle shapes. Hopper flow with ellipsoidal particles is presented highlighting the effect of particle shape on the microscopic properties.

  17. Inorganic particle analysis of dental impression elastomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlo, Hugo Lemes; Fonseca, Rodrigo Borges; Soares, Carlos José; Correr, Américo Bortolazzo; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenço; Sinhoreti, Mário Alexandre Coelho

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine quantitatively and qualitatively the inorganic particle fraction of commercially available dental elastomers. The inorganic volumetric fraction of two addition silicones (Reprosil Putty/Fluid and Flexitime Easy Putty/Fluid), three condensation silicones (Clonage Putty/Fluid, Optosil Confort/Xantopren VL and Silon APS Putty/Fluid), one polyether (Impregum Soft Light Body) and one polysulfide (Permlastic Light Body) was accessed by weighing a previously determined mass of each material in water before and after burning samples at 600 ºC, during 3 h. Unsettled material samples were soaked in acetone and chloroform for removal of the organic portion. The remaining filler particles were sputter-coated with gold evaluation of their morphology and size, under scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Flexitime Easy Putty was the material with the highest results for volumetric particle fraction, while Impregum Soft had the lowest values. Silon 2 APS Fluid presented the lowest mean filler size values, while Clonage Putty had the highest values. SEM micrographs of the inorganic particles showed several morphologies - lathe-cut, spherical, spherical-like, sticks, and sticks mixed to lathe-cut powder. The results of this study revealed differences in particle characteristics among the elastometic materials that could lead to different results when testing mechanical properties.

  18. Stress analysis of aspherical coated particle with inner pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Bing, E-mail: bingliu@tsinghua.edu.cn [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); Yang Lin; Liang Tongxiang; Tang Chunhe [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China)

    2012-10-15

    Coated particles used in HTR fuel element sustain the inner pressure during irradiation as a pressure vessel. In actually the coated particle is not real spherical but with some asphericity, the stress distribution in the vessel is not uniform, coated layer in aspherical particle sustain more additional stress due to the asphericity. In this paper, the geometric shape distribution is summarized based on actual coated particle statistic. A mechanical analysis model is proposed for SiC layer by geometric combinations, and stress distribution of coated particle with a flat is calculated. The results show that the local maximum stress of aspherical particle increased two times than that of ideal spherical coated particle, which increase the failure probability under irradiation and high temperature.

  19. PIXE analysis of atmospheric aerosol and hydrometeor particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groeneveld, K.O.; Hofmann, D.; Georgii, H.W.

    1993-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosol and hydrometeor particles act decisively on our weather, climate and thereby on all living conditions on Earth. Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis has been demonstrated to be an extremely valuable tool for quantitative and qualitative elemental analysis of aerosol particles and hydrometeors. Reliability and detection limits of PIXE are determined, including comparison with other techniques. Aerosol particles are collected on a global scale in ground stations, or by ships and by planes. Correlation between wind direction and elemental composition of atmospheric aerosols, elemental particle size distributions of the tropospheric aerosol, aerosol elemental composition in particle size fractions in the case of long range transport, transport pathways of pollution aerosol, and trace element content precipitation are discussed. Hydrometeors were studied in the form of rain, snow, fog, dew and frost. The time dependence of the melting process of snow was studied in detail, in particular the washout phenomena of impurity ions. (orig.)

  20. Real-time analysis of insoluble particles in glacial ice using single-particle mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Matthew; Zawadowicz, Maria A.; Das, Sarah B.; Cziczo, Daniel J.

    2017-11-01

    Insoluble aerosol particles trapped in glacial ice provide insight into past climates, but analysis requires information on climatically relevant particle properties, such as size, abundance, and internal mixing. We present a new analytical method using a time-of-flight single-particle mass spectrometer (SPMS) to determine the composition and size of insoluble particles in glacial ice over an aerodynamic size range of ˜ 0.2-3.0 µm diameter. Using samples from two Greenland ice cores, we developed a procedure to nebulize insoluble particles suspended in melted ice, evaporate condensed liquid from those particles, and transport them to the SPMS for analysis. We further determined size-dependent extraction and instrument transmission efficiencies to investigate the feasibility of determining particle-class-specific mass concentrations. We find SPMS can be used to provide constraints on the aerodynamic size, composition, and relative abundance of most insoluble particulate classes in ice core samples. We describe the importance of post-aqueous processing to particles, a process which occurs due to nebulization of aerosols from an aqueous suspension of originally soluble and insoluble aerosol components. This study represents an initial attempt to use SPMS as an emerging technique for the study of insoluble particulates in ice cores.

  1. Analysis of pinching in deterministic particle separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risbud, Sumedh; Luo, Mingxiang; Frechette, Joelle; Drazer, German

    2011-11-01

    We investigate the problem of spherical particles vertically settling parallel to Y-axis (under gravity), through a pinching gap created by an obstacle (spherical or cylindrical, center at the origin) and a wall (normal to X axis), to uncover the physics governing microfluidic separation techniques such as deterministic lateral displacement and pinched flow fractionation: (1) theoretically, by linearly superimposing the resistances offered by the wall and the obstacle separately, (2) computationally, using the lattice Boltzmann method for particulate systems and (3) experimentally, by conducting macroscopic experiments. Both, theory and simulations, show that for a given initial separation between the particle centre and the Y-axis, presence of a wall pushes the particles closer to the obstacle, than its absence. Experimentally, this is expected to result in an early onset of the short-range repulsive forces caused by solid-solid contact. We indeed observe such an early onset, which we quantify by measuring the asymmetry in the trajectories of the spherical particles around the obstacle. This work is partially supported by the National Science Foundation Grant Nos. CBET- 0731032, CMMI-0748094, and CBET-0954840.

  2. Analysis scheme of density modulation experiments for particle confinements study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, K.; Michael, C.; Kawanata, K.; Tokuzawa, T.; Shoji, M.; Toi, K.; Gao, X.; Jie, Y.X.

    2005-01-01

    Density modulation experiments are one of the powerful experimental schemas to study particle confinements. The diffusion coefficients (D) and convection velocity (V), which is impossible to evaluated from particle balance in equilibrium state, can be separately obtained. And the estimated value of D and V are determined independent of absolute value of particle source rate, which is difficult to be obtained experimentally. However sensitivities and interpretation of D and V from modulation experiments should be taken care. In this paper, numerical techniques to solve particle balance equation of modulation components are described. Examples of analysis are shown from the data of LHD. And interpretations of results of modulation experiments are studied. (author)

  3. Analysis of lung tissue particles among silicosis cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Case

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims:Lung tissue samples of several miners, millers, sandblaster, welders andconstruction workers with historical exposure to mineral particles were analyzed. These subjectshad significant respiratory exposure to silica particles and demanded compensation foroccupational lung diseases.Method: Lung tissue samples were observed under an Electron microscope with 10000Xmagnification. Mineral particles were sized and analyzed by EDS detector based on X-rayspectrophotometry.Results: The results have indicated that the lung particle burden of the subjects was closelyrelated to their occupational history. The highest level of mineral silica particles were found in thelungs of miners and sandblasters. The highest concentration of metallic particles was found in thelungs of welders and miners in ferric mining industry. Severity of lung fibrosis was directlyrelated to the lung free silica concentration. However, no association was found between particlediameter and severity of fibrosis. In addition, lung particle burden of silicotic cases with lungcancer contained a much higher concentration of metallic particles and asbestos fibres that thelung of those subject with silicosis only.Conclusion: Although workers in mining and construction may be predominantly exposed tosilica particles including quartz, the role of other mineral particles including asbestos fibres,metallic fibres and other minerals should be taken into account in the genesis of occupational lungdisease in particular lung cancer. Lung tissue sample analysis can provide valuable informationto assess the legal and compensation cases.

  4. Biophysical analysis of HTLV-1 particles reveals novel insights into particle morphology and Gag stochiometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fogarty Keir H

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1 is an important human retrovirus that is a cause of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma. While an important human pathogen, the details regarding virus replication cycle, including the nature of HTLV-1 particles, remain largely unknown due to the difficulties in propagating the virus in tissue culture. In this study, we created a codon-optimized HTLV-1 Gag fused to an EYFP reporter as a model system to quantitatively analyze HTLV-1 particles released from producer cells. Results The codon-optimized Gag led to a dramatic and highly robust level of Gag expression as well as virus-like particle (VLP production. The robust level of particle production overcomes previous technical difficulties with authentic particles and allowed for detailed analysis of particle architecture using two novel methodologies. We quantitatively measured the diameter and morphology of HTLV-1 VLPs in their native, hydrated state using cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM. Furthermore, we were able to determine HTLV-1 Gag stoichiometry as well as particle size with the novel biophysical technique of fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy (FFS. The average HTLV-1 particle diameter determined by cryo-TEM and FFS was 71 ± 20 nm and 75 ± 4 nm, respectively. These values are significantly smaller than previous estimates made of HTLV-1 particles by negative staining TEM. Furthermore, cryo-TEM reveals that the majority of HTLV-1 VLPs lacks an ordered structure of the Gag lattice, suggesting that the HTLV-1 Gag shell is very likely to be organized differently compared to that observed with HIV-1 Gag in immature particles. This conclusion is supported by our observation that the average copy number of HTLV-1 Gag per particle is estimated to be 510 based on FFS, which is significantly lower than that found for HIV-1 immature virions. Conclusions In summary, our studies represent the first quantitative biophysical

  5. Statistical analysis of magnetically soft particles in magnetorheological elastomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundermann, T.; Cremer, P.; Löwen, H.; Menzel, A. M.; Odenbach, S.

    2017-04-01

    The physical properties of magnetorheological elastomers (MRE) are a complex issue and can be influenced and controlled in many ways, e.g. by applying a magnetic field, by external mechanical stimuli, or by an electric potential. In general, the response of MRE materials to these stimuli is crucially dependent on the distribution of the magnetic particles inside the elastomer. Specific knowledge of the interactions between particles or particle clusters is of high relevance for understanding the macroscopic rheological properties and provides an important input for theoretical calculations. In order to gain a better insight into the correlation between the macroscopic effects and microstructure and to generate a database for theoretical analysis, x-ray micro-computed tomography (X-μCT) investigations as a base for a statistical analysis of the particle configurations were carried out. Different MREs with quantities of 2-15 wt% (0.27-2.3 vol%) of iron powder and different allocations of the particles inside the matrix were prepared. The X-μCT results were edited by an image processing software regarding the geometrical properties of the particles with and without the influence of an external magnetic field. Pair correlation functions for the positions of the particles inside the elastomer were calculated to statistically characterize the distributions of the particles in the samples.

  6. Alpha particle analysis using PEARLS spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKlveen, J.W.; Klingler, G.W.; McDowell, W.J.; Case, G.N.

    1984-01-01

    Alpha particle assay by conventional plate-counting methods is difficult because chemical separation, tracer techniques, and/or self-absorption losses in the final sample may cause either non-reproducible results or create unacceptable errors. PEARLS (Photon-Electron Rejecting Alpha Liquid Scintillation) Spectrometry is an attractive alternative since radionuclides may be extracted into a scintillator in which there would be no self-absorption or geometry problems and in which up to 100% chemical recovery and counting efficiency is possible. Sample preparation may include extraction of the alpha emitter of interest by a specific organic-phase-soluble compound directly into the liquid scintillator. Detection electronics use energy and pulse-shape discrimination to provide discrete alpha spectra and virtual absence of beta and gamma backgrounds. Backgrounds on the order of 0.01 cpm are readily achievable. Accuracy and reproducibility are typically in the 100 +-1% range. Specific procedures have been developed for gross alpha, uranium, plutonium, thorium, and polonium assay. This paper will review liquid scintillation alpha counting methods and reference some of the specific applications. 8 refs., 1 fig

  7. Unified time analysis of photon and particle tunnelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olkhovsky, Vladislav S.; Recami, Erasmo; Jakiel, Jacek

    2001-07-01

    A unified approach to the time analysis of tunnelling of nonrelativistic particles is presented, in which Time is regarded as a quantum-mechanical observable, canonically conjugated to Energy. The validity of the Hartman effect (independence of the Tunnelling Time of the opaque barrier width, with superluminal group velocities as a consequence) is verified for all the known expressions of the mean tunnelling time. Moreover, the analogy between particle and photon tunnelling is suitably exploited. On the basic of such an analogy, an explanation of some recent microwave and optics experimental results on tunnelling time is proposed. Attention is devoted to some aspects of the causality problem for particle and photon tunnelling. (author)

  8. Automatic particle-size analysis of HTGR nuclear fuel microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, J.E.

    1977-01-01

    An automatic particle-size analyzer (PSA) has been developed at ORNL for measuring and counting samples of nuclear fuel microspheres in the diameter range of 300 to 1000 μm at rates in excess of 2000 particles per minute, requiring no sample preparation. A light blockage technique is used in conjunction with a particle singularizer. Each particle in the sample is sized, and the information is accumulated by a multi-channel pulse height analyzer. The data are then transferred automatically to a computer for calculation of mean diameter, standard deviation, kurtosis, and skewness of the distribution. Entering the sample weight and pre-coating data permits calculation of particle density and the mean coating thickness and density. Following this nondestructive analysis, the sample is collected and returned to the process line or used for further analysis. The device has potential as an on-line quality control device in processes dealing with spherical or near-spherical particles where rapid analysis is required for process control

  9. Canonical analysis of non-relativistic particle and superparticle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kluson, Josef [Masaryk University, Department of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Faculty of Science, Brno (Czech Republic)

    2018-02-15

    We perform canonical analysis of non-relativistic particle in Newton-Cartan Background. Then we extend this analysis to the case of non-relativistic superparticle in the same background. We determine constraints structure of this theory and find generator of κ-symmetry. (orig.)

  10. Analysis of particle-wall interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raszillier, H.; Durst, F.

    1988-01-01

    The vertical motion of a rigid sphere in a quiescent viscous fluid towards a horizontal plane wall is analized by a simplified equation of motion, which takes into account as the only wall correction that to the Stokes drag force. The phase space analysis for this equation is sketched; it has been motivated by measurements performed at the LSTM-Erlangen. A more detailed exposition is given in the Erlangen report LSTM 222/T/87. (orig.)

  11. Numerical analysis of microstructure formation of magnetic particles and nonmagnetic particles in MR fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ido, Y; Yamaguchi, T; Inagaki, T

    2009-01-01

    Microstructure formation of magnetic particles and nonmagnetic particles in MR fluids is investigated using the particle method simulation. Nonmagnetic sphere particles are rearranged in the field direction due to the chain-like cluster formation of magnetic particles. In the contrast, the nonmagnetic spherocylinder particles are not sufficiently rearranged in the field direction by using the cluster formation of sphere magnetic particles.

  12. Detection of charged particles through a photodiode: design and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angoli, A.; Quirino, L.L.; Hernandez, V.M.; Lopez del R, H.; Mireles, F.; Davila, J.I.; Rios, C.; Pinedo, J.L.

    2006-01-01

    This project develops and construct an charge particle detector mean a pin photodiode array, design and analysis using a silicon pin Fotodiodo that generally is used to detect visible light, its good efficiency, size compact and reduced cost specifically allows to its use in the radiation monitoring and alpha particle detection. Here, so much, appears the design of the system of detection like its characterization for alpha particles where one is reported as alpha energy resolution and detection efficiency. The equipment used in the development of work consists of alpha particle a triple source composed of Am-241, Pu-239 and Cm-244 with 5,55 KBq as total activity, Maestro 32 software made by ORTEC, a multi-channel card Triumph from ORTEC and one low activity electroplated uranium sample. (Author)

  13. Particle analysis on concentrated particle suspensions by transmission fluctuation spectrometry with band-pass filters: part 2. Experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Yamin; Shen, Jianqi; Cai, Xiaoshu; Riebel, Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    Transmission fluctuation spectrometry (TFS), as a new method of online and real-time particle analysis developed in recent years, can measure the particle size distribution and particle concentration simultaneously. In the preceding paper, high concentration effects on the TFS using band-pass filters were investigated by numerical simulation, and empirical expressions to correct the effects were obtained. This paper presents a study on the TFS measurements in which the particle concentration varies in a very wide dynamic range. Finally, reasonable results on both the particle size distribution and particle concentration are obtained by introducing empirical corrections into the inversion algorithm

  14. Multielement analysis of interplanetary dust particles using TOF-SIMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, T.; Kloeck, W.; Jessberger, E. K.; Rulle, H.; Zehnpfenning, J.

    1993-01-01

    Sections of three stratospheric particles (U2015G1, W7029*A27, and L2005P9) were analyzed with TOF-SIMS (Time Of Flight-Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry) continuing our efforts to investigate the element distribution in interplanetary dust particles (IDP's) with high lateral resolution (approximately 0.2 micron), to examine possible atmospheric contamination effects, and to further explore the abilities of this technique for element analysis of small samples. The samples, previously investigated with SXRF (synchrotron X-ray fluorescence analysis), are highly enriched in Br (Br/Fe: 59 x CI, 9.2 x CI, and 116 x CI, respectively). U2015G1 is the IDP with the by far highest Zn/Fe-ratio (81 x CI) ever reported in chondritic particles.

  15. Pyrolysis and combustion kinetics of lycopodium particles in thermogravimetric analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seyed Alireza Mostafavi; Sadjad Salavati; Hossein Beidaghy Dizaji; Mehdi Bidabadi

    2015-01-01

    Biomass is a kind of renewable energy which is used increasingly in different types of combustion systems or in the production of fuels like bio-oil. Lycopodium is a cellulosic particle, with good combustion properties, of which microscopic images show that these particles have spherical shapes with identical diameters of 31 μm. The measured density of these particles is 1.0779 g/cm2. Lycopodium particles contain 64.06% carbon, 25.56% oxygen, 8.55% hydrogen and 1.83% nitrogen, and no sulfur. Thermogravimetric analysis in the nitrogen environment indicates that the maximum of particle mass reduction occurs in the temperature range of 250−550 °C where the maximum mass reduction in the DTG diagrams also occurs in. In the oxygen environment, an additional peak can also be observed in the temperature range of 500−600 °C, which points to solid phase combustion and ignition temperature of lycopodium particles. The kinetics of reactions is determined by curve fitting and minimization of error.

  16. Single particle analysis with a 3600 light scattering photometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartholdi, M.F.

    1979-06-01

    Light scattering by single spherical homogeneous particles in the diameter range 1 to 20 μm and relative refractive index 1.20 is measured. Particle size of narrowly dispersed populations is determined and a multi-modal dispersion of five components is completely analyzed. A 360 0 light scattering photometer for analysis of single particles has been designed and developed. A fluid stream containing single particles intersects a focused laser beam at the primary focal point of an ellipsoidal reflector ring. The light scattered at angles theta = 2.5 0 to 177.5 0 at phi = 0 0 and 180 0 is reflected onto a circular array of photodiodes. The ellipsoidal reflector is situated in a chamber filled with fluid matching that of the stream to minimize refracting and reflecting interfaces. The detector array consists of 60 photodiodes each subtending 3 0 in scattering angle on 6 0 centers around 360 0 . 32 measurements on individual particles can be acquired at rates of 500 particles per second. The intensity and angular distribution of light scattered by spherical particles are indicative of size and relative refractive index. Calculations, using Lorenz--Mie theory, of differential scattering patterns integrated over angle corresponding to the detector geometry determined the instrument response to particle size. From this the expected resolution and experimental procedures are determined.Ultimately, the photometer will be utilized for identification and discrimination of biological cells based on the sensitivity of light scattering to size, shape, refractive index differences, internal granularity, and other internal morphology. This study has demonstrated the utility of the photometer and indicates potential for application to light scattering studies of biological cells

  17. Evolution of the sedimentation technique for particle size distribution analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maley, R.

    1998-01-01

    After an introduction on the significance of particle size measurements, sedimentation methods are described, with emphasis on the evolution of the gravitational approach. The gravitational technique based on mass determination by X-ray adsorption allows fast analysis by automation and easy data handling, in addition to providing the accuracy required by quality control and research applications [it

  18. Automatic Beam Path Analysis of Laser Wakefield Particle Acceleration Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubel, Oliver; Geddes, Cameron G.R.; Cormier-Michel, Estelle; Wu, Kesheng; Prabhat,; Weber, Gunther H.; Ushizima, Daniela M.; Messmer, Peter; Hagen, Hans; Hamann, Bernd; Bethel, E. Wes

    2009-10-19

    Numerical simulations of laser wakefield particle accelerators play a key role in the understanding of the complex acceleration process and in the design of expensive experimental facilities. As the size and complexity of simulation output grows, an increasingly acute challenge is the practical need for computational techniques that aid in scientific knowledge discovery. To that end, we present a set of data-understanding algorithms that work in concert in a pipeline fashion to automatically locate and analyze high energy particle bunches undergoing acceleration in very large simulation datasets. These techniques work cooperatively by first identifying features of interest in individual timesteps, then integrating features across timesteps, and based on the information derived perform analysis of temporally dynamic features. This combination of techniques supports accurate detection of particle beams enabling a deeper level of scientific understanding of physical phenomena than hasbeen possible before. By combining efficient data analysis algorithms and state-of-the-art data management we enable high-performance analysis of extremely large particle datasets in 3D. We demonstrate the usefulness of our methods for a variety of 2D and 3D datasets and discuss the performance of our analysis pipeline.

  19. Analysis of particles loaded fiber composites for the evaluation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effective material properties are predicted for composites with different shape and size of inclusions such as cylindrical fibers, spherical and elliptical particles and cylindrical fibers with hemispherical ends. The analysis is based on a numerical homogenization technique using finite element method in connection with ...

  20. Q-space analysis of scattering by particles: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorensen, Christopher M.

    2013-01-01

    This review describes and demonstrates the Q-space analysis of light scattering by particles. This analysis involves plotting the scattered intensity versus the scattering wave vector q=(4π/λ)sin(θ/2) on a double log plot. The analysis uncovers power law descriptions of the scattering with length scale dependent crossovers between the power laws. It also systematically describes the magnitude of the scattering and the interference ripple structure that often underlies the power laws. It applies to scattering from dielectric spheres of arbitrary size and refractive index (Mie scattering), fractal aggregates and irregularly shaped particles such as dusts. The benefits of Q-space analysis are that it provides a simple and comprehensive description of scattering in terms of power laws with quantifiable exponents; it can be used to differentiate scattering by particles of different shapes, and it yields a physical understanding of scattering based on diffraction. -- Highlights: ► Angular scattering functions for spheres show power laws versus the wave vector q. ► The power laws uncover patterns involving length scales and functionalities. ► Similar power laws appear in scattering from aggregates and irregular particles. ► Power laws provide a comprehensive and quantitative description of scattering

  1. Charged particle activation analysis: present status and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhury, D.P.

    2006-01-01

    Charged particle activation analysis is a highly sensitive nuclear analytical technique for the determination of elements at trace and ultra trace levels. CPAA involves the irradiation of samples with high energy charged particles, both light ions and heavy ions, from an accelerator in the energy range of 10 to 100 MeV. CPAA has been developed and standardized for the determination of several elements at trace levels in various types of materials using high energy ion beams from VEC machine at Kolkata. A brief review on CPAA is presented here based on our present works and its applications in future. (author)

  2. Numerical analysis of jet breakup behavior using particle method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Kazuya; Koshizuka, Seiichi; Oka, Yoshiaki

    2002-01-01

    A continuous jet changes to droplets where jet breakup occurs. In this study, two-dimensional numerical analysis of jet breakup is performed using the MPS method (Moving Particle Semi-implicit Method) which is a particle method for incompressible flows. The continuous fluid surrounding the jet is neglected. Dependencies of the jet breakup length on the Weber number and the Froude number agree with the experiment. The size distribution of droplets is in agreement with the Nukiyama-Tanasawa distribution which has been widely used as an experimental correlation. Effects of the Weber number and the Froude number on the size distribution are also obtained. (author)

  3. Microscopic analysis of irradiated AGR-1 coated particle fuel compacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploger, Scott A., E-mail: scott.ploger@inl.gov [Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-3855 (United States); Demkowicz, Paul A. [Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-3855 (United States); Hunn, John D.; Kehn, Jay S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6093 (United States)

    2014-05-01

    The AGR-1 experiment involved irradiation of 72 TRISO-coated particle fuel compacts to a peak compact-average burnup of 19.5% FIMA with no in-pile failures observed out of 3 × 10{sup 5} total particles. Irradiated AGR-1 fuel compacts have been cross-sectioned and analyzed with optical microscopy to characterize kernel, buffer, and coating behavior. Six compacts have been examined, spanning a range of irradiation conditions (burnup, fast fluence, and irradiation temperature) and including all four TRISO coating variations irradiated in the AGR-1 experiment. The cylindrical specimens were sectioned both transversely and longitudinally, then polished to expose from 36 to 79 individual particles near midplane on each mount. The analysis focused primarily on kernel swelling and porosity, buffer densification and fracturing, buffer–IPyC debonding, and fractures in the IPyC and SiC layers. Characteristic morphologies have been identified, 981 particles have been classified, and spatial distributions of particle types have been mapped. No significant spatial patterns were discovered in these cross sections. However, some trends were found between morphological types and certain behavioral aspects. Buffer fractures were found in 23% of the particles, and these fractures often resulted in unconstrained kernel protrusion into the open cavities. Fractured buffers and buffers that stayed bonded to IPyC layers appear related to larger pore size in kernels. Buffer–IPyC interface integrity evidently factored into initiation of rare IPyC fractures. Fractures through part of the SiC layer were found in only four classified particles, all in conjunction with IPyC–SiC debonding. Compiled results suggest that the deliberate coating fabrication variations influenced the frequencies of IPyC fractures and IPyC–SiC debonds.

  4. Unified time analysis of photon and particle tunnelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olkhovsky, V.S.; Recami, Erasmo; Jakiel, Jacek

    2004-01-01

    A unified time analysis of photon and nonrelativistic particle tunnellings is presented, in which time is regarded as a quantum observable, canonically conjugated to energy. Within this approach, one can introduce self-consistent definitions of the tunnelling times, on the basis of conventional quantum mechanics (or one-dimensional quantum electrodynamics) only. The validity of the Hartman effect [which states the tunnelling duration to be independent of the (opaque) barrier width, with superluminal group velocities of the tunnelling packet as a consequence] is verified for all the known expressions of the mean tunnelling time. However, some noticeable generalizations of (and deviations from) the Hartman effect are, as well, briefly investigated. Moreover, the analogy between particle and photon tunnelling is suitably exploited; on the basis of such an analogy, an explanation of some recent interesting microwave and optical experimental results on tunnelling times is proposed. Attention is devoted, at last, to some aspects of the causality problem for particle and photon tunnelling

  5. Study of coal oxidation by charged particle activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlyer, D.J.; Wolf, A.P.

    1980-01-01

    It has been possible, using the technique of changed particle activation analysis, to follow the time course of the oxidation of coal exposed to air. The kinetics have been studied and seem to be consistent with a rapid initial uptake of oxygen containing molecules followed by slow diffusion into the surface of the coal particles. In this latter regard a study has been undertaken to study the depth profile of the oxygen into the coal particle surface. The depth of penetration of the activating particle is determined by the incident energy and therefore, by comparison to the appropriate standards, the depth profile may be determined either by varying the incident energy or by varying the particle size. Both approaches have been used and give consistent results. The depth to which a significant amount of oxygen penetrates varies from about 3 μm for very high rank coals to about 20 μm for low rank coals. This diffusion depth seems to be related to the porosity of the coals. A model for the low temperature air oxidation of coal has been developed to explain the results from the above mentioned experiments

  6. Online single particle analysis of ice particle residuals from mountain-top mixed-phase clouds using laboratory derived particle type assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Susan; Schneider, Johannes; Klimach, Thomas; Mertes, Stephan; Schenk, Ludwig Paul; Kupiszewski, Piotr; Curtius, Joachim; Borrmann, Stephan

    2017-01-01

    In situ single particle analysis of ice particle residuals (IPRs) and out-of-cloud aerosol particles was conducted by means of laser ablation mass spectrometry during the intensive INUIT-JFJ/CLACE campaign at the high alpine research station Jungfraujoch (3580 m a.s.l.) in January-February 2013. During the 4-week campaign more than 70 000 out-of-cloud aerosol particles and 595 IPRs were analyzed covering a particle size diameter range from 100 nm to 3 µm. The IPRs were sampled during 273 h while the station was covered by mixed-phase clouds at ambient temperatures between -27 and -6 °C. The identification of particle types is based on laboratory studies of different types of biological, mineral and anthropogenic aerosol particles. The outcome of these laboratory studies was characteristic marker peaks for each investigated particle type. These marker peaks were applied to the field data. In the sampled IPRs we identified a larger number fraction of primary aerosol particles, like soil dust (13 ± 5 %) and minerals (11 ± 5 %), in comparison to out-of-cloud aerosol particles (2.4 ± 0.4 and 0.4 ± 0.1 %, respectively). Additionally, anthropogenic aerosol particles, such as particles from industrial emissions and lead-containing particles, were found to be more abundant in the IPRs than in the out-of-cloud aerosol. In the out-of-cloud aerosol we identified a large fraction of aged particles (31 ± 5 %), including organic material and secondary inorganics, whereas this particle type was much less abundant (2.7 ± 1.3 %) in the IPRs. In a selected subset of the data where a direct comparison between out-of-cloud aerosol particles and IPRs in air masses with similar origin was possible, a pronounced enhancement of biological particles was found in the IPRs.

  7. Functional Group Analysis of Biomass Burning Particles Using Infrared Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horrell, K.; Lau, A.; Bond, T.; Iraci, L. T.

    2008-12-01

    Biomass burning is a significant source of particulate organic carbon in the atmosphere. These particles affect the energy balance of the atmosphere directly by absorbing and scattering solar radiation, and indirectly through their ability to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). The chemical composition of biomass burning particles influences their ability to act as CCN, thus understanding the chemistry of these particles is required for understanding their effects on climate and air quality. As climate change influences the frequency and severity of boreal forest fires, the influence of biomass burning aerosols on the atmosphere may become significantly greater. Only a small portion of the organic carbon (OC) fraction of these particles has been identified at the molecular level, although several studies have explored the general chemical classes found in biomass burning smoke. To complement those studies and provide additional information about the reactive functional groups present, we are developing a method for polarity-based separation of compound classes found in the OC fraction, followed by infrared (IR) spectroscopic analysis of each polarity fraction. It is our goal to find a simple, relatively low-tech method which will provide a moderate chemical understanding of the entire suite of compounds present in the OC fraction of biomass burning particles. Here we present preliminary results from pine and oak samples representative of Midwestern United States forests burned at several different temperatures. Wood type and combustion temperature are both seen to affect the composition of the particles. The latter seems to affect relative contributions of certain functional groups, while oak demonstrates at least one additional chemical class of compounds, particularly at lower burning temperatures, where gradual solid-gas phase reactions can produce relatively large amounts of incompletely oxidized products.

  8. Automated analysis of organic particles using cluster SIMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillen, Greg; Zeissler, Cindy; Mahoney, Christine; Lindstrom, Abigail; Fletcher, Robert; Chi, Peter; Verkouteren, Jennifer; Bright, David; Lareau, Richard T.; Boldman, Mike

    2004-06-15

    Cluster primary ion bombardment combined with secondary ion imaging is used on an ion microscope secondary ion mass spectrometer for the spatially resolved analysis of organic particles on various surfaces. Compared to the use of monoatomic primary ion beam bombardment, the use of a cluster primary ion beam (SF{sub 5}{sup +} or C{sub 8}{sup -}) provides significant improvement in molecular ion yields and a reduction in beam-induced degradation of the analyte molecules. These characteristics of cluster bombardment, along with automated sample stage control and custom image analysis software are utilized to rapidly characterize the spatial distribution of trace explosive particles, narcotics and inkjet-printed microarrays on a variety of surfaces.

  9. Painleve singularity analysis applied to charged particle dynamics during reconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    For a plasma in the collisionless regime, test-particle modelling can lend some insight into the macroscopic behavior of the plasma, e.g. conductivity and heating. A common example for which this technique is used is a system with electric and magnetic fields given by B = δyx + zy + yz and E = εz, where δ, γ, and ε are constant parameters. This model can be used to model plasma behavior near neutral lines, (γ = 0), as well as current sheets (γ = 0, δ = 0). The integrability properties of the particle motion in such fields might affect the plasma's macroscopic behavior, and the author has asked the question open-quotes For what values of δ, γ, and ε is the system integrable?close quotes To answer this question, the author has employed Painleve singularity analysis, which is an examination of the singularity properties of a test particle's equations of motion in the complex time plane. This analysis has identified two field geometries for which the system's particle dynamics are integrable in terms of the second Painleve transcendent: the circular O-line case and the case of the neutral sheet configuration. These geometries yield particle dynamics that are integrable in the Liouville sense (i.e., there exist the proper number of integrals in involution) in an extended phase space which includes the time as a canonical coordinate, and this property is also true for nonzero γ. The singularity property tests also identified a large, dense set of X-line and O-line field geometries that yield dynamics that may possess the weak Painleve property. In the case of the X-line geometries, this result shows little relevance to the physical nature of the system, but the existence of a dense set of elliptical O-line geometries with this property may be related to the fact that for ε positive, one can construct asymptotic solutions in the limit t → ∞

  10. Charged particle activation analysis at RIKEN. Past, present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozaki, T.

    2008-01-01

    From 1960s to 1980s many groups in the world actively studied and utilized charged particle activation analysis (CPAA) mainly for absolute determination of B, C, N, and O in high-purity substances, particularly semiconductor materials. Here, after a short historical note on CPAA, works of the author's group mainly at RIKEN are outlined and then his opinion is shown about how to anticipate on the present shrinking of CPAA. (author)

  11. Image segmentation and particles classification using texture analysis method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayar Aly Atteya

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ingredients of oily fish include a large amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are important elements in various metabolic processes of humans, and have also been used to prevent diseases. However, in an attempt to reduce cost, recent developments are starting a replace the ingredients of fish oil with products of microalgae, that also produce polyunsaturated fatty acids. To do so, it is important to closely monitor morphological changes in algae cells and monitor their age in order to achieve the best results. This paper aims to describe an advanced vision-based system to automatically detect, classify, and track the organic cells using a recently developed SOPAT-System (Smart On-line Particle Analysis Technology, a photo-optical image acquisition device combined with innovative image analysis software. Methods The proposed method includes image de-noising, binarization and Enhancement, as well as object recognition, localization and classification based on the analysis of particles’ size and texture. Results The methods allowed for correctly computing cell’s size for each particle separately. By computing an area histogram for the input images (1h, 18h, and 42h, the variation could be observed showing a clear increase in cell. Conclusion The proposed method allows for algae particles to be correctly identified with accuracies up to 99% and classified correctly with accuracies up to 100%.

  12. An analysis of 3D particle path integration algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darmofal, D.L.; Haimes, R.

    1996-01-01

    Several techniques for the numerical integration of particle paths in steady and unsteady vector (velocity) fields are analyzed. Most of the analysis applies to unsteady vector fields, however, some results apply to steady vector field integration. Multistep, multistage, and some hybrid schemes are considered. It is shown that due to initialization errors, many unsteady particle path integration schemes are limited to third-order accuracy in time. Multistage schemes require at least three times more internal data storage than multistep schemes of equal order. However, for timesteps within the stability bounds, multistage schemes are generally more accurate. A linearized analysis shows that the stability of these integration algorithms are determined by the eigenvalues of the local velocity tensor. Thus, the accuracy and stability of the methods are interpreted with concepts typically used in critical point theory. This paper shows how integration schemes can lead to erroneous classification of critical points when the timestep is finite and fixed. For steady velocity fields, we demonstrate that timesteps outside of the relative stability region can lead to similar integration errors. From this analysis, guidelines for accurate timestep sizing are suggested for both steady and unsteady flows. In particular, using simulation data for the unsteady flow around a tapered cylinder, we show that accurate particle path integration requires timesteps which are at most on the order of the physical timescale of the flow

  13. Studies on airborne dust particles by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Atsushi; Ishii, Taka; Tomiyama, Tsuyoshi; Yamamoto, Isao.

    1974-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis was performed on the airborne dust particles collected at six places with different contaminating circumstances in Kyoto city and the suburbs of Okayama city, using an open type low volume air sampler with a membrance filter attached. Radioactivation by neutrons was performed with the reactor in the Research Reactor Institute of Kyoto University. Short half-life nuclides activated by thermal neutrons were measured. The concentration of airborne dust was usually high in November and December, while Na, Mn, K, etc. probably owing to soil origin showed similar seasonal change to the dust particles, as expected. The concentrations Cl and Br were in proportion to traffic volume, and it was considered to be caused by the exhaust gas from cars. Zn, V. et. were thick in factory areas, which seemed to show the relationship with oil fuel consumption. (Kobatake, H.)

  14. Hydrodynamic Stability Analysis of Particle-Laden Solid Rocket Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, T. S.; Majdalani, J.

    2014-11-01

    Fluid-wall interactions within solid rocket motors can result in parietal vortex shedding giving rise to hydrodynamic instabilities, or unsteady waves, that translate into pressure oscillations. The oscillations can result in vibrations observed by the rocket, rocket subsystems, or payload, which can lead to changes in flight characteristics, design failure, or other undesirable effects. For many years particles have been embedded in solid rocket propellants with the understanding that their presence increases specific impulse and suppresses fluctuations in the flowfield. This study utilizes a two dimensional framework to understand and quantify the aforementioned two-phase flowfield inside a motor case with a cylindrical grain perforation. This is accomplished through the use of linearized Navier-Stokes equations with the Stokes drag equation and application of the biglobal ansatz. Obtaining the biglobal equations for analysis requires quantification of the mean flowfield within the solid rocket motor. To that end, the extended Taylor-Culick form will be utilized to represent the gaseous phase of the mean flowfield while the self-similar form will be employed for the particle phase. Advancing the mean flowfield by quantifying the particle mass concentration with a semi-analytical solution the finalized mean flowfield is combined with the biglobal equations resulting in a system of eight partial differential equations. This system is solved using an eigensolver within the framework yielding the entire spectrum of eigenvalues, frequency and growth rate components, at once. This work will detail the parametric analysis performed to demonstrate the stabilizing and destabilizing effects of particles within solid rocket combustion.

  15. Hydrodynamic Stability Analysis of Particle-Laden Solid Rocket Motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, T S; Majdalani, J

    2014-01-01

    Fluid-wall interactions within solid rocket motors can result in parietal vortex shedding giving rise to hydrodynamic instabilities, or unsteady waves, that translate into pressure oscillations. The oscillations can result in vibrations observed by the rocket, rocket subsystems, or payload, which can lead to changes in flight characteristics, design failure, or other undesirable effects. For many years particles have been embedded in solid rocket propellants with the understanding that their presence increases specific impulse and suppresses fluctuations in the flowfield. This study utilizes a two dimensional framework to understand and quantify the aforementioned two-phase flowfield inside a motor case with a cylindrical grain perforation. This is accomplished through the use of linearized Navier-Stokes equations with the Stokes drag equation and application of the biglobal ansatz. Obtaining the biglobal equations for analysis requires quantification of the mean flowfield within the solid rocket motor. To that end, the extended Taylor-Culick form will be utilized to represent the gaseous phase of the mean flowfield while the self-similar form will be employed for the particle phase. Advancing the mean flowfield by quantifying the particle mass concentration with a semi-analytical solution the finalized mean flowfield is combined with the biglobal equations resulting in a system of eight partial differential equations. This system is solved using an eigensolver within the framework yielding the entire spectrum of eigenvalues, frequency and growth rate components, at once. This work will detail the parametric analysis performed to demonstrate the stabilizing and destabilizing effects of particles within solid rocket combustion

  16. Empirically characteristic analysis of chaotic PID controlling particle swarm optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Danping; Lu, Yongzhong; Zhou, Min; Chen, Shiping; Levy, David

    2017-01-01

    Since chaos systems generally have the intrinsic properties of sensitivity to initial conditions, topological mixing and density of periodic orbits, they may tactfully use the chaotic ergodic orbits to achieve the global optimum or their better approximation to given cost functions with high probability. During the past decade, they have increasingly received much attention from academic community and industry society throughout the world. To improve the performance of particle swarm optimization (PSO), we herein propose a chaotic proportional integral derivative (PID) controlling PSO algorithm by the hybridization of chaotic logistic dynamics and hierarchical inertia weight. The hierarchical inertia weight coefficients are determined in accordance with the present fitness values of the local best positions so as to adaptively expand the particles' search space. Moreover, the chaotic logistic map is not only used in the substitution of the two random parameters affecting the convergence behavior, but also used in the chaotic local search for the global best position so as to easily avoid the particles' premature behaviors via the whole search space. Thereafter, the convergent analysis of chaotic PID controlling PSO is under deep investigation. Empirical simulation results demonstrate that compared with other several chaotic PSO algorithms like chaotic PSO with the logistic map, chaotic PSO with the tent map and chaotic catfish PSO with the logistic map, chaotic PID controlling PSO exhibits much better search efficiency and quality when solving the optimization problems. Additionally, the parameter estimation of a nonlinear dynamic system also further clarifies its superiority to chaotic catfish PSO, genetic algorithm (GA) and PSO.

  17. Toxicogenomic analysis of the particle dose- and size-response relationship of silica particles-induced toxicity in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Xiaoyan; Jin Tingting; Jin Yachao; Wu Leihong; Hu Bin; Tian Yu; Fan Xiaohui

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between particle size and toxicity of silica particles (SP) with diameters of 30, 70, and 300 nm, which is essential to the safe design and application of SP. Data obtained from histopathological examinations suggested that SP of these sizes can all induce acute inflammation in the liver. In vivo imaging showed that intravenously administrated SP are mainly present in the liver, spleen and intestinal tract. Interestingly, in gene expression analysis, the cellular response pathways activated in the liver are predominantly conserved independently of particle dose when the same size SP are administered or are conserved independently of particle size, surface area and particle number when nano- or submicro-sized SP are administered at their toxic doses. Meanwhile, integrated analysis of transcriptomics, previous metabonomics and conventional toxicological results support the view that SP can result in inflammatory and oxidative stress, generate mitochondrial dysfunction, and eventually cause hepatocyte necrosis by neutrophil-mediated liver injury. (paper)

  18. Automatic particle-size analysis of HTGR recycle fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, J.E.; Pechin, W.H.

    1977-09-01

    An automatic particle-size analyzer was designed, fabricated, tested, and put into operation measuring and counting HTGR recycle fuel particles. The particle-size analyzer can be used for particles in all stages of fabrication, from the loaded, uncarbonized weak acid resin up to fully-coated Biso or Triso particles. The device handles microspheres in the range of 300 to 1000 μm at rates up to 2000 per minute, measuring the diameter of each particle to determine the size distribution of the sample, and simultaneously determining the total number of particles. 10 figures

  19. An introduction to data analysis of airborne particle composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopke, P.K.

    1994-01-01

    A major problem facing air quality management personnel is the identification of sources of airborne particles and the quantitative apportionment of the aerosol mass to those sources. The ability to collect particle samples and analyze these samples for a suite of elements by such techniques as neutron activation analysis or x-ray fluorescence provides that data for the problem of resolving a series of complex mixtures into its components based on the profiles of the elements emitted by the various sources in the airshed. If all of the sources and their composition profiles are known, then the mass balance model becomes a multiple regression problem. If a series of samples have been analyzed without substantial information being available on the sources, factor analysis methods can be employed. In both situations, there are limits to the identification of specific sources or the location of the sources. Thus, other methods that combine chemical with meteorological data have been developed to assist in spatial identification of pollutant sources. There are also limitations to the ability of any statistical method to resolve sources in real world problems. The physical and statistical basis of these methods and their application to representative problems are reviewed in this report. (author). 42 refs, 5 figs, 5 tabs

  20. Charged particle activation analysis of phosphorus in biological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masumoto, K.; Yagi, M.

    1983-01-01

    Charged particle activation analysis of phosphorus in biological materials using the 31 P(α,n) sup(34m)Cl reaction has been studied. Since sup(34m)Cl is also produced by the 32 S(α,pn) and the 35 Cl(α,α'n) reactions, the thick-target yield curves on phosphorus, sulfur and chlorine were determined in order to choose the optimum irradiation conditions. As a result, it was found that the activation analysis for phosphorus without interferences from sulfur and chlorine is possible by bombarding with less than 17 MeV alphas. The applicability of this method to biological samples was then examined by irradiating several standard reference materials. It was confirmed that phosphorus can readily be determined at the detection limit of 1μg free from interferences due to the matrix elements. (author)

  1. Cross-platform validation and analysis environment for particle physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekanov, S. V.; Pogrebnyak, I.; Wilbern, D.

    2017-11-01

    A multi-platform validation and analysis framework for public Monte Carlo simulation for high-energy particle collisions is discussed. The front-end of this framework uses the Python programming language, while the back-end is written in Java, which provides a multi-platform environment that can be run from a web browser and can easily be deployed at the grid sites. The analysis package includes all major software tools used in high-energy physics, such as Lorentz vectors, jet algorithms, histogram packages, graphic canvases, and tools for providing data access. This multi-platform software suite, designed to minimize OS-specific maintenance and deployment time, is used for online validation of Monte Carlo event samples through a web interface.

  2. Chemical compositions of subway particles in Seoul, Korea determined by a quantitative single particle analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sunni; Hwang, HeeJin; Park, YooMyung; Kim, HyeKyoung; Ro, Chul-Un

    2008-12-15

    A novel single particle analytical technique, low-Z particle electron probe X-ray microanalysis, was applied to characterize seasonal subway samples collected at a subway station in Seoul, Korea. For all 8 samples collected twice in each season, 4 major types of subway particles, based on their chemical compositions, are significantly encountered: Fe-containing; soil-derived; carbonaceous; and secondary nitrate and/or sulfate particles. Fe-containing particles are generated indoors from wear processes at rail-wheel-brake interfaces while the others may be introduced mostly from the outdoor urban atmosphere. Fe-containing particles are the most frequently encountered with relative abundances in the range of 61-79%. In this study, it is shown that Fe-containing subway particles almost always exist either as partially or fully oxidized forms in underground subway microenvironments. Their relative abundances of Fe-containing particles increase as particle sizes decrease. Relative abundances of Fe-containing particles are higher in morning samples than in afternoon samples because of heavier train traffic in the morning. In the summertime samples, Fe-containing particles are the most abundantly encountered, whereas soil-derived and nitrate/sulfate particles are the least encountered, indicating the air-exchange between indoor and outdoor environments is limited in the summer, owing to the air-conditioning in the subway system. In our work, it was observed that the relative abundances of the particles of outdoor origin vary somewhat among seasonal samples to a lesser degree, reflecting that indoor emission sources predominate.

  3. Empirically characteristic analysis of chaotic PID controlling particle swarm optimization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danping Yan

    Full Text Available Since chaos systems generally have the intrinsic properties of sensitivity to initial conditions, topological mixing and density of periodic orbits, they may tactfully use the chaotic ergodic orbits to achieve the global optimum or their better approximation to given cost functions with high probability. During the past decade, they have increasingly received much attention from academic community and industry society throughout the world. To improve the performance of particle swarm optimization (PSO, we herein propose a chaotic proportional integral derivative (PID controlling PSO algorithm by the hybridization of chaotic logistic dynamics and hierarchical inertia weight. The hierarchical inertia weight coefficients are determined in accordance with the present fitness values of the local best positions so as to adaptively expand the particles' search space. Moreover, the chaotic logistic map is not only used in the substitution of the two random parameters affecting the convergence behavior, but also used in the chaotic local search for the global best position so as to easily avoid the particles' premature behaviors via the whole search space. Thereafter, the convergent analysis of chaotic PID controlling PSO is under deep investigation. Empirical simulation results demonstrate that compared with other several chaotic PSO algorithms like chaotic PSO with the logistic map, chaotic PSO with the tent map and chaotic catfish PSO with the logistic map, chaotic PID controlling PSO exhibits much better search efficiency and quality when solving the optimization problems. Additionally, the parameter estimation of a nonlinear dynamic system also further clarifies its superiority to chaotic catfish PSO, genetic algorithm (GA and PSO.

  4. Inside versus Outside: Ion Redistribution in Nitric Acid Reacted Sea Spray Aerosol Particles as Determined by Single Particle Analysis (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ault, A. P.; Guasco, T.; Ryder, O. S.; Baltrusaitis, J.; Cuadra-Rodriguez, L. A.; Collins, D. B.; Ruppel, M. J.; Bertram, T. H.; Prather, K. A.; Grassian, V. H.

    2013-12-01

    Sea spray aerosol (SSA) particles were generated under real-world conditions using natural seawater and a unique ocean-atmosphere facility equipped with actual breaking waves or a marine aerosol reference tank (MART) that replicates those conditions. The SSA particles were exposed to nitric acid in situ in a flow tube and the well-known chloride displacement and nitrate formation reaction was observed. However, as discussed here, little is known about how this anion displacement reaction affects the distribution of cations and other chemical constituents within and phase state of individual SSA particles. Single particle analysis of individual SSA particles shows that cations (Na+, K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+) within individual particles undergo a spatial redistribution after heterogeneous reaction with nitric acid, along with a more concentrated layer of organic matter at the surface of the particle. These data suggest that specific ion and aerosol pH effects play an important role in aerosol particle structure in ways that have not been previously recognized. The ordering of organic coatings can impact trace gas uptake, and subsequently impact trace gas budgets of O3 and NOx.

  5. Study on the etching conditions of polycarbonate detectors for particle analysis of safeguards environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iguchi, K.; Esaka, K.T.; Lee, C.G.; Inagawa, J.; Esaka, F.; Onodera, T.; Fukuyama, H.; Suzuki, D.; Sakurai, S.; Watanabe, K.; Usuda, S.

    2005-01-01

    The fission track technique was applied to the particle analysis for safeguards environmental samples to obtain information about the isotope ratio of nuclear materials in individual particles. To detect the particles containing nuclear material with high detection efficiency and less particle loss, the influence of uranium enrichments on etching conditions of a fission track detector made of polycarbonate was investigated. It was shown that the increase in uranium enrichment shortened the suitable etching time both for particle detection and for less particle loss. From the results obtained, it was suggested that the screening of the uranium particles according to the enrichment is possible by controlling the etching time of the detector

  6. [Analysis on oil fume particles in catering industry cooking emission].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, De-Sheng; Kuang, Yuan-Cheng; Liu, Xin; Dai, Fei-Hong

    2012-06-01

    By measuring the particulate matter of oil fume which is over 10 microm or below 10 microm separately and using microradiography and Electrical Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI), it is found out the distributing characteristic of oil fume particles in catering industry cooking emission. The result shows that the diameter of the oil fume particles which was sedimentated in the kitchen is between 10-400 microm, the concentration peak value is between 10-100 microm. The diameter of oil fume aerosol is mostly smaller than 1 microm, while the concentration peak value is between 0.063-0.109 microm. In addition, the mass concentration peak value is between 6.560-9.990 microm. Through the analysis to the physical characteristics of oil fume from catering industry cooking emissions, the eigenvalue of the oil fume has been found and the feature matter for monitoring the oil fume has been discovered to provide a reasonable standard for controlling and monitoring the catering industry cooking emission.

  7. Use of GSR particle analysis program on an analytical SEM to identify sources of emission of airborne particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Y.C.; Trumper, J.; Bostrom, T.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: High concentrations of airborne particles, in particular PM 10 (particulate matter 10 , but has been little used in Australia for airborne particulates. Two sets of 15 mm PM 10 samples were collected in March and April 2000 from two sites in Brisbane, one within a suburb and one next to an arterial road. The particles were collected directly onto double-sided carbon tapes with a cascade impactor attached to a high-volume PM 10 sampler. The carbon tapes were analysed in a JEOL 840 SEM equipped with a Be-window energy-dispersive X-ray detector and Moran Scientific microanalysis system. An automated Gun Shot Residue (GSR) program was used together with backscattered electron imaging to characterise and analyse individual particulates. About 6,000 particles in total were analysed for each set of impactor samples. Due to limitations of useful pixel size, only particles larger than about 0.5 μm could be analysed. The size, shape and estimated elemental composition (from Na to Pb) of the particles were subjected to non-hierarchical cluster analysis and the characteristics of the clusters were related to their possible sources of emission. Both samples resulted in similar particle clusters. The particles could be classified into three main categories non-spherical (58% of the total number of analysed particles, shape factor >1 1), spherical (15%) and 'carbonaceous' (27%, ie with unexplained % of elemental mass >75%). Non-spherical particles were mainly sea salt and soil particles, and a small amount of iron, lead and mineral dust. The spherical particles were mainly sea salt particles and flyash, and a small amount of iron, lead and secondary sulphate dust. The carbonaceous particles included carbon material mixed with secondary aerosols, roadside dust, sea salt or industrial dust. The arterial road sample also contained more roadside dust and less secondary aerosols than the suburb sample. Current limitations with this method are the minimum particle size

  8. Studies of particle drying using non-invasive Raman spectrometry and particle size analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Peter; Littlejohn, David; Nordon, Alison; Sefcik, Jan; Slavin, Paul; Dallin, Paul; Andrews, John

    2011-05-21

    The evaporation of methanol from needle-shaped particles of cellobiose octaacetate (COA) has been studied directly in a jacketed vacuum drier using in situ measurements by Raman spectrometry. A design of experiments (DoE) approach was used to investigate the effects of three parameters (method of agitation, % solvent loss on drying and jacket temperature), with the intention of minimising the drying time and extent of particle attrition. Drying curves based on Raman signals for methanol and COA in the spectra of the wet particles indicated the end of drying and revealed three stages in the drying process that could be used to monitor the progress of solvent removal in real time. Off-line particle size measurements based on laser diffraction were made to obtain information on the extent of attrition, to compare with the trends revealed by the Raman drying curves. The study demonstrated that non-invasive Raman spectrometry can be used to study the progress of drying during agitation of particles in a vacuum drier, allowing optimisation of operating conditions to minimise attrition and reduce drying times. Although a correlation between particle size and off-line Raman measurements of COA was demonstrated, it was not possible to derive equivalent information from the in situ Raman spectra owing to the greater effects of particle motion or bulk density variations of the particles in the drier.

  9. Numerical Study of Particle Interaction in Gas-Particle and Liquid-Particle Flows: Part I Analysis and Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mohanarangam

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A detailed study into the turbulent behaviour of dilute particulate flow under the influence of two carrier phases namely gas and liquid has been carried out behind a sudden expansion geometry. The major endeavour of the study is to ascertain the response of the particles within the carrier (gas or liquid phase. The main aim prompting the current study is the density difference between the carrier and the dispersed phases. While the ratio is quite high in terms of the dispersed phase for the gas-particle flows, the ratio is far more less in terms of the liquid-particle flows. Numerical simulations were carried out for both these classes of flows using an Eulerian two-fluid model with RNG based k-emodel as the turbulent closure. An additional kinetic energy equation to better represent the combined fluid-particle behaviour is also employed in the current set of simulations. In the first part of this two part series, experimental results of Fessler and Eaton (1995 for Gas-Particle (GP flow and that of Founti and Klipfel (1998 for Liquid-Particle (LP flow have been compared and analysed. This forms the basis of the current study which aims to look at the particulate behaviour under the influence of two carrier phases. Further numerical simulations were carried out to test whether the current numerical formulation can used to simulate these varied type of flows and the same were validated against the experimental data of both GP as well LP flow. Qualitative results have been obtained for both these classes of flows with their respective experimental data both at the mean as well as at the turbulence level for carrier as well as the dispersed phases.

  10. Analysis of the dynamic interaction between SVOCs and airborne particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Cong; Shi, Shanshan; Weschler, Charles J.

    2013-01-01

    A proper quantitative understanding of the dynamic interaction between gas-phase semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) and airborne particles is important for human exposure assessment and risk evaluation. Questions regarding how to properly address gas/particle interactions have introduced...

  11. Some problems of calibration technique in charged particle activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasnov, N.N.; Zatolokin, B.V.; Konstantinov, I.O.

    1977-01-01

    It is shown that three different approaches to calibration technique based on the use of average cross-section, equivalent target thickness and thick target yield are adequate. Using the concept of thick target yield, a convenient charged particle activation equation is obtained. The possibility of simultaneous determination of two impurities, from which the same isotope is formed, is pointed out. The use of the concept of thick target yield facilitates the derivation of a simple formula for an absolute and comparative methods of analysis. The methodical error does not exceed 10%. Calibration technique and determination of expected sensitivity based on the thick target yield concept is also very convenient because experimental determination of thick target yield values is a much simpler procedure than getting activation curve or excitation function. (T.G.)

  12. Numerical analysis of wet separation of particles by density differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markauskas, D.; Kruggel-Emden, H.

    2017-07-01

    Wet particle separation is widely used in mineral processing and plastic recycling to separate mixtures of particulate materials into further usable fractions due to density differences. This work presents efforts aiming to numerically analyze the wet separation of particles with different densities. In the current study the discrete element method (DEM) is used for the solid phase while the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) is used for modeling of the liquid phase. The two phases are coupled by the use of a volume averaging technique. In the current study, simulations of spherical particle separation were performed. In these simulations, a set of generated particles with two different densities is dropped into a rectangular container filled with liquid. The results of simulations with two different mixtures of particles demonstrated how separation depends on the densities of particles.

  13. [Particle Size and Number Density Online Analysis for Particle Suspension with Polarization-Differentiation Elastic Light Scattering Spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-kang; Fang, Hui

    2016-03-01

    The basic principle of polarization-differentiation elastic light scattering spectroscopy based techniques is that under the linear polarized light incidence, the singlely scattered light from the superficial biological tissue and diffusively scattered light from the deep tissue can be separated according to the difference of polarization characteristics. The novel point of the paper is to apply this method to the detection of particle suspension and, to realize the simultaneous measurement of its particle size and number density in its natural status. We design and build a coaxial cage optical system, and measure the backscatter signal at a specified angle from a polystyrene microsphere suspension. By controlling the polarization direction of incident light with a linear polarizer and adjusting the polarization direction of collected light with another linear polarizer, we obtain the parallel polarized elastic light scattering spectrum and cross polarized elastic light scattering spectrum. The difference between the two is the differential polarized elastic light scattering spectrum which include only the single scattering information of the particles. We thus compare this spectrum to the Mie scattering calculation and extract the particle size. We then also analyze the cross polarized elastic light scattering spectrum by applying the particle size already extracted. The analysis is based on the approximate expressions taking account of light diffusing, from which we are able to obtain the number density of the particle suspension. We compare our experimental outcomes with the manufacturer-provided values and further analyze the influence of the particle diameter standard deviation on the number density extraction, by which we finally verify the experimental method. The potential applications of the method include the on-line particle quality monitoring for particle manufacture as well as the fat and protein density detection of milk products.

  14. Analysis of bubbly flow using particle image velocimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd, D.R.; Ortiz-Villafuerte, J.; Schmidl, W.D.; Hassan, Y.A. [Texas A and M University, Nuclear Engineering Dept., College Stagion, TX (United States); Sanchez-Silva, F. [ESIME, INP (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    The local phasic velocities can be determined in two-phase flows if the phases can be separated during analysis. The continuous liquid velocity field can be captured using standard Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) techniques in two-phase flows. PIV is now a well-established, standard flow measurement technique, which provides instantaneous velocity fields in a two-dimensional plane of finite thickness. PIV can be extended to three dimensions within the plane with special considerations. A three-dimensional shadow PIV (SPIV) measurement apparatus can be used to capture the dispersed phase flow parameters such as velocity and interfacial area. The SPIV images contain only the bubble images, and can be easily analyzed and the results used to separate the dispersed phase from the continuous phase in PIV data. An experimental system that combines the traditional PIV technique with SPIV will be described and sample data will be analyzed to demonstrate an advanced turbulence measurement method in a two-phase bubbly flow system. Also, a qualitative error analysis method that allows users to reduce the number of erroneous vectors obtained from the PIV measurements will be discussed. (authors)

  15. Analysis of bubbly flow using particle image velocimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd, D.R.; Ortiz-Villafuerte, J.; Schmidl, W.D.; Hassan, Y.A.; Sanchez-Silva, F.

    2001-01-01

    The local phasic velocities can be determined in two-phase flows if the phases can be separated during analysis. The continuous liquid velocity field can be captured using standard Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) techniques in two-phase flows. PIV is now a well-established, standard flow measurement technique, which provides instantaneous velocity fields in a two-dimensional plane of finite thickness. PIV can be extended to three dimensions within the plane with special considerations. A three-dimensional shadow PIV (SPIV) measurement apparatus can be used to capture the dispersed phase flow parameters such as velocity and interfacial area. The SPIV images contain only the bubble images, and can be easily analyzed and the results used to separate the dispersed phase from the continuous phase in PIV data. An experimental system that combines the traditional PIV technique with SPIV will be described and sample data will be analyzed to demonstrate an advanced turbulence measurement method in a two-phase bubbly flow system. Also, a qualitative error analysis method that allows users to reduce the number of erroneous vectors obtained from the PIV measurements will be discussed. (authors)

  16. Positron Emission Tomography Particle tracking using cluster analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gundogdu, O.

    2004-01-01

    Positron Emission Particle Tracking was successfully used in a wide range of industrial applications. This technique primarily uses a single positron emitting tracer particle. However, using multiple particles would provide more comparative information about the physical processes taking place in a system such as mixing or fluidised beds. In this paper, a unique method that enables us to track more than one particle is presented. This method is based on the midpoint of the closest distance between two trajectories or coincidence vectors. The technique presented in this paper employs a clustering method

  17. Positron Emission Tomography Particle tracking using cluster analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gundogdu, O. [University of Birmingham, School of Physics and Astronomy, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: o.gundogdu@surrey.ac.uk

    2004-12-01

    Positron Emission Particle Tracking was successfully used in a wide range of industrial applications. This technique primarily uses a single positron emitting tracer particle. However, using multiple particles would provide more comparative information about the physical processes taking place in a system such as mixing or fluidised beds. In this paper, a unique method that enables us to track more than one particle is presented. This method is based on the midpoint of the closest distance between two trajectories or coincidence vectors. The technique presented in this paper employs a clustering method.

  18. Polybutadiene latex particle size distribution analysis utilizing a disk centrifuge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdurmen, E.M.F.J.; Albers, J.G.; German, A.L.

    1994-01-01

    Polybutadiene (I) latexes prepd. by emulsifier-free emulsion polymn. and having particle diam. 50-300 nm for both unimodal and bimodal particles size distributions were analyzed by the line-start (LIST) method in a Brookhaven disk centrifuge photosedimentometer. A special spin fluid was designed to

  19. Nanotip analysis for dielectrophoretic concentration of nanosized viral particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Woon-Hong; Lee, Hyun-Boo; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Lee, Kyong-Hoon; Chung, Jae-Hyun

    2013-05-10

    Rapid and sensitive detection of low-abundance viral particles is strongly demanded in health care, environmental control, military defense, and homeland security. Current detection methods, however, lack either assay speed or sensitivity, mainly due to the nanosized viral particles. In this paper, we compare a dendritic, multi-terminal nanotip ('dendritic nanotip') with a single terminal nanotip ('single nanotip') for dielectrophoretic (DEP) concentration of viral particles. The numerical computation studies the concentration efficiency of viral particles ranging from 25 to 100 nm in radius for both nanotips. With DEP and Brownian motion considered, when the particle radius decreases by two times, the concentration time for both nanotips increases by 4-5 times. In the computational study, a dendritic nanotip shows about 1.5 times faster concentration than a single nanotip for the viral particles because the dendritic structure increases the DEP-effective area to overcome the Brownian motion. For the qualitative support of the numerical results, the comparison experiment of a dendritic nanotip and a single nanotip is conducted. Under 1 min of concentration time, a dendritic nanotip shows a higher sensitivity than a single nanotip. When the concentration time is 5 min, the sensitivity of a dendritic nanotip for T7 phage is 10(4) particles ml(-1). The dendritic nanotip-based concentrator has the potential for rapid identification of viral particles.

  20. Nanotip analysis for dielectrophoretic concentration of nanosized viral particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeo, Woon-Hong; Lee, Hyun-Boo; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Chung, Jae-Hyun; Lee, Kyong-Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Rapid and sensitive detection of low-abundance viral particles is strongly demanded in health care, environmental control, military defense, and homeland security. Current detection methods, however, lack either assay speed or sensitivity, mainly due to the nanosized viral particles. In this paper, we compare a dendritic, multi-terminal nanotip (‘dendritic nanotip’) with a single terminal nanotip (‘single nanotip’) for dielectrophoretic (DEP) concentration of viral particles. The numerical computation studies the concentration efficiency of viral particles ranging from 25 to 100 nm in radius for both nanotips. With DEP and Brownian motion considered, when the particle radius decreases by two times, the concentration time for both nanotips increases by 4–5 times. In the computational study, a dendritic nanotip shows about 1.5 times faster concentration than a single nanotip for the viral particles because the dendritic structure increases the DEP-effective area to overcome the Brownian motion. For the qualitative support of the numerical results, the comparison experiment of a dendritic nanotip and a single nanotip is conducted. Under 1 min of concentration time, a dendritic nanotip shows a higher sensitivity than a single nanotip. When the concentration time is 5 min, the sensitivity of a dendritic nanotip for T7 phage is 10 4 particles ml −1 . The dendritic nanotip-based concentrator has the potential for rapid identification of viral particles. (paper)

  1. DNA-magnetic Particle Binding Analysis by Dynamic and Electrophoretic Light Scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Yazan; Dostalova, Simona; Kudr, Jiri; Zitka, Ondrej; Heger, Zbynek; Adam, Vojtech

    2017-11-09

    Isolation of DNA using magnetic particles is a field of high importance in biotechnology and molecular biology research. This protocol describes the evaluation of DNA-magnetic particles binding via dynamic light scattering (DLS) and electrophoretic light scattering (ELS). Analysis by DLS provides valuable information on the physicochemical properties of particles including particle size, polydispersity, and zeta potential. The latter describes the surface charge of the particle which plays major role in electrostatic binding of materials such as DNA. Here, a comparative analysis exploits three chemical modifications of nanoparticles and microparticles and their effects on DNA binding and elution. Chemical modifications by branched polyethylenimine, tetraethyl orthosilicate and (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane are investigated. Since DNA exhibits a negative charge, it is expected that zeta potential of particle surface will decrease upon binding of DNA. Forming of clusters should also affect particle size. In order to investigate the efficiency of these particles in isolation and elution of DNA, the particles are mixed with DNA in low pH (~6), high ionic strength and dehydration environment. Particles are washed on magnet and then DNA is eluted by Tris-HCl buffer (pH = 8). DNA copy number is estimated using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Zeta potential, particle size, polydispersity and quantitative PCR data are evaluated and compared. DLS is an insightful and supporting method of analysis that adds a new perspective to the process of screening of particles for DNA isolation.

  2. Proteomic analysis of purified coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Dingming

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV is the coronavirus of domestic chickens causing major economic losses to the poultry industry. Because of the complexity of the IBV life cycle and the small number of viral structural proteins, important virus-host relationships likely remain to be discovered. Toward this goal, we performed two-dimensional gel electrophoresis fractionation coupled to mass spectrometry identification approaches to perform a comprehensive proteomic analysis of purified IBV particles. Results Apart from the virus-encoded structural proteins, we detected 60 host proteins in the purified virions which can be grouped into several functional categories including intracellular trafficking proteins (20%, molecular chaperone (18%, macromolcular biosynthesis proteins (17%, cytoskeletal proteins (15%, signal transport proteins (15%, protein degradation (8%, chromosome associated proteins (2%, ribosomal proteins (2%, and other function proteins (3%. Interestingly, 21 of the total host proteins have not been reported to be present in virions of other virus families, such as major vault protein, TENP protein, ovalbumin, and scavenger receptor protein. Following identification of the host proteins by proteomic methods, the presence of 4 proteins in the purified IBV preparation was verified by western blotting and immunogold labeling detection. Conclusions The results present the first standard proteomic profile of IBV and may facilitate the understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms.

  3. Particle analysis and differentiation using a photovoltaic cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Lung-Ming; Shu, Wei-En; Wang, Yao-Nan

    2012-01-01

    A method is proposed for the sizing and counting of fluorescent and non-fluorescent particles of various sizes on a poly-dimethylsiloxane microchip. In the proposed approach, the detection region of the microchip is illuminated by a laser, which is then incident on a power-free photovoltaic cell. As the particles (both fluorescent and non-fluorescent) pass through the detection region, they block the laser beam, causing a reduction in the output voltage of the cell. The voltage signal is interfaced to a PC and is used to determine both the size and the number of the particles. Meanwhile, the fluorescence signal generated by the fluorescent particles within the sample is detected by an avalanche photodetector and is used to differentiate between the fluorescent and non-fluorescent particles in the sample. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is demonstrated using fluorescent-labeled beads with means diameters of 5, 8 and 10 µm, respectively, and unlabeled beads with a mean diameter of 7.2 µm. The experimental results confirm that the forward scattered light signal generated by the photovoltaic cell enables both the size and the number of the particles to be reliably determined. Moreover, it is shown that the number of non-fluorescent particles within the sample can be easily determined by comparing the signals received from the photovoltaic cell and avalanche photodetector, respectively. (paper)

  4. Single particle transfer for quantitative analysis with total-reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esaka, Fumitaka; Esaka, Konomi T.; Magara, Masaaki; Sakurai, Satoshi; Usuda, Shigekazu; Watanabe, Kazuo

    2006-01-01

    The technique of single particle transfer was applied to quantitative analysis with total-reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectrometry. The technique was evaluated by performing quantitative analysis of individual Cu particles with diameters between 3.9 and 13.2 μm. The direct quantitative analysis of the Cu particle transferred onto a Si carrier gave a discrepancy between measured and calculated Cu amounts due to the absorption effects of incident and fluorescent X-rays within the particle. By the correction for the absorption effects, the Cu amounts in individual particles could be determined with the deviation within 10.5%. When the Cu particles were dissolved with HNO 3 solution prior to the TXRF analysis, the deviation was improved to be within 3.8%. In this case, no correction for the absorption effects was needed for quantification

  5. Study of talcum charging status in parallel plate electrostatic separator based on particle trajectory analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunxiao, CAO; Zhiqiang, WANG; Jinjun, WANG; Guofeng, LI

    2018-05-01

    Electrostatic separation has been extensively used in mineral processing, and has the potential to separate gangue minerals from raw talcum ore. As for electrostatic separation, the particle charging status is one of important influence factors. To describe the talcum particle charging status in a parallel plate electrostatic separator accurately, this paper proposes a modern images processing method. Based on the actual trajectories obtained from sequence images of particle movement and the analysis of physical forces applied on a charged particle, a numerical model is built, which could calculate the charge-to-mass ratios represented as the charging status of particle and simulate the particle trajectories. The simulated trajectories agree well with the experimental results obtained by images processing. In addition, chemical composition analysis is employed to reveal the relationship between ferrum gangue mineral content and charge-to-mass ratios. Research results show that the proposed method is effective for describing the particle charging status in electrostatic separation.

  6. Effect of particle size on laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy analysis of alumina suspension in liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Rosado, José Carlos; L'hermite, Daniel; Levi, Yves

    2012-01-01

    The analysis by Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) was proposed for the detection and the quantification of different elements in water even when the analyte is composed of particles in suspension. We have studied the effect of particle size on the LIBS signal during liquid analysis. In our study we used different particle sizes (from 2 μm to 90 μm) of Al 2 O 3 in suspension in water. The results were compared to the signal obtained in the case of dissolved aluminum. In the case of particles, a linear correlation between the LIBS signal versus concentration was found but a significant decrease in the slope of the calibration curve was found when the particle size increased. Several hypotheses have been tested and only a partial ablation of the particles might explain this decrease in signal intensity. This effect probably does not occur at smaller particle size. We estimated 860 nm/pulse as ablated thickness from the top of the particle. A statistical analysis over all data obtained allowed us to calculate 100 μm as ablated water column depth. - Highlights: ► We have identified a decrease of calibration curve when particle size increases. ► Partial particle ablation has been identified as the origin of this effect. ► The ablation rate on Al 2 O 3 particles in suspension in water has been estimated. ► We can determine the deepness of the interaction volume into the liquid.

  7. Empirically characteristic analysis of chaotic PID controlling particle swarm optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Danping; Lu, Yongzhong; Zhou, Min; Chen, Shiping; Levy, David

    2017-01-01

    Since chaos systems generally have the intrinsic properties of sensitivity to initial conditions, topological mixing and density of periodic orbits, they may tactfully use the chaotic ergodic orbits to achieve the global optimum or their better approximation to given cost functions with high probability. During the past decade, they have increasingly received much attention from academic community and industry society throughout the world. To improve the performance of particle swarm optimization (PSO), we herein propose a chaotic proportional integral derivative (PID) controlling PSO algorithm by the hybridization of chaotic logistic dynamics and hierarchical inertia weight. The hierarchical inertia weight coefficients are determined in accordance with the present fitness values of the local best positions so as to adaptively expand the particles’ search space. Moreover, the chaotic logistic map is not only used in the substitution of the two random parameters affecting the convergence behavior, but also used in the chaotic local search for the global best position so as to easily avoid the particles’ premature behaviors via the whole search space. Thereafter, the convergent analysis of chaotic PID controlling PSO is under deep investigation. Empirical simulation results demonstrate that compared with other several chaotic PSO algorithms like chaotic PSO with the logistic map, chaotic PSO with the tent map and chaotic catfish PSO with the logistic map, chaotic PID controlling PSO exhibits much better search efficiency and quality when solving the optimization problems. Additionally, the parameter estimation of a nonlinear dynamic system also further clarifies its superiority to chaotic catfish PSO, genetic algorithm (GA) and PSO. PMID:28472050

  8. Phenomenological and Astro-particle analysis of light dark matter particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albornoz Vasquez, D.

    2011-09-01

    The nature of Dark Matter (DM) is still unveiled. Experimental efforts aiming to detect the Dark Matter have shown a great progress in the last decade. This work is devoted to the phenomenological and astro-particle studies of Dark Matter candidates of supersymmetric nature - the neutralino - and beyond - scalar particles. The former, in the (1-100) GeV mass range, is currently being tested by the Large Hadron Collider, direct detection and indirect detection experiments; this work shows that the interplay between experimental techniques is a decisive tool to thoroughly search for theoretical predictions. The latter is a non-standard candidate as light as 1 MeV which could be copiously produced at the Large Hadron Collider and, at the same time, it could explain other phenomena such as neutrino masses and/or the 511 keV line from the galactic center of the Milky Way. We start by describing the DM problem in Part I, where we give a review for evidence of the existence of DM, we set the cosmological framework in which we work and describe the history of DM from the Early Universe (EU), to the formation of structure and up to the current distribution of the DM in haloes. Then, in Part II, we go through the important Cosmological, Astro-particle and Particle Physics constraints to particle DM candidates and subsequently introduce models providing relatively light DM candidates, models of standard supersymmetric nature such as the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) and the Next-to-MSSM (NMSSM) with neutralino DM, and beyond N=1 SUSY in a light scalar DM scenario inspired in N=2 SUSY. Finally, in Part III we present the findings of the investigations carried out: we describe a numerical tool developed to scan the multidimensional supersymmetric parameter space, then we present an application of this tool to the search of light neutralino configurations in the MSSM and NMSSM as well as an application to the search for neutralino DM in directional detectors, and

  9. Electrokinetic Particle Transport in Micro-Nanofluidics Direct Numerical Simulation Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Qian, Shizhi

    2012-01-01

    Numerous applications of micro-/nanofluidics are related to particle transport in micro-/nanoscale channels, and electrokinetics has proved to be one of the most promising tools to manipulate particles in micro/nanofluidics. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of electrokinetic particle transport in micro-/nanoscale channels is crucial to the development of micro/nano-fluidic devices. Electrokinetic Particle Transport in Micro-/Nanofluidics: Direct Numerical Simulation Analysis provides a fundamental understanding of electrokinetic particle transport in micro-/nanofluidics involving elect

  10. Parallelization and scheduling of data intensive particle physics analysis jobs on clusters of PCs

    CERN Document Server

    Ponce, S

    2004-01-01

    Summary form only given. Scheduling policies are proposed for parallelizing data intensive particle physics analysis applications on computer clusters. Particle physics analysis jobs require the analysis of tens of thousands of particle collision events, each event requiring typically 200ms processing time and 600KB of data. Many jobs are launched concurrently by a large number of physicists. At a first view, particle physics jobs seem to be easy to parallelize, since particle collision events can be processed independently one from another. However, since large amounts of data need to be accessed, the real challenge resides in making an efficient use of the underlying computing resources. We propose several job parallelization and scheduling policies aiming at reducing job processing times and at increasing the sustainable load of a cluster server. Since particle collision events are usually reused by several jobs, cache based job splitting strategies considerably increase cluster utilization and reduce job ...

  11. Lagrangian analysis of multiscale particulate flows with the particle finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oñate, Eugenio; Celigueta, Miguel Angel; Latorre, Salvador; Casas, Guillermo; Rossi, Riccardo; Rojek, Jerzy

    2014-05-01

    We present a Lagrangian numerical technique for the analysis of flows incorporating physical particles of different sizes. The numerical approach is based on the particle finite element method (PFEM) which blends concepts from particle-based techniques and the FEM. The basis of the Lagrangian formulation for particulate flows and the procedure for modelling the motion of small and large particles that are submerged in the fluid are described in detail. The numerical technique for analysis of this type of multiscale particulate flows using a stabilized mixed velocity-pressure formulation and the PFEM is also presented. Examples of application of the PFEM to several particulate flows problems are given.

  12. Analysis of charged particle induced reactions for beam monitor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surendra Babu, K. [IOP, Academia Sinica, Taipe, Taiwan (China); Lee, Young-Ouk [Nuclear Data Evaluation Laboratory, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Korea, Republic of); Mukherjee, S., E-mail: smukherjee_msuphy@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, M.S. University of Baroda, Vadodara 390 002 (India)

    2012-07-15

    The reaction cross sections for different residual nuclides produced in the charged particle (p, d, {sup 3}He and {alpha}) induced reactions were calculated and compared with the existing experimental data which are important for beam monitoring and medical diagnostic applications. A detailed literature compilation and comparison were made on the available data sets for the above reactions. These calculations were carried out using the statistical model code TALYS up to 100 MeV, which contains Kalbach's latest systematic for the emission of complex particles and complex particle-induced reactions. All optical model calculations were performed by ECIS-03, which is built into TALYS. The level density, optical model potential parameters were adjusted to get the better description of experimental data. Various pre-equilibrium models were used in the present calculations with default parameters.

  13. Particle size analysis in estimating the significance of airborne contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    In this report information on pertinent methods and techniques for analysing particle size distributions is compiled. The principles underlying the measurement methods are described, and the merits of different methods in relation to the information being sought and to their usefulness in the laboratory and in the field are explained. Descriptions on sampling methods, gravitational and inertial particle separation methods, electrostatic sizing devices, diffusion batteries, optical sizing techniques and autoradiography are included. Finally, the report considers sampling for respirable activity and problems related to instrument calibration

  14. Video tracking and post-mortem analysis of dust particles from all tungsten ASDEX Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endstrasser, N., E-mail: Nikolaus.Endstrasser@ipp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Insitut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Brochard, F. [Institut Jean Lamour, Nancy-Universite, Bvd. des Aiguillettes, F-54506 Vandoeuvre (France); Rohde, V., E-mail: Volker.Rohde@ipp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Insitut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Balden, M. [Max-Planck-Insitut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Lunt, T.; Bardin, S.; Briancon, J.-L. [Institut Jean Lamour, Nancy-Universite, Bvd. des Aiguillettes, F-54506 Vandoeuvre (France); Neu, R. [Max-Planck-Insitut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2011-08-01

    2D dust particle trajectories are extracted from fast framing camera videos of ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) by a new time- and resource-efficient code and classified into stationary hot spots, single-frame events and real dust particle fly-bys. Using hybrid global and local intensity thresholding and linear trajectory extrapolation individual particles could be tracked up to 80 ms. Even under challenging conditions such as high particle density and strong vacuum vessel illumination all particles detected for more than 50 frames are tracked correctly. During campaign 2009 dust has been trapped on five silicon wafer dust collectors strategically positioned within the vacuum vessel of the full tungsten AUG. Characterisation of the outer morphology and determination of the elemental composition of 5 x 10{sup 4} particles were performed via automated SEM-EDX analysis. A dust classification scheme based on these parameters was defined with the goal to link the particles to their most probable production sites.

  15. Isotope analysis of micro metal particles by adopting laser-ablation mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Kyu Seok; Ha, Young Kyung; Han, Sun Ho; Park, Yong Joon; Kim, Won Ho

    2005-01-01

    The isotope analysis of microparticles in environmental samples as well as laboratory samples is an important task. A special concern is necessary in particle analysis of swipe samples. Micro particles are normally analyzed either by dissolving particles in the solvents and adopting conventional analytical methods or direct analysis method such as a laser-ablation ICP mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), SIMS, and SNMS (sputtered neutral mass spectrometry). But the LA-ICPMS uses large amount of samples because normally laser beam is tightly focused on the target particle for the complete ablation. The SIMS and SNMS utilize ion beams for the generation of sample ions from the particle. But the number of ions generated by an ion beam is less than 5% of the total generated particles in SIMS. The SNMS is also an excellent analytical technique for particle analysis, however, ion beam and frequency tunable laser system are required for the analysis. Recently a direct analysis of elements as well as isotopes by using laser-ablation is recognized one of the most efficient detection technology for particle samples. The laser-ablation mass spectrometry requires only one laser source without frequency tuneability with no sample pretreatment. Therefore this technique is one of the simplest analysis techniques for solid samples as well as particles. In this study as a part of the development of the new isotope analysis techniques for particles samples, a direct laser-ablation is adopted with mass spectrometry. Zinc and gadolinium were chosen as target samples, since these elements have isotopes with minor abundance (0.62% for Zn, and 0.2% for Gd). The preliminary result indicates that isotopes of these two elements are analyzed within 10% of natural abundance with good mass resolution by using direct laser-ablation mass spectrometry

  16. Analysis of three particle correlations with the INDRA detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahmani, A.; Eudes, Ph.; Lautridou, P.; Lebrun, C.; Reposeur, T.

    1997-01-01

    In the framework of the study of light particle production with the INDRA detector, we have analysed the invariant mass distribution of three particles produced in the Xe + Sn collisions at 50 A.MeV making use of an original interferometric method which offers the possibilities to access the intrinsic parameters of intermediate 'resonances' created during the nuclear collisions. By analyzing the correlations of (α,α,α) it was possible to make evident a signal equivalent to that from 12 C. The study of this signal allows: - to estimate the production rate of αs coming from the 12 C * decay; - accordingly, to introduce a correction for α multiplicity measured by INDRA; - to extract the temperature of the emitting fragment ( 12 C * ); to establish the sequential or direct decay mode of the emitting fragments ( 12 C * → α + 8 Be → α + α + α or 12 C * → α + α + α). Thus, the measured signal is an apparent consequence of the occurrence of the intermediate fragments excited in a metastable state from which the particles are emitted. The emission rate of the α particles coming from the decay of these fragments is estimated to several percents (< 10 %)

  17. Some peculiarity of element analysis using charged particle beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobzev, A.P.; Abu-Alazm, S.M.; Helal, A.I.; Zahran, N.F.

    2002-01-01

    Multilayer structures, SiC -layers at Si substrate, have been analyzed by RBS, NR, ERD and PIXE methods using the charged particle beams from EG-5 Van de Graaff accelerator of JINR. The depth profiles of the based deposited layers were obtained for the multilayer structures

  18. Nuclear microprobe analysis and source apportionment of individual atmospheric aerosol particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artaxo, P.; Rabello, M.L.C.; Watt, F.; Grime, G.; Swietlicki, E.

    1993-01-01

    In atmospheric aerosol reserach, one key issue is to determine the sources of the airborne particles. Bulk PIXE analysis coupled with receptor modeling provides a useful, but limited view of the aerosol sources influencing one particular site or sample. The scanning nuclear microprobe (SNM) technique is a microanalytical technique that gives unique information on individual aerosol particles. In the SNM analyses a 1.0 μm size 2.4 MeV proton beam from the Oxford SNM was used. The trace elements with Z>11 were measured by the particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) method with detection limits in the 1-10 ppm range. Carbon, nitrogen and oxygen are measured simultaneously using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS). Atmospheric aerosol particles were collected at the Brazilian Antarctic Station and at biomass burning sites in the Amazon basin tropical rain forest in Brazil. In the Antarctic samples, the sea-salt aerosol particles were clearly predominating, with NaCl and CaSO 4 as major compounds with several trace elements as Al, Si, P, K, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Sr, and Pb. Factor analysis of the elemental data showed the presence of four components: 1) Soil dust particles; 2) NaCl particles; 3) CaSO 4 with Sr; and 4) Br and Mg. Strontium, observed at 20-100 ppm levels, was always present in the CaSO 4 particles. The hierarchical cluster procedure gave results similar to the ones obtained through factor analysis. For the tropical rain forest biomass burning aerosol emissions, biogenic particles with a high organic content dominate the particle population, while K, P, Ca, Mg, Zn, and Si are the dominant elements. Zinc at 10-200 ppm is present in biogenic particles rich in P and K. The quantitative aspects and excellent detection limits make SNM analysis of individual aerosol particles a very powerful analytical tool. (orig.)

  19. Physical aspects of quantitative particles analysis by X-ray fluorescence and electron microprobe techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markowicz, A.

    1986-01-01

    The aim of this work is to present both physical fundamentals and recent advances in quantitative particles analysis by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and electron microprobe (EPXMA) techniques. A method of correction for the particle-size effect in XRF analysis is described and theoretically evaluated. New atomic number- and absorption correction procedures in EPXMA of individual particles are proposed. The applicability of these two correction methods is evaluated for a wide range of elemental composition, X-ray energy and sample thickness. Also, a theoretical model for composition and thickness dependence of Bremsstrahlung background generated in multielement bulk specimens as well as thin films and particles are presented and experimantally evaluated. Finally, the limitations and further possible improvements in quantitative particles analysis by XFR and EPXMA are discussed. 109 refs. (author)

  20. Particle orbit analysis for LHD helical axis configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guasp, J.; Yamazaki, K.; Motojima, O.

    1993-04-01

    Fast ion orbits for helical magnetic axis configurations in LHD (Large Helical Device) are analyzed and compared with the standard circular axis case. Boundaries between passing and helically trapped particle regions show clear differences: in the non-planar axis case the helically trapped region spreads, near the magnetic axis, over a much wider band across the 90deg pitch angle value and shows a very marked asymmetry. The locally trapped particle region is also wider than in the standard case. The differences in the loss cone boundaries of the two cases are rather small, however, the effects of re-entering criteria are very important in both cases. On the contrary, effects of finite coil size are not significant. (author)

  1. An approach for automated analysis of particle holograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, A. C.; Caulfield, H. J.; Stewart, G. W.

    1984-01-01

    A simple method for analyzing droplet holograms is proposed that is readily adaptable to automation using modern image digitizers and analyzers for determination of the number, location, and size distributions of spherical or nearly spherical droplets. The method determines these parameters by finding the spatial location of best focus of the droplet images. With this location known, the particle size may be determined by direct measurement of image area in the focal plane. Particle velocity and trajectory may be determined by comparison of image locations at different instants in time. The method is tested by analyzing digitized images from a reconstructed in-line hologram, and the results show that the method is more accurate than a time-consuming plane-by-plane search for sharpest focus.

  2. Quantitative Image Analysis for Evaluating the Coating Thickness and Pore Distribution in Coated Small Particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laksmana, F L; Van Vliet, L J; Hartman Kok, P J A; Vromans, H; Frijlink, H W; Van der Voort Maarschalk, K

    This study aims to develop a characterization method for coating structure based on image analysis, which is particularly promising for the rational design of coated particles in the pharmaceutical industry. The method applies the MATLAB image processing toolbox to images of coated particles taken

  3. Effect of feed processing on size of (washed) faeces particles from pigs measured by image analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Peder; Kornfelt, Louise Foged; Hansen, Christian Fink

    2005-01-01

    of particles from the sieving fractions were scanned and the length and width of individual particles were identified using image analysis software. The overall mean, mode and median were estimated from a composite function. The dietary physical characteristics significantly affected the proportion of faecal...

  4. Analysis of clay particles behaviour during hydration-dehydration processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maison, T.; Laouafa, F.; Delalain, P.; Fleureau, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The knowledge of the physico-chemical processes at a local (micro) level during the shrinkage or the swelling processes of clayey materials is an essential step to characterise the ability of such soils to shrink or to swell. In order to better understand these phenomena, we performed research at microscopic levels using mainly an Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (ESEM). This apparatus allows exploring some features of the behaviour and physical properties of clays subjected to controlled hygrometry conditions. The observations were performed on an heterogeneous natural clay, the Romainville clay. This clay, showing a sensitive behavior to shrinkage and swelling, is taken in situ from affected site by the drought. This site is well monitored. This clay was characterised by classical geotechnical laboratory tests (mercury porosimetry, X-Ray diffraction, grain size analysis...). Microstructure observations are done on cubic samples of 1 cm side. Swelling-shrinkage cycles are done on clay powder with grain sizes between 63 μm and 125 μm. The microstructure shows a compact clayey matrix with small calcite and quartz grains. Calcite may be present in veins form, due to sedimentation or pressure-dissolution effect. At high humidity value around 98%, moulds are observed on the totality of sample surface. During swelling-shrinkage cycles, surface sample changes are real time followed. Hydratation-dehydration cycles are imposed with a time of 30 minutes (considered as sufficient to reach steady state). The sample deformation induced by swelling and shrinkage is calculated by analyzing 2D ESEM images and assuming isotropic behaviour for the out of plane strain. The result shows a kinetics of swelling and shrinkage which can be decomposed into two successive phases. At each change of relative humidity, the first step is characterized by a discontinuity (jump) in the deformation, followed by a quite constant strain

  5. VOLUME STUDY WITH HIGH DENSITY OF PARTICLES BASED ON CONTOUR AND CORRELATION IMAGE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Yu. Nikolaeva

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The subject of study is the techniques of particle statistics evaluation, in particular, processing methods of particle images obtained by coherent illumination. This paper considers the problem of recognition and statistical accounting for individual images of small scattering particles in an arbitrary section of the volume in case of high concentrations. For automatic recognition of focused particles images, a special algorithm for statistical analysis based on contouring and thresholding was used. By means of the mathematical formalism of the scalar diffraction theory, coherent images of the particles formed by the optical system with high numerical aperture were simulated. Numerical testing of the method proposed for the cases of different concentrations and distributions of particles in the volume was performed. As a result, distributions of density and mass fraction of the particles were obtained, and the efficiency of the method in case of different concentrations of particles was evaluated. At high concentrations, the effect of coherent superposition of the particles from the adjacent planes strengthens, which makes it difficult to recognize images of particles using the algorithm considered in the paper. In this case, we propose to supplement the method with calculating the cross-correlation function of particle images from adjacent segments of the volume, and evaluating the ratio between the height of the correlation peak and the height of the function pedestal in the case of different distribution characters. The method of statistical accounting of particles considered in this paper is of practical importance in the study of volume with particles of different nature, for example, in problems of biology and oceanography. Effective work in the regime of high concentrations expands the limits of applicability of these methods for practically important cases and helps to optimize determination time of the distribution character and

  6. Feed particle size evaluation: conventional approach versus digital holography based image analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Dell’Orto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the application of image analysis approach based on digital holography in defining particle size in comparison with the sieve shaker method (sieving method as reference method. For this purpose ground corn meal was analyzed by a sieve shaker Retsch VS 1000 and by image analysis approach based on digital holography. Particle size from digital holography were compared with results obtained by screen (sieving analysis for each of size classes by a cumulative distribution plot. Comparison between particle size values obtained by sieving method and image analysis indicated that values were comparable in term of particle size information, introducing a potential application for digital holography and image analysis in feed industry.

  7. Number and mass analysis of particles emitted by aircraft engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasiński Remigiusz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Exhaust emissions from aircraft is a complex issue because of the limited possibility of measurements in flight conditions. Most of the studies on this subject were performed on the basis of stationary test. Engine certification data is used to calculate total emissions generated by air transport. However, it doesnt provide any information about the local effects of air traffic. The main threat to local communities is particulate matter emissions, which adversely affects human health. Emissions from air transport affect air quality, particularly in the vicinity of the airports; it also contributes to the greenhouse effect. The article presents the measurement results of the concentration and size distribution of particles emitted during aircraft landing operation. Measurements were carried out during the landings of aircraft at a civilian airport. It was found that a single landing operation causes particle number concentration value increase of several ten-fold in a short period of time. Using aircraft engine certification data, the methodology for determination of the total number of particles emitted during a single landing operation was introduced.

  8. Tracking of macroscopic particle motions generated by a turbulent wind via digital image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccone, A. D.; Kawall, J. G.; Keffer, J. F.

    A novel technique utilizing the basic principles of two-dimensional signal analysis and artificial intelligence/computer vision to reconstruct the Lagrangian particle trajectories from flow visualization images of macroparticle motions in a turbulent boundary layer is presented. Since, in most cases, the entire trajectory of a particle could not be viewed in one photographic frame (the particles were moving at a high velocity over a small field of view), a stochastic model was developed to complete the trajectories and obtain statistical data on particle velocities. The associated programs were implemented on a Cray supercomputer to optimize computational costs and time.

  9. Free vibration analysis of linear particle chain impact damper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharib, Mohamed; Ghani, Saud

    2013-11-01

    Impact dampers have gained much research interest over the past decades that resulted in several analytical and experimental studies being conducted in that area. The main emphasis of such research was on developing and enhancing these popular passive control devices with an objective of decreasing the three parameters of contact forces, accelerations, and noise levels. To that end, the authors of this paper have developed a novel impact damper, called the Linear Particle Chain (LPC) impact damper, which mainly consists of a linear chain of spherical balls of varying sizes. The LPC impact damper was designed utilizing the kinetic energy of the primary system through placing, in the chain arrangement, a small-sized ball between each two large-sized balls. The concept of the LPC impact damper revolves around causing the small-sized ball to collide multiple times with the larger ones upon exciting the primary system. This action is believed to lead to the dissipation of part of the kinetic energy at each collision with the large balls. This paper focuses on the outcome of studying the free vibration of a single degree freedom system that is equipped with the LPC impact damper. The proposed LPC impact damper is validated by means of comparing the responses of a single unit conventional impact damper with those resulting from the LPC impact damper. The results indicated that the latter is considerably more efficient than the former impact damper. In order to further investigate the LPC impact damper effective number of balls and efficient geometry when used in a specific available space in the primary system, a parametric study was conducted and its result is also explained herein. Single unit impact damper [14-16]. Multiunit impact damper [17,18]. Bean bag impact damper [19,20]. Particle/granular impact damper [21,23,22]. Resilient impact damper [24]. Buffered impact damper [25-27]. Multiunit impact damper consists of multiple masses instead of a single mass. This

  10. Localization and force analysis at the single virus particle level using atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chih-Hao; Horng, Jim-Tong; Chang, Jeng-Shian; Hsieh, Chung-Fan; Tseng, You-Chen; Lin, Shiming

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Localization of single virus particle. ► Force measurements. ► Force mapping. -- Abstract: Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a vital instrument in nanobiotechnology. In this study, we developed a method that enables AFM to simultaneously measure specific unbinding force and map the viral glycoprotein at the single virus particle level. The average diameter of virus particles from AFM images and the specificity between the viral surface antigen and antibody probe were integrated to design a three-stage method that sets the measuring area to a single virus particle before obtaining the force measurements, where the influenza virus was used as the object of measurements. Based on the purposed method and performed analysis, several findings can be derived from the results. The mean unbinding force of a single virus particle can be quantified, and no significant difference exists in this value among virus particles. Furthermore, the repeatability of the proposed method is demonstrated. The force mapping images reveal that the distributions of surface viral antigens recognized by antibody probe were dispersed on the whole surface of individual virus particles under the proposed method and experimental criteria; meanwhile, the binding probabilities are similar among particles. This approach can be easily applied to most AFM systems without specific components or configurations. These results help understand the force-based analysis at the single virus particle level, and therefore, can reinforce the capability of AFM to investigate a specific type of viral surface protein and its distributions.

  11. Analysis of unstable secondary particles produced in jet of 30 TeV energy sum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogata, Takeshi

    1978-01-01

    High energy jet shower with energy sum of about 30 TeV has been obtained in the airplane-bone emulsion chamber. The size of the emulsion chamber was 20 cm x 25 cm x 12 cm. The airplane altitude was 260 g/cm 2 , and the exposure time was 600 hours. In this experiment, two jet events were found, and one of two events, KG-7, was the largest obtained so far. Three secondary charged particles produced by high energy interaction were analysed in detail. The analysis indicated that three charged particles seemed to be created by the decay of an unstable secondary particle. The lifetime of the unstable particle was estimated to be 10 -3 - 10 -14 sec, and this particle seems to be a charm particle. (Yoshimori, M.)

  12. Motion analysis of optically trapped particles and cells using 2D Fourier analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Martin Verner; Ahrendt, Peter; Lindballe, Thue Bjerring

    2012-01-01

    Motion analysis of optically trapped objects is demonstrated using a simple 2D Fourier transform technique. The displacements of trapped objects are determined directly from the phase shift between the Fourier transform of subsequent images. Using end-and side-view imaging, the stiffness...... of the trap is determined in three dimensions. The Fourier transform method is simple to implement and applicable in cases where the trapped object changes shape or where the lighting conditions change. This is illustrated by tracking a fluorescent particle and a myoblast cell, with subsequent determination...

  13. Effect of particle size on laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy analysis of alumina suspension in liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz Rosado, Jose Carlos [CEA, DEN, SEARS, LANIE, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Univ. Paris Sud, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Public Health and Environment UMR 8079, 5 rue J.B. Clement, 92296 Chatenay-Malabry (France); National University of Engineering, Faculty of Science, P.O. Box 31-139, Av. Tupac Amaru 210, Lima (Peru); L' hermite, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.lhermite@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, SEARS, LANIE, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Levi, Yves [Univ. Paris Sud, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Public Health and Environment UMR 8079, 5 rue J.B. Clement, 92296 Chatenay-Malabry (France)

    2012-08-15

    The analysis by Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) was proposed for the detection and the quantification of different elements in water even when the analyte is composed of particles in suspension. We have studied the effect of particle size on the LIBS signal during liquid analysis. In our study we used different particle sizes (from 2 {mu}m to 90 {mu}m) of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} in suspension in water. The results were compared to the signal obtained in the case of dissolved aluminum. In the case of particles, a linear correlation between the LIBS signal versus concentration was found but a significant decrease in the slope of the calibration curve was found when the particle size increased. Several hypotheses have been tested and only a partial ablation of the particles might explain this decrease in signal intensity. This effect probably does not occur at smaller particle size. We estimated 860 nm/pulse as ablated thickness from the top of the particle. A statistical analysis over all data obtained allowed us to calculate 100 {mu}m as ablated water column depth. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We have identified a decrease of calibration curve when particle size increases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Partial particle ablation has been identified as the origin of this effect. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ablation rate on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles in suspension in water has been estimated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We can determine the deepness of the interaction volume into the liquid.

  14. Analysis of the particle stability in a new designed ultrasonic levitation device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Sebastian; Andrade, Marco A B; Esen, Cemal; Adamowski, Julio Cezar; Schweiger, Gustav; Ostendorf, Andreas

    2011-10-01

    The use of acoustic levitation in the fields of analytical chemistry and in the containerless processing of materials requires a good stability of the levitated particle. However, spontaneous oscillations and rotation of the levitated particle have been reported in literature, which can reduce the applicability of the acoustic levitation technique. Aiming to reduce the particle oscillations, this paper presents the analysis of the particle stability in a new acoustic levitator device. The new acoustic levitator consists of a piezoelectric transducer with a concave radiating surface and a concave reflector. The analysis is conducted by determining numerically the axial and lateral forces that act on the levitated object and by measuring the oscillations of a sphere particle by a laser Doppler vibrometer. It is shown that the new levitator design allows to increase the lateral forces and reduce significantly the lateral oscillations of the levitated object.

  15. Meta-Analysis inside and outside Particle Physics: Convergence Using the Path of Least Resistance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Dan; Baker, Rose

    2013-01-01

    In this note, we explain how the method proposed by Hartung and Knapp provides a compromise between conventional meta-analysis methodology and "unconstrained averaging", as used by the Particle Data Group.

  16. Charged particle induced energy dispersive X-ray analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, S.A.E.

    1979-01-01

    This review article deals with the X-ray emission induced by heavy, charged particles and the use of this process as an analytical method (PIXE). The physical processes involved, X-ray emission and the various reactions contributing to the background, are described in some detail. The sensitivity is calculated theoretically and the results compared with practical experience. A discussion is given on how the sensitivity can be optimized. The experimental arrangements are described and the various technical problems discussed. The analytical procedure, especially the sample preparation, is described in considerable detail. A number of typical practical applications are discussed. (author)

  17. Single particle analysis of eastern Mediterranean aerosol particles: Influence of the source region on the chemical composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemen, Hans-Christian; Schneider, Johannes; Köllner, Franziska; Klimach, Thomas; Pikridas, Michael; Stavroulas, Iasonas; Sciare, Jean; Borrmann, Stephan

    2017-04-01

    The Mediterranean region is one of the most climatically sensitive areas and is influenced by air masses of different origin. Aerosol particles are one important factor contributing to the Earth's radiative forcing, but knowledge about their composition and sources is still limited. Here, we report on results from the INUIT-BACCHUS-ACTRIS campaign, which was conducted at the Cyprus Atmospheric Observatory (CAO, Agia Marina Xyliatou) in Cyprus in April 2016. Our results show that the chemical composition of the aerosol particles in the eastern Mediterranean is strongly dependent on their source region. The composition of particles in a size range between 150 nm and 3 μm was measured using the Aircraft-based Laser ABlation Aerosol MAss spectrometer (ALABAMA), which is a single particle laser ablation instrument using a bipolar time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The mass spectral information on cations and anions allow for the analysis of different molecular fragments. The information about the source regions results from backward trajectories using HYSPLIT Trajectory Model (Trajectory Ensemble) on hourly basis. To assess the influence of certain source regions on the air masses arriving at CAO, we consider the number of trajectories that crossed the respective source region within defined time steps. For a more detailed picture also the height and the velocity of the air masses during their overpass above the source regions will be considered. During the campaign at CAO in April 2016 three main air mass source regions were observed: 1) Northern Central Europe, likely with an enhanced anthropogenic influence (e.g. sulfate and black carbon from combustion processes, fly ash particles from power plants, characterized by Sr and Ba), 2) Southwest Europe, with a higher influence of the Mediterranean Sea including sea salt particles (characterized by, e.g., NaxCly, NaClxNOy), 3) Northern Africa/Sahara, with air masses that are expected to have a higher load of mineral dust

  18. Particle filters on light diesel vehicles - a socio-economic analysis on the introduction of particle filters; Partikelfiltre pae lette dieselkoeretoejer - en samfundsoekonomisk analyse af fremskyndelse af partikelfiltre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohl, M.; Larsen, Thommy; Carlsen, Kirsten; Mulvad Jeppesen, L.

    2006-09-15

    Emission of particles into the atmosphere is one of the biggest air pollution problems of our times. The emission of particles causes severe health problems such as respiratory and circulatory diseases, lung cancer, asthma, bronchitis and even causes premature deaths. The emission of particles comes from a number of different sources, where traffic is a considerable contributor. The effects of particle emissions from the traffic on the population are substantial, as the emission comes from mobile sources which create a high local pollution in city areas and in consequence high exposure of the local population. Exhaust particle emissions come mainly from diesel engines, and the introduction of particle filters would have a considerable impact on particle emissions. Vehicle emissions regulation is controlled by the EU. The coming emission regulation, EURO 5, is expected to be put into effect by the beginning of 2010. The current suggestions for the EURO 5 restrictions on particles are set so strict that they will be impossible to fulfil without a particle filter. This report performs a socio-economic analysis on the introduction of particle filters on all light vehicles (<3,500 kg). The analysis assumes that all newly registered diesel powered cars and vans should have a factory installed particle filter from the beginning of 2007. This thereby gives a period of three years before implementation of the EURO 5. (au)

  19. Analysis of filler particle levels and sizes in dental alginates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Lemes Carlo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the inorganic filler fractions and sizes of commercially alginates. The inorganic particles volumetric fractions of five alginates - Jeltrate(J, Jeltrate Plus(JP, Jeltrate Chromatic Ortho(JC, Hydrogum(H and Ezact Krom(E were accessed by weighing a previously determined mass of each material in water before and after burning samples at 450 °C for 3 hours. Unsettled materials were soaked in acetone and chloroform and sputter-coated with gold for SEM evaluation of fillers' morphology and size. The results for the volumetric inorganic particle content were (%: J - 48.33, JP - 48.33, JC - 33.79, H - 37.55 and E - 40.55. The fillers presented a circular appearance with helical form and various perforations. Hydrogum fillers looked like cylindrical, perforated sticks. The mean values for fillers size were (μm: J - 12.91, JP - 13.67, JC - 13.44, E - 14.59 and H - 9 (diameter, 8.81 (length. The results of this study revealed differences in filler characteristics that could lead to different results when testing mechanical properties.

  20. Consistent microscopic and phenomenological analysis of composite particle opticle potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sheela; Srivastava, D.K.; Ganguly, N.K.

    1976-01-01

    A microscopic calculation of composits particle optical potential has been done using a realistic nucleon-helion interaction and folding it with the density distribution of the targets. The second order effects were simulated by introducing a scaling factor which was searched on to reproduce the experimental scattering results. Composite particle optical potential was also derived from the nucleon-nucleus optical potential. The second order term was explicitly treated as a parameter. Elastic scattering of 20 MeV 3 H on targets ranging from 40 Ca to 208 Pb to 208 Pb have also been analysed using phenomenological optical model. Agreement of these results with the above calculations verified the consistency of the microscopic theory. But the equivalent sharp radius calculated with n-helion interaction was observed to be smaller than phenomenological value. This was attributed to the absence of saturation effects in the density-independent interaction used. Saturation has been introduced by a density dependent term of the form (1-c zetasup(2/3)), where zeta is the compound density of the target helion system. (author)

  1. Fireworks induced particle pollution: A spatio-temporal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, M.; Singh, R. K.; Murari, V.; Singh, A. K.; Singh, R. S.; Banerjee, T.

    2016-11-01

    Diwali-specific firework induced particle pollution was measured in terms of aerosol mass loading, type, optical properties and vertical distribution. Entire nation exhibited an increase in particulate concentrations specifically in Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP). Aerosol surface mass loading at middle IGP revealed an increase of 56-121% during festival days in comparison to their background concentrations. Space-borne measurements (Aqua and Terra-MODIS) typically identified IGP with moderate to high AOD (0.3-0.8) during pre-festive days which transmutes to very high AOD (0.4-1.8) during Diwali-day with accumulation of aerosol fine mode fractions (0.3-1.0). Most of the aerosol surface monitoring stations exhibited increase in PM2.5 especially on Diwali-day while PM10 exhibited increase on subsequent days. Elemental compositions strongly support K, Ba, Sr, Cd, S and P to be considered as firework tracers. The upper and middle IGP revealed dominance of absorbing aerosols (OMI-AI: 0.80-1.40) while CALIPSO altitude-orbit-cross-section profiles established the presence of polluted dust which eventually modified with association of smoke and polluted continental during extreme fireworks. Diwali-specific these observations have implications on associating fireworks induced particle pollution and human health while inclusion of these observations should improve regional air quality model.

  2. Particle drag history in a subcritical post-shock flow - data analysis method and uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Liuyang; Bordoloi, Ankur; Adrian, Ronald; Prestridge, Kathy; Arizona State University Team; Los Alamos National Laboratory Team

    2017-11-01

    A novel data analysis method for measuring particle drag in an 8-pulse particle tracking velocimetry-accelerometry (PTVA) experiment is described. We represented the particle drag history, CD(t) , using polynomials up to the third order. An analytical model for continuous particle position history was derived by integrating an equation relating CD(t) with particle velocity and acceleration. The coefficients of CD(t) were then calculated by fitting the position history model to eight measured particle locations in the sense of least squares. A preliminary test with experimental data showed that the new method yielded physically more reasonable particle velocity and acceleration history compared to conventionally adopted polynomial fitting. To fully assess and optimize the performance of the new method, we performed a PTVA simulation by assuming a ground truth of particle motion based on an ensemble of experimental data. The results indicated a significant reduction in the RMS error of CD. We also found that for particle locating noise between 0.1 and 3 pixels, a range encountered in our experiment, the lowest RMS error was achieved by using the quadratic CD(t) model. Furthermore, we will also discuss the optimization of the pulse timing configuration.

  3. Analysis of individual environmental particles using modern methods of electron microscopy and X-ray microanalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laskin, A.; Cowin, J.P.; Iedema, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    Understanding the composition of particles in the atmosphere is critical because of their health effects and their direct and indirect effects on radiative forcing, and hence on climate. In this manuscript, we demonstrate the utility of single particle off-line analysis to investigate the chemistry of individual atmospheric particles using modern, state-of-the-art electron microscopy and time-of-flight secondary ionization mass spectrometry techniques. We show that these methods provide specific, detailed data on particle composition, chemistry, morphology, phase and internal structure. This information is crucial for evaluating hygroscopic properties of aerosols, understanding aerosol aging and reactivity, and correlating the characteristics of aerosols with their optical properties. The manuscript presents a number of analytical advances in methods of electron probe particle analysis along with a brief review of a number of the research projects carried out in the authors' laboratory on the chemical characterization of environmental particles. The obtained data offers a rich set of qualitative and quantitative information on the particle chemistry, composition and the mechanisms of gas-particle interactions which are of high importance to atmospheric processes involving particulate matter and air pollution

  4. Order-2 Stability Analysis of Particle Swarm Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qunfeng

    2015-01-01

    Several stability analyses and stable regions of particle swarm optimization (PSO) have been proposed before. The assumption of stagnation and different definitions of stability are adopted in these analyses. In this paper, the order-2 stability of PSO is analyzed based on a weak stagnation assumption. A new definition of stability is proposed and an order-2 stable region is obtained. Several existing stable analyses for canonical PSO are compared, especially their definitions of stability and the corresponding stable regions. It is shown that the classical stagnation assumption is too strict and not necessary. Moreover, among all these definitions of stability, it is shown that our definition requires the weakest conditions, and additional conditions bring no benefit. Finally, numerical experiments are reported to show that the obtained stable region is meaningful. A new parameter combination of PSO is also shown to be good, even better than some known best parameter combinations.

  5. Classification using diffraction patterns for single-particle analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Hongli; Zhang, Kaiming [Department of Biophysics, the Health Science Centre, Peking University, Beijing 100191 (China); Meng, Xing, E-mail: xmeng101@gmail.com [Wadsworth Centre, New York State Department of Health, Albany, New York 12201 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    An alternative method has been assessed; diffraction patterns derived from the single particle data set were used to perform the first round of classification in creating the initial averages for proteins data with symmetrical morphology. The test protein set was a collection of Caenorhabditis elegans small heat shock protein 17 obtained by Cryo EM, which has a tetrahedral (12-fold) symmetry. It is demonstrated that the initial classification on diffraction patterns is workable as well as the real-space classification that is based on the phase contrast. The test results show that the information from diffraction patterns has the enough details to make the initial model faithful. The potential advantage using the alternative method is twofold, the ability to handle the sets with poor signal/noise or/and that break the symmetry properties. - Highlights: • New classification method. • Create the accurate initial model. • Better in handling noisy data.

  6. Classification using diffraction patterns for single-particle analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Hongli; Zhang, Kaiming; Meng, Xing

    2016-01-01

    An alternative method has been assessed; diffraction patterns derived from the single particle data set were used to perform the first round of classification in creating the initial averages for proteins data with symmetrical morphology. The test protein set was a collection of Caenorhabditis elegans small heat shock protein 17 obtained by Cryo EM, which has a tetrahedral (12-fold) symmetry. It is demonstrated that the initial classification on diffraction patterns is workable as well as the real-space classification that is based on the phase contrast. The test results show that the information from diffraction patterns has the enough details to make the initial model faithful. The potential advantage using the alternative method is twofold, the ability to handle the sets with poor signal/noise or/and that break the symmetry properties. - Highlights: • New classification method. • Create the accurate initial model. • Better in handling noisy data.

  7. An analysis of particle track effects on solid mammalian tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd, P.

    1992-01-01

    The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) and quality factor (Q) at extreme values of linear energy transfer (LET) have been determined on the basis of experiments with single-cell systems and specific tissue responses. In typical single-cell systems, each heavy particle (Ar or Fe) passes through a single cell or no cell. In experiments on animal tissues, however, each heavy particle passes through several cells, and the LET can exceed 200 keV μm -1 in every cell. In most laboratory animal tissue systems, however, only a small portion of the hit cells are capable of expressing the end-point being measured, such as cell killing, mutation or carcinogenesis. The following question was therefore addressed: do RBEs and Q factors derived from single-cell experiments properly account for the damage at high LET when multiple cells are hit by HZE tracks? A review is offered in which measured radiation effects and known tissue properties are combined to estimate on the one hand, the number of cells at risk, p 3 n, per track, where n is the number of cells per track based on tissue and organ geometry, and p 3 is the probability that a cell in the track is capable of expressing the experimental end-point. On the other hand, the tissue and single-cell responses are compared by determining the ratio RBE in tissue/RBE in corresponding single cells. Experimental data from the literature indicate that tissue RBEs at very high LET (Fe and Ar ions) are higher than corresponding single-cell RBEs, especially in tissues in which p 3 n is high. (author)

  8. Computational analysis of electrical conduction in hybrid nanomaterials with embedded non-penetrating conductive particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jizhe; Naraghi, Mohammad

    2016-08-01

    In this work, a comprehensive multi-resolution two-dimensional (2D) resistor network model is proposed to analyze the electrical conductivity of hybrid nanomaterials made of insulating matrix with conductive particles such as CNT reinforced nanocomposites and thick film resistors. Unlike existing approaches, our model takes into account the impenetrability of the particles and their random placement within the matrix. Moreover, our model presents a detailed description of intra-particle conductivity via finite element analysis, which to the authors’ best knowledge has not been addressed before. The inter-particle conductivity is assumed to be primarily due to electron tunneling. The model is then used to predict the electrical conductivity of electrospun carbon nanofibers as a function of microstructural parameters such as turbostratic domain alignment and aspect ratio. To simulate the microstructure of single CNF, randomly positioned nucleation sites were seeded and grown as turbostratic particles with anisotropic growth rates. Particle growth was in steps and growth of each particle in each direction was stopped upon contact with other particles. The study points to the significant contribution of both intra-particle and inter-particle conductivity to the overall conductivity of hybrid composites. Influence of particle alignment and anisotropic growth rate ratio on electrical conductivity is also discussed. The results show that partial alignment in contrast to complete alignment can result in maximum electrical conductivity of whole CNF. High degrees of alignment can adversely affect conductivity by lowering the probability of the formation of a conductive path. The results demonstrate approaches to enhance electrical conductivity of hybrid materials through controlling their microstructure which is applicable not only to carbon nanofibers, but also many other types of hybrid composites such as thick film resistors.

  9. Analysis of commodity prices with the particle filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiube, Fernando Antonio Lucena; Baidya, Tara Keshar Nanda; Tito, Edison Americo Huarsaya

    2008-01-01

    The behavior of commodities prices is fundamental to real-asset investment decisions, hedging, and pricing financial derivatives. Schwartz and Smith [Schwartz, E.S., Smith, J.E. (2000). Short term-variations and long-term dynamics in commodity prices. Management Science, 46, 893-911.] proposed a two-factor model for describing the stochastic processes of commodity prices, in which the two factors are short-term variations and equilibrium prices. These are both unobserved state variables that are estimated using the Kalman filter. The estimation is based on the observation of future prices for different maturities. The authors have carried out this process without incorporating jumps in the short-term variation of prices. Here we aim to demonstrate that the inclusion of jumps better explains the behavior of oil prices, and in fact creates difficulties in the estimation of state variables. This is because the variables become non-Gaussian so the Kalman filter is not recommended. Another methodology, called the particle filter, is more suitable in this case, and we describe its application in this article

  10. Transient Particle Transport Analysis on TJ-II Stellarator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eguilior, S.; Castejon, F.; Guasp, J.; Estrada, T.; Medina, F.; Tabares, F.L.; Branas, B.

    2006-12-18

    Particle diffusivity and convective velocity have been determined in ECRH plasmas confined in the stellarator TJ-II by analysing the evolving density profile. This is obtained from an amplitude modulation reflectometry system in addition to an X-ray tomographic reconstruction. The source term, which is needed as an input for transport equations, is obtained using EIRENE code. In order to discriminate between the diffusive and convective contributions, the dynamics of the density evolution has been analysed in several perturbative experiments. This evolution has been considered in discharges with injection of a single pulse of H2 as well as in those that present a spontaneous transition to an enhanced confinement mode and whose confinement properties are modified by inducing an ohmic current. The pinch velocity and diffusivity are parameterized by different expressions in order to fit the experimental time evolution of density profile. The profile evolution is very different from one case to another due to the different values of convective velocities and diffusivities, besides the different source terms. (Author) 19 refs.

  11. An analysis of 1-D smoothed particle hydrodynamics kernels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulk, D.A.; Quinn, D.W.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) kernel is analyzed, resulting in measures of merit for one-dimensional SPH. Various methods of obtaining an objective measure of the quality and accuracy of the SPH kernel are addressed. Since the kernel is the key element in the SPH methodology, this should be of primary concern to any user of SPH. The results of this work are two measures of merit, one for smooth data and one near shocks. The measure of merit for smooth data is shown to be quite accurate and a useful delineator of better and poorer kernels. The measure of merit for non-smooth data is not quite as accurate, but results indicate the kernel is much less important for these types of problems. In addition to the theory, 20 kernels are analyzed using the measure of merit demonstrating the general usefulness of the measure of merit and the individual kernels. In general, it was decided that bell-shaped kernels perform better than other shapes. 12 refs., 16 figs., 7 tabs

  12. Particle and radiation leakage importance: definition, analysis, and interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cacuci, D.G.; Wagschal, J.J.; Yaari, A.

    1982-01-01

    The concept of leakage importance function has been introduced and analyzed for physical systems governed by the Boltzmann transport equation. This leakage importance function represents a measure of the relative importance of source particles located at every point in phase space in contributing to the leakage and provides insight regarding the specific physical process that leads to leakage. The equation satisfied by the leakage importance function has been derived by using adjoint operators. It has been shown that procedures that are customarily used to derive an equation obeyed by an importance function suitable for an integral parameter such as a detector response or an eigenvalue lead to difficulties when directly applied to derive an equation obeyed by the leakage importance function. This is because, although leakage is also an integral parameter (i.e., a functional of the forward flux density), leakage is expressed in terms of a surface integral rather than in terms of volume integrals such as those appearing in expressions of detector responses or eigenvalues. Therefore, a procedure that departs from the customary course has been devised to derive the equation satisfied by the leakage importance function

  13. A New Cluster Analysis-Marker-Controlled Watershed Method for Separating Particles of Granular Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Md Ferdous; Haque, Asadul

    2017-10-18

    An accurate determination of particle-level fabric of granular soils from tomography data requires a maximum correct separation of particles. The popular marker-controlled watershed separation method is widely used to separate particles. However, the watershed method alone is not capable of producing the maximum separation of particles when subjected to boundary stresses leading to crushing of particles. In this paper, a new separation method, named as Monash Particle Separation Method (MPSM), has been introduced. The new method automatically determines the optimal contrast coefficient based on cluster evaluation framework to produce the maximum accurate separation outcomes. Finally, the particles which could not be separated by the optimal contrast coefficient were separated by integrating cuboid markers generated from the clustering by Gaussian mixture models into the routine watershed method. The MPSM was validated on a uniformly graded sand volume subjected to one-dimensional compression loading up to 32 MPa. It was demonstrated that the MPSM is capable of producing the best possible separation of particles required for the fabric analysis.

  14. Simulation and scaling analysis of a spherical particle-laden blast wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Y.; Balachandar, S.

    2018-05-01

    A spherical particle-laden blast wave, generated by a sudden release of a sphere of compressed gas-particle mixture, is investigated by numerical simulation. The present problem is a multiphase extension of the classic finite-source spherical blast-wave problem. The gas-particle flow can be fully determined by the initial radius of the spherical mixture and the properties of gas and particles. In many applications, the key dimensionless parameters, such as the initial pressure and density ratios between the compressed gas and the ambient air, can vary over a wide range. Parametric studies are thus performed to investigate the effects of these parameters on the characteristic time and spatial scales of the particle-laden blast wave, such as the maximum radius the contact discontinuity can reach and the time when the particle front crosses the contact discontinuity. A scaling analysis is conducted to establish a scaling relation between the characteristic scales and the controlling parameters. A length scale that incorporates the initial pressure ratio is proposed, which is able to approximately collapse the simulation results for the gas flow for a wide range of initial pressure ratios. This indicates that an approximate similarity solution for a spherical blast wave exists, which is independent of the initial pressure ratio. The approximate scaling is also valid for the particle front if the particles are small and closely follow the surrounding gas.

  15. Simulation and scaling analysis of a spherical particle-laden blast wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Y.; Balachandar, S.

    2018-02-01

    A spherical particle-laden blast wave, generated by a sudden release of a sphere of compressed gas-particle mixture, is investigated by numerical simulation. The present problem is a multiphase extension of the classic finite-source spherical blast-wave problem. The gas-particle flow can be fully determined by the initial radius of the spherical mixture and the properties of gas and particles. In many applications, the key dimensionless parameters, such as the initial pressure and density ratios between the compressed gas and the ambient air, can vary over a wide range. Parametric studies are thus performed to investigate the effects of these parameters on the characteristic time and spatial scales of the particle-laden blast wave, such as the maximum radius the contact discontinuity can reach and the time when the particle front crosses the contact discontinuity. A scaling analysis is conducted to establish a scaling relation between the characteristic scales and the controlling parameters. A length scale that incorporates the initial pressure ratio is proposed, which is able to approximately collapse the simulation results for the gas flow for a wide range of initial pressure ratios. This indicates that an approximate similarity solution for a spherical blast wave exists, which is independent of the initial pressure ratio. The approximate scaling is also valid for the particle front if the particles are small and closely follow the surrounding gas.

  16. Feature-Based Analysis of Plasma-Based Particle Acceleration Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubel, Oliver [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Geddes, Cameron G. R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Chen, Min [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cormier-Michel, Estelle [Tech-X Corp., Boulder, CO (United States); Bethel, E. Wes [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Plasma-based particle accelerators can produce and sustain thousands of times stronger acceleration fields than conventional particle accelerators, providing a potential solution to the problem of the growing size and cost of conventional particle accelerators. To facilitate scientific knowledge discovery from the ever growing collections of accelerator simulation data generated by accelerator physicists to investigate next-generation plasma-based particle accelerator designs, we describe a novel approach for automatic detection and classification of particle beams and beam substructures due to temporal differences in the acceleration process, here called acceleration features. The automatic feature detection in combination with a novel visualization tool for fast, intuitive, query-based exploration of acceleration features enables an effective top-down data exploration process, starting from a high-level, feature-based view down to the level of individual particles. We describe the application of our analysis in practice to analyze simulations of single pulse and dual and triple colliding pulse accelerator designs, and to study the formation and evolution of particle beams, to compare substructures of a beam and to investigate transverse particle loss.

  17. Smoothed Particle Hydro-dynamic Analysis of Improvement in Sludge Conveyance Efficiency of Screw Decanter Centrifuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Dae Woong [Korea Testing and Research Institute, Kwachun (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    A centrifuge works on the principle that particles with different densities will separate at a rate proportional to the centrifugal force during high-speed rotation. Dense particles are quickly precipitated, and particles with relatively smaller densities are precipitated more slowly. A decanter-type centrifuge is used to remove, concentrate, and dehydrate sludge in a water treatment process. This is a core technology for measuring the sludge conveyance efficiency improvement. In this study, a smoothed particle hydro-dynamic analysis was performed for a decanter centrifuge used to convey sludge to evaluate the efficiency improvement. This analysis was applied to both the original centrifugal model and the design change model, which was a ball-plate rail model, to evaluate the sludge transfer efficiency.

  18. Analysis of a Single Hot Particle by a Combination of Non-Destructive Analytical Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrnecek, E.; Aldave de las Heras, L.; Bielewski, M.; Carlos, R. [EC JRC Institute for Transuranium Elements, Karlsruhe (Germany); Betti, M. [IAEA Environment Laboratories (Monaco)

    2013-07-15

    Radioactive substances are often released to the environment in the form of particles. The determination of their chemical composition is a key factor in the overall understanding of their environmental behaviour. The aim of this investigation was to identify the source of one single radioactive particle collected from the Irish Sea and to understand its fate in the environment and in human body fluids. As the particle was supposed to be analysed for its dissolution behaviour in humans after ingestion, it was necessary to gain as much information as possible beforehand on the chemical and isotopic composition by means of non-destructive analysis such as SEM, SIMS, {mu}-XRF and {mu}-XANES. In this paper, an overview of the different non-destructive methods applied for the analysis of this particle and the results obtained is given. Additionally, the dissolution behaviour in human digestive solutions is discussed. (author)

  19. Smoothed Particle Hydro-dynamic Analysis of Improvement in Sludge Conveyance Efficiency of Screw Decanter Centrifuge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Dae Woong

    2015-01-01

    A centrifuge works on the principle that particles with different densities will separate at a rate proportional to the centrifugal force during high-speed rotation. Dense particles are quickly precipitated, and particles with relatively smaller densities are precipitated more slowly. A decanter-type centrifuge is used to remove, concentrate, and dehydrate sludge in a water treatment process. This is a core technology for measuring the sludge conveyance efficiency improvement. In this study, a smoothed particle hydro-dynamic analysis was performed for a decanter centrifuge used to convey sludge to evaluate the efficiency improvement. This analysis was applied to both the original centrifugal model and the design change model, which was a ball-plate rail model, to evaluate the sludge transfer efficiency.

  20. Improved soil particle-size analysis by gamma-ray attenuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, J.C.M.; Vaz, C.M.P.; Reichardt, K.; Swartzendruber, D.

    1997-01-01

    The size distribution of particles is useful for physical characterization of soil. This study was conducted to determine whether a new method of soil particle-size analysis by gamma-ray attenuation could be further improved by changing the depth and time of measurement of the suspended particle concentration during sedimentation. In addition to the advantage of nondestructive, undisturbed measurement by gamma-ray attenuation, as compared with conventional pipette or hydrometer methods, the modifications here suggested and employed do substantially decrease the total time for analysis, and will also facilitate total automation and generalize the method for other sedimentation studies. Experimental results are presented for three different Brazilian soil materials, and illustrate the nature of the fine detail provided in the cumulative particle-size distribution as given by measurements obtained during the relatively short time period of 28 min

  1. Detecting chaos in particle accelerators through the frequency map analysis method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaphilippou, Yannis

    2014-06-01

    The motion of beams in particle accelerators is dominated by a plethora of non-linear effects, which can enhance chaotic motion and limit their performance. The application of advanced non-linear dynamics methods for detecting and correcting these effects and thereby increasing the region of beam stability plays an essential role during the accelerator design phase but also their operation. After describing the nature of non-linear effects and their impact on performance parameters of different particle accelerator categories, the theory of non-linear particle motion is outlined. The recent developments on the methods employed for the analysis of chaotic beam motion are detailed. In particular, the ability of the frequency map analysis method to detect chaotic motion and guide the correction of non-linear effects is demonstrated in particle tracking simulations but also experimental data.

  2. Sample volume and alignment analysis for an optical particle counter sizer, and other applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holve, D.J.; Davis, G.W.

    1985-01-01

    Optical methods for particle size distribution measurements in practical high temperature environments are approaching feasibility and offer significant advantages over conventional sampling methods. A key requirement of single particle counting techniques is the need to know features of the sample volume intensity distribution which in general are a function of the particle scattering properties and optical system geometry. In addition, the sample volume intensity distribution is sensitive to system alignment and thus calculations of alignment sensitivity are required for assessment of practical alignment tolerances. To this end, an analysis of sample volume characteristics for single particle counters in general has been developed. Results from the theory are compared with experimental measurements and shown to be in good agreement. A parametric sensitivity analysis is performed and a criterion for allowable optical misalignment is derived for conditions where beam steering caused by fluctuating refractive-index gradients is significant

  3. Improved Tandem Measurement Techniques for Aerosol Particle Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, Vivek Kumar

    Non-spherical, chemically inhomogeneous (complex) nanoparticles are encountered in a number of natural and engineered environments, including combustion systems (which produces highly non-spherical aggregates), reactors used in gas-phase materials synthesis of doped or multicomponent materials, and in ambient air. These nanoparticles are often highly diverse in size, composition and shape, and hence require determination of property distribution functions for accurate characterization. This thesis focuses on development of tandem mobility-mass measurement techniques coupled with appropriate data inversion routines to facilitate measurement of two dimensional size-mass distribution functions while correcting for the non-idealities of the instruments. Chapter 1 provides the detailed background and motivation for the studies performed in this thesis. In chapter 2, the development of an inversion routine is described which is employed to determine two dimensional size-mass distribution functions from Differential Mobility Analyzer-Aerosol Particle Mass analyzer tandem measurements. Chapter 3 demonstrates the application of the two dimensional distribution function to compute cumulative mass distribution function and also evaluates the validity of this technique by comparing the calculated total mass concentrations to measured values for a variety of aerosols. In Chapter 4, this tandem measurement technique with the inversion routine is employed to analyze colloidal suspensions. Chapter 5 focuses on application of a transverse modulation ion mobility spectrometer coupled with a mass spectrometer to study the effect of vapor dopants on the mobility shifts of sub 2 nm peptide ion clusters. These mobility shifts are then compared to models based on vapor uptake theories. Finally, in Chapter 6, a conclusion of all the studies performed in this thesis is provided and future avenues of research are discussed.

  4. Physicochemical analysis of interaction of oxide fuel with pyrocarbon coatings of fuel particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyutikov, R.A.; Khromov, Yu.F.; Chernikov, A.S.

    1990-01-01

    Equilibrium pressure of (CO+Kr,Xe) gases inside fuel particle with oxide kern depending on design features of fuel particle, on temperature. on (O/U) initial composition and fuel burnup is calculated using the suggested model. Analysis of possibility for gas pressure reduction by means of uranium carbide alloying of kern and degree increase of solid fission product retention (Cs for example) during alumosilicate alloying of uranium oxide is conducted

  5. Morphological analysis of polymer systems with broad particle size distribution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šlouf, Miroslav; Ostafinska, Aleksandra; Nevoralová, Martina; Fortelný, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 42, April (2015), s. 8-16 ISSN 0142-9418 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-17921S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polymer blends * morphology * image analysis Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials Impact factor: 2.350, year: 2015

  6. Statistical analysis of oxides particles in ODS ferritic steel using advanced electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unifantowicz, P.; Schäublin, R.; Hébert, C.; Płociński, T.; Lucas, G.; Baluc, N.

    2012-01-01

    In this work a combination of advanced transmission electron microscopy and spectroscopy techniques enabled a statistically significant analysis of various types of few nanometer size oxides particles in Fe–14Cr–2W–0.3Ti–0.3Y 2 O 3 ferritic steel. These methods include a scanning TEM with EDS and EFTEM coupled with EELS. In addition, principal component analysis was applied to the chemical maps obtained by EFTEM, which drastically improved the signal to noise ratio. Three types of particles were identified in a size range from 2 to 300 nm, namely Cr–Ti–O, Y–O and Y–Ti–O particles, with an average size of 33,16 and 8 nm, respectively. The Cr–Ti–O particles contain Y and Ti enriched zones, which were not observed previously. The EFTEM analysis showed that the titanium addition leads to formation of Y–Ti–O nano-particles, which constitute 84% of the oxides but also precipitation of larger Cr–Ti–O. The presence of small amount of Y–O particles indicated a not sufficient amount of Ti available for reaction during mechanical alloying or consolidation.

  7. Qualitative analysis of a powdered diamond sample by particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mabida, C.; Annegarn, H.J.; Renan, M.J.; Sellschop, J.P.F.

    The main purpose of this analysis was to determine whether nickel is present in diamond powder as a trace element. Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) showed unambiguously that nickel was present. Due to the convenience of PIXE in multielemental analysis, the investigations also include a number of other trace elements in the sample

  8. Localization and force analysis at the single virus particle level using atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Chih-Hao [Institute of Applied Mechanics, Nation Taiwan University, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Horng, Jim-Tong [Department of Biochemistry, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa First Road, Kweishan, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan (China); Chang, Jeng-Shian [Institute of Applied Mechanics, Nation Taiwan University, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Chung-Fan [Graduate Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Chang Gung University, Kweishan, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan (China); Tseng, You-Chen [Institute of Applied Mechanics, Nation Taiwan University, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Lin, Shiming, E-mail: til@ntu.edu.tw [Institute of Applied Mechanics, Nation Taiwan University, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Center for Optoelectronic Biomedicine, College of Medicine, Nation Taiwan University, 1-1 Jen-Ai Road, Taipei 10051, Taiwan (China)

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Localization of single virus particle. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Force measurements. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Force mapping. -- Abstract: Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a vital instrument in nanobiotechnology. In this study, we developed a method that enables AFM to simultaneously measure specific unbinding force and map the viral glycoprotein at the single virus particle level. The average diameter of virus particles from AFM images and the specificity between the viral surface antigen and antibody probe were integrated to design a three-stage method that sets the measuring area to a single virus particle before obtaining the force measurements, where the influenza virus was used as the object of measurements. Based on the purposed method and performed analysis, several findings can be derived from the results. The mean unbinding force of a single virus particle can be quantified, and no significant difference exists in this value among virus particles. Furthermore, the repeatability of the proposed method is demonstrated. The force mapping images reveal that the distributions of surface viral antigens recognized by antibody probe were dispersed on the whole surface of individual virus particles under the proposed method and experimental criteria; meanwhile, the binding probabilities are similar among particles. This approach can be easily applied to most AFM systems without specific components or configurations. These results help understand the force-based analysis at the single virus particle level, and therefore, can reinforce the capability of AFM to investigate a specific type of viral surface protein and its distributions.

  9. In-depth proteome analysis of the rubber particle of Hevea brasiliensis (para rubber tree).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Longjun; Kang, Guijuan; Li, Yu; Nie, Zhiyi; Duan, Cuifang; Zeng, Rizhong

    2013-05-01

    The rubber particle is a special organelle in which natural rubber is synthesised and stored in the laticifers of Hevea brasiliensis. To better understand the biological functions of rubber particles and to identify the candidate rubber biosynthesis-related proteins, a comprehensive proteome analysis was performed on H. brasiliensis rubber particles using shotgun tandem mass spectrometry profiling approaches-resulting in a thorough report on the rubber particle proteins. A total of 186 rubber particle proteins were identified, with a range in relative molecular mass of 3.9-194.2 kDa and in isoelectric point values of 4.0-11.2. The rubber particle proteins were analysed for gene ontology and could be categorised into eight major groups according to their functions: including rubber biosynthesis, stress- or defence-related responses, protein processing and folding, signal transduction and cellular transport. In addition to well-known rubber biosynthesis-related proteins such as rubber elongation factor (REF), small rubber particle protein (SRPP) and cis-prenyl transferase (CPT), many proteins were firstly identified to be on the rubber particles, including cyclophilin, phospholipase D, cytochrome P450, small GTP-binding protein, clathrin, eukaryotic translation initiation factor, annexin, ABC transporter, translationally controlled tumour protein, ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes, and several homologues of REF, SRPP and CPT. A procedure of multiple reaction monitoring was established for further protein validation. This comprehensive proteome data of rubber particles would facilitate investigation into molecular mechanisms of biogenesis, self-homeostasis and rubber biosynthesis of the rubber particle, and might serve as valuable biomarkers in molecular breeding studies of H. brasiliensis and other alternative rubber-producing species.

  10. Evaluation of Microflow Digital Imaging Particle Analysis for Sub-Visible Particles Formulated with an Opaque Vaccine Adjuvant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant E Frahm

    Full Text Available Microflow digital imaging (MDI has become a widely accepted method for assessing sub-visible particles in pharmaceutical formulations however, to date; no data have been presented on the utility of this methodology when formulations include opaque vaccine adjuvants. This study evaluates the ability of MDI to assess sub-visible particles under these conditions. A Fluid Imaging Technologies Inc. FlowCAM® instrument was used to assess a number of sub-visible particle types in solution with increasing concentrations of AddaVax™, a nanoscale squalene-based adjuvant. With the objective (10X used and the limitations of the sensor resolution, the instrument was incapable of distinguishing between sub-visible particles and AddaVax™ droplets at particle sizes less than 5 μm. The instrument was capable of imaging all particle types assessed (polystyrene beads, borosilicate glass, cellulose, polyethylene protein aggregate mimics, and lysozyme protein aggregates at sizes greater than 5 μm in concentrations of AddaVax™ up to 50% (vol:vol. Reduced edge gradients and a decrease in measured particle sizes were noted as adjuvant concentrations increased. No significant changes in particle counts were observed for polystyrene particle standards and lysozyme protein aggregates, however significant reductions in particle counts were observed for borosilicate (80% of original and cellulose (92% of original particles. This reduction in particle counts may be due to the opaque adjuvant masking translucent particles present in borosilicate and cellulose samples. Although the results suggest that the utility of MDI for assessing sub-visible particles in high concentrations of adjuvant may be highly dependent on particle morphology, we believe that further investigation of this methodology to assess sub-visible particles in challenging formulations is warranted.

  11. Accurate determination of light elements by charged particle activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shikano, K.; Shigematsu, T.

    1989-01-01

    To develop accurate determination of light elements by CPAA, accurate and practical standardization methods and uniform chemical etching are studied based on determination of carbon in gallium arsenide using the 12 C(d,n) 13 N reaction and the following results are obtained: (1)Average stopping power method with thick target yield is useful as an accurate and practical standardization method. (2)Front surface of sample has to be etched for accurate estimate of incident energy. (3)CPAA is utilized for calibration of light element analysis by physical method. (4)Calibration factor of carbon analysis in gallium arsenide using the IR method is determined to be (9.2±0.3) x 10 15 cm -1 . (author)

  12. Kinetic performance comparison of fully and superficially porous particles with a particle size of 5 µm: intrinsic evaluation and application to the impurity analysis of griseofulvin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahsay, Getu; Broeckhoven, Ken; Adams, Erwin; Desmet, Gert; Cabooter, Deirdre

    2014-05-01

    After the great commercial success of sub-3 µm superficially porous particles, vendors are now also starting to commercialize 5 µm superficially porous particles, as an alternative to their fully porous counterparts which are routinely used in pharmaceutical analysis. In this study, the performance of 5 µm superficially porous particles was compared to that of fully porous 5 µm particles in terms of efficiency, separation performance and loadability on a conventional HPLC instrument. Van Deemter and kinetic plots were first used to evaluate the efficiency and performance of both particle types using alkylphenones as a test mixture. The van Deemter and kinetic plots showed that the superficially porous particles provide a superior kinetic performance compared to the fully porous particles over the entire relevant range of separation conditions, when both support types were evaluated at the same operating pressure. The same observations were made both for isocratic and gradient analysis. The superior performance was further demonstrated for the separation of a pharmaceutical compound (griseofulvin) and its impurities, where a gain in analysis time of around 2 could be obtained using the superficially porous particles. Finally, both particle types were evaluated in terms of loadability by plotting the resolution of the active pharmaceutical ingredient and its closest impurity as a function of the signal-to-noise ratio obtained for the smallest impurity. It was demonstrated that the superficially porous particles show better separation performance for griseofulvin and its impurities without significantly compromising sensitivity due to loadability issues in comparison with their fully porous counterparts. Moreover these columns can be used on conventional equipment without modifications to obtain a significant improvement in analysis time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. X-ray fluorescence analysis of welding fume particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carsey, T.P.

    1982-01-01

    A commercial standard filter set and two laboratory-made standard filter sets are compared via the analysis of generated welding fume samples by X-ray fluorescence. The latter standards are made by (1) hydrophobic-edge membrane filters spiked with prepared metal ion solutions, and (2) filters through which a dispersion of metal oxide powder in isopropanol has been drawn. The results are presented in table form. Precision (Pre) is the relative standard deviation of the six samples. Four main conclusions are enumerated

  14. On-line gas chromatographic analysis of airborne particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hering, Susanne V [Berkeley, CA; Goldstein, Allen H [Orinda, CA

    2012-01-03

    A method and apparatus for the in-situ, chemical analysis of an aerosol. The method may include the steps of: collecting an aerosol; thermally desorbing the aerosol into a carrier gas to provide desorbed aerosol material; transporting the desorbed aerosol material onto the head of a gas chromatography column; analyzing the aerosol material using a gas chromatograph, and quantizing the aerosol material as it evolves from the gas chromatography column. The apparatus includes a collection and thermal desorption cell, a gas chromatograph including a gas chromatography column, heated transport lines coupling the cell and the column; and a quantization detector for aerosol material evolving from the gas chromatography column.

  15. Cluster analysis of rural, urban, and curbside atmospheric particle size data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beddows, David C S; Dall'Osto, Manuel; Harrison, Roy M

    2009-07-01

    Particle size is a key determinant of the hazard posed by airborne particles. Continuous multivariate particle size data have been collected using aerosol particle size spectrometers sited at four locations within the UK: Harwell (Oxfordshire); Regents Park (London); British Telecom Tower (London); and Marylebone Road (London). These data have been analyzed using k-means cluster analysis, deduced to be the preferred cluster analysis technique, selected from an option of four partitional cluster packages, namelythe following: Fuzzy; k-means; k-median; and Model-Based clustering. Using cluster validation indices k-means clustering was shown to produce clusters with the smallest size, furthest separation, and importantly the highest degree of similarity between the elements within each partition. Using k-means clustering, the complexity of the data set is reduced allowing characterization of the data according to the temporal and spatial trends of the clusters. At Harwell, the rural background measurement site, the cluster analysis showed that the spectra may be differentiated by their modal-diameters and average temporal trends showing either high counts during the day-time or night-time hours. Likewise for the urban sites, the cluster analysis differentiated the spectra into a small number of size distributions according their modal-diameter, the location of the measurement site, and time of day. The responsible aerosol emission, formation, and dynamic processes can be inferred according to the cluster characteristics and correlation to concurrently measured meteorological, gas phase, and particle phase measurements.

  16. Deuterium inventory in Tore Supra: reconciling particle balance and post-mortem analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsitrone, E.; Brosset, C.; Pegourie, B.; Gauthier, E.; Bouvet, J.; Bucalossi, J.; Carpentier, S.; Corre, Y.; Delchambre, E.; Dittmar, T.; Douai, D.; Ekedahl, A.; Ghendrih, Ph.; Grisolia, C.; Grosman, A.; Gunn, J.; Hong, S.H.; Desgranges, L.; Escarguel, A.; Jacob, W.

    2009-01-01

    Fuel retention, a crucial issue for next step devices, is assessed in present-day tokamaks using two methods: particle balance performed during shots and post-mortem analysis carried out during shutdowns between experimental campaigns. Post-mortem analysis generally gives lower estimates of fuel retention than integrated particle balance. In order to understand the discrepancy between these two methods, a dedicated experimental campaign has been performed in Tore Supra to load the vessel walls with deuterium (D) and monitor the trapped D inventory through particle balance. The campaign was followed by an extensive post-mortem analysis phase of the Tore Supra limiter. This paper presents the status of the analysis phase, including the assessment of the D content in the castellated tile structure of the limiter. Indeed, using combined surface analysis techniques, it was possible to derive the relative contributions of different zones of interest on the limiter (erosion, thick deposits, thin deposits), showing that the post-mortem inventory is mainly due to codeposition (90% of the total), in particular due to gap deposits. However, deuterium was also evidenced deep into the material in erosion zones (10% of the total). At the present stage of the analysis, 50% of the inventory deduced from particle balance has been found through post-mortem analysis, a significant progress with respect to previous studies (factor 8-10 discrepancy). This shows that post-mortem analysis can be consistent with particle balance provided specific procedures are implemented (dedicated campaign followed by extensive post-mortem analysis). Both techniques are needed for a reliable assessment of fuel retention in tokamaks, giving complementary information on how much and where fuel is retained in the vessel walls.

  17. Solar particle radiation storms forecasting and analysis the HESPERIA HORIZON 2020 project and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Crosby, Norma

    2018-01-01

    Solar energetic particles (SEPs) emitted from the Sun are a major space weather hazard motivating the development of predictive capabilities. This book presents the results and findings of the HESPERIA (High Energy Solar Particle Events forecasting and Analysis) project of the EU HORIZON 2020 programme. It discusses the forecasting operational tools developed within the project, and presents progress to SEP research contributed by HESPERIA both from the observational as well as the SEP modelling perspective. Using multi-frequency observational data and simulations HESPERIA investigated the chain of processes from particle acceleration in the corona, particle transport in the magnetically complex corona and interplanetary space, to the detection near 1 AU. The book also elaborates on the unique software that has been constructed for inverting observations of relativistic SEPs to physical parameters that can be compared with spac e-borne measurements at lower energies. Introductory and pedagogical material incl...

  18. Noctilucent cloud particle size determination based on multi-wavelength all-sky analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugolnikov, Oleg S.; Galkin, Alexey A.; Pilgaev, Sergey V.; Roldugin, Alexey V.

    2017-10-01

    The article deals with the analysis of color distribution in noctilucent clouds (NLC) in the sky based on multi-wavelength (RGB) CCD-photometry provided with the all-sky camera in Lovozero in the north of Russia (68.0°N, 35.1°E) during the bright expanded NLC performance in the night of August 12, 2016. Small changes in the NLC color across the sky are interpreted as the atmospheric absorption and extinction effects combined with the difference in the Mie scattering functions of NLC particles for the three color channels of the camera. The method described in this paper is used to find the effective monodisperse radius of particles about 55 nm. The result of these simple and cost-effective measurements is in good agreement with previous estimations of comparable accuracy. Non-spherical particles, Gaussian and lognormal distribution of the particle size are also considered.

  19. Statistical methods for data analysis in particle physics

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2070643

    2015-01-01

    This concise set of course-based notes provides the reader with the main concepts and tools to perform statistical analysis of experimental data, in particular in the field of high-energy physics (HEP). First, an introduction to probability theory and basic statistics is given, mainly as reminder from advanced undergraduate studies, yet also in view to clearly distinguish the Frequentist versus Bayesian approaches and interpretations in subsequent applications. More advanced concepts and applications are gradually introduced, culminating in the chapter on upper limits as many applications in HEP concern hypothesis testing, where often the main goal is to provide better and better limits so as to be able to distinguish eventually between competing hypotheses or to rule out some of them altogether. Many worked examples will help newcomers to the field and graduate students to understand the pitfalls in applying theoretical concepts to actual data

  20. Validation of a particle tracking analysis method for the size determination of nano- and microparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kestens, Vikram; Bozatzidis, Vassili; De Temmerman, Pieter-Jan; Ramaye, Yannic; Roebben, Gert

    2017-08-01

    Particle tracking analysis (PTA) is an emerging technique suitable for size analysis of particles with external dimensions in the nano- and sub-micrometre scale range. Only limited attempts have so far been made to investigate and quantify the performance of the PTA method for particle size analysis. This article presents the results of a validation study during which selected colloidal silica and polystyrene latex reference materials with particle sizes in the range of 20 nm to 200 nm were analysed with NS500 and LM10-HSBF NanoSight instruments and video analysis software NTA 2.3 and NTA 3.0. Key performance characteristics such as working range, linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantification, sensitivity, robustness, precision and trueness were examined according to recommendations proposed by EURACHEM. A model for measurement uncertainty estimation following the principles described in ISO/IEC Guide 98-3 was used for quantifying random and systematic variations. For nominal 50 nm and 100 nm polystyrene and a nominal 80 nm silica reference materials, the relative expanded measurement uncertainties for the three measurands of interest, being the mode, median and arithmetic mean of the number-weighted particle size distribution, varied from about 10% to 12%. For the nominal 50 nm polystyrene material, the relative expanded uncertainty of the arithmetic mean of the particle size distributions increased up to 18% which was due to the presence of agglomerates. Data analysis was performed with software NTA 2.3 and NTA 3.0. The latter showed to be superior in terms of sensitivity and resolution.

  1. D-particle-inspired analysis of localization limits in quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni; Doplicher, Luisa

    2004-01-01

    Some recent studies of the properties of D-particles suggest that in string theory a rather conventional description of spacetime might be available up to scales that are significantly smaller than the Planck length. We explore this possibility in the framework of a Heisenberg-microscope setup for the analysis of localization of a spacetime event marked by the collision of two D-particles. For the string-theory aspects of our analysis, which only concern some general properties of D-particles, we rely on previous works. The results confirm that a spatial coordinate of the event can indeed be determined with better-than-Planckian accuracy, but we stress that this comes at the price of a rather large uncertainty in the time coordinate. We comment on the implications of these results for the popular quantum-gravity intuition which assigns to the Planck length the role of absolute limit on localization

  2. Pressure analysis in the fabrication process of TRISO UO2-coated fuel particle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Malin; Shao Youlin; Liu Bing

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The pressure signals during the real TRISO UO2-coated fuel particle fabrication process. ► A new relationship about the pressure drop change and the coated fuel particles properties. ► The proposed relationship is validated by experimental results during successive coating. ► A convenient method for monitoring the fluidized state during coating process. - Abstract: The pressure signals in the coating furnace are obtained experimentally from the TRISO UO 2 -coated fuel particle fabrication process. The pressure signals during the coating process are analyzed and a simplified relationship about the pressure drop change due to the coated layer is proposed based on the spouted bed hydrodynamics. The change of pressure drop is found to be consistent with the change of the combination factor about particle density, bed density, particle diameter and static bed height, during the successive coating process of the buffer PyC, IPyC, SiC and OPyC layer. The newly proposed relationship is validated by the experimental values. Based on this relationship, a convenient method is proposed for real-time monitoring the fluidized state of the particles in a high-temperature coating process in the spouted bed. It can be found that the pressure signals analysis is an effective method to monitor the fluidized state on-line in the coating process at high temperature up to 1600 °C.

  3. Making evident and the analysis of correlations between light particles by means of multidetector INDRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gourio, D.

    1997-01-01

    This thesis reports an light particle interferometric study carried out for the first time by means of an 4π detector. This enabled to extract the proton and deuteron emission time for correctly selected sources. These measurements are extremely worth in the study of hot nuclear matter, particularly for its decaying modes. In this way a clear image of the production chronology of light particles in the heavy ion collision is obtained. In addition, it was possible to make evident the production of fast unstable fragments associated to the decay through pre-equilibrium particles contributing to the very low relative momentum correlation function. This work is the result of a successful event: the association of the 4π INDRA multidetector to the analysis function of the light particle correlation. The real breakthrough achieved by this study was to demonstrate the possibility of full phase space exploration by building the light particle 4 π correlation. In the case of the Xe + Sn system at 45 MeV/u we were able to characterize the collision violence and and to isolate three sources of particle emission. Thus, it was possible to characterize the proton and deuterons emission time for the quasi-target as well as for the quasi-projectile. An important decrease in the characteristic deuteron emission time was observed according as the central collision was approached. Other important results were obtained concerning the proton-proton and proton-deuteron correlation functions as well as the presence of an independent particle dynamical emission of mid-rapidity quasi-targets and quasi- projectiles. Finally, the observation of correlation functions allowed to demonstrate structures at very low relative momentum which can not be understood by the final state interaction only. An explanation could be obtained by a theoretical code taking into account the reaction dynamics, the particle interaction in the final state and the decay of primary excited fragments

  4. [Air Dielectric Barrier Discharge Emission Spectrum Measurement and Particle Analysis of Discharge Process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Shuang-yan; Jin, Xing; Zhang, Peng

    2016-02-01

    The emission spectrum detection and diagnosis is one of the most common methods of application to the plasma. It provides wealth of information of the chemical and physical process of the plasma. The analysis of discharge plasma dynamic behavior plays an important role in the study of gas discharge mechanism and application. An air dielectric discharge spectrum measuring device was designed and the emission spectrum data was measured under the experimental condition. The plasma particles evolution was analyzed from the emission spectrum. The numerical calculation model was established and the density equation, energy transfer equation and the Boltzmann equation was coupled to analyze the change of the particle density to explain the emission spectrum characteristics. The results are that the particle density is growing with the increasing of reduced electric field. The particle density is one or two orders of magnitude difference for the same particle at the same moment for the reduced electric field of 40, 60 or 80 Td. A lot of N₂ (A³), N₂ (A³) and N₂ (C³) particles are generated by the electric field excitation. However, it transforms quickly due to the higher energy level. The transformation returns to the balance after the discharge of 10⁻⁶ s. The emission spectrometer measured in the experiments is mostly generated by the transition of excited nitrogen. The peak concentration of O₂ (A¹), O₂ (B¹) and O₂ (A³ ∑⁺u) is not low compared to the excited nitrogen molecules. These particles energy is relatively low and the transition spectral is longer. The spectrometer does not capture the oxygen emission spectrum. And the peak concentration of O particles is small, so the transition emission spectrum is weak. The calculation results of the stabled model can well explain the emission spectrum data.

  5. The frequency analysis particle resolution technique of 6LiI(Eu) scintillation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Shaojie

    1995-01-01

    To measure the distribution and rate of tritium production by neutron in a 6 LiD sphere, the 6 LiI(Eu) scintillation detector was used. In the measurement, the frequency analysis particle resolution technique was used. The experiment was completed perfectly

  6. Quantitative Image Analysis for Evaluating the Coating Thickness and Pore Distribution in Coated Small Particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laksmana, F.L.; Van Vliet, L.J.; Hartman Kok, P.J.A.; Vromans, H.; Frijlink, H.W.; Van der Voort Maarschalk, K.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose This study aims to develop a characterization method for coating structure based on image analysis, which is particularly promising for the rational design of coated particles in the pharmaceutical industry. Methods The method applies the MATLAB image processing toolbox to images of coated

  7. Application of artificial neural networks in the analysis of multi-particle data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunze, M.

    1995-01-01

    During the past years artificial neural networks (ANN) have gained increasing interest not only in the regime of financial forecast and data mining, but also in the field of particle physics. Up to now artificial neural networks have mostly been applied in high energy physics trigger studies. The use of ANNs in medium energy physics data analysis is summarized. (author). 21 refs., 9 figs

  8. Analysis of two dimensional charged particle scintillation using video image processing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, A.; Bhave, B.D.; Singh, B.; Panchal, C.G.; Joshi, V.M.; Shyam, A.; Srinivasan, M.

    1993-01-01

    A novel method for video recording of individual charged particle scintillation images and their offline analysis using digital image processing techniques for obtaining position, time and energy information is presented . Results of an exploratory experiment conducted using 241 Am and 239 Pu alpha sources are presented. (author). 3 figs., 4 tabs

  9. On the ontology of the elementary particles. A philosophical analysis of the actual elementary-particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckner, Thomas Christian

    2015-01-01

    After a description of the standard model of elementary-particle physics the author describes structuralistic reconstructions. Then the problem of the theoretical terms is discussed. Therafter the reconstruction of the standard-model elementary particles is described. Finally the ontology of leptons, quarks and both free and in atoms bound protons is considered.

  10. The Isolation of DNA by Polycharged Magnetic Particles: An Analysis of the Interaction by Zeta Potential and Particle Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Yazan; Xhaxhiu, Kledi; Kopel, Pavel; Hynek, David; Zitka, Ondrej; Adam, Vojtech

    2016-04-20

    Magnetic isolation of biological targets is in major demand in the biotechnology industry today. This study considers the interaction of four surface-modified magnetic micro- and nanoparticles with selected DNA fragments. Different surface modifications of nanomaghemite precursors were investigated: MAN37 (silica-coated), MAN127 (polyvinylpyrrolidone-coated), MAN158 (phosphate-coated), and MAN164 (tripolyphosphate-coated). All particles were positive polycharged agglomerated monodispersed systems. Mean particle sizes were 0.48, 2.97, 2.93, and 3.67 μm for MAN37, MAN127, MAN164, and MAN158, respectively. DNA fragments exhibited negative zeta potential of -0.22 mV under binding conditions (high ionic strength, low pH, and dehydration). A decrease in zeta potential of particles upon exposure to DNA was observed with exception of MAN158 particles. The measured particle size of MAN164 particles increased by nearly twofold upon exposure to DNA. Quantitative PCR isolation of DNA with a high retrieval rate was observed by magnetic particles MAN127 and MAN164. Interaction between polycharged magnetic particles and DNA is mediated by various binding mechanisms such as hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions. Future development of DNA isolation technology requires an understanding of the physical and biochemical conditions of this process.

  11. Automated detection and analysis of particle beams in laser-plasma accelerator simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ushizima, Daniela Mayumi; Geddes, C.G.; Cormier-Michel, E.; Bethel, E. Wes; Jacobsen, J.; Prabhat; Ruebel, O.; Weber, G.; Hamann, B.

    2010-01-01

    Numerical simulations of laser-plasma wakefield (particle) accelerators model the acceleration of electrons trapped in plasma oscillations (wakes) left behind when an intense laser pulse propagates through the plasma. The goal of these simulations is to better understand the process involved in plasma wake generation and how electrons are trapped and accelerated by the wake. Understanding of such accelerators, and their development, offer high accelerating gradients, potentially reducing size and cost of new accelerators. One operating regime of interest is where a trapped subset of electrons loads the wake and forms an isolated group of accelerated particles with low spread in momentum and position, desirable characteristics for many applications. The electrons trapped in the wake may be accelerated to high energies, the plasma gradient in the wake reaching up to a gigaelectronvolt per centimeter. High-energy electron accelerators power intense X-ray radiation to terahertz sources, and are used in many applications including medical radiotherapy and imaging. To extract information from the simulation about the quality of the beam, a typical approach is to examine plots of the entire dataset, visually determining the adequate parameters necessary to select a subset of particles, which is then further analyzed. This procedure requires laborious examination of massive data sets over many time steps using several plots, a routine that is unfeasible for large data collections. Demand for automated analysis is growing along with the volume and size of simulations. Current 2D LWFA simulation datasets are typically between 1GB and 100GB in size, but simulations in 3D are of the order of TBs. The increase in the number of datasets and dataset sizes leads to a need for automatic routines to recognize particle patterns as particle bunches (beam of electrons) for subsequent analysis. Because of the growth in dataset size, the application of machine learning techniques for

  12. Direct uranium isotope ratio analysis of single micrometer-sized glass particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kappel, Stefanie; Boulyga, Sergei F.; Prohaska, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    We present the application of nanosecond laser ablation (LA) coupled to a ‘Nu Plasma HR’ multi collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MC-ICP-MS) for the direct analysis of U isotope ratios in single, 10–20 μm-sized, U-doped glass particles. Method development included studies with respect to (1) external correction of the measured U isotope ratios in glass particles, (2) the applied laser ablation carrier gas (i.e. Ar versus He) and (3) the accurate determination of lower abundant 236 U/ 238 U isotope ratios (i.e. 10 −5 ). In addition, a data processing procedure was developed for evaluation of transient signals, which is of potential use for routine application of the developed method. We demonstrate that the developed method is reliable and well suited for determining U isotope ratios of individual particles. Analyses of twenty-eight S1 glass particles, measured under optimized conditions, yielded average biases of less than 0.6% from the certified values for 234 U/ 238 U and 235 U/ 238 U ratios. Experimental results obtained for 236 U/ 238 U isotope ratios deviated by less than −2.5% from the certified values. Expanded relative total combined standard uncertainties U c (k = 2) of 2.6%, 1.4% and 5.8% were calculated for 234 U/ 238 U, 235 U/ 238 U and 236 U/ 238 U, respectively. - Highlights: ► LA-MC-ICP-MS was fully validated for the direct analysis of individual particles. ► Traceability was established by using an IRMM glass particle reference material. ► Measured U isotope ratios were in agreement with the certified range. ► A comprehensive total combined uncertainty evaluation was performed. ► The analysis of 236 U/ 238 U isotope ratios was improved by using a deceleration filter.

  13. Particle induced X-ray emission for quantitative trace-element analysis using the Eindhoven cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kivits, H.

    1980-01-01

    Development of a multi-elemental trace analysis technique using PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission), was started almost five years ago at the Eindhoven University of Technology, in the Cyclotron Applications Group of the Physics Department. The aim of the work presented is to improve the quantitative aspects of trace-element analysis with PIXE, as well as versatility, speed and simplicity. (Auth.)

  14. Comparison of instrumental neutron activation analysis and instrumental charged-particle activation analysis for determining of Zn-68 abundance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafii, H.; Mirzaei, M.; Aslani, G.R.; Kamali-Dehghan, M.; Rajamand, A-A.; Rahiminejad, A.; Mirzajani, N.; Sardari, D.; Shahabi, I.; Majidi, F.

    2004-01-01

    Gallium-67 has found important applications in nuclear medicine since last decades. The bombardment of enriched zinc-68 by proton beams in cyclotron is the most suitable method for the carrier-free production of this radionuclide. Any traces and isotopic impurities of the target cause serious radiological hazards because of their associated induced radioactivities. Trace analysis and Zn-68 content determination of the target material before any bombardment and chemical separation provide a valuable assessment of desired product. The elemental abundance evaluation of enriched isotopes is generally carried out by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry method, ICP-Ms Instrumental neutron activation analysis and instrumental charged particle activation analysis. International neutron activation analysis and instrumental charged- particle activation analysis, looks be an alternative nuclear method for determining the abundance evaluation of enriched Zn-68 enrichment in two different samples has been studied by mean of international neutron activation analysis and instrumental charged- particle activation analysis . One sample was purchased from a French company, cortecnet, and the other was separated by an electromagnetic system in the Ions source department of our center, NRCAM. The neutron or proton irradiation was took place respectively in miniature neutron source reactor of Esfahan by flux of (1 to 5) 10 11 n/cm 2 .sec for 30 min and in Cyclon30 by 19 MeV proton beams of 100μA current for 12 min. The produced radioactivity was measured by HpGe detector for determination of trace impurities and evaluation of Zn-68 content in the samples. The result shows a good agreement with the reported ones by their producers and their low derivation of about ± indicates that the international neutron activation analysis and instrumental charged- particle activation analysis are relatively precise and rapid and each one can be used as a supplemental method for analyzing

  15. Direct uranium isotope ratio analysis of single micrometer-sized glass particles

    OpenAIRE

    Kappel, Stefanie; Boulyga, Sergei F.; Prohaska, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    We present the application of nanosecond laser ablation (LA) coupled to a ‘Nu Plasma HR’ multi collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MC-ICP-MS) for the direct analysis of U isotope ratios in single, 10–20 μm-sized, U-doped glass particles. Method development included studies with respect to (1) external correction of the measured U isotope ratios in glass particles, (2) the applied laser ablation carrier gas (i.e. Ar versus He) and (3) the accurate determination of lower abu...

  16. Direct U isotope analysis in μm-sized particles by LA-MC-ICPMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kappel, S.; Boulyga, S.F.; Prohaska, T.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: The knowledge of the isotopic composition of individual μm-sized hot particles is of great interest especially for strengthened nuclear safeguards in order to identify undeclared nuclear activities. We present the potential of a 'Nu Plasma HR' MC-ICPMS coupled to a New Wave 'UP 193' laser ablation (LA) system for the direct analysis of U isotope abundance ratios in individual μm-sized particles. The ability to determine 234 U/ 238 U and 235 U/ 238 U isotope ratios was successfully demonstrated in the NUSIMEP-6 interlaboratory comparison, which was organized by the IRMM (Geel, Belgium). (author)

  17. Elemental analysis of airborne fine particles collected at the roadside of an arterial road

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirabayashi, M.

    2008-01-01

    Airborne particulate matter was collected at the intersection of Industrial Road in Kawasaki-city, Kanagawa, Japan using a 12-stage low-pressure impactor. High concentrations of airborne particulate matter have been observed in this area. The collected samples were analyzed for 34 elements by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), and data on the elemental concentrations were obtained. High concentrations of fine particles of As, Br, Sb, V, and Zn were observed. It was further observed that these fine particles were originated predominantly from the wear of tires and brakes, and not from automobile exhaust emissions. (author)

  18. Analysis of the quantum numbers J(PC) of the X(3872) particle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abulencia, A; Adelman, J; Affolder, T; Akimoto, T; Albrow, M G; Ambrose, D; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Anikeev, K; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Aoki, M; Apollinari, G; Arguin, J-F; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Ashmanskas, W; Attal, A; Azfar, F; Azzi-Bacchetta, P; Azzurri, P; Bacchetta, N; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Baroiant, S; Bartsch, V; Bauer, G; Bedeschi, F; Behari, S; Belforte, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Belloni, A; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Beringer, J; Berry, T; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Blair, R E; Blocker, C; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Boisvert, V; Bolla, G; Bolshov, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brau, B; Brigliadori, L; Bromberg, C; Brubaker, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Budroni, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Byrum, K L; Cabrera, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Carillo, S; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chang, S H; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, I; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Choudalakis, G; Chuang, S H; Chung, K; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Ciljak, M; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clark, D; Coca, M; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Cooper, B; Copic, K; Cordelli, M; Cortiana, G; Crescioli, F; Cuenca Almenar, C; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Cully, J C; Cyr, D; Daronco, S; Datta, M; D'Auria, S; Davies, T; D'Onofrio, M; Dagenhart, D; de Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; Deisher, A; De Lentdecker, G; Dell'Orso, M; Delli Paoli, F; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; De Pedis, D; Derwent, P F; Di Giovanni, G P; Dionisi, C; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; DiTuro, P; Dörr, C; Donati, S; Donega, M; Dong, P; Donini, J; Dorigo, T; Dube, S; Efron, J; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Fedorko, I; Fedorko, W T; Feild, R G; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Foland, A; Forrester, S; Foster, G W; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; Garcia, J E; Garberson, F; Garfinkel, A F; Gay, C; Gerberich, H; Gerdes, D; Giagu, S; Giannetti, P; Gibson, A; Gibson, K; Gimmell, J L; Ginsburg, C; Giokaris, N; Giordani, M; Giromini, P; Giunta, M; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldschmidt, N; Goldstein, J; Golossanov, A; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Griffiths, M; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Grundler, U; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Gunay-Unalan, Z; Haber, C; Hahn, K; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Hamilton, A; Han, B-Y; Han, J Y; Handler, R; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, M; Harper, S; Harr, R F; Harris, R M; Hartz, M; Hatakeyama, K; Hauser, J; Heijboer, A; Heinemann, B; Heinrich, J; Henderson, C; Herndon, M; Heuser, J; Hidas, D; Hill, C S; Hirschbuehl, D; Hocker, A; Holloway, A; Hou, S; Houlden, M; Hsu, S-C; Huffman, B T; Hughes, R E; Husemann, U; Huston, J; Incandela, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ishizawa, Y; Ivanov, A; Iyutin, B; James, E; Jang, D; Jayatilaka, B; Jeans, D; Jensen, H; Jeon, E J; Jindariani, S; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Jung, J E; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Karchin, P E; Kato, Y; Kemp, Y; Kephart, R; Kerzel, U; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Kirsch, L; Klimenko, S; Klute, M; Knuteson, B; Ko, B R; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotwal, A V; Kovalev, A; Kraan, A C; Kraus, J; Kravchenko, I; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Krumnack, N; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kubo, T; Kuhlmann, S E; Kuhr, T; Kusakabe, Y; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lai, S; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lazzizzera, I; LeCompte, T; Lee, J; Lee, J; Lee, Y J; Lee, S W; Lefèvre, R; Leonardo, N; Leone, S; Levy, S; Lewis, J D; Lin, C; Lin, C S; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, T; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Loreti, M; Loverre, P; Lu, R-S; Lucchesi, D; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lyons, L; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Lytken, E; Mack, P; MacQueen, D; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Makhoul, K; Maki, T; Maksimovic, P; Malde, S; Manca, G; Margaroli, F; Marginean, R; Marino, C; Marino, C P; Martin, A; Martin, M; Martin, V; Martínez, M; Maruyama, T; Mastrandrea, P; Masubuchi, T; Matsunaga, H; Mattson, M E; Mazini, R; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Menzemer, S; Menzione, A; Merkel, P; Mesropian, C; Messina, A; Miao, T; Miladinovic, N; Miles, J; Miller, R; Mills, C; Milnik, M; Mitra, A; Mitselmakher, G; Miyamoto, A; Moed, S; Moggi, N; Mohr, B; Moore, R; Morello, M; Movilla Fernandez, P; Mülmenstädt, J; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Mumford, R; Murat, P; Nachtman, J; Nagano, A; Naganoma, J; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Necula, V; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Nielsen, J; Nigmanov, T; Nodulman, L; Norniella, O; Nurse, E; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Oldeman, R; Orava, R; Osterberg, K; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Papadimitriou, V; Paramonov, A A; Parks, B; Pashapour, S; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Pellett, D E; Penzo, A; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Piedra, J; Pinera, L; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Portell, X; Poukhov, O; Pounder, N; Prakoshyn, F; Pronko, A; Proudfoot, J; Ptohos, F; Punzi, G; Pursley, J; Rademacker, J; Rahaman, A; Ranjan, N; Rappoccio, S; Reisert, B; Rekovic, V; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Richter, S; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Rossi, M; Rossin, R; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Saarikko, H; Sabik, S; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Salamanna, G; Saltó, O; Saltzberg, D; Sánchez, C; Santi, L; Sarkar, S; Sartori, L; Sato, K; Savard, P; Savoy-Navarro, A; Scheidle, T; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scott, A L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Sedov, A; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sexton-Kennedy, L; Sfyrla, A; Shapiro, M D; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Sherman, D; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Shon, Y; Shreyber, I; Sidoti, A; Sinervo, P; Sisakyan, A; Sjolin, J; Slaughter, A J; Slaunwhite, J; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Snihur, R; Soderberg, M; Soha, A; Somalwar, S; Sorin, V; Spalding, J; Spinella, F; Spreitzer, T; Squillacioti, P; Stanitzki, M; Staveris-Polykalas, A; St Denis, R; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Stuart, D; Suh, J S; Sukhanov, A; Sun, H; Suzuki, T; Taffard, A; Takashima, R; Takeuchi, Y; Takikawa, K; Tanaka, M; Tanaka, R; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Terashi, K; Thom, J; Thompson, A S; Thomson, E; Tipton, P; Tiwari, V; Tkaczyk, S; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Tourneur, S; Trischuk, W; Tsuchiya, R; Tsuno, S; Turini, N; Ukegawa, F; Unverhau, T; Uozumi, S; Usynin, D; Vallecorsa, S; van Remortel, N; Varganov, A; Vataga, E; Vázquez, F; Velev, G; Veramendi, G; Veszpremi, V; Vidal, R; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Vine, T; Vollrath, I; Volobouev, I; Volpi, G; Würthwein, F; Wagner, P; Wagner, R G; Wagner, R L; Wagner, J; Wagner, W; Wallny, R; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Waschke, S; Waters, D; Wester, W C; Whitehouse, B; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Williams, G; Williams, H H; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, C; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wynne, S M; Yagil, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamaoka, J; Yamashita, T; Yang, C; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W M; Yeh, G P; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Yu, S S; Yun, J C; Zanello, L; Zanetti, A; Zaw, I; Zhang, X; Zhou, J; Zucchelli, S

    2007-03-30

    We present an analysis of angular distributions and correlations of the X(3872) particle in the exclusive decay mode X(3872)-->J/psipi+ pi- with J/psi-->mu+ mu-. We use 780 pb-1 of data from pp[over ] collisions at sqrt[s]=1.96 TeV collected with the CDF II detector at the Fermilab Tevatron. We derive constraints on spin, parity, and charge conjugation parity of the X(3872) particle by comparing measured angular distributions of the decay products with predictions for different J(PC) hypotheses. The assignments J(PC)=1++ and 2-+ are the only ones consistent with the data.

  19. Cluster analysis of HZE particle tracks as applied to space radiobiology problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batmunkh, M.; Bayarchimeg, L.; Lkhagva, O.; Belov, O.

    2013-01-01

    A cluster analysis is performed of ionizations in tracks produced by the most abundant nuclei in the charge and energy spectra of the galactic cosmic rays. The frequency distribution of clusters is estimated for cluster sizes comparable to the DNA molecule at different packaging levels. For this purpose, an improved K-mean-based algorithm is suggested. This technique allows processing particle tracks containing a large number of ionization events without setting the number of clusters as an input parameter. Using this method, the ionization distribution pattern is analyzed depending on the cluster size and particle's linear energy transfer

  20. Research on Multiple Particle Swarm Algorithm Based on Analysis of Scientific Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Hongwei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposed an improved particle swarm optimization algorithm based on analysis of scientific materials. The core thesis of MPSO (Multiple Particle Swarm Algorithm is to improve the single population PSO to interactive multi-swarms, which is used to settle the problem of being trapped into local minima during later iterations because it is lack of diversity. The simulation results show that the convergence rate is fast and the search performance is good, and it has achieved very good results.

  1. MAPPIX: A software package for off-line micro-pixe single particle aerosol analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceccato, D.

    2009-01-01

    In the framework of a multiannual experiment performed at Baia Terra Nova, Antarctica, size-segregated aerosol samples were collected by using a 12-stage SDI impactor (Hillamo design). Approximately 2800 particles, belonging to the first four supermicrometric SDI stages - 8.39, 4.08, 2.68, 1.66 μm dynamic aerosol diameter cuts - were analyzed at the INFN-LNL micro-PIXE facility, a three lens Oxford Microprobe (OM) product, installed in the early nineties. Four regions on each of the 12 sub-samples were measured; 60 aerosol particles were detected on average in each of the analyzed regions. The off-line single aerosol particle (SAP) analysis of such big amount of data required software that is able to rapidly handle the acquired data, with a simple and fast area selection procedure; the subsequent automated PIXE spectra analysis with a specialized code was also needed. The MAPPIX 2.0 software was designed to make easier and faster the user jobs during the SAP analysis. The package is composed of two separate routines: the first one is devoted to data format conversion (OM-LMF file format to MAPPIX format), while the second one is devoted to micro-PIXE maps graphical presentation and aerosol particle selection procedure. The MAPPIX data format and software features will be discussed; a short report of the speed performances will be presented.

  2. CORRECTING FOR INTERPLANETARY SCATTERING IN VELOCITY DISPERSION ANALYSIS OF SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laitinen, T.; Dalla, S.; Huttunen-Heikinmaa, K.; Valtonen, E.

    2015-01-01

    To understand the origin of Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs), we must study their injection time relative to other solar eruption manifestations. Traditionally the injection time is determined using the Velocity Dispersion Analysis (VDA) where a linear fit of the observed event onset times at 1 AU to the inverse velocities of SEPs is used to derive the injection time and path length of the first-arriving particles. VDA does not, however, take into account that the particles that produce a statistically observable onset at 1 AU have scattered in the interplanetary space. We use Monte Carlo test particle simulations of energetic protons to study the effect of particle scattering on the observable SEP event onset above pre-event background, and consequently on VDA results. We find that the VDA results are sensitive to the properties of the pre-event and event particle spectra as well as SEP injection and scattering parameters. In particular, a VDA-obtained path length that is close to the nominal Parker spiral length does not imply that the VDA injection time is correct. We study the delay to the observed onset caused by scattering of the particles and derive a simple estimate for the delay time by using the rate of intensity increase at the SEP onset as a parameter. We apply the correction to a magnetically well-connected SEP event of 2000 June 10, and show it to improve both the path length and injection time estimates, while also increasing the error limits to better reflect the inherent uncertainties of VDA

  3. Analysis in nuclear power accident emergency based on random network and particle swarm optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Dichen; Fang Fang; Ding Weicheng; Chen Zhi

    2014-01-01

    The GERT random network model of nuclear power accident emergency was built in this paper, and the intelligent computation was combined with the random network based on the analysis of Fukushima nuclear accident in Japan. The emergency process was divided into the series link and parallel link, and the parallel link was the part of series link. The overall allocation of resources was firstly optimized, and then the parallel link was analyzed. The effect of the resources for emergency used in different links was analyzed, and it was put forward that the corresponding particle velocity vector was limited under the condition of limited emergency resources. The resource-constrained particle swarm optimization was obtained by using velocity projection matrix to correct the motion of particles. The optimized allocation of resources in emergency process was obtained and the time consumption of nuclear power accident emergency was reduced. (authors)

  4. Genetic particle swarm parallel algorithm analysis of optimization arrangement on mistuned blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tianyu; Yuan, Huiqun; Yang, Wenjun; Sun, Huagang

    2017-12-01

    This article introduces a method of mistuned parameter identification which consists of static frequency testing of blades, dichotomy and finite element analysis. A lumped parameter model of an engine bladed-disc system is then set up. A bladed arrangement optimization method, namely the genetic particle swarm optimization algorithm, is presented. It consists of a discrete particle swarm optimization and a genetic algorithm. From this, the local and global search ability is introduced. CUDA-based co-evolution particle swarm optimization, using a graphics processing unit, is presented and its performance is analysed. The results show that using optimization results can reduce the amplitude and localization of the forced vibration response of a bladed-disc system, while optimization based on the CUDA framework can improve the computing speed. This method could provide support for engineering applications in terms of effectiveness and efficiency.

  5. Development of a FE Model for the Stress Analysis of HTGR TRISO-coated particle fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Moon Sung; Lee, Y. W.; Jeong, K. C.; Kim, Y. K.; Oh, S. C.; Chang, J. H.

    2005-12-01

    Finite element modelling of the stresses in TRISO-coated fuel particle under normal operating conditions was carried out with use of the structural analysis computer code ABAQUS. The FE model took into account the irradiation induced swelling and the creep of the PyC layers, the internal fission gas pressure that builds up during irradiation and the constant external ambient pressure. All of the inputs such as particle dimensions, swelling rates and creep rates of PyC layers and other mechanical properties used in these calculations were adopted from Miller's publication published in 1993. The FE model was verified against Miller's solution. Results of this model were found to be in good agreement with Miller's results. With use of the FE model, the static behavior of the TRISO-coated fuel particle, such as load shares, stress contours, stress variations as a function of fluence and shape changes of the TRISO -coated layers were investigated

  6. Analysis of tecniques for measurement of the size distribution of solid particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. O. Arouca

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Determination of the size distribution of solid particles is fundamental for analysis of the performance several pieces of equipment used for solid-fluid separation. The main objective of this work is to compare the results obtained with two traditional methods for determination of the size grade distribution of powdery solids: the gamma-ray attenuation technique (GRAT and the LADEQ test tube technique. The effect of draining the suspension in the two techniques used was also analyzed. The GRAT can supply the particle size distribution of solids through the monitoring of solid concentration in experiments on batch settling of diluted suspensions. The results show that use of the peristaltic pump in the GRAT and the LADEQ methods produced a significant difference between the values obtained for the parameters of the particle size model.

  7. Cement analysis by particle-induced prompt photon spectrometry: comparison of the effect of different charged particle beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gihwala, D.; Peisach, M.

    1985-01-01

    Standard cements were analysed by particle-induced prompt photon spectrometry (PIPPS) using 4,75-MeV protons, 5-MeV 4 He+ ions, and 2-MeV deuterons. Precision and sensitivity attainable were compared. Protons and alpha-particles were comparable for the determination of F, Na, Mg and Si. Protons were preferred for P and Ca, and alpha-particles for the direct determination of O. Sources of interference are discussed with particular reference to delayed gamma-ray emission from deuteron bombardment

  8. Performance analysis of a new positron camera geometry for high speed, fine particle tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sovechles, J. M.; Boucher, D.; Pax, R.; Leadbeater, T.; Sasmito, A. P.; Waters, K. E.

    2017-09-01

    A new positron camera arrangement was assembled using 16 ECAT951 modular detector blocks. A closely packed, cross pattern arrangement was selected to produce a highly sensitive cylindrical region for tracking particles with low activities and high speeds. To determine the capabilities of this system a comprehensive analysis of the tracking performance was conducted to determine the 3D location error and location frequency as a function of tracer activity and speed. The 3D error was found to range from 0.54 mm for a stationary particle, consistent for all tracer activities, up to 4.33 mm for a tracer with an activity of 3 MBq and a speed of 4 m · s-1. For lower activity tracers (mineral particles inside a two-inch hydrocyclone and a 142 mm diameter flotation cell. A detailed trajectory, inside the hydrocyclone, of a  -212  +  106 µm (10-1 MBq) quartz particle displayed the expected spiralling motion towards the apex. This was the first time a mineral particle of this size had been successfully traced within a hydrocyclone, however more work is required to develop detailed velocity fields.

  9. Performance Analysis Review of Thorium TRISO Coated Particles during Manufacture, Irradiation and Accident Condition Heating Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-03-01

    Thorium, in combination with high enriched uranium, was used in all early high temperature reactors (HTRs). Initially, the fuel was contained in a kernel of coated particles. However, particle quality was low in the 1960s and early 1970s. Modern, high quality, tristructural isotropic (TRISO) fuel particles with thorium oxide and uranium dioxide (UO 2 ) had been manufactured since 1978 and were successfully demonstrated in irradiation and accident tests. In 1980, HTR fuels changed to low enriched uranium UO 2 TRISO fuels. The wide ranging development and demonstration programme was successful, and it established a worldwide standard that is still valid today. During the process, results of the thorium work with high quality TRISO fuel particles had not been fully evaluated or documented. This publication collects and presents the information and demonstrates the performance of thorium TRISO fuels.This publication is an outcome of the technical contract awarded under the IAEA Coordinated Research Project on Near Term and Promising Long Term Options for Deployment of Thorium Based Nuclear Energy, initiated in 2012. It is based on the compilation and analysis of available results on thorium TRISO coated particle performance in manufacturing and during irradiation and accident condition heating tests

  10. Dimensional analysis and prediction of dielectrophoretic crossover frequency of spherical particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che-Kai Yeh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The manipulation of biological cells and micrometer-scale particles using dielectrophoresis (DEP is an indispensable technique for lab-on-a-chip systems for many biological and colloidal science applications. However, existing models, including the dipole model and numerical simulations based on Maxwell stress tensor (MST, cannot achieve high accuracy and high computation efficiency at the same time. The dipole model is widely used and provides adequate predictions on the crossover frequency of submicron particles, but cannot predict the crossover frequency for larger particles accurately; on the other hand, the MST method offers high accuracy for a wide variety of particle sizes and shapes, but is time-consuming and may lack predictive understanding of the interplay between key parameters. Here we present a mathematical model, using dimensional analysis and the Buckingham pi theorem, that permits high accuracy and efficiency in predicting the crossover frequency of spherical particles. The curve fitting and calculation are performed using commercial packages OriginLab and MATLAB, respectively. In addition, through this model we also can predict the conditions in which no crossover frequency exists. Also, we propose a pair of dimensionless parameters, forming a functional relation, that provide physical insights into the dependency of the crossover frequency on five key parameters. The model is verified under several scenarios using comprehensive MST simulations by COMSOL Multiphysics software (COMSOL, Inc. and some published experimental data.

  11. Chemical Speciation of Sulfur in Marine Cloud Droplets and Particles: Analysis of Individual Particles from Marine Boundary Layer over the California Current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William R. Wiley Environmental Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Gilles, Mary K; Hopkins, Rebecca J.; Desyaterik, Yury; Tivanski, Alexei V.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Berkowitz, Carl M.; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Gilles, Mary K.; Laskin, Alexander

    2008-03-12

    Detailed chemical speciation of the dry residue particles from individual cloud droplets and interstitial aerosol collected during the Marine Stratus Experiment (MASE) was performed using a combination of complementary microanalysis techniques. Techniques include computer controlled scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersed analysis of X-rays (CCSEM/EDX), time-of-flight secondary ionization mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy with near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS). Samples were collected at the ground site located in Point Reyes National Seashore, approximately 1 km from the coast. This manuscript focuses on the analysis of individual particles sampled from air masses that originated over the open ocean and then passed through the area of the California current located along the northern California coast. Based on composition, morphology, and chemical bonding information, two externally mixed, distinct classes of sulfur containing particles were identified: chemically modified (aged) sea salt particles and secondary formed sulfate particles. The results indicate substantial heterogeneous replacement of chloride by methanesulfonate (CH3SO3-) and non-sea salt sulfate (nss-SO42-) in sea-salt particles with characteristic ratios of nss-S/Na>0.10 and CH3SO3-/nss-SO42->0.6.

  12. Eulerian-Lagrangian analysis for particle velocities and trajectories in a pure wave motion using particle image velocimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeyama, Motohiko

    2012-04-13

    This paper investigates the velocity and the trajectory of water particles under surface waves, which propagate at a constant water depth, using particle image velocimetry (PIV). The vector fields and vertical distributions of velocities are presented at several phases in one wave cycle. The third-order Stokes wave theory was employed to express the physical quantities. The PIV technique's ability to measure both temporal and spatial variations of the velocity was proved after a series of attempts. This technique was applied to the prediction of particle trajectory in an Eulerian scheme. Furthermore, the measured particle path was compared with the positions found theoretically by integrating the Eulerian velocity to the higher order of a Taylor series expansion. The profile of average travelling distance is also presented with a solution of zero net mass flux in a closed wave flume.

  13. Quantitative trace element analysis of individual fly ash particles by means of X-ray microfluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincze, L.; Somogyi, A.; Osan, J.; Vekemans, B.; Torok, S.; Janssens, K.; Adams, F. [Universitaire of Instelling Antwerp, Wilrijk (Belgium). Dept. of Chemistry

    2002-07-01

    A new quantification procedure was developed for the evaluation of X-ray microfluorescence (XRF) data sets obtained from individual particles, based on iterative Monte Carlo (MC) simulation. Combined with the high sensitivity of synchrotron radiation-induced XRF spectroscopy, the method was used to obtain quantitative information down to trace-level concentrations from micrometer-sized particulate matter. The detailed XRF simulation model was validated by comparison of calculated and experimental XRF spectra obtained for glass microsphere standards, resulting in uncertainties in the range of 3-10% for the calculated elemental sensitivities. The simulation model was applied for the quantitative analysis of X-ray tube and synchrotron radiation-induced scanning micro-XRF spectra of individual coal and wood fly ash particles originating from different Hungarian power plants. By measuring the same particles by both methods the major, minor, and trace element compositions of the particles were determined. The uncertainty of the MC based quantitative analysis scheme is estimated to be in the range of 5-30%.

  14. Automated image analysis of atomic force microscopy images of rotavirus particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkataraman, S.; Allison, D.P.; Qi, H.; Morrell-Falvey, J.L.; Kallewaard, N.L.; Crowe, J.E.; Doktycz, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    A variety of biological samples can be imaged by the atomic force microscope (AFM) under environments that range from vacuum to ambient to liquid. Generally imaging is pursued to evaluate structural features of the sample or perhaps identify some structural changes in the sample that are induced by the investigator. In many cases, AFM images of sample features and induced structural changes are interpreted in general qualitative terms such as markedly smaller or larger, rougher, highly irregular, or smooth. Various manual tools can be used to analyze images and extract more quantitative data, but this is usually a cumbersome process. To facilitate quantitative AFM imaging, automated image analysis routines are being developed. Viral particles imaged in water were used as a test case to develop an algorithm that automatically extracts average dimensional information from a large set of individual particles. The extracted information allows statistical analyses of the dimensional characteristics of the particles and facilitates interpretation related to the binding of the particles to the surface. This algorithm is being extended for analysis of other biological samples and physical objects that are imaged by AFM

  15. Automated image analysis of atomic force microscopy images of rotavirus particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkataraman, S. [Life Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Allison, D.P. [Life Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Department of Biochemistry, Cellular, and Molecular Biology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Molecular Imaging Inc. Tempe, AZ, 85282 (United States); Qi, H. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Morrell-Falvey, J.L. [Life Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Kallewaard, N.L. [Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232-2905 (United States); Crowe, J.E. [Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232-2905 (United States); Doktycz, M.J. [Life Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)]. E-mail: doktyczmj@ornl.gov

    2006-06-15

    A variety of biological samples can be imaged by the atomic force microscope (AFM) under environments that range from vacuum to ambient to liquid. Generally imaging is pursued to evaluate structural features of the sample or perhaps identify some structural changes in the sample that are induced by the investigator. In many cases, AFM images of sample features and induced structural changes are interpreted in general qualitative terms such as markedly smaller or larger, rougher, highly irregular, or smooth. Various manual tools can be used to analyze images and extract more quantitative data, but this is usually a cumbersome process. To facilitate quantitative AFM imaging, automated image analysis routines are being developed. Viral particles imaged in water were used as a test case to develop an algorithm that automatically extracts average dimensional information from a large set of individual particles. The extracted information allows statistical analyses of the dimensional characteristics of the particles and facilitates interpretation related to the binding of the particles to the surface. This algorithm is being extended for analysis of other biological samples and physical objects that are imaged by AFM.

  16. Confocal (micro)-XRF for 3D analysis of elements distribution in hot environmental particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bielewski, M.; Eriksson, M.; Himbert, J.; Simon, R.; Betti, M.; Hamilton, T.F.

    2007-01-01

    Studies on the fate and transport of radioactive contaminates in the environment are often constrained by a lack of knowledge on the elemental distribution and general behavior of particulate bound radionuclides contained in hot particles. A number of hot particles were previously isolated from soil samples collected at former U.S. nuclear test sites in the Marshall Islands and characterized using non-destructive techniques [1]. The present investigation at HASYLAB is a part of larger research program at ITU regarding the characterization of environmental radioactive particles different locations and source-terms. Radioactive particles in the environment are formed under a number of different release scenarios and, as such, their physicochemical properties may provide a basis for identifying source-term specific contamination regimes. Consequently, studies on hot particles are not only important in terms of studying the elemental composition and geochemical behavior of hot particles but may also lead to advances in assessing the long-term impacts of radioactive contamination on the environment. Six particles isolated from soil samples collected at the Marshall Islands were studied. The element distribution in the particles was determined by confocal (micro)-XRF analysis using the ANKA FLUO beam line. The CRL (compound refractive lens) was used to focus the exciting beam and the polycapillary half lens to collimate the detector. The dimensions of confocal spot were measured by 'knife edge scanning' method with thin gold structure placed at Si wafer. The values of 3.1 x 1.4 x 18.4 (micro)m were achieved if defined as FWHMs of measured L?intensity profiles and when the19.1 keV exciting radiation was used. The collected XRF spectra were analyzed offline with AXIL [2] software to obtain net intensities of element characteristic lines.Further data processing and reconstruction of element distribution was done with the software 'R' [3] dedicated for statistical

  17. Material analysis with the aid of particle induced X-ray emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stadler, E.

    1984-12-01

    Material analysis are discussed on the basis of PIXE and Rutherford scattering spectroscopy. Various problems including cross-section changes, energy changes, count rate and deadtime, background, escape peaks and perturbations and overlap are discussed in relation to PIXE, while the influence of the energy loss of the projectile, the mass of the projectile, the cinematic factor, projectile energy, the scattering angle and the solid angle are discussed in terms of Rutherford scattering spectroscopy. X-ray production theory and x-ray detectors are also briefly discussed. The effect of elastically scattered protons on the energy resolution of the x-ray detector is discussed. The application of PIXE and Rutherford scattering spectroscopy to the analysis of air particle samples, and to the determination of the efficiency of the filters used for the collection of air-particle samples is also discussed

  18. Particle tracking for unsaturated-zone groundwater travel time analysis at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, B.W.; Skinner, L.H.; Zieman, N.B.

    1995-01-01

    A particle tracking code developed to link numerical modeling of groundwater flow in the unsaturated zone to the analysis of groundwater travel times was used to produce preliminary estimates of the distribution of groundwater-travel time from a potential repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada to the water table. Compliance with 10CFR960 requires the demonstration that pre-waste-emplacement groundwater travel time from the disturbed zone to the accessible environment is expected to exceed 1,000 years along any path of likely and significant radionuclide travel. The use of multiple particles and multiple realizations of the geology and parameter distributions in the unsaturated zone allows a probabilistic analysis of groundwater travel times that may be applied for evaluating compliance

  19. The particle analysis based on FT-TIMS technique for swipe sample under the frame of nuclear safeguard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Tianli; Liu Xuemei; Liu Zhao; Tang Lei; Long Kaiming

    2008-06-01

    Under the frame of nuclear safeguard, the particles analysis for swipe sample is an advance mean to detect the undeclared uranium enriched facilities and undeclared uranium enriched activity. The technique of particle analysis based on fission track-thermal ionization mass spectrometry (FT-TIMS) for swipe sample have been built. The reliability and the experimental background for selecting particles consisting of uranium from swipe sample by FT method have been verified. In addition, the utilization coefficient of particles on the surface of swipe sample have also been tested. These works have provided the technique support for application in the area of nuclear verification. (authors)

  20. An In-situ materials analysis particle probe (MAPP) diagnostic to study particle density control and hydrogenic fuel retention in NSTX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allain, Jean-Paul [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2014-09-05

    A new materials analysis particle probe (MAPP) was designed, constructed and tested to develop understanding of particle control and hydrogenic fuel retention in lithium-based plasma-facing surfaces in NSTX. The novel feature of MAPP is an in-situ tool to probe the divertor NSTX floor during LLD and lithium-coating shots with subsequent transport to a post-exposure in-vacuo surface analysis chamber to measure D retention. In addition, the implications of a lithiated graphite-dominated plasma-surface environment in NSTX on LLD performance, operation and ultimately hydrogenic pumping and particle control capability are investigated in this proposal. MAPP will be an invaluable tool for erosion/redeposition simulation code validation.

  1. On the determination of phosphorus via charged particle activation analysis Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kormali, S.M.; James, W.D.; Poland, J.E.; Schweikert, E.A.

    1985-01-01

    The application of charged particle activation analysis to the determination of phosphorus in a variety of sample materials is discussed. The activity produced via the sup(31)P(α,n)sup(34m)Cl reaction is quantitated either nondestructively or using postirradiation radiochemical separations depending on the characteristics of the sample matrices. Corrections which are necessary for the determination of phosphorus in pure tantalum metal due to spectral interferences are discussed. (author)

  2. ELEMENTAL ANALYSIS OF RESPIRABLE TIRE PARTICLES AND ASSESSMENT OF CARDIO-PULMONARY TOXICITY IN RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elemental Analysis of Respirable Tire Particles and Assessment of Cardio-pulmonary Toxicity in RatsR.R. Gottipolu, PhD1, E. Landa, PhD2, J.K. McGee, MS1, M.C. Schladweiler, BS1, J.G. Wallenborn, MS3, A.D. Ledbetter, BS1, J.E. Richards, MS1 and U.P. Kodavanti, PhD1. 1NHEER...

  3. A CAD based geometry model for simulation and analysis of particle detector data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milde, Michael; Losekamm, Martin; Poeschl, Thomas; Greenwald, Daniel; Paul, Stephan [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The development of a new particle detector requires a good understanding of its setup. A detailed model of the detector's geometry is not only needed during construction, but also for simulation and data analysis. To arrive at a consistent description of the detector geometry a representation is needed that can be easily implemented in different software tools used during data analysis. We developed a geometry representation based on CAD files that can be easily used within the Geant4 simulation framework and analysis tools based on the ROOT framework. This talk presents the structure of the geometry model and show its implementation using the example of the event reconstruction developed for the Multi-purpose Active-target Particle Telescope (MAPT). The detector consists of scintillating plastic fibers and can be used as a tracking detector and calorimeter with omnidirectional acceptance. To optimize the angular resolution and the energy reconstruction of measured particles, a detailed detector model is needed at all stages of the reconstruction.

  4. Comparative dynamics analysis on xonotlite spherical particles synthesized via hydrothermal synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, F.; Chen, S.; Lin, Q.; Wang, X. D.; Cao, J. X.

    2018-01-01

    The xonotlite crystals were synthesized via the hydrothermal synthesis manner from CaO and SiO2 as the raw materials with their Si/Ca molar ratio of 1.0. Comparative dynamics analysis on xonotlite spherical particles synthesized via hydrothermal synthesis process was explored in this paper. The accuracy of the dynamic equation of xonotlite spherical particles was verified by two methods, one was comparing the production rate of the xonotlite products calculated by the dynamic equation with the experimental values, and the other was comparing the apparent activation energies calculated by the dynamic equation with that calculated by the Kondo model. The results indicated that the production rates of the xonotlite spherical particles calculated by the dynamic equation were in good agreement with the experimental values and the apparent activation energy of the xonotlite spherical particles calculated by dynamic equation (84 kJ·mol-1) was close to that calculated by Kondo model (77 kJ·mol-1), verifying the high accuracy of the dynamic equation.

  5. Direct uranium isotope ratio analysis of single micrometer-sized glass particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappel, Stefanie; Boulyga, Sergei F; Prohaska, Thomas

    2012-11-01

    We present the application of nanosecond laser ablation (LA) coupled to a 'Nu Plasma HR' multi collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MC-ICP-MS) for the direct analysis of U isotope ratios in single, 10-20 μm-sized, U-doped glass particles. Method development included studies with respect to (1) external correction of the measured U isotope ratios in glass particles, (2) the applied laser ablation carrier gas (i.e. Ar versus He) and (3) the accurate determination of lower abundant (236)U/(238)U isotope ratios (i.e. 10(-5)). In addition, a data processing procedure was developed for evaluation of transient signals, which is of potential use for routine application of the developed method. We demonstrate that the developed method is reliable and well suited for determining U isotope ratios of individual particles. Analyses of twenty-eight S1 glass particles, measured under optimized conditions, yielded average biases of less than 0.6% from the certified values for (234)U/(238)U and (235)U/(238)U ratios. Experimental results obtained for (236)U/(238)U isotope ratios deviated by less than -2.5% from the certified values. Expanded relative total combined standard uncertainties U(c) (k = 2) of 2.6%, 1.4% and 5.8% were calculated for (234)U/(238)U, (235)U/(238)U and (236)U/(238)U, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Analysis of Physical and Mechanical Properties of Marble Particles Floor-Tile Composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parikin; Arslan, A.; Ismoyo, A.H.; Jodi, H.E.; Nurhasanah, S.

    2002-01-01

    Two criteria that very predictable to quality products of marble particles composite floor-tile are physical and mechanical properties. Simple manufacturing was conducted from powdering refuges of marble to molding and drying the specimens at ambient atmosphere. The characterization, to observe; density, crystal structure, microstructure, hardness and compressive/bending strength of the material, was performed in Serpong and IPB-Bogor. The analysis shows that polymeric crystallization was occurred by HEXA and the density and the hardness generally rise up with the improvements in mesh and composition of marble particles. But it is not always followed by the real improvements of compressive and bending strength, which related to the material stiffness. The curves figured that these two strengths give the maximum values at 60% composition of marble particles. It can be concluded that density and hardness are dependent on mesh and composition, whereas the stiffness (modulus) is only correlation with composition of particulate. The theoretical modulus of marble particles composite floor-tile has been evaluated at about 56.19 GPa. (author)

  7. Association of fine particles with respiratory disease mortality: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xuhong; Zhou, Liangjia; Tang, Meng; Wang, Bei

    2015-01-01

    Short-time exposure to high levels of fine particles (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter≤2.5 μm; PM2.5) may trigger respiratory disease, but this association has not been determined. The objective of this study was to evaluate and quantify the short-time exposure to fine particles on respiratory disease mortality. Published articles were obtained from electronic databases and a validity assessment was used. The meta-analysis was conducted with the incorporation of good-quality studies. After applying the inclusion criteria, 9 articles were included in the study. The methodological qualities of the published studies were good, and every study achieved a score of 3. Fine particles were significantly associated with an increase in respiratory mortality risk (for every 10 μg/m3 increment, rate difference [RD]=1.32%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.95%-1.68%; p=.000). These findings indicate that short-time exposure to fine particles could increase the risk of respiratory disease mortality.

  8. Neutron activation analysis of size-separated airborne dust particles, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Atsushi; Ishii, Taka; Tomiyama, Tsuyoshi; Yamamoto, Isao.

    1976-01-01

    The size distribution of the component element concentration in particle floating matters contained in the atmosphere is related closely to atmospheric pollution. In this paper, the results of the neutron activation analysis and the measurement of size distribution of component element concentration are reported, which were carried out in Minami-ku, Kyoto, in May and November, 1975, by collecting airbone dust with Andersen air samples. The activation of samples was carried out with the research reactor in Kyoto University. The gamma-ray spectra of the samples were measured with a Ge(Li) semiconductor detector. The size distributions of Al, Sc, Th and Ti showed the similar pattern. The concentration of Zn was abnormally high as compared with that in other districts, and it is related to the local industry in this district. The size distribution of airborne dust usually follows the logarithmic normal distribution when it is not affected by atmospheric pollution. Accordingly, the size distribution of the concentration also follows the same distribution. The accumulated percentages of the concentrations of Al, Sc and Th fall on the same straight line, and it means that these elements were contained in the same particles as the components. Also it was decided that the particles of Al, Sc, Th, Fe and Ti were soil particles. (Kako, I.)

  9. Electron probe micro-analysis of irradiated Triso-coated UO2 particles, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Toru; Minato, Kazuo; Fukuda, Kosaku; Ikawa, Katsuichi

    1983-11-01

    The Triso-coated low-enriched UO 2 particles were subjected to the post-irradiation electron probe micro-analysis. Observations and analyses on the amoeba effect, inclusions and solutes in the UO 2 matrix were made. In the cooler side of the particle which suffered extensive kernel migration, two significant features were observed: (1) the wake of minute particles, presumably UO 2 , left by the moving kernel in the carbon phase and (2) carbon precipitation in the pores and along the grain boundaries of the UO 2 kernel. Both features could be hardly explained by the gas-phase mechanism of carbon transport and rather suggest the solid state mechanism. Two-types of 4d-transition metal inclusions were observed: the one which was predominantly Mo with a fraction of Tc and another which was enriched with Ru and containing significant amount of Si. The Mo and Si were also found in the UO 2 matrix; the observation led to the discussion of the oxygen potential in the irradiated Triso-coated UO 2 particle. (author)

  10. Emulsification in binary liquids containing colloidal particles: a structure-factor analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thijssen, Job H J; Clegg, Paul S

    2010-01-01

    We present a quantitative confocal-microscopy study of the transient and final microstructure of particle-stabilized emulsions formed via demixing in a binary liquid. To this end, we have developed an image-analysis method that relies on structure factors obtained from discrete Fourier transforms of individual frames in confocal image sequences. Radially averaging the squared modulus of these Fourier transforms before peak fitting allows extraction of dominant length scales over the entire temperature range of the quench. Our procedure even yields information just after droplet nucleation, when the (fluorescence) contrast between the two separating phases is scarcely discernible in the images. We find that our emulsions are stabilized on experimental timescales by interfacial particles and that they are likely to have bimodal droplet-size distributions. We attribute the latter to coalescence together with creaming being the main coarsening mechanism during the late stages of emulsification and we support this claim with (direct) confocal-microscopy observations. In addition, our results imply that the observed droplets emerge from particle-promoted nucleation, possibly followed by a free-growth regime. Finally, we argue that creaming strongly affects droplet growth during the early stages of emulsification. Future investigations could clarify the link between quench conditions and resulting microstructure, paving the way for tailor-made particle-stabilized emulsions from binary liquids.

  11. High throughput on-chip analysis of high-energy charged particle tracks using lensfree imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Wei; Shabbir, Faizan; Gong, Chao; Gulec, Cagatay; Pigeon, Jeremy; Shaw, Jessica; Greenbaum, Alon; Tochitsky, Sergei; Joshi, Chandrashekhar [Electrical Engineering Department, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Ozcan, Aydogan, E-mail: ozcan@ucla.edu [Electrical Engineering Department, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Bioengineering Department, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); California NanoSystems Institute (CNSI), University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2015-04-13

    We demonstrate a high-throughput charged particle analysis platform, which is based on lensfree on-chip microscopy for rapid ion track analysis using allyl diglycol carbonate, i.e., CR-39 plastic polymer as the sensing medium. By adopting a wide-area opto-electronic image sensor together with a source-shifting based pixel super-resolution technique, a large CR-39 sample volume (i.e., 4 cm × 4 cm × 0.1 cm) can be imaged in less than 1 min using a compact lensfree on-chip microscope, which detects partially coherent in-line holograms of the ion tracks recorded within the CR-39 detector. After the image capture, using highly parallelized reconstruction and ion track analysis algorithms running on graphics processing units, we reconstruct and analyze the entire volume of a CR-39 detector within ∼1.5 min. This significant reduction in the entire imaging and ion track analysis time not only increases our throughput but also allows us to perform time-resolved analysis of the etching process to monitor and optimize the growth of ion tracks during etching. This computational lensfree imaging platform can provide a much higher throughput and more cost-effective alternative to traditional lens-based scanning optical microscopes for ion track analysis using CR-39 and other passive high energy particle detectors.

  12. Comprehensive Analysis of the Gas- and Particle-Phase Products of VOC Oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker-Arkema, J.; Ziemann, P. J.

    2017-12-01

    Controlled environmental chamber studies are important for determining atmospheric reaction mechanisms and gas and aerosol products formed in the oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Such information is necessary for developing detailed chemical models for use in predicting the atmospheric fate of VOCs and also secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. However, complete characterization of atmospheric oxidation reactions, including gas- and particle-phase product yields, and reaction branching ratios, are difficult to achieve. In this work, we investigated the reactions of terminal and internal alkenes with OH radicals in the presence of NOx in an attempt to fully characterize the chemistry of these systems while minimizing and accounting for the inherent uncertainties associated with environmental chamber experiments. Gas-phase products (aldehydes formed by alkoxy radical decomposition) and particle-phase products (alkyl nitrates, β-hydroxynitrates, dihydroxynitrates, 1,4-hydroxynitrates, 1,4-hydroxycarbonyls, and dihydroxycarbonyls) formed through pathways involving addition of OH to the C=C double bond as well as H-atom abstraction were identified and quantified using a suite of analytical techniques. Particle-phase products were analyzed in real time with a thermal desorption particle beam mass spectrometer; and off-line by collection onto filters, extraction, and subsequent analysis of functional groups by derivatization-spectrophotometric methods developed in our lab. Derivatized products were also separated by liquid chromatography for molecular quantitation by UV absorbance and identification using chemical ionization-ion trap mass spectrometry. Gas phase aldehydes were analyzed off-line by collection onto Tenax and a 5-channel denuder with subsequent analysis by gas chromatography, or by collection onto DNPH-coated cartridges and subsequent analysis by liquid chromatography. The full product identification and quantitation, with careful

  13. An orientation analysis method for protein immobilized on quantum dot particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoyagi, Satoka, E-mail: aoyagi@life.shimane-u.ac.jp [Faculty of Life and Environmental Science, Shimane University, 1060 Matsue-shi, Shimane 690-8504 (Japan); Inoue, Masae [Toyota Central R and D Labs., Inc., Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan)

    2009-11-30

    The evaluation of orientation of biomolecules immobilized on nanodevices is crucial for the development of high performance devices. Such analysis requires ultra high sensitivity so as to be able to detect less than one molecular layer on a device. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) has sufficient sensitivity to evaluate the uppermost surface structure of a single molecular layer. The objective of this study is to develop an orientation analysis method for proteins immobilized on nanomaterials such as quantum dot particles, and to evaluate the orientation of streptavidin immobilized on quantum dot particles by means of TOF-SIMS. In order to detect fragment ions specific to the protein surface, a monoatomic primary ion source (Ga{sup +}) and a cluster ion source (Au{sub 3}{sup +}) were employed. Streptavidin-immobilized quantum dot particles were immobilized on aminosilanized ITO glass plates at amino groups by covalent bonding. The reference samples streptavidin directly immobilized on ITO plates were also prepared. All samples were dried with a freeze dryer before TOF-SIMS measurement. The positive secondary ion spectra of each sample were obtained using TOF-SIMS with Ga{sup +} and Au{sub 3}{sup +}, respectively, and then they were compared so as to characterize each sample and detect the surface structure of the streptavidin immobilized with the biotin-immobilized quantum dots. The chemical structures of the upper surface of the streptavidin molecules immobilized on the quantum dot particles were evaluated with TOF-SIMS spectra analysis. The indicated surface side of the streptavidin molecules immobilized on the quantum dots includes the biotin binding site.

  14. Numerical analysis of heat transfer of canned liquid foods containing fibers or particles during sterilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Q.Z.; Sakai, N.; Hanzawa, T. [Tokyo Univ. of Fisheries, Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Food Science and Tech.

    2000-10-01

    The velocity profile, temperature distribution, and the slowest heating point of a canned liquid food containing fibers or particles were calculated numerically by using fundamental equations that take account of the effect of free convection in the can at an unsteady state under the assumption of imaginary fluid with apparent physical properties. To check these calculated results, the temperature distribution in the can was measured experimentally under the same operating conditions as those of the theoretical analysis. The calculated results agree closely with the experimental ones. Adaptable ranges of present numerical analysis and the positional characteristics of the slowest heating point are shown. (author)

  15. WASP (Wavelet Analysis of Secondary Particles Angular Distributions) package. Version 1.0. User's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solov'ev, A.G.

    2001-01-01

    WASP package is a C++ program aimed to analyze angular distributions of secondary particles generated in nuclear interactions. (WASP is designed for data analysis of the STAR and ALICE experiments). It uses a wavelet analysis for this purpose and the vanishing momentum or gaussian wavelets are chosen for transformations. WASP provides an user-friendly Graphical User Interface (GUI) which makes it quite simple to use. WASP design, a brief description of the used wavelet transformation algorithm and GUI are presented in this user's guide

  16. Understanding rapid theoretical change in particle physics: a month-by-month co-citation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, D.; Koester, D.; White, D.H.; Kern, R.

    1979-01-01

    While co-citation analysis has proved a powerful tool in the study of changes in intellectual foci in science, no one has ever used the technique to study very rapid changes in the theoretical structure of a scientific field. This paper presents month-by-month co-citation analyses of key phases in the weak-electromagnetic unification research program within particle physics, and shows that these analyses capture and illuminate very rapid intellectual changes. These data provide yet another illustration of the utility of co-citation analysis for understanding the history of science. 8 figures

  17. Mathematical analysis of frontal affinity chromatography in particle and membrane configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejeda-Mansir, A; Montesinos, R M; Guzmán, R

    2001-10-30

    The scaleup and optimization of large-scale affinity-chromatographic operations in the recovery, separation and purification of biochemical components is of major industrial importance. The development of mathematical models to describe affinity-chromatographic processes, and the use of these models in computer programs to predict column performance is an engineering approach that can help to attain these bioprocess engineering tasks successfully. Most affinity-chromatographic separations are operated in the frontal mode, using fixed-bed columns. Purely diffusive and perfusion particles and membrane-based affinity chromatography are among the main commercially available technologies for these separations. For a particular application, a basic understanding of the main similarities and differences between particle and membrane frontal affinity chromatography and how these characteristics are reflected in the transport models is of fundamental relevance. This review presents the basic theoretical considerations used in the development of particle and membrane affinity chromatography models that can be applied in the design and operation of large-scale affinity separations in fixed-bed columns. A transport model for column affinity chromatography that considers column dispersion, particle internal convection, external film resistance, finite kinetic rate, plus macropore and micropore resistances is analyzed as a framework for exploring further the mathematical analysis. Such models provide a general realistic description of almost all practical systems. Specific mathematical models that take into account geometric considerations and transport effects have been developed for both particle and membrane affinity chromatography systems. Some of the most common simplified models, based on linear driving-force (LDF) and equilibrium assumptions, are emphasized. Analytical solutions of the corresponding simplified dimensionless affinity models are presented. Particular

  18. An analysis of the long-term stability of the particle dynamics in hadron storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruening, O.S.

    1994-05-01

    This thesis extends the stability analysis of the particle motion in a storage ring and estimates the diffusion rates well inside the dynamic aperture. The calculation of the drift and diffusion coefficients focuses on an application to the proton storage ring in HERA, where the proton beam lifetime drops considerably after the proton and electron beams are brought to collision. The analysis shows that the combined effect of slow and fast modulation frequencies leads to an increased emittance growth in the storage ring. HERA the slow frequency components are caused by ground motion in the HERA tunnel and the fast frequency components by ripples in the power supplies. The thesis provides upper limits for the modultion depths of a fast tune modulation which result in tolerable growth rates for the proton emittance. The analytically calculated drift coefficients agree numerical simulations for the particle dynamics. A comparison of the calculated drift coefficients with those measured in the HERA proton storage ring shows that the analyzed mechanism can lead to growth rates of the same order of magnitude as the ones measured during the luminosity operation in the HERA storage ring. Analytical estimates for the proton growth rates predict a high sensitivity to the particle diffusion on the frequency components of the fast fast tune modulation. This prediction was confirmed by a subsequent modulation experiment in the proton storage ring of HERA, where an external tune modulation with fast frequency components led to a drastic increase in the growth rates

  19. Computational methods for analyzing the transmission characteristics of a beta particle magnetic analysis system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, J. J.

    1979-01-01

    Computational methods were developed to study the trajectories of beta particles (positrons) through a magnetic analysis system as a function of the spatial distribution of the radionuclides in the beta source, size and shape of the source collimator, and the strength of the analyzer magnetic field. On the basis of these methods, the particle flux, their energy spectrum, and source-to-target transit times have been calculated for Na-22 positrons as a function of the analyzer magnetic field and the size and location of the target. These data are in studies requiring parallel beams of positrons of uniform energy such as measurement of the moisture distribution in composite materials. Computer programs for obtaining various trajectories are included.

  20. Moving Particle Semi-implicit method: a numerical method for thermal hydraulic analysis with topological deformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshizuka, S.; Oka, Y.

    1997-01-01

    Moving Particle Semi-implicit (MPS) method is presented. Partial differential operators in the governing equations, such as gradient and Laplacian, are modeled as particle interactions without grids. A semi-implicit algorithm is used for incompressible flow analysis. In the present study, calculation models of moving solids, thin structures and phase change between liquid and gas are developed. Interaction between breaking waves and a floating solid is simulated using the model of moving solids. Calculations of collapsing water with a vertical thin plate show that water spills out over the plate which is largely deformed. Impingement of water jets on a molten metal pool is analyzed to investigate fundamental processes of vapor explosions. Water, vapor and molten metal are simultaneously calculated with evaporation. This calculation reveals that filaments of the molten metal emerge as the fragmentation process of vapor explosions. The MPS method is useful for complex problems involving moving interfaces even if topological deformations occur. (author)

  1. Analysis of particle sources by interferometry in a three-body final state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humbert, P.

    1984-01-01

    This work presents the set-up of an original interferometrical method the aim of which is to access the intrinsic parameters (lifetime or natural width) of intermediate resonances created during nuclear collisions. The technic is based on the overlap of two events in the same detection, and shows some analogies with the interferometrical measurements based on the HANBURY-BROWN, TWISS effect. It applies to reactions leading to a three particle final state for which at least two particles are identical. The considered reactions are 11 B(α, 7 Li)αα; 12 C( 16 0,α) 12 C 12 C, 11 B(p,α)αα in which the intermediate source is respectively a level of 11 B*, 16 0*, 8 Be*. The results are in qualitative agreement with such an analysis [fr

  2. Parallel scalability and efficiency of vortex particle method for aeroelasticity analysis of bluff bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolba, Khaled Ibrahim; Morgenthal, Guido

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the scalability and efficiency of a simulation framework based on the vortex particle method. The code is applied for the numerical aerodynamic analysis of line-like structures. The numerical code runs on multicore CPU and GPU architectures using OpenCL framework. The focus of this paper is the analysis of the parallel efficiency and scalability of the method being applied to an engineering test case, specifically the aeroelastic response of a long-span bridge girder at the construction stage. The target is to assess the optimal configuration and the required computer architecture, such that it becomes feasible to efficiently utilise the method within the computational resources available for a regular engineering office. The simulations and the scalability analysis are performed on a regular gaming type computer.

  3. Structural properties of silver nanoparticle agglomerates based on transmission electron microscopy: relationship to particle mobility analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Weon Gyu; Wang Jing; Mertler, Michael; Sachweh, Bernd; Fissan, Heinz; Pui, David Y. H.

    2009-01-01

    In this work, the structural properties of silver nanoparticle agglomerates generated using condensation and evaporation method in an electric tube furnace followed by a coagulation process are analyzed using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Agglomerates with mobility diameters of 80, 120, and 150 nm are sampled using the electrostatic method and then imaged by TEM. The primary particle diameter of silver agglomerates was 13.8 nm with a standard deviation of 2.5 nm. We obtained the relationship between the projected area equivalent diameter (d pa ) and the mobility diameter (d m ), i.e., d pa = 0.92 ± 0.03 d m for particles from 80 to 150 nm. We obtained fractal dimensions of silver agglomerates using three different methods: (1) D f = 1.84 ± 0.03, 1.75 ± 0.06, and 1.74 ± 0.03 for d m = 80, 120, and 150 nm, respectively from projected TEM images using a box counting algorithm; (2) fractal dimension (D fL ) = 1.47 based on maximum projected length from projected TEM images using an empirical equation proposed by Koylu et al. (1995) Combust Flame 100:621-633; and (3) mass fractal-like dimension (D fm ) = 1.71 theoretically derived from the mobility analysis proposed by Lall and Friedlander (2006) J Aerosol Sci 37:260-271. We also compared the number of primary particles in agglomerate and found that the number of primary particles obtained from the projected surface area using an empirical equation proposed by Koylu et al. (1995) Combust Flame 100:621-633 is larger than that from using the relationship, d pa = 0.92 ± 0.03 d m or from using the mobility analysis.

  4. The contribution of particle swarm optimization to three-dimensional slope stability analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalatehjari, Roohollah; Rashid, Ahmad Safuan A; Ali, Nazri; Hajihassani, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Over the last few years, particle swarm optimization (PSO) has been extensively applied in various geotechnical engineering including slope stability analysis. However, this contribution was limited to two-dimensional (2D) slope stability analysis. This paper applied PSO in three-dimensional (3D) slope stability problem to determine the critical slip surface (CSS) of soil slopes. A detailed description of adopted PSO was presented to provide a good basis for more contribution of this technique to the field of 3D slope stability problems. A general rotating ellipsoid shape was introduced as the specific particle for 3D slope stability analysis. A detailed sensitivity analysis was designed and performed to find the optimum values of parameters of PSO. Example problems were used to evaluate the applicability of PSO in determining the CSS of 3D slopes. The first example presented a comparison between the results of PSO and PLAXI-3D finite element software and the second example compared the ability of PSO to determine the CSS of 3D slopes with other optimization methods from the literature. The results demonstrated the efficiency and effectiveness of PSO in determining the CSS of 3D soil slopes.

  5. The Contribution of Particle Swarm Optimization to Three-Dimensional Slope Stability Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Rashid, Ahmad Safuan; Ali, Nazri

    2014-01-01

    Over the last few years, particle swarm optimization (PSO) has been extensively applied in various geotechnical engineering including slope stability analysis. However, this contribution was limited to two-dimensional (2D) slope stability analysis. This paper applied PSO in three-dimensional (3D) slope stability problem to determine the critical slip surface (CSS) of soil slopes. A detailed description of adopted PSO was presented to provide a good basis for more contribution of this technique to the field of 3D slope stability problems. A general rotating ellipsoid shape was introduced as the specific particle for 3D slope stability analysis. A detailed sensitivity analysis was designed and performed to find the optimum values of parameters of PSO. Example problems were used to evaluate the applicability of PSO in determining the CSS of 3D slopes. The first example presented a comparison between the results of PSO and PLAXI-3D finite element software and the second example compared the ability of PSO to determine the CSS of 3D slopes with other optimization methods from the literature. The results demonstrated the efficiency and effectiveness of PSO in determining the CSS of 3D soil slopes. PMID:24991652

  6. Spherical Harmonic Analysis of Particle Velocity Distribution Function: Comparison of Moments and Anisotropies using Cluster Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurgiolo, Chris; Vinas, Adolfo F.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a spherical harmonic analysis of the plasma velocity distribution function using high-angular, energy, and time resolution Cluster data obtained from the PEACE spectrometer instrument to demonstrate how this analysis models the particle distribution function and its moments and anisotropies. The results show that spherical harmonic analysis produced a robust physical representation model of the velocity distribution function, resolving the main features of the measured distributions. From the spherical harmonic analysis, a minimum set of nine spectral coefficients was obtained from which the moment (up to the heat flux), anisotropy, and asymmetry calculations of the velocity distribution function were obtained. The spherical harmonic method provides a potentially effective "compression" technique that can be easily carried out onboard a spacecraft to determine the moments and anisotropies of the particle velocity distribution function for any species. These calculations were implemented using three different approaches, namely, the standard traditional integration, the spherical harmonic (SPH) spectral coefficients integration, and the singular value decomposition (SVD) on the spherical harmonic methods. A comparison among the various methods shows that both SPH and SVD approaches provide remarkable agreement with the standard moment integration method.

  7. The Contribution of Particle Swarm Optimization to Three-Dimensional Slope Stability Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roohollah Kalatehjari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few years, particle swarm optimization (PSO has been extensively applied in various geotechnical engineering including slope stability analysis. However, this contribution was limited to two-dimensional (2D slope stability analysis. This paper applied PSO in three-dimensional (3D slope stability problem to determine the critical slip surface (CSS of soil slopes. A detailed description of adopted PSO was presented to provide a good basis for more contribution of this technique to the field of 3D slope stability problems. A general rotating ellipsoid shape was introduced as the specific particle for 3D slope stability analysis. A detailed sensitivity analysis was designed and performed to find the optimum values of parameters of PSO. Example problems were used to evaluate the applicability of PSO in determining the CSS of 3D slopes. The first example presented a comparison between the results of PSO and PLAXI-3D finite element software and the second example compared the ability of PSO to determine the CSS of 3D slopes with other optimization methods from the literature. The results demonstrated the efficiency and effectiveness of PSO in determining the CSS of 3D soil slopes.

  8. Analysis of ultrasonically rotating droplet using moving particle semi-implicit and distributed point source methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Yuji; Yuge, Kohei; Tanaka, Hiroki; Nakamura, Kentaro

    2016-07-01

    Numerical analysis of the rotation of an ultrasonically levitated droplet with a free surface boundary is discussed. The ultrasonically levitated droplet is often reported to rotate owing to the surface tangential component of acoustic radiation force. To observe the torque from an acoustic wave and clarify the mechanism underlying the phenomena, it is effective to take advantage of numerical simulation using the distributed point source method (DPSM) and moving particle semi-implicit (MPS) method, both of which do not require a calculation grid or mesh. In this paper, the numerical treatment of the viscoacoustic torque, which emerges from the viscous boundary layer and governs the acoustical droplet rotation, is discussed. The Reynolds stress traction force is calculated from the DPSM result using the idea of effective normal particle velocity through the boundary layer and input to the MPS surface particles. A droplet levitated in an acoustic chamber is simulated using the proposed calculation method. The droplet is vertically supported by a plane standing wave from an ultrasonic driver and subjected to a rotating sound field excited by two acoustic sources on the side wall with different phases. The rotation of the droplet is successfully reproduced numerically and its acceleration is discussed and compared with those in the literature.

  9. Image analysis of food particles can discriminate deficient mastication of mixed foodstuffs simulating daily meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, K; Hashimoto, Y; Fukuike, C; Kodama, N; Minagi, S

    2014-03-01

    Because food texture is regarded as an important factor for smooth deglutition, identification of objective parameters that could provide a basis for food texture selection for elderly or dysphagic patients is of great importance. We aimed to develop an objective evaluation method of mastication using a mixed test food comprising foodstuffs, simulating daily dietary life. The particle size distribution (>2 mm in diameter) in a bolus was analysed using a digital image under dark-field illumination. Ten female participants (mean age ± s.d., 27·6 ± 2·6 years) masticated a mixed test food comprising prescribed amounts of rice, sausage, hard omelette, raw cabbage and raw cucumber with 100%, 75%, 50% and 25% of the number of their masticatory strokes. A single set of coefficient thresholds of 0·10 for the homogeneity index and 1·62 for the particle size index showed excellent discrimination of deficient masticatory conditions with high sensitivity (0·90) and specificity (0·77). Based on the results of this study, normal mastication was discriminated from deficient masticatory conditions using a large particle analysis of mixed foodstuffs, thus showing the possibility of future application of this method for objective decision-making regarding the properties of meals served to dysphagic patients. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. SEM analysis of particle size during conventional treatment of CMP process wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, Gary A.; Neu-Baker, Nicole M.; Brenner, Sara A.

    2015-01-01

    Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are currently employed by many industries and have different physical and chemical properties from their bulk counterparts that may confer different toxicity. Nanoparticles used or generated in semiconductor manufacturing have the potential to enter the municipal waste stream via wastewater and their ultimate fate in the ecosystem is currently unknown. This study investigates the fate of ENMs used in chemical mechanical planarization (CMP), a polishing process repeatedly utilized in semiconductor manufacturing. Wastewater sampling was conducted throughout the wastewater treatment (WWT) process at the fabrication plant's on-site wastewater treatment facility. The goal of this study was to assess whether the WWT processes resulted in size-dependent filtration of particles in the nanoscale regime by analyzing samples using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Statistical analysis demonstrated no significant differences in particle size between sampling points, indicating low or no selectivity of WWT methods for nanoparticles based on size. All nanoparticles appeared to be of similar morphology (near-spherical), with a high variability in particle size. EDX verified nanoparticles composition of silicon- and/or aluminum-oxide. Nanoparticle sizing data compared between sampling points, including the final sampling point before discharge from the facility, suggested that nanoparticles could be released to the municipal waste stream from industrial sources. - Highlights: • The discrete treatments of a semiconductor wastewater treatment system were examined. • A sampling scheme and method for analyzing nanoparticles in wastewater was devised. • The wastewater treatment process studied is not size-selective for nanoparticles

  11. Analysis and differentiation of mineral dust by single particle laser mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallavardin, S. J.; Lohmann, U.; Cziczo, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluates the potential of single particle laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry for the analysis of atmospherically relevant mineral dusts. Samples of hematite, goethite, calcium carbonate, calcium sulfate, silica, quartz, montmorrillonite, kaolinite, illite, hectorite, wollastonite and nephelinsyenit were investigated in positive and negative ion mode with a monopolar time-of-flight mass spectrometer where the desorption/ionization step was performed with a 193 nm excimer laser (∼10 9 W/cm 2 ). Particle size ranged from 500 nm to 3 (micro)m. Positive mass spectra mainly provide elemental composition whereas negative ion spectra provide information on element speciation and of a structural nature. The iron oxide, calcium-rich and aluminosilicate nature of particles is established in positive ion mode. The differentiation of calcium materials strongly relies on the calcium counter-ions in negative mass spectra. Aluminosilicates can be differentiated in both positive and negative ion mode using the relative abundance of various aluminum and silicon ions

  12. Analysis of Air Particles Around Site Plan of Gold Mining, North Sumatera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatot-Suhariyono; Erizal-Tanjung

    2004-01-01

    Analysis of air particles around site plan of gold mining, North Sumatra has been conducted. Air particles of TSP (Total Suspended Particulate), which has maximum diameter around 45 μm (PM 2.5 ) was sampled in four places using impactor cascade. The measurement results indicate that concentration of TSP and PM 10 /PM 2.5 were in site plan center of mining smaller than quality standard of ambient air (PP RI no. 41/1999), while the concentration in areas of around it was on the contrary. The concentration in areas of around the mining was not because of air particle from in site plan center of mining. Based on regulatory of BAPEDAL head no. Kep-107/BAPEDAL/11/1997, concentration of PM 10 /PM 2.5 and TSP in site plan center of mining is in moderate category, while in areas of around the mining are in unhealthy category. Unhealthy category affects decrease at view distance and happened dust defilement everywhere, while moderate category is only happened degradation of view distance. (author)

  13. Handbook on simultaneous x-ray and γ-ray ion beam methods for fine particle analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, D.D.

    2000-01-01

    Sampling, measurement, characterisation and source appointment of fine atmospheric particles has become increasingly important in recent times. This is due in part to the realisation that the fine particle pollution caused by anthropogenic activities plays a key role in certain aspects of human health, pollution transport and global climate change. This publication discusses accelerator based ion beam analysis (IBA) methods of particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and particle induced γ-ray emission (PIGE) as applied to aerosol analysis. These techniques are sensitive, multielemental, mainly non-destructive, require no sample preparation, have short analysis times and can be used to analyse hundreds of filter samples a day in batch processing with minimum operator interaction. The aspects discussed in the publication include: the basics of the techniques; spectrum analysis; system calibration and blank subtraction; quantification; sensitivity; measurement errors

  14. Analysis of Soil Structure Turnover with Garnet Particles and X-Ray Microtomography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Schlüter

    Full Text Available Matter turnover in soil is tightly linked to soil structure which governs the heterogeneous distribution of habitats, reaction sites and pathways in soil. Thereby, the temporal dynamics of soil structure alteration is deemed to be important for essential ecosystem functions of soil but very little is known about it. A major reason for this knowledge gap is the lack of methods to study soil structure turnover directly at microscopic scales. Here we devise a conceptual approach and an image processing workflow to study soil structure turnover by labeling some initial state of soil structure with small garnet particles and tracking their fate with X-ray microtomography. The particles adhere to aggregate boundaries at the beginning of the experiment but gradually change their position relative to the nearest pore as structure formation progresses and pores are destructed or newly formed. A new metric based on the contact distances between particles and pores is proposed that allows for a direct quantification of soil structure turnover rates. The methodology is tested for a case study about soil compaction of a silty loam soil during stepwise increase of bulk density (ρ = {1.1, 1.3, 1.5} g/cm3. We demonstrate that the analysis of mean contact distances provides genuinely new insights about changing diffusion pathways that cannot be inferred neither from conventional pore space attributes (porosity, mean pore size, pore connectivity nor from deformation analysis with digital image correlation. This structure labeling approach to quantify soil structure turnover provides a direct analogy to stable isotope labeling for the analysis of matter turnover and can be readily combined with each other.

  15. Analysis of Soil Structure Turnover with Garnet Particles and X-Ray Microtomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlüter, Steffen; Vogel, Hans-Jörg

    2016-01-01

    Matter turnover in soil is tightly linked to soil structure which governs the heterogeneous distribution of habitats, reaction sites and pathways in soil. Thereby, the temporal dynamics of soil structure alteration is deemed to be important for essential ecosystem functions of soil but very little is known about it. A major reason for this knowledge gap is the lack of methods to study soil structure turnover directly at microscopic scales. Here we devise a conceptual approach and an image processing workflow to study soil structure turnover by labeling some initial state of soil structure with small garnet particles and tracking their fate with X-ray microtomography. The particles adhere to aggregate boundaries at the beginning of the experiment but gradually change their position relative to the nearest pore as structure formation progresses and pores are destructed or newly formed. A new metric based on the contact distances between particles and pores is proposed that allows for a direct quantification of soil structure turnover rates. The methodology is tested for a case study about soil compaction of a silty loam soil during stepwise increase of bulk density (ρ = {1.1, 1.3, 1.5} g/cm3). We demonstrate that the analysis of mean contact distances provides genuinely new insights about changing diffusion pathways that cannot be inferred neither from conventional pore space attributes (porosity, mean pore size, pore connectivity) nor from deformation analysis with digital image correlation. This structure labeling approach to quantify soil structure turnover provides a direct analogy to stable isotope labeling for the analysis of matter turnover and can be readily combined with each other.

  16. Applications of particle induced X-ray emission analysis to ambient aerosol studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lannefors, H.

    1982-01-01

    The characteristics of Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) analysis in conjunction with different ambient aerosol samplers have been studied. Correction factors have been calculated for homogeneous and inhomogeneous rural and urban aerosol samples. The Nuclepore two stage filter sampler provided the most useful combination of the resolution and particle size fractionation in urban, rural and remote environments. The PIXE-analysis technique in combination with different samplers was employed in aerosol composition studies in rural and remote environments. Particular emphasis was laid on studies of aerosol long range transport. Based on air mass trajectory analysis and aerosol composition measurements the foreign contribution in southern Sweden was estimated to be 70 - 80% for S and Pb but only 30 - 50% for V and Ni. The spatial and temporal extension of a long range transport episode was studied using high time resolution continuous filter samplers in a network in southern Sweden. The variation in the concentration levels of sulphur agreed well with changes in the air mass history. Arctic summer elemental concentration levels as measured during the Swedish YMER-80 icebreaker expedition were typically one order of magnitude lower than Arctic winter levels. The combination of chemical information, optical properties and size distribution data supports the hypothesis of long range transport of air pollution into the Arctic especially during the winter. This takes place during the winter season because the Polar front is further south making conditions for long range transport up to the Arctic more favourable. (Auth.)

  17. Development of CAD-Based Geometry Processing Module for a Monte Carlo Particle Transport Analysis Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sung Hoon; Kwark, Min Su; Shim, Hyung Jin

    2012-01-01

    As The Monte Carlo (MC) particle transport analysis for a complex system such as research reactor, accelerator, and fusion facility may require accurate modeling of the complicated geometry. Its manual modeling by using the text interface of a MC code to define the geometrical objects is tedious, lengthy and error-prone. This problem can be overcome by taking advantage of modeling capability of the computer aided design (CAD) system. There have been two kinds of approaches to develop MC code systems utilizing the CAD data: the external format conversion and the CAD kernel imbedded MC simulation. The first approach includes several interfacing programs such as McCAD, MCAM, GEOMIT etc. which were developed to automatically convert the CAD data into the MCNP geometry input data. This approach makes the most of the existing MC codes without any modifications, but implies latent data inconsistency due to the difference of the geometry modeling system. In the second approach, a MC code utilizes the CAD data for the direct particle tracking or the conversion to an internal data structure of the constructive solid geometry (CSG) and/or boundary representation (B-rep) modeling with help of a CAD kernel. MCNP-BRL and OiNC have demonstrated their capabilities of the CAD-based MC simulations. Recently we have developed a CAD-based geometry processing module for the MC particle simulation by using the OpenCASCADE (OCC) library. In the developed module, CAD data can be used for the particle tracking through primitive CAD surfaces (hereafter the CAD-based tracking) or the internal conversion to the CSG data structure. In this paper, the performances of the text-based model, the CAD-based tracking, and the internal CSG conversion are compared by using an in-house MC code, McSIM, equipped with the developed CAD-based geometry processing module

  18. Analysis of sediment particle velocity in wave motion based on wave flume experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupiński, Adam

    2012-10-01

    The experiment described was one of the elements of research into sediment transport conducted by the Division of Geotechnics of West-Pomeranian University of Technology. The experimental analyses were performed within the framework of the project "Building a knowledge transfer network on the directions and perspectives of developing wave laboratory and in situ research using innovative research equipment" launched by the Institute of Hydroengineering of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Gdańsk. The objective of the experiment was to determine relations between sediment transport and wave motion parameters and then use the obtained results to modify formulas defining sediment transport in rivers, like Ackers-White formula, by introducing basic parameters of wave motion as the force generating bed material transport. The article presents selected results of the experiment concerning sediment velocity field analysis conducted for different parameters of wave motion. The velocity vectors of particles suspended in water were measured with a Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) apparatus registering suspended particles in a measurement flume by producing a series of laser pulses and analysing their displacement with a high-sensitivity camera connected to a computer. The article presents velocity fields of suspended bed material particles measured in the longitudinal section of the wave flume and their comparison with water velocity profiles calculated for the definite wave parameters. The results presented will be used in further research for relating parameters essential for the description of monochromatic wave motion to basic sediment transport parameters and "transforming" mean velocity and dynamic velocity in steady motion to mean wave front velocity and dynamic velocity in wave motion for a single wave.

  19. Rare event computation in deterministic chaotic systems using genealogical particle analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wouters, J; Bouchet, F

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we address the use of rare event computation techniques to estimate small over-threshold probabilities of observables in deterministic dynamical systems. We demonstrate that genealogical particle analysis algorithms can be successfully applied to a toy model of atmospheric dynamics, the Lorenz ’96 model. We furthermore use the Ornstein–Uhlenbeck system to illustrate a number of implementation issues. We also show how a time-dependent objective function based on the fluctuation path to a high threshold can greatly improve the performance of the estimator compared to a fixed-in-time objective function. (paper)

  20. Two reactions method for accurate analysis by irradiation with charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, K.; Sastri, C.S.; Valladon, M.; Borderie, B.; Debrun, J.L.

    1978-01-01

    In the average stopping power method the formula error itself was negligible but systematic errors could be introduced by the stopping power data used in this formula. A method directly derived from the average stopping power method, but based on the use of two nuclear reactions, is described here. This method has a negligible formula error and does not require the use of any stopping power or range data: accurate and 'self-consistent' analysis by irradiation with charged particles is then possible. (Auth.)

  1. Particle induced X-ray emission: a valuable tool for the analysis of metalpoint drawings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duval, A.; Guicharnaud, H.; Dran, J.C.

    2004-01-01

    For several years, we carry out a research on metalpoint drawings, a graphic technique mainly employed by European artists during the 15th and 16th centuries. As a non-destructive and very sensitive analytical technique is required, particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis with an external beam has been used for this purpose. More than 70 artworks drawn by Italian, Flemish and German artists have been analysed, including leadpoint and silverpoint drawings. Following a short description of the metalpoint technique, the results are compared with the recipes written by Cennino Cennini at the beginning of the 15th century and specific examples are presented

  2. Integrated analysis of particle interactions at hadron colliders Report of research activities in 2010-2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadolsky, Pavel M. [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States)

    2015-08-31

    The report summarizes research activities of the project ”Integrated analysis of particle interactions” at Southern Methodist University, funded by 2010 DOE Early Career Research Award DE-SC0003870. The goal of the project is to provide state-of-the-art predictions in quantum chromodynamics in order to achieve objectives of the LHC program for studies of electroweak symmetry breaking and new physics searches. We published 19 journal papers focusing on in-depth studies of proton structure and integration of advanced calculations from different areas of particle phenomenology: multi-loop calculations, accurate long-distance hadronic functions, and precise numerical programs. Methods for factorization of QCD cross sections were advanced in order to develop new generations of CTEQ parton distribution functions (PDFs), CT10 and CT14. These distributions provide the core theoretical input for multi-loop perturbative calculations by LHC experimental collaborations. A novel ”PDF meta-analysis” technique was invented to streamline applications of PDFs in numerous LHC simulations and to combine PDFs from various groups using multivariate stochastic sampling of PDF parameters. The meta-analysis will help to bring the LHC perturbative calculations to the new level of accuracy, while reducing computational efforts. The work on parton distributions was complemented by development of advanced perturbative techniques to predict observables dependent on several momentum scales, including production of massive quarks and transverse momentum resummation at the next-to-next-to-leading order in QCD.

  3. Determination of Oxygen in Zircaloy Surfaces by Means of Charged Particle Activation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenzen, J; Brune, D

    1973-01-15

    Oxygen in zircaloy surfaces has been determined by means of charged particle activation analysis employing the following two reactions I. 16O (d, n) 17F ->(beta+decay) 17O Q = - 1.63 MeV; II. 16O (d, pgamma) 17O Q = + 1.05 MeV. The detection limits for oxygen in such surfaces has been investigated by measuring the promptly emitted 0.87 MeV gamma rays (reaction II) and also the 511 keV annihilation radiation which arises from beta-decay of 17F (reaction I). The correlation between the detection limit for oxygen in zircaloy, the particle energy and the surface thickness analyzed has been evaluated. At a deuteron energy of 3 MeV a detection limit of 0.7 x 10-7 g/cm2 was obtained from the measurement of the prompt gamma radiation arising from the second of these reactions. The analysis carried out by means of this technique is characterized by a high rapidity

  4. Trace analysis by measurements of charged particle-excited X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiokawa, Takanobu; Morita, Susumu; Kaji, Harumi

    1974-01-01

    Following the introduction on the theory of analysis by charged particle x-ray excitation, experimental methods are explained together with actual examples of quantitative analysis. Protons or particles of 3 He are allowed to hit samples as ion beam. On one target, 4 samples are installed. Therefore, it is possible to analyze 4 samples without breaking vacuum. The x-ray is detected with an Si(Li) detector. The resolving power of this detector was 205 eV for the x-ray of 5.9 KeV. The most important thing is the preparation of samples in thin state. Metals of minerals are easily prepared in films by means of vacuum evaporation. In case of the samples that are hard to prepare in thin films, carbon foils are often used as backing material to support the samples. The limit of determination is about 10 -12 g, but the theoretical limit is about 10 -14 g. The demerits of this method is that the resolving power is not good enough for the determination of light elements. The improvement of S/N ratio is also important for the increase of sensitivity. The development of backing materials is the most important thing in this view. The merits of this method are that the amount of samples may be very small, and that a number of elements are simultaneously determined to very small contents. (Fukutomi, T.)

  5. X-ray Analysis of Defects and Anomalies in AGR-5/6/7 TRISO Particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmreich, Grant W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hunn, John D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Skitt, Darren J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dyer, John A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Schumacher, Austin T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Coated particle fuel batches J52O-16-93164, 93165, 93166, 93168, 93169, 93170, and 93172 were produced by Babcock and Wilcox Technologies (BWXT) for possible selection as fuel for the Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification (AGR) Program’s AGR-5/6/7 irradiation test in the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), or may be used for other tests. Each batch was coated in a 150-mm-diameter production-scale fluidized-bed chemical vapor deposition (CVD) furnace. Tristructural isotropic (TRISO) coatings were deposited on 425-μm-nominal-diameter spherical kernels from BWXT lot J52R-16-69317 containing a mixture of 15.4%-enriched uranium carbide and uranium oxide (UCO), with the exception of Batch 93164, which used similar kernels from BWXT lot J52L-16-69316. The TRISO-coatings consisted of a ~50% dense carbon buffer layer with 100-μmnominal thickness, a dense inner pyrolytic carbon (IPyC) layer with 40-μm-nominal thickness, a silicon carbide (SiC) layer with 35-μm-nominal thickness, and a dense outer pyrolytic carbon (OPyC) layer with 40-μm-nominal thickness. Each coated particle batch was sieved to upgrade the particles by removing over-sized and under-sized material, and the upgraded batch was designated by appending the letter A to the end of the batch number (e.g., 93164A). Secondary upgrading by sieving was performed on the upgraded batches to remove specific anomalies identified during analysis for Defective IPyC, and the upgraded batches were designated by appending the letter B to the end of the batch number (e.g., 93165B). Following this secondary upgrading, coated particle composite J52R-16-98005 was produced by BWXT as fuel for the AGR Program’s AGR-5/6/7 irradiation test in the INL ATR. This composite was comprised of coated particle fuel batches J52O-16-93165B, 93168B, 93169B, and 93170B.

  6. Mathematical analysis of the 1D model and reconstruction schemes for magnetic particle imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erb, W.; Weinmann, A.; Ahlborg, M.; Brandt, C.; Bringout, G.; Buzug, T. M.; Frikel, J.; Kaethner, C.; Knopp, T.; März, T.; Möddel, M.; Storath, M.; Weber, A.

    2018-05-01

    Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is a promising new in vivo medical imaging modality in which distributions of super-paramagnetic nanoparticles are tracked based on their response in an applied magnetic field. In this paper we provide a mathematical analysis of the modeled MPI operator in the univariate situation. We provide a Hilbert space setup, in which the MPI operator is decomposed into simple building blocks and in which these building blocks are analyzed with respect to their mathematical properties. In turn, we obtain an analysis of the MPI forward operator and, in particular, of its ill-posedness properties. We further get that the singular values of the MPI core operator decrease exponentially. We complement our analytic results by some numerical studies which, in particular, suggest a rapid decay of the singular values of the MPI operator.

  7. Time-of-flight analysis of charge-exchange neutral particles from the TORTUR II plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brocken, H.J.B.M.

    1981-10-01

    A disc chopper for time-of-flight analysis of fast neutral particles was constructed for the determination of the ion energy spectrum at lower energies than can be obtained by conventional electro-magnetic analyzers. The method has been applied to the TORTUR II tokamak. The chopper and detection system are described and the measurements are presented. For the interpretation of the results of the measurements a data analysis procedure was developed. The influence of reflections of neutrals at the liner wall showed to be important in the calculations of the neutral density profile at the plasma edge. The neutral energy spectrum in the lower energy range is strongly pronounced by this effect

  8. Isotopic analysis of a single Pb particle by using laser ablation TOF-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, I. H.; Yoo, H. S. [Chungbuk National Univ., Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Song, K. S. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-11-15

    A laser ablation can be applied to a direct isotopic analysis of solid samples due to the following advantages. Because a laser ablation is a very powerful ionization source, an additional ionization source is not required and an one step vaporization and ionization of samples is possible. Due to the small size of a laser beam, an analysis of a local trace can be applied. Also, the contamination or loss of samples is reduced because there is no need for a sample preparation process. In this study, Pb particles with a size of∼150μm were analyzed by LA TOF MS and a second harmonic of the Nd:YAG laser, 532nm, was used for the laser ablation. First, the ion signal of Pb was measured depending on the matrices. For loading a Pb particle, a silicon wafer, cotton textile, and Ta metal plate were used as a basic plate. As a result, the silicon wafer plate was identified to be the best matrix for the analysis of Pb with a good resolution and its measured isotopic ratios reasonably agree with the natural abundance within 5%. The figure shows a mass spectrum of Pb onto a silicon wafer. In applying the resonance laser ablation, the detection sensitivity was increased by more than 10 times. In the experiment regarding the cotton textile, the mass resolution of Pb was more than 500 which was enough to measure the isotopes, and it is applicable to real swipe samples in various fields such as environmental analysis, industry, and nuclear forensic.

  9. Investigations of the response of hybrid particle detectors for the Space Environmental Viewing and Analysis Network (SEVAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Chilingarian

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available A network of particle detectors located at middle to low latitudes known as SEVAN (Space Environmental Viewing and Analysis Network is being created in the framework of the International Heliophysical Year (IHY-2007. It aims to improve the fundamental research of the particle acceleration in the vicinity of the Sun and space environment conditions. The new type of particle detectors will simultaneously measure the changing fluxes of most species of secondary cosmic rays, thus turning into a powerful integrated device used for exploration of solar modulation effects. Ground-based detectors measure time series of secondary particles born in cascades originating in the atmosphere by nuclear interactions of protons and nuclei accelerated in the galaxy. During violent solar explosions, sometimes additional secondary particles are added to this "background" flux. The studies of the changing time series of secondary particles shed light on the high-energy particle acceleration mechanisms. The time series of intensities of high energy particles can also provide highly cost-effective information on the key characteristics of interplanetary disturbances. The recent results of the detection of the solar extreme events (2003–2005 by the monitors of the Aragats Space-Environmental Center (ASEC illustrate the wide possibilities provided by new particle detectors measuring neutron, electron and muon fluxes with inherent correlations. We present the results of the simulation studies revealing the characteristics of the SEVAN networks' basic measuring module. We illustrate the possibilities of the hybrid particle detector to measure neutral and charged fluxes of secondary CR, to estimate the efficiency and purity of detection; corresponding median energies of the primary proton flux, the ability to distinguish between neutron and proton initiated GLEs and some other important properties of hybrid particle detectors.

  10. Numerical analysis of the influence of particle charging on the fume formation process in arc welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashiro, Shinichi; Matsui, Sho; Tanaka, Manabu; Murphy, Anthony B

    2013-01-01

    In order to clarify the influence of electrostatic forces caused by charging of particles on the coagulation process in fume formation in arc welding, a previously developed fume formation model is modified to consider the influence of charging, for both local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) and non-LTE conditions. The model takes into account formation of the particles from metal vapour by nucleation, growth of the particles by condensation of metal vapour and coagulation of the particles by collisions to form secondary particles. Results are obtained for both ballistic and Brownian motion of the particles. It is found that the growth of secondary particles is suppressed when the average particle charge becomes significant, because charging of the particle hinders collisions among secondary particles through the strong repulsive electrostatic force. Furthermore, deviations from LTE strongly affect the coagulation process, because the increased electron density at a given gas temperature increases the charging of particles. Brownian motion leads to larger secondary particles, since the average particle speed is increased. The influence of Brownian motion and particle charging cancel each other to a large extent, particularly when deviations from LTE are considered. (paper)

  11. Numerical analysis of single and multiple particles of Belchatow lignite dried in superheated steam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrzewski, Marcin; Sciazko, Anna; Komatsu, Yosuke; Akiyama, Taro; Hashimoto, Akira; Kaneko, Shozo; Kimijima, Shinji; Szmyd, Janusz S.; Kobayashi, Yoshinori

    2018-03-01

    Low production costs have contributed to the important role of lignite in the energy mixes of numerous countries worldwide. High moisture content, though, diminishes the applicability of lignite in power generation. Superheated steam drying is a prospective method of raising the calorific value of this fuel. This study describes the numerical model of superheated steam drying of lignite from the Belchatow mine in Poland in two aspects: single and multi-particle. The experimental investigation preceded the numerical analysis and provided the necessary data for the preparation and verification of the model. Spheres of 2.5 to 30 mm in diameter were exposed to the drying medium at the temperature range of 110 to 170 °C. The drying kinetics were described in the form of moisture content, drying rate and temperature profile curves against time. Basic coal properties, such as density or specific heat, as well as the mechanisms of heat and mass transfer in the particular stages of the process laid the foundations for the model construction. The model illustrated the drying behavior of a single particle in the entire range of steam temperature as well as the sample diameter. Furthermore, the numerical analyses of coal batches containing particles of various sizes were conducted to reflect the operating conditions of the dryer. They were followed by deliberation on the calorific value improvement achieved by drying, in terms of coal ingredients, power plant efficiency and dryer input composition. The initial period of drying was found crucial for upgrading the quality of coal. The accuracy of the model is capable of further improvement regarding the process parameters.

  12. Neutron activation analysis of small particles brought back from the asteroid Itokawa by the space probe Hayabusa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebihara, Mitsuru

    2013-01-01

    The probe in the title launched in May 2003, landed on the asteroid 25143 (Itokawa) to collect the surface material, and returned to the desert of Australia in June 2010. The material carried in Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) was found to be >1,500 particles of extraterrestrial origin. This paper reports the results of activation analysis of a part of particles for the purpose of characterizing the elemental composition. The size of particles was mostly <100 mc-m and the mass, several 10s mc-g. The experiment was performed preliminarily on Kilabo meteorite using Kyoto University Research Reactor (KURR) as a neutron source, and then on 1 Itokawa particle named RA-QD02-0049, which was activated for 19 hr. The cooled particle was found to be split mainly in 2 parts (0049-1 and -2), which were subjected to analysis of gamma ray with Ge semiconductor detector in the KURR Institute and Kanazawa University. Analysis revealed that the 2 particles contained 8 elements of Na, Sc, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn and Ir, which were then quantitated with similarly neutron irradiated Allende meteorite, basalt JB-1 and highly purified Fe, and with previous findings by scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDX) showing the Itokawa particle was an olivine. Finally, 0049-1 and -2 were found to be of mass of 1.6 and 1.5 mc-g, respectively, based on which the calculated contents of the 8 elements revealed that they were homogeneously existed in the Itokawa particle. Comparison of elemental composition of the particle with those of various intra- and extra-terrestrial rocks and meteorites suggested that Itokawa had a feature of elements aggregated at the early stage after formation of the solar system 4.5 billion years ago. (T.T.)

  13. Particle size analysis on density, surface morphology and specific capacitance of carbon electrode from rubber wood sawdust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taer, E.; Kurniasih, B.; Sari, F. P.; Zulkifli, Taslim, R.; Sugianto, Purnama, A.; Apriwandi, Susanti, Y.

    2018-02-01

    The particle size analysis for supercapacitor carbon electrodes from rubber wood sawdust (SGKK) has been done successfully. The electrode particle size was reviewed against the properties such as density, degree of crystallinity, surface morphology and specific capacitance. The variations in particle size were made by different treatment on the grinding and sieving process. The sample particle size was distinguished as 53-100 µm for 20 h (SA), 38-53 µm for 20 h (SB) and < 38 µm with variations of grinding time for 40 h (SC) and 80 h (SD) respectively. All of the samples were activated by 0.4 M KOH solution. Carbon electrodes were carbonized at temperature of 600oC in N2 gas environment and then followed by CO2 gas activation at a temperature of 900oC for 2 h. The densities for each variation in the particle size were 1.034 g cm-3, 0.849 g cm-3, 0.892 g cm-3 and 0.982 g cm-3 respectively. The morphological study identified the distance between the particles more closely at 38-53 µm (SB) particle size. The electrochemical properties of supercapacitor cells have been investigated using electrochemical methods such as impedance spectroscopy and charge-discharge at constant current using Solatron 1280 tools. Electrochemical properties testing results have shown SB samples with a particle size of 38-53 µm produce supercapacitor cells with optimum capacitive performance.

  14. Determination of Particle Size and Distribution through Image-Based Macroscopic Analysis of the Structure of Biomass Briquettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Chaloupková

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Via image-based macroscopic, analysis of a briquettes’ surface structure, particle size, and distribution was determined to better understand the behavioural pattern of input material during agglomeration in the pressing chamber of a briquetting machine. The briquettes, made of miscanthus, industrial hemp and pine sawdust were produced by a hydraulic piston press. Their structure was visualized by a stereomicroscope equipped with a digital camera and software for image analysis and data measurements. In total, 90 images of surface structure were obtained and quantitatively analysed. Using Nikon Instruments Software (NIS-Elements software, the length and area of 900 particles were measured and statistically tested to compare the size of the particles at different surface locations. Results showed statistically significant differences in particles’ size distribution: larger particles were generally on the front side of briquettes and vice versa, smaller particles were on the rear side. As well, larger particles were centred in the middle of cross sections and the smaller particles were centred on the bottom of the briquette.

  15. Charged Particle Radiation Therapy for Uveal Melanoma: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhen, E-mail: Wang.Zhen@mayo.edu [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Nabhan, Mohammed [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Schild, Steven E. [Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, Arizona (United States); Stafford, Scott L.; Petersen, Ivy A.; Foote, Robert L.; Murad, M. Hassan [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Charged particle therapy (CPT) delivered with either protons, helium ions, or carbon ions, has been used to treat uveal melanoma. The present analysis was performed to systematically evaluate the efficacy and adverse effects of CPT for uveal melanoma. We searched EMBASE, MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and SciVerse Scopus and cross-referenced recent systematic reviews through January 2012. Two independent reviewers identified clinical trials and observational studies of CPT (protons, helium ions, and carbon ions). These reviewers extracted data and assessed study quality. Twenty-seven studies enrolling 8809 uveal melanoma patients met inclusion criteria. The rate of local recurrence was significantly less with CPT than with brachytherapy (odds ratio [OR] = 0.22, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.21-0.23). There were no significant differences in mortality or enucleation rates. Results were robust in multiple sensitivity analyses. CPT was also associated with lower retinopathy and cataract formation rates. Data suggest better outcomes may be possible with charged particle therapy with respect to local recurrence, retinopathy, and cataract formation rates. The overall quality of the evidence is low, and higher quality comparative effectiveness studies are needed to provide better evidence.

  16. Charged Particle Radiation Therapy for Uveal Melanoma: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhen; Nabhan, Mohammed; Schild, Steven E.; Stafford, Scott L.; Petersen, Ivy A.; Foote, Robert L.; Murad, M. Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Charged particle therapy (CPT) delivered with either protons, helium ions, or carbon ions, has been used to treat uveal melanoma. The present analysis was performed to systematically evaluate the efficacy and adverse effects of CPT for uveal melanoma. We searched EMBASE, MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and SciVerse Scopus and cross-referenced recent systematic reviews through January 2012. Two independent reviewers identified clinical trials and observational studies of CPT (protons, helium ions, and carbon ions). These reviewers extracted data and assessed study quality. Twenty-seven studies enrolling 8809 uveal melanoma patients met inclusion criteria. The rate of local recurrence was significantly less with CPT than with brachytherapy (odds ratio [OR] = 0.22, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.21-0.23). There were no significant differences in mortality or enucleation rates. Results were robust in multiple sensitivity analyses. CPT was also associated with lower retinopathy and cataract formation rates. Data suggest better outcomes may be possible with charged particle therapy with respect to local recurrence, retinopathy, and cataract formation rates. The overall quality of the evidence is low, and higher quality comparative effectiveness studies are needed to provide better evidence

  17. Analysis of External Surface Irregularities on Fukushima-Derived Fallout Particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Peter George, E-mail: peter.martin@bristol.ac.uk [Interface Analysis Centre, School of Physics, University of Bristol, HH Wills Physics Laboratory, Bristol (United Kingdom); Satou, Yukihiko [Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science (CLADS), Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tomioka (Japan); Griffiths, Ian [Interface Analysis Centre, School of Physics, University of Bristol, HH Wills Physics Laboratory, Bristol (United Kingdom); Richards, David [School of Geographical Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol (United Kingdom); Scott, Thomas [Interface Analysis Centre, School of Physics, University of Bristol, HH Wills Physics Laboratory, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2017-09-22

    Three large high radioactivity particulate fragments, each several 100 μm in diameter, have been recovered from the region immediately surrounding the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. Through the application of high-resolution electron and ion-beam methods, this work has sought to investigate the structure and composition of this fibrous surface morphology. By evaluating this, a potential material source can be determined, alongside important information relating to the conditions/events at the time of the reactor explosions and catastrophic release of radioactive materials. The results of this study show that the fibrous features associated with these large radiocesium-containing particles share a common elemental composition. With respect to the surrounding particle, the fibers are enriched in Si, Cl, and Fe, while depleted in both Zn and Al. Based on composition, these fibers are ascribed to thermal insulating material used within the plant, which was sufficiently heated during the loss of coolant incident at the plant to be incorporated into the molten ejecta material that rapidly solidified upon quenching in air. Elemental analysis of these fibers does not reveal any evidence of leaching or the presence of actinide materials.

  18. New electromagnetic particle simulation code for the analysis of spacecraft-plasma interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyake, Yohei; Usui, Hideyuki

    2009-01-01

    A novel particle simulation code, the electromagnetic spacecraft environment simulator (EMSES), has been developed for the self-consistent analysis of spacecraft-plasma interactions on the full electromagnetic (EM) basis. EMSES includes several boundary treatments carefully coded for both longitudinal and transverse electric fields to satisfy perfect conductive surface conditions. For the longitudinal component, the following are considered: (1) the surface charge accumulation caused by impinging or emitted particles and (2) the surface charge redistribution, such that the surface becomes an equipotential. For item (1), a special treatment has been adopted for the current density calculated around the spacecraft surface, so that the charge accumulation occurs exactly on the surface. As a result, (1) is realized automatically in the updates of the charge density and the electric field through the current density. Item (2) is achieved by applying the capacity matrix method. Meanwhile, the transverse electric field is simply set to zero for components defined inside and tangential to the spacecraft surfaces. This paper also presents the validation of EMSES by performing test simulations for spacecraft charging and peculiar EM wave modes in a plasma sheath.

  19. Trace element contents in atmospheric suspended particles: inferences from instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Querol, X.; Alastuey, A.; Lopez-Soler, A.; Boix, A.; Sanfeliu, T.; Martynov, V.V.; Piven, P.I.; Kabina, L.P.; Souschov, P.A.

    1997-01-01

    This study focuses on the determination of trace element concentrations in total suspended particles by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) in two different areas in Northeastern Spain (a rural area influenced by the emissions of a large coal-fired power station, and the urban and industrial areas of Castellon). Total suspended particles were sampled by means of standard MCV high- and medium-volume captors, using cellulose membrane filters of 0.8 and 0.45 μm pore size. Preliminary research was performed on the homogeneous distribution of elements in the sample filters and on the study of blank filters for the calculations of the background average element contents. The results obtained allowed to distinguish different major anthropogenic sources of trace elements in the atmosphere at the sampling sites: (a) Zr, Hf, Sc, U and Th are related to atmospheric pollution derived from the ceramic industry of the Castellon area; (b) As, Cr, Cs, Rb, Sb, Se, Zn are related to traffic and other industrial emission in the Castellon area, and As, Cr, Sb and Zn to power generation emissions in the rural area. (orig.). With 3 figs., 5 tabs

  20. FATES: a flexible analysis toolkit for the exploration of single-particle mass spectrometer data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Camille M.; Cornwell, Gavin C.; Rodriguez, Paul; Prather, Kimberly A.

    2017-04-01

    Single-particle mass spectrometer (SPMS) analysis of aerosols has become increasingly popular since its invention in the 1990s. Today many iterations of commercial and lab-built SPMSs are in use worldwide. However, supporting analysis toolkits for these powerful instruments are outdated, have limited functionality, or are versions that are not available to the scientific community at large. In an effort to advance this field and allow better communication and collaboration between scientists, we have developed FATES (Flexible Analysis Toolkit for the Exploration of SPMS data), a MATLAB toolkit easily extensible to an array of SPMS designs and data formats. FATES was developed to minimize the computational demands of working with large data sets while still allowing easy maintenance, modification, and utilization by novice programmers. FATES permits scientists to explore, without constraint, complex SPMS data with simple scripts in a language popular for scientific numerical analysis. In addition FATES contains an array of data visualization graphic user interfaces (GUIs) which can aid both novice and expert users in calibration of raw data; exploration of the dependence of mass spectral characteristics on size, time, and peak intensity; and investigations of clustered data sets.

  1. Energy dispersive soft X-ray fluorescence analysis by radioisotopic α-particle excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, R.

    1977-01-01

    A Si(Li) X-ray detector system and 210 Po α-particle excitation source are combined to form a spectrometer for low energy X-rays. Its response in terms of Ksub(α) X-ray rate is shown for thick targets of elements from fluorine to copper. Potential applications of the equipment to useful quantitative elemental analysis of geological, biological and organic materials are explored. The results of analyses for oxygen and silicon in rocks and potassium in vegetation samples are included. A semi-empirical method of correcting for absorption and enhancement effects is employed. This is based upon X-ray production and photon absorption cross-sections taken from the literature and upon a minimal number of experimentally derived coefficients. (Auth.)

  2. Analysis of Population Diversity of Dynamic Probabilistic Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingjian Ni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In evolutionary algorithm, population diversity is an important factor for solving performance. In this paper, combined with some population diversity analysis methods in other evolutionary algorithms, three indicators are introduced to be measures of population diversity in PSO algorithms, which are standard deviation of population fitness values, population entropy, and Manhattan norm of standard deviation in population positions. The three measures are used to analyze the population diversity in a relatively new PSO variant—Dynamic Probabilistic Particle Swarm Optimization (DPPSO. The results show that the three measure methods can fully reflect the evolution of population diversity in DPPSO algorithms from different angles, and we also discuss the impact of population diversity on the DPPSO variants. The relevant conclusions of the population diversity on DPPSO can be used to analyze, design, and improve the DPPSO algorithms, thus improving optimization performance, which could also be beneficial to understand the working mechanism of DPPSO theoretically.

  3. Trafficability Analysis at Traffic Crossing and Parameters Optimization Based on Particle Swarm Optimization Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin He

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In city traffic, it is important to improve transportation efficiency and the spacing of platoon should be shortened when crossing the street. The best method to deal with this problem is automatic control of vehicles. In this paper, a mathematical model is established for the platoon’s longitudinal movement. A systematic analysis of longitudinal control law is presented for the platoon of vehicles. However, the parameter calibration for the platoon model is relatively difficult because the platoon model is complex and the parameters are coupled with each other. In this paper, the particle swarm optimization method is introduced to effectively optimize the parameters of platoon. The proposed method effectively finds the optimal parameters based on simulations and makes the spacing of platoon shorter.

  4. Practical Considerations for Detection and Characterization of Sub-Micron Particles in Protein Solutions by Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruia, Flaviu; Parupudi, Arun; Polozova, Alla

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis (NTA) is an emerging analytical technique developed for detection, sizing, and counting of sub-micron particles in liquid media. Its feasibility for use in biopharmaceutical development was evaluated with particle standards and recombinant protein solutions. Measurements of aqueous suspensions of NIST-traceable polystyrene particle standards showed accurate particle concentration detection between 2 × 10(7) and 5 × 10(9) particles/mL. Sizing was accurate for particle standards up to 200 nm. Smaller than nominal value sizes were detected by NTA for the 300-900 nm particles. Measurements of protein solutions showed that NTA performance is solution-specific. Reduced sensitivity, especially in opalescent solutions, was observed. Measurements in such solutions may require sample dilution; however, common sample manipulations, such as dilution and filtration, may result in particle formation. Dilution and filtration case studies are presented to further illustrate such behavior. To benchmark general performance, NTA was compared against asymmetric flow field flow fractionation coupled with multi-angle light scattering (aF4-MALS) and dynamic light scattering, which are other techniques for sub-micron particles. Data shows that all three methods have limitations and may not work equally well under certain conditions. Nevertheless, the ability of NTA to directly detect and count sub-micron particles is a feature not matched by aF4-MALS or dynamic light scattering. Thorough characterization of particulate matter present in protein therapeutics is limited by the lack of analytical methods for particles in the sub-micron size range. Emerging techniques are being developed to bridge this analytical gap. In this study, Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis is evaluated as a potential tool for biologics development. Our results indicate that method performance is molecule-specific and may not work as well under all solution conditions, especially when

  5. Soil Particle Size Analysis by Laser Diffractometry: Result Comparison with Pipette Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šinkovičová, Miroslava; Igaz, Dušan; Kondrlová, Elena; Jarošová, Miriam

    2017-10-01

    Soil texture as the basic soil physical property provides a basic information on the soil grain size distribution as well as grain size fraction representation. Currently, there are several methods of particle dimension measurement available that are based on different physical principles. Pipette method based on the different sedimentation velocity of particles with different diameter is considered to be one of the standard methods of individual grain size fraction distribution determination. Following the technical advancement, optical methods such as laser diffraction can be also used nowadays for grain size distribution determination in the soil. According to the literature review of domestic as well as international sources related to this topic, it is obvious that the results obtained by laser diffractometry do not correspond with the results obtained by pipette method. The main aim of this paper was to analyse 132 samples of medium fine soil, taken from the Nitra River catchment in Slovakia, from depths of 15-20 cm and 40-45 cm, respectively, using laser analysers: ANALYSETTE 22 MicroTec plus (Fritsch GmbH) and Mastersizer 2000 (Malvern Instruments Ltd). The results obtained by laser diffractometry were compared with pipette method and the regression relationships using linear, exponential, power and polynomial trend were derived. Regressions with the three highest regression coefficients (R2) were further investigated. The fit with the highest tightness was observed for the polynomial regression. In view of the results obtained, we recommend using the estimate of the representation of the clay fraction (analysis is done according to laser diffractometry. The advantages of laser diffraction method comprise the short analysis time, usage of small sample amount, application for the various grain size fraction and soil type classification systems, and a wide range of determined fractions. Therefore, it is necessary to focus on this issue further to address the

  6. Estimation of particle size distribution in Athabasca oil sands by indirect neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schutte, R.; Thompson, G.R.; Donkor, K.K. [New Caledonia College, Prince George, BC (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry; Duke, M.J.M. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). SLOWPOKE Nuclear Reactor Facility; Cowles, R. [Syncrude Canada, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Li, X.P.; Kratochvil, B. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry

    1999-10-01

    Knowledge concerning the particle size distribution (PSD) of oil sands is necessary for optimal extraction of bitumen from the sand, and it indicates ore quality, gives a measure of process performance during bitumen extraction, and yields information useful for tailings management. Oil sands with mainly coarse particulates are usually bitumen rich and easy to process in the conventional hot water extraction process. These ores do not require the addition of sodium hydroxide as a process aid, and tailings volumes are minimal in contrast to high fines oil sands. Compared to the methods currently in use for determining the PSD in the oil sand industry, a method is described that is rapid, simple to carry out, and does not involve the use of organic solvents with attendant disposal problems. The principle behind the method is the development of a set of correlations by applying regression analysis to a large set of PSD and elemental analysis data. Predicted PSDs compare favorably with results obtained by existing methods. Each of the three PSD methods currently in use could be simulated by the INAA method. The INAA-based model that predicts hydrometer equivalent data was only applicable above certain lower limits for the amount of the fine size fractions present because of the limited sensitivity of the hydrometer method for PSD determination of fine fractions. For all six particle sizes studied, the INAA model had lower overall uncertainty than the corresponding Microtrac and Coulter instrument methods; the instrument repeatability of the INAA fell between those of Microtrac and Coulter. For Athabasca oil sands, the INAA-based method for PSD determination at and below 44 microm afforded results comparable to current Microtrac and Coulter methods. 13 refs., 9 tabs., 2 figs.

  7. In vitro toxicity analysis of nanoscale aluminum: Particle size and shape effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazuelos Jorganes, Maria

    2007-12-01

    Nanostructured materials promise to revolutionize many key areas of science and technology. As our ability to manipulate matter at the nanoscale increases, there is a need to assess the effects of these materials on human health and the environment. Materials at the nanoscale are interesting and useful because they possess properties that are different from the equivalent bulk or molecular scale. These same properties can make toxicological profiles very different from those of the same materials on a different scale. There is a rising consensus that toxicity analysis of nanomaterials should start from a thorough physicochemical characterization of the materials under investigation in order to be able to establish a proper correlation between the nanoparticles characteristics and their effects and behavior in physiological environments. This research is a clear example of the necessity of comprehensive studies when investigating the toxicity of nanomaterials. Aluminum nanoparticles are being extensively used for their very unique energetic properties. These materials offer a very promising market that is fostering many startup companies which are expected to consolidate on strong technological positions. Aluminum is generally recognized as a non-toxic material to humans and it is widely used for applications which imply direct human contact. The effect of aluminum nanoparticles in human health is still an unknown. My research consisted of an in vitro toxicity screening of aluminum materials from nano to micron size, including spherical irregularly shaped particles. Several issues relating to size, shape, detection and characterization of nanoparticles in the different environments relevant to in vitro toxicity analysis were addressed and suitable protocols were developed. Lung human epithelial cells were exposed to different concentrations of these materials and the effects were analyzed by means of various toxicity tests. Some of the materials investigated caused

  8. Particle-induced X-ray emission: thick-target analysis of inorganic materials in the determination of light elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Arantegui, J.; Castillo, J.R.; Querre, G.

    1994-01-01

    Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) has been applied to the analysis of inorganic materials to determine some elements with Z < 27: Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, Mn and Fe, in thick-target analysis. A PIXE method has been developed for the analysis of geological materials, ceramics and pottery. Work has been carried out with an ion beam analytical system, using a low particle beam energy. Relative sensitivity, detection limits, reproducibility and accuracy of the method were calculated based on the analysis of geological standard materials (river sediments, argillaceous limestone, basalt, diorite and granite). Analysis using PIXE offers a number of advantages, such as short analysis time, multi-elemental and nondestructive determinations, and the results are similar to those obtained with other instrumental techniques of analysis. (Author)

  9. Determination of impurities in silicon nitride by particle induced x-ray emission analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyagawa, Yoshiko; Saito, Kazuo; Niwa, Hiroaki; Ishizuka, Toshio; Miyagawa, Soji

    1985-01-01

    A method is presented for quantitative particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis of impurities in the thick samples of silicon nitride. In the analysis of ceramic materials such as silicon nitride, chemical treatments are required to prepare thin enough samples. However, the chemical treatments are undesirable for the PIXE analysis, because another complications are brought about. Our method does not need any chemical treatments and thick samples can be subjected to the measurements. The determination of impurities were made by on-line use of a personal computer in which standard X-ray intensity data were stored. The method and procedures are as follows: After subtracting a buckground spectrum from an observed PIXE spectrum, the resultant peaks are assigned to individual elements. Then, in order to determine the contents of the impurities, the intensity of each peak is compared with a Gaussian curve which is generated from the standard X-ray intensity data. The latter data were determined theoretically. The results were in satisfactory agreement with those obtained by ICP emission spectrometry. (author)

  10. Carbon analysis in MOCVD grown HgCdMnTe by charged particle activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stannard, W.B.; Walker, S.R.; Johnston, P.N.; Bubb, I.F.

    1994-01-01

    Charged Particle Activation Analysis (CPAA) has been used for the determination of the concentration of carbon in HgCdMnTe grown by Metal Organic Chemical Vapour Deposition (MOCVD). The samples were irradiated with a beam of 3.0 MeV 3 He ions. 11 C is produced by the reaction 12 C( 3 He, α) 11 C and is a positron (β + ) emitting radionuclide with a half-life of 20.38 min. At the same time the reaction 16 O( 3 He, p) 18 F produces 18 F which is also a β + emitter and has a half-life of 109.72 min. A post-irradiation etching technique has been developed to enable removal of surface contaminants. The radioactivity is determined by a β + spectrometer consisting of two NaI γ-ray detectors (3x3 in.) oriented at 180 . The two coincident 511 keV γ-rays emitted at 180 during the positron annihilation are detected. The initial 11 C and 18 F activities, and hence the oxygen and carbon contributions, can be separated by analysis of the count rate versus time. Analysis shows significant carbon levels in the HgCdMnTe samples. ((orig.))

  11. Impact of Oriented Clay Particles on X-Ray Spectroscopy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, A. J. M. S.; Syazwani, R. N.; Wijeyesekera, D. C.

    2016-07-01

    Understanding the engineering properties of the mineralogy and microfabic of clayey soils is very complex and thus very difficult for soil characterization. Micromechanics of soils recognize that the micro structure and mineralogy of clay have a significant influence on its engineering behaviour. To achieve a more reliable quantitative evaluation of clay mineralogy, a proper sample preparation technique for quantitative clay mineral analysis is necessary. This paper presents the quantitative evaluation of elemental analysis and chemical characterization of oriented and random oriented clay particles using X-ray spectroscopy. Three different types of clays namely marine clay, bentonite and kaolin clay were studied. The oriented samples were prepared by placing the dispersed clay in water and left to settle on porous ceramic tiles by applying a relatively weak suction through a vacuum pump. Images form a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) was also used to show the comparison between the orientation patterns of both the sample preparation techniques. From the quantitative analysis of the X-ray spectroscopy, oriented sampling method showed more accuracy in identifying mineral deposits, because it produced better peak intensity on the spectrum and more mineral content can be identified compared to randomly oriented samples.

  12. Mass distribution and elemental analysis of the resultant atmospheric aerosol particles generated in controlled biomass burning processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordou, N.; Agranovski, I. E.

    2017-12-01

    Air contamination resulting from bushfires is becoming increasingly important research question, as such disasters frequently occur in many countries. The objectives of this project were focused on physical and chemical characterisations of particulate emission resulting from burning of common representatives of Australian vegetation under controlled laboratory conditions. It was found that leaves are burned mostly with flaming phase and producing black smoke resulting in larger particles compared to white smoke in case of branches and grass, dominated by smouldering phase, producing finer particles. Following elemental analysis determined nine main elements in three different size fractions of particulate matter for each category of burning material, ranging from 14.1 μm to particle sizes below 2.54 μm. Potassium was found to be one of the main biomass markers, and sulphur was the ubiquitous element among the smoke particles followed by less prevalent trace elements like Na, Al, Mg, Zn, Si, Ca, and Fe.

  13. Analysis of Base-Case Particle Tracking Results of the Base-Case Flow Fields (ID:U0160)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C.K. Ho

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to provide insight into the unsaturated-zone (UZ) subsystem performance through particle tracking analyses of the base-case flow fields. The particle tracking analyses will not be used directly in total-system performance-assessment (TSPA) calculations per se. The objective of this activity is to evaluate the transport of radionuclides through the unsaturated zone and to determine how different system parameters such as matrix diffusion, sorption, water-table rise, and perched water influence the transport to the water table. Plots will be generated to determine normalized cumulative breakthrough curves for selected radionuclides. The scope of this work is limited to the particle tracking analyses of ''base-case'' flow fields that are to be used by the code FEHM (Finite Element Heat and Mass; Zyvoloski 1997) for particle tracking simulations in ''Total System Performance Assessment-Site Recommendation Report'' (TSPA-SR)

  14. Detection of charged particles through a photodiode: design and analysis; Deteccion de particulas cargadas mediante un fotodiodo: diseno y analisis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angoli, A.; Quirino, L.L.; Hernandez, V.M.; Lopez del R, H.; Mireles, F.; Davila, J.I.; Rios, C.; Pinedo, J.L. [UAEN, UAZ, 98000 Zacatecas (Mexico)]. e-mail: toono4@hotmail.com

    2006-07-01

    This project develops and construct an charge particle detector mean a pin photodiode array, design and analysis using a silicon pin Fotodiodo that generally is used to detect visible light, its good efficiency, size compact and reduced cost specifically allows to its use in the radiation monitoring and alpha particle detection. Here, so much, appears the design of the system of detection like its characterization for alpha particles where one is reported as alpha energy resolution and detection efficiency. The equipment used in the development of work consists of alpha particle a triple source composed of Am-241, Pu-239 and Cm-244 with 5,55 KBq as total activity, Maestro 32 software made by ORTEC, a multi-channel card Triumph from ORTEC and one low activity electroplated uranium sample. (Author)

  15. Particle Generation by Laser Ablation in Support of Chemical Analysis of High Level Mixed Waste from Plutonium Production Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickinson, J. Thomas; Alexander, Michael L.

    2001-01-01

    Investigate particles produced by laser irradiation and their analysis by Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (LA/ICP-MS), with a view towards optimizing particle production for analysis of high level waste materials and waste glass. LA/ICP-MS has considerable potential to increase the safety and speed of analysis required for the remediation of high level wastes from cold war plutonium production operations. In some sample types, notably the sodium nitrate-based wastes at Hanford and elsewhere, chemical analysis using typical laser conditions depends strongly on the details of sample history composition in a complex fashion, rendering the results of analysis uncertain. Conversely, waste glass materials appear to be better behaved and require different strategies to optimize analysis

  16. Spherical silica particles decorated with graphene oxide nanosheets as a new sorbent in inorganic trace analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitko, Rafal; Zawisza, Beata; Talik, Ewa; Janik, Paulina; Osoba, Grzegorz; Feist, Barbara; Malicka, Ewa

    2014-06-27

    Graphene oxide (GO) is a novel material with excellent adsorptive properties. However, the very small particles of GO can cause serious problems is solid-phase extraction (SPE) such as the high pressure in SPE system and the adsorbent loss through pores of frit. These problems can be overcome by covalently binding GO nanosheets to a support. In this paper, GO was covalently bonded to spherical silica by coupling the amino groups of spherical aminosilica and the carboxyl groups of GO (GO@SiO2). The successful immobilization of GO nanosheets on the aminosilica was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The spherical particle covered by GO with crumpled silk wave-like carbon sheets are an ideal sorbent for SPE of metal ions. The wrinkled structure of the coating results in large surface area and a high extractive capacity. The adsorption bath experiment shows that Cu(II) and Pb(II) can be quantitatively adsorbed at pH 5.5 with maximum adsorption capacity of 6.0 and 13.6 mg g(-1), respectively. Such features of GO nanosheets as softness and flexibility allow achieving excellent contact with analyzed solution in flow-rate conditions. In consequence, the metal ions can be quantitatively preconcentrated from high volume of aqueous samples with excellent flow-rate. SPE column is very stable and several adsorption-elution cycles can be performed without any loss of adsorptive properties. The GO@SiO2 was used for analysis of various water samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry with excellent enrichment factors (200-250) and detection limits (0.084 and 0.27 ng mL(-1) for Cu(II) and Pb(II), respectively). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. 'ACTIV' - a package of codes for charged particle and neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cincu, Em.; Alexandreanu, B.; Manu, V.; Moisa, V.

    1997-01-01

    The 'ACTIV' Program is an advanced software package dedicated to applications of the thermal neutron and charged particle activation (NAA and CPA) induced reactions. The program is designed to run on personal computers compatible IBM PC-Models XT/AT, 286 or more advanced, operating under DOS version 5.0 or later, on systems with minimum 5 MB of hard disk memory. The package consists of 6 software modules and a Nuclear Data Base comprising physical, nuclear reaction and decay data for: thermal neutron, proton, deuteron and α-particle induced reactions on 15 selected metallic elements; the nuclear reaction data corresponds to the energy range (5-100) MeV. In the first version - ACTIV 1.0 - the set of input data concerns: the sample type, irradiation and measurement conditions, the γ-ray spectrum identification code, selected detection efficiency calibration curve, selected radionuclides, selected standardization method for elemental analysis, version of results. At present, the 'ACTIV' package comprises 6 soft modules for processing the experimental data, which ensure computation of the quantities: radionuclide activities, activation yield data (case of CPA) and elemental concentration by relative and absolute standardization methods. Recently, the software designed to processing complex γ-ray spectra was acquired and installed on our PC 486 (8 MB RAM, 100 MHz). The next step in developing the 'ACTIV' program envisages improving the existing computing codes, completing the data libraries, incorporating a new soft for the direct use of the 'Quantum TM MCA' data, developing modules dedicated to uncertainty computation and optimization of the activation experiments

  18. Method for rapid particle size analysis by hydrosizing and nuclear sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daellenbach, C.B.; Mahan, W.M.

    1977-01-01

    A method and apparatus to practice the method for rapidly determining the size and mass distribution of a sample of randomly sized particles of a known total mass are described. A series of substantially identical hydrocyclones are connected by conduits to each other and to a temperature controlled water feed. By restricting the cross-sectional areas of these conduits to progressively smaller values, the slurry containing the sample particles is caused to increase its velocity as it moves from hydrocyclone to hydrocyclone. As described by the Stokesian theory which relates particle diameter and settling velocity, the largest sized particles are suspended in the closed apex of the first hydrocyclone with smaller sized particles, in given size ranges, being suspended in the next succeeding hydrocyclone's apexes. In this manner, the particles are separated into discrete fractional sizes with a residual slurry of the very smallest particles being discharged. Before the discrete fractions of particles are suspended in their hydrocyclone apexes, a combined photon source, like a gamma ray source, and detector are calibrated with the water temperature kept constant. When the suspension of particles takes place, an attenuation of the radiation from the source is observed at the detector. This attenuation can be related to the mass or weight of the discrete fractions of suspended particles. Electronic circuitry is used to indicate what this fractional mass or weight is as it relates to the total weight of the sample. 6 claims, 4 figs

  19. Novel Online Diagnostic Analysis for In-Flight Particle Properties in Cold Spraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivuluoto, Heli; Matikainen, Ville; Larjo, Jussi; Vuoristo, Petri

    2018-02-01

    In cold spraying, powder particles are accelerated by preheated supersonic gas stream to high velocities and sprayed on a substrate. The particle velocities depend on the equipment design and process parameters, e.g., on the type of the process gas and its pressure and temperature. These, in turn, affect the coating structure and the properties. The particle velocities in cold spraying are high, and the particle temperatures are low, which can, therefore, be a challenge for the diagnostic methods. A novel optical online diagnostic system, HiWatch HR, will open new possibilities for measuring particle in-flight properties in cold spray processes. The system employs an imaging measurement technique called S-PTV (sizing-particle tracking velocimetry), first introduced in this research. This technique enables an accurate particle size measurement also for small diameter particles with a large powder volume. The aim of this study was to evaluate the velocities of metallic particles sprayed with HPCS and LPCS systems and with varying process parameters. The measured in-flight particle properties were further linked to the resulting coating properties. Furthermore, the camera was able to provide information about variations during the spraying, e.g., fluctuating powder feeding, which is important from the process control and quality control point of view.

  20. Mass spectrometric analysis and aerodynamic properties of various types of combustion-related aerosol particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, J.; Weimer, S.; Drewnick, F.; Borrmann, S.; Helas, G.; Gwaze, P.; Schmid, O.; Andreae, M. O.; Kirchner, U.

    2006-12-01

    Various types of combustion-related particles in the size range between 100 and 850 nm were analyzed with an aerosol mass spectrometer and a differential mobility analyzer. The measurements were performed with particles originating from biomass burning, diesel engine exhaust, laboratory combustion of diesel fuel and gasoline, as well as from spark soot generation. Physical and morphological parameters like fractal dimension, effective density, bulk density and dynamic shape factor were derived or at least approximated from the measurements of electrical mobility diameter and vacuum aerodynamic diameter. The relative intensities of the mass peaks in the mass spectra obtained from particles generated by a commercial diesel passenger car, by diesel combustion in a laboratory burner, and by evaporating and re-condensing lubrication oil were found to be very similar. The mass spectra from biomass burning particles show signatures identified as organic compounds like levoglucosan but also others which are yet unidentified. The aerodynamic behavior yielded a fractal dimension (Df) of 2.09 +/- 0.06 for biomass burning particles from the combustion of dry beech sticks, but showed values around three, and hence more compact particle morphologies, for particles from combustion of more natural oak. Scanning electron microscope images confirmed the finding that the beech combustion particles were fractal-like aggregates, while the oak combustion particles displayed a much more compact shape. For particles from laboratory combusted diesel fuel, a Df value of 2.35 was found, for spark soot particles, Df [approximate] 2.10. The aerodynamic properties of fractal-like particles from dry beech wood combustion indicate an aerodynamic shape factor [chi] that increases with electrical mobility diameter, and a bulk density of 1.92 g cm-3. An upper limit of [chi] [approximate] 1.2 was inferred for the shape factor of the more compact particles from oak combustion.

  1. Robust model-based analysis of single-particle tracking experiments with Spot-On

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Jonathan B; Lavis, Luke D

    2018-01-01

    Single-particle tracking (SPT) has become an important method to bridge biochemistry and cell biology since it allows direct observation of protein binding and diffusion dynamics in live cells. However, accurately inferring information from SPT studies is challenging due to biases in both data analysis and experimental design. To address analysis bias, we introduce ‘Spot-On’, an intuitive web-interface. Spot-On implements a kinetic modeling framework that accounts for known biases, including molecules moving out-of-focus, and robustly infers diffusion constants and subpopulations from pooled single-molecule trajectories. To minimize inherent experimental biases, we implement and validate stroboscopic photo-activation SPT (spaSPT), which minimizes motion-blur bias and tracking errors. We validate Spot-On using experimentally realistic simulations and show that Spot-On outperforms other methods. We then apply Spot-On to spaSPT data from live mammalian cells spanning a wide range of nuclear dynamics and demonstrate that Spot-On consistently and robustly infers subpopulation fractions and diffusion constants. PMID:29300163

  2. Development and Verification of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics Code for Analysis of Tsunami near NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Young Beom; Kim, Eung Soo [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    It becomes more complicated when considering the shape and phase of the ground below the seawater. Therefore, some different attempts are required to precisely analyze the behavior of tsunami. This paper introduces an on-going activities on code development in SNU based on an unconventional mesh-free fluid analysis method called Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) and its verification work with some practice simulations. This paper summarizes the on-going development and verification activities on Lagrangian mesh-free SPH code in SNU. The newly developed code can cover equation of motions and heat conduction equation so far, and verification of each models is completed. In addition, parallel computation using GPU is now possible, and GUI is also prepared. If users change input geometry or input values, they can simulate for various conditions geometries. A SPH method has large advantages and potential in modeling of free surface, highly deformable geometry and multi-phase problems that traditional grid-based code has difficulties in analysis. Therefore, by incorporating more complex physical models such as turbulent flow, phase change, two-phase flow, and even solid mechanics, application of the current SPH code is expected to be much more extended including molten fuel behaviors in the sever accident.

  3. Lognormal Distribution of Cellular Uptake of Radioactivity: Statistical Analysis of α-Particle Track Autoradiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neti, Prasad V.S.V.; Howell, Roger W.

    2010-01-01

    Recently, the distribution of radioactivity among a population of cells labeled with 210Po was shown to be well described by a log-normal (LN) distribution function (J Nucl Med. 2006;47:1049–1058) with the aid of autoradiography. To ascertain the influence of Poisson statistics on the interpretation of the autoradiographic data, the present work reports on a detailed statistical analysis of these earlier data. Methods The measured distributions of α-particle tracks per cell were subjected to statistical tests with Poisson, LN, and Poisson-lognormal (P-LN) models. Results The LN distribution function best describes the distribution of radioactivity among cell populations exposed to 0.52 and 3.8 kBq/mL of 210Po-citrate. When cells were exposed to 67 kBq/mL, the P-LN distribution function gave a better fit; however, the underlying activity distribution remained log-normal. Conclusion The present analysis generally provides further support for the use of LN distributions to describe the cellular uptake of radioactivity. Care should be exercised when analyzing autoradiographic data on activity distributions to ensure that Poisson processes do not distort the underlying LN distribution. PMID:18483086

  4. UEDGE Simulations for Power and Particle Flow Analysis of FRC Rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Fred; Evans, Eugene S.; McGreivy, Nick; Kaptanoglu, Alan; Izacard, Olivier; Cohen, Samuel A.

    2017-10-01

    The field-reversed configuration (FRC) is under consideration for use in a direct fusion drive (DFD) rocket propulsion system for future space missions. To achieve a rocket configuration, the FRC is embedded within an asymmetric magnetic mirror, in which one end is closed and contains a gas box, and the other end is open and incorporates a magnetic nozzle. Neutral deuterium is injected into the gas box, and flows through the scrape-off layer (SOL) around the core plasma and out the magnetic nozzle, both cooling the core and serving as propellant. Previous studies have examined a range of operating conditions for the SOL of a DFD using UEDGE, a 2D fluid code; discrepancies on the order of 5% were found during the analysis of overall power balance. This work extends the analysis of the previously-studied SOL geometry by updating boundary conditions and conducting a detailed study of power and particle flows within the simulation with the goals of modeling electrical power generation instead of thrust and achieving higher specific impulse. This work was supported, in part, by DOE Contract Number DE-AC02-09CH11466 and Princeton Environmental Institute.

  5. Component tree analysis of cystovirus φ6 nucleocapsid Cryo-EM single particle reconstructions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas M Oliveira

    Full Text Available The 3-dimensional structure of the nucleocapsid (NC of bacteriophage φ6 is described utilizing component tree analysis, a topological and geometric image descriptor. The component trees are derived from density maps of cryo-electron microscopy single particle reconstructions. Analysis determines position and occupancy of structure elements responsible for RNA packaging and transcription. Occupancy of the hexameric nucleotide triphosphorylase (P4 and RNA polymerase (P2 are found to be essentially complete in the NC. The P8 protein lattice likely fixes P4 and P2 in place during maturation. We propose that the viral procapsid (PC is a dynamic structural intermediate where the P4 and P2 can attach and detach until held in place in mature NCs. During packaging, the PC expands to accommodate the RNA, and P2 translates from its original site near the inner 3-fold axis (20 sites to the inner 5-fold axis (12 sites with excess P2 positioned inside the central region of the NC.

  6. Single particle analysis of ice crystal residuals observed in orographic wave clouds over Scandinavia during INTACC experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Targino

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Individual ice crystal residual particles collected over Scandinavia during the INTACC (INTeraction of Aerosol and Cold Clouds experiment in October 1999 were analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM equipped with Energy-Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDX. Samples were collected onboard the British Met Office Hercules C-130 aircraft using a Counterflow Virtual Impactor (CVI. This study is based on six samples collected in orographic clouds. The main aim of this study is to characterize cloud residual elemental composition in conditions affected by different airmasses. In total 609 particles larger than 0.1 μm diameter were analyzed and their elemental composition and morphology were determined. Thereafter a hierarchical cluster analysis was performed on the signal detected with SEM-EDX in order to identify the major particle classes and their abundance. A cluster containing mineral dust, represented by aluminosilicates, Fe-rich and Si-rich particles, was the dominating class of particles, accounting for about 57.5% of the particles analyzed, followed by low-Z particles, 23.3% (presumably organic material and sea salt (6.7%. Sulfur was detected often across all groups, indicating ageing and in-cloud processing of particles. A detailed inspection of samples individually unveiled a relationship between ice crystal residual composition and airmass origin. Cloud residual samples from clean airmasses (that is, trajectories confined to the Atlantic and Arctic Oceans and/or with source altitude in the free troposphere were dominated primarily by low-Z and sea salt particles, while continentally-influenced airmasses (with trajectories that originated or traveled over continental areas and with source altitude in the continental boundary layer contained mainly mineral dust residuals. Comparison of residual composition for similar cloud ambient temperatures around –27°C revealed that supercooled clouds are more likely to persist in conditions where

  7. The Analysis of Three-Body Contact Temperature under the Different Third Particle Size, Density, and Value of Friction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horng-Wen Wu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, many studies have investigated the friction, wear, and temperature characteristics of the interface between two relative movements. Such analyses often set the coefficient of friction as a fixed value and are analyzed in cases of two-body contact; however, the interface is often a three-body contact and the coefficient of friction varies depending on the operating conditions. This is a significant error in the analysis of contact characteristics, therefore, in this study, the actual interface and the change of the coefficient of friction were analyzed based on three-body micro-contact theory where the contact temperature was also analyzed and the difference between the generally assumed values were compared. The results showed that under three-body contact, the coefficient of total friction increased with an increase in particle size; and at a different particle size and area density of particles, the surface contact temperature increased with the plasticity index and load increases, and the particle contact temperature increased with the increasing particle size. The surface temperature rise was mainly affected by the ratio of the average temperature between surface 1 and surface 2 to the multiplication between the 100th root of the area density of particles and the square root of the equivalent surface roughness (Ts1s2_ave*/ηa0.01σ0.5 and the ratio of the 10th root of the mean particle diameter to the 100th root of the equivalent surface roughness (xa0.1/σ0.001. Particle temperature was mainly affected by the ratio of the 10th root of the mean particle diameter to the 100th root of the equivalent surface roughness (xa0.1/σ0.001 and the area density of particles ηa. Our study indicated that when the contact of surface with surface and the contact of the particles with the surface, the resulting heat balance was assigned to the particles and the surface in a three-body contact situation. Under this contact behavior, it could avoid

  8. Numerical analysis of energetic particle stabilization of ballooning modes in finite-aspect-ratio tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Qibing; Peng Qiyang; Qu Wenxiao

    1993-09-01

    The effect of energetic trapped particles on the stabilization of ballooning modes in finite-aspect-ratio tokamaks is numerically analyzed. The numerical solution of boundary value problem of an integro-differential equation is successfully obtained by RKF integral method with variable step size. The results show that the instability domain of ballooning modes becomes small along with the increase of energetic particles pressure. The energetic trapped particles can partially or completely suppress the instability of ballooning modes

  9. Evaluation of instruments used in particle size analysis by using the sedimentation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmasry, M.A.A.; Abdrahman, A.A.M.; Ahmed, A.Z.

    2007-01-01

    This study is carried out to evaluate the performance of some instruments in which the sedimentation technique is used for the determination of particle size distribution using Stoke's law. A mathematical formula has been developed to calculate the particle size distribution for different cases and the results were compared to the real ones. The results revealed unsatisfactory agreement between the calculated and the measured values. In addition, illogic results were obtained indicating that the instruments in which the sedimentation technique is used are not the proper ones to provide accurate measurements except for mono particle size cases. More above, the results obtained represent the sedimentation rate but not the particle size distribution.

  10. Optimization of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for coal powder analysis with different particle flow diameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Shunchun, E-mail: epscyao@scut.edu.cn [School of Electric Power, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510640 (China); State Key Laboratory of Pulsed Power Laser Technology, Electronic Engineering Institute, Hefei 230037 (China); Xu, Jialong; Dong, Xuan; Zhang, Bo; Zheng, Jianping [School of Electric Power, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510640 (China); Lu, Jidong, E-mail: jdlu@scut.edu.cn [School of Electric Power, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510640 (China)

    2015-08-01

    The on-line measurement of coal is extremely useful for emission control and combustion process optimization in coal-fired plant. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy was employed to directly analyze coal particle flow. A set of tapered tubes were proposed for beam-focusing the coal particle flow to different diameters. For optimizing the measurement of coal particle flow, the characteristics of laser-induced plasma, including optical breakdown, the relative standard deviation of repeated measurement, partial breakdown spectra ratio and line intensity, were carefully analyzed. The comparison of the plasma characteristics among coal particle flow with different diameters showed that air breakdown and the random change in plasma position relative to the collection optics could significantly influence on the line intensity and the reproducibility of measurement. It is demonstrated that the tapered tube with a diameter of 5.5 mm was particularly useful to enrich the coal particles in laser focus spot as well as to reduce the influence of air breakdown and random changes of plasma in the experiment. - Highlights: • Tapered tube was designed for beam-focusing the coal particle flow as well as enriching the particles in laser focus spot. • The characteristics of laser-induced plasma of coal particle flow were investigated carefully. • An appropriate diameter of coal particle flow was proven to benefit for improving the performance of LIBS measurement.

  11. Variance analysis of the Monte-Carlo perturbation source method in inhomogeneous linear particle transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noack, K.

    1982-01-01

    The perturbation source method may be a powerful Monte-Carlo means to calculate small effects in a particle field. In a preceding paper we have formulated this methos in inhomogeneous linear particle transport problems describing the particle fields by solutions of Fredholm integral equations and have derived formulae for the second moment of the difference event point estimator. In the present paper we analyse the general structure of its variance, point out the variance peculiarities, discuss the dependence on certain transport games and on generation procedures of the auxiliary particles and draw conclusions to improve this method

  12. Subvisible (2-100 μm) Particle Analysis During Biotherapeutic Drug Product Development: Part 1, Considerations and Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narhi, Linda O; Corvari, Vincent; Ripple, Dean C; Afonina, Nataliya; Cecchini, Irene; Defelippis, Michael R; Garidel, Patrick; Herre, Andrea; Koulov, Atanas V; Lubiniecki, Tony; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Mangiagalli, Paolo; Nesta, Douglas; Perez-Ramirez, Bernardo; Polozova, Alla; Rossi, Mara; Schmidt, Roland; Simler, Robert; Singh, Satish; Spitznagel, Thomas M; Weiskopf, Andrew; Wuchner, Klaus

    2015-06-01

    Measurement and characterization of subvisible particles (defined here as those ranging in size from 2 to 100 μm), including proteinaceous and nonproteinaceous particles, is an important part of every stage of protein therapeutic development. The tools used and the ways in which the information generated is applied depends on the particular product development stage, the amount of material, and the time available for the analysis. In order to compare results across laboratories and products, it is important to harmonize nomenclature, experimental protocols, data analysis, and interpretation. In this manuscript on perspectives on subvisible particles in protein therapeutic drug products, we focus on the tools available for detection, characterization, and quantification of these species and the strategy around their application. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  13. Experimental Analysis of Damping and Tribological Characteristics of Nano-CuO Particle Mixed Lubricant in Ball Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, E.; Sivakumar, K.

    2015-12-01

    Experimental analysis of damping capacity and tribological characteristics of nano CuO added Servosystem 68 lubricant is attempted. CuO nano particles were synthesized by aqueous precipitation method and characterized. Prior to dispersion into lubricant, CuO nano particles were coated with 0.2 wt.% surfactant (Span-80) to stabilize the nano fluid. Tribological characteristics of particle added lubricant were tested in ASTM D 4172 four ball wear tester. Scanning electron microscopy test results of worn surfaces of nano CuO particle added lubricant were smoother than base lubricant. The particle added lubricant was applied in a new ball bearing and three defected ball bearings. When particle added lubricant was used, the ball defected bearing's vibration amplitude was reduced by 21.94% whereas it was 16.46% for new bearing and was ≤ 11% for other defected bearings. The formation of protection film of CuO over ball surface and regime of full film lubrication near the ball zone were observed to be reason for improved damping of vibrations.

  14. Size-segregated compositional analysis of aerosol particles collected in the European Arctic during the ACCACIA campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Young

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Single-particle compositional analysis of filter samples collected on board the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM BAe-146 aircraft is presented for six flights during the springtime Aerosol–Cloud Coupling and Climate Interactions in the Arctic (ACCACIA campaign (March–April 2013. Scanning electron microscopy was utilised to derive size-segregated particle compositions and size distributions, and these were compared to corresponding data from wing-mounted optical particle counters. Reasonable agreement between the calculated number size distributions was found. Significant variability in composition was observed, with differing external and internal mixing identified, between air mass trajectory cases based on HYbrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT analyses. Dominant particle classes were silicate-based dusts and sea salts, with particles notably rich in K and Ca detected in one case. Source regions varied from the Arctic Ocean and Greenland through to northern Russia and the European continent. Good agreement between the back trajectories was mirrored by comparable compositional trends between samples. Silicate dusts were identified in all cases, and the elemental composition of the dust was consistent for all samples except one. It is hypothesised that long-range, high-altitude transport was primarily responsible for this dust, with likely sources including the Asian arid regions.

  15. Ion chemistry and individual particle analysis of atmospheric aerosols over Mt. Bogda of eastern Tianshan Mountains, Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuhui; Li, Zhongqin; Zhou, Ping

    2011-09-01

    Aerosol samples were collected during the scientific expedition to Mt. Bogda in July-August, 2009. The major inorganic ions (Na( + ), NH⁺₄, K( + ), Mg(2 + ), Ca(2 + ), Cl( - ), SO²⁻₄, and NO⁻₃) of the aerosols were determined by ion chromatography. SO²⁻₄, NO⁻₃, and Ca(2 + ) were the dominate ions, with the mean concentrations of 0.86, 0.56, and 0.28 μg m⁻³, respectively. These mean ion concentrations were generally comparable with the background conditions in remote site of Xinjiang, while much lower than those in Ürümqi. Morphology and elemental compositions of 1,500 particles were determined by field emission scanning electron microscopy equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer. Based on the morphology and elemental compositions, particles were classed into four major groups: soot (15.1%), fly ash (4.7%), mineral particles (78.9%), and little other matters (0.8% Fe-rich particles and 0.5% unrecognized particles). Presence of soot and fly ash particles indicated the influence of anthropogenic pollutions, while abundance mineral particles suggested that natural processes were the primary source of aerosols over this region, coinciding with the ionic analysis. Backward air mass trajectory analysis suggested that Ürümqi may contribute some anthropogenic pollution to this region, while the arid and semi-arid regions of Central Asia were the primary source.

  16. Influence of particle size distribution on the analysis of pellets of plant materials by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustinelli Arantes de Carvalho, Gabriel; Santos Jr, Dário; Silva Gomes, Marcos da; Nunes, Lidiane Cristina; Guerra, Marcelo Braga Bueno; Krug, Francisco José

    2015-01-01

    Pellets of sieved plant materials (150, 106, 75, 53 and 20 μm sieve apertures) were prepared and analyzed by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), and the results for Ca, K, Mg, P, B and Mn were discussed as a function of particle size distribution. This parameter is of key importance for appropriate test sample presentation in the form of pressed pellets for quantitative analysis by LIBS. Experiments were carried out with a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm, and a spectrometer with Echelle optics and an intensified charge-coupled device. Results indicated that smaller particles yielded up to 50% emission signal intensities' enhancement and attained better measurements' precision (site-to-site variation). Moreover, matrix effects were reduced by analyzing pellets prepared from < 75 μm sieved fractions (mean particle size = 32 μm; d 95 = 102 μm) and by using a 50 J cm −2 laser fluence (220 mJ per pulse; 750 μm laser spot size). The preparation of pellets from laboratory samples with monomodal particle size distributions, where most particles were smaller than 100 μm, was decisive for improving analyte micro-homogeneity within the test samples and for attaining lower coefficients of variation of measurements, typically lower than 10% (n = 10 sites per pellet; 20 laser pulses per site). - Highlights: • First systematic study on the effects of particle size distribution. • Most appropriate particle sizes for pellet preparation depend on laser fluence. • Data can be used for sampling strategies aiming at LIBS analysis of plant materials

  17. Influence of particle size distribution on the analysis of pellets of plant materials by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustinelli Arantes de Carvalho, Gabriel [NAPTISA Research Support Center “Technology and Innovation for a Sustainable Agriculture”, Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture, University of São Paulo, Av. Centenário 303, 13416-000 Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Santos Jr, Dário [Departamento de Ciências Exatas e da Terra, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Rua Prof. Artur Riedel, 275, 09972-270 Diadema, SP (Brazil); Silva Gomes, Marcos da; Nunes, Lidiane Cristina; Guerra, Marcelo Braga Bueno [NAPTISA Research Support Center “Technology and Innovation for a Sustainable Agriculture”, Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture, University of São Paulo, Av. Centenário 303, 13416-000 Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Krug, Francisco José, E-mail: fjkrug@cena.usp.br [NAPTISA Research Support Center “Technology and Innovation for a Sustainable Agriculture”, Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture, University of São Paulo, Av. Centenário 303, 13416-000 Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2015-03-01

    Pellets of sieved plant materials (150, 106, 75, 53 and 20 μm sieve apertures) were prepared and analyzed by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), and the results for Ca, K, Mg, P, B and Mn were discussed as a function of particle size distribution. This parameter is of key importance for appropriate test sample presentation in the form of pressed pellets for quantitative analysis by LIBS. Experiments were carried out with a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm, and a spectrometer with Echelle optics and an intensified charge-coupled device. Results indicated that smaller particles yielded up to 50% emission signal intensities' enhancement and attained better measurements' precision (site-to-site variation). Moreover, matrix effects were reduced by analyzing pellets prepared from < 75 μm sieved fractions (mean particle size = 32 μm; d{sub 95} = 102 μm) and by using a 50 J cm{sup −2} laser fluence (220 mJ per pulse; 750 μm laser spot size). The preparation of pellets from laboratory samples with monomodal particle size distributions, where most particles were smaller than 100 μm, was decisive for improving analyte micro-homogeneity within the test samples and for attaining lower coefficients of variation of measurements, typically lower than 10% (n = 10 sites per pellet; 20 laser pulses per site). - Highlights: • First systematic study on the effects of particle size distribution. • Most appropriate particle sizes for pellet preparation depend on laser fluence. • Data can be used for sampling strategies aiming at LIBS analysis of plant materials.

  18. The analysis of influence of field of co-rotation on motion of submicronic particles in the Earth's plasmasphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakovlev, A. B.

    2018-05-01

    The analysis of the motion of micro-particles with radii of several dozens of nanometers in the Earth's plasmasphere has confirmed that the earlier proved statement about conservation of the form for an orbit of a particle with constant electric charge which moves in superposition of the central gravitational field and the field of a magnetic dipole is true also for the case of a quasi-equilibrium electric charge. For a wide range of altitudes and the sizes of micro-particles other forces that act on the charged grain make considerably smaller impact on its motion. On the basis of numerical simulation it has been shown that for motion in an equatorial plane the field of co-rotation leads to very small monotonous growth of the semimajor axis and an orbit eccentricity, and for not-equatorial orbits there are fluctuations of the semimajor axis, an eccentricity and an inclination of an orbit with the period that considerably exceeds the period of orbital motion. In this paper, on the basis of the analysis of the canonical equations of the motion of a micro-particle in superposition of the central gravitational field and the field of co-rotation the explanation of the time dependences obtained numerically for the basic characteristics of an orbit of a micro-particle is proposed.

  19. Comparison of three different C18 HPLC columns with different particle sizes for the optimization of aflatoxins analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, A; Magan, N

    2012-03-15

    In this work we compared the performance of chromatography columns with particles of 5 and 3 μm with the new 2.7 μm solid core particles for the analysis of aflatoxins B1, G1, B2, and G2 using trifluoroacetic acid pre-column derivatization. Three different columns have been used and chromatographic parameters as retention time, resolution, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ) were obtained from all of them and compared. The results show that comparing with the traditional columns, shorter columns (100 mm × 4.6 mm) with the new solid core particles are suitable for the analysis of these mycotoxins and allowed the reduction of the analysis time by 45.5% and 33.3% with respect to columns with particle size 5 μm (150 mm × 4.6 mm) and 3 μm (150 mm × 4.6 mm) respectively, without any detrimental effect on performance. This leads to the reduction of the analysis costs by saving on organic solvents and increasing the total number of analyses per day. The capability of these columns for analyzing samples, in different culture media, was assessed by analyzing different samples from: yeasts extract sucrose medium, corn meal agar medium and fresh hazelnut media. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Observation and Analysis of Particle Nucleation at a Forest Site in Southeastern US

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examines the characteristics of new particle formation at a forest site in the Southeast U.S. Particle size distributions above a Loblolly pine plantation were measured between November, 2005 and September, 2007 and analyzed by event type and frequency as well as relat...

  1. QUANTITATIVE FLOW-ANALYSIS AROUND AQUATIC ANIMALS USING LASER SHEET PARTICLE IMAGE VELOCIMETRY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    STAMHUIS, EJ; VIDELER, JJ

    Two alternative particle image velocimetry (PIV) methods have been developed, applying laser light sheet illumination of particle-seeded flows around marine organisms, Successive video images, recorded perpendicular to a light sheet parallel to the main stream, were digitized and processed to map

  2. Thermodynamics of swelling of latex particles with two monomers: a sensitivity analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maxwell, I.A.; Noel, E.F.J.; Schoonbrood, H.A.S.; German, A.L.

    1993-01-01

    A sensitivity anal. is performed to det. at what conditions the simplified model for swelling of latex particles by two monomers or two solvents is valid. This model proposes that, inter alia, the fractions of two monomers in the latex particles and in the monomer droplets are equal. The model is a

  3. Analysis of the Murine Immune Response to Pulmonary Delivery of Precisely Fabricated Nano- and Microscale Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Reid A.; Shen, Tammy; Allen, Irving C.; Hasan, Warefta; DeSimone, Joseph M.; Ting, Jenny P. Y.

    2013-01-01

    Nanomedicine has the potential to transform clinical care in the 21st century. However, a precise understanding of how nanomaterial design parameters such as size, shape and composition affect the mammalian immune system is a prerequisite for the realization of nanomedicine's translational promise. Herein, we make use of the recently developed Particle Replication in Non-wetting Template (PRINT) fabrication process to precisely fabricate particles across and the nano- and micro-scale with defined shapes and compositions to address the role of particle design parameters on the murine innate immune response in both in vitro and in vivo settings. We find that particles composed of either the biodegradable polymer poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) or the biocompatible polymer polyethylene glycol (PEG) do not cause release of pro-inflammatory cytokines nor inflammasome activation in bone marrow-derived macrophages. When instilled into the lungs of mice, particle composition and size can augment the number and type of innate immune cells recruited to the lungs without triggering inflammatory responses as assayed by cytokine release and histopathology. Smaller particles (80×320 nm) are more readily taken up in vivo by monocytes and macrophages than larger particles (6 µm diameter), yet particles of all tested sizes remained in the lungs for up to 7 days without clearance or triggering of host immunity. These results suggest rational design of nanoparticle physical parameters can be used for sustained and localized delivery of therapeutics to the lungs. PMID:23593509

  4. An analysis of multiple particle settling for LMR backup shutdown systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brock, R.W.

    1992-05-01

    Backup shutdown systems proposed for future LMRs may employ discreet absorber particles to provide the negative reactivity insertion. When actuated, these systems release a dense packing of particles from an out-of-core region to settle into an in-core region. The multiple particle settling behavior is analyzed by the method of continuity waves. This method provides predictions of the dynamic response of the system including the average particle velocity and volume fraction of particles vs. time. Although hindered settling problems have been previously analyzed using continuity wave theory, this application represents an extension of the theory to conditions of unrestrained settling. Typical cases are analyzed and numerical results are calculated based on a semi-empirical drift-flux model. For 1/4-inch diameter boron-carbide particles in hot liquid sodium, the unrestrained settling problem assumes a steady-state solution when the average volume fraction of particles is 0.295 and the average particle velocity is 26.0 cm/s

  5. Mass analysis of charged aerosol particles in NLC and PMSE during the ECOMA/MASS campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Robertson

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available MASS (Mesospheric Aerosol Sampling Spectrometer is a multichannel mass spectrometer for charged aerosol particles, which was flown from the Andøya Rocket Range, Norway, through NLC and PMSE on 3 August 2007 and through PMSE on 6 August 2007. The eight-channel analyzers provided for the first time simultaneous measurements of the charge density residing on aerosol particles in four mass ranges, corresponding to ice particles with radii <0.5 nm (including ions, 0.5–1 nm, 1–2 nm, and >3 nm (approximately. Positive and negative particles were recorded on separate channels. Faraday rotation measurements provided electron density and a means of checking charge density measurements made by the spectrometer. Additional complementary measurements were made by rocket-borne dust impact detectors, electric field booms, a photometer and ground-based radar and lidar. The MASS data from the first flight showed negative charge number densities of 1500–3000 cm−3 for particles with radii >3 nm from 83–88 km approximately coincident with PMSE observed by the ALWIN radar and NLC observed by the ALOMAR lidar. For particles in the 1–2 nm range, number densities of positive and negative charge were similar in magnitude (~2000 cm−3 and for smaller particles, 0.5–1 nm in radius, positive charge was dominant. The occurrence of positive charge on the aerosol particles of the smallest size and predominately negative charge on the particles of largest size suggests that nucleation occurs on positive condensation nuclei and is followed by collection of negative charge during subsequent growth to larger size. Faraday rotation measurements show a bite-out in electron density that increases the time for positive aerosol particles to be neutralized and charged negatively. The larger particles (>3 nm are observed throughout the NLC region, 83–88 km, and the smaller particles are observed primarily at the high end of the range, 86–88 km

  6. Mass analysis of charged aerosol particles in NLC and PMSE during the ECOMA/MASS campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Robertson

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available MASS (Mesospheric Aerosol Sampling Spectrometer is a multichannel mass spectrometer for charged aerosol particles, which was flown from the Andøya Rocket Range, Norway, through NLC and PMSE on 3 August 2007 and through PMSE on 6 August 2007. The eight-channel analyzers provided for the first time simultaneous measurements of the charge density residing on aerosol particles in four mass ranges, corresponding to ice particles with radii <0.5 nm (including ions, 0.5–1 nm, 1–2 nm, and >3 nm (approximately. Positive and negative particles were recorded on separate channels. Faraday rotation measurements provided electron density and a means of checking charge density measurements made by the spectrometer. Additional complementary measurements were made by rocket-borne dust impact detectors, electric field booms, a photometer and ground-based radar and lidar. The MASS data from the first flight showed negative charge number densities of 1500–3000 cm−3 for particles with radii >3 nm from 83–88 km approximately coincident with PMSE observed by the ALWIN radar and NLC observed by the ALOMAR lidar. For particles in the 1–2 nm range, number densities of positive and negative charge were similar in magnitude (~2000 cm−3 and for smaller particles, 0.5–1 nm in radius, positive charge was dominant. The occurrence of positive charge on the aerosol particles of the smallest size and predominately negative charge on the particles of largest size suggests that nucleation occurs on positive condensation nuclei and is followed by collection of negative charge during subsequent growth to larger size. Faraday rotation measurements show a bite-out in electron density that increases the time for positive aerosol particles to be neutralized and charged negatively. The larger particles (>3 nm are observed throughout the NLC region, 83–88 km, and the smaller particles are observed primarily at the high end of the range, 86–88 km. The second flight into

  7. Forensic analysis of tempered sheet glass by particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jisonna, L.J. [Department of Chemistry and Department of Physics, Hope College, Holland, MI 49422-9000 (United States); DeYoung, P.A., E-mail: deyoung@hope.ed [Department of Chemistry and Department of Physics, Hope College, Holland, MI 49422-9000 (United States); Ferens, J.; Hall, C.; Lunderberg, J.M.; Mears, P. [Department of Chemistry and Department of Physics, Hope College, Holland, MI 49422-9000 (United States); Padilla, D. [Department of Physics, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92182-1233 (United States); Peaslee, G.F. [Department of Chemistry and Department of Physics, Hope College, Holland, MI 49422-9000 (United States); Sampson, R. [Department of Physics, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States)

    2011-05-15

    Highlights: {yields} PIXE was found to give the same results for trace elements in glass as ICP. {yields} PIXE can non-destructively determine trace element concentrations in auto glass. {yields} Measured Ca, Fe, Ti, Mn, and Sr in auto glass with PIXE. -- Abstract: The elemental concentrations of five trace elements in tempered sheet glass fragments were determined using particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) spectrometry. The trace element concentrations for calcium, iron, manganese, strontium, and titanium are compared to those obtained by inductively-coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) following complete digestion by hydrofluoric acid. For these five elements, the absolute concentrations obtained by both methods are shown to agree well over a wide range of concentrations. The limits of detection for trace elements are typically lower for the ICP-AES method. However, we show that the concentrations of these five elements can be accurately measured by the PIXE method. Since PIXE is an entirely non-destructive method, there exists a niche for this technique to be used as a complement to the more sensitive ICP-AES technique in the forensic analysis of sheet glass.

  8. [Research on engine remaining useful life prediction based on oil spectrum analysis and particle filtering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lei; Jia, Yun-xian; Cai, Li-ying; Lin, Guo-yu; Zhao, Jin-song

    2013-09-01

    The spectrometric oil analysis(SOA) is an important technique for machine state monitoring, fault diagnosis and prognosis, and SOA based remaining useful life(RUL) prediction has an advantage of finding out the optimal maintenance strategy for machine system. Because the complexity of machine system, its health state degradation process can't be simply characterized by linear model, while particle filtering(PF) possesses obvious advantages over traditional Kalman filtering for dealing nonlinear and non-Gaussian system, the PF approach was applied to state forecasting by SOA, and the RUL prediction technique based on SOA and PF algorithm is proposed. In the prediction model, according to the estimating result of system's posterior probability, its prior probability distribution is realized, and the multi-step ahead prediction model based on PF algorithm is established. Finally, the practical SOA data of some engine was analyzed and forecasted by the above method, and the forecasting result was compared with that of traditional Kalman filtering method. The result fully shows the superiority and effectivity of the

  9. The determination of nitrogen in zirconium by charged-particle activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strijckmans, K.; Mortier, R.; Vandecasteele, C.; Hoste, J.

    1982-01-01

    The determination of nitrogen in zirconium by charged-particle activation analysis is described. The 14 N(α, αn) 13 N and the 14 N(p, α) 11 C reactions were used. The 13 N activity was separated from matrix activity as ammonia by steam-distillation after dissolution of the sample in dilute hydrofluoric acid.The 11 C activity was separated as carbon dioxide by dissolution of the sample in a mixture of concentrated sulphuric acid, sodium fluoride and potassium periodate, followed by oxidation of the evolved gases with a copper oxide-iron oxide-kaolin mixture and trapping of the carbon dioxide in dilute sodium hydroxide solution. The chemical yield of both separations was investigated. The nuclear interference of boron can be neglected, in view of the low boron content. Alpha- and protonactivation yielded the following results for BCR reference materials (alpha-activation results first): CRM 21: 24.6 +- 3.3 and 25.9 +- 0.8 μg/g (certified value: 26.4 +- 2.5 μg/g);CRM 56: 12.0 +- 1.1 and 10.5 +- 0.3 μg/g (certified value: 11.7 +- 1.7 μg/g); CRM 57: 11.2 +- 0.3 μg/g (alpha/activation) (certified value: 11.9 +- 1.8 μg/g). (Author)

  10. Determination of nitrogen in zirconium by charged-particle activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strijckmans, K; Mortier, R; Vandecasteele, C; Hoste, J [Ghent Rijksuniversiteit (Belgium)

    1982-01-01

    The determination of nitrogen in zirconium by charged-particle activation analysis is described. The /sup 14/N(..cap alpha.., ..cap alpha..n)/sup 13/N and the /sup 14/N(p, ..cap alpha..)/sup 11/C reactions were used. The /sup 13/N activity was separated from matrix activity as ammonia by steam-distillation after dissolution of the sample in dilute hydrofluoric acid.The /sup 11/C activity was separated as carbon dioxide by dissolution of the sample in a mixture of concentrated sulphuric acid, sodium fluoride and potassium periodate, followed by oxidation of the evolved gases with a copper oxide-iron oxide-kaolin mixture and trapping of the carbon dioxide in dilute sodium hydroxide solution. The chemical yield of both separations was investigated. The nuclear interference of boron can be neglected, in view of the low boron content. Alpha- and protonactivation yielded the following results for BCR reference materials (alpha-activation results first): CRM 21: 24.6 +- 3.3 and 25.9 +- 0.8 ..mu..g/g (certified value: 26.4 +- 2.5 ..mu..g/g);CRM 56: 12.0 +- 1.1 and 10.5 +- 0.3 ..mu..g/g (certified value: 11.7 +- 1.7 ..mu..g/g); CRM 57: 11.2 +- 0.3 ..mu..g/g (alpha/activation) (certified value: 11.9 +- 1.8 ..mu..g/g).

  11. The Orion Exploration Flight Test Post Flight Solid Particle Flight Environment Inspection and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joshua E.

    2016-01-01

    Orbital debris in the millimeter size range can pose a hazard to current and planned spacecraft due to the high relative impact speeds in Earth orbit. Fortunately, orbital debris has a relatively short life at lower altitudes due to atmospheric effects; however, at higher altitudes orbital debris can survive much longer and has resulted in a band of high flux around 700 to 1,500 km above the surface of the Earth. While large orbital debris objects are tracked via ground based observation, little information can be gathered about small particles except by returned surfaces, which until the Orion Exploration Flight Test number one (EFT-1), has only been possible for lower altitudes (400 to 500 km). The EFT-1 crew module backshell, which used a porous, ceramic tile system with surface coatings, has been inspected post-flight for potential micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) damage. This paper describes the pre- and post-flight activities of inspection, identification and analysis of six candidate MMOD impact craters from the EFT-1 mission.

  12. Analysis format and evaluation methods for effluent particle sampling systems in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwendiman, L.C.; Glissmeyer, J.A.

    1976-06-01

    Airborne effluent sampling systems for nuclear facilities are frequently designed, installed, and operated without a systematic approach which discloses and takes into account all the circumstances and conditions which would affect the validity and adequacy of the sample. Without a comprehensive check list or something similar, the designer of the system may not be given the important information needed to provide a good design. In like manner, an already operating system may be better appraised. Furthermore, the discipline of a more formal approach may compel the one who will use the system to make sure he knows what he wants and can thus give the designer the needed information. An important consideration is the criteria to be applied to the samples to be taken. This analysis format consists of a listing of questions and statements calling forth the necessary information required to analyze a sampling system. With this information developed, one can proceed with an evaluation, the methodology of which is also discussed in the paper. Errors in probe placement, failure to sample at the proper rate, delivery line losses, and others are evaluated using mathematical models and empirically derived relationships. Experimental methods are also described for demonstrating that quality sampling will be achieved. The experiments include using a temporary, simple, but optimal sample collection system to evaluate the more complex systems. The use of tracer particles injected in the stream is also discussed. The samples obtained with the existing system are compared with those obtained by the temporary, optimal system

  13. Boron analysis for neutron capture therapy using particle-induced gamma-ray emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, Kei; Yamamoto, Yohei; Okamoto, Emiko; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Yoshida, Fumiyo; Matsumura, Akira; Yamada, Naoto; Kitamura, Akane; Koka, Masashi; Satoh, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    The neutron source of BNCT is currently changing from reactor to accelerator, but peripheral facilities such as a dose-planning system and blood boron analysis have still not been established. To evaluate the potential application of particle-induced gamma-ray emission (PIGE) for boron measurement in clinical boron neutron capture therapy, boronophenylalanine dissolved within a cell culture medium was measured using PIGE. PIGE detected 18 μgB/mL f-BPA in the culture medium, and all measurements of any given sample were taken within 20 min. Two hours of f-BPA exposure was required to create a boron distribution image. However, even though boron remained in the cells, the boron on the cell membrane could not be distinguished from the boron in the cytoplasm. - Highlights: • PIGE was evaluated for measuring blood boron concentration during clinical BNCT. • PIGE detected 18 μgB/mL f-BPA in culture medium. • All measurements of any given sample were taken within 20 min. • Two hours of f-BPA exposure is required to create boron distribution image by PIGE. • Boron on the cell membrane could not be distinguished from boron in the cytoplasm.

  14. Parametric analysis of the thermodynamic properties for a medium with strong interaction between particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubovitskii, V.A.; Pavlov, G.A.; Krasnikov, Yu.G.

    1996-01-01

    Thermodynamic analysis of media with strong interparticle (Coulomb) interaction is presented. A method for constructing isotherms is proposed for a medium described by a closed multicomponent thermodynamic model. The method is based on choosing an appropriate nondegenerate frame of reference in the extended space of thermodynamic variables and provides efficient thermodynamic calculations in a wide range of parameters, for an investigation of phase transitions of the first kind, and for determining both the number of phases and coexistence curves. A number of approximate thermodynamic models of hydrogen plasma are discussed. The approximation corresponding to the n5/2 law, in which the effects of particle attraction and repulsion are taken into account qualitatively, is studied. This approximation allows studies of thermodynamic properties of a substance for a wide range of parameters. In this approximation, for hydrogen at a constant temperature, various properties of the degree of ionization are revealed. In addition, the parameters of the second critical point are found under conditions corresponding to the Jovian interior

  15. X-ray diffraction analysis of particles ingested by filter-feeding animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merritt, R.W.; Gersabeck, E.F.; Ross, D.H.; Mortland, M.M.

    1978-01-01

    The size and relative abundance of mineral particles ingested by two filter-feeding aquatic insects, Simulium vittatum Zett. (Diptera: Simuliidae) and Aedes triseriatus (Say) (Diptera: Culicidae) were determined by X-ray diffraction methods. Different minerals representing different particle size categories were supplied larval black flies and mosquitoes. Since minerals possess characteristic diffraction properties, their presence and relative abundance can be determined. Early instars of the black fly ingested and retained particles of three different size ranges: however, more coarse particles relative to fine particles were retained by smaller instars as compared with the larger instars. With mosquito larvae, there was a proportional increase in coarser material ingested with increasing age and size of larvae. Other applications of this method are discussed. (Auth.)

  16. Advancements in Particle Analysis Procedures and their Application to the Characterization of Reference Materials for Safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Admon, U.; Chinea-Cano, E.; Dzigal, N.; Vogt, K.S.; Halevy, I.; Boblil, E.; Elkayam, T.; Weiss, A.

    2015-01-01

    Two approaches may be employed in the preparation of Reference Materials (RMs) for use in micro analytical techniques: placement of characterized micro artefacts in bulk materials and characterization of certain classes of individual particles in existing materials. In November 2013, a collaborative project was launched with the aim of adding information about such individual particles in existing RMs. The motivation behind this project was to investigate and characterize micro-artefacts present in certain commercially available RM, making them available and fit for use in safeguards and several other nuclear applications. The implementation and development of new techniques for particle characterization in bulk materials are also part of this project. The strategy for that approach includes the following steps: 1. Sample preparation: Dispersion of particles on stubs and planchets by an in-house shock-wave device. 2. Particle-of-Interest identification and characterization: (a) Fission Track (FT) route: Mosaic imaging of detectors containing FT stars; Applying automatic pattern recognition and localization of FT stars in detectors; Using Laser Micro-Dissection (LMD) for retrieval of individual particles; Preparation of sampled particles for SEM observation and other analytical techniques. (b) Alpha Track (αT) route: Direct particle identification and localization using position sensitive detectors (instrumental auto-radiography). (c) The advanced SEM route: Integration of analytical SEM techniques for characterization of individual particles of interest: EDS, mass spectrometry, FIB, micro-Raman. Preliminary results of the ongoing efforts will be reported. Utilization of these hyphenated techniques and instruments represents an innovative approach to particle characterization for Safeguards applications. (author)

  17. EUCAARI ion spectrometer measurements at 12 European sites – analysis of new particle formation events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. E. Manninen

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available We present comprehensive results on continuous atmospheric cluster and particle measurements in the size range ~1–42 nm within the European Integrated project on Aerosol Cloud Climate and Air Quality interactions (EUCAARI project. We focused on characterizing the spatial and temporal variation of new particle formation events and relevant particle formation parameters across Europe. Different types of air ion and cluster mobility spectrometers were deployed at 12 field sites across Europe from March 2008 to May 2009. The measurements were conducted in a wide variety of environments, including coastal and continental locations as well as sites at different altitudes (both in the boundary layer and the free troposphere. New particle formation events were detected at all of the 12 field sites during the year-long measurement period. From the data, nucleation and growth rates of newly formed particles were determined for each environment. In a case of parallel ion and neutral cluster measurements, we could also estimate the relative contribution of ion-induced and neutral nucleation to the total particle formation. The formation rates of charged particles at 2 nm accounted for 1–30% of the corresponding total particle formation rates. As a significant new result, we found out that the total particle formation rate varied much more between the different sites than the formation rate of charged particles. This work presents, so far, the most comprehensive effort to experimentally characterize nucleation and growth of atmospheric molecular clusters and nanoparticles at ground-based observation sites on a continental scale.

  18. Spherical silica particles decorated with graphene oxide nanosheets as a new sorbent in inorganic trace analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitko, Rafal; Zawisza, Beata; Talik, Ewa; Janik, Paulina; Osoba, Grzegorz; Feist, Barbara; Malicka, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Graphene oxide (GO) covalently bonded to the spherical silica. • Very stable sorbent for SPE of metal ions. • Excellent contact with solution due to the softness and flexibility of GO nanosheets. • Several adsorption–elution cycles without any loss of adsorptive properties. • High adsorption capacity due to the wrinkled structure of GO nanosheets. - Abstract: Graphene oxide (GO) is a novel material with excellent adsorptive properties. However, the very small particles of GO can cause serious problems is solid-phase extraction (SPE) such as the high pressure in SPE system and the adsorbent loss through pores of frit. These problems can be overcome by covalently binding GO nanosheets to a support. In this paper, GO was covalently bonded to spherical silica by coupling the amino groups of spherical aminosilica and the carboxyl groups of GO (GO@SiO 2 ). The successful immobilization of GO nanosheets on the aminosilica was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The spherical particle covered by GO with crumpled silk wave-like carbon sheets are an ideal sorbent for SPE of metal ions. The wrinkled structure of the coating results in large surface area and a high extractive capacity. The adsorption bath experiment shows that Cu(II) and Pb(II) can be quantitatively adsorbed at pH 5.5 with maximum adsorption capacity of 6.0 and 13.6 mg g −1 , respectively. Such features of GO nanosheets as softness and flexibility allow achieving excellent contact with analyzed solution in flow-rate conditions. In consequence, the metal ions can be quantitatively preconcentrated from high volume of aqueous samples with excellent flow-rate. SPE column is very stable and several adsorption–elution cycles can be performed without any loss of adsorptive properties. The GO@SiO 2 was used for analysis of various water samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry with excellent enrichment factors (200–250) and detection

  19. Spherical silica particles decorated with graphene oxide nanosheets as a new sorbent in inorganic trace analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sitko, Rafal, E-mail: rafal.sitko@us.edu.pl [University of Silesia, Institute of Chemistry, ul. Szkolna 9, 40-006 Katowice (Poland); Zawisza, Beata [University of Silesia, Institute of Chemistry, ul. Szkolna 9, 40-006 Katowice (Poland); Talik, Ewa [University of Silesia, Institute of Physics, ul. Uniwersytecka 4, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Janik, Paulina; Osoba, Grzegorz; Feist, Barbara; Malicka, Ewa [University of Silesia, Institute of Chemistry, ul. Szkolna 9, 40-006 Katowice (Poland)

    2014-06-27

    Highlights: • Graphene oxide (GO) covalently bonded to the spherical silica. • Very stable sorbent for SPE of metal ions. • Excellent contact with solution due to the softness and flexibility of GO nanosheets. • Several adsorption–elution cycles without any loss of adsorptive properties. • High adsorption capacity due to the wrinkled structure of GO nanosheets. - Abstract: Graphene oxide (GO) is a novel material with excellent adsorptive properties. However, the very small particles of GO can cause serious problems is solid-phase extraction (SPE) such as the high pressure in SPE system and the adsorbent loss through pores of frit. These problems can be overcome by covalently binding GO nanosheets to a support. In this paper, GO was covalently bonded to spherical silica by coupling the amino groups of spherical aminosilica and the carboxyl groups of GO (GO@SiO{sub 2}). The successful immobilization of GO nanosheets on the aminosilica was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The spherical particle covered by GO with crumpled silk wave-like carbon sheets are an ideal sorbent for SPE of metal ions. The wrinkled structure of the coating results in large surface area and a high extractive capacity. The adsorption bath experiment shows that Cu(II) and Pb(II) can be quantitatively adsorbed at pH 5.5 with maximum adsorption capacity of 6.0 and 13.6 mg g{sup −1}, respectively. Such features of GO nanosheets as softness and flexibility allow achieving excellent contact with analyzed solution in flow-rate conditions. In consequence, the metal ions can be quantitatively preconcentrated from high volume of aqueous samples with excellent flow-rate. SPE column is very stable and several adsorption–elution cycles can be performed without any loss of adsorptive properties. The GO@SiO{sub 2} was used for analysis of various water samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry with excellent enrichment factors (200–250) and

  20. Analysis of Hydrodynamic Mechanism on Particles Focusing in Micro-Channel Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qikun Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the hydrodynamic mechanism of moving particles in laminar micro-channel flows was numerically investigated. A hydrodynamic criterion was proposed to determine whether particles in channel flows can form a focusing pattern or not. A simple formula was derived to demonstrate how the focusing position varies with Reynolds number and particle size. Based on this proposed criterion, a possible hydrodynamic mechanism was discussed as to why the particles would not be focused if their sizes were too small or the channel Reynolds number was too low. The Re-λ curve (Re, λ respectively represents the channel-based Reynolds number and the particle’s diameter scaled by the channel was obtained using the data fitting with a least square method so as to obtain a parameter range of the focusing pattern. In addition, the importance of the particle rotation to the numerical modeling for the focusing of particles was discussed in view of the hydrodynamics. This research is expected to deepen the understanding of the particle transport phenomena in bounded flow, either in micro or macro fluidic scope.

  1. Computational analysis of sedimentation of two particles in a narrow channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidun, Cyrus K.; Ding, Ejiang

    1998-11-01

    The motion and interaction of two spherical bodies of diameter d in a narrow channel (width 4d) is simulated by Lattice-Boltzmann method at Reynolds numbers between 0 and 10. The initial positions of the particles are midway between the centerline of the channel and the side wall while one particle is 2d above the other. At low Reynolds numbers, the particles oscillate around the centerline of the channel while they approach each other, and eventually settle in contact. At higher Reynolds numbers, the trailing particle approaches the leading one; jointly, the particles enter into a damping oscillation without contacting each other. This motion has been described as drafting, kissing and tumbling (Hu, Joseph, and Crochet, Theoret. Comput. Fluid Dyn. 3 1992; Feng, Hu, and Joseph, J. Fluid Mech. 261 1994). In the phase space, constructed by the distances between each particle and the side wall, the attractor is a fixed point, representing a steady state. At even higher Reynolds number the dynamics changes into a stable limit cycle. The amplitude of the limit cycle increases as the Reynolds number increases in value. As Reynolds number increases further the motion becomes more complex. The trajectory in the phase space suggests the existence of a strange attractor. The dynamics of two particle sedimentation at this range of Reynolds number will be presented.

  2. Numerical Analysis of the Effect of Particle Shape and Adhesion on the Segregation of Powder Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alizadeh Behjani Mohammadreza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Segregation of granules is an undesired phenomenon in which particles in a mixture separate from each other based on the differences in their physical and chemical properties. It is, therefore, crucial to control the homogeneity of the system by applying appropriate techniques. This requires a fundamental understanding of the underlying mechanisms. In this study, the effect of particle shape and cohesion has been analysed. As a model system prone to segregation, a ternary mixture of particles representing the common ingredients of home washing powders, namely, spray dried detergent powders, tetraacetylethylenediamine, and enzyme placebo (as the minor ingredient during heap formation is modelled numerically by the Discrete Element Method (DEM with an aim to investigate the effect of cohesion/adhesion of the minor components on segregation quality. Non-spherical particle shapes are created in DEM using the clumped-sphere method based on their X-ray tomograms. Experimentally, inter particle adhesion is generated by coating the minor ingredient (enzyme placebo with Polyethylene Glycol 400 (PEG 400. The JKR theory is used to model the cohesion/adhesion of coated enzyme placebo particles in the simulation. Tests are carried out experimentally and simulated numerically by mixing the placebo particles (uncoated and coated with the other ingredients and pouring them in a test box. The simulation and experimental results are compared qualitatively and quantitatively. It is found that coating the minor ingredient in the mixture reduces segregation significantly while the change in flowability of the system is negligible.

  3. Physical and chemical analysis of interaction between oxide fuel and pyrocarbon coating of coated particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyutikov, R.A.; Kromov, Yu.F.; Chernikov, A.S.

    1991-01-01

    In terms of the model proposed the equilibrium pressure of gases (CO, Kr, Xe) in pyrocarbon-coated uranium dioxide fuel particles has been calculated, as function of the initial composition of the fuel (O/U), the design features of the coated particles, the fuel temperature, and the burnup. The possibility of reducing gas pressure in the particles by alloying the kernels with uranium carbide, and increasing the kernel capacity for retention of solid fission products by alloying the uranium oxide with aluminum-silicates, has been investigated. (author)

  4. STUDY ON SIMULATION METHOD OF AVALANCHE : FLOW ANALYSIS OF AVALANCHE USING PARTICLE METHOD

    OpenAIRE

    塩澤, 孝哉

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, modeling for the simulation of the avalanche by a particle method is discussed. There are two kinds of the snow avalanches, one is the surface avalanche which shows a smoke-like flow, and another is the total-layer avalanche which shows a flow like Bingham fluid. In the simulation of the surface avalanche, the particle method in consideration of a rotation resistance model is used. The particle method by Bingham fluid is used in the simulation of the total-layer avalanche. At t...

  5. Ion beam analysis techniques for the elemental fingerprinting of fine particle smoke from vegetation burning in NSW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, D. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    Accelerator based ion beam analysis (IBA) techniques, including PIXE, PIGME, RBS and PESA, have been used to analyse elemental compositions of airborne particles covering a 60,000 square kilometres area of Wollongong, Sydney and Newcastle. These IBA techniques provide elemental concentrations for over 20 different elements from hydrogen to lead, they include H, C, N, O, F, Na, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Ni, Zn, Br and Pb. The four ion beam techniques are performed simultaneously on the 3MV Van de Graaff accelerator at ANSTO and have been described in detail elsewhere. They are sufficiently sensitive to analyse for many of these elements to levels around 10 ng/m{sup 3} or less in about five minutes of accelerator running time per filter. This is more than adequate for aerosol analyses as most filters contain around 150 {mu}g/cm{sup 2} of material which corresponds to about 10{mu}g/m{sup 3} of fine particles in the atmosphere. For this work fine particles are those with diameters less than 2.5{mu}m. Fine particle data has been collected twice a week and analysed for each of the above elements by ANSTO since 1991 at more than 25 different sites throughout NSW. This large dataset set allows us to not only determine the composition of fine particles and to look for signature elements for particular sources but also to use multivariate statistics to define elemental source fingerprints and then to determine the percentage contributions of these fingerprints to the total fine particle mass in the atmosphere. This paper describes the application of these techniques to the study of domestic wood fires and vegetation burning in NSW over a two year period from 1992-93. It also presents, for the first time, fine particle data related to the January 1994 bushfires in NSW. 6 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  6. Ion beam analysis techniques for the elemental fingerprinting of fine particle smoke from vegetation burning in NSW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, D [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1997-12-31

    Accelerator based ion beam analysis (IBA) techniques, including PIXE, PIGME, RBS and PESA, have been used to analyse elemental compositions of airborne particles covering a 60,000 square kilometres area of Wollongong, Sydney and Newcastle. These IBA techniques provide elemental concentrations for over 20 different elements from hydrogen to lead, they include H, C, N, O, F, Na, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Ni, Zn, Br and Pb. The four ion beam techniques are performed simultaneously on the 3MV Van de Graaff accelerator at ANSTO and have been described in detail elsewhere. They are sufficiently sensitive to analyse for many of these elements to levels around 10 ng/m{sup 3} or less in about five minutes of accelerator running time per filter. This is more than adequate for aerosol analyses as most filters contain around 150 {mu}g/cm{sup 2} of material which corresponds to about 10{mu}g/m{sup 3} of fine particles in the atmosphere. For this work fine particles are those with diameters less than 2.5{mu}m. Fine particle data has been collected twice a week and analysed for each of the above elements by ANSTO since 1991 at more than 25 different sites throughout NSW. This large dataset set allows us to not only determine the composition of fine particles and to look for signature elements for particular sources but also to use multivariate statistics to define elemental source fingerprints and then to determine the percentage contributions of these fingerprints to the total fine particle mass in the atmosphere. This paper describes the application of these techniques to the study of domestic wood fires and vegetation burning in NSW over a two year period from 1992-93. It also presents, for the first time, fine particle data related to the January 1994 bushfires in NSW. 6 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  7. Ion beam analysis techniques for the elemental fingerprinting of fine particle smoke from vegetation burning in NSW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, D.

    1996-01-01

    Accelerator based ion beam analysis (IBA) techniques, including PIXE, PIGME, RBS and PESA, have been used to analyse elemental compositions of airborne particles covering a 60,000 square kilometres area of Wollongong, Sydney and Newcastle. These IBA techniques provide elemental concentrations for over 20 different elements from hydrogen to lead, they include H, C, N, O, F, Na, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Ni, Zn, Br and Pb. The four ion beam techniques are performed simultaneously on the 3MV Van de Graaff accelerator at ANSTO and have been described in detail elsewhere. They are sufficiently sensitive to analyse for many of these elements to levels around 10 ng/m 3 or less in about five minutes of accelerator running time per filter. This is more than adequate for aerosol analyses as most filters contain around 150 μg/cm 2 of material which corresponds to about 10μg/m 3 of fine particles in the atmosphere. For this work fine particles are those with diameters less than 2.5μm. Fine particle data has been collected twice a week and analysed for each of the above elements by ANSTO since 1991 at more than 25 different sites throughout NSW. This large dataset set allows us to not only determine the composition of fine particles and to look for signature elements for particular sources but also to use multivariate statistics to define elemental source fingerprints and then to determine the percentage contributions of these fingerprints to the total fine particle mass in the atmosphere. This paper describes the application of these techniques to the study of domestic wood fires and vegetation burning in NSW over a two year period from 1992-93. It also presents, for the first time, fine particle data related to the January 1994 bushfires in NSW. 6 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs

  8. Tracking the pathway of diesel exhaust particles from the nose to the brain by X-ray florescence analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsui, Yasuto [Department of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nishigyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)], E-mail: y.matsui@health.env.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Sakai, Nobumitsu [Department of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nishigyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)], E-mail: sakai@health.env.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Tsuda, Akira [Molecular and Integrative Physiological Sciences, Harvard School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)], E-mail: atsuda@hsph.harvard.edu; Terada, Yasuko [JASRI, SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan)], E-mail: yterada@spring8.or.jp; Takaoka, Masaki [Department of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nishigyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)], E-mail: takaoka@epsehost.env.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Fujimaki, Hidekazu [Division of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan)], E-mail: fujimaki@nies.go.jp; Uchiyama, Iwao [Department of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nishigyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)], E-mail: uchiyama@health.env.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2009-08-15

    Studies have shown that exposure to nano-sized particles (< 50 nm) result in their translocation to the central nervous system through the olfactory nerve. Translocation commonly occurs via inhalation, ingestion and skin uptake. Little information is available on the specific pathway of cellular localization of nano-sized particles in the olfactory bulb. The nano-sized particles entrance into the postsynaptics cell is of particular interest because the mitral cell projects to the central nucleus of the amygdala and the piriform cortex. Therefore, our objective in this follow-up study has been to determine whether or not the mitral cells project nano-sized particles to the brain. Nano-sized particles in this study were generated using diesel exhaust. Lab mice were exposed for a period of 4 weeks. We employed synchrotron radiation (SPring-8, Japan) to determine the concentration levels of metal in the olfactory neuron pathway. Metal levels were assayed by mapping, using X-ray fluorescence analysis. The major metal components measured in the filter that collected the inhaled diesel exhaust particles were calcium, copper, iron, nickel and zinc. Our studies reveal an increase in the amount of nano-sized particles in the glomerular layer as well as in the neurons in the olfactory epithelium. Higher levels of nickel and iron were found in the olfactory epithelium's lamina propria mucosae in comparison to that in the control group. Higher levels of iron also were observed in the glomerular layer. Our studies do not clarify the specifics of metal adhesion and detachment. This remains to be one of the key issues requiring further clarification.

  9. Multiscale virtual particle based elastic network model (MVP-ENM) for normal mode analysis of large-sized biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Kelin

    2017-12-20

    In this paper, a multiscale virtual particle based elastic network model (MVP-ENM) is proposed for the normal mode analysis of large-sized biomolecules. The multiscale virtual particle (MVP) model is proposed for the discretization of biomolecular density data. With this model, large-sized biomolecular structures can be coarse-grained into virtual particles such that a balance between model accuracy and computational cost can be achieved. An elastic network is constructed by assuming "connections" between virtual particles. The connection is described by a special harmonic potential function, which considers the influence from both the mass distributions and distance relations of the virtual particles. Two independent models, i.e., the multiscale virtual particle based Gaussian network model (MVP-GNM) and the multiscale virtual particle based anisotropic network model (MVP-ANM), are proposed. It has been found that in the Debye-Waller factor (B-factor) prediction, the results from our MVP-GNM with a high resolution are as good as the ones from GNM. Even with low resolutions, our MVP-GNM can still capture the global behavior of the B-factor very well with mismatches predominantly from the regions with large B-factor values. Further, it has been demonstrated that the low-frequency eigenmodes from our MVP-ANM are highly consistent with the ones from ANM even with very low resolutions and a coarse grid. Finally, the great advantage of MVP-ANM model for large-sized biomolecules has been demonstrated by using two poliovirus virus structures. The paper ends with a conclusion.

  10. Individual particle analysis of coarse air suspended particulate material by synchrotron radiation X-ray micro fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Silvana; Melo Junior, Ariston; Vives, Ana Elisa S. de; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio F.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this work is evaluate the size of individual particles present in the air suspended particulate material collected in Campinas, Sao Paulo State, and analyze quantitatively the particles using the synchrotron radiation X-ray micro fluorescence (μ-SRXRF) associated with the fundamental parameter method to correct attenuation/absorption effects by the matrix. The particles analyzed have size between 50-10 μm and to perform the spatial distribution a white beam of synchrotron radiation condensed by a conical capillary (13 μm diameter) was used. For the quantitative analysis punctual measures in thin films standards in Mylar subtract were performed. The elements detected were Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ba and Pb. (author)

  11. Individual particle analysis of coarse air suspended particulate material by synchrotron radiation X-ray micro fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Silvana; Melo Junior, Ariston [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo. Dept. de Recursos Hidricos]. E-mail: silvana@fec.unicamp.br; Perez, Carlos Alberto [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron (LNLS), Campinas, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: perez@lnls.br; Vives, Ana Elisa S. de [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mail: aesvives@unimep.br; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio F. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear]. E-mail: virgilio@cena.usp.br

    2005-07-01

    The purpose of this work is evaluate the size of individual particles present in the air suspended particulate material collected in Campinas, Sao Paulo State, and analyze quantitatively the particles using the synchrotron radiation X-ray micro fluorescence ({mu}-SRXRF) associated with the fundamental parameter method to correct attenuation/absorption effects by the matrix. The particles analyzed have size between 50-10 {mu}m and to perform the spatial distribution a white beam of synchrotron radiation condensed by a conical capillary (13 {mu}m diameter) was used. For the quantitative analysis punctual measures in thin films standards in Mylar subtract were performed. The elements detected were Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ba and Pb. (author)

  12. Understanding the Effect of Particle Size and Processing on Almond Lipid Bioaccessibility through Microstructural Analysis: From Mastication to Faecal Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandalari, Giuseppina; Parker, Mary L.; Bisignano, Carlo; Raciti, Roberto; Baer, David J.; Wilde, Peter J.

    2018-01-01

    We have previously reported on the low lipid bioaccessibility from almond seeds during digestion in the upper gastrointestinal tract (GIT). In the present study, we quantified the lipid released during artificial mastication from four almond meals: natural raw almonds (NA), roasted almonds (RA), roasted diced almonds (DA) and almond butter from roasted almonds (AB). Lipid release after mastication (8.9% from NA, 11.8% from RA, 12.4% from DA and 6.2% from AB) was used to validate our theoretical mathematical model of lipid bioaccessibility. The total lipid potentially available for digestion in AB was 94.0%, which included the freely available lipid resulting from the initial sample processing and the further small amount of lipid released from the intact almond particles during mastication. Particle size distributions measured after mastication in NA, RA and DA showed most of the particles had a size of 1000 µm and above, whereas AB bolus mainly contained small particles (<850 µm). Microstructural analysis of faecal samples from volunteers consuming NA, RA, DA and AB confirmed that some lipid in NA, RA and DA remained encapsulated within the plant tissue throughout digestion, whereas almost complete digestion was observed in the AB sample. We conclude that the structure and particle size of the almond meals are the main factors in regulating lipid bioaccessibility in the gut. PMID:29443942

  13. Principle Component Analysis of two-particle correlations in PbPb and pPb collisions at CMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milosevic, Jovan, E-mail: Jovan.Milosevic@cern.ch

    2016-12-15

    A Principle Component Analysis (PCA) of two-particle azimuthal correlations as a function of transverse momentum (p{sub T}) is presented in PbPb collisions at 2.76 TeV and high-multiplicity pPb collisions at 5.02 TeV. The data were recorded using the CMS detector at the LHC. It was shown that factorization breaking of two-particle azimuthal correlations can be attributed to the effect of initial-state fluctuations. Using a PCA approach, Fourier coefficients of observed two-particle azimuthal correlations as a function of both particles' p{sub T} are characterized into leading and sub-leading mode terms. The leading modes are essentially equivalent to anisotropy harmonics (v{sub n}) previously extracted from two-particle correlation methods as a function of p{sub T}. The sub-leading modes represent the largest sources of factorization breaking. In the context of hydrodynamic models, they are a direct consequence of initial-state fluctuations. The results are presented over a wide range of centrality and event multiplicity. The results are connected to the measurement of p{sub T}-dependent flow factorization breaking.

  14. Principle Component Analysis of two-particle correlations in PbPb and pPb collisions at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2076725

    2015-01-01

    A Principle Component Analysis (PCA) of two-particle azimuthal correlations as a function of transverse momentum ($p_T$) is presented in PbPb collisions at 2.76 TeV and high-multiplicity pPb collisions at 5.02 TeV. The data were recorded using the CMS detector at the LHC. It was shown that factorization breaking of two-particle azimuthal correlations can be attributed to the effect of initial-state fluctuations. Using a PCA approach, Fourier coefficients of observed two-particle azimuthal correlations as a function of both particles $p_T$ are characterized into leading and sub-leading mode terms. The leading modes are essentially equivalent to anisotropy harmonics ($v_n$) previously extracted from two-particle correlation methods as a function of $p_T$. The sub-leading modes represent the largest sources of factorization breaking. In the context of hydrodynamic models, they are a direct consequence of initial-state fluctuations. The results are presented over a wide range of centrality and event multiplicity....

  15. Principal Component Analysis of two-particle azimuthal correlations in PbPb and pPb collisions at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    A Principle Component Analysis (PCA) of two-particle azimuthal correlations as a function of transverse momentum ($p_T$) is presented in PbPb collisions at 2.76 TeV and high-multiplicity pPb collisions at 5.02 TeV. The data were recorded using the CMS detector at the LHC. It has recently been shown that factorization breaking of two-particle azimuthal correlations can be attributed to the effect of initial-state fluctuations. Using a PCA approach, Fourier coefficients of observed two-particle azimuthal correlations as a function of both particles $p_T$ are characterized into leading and sub-leading mode terms. The leading modes are essentially equivalent to anisotropy harmonics ($v_n$) previously extracted from two-particle correlation methods as a function of $p_T$. The sub-leading modes represent the largest sources of factorization breaking. In the context of hydrodynamic models, they are a direct consequence of initial-state fluctuations, particularly providing new insights on the radial excitations of in...

  16. Classification and Processing Optimization of Barley Milk Production Using NIR Spectroscopy, Particle Size, and Total Dissolved Solids Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasenka Gajdoš Kljusurić

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Barley is a grain whose consumption has a significant nutritional benefit for human health as a very good source of dietary fibre, minerals, vitamins, and phenolic and phytic acids. Nowadays, it is more and more often used in the production of plant milk, which is used to replace cow milk in the diet by an increasing number of consumers. The aim of the study was to classify barley milk and determine the optimal processing conditions in barley milk production based on NIR spectra, particle size, and total dissolved solids analysis. Standard recipe for barley milk was used without added additives. Barley grain was ground and mixed in a blender for 15, 30, 45, and 60 seconds. The samples were filtered and particle size of the grains was determined by laser diffraction particle sizing. The plant milk was also analysed using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS, in the range from 904 to 1699 nm. Furthermore, conductivity of each sample was determined and microphotographs were taken in order to identify the structure of fat globules and particles in the barley milk. NIR spectra, particle size distribution, and conductivity results all point to 45 seconds as the optimal blending time, since further blending results in the saturation of the samples.

  17. Understanding the Effect of Particle Size and Processing on Almond Lipid Bioaccessibility through Microstructural Analysis: From Mastication to Faecal Collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Mandalari

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We have previously reported on the low lipid bioaccessibility from almond seeds during digestion in the upper gastrointestinal tract (GIT. In the present study, we quantified the lipid released during artificial mastication from four almond meals: natural raw almonds (NA, roasted almonds (RA, roasted diced almonds (DA and almond butter from roasted almonds (AB. Lipid release after mastication (8.9% from NA, 11.8% from RA, 12.4% from DA and 6.2% from AB was used to validate our theoretical mathematical model of lipid bioaccessibility. The total lipid potentially available for digestion in AB was 94.0%, which included the freely available lipid resulting from the initial sample processing and the further small amount of lipid released from the intact almond particles during mastication. Particle size distributions measured after mastication in NA, RA and DA showed most of the particles had a size of 1000 µm and above, whereas AB bolus mainly contained small particles (<850 µm. Microstructural analysis of faecal samples from volunteers consuming NA, RA, DA and AB confirmed that some lipid in NA, RA and DA remained encapsulated within the plant tissue throughout digestion, whereas almost complete digestion was observed in the AB sample. We conclude that the structure and particle size of the almond meals are the main factors in regulating lipid bioaccessibility in the gut.

  18. Using the particle beam optics lab. (PBO LABtm) for beamline design and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillespie, G.H.; Hill, B.W.; Martono, H.; Moore, J.M.; Lampel, M.C.; Brown, N.A.

    1999-01-01

    The Particle Beam Optics Interactive Computer Laboratory (PBO Lab) represents a new approach to providing software for particle beam optics modeling. The PBO Lab includes four key elements: a graphic user interface shell; a graphic beamline construction kit for users to interactively and visually construct optical beam lines; a knowledge database on the physics and technology of optical elements, and various charged particle optics computational engines. A first-order matrix code, including a space charge model, can be used to produce scaled images of beamlines together with overlays of single trajectories and beam envelopes. The qualitative results of graphically sliding beamline components, or adjusting bend angles, can be explored interactively. Quantitative computational engines currently include the third-order TRANSPORT code and the multi-particle ray tracing program TURTLE. The use of the PBO Lab for designing and analyzing a second order achromatic bend is illustrated with the Windows 95/NT version of the software. (authors)

  19. Application of normal form methods to the analysis of resonances in particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, W.G.

    1992-01-01

    The transformation to normal form in a Lie-algebraic framework provides a very powerful method for identifying and analysing non-linear behaviour and resonances in particle accelerators. The basic ideas are presented and illustrated. (author). 4 refs

  20. Observation and Analysis of Particle Nucleation at a Forest Site in Southeastern US

    OpenAIRE

    Pillai, Priya; Khlystov, Andrey; Walker, John; Aneja, Viney

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the characteristics of new particle formation at a forest site in southeastern US. Particle size distributions above a Loblolly pine plantation were measured between November 2005 and September 2007 and analyzed by event type and frequency, as well as in relation to meteorological and atmospheric chemical conditions. Nucleation events occurred on 69% of classifiable observation days. Nucleation frequency was highest in spring. The highest daily nucleation (class A and B ev...

  1. X-ray diffraction and thermal analysis of kaolins particle size fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia dos Santos

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Kaolins are common geological materials and have high concentrations of kaolinite as well as the clay fraction of tropical and subtropical soils of Brazil. The characterization of kaolin is a proxy of assessing the contribution of kaolinite to important soil chemical and mineralogical attributes. This study evaluated four kaolins (commercial kaolin A (CCA, commercial kaolin B (CCB, pink sandy kaolin A (CRA and green sandy kaolin A (CVA in the original form and after particle size separation into: sand (200-53 mm, coarse silt (53-20 m, fine silt (20-2 m, large clay (2-1m, medium clay (1-0.5 m and fine clay (<0.5m fractions. The minerals were identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD and evaluated for crystallinity (kaolinite and halloysite through indexes Hughes and Brown, Amigó, Bramão and the dehydroxylation temperature. The physical fractionation was efficient to concentrate minerals in specific size fractions which were not identified in the original material. In CCA kaolin was concentrated one mineral which remains unidentified in fine fractions, in kaolin CRA, zircon was concentrated in the coarse silt and different silicates in the fine fractions, in kaolin CCB were concentrated kaolinite and a silicate in the medium and coarse clay fractions. The estimate by X-ray diffraction overestimated the amount of kaolinite and halloysite underestimated when compared to quantification by thermal gravimetric analysis The crystallinity index exhibit different behaviors depending on the mineralogy of each material, thus the correlation between the crystallinity of kaolinite and / or halloysite and other variables, may be compromised, especially in materials with distinct geological origins.

  2. Statistical analysis of support thickness and particle size effects in HRTEM imaging of metal nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    House, Stephen D., E-mail: sdh46@pitt.edu [Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, and Physics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Bonifacio, Cecile S.; Grieshaber, Ross V.; Li, Long; Zhang, Zhongfan [Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, and Physics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Ciston, Jim [National Center of Electron Microscopy, Molecular Foundry, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Stach, Eric A. [Center for Functional Nanomaterials, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Yang, Judith C. [Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, and Physics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States)

    2016-10-15

    High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) examination of nanoparticles requires their placement on some manner of support – either TEM grid membranes or part of the material itself, as in many heterogeneous catalyst systems – but a systematic quantification of the practical imaging limits of this approach has been lacking. Here we address this issue through a statistical evaluation of how nanoparticle size and substrate thickness affects the ability to resolve structural features of interest in HRTEM images of metallic nanoparticles on common support membranes. The visibility of lattice fringes from crystalline Au nanoparticles on amorphous carbon and silicon supports of varying thickness was investigated with both conventional and aberration-corrected TEM. Over the 1–4 nm nanoparticle size range examined, the probability of successfully resolving lattice fringes differed significantly as a function both of nanoparticle size and support thickness. Statistical analysis was used to formulate guidelines for the selection of supports and to quantify the impact a given support would have on HRTEM imaging of crystalline structure. For nanoparticles ≥1 nm, aberration-correction was found to provide limited benefit for the purpose of visualizing lattice fringes; electron dose is more predictive of lattice fringe visibility than aberration correction. These results confirm that the ability to visualize lattice fringes is ultimately dependent on the signal-to-noise ratio of the HRTEM images, rather than the point-to-point resolving power of the microscope. This study provides a benchmark for HRTEM imaging of crystalline supported metal nanoparticles and is extensible to a wide variety of supports and nanostructures. - Highlights: • The impact of supports on imaging nanoparticle lattice structure is quantified. • Visualization probabilities given particle size and support thickness are estimated. • Aberration-correction provided limited benefit

  3. Statistical analysis of support thickness and particle size effects in HRTEM imaging of metal nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    House, Stephen D.; Bonifacio, Cecile S.; Grieshaber, Ross V.; Li, Long; Zhang, Zhongfan; Ciston, Jim; Stach, Eric A.; Yang, Judith C.

    2016-01-01

    High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) examination of nanoparticles requires their placement on some manner of support – either TEM grid membranes or part of the material itself, as in many heterogeneous catalyst systems – but a systematic quantification of the practical imaging limits of this approach has been lacking. Here we address this issue through a statistical evaluation of how nanoparticle size and substrate thickness affects the ability to resolve structural features of interest in HRTEM images of metallic nanoparticles on common support membranes. The visibility of lattice fringes from crystalline Au nanoparticles on amorphous carbon and silicon supports of varying thickness was investigated with both conventional and aberration-corrected TEM. Over the 1–4 nm nanoparticle size range examined, the probability of successfully resolving lattice fringes differed significantly as a function both of nanoparticle size and support thickness. Statistical analysis was used to formulate guidelines for the selection of supports and to quantify the impact a given support would have on HRTEM imaging of crystalline structure. For nanoparticles ≥1 nm, aberration-correction was found to provide limited benefit for the purpose of visualizing lattice fringes; electron dose is more predictive of lattice fringe visibility than aberration correction. These results confirm that the ability to visualize lattice fringes is ultimately dependent on the signal-to-noise ratio of the HRTEM images, rather than the point-to-point resolving power of the microscope. This study provides a benchmark for HRTEM imaging of crystalline supported metal nanoparticles and is extensible to a wide variety of supports and nanostructures. - Highlights: • The impact of supports on imaging nanoparticle lattice structure is quantified. • Visualization probabilities given particle size and support thickness are estimated. • Aberration-correction provided limited benefit

  4. Trajectory Analysis of Copper and Glass Particles in Electrostatic Separation for the Recycling of ASR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beom-uk Kim

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Automobile-shredder-residue (ASR recycling techniques have been widely applied for improving the total recycling rate of end-of-life vehicles. In this study, to obtain useful information for predicting or improving ASR-separation efficiency, trajectory analyses of conductors (copper and non-conductors (glass were performed using a lab-scale induction electrostatic separator. The copper-wire trajectories obtained showed a good agreement depending significantly on the electric field strength and particle size. The observed copper-wire trajectories showed consistent congruity with the coarse-particles simulation (0.5 and 0.25 mm. The observed fine-particles (0.06 mm trajectory was deflected toward the (− attractive electrode, owing to the charge density effects due to the particle characteristics and relative humidity. This results in superior separation performance because more copper enters the conductor products bin. The actual dielectric-glass trajectory was deflected toward the (− attractive electrode, thus showing characteristics similar to conductive-particle characteristics. Through analyses conducted using a stereoscopic microscope, scanning electron microscope, and energy dispersive spectroscope, we found heterogeneous materials (fine ferrous particles and conductive organics on the glass surface. This demonstrates the separation-efficiency decrease for non-ferrous metals during electrostatic separation in the recycling of ASR. Future work should include a pretreatment process for eliminating impurities from the glass and advanced trajectory-simulation processes.

  5. Error Analysis of Ceramographic Sample Preparation for Coating Thickness Measurement of Coated Fuel Particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiaoxue; Li Ziqiang; Zhao Hongsheng; Zhang Kaihong; Tang Chunhe

    2014-01-01

    The thicknesses of four coatings of HTR coated fuel particle are very important parameters. It is indispensable to control the thickness of four coatings of coated fuel particles for the safety of HTR. A measurement method, ceramographic sample-microanalysis method, to analyze the thickness of coatings was developed. During the process of ceramographic sample-microanalysis, there are two main errors, including ceramographic sample preparation error and thickness measurement error. With the development of microscopic techniques, thickness measurement error can be easily controlled to meet the design requirements. While, due to the coated particles are spherical particles of different diameters ranged from 850 to 1000μm, the sample preparation process will introduce an error. And this error is different from one sample to another. It’s also different from one particle to another in the same sample. In this article, the error of the ceramographic sample preparation was calculated and analyzed. Results show that the error introduced by sample preparation is minor. The minor error of sample preparation guarantees the high accuracy of the mentioned method, which indicates this method is a proper method to measure the thickness of four coatings of coated particles. (author)

  6. Pathway analysis of systemic transcriptome responses to injected polystyrene particles in zebrafish larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veneman, Wouter J; Spaink, Herman P; Brun, Nadja R; Bosker, Thijs; Vijver, Martina G

    2017-09-01

    Microplastics are a contaminant of emergent concern in the environment, however, to date there is a limited understanding on their movement within organisms and the response of organisms. In the current study zebrafish embryos at different development stages were exposed to 700nm fluorescent polystyrene (PS) particles and the response pathway after exposure was investigated using imaging and transcriptomics. Our results show limited spreading of particles within the larvae after injection during the blastula stage. This is in contrast to injection of PS particles in the yolk of 2-day old embryos, which resulted in redistribution of the PS particles throughout the bloodstream, and accumulation in the heart region. Although injection was local, the transcriptome profiling showed strong responses of zebrafish embryos exposed to PS particle, indicating a systemic response. We found several biological pathways activated which are related to an immune response in the PS exposed zebrafish larvae. Most notably the complement system was enriched as indicated by upregulation of genes in the alternative complement pathway (e.g. cfhl3, cfhl4, cfb and c9). The fact that complement pathway is activated indicates that plastic microparticles are integrated in immunological recognition processes. This was supported by fluorescence microscopy results, in which we observed co-localisation of neutrophils and macrophages around the PS particles. Identifying these key events can be a first building block to the development of an adverse outcome pathway (AOP). These data subsequently can be used within ecological and human risk assessment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Bayesian approach to MSD-based analysis of particle motion in live cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnier, Nilah; Guo, Syuan-Ming; Mori, Masashi; He, Jun; Lénárt, Péter; Bathe, Mark

    2012-08-08

    Quantitative tracking of particle motion using live-cell imaging is a powerful approach to understanding the mechanism of transport of biological molecules, organelles, and cells. However, inferring complex stochastic motion models from single-particle trajectories in an objective manner is nontrivial due to noise from sampling limitations and biological heterogeneity. Here, we present a systematic Bayesian approach to multiple-hypothesis testing of a general set of competing motion models based on particle mean-square displacements that automatically classifies particle motion, properly accounting for sampling limitations and correlated noise while appropriately penalizing model complexity according to Occam's Razor to avoid over-fitting. We test the procedure rigorously using simulated trajectories for which the underlying physical process is known, demonstrating that it chooses the simplest physical model that explains the observed data. Further, we show that computed model probabilities provide a reliability test for the downstream biological interpretation of associated parameter values. We subsequently illustrate the broad utility of the approach by applying it to disparate biological systems including experimental particle trajectories from chromosomes, kinetochores, and membrane receptors undergoing a variety of complex motions. This automated and objective Bayesian framework easily scales to large numbers of particle trajectories, making it ideal for classifying the complex motion of large numbers of single molecules and cells from high-throughput screens, as well as single-cell-, tissue-, and organism-level studies. Copyright © 2012 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Particle Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Health Particle Pollution Public Health Issues Particle Pollution Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Particle pollution — ... see them in the air. Where does particle pollution come from? Particle pollution can come from two ...

  9. Performance of laser ablation. Quadrupole-based ICP-MS coupling for the analysis of single micrometric uranium particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabien Pointurier; Amelie Hubert; Anne-Claire Pottin

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we describe the application of laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) coupling to particle analysis, i.e., the determination of the isotopic composition of micrometric uranium particles. The performances of this analysis technique are compared with those of the two reference particle analysis techniques: secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and fission track-thermo-ionization mass spectrometry (FT-TIMS), based on the measurement of the isotopic ratios of 235 U/ 238 U in particles present in an inter-comparison particulate sample. The agreement of the results obtained using LA-ICP-MS with target values and with the results obtained using FT-TIMS and SIMS was good. Accuracy was equivalent to that of the other two techniques (±3 % deviation). However, relative experimental uncertainties present with LA-ICP-MS (7 %) were higher than those present with FT-TIMS (4.5 %) and SIMS (3 %). Furthermore, measurement yield of LA-ICP-MS coupling was close to that obtained with the same quadrupole ICP-MS for the measurement of a liquid sample (∼10 -4 ), but lower than that obtained with FT-TIMS and SIMS, respectively, by a factor of 10 and 20, although the particles analyzed using LA-ICP-MS were most likely smaller (diameter ∼0.6 μm, containing 4-7 fg of 235 U). Nevertheless, thanks to the brevity of the signals obtained, the detection capacity for low isotopic concentrations by LA-ICP-MS coupling is equivalent to that of FT-TIMS, although it remains well below that of SIMS (x 15). However, with more sensitive double focusing ICP-MS, performances equivalent to those achieved using SIMS could be obtained. (author)

  10. Single particle analysis of TiO2 in candy products using triple quadrupole ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candás-Zapico, S; Kutscher, D J; Montes-Bayón, M; Bettmer, J

    2018-04-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) belongs to the materials that have gained great importance in many applications. In its particulate form (micro- or nanoparticles), it has entered a huge number of consumer products and food-grade TiO 2 , better known as E171 within the European Union, represents an important food additive. Thus, there is an increasing need for analytical methods able to detect and quantify such particles. In this regard, inductively coupled-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), in particular single particle ICP-MS (spICP-MS), has gained importance due to its simplicity and ease of use. Nevertheless, the number of applications for Ti nanoparticles is rather limited. In this study, we have applied the spICP-MS strategy by comparing different measuring modes available in triple quadrupole ICP-MS. First, single quadrupole mode using the collision/reaction cell system was selected for monitoring the isotope 47 Ti. Different cell gases like He, O 2 and NH 3 were tested under optimised conditions for its applicability in spICP-MS of standard suspensions of TiO 2 . The determined analytical figures of merit were compared to those obtained by triple quadrupole mode using the 47 Ti or 48 Ti reaction products using O 2 and NH 3 as reaction gases. This comparison demonstrated that the triple quadrupole mode (TQ mode) was superior in terms of sensitivity due to the more efficient removal of spectral interferences. Particle size detection limits down to 26nm were obtained using the best instrumental conditions for TiO 2 particles at a dwell time of 10ms. Finally, the different measuring modes were applied to the analysis of chewing gum samples after a simple extraction procedure using an ultrasonic bath. The obtained results showed a good agreement for the detected particle size range using the different TQ modes. The size range of TiO 2 particles was determined to be between approximately 30 and 200nm, whereas roughly 40% of the particles were smaller than 100nm. For the

  11. Quantitative effects of rapid heating on soot-particle sizing through analysis of two-pulse LII

    KAUST Repository

    Cenker, Emre

    2017-02-27

    During the rapid laser pulse heating and consecutive cooling in laser-induced incandescence (LII), soot particles may undergo thermal annealing and sublimation processes which lead to a permanent change in its optical properties and its primary particle size, respectively. Overall, effects of these two processes on soot and LII model-based particle sizing are investigated by measuring the two-color time-resolved (2C-TiRe) LII signal decay from in-flame soot after two consecutive laser pulses at 1064-nm wavelength. Experiments are carried out on a non-premixed laminar ethylene/air flame from a Santoro burner with both low and moderate laser fluences suitable for particle sizing. The probe volume is set to a radial position close to the flame axis where the soot particles are known to be immature or less graphitic. With the first pulse, soot is pre-heated, and the LII signal after the consecutive second pulse is used for analysis. The two-color incandescence emission technique is used for the pyrometric determination of the LII-heated peak soot temperature at the second pulse. A new LII simulation tool is developed which accounts for particle heating via absorption and annealing, and cooling via sublimation, conduction, and radiation with various existing sub-models from the literature. The same approach of using two laser pulses is implemented in the simulations. Measurements indicate that thermal annealing and associated absorption enhancement becomes important at laser fluences above 0.17 J/cm2 for the immature in-flame soot. After a heating pulse at 0.33 J/cm2, the increase of the soot absorption function is calculated as 35% using the temperature measured at the second pulse and an absorption model based on the Rayleigh approximation. Present annealing model, on the other hand, predicts graphitization of soot even in the absence of laser heating at typical flame temperatures. Recorded experimental LII signal decays and LII-heated peak soot temperature

  12. Automation and heat transfer characterization of immersion mode spectroscopy for analysis of ice nucleating particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beall, Charlotte M.; Stokes, M. Dale; Hill, Thomas C.; DeMott, Paul J.; DeWald, Jesse T.; Prather, Kimberly A.

    2017-07-01

    Ice nucleating particles (INPs) influence cloud properties and can affect the overall precipitation efficiency. Developing a parameterization of INPs in global climate models has proven challenging. More INP measurements - including studies of their spatial distribution, sources and sinks, and fundamental freezing mechanisms - must be conducted in order to further improve INP parameterizations. In this paper, an immersion mode INP measurement technique is modified and automated using a software-controlled, real-time image stream designed to leverage optical changes of water droplets to detect freezing events. For the first time, heat transfer properties of the INP measurement technique are characterized using a finite-element-analysis-based heat transfer simulation to improve accuracy of INP freezing temperature measurement. The heat transfer simulation is proposed as a tool that could be used to explain the sources of bias in temperature measurements in INP measurement techniques and ultimately explain the observed discrepancies in measured INP freezing temperatures between different instruments. The simulation results show that a difference of +8.4 °C between the well base temperature and the headspace gas results in an up to 0.6 °C stratification of the aliquot, whereas a difference of +4.2 °C or less results in a thermally homogenous water volume within the error of the thermal probe, ±0.2 °C. The results also show that there is a strong temperature gradient in the immediate vicinity of the aliquot, such that without careful placement of temperature probes, or characterization of heat transfer properties of the water and cooling environment, INP measurements can be biased toward colder temperatures. Based on a modified immersion mode technique, the Automated Ice Spectrometer (AIS), measurements of the standard test dust illite NX are reported and compared against six other immersion mode droplet assay techniques featured in Hiranuma et al. (2015) that used

  13. Analysis of the U.K. measurements of temperature effects in tubular loose coated particle fuels in HECTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briggs, A J

    1972-06-15

    A series of measurements of reaction rates and reactivity changes with temperature were made in teh central region of HECTOR, using loose coated particle fuel provided by the Dragon project under the collaborative agrement between the Project and the UKAEA. A DP report giving the results of these experiments was issued in 1970 and an interim statement given at the 10th DCPM. Since that time, analysis of the reactivity changes with temperature in uranium fuelled cores has indicated significant discrepancies, which were not apparent from the earlier analysis of reaction rate measurements. This report documents the current analysis.

  14. Determination of Li, B, and F by rapid instrumental neutron activation analysis using beta-particle counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, J.O.; Palgaard, L.; Gwozdz, R.; Belhage, L.O.

    1984-01-01

    For the simultaneous determination of Li, B, and F, the application of rapid instrument neutron activation analysis was studied using 1.5s of irradiation and β-particle counting of 8 Li, 12 B, and 20 F. The fast transfer facility, Mach-1, the counting equipment, a 4-channel multiplexer, and a time-base controller are discussed. Further, the technique of simultaneous decay curve analysis of three successive decays is presented and quality control by residual analysis is demonstrated. Finally, analytical results are presented of the NBS-environmental standards Coal-1632a and Coal-1635, and of three BCR-coals intended as references materials

  15. Flow field analysis in a compliant acinus replica model using particle image velocimetry (PIV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Emily J; Weisman, Jessica L; Oldham, Michael J; Robinson, Risa J

    2010-04-19

    Inhaled particles reaching the alveolar walls have the potential to cross the blood-gas barrier and enter the blood stream. Experimental evidence of pulmonary dosimetry, however, cannot be explained by current whole lung dosimetry models. Numerical and experimental studies shed some light on the mechanisms of particle transport, but realistic geometries have not been investigated. In this study, a three dimensional expanding model including two generations of respiratory bronchioles and five terminal alveolar sacs was created from a replica human lung cast. Flow visualization techniques were employed to quantify the fluid flow while utilizing streamlines to evaluate recirculation. Pathlines were plotted to track the fluid motion and estimate penetration depth of inhaled air. This study provides evidence that the two generations immediately proximal to the terminal alveolar sacs do not have recirculating eddies, even for intense breathing. Results of Peclet number calculations indicate that substantial convective motion is present in vivo for the case of deep breathing, which significantly increases particle penetration into the alveoli. However, particle diffusion remains the dominant mechanism of particle transport over convection, even for intense breathing because inhaled particles do not reach the alveolar wall in a single breath by convection alone. Examination of the velocity fields revealed significant uneven ventilation of the alveoli during a single breath, likely due to variations in size and location. This flow field data, obtained from replica model geometry with realistic breathing conditions, provides information to better understand fluid and particle behavior in the acinus region of the lung. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Ice Particle Transport Analysis With Phase Change for the E(sup 3) Turbofan Engine Using LEWICE3D Version 3.2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidwell, Colin, S.

    2012-01-01

    Ice Particle trajectory calculations with phase change were made for the Energy Efficient Engine (E(sup 3)) using the LEWICE3D Version 3.2 software. The particle trajectory computations were performed using the new Glenn Ice Particle Phase Change Model which has been incorporated into the LEWICE3D Version 3.2 software. The E(sup 3) was developed by NASA and GE in the early 1980 s as a technology demonstrator and is representative of a modern high bypass turbofan engine. The E(sup 3) flow field was calculated using the NASA Glenn ADPAC turbomachinery flow solver. Computations were performed for the low pressure compressor of the E(sup 3) for a Mach 0.8 cruise condition at 11,887 m assuming a standard warm day for ice particle sizes of 5, 20, and 100 microns and a free stream particle concentration of 0.3 g/cu m. The impingement efficiency results showed that as particle size increased average impingement efficiencies and scoop factors increased for the various components. The particle analysis also showed that the amount of mass entering the inner core decreased with increased particle size because the larger particles were less able to negotiate the turn into the inner core due to particle inertia. The particle phase change analysis results showed that the larger particles warmed less as they were transported through the low pressure compressor. Only the smallest 5 micron particles were warmed enough to produce melting and the amount of melting was relatively small with a maximum average melting fraction of 0.836. The results also showed an appreciable amount of particle sublimation and evaporation for the 5 micron particles entering the engine core (22 percent).

  17. Random geometry capability in RMC code for explicit analysis of polytype particle/pebble and applications to HTR-10 benchmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Shichang; Li, Zeguang; Wang, Kan; Cheng, Quan; She, Ding

    2018-01-01

    Highlights: •A new random geometry was developed in RMC for mixed and polytype particle/pebble. •This capability was applied to the full core calculations of HTR-10 benchmark. •Reactivity, temperature coefficient and control rod worth of HTR-10 were compared. •This method can explicitly model different packing fraction of different pebbles. •Monte Carlo code with this method can simulate polytype particle/pebble type reactor. -- Abstract: With the increasing demands of high fidelity neutronics analysis and the development of computer technology, Monte Carlo method is becoming more and more attractive in accurate simulation of pebble bed High Temperature gas-cooled Reactor (HTR), owing to its advantages of the flexible geometry modeling and the use of continuous-energy nuclear cross sections. For the double-heterogeneous geometry of pebble bed, traditional Monte Carlo codes can treat it by explicit geometry description. However, packing methods such as Random Sequential Addition (RSA) can only produce a sphere packing up to 38% volume packing fraction, while Discrete Element Method (DEM) is troublesome and also time consuming. Moreover, traditional Monte Carlo codes are difficult and inconvenient to simulate the mixed and polytype particles or pebbles. A new random geometry method was developed in Monte Carlo code RMC to simulate the particle transport in polytype particle/pebble in double heterogeneous geometry systems. This method was verified by some test cases, and applied to the full core calculations of HTR-10 benchmark. The reactivity, temperature coefficient and control rod worth of HTR-10 were compared for full core and initial core in helium and air atmosphere respectively, and the results agree well with the benchmark results and experimental results. This work would provide an efficient tool for the innovative design of pebble bed, prism HTRs and molten salt reactors with polytype particles or pebbles using Monte Carlo method.

  18. Hygroscopic analysis of individual Beijing haze aerosol particles by environmental scanning electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Zhangpeng; Ji, Yuan; Pi, Yiqun; Yang, Kaixiang; Wang, Li; Zhang, Yinqi; Zhai, Yadi; Yan, Zhengguang; Han, Xiaodong

    2018-01-01

    Investigating the hygroscopic behavior of haze aerosol particles is essential for understanding their physicochemical properties and their impacts on regional weather and visibility. An environmental scanning electron microscope equipped with a home-made transmission-scattering electron imaging setup and an energy dispersive spectrometer was used for in-situ observations of pure water-soluble (WS) salts and Beijing haze particles. This imaging setup showed obvious advantages for improving the resolution and acquiring internal information of mixed particles in hydrated environments. We measured the deliquescence relative humidity of pure NaCl, NH4NO3, and (NH4)2SO4 by deliquescence-crystallization processes with an accuracy of up to 0.3% RH. The mixed haze particles showed hygroscopic activation like water uptake and morphological changes when they included WS components such as nitrates, sulfates, halides, ammoniums, and alkali metal salts. In addition, the hygroscopic behavior provides complementary information for analyzing possible phases in mixed haze particles.

  19. Analysis of long-lived particle decays with the MATHUSLA detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, David; Peskin, Michael E.

    2018-01-01

    The MATHUSLA detector is a simple large-volume tracking detector to be located on the surface above one of the general-purpose experiments at the Large Hadron Collider. This detector was proposed in [J. P. Chou, D. Curtin, and H. J. Lubatti, Phys. Lett. B 767, 29 (2017), 10.1016/j.physletb.2017.01.043] to detect exotic, neutral, long-lived particles that might be produced in high-energy proton-proton collisions. In this paper, we consider the use of the limited information that MATHULSA would provide on the decay products of the long-lived particle. For the case in which the long-lived particle is pair-produced in Higgs boson decays, we show that it is possible to measure the mass of this particle and determine the dominant decay mode with less than 100 observed events. We discuss the ability of MATHUSLA to distinguish the production mode of the long-lived particle and to determine its mass and spin in more general cases.

  20. An improved analytic solution for analysis of particle trajectories in fibrous, two-dimensional filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, H.; Sahraoui, M.; Kaviany, M.

    1994-01-01

    The Kuwabara solution for creeping fluid flow through periodic arrangement of cylinders is widely used in analytic and numerical studies of fibrous filters. Numerical solutions have shown that the Kuwabara solution has systematic errors, and when used for the particle trajectories in filters it results in some error in the predicted filter efficiency. The numerical solutions, although accurate, preclude further analytic treatments, and are not as compact and convenient to use as the Kuwabara solution. By reexamining the outer boundary conditions of the Kuwabara solution, a correction term to the Kuwabara solution has been derived to obtain an extended solution that is more accurate and improves prediction of the filter efficiency. By comparison with the numerical solutions, it is shown that the Kuwabara solution is the high porosity asymptote, and that the extended solution has an improved porosity dependence. A rectification is explained that can make particle collection less efficient for periodic, in-line arrangements of fibers with particle diffusion or body force. This rectification also results in the alignment of particles with inertia (i.e., high Stokes number particles)

  1. Improvement of Particle Recovery Method for Uranium Isotope Analysis Using SIMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Taehee; Park, Jinkyu; Lee, Chi-Gyu; Lim, Sang Ho; Han, Sun-Ho

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we developed a new design of vacuum-suction impactor with wider inlet nozzle and outlet nozzle for guiding particles to disperse the particles on the surface of carbon planchet. We prepared simulated samples with lead dioxide and examined particle recovery yield and degree of dispersion using the conventional vacuum impactor and the newly designed ones with different inlet nozzle diameters. We tried to improve the inlet part of vacuum impactor, in order to increase the recovery yield and disperse the collected particle on carbon planchet. As the diameter of inlet nozzle became larger, the collected particles were better dispersed on planchet. In addition, when the inner diameter of the impactor was 3 mm or 5 mm, the recovery yield was higher than that of conventional impactor. Considering the degree of dispersion and recovery yield, we used the impactor with 5 mm exit diameter and recovered the mixed uranium standard materials for SIMS measurement. We were able to reduce the mixing effect and measure the isotopic ratio more accurately and precisely.

  2. Net motion of acoustically levitating nano-particles: A theoretical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippera, Kevin; Dauchot, Olivier; Benzaquen, Michael; Gulliver-LadHyX Collaboration

    2017-11-01

    A particle 2D-trapped in the nodal planed of a standing acoustic wave is prone to acoustic-phoretic motion as soon as its shape breaks polar or chiral symmetry. such a setup constitues an ideal system to study boundaryless 2D collective behavior with purely hydrodynamic long range interactions. Recent studies have indeed shown that quasi-spherical particles may undergo net propulsion, a feature partially understood theoretically in the particular case of infinite viscous boundary layers. We here extend the theoretical results of to any boundary layer thickness, by that meeting typical experimental conditions. In addition, we propose an explanation for the net spinning of the trapped particles, as observed in experiments.

  3. AFLP analysis of rice transformed with maize DNA by particle beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Shengdong; Chen Peng; Wang Jiachuan; Yuan Zhao; Yue Chunhui; Wang Zhifeng

    2009-01-01

    Many stable heritable rice lines were obtained via five years agricultural selection, which were derived from rice (oryza stative Japonica) Yujing-6 transgened with large fraction DNA of Zhengdan-14 (zea mays L.) by particle beam method. 18 pairs optimum selective primers were got by screening from 64 pairs AFLP selective primers via experiment on two mutant lines, which could amplify many DNA fingerprints and also could amplify polymorphic bands and target bands, both in this two mutant lines. Then the two mutant lines and two controls were analyzed with AFLP, the results showed that many polymorphic bands (such as novel bands, target bands, missing bands) were found in mutant lines. The discrepancy in DNA level indicated that rice, transgened with large fraction DNA of Zhengdan-14 by particle beam, might be inserted maize DNA and inherited steadily in some degree. It also indicated that it was possible to cultivate novel rice variety transformed with wide DNA by particle beam. (authors)

  4. Extreme-Scale Stochastic Particle Tracing for Uncertain Unsteady Flow Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Hanqi; He, Wenbin; Seo, Sangmin; Shen, Han-Wei; Peterka, Tom

    2016-11-13

    We present an efficient and scalable solution to estimate uncertain transport behaviors using stochastic flow maps (SFM,) for visualizing and analyzing uncertain unsteady flows. SFM computation is extremely expensive because it requires many Monte Carlo runs to trace densely seeded particles in the flow. We alleviate the computational cost by decoupling the time dependencies in SFMs so that we can process adjacent time steps independently and then compose them together for longer time periods. Adaptive refinement is also used to reduce the number of runs for each location. We then parallelize over tasks—packets of particles in our design—to achieve high efficiency in MPI/thread hybrid programming. Such a task model also enables CPU/GPU coprocessing. We show the scalability on two supercomputers, Mira (up to 1M Blue Gene/Q cores) and Titan (up to 128K Opteron cores and 8K GPUs), that can trace billions of particles in seconds.

  5. Analysis of secondary particle behavior in multiaperture, multigrid accelerator for the ITER neutral beam injector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, T; Taniguchi, M; Kashiwagi, M; Umeda, N; Tobari, H; Watanabe, K; Dairaku, M; Sakamoto, K; Inoue, T

    2010-02-01

    Heat load on acceleration grids by secondary particles such as electrons, neutrals, and positive ions, is a key issue for long pulse acceleration of negative ion beams. Complicated behaviors of the secondary particles in multiaperture, multigrid (MAMuG) accelerator have been analyzed using electrostatic accelerator Monte Carlo code. The analytical result is compared to experimental one obtained in a long pulse operation of a MeV accelerator, of which second acceleration grid (A2G) was removed for simplification of structure. The analytical results show that relatively high heat load on the third acceleration grid (A3G) since stripped electrons were deposited mainly on A3G. This heat load on the A3G can be suppressed by installing the A2G. Thus, capability of MAMuG accelerator is demonstrated for suppression of heat load due to secondary particles by the intermediate grids.

  6. A Local and Global Search Combined Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm and Its Convergence Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weitian Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSOA is an advantage optimization tool. However, it has a tendency to get stuck in a near optimal solution especially for middle and large size problems and it is difficult to improve solution accuracy by fine-tuning parameters. According to the insufficiency, this paper researches the local and global search combine particle swarm algorithm (LGSCPSOA, and its convergence and obtains its convergence qualification. At the same time, it is tested with a set of 8 benchmark continuous functions and compared their optimization results with original particle swarm algorithm (OPSOA. Experimental results indicate that the LGSCPSOA improves the search performance especially on the middle and large size benchmark functions significantly.

  7. Analysis of aluminum protective effect for female astronauts in solar particle events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Feng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to ensure the health and safety of female astronauts in space, the risks of space radiation should be evaluated, and effective methods for protecting against space radiation should be investigated. In this paper, a dose calculation model is established for Chinese female astronauts. The absorbed doses of some organs in two historical solar particle events are calculated using Monte Carlo methods, and the shielding conditions are 0 gcm-2 and 5 gcm-2 aluminum, respectively. The calculated results are analysed, compared, and discussed. The results show that 5 gcm-2 aluminum cannot afford enough effective protection in solar particle events. Hence, once encountering solar particle events in manned spaceflight missions, in order to ensure the health and safety of female astronauts, they are not allowed to stay in the pressure vessel, and must enter into the thicker shielding location such as food and water storage cabin.

  8. β-delayed γ-proton decay in 56Zn: Analysis of the charged-particle spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orrigo, S. E.A.; Ascher, P.; Cakirli, R. B.; Kozer, H. C.; Popescu, L.; Rogers, A. M.; Susoy, G.; Suzuki, T.

    2015-01-01

    A study of the β decay of the proton-rich T z = –2 nucleus 56 Zn has been reported in a recent publication. A rare and exotic decay mode, β-delayed γ-proton decay, has been observed there for the first time in the fp shell. Here, we expand on some of the details of the data analysis, focusing on the charged particle spectrum

  9. Relative Suitability Evaluation of Two Methods of Particle-Size Analysis for Selected Soils of Sudan Savanna of Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    B. A. Lawal; B. R. Singh; G. A. Babaji; P. A. Tsado

    2013-01-01

    The two widely used methods base on the sedimentation principle (Bouyoucos hydrometer and International pipette) for particle-size analysis were comparatively evaluated on soils collected from various locations in Sudan savanna of Nigeria particularly from Sokoto and Zamfara States. The hydrometer method under-estimated the silt and over-estimated the clay content. Also, the hydrometer reading proved difficult and tended to submerge when floated for clay reading in the suspension of very sand...

  10. Sampling of illicit drugs for quantitative analysis--part II. Study of particle size and its influence on mass reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovens, M; Csesztregi, T; Franc, A; Nagy, J; Dujourdy, L

    2014-01-01

    The basic goal in sampling for the quantitative analysis of illicit drugs is to maintain the average concentration of the drug in the material from its original seized state (the primary sample) all the way through to the analytical sample, where the effect of particle size is most critical. The size of the largest particles of different authentic illicit drug materials, in their original state and after homogenisation, using manual or mechanical procedures, was measured using a microscope with a camera attachment. The comminution methods employed included pestle and mortar (manual) and various ball and knife mills (mechanical). The drugs investigated were amphetamine, heroin, cocaine and herbal cannabis. It was shown that comminution of illicit drug materials using these techniques reduces the nominal particle size from approximately 600 μm down to between 200 and 300 μm. It was demonstrated that the choice of 1 g increments for the primary samples of powdered drugs and cannabis resin, which were used in the heterogeneity part of our study (Part I) was correct for the routine quantitative analysis of illicit seized drugs. For herbal cannabis we found that the appropriate increment size was larger. Based on the results of this study we can generally state that: An analytical sample weight of between 20 and 35 mg of an illicit powdered drug, with an assumed purity of 5% or higher, would be considered appropriate and would generate an RSDsampling in the same region as the RSDanalysis for a typical quantitative method of analysis for the most common, powdered, illicit drugs. For herbal cannabis, with an assumed purity of 1% THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) or higher, an analytical sample weight of approximately 200 mg would be appropriate. In Part III we will pull together our homogeneity studies and particle size investigations and use them to devise sampling plans and sample preparations suitable for the quantitative instrumental analysis of the most common illicit

  11. Detection and Analysis of Particles with Failed SiC in AGR-1 Fuel Compacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunn, John D.; Baldwin, Charles A.; Gerczak, Tyler J.; Montgomery, Fred C.; Morris, Robert N.; Silva, Chinthaka M.; Demkowicz, Paul A.; Harp, Jason M.; Ploger, Scott A.

    2014-01-01

    As the primary barrier to release of radioactive isotopes emitted from the fuel kernel, retention performance of the SiC layer in tristructural isotropic (TRISO) coated particles is critical to the overall safety of reactors that utilize this fuel design. Most isotopes are well-retained by intact SiC coatings, so pathways through this layer due to cracking, structural defects, or chemical attack can significantly contribute to radioisotope release. In the US TRISO fuel development effort, release of "1"3"4Cs and "1"3"7Cs are used to detect SiC failure during fuel compact irradiation and safety testing because the amount of cesium released by a compact containing one particle with failed SiC is typically ten or more times higher than that released by compacts without failed SiC. Compacts with particles that released cesium during the AGR-1 irradiation test or post-irradiation safety testing at 1600– 1800°C were identified, and individual particles with abnormally low cesium retention were sorted out with the ORNL Irradiated Microsphere Gamma Analyzer (IMGA). X-ray tomography was used for three-dimensional imaging of the internal coating structure to locate low-density pathways through the SiC layer and guide subsequent materialography by optical and scanning electron microscopy. All three cesium-releasing particles recovered from as-irradiated compacts showed a region where the inner pyrocarbon (IPyC) had cracked due to radiation-induced dimensional changes in the shrinking buffer and the exposed SiC had experienced concentrated attack by palladium; SiC failures observed in particles subjected to safety testing were related to either fabrication defects or showed extensive Pd corrosion through the SiC where it had been exposed by similar IPyC cracking. (author)

  12. Particle size distribution of mainstream tobacco and marijuana smoke. Analysis using the electrical aerosol analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, P J; Wilson, J D; Hiller, F C

    1989-07-01

    Accurate measurement of cigarette smoke particle size distribution is important for estimation of lung deposition. Most prior investigators have reported a mass median diameter (MMD) in the size range of 0.3 to 0.5 micron, with a small geometric standard deviation (GSD), indicating few ultrafine (less than 0.1 micron) particles. A few studies, however, have suggested the presence of ultrafine particles by reporting a smaller count median diameter (CMD). Part of this disparity may be due tot he inefficiency to previous sizing methods in measuring ultrafine size range, to evaluate size distribution of smoke from standard research cigarettes, commercial filter cigarettes, and from marijuana cigarettes with different delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol contents. Four 35-cm3, 2-s puffs were generated at 60-s intervals, rapidly diluted, and passed through a charge neutralizer and into a 240-L chamber. Size distribution for six cigarettes of each type was measured, CMD and GSD were determined from a computer-generated log probability plot, and MMD was calculated. The size distribution parameters obtained were similar for all cigarettes tested, with an average CMD of 0.1 micron, a MMD of 0.38 micron, and a GSD of 2.0. The MMD found using the EAA is similar to that previously reported, but the CMD is distinctly smaller and the GSD larger, indicating the presence of many more ultrafine particles. These results may explain the disparity of CMD values found in existing data. Ultrafine particles are of toxicologic importance because their respiratory tract deposition is significantly higher than for particles 0.3 to 0.5 micron and because their large surface area facilitates adsorption and delivery of potentially toxic gases to the lung.

  13. Conversion analysis of a cylindrical biomass particle with a DEM-CFD coupling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mohseni

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Biomass as a renewable energy source has attracted more attention nowadays due to ecological and economical benefits. The main objective of this work is studying the biomass conversion with employing a DEM-CFD coupling approach. In this model, the solid particulates are considered as discrete elements coupled via heat, mass and momentum transfer to the surrounding gas as continuous phase. That is, a comprehensive three-dimensional numerical model is developed and applied to investigate the complex phenomena taking place during biomass conversion in a reactor. In this case, the physical and chemical processes as heat-up, drying, pyrolysis, gasification and combustion are taken into account based on the relevant homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions. This platform predicts the motion of discrete particles based on the newton's equations of motion; and the thermodynamic state of each particle is extended according to the related algorithms. The thermodynamic state estimates the temperature and species distributions inside the particle due to external heat sources and chemical reactions. The reaction rates are described with Arrhenius model, and the reactions in the gas phase are modeled using Partially Stirred Reactor (PaSR model with the standard k−ϵ turbulent model. The conductive and radiative heat transfer between particles as well as convective heat transfer between particles and gas phase are also observed. Due to layered behavior of biomass materials, the shape of particle is considered as cylindrical rather than spherical to predict more realistic results. In order to improve the numerical modeling of biomass conversion, a shrinkage model is also developed and validated with experimental data in literature.

  14. Analysis of the start-up and control of a particle bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazareth, O.W.; Araj, K.J.; Horn, F.L.; Ludewig, H.; Powell, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    This study describes the modeling of start-up transients in Particle Bed Reactors (PBR) for burst electric power. Two computer programs have been developed to analyze the start-up process. The first program (named KINETIC) analyzes the entire fuel element, calculating time dependent solutions for power and the temperature distribution in the packed bed. The second program (named SPHEAT, for Spherical Heating) calculates time-dependent temperatures inside individual, cladded fuel particles. The two programs provide powerful analytical tools for evaluation of material and geometrical options, power and time constraints, and conditions that could lead to element failures

  15. Particle transport analysis in lower hybrid current drive discharges of JT-60U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagashima, K.; Ide, S.; Naito, O.

    1996-01-01

    Particle transport is modified in lower hybrid current drive discharges of JT-60U. The density profile becomes broad during the lower hybrid wave injection and the profile change depends on the injected wave spectrum. Particle transport coefficients (diffusion coefficient and profile peaking factor) were evaluated using gas-puff modulation experiments. The diffusion coefficient in the current drive discharges is about three times larger than in the ohmic discharges. The profile peaking factor decreases in the current drive discharges and the evaluated values are consistent with the measured density profiles. (author)

  16. Single particle analysis based on Zernike phase contrast transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danev, Radostin; Nagayama, Kuniaki

    2008-02-01

    We present the first application of Zernike phase-contrast transmission electron microscopy to single-particle 3D reconstruction of a protein, using GroEL chaperonin as the test specimen. We evaluated the performance of the technique by comparing 3D models derived from Zernike phase contrast imaging, with models from conventional underfocus phase contrast imaging. The same resolution, about 12A, was achieved by both imaging methods. The reconstruction based on Zernike phase contrast data required about 30% fewer particles. The advantages and prospects of each technique are discussed.

  17. Analysis of the dust particles distribution and ventilation as a way to improve indoor air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlovtseva, E. Yu; Azarov, V. N.; Stefanenko, I. V.

    2017-10-01

    The indoor air pollution is analyzed in the article. The subject of the research is the presence and composition of the dust particles taken into “traps” in the working space of the public building (Volgograd State Technical University, Volgograd, the Russian Federation). The research has established the range of sizes of the particulate matter (fractional composition) for the dust in the air of the working space in the form of integral curves for the mass distribution of particles with to their diameters, it also provides the scheme of the air flows movement in the ventilation system of the room.

  18. PIXE analysis of U and Pu from hot particles: K-lines vs L-lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiménez-Ramos, M.C.; García López, J.; Eriksson, M.

    2012-01-01

    . (2007) [1] and Jiménez-Ramos et al. (2010) [2], radioactive particles from aircraft accidents in Palomares and Thule have been characterized. Using micro-Proton Induced X-ray Emission (μ-PIXE) and confocal X-ray fluorescence microprobe (μ-XRF), the L-lines of the main components in these particles, U......-lines present not overlapping between the main peaks in the spectra and the X-ray absorption in the sample is much lower than for L-lines....

  19. Stress Analysis of a TRISO Coated Particle Fuel by Using ABAQUS Finite Element Visco-Elastoplastic Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Moon Sung; Kim, Y. M.; Lee, Y. W.

    2006-01-01

    The fundamental design for a gas-cooled reactor relies on an understanding of the behavior of a coated particle fuel. KAERI, which has been carrying out the Korean VHTR (Very High Temperature modular gas cooled Reactor) Project since 2004, is developing a fuel performance analysis code for a VHTR named COPA (COated Particle fuel Analysis). A validation of COPA was attempted by comparing its benchmark results with the visco-elastic solutions obtained from the ABAQUS code calculations for the IAEA-CRP-6 TRISO coated particle benchmark problems involving a creep, swelling, and pressure. However, the ABAQUS finite element model used for the above-mentioned analysis did not consider the material nonlinearity of the SiC coating layer that showed stress levels higher than the assumed yield point of the material. In this study, a consideration of the material nonlinearity is included in the ABAQUS model to obtain the visco-elastoplastic solutions and the results are compared with the visco-elastic solutions obtained from the previous ABAQUS model

  20. Automation and uncertainty analysis of a method for in-vivo range verification in particle therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, K; Unholtz, D; Bauer, J; Debus, J; Min, C H; Bortfeld, T; Paganetti, H; Parodi, K

    2014-10-07

    We introduce the automation of the range difference calculation deduced from particle-irradiation induced β(+)-activity distributions with the so-called most-likely-shift approach, and evaluate its reliability via the monitoring of algorithm- and patient-specific uncertainty factors. The calculation of the range deviation is based on the minimization of the absolute profile differences in the distal part of two activity depth profiles shifted against each other. Depending on the workflow of positron emission tomography (PET)-based range verification, the two profiles under evaluation can correspond to measured and simulated distributions, or only measured data from different treatment sessions. In comparison to previous work, the proposed approach includes an automated identification of the distal region of interest for each pair of PET depth profiles and under consideration of the planned dose distribution, resulting in the optimal shift distance. Moreover, it introduces an estimate of uncertainty associated to the identified shift, which is then used as weighting factor to 'red flag' problematic large range differences. Furthermore, additional patient-specific uncertainty factors are calculated using available computed tomography (CT) data to support the range analysis. The performance of the new method for in-vivo treatment verification in the clinical routine is investigated with in-room PET images for proton therapy as well as with offline PET images for proton and carbon ion therapy. The comparison between measured PET activity distributions and predictions obtained by Monte Carlo simulations or measurements from previous treatment fractions is performed. For this purpose, a total of 15 patient datasets were analyzed, which were acquired at Massachusetts General Hospital and Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center with in-room PET and offline PET/CT scanners, respectively. Calculated range differences between the compared activity distributions are reported in a

  1. Systematic Analysis of the Non-Extensive Statistical Approach in High Energy Particle Collisions—Experiment vs. Theory †

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Bíró

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of high-energy particle collisions is an excellent testbed for the non-extensive statistical approach. In these reactions we are far from the thermodynamical limit. In small colliding systems, such as electron-positron or nuclear collisions, the number of particles is several orders of magnitude smaller than the Avogadro number; therefore, finite-size and fluctuation effects strongly influence the final-state one-particle energy distributions. Due to the simple characterization, the description of the identified hadron spectra with the Boltzmann–Gibbs thermodynamical approach is insufficient. These spectra can be described very well with Tsallis–Pareto distributions instead, derived from non-extensive thermodynamics. Using the q-entropy formula, we interpret the microscopic physics in terms of the Tsallis q and T parameters. In this paper we give a view on these parameters, analyzing identified hadron spectra from recent years in a wide center-of-mass energy range. We demonstrate that the fitted Tsallis-parameters show dependency on the center-of-mass energy and particle species (mass. Our findings are described well by a QCD (Quantum Chromodynamics inspired parton evolution ansatz. Based on this comprehensive study, apart from the evolution, both mesonic and baryonic components found to be non-extensive ( q > 1 , besides the mass ordered hierarchy observed in the parameter T. We also study and compare in details the theory-obtained parameters for the case of PYTHIA8 Monte Carlo Generator, perturbative QCD and quark coalescence models.

  2. Elementary analysis of interferometers for wave—particle duality test and the prospect of going beyond the complementarity principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhi-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    A distinct method to show a quantum object behaving both as wave and as particle is proposed and described in some detail. We make a systematic analysis using the elementary methodology of quantum mechanics upon Young's two-slit interferometer and the Mach—Zehnder two-arm interferometer with the focus placed on how to measure the interference pattern (wave nature) and the which-way information (particle nature) of quantum objects. We design several schemes to simultaneously acquire the which-way information for an individual quantum object and the high-contrast interference pattern for an ensemble of these quantum objects by placing two sets of measurement instruments that are well separated in space and whose perturbation of each other is negligibly small within the interferometer at the same time. Yet, improper arrangement and cooperation of these two sets of measurement instruments in the interferometer would lead to failure of simultaneous observation of wave and particle behaviors. The internal freedoms of quantum objects could be harnessed to probe both the which-way information and the interference pattern for the center-of-mass motion. That quantum objects can behave beyond the wave—particle duality and the complementarity principle would stimulate new conceptual examination and exploration of quantum theory at a deeper level. (general)

  3. Qualitative analysis of barium particles coated in small intestinal mucosa of rabbit by using scanning electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong Suk; Ha, Hyun Kwon; Lee, Yang Seob; Kim, Jae Kyun; Yoon, Seong Eon; Kim, Jung Hoon; Chung, Dong Jin; Auh, Yong Ho

    1998-01-01

    To qualitatively analysed barium coating status in the intestinal mucosa, we used scanning electron microscopy to observe barium particles coated in the small intestinal mucosa of rabbit, and we attempted to assess the relationship between electron microscopic findings and radiographic densities. Six different combination of barium and methylcellulose suspensions were infused into the resected small intestines of 15 rabbits. Barium powders were mixed with water to make 40% and 70% w/v barium solutions, and also mixed with 0.5% methylcellulose solutions were used as a double contrast agent. After the infusion of barium suspensions, a mammography unit was used to obtain radiographs of the small intestine, and their optical densities were measured by a densitometer. Thereafter, photographs of barium-coated small intestinal mucosa were obtained using a scanning electron microscope (x 8,000), and the number of barium particles in the unit area were measured. To compare the relationship between the electron microscopic findings and optical densities, statistical analysis using Spearman correlation was performed. This study shows that by using scanning electron microscopy, barium particles coated on the small intestinal mucosa can be qualitatively analysed. It also shows that the number of small barium particles measured by scanning electron microscopy is related to optical densities. (author). 14 refs., 2 figs

  4. Cluster-guided imaging-based CFD analysis of airflow and particle deposition in asthmatic human lungs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jiwoong; Leblanc, Lawrence; Choi, Sanghun; Haghighi, Babak; Hoffman, Eric; Lin, Ching-Long

    2017-11-01

    The goal of this study is to assess inter-subject variability in delivery of orally inhaled drug products to small airways in asthmatic lungs. A recent multiscale imaging-based cluster analysis (MICA) of computed tomography (CT) lung images in an asthmatic cohort identified four clusters with statistically distinct structural and functional phenotypes associating with unique clinical biomarkers. Thus, we aimed to address inter-subject variability via inter-cluster variability. We selected a representative subject from each of the 4 asthma clusters as well as 1 male and 1 female healthy controls, and performed computational fluid and particle simulations on CT-based airway models of these subjects. The results from one severe and one non-severe asthmatic cluster subjects characterized by segmental airway constriction had increased particle deposition efficiency, as compared with the other two cluster subjects (one non-severe and one severe asthmatics) without airway constriction. Constriction-induced jets impinging on distal bifurcations led to excessive particle deposition. The results emphasize the impact of airway constriction on regional particle deposition rather than disease severity, demonstrating the potential of using cluster membership to tailor drug delivery. NIH Grants U01HL114494 and S10-RR022421, and FDA Grant U01FD005837. XSEDE.

  5. Cooling Curve Analysis of Micro- and Nanographite Particle-Embedded Salt-PCMs for Thermal Energy Storage Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudheer, R.; Prabhu, K. N.

    2017-08-01

    In recent years, the focus of phase change materials (PCM) research was on the development of salt mixtures with particle additives to improve their thermal energy storage (TES) functionalities. The effect of addition of microsized (50 μm) and nanosized (400 nm) graphite particles on TES parameters of potassium nitrate was analyzed in this work. A novel technique of computer-aided cooling curve analysis was employed here to study the suitability of large inhomogeneous PCM samples. The addition of graphite micro- and nanoparticles reduced the solidification time of the PCM significantly enhancing the heat removal rates, in the first thermal cycle. The benefits of dispersing nanoparticles diminished in successive 10 thermal cycles, and its performance was comparable to the microparticle-embedded PCM thereafter. The decay of TES functionalities on thermal cycling is attributed to the agglomeration of nanoparticles which was observed in SEM images. The thermal diffusivity property of the PCM decreased with addition of graphite particles. With no considerable change in the cooling rates and a simultaneous decrease in thermal diffusivity, it is concluded that the addition of graphite particles increased the specific heat capacity of the PCM. It is also suggested that the additive concentration should not be greater than 0.1% by weight of the PCM sample.

  6. On the ontology of the elementary particles. A philosophical analysis of the actual elementary-particle physics; Zur Ontologie der Elementarteilchen. Eine philosophische Analyse der aktuellen Elementarteilchenphysik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueckner, Thomas Christian

    2015-07-01

    After a description of the standard model of elementary-particle physics the author describes structuralistic reconstructions. Then the problem of the theoretical terms is discussed. Therafter the reconstruction of the standard-model elementary particles is described. Finally the ontology of leptons, quarks and both free and in atoms bound protons is considered.

  7. The connection between solar wind charged particles and tornadoes: Case analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovanović Milan M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The temperature of charged particles coming from the Sun ranges from several hundred thousands to several millions °C, in extreme cases. Theoretical possibilities of the hydrodynamic air mass seizing by charged particles, i. e. solar wind, are discussed in this paper. On one hand, they are characterized by extremely high temperatures, on the other, by the compression of cold air at an approximate altitude of 90 km towards the top of the cloud of the cyclone, they influence the phenomenon of extremely low temperatures. By using the Mann-Whitney U test we have tried to determine the potential link between certain indicators of solar activity and resulting disturbances in the atmosphere. Analyzed data refer to global daily values for the 2004-2010 period. Our results confirm the possibility of coupling between the charged particles and the vortex air mass movements, based on which a more detailed study of the appearance of a tornado near Sombor on May 12th, 2010, was carried out. It has also been proven that there are grounds for a causality between the sudden arrival of the solar wind charged particles, i. e. protons, and the appearance of a tornado. Based on the presented approach, elements for an entirely novel prediction model are given. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III47007 i br. 176008

  8. alpha-particle radioactivity from LR 115 by two methods of analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Azkour, K; Adloff, J C; Pape, A

    1999-01-01

    LR115 track detectors were exposed to samples of Moroccan phosphate and phosphogypsum to measure their alpha-particle radioactivity. Then two formalisms were used for the dosimetry: simulation by a Monte Carlo method and determination of concentrations from a numerically integrated track registration equation. The results were compared with those deduced gamma-ray spectrometry.

  9. Kinematical analysis of the data from three-particle reactions by statistical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krug, J.; Nocken, U.

    1976-01-01

    A statistical procedure to unfold the kinematics of coincidence spectra from three-particle reactions is presented which is used to protect the coincidence events on the kinematical curve. The width of the projection intervals automatically matches the experimental resolution.. The method is characterized by its consistency thus also permitting a reasonable projection of sum-coincidences. (Auth.)

  10. Particle Image Velocimetry and Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of Fuel Cell Manifold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebæk, Jesper; Blazniak Andreasen, Marcin; Andresen, Henrik Assenholm

    2010-01-01

    The inlet effect on the manifold flow in a fuel cell stack was investigated by means of numerical methods (computational fluid dynamics) and experimental methods (particle image velocimetry). At a simulated high current density situation the flow field was mapped on a 70 cell simulated cathode...

  11. NRABASE 2.0. Charged-particle nuclear reaction data for ion beam analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurbich, A.F.

    1997-01-01

    For 30 targets between H-1 and Ag-109, differential cross sections for reactions induced by protons, deuterons, He-3 and alpha particles are given in tabular and graphical form. The data were compiled from original experimental references. The database was developed under a research contract with the IAEA Physics Section and is available on diskette from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section. (author)

  12. Numerical sedimentation particle-size analysis using the Discrete Element Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, R.; Pérez-Aparicio, J. L.; Gómez-Hernández, J. J.

    2015-12-01

    Sedimentation tests are widely used to determine the particle size distribution of a granular sample. In this work, the Discrete Element Method interacts with the simulation of flow using the well known one-way-coupling method, a computationally affordable approach for the time-consuming numerical simulation of the hydrometer, buoyancy and pipette sedimentation tests. These tests are used in the laboratory to determine the particle-size distribution of fine-grained aggregates. Five samples with different particle-size distributions are modeled by about six million rigid spheres projected on two-dimensions, with diameters ranging from 2.5 ×10-6 m to 70 ×10-6 m, forming a water suspension in a sedimentation cylinder. DEM simulates the particle's movement considering laminar flow interactions of buoyant, drag and lubrication forces. The simulation provides the temporal/spatial distributions of densities and concentrations of the suspension. The numerical simulations cannot replace the laboratory tests since they need the final granulometry as initial data, but, as the results show, these simulations can identify the strong and weak points of each method and eventually recommend useful variations and draw conclusions on their validity, aspects very difficult to achieve in the laboratory.

  13. Analysis of propeller-induced ground vortices by particle image velocimetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Y.; Sciacchitano, A.; Veldhuis, L.L.M.; Eitelberg, G.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: The interaction between a propeller and its self-induced vortices originating on the ground is investigated in a scaled experiment. The velocity distribution in the flow field in two different planes containing the self-induced vortices is measured by particle image velocimetry (PIV).

  14. The application of particle image velocimetry for the analysis of high-speed craft hydrodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobi, G.; Thill, C.H.; Huijsmans, R.H.M.; Huijsmans, R.H.M.

    2016-01-01

    The particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique has become a reliable method for capturing the velocity field and its derivatives, even in complex flows and is now also widely used for validation of numerical codes. As the imaging system is sensitive to vibrations, the application in environments

  15. Lattice strain estimation for CoAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} nano particles using Williamson-Hall analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aly, Kamal A., E-mail: kamalaly2001@gmail.com [Physics Department, Faculty of Science & Arts, Khulais, University of Jeddah, Jiddah (Saudi Arabia); Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Assiut Branch, Assiut (Egypt); Khalil, N.M. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science & Arts, Khulais, University of Jeddah, Jiddah (Saudi Arabia); Refractories, Ceramics and Building Materials Department, National Research Centre, 12311 Cairo (Egypt); Algamal, Yousif [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science & Arts, Khulais, University of Jeddah, Jiddah (Saudi Arabia); Saleem, Qaid M.A. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science & Arts, Khulais, University of Jeddah, Jiddah (Saudi Arabia); Chemistry Department, Faculty of Education, Aden University, Sabwa (Yemen)

    2016-08-15

    CoAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were prepared via coprecipitation technique through mixing 1:1 M ratio of cobalt nitrate and aluminium nitrate solutions at pH 10. CoAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} crystalline phase was confirmed by X-ray diffraction. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) result reveals that the particles of CoAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} fired at 900 °C were relatively small (21 nm) and uniform. Increased temperature to 1200 °C gives rise to blocky particles and changes in the powders shape, that because of agglomeration came from the calcination of CoAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}. Furthermore, the particle size increase with increasing the calcinated temperature. The crystalline sizes were evaluated by using X-ray peak broadening analysis suggested by Williamson-Hall (W-H) analysis. It was successfully applied for lattice strain and to calculate mechanical stress and energy density values using different three models namely uniform deformation model (UDM), uniform deformation stress model (UDSM) and uniform deformation energy density model (UDEDM). Also, the root mean square strain was determined. These models gave a different strain values which suggested an isotropic nature of the nanoparticles. Besides, the obtained results W-H analysis are in good agreement with that deduced from SEM analysis and Scherrer's formula. - Highlights: • CoAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were prepared via coprecipitation technique. • CoAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were characterized by SEM and XRD. • the lattice size and strain were investigated according to W-H analysis. • The latic size were investigated by W-H analysis, SEM and Sherrar's method. • The root mean square strain was determined.

  16. Detection and analysis of particles with failed SiC in AGR-1 fuel compacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunn, John D., E-mail: hunnjd@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6093 (United States); Baldwin, Charles A.; Gerczak, Tyler J.; Montgomery, Fred C.; Morris, Robert N.; Silva, Chinthaka M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6093 (United States); Demkowicz, Paul A.; Harp, Jason M.; Ploger, Scott A. [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-6188 (United States)

    2016-09-15

    Highlights: • Cesium release was used to detect SiC failure in HTGR fuel. • Tristructural-isotropic particles with SiC failure were isolated by gamma screening. • SiC failure was studied by X-ray tomography and SEM. • SiC degradation was observed after irradiation and subsequent safety testing. - Abstract: As the primary barrier to release of radioactive isotopes emitted from the fuel kernel, retention performance of the SiC layer in tristructural isotropic (TRISO) coated particles is critical to the overall safety of reactors that utilize this fuel design. Most isotopes are well-retained by intact SiC coatings, so pathways through this layer due to cracking, structural defects, or chemical attack can significantly contribute to radioisotope release. In the US TRISO fuel development effort, release of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs are used to detect SiC failure during fuel compact irradiation and safety testing because the amount of cesium released by a compact containing one particle with failed SiC is typically ten or more times higher than that released by compacts without failed SiC. Compacts with particles that released cesium during irradiation testing or post-irradiation safety testing at 1600–1800 °C were identified, and individual particles with abnormally low cesium retention were sorted out with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Irradiated Microsphere Gamma Analyzer (IMGA). X-ray tomography was used for three-dimensional imaging of the internal coating structure to locate low-density pathways through the SiC layer and guide subsequent materialography by optical and scanning electron microscopy. All three cesium-releasing particles recovered from as-irradiated compacts showed a region where the inner pyrocarbon (IPyC) had cracked due to radiation-induced dimensional changes in the shrinking buffer and the exposed SiC had experienced concentrated attack by palladium; SiC failures observed in particles subjected to safety testing were

  17. Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon 2014/15: Transmission Electron Microscopy Analysis of Aerosol Particles Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buseck, Peter [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)

    2016-03-01

    During two Intensive Operational Periods (IOP), we collected samples at 3-hour intervals for transmission electron microscopy analysis. The resulting transmission electron microscopy images and compositions were analyzed for the samples of interest. Further analysis will be done especially for the plume of interest. We found solid spherical organic particles from rebounded samples collected with Professor Scot Martin’s group (Harvard University). Approximately 30% of the rebounded particles at 95% relative humidity were spherical organic particles. Their sources and formation process are not known, but such spherical particles could be solid and will have heterogeneous chemical reactions. We observed many organic particles that are internally mixed with inorganic elements such as potassium and nitrogen. They are either homogeneously mixed or have inorganic cores with organic aerosol coatings. Samples collected from the Manaus, Brazil, pollution plume included many nano-size soot particles mixed with organic material and sulfate. Aerosol particles from clean periods included organic aerosol particles, sulfate, sea salt, dust, and primary biogenic aerosol particles. There was more dust, primary biogenic aerosol, and tar balls in samples taken during IOP1 than those taken during IOP2. Many dust particles were found between March 2 and 3.

  18. Theoretical and observational analysis of individual ionizing particle effects in biological tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, A.C.

    1980-11-01

    The microstructural damage to living tissue caused by heavy ion radiation was studied. Preliminary tests on rat corneal tissue, rat cerebellar tissue grown in culture, and rat retinal tissue indicated that the best assay for heavy ion damage is the rat cornea. The corneal tissue of the living rat was exposed to beams of carbon at 474 MeV/amu, neon at 8.5 MeV/amu, argon at 8.5 MeV/amu, silicon at 530 MeV/amu, iron at 500 MeV/amu, and iron at 600 MeV/amu. X-rays were also used on corneas to compare with the heavy ion irradiated corneas. Scanning electron microscopy revealed lesions with circular symmetry on the external plasma membranes of corneal epithelium which were irradiated with heavy ions, but similar lesions were not observed on the plasma membranes of x-ray irradiated or non-irradiated control samples. These data verify the special way in which heavy ions interact with matter: each ion interacts coulombically with electrons all along its trajectory to generate a track. The dose from heavy ion radiation is not distributed homogeneously on a tissue microstructural scale but is concentrated along the individual particle track. Even along a single particle track the dose is discontinuous except at the Bragg peak when the LET is maximum. Micrographs of heavy-ion-irradiated corneas demonstrated two significant correlations with the heavy ion beam: (1) the number of plasma membrane lesions per unit area was correlated with the particle fluence, and (2) the diameter of the lesions were linearly related to the energy loss or LET of the individual particle. These observations corroborate what has already been suggested theoretically about heavy ion tracks and what has been shown experimentally. But the new data indicate that particle tracks occur in biological tissues as well, and that a single heavy ion is responsible for each membrane lesion. (ERB)

  19. Theoretical and observational analysis of individual ionizing particle effects in biological tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, A.C.

    1980-11-01

    The microstructural damage to living tissue caused by heavy ion radiation was studied. Preliminary tests on rat corneal tissue, rat cerebellar tissue grown in culture, and rat retinal tissue indicated that the best assay for heavy ion damage is the rat cornea. The corneal tissue of the living rat was exposed to beams of carbon at 474 MeV/amu, neon at 8.5 MeV/amu, argon at 8.5 MeV/amu, silicon at 530 MeV/amu, iron at 500 MeV/amu, and iron at 600 MeV/amu. X-rays were also used on corneas to compare with the heavy ion irradiated corneas. Scanning electron microscopy revealed lesions with circular symmetry on the external plasma membranes of corneal epithelium which were irradiated with heavy ions, but similar lesions were not observed on the plasma membranes of x-ray irradiated or non-irradiated control samples. These data verify the special way in which heavy ions interact with matter: each ion interacts coulombically with electrons all along its trajectory to generate a track. The dose from heavy ion radiation is not distributed homogeneously on a tissue microstructural scale but is concentrated along the individual particle track. Even along a single particle track the dose is discontinuous except at the Bragg peak when the LET is maximum. Micrographs of heavy-ion-irradiated corneas demonstrated two significant correlations with the heavy ion beam: (1) the number of plasma membrane lesions per unit area was correlated with the particle fluence, and (2) the diameter of the lesions were linearly related to the energy loss or LET of the individual particle. These observations corroborate what has already been suggested theoretically about heavy ion tracks and what has been shown experimentally. But the new data indicate that particle tracks occur in biological tissues as well, and that a single heavy ion is responsible for each membrane lesion

  20. Attempt of analysis of the elastic scattering of 44 MeV alpha particles using a phase shift parameterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papiau, Anne-Marie

    1966-01-01

    In order to ease the resolution of the problem of interaction of an alpha particle with a nucleus, and determine simpler hypotheses which enable the analysis of experimental results, this research thesis reports the use of a parameterization of phase shifts to reduce ambiguities and the number of parameters. After general remarks, a description of the Hamiltonian and a formulation of phase shifts, the author presents experimental data and the analytical method. Analysis is then performed for two-, three-, four- or five-parameter formulations. Efficient cross sections are then studied

  1. Analysis of solid particles falling down and interacting in a channel with sedimentation using fictitious boundary method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, K.; Walayat, K.; Mahmood, R.; Kousar, N.

    2018-06-01

    We have examined the behavior of solid particles in particulate flows. The interaction of particles with each other and with the fluid is analyzed. Solid particles can move freely through a fixed computational mesh using an Eulerian approach. Fictitious boundary method (FBM) is used for treating the interaction between particles and the fluid. Hydrodynamic forces acting on the particle's surface are calculated using an explicit volume integral approach. A collision model proposed by Glowinski, Singh, Joseph and coauthors is used to handle particle-wall and particle-particle interactions. The particulate flow is computed using multigrid finite element solver FEATFLOW. Numerical experiments are performed considering two particles falling and colliding and sedimentation of many particles while interacting with each other. Results for these experiments are presented and compared with the reference values. Effects of the particle-particle interaction on the motion of the particles and on the physical behavior of the fluid-particle system has been analyzed.

  2. An Analysis of Spherical Particles Distribution Randomly Packed in a Medium for the Monte Carlo Implicit Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Yong; Kim, Song Hyun; Shin, Chang Ho; Kim, Jong Kyung [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    In this study, as a preliminary study to develop an implicit method having high accuracy, the distribution characteristics of spherical particles were evaluated by using explicit modeling techniques in various volume packing fractions. This study was performed to evaluate implicitly simulated distribution of randomly packed spheres in a medium. At first, an explicit modeling method to simulate random packed spheres in a hexahedron medium was proposed. The distributed characteristics of l{sub p} and r{sub p}, which are used in the particle position sampling, was estimated. It is analyzed that the use of the direct exponential distribution, which is generally used in the implicit modeling, can cause the distribution bias of the spheres. It is expected that the findings in this study can be utilized for improving the accuracy in using the implicit method. Spherical particles, which are randomly distributed in medium, are utilized for the radiation shields, fusion reactor blanket, fuels of VHTR reactors. Due to the difficulty on the simulation of the stochastic distribution, Monte Carlo (MC) method has been mainly considered as the tool for the analysis of the particle transport. For the MC modeling of the spherical particles, three methods are known; repeated structure, explicit modeling, and implicit modeling. Implicit method (called as the track length sampling method) is a modeling method that is the sampling based modeling technique of each spherical geometry (or track length of the sphere) during the MC simulation. Implicit modeling method has advantages in high computational efficiency and user convenience. However, it is noted that the implicit method has lower modeling accuracy in various finite mediums.

  3. FabricS: A user-friendly, complete and robust software for particle shape-fabric analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Chávez, G.; Castillo Rivera, F.; Sarocchi, D.; Borselli, L.; Rodríguez-Sedano, L. A.

    2018-06-01

    Shape-fabric is a textural parameter related to the spatial arrangement of elongated particles in geological samples. Its usefulness spans a range from sedimentary petrology to igneous and metamorphic petrology. Independently of the process being studied, when a material flows, the elongated particles are oriented with the major axis in the direction of flow. In sedimentary petrology this information has been used for studies of paleo-flow direction of turbidites, the origin of quartz sediments, and locating ignimbrite vents, among others. In addition to flow direction and its polarity, the method enables flow rheology to be inferred. The use of shape-fabric has been limited due to the difficulties of automatically measuring particles and analyzing them with reliable circular statistics programs. This has dampened interest in the method for a long time. Shape-fabric measurement has increased in popularity since the 1980s thanks to the development of new image analysis techniques and circular statistics software. However, the programs currently available are unreliable, old and are incompatible with newer operating systems, or require programming skills. The goal of our work is to develop a user-friendly program, in the MATLAB environment, with a graphical user interface, that can process images and includes editing functions, and thresholds (elongation and size) for selecting a particle population and analyzing it with reliable circular statistics algorithms. Moreover, the method also has to produce rose diagrams, orientation vectors, and a complete series of statistical parameters. All these requirements are met by our new software. In this paper, we briefly explain the methodology from collection of oriented samples in the field to the minimum number of particles needed to obtain reliable fabric data. We obtained the data using specific statistical tests and taking into account the degree of iso-orientation of the samples and the required degree of reliability

  4. Use of digital image analysis combined with fractal theory to determine particle morphology and surface texture of quartz sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia S. Araujo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The particle morphology and surface texture play a major role in influencing mechanical and hydraulic behaviors of sandy soils. This paper presents the use of digital image analysis combined with fractal theory as a tool to quantify the particle morphology and surface texture of two types of quartz sands widely used in the region of Vitória, Espírito Santo, southeast of Brazil. The two investigated sands are sampled from different locations. The purpose of this paper is to present a simple, straightforward, reliable and reproducible methodology that can identify representative sandy soil texture parameters. The test results of the soil samples of the two sands separated by sieving into six size fractions are presented and discussed. The main advantages of the adopted methodology are its simplicity, reliability of the results, and relatively low cost. The results show that sands from the coastal spit (BS have a greater degree of roundness and a smoother surface texture than river sands (RS. The values obtained in the test are statistically analyzed, and again it is confirmed that the BS sand has a slightly greater degree of sphericity than that of the RS sand. Moreover, the RS sand with rough surface texture has larger specific surface area values than the similar BS sand, which agree with the obtained roughness fractal dimensions. The consistent experimental results demonstrate that image analysis combined with fractal theory is an accurate and efficient method to quantify the differences in particle morphology and surface texture of quartz sands.

  5. Efficient isotope ratio analysis of uranium particles in swipe samples by total-reflection x-ray fluorescence spectrometry and secondary ion mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esaka, Fumitaka; Watanabe, Kazuo; Fukuyama, Hiroyasu; Onodera, Takashi; Esaka, Konomi T.; Magara, Masaaki; Sakurai, Satoshi; Usuda, Shigekazu

    2004-01-01

    A new particle recovery method and a sensitive screening method were developed for subsequent isotope ratio analysis of uranium particles in safeguards swipe samples. The particles in the swipe sample were recovered onto a carrier by means of vacuum suction-impact collection method. When grease coating was applied to the carrier, the recovery efficiency was improved to 48±9%, which is superior to that of conventionally-used ultrasoneration method. Prior to isotope ratio analysis with secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (TXRF) was applied to screen the sample for the presence of uranium particles. By the use of Si carriers in TXRF analysis, the detection limit of 22 pg was achieved for uranium. By combining these methods with SIMS, the isotope ratios of 235 U/ 238 U for individual uranium particles were efficiently determined. (author)

  6. Guideline for Sampling and Analysis of Tar and Particles in Biomass Producer Gases. Version 3.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neeft, J.P.A.; Knoef, H.A.M.; Zielke, U.; Sjoestroem, K.; Hasler, P.; Simell, P.A.; Dorrington, M.A.; Thomas, L.; Abatzoglou, N.; Deutch, S.; Greil, C.; Buffinga, G.J.; Brage, C.; Suomalainen, M.

    2002-07-01

    This Guideline provides a set of procedures for the measurement of organic contaminants and particles in producer gases from biomass gasifiers. The procedures are designed to cover different gasifier types (updraft or downdraft fixed bed or fluidised bed gasifiers), operating conditions (0 - 900C and 0.6-60 bars) and concentration ranges (1 mg/m{sub n}{sup 3} to 300 g/m{sub n}{sup 3}). The Guideline describes a modular sampling train, and a set of procedures, which include: planning and preparation of the sampling, sampling and post-sampling, analysis, calculations, error analysis and reporting. The modular sampling train consists of 4 modules. Module 1 is a preconditioning module for isokinetic sampling and gas cooling. Module 2 is a particle collection module including a heated filter. Module 3 is a tar collection module with a gas quench (optionally by circulating a liquid), impinger bottles and a backup adsorber. Module 4 is a volume-sampling module consisting of a pump, a rotameter, a gas flow meter and pressure and temperature indicators. The equipment and materials that are required for procuring this modular sampling train are given in the Guideline. The sampling procedures consist of a description for isokinetic sampling, a leakage test prior to sampling, the actual sampling and its duration, how the equipment is cleaned after the sampling, and how the samples are prepared and stored. Analysis of the samples is performed via three procedures. Prior to these procedures, the sample is prepared by Soxhlet extraction of the tars on the particle filter and by collection of all tars in one bulk solution. The first procedure describes the weighing of the particle filter to obtain the concentration of particles in the biomass producer gas. The bulk tar solution is used for two purposes: for determination of gravimetric tar and for analysis of individual compounds. The second procedure describes how to determine the gravimetric tar mass from the bulk solution. The

  7. Cluster analysis of elemental constituents of individual atmospheric aerosol particles from the volcanic plume of Lonquimay eruption in 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koltay, E.; Rajta, I.; Kertesz, Zs.; Uzonyi, I.; Kiss, Z.A.; Morales, J.R.

    2002-01-01

    Aerosol samples collected around the Chilean site Lonquimay during major volcanic activities in January 1989 have been subjected to microPIXE measurements of 1 μm lateral resolution in the Debrecen Institute. Elemental concentrations relative to calcium have been determined for Al, Si, P, S, K, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Ba in 187 individual aerosol particles with the particle sizes between 15 μm and 1 μm. On the basis of a cluster analysis performed on the data set we defined eight clusters. Scatter plots for selected pairs of elements as Si/Al, K/Si, S/Cl, and Al/S elemental ratios that are considered as signatures characterizing types and mechanisms in volcanic eruption - have been compared with published data available in the literature for various volcanic sites. (author)

  8. Portable sample preparation and analysis system for micron and sub-micron particle characterization using light scattering and absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Peter C [Los Alamos, NM; Zurek, Eduardo [Barranquilla, CO; Wheat, Jeffrey V [Fort Walton Beach, FL; Dunbar, John M [Santa Fe, NM; Olivares, Jose A [Los Alamos, NM; Garcia-Rubio, Luis H [Temple Terrace, FL; Ward, Michael D [Los Alamos, NM

    2011-07-26

    There is provided a method and device for remote sampling, preparation and optical interrogation of a sample using light scattering and light absorption methods. The portable device is a filtration-based device that removes interfering background particle material from the sample matrix by segregating or filtering the chosen analyte from the sample solution or matrix while allowing the interfering background particles to be pumped out of the device. The segregated analyte is then suspended in a diluent for analysis. The device is capable of calculating an initial concentration of the analyte, as well as diluting the analyte such that reliable optical measurements can be made. Suitable analytes include cells, microorganisms, bioparticles, pathogens and diseases. Sample matrixes include biological fluids such as blood and urine, as well as environmental samples including waste water.

  9. Development of a PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission) analysis device using an extracted proton beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saidi, A.

    1989-01-01

    The experimental device described allows the extention of the PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission) method to the analysis, by means of proton beams, of solid or liquid samples, which can not be analyzed under vacuum conditions. The homogeneity of the surfaces to be analysed and elements (in the atmosphere) which absorb X-rays must be taken into account. Liquid samples do not need special care. The results show that: at high energies, the extracted beam sensibility is of the same order of magnitude as those obtained under vacuum; at low energies, the performance under vacuum conditions is better. The particles energy losses, at the exit membrane and in the outer atmosphere, decrease the X-rays production efficiency [fr

  10. Application of High-performance Visual Analysis Methods to Laser Wakefield Particle Acceleration Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubel, Oliver; Prabhat, Mr.; Wu, Kesheng; Childs, Hank; Meredith, Jeremy; Geddes, Cameron G.R.; Cormier-Michel, Estelle; Ahern, Sean; Weber, Gunther H.; Messmer, Peter; Hagen, Hans; Hamann, Bernd; Bethel, E. Wes

    2008-01-01

    Our work combines and extends techniques from high-performance scientific data management and visualization to enable scientific researchers to gain insight from extremely large, complex, time-varying laser wakefield particle accelerator simulation data. We extend histogram-based parallel coordinates for use in visual information display as well as an interface for guiding and performing data mining operations, which are based upon multi-dimensional and temporal thresholding and data subsetting operations. To achieve very high performance on parallel computing platforms, we leverage FastBit, a state-of-the-art index/query technology, to accelerate data mining and multi-dimensional histogram computation. We show how these techniques are used in practice by scientific researchers to identify, visualize and analyze a particle beam in a large, time-varying dataset

  11. Theoretical analysis of the particle properties and polarization measurements made in microgravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penttilae, A.; Lumme, K.; Worms, J.C.; Hadamcik, E.; Renard, J.B.; Levasseur-Regourd, A.C.

    2003-01-01

    We propose a new model to describe the shapes of stochastic polyhedra used in the microgravity experiment PROGRA 2 on board the Airbus A300 aircraft. The polarization measurements of scattering of visible light by boron carbide (B 4 C) particles with sizes between 9 and 88 μm can nicely be explained with the derived shape statistics and the (currently unknown) refractive index obtained. For the latter we derive 2 (-0.15/+0.1)+0.04i(-0.0025/+0.015) at 632.8 nm wavelength. The polarization method is a reliable and sensitive means to estimate various particle properties in various remote sensing applications, including the planetary sciences

  12. Theoretical analysis of the particle properties and polarization measurements made in microgravity

    CERN Document Server

    Penttilae, A; Worms, J C; Hadamcik, E; Renard, J B; Levasseur-Regourd, A C

    2003-01-01

    We propose a new model to describe the shapes of stochastic polyhedra used in the microgravity experiment PROGRA sup 2 on board the Airbus A300 aircraft. The polarization measurements of scattering of visible light by boron carbide (B sub 4 C) particles with sizes between 9 and 88 mu m can nicely be explained with the derived shape statistics and the (currently unknown) refractive index obtained. For the latter we derive 2 (-0.15/+0.1)+0.04i(-0.0025/+0.015) at 632.8 nm wavelength. The polarization method is a reliable and sensitive means to estimate various particle properties in various remote sensing applications, including the planetary sciences.

  13. Modeling and analysis of surface roughness effects on sputtering, reflection, and sputtered particle transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, J.N.; Ruzic, D.N.

    1990-01-01

    The microstructure of the redeposited surface in tokamaks may affect sputtering and reflection properties and subsequent particle transport. This subject has been studied numerically using coupled models/codes for near-surface plasma particle kinetic transport (WBC code) and rough surface sputtering (fractal-TRIM). The coupled codes provide an overall Monte Carlo calculation of the sputtering cascade resulting from an initial flux of hydrogen ions. Beryllium, carbon, and tungsten surfaces are analyzed for typical high recycling, oblique magnetic field, divertor conditions. Significant variations in computed sputtering rates are found with surface roughness. Beryllium exhibits high D-T and self-sputtering coefficients for the plasma regime studied (T e = 30-75 eV). Carbon and tungsten sputtering is significantly lower. 9 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  14. Analysis of startup strategies for a particle bed reactor nuclear rocket engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, D. E.

    1993-06-01

    This paper develops and analyzes engine system startup strategies for a particle bed reactor (PBR) nuclear rocket engine. The strategies are designed to maintain stable flow through the PBR fuel element while reaching the design conditions as quickly as possible. The analyses are conducted using a computer model of a representative particle bed reactor and engine system. Elements of the startup strategy considered include: the coordinated control of reactor power and coolant flow; turbine inlet temperature and flow control; and use of an external starter system. The simulation results indicate that the use of an external starter system enables the engine to reach design conditions very quickly while maintaining the flow well away from the unstable regime. If a bootstrap start is used instead, the transient does not progress as fast and approaches closer to the unstable flow regime, but allows for greater engine reusability. These results can provide important information for engine designers and mission planners.

  15. Numerical analysis of energy density and particle density in high energy heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Yuanyong; Lu Zhongdao

    2004-01-01

    Energy density and particle density in high energy heavy-ion collisions are calculated with infinite series expansion method and Gauss-Laguerre formulas in numerical integration separately, and the results of these two methods are compared, the higher terms and linear terms in series expansion are also compared. The results show that Gauss-Laguerre formulas is a good method in calculations of high energy heavy-ion collisions. (author)

  16. Microstructural analysis of TRISO particles using multi-scale X-ray computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowe, T., E-mail: tristan.lowe@manchester.ac.uk [Manchester X-ray Imaging Facility, School of Materials, University of Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Bradley, R.S. [Manchester X-ray Imaging Facility, School of Materials, University of Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Yue, S. [Manchester X-ray Imaging Facility, School of Materials, University of Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); The Research Complex at Harwell, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0FA (United Kingdom); Barii, K. [School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Gelb, J. [Zeiss Xradia Inc., Pleasanton, CA (United States); Rohbeck, N. [Manchester X-ray Imaging Facility, School of Materials, University of Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Turner, J. [School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Withers, P.J. [Manchester X-ray Imaging Facility, School of Materials, University of Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); The Research Complex at Harwell, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0FA (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-15

    TRISO particles, a composite nuclear fuel built up by ceramic and graphitic layers, have outstanding high temperature resistance. TRISO fuel is the key technology for High Temperature Reactors (HTRs) and the Generation IV Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) variant. TRISO offers unparalleled containment of fission products and is extremely robust during accident conditions. An understanding of the thermal performance and mechanical properties of TRISO fuel requires a detailed knowledge of pore sizes, their distribution and interconnectivity. Here 50 nm, nano-, and 1 μm resolution, micro-computed tomography (CT), have been used to quantify non-destructively porosity of a surrogate TRISO particle at the 0.3–10 μm and 3–100 μm scales respectively. This indicates that pore distributions can reliably be measured down to a size approximately 3 times the pixel size which is consistent with the segmentation process. Direct comparison with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) sections indicates that destructive sectioning can introduce significant levels of coarse damage, especially in the pyrolytic carbon layers. Further comparative work is required to identify means of minimizing such damage for SEM studies. Finally since it is non-destructive, multi-scale time-lapse X-ray CT opens the possibility of intermittently tracking the degradation of TRISO structure under thermal cycles or radiation conditions in order to validate models of degradation such as kernel movement. X-ray CT in-situ experimentation of TRISO particles under load and temperature could also be used to understand the internal changes that occur in the particles under accident conditions.

  17. Impact of sensor metal thickness on microwave spectroscopy sensitivity for individual particles and biological cells analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Chen , Wenli; Dubuc , David; Grenier , Katia

    2016-01-01

    International audience; This paper focuses on evaluating the impact of metal thickness of a microwave coplanar based sensor dedicated to the microwave dielectric spectroscopy of single particles and individual biological cells. A sensitivity study has therefore been achieved for metal thicknesses comprised between 0.3 and 20 µm. After the validation of electromagnetic simulations with measurements of 10 μm-diameter polystyrene bead, both capacitive and conductive contrasts have been defined f...

  18. A pedagogical derivation of the matrix element method in particle physics data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumowidagdo, Suharyo

    2018-03-01

    The matrix element method provides a direct connection between the underlying theory of particle physics processes and detector-level physical observables. I am presenting a pedagogically-oriented derivation of the matrix element method, drawing from elementary concepts in probability theory, statistics, and the process of experimental measurements. The level of treatment should be suitable for beginning research student in phenomenology and experimental high energy physics.

  19. Stability analysis of a Vlasov-Wave system describing particles interacting with their environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bièvre, Stephan; Goudon, Thierry; Vavasseur, Arthur

    2018-06-01

    We study a kinetic equation of the Vlasov-Wave type, which arises in the description of the behavior of a large number of particles interacting weakly with an environment, composed of an infinite collection of local vibrational degrees of freedom, modeled by wave equations. We use variational techniques to establish the existence of large families of stationary states for this system, and analyze their stability.

  20. ANTISEPTIC SPRAY BASED ON STABILIZED SILVER PARTICLES: AN ANALYSIS OF ANTISEPTIC PROPERTIES AND COMPREHENSIVE COMPARISON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuilov, A.M.

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. It's known that some antiseptic sprays based on alcohols can provoke the formation of multi-resistant strains of pathogenic microorganisms. In addition, alcoholic antiseptics has a number of restrictions to use, for example, they can't to be used in even the presence of micro-trauma on the skin, their ingression into the body and mucous membranes is unacceptable. Alternative can be natural antiseptics based on colloidal silver or silver nanoparticles, as well as silver in ionic form. However, such antiseptics has low efficacy against the most dangerous strains. Company Modern Biochem Technologies Ltd. announced the development of a portable device that generates a natural and safe antiseptic Dew, based on stabilized silver particles. Antiseptic Dew surpasses the vast majority of antiseptics based on silver, and is not inferior in effectiveness to antiseptics based on alcohols. This work is devoted to testing the declared characteristics of Dew and its comparison with antiseptics based on colloidal silver, silver nanoparticles and isopropyl alcohol. Materials and methods. To test the antiseptic effect of these agents, we used four test strains from the American Type Culture Collection: E. Coli ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus Aureus ATCC 25923, Candida Albicans ATCC 885-653 and Proteus Vulgaris ATCC 4636 with billion concentration of colony forming units in 1 ml (108 – 109 CFU/mL, ln CFU/mL = 19.57 ... 20.72. Sowing and screening of cultures were performed on sterile Petri dishes according to the standard procedure. Antiseptic Dew was prepared by prototype provided by Modern Biochem Technologies. The antiseptics of comparison were purchased in Kharkiv, Ukraine. The treatment of contaminated surfaces was performed using mechanical pump sprayers. In accordance with the internal protocol, 1 ml of antiseptic was sprayed from the distance of 10 cm onto the infected surface. To determine the silver content in the Dew, we were used atomic

  1. Individual particle analysis of aerosols collected under haze and non-haze conditions at a high-elevation mountain site in the North China plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. Li

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The North China plain is a region with megacities and huge populations. Aerosols over the highly polluted area have a significant impact on the regional and global climate. In order to investigate the physical and chemical characteristics of aerosol particles in elevated layers there, observations were carried out at the summit of Mt. Tai (1534 m a.s.l. from 19 to 28 April, 2010, when the air masses were advected from the east (phase-I: 19–21 April, from the south (phase-II: 22–25 April, and from the northwest (phase-III: 26–28 April. Individual aerosol particles were identified with transmission electron microscopy (TEM, new particle formation (NPF and growth events were monitored by a wide-range particle spectrometer, and ion concentrations in PM2.5 were analyzed. During phase-I and phase-II, haze layers caused by anthropogenic pollution were observed, and a high percentage of particles were sulfur-rich (47–49%. In phase-III, the haze disappeared due to the intrusion of cold air from the northwest, and mineral dust particles from deserts were dominant (43%. NPF followed by particle growth during daytime was more pronounced on hazy than on clear days. Particle growth during daytime resulted in an increase of particle geometric mean diameter from 10–22 nm in the morning to 56–96 nm in the evening. TEM analysis suggests that sulfuric acid and secondary organic compounds should be important factors for particle nucleation and growth. However, the presence of fine anthropogenic particles (e.g., soot, metal, and fly ash embedded within S-rich particles indicates that they could weaken NPF and enhance particle growth through condensation and coagulation. Abundant mineral particles in phase-III likely suppressed the NPF processes because they supplied sufficient area on which acidic gases or acids condensed.

  2. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of recombinant hepatitis E virus-like particle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Che-Yen; Miyazaki, Naoyuki; Yamashita, Tetsuo; Higashiura, Akifumi; Nakagawa, Atsushi; Li, Tian-Cheng; Takeda, Naokazu; Xing, Li; Hjalmarsson, Erik; Friberg, Claes; Liou, Der-Ming; Sung, Yen-Jen; Tsukihara, Tomitake; Matsuura, Yoshiharu; Miyamura, Tatsuo; Cheng, R. Holland

    2008-01-01

    A recombinant virus-like particle that is a potential oral hepatitis E vaccine was crystallized. Diffraction data were collected to 8.3 Å resolution and the X-ray structure was phased with the aid of a low-resolution density map determined using cryo-electron microscopy data. Hepatitis E virus (HEV) accounts for the majority of enterically transmitted hepatitis infections worldwide. Currently, there is no specific treatment for or vaccine against HEV. The major structural protein is derived from open reading frame (ORF) 2 of the viral genome. A potential oral vaccine is provided by the virus-like particles formed by a protein construct of partial ORF3 protein (residue 70–123) fused to the N-terminus of the ORF2 protein (residues 112–608). Single crystals obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method at 293 K diffract X-rays to 8.3 Å resolution. The crystals belong to space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 337, b = 343, c = 346 Å, α = β = γ = 90°, and contain one particle per asymmetric unit

  3. Analysis of PM2.5 particles in atmospheric dust of the MZVM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldape U, F.

    2003-01-01

    The objectives and scopes of this report are: to determine the places more representative for the installation of four stations of monitoring of small particles to 2.5 micrometers (PM 2.5 ) guided to protect the population's health in the regions indicated by the General Address of Environmental Administration of the Air (DGGM) of the Government of the Federal District (GDF). To select the places to collect PM 2.5 in each one of the regions under study placing each place inside a contiguous cell of 2 x 2 km. To determine the concentration of PM 2.5 in the selected places. To determine the temporary and space behavior of the fine particles in each one of the regions designated in this study. To determine the elementary concentration of some samples of PM 2.5 in the four regions. The execution of this project will contribute to that the installation of the net of monitoring of particles of PM 2.5 is carried out with scientific foundation. (Author)

  4. Modeling and analysis of large-eddy simulations of particle-laden turbulent boundary layer flows

    KAUST Repository

    Rahman, Mustafa M.

    2017-01-05

    We describe a framework for the large-eddy simulation of solid particles suspended and transported within an incompressible turbulent boundary layer (TBL). For the fluid phase, the large-eddy simulation (LES) of incompressible turbulent boundary layer employs stretched spiral vortex subgrid-scale model and a virtual wall model similar to the work of Cheng, Pullin & Samtaney (J. Fluid Mech., 2015). This LES model is virtually parameter free and involves no active filtering of the computed velocity field. Furthermore, a recycling method to generate turbulent inflow is implemented. For the particle phase, the direct quadrature method of moments (DQMOM) is chosen in which the weights and abscissas of the quadrature approximation are tracked directly rather than the moments themselves. The numerical method in this framework is based on a fractional-step method with an energy-conservative fourth-order finite difference scheme on a staggered mesh. This code is parallelized based on standard message passing interface (MPI) protocol and is designed for distributed-memory machines. It is proposed to utilize this framework to examine transport of particles in very large-scale simulations. The solver is validated using the well know result of Taylor-Green vortex case. A large-scale sandstorm case is simulated and the altitude variations of number density along with its fluctuations are quantified.

  5. Histopathological Analysis of PEEK Wear Particle Effects on the Synovial Tissue of Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, V.; Giurea, A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Increasing interest developed in the use of carbon-fiber-reinforced-poly-ether-ether-ketones (CFR-PEEK) as an alternative bearing material in knee arthroplasty. The effects of CFR-PEEK wear in in vitro and animal studies are controversially discussed, as there are no data available concerning human tissue. The aim of this study was to analyze human tissue containing CFR-PEEK as well as UHMWPE wear debris. The authors hypothesized no difference between the used biomaterials. Methods and Materials. In 10 patients during knee revision surgery of a rotating-hinge-knee-implant-design, synovial tissue samples were achieved (tibial inserts: UHMWPE; bushings and flanges: CFR-PEEK). One additional patient received revision surgery without any PEEK components as a control. The tissue was paraffin-embedded, sliced into 2 μm thick sections, and stained with hematoxylin and eosin in a standard process. A modified panoptical staining was also done. Results. A “wear-type” reaction was seen in the testing and the control group. In all samples, the UHMWPE particles were scattered in the tissue or incorporated in giant cells. CFR-PEEK particles were seen as conglomerates and only could be found next to vessels. CFR-PEEK particles showed no giant-cell reactions. In conclusion, the hypothesis has to be rejected. UHMWPE and PEEK showed a different scatter-behavior in human synovial tissue. PMID:27766256

  6. Development and analysis of startup strategies for particle bed nuclear rocket engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, David E.

    1993-06-01

    The particle bed reactor (PBR) nuclear thermal propulsion rocket engine concept is the focus of the Air Force's Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion program. While much progress has been made in developing the concept, several technical issues remain. Perhaps foremost among these concerns is the issue of flow stability through the porous, heated bed of fuel particles. There are two complementary technical issues associated with this concern: the identification of the flow stability boundary and the design of the engine controller to maintain stable operation. This thesis examines a portion of the latter issue which has yet to be addressed in detail. Specifically, it develops and analyzes general engine system startup strategies which maintain stable flow through the PBR fuel elements while reaching the design conditions as quickly as possible. The PBR engine studies are conducted using a computer model of a representative particle bed reactor and engine system. The computer program utilized is an augmented version of SAFSIM, an existing nuclear thermal propulsion modeling code; the augmentation, dubbed SAFSIM+, was developed by the author and provides a more complete engine system modeling tool.

  7. Analysis of conditions to safety and radiological protection of Brazilian research particle accelerators facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lourenco, Manuel Jacinto Martins

    2010-01-01

    Eleven institutions of education and research in Brazil use particle accelerators, which fulfill different functions and activities. Currently, these institutions employ a total of fifteen accelerators. In this paper, the object of study is the radiological protection of occupationally exposed individuals, the general public and the radiation safety of particle accelerators. Research facilities with accelerators are classified in categories I and II according to the International Atomic Energy Agency or groups IX and X in accordance with the Brazilian National Commission of Nuclear Energy. Of the 15 accelerators in use for research in Brazil, four belong to category I or group X and eleven belong to category II or group IX. The methodology presented and developed in this work was made through the inspection and assessment of safety and radiological protection of thirteen particle accelerators facilities, and its main purpose was to promote safer use of this practice by following established guidelines for safety and radiological protection. The results presented in this work showed the need to create a program, in our country, for the control of safety and radiological protection of this ionizing radiation practice. (author)

  8. Analysis of subcooled boiling with the two-fluid particle interaction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirakawa, Noriyuki; Horie, Hideki; Yamamoto, Yuichi; Tsunoyama, Shigeaki

    2003-01-01

    A particle interaction method called MPS (the Moving Particle Semi-implicit method), which formulates the differential operators in Navier-Stokes' equation as interactions between particles characterized by a kernel function, has been developed in recent years. We have extended this method to a two-fluid system with a potential-type surface tension in order to analyze the two-phase flow without experimental correlation. This extended method (Two-Fluid MPS: TF-MPS) was successfully applied to a subcooled boiling experiment. The most important element in any effective subcooled boiling model is to be able to accurately calculate where significant void fraction appears, that is, the location of the void departure point. The location of the initial void ejection into the subcooled liquid core can be determined fairly well experimentally and conventionally is given in terms of a critical subcooling. We investigated the relation between Stanton and Peclet numbers at the void departure point in the calculated results with TF-MPS method, varying the inlet water velocity to change Peclet number. (author)

  9. Field ion microscopy and 3-D atom probe analysis of Al3Zr particles in 7050 Al alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sha, G.; Cerezo, A.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: For high strength 7xxx series Al alloys, Zr is an important trace alloy element which is often added to optimise properties, having effects such as refining grain size, inhibiting recrystallization, and improving stress corrosion cracking resistance and quench sensitivity. In addition, it has been reported recently that Zr addition also has a significant influence on early stage ageing behaviour of a 7xxx series Al alloy. Zr equilibrium solubility in solid Al is extremely low. After solution or ageing treatment, most Zr is present as small spherical Ai 3 Zr dispersoids approximately 20 nm in diameter, distributed at grain boundaries as well as within the Al matrix. The crystallographic nature of intermetallic phase Al 3 Zr has been well studied in the literatures. So far, no direct measurement of the chemistry of the Al 3 Zr particles in 7xxx series Al alloys has been published. It is unclear if there is significant Zn, Mg or Cu included in the particles. In this research, 3DAP has been employed for the first time to investigate ionisation behaviour of Al 3 Zr particles and determine the chemistry of the particles in 7050 Al alloy. Using field ion microscopy, the local evaporation radius of the Al 3 Zr particle has been measured to be equivalent to 36 nm for a 10 kV tip, less than the equivalent tip radius for the Al matrix of ∼68 nm. Using the matrix Al evaporation field (19 V/nm) as a reference, this allows the evaporation field of Al 3 Zr to be calculated as 35 V/nm, the same as the field calculated for evaporation of Al as Al 2+ (35 V/nm), and that of Zr as Zr 3+ (35 V/nm). This result is consistent with Al 2+ and Zr 3+ being the main species observed in the mass spectrum during analysis of Al 3 Zr particles. Using 3DAP, the chemical compositions of Al 3 Zr particles are determined to be 64.8∼67.7 at% Al, 23.6∼24.8 at% Zr, 6.9∼9.1 at% Zn, 0.4∼0.7 at% Cu, 0.5∼1.2 at% Mg, with a (Al+Zn)/Zr ratio close to 3. Choice of specimen temperature of

  10. Observation and Analysis of Particle Nucleation at a Forest Site in Southeastern US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viney Aneja

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the characteristics of new particle formation at a forest site in southeastern US. Particle size distributions above a Loblolly pine plantation were measured between November 2005 and September 2007 and analyzed by event type and frequency, as well as in relation to meteorological and atmospheric chemical conditions. Nucleation events occurred on 69% of classifiable observation days. Nucleation frequency was highest in spring. The highest daily nucleation (class A and B events frequency (81% was observed in April. The average total particle number concentration on nucleation days was 8,684 cm−3 (10 < Dp < 250 nm and 3,991 cm−3 (10 < Dp < 25 nm with a mode diameter of 28 nm with corresponding values on non-nucleation days of 2,143 cm−3, 655 cm−3, and 44.5 nm, respectively. The annual average growth rate during nucleation events was 2.7 ± 0.3 nm·h−1. Higher growth rates were observed during summer months with highest rates observed in May (5.0 ± 3.6 nm·h−1. Winter months were associated with lower growth rates, the lowest occurring in February (1.2 ± 2.2 nm·h−1. Consistent with other studies, nucleation events were more likely to occur on days with higher radiative flux and lower relative humidity compared to non-nucleation days. The daily minimum in the condensation sink, which typically occurred 2 to 3 h after sunrise, was a good indicator of the timing of nucleation onset. The intensity of the event, indicated by the total particle number concentration, was well correlated with photo-synthetically active radiation, used here as a surrogate for total global radiation, and relative humidity. Even though the role of biogenic VOC in the initial nuclei formation is not understood from this study, the relationships with chemical precursors and secondary aerosol products associated with nucleation, coupled with diurnal boundary layer dynamics and seasonal meteorological patterns, suggest that H2SO4 and biogenic

  11. Analysis of Particle-Dispersed Composites Accounting Stochastically for Interfacial Damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huajian Chang; Michihiko Nakagaki

    2002-01-01

    More and more composite materials have been being utilized in nuclear facilities. While the external loading applied, the stress in composite is concentrated, which is harmful and may cause interfacial damage. The de-bonding and sliding at the interface between matrix and particles are the most common phenomena. In this paper, a statistically elastoplastic constitutive model for particle-dispersed composites is developed by accounting stochastically for both interfacial damage and localized plasticity. The effects of damaged interface on the strain field in composite are considered in two ways. First, the damaged interface between the matrix and the particles makes the strain field inside inclusions is different from that of the particles with perfectly bonded interface. Second, it contributes an additional strain, which is due to the displacement jump at the matrix-inclusion interface. This additional is defined as an integration of displacement jumps between the matrix and the particles over their interface. In present paper, the first part is considered by using a modified Eshelby's S-tensor. After deriving the local relative displacement distributions between matrix and inclusion at the interface, the second contribution of damaged interface to the average strain can be expressed in terms of the corresponding Eigen-strain or the uniform external loading, by introducing the damage-relevant tensors, which are transformation tensors and tends to zero if interfacial damage does not take place. Both the tangential and normal discontinuities at the interface are independently modeled. The model uses statistic scheme with distribution functions in the stress/strain space, so that the meso-local effects of plastic deformation, interfacial damage and their interactions are accounted for. In order to verify the feasibility and performance of the proposed constitutive model, numerical calculations are carried out. It is found that the damaged interface conditions of de

  12. Analysis and Implementation of Particle-to-Particle (P2P) Graphics Processor Unit (GPU) Kernel for Black-Box Adaptive Fast Multipole Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    implementation of the direct interaction called particle-to-particle kernel for a shared-memory single GPU device using the Compute Unified Device Architecture ...GPU-defined P2P kernel we developed using the Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA).9 A brief outline of the rest of this work follows. The...Employed The computing environment used for this work is a 64-node heterogeneous cluster consisting of 48 IBM dx360M4 nodes, each with one Intel Phi

  13. Simulation and analysis of the soot particle size distribution in a turbulent nonpremixed flame

    KAUST Repository

    Lucchesi, Marco

    2017-02-05

    A modeling framework based on Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) is employed to simulate the evolution of the soot particle size distribution in turbulent sooting flames. The stochastic reactor describes the evolution of soot in fluid parcels following Lagrangian trajectories in a turbulent flow field. The trajectories are sampled from a Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of a n-heptane turbulent nonpremixed flame. The DSMC method is validated against experimentally measured size distributions in laminar premixed flames and found to reproduce quantitatively the experimental results, including the appearance of the second mode at large aggregate sizes and the presence of a trough at mobility diameters in the range 3–8 nm. The model is then applied to the simulation of soot formation and growth in simplified configurations featuring a constant concentration of soot precursors and the evolution of the size distribution in time is found to depend on the intensity of the nucleation rate. Higher nucleation rates lead to a higher peak in number density and to the size distribution attaining its second mode sooner. The ensemble-averaged PSDF in the turbulent flame is computed from individual samples of the PSDF from large sets of Lagrangian trajectories. This statistical measure is equivalent to time-averaged, scanning mobility particle size (SMPS) measurements in turbulent flames. Although individual trajectories display strong bimodality as in laminar flames, the ensemble-average PSDF possesses only one mode and a long, broad tail, which implies significant polydispersity induced by turbulence. Our results agree very well with SMPS measurements available in the literature. Conditioning on key features of the trajectory, such as mixture fraction or radial locations does not reduce the scatter in the size distributions and the ensemble-averaged PSDF remains broad. The results highlight and explain the important role of turbulence in broadening the size distribution of

  14. A flame particle tracking analysis of turbulence–chemistry interaction in hydrogen–air premixed flames

    KAUST Repository

    Uranakara, Harshavardhana A.; Chaudhuri, Swetaprovo; Dave, Himanshu L.; Arias, Paul G.; Im, Hong G.

    2015-01-01

    Interactions of turbulence, molecular transport, and energy transport, coupled with chemistry play a crucial role in the evolution of flame surface geometry, propagation, annihilation, and local extinction/re-ignition characteristics of intensely turbulent premixed flames. This study seeks to understand how these interactions affect flame surface annihilation of lean hydrogen–air premixed turbulent flames. Direct numerical simulations (DNSs) are conducted at different parametric conditions with a detailed reaction mechanism and transport properties for hydrogen–air flames. Flame particle tracking (FPT) technique is used to follow specific flame surface segments. An analytical expression for the local displacement flame speed (Sd) of a temperature isosurface is considered, and the contributions of transport, chemistry, and kinematics on the displacement flame speed at different turbulence-flame interaction conditions are identified. In general, the displacement flame speed for the flame particles is found to increase with time for all conditions considered. This is because, eventually all flame surfaces and their resident flame particles approach annihilation by reactant island formation at the end of stretching and folding processes induced by turbulence. Statistics of principal curvature evolving in time, obtained using FPT, suggest that these islands are ellipsoidal on average enclosing fresh reactants. Further examinations show that the increase in Sd is caused by the increased negative curvature of the flame surface and eventual homogenization of temperature gradients as these reactant islands shrink due to flame propagation and turbulent mixing. Finally, the evolution of the normalized, averaged, displacement flame speed vs. stretch Karlovitz number are found to collapse on a narrow band, suggesting that a unified description of flame speed dependence on stretch rate may be possible in the Lagrangian description.

  15. A flame particle tracking analysis of turbulence–chemistry interaction in hydrogen–air premixed flames

    KAUST Repository

    Uranakara, Harshavardhana A.

    2015-11-21

    Interactions of turbulence, molecular transport, and energy transport, coupled with chemistry play a crucial role in the evolution of flame surface geometry, propagation, annihilation, and local extinction/re-ignition characteristics of intensely turbulent premixed flames. This study seeks to understand how these interactions affect flame surface annihilation of lean hydrogen–air premixed turbulent flames. Direct numerical simulations (DNSs) are conducted at different parametric conditions with a detailed reaction mechanism and transport properties for hydrogen–air flames. Flame particle tracking (FPT) technique is used to follow specific flame surface segments. An analytical expression for the local displacement flame speed (Sd) of a temperature isosurface is considered, and the contributions of transport, chemistry, and kinematics on the displacement flame speed at different turbulence-flame interaction conditions are identified. In general, the displacement flame speed for the flame particles is found to increase with time for all conditions considered. This is because, eventually all flame surfaces and their resident flame particles approach annihilation by reactant island formation at the end of stretching and folding processes induced by turbulence. Statistics of principal curvature evolving in time, obtained using FPT, suggest that these islands are ellipsoidal on average enclosing fresh reactants. Further examinations show that the increase in Sd is caused by the increased negative curvature of the flame surface and eventual homogenization of temperature gradients as these reactant islands shrink due to flame propagation and turbulent mixing. Finally, the evolution of the normalized, averaged, displacement flame speed vs. stretch Karlovitz number are found to collapse on a narrow band, suggesting that a unified description of flame speed dependence on stretch rate may be possible in the Lagrangian description.

  16. Influence of particle size and mineral phase in the analysis of iron ore slurries by Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaud, Daniel; Leclerc, Remi; Proulx, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) was applied to the analysis of iron ore concentrates. The objective was to determine the influence of particle size and mineral phase on the LIBS signal. The LIBS spectra of hematite and magnetite ore concentrates were qualitatively indistinguishable from each other but magnetite yielded systematically less than hematite. This behavior could be set into an empirical equation to correct the iron peak intensities according to the level of magnetite in the analyzed sample. Similarly, an increase of the LIBS signal was observed as the particle size of the ore samples decreased. Again, an equation could be written down to correct the intensity of either iron or silicon in response to a variation of the average particle size of the ore concentrate. Using these corrections, proper response of the silicon signal against the concentration of silica in the samples was restored. The observed dependence of the strength of the iron signal upon the mineral phase is attributed to oxidation of magnetite into hematite

  17. Single Particle Differentiation through 2D Optical Fiber Trapping and Back-Scattered Signal Statistical Analysis: An Exploratory Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Joana S; Ribeiro, Rita S R; Cunha, João P S; Rosa, Carla C; Jorge, Pedro A S

    2018-02-27

    Recent trends on microbiology point out the urge to develop optical micro-tools with multifunctionalities such as simultaneous manipulation and sensing. Considering that miniaturization has been recognized as one of the most important paradigms of emerging sensing biotechnologies, optical fiber tools, including Optical Fiber Tweezers (OFTs), are suitable candidates for developing multifunctional small sensors for Medicine and Biology. OFTs are flexible and versatile optotools based on fibers with one extremity patterned to form a micro-lens. These are able to focus laser beams and exert forces onto microparticles strong enough (piconewtons) to trap and manipulate them. In this paper, through an exploratory analysis of a 45 features set, including time and frequency-domain parameters of the back-scattered signal of particles trapped by a polymeric lens, we created a novel single feature able to differentiate synthetic particles (PMMA and Polystyrene) from living yeasts cells. This single statistical feature can be useful for the development of label-free hybrid optical fiber sensors with applications in infectious diseases detection or cells sorting. It can also contribute, by revealing the most significant information that can be extracted from the scattered signal, to the development of a simpler method for particles characterization (in terms of composition, heterogeneity degree) than existent technologies.

  18. A comparison of single particle tracking and temporal image correlation spectroscopy for quantitative analysis of endosome motility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, F. W.; Wustner, D.

    2013-01-01

    Single particle tracking (SPT) is becoming a standard method to extract transport parameters from time-lapse image sequences of fluorescent vesicles in living cells. Another method to obtain these data is temporal image correlation spectroscopy (TICS), but this method is less often used for measu......Single particle tracking (SPT) is becoming a standard method to extract transport parameters from time-lapse image sequences of fluorescent vesicles in living cells. Another method to obtain these data is temporal image correlation spectroscopy (TICS), but this method is less often used...... for measurement of intracellular vesicle transport. Here, we present an extensive comparison of SPT and TICS. First we examine the effect of photobleaching, shading and noise on SPT and TICS analysis using simulated image sequences. To this end, we developed a simple photophysical model, which relates spatially...... varying illumination intensity to the bleaching propensity and fluorescence intensity of the moving particles. We found that neither SPT nor TICS are affected by photobleaching per se, but the transport parameters obtained by both methods are sensitive to the signal-to-noise ratio. In addition, the number...

  19. Analysis of the RNA species isolated from defective particles of vesicular stomatitis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, R; Banerjee, A K

    1976-10-01

    Serial high multiplicity passage of a cloned stock of vesicular stomatitis virus was found to generate defective interfering particles containing three size classes of RNA, with sedimentaiton coefficients of 31 S, 23 S and 19 S. The 31 S and 23 S RNA species were found to be complementary to both the 12 to 18 S and 31 S size classes of VSV mRNAs. The 19 S class of RNA was found to be partially base-paired. All three RNA species were found to contain ppAp at their 5' termini.

  20. Analysis of the initiating events in HIV-1 particle assembly and genome packaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebla B Kutluay

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available HIV-1 Gag drives a number of events during the genesis of virions and is the only viral protein required for the assembly of virus-like particles in vitro and in cells. Although a reasonable understanding of the processes that accompany the later stages of HIV-1 assembly has accrued, events that occur at the initiation of assembly are less well defined. In this regard, important uncertainties include where in the cell Gag first multimerizes and interacts with the viral RNA, and whether Gag-RNA interaction requires or induces Gag multimerization in a living cell. To address these questions, we developed assays in which protein crosslinking and RNA/protein co-immunoprecipitation were coupled with membrane flotation analyses in transfected or infected cells. We found that interaction between Gag and viral RNA occurred in the cytoplasm and was independent of the ability of Gag to localize to the plasma membrane. However, Gag:RNA binding was stabilized by the C-terminal domain (CTD of capsid (CA, which participates in Gag-Gag interactions. We also found that Gag was present as monomers and low-order multimers (e.g. dimers but did not form higher-order multimers in the cytoplasm. Rather, high-order multimers formed only at the plasma membrane and required the presence of a membrane-binding signal, but not a Gag domain (the CA-CTD that is essential for complete particle assembly. Finally, sequential RNA-immunoprecipitation assays indicated that at least a fraction of Gag molecules can form multimers on viral genomes in the cytoplasm. Taken together, our results suggest that HIV-1 particle assembly is initiated by the interaction between Gag and viral RNA in the cytoplasm and that this initial Gag-RNA encounter involves Gag monomers or low order multimers. These interactions per se do not induce or require high-order Gag multimerization in the cytoplasm. Instead, membrane interactions are necessary for higher order Gag multimerization and subsequent

  1. Particle balance analysis on carbon sheet pump applied to the GAMMA10 tandem mirror plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishimoto, Yuki; Nakashima, Yousuke; Ishinuki, Eiichi; Kobayashi, Shinji; Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Tamano, Teruo; Yatsu, Kiyoshi; Sagara, Akio

    2000-01-01

    Carbon Sheet Pump (CSP) is expected as a tool for reduction of hydrogen recycling. In this paper, particle balance in the CSP is described. The pumping efficiencies estimated from the time evolution of hydrogen pressures during plasma discharges and those estimated from the thermal desorption experiments have no remarkable difference between the cases of 30degC and 200degC within experimental errors. In cases that CSP is used in actual plasma conditions, we established a method which reduces adsorbed gases on the CSP surface with sustaining a sufficient pumping efficiency by continuously heating CSP. (author)

  2. Statistical analysis of non-homogeneous Poisson processes. Statistical processing of a particle multidetector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacombe, J.P.

    1985-12-01

    Statistic study of Poisson non-homogeneous and spatial processes is the first part of this thesis. A Neyman-Pearson type test is defined concerning the intensity measurement of these processes. Conditions are given for which consistency of the test is assured, and others giving the asymptotic normality of the test statistics. Then some techniques of statistic processing of Poisson fields and their applications to a particle multidetector study are given. Quality tests of the device are proposed togetherwith signal extraction methods [fr

  3. Particle beam experiments for the analysis of reactive sputtering processes in metals and polymer surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbella, Carles; Grosse-Kreul, Simon; Kreiter, Oliver; Arcos, Teresa de los; Benedikt, Jan; Keudell, Achim von [RD Plasmas with Complex Interactions, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Universitätsstr. 150, 44780 Bochum (Germany)

    2013-10-15

    A beam experiment is presented to study heterogeneous reactions relevant to plasma-surface interactions in reactive sputtering applications. Atom and ion sources are focused onto the sample to expose it to quantified beams of oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, noble gas ions, and metal vapor. The heterogeneous surface processes are monitored in situ by means of a quartz crystal microbalance and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Two examples illustrate the capabilities of the particle beam setup: oxidation and nitriding of aluminum as a model of target poisoning during reactive magnetron sputtering, and plasma pre-treatment of polymers (PET, PP)

  4. Analysis of bound-state spectra near the threshold of neutral particle interaction potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ou Fang; Cao Zhuangqi; Chen Jianping; Xu Junjie

    2006-01-01

    It is understood that conventional semiclassical approximations deteriorate towards threshold in a typical neutral particle interaction potential which is important for the study of ultra-cold atoms and molecules. In this Letter we give an example of the Lennard-Jones potential with tuning of the strength parameter on the basis of the analytical transfer matrix (ATM) method. Highly accurate quantum mechanical results, such as number of the bound states, energy level density and the eigenvalues with extremely low energies have been derived

  5. Numerical Analysis of Particle Interactions with Nuclei in the Framework of Quantum Molecular Dynamic Model

    CERN Document Server

    Amirkhanov, I V; Zemlyanaya, E V; Polanski, A; Puzynina, T P; Uzhinsky, V V

    2004-01-01

    Combinations of the QMD model with various models of nuclear residual de-excitation are considered. The QMD model parameters are fitted; neutron spectra in hadron-nucleus interactions are calculated. The numerical results were compared with analogous calculations by the cascade-evaporation model and with experimental data. The comparison shows that the numerical results are in agreement between each other and with the experimental data for the energies of projectile particles lower than 200-300 MeV for fast neutrons. Cross-sections of isotope yields in the neutron interactions with radioactive iodine, americium, plutonium and others isotopes have been calculated.

  6. On the harmonic analysis of the elastic scattering amplitude of two spinless particles at fixed momentum transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viano, G.A.

    1980-01-01

    The harmonic analysis of the elastic scattering amplitude F(s,t) of two spinless particles, at fixed t<0, is here revisited using the non-euclidean Fourier analysis in the sense of Helgason, and the approach of Ehrenpresis to the special functions. With these techniques it is possible to derive the Fourier and Laplace transforms for the scattering amplitude. Indeed these transforms are obtained by projecting the amplitude on functions which play a role similar to that played by the exponentials on the real line; here we show how to construct these functions, using essentially geometrical tools. Since the harmonic analysis is a decomposition which separates the dynamics from the symmetry of the problem, we obtain an explicit geometrical characterization of those terms which reflect the symmetry

  7. Analysis of the structure, particle morphology and photoluminescent properties of ZnS:Mn2+ nanoparticulate phosphors

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Raleaooa, PV

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Raleaooa_20160_2018.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 1286 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Raleaooa_20160_2018.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Optik - International... journal for Light and Electron Optics Analysis of the structure, particle morphology and photoluminescent properties of ZnS:Mn2+ nanoparticulate phosphors Raleaooa PV Roodt A Mhlongo GH Motaung DE Ntwaeaborwa OM ABSTRACT: The structure...

  8. Instrumental charged-particle activation analysis of several selected elements in biological materials using the internal standard method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi, M.; Masumoto, K.

    1987-01-01

    In order to study instrumental charged-particle activation analysis using the internal standard method, simultaneous determinations of several selected elements such as Ca, Ti, V, Fe, Zn, As, Sr, Zr and Mo, in oyster tissue, brewer's yeast and mussel were carried out by using the respective (p, n) reactions and a personal computer-based gamma-ray spectrometer equipped with a micro-robot for sample changing. In the determination constant amounts of Y and La were added to the sample and comparative standard as exotic internal standards. As a result, it was demonstrated that concentrations of the above elements could be determined accurately and precisely. (author)

  9. Study on reaction mechanism by analysis of kinetic energy spectra of light particles and formation of final products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardina, G.; Mandaglio, G.; Nasirov, A. K.; Anastasi, A.; Curciarello, F.; Fazio, G.

    2018-05-01

    The sensitivity of reaction mechanism in the formation of compound nucleus (CN) by the analysis of kinetic energy spectra of light particles and of reaction products are shown. The dependence of the P CN fusion probability of reactants and W sur survival probability of CN against fission at its deexcitation on the mass and charge symmetries in the entrance channel of heavy-ion collisions, as well as on the neutron numbers is discussed. The possibility of conducting a complex program of investigations of the complete fusion by reliable ways depends on the detailed and refined methods of experimental and theoretical analyses.

  10. Exergetic analysis of refrigeration system of the Pelletron-Linac particle accelerator of the University of Sao Paulo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira Filho, O.B. de

    1993-01-01

    The Pelletron-Linac accelerator of the University of Sao Paulo will use the existing electrostatic Pelletron accelerator as an injector for the linear superconducting accelerator (Linac), to increase the acceleration of the particles. The Linac uses a forced flow circulation helium system to promote continuous refrigeration for long periods of time, at temperatures below or equal to 4,9 K. This paper shows the exergetic analysis of the Pelletron-linac refrigerator, identifying the main sources of irreversibilities and evaluating energetic consumption of the system. An exergy-enthalpy diagram for the helium shows the thermodynamic processes that take place in the refrigeration plant and the exergy losses. (author)

  11. Neutron activation analysis of several elements in the unicellular alga Cyanidium caldarium irradiated by α particles from neutron captured boron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Shuho; Oota, Tadachika; Otani, Mayumi; Aso, Sueo

    1984-01-01

    The TRIGA MARK 2 atomic reactor was used not only for instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) but also as the irradiation source of α particles derived from the 10 B(n, α) 7 Li reaction for biological samples. The acidophilic and thermophilic unicellular alga (Cyanidium caldarium Geitler) was incubated for 20 hours after irradiation and then its elemental concentrations were analysed by INAA. An increase in the quantities of 56 Mn, 28 Al and 38 Cl, and a decrease of 27 Mg and 42 K were detected in the irradiated cells in contrast to non-irradiated cells. (author)

  12. Determination of chlorine in high purity materials by charged particle activation analysis using deuteron beam from VEC accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasgupta, S.; Datta, J.; Chowdhury, D.P.; Verma, R.

    2015-01-01

    The quantitative determination of chlorine by conventional methods viz., AAS, ICP-OES is difficult and erroneous at times due to gaseous nature of elemental chlorine. It is possible to determine chlorine by NAA and charged particle activation analysis (CPAA) producing activation product 38 Cl (t 1/2 = 37.2 min, 1642 (32.8 %), 2168 keV (44 %)). Fast INAA method has been applied to determine Cl in concentration ranges 10 mgkg -1 in some suitable matrices in PCF of DHRUVA reactor with a neutron flux of 10 13 cm -2 s -1 with a detection limit of Cl of ∼1 mgkg -1

  13. Analysis of the dynamic behavior of an intense charged particle beam using the semigroup approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stafford, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    Dynamic models of a charged particle beam subject to external electromagnetic fields are cast into the abstract Cauchy problem form. Various applications of intense charged particle beams, i.e., beams whose self electromagnetic fields are significant, might require, or be enhanced by, the use of dynamic control constructed from suitably processed measurements of the state of the beam. This research provides a mathematical foundation for future engineering development of estimation and control designs for such beams. Beginning with the Vlasov equation, successively simpler models of intense beams are presented, along with their corresponding assumptions. Expression of a model in abstract Cauchy problem form is useful in determining whether the model is well posed. Solutions of well-posed problems can be expressed in terms of a one-parameter semigroup of linear operators. The semigroup point of view allows the application of the rapidly maturing modern control theory of infinite dimensional system. An appropriate underlying Banach space is identified for a simple, but nontrivial, single degree of freedom model (the electrostatic approximation model), and the associated one-parameter semigroup of linear operators is characterized

  14. Phaco-efficiency test and re-aspiration analysis of repulsed particle in phacoemulsification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-hyung; Ko, Dong-Ah; Kim, Jae Yong; Kim, Myoung Joon; Tchah, Hungwon

    2013-04-01

    To measure the efficiency of phacoemulsification, we have developed a new experimental model for testing phaco-efficiency and analyzed re-aspiration of repulsed particles. Using a Kitaro wetlab system, a piece of blood agar (BA) was placed in an artificial chamber and the phacoemulsifier was placed horizontally. The settings of the phacoemulsifier (Infiniti, Alcon Laboratories) were 26 cc/min for aspiration, 350 cc/min for vacuum, and 95 cm of bottle height. The time to remove BAs was measured using Ozil 100 %, Ozil 40 %, and longitudinal 40 % of phaco power. The angle between the re-aspirated BA particles and the axis of the phacoemulsifier (re-aspiration zone, degree) was analyzed. The average time (seconds) to remove BAs was lower in the Ozil 100 % and the Ozil 40 % mode than in the longitudinal mode (0.37 ± 0.39, 0.85 ± 0.57, and 2.22 ± 1.40 respectively, P value < 0.01). Repulsion exceeding 1 mm occurred more frequently in the longitudinal mode than in the Ozil 100 % mode (100 % vs 40 %, P value = 0.01, Fisher's exact test). The average of re-aspiration zone was 25.9 ± 14.5 in the longitudinal 40 % and 54.0 ± 23.0 in the Ozil 40 % (P value = 0.016). The Ozil mode was more efficient than the longitudinal mode. In addition, the Ozil mode provided less repulsion and wider aspiration zone.

  15. Three dimensional analysis of nanoporous silicon particles for Li-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roiban, Lucian, E-mail: lucian.roiban@insa-lyon.fr [Université de Lyon, Insa-Lyon, MATEIS, UMR5510 CNRS, 7 Avenue Jean Capelle, 69621, Villeurbanne cedex (France); Koneti, Siddardha [Université de Lyon, Insa-Lyon, MATEIS, UMR5510 CNRS, 7 Avenue Jean Capelle, 69621, Villeurbanne cedex (France); Wada, Takeshi, E-mail: wada-t@imr.tohoku.ac.jp [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan); Kato, Hidemi [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan); Cadete Santos Aires, Francisco J. [Université de Lyon, Université Lyon1, IRCELYON, UMR5256 CNRS, 2 Avenue Albert Einstein, 69626 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Laboratory of Catalytic Research, National Research Tomsk State University, 36 Lenin Avenue, 634050 Tomsk (Russian Federation); Curelea, Sergiu; Epicier, Thierry; Maire, Eric [Université de Lyon, Insa-Lyon, MATEIS, UMR5510 CNRS, 7 Avenue Jean Capelle, 69621, Villeurbanne cedex (France)

    2017-02-15

    Bulk nanoporous silicon prepared by top-down method form Li-ion batteries was investigated combining different conventional technique such as nitrogen physisorption and high resolution electron microscopy with electron tomography. It was found that the Si nanorods are forming porous aggregates with a half of the volume of the particle occupied by pores. The nanorods are preferentially oriented along the main axis of the aggregate. The porosity and the lack of compaction between the aggregates provide space for the Si expansion during the lithiation process. It was found that the Si nanorods mainly expose the (111) family plane as an external faces. The size distributions of the porous and solid phases in a granule were found to be similar. The pores represent 50% of the total volume of an aggregate. The shape orientation of the particles was quantified and it was found to exhibit a narrow distribution. - Highlights: •Bulk nanoporous silicon for Li-ion batteries is studied by HRTEM and electron tomography. •The crystalline facets of Si nanorods are formed by (111) plains. •The lack of compactness between Si nanorods provides 50% of porous volume. •The Si nanorods are oriented along a preferential axis.

  16. Particle Engulfment and Pushing by Solidifying Interfaces. Pt. 2; Micro-Gravity Experiments and Theoretical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanescu, Doru M.; Juretzko, Frank R.; Dhindaw, Brij K.; Catalina, Adrian; Sen, Subhayu; Curreri, Peter A.

    1998-01-01

    Results of the directional solidification experiments on Particle Engulfment and Pushing by Solidifying Interfaces (PEP) conducted on the space shuttle Columbia during the Life and Microgravity Science Mission are reported. Two pure aluminum (99.999%) 9 mm cylindrical rods, loaded with about 2 vol.% 500 micrometers diameter zirconia particles were melted and resolidified in the microgravity (microg) environment of the shuttle. One sample was processed at step-wise increased solidification velocity, while the other at step-wise decreased velocity. It was found that a pushing-to-engulfment transition (PET) occurred in the velocity range of 0.5 to 1 micrometers. This is smaller than the ground PET velocity of 1.9 to 2.4 micrometers. This demonstrates that natural convection increases the critical velocity. A previously proposed analytical model for PEP was further developed. A major effort to identify and produce data for the surface energy of various interfaces required for calculation was undertaken. The predicted critical velocity for PET was of 0.775 micrometers/s.

  17. Numerical analysis of single particle impact in the context of Cold Spray: a new adhesion model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Profizi, P.; Combescure, A.; Ogawa, K.

    2016-03-01

    A new adhesion model for numerical simulation of single particle impact in the context of Cold Spray is introduced. As in other studies, cohesive forces are put between the particle and substrate to account for adhesion. In this study however, the forces are put only when a local physical criterion is met. The physical phenomenon most often attributed to Cold Spray adhesion is a shear stress instability. The Johnson-Cook material law is used with a shear damage softening law to enable strong localization at the interface without the need for an extremely fine mesh. This localization is then detected as a drop in local yield stress value by the algorithm, which then implements a local cohesive force. The evolution of this cohesive force is defined by an energy dissipative cohesive model, using a surface adhesion energy as a material parameter. Each cohesive link is broken once all its associated surface energy is dissipated. A criterion on the damage value is also used to break a cohesive bond prematurely, to account for the effect of erosion at higher speeds. This model is found to reproduce the Cold Spray-like adhesion behavior with observed critical and maximum speeds.

  18. Development of automatic nuclear emulsion plate analysis system and its application to elementary particle reactions, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ushida, Noriyuki; Otani, Masashi; Kumazaki, Noriyasu

    1984-01-01

    This system is composed of precise coordinate measuring apparatuses, a stage controller and various peripherals, employing NOVA 4/C as the host computer. The analyzed results are given as the output to a printer or an XY plotter. The data required for experiment, sent from Nagoya University and others, are received by the host computer through an acoustic coupler, and stored in floppy disks. This paper contains simple explanation on the monitor for the events which occur immediately after the on-line measurement ''MTF 1'', the XY plotter and the acoustic coupler, which hold important position in the system in spite of low cost, due to the development of useful program, as those were not described in the previous paper. The three-dimensional reconstruction of tracks and various errors, corrective processing and analytical processing after corrective processing as off-line processing are also described. In addition, the application of the system was made to the E-531 neutrino experiment in Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, which attempted to measure the life of the charm particles generated in neutrino reaction with a composite equipment composed of nuclear plates and various counters. First, the outline of the equipment, next, the location of neutrino reaction and the surveillance of charm particle decay using MTF program as the analyzing method at the target, and thirdly, the emulsion-counter data fitting are explained, respectively. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  19. Applications of charged particle induced x-ray analysis to forensic and biological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, B.K.; Beghian, L.E.; Kegel, G.H.R.; Mathur, S.C.; Mittler, A.; Quinn, P.W.

    1974-01-01

    X-ray emission analysis was applied to the analysis of firearm discharge residues on hands for trace elements. It was also applied to the determination of trace element concentrations in the blood of malaria-infected and healthy mice

  20. Single particle and molecular assembly analysis of polyribosomes by single- and double-tilt cryo electron tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myasnikov, Alexander G. [IGBMC (Institute of Genetics and of Molecular and Cellular Biology), Department of Integrative Structural Biology, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) UMR 7104/ Institut National de la Santé de la Recherche Médicale INSERM U964/ Université de Strasbourg, 1 rue Laurent Fries, 67404 Illkirch (France); Afonina, Zhanna A. [Institute of Protein Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, 142290 Pushchino, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Klaholz, Bruno P., E-mail: klaholz@igbmc.fr [IGBMC (Institute of Genetics and of Molecular and Cellular Biology), Department of Integrative Structural Biology, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) UMR 7104/ Institut National de la Santé de la Recherche Médicale INSERM U964/ Université de Strasbourg, 1 rue Laurent Fries, 67404 Illkirch (France)

    2013-03-15

    Cryo electron tomography (cryo-ET) can provide cellular and molecular structural information on various biological samples. However, the detailed interpretation of tomograms reconstructed from single-tilt data tends to suffer from low signal-to-noise ratio and artefacts caused by some systematically missing angular views. While these can be overcome by sub-tomogram averaging, they remain limiting for the analysis of unique structures. Double-tilt ET can improve the tomogram quality by acquiring a second tilt series after an in-plane rotation, but its usage is not widespread yet because it is considered technically demanding and it is rarely used under cryo conditions. Here we show that double-tilt cryo-ET improves the quality of 3D reconstructions so significantly that even single particle analysis can be envisaged despite of the intrinsically low image contrast obtained from frozen-hydrated specimens. This is illustrated by the analysis of eukaryotic polyribosomes in which individual ribosomes were reconstructed using single-tilt, partial and full double-tilt geometries. The improved tomograms favour the faster convergence of iterative sub-tomogram averaging and allow a better 3D classification using multivariate statistical analysis. Our study of single particles and molecular assemblies within polysomes illustrates that the dual-axis approach is particularly useful for cryo applications of ET, both for unique objects and for structures that can be classified and averaged. - Highlights: ► Double-tilt cryo-ET improves 3D reconstructions thus making single particle analysis possible. ► Dual-axis cryo-ET data favour a faster convergence of iterative sub-tomogram averaging. ► Individual ribosomes were reconstructed from single-tilt, partial/ full double-tilt geometries. ► Double-tilt cryo-ET facilitates analysis of larger molecular assemblies such as in cell sections. ► Dual-axis cryo-ET is applicable to unique objects and to structures that can be

  1. Solar Particle Radiation Storms Forecasting and Analysis within the Framework of the `HESPERIA' HORIZON 2020 Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, A.; Malandraki, O.; Nunez, M.; Heber, B.; Labrenz, J.; Kühl, P.; Milas, N.; Tsiropoula, G.; Pavlos, E.

    2017-12-01

    Two prediction tools that have been developed in the framework of HESPERIA based upon the proven concepts UMASEP and REleASE. Near-relativistic (NR) electrons traveling faster than ions (30 MeV protons have 0.25c) are used to forecast the arrival of protons of Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) events with real-time measurements of NR electrons. The faster electrons arrive at L1 30 to 90 minutes before the slower protons. REleASE (Relativistic Electron Alert System for Exploration, Posner, 2007) uses this effect to predict the proton flux by utilizing actual electron fluxes and their most recent increases. Through HESPERIA, a clone of REleASE was built in open source programming language. The same forecasting principle was adapted to real-time data from ACE/EPAM. It is shown that HESPERIA REleASE forecasting works with any NR electron flux measurements. >500 MeV solar protons are so energetic that they usually have effects on the ground, producing Ground Level Enhancement (GLE) events. Within HESPERIA, a predictor of >500 SEP proton events near earth (geostationary orbit) has been developed. In order to predict these events, UMASEP (Núñez, 2011, 2015) has been used. UMASEP makes a lag-correlation of solar electromagnetic (EM) flux with the particle flux near earth. If the correlation is high, the model infers that there is a magnetic connection through which particles are arriving. If, additionally, the intensity of the flux of the associated solar event is also high, then UMASEP issues a SEP prediction. In the case of the prediction of >500 MeV SEP events, the implemented system, called HESPERIA UMASEP-500, correlates X-ray flux with differential proton fluxes by GOES, and with fluxes collected by neutron monitor stations around the world. When the correlation estimation and flare surpasses thresholds, a >500 MeV SEP forecast is issued. These findings suggest that a synthesis of the various approaches may improve over the status quo. Both forecasting tools are

  2. Numerical analysis of droplet impingement using the moving particle semi-implicit method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, Jinbiao; Koshizuka, Seiichi; Sakai, Mikio

    2010-01-01

    Droplet impingement onto a rigid wall is simulated in two and three dimensions using the moving particle semi-implicit method. In two-dimensional calculations, the convergence is achieved and the propagation of a shockwave in a droplet is captured. The average pressure on the contact area decreases gradually after the maximum value. The numerically obtained maximum average impact pressure agrees with the Heymann correlation. A large shear stress appears at the contact edge due to jetting. A parametric study shows that the droplet diameter has only a minor effect on the pressure load due to droplet impingement. When the impingement takes place from an impact angle of π/4 rad, the pressure load and shear stress show a dependence only on the normal velocity to the wall. A comparison between the three-dimensional and two-dimensional results shows that consideration of the three-dimensional effect can decrease the average impact pressure by about 12%. (author)

  3. Simulation and analysis of TE wave propagation for measurement of electron cloud densities in particle accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonnad, Kiran G., E-mail: kgs52@cornell.edu [CLASSE, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States); Hammond, Kenneth C. [Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA (United States); Schwartz, Robert M. [CLASSE, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States); Veitzer, Seth A. [Tech-X Corporation, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The use of transverse electric (TE) waves has proved to be a powerful, noninvasive method for estimating the densities of electron clouds formed in particle accelerators. Results from the plasma simulation program VSim have served as a useful guide for experimental studies related to this method, which have been performed at various accelerator facilities. This paper provides results of the simulation and modeling work done in conjunction with experimental efforts carried out at the Cornell electron storage ring “Test Accelerator” (CESRTA). This paper begins with a discussion of the phase shift induced by electron clouds in the transmission of RF waves, followed by the effect of reflections along the beam pipe, simulation of the resonant standing wave frequency shifts and finally the effects of external magnetic fields, namely dipoles and wigglers. A derivation of the dispersion relationship of wave propagation for arbitrary geometries in field free regions with a cold, uniform cloud density is also provided.

  4. Characteristics of particle production in high energy nuclear collisions a model-based analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Guptaroy, P; Bhattacharya, S; Bhattacharya, D P

    2002-01-01

    The present work pertains to the production of some very important negatively charged secondaries in lead-lead and gold-gold collisions at AGS, SPS and RHIC energies. We would like to examine here the role of the particular version of sequential chain model (SCM), which was applied widely in the past in analysing data on various high-energy hadronic collisions, in explaining now the latest findings on the features of particle production in the relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions. The agreement between the model of our choice and the measured data is found to be modestly satisfactory in cases of the most prominent and abundantly produced varieties of the secondaries in the above-stated two nuclear collisions. (25 refs).

  5. Analysis of the structure of Saturn's magnetic field using charged particle absorption signatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chenette, D.L.; Davis, L. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    A new technique is derived for determining the structure of Saturn's magnetic field. This technique uses the observed positions of charged particle absorption signatures due to the satellites and rings of Saturn to determine the parameters of an axially symmetric, spherical harmonic model of the magnetic field using the method of least squares. Absorption signatures observed along the Pioneer 11, Voyager 1, and Voyager 2 spacecraft trajectories are used to derive values for the orientation of the magnetic symmetry axis relative to Saturn's axis of rotation, the axial displacement of the center of the magnetic dipole from the center of Saturn, and the magnitude of the external field component. Comparing these results with the magnetic field model parameters deduced from analyses of magnetometer data leads us to prefer models that incorporate a northward offset of the dipole center by about 0.05 R/sub s/

  6. Fractal analysis of the effect of particle aggregation distribution on thermal conductivity of nanofluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Wei, E-mail: weiw2015@gmail.com [Hubei Subsurface Multi-scale Imaging Key Laboratory, Institute of Geophysics and Geomatics, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Cai, Jianchao, E-mail: caijc@cug.edu.cn [Hubei Subsurface Multi-scale Imaging Key Laboratory, Institute of Geophysics and Geomatics, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Hu, Xiangyun, E-mail: xyhu@cug.edu.cn [Hubei Subsurface Multi-scale Imaging Key Laboratory, Institute of Geophysics and Geomatics, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Han, Qi, E-mail: hanqi426@gmail.com [Hubei Subsurface Multi-scale Imaging Key Laboratory, Institute of Geophysics and Geomatics, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Liu, Shuang, E-mail: lius@cug.edu.cn [Hubei Subsurface Multi-scale Imaging Key Laboratory, Institute of Geophysics and Geomatics, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Zhou, Yingfang, E-mail: yingfang.zhou@abdn.ac.uk [School of Engineering, University of Aberdeen, FN 264, King' s College, Aberdeen, AB24 3UE (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-26

    A theoretical effective thermal conductivity model for nanofluids is derived based on fractal distribution characteristics of nanoparticle aggregation. Considering two different mechanisms of heat conduction including particle aggregation and convention, the model is expressed as a function of the fractal dimension and concentration. In the model, the change of fractal dimension is related to the variation of aggregation shape. The theoretical computations of the developed model provide a good agreement with the experimental results, which may serve as an effective approach for quantitatively estimating the effective thermal conductivity of nanofluids. - Highlights: • A thermal conductivity model is derived based on fractal aggregation distribution. • The relationship between aggregation shape and fractal dimension is analyzed. • Predictions of the proposed model show good agreement with experimental data.

  7. Exact solutions of the population balance equation including particle transport, using group analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Fubiao; Meleshko, Sergey V.; Flood, Adrian E.

    2018-06-01

    The population balance equation (PBE) has received an unprecedented amount of attention in recent years from both academics and industrial practitioners because of its long history, widespread use in engineering, and applicability to a wide variety of particulate and discrete-phase processes. However it is typically impossible to obtain analytical solutions, although in almost every case a numerical solution of the PBEs can be obtained. In this article, the symmetries of PBEs with homogeneous coagulation kernels involving aggregation, breakage and growth processes and particle transport in one dimension are found by direct solving the determining equations. Using the optimal system of one and two-dimensional subalgebras, all invariant solutions and reduced equations are obtained. In particular, an explicit analytical physical solution is also presented.

  8. Analysis of thick source alpha particle spectrum from radium and its daughters in bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mausner, L.F.; Schlenker, R.A.

    1978-01-01

    The alpha particle energy spectrum of 226 Ra and its four alpha emitting daughters in an ashed, ground bone sample has been resolved into its components using a computerized spectrum stripping algorithm. These calculated results have been compared to direct measurements of the 226 Ra and 214 Po distributions obtained by alpha--gamma coincidence techniques. The ability of the calculation to deconvolute the total spectrum into its five alpha components implies that straightforward alpha counting may be used instead of the very low efficiency 226 Ra alpha--gamma coincidence method. From knowledge of the actual 226 Ra distribution, along with suitable detector energy and efficiency calibrations, one could determine endosteal cell dose rate empirically

  9. Size spectra for trace elements in urban aerosol particles by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ondov, J.M.; Divita, F. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Size-fractionated aerosol samples collected with micro-orifice impactors at Camden, NJ, a heavily industrialized urban area, and at two sites near Washington, DC, were analyzed for elemental constituents determined instrumentally from short-lived neutron activation products. A least-squares peak-fitting method was used with impactor calibration data to determine log-normal distribution parameters, i.e., mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) and geometric standard deviation (σ g ) for particles bearing S, V, Br, and I. For these elements, MMADs ranged from 0.24 to 0.65 μm; 0.23 to 0.53 μm; 0.22 to 0.61 μm, and 0.20 to 0.48 μm, respectively. (author) 15 refs.; 4 figs.; 2 tabs

  10. Mean occurrence frequency and temporal risk analysis of solar particle events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wilson, John W.

    2006-01-01

    The protection of astronauts from space radiation is required on future exploratory class and long-duration missions. For the accurate projections of radiation doses, a solar cycle statistical model, which quantifies the progression level within the cycle, has been developed. The resultant future cycle projection is then applied to estimate the mean frequency of solar particle events (SPEs) in the near future using a power law function of sunspot number. Detailed temporal behaviors of the recent large event and two historically large events of the August 1972 SPE and the November 1960 SPE are analyzed for dose-rate and cumulative dose equivalent at sensitive organs. Polyethylene shielded 'storm shelters' inside spacecraft are studied to limit astronauts' total exposure at a sensitive site within 10 cSv from a large event as a potential goal that fulfills the ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) requirement

  11. Molecular analysis of human papillomavirus virus-like particle activated Langerhans cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodham, Andrew W; Raff, Adam B; Da Silva, Diane M; Kast, W Martin

    2015-01-01

    Langerhans cells (LC) are the resident antigen-presenting cells in human epithelium, and are therefore responsible for initiating immune responses against human papillomaviruses (HPV) entering the epithelial and mucosal layers in vivo. Upon proper pathogenic stimulation, LC become activated causing an internal signaling cascade that results in the up-regulation of co-stimulatory molecules and the release of inflammatory cytokines. Activated LC then migrate to lymph nodes where they interact with antigen-specific T cells and initiate an adaptive T-cell response. However, HPV manipulates LC in a suppressive manner that alters these normal maturation responses. Here, in vitro LC activation assays for the detection of phosphorylated signaling intermediates, the up-regulation of activation-associated surface markers, and the release of inflammatory cytokines in response to HPV particles are described.

  12. Particle-scale Analysis of Key Technologies on Cut-and-over Tunnel in Slope Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.H. Yang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available When the shallow tunnel is constructed on the slope terrain in the mountains, there are the potential risks such as landslide induced by cutting the slope and the non-compacted backfill material during the construction of the cut-andcover tunnel. In order to solve these problems, based on a practical engineering, the optimized construction plans of the cut-and-cover tunnel were analyzed by particle flow code (PFC, the key parts of the open-cut construction were identified, and the anti-slide piles countermeasures were proposed. Furthermore, the grouting reinforcement process for the non-compacted backfill material around the shallow tunnel was simulated by PFC, and the variation characteristics of the porosity and grouting pressure were revealed as well. The results are of great value to the similar engineering.

  13. Determination of oxygen impurity in high purity materials by charged particle activation analysis using alpha projectiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhury, D.P.; Pal, S.; Arunachalam, J.; Verma R.; Gangadharan, S.

    1992-01-01

    40 MeV α-particles have been used to determine oxygen impurity at ppm levels in silicon, copper, and stainless steel, through the radiochemical separation of 18 F from the matrix. The separation of 18 F has been carried out by two techniques, viz. distillation of H 2 SiF 6 and precipitation of KBF 4 and some modification has been applied in the separation, depending on the nature of interferences from the matrix. Instrumental approach was also carried out to determine the oxygen impurity at ≥ 100 ppm in Si matrix because this approach is not possible in Cu and stainless steel samples due to matrix activity. (author) 10 refs.; 1 fig.; 5 tabs

  14. Particle image and acoustic Doppler velocimetry analysis of a cross-flow turbine wake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strom, Benjamin; Brunton, Steven; Polagye, Brian

    2017-11-01

    Cross-flow turbines have advantageous properties for converting kinetic energy in wind and water currents to rotational mechanical energy and subsequently electrical power. A thorough understanding of cross-flow turbine wakes aids understanding of rotor flow physics, assists geometric array design, and informs control strategies for individual turbines in arrays. In this work, the wake physics of a scale model cross-flow turbine are investigated experimentally. Three-component velocity measurements are taken downstream of a two-bladed turbine in a recirculating water channel. Time-resolved stereoscopic particle image and acoustic Doppler velocimetry are compared for planes normal to and distributed along the turbine rotational axis. Wake features are described using proper orthogonal decomposition, dynamic mode decomposition, and the finite-time Lyapunov exponent. Consequences for downstream turbine placement are discussed in conjunction with two-turbine array experiments.

  15. Cluster analysis of stress corrosion mechanisms for steel wires used in bridge cables through acoustic emission particle swarm optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongsheng; Yang, Wei; Zhang, Wenyao

    2017-05-01

    Stress corrosion is the major failure type of bridge cable damage. The acoustic emission (AE) technique was applied to monitor the stress corrosion process of steel wires used in bridge cable structures. The damage evolution of stress corrosion in bridge cables was obtained according to the AE characteristic parameter figure. A particle swarm optimization cluster method was developed to determine the relationship between the AE signal and stress corrosion mechanisms. Results indicate that the main AE sources of stress corrosion in bridge cables included four types: passive film breakdown and detachment of the corrosion product, crack initiation, crack extension, and cable fracture. By analyzing different types of clustering data, the mean value of each damage pattern's AE characteristic parameters was determined. Different corrosion damage source AE waveforms and the peak frequency were extracted. AE particle swarm optimization cluster analysis based on principal component analysis was also proposed. This method can completely distinguish the four types of damage sources and simplifies the determination of the evolution process of corrosion damage and broken wire signals. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Dynamic analysis of ultrasonically levitated droplet with moving particle semi-implicit and distributed point source method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Yuji; Yuge, Kohei; Nakamura, Ryohei; Tanaka, Hiroki; Nakamura, Kentaro

    2015-07-01

    Numerical analysis of an ultrasonically levitated droplet with a free surface boundary is discussed. The droplet is known to change its shape from sphere to spheroid when it is suspended in a standing wave owing to the acoustic radiation force. However, few studies on numerical simulation have been reported in association with this phenomenon including fluid dynamics inside the droplet. In this paper, coupled analysis using the distributed point source method (DPSM) and the moving particle semi-implicit (MPS) method, both of which do not require grids or meshes to handle the moving boundary with ease, is suggested. A droplet levitated in a plane standing wave field between a piston-vibrating ultrasonic transducer and a reflector is simulated with the DPSM-MPS coupled method. The dynamic change in the spheroidal shape of the droplet is successfully reproduced numerically, and the gravitational center and the change in the spheroidal aspect ratio are discussed and compared with the previous literature.

  17. A Simple Engineering Analysis of Solar Particle Event High Energy Tails and Their Impact on Vehicle Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleterry, Robert C., Jr.; Walker, Steven A.; Clowdsley, Martha S.

    2016-01-01

    The mathematical models for Solar Particle Event (SPE) high energy tails are constructed with several di erent algorithms. Since limited measured data exist above energies around 400 MeV, this paper arbitrarily de nes the high energy tail as any proton with an energy above 400 MeV. In order to better understand the importance of accurately modeling the high energy tail for SPE spectra, the contribution to astronaut whole body e ective dose equivalent of the high energy portions of three di erent SPE models has been evaluated. To ensure completeness of this analysis, simple and complex geometries were used. This analysis showed that the high energy tail of certain SPEs can be relevant to astronaut exposure and hence safety. Therefore, models of high energy tails for SPEs should be well analyzed and based on data if possible.

  18. Examination of quantitative accuracy of PIXE analysis for atmospheric aerosol particle samples. PIXE analysis of NIST air particulate on filter media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saitoh, Katsumi; Sera, Koichiro

    2005-01-01

    In order to confirm accuracy of the direct analysis of filter samples containing atmospheric aerosol particles collected on a polycarbonate membrane filter by PIXE, we carried out PIXE analysis on a National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST, USA) air particulate on filter media (SRM 2783). For 16 elements with NIST certified values determined by PIXE analysis - Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb - quantitative values were 80-110% relative to NIST certified values except for Na, Al, Si and Ni. Quantitative values of Na, Al and Si were 140-170% relative to NIST certified values, which were all high, and Ni was 64%. One possible reason why the quantitative values of Na, Al and Si were higher than the NIST certified values could be the difference in the X-ray spectrum analysis method used. (author)

  19. Analysis of the hygroscopic and volatile properties of ammonium sulphate seeded and unseeded SOA particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. K. Meyer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The volatile and hygroscopic properties of ammonium sulphate seeded and unseeded secondary organic aerosol (SOA derived from the photo-oxidation of atmospherically relevant concentrations of α-pinene were studied. The seed particles were electrospray generated ammonium sulphate ((NH42SO4 having diameters of approximately 33 nm with a quasi-mono-disperse size distribution (geometric standard deviation σg=1.3. The volatile and hygroscopic properties of both seeded and unseeded SOA were simultaneously measured with a VH-TDMA (volatility – hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer. VH-TDMA measurements of unseeded SOA show a decrease in the hygroscopic growth (HGF factor for increased volatilisation temperatures such that the more volatile compounds appear to be more hygroscopic. This is opposite to the expected preferential evaporation of more volatile but less hygroscopic material, but could also be due to enhanced oligomerisation occurring at the higher temperature in the thermodenuder. In addition, HGF measurements of seeded SOA were measured as a function of time at two relative humidities, below (RH 75% and above (RH 85% the deliquescence relative humidity (DRH of the pure ammonium sulphate seeds. As these measurements were conducted during the onset phase of photo-oxidation, during particle growth, they enabled us to find the dependence of the HGF as a function of the volume fraction of the SOA coating. HGF's measured at RH of 85% showed a continuous decrease as the SOA coating thickness increased. The measured growth factors show good agreements with ZSR predictions indicating that, at these RH values, there are only minor solute-solute interactions. At 75% RH, as the SOA fraction increased, a rapid increase in the HGF was observed indicating that an increasing fraction of the (NH42SO4 is subject to a phase transition, going into solution, with an

  20. Analysis of the hygroscopic and volatile properties of ammonium sulphate seeded and unseeded SOA particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, N. K.; Duplissy, J.; Gysel, M.; Metzger, A.; Dommen, J.; Weingartner, E.; Alfarra, M. R.; Prevot, A. S. H.; Fletcher, C.; Good, N.; McFiggans, G.; Jonsson, Â. M.; Hallquist, M.; Baltensperger, U.; Ristovski, Z. D.

    2009-01-01

    The volatile and hygroscopic properties of ammonium sulphate seeded and unseeded secondary organic aerosol (SOA) derived from the photo-oxidation of atmospherically relevant concentrations of α-pinene were studied. The seed particles were electrospray generated ammonium sulphate ((NH4)2SO4) having diameters of approximately 33 nm with a quasi-mono-disperse size distribution (geometric standard deviation σg=1.3). The volatile and hygroscopic properties of both seeded and unseeded SOA were simultaneously measured with a VH-TDMA (volatility - hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer). VH-TDMA measurements of unseeded SOA show a decrease in the hygroscopic growth (HGF) factor for increased volatilisation temperatures such that the more volatile compounds appear to be more hygroscopic. This is opposite to the expected preferential evaporation of more volatile but less hygroscopic material, but could also be due to enhanced oligomerisation occurring at the higher temperature in the thermodenuder. In addition, HGF measurements of seeded SOA were measured as a function of time at two relative humidities, below (RH 75%) and above (RH 85%) the deliquescence relative humidity (DRH) of the pure ammonium sulphate seeds. As these measurements were conducted during the onset phase of photo-oxidation, during particle growth, they enabled us to find the dependence of the HGF as a function of the volume fraction of the SOA coating. HGF's measured at RH of 85% showed a continuous decrease as the SOA coating thickness increased. The measured growth factors show good agreements with ZSR predictions indicating that, at these RH values, there are only minor solute-solute interactions. At 75% RH, as the SOA fraction increased, a rapid increase in the HGF was observed indicating that an increasing fraction of the (NH4)2SO4 is subject to a phase transition, going into solution, with an increasing volume fraction of SOA. To our knowledge this is the first time that SOA derived

  1. Statistical analysis for the radiological characterization of radioactive waste in particle accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2085595; Luccioni, Catherine

    This thesis introduces a new method to characterize metallic very-low-level radioactive waste produced at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN). The method is based on: 1. the calculation of a preliminary radionuclide inventory, which is the list of the radionuclides that can be produced when particles interact with a surrounding medium, 2. the direct measurement of γ emitters and, 3. the quantification of pure-α, pure-β and low-energy X-ray emitters, called difficult-to-measure (DTM) radionuclides, using the so-called scaling factor (SF), correlation factor (CF) and mean activity (MA) techniques. The first stage of the characterization process is the calculation of the radionuclide inventory via either analytical or Monte Carlo codes. Once the preliminary radionuclide inventory is obtained, the γ-emitting radionuclides are measured via γ-ray spectrometry on each package of the waste population. The major γ-emitter, called key nuclide (KN), is also identified. The scaling factor method e...

  2. Internal structure analysis of particle-double network gels used in a gel organ replica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Mei; Arai, Masanori; Saito, Azusa; Sakai, Kazuyuki; Kawakami, Masaru; Furukawa, Hidemitsu

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, the fabrication of patient organ replicas using 3D printers has been attracting a great deal of attention in medical fields. However, the cost of these organ replicas is very high as it is necessary to employ very expensive 3D printers and printing materials. Here we present a new gel organ replica, of human kidney, fabricated with a conventional molding technique, using a particle-double network hydrogel (P-DN gel). The replica is transparent and has the feel of a real kidney. It is expected that gel organ replicas produced this way will be a useful tool for the education of trainee surgeons and clinical ultrasonography technologists. In addition to developing a gel organ replica, the internal structure of the P-DN gel used is also discussed. Because the P-DN gel has a complex structure comprised of two different types of network, it has not been possible to investigate them internally in detail. Gels have an inhomogeneous network structure. If it is able to get a more uniform structure, it is considered that this would lead to higher strength in the gel. In the present study we investigate the structure of P-DN gel, using the gel organ replica. We investigated the internal structure of P-DN gel using Scanning Microscopic Light Scattering (SMILS), a non-contacting and non-destructive.

  3. Performance analysis of multidimensional wavefront algorithms with application to deterministic particle transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoisie, A.; Lubeck, O.; Wasserman, H.

    1998-01-01

    The authors develop a model for the parallel performance of algorithms that consist of concurrent, two-dimensional wavefronts implemented in a message passing environment. The model, based on a LogGP machine parameterization, combines the separate contributions of computation and communication wavefronts. They validate the model on three important supercomputer systems, on up to 500 processors. They use data from a deterministic particle transport application taken from the ASCI workload, although the model is general to any wavefront algorithm implemented on a 2-D processor domain. They also use the validated model to make estimates of performance and scalability of wavefront algorithms on 100-TFLOPS computer systems expected to be in existence within the next decade as part of the ASCI program and elsewhere. In this context, the authors analyze two problem sizes. Their model shows that on the largest such problem (1 billion cells), inter-processor communication performance is not the bottleneck. Single-node efficiency is the dominant factor

  4. Computational analysis of particle reinforced viscoelastic polymer nanocomposites - statistical study of representative volume element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Anqi; Li, Xiaolin; Ajdari, Amin; Jiang, Bing; Burkhart, Craig; Chen, Wei; Brinson, L. Catherine

    2018-05-01

    The concept of representative volume element (RVE) is widely used to determine the effective material properties of random heterogeneous materials. In the present work, the RVE is investigated for the viscoelastic response of particle-reinforced polymer nanocomposites in the frequency domain. The smallest RVE size and the minimum number of realizations at a given volume size for both structural and mechanical properties are determined for a given precision using the concept of margin of error. It is concluded that using the mean of many realizations of a small RVE instead of a single large RVE can retain the desired precision of a result with much lower computational cost (up to three orders of magnitude reduced computation time) for the property of interest. Both the smallest RVE size and the minimum number of realizations for a microstructure with higher volume fraction (VF) are larger compared to those of one with lower VF at the same desired precision. Similarly, a clustered structure is shown to require a larger minimum RVE size as well as a larger number of realizations at a given volume size compared to the well-dispersed microstructures.

  5. Functional analysis of HPV-like particle-activated Langerhans cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lisa; Woodham, Andrew W; Da Silva, Diane M; Kast, W Martin

    2015-01-01

    Langerhans cells (LCs) are antigen-presenting cells responsible for initiating an immune response against human papillomaviruses (HPVs) entering the epithelial layer in vivo as they are the first immune cell that HPV comes into contact with. LCs become activated in response to foreign antigens, which causes internal signaling resulting in the increased expression of co-stimulatory molecules and the secretion of inflammatory cytokines. Functionally activated LCs are then capable of migrating to the lymph nodes where they interact with antigen-specific T cells and initiate an adaptive T-cell response in vivo. However, HPV has evolved in a manner that suppresses LC function, and thus the induction of antigen-specific T cells is hindered. While many methods exist to monitor the activity of LCs in vitro, the migration and induction of cytotoxic T cells is ultimately indicative of a functional immune response. Here, methods in analyzing functional migration and induction of antigen-specific T cells after stimulation of LCs with HPV virus-like particles in vitro are described.

  6. Comparative Analysis of Particle Swarm and Differential Evolution via Tuning on Ultrasmall Titanium Oxide Nanoclusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inclan, Eric; Lassester, Jack; Geohegan, David; Yoon, Mina

    Optimization algorithms (OA) coupled with numerical methods enable researchers to identify and study (meta) stable nanoclusters without the control restrictions of empirical methods. An algorithm's performance is governed by two factors: (1) its compatibility with an objective function, (2) the dimension of a design space, which increases with cluster size. Although researchers often tune an algorithm's user-defined parameters (UDP), tuning is not guaranteed to improve performance. In this research, Particle Swarm (PSO) and Differential Evolution (DE), are compared by tuning their UDP in a multi-objective optimization environment (MOE). Combined with a Kolmogorov Smirnov test for statistical significance, the MOE enables the study of the Pareto Front (PF), made of the UDP settings that trade-off between best performance in energy minimization (``effectiveness'') based on force-field potential energy, and best convergence rate (``efficiency''). By studying the PF, this research finds that UDP values frequently suggested in the literature do not provide best effectiveness for these methods. Additionally, monotonic convergence is found to significantly improve efficiency without sacrificing effectiveness for very small systems, suggesting better compatibility. Work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division.</