WorldWideScience

Sample records for partial subtype b3

  1. VU0477573: Partial Negative Allosteric Modulator of the Subtype 5 Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor with In Vivo Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickols, Hilary Highfield; Yuh, Joannes P; Gregory, Karen J; Morrison, Ryan D; Bates, Brittney S; Stauffer, Shaun R; Emmitte, Kyle A; Bubser, Michael; Peng, Weimin; Nedelcovych, Michael T; Thompson, Analisa; Lv, Xiaohui; Xiang, Zixiu; Daniels, J Scott; Niswender, Colleen M; Lindsley, Craig W; Jones, Carrie K; Conn, P Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Negative allosteric modulators (NAMs) of metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGlu5) have potential applications in the treatment of fragile X syndrome, levodopa-induced dyskinesia in Parkinson disease, Alzheimer disease, addiction, and anxiety; however, clinical and preclinical studies raise concerns that complete blockade of mGlu5 and inverse agonist activity of current mGlu5 NAMs contribute to adverse effects that limit the therapeutic use of these compounds. We report the discovery and characterization of a novel mGlu5 NAM, N,N-diethyl-5-((3-fluorophenyl)ethynyl)picolinamide (VU0477573) that binds to the same allosteric site as the prototypical mGlu5 NAM MPEP but displays weak negative cooperativity. Because of this weak cooperativity, VU0477573 acts as a "partial NAM" so that full occupancy of the MPEP site does not completely inhibit maximal effects of mGlu5 agonists on intracellular calcium mobilization, inositol phosphate (IP) accumulation, or inhibition of synaptic transmission at the hippocampal Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapse. Unlike previous mGlu5 NAMs, VU0477573 displays no inverse agonist activity assessed using measures of effects on basal [(3)H]inositol phosphate (IP) accumulation. VU0477573 acts as a full NAM when measuring effects on mGlu5-mediated extracellular signal-related kinases 1/2 phosphorylation, which may indicate functional bias. VU0477573 exhibits an excellent pharmacokinetic profile and good brain penetration in rodents and provides dose-dependent full mGlu5 occupancy in the central nervous system (CNS) with systemic administration. Interestingly, VU0477573 shows robust efficacy, comparable to the mGlu5 NAM MTEP, in models of anxiolytic activity at doses that provide full CNS occupancy of mGlu5 and demonstrate an excellent CNS occupancy-efficacy relationship. VU0477573 provides an exciting new tool to investigate the efficacy of partial NAMs in animal models. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for Pharmacology and

  2. Meningococcal disease in The Netherlands, 1958-1990: a steady increase in the incidence since 1982 partially caused by new serotypes and subtypes of Neisseria meningitidis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, R. J.; Bijlmer, H. A.; Poolman, J. T.; Kuipers, B.; Caugant, D. A.; van Alphen, L.; Dankert, J.; Valkenburg, H. A.

    1993-01-01

    In order to explain a threefold increase in the incidence of meningococcal disease in the Netherlands during the 1980s, we serotyped and subtyped Neisseria meningitidis isolates recovered between 1958 and 1990 from > 3,000 patients with systemic disease. No single strain could be held responsible

  3. Protein kinase C activation decreases cell surface expression of the GLT-1 subtype of glutamate transporter. Requirement of a carboxyl-terminal domain and partial dependence on serine 486.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalandadze, Avtandil; Wu, Ying; Robinson, Michael B

    2002-11-29

    Na(+)-dependent glutamate transporters are required for the clearance of extracellular glutamate and influence both physiological and pathological effects of this excitatory amino acid. In the present study, the effects of a protein kinase C (PKC) activator on the cell surface expression and activity of the GLT-1 subtype of glutamate transporter were examined in two model systems, primary co-cultures of neurons and astrocytes that endogenously express GLT-1 and C6 glioma cells transfected with GLT-1. In both systems, activation of PKC with phorbol ester caused a decrease in GLT-1 cell surface expression. This effect is opposite to the one observed for the EAAC1 subtype of glutamate transporter (Davis, K. E., Straff, D. J., Weinstein, E. A., Bannerman, P. G., Correale, D. M., Rothstein, J. D., and Robinson, M. B. (1998) J. Neurosci. 18, 2475-2485). Several recombinant chimeric proteins between GLT-1 and EAAC1 transporter subtypes were generated to identify domains required for the subtype-specific redistribution of GLT-1. We identified a carboxyl-terminal domain consisting of 43 amino acids (amino acids 475-517) that is required for PKC-induced GLT-1 redistribution. Mutation of a non-conserved serine residue at position 486 partially attenuated but did not completely abolish the PKC-dependent redistribution of GLT-1. Although we observed a phorbol ester-dependent incorporation of (32)P into immunoprecipitable GLT-1, mutation of serine 486 did not reduce this signal. We also found that chimeras containing the first 446 amino acids of GLT-1 were not functional unless amino acids 475-517 of GLT-1 were also present. These non-functional transporters were not as efficiently expressed on the cell surface and migrated to a smaller molecular weight, suggesting that a subtype-specific interaction is required for the formation of functional transporters. These studies demonstrate a novel effect of PKC on GLT-1 activity and define a unique carboxyl-terminal domain as an

  4. 8 CFR 343b.3 - Interrogation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interrogation. 343b.3 Section 343b.3 Aliens... NATURALIZATION FOR RECOGNITION BY A FOREIGN STATE § 343b.3 Interrogation. When Form N-565 presents a prima facie... issuance of the certificate. Interrogation of the applicant shall be conducted before the application is...

  5. 216-B-3 expansion ponds closure plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    This document describes the activities for clean closure under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) of the 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds. The 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds are operated by the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and co-operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford). The 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds consists of a series of three earthen, unlined, interconnected ponds that receive waste water from various 200 East Area operating facilities. The 3A, 3B, and 3C ponds are referred to as Expansion Ponds because they expanded the capability of the B Pond System. Waste water (primarily cooling water, steam condensate, and sanitary water) from various 200 East Area facilities is discharged to the Bypass pipe (Project X-009). Water discharged to the Bypass pipe flows directly into the 216-B-3C Pond. The ponds were operated in a cascade mode, where the Main Pond overflowed into the 3A Pond and the 3A Pond overflowed into the 3C Pond. The 3B Pond has not received waste water since May 1985; however, when in operation, the 3B Pond received overflow from the 3A Pond. In the past, waste water discharges to the Expansion Ponds had the potential to have contained mixed waste (radioactive waste and dangerous waste). The radioactive portion of mixed waste has been interpreted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to be regulated under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954; the dangerous waste portion of mixed waste is regulated under RCRA.

  6. 216-B-3 expansion ponds closure plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    This document describes the activities for clean closure under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) of the 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds. The 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds are operated by the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and co-operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford). The 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds consists of a series of three earthen, unlined, interconnected ponds that receive waste water from various 200 East Area operating facilities. The 3A, 3B, and 3C ponds are referred to as Expansion Ponds because they expanded the capability of the B Pond System. Waste water (primarily cooling water, steam condensate, and sanitary water) from various 200 East Area facilities is discharged to the Bypass pipe (Project X-009). Water discharged to the Bypass pipe flows directly into the 216-B-3C Pond. The ponds were operated in a cascade mode, where the Main Pond overflowed into the 3A Pond and the 3A Pond overflowed into the 3C Pond. The 3B Pond has not received waste water since May 1985; however, when in operation, the 3B Pond received overflow from the 3A Pond. In the past, waste water discharges to the Expansion Ponds had the potential to have contained mixed waste (radioactive waste and dangerous waste). The radioactive portion of mixed waste has been interpreted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to be regulated under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954; the dangerous waste portion of mixed waste is regulated under RCRA

  7. Stroke subtypes and factors associated with ischemic stroke in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stroke subtypes assessed four OCSP (Oxfordshire Communi-. African Health Sciences Vol 15 Issue 1, March 2015. 68. 69 ty Stroke Project Classification) subtypes classification. 13 was used with lacunar circulation infarct (LACI) and total anterior (TACI), partial anterior (PACI), posterior. (POCI) circulation infarcts as non ...

  8. Subtyping can have a simple semantics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balsters, H.; Fokkinga, M.M.

    1991-01-01

    Consider a first order typed language, with semantics $S$ for expressions and types. Adding subtyping means that a partial order $<$; on types is defined and that the typing rules are extended to the effect that expression $e$ has type $t$ whenever $e$ has type $s$ and $s

  9. Characterization of the 1H-cyclopentapyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione derivative (S)-CPW399 as a novel, potent, and subtype-selective AMPA receptor full agonist with partial desensitization properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campiani, G; Morelli, E; Nacci, V

    2001-01-01

    (S)-CPW399 (2b) is a novel, potent, and subtype-selective AMPA receptor full agonist that, unlike (S)-willardiine and related compounds, in mouse cerebellar granule cells, stimulated an increase in [Ca(2+)](i), and induced neuronal cell death in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Compound...... 2b appears to be a weakly desensitizing, full agonist at AMPA receptors and therefore represents a new pharmacological tool to investigate the role of AMPA receptors in excitotoxicity and their molecular mechanisms of desensitization....

  10. Circular Cationic Compounds B3Rgn+ of Triangular Ion B3 Trapping Rare Gases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ruiwen; LI Anyong; LI Zhuozhe

    2017-01-01

    The circular cationic compounds B3Rgn+(n=1-3,Rg=He-Rn) formed by the electron-deficient aromatic ion B3+ trapping rare gases were studied theoretically.The formed B-Rg bond has large bonding energy in the range of 60--209 kJ/mol,its length is close to the stun of covalent radii of B and Rg,for Ar-Rn.The analyses based on the natural bond orbitals and electron density topology show that the B-Rg bonds for Ar-Rn have strong covalent character.The geometric structures,binding energy,bond nature and thermodynamic stability of the boron-rare gas compounds show that these species for Ar-Rn may be experimentally available.Several different theoretical studies have demonstrated that these triangular cations are aromatic.

  11. Morphologic Subtypes of Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torbenson, Michael S

    2017-06-01

    Hepatocellular carcinomas can be further divided into distinct subtypes that provide important clinical information and biological insights. These subtypes are distinct from growth patterns and are on based on morphologic and molecular findings. There are 12 reasonably well-defined subtypes as well as 6 provisional subtypes, together making up 35% of all hepatocellular carcinomas. These subtypes are discussed, with an emphasis on their definitions and the key morphologic findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. 45 CFR 73b.3 - Reports of violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reports of violations. 73b.3 Section 73b.3 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION DEBARMENT OR SUSPENSION OF FORMER EMPLOYEES § 73b.3 Reports of violations. (a) If an officer or employee of the Department has reason to...

  13. Sensory Subtypes in Preschool Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomchek, Scott D; Little, Lauren M; Myers, John; Dunn, Winnie

    2018-06-01

    Given the heterogeneity of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), research has investigated how sensory features elucidate subtypes that enhance our understanding of etiology and tailored treatment approaches. Previous studies, however, have not integrated core developmental behaviors with sensory features in investigations of subtypes in ASD. Therefore, we used latent profile analysis to examine subtypes in a preschool aged sample considering sensory processing patterns in combination with social-communication skill, motor performance, and adaptive behavior. Results showed four subtypes that differed by degree and quality of sensory features, age and differential presentation of developmental skills. Findings partially align with previous literature on sensory subtypes and extends our understanding of how sensory processing aligns with other developmental domains in young children with ASD.

  14. Pathological Gambling Subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachon, David D.; Bagby, R. Michael

    2009-01-01

    Although pathological gambling (PG) is regarded in the 4th edition of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (American Psychiatric Association, 1994) as a unitary diagnostic construct, it is likely composed of distinct subtypes. In the current report, the authors used cluster analyses of personality traits with a…

  15. Misexpression of cyclin B3 leads to aberrant spermatogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refik-Rogers, Jale; Manova, Katia; Koff, Andrew

    2006-09-01

    Mus musculus cyclin B3 is an early meiotic cyclin that is expressed in leptotene and zygotene phases during gametogenesis. In order to determine whether downregulation of cyclin B3 at zygotene-pachytene transition was important for normal spermatogenesis, we investigated the consequences of expressing H. sapiens cyclin B3 after zygotene in mouse testes. Prolonging expression of cyclin B3 until the end of meiosis led to a reduction in sperm counts and disruption of spermatogenesis in four independent lines of transgenic mice. There were three distinct morphological defects associated with the ectopic expression of cyclin B3. Seminiferous tubules were either depleted of germ cells, had an abnormal cell mass in the lumen, or were characterized by the presence of abnormal round spermatids. These defects were associated with increased apoptosis in the testes. These results suggest that downregulation of cyclin B3 at the zygotene-pachytene transition is required to ensure normal spermatogenesis.

  16. Cardiac potassium channel subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitt, Nicole; Grunnet, Morten; Olesen, Søren-Peter

    2014-01-01

    About 10 distinct potassium channels in the heart are involved in shaping the action potential. Some of the K(+) channels are primarily responsible for early repolarization, whereas others drive late repolarization and still others are open throughout the cardiac cycle. Three main K(+) channels...... drive the late repolarization of the ventricle with some redundancy, and in atria this repolarization reserve is supplemented by the fairly atrial-specific KV1.5, Kir3, KCa, and K2P channels. The role of the latter two subtypes in atria is currently being clarified, and several findings indicate...... that they could constitute targets for new pharmacological treatment of atrial fibrillation. The interplay between the different K(+) channel subtypes in both atria and ventricle is dynamic, and a significant up- and downregulation occurs in disease states such as atrial fibrillation or heart failure...

  17. Influenza A Subtyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Karen L.; Mangold, Kathy A.; Du, Hongyan; Pesavento, Kristen M.; Nawrocki, John; Nowak, Jan A.

    2010-01-01

    Influenza virus subtyping has emerged as a critical tool in the diagnosis of influenza. Antiviral resistance is present in the majority of seasonal H1N1 influenza A infections, with association of viral strain type and antiviral resistance. Influenza A virus subtypes can be reliably distinguished by examining conserved sequences in the matrix protein gene. We describe our experience with an assay for influenza A subtyping based on matrix gene sequences. Viral RNA was prepared from nasopharyngeal swab samples, and real-time RT-PCR detection of influenza A and B was performed using a laboratory developed analyte-specific reagent-based assay that targets a conserved region of the influenza A matrix protein gene. FluA-positive samples were analyzed using a second RT-PCR assay targeting the matrix protein gene to distinguish seasonal influenza subtypes based on differential melting of fluorescence resonance energy transfer probes. The novel H1N1 influenza strain responsible for the 2009 pandemic showed a melting profile distinct from that of seasonal H1N1 or H3N2 and compatible with the predicted melting temperature based on the published novel H1N1 matrix gene sequence. Validation by comparison with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention real-time RT-PCR for swine influenza A (novel H1N1) test showed this assay to be both rapid and reliable (>99% sensitive and specific) in the identification of the novel H1N1 influenza A virus strain. PMID:20595627

  18. Vibrational thermodynamics of Fe90Zr7B3 nanocrystalline alloy from nuclear inelastic scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stankov, S.; Miglierini, M.; Chumakov, A. I.

    2010-01-01

    Recently we determined the iron-partial density of vibrational states (DOS) of nanocrystalline Fe(90)Zr(7)B(3) (Nanoperm), synthesized by crystallization of an amorphous precursor, for various stages of nanocrystallization separating the DOS of the nanograins from that of the interfaces [S. Stank......, vibrational entropy, and lattice specific heat as the material transforms from amorphous, through nanocrystalline, to fully crystallized state. The reported results shed new light on the previously observed anomalies in the vibrational thermodynamics of nanocrystalline materials....

  19. 26 CFR 48.4161(b)-3 - Use considered sale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....4161(b)-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Sporting Goods § 48.4161(b)-3 Use considered sale. For provisions relating to the tax on use of taxable articles by the manufacturer, producer, or...

  20. Subtyping adolescents with bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Eunice Y; Le Grange, Daniel

    2007-12-01

    Cluster analyses of eating disorder patients have yielded a "dietary-depressive" subtype, typified by greater negative affect, and a "dietary" subtype, typified by dietary restraint. This study aimed to replicate these findings in an adolescent sample with bulimia nervosa (BN) from a randomized controlled trial and to examine the validity and reliability of this methodology. In the sample of BN adolescents (N=80), cluster analysis revealed a "dietary-depressive" subtype (37.5%) and a "dietary" subtype (62.5%) using the Beck Depression Inventory, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and Eating Disorder Examination Restraint subscale. The "dietary-depressive" subtype compared to the "dietary" subtype was significantly more likely to: (1) report co-occurring disorders, (2) greater eating and weight concerns, and (3) less vomiting abstinence at post-treatment (all p'sreliability of the subtyping scheme, a larger sample of adolescents with mixed eating and weight disorders in an outpatient eating disorder clinic (N=149) was subtyped, yielding similar subtypes. These results support the validity and reliability of the subtyping strategy in two adolescent samples.

  1. Rare bile duct anomaly: B3 duct draining to gallbladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Eun Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 10-year-old girl presented with recurrent right upper abdominal pain and dyspepsia. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography revealed a dilated common channel of intrahepatic bile duct of segment 3 (B3 and segment 4 (B4 drained into the gallbladder directly. The patient underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy and Roux-en Y hepaticojejunostomy (B3-jejunostomy. Among the anatomical variability of the biliary system, the cholecystohepatic ducts are controversial in existence and incidence. We report a very rare variant of a cholecystohepatic duct in which the B3 duct drained into gallbladder directly and to the best of our knowledge this is the first report.

  2. The M142T mutation causes B3 phenotype: three cases and an in vitro expression study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Duck; Shin, Dong-Jun; Yazer, Mark Harris; Ihm, Chun-Hwa; Hur, Young-Moon; Kee, Seung-Jung; Kim, Soo-Hyun; Shin, Myung-Geun; Shin, Jong-Hee; Suh, Soon-Pal; Ryang, Dong-Wook

    2010-02-01

    The B3 phenotype is the most common B subtype in Korea. The B305 allele (425 T>C, M142T) was first reported in 2 Chinese individuals; however, it has not yet been reported in the Koreans, and the impact of the M142T mutation on the expression of the B3 phenotype has also not been studied. To resolve an ABO discrepancy between a group O neonate and her group O father and A(1)B(3) mother, blood samples from these individuals and other family members were referred to our laboratory for ABO gene analysis. The B305 allele was discovered in the neonate (B305/O01), her mother (A102/ B305), and her maternal aunt (B305/O02), while her father was typed as O01/O02. Transient transfection experiments were performed in HeLa cells using the B305 allele synthesized by site-directed mutagenesis; flow cytometric analysis revealed that this transfect expressed 35.5% of the total B antigen produced by the B101 allele transfect. For comparison, Bx01 allele transfects were also created, and they expressed 11.4% of the total B antigen expressed on the surface of B101 transfects. These experiments demonstrate that the M142T (425 T>C) mutation is responsible for the B subtype phenotype produced by the B305 allele.

  3. Genetic and mechanistic evaluation for the mixed-field agglutination in B3 blood type with IVS3+5G>A ABO gene mutation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding-Ping Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The ABO blood type B(3 is the most common B subtype in the Chinese population with a frequency of 1/900. Although IVS3+5G>A (rs55852701 mutation of B gene has been shown to associate with the development of B(3 blood type, genetic and mechanistic evaluation for the unique mixed-field agglutination phenotype has not yet been completely addressed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we analyzed 16 cases of confirmed B(3 individuals and found that IVS3+5G>A attributes to all cases of B(3. RT-PCR analyses revealed the presence of at least 7 types of aberrant B(3 splicing transcripts with most of the transcripts causing early termination and producing non-functional protein during translation. The splicing transcript without exon 3 that was predicted to generate functional B(3 glycosyltransferase lacking 19 amino acids at the N-terminal segment constituted only 0.9% of the splicing transcripts. Expression of the B(3 cDNA with exon 3 deletion in the K562 erythroleukemia cells revealed that the B(3 glycosyltransferase had only 40% of B(1 activity in converting H antigen to B antigen. Notably, the typical mixed-field agglutination of B(3-RBCs can be mimicked by adding anti-B antibody to the K562-B(3 cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study thereby demonstrates that both aberrant splicing of B transcripts and the reduced B(3 glycosyltransferase activity contribute to weak B expression and the mixed-field agglutination of B(3, adding to the complexity for the regulatory mechanisms of ABO gene expression.

  4. Pure type systems with subtyping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwanenburg, J.; Girard, J.-Y.

    1999-01-01

    We extend the framework of Pure Type Systems with subtyping, as found in F = ¿ . This leads to a concise description of many existing systems with subtyping, and also to some new interesting systems. We develop the meta-theory for this framework, including Subject Reduction and Minimal Typing. The

  5. Electrification Beyond Light Duty: Class 2b-3 Commercial Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birky, Alicia [Energetics Incorporated; Laughlin, Michael [Energetics Incorporated; Tartaglia, Katie [Energetics Incorporated; Price, Rebecca [Energetics Incorporated; Lim, Brandon [Energetics Incorporated; Lin, Zhenhong [ORNL

    2018-01-01

    The class 2b-3 truck market covers a wide range of commercial truck applications across a half-million vehicle sales annually. This report collected public information and stakeholder input to assess the opportunity for electrification in this market. Although class 2b-3 pickup truck and van bodies are very similar to personal light vehicles, their functional requirements are quite different due to the demands of the commercial market. These demands vary by application and often vary from day to day for a single application. Fleet customers purchase these vehicles to perform a particular job for their business and are concerned about the overall cost of doing that job. Therefore, the vehicles must meet the job requirements cost effectively. Customers also are sensitive to initial cost. Electrification offers the potential to reduce vehicle operating costs and possibly improve vehicle functionality. However, the current market for class 2b-3 electrified trucks is very small, and the trucks are costly. Increased production volumes are key to cost reductions and may be assisted by sharing components with larger or smaller truck classes. Expanding demand is also crucial and stakeholders identified several niche markets with duty cycles that are likely well-suited to electrified class 2b-3 trucks. To expand beyond these niches, class 2b-3 electric solutions must be robust, flexible, and adaptable in order to cover a wide range of vocations, applications, and duty cycles.

  6. Yield Stress Model for Molten Composition B-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Stephen; Zerkle, David

    2017-06-01

    Composition B-3 (Comp B-3) is a melt-castable explosive composed of 60/40 wt% RDX/TNT (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine/2,4,6-trinitrotoluene). During casting operations thermal conditions are controlled which along with the low melting point of TNT and the insensitivity of the mixture to external stimuli leading to safe use. Outside these standard operating conditions a more rigorous model of Comp B-3 rheological properties is necessary to model thermal transport as Comp B-3 evolves from quiescent solid through vaporization/decomposition upon heating. One particular rheological phenomena of interest is Bingham plasticity, where a material behaves as a quiescent solid unless a sufficient load is applied, resulting in fluid flow. In this study falling ball viscometer data is used to model the change in Bingham plastic yield stresses as a function of RDX particle volume fraction; a function of temperature. Results show the yield stress of Comp B-3 (τy) follows the expression τy = B ϕ -ϕc N , where Φ and Φc are the volume fraction of RDX and a critical volume fraction, respectively and B and N are experimentally evaluated constants.

  7. Effects of hypervitaminosis of vitamin B3 on silkworm biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    [Etebari K and Matindoost L 2004 Effects of hypervitaminosis of vitamin B3 on silkworm biology; J. Biosci. 29 417–422]. 1. ... ate growth of larvae and the reproduction in many insects and also mites has been ... were dried in air for 10 min.

  8. Radioprotective action of pantothenic acid (vitamin B3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perepelkin, S.P.; Egorova, N.D.; Kovalenko, V.A.; Demin, V.I.

    1976-01-01

    A protective action of pantothenic acid (vitamin B 3 ) administered orally with food in doses of 150, 750 and 1500 μg per animal has been studied in albino male rats exposed to a total-body X-irradiation of 600 R. Applied in the doses of 150 and 750 μg, the vitamin increases the animals radioresistance, while the dose of 1500 μg aggravates the course of radiation sickness

  9. Superficial basal cell carcinoma: A comparison of superficial only subtype with superficial combined with other subtypes by age, sex and anatomic site in 3150 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyne, John H; Myint, Esther; Barr, Elizabeth M; Clark, Simon P; David, Michael; Na, Renua; Hou, Ruihang

    2017-08-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) may present as superficial subtype alone (sBCC) or superficial combined with other subtypes. The objective of this study was to compare sBCC without or with other BCC subtypes by age, sex and anatomic site. We retrospectively collected superficial BCC with the above characteristics from an Australian center during 2009 to 2014. We recorded 1528 sBCC and 1622 superficial BCC combined with other BCC subtype cases. Males numbered 2007 and females 1140. On males, head sites (forehead, cheek, nose and ear combined) compared to limb plus trunk sites displayed a higher incidence of superficial BCC combined with either nodular and or aggressive BCC subtypes (OR 13.15 CI 95% 8.9-19.5 P < .0001). On females a similar comparison also found a higher incidence of superficial BCC combined with solid subtype BCC on head sites compared to trunk and limb sites (OR 9.66 CI 95% 5.8-16.1 P < .0001). Superficial BCC alone is more likely on younger females on trunk and limb sites. Small partial biopsies reported as sBCC may miss other BCC subtypes present with higher risk on facial sites for males and females. Males had smaller proportions of superficial only subtype BCC on facial and ear sites compared to females. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Complete genome of a European hepatitis C virus subtype 1g isolate: phylogenetic and genetic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracho, Maria A; Saludes, Verónica; Martró, Elisa; Bargalló, Ana; González-Candelas, Fernando; Ausina, Vicent

    2008-06-05

    Hepatitis C virus isolates have been classified into six main genotypes and a variable number of subtypes within each genotype, mainly based on phylogenetic analysis. Analyses of the genetic relationship among genotypes and subtypes are more reliable when complete genome sequences (or at least the full coding region) are used; however, so far 31 of 80 confirmed or proposed subtypes have at least one complete genome available. Of these, 20 correspond to confirmed subtypes of epidemic interest. We present and analyse the first complete genome sequence of a HCV subtype 1g isolate. Phylogenetic and genetic distance analyses reveal that HCV-1g is the most divergent subtype among the HCV-1 confirmed subtypes. Potential genomic recombination events between genotypes or subtype 1 genomes were ruled out. We demonstrate phylogenetic congruence of previously deposited partial sequences of HCV-1g with respect to our sequence. In light of this, we propose changing the current status of its subtype-specific designation from provisional to confirmed.

  11. Complete genome of a European hepatitis C virus subtype 1g isolate: phylogenetic and genetic analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bargalló Ana

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis C virus isolates have been classified into six main genotypes and a variable number of subtypes within each genotype, mainly based on phylogenetic analysis. Analyses of the genetic relationship among genotypes and subtypes are more reliable when complete genome sequences (or at least the full coding region are used; however, so far 31 of 80 confirmed or proposed subtypes have at least one complete genome available. Of these, 20 correspond to confirmed subtypes of epidemic interest. Results We present and analyse the first complete genome sequence of a HCV subtype 1g isolate. Phylogenetic and genetic distance analyses reveal that HCV-1g is the most divergent subtype among the HCV-1 confirmed subtypes. Potential genomic recombination events between genotypes or subtype 1 genomes were ruled out. We demonstrate phylogenetic congruence of previously deposited partial sequences of HCV-1g with respect to our sequence. Conclusion In light of this, we propose changing the current status of its subtype-specific designation from provisional to confirmed.

  12. Enterocin B3A-B3B produced by LAB collected from infant faeces: potential utilization in the food industry for Listeria monocytogenes biofilm management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Seraih, Alaa; Belguesmia, Yanath; Baah, John; Szunerits, Sabine; Boukherroub, Rabah; Drider, Djamel

    2017-02-01

    Enterococcus faecalis B3A-B3B produces the bacteriocin B3A-B3B with activity against Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Clostridium perfringens, but apparently not against fungi or Gram-negative bacteria, except for Salmonella Newport. B3A-B3B enterocin has two different nucleotides but similar amino acid composition to the class IIb MR10A-MR10B enterocin. B3A-B3B consists of two peptides of predicted molecular mass of 5176.31 Da (B3A) and 5182.21 Da (B3B). Importantly, B3A-B3B impeded biofilm formation of the foodborne pathogen L. monocytogenes 162 grown on stainless steel. The antimicrobial treatment of stainless steel with nisin (1 or 16 mg ml -1 ) decreased the cell numbers by about 2 log CFU ml -1 , thereby impeding the biofilm formation by L. monocytogenes 162 or its nisin-resistant derivative strain L. monocytogenes 162R. Furthermore, the combination of nisin and B3A-B3B enterocin reduced the MIC required to inhibit this pathogen grown in planktonic or biofilm cultures.

  13. Classical and quantum electrodynamics and the B(3) field

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Myron W

    2001-01-01

    It is well known that classical electrodynamics is riddled with internal inconsistencies springing from the fact that it is a linear, Abelian theory in which the potentials are unphysical. This volume offers a self-consistent hypothesis which removes some of these problems, as well as builds a framework on which linear and nonlinear optics are treated as a non-Abelian gauge field theory based on the emergence of the fundamental magnetizing field of radiation, the B(3) field. Contents: Interaction of Electromagnetic Radiation with One Fermion; The Field Equations of Classical O (3) b Electrodyn

  14. Permissive Subsorted Partial Logic in CASL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerioli, Maura; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Krieg-Brückner, Bernd

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a permissive subsorted partial logic used in the CoFI Algebraic Specification Language. In contrast to other order-sorted logics, subsorting is not modeled by set inclusions, but by injective embeddings allowing for more general models in which subtypes can have different data...

  15. Pragmatics of type-directed partial evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier

    1996-01-01

    Type-directed partial evaluation stems from the residualization of static values in dynamic contexts, given their type and the type of their free variables. Its algorithm coincides with the algorithm for coercing a subtype value into a supertype value, which itself coincides with Berger and Schwi...

  16. Motor subtype changes in early Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisinger, Robert S; Hess, Christopher W; Martinez-Ramirez, Daniel; Almeida, Leonardo; Foote, Kelly D; Okun, Michael S; Gunduz, Aysegul

    2017-10-01

    Distinct motor subtypes of Parkinson's disease (PD) have been described through both clinical observation and through data-driven approaches. However, the extent to which motor subtypes change during disease progression remains unknown. Our objective was to determine motor subtypes of PD using an unsupervised clustering methodology and evaluate subtype changes with disease duration. The Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative database of 423 newly diagnosed PD patients was utilized to retrospectively identify unique motor subtypes through a data-driven, hierarchical correlational clustering approach. For each patient, we assigned a subtype to each motor assessment at each follow-up visit (time points) and by using published criteria. We examined changes in PD subtype with disease duration using both qualitative and quantitative methods. Five distinct motor subtypes were identified based on the motor assessment items and these included: Tremor Dominant (TD), Axial Dominant, Appendicular Dominant, Rigidity Dominant, and Postural and Instability Gait Disorder Dominant. About half of the patients had consistent subtypes at all time points. Most patients met criteria for TD subtype soon after diagnosis. For patients with inconsistent subtypes, there was an overall trend to shift away from a TD phenotype with disease duration, as shown by chi-squared test, p motor subtypes in PD can shift with increasing disease duration. Shifting subtypes is a factor that should be accounted for in clinical practice or in clinical trials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Absolute partial photoionization cross sections of ethylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, F. A.; Whitley, T. A.; Keller, P. R.; Taylor, J. W.

    1991-07-01

    Absolute partial photoionization cross sections for ionization out of the first four valence orbitals to the X 2B 3u, A 2B 3g, B 2A g and C 2B 2u states of the C 2H 4+ ion are presented as a function of photon energy over the energy range from 12 to 26 eV. The experimental results have been compared to previously published relative partial cross sections for the first two bands at 18, 21 and 24 eV. Comparison of the experimental data with continuum multiple scattering Xα calculations provides evidence for extensive autoionization to the X 2B 3u state and confirms the predicted shape resonances in ionization to the A 2B 3g and B 2A g states. Identification of possible transitions for the autoionizing resonances have been made using multiple scattering transition state calculations on Rydberg excited states.

  18. Identification of measles virus genotype B3 associated with outbreaks in Islamabad, Pakistan, 2013-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Syed Sohail Zahoor; Hameed, Abdul; Suleman Rana, Muhammad; Alam, Muhammad Masroor; Umair, Massab; Aamir, Uzma Bashir; Hussain, Maqbool; Sharif, Salmaan; Shaukat, Shahzad; Angez, Mehar; Khurshid, Adnan

    2017-11-09

    Measles virus infection remains a significant cause of childhood mortality and morbidity despite continued global efforts and the availability of a safe and effective vaccine. Molecular analysis of indigenous measles viruses could provide critical information on outbreak linkages and transmission pathways that can aid the implementation of appropriate control programs in Pakistan. Blood samples and throat swabs were collected from subjects suspected with measles in Islamabad, Pakistan from 2013 to 2015. Serum samples were tested for the presence of measles immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) while throat swabs were used for the isolation (Vero/SLAM cell line) and subsequent characterization and phylogenetic analysis of measles strains. Of 373 blood samples, 66% tested positive for measles IgM. Male subjects were more often infected (58%) than female (42%) with the highest frequency of positive cases (63%) in the 0-5-years age group. Among the positive cases, only 13% had received one or two doses of the measles vaccine, while 87% were unvaccinated. Of 80 throat swabs, 29 (36%) showed a measles virus-specific cytopathic effect (CPE) and were characterized as genotype B3 through partial sequencing of the nucleoprotein (N) gene. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the Pakistani B3 strains to be closely related to strains from neighboring countries (Iran and Afghanistan) as well as with B3 viruses from the USA, Germany, and the UK. The study results showed that despite the availability of an effective vaccine, the burden of measles infections is very high in Pakistan due to poor routine immunization coverage even in major cities, including the capital city of Islamabad. It is imperative that national health authorities take urgent strategic steps to improve routine immunization and implement adequate molecular identification methods to tackle future measles outbreaks. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd

  19. Classification of alpha 1-adrenoceptor subtypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michel, M. C.; Kenny, B.; Schwinn, D. A.

    1995-01-01

    Two alpha 1-adrenoceptor subtypes (alpha 1A and alpha 1B) have been detected in various tissues by pharmacological techniques, and three distinct cDNAs encoding alpha 1-adrenoceptor subtypes have been cloned. The profile of an increasing number of subtype-selective compounds at cloned and endogenous

  20. Subtypes of nonmedical prescription drug misuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Sean Esteban; Boyd, Carol J.; Teter, Christian J.

    2010-01-01

    This study used three characteristics (i.e., motive, route of administration, and co-ingestion with alcohol) of nonmedical prescription drug misuse across four separate classes (i.e., pain, sedative/anxiety, sleeping and stimulant medications) to examine subtypes and drug related problems. A Web survey was self-administered by a randomly selected sample of 3,639 undergraduate students attending a large Midwestern 4-year U.S. university. Self-treatment subtypes were characterized by motives consistent with the prescription drug's pharmaceutical main indication, oral only routes of administration, and no co-ingestion with alcohol. Recreational subtypes were characterized by recreational motives, oral or non-oral routes, and co-ingestion. Mixed subtypes consisted of other combinations of motives, routes, and co-ingestion. Among those who reported nonmedical prescription drug misuse, approximately 13% were classified into the recreational subtype, while 39% were in the self-treatment subtype, and 48% were in the mixed subtype. There were significant differences in the subtypes in terms of gender, race and prescription drug class. Approximately 50% of those in subtypes other than self-treatment screened positive for drug abuse. The odds of substance use and abuse were generally lower among self-treatment subtypes than other subtypes. The findings indicate subtypes should be considered when examining nonmedical prescription drug misuse, especially for pain medication. PMID:19278795

  1. Crystal growth of Li10B3O5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Akira; Gallagher, Hugh G.; Han, Thomas P.J.

    1999-09-01

    The growth of boron 10 isotope enriched L 10 BO (Li 10 B 3 O 5 ) optical crystal has been developed from Top-Seeded-Solution-Growth using a resistance furnace. In the preparation for growth materials, we have made further improvement on a charge loading technique to a crucible and succeeded in forming suitable high temperature flux for producing crystals. Adequate temperature gradient of 1K/cm inside the crucible was achieved from searching for a combination of setting temperatures in the vertical three-zone furnace and installing a ceramic ring under the crucible. We have also optimized seed holder configuration and established growth conditions by several attempts. As a result, two good quality L 10 BO crystals were produced with sizes of 14 x 25 x 22 mm and 13 x 10 x 12 mm from oriented seed crystals. Although these sizes were limited by the size of the crucible used, appropriate oriented samples were extracted for detailed studies in optical measurements. (author)

  2. Coxsackievirus B3 2A protease promotes encephalomyocarditis virus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qin-Qin; Lu, Ming-Zhi; Song, Juan; Chi, Miao-Miao; Sheng, Lin-Jun; Yu, Jie; Luo, Xiao-Nuan; Zhang, Lu; Yao, Hai-Lan; Han, Jun

    2015-10-02

    To determine whether 2A protease of the enterovirus genus with type I internal ribosome entry site (IRES) effect on the viral replication of type II IRES, coxsackievirus B3(CVB3)-encoded protease 2A and encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) IRES (Type II)-dependent or cap-dependent report gene were transiently co-expressed in eukaryotic cells. We found that CVB3 2A protease not only inhibited translation of cap-dependent reporter genes through the cleavage of eIF4GI, but also conferred high EMCV IRES-dependent translation ability and promoted EMCV replication. Moreover, deletions of short motif (aa13-18 RVVNRH, aa65-70 KNKHYP, or aa88-93 PRRYQSH) resembling the nuclear localization signals (NLS) or COOH-terminal acidic amino acid motif (aa133-147 DIRDLLWLEDDAMEQ) of CVB3 2A protease decreased both its EMCV IRES-dependent translation efficiency and destroy its cleavage on eukaryotic initiation factor 4G (eIF4G) I. Our results may provide better understanding into more effective interventions and treatments for co-infection of viral diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. LWR containment thermal hydraulic codes benchmark demona B3 exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Della Loggia, E.; Gauvain, J.

    1988-01-01

    Recent discussion about the aerosol codes currently used for the analysis of containment retention capabilities have revealed a number of questions concerning the reliabilities and verifications of the thermal-hydraulic modules of these codes with respect to the validity of implemented physical models and the stability and effectiveness of numerical schemes. Since these codes are used for the calculation of the Source Term for the assessment of radiological consequences of severe accidents, they are an important part of reactor safety evaluation. For this reason the Commission of European Communities (CEC), following the recommendation mode by experts from Member Stades, is promoting research in this field with the aim also of establishing and increasing collaboration among Research Organisations of member countries. In view of the results of the studies, the CEC has decided to carry out a Benchmark exercise for severe accident containment thermal hydraulics codes. This exercise is based on experiment B3 in the DEMONA programme. The main objective of the benchmark exercise has been to assess the ability of the participating codes to predict atmosphere saturation levels and bulk condensation rates under conditions similar to those predicted to follow a severe accident in a PWR. This exercise follows logically on from the LA-4 exercise, which, is related to an experiment with a simpler internal geometry. We present here the results obtained so far and from them preliminary conclusions are drawn, concerning condensation temperature, pressure, flow rates, in the reactor containment

  4. First report of an HIV-1 triple recombinant of subtypes B, C and F in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weissenbacher Mercedes

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We describe the genetic diversity of currently transmitted strains of HIV-1 in men who have sex with men (MSM in Buenos Aires, Argentina between 2000 and 2004. Nearly full-length sequence analysis of 10 samples showed that 6 were subtype B, 3 were BF recombinant and 1 was a triple recombinant of subtypes B, C and F. The 3 BF recombinants were 3 different unique recombinant forms. Full genome analysis of one strain that was subtype F when sequenced in pol was found to be a triple recombinant. Gag and pol were predominantly subtype F, while gp120 was subtype B; there were regions of subtype C interspersed throughout. The young man infected with this strain reported multiple sexual partners and sero-converted between May and November of 2004. This study reported for the first time the full genome analysis of a triple recombinant between subtypes B, C and F, that combines in one virus the three most common subtypes in South America.

  5. Diabetes and Breast Cancer Subtypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heleen K Bronsveld

    Full Text Available Women with diabetes have a worse survival after breast cancer diagnosis compared to women without diabetes. This may be due to a different etiological profile, leading to the development of more aggressive breast cancer subtypes. Our aim was to investigate whether insulin and non-insulin treated women with diabetes develop specific clinicopathological breast cancer subtypes compared to women without diabetes.This cross-sectional study included randomly selected patients with invasive breast cancer diagnosed in 2000-2010. Stratified by age at breast cancer diagnosis (≤50 and >50 years, women with diabetes were 2:1 frequency-matched on year of birth and age at breast cancer diagnosis (both in 10-year categories to women without diabetes, to select ~300 patients with tumor tissue available. Tumor MicroArrays were stained by immunohistochemistry for estrogen and progesterone receptor (ER, PR, HER2, Ki67, CK5/6, CK14, and p63. A pathologist scored all stains and revised morphology and grade. Associations between diabetes/insulin treatment and clinicopathological subtypes were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression. Morphology and grade were not significantly different between women with diabetes (n = 211 and women without diabetes (n = 101, irrespective of menopausal status. Premenopausal women with diabetes tended to have more often PR-negative (OR = 2.44(95%CI:1.07-5.55, HER2-negative (OR = 2.84(95%CI:1.11-7.22, and basal-like (OR = 3.14(95%CI:1.03-9.60 tumors than the women without diabetes, with non-significantly increased frequencies of ER-negative (OR = 2.48(95%CI:0.95-6.45 and triple negative (OR = 2.60(95%CI:0.88-7.67 tumors. After adjustment for age and BMI, the associations remained similar in size but less significant. We observed no evidence for associations of clinicopathological subtypes with diabetes in postmenopausal women, or with insulin treatment in general.We found no compelling evidence that women with diabetes

  6. Diabetes and Breast Cancer Subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronsveld, Heleen K; Jensen, Vibeke; Vahl, Pernille; De Bruin, Marie L; Cornelissen, Sten; Sanders, Joyce; Auvinen, Anssi; Haukka, Jari; Andersen, Morten; Vestergaard, Peter; Schmidt, Marjanka K

    2017-01-01

    Women with diabetes have a worse survival after breast cancer diagnosis compared to women without diabetes. This may be due to a different etiological profile, leading to the development of more aggressive breast cancer subtypes. Our aim was to investigate whether insulin and non-insulin treated women with diabetes develop specific clinicopathological breast cancer subtypes compared to women without diabetes. This cross-sectional study included randomly selected patients with invasive breast cancer diagnosed in 2000-2010. Stratified by age at breast cancer diagnosis (≤50 and >50 years), women with diabetes were 2:1 frequency-matched on year of birth and age at breast cancer diagnosis (both in 10-year categories) to women without diabetes, to select ~300 patients with tumor tissue available. Tumor MicroArrays were stained by immunohistochemistry for estrogen and progesterone receptor (ER, PR), HER2, Ki67, CK5/6, CK14, and p63. A pathologist scored all stains and revised morphology and grade. Associations between diabetes/insulin treatment and clinicopathological subtypes were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression. Morphology and grade were not significantly different between women with diabetes (n = 211) and women without diabetes (n = 101), irrespective of menopausal status. Premenopausal women with diabetes tended to have more often PR-negative (OR = 2.44(95%CI:1.07-5.55)), HER2-negative (OR = 2.84(95%CI:1.11-7.22)), and basal-like (OR = 3.14(95%CI:1.03-9.60) tumors than the women without diabetes, with non-significantly increased frequencies of ER-negative (OR = 2.48(95%CI:0.95-6.45)) and triple negative (OR = 2.60(95%CI:0.88-7.67) tumors. After adjustment for age and BMI, the associations remained similar in size but less significant. We observed no evidence for associations of clinicopathological subtypes with diabetes in postmenopausal women, or with insulin treatment in general. We found no compelling evidence that women with diabetes, treated

  7. Sleep and daytime function in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: subtype differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sun Young Rosalia; Jain, Umesh Ravi; Shapiro, Colin Michael

    2013-07-01

    Although sleep disorders have been reported to affect more than half of adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), the association between sleep and ADHD is poorly understood. The aims of our study were to investigate sleep-related variables in adults with ADHD and to assess if any differences exist between ADHD of the predominantly inattentive (ADHD-I) and combined (ADHD-C) subtypes. We used the Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and the fatigue severity scale (FSS) to collect data on daytime sleepiness, sleep quality, and fatigue in 126 subjects (45 ADHD-I and 81 ADHD-C subjects). Approximately 85% of subjects reported excessive daytime sleepiness or poor sleep quality. The most common sleep concerns were initial insomnia, interrupted sleep, and feeling too hot. When examining ADHD subtype differences, ADHD-I subtypes reported poorer sleep quality and more fatigue than ADHD-C subtypes. Partial correlation analyses revealed that interrelationships between sleep quality, daytime sleepiness, and fatigue differ between ADHD subtypes; in ADHD-I subtypes fatigue was associated with sleep quality, while in the ADHD-C subtypes fatigue was associated with both sleep quality and daytime sleepiness. There also appears to be a subtype×gender interaction that affects the perception of fatigue, as subjective fatigue was markedly higher in ADHD-I women than in ADHD-C women. Altogether our data indicate that the interplay of variables associated with daytime function and sleep varies between ADHD subtypes. This finding may have considerable relevance in the management and pathophysiologic understanding of ADHD, and thus lead to tailored treatments for ADHD subtypes. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Refining developmental coordination disorder subtyping with multivariate statistical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalanne Christophe

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With a large number of potentially relevant clinical indicators penalization and ensemble learning methods are thought to provide better predictive performance than usual linear predictors. However, little is known about how they perform in clinical studies where few cases are available. We used Random Forests and Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis to select the most salient impairments in Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD and assess patients similarity. Methods We considered a wide-range testing battery for various neuropsychological and visuo-motor impairments which aimed at characterizing subtypes of DCD in a sample of 63 children. Classifiers were optimized on a training sample, and they were used subsequently to rank the 49 items according to a permuted measure of variable importance. In addition, subtyping consistency was assessed with cluster analysis on the training sample. Clustering fitness and predictive accuracy were evaluated on the validation sample. Results Both classifiers yielded a relevant subset of items impairments that altogether accounted for a sharp discrimination between three DCD subtypes: ideomotor, visual-spatial and constructional, and mixt dyspraxia. The main impairments that were found to characterize the three subtypes were: digital perception, imitations of gestures, digital praxia, lego blocks, visual spatial structuration, visual motor integration, coordination between upper and lower limbs. Classification accuracy was above 90% for all classifiers, and clustering fitness was found to be satisfactory. Conclusions Random Forests and Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis are useful tools to extract salient features from a large pool of correlated binary predictors, but also provide a way to assess individuals proximities in a reduced factor space. Less than 15 neuro-visual, neuro-psychomotor and neuro-psychological tests might be required to provide a sensitive and

  9. Partial Cancellation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Partial Cancellation. Full Cancellation is desirable. But complexity requirements are enormous. 4000 tones, 100 Users billions of flops !!! Main Idea: Challenge: To determine which cross-talker to cancel on what “tone” for a given victim. Constraint: Total complexity is ...

  10. Geographic distribution of hepatitis C virus genotype 6 subtypes in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkarathamrongsin, Srunthron; Praianantathavorn, Kesmanee; Hacharoen, Nisachol; Theamboonlers, Apiradee; Tangkijvanich, Pisit; Tanaka, Yasuhito; Mizokami, Masashi; Poovorawan, Yong

    2010-02-01

    The nucleotide sequence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 6 found mostly in south China and south-east Asia, displays profound genetic diversity. The aim of this study to determine the genetic variability of HCV genotype 6 (HCV-6) in Thailand and locate the subtype distribution of genotype 6 in various geographic areas. Four hundred nineteen anti-HCV positive serum samples were collected from patients residing in - the central part of the country. HCV RNA positive samples based on reverse transcriptase- polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of the 5'UTR were amplified with primers specific for the core and NS5B regions. Nucleotide sequences of both regions were analyzed for the genotype by phylogenetic analysis. To determine geographic distribution of HCV-6 subtypes, a search of the international database on subtype distribution in the respective countries was conducted. Among 375 HCV RNA positive samples, 71 had HCV-6 based on phylogenetic analysis of partial core and NS5B regions. The subtype distribution in order of predominance was 6f (56%), 6n (22%), 6i (11%), 6j (10%), and 6e (1%). Among the 13 countries with different subtypes of HCV-6, most sequences have been reported from Vietnam. Subtype 6f was found exclusively in Thailand where five distinct HCV-6 subtypes are circulating. HCV-6, which is endemic in south China and south-east Asia, displays profound genetic diversity and may have evolved over a considerable period of time. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Doubling time of thymic epithelial tumours on CT: correlation with histological subtype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choe, Jooae; Lee, Sang Min; Kim, Namkug; Do, Kyung-Hyun; Seo, Joon Beom [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Songpa-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Soyeoun [Ulsan University Hospital, Department of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Se Hoon [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-10-15

    We retrospectively evaluated the doubling time (DT) of thymic epithelial tumours (TET) according to the histological subtype on CT. From January 2005 to June 2016, we enrolled 53 patients who had pathologically confirmed TET and at least two CT scans. Tumour size was measured using a two-dimensional method, and the DT was calculated. DTs were compared among histological subtypes, and factors associated with rapid tumour growth (DT <180 days) were assessed. In 42 of the 53 patients (79.2%) the tumours showed interval growth (>2 mm) during follow-up. The median DT for all tumours was 400 days (range 48-1,964 days). There were no significant differences in DT in relation to histological subtype (p = 0.177). When TETs were recategorized into three groups, i.e. low-risk thymomas (types A, AB, B1), high-risk thymomas (types B2, B3), and thymic carcinoma, DT was significantly different among the groups (median DT 436, 381 and 189 days, respectively; p = 0.031). Histological subtype (type B3 and thymic carcinoma) was the single independent predictor of rapid tumour growth. The majority of TETs grew during follow-up with variable and relatively slow growth rates. Histological features of aggressive behaviour significantly correlated with a decreased DT and rapid growth. circle The majority of thymic epithelial tumours grew during follow-up (79.2%, 42/53). (orig.)

  12. Motoric subtypes of delirium in geriatric patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Grover

    2014-01-01

    Results: On amended DMSS, hyperactive subtype (N = 45; 45.9% was the most common motoric subtype of delirium, followed by hypoactive subtype (N = 23; 23.5%, and mixed subtype (N = 21; 21.4%. On DRS-R-98, all patients fulfilled the criteria of ′acute (temporal onset of symptoms′, ′presence of an underlying physical disorder′ and ′difficulty in attention′. In the total sample, >90% of the patients had disturbances in sleep-wake cycle, orientation and fluctuation of symptoms. The least common symptoms were delusions, visuospatial disturbances and motor retardation. When compared to hypoactive group, significantly higher proportion of patients with hyperactive subtype had delusions, perceptual disturbances, and motor agitation. Whereas, compared to hyperactive subtype, significantly higher proportion of patients with hypoactive subtype had thought process abnormality and motor retardation. When the hyperactive and mixed motoric subtype groups were compared, patients with mixed subtype group had significantly higher prevalence of thought process abnormality and motor retardation. Comparison of hypoactive and mixed subtype revealed significant differences in the frequency of perceptual disturbances, delusions and motor agitation and all these symptoms being found more commonly in patients with the mixed subtype. Severity of symptoms were found to be significantly different across the various motoric subtypes for some of the non-cognitive symptoms, but significant differences were not seen for the cognitive symptoms as assessed on DRS-R-98. Conclusion: In elderly patients, motor subtypes of delirium differ from each other on non-cognitive symptom profile in terms of frequency and severity.

  13. Partial processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    This discussion paper considers the possibility of applying to the recycle of plutonium in thermal reactors a particular method of partial processing based on the PUREX process but named CIVEX to emphasise the differences. The CIVEX process is based primarily on the retention of short-lived fission products. The paper suggests: (1) the recycle of fission products with uranium and plutonium in thermal reactor fuel would be technically feasible; (2) it would, however, take ten years or more to develop the CIVEX process to the point where it could be launched on a commercial scale; (3) since the majority of spent fuel to be reprocessed this century will have been in storage for ten years or more, the recycling of short-lived fission products with the U-Pu would not provide an effective means of making refabrication fuel ''inaccessible'' because the radioactivity associated with the fission products would have decayed. There would therefore be no advantage in partial processing

  14. Partial gigantism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М.М. Karimova

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A girl with partial gigantism (the increased I and II fingers of the left foot is being examined. This condition is a rare and unresolved problem, as the definite reason of its development is not determined. Wait-and-see strategy is recommended, as well as correcting operations after closing of growth zones, and forming of data pool for generalization and development of schemes of drug and radial therapeutic methods.

  15. A measles outbreak in Sindh, Pakistan caused by a genotype B3 virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Syed Sohail Zahoor; Hameed, Abdul; Ali, Naeem; Umair, Massab; Alam, Muhammad Masroor; Rana, Muhammad Suleman; Sharif, Salmaan; Aamir, Uzma Bashir; Shaukat, Shahzad; Angez, Mehar; Khurshid, Adnan; Akhtar, Ribqa; Mehmood, Nayab; Badar, Nazish

    2017-12-01

    Measles continues to be a major public health issue causing substantial outbreaks worldwide, mostly affecting young children. Molecular analysis of measles viruses provides important information on outbreak linkages and transmission pathways that can be helpful towards implementation of appropriate control programs. In Pakistan, the control of measles is still tenuous, and progress towards elimination has been irregular and challenging. In the 2013 measles outbreak we received 4,682 sera collected from suspected patients in 23 districts across Sindh. A total of 3,283 samples were confirmed measles positive using IgM ELISA with the highest infection rate in children aged 1-12 months. Males were more affected than females and a visible peak was observed from January to April. Among the 3,283 cases, 59.1% were unvaccinated, 29.6% had received 1 dose and 10.3% had received 2 doses of measles vaccine while 0.85% had an unknown vaccination status. For genotype detection and phylogenetic analysis, 60 throat swab samples were collected from suspected patients below 15 years of age in eight districts of Sindh province. Forty four (73%; 44/60) throat swab samples were successfully genotyped using RT-PCR. Phylogenetic analyses based on partial sequences of the nucleocapsid protein gene revealed that all Pakistani measles virus strains belonged to genotype B3 and were closely related to those isolated from neighboring countries such as Iran, Afghanistan (99.1-100%) and India with 98.6 - 99.6% nucleotide homology. This is the first report on the phylogenetic analysis of measles B3 genotype strains from Pakistan and highlights the need for strengthening the surveillance systems and improving immunization coverage across the country.

  16. Hypertension Subtypes among Hypertensive Patients in Ibadan

    OpenAIRE

    Abiodun M. Adeoye; Adewole Adebiyi; Bamidele O. Tayo; Babatunde L. Salako; Adesola Ogunniyi; Richard S. Cooper

    2014-01-01

    Background. Certain hypertension subtypes have been shown to increase the risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and may be related to specific underlying genetic determinants. Inappropriate characterization of subtypes of hypertension makes efforts at elucidating the genetic contributions to the etiology of hypertension largely vapid. We report the hypertension subtypes among patients with hypertension from South-Western Nigeria. Methods. A total of 1858 subjects comprising 76% fema...

  17. Up-regulated ephrinB3/EphB3 expression in intractable temporal lobe epilepsy patients and pilocarpine induced experimental epilepsy rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hao; Li, Ruohan; Yuan, Jinxian; Zhou, Xin; Liu, Xi; Ou, Shu; Xu, Tao; Chen, Yangmei

    2016-05-15

    EphB family receptor tyrosine kinases, in cooperation with cell surface-bound ephrinB ligands, play a critical role in maintenance of dendritic spine morphogenesis, axons guidance, synaptogenesis, synaptic reorganization and plasticity in the central nervous system (CNS). However, the expression pattern of ephrinB/EphB in intractable temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and the underlying molecular mechanisms during epileptogenesis remain poorly understood. Here we investigated the expression pattern and cellular distribution of ephrinB/EphB in intractable TLE patients and lithium chloride-pilocarpine induced TLE rats using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), immunohistochemistry, double-labeled immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis. Compared to control groups, ephrinB3 and EphB3 mRNA expression were significantly up-regulated in intractable TLE patients and TLE rats, while the mRNA expression trend of ephrinB1/2 and EphB1/2/4/6 in intractable TLE patients and TLE rats were inconsistent. Western blot analysis and semi-quantitative immunohistochemistry confirmed that ephrinB3 and EphB3 protein level were up-regulated in intractable TLE patients and TLE rats. At the same time, double-labeled immunofluorescence indicate that ephrinB3 was expressed mainly in the cytoplasm and protrusions of glia and neurons, while EphB3 was expressed mainly in the cytoplasm of neurons. Taken together, up-regulated expression of ephrinB3/EphB3 in intractable TLE patients and experimental TLE rats suggested that ephrinB3/EphB3 might be involved in the pathogenesis of TLE. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. [A novel M142T mutation in the B glycosyltransferase gene associated with B3 variant in Chinese].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xian-guo; Hong, Xiao-zhen; Liu, Ying; Zhu, Fa-ming; Lv, Hang-jun; Yan, Li-xing

    2009-06-01

    To investigate the molecular genetic basis of the B3 variant of ABO blood group system with mixed-field hemagglutination in Chinese. Serological techniques were performed to characterize the erythrocyte phenotype of two discrepant samples. A sequential agglutination method and 13 short tandem repeat (STR) loci were tested to exclude the possibility of exogenous or endogenous DNA chimera. Mutations in exons 6 and 7, including partial intron of the ABO gene, were screened by polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing. Haplotypes of the two individuals were also analyzed by sequencing. A mixed-field hemagglutination of RBCs with anti-B and anti-AB antibodies was detected in the two unrelated individuals. Exogenous ABO-incompatible RBC transfusion and endogenous genetic chimera were excluded by sequential agglutination method and STR. The ABO phenotypes of the two individuals were classified as A1B3 according to the ABO subgroup definition. The sequence region from intron 5 to 3'-UTR of the B allele was identical to that of ABO*B101 allele, except for a T to C substitution at nucleotide position 425 in exon 7. This substitution resulted in an amino acid change of M142T in the B glycosyltransferase. A novel B allele with 425T>C substitution resulting in B3 subgroup was identified in two Chinese individuals.

  19. Transsexual subtypes : Clinical and theoretical significance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, YLS; van Goozen, SHM; Kuiper, AJ; Cohen-Kettenis, PT

    2005-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate whether transsexuals can be validly subdivided into subtypes on the basis of sexual orientation, and whether differences between subtypes of transsexuals are similar for male-to-female (ME) and female-to-male transsexuals (FMs). Within a large

  20. Hepatitis C virus sequences from different patients confirm the existence and transmissibility of subtype 2q, a rare subtype circulating in the metropolitan area of Barcelona, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martró, Elisa; Valero, Ana; Jordana-Lluch, Elena; Saludes, Verónica; Planas, Ramón; González-Candelas, Fernando; Ausina, Vicente; Bracho, Maria Alma

    2011-05-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been classified into six genotypes and more than 70 subtypes with distinct geographical and epidemiological distributions. While 18 genotype 2 subtypes have been proposed, only 5 have had their complete sequence determined. The aim of this study was to characterize HCV isolates from three patients from the Barcelona metropolitan area of Spain for whom commercial genotyping methods provided discordant results. Full-length genome sequencing was carried out for 2 of the 3 patients; for the third patient only partial NS5B sequences could be obtained. The generated sequences were subjected to phylogenetic, recombination, and identity analyses. Sequences covering most of the HCV genome (9398 and 9566  nt in length) were obtained and showed a 90.3% identity to each other at the nucleotide level, while both sequences differed by 17.5-22.6% from the other fully sequenced genotype 2 subtypes. No evidence of recombination was found. The NS5B phylogenetic tree showed that sequences from the three patients cluster together with the only representative sequence of the provisionally designed 2q subtype, which also corresponds to a patient from Barcelona. Phylogenetic analysis of the full coding sequence showed that subtype 2q was more closely related to subtype 2k. The results obtained in this study suggest that subtype 2q now meets the requirements for confirmed designation status according to consensus criteria for HCV classification and nomenclature, and its epidemiological value is ensured as it has spread among several patients in the Barcelona metropolitan area. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Interaction with epsin 1 regulates the constitutive clathrin-dependent internalization of ErbB3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanska, Monika; Fosdahl, Anne Marthe; Raiborg, Camilla; Dietrich, Markus; Liestøl, Knut; Stang, Espen; Bertelsen, Vibeke

    2016-06-01

    In contrast to other members of the EGF receptor family, ErbB3 is constitutively internalized in a clathrin-dependent manner. Previous studies have shown that ErbB3 does not interact with the coated pit localized adaptor complex 2 (AP-2), and that ErbB3 lacks two AP-2 interacting internalization signals identified in the EGF receptor. Several other clathrin-associated sorting proteins which may recruit cargo into coated pits have, however, been identified, and the study was performed to identify adaptors needed for constitutive internalization of ErbB3. A high-throughput siRNA screen was used to identify adaptor proteins needed for internalization of ErbB3. Upon knock-down of candidate proteins internalization of ErbB3 was identified using an antibody-based internalization assay combined with automatic fluorescence microscopy. Among 29 candidates only knock-down of epsin 1 turned out to inhibit ErbB3. Epsin 1 has ubiquitin interacting motifs (UIMs) and we show that ErbB3 interacts with an epsin 1 deletion mutant containing these UIMs. In support of an ErbB3-epsin 1 UIM dependent interaction, we show that ErbB3 is constitutively ubiquitinated, but that both ubiquitination and the ErbB3-epsin 1 interaction increase upon ligand binding. Altogether the results are consistent with a model whereby both constitutive and ligand-induced internalization of ErbB3 are regulated through interaction with epsin 1. Internalization is an important regulator of growth factor receptor mediated signaling and the current study identify mechanisms regulating plasma membrane turnover of ErbB3. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Molecular subtypes of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Fede, Giuseppe; Catania, Marcella; Maderna, Emanuela; Ghidoni, Roberta; Benussi, Luisa; Tonoli, Elisa; Giaccone, Giorgio; Moda, Fabio; Paterlini, Anna; Campagnani, Ilaria; Sorrentino, Stefano; Colombo, Laura; Kubis, Adriana; Bistaffa, Edoardo; Ghetti, Bernardino; Tagliavini, Fabrizio

    2018-02-19

    Protein misfolding and aggregation is a central feature of several neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD), in which assemblies of amyloid β (Aβ) peptides accumulate in the brain in the form of parenchymal and/or vascular amyloid. A widely accepted concept is that AD is characterized by distinct clinical and neuropathological phenotypes. Recent studies revealed that Aβ assemblies might have structural differences among AD brains and that such pleomorphic assemblies can correlate with distinct disease phenotypes. We found that in both sporadic and inherited forms of AD, amyloid aggregates differ in the biochemical composition of Aβ species. These differences affect the physicochemical properties of Aβ assemblies including aggregation kinetics, resistance to degradation by proteases and seeding ability. Aβ-amyloidosis can be induced and propagated in animal models by inoculation of brain extracts containing aggregated Aβ. We found that brain homogenates from AD patients with different molecular profiles of Aβ are able to induce distinct patterns of Aβ-amyloidosis when injected into mice. Overall these data suggest that the assembly of mixtures of Aβ peptides into different Aβ seeds leads to the formation of distinct subtypes of amyloid having distinctive physicochemical and biological properties which result in the generation of distinct AD molecular subgroups.

  3. Verified Subtyping with Traits and Mixins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asankhaya Sharma

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Traits allow decomposing programs into smaller parts and mixins are a form of composition that resemble multiple inheritance. Unfortunately, in the presence of traits, programming languages like Scala give up on subtyping relation between objects. In this paper, we present a method to check subtyping between objects based on entailment in separation logic. We implement our method as a domain specific language in Scala and apply it on the Scala standard library. We have verified that 67% of mixins used in the Scala standard library do indeed conform to subtyping between the traits that are used to build them.

  4. Phylodynamic and Phylogeographic Patterns of the HIV Type 1 Subtype F1 Parenteral Epidemic in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hué, Stéphane; Buckton, Andrew J.; Myers, Richard E.; Duiculescu, Dan; Ene, Luminita; Oprea, Cristiana; Tardei, Gratiela; Rugina, Sorin; Mardarescu, Mariana; Floch, Corinne; Notheis, Gundula; Zöhrer, Bettina; Cane, Patricia A.; Pillay, Deenan

    2012-01-01

    Abstract In the late 1980s an HIV-1 epidemic emerged in Romania that was dominated by subtype F1. The main route of infection is believed to be parenteral transmission in children. We sequenced partial pol coding regions of 70 subtype F1 samples from children and adolescents from the PENTA-EPPICC network of which 67 were from Romania. Phylogenetic reconstruction using the sequences and other publically available global subtype F sequences showed that 79% of Romanian F1 sequences formed a statistically robust monophyletic cluster. The monophyletic cluster was epidemiologically linked to parenteral transmission in children. Coalescent-based analysis dated the origins of the parenteral epidemic to 1983 [1981–1987; 95% HPD]. The analysis also shows that the epidemic's effective population size has remained fairly constant since the early 1990s suggesting limited onward spread of the virus within the population. Furthermore, phylogeographic analysis suggests that the root location of the parenteral epidemic was Bucharest. PMID:22251065

  5. Hypertension Subtypes among Hypertensive Patients in Ibadan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiodun M. Adeoye

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Certain hypertension subtypes have been shown to increase the risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and may be related to specific underlying genetic determinants. Inappropriate characterization of subtypes of hypertension makes efforts at elucidating the genetic contributions to the etiology of hypertension largely vapid. We report the hypertension subtypes among patients with hypertension from South-Western Nigeria. Methods. A total of 1858 subjects comprising 76% female, hypertensive, aged 18 and above were recruited into the study from two centers in Ibadan, Nigeria. Hypertension was identified using JNCVII definition and was further grouped into four subtypes: controlled hypertension (CH, isolated systolic hypertension (ISH, isolated diastolic hypertension (IDH, and systolic-diastolic hypertension (SDH. Results. Systolic-diastolic hypertension was the most prevalent. Whereas SDH (77.6% versus 73.5% and IDH (4.9% versus 4.7% were more prevalent among females, ISH (10.1% versus 6.2% was higher among males (P=0.048. Female subjects were more obese (P<0.0001 and SDH was prevalent among the obese group. Conclusion. Gender and obesity significantly influenced the distribution of the hypertension subtypes. Characterization of hypertension by subtypes in genetic association studies could lead to identification of previously unknown genetic variants involved in the etiology of hypertension. Large-scale studies among various ethnic groups may be needed to confirm these observations.

  6. Interferon α subtypes in HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, Kathrin; Dickow, Julia; Dittmer, Ulf

    2018-02-13

    Type I interferons (IFN), which are immediately induced after most virus infections, are central for direct antiviral immunity and link innate and adaptive immune responses. However, several viruses have evolved strategies to evade the IFN response by preventing IFN induction or blocking IFN signaling pathways. Thus, therapeutic application of exogenous type I IFN or agonists inducing type I IFN responses are a considerable option for future immunotherapies against chronic viral infections. An important part of the type I IFN family are 12 IFNα subtypes, which all bind the same receptor, but significantly differ in their biological activities. Up to date only one IFNα subtype (IFNα2) is being used in clinical treatment against chronic virus infections, however its therapeutic success rate is rather limited, especially during Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. Recent studies addressed the important question if other IFNα subtypes would be more potent against retroviral infections in in vitro and in vivo experiments. Indeed, very potent IFNα subtypes were defined and their antiviral and immunomodulatory properties were characterized. In this review we summarize the recent findings on the role of individual IFNα subtypes during HIV and Simian Immunodeficiency Virus infection. This includes their induction during HIV/SIV infection, their antiretroviral activity and the regulation of immune response against HIV by different IFNα subtypes. The findings might facilitate novel strategies for HIV cure or functional cure studies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A structure and second-harmonic generation of crystals Li B3O5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burak, Ya.V.

    1997-01-01

    Projections of atoms of nonlinear optical crystals Li B 3 O 5 onto planes perpendicular to directions of the phase matching of type-1 and type-2 for second-harmonic generation (SHG) in a YAG:Nd laser are constructed. Analyses of the interdependence of orientations of (B 3 O 7 ) 5 -complexes and of the effectiveness of SHG are conducted

  8. 26 CFR 48.6416(b)(3)-2 - Further manufacture included.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Further manufacture included. 48.6416(b)(3)-2... of Special Application to Retailers and Manufacturers Taxes § 48.6416(b)(3)-2 Further manufacture... overpayment by reason of any use in further manufacture, or sale as part of a second manufactured article...

  9. Genetic loss of SH2B3 in acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Garcia, Arianne; Ambesi-Impiombato, Alberto; Hadler, Michael; Rigo, Isaura; LeDuc, Charles A; Kelly, Kara; Jalas, Chaim; Paietta, Elisabeth; Racevskis, Janis; Rowe, Jacob M; Tallman, Martin S; Paganin, Maddalena; Basso, Giuseppe; Tong, Wei; Chung, Wendy K; Ferrando, Adolfo A

    2013-10-03

    The SH2B adaptor protein 3 (SH2B3) gene encodes a negative regulator of cytokine signaling with a critical role in the homeostasis of hematopoietic stem cells and lymphoid progenitors. Here, we report the identification of germline homozygous SH2B3 mutations in 2 siblings affected with developmental delay and autoimmunity, one in whom B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) developed. Mechanistically, loss of SH2B3 increases Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription signaling, promotes lymphoid cell proliferation, and accelerates leukemia development in a mouse model of NOTCH1-induced ALL. Moreover, extended mutation analysis showed homozygous somatic mutations in SH2B3 in 2 of 167 ALLs analyzed. Overall, these results demonstrate a Knudson tumor suppressor role for SH2B3 in the pathogenesis of ALL and highlight a possible link between genetic predisposition factors in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity and leukemogenesis.

  10. Rate of renal cell carcinoma subtypes in different races

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Sankin

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: We sought to identify racial differences among histological subtypes of renal cell carcinoma (RCC between black and non-black patients in an equal-access health care system. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We established a multi-institutional, prospective database of patients undergoing partial or radical nephrectomy between January 1, 2000 and Sept 31, 2009. For the purposes of this study, data captured included age at diagnosis, race, tumor size, presence of lymphovascular invasion, presence of capsular invasion, margin status, and tumor histology. RESULTS: 204 kidney tumors were identified (Table-1. Of these, 117 (57.4% were in black patients and 87 (42.6% were in non-black patients. Age at surgery ranged from 37 to 87 with a median of 62. Tumor size ranged from 1.0 to 22.0 cm with a median of 5.0 cm. Overall, tumors were composed of clear cell RCC in 97 cases (47.5%, papillary RCC in 65 cases (31.9%, chromophobe RCC in 13 cases (6.4%, collecting duct/medullary RCC in 2 cases (1.0%, RCC with multiple histological subtypes in 8 cases (3.9%, malignant tumors of other origin in 6 cases (2.9%, and benign histology in 13 cases (6.4%. Among black patients, papillary RCC was seen in 56 cases (47.9%, compared to 9 cases (10.3% among non-black patients (p < 0.001 (Table-2. Clear cell RCC was present in 38 (32.5% of black patients and in 59 (67.8% of non-blacks (p < 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: In our study, papillary RCC had a much higher occurrence among black patients compared to non-black patients. This is the first study to document such a great racial disparity among RCC subtypes.

  11. Detection by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and molecular characterization of subtype B avian metapneumovirus isolated in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacón, Jorge Luis; Brandão, Paulo E; Buim, Marcos; Villarreal, Laura; Ferreira, Antonio J Piantino

    2007-10-01

    Subtype B avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) was isolated and detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in Brazilian commercial laying chicken flocks with no history of vaccination against aMPV and presenting respiratory signs and decreased egg production. RT-PCR results from samples from three affected flocks revealed that the three isolates were subtype B. Partial sequence analysis of the G glycoprotein gene confirmed that the samples belonged to subtype B and were not of the vaccine type. Comparison of nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the G gene of the three Brazilian aMPV samples with subtype B isolates from other countries revealed 95.1% to 96.1% identity. Nucleotide sequences showed 100% identity among the Brazilian subtype B samples and 95.6% identity with the subtype B vaccine strain used in Brazil. This work describes the circulation of subtype B aMPV in Brazil and discusses its importance in terms of disease epidemiology.

  12. A new HCV genotype 6 subtype designated 6v was confirmed with three complete genome sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yizhong; Xia, Xueshan; Li, Chunhua; Maneekarn, Niwat; Xia, Wenjie; Zhao, Wenhua; Feng, Yue; Kung, Hsiang Fu; Fu, Yongshui; Lu, Ling

    2009-03-01

    Although hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 6 is classified into 21 subtypes, 6a-6u, new variants continue to be identified. To characterize the full-length genomes of three novel HCV genotype 6 variants: KMN02, KM046 and KM181. From sera of patients with HCV infection, the entire HCV genome was amplified by RT-PCR followed by direct DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The sera contained HCV genomes of 9461, 9429, and 9461nt in length, and each harboured a single ORF of 9051nt. The genomes showed 95.3-98.1% nucleotide similarity to each other and 72.2-75.4% similarity to 23 genotype 6 reference sequences, which represent subtypes 6a-6u and unassigned variants km41 and gz52557. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that they were genotype 6, but were subtypically distinct. Based on the current criteria of HCV classification, they were designed to represent a new subtype, 6v. Analysis of E1 and NS5B region partial sequences revealed two additional related variants, CMBD-14 and CMBD-86 that had been previously reported in northern Thailand and sequences dropped into Genbank. Three novel HCV genotype 6 variants were entirely sequenced and designated subtype 6v.

  13. Detection of avian metapneumovirus subtypes in turkeys using RT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongor, H; Karahan, M; Kalin, R; Bulut, H; Cetinkaya, B

    2010-03-20

    This study investigated the prevalence of avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) and the detection of molecular subtypes of field strains of the virus using RT-PCR in clinically healthy turkeys and those showing signs of respiratory disease. In the RT-PCR examination of 624 tracheal tissue samples collected from a local turkey abattoir, 2.9 per cent (18/624) of samples tested positive. In the examination of tracheal swab samples collected from flocks with respiratory problems, 18 of 20 samples tested positive. When the results were assessed at flock level, aMPV infection was detected in only one of the 23 clinically healthy turkey flocks, whereas all four flocks with respiratory problems were infected. Molecular typing using primers specific to the attachment glycoprotein (G) gene showed that all 36 positive samples belonged to subtype B. Partial sequence analysis of DNA samples showed 95 per cent homology between the field types and the reference strain aMPV subtype B. Whereas clinically healthy turkeys had been vaccinated with a subtype A virus vaccine, the flocks with respiratory problems had been vaccinated with a subtype B virus vaccine. Despite four blind passages of RT-PCR-positive samples on Vero and chicken embryo fibroblast cells, no cytopathic effect was detected by microscopic examination.

  14. Blockade of alcohol's amnestic activity in humans by an alpha5 subtype benzodiazepine receptor inverse agonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutt, David J; Besson, Marie; Wilson, Susan J; Dawson, Gerard R; Lingford-Hughes, Anne R

    2007-12-01

    Alcohol produces many subjective and objective effects in man including pleasure, sedation, anxiolysis, plus impaired eye movements and memory. In human volunteers we have used a newly available GABA-A/benzodiazepine receptor inverse agonist that is selective for the alpha5 subtype (a5IA) to evaluate the role of this subtype in mediating these effects of alcohol on the brain. After pre-treatment with a5IA, we found almost complete blockade of the marked impairment caused by alcohol (mean breath concentration 150mg/100ml) of word list learning and partial but non-significant reversal of subjective sedation without effects on other measures such as intoxication, liking, and slowing of eye movements. This action was not due to alterations in alcohol kinetics and so provides the first proof of concept that selectively decreasing GABA-A receptor function at a specific receptor subtype can offset some actions of alcohol in humans. It also supports growing evidence for a key role of the alpha5 subtype in memory. Inverse agonists at other GABA-A receptor subtypes may prove able to reverse other actions of alcohol, and so offer a new approach to understanding the actions of alcohol in the human brain and in the treatment of alcohol related disorders in humans.

  15. Performance of Diesel Engine Using Diesel B3 Mixed with Crude Palm Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namliwan, Nattapong; Wongwuttanasatian, Tanakorn

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the performance of diesel engine using diesel B3 mixed with crude palm oil in ratios of 95 : 5, 90 : 10, and 85 : 15, respectively, and to compare the results with diesel B3. According to the tests, they showed that the physical properties of the mixed fuel in the ratio of 95 : 5 were closest to those of diesel B3. The performance of the diesel engine that used mixed fuels had 5–17% lower torque and power than that of diesel B3. The specific fuel consumption of mixed fuels was 7–33% higher than using diesel B3. The components of gas emissions by using mixed fuel had 1.6–52% fewer amount of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and oxygen (O2) than those of diesel B3. On the other hand, nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen oxides (NOX) emissions when using mixed fuels were 10–39% higher than diesel B3. By comparing the physical properties, the performance of the engine, and the amount of gas emissions of mixed fuel, we found out that the 95 : 5 ratio by volume was a suitable ratio for agricultural diesel engine (low-speed diesel engine). PMID:24688402

  16. Performance of diesel engine using diesel B3 mixed with crude palm oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namliwan, Nattapong; Wongwuttanasatian, Tanakorn

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the performance of diesel engine using diesel B3 mixed with crude palm oil in ratios of 95 : 5, 90 : 10, and 85 : 15, respectively, and to compare the results with diesel B3. According to the tests, they showed that the physical properties of the mixed fuel in the ratio of 95 : 5 were closest to those of diesel B3. The performance of the diesel engine that used mixed fuels had 5-17% lower torque and power than that of diesel B3. The specific fuel consumption of mixed fuels was 7-33% higher than using diesel B3. The components of gas emissions by using mixed fuel had 1.6-52% fewer amount of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and oxygen (O2) than those of diesel B3. On the other hand, nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen oxides (NO X ) emissions when using mixed fuels were 10-39% higher than diesel B3. By comparing the physical properties, the performance of the engine, and the amount of gas emissions of mixed fuel, we found out that the 95 : 5 ratio by volume was a suitable ratio for agricultural diesel engine (low-speed diesel engine).

  17. 17 CFR 275.203(b)(3)-2 - Methods for counting clients in certain private funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methods for counting clients....203(b)(3)-2 Methods for counting clients in certain private funds. (a) For purposes of section 203(b)(3) of the Act (15 U.S.C. 80b-3(b)(3)), you must count as clients the shareholders, limited partners...

  18. Rising prevalence of non-B HIV-1 subtypes in North Carolina and evidence for local onward transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Ann M; Hué, Stephane; Learner, Emily; Sebastian, Joseph; Miller, William C; Eron, Joseph J

    2017-01-01

    HIV-1 diversity is increasing in North American and European cohorts which may have public health implications. However, little is known about non-B subtype diversity in the southern United States, despite the region being the epicenter of the nation's epidemic. We characterized HIV-1 diversity and transmission clusters to identify the extent to which non-B strains are transmitted locally. We conducted cross-sectional analyses of HIV-1 partial pol sequences collected from 1997 to 2014 from adults accessing routine clinical care in North Carolina (NC). Subtypes were evaluated using COMET and phylogenetic analysis. Putative transmission clusters were identified using maximum-likelihood trees. Clusters involving non-B strains were confirmed and their dates of origin were estimated using Bayesian phylogenetics. Data were combined with demographic information collected at the time of sample collection and country of origin for a subset of patients. Among 24,972 sequences from 15,246 persons, the non-B subtype prevalence increased from 0% to 3.46% over the study period. Of 325 persons with non-B subtypes, diversity was high with over 15 pure subtypes and recombinants; subtype C (28.9%) and CRF02_AG (24.0%) were most common. While identification of transmission clusters was lower for persons with non-B versus B subtypes, several local transmission clusters (≥3 persons) involving non-B subtypes were identified and all were presumably due to heterosexual transmission. Prevalence of non-B subtype diversity remains low in NC but a statistically significant rise was identified over time which likely reflects multiple importation. However, the combined phylogenetic clustering analysis reveals evidence for local onward transmission. Detection of these non-B clusters suggests heterosexual transmission and may guide diagnostic and prevention interventions.

  19. Precise subtyping for synchronous multiparty sessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangiola Dezani-Ciancaglini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The notion of subtyping has gained an important role both in theoretical and applicative domains: in lambda and concurrent calculi as well as in programming languages. The soundness and the completeness, together referred to as the preciseness of subtyping, can be considered from two different points of view: operational and denotational. The former preciseness has been recently developed with respect to type safety, i.e. the safe replacement of a term of a smaller type when a term of a bigger type is expected. The latter preciseness is based on the denotation of a type which is a mathematical object that describes the meaning of the type in accordance with the denotations of other expressions from the language. The result of this paper is the operational and denotational preciseness of the subtyping for a synchronous multiparty session calculus. The novelty of this paper is the introduction of characteristic global types to prove the operational completeness.

  20. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1B04B-3BAAA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1B04B-3BAAA 1B04 3BAA B A MDRQQAERRAAELRELLNRYGYEYYVLDRPSVPDAEYDR...NLKTIRSLPLRLKEPVSLEARGEAFMPKASFLRLNEERKAR--ELFANPRNAAAGSLRQLDPKVAASRQLDLFVYGLADAEALGIASHSEALDYLQALGFKVNPERRR...DGLAISLRYENGVFVRGATRGDGTVGENITENLRTVRSVPMRLTEPISVEVRGECYMPKQSFVALNEEREENGQDIFANPRNAAAGSLRQLDTKIVAKRNLNTFLYTV... 353 TYR CA 427 3BAA A 3BAAA...hain>A 3BAAA EREENGQDIFAN

  1. Random walks on the braid group B3 and magnetic translations in hyperbolic geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voituriez, Raphaeel

    2002-01-01

    We study random walks on the three-strand braid group B 3 , and in particular compute the drift, or average topological complexity of a random braid, as well as the probability of trivial entanglement. These results involve the study of magnetic random walks on hyperbolic graphs (hyperbolic Harper-Hofstadter problem), what enables to build a faithful representation of B 3 as generalized magnetic translation operators for the problem of a quantum particle on the hyperbolic plane

  2. 17 CFR 275.203(b)(3)-1 - Definition of “client” of an investment adviser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Definition of “client” of an investment adviser. Preliminary Note to § 275.203(b)(3)-1. This section is a... single client for purposes of section 203(b)(3) of the Act. Under paragraph (b)(6) of this section, the... be a single client for purposes of section 203(b)(3) of the Act (15 U.S.C. 80b-3(b)(3)): (1) A...

  3. State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA) Environmental Checklist Form 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds Closure Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-12-01

    The 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds Closure Plan (Revision 1) consists of a Part A Dangerous Waste Permit Application and a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Closure Plan. An explanation of the Part A submitted with this document is provided at the beginning of the Part A Section. The closure plan consists of nine chapters and five appendices. The 216-B-3 Pond System consists of a series of four earthen, unlined, interconnected ponds and the 216-B-3-3 Ditch that receive waste water from various 200 East Area operating facilities. These four ponds, collectively. Waste water (primarily cooling water, steam condensate, and sanitary water) from various 200 East Area facilities is discharged to the 216-B-3-3 Ditch. Water discharged to the 216-8-3-3 Ditch flows directly into the 216-B-3 Pond. In the past, waste water discharges to B Pond and the 216-B-3-3 Ditch contained mixed waste (radioactive waste and dangerous waste). The radioactive portion of mixed waste has been interpreted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to be regulated under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954; the nonradioactive dangerous portion of mixed waste is regulated under RCRA. Mixed waste also may be considered a hazardous substance under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) when considering remediation of waste sites

  4. First evidence of avian metapneumovirus subtype A infection in turkeys in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Azeem, Abdel-Azeem Sayed; Franzo, Giovanni; Dalle Zotte, Antonella; Drigo, Michele; Catelli, Elena; Lupini, Caterina; Martini, Marco; Cecchinato, Mattia

    2014-08-01

    Although avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) infection has been reported in most regions of the world, to date, only subtype B has been detected in Egypt. At the end of November 2013, dry oropharyngeal swabs were collected during an outbreak of respiratory diseases in a free-range, multi-age turkey dealer farm in Northern Upper Egypt. The clinical signs that appeared when turkeys were 3 weeks-old were characterized by ocular and nasal discharge and swelling of sinuses. aMPV of subtype A was detected by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. In order to confirm the results and obtain more information on the molecular characteristics of the virus, F and G protein genes were partially sequenced and compared with previously published sequences deposited in GenBank by using BLAST. Subtype of the strain was confirmed by sequencing of partial F and G protein genes. The highest percentages of identity were observed when G sequence of the Egyptian strain was compared with the sequence of an aMPV-A isolated in Nigeria (96.4 %) and when the F sequence was compared with strains isolated respectively in Italy and in UK (97.1 %). Moreover, the alignment of the sequences with commercial subtype A vaccine or vaccine-derived strains showed differences in the Egyptian strain that indicate its probable field origin. The detection of aMPV in the investigated turkey flock highlights some relevant epidemiological issues regarding the role that multi-age farms and dealers may play in perpetuating aMPV infection within and among farms. To our knowledge, this is the first report of aMPV subtype A in Egypt.

  5. Subtype-Specific Tumor-Associated Fibroblasts Contribute to the Pathogenesis of Uterine Leiomyoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xin; Serna, Vanida A; Thomas, Justin; Qiang, Wenan; Blumenfeld, Michael L; Kurita, Takeshi

    2017-12-15

    Recent genomic studies have identified subtypes of uterine leiomyoma (LM) with distinctive genetic alterations. Here, we report the elucidation of the biological characteristics of the two most prevalent uterine leiomyoma subtypes, MED12-mutant (MED12-LM) and HMGA2-overexpressing (HMGA2-LM) uterine leiomyomas. Because each tumor carries only one genetic alteration, both subtypes are considered to be monoclonal. Approximately 90% of cells in HMGA2-uterine leiomyoma were smooth muscle cells (SMC) with HMGA2 overexpression. In contrast, MED12-LM consisted of similar numbers of SMC and non-SMC, which were mostly tumor-associated fibroblasts (TAF). Paradoxically, TAF carried no mutations in MED12, suggesting an interaction between SMC and TAF to coordinate their growth. The higher amount of extracellular matrix in MED12-LM than HMGA2-LM was partially due to the high concentration of collagen-producing TAF. SMC growth in a xenograft assay was driven by progesterone in both uterine leiomyoma subtypes. In contrast, TAF in MED12-LM proliferated in response to estradiol, whereas progesterone had no effect. The high concentration of estrogen-responsive TAF in MED12-LM explains the inconsistent discoveries between in vivo and in vitro studies on the mitogenic effect of estrogen and raises questions regarding the accuracy of previous studies utilizing MED12-LM cell culture. In addition, the differential effects of estradiol and progesterone on these uterine leiomyoma subtypes emphasize the importance of subtypes and genotypes in designing nonsurgical therapeutic strategies for uterine leiomyoma. Cancer Res; 77(24); 6891-901. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  6. HIV-1 subtype D infections among Caucasians from Northwestern Poland--phylogenetic and clinical analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miłosz Parczewski

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV-1 subtype D infections, which are associated with a faster rate of progression and lymphocyte CD4 decline, cognitive deficit and higher mortality, have rarely been found in native Europeans. In Northwestern Poland, however, infections with this subtype had been identified. This study aimed to analyze the sequence and clinical data for patients with subtype D using molecular phylogeography and identify transmission clusters and ancestry, as well as drug resistance, baseline HIV tropism and antiretroviral treatment efficacy. METHODS: Phylogenetic analyses of local HIV-1 subtype D sequences were performed, with time to the most recent common ancestor inferred using bayesian modeling. Sequence and drug resistance data were linked with the clinical and epidemiological information. RESULTS: Subtype D was found in 24 non-immigrant Caucasian, heterosexually infected patients (75% of females, median age at diagnosis of 49.5 years; IQR: 29-56 years. Partial pol sequences clustered monophyletically with the clades of Ugandan origin and no evidence of transmission from other European countries was found. Time to the most common recent ancestor was 1989.24 (95% HPD: 1968.83-1994.46. Baseline drug resistance to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors was observed in 54.5% of cases (mutations: M41L, K103N, T215S/D with evidence of clustering, no baseline integrase or protease resistance and infrequent non-R5 tropism (13.6%. Virologic failure was observed in 60% of cases and was associated with poor adherence (p<0.001 and subsequent development of drug resistance (p = 0.008, OR: 20 (95%CI: 1.7-290. CONCLUSIONS: Local subtype D represented an independently transmitted network with probably single index case, high frequency of primary drug resistance and evidence of transmission clusters.

  7. ErbB3 mRNA leukocyte levels as a biomarker for major depressive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanesi Elena

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, the identification of peripheral biomarkers that are associated with psychiatric diseases, such as Major Depressive Disorder (MDD, has become relevant because these biomarkers may improve the efficiency of the differential diagnosis process and indicate targets for new antidepressant drugs. Two recent candidate genes, ErbB3 and Fgfr1, are growth factors whose mRNA levels have been found to be altered in the leukocytes of patients that are affected by bipolar disorder in a depressive state. On this basis, the aim of the study was to determine if ErbB3 and Fgfr1 mRNA levels could be a biomarkers of MDD. Methods We measured by Real Time PCR ErbB3 and Fgfr1 mRNA expression levels in leukocytes of MDD patients compared with controls. Successively, to assess whether ErbB3 mRNA levels were influenced by previous antidepressant treatment we stratified our patients sample in two cohorts, comparing drug-naive versus drug-free patients. Moreover, we evaluated the levels of the transcript in MDD patients after 12 weeks of antidepressant treatment, and in prefrontal cortex of rats stressed and treated with an antidepressant drug of the same class. Results These results showed that ErbB3 but not Fgfr1 mRNA levels were reduced in leukocytes of MDD patients compared to healthy subjects. Furthermore, ErbB3 levels were not affected by antidepressant treatment in either human or animal models Conclusions Our data suggest that ErbB3 might be considered as a biomarker for MDD and that its deficit may underlie the pathopsysiology of the disease and is not a consequence of treatment. Moreover the study supports the usefulness of leukocytes as a peripheral system for identifying biomarkers in psychiatric diseases.

  8. Genetic contributions to subtypes of aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligthart, R.S.L.; Bartels, M.; Hoekstra, R.A.; Hudziak, J.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2005-01-01

    Boys and girls may display different styles of aggression. The aim of this study was to identify subtypes of aggression within the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) aggression scale, and determine their characteristics for both sexes. Maternal CBCL ratings of 7449 7-year-old twin pairs were analyzed

  9. Obesity and risk of ovarian cancer subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Catherine M; Nagle, Christina M; Whiteman, David C

    2013-01-01

    Whilst previous studies have reported that higher BMI increases a woman's risk of developing ovarian cancer, associations for the different histological subtypes have not been well defined. As the prevalence of obesity has increased dramatically, and classification of ovarian histology has improv...

  10. Parkinson's disease motor subtypes and mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burn, David J; Landau, Sabine; Hindle, John V; Samuel, Michael; Wilson, Kenneth C; Hurt, Catherine S; Brown, Richard G

    2012-03-01

    Parkinson's disease is heterogeneous, both in terms of motor symptoms and mood. Identifying associations between phenotypic variants of motor and mood subtypes may provide clues to understand mechanisms underlying mood disorder and symptoms in Parkinson's disease. A total of 513 patients were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and separately classified into anxious, depressed, and anxious-depressed mood classes based on latent class analysis of a semistructured interview. Motor subtypes assessed related to age-of-onset, rate of progression, presence of motor fluctuations, lateralization of motor symptoms, tremor dominance, and the presence of postural instability and gait symptoms and falls. The directions of observed associations tended to support previous findings with the exception of lateralization of symptoms, for which there were no consistent or significant results. Regression models examining a range of motor subtypes together indicated increased risk of anxiety in patients with younger age-of-onset and motor fluctuations. In contrast, depression was most strongly related to axial motor symptoms. Different risk factors were observed for depressed patients with and without anxiety, suggesting heterogeneity within Parkinson's disease depression. Such association data may suggest possible underlying common risk factors for motor subtype and mood. Combined with convergent evidence from other sources, possible mechanisms may include cholinergic system damage and white matter changes contributing to non-anxious depression in Parkinson's disease, while situational factors related to threat and unpredictability may contribute to the exacerbation and maintenance of anxiety in susceptible individuals. Copyright © 2011 Movement Disorder Society.

  11. Subtypes of children with attention disabilities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, E.F.J.M.; Das-Smaal, E.A.; Jong, de P.F.

    1996-01-01

    Subtypes of children with attentional problems were investigated using cluster analysis. Subjects were 9-year-old-elementary school children (N = 443). The test battery administered to these children comprised a comprehensive set of common attention tests, covering different aspects of attentional

  12. Effect of Glu-B3 Allelic Variation on Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Sedimentation Volume in Common Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongqi Si

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS sedimentation volume has long been used to characterize wheat flours and meals with the aim of predicting processing and end-product qualities. In order to survey the influence of low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GSs at Glu-B3 locus on wheat SDS sedimentation volume, a total of 283 wheat (Triticum aestivum L. varieties including landraces and improved and introduced cultivars were analyzed using 10 allele-specific PCR markers at the Glu-B3 locus. The highest allele frequency observed in the tested varieties was Glu-B3i with 21.9% in all varieties, 21.1% in landraces, 25.5% in improved cultivars, and 12% in introduced cultivars. Glu-B3 locus represented 8.6% of the variance in wheat SDS sedimentation volume, and Glu-B3b, Glu-B3g, and Glu-B3h significantly heightened the SDS sedimentation volume, but Glu-B3a, Glu-B3c, and Glu-B3j significantly lowered the SDS sedimentation volume. For the bread-making quality, the most desirable alleles Glu-B3b and Glu-B3g become more and more popular and the least desirable alleles Glu-B3a and Glu-B3c got less and less in modern improved cultivars, suggesting that wheat grain quality in China has been significantly improved through breeding effort.

  13. Effect of Bifidobacterium breve B-3 on skin photoaging induced by chronic UV irradiation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, T; Murata, M; Iwabuchi, N; Odamaki, T; Wakabayashi, H; Yamauchi, K; Abe, F; Xiao, J Z

    2015-01-01

    Probiotics have been shown to have a preventative effect on skin photoaging induced by short term UV irradiation, however, the underlying mechanisms and the effect of probiotics on skin photoaging induced by chronic UV irradiation remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of Bifidobacterium breve B-3 on skin photoaging induced by chronic UV irradiation in hairless mice. Mice were irradiated with UVB three times weekly and orally administered B. breve B-3 (2×10(9) cfu/mouse /day) for 7 weeks. Nonirradiated mice and UVB-irradiated mice without probiotic treatment were used as controls. B. breve B-3 significantly suppressed the changes of transepidermal water loss, skin hydration, epidermal thickening and attenuated the damage to the tight junction structure and basement membrane induced by chronic UVB irradiation. Administration of B. breve B-3 tended to suppress the UV-induced interleukin-1β production in skin (P=0.09). These results suggest that B. breve B-3 could potentially be used to prevent photoaging induced by chronic UV irradiation.

  14. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes: localization and structure/function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brann, M R; Ellis, J; Jørgensen, H

    1993-01-01

    Based on the sequence of the five cloned muscarinic receptor subtypes (m1-m5), subtype selective antibody and cDNA probes have been prepared. Use of these probes has demonstrated that each of the five subtypes has a markedly distinct distribution within the brain and among peripheral tissues...... are described, as well as the implied structures of these functional domains....

  15. Subtypes of depression in cancer patients : An empirically driven approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Lei; Ranchor, Adelita V; van der Lee, Marije; Garssen, Bert; Sanderman, Robbert; Schroevers, Maya J

    PURPOSE: This study aimed to (1) identify subgroups of cancer patients with distinct subtypes of depression before the start of psychological care, (2) examine whether socio-demographic and medical characteristics distinguished these subtypes, and (3) examine whether people with distinct subtypes

  16. Subtypes of depression in cancer patients: an empirically driven approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Lei; Ranchor, A.V.; van der Lee, Marije; Garssen, Bert; Sanderman, Robbert; Schroevers, Maya J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to (1) identify subgroups of cancer patients with distinct subtypes of depression before the start of psychological care, (2) examine whether socio-demographic and medical characteristics distinguished these subtypes, and (3) examine whether people with distinct subtypes

  17. Assessing the genetic architecture of epithelial ovarian cancer histological subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; Lu, Yi; Dixon, Suzanne C

    2016-01-01

    studies show that certain genetic variants confer susceptibility to all subtypes while other variants are subtype-specific. Here, we perform an extensive analysis of the genetic architecture of EOC subtypes. To this end, we used data of 10,014 invasive EOC patients and 21,233 controls from the Ovarian...

  18. Lesions of uncertain malignant potential in the breast (B3): what do we know?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purushothaman, H.N.; Lekanidi, K.; Shousha, S.; Wilson, R.

    2016-01-01

    Breast lesions classified as of uncertain malignant potential (B3) on biopsy form a diverse group of abnormalities, which pose a diagnostic and management challenge. In this paper, we discuss the imaging and pathology features as well as the management of the most controversial B3 lesions, consisting of papillary lesions, complex sclerosing lesions/radial scars, lobular intraepithelial neoplasia, and atypical epithelial proliferation of ductal type. As there is an association with malignancy at the time of diagnosis, as well as an increase in the risk of subsequent development of cancer, a multidisciplinary discussion is almost always required to tailor treatment.

  19. Lithium tri borate (LiB3O5) embedded polymer electret for mechanical sensing application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, S.; Praveen, E.; Prasad, M. V. N.; Jayakumar, K.

    2017-05-01

    Lithium tri borate (LiB3O5) particles were synthesized by precipitation assisted high temperature solid state reaction. The particles were embedded in chitosan polymer and used as an electret. This electret was characterized for the suitability as a sensing element in vibration accelerometer. It is observed that LiB3O5 embedded electret exhibiting piezoelectric property. The electret is also giving an isolation of > 999 MΩ at 100 Vdc, 250 Vdc, 500 Vdc and 1kVdc confirms compatible for intrinsically safe sensing alternative in vibration accelerometer.

  20. Short syntheses of enantiopure calystegine B-2, B-3, and B-4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaanderup, Philip Robert; Madsen, Robert

    2001-01-01

    Calystegine B-2 B-3, and B-4 have been prepared in 5 steps from the benzyl protected methyl 6-iodoglycopyranosides of glucose, galactose and mannose, respectively, by using a zinc-mediated domino reaction followed by ring-closing olefin metathesis as the key steps.......Calystegine B-2 B-3, and B-4 have been prepared in 5 steps from the benzyl protected methyl 6-iodoglycopyranosides of glucose, galactose and mannose, respectively, by using a zinc-mediated domino reaction followed by ring-closing olefin metathesis as the key steps....

  1. MOLECULAR DYNAMICS STUDY OF INTERACTIONS OF POLYMYXIN B3 AND ITS ALA-MUTANTS WITH LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisnyak Yu. V.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Emergence of nosocomial bacterial pathogens (especially Gram-negative bacteria with multiple resistance against almost all available antibiotics is a growing medical problem. No novel drugs targeting multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria have been developed in recent years. In this context, there has been greatly renewed interest to cyclic lipodecapeptides polymyxins. Polymyxins exhibit rapid bactericidal activity, they are specific and highly potent against Gramnegative bacteria, but have potential nephrotoxic side effects. So polymyxins are attractive lead compounds to develop analogues with improved microbiological, pharmacological and toxicological properties. A detailed knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of polymyxin interactions with its cell targets is a prerequisite for the purposeful improvement of its therapeutic properties. The primary cell target of a polymyxin is a lipopolysaccharide (LPS in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. The binding site of polymyxin on LPS has been supposed to be Kdo2-lipid A fragment. Methods. For all molecular modeling and molecular dynamics simulation experiments the YASARA suite of programs was used. Complex of antimicrobial peptide polymyxin В3 (PmB3 with Kdo2-lipid A portion of E. coli lipopolysaccharide was constructed by rigid docking with flexible side chains of the peptide. By alanine scanning of polymyxin В3 bound to LPS followed by simulated annealing minimization of the complexes in explicit water environment, the molecular aspects of PmB3-LPS binding have been studied by 20 ns molecular dynamics simulations at 298 K and pH 7.0. The AMBER03 force field was used with a 1.05 nm force cutoff. To treat long range electrostatic interactions the Particle Mesh Ewald algorithm was used. Results. Ala-mutations of polymyxin’s residues Dab1, Dab3, Dab5, Dab8 and Dab9 in the PmB3-LPS complex caused sustained structural changes resulting in the notable loss in stability of

  2. Comparison of symptoms of delirium across various motoric subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Sandeep; Sharma, Akhilesh; Aggarwal, Munish; Mattoo, Surendra K; Chakrabarti, Subho; Malhotra, Savita; Avasthi, Ajit; Kulhara, Parmanand; Basu, Debasish

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between delirium motor subtypes and other symptoms of delirium. Three hundred and twenty-one (n = 321) consecutive patients referred to consultation-liaison psychiatry services were evaluated on Delirium Rating scale-Revised-98 version and amended Delirium Motor Symptom Scale. Half of the patients had hyperactive subtype (n = 161; 50.15%) delirium. One-quarter of the study sample met the criteria for mixed subtype (n = 79; 24.61%), about one-fifth of the study sample met the criteria for hypoactive delirium subtype (n = 64; 19.93%), and only very few patients (n = 17; 5.29%) did not meet the required criteria for any of these three subtypes and were categorized as 'no subtype'. When the hyperactive and hypoactive subtypes were compared, significant differences were seen in the prevalence of perceptual disturbances, delusions, lability of affect, thought process abnormality, motor agitation and motor retardation. All the symptoms were more common in the hyperactive subtype except for thought process abnormality and motor retardation. Compared to hyperactive subtype, the mixed subtype had significantly higher prevalence of thought process abnormality and motor retardation. Significant differences emerged with regard to perceptual disturbances, delusions, lability of affect and motor agitation when comparing the patients with mixed subtype with those with hypoactive subtype. All these symptoms were found to be more common in the mixed subtype. No significant differences emerged for the cognitive symptoms as assessed on Delirium Rating scale-Revised-98 across the different motoric subtypes. Different motoric subtypes of delirium differ on non-cognitive symptoms. © 2013 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2013 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  3. A taxometric investigation of developmental dyslexia subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Beth A; Wolf, Maryanne; Lovett, Maureen W

    2012-02-01

    Long-standing issues with the conceptualization, identification and subtyping of developmental dyslexia persist. This study takes an alternative approach to examine the heterogeneity of developmental dyslexia using taxometric classification techniques. These methods were used with a large sample of 671 children ages 6-8 who were diagnosed with severe reading disorders. Latent characteristics of the sample are assessed in regard to posited subtypes with phonological deficits and naming speed deficits, thus extending prior work by addressing whether these deficits embody separate classes of individuals. Findings support separate taxa of dyslexia with and without phonological deficits. Different latent structure for naming speed deficits was found depending on the definitional criterion used to define dyslexia. Non-phonologically based forms of dyslexia showed particular difficulty with naming speed and reading fluency. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Proteomic maps of breast cancer subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyanova, Stefka; Albrechtsen, Reidar; Kronqvist, Pauliina

    2016-01-01

    Systems-wide profiling of breast cancer has almost always entailed RNA and DNA analysis by microarray and sequencing techniques. Marked developments in proteomic technologies now enable very deep profiling of clinical samples, with high identification and quantification accuracy. We analysed 40...... oestrogen receptor positive (luminal), Her2 positive and triple negative breast tumours and reached a quantitative depth of >10,000 proteins. These proteomic profiles identified functional differences between breast cancer subtypes, related to energy metabolism, cell growth, mRNA translation and cell......-cell communication. Furthermore, we derived a signature of 19 proteins, which differ between the breast cancer subtypes, through support vector machine (SVM)-based classification and feature selection. Remarkably, only three proteins of the signature were associated with gene copy number variations and eleven were...

  5. 17 CFR 240.10b-3 - Employment of manipulative and deceptive devices by brokers or dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... deceptive devices by brokers or dealers. 240.10b-3 Section 240.10b-3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... Contrivances § 240.10b-3 Employment of manipulative and deceptive devices by brokers or dealers. (a) It shall be unlawful for any broker or dealer, directly or indirectly, by the use of any means or...

  6. Agonist discrimination between AMPA receptor subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coquelle, T; Christensen, J K; Banke, T G

    2000-01-01

    The lack of subtype-selective compounds for AMPA receptors (AMPA-R) led us to search for compounds with such selectivity. Homoibotenic acid analogues were investigated at recombinant GluR1o, GluR2o(R), GluR3o and GluR1o + 3o receptors expressed in Sf9 insect cells and affinities determined in [3H...

  7. Global DNA methylation of ischemic stroke subtypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Soriano-Tárraga

    Full Text Available Ischemic stroke (IS, a heterogeneous multifactorial disorder, is among the leading causes of mortality and long-term disability in the western world. Epidemiological data provides evidence for a genetic component to the disease, but its epigenetic involvement is still largely unknown. Epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, change over time and may be associated with aging processes and with modulation of the risk of various pathologies, such as cardiovascular disease and stroke. We analyzed 2 independent cohorts of IS patients. Global DNA methylation was measured by luminometric methylation assay (LUMA of DNA blood samples. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were used to assess the methylation differences between the 3 most common IS subtypes, large-artery atherosclerosis (LAA, small-artery disease (SAD, and cardio-aortic embolism (CE. A total of 485 IS patients from 2 independent hospital cohorts (n = 281 and n = 204 were included, distributed across 3 IS subtypes: LAA (78/281, 59/204, SAD (97/281, 53/204, and CE (106/281, 89/204. In univariate analyses, no statistical differences in LUMA levels were observed between the 3 etiologies in either cohort. Multivariate analysis, adjusted by age, sex, hyperlipidemia, and smoking habit, confirmed the lack of differences in methylation levels between the analyzed IS subtypes in both cohorts. Despite differences in pathogenesis, our results showed no global methylation differences between LAA, SAD, and CE subtypes of IS. Further work is required to establish whether the epigenetic mechanism of methylation might play a role in this complex disease.

  8. First International Consensus Conference on lesions of uncertain malignant potential in the breast (B3 lesions).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rageth, Christoph J; O'Flynn, Elizabeth Am; Comstock, Christopher; Kurtz, Claudia; Kubik, Rahel; Madjar, Helmut; Lepori, Domenico; Kampmann, Gert; Mundinger, Alexander; Baege, Astrid; Decker, Thomas; Hosch, Stefanie; Tausch, Christoph; Delaloye, Jean-François; Morris, Elisabeth; Varga, Zsuzsanna

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to obtain a consensus for the therapy of B3 lesions. The first International Consensus Conference on lesions of uncertain malignant potential in the breast (B3 lesions) including atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH), flat epithelial atypia (FEA), classical lobular neoplasia (LN), papillary lesions (PL), benign phyllodes tumors (PT), and radial scars (RS) took place in January 2016 in Zurich, Switzerland organized by the International Breast Ultrasound School and the Swiss Minimally Invasive Breast Biopsy group-a subgroup of the Swiss Society of Senology. Consensus recommendations for the management and follow-up surveillance of these B3 lesions were developed and areas of research priorities were identified. The consensus recommendation for FEA, LN, PL, and RS diagnosed on core needle biopsy or vacuum-assisted biopsy (VAB) is to therapeutically excise the lesion seen on imaging by VAB and no longer by open surgery, with follow-up surveillance imaging for 5 years. The consensus recommendation for ADH and PT is, with some exceptions, therapeutic first-line open surgical excision. Minimally invasive management of selected B3 lesions with therapeutic VAB is acceptable as an alternative to first-line surgical excision.

  9. Probable transmission of coxsackie B3 virus from human to chimpanzee, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandra Cathrine Abel; Mourier, Tobias; Baandrup, Ulrik

    2012-01-01

    In 2010, a chimpanzee died at Copenhagen Zoo following an outbreak of respiratory disease among chimpanzees in the zoo. Identification of coxsackie B3 virus, a common human pathogen, as the causative agent, and its severe manifestation, raise questions about pathogenicity and transmissibility among...

  10. New patient pathway using vacuum-assisted biopsy reduces diagnostic surgery for B3 lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajan, S.; Shaaban, A.M.; Dall, B.J.G.; Sharma, N.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To assess the clinical impact of a new patient management pathway incorporating vacuum-assisted biopsy for lesions of uncertain malignant potential (B3). Materials and methods: A retrospective analysis was undertaken of all B3 lesions on core biopsy in the pathology database from April 2008 to April 2010. Outcome measures assessed included final histological diagnosis, frequency of diagnostic surgical biopsy, and impact on management. Results: In the old pathway, there were 95 B3 lesions, of which 14% (13/95) were planned for vacuum-assisted biopsy and 86% (82/95) for surgical biopsy. In the new pathway, there were 94 B3 lesions, of which 68% (64/94) were planned for vacuum-assisted biopsy and 32% (30/94) for surgical biopsy. Following further sampling with vacuum-assisted biopsy, only 13% of patients required diagnostic surgical biopsy and in 25% of cases, a preoperative diagnosis of carcinoma was reached allowing patients to proceed to therapeutic surgery. Conclusion: The new pathway has reduced the number of benign diagnostic surgical biopsies performed and increased the preoperative diagnosis of breast cancer.

  11. 17 CFR 270.24b-3 - Sales literature deemed filed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sales literature deemed filed... (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270.24b-3 Sales literature deemed filed. Any advertisement, pamphlet, circular, form letter or other sales literature addressed to or intended...

  12. Subtyping borderline personality disorder by suicidal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloff, Paul H; Chiappetta, Laurel

    2012-06-01

    Course and outcome of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) are favorable for the vast majority of patients; however, up to 10% die by suicide. This discrepancy begs the question of whether there is a high lethality subtype in BPD, defined by recurrent suicidal behavior and increasing attempt lethality over time. In a prospective, longitudinal study, we sought predictors of high lethality among repeat attempters, and defined clinical subtypes by applying trajectory analysis to consecutive lethality scores. Criteria-defined subjects with BPD were assessed using standardized instruments and followed longitudinally. Suicidal behavior was assessed on the Columbia Suicide History, Lethality Rating Scale, and Suicide Intent Scale. Variables discriminating single and repeat attempters were entered into logistic regression models to define predictors of high and low lethality attempts. Trajectory analysis using three attempt and five attempt models identified discrete patterns of Lethality Rating Scale scores. A high lethality trajectory was associated with inpatient recruitment, and poor psychosocial function, a low lethality trajectory with greater Negativism, Substance Use Disorders, Histrionic and/or Narcissistic PD co-morbidity. Illness severity, older age, and poor psychosocial function are characteristics of a poor prognosis subtype related to suicidal behavior.

  13. Transcriptome classification reveals molecular subtypes in psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainali Chrysanthi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psoriasis is an immune-mediated disease characterised by chronically elevated pro-inflammatory cytokine levels, leading to aberrant keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation. Although certain clinical phenotypes, such as plaque psoriasis, are well defined, it is currently unclear whether there are molecular subtypes that might impact on prognosis or treatment outcomes. Results We present a pipeline for patient stratification through a comprehensive analysis of gene expression in paired lesional and non-lesional psoriatic tissue samples, compared with controls, to establish differences in RNA expression patterns across all tissue types. Ensembles of decision tree predictors were employed to cluster psoriatic samples on the basis of gene expression patterns and reveal gene expression signatures that best discriminate molecular disease subtypes. This multi-stage procedure was applied to several published psoriasis studies and a comparison of gene expression patterns across datasets was performed. Conclusion Overall, classification of psoriasis gene expression patterns revealed distinct molecular sub-groups within the clinical phenotype of plaque psoriasis. Enrichment for TGFb and ErbB signaling pathways, noted in one of the two psoriasis subgroups, suggested that this group may be more amenable to therapies targeting these pathways. Our study highlights the potential biological relevance of using ensemble decision tree predictors to determine molecular disease subtypes, in what may initially appear to be a homogenous clinical group. The R code used in this paper is available upon request.

  14. KCC isoforms in a human lens epithelial cell line (B3) and lens tissue extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misri, Sandeep; Chimote, Ameet A; Adragna, Norma C; Warwar, Ronald; Brown, Thomas L; Lauf, Peter K

    2006-11-01

    We recently reported potassium-chloride cotransporter activity in human lens epithelial B3 (HLE-B3) cells. The purpose of the present study was to demonstrate in these cells as well as in human lens tissue the potassium-chloride cotransport (KCC) isoforms by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blotting and immunofluorescence microscopy. Of the four KCC genes known to encode the respective proteins and their spliced variants, RT-PCR with both rat and human primers revealed the predicted cDNA fragments of KCC1, KCC3a, KCC3b, and KCC4 but not KCC2 in both HLE-B3 cells and in human lens tissue extracts from cataractous patients. Polyclonal rabbit (rb) anti-rat (rt) and anti-human (hm) antibodies against rtKCC1 and hmKCC3, respectively, and a commercially available rb-anti-mouse (ms) KCC4 antibody were used. Rb anti-rtKCC1-ECL3 [against epitopes within the large extracellular loop 3 (ECL3)] revealed a 150kDa band in HLE-B3 cells consistent with the known molecular weight of KCC1. Rb anti-hmKCC3-ECL3 yielded three bands of 150, 122 and 105kDa, evidence for the presence of KCC3a, KCC3b and possibly KCC3c isoforms. The 122 and 112kDa bands were also demonstrated by rb anti-hmKCC3-CTD [the C-terminal domain (CTD)]. Rb anti-msKCC4 antibody only showed a 100kDa band in HLE-B3 cells. In the human lens tissues, a 115kDa protein was detected with rb anti-rtKCC1-ECL3 and a 100kDa band with rb anti-msKCC4, however, no bands with rb anti-hmKCC3-ECL3 or rb anti-hmKCC3-CTD. Fluorescence microscopy revealed immunocytochemical cytoplasmic and membrane labeling of HLE-B3 cells with anti-KCC1, -KCC3 (laser confocal microscopy) and -KCC4 antibodies and a Cy3-tagged secondary antibody. Hence HLE-B3 cells expressed proteins of the KCC1, KCC3a, b, and KCC4 isoforms, whereas surgically removed cataractous lens tissue expressed only those of KCC1 and KCC4.

  15. Partial tooth gear bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A partial gear bearing including an upper half, comprising peak partial teeth, and a lower, or bottom, half, comprising valley partial teeth. The upper half also has an integrated roller section between each of the peak partial teeth with a radius equal to the gear pitch radius of the radially outwardly extending peak partial teeth. Conversely, the lower half has an integrated roller section between each of the valley half teeth with a radius also equal to the gear pitch radius of the peak partial teeth. The valley partial teeth extend radially inwardly from its roller section. The peak and valley partial teeth are exactly out of phase with each other, as are the roller sections of the upper and lower halves. Essentially, the end roller bearing of the typical gear bearing has been integrated into the normal gear tooth pattern.

  16. Evaluasi Fungsi Insinerator Dalam Memusnahkan Limbah B3 Di Rumah Sakit NI Dr.Ramelan Surabaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahn Leonard Saragih

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Pengelolaan limbah padat B3 di Rumah Sakit TNI Angkatan Laut Dr. Ramelan sangat penting diperhatikan karena dapat berdampak buruk apabila tidak dikelola dengan baik. Oleh sebab itu diperlukan adanya penelitian untuk mengidentifikasi jumlah timbulan dan penanganan limbah padat B3, mengevaluasi manajemen, penyimpanan sementara serta mengevaluasi proses insinerasi. Evaluasi fungsi incinerator di Rumah Sakit TNI Angkatan Laut Dr. Ramelan dilakukan dengan meneliti jumlah timbulan limbah B3, kapasitas pembakaran insinerator, suhu pembakaran insinerator, densitas limbah dan abu pembakaran, dan tes TCLP residu pembakaran incinerator Rumah Sakit TNI Angkatan Laut Dr. Ramelan. Dalam penelitian ini, Rumkital Dr. Ramelan memusnahkan limbah dengan incinerator. Limbah B3 yang dihasilkan Rumkital Dr. Ramelan dimusnakan dengan satu incinerator dengan type KAMINE TYPE BDR-INC 10. Limbah yang dimusnahkan di Rumkital Dr. Ramelan berasal dari Rumkital Dr. Ramelan dan Lantamal Perak. Setelah dilakukan penelitian langsung selama 14 hari berturut-turut, didapatkan bahwa rata-rata timbulan limbah B3 di Rumkital Dr. Ramelan adalah 89.98 Kg/hari dan dengan densitas rata-rata limbah ialah 166,67 kg/m3. Tinggat removal dari pembakaran limbah dengan incinerator di Rumah Sakit TNI Angkatan Laut Dr. Ramelan ialah 82,63%. Pengelolaan abu sisa incinerator Rumkital Dr. Ramelan belum sesuai dengan peraturan yang berlaku dan dari penelitian yang dilakukan yaitu pengujian kandungan abu incinerator, solidifikasi abu incinerator dengan perbandingan semen:abu adalah 1:3 dan uji TCLP, didapatkan bahwa limbah abu sisa insinerator Rumah Sakit TNI Angkatan Laut Dr. Ramelan Surabaya, dapat ditimbun pada landfill kategori I sesuai dengan Keputusan Kepala Bapedal No.4 Tahun 1995.

  17. Molecular subtypes and imaging phenotypes of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Nariya

    2016-01-01

    During the last 15 years, traditional breast cancer classifications based on histopathology have been reorganized into the luminal A, luminal B, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), and basal-like subtypes based on gene expression profiling. Each molecular subtype has shown varying risk for progression, response to treatment, and survival outcomes. Research linking the imaging phenotype with the molecular subtype has revealed that non-calcified, relatively circumscribed masses with posterior acoustic enhancement are common in the basal-like subtype, spiculated masses with a poorly circumscribed margin and posterior acoustic shadowing in the luminal subtype, and pleomorphic calcifications in the HER2-enriched subtype. Understanding the clinical implications of the molecular subtypes and imaging phenotypes could help radiologists guide precision medicine, tailoring medical treatment to patients and their tumor characteristics

  18. Molecular subtypes and imaging phenotypes of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nariya Cho

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available During the last 15 years, traditional breast cancer classifications based on histopathology have been reorganized into the luminal A, luminal B, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2, and basal-like subtypes based on gene expression profiling. Each molecular subtype has shown varying risk for progression, response to treatment, and survival outcomes. Research linking the imaging phenotype with the molecular subtype has revealed that non-calcified, relatively circumscribed masses with posterior acoustic enhancement are common in the basal-like subtype, spiculated masses with a poorly circumscribed margin and posterior acoustic shadowing in the luminal subtype, and pleomorphic calcifications in the HER2-enriched subtype. Understanding the clinical implications of the molecular subtypes and imaging phenotypes could help radiologists guide precision medicine, tailoring medical treatment to patients and their tumor characteristics.

  19. Molecular subtypes and imaging phenotypes of breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Nariya [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    During the last 15 years, traditional breast cancer classifications based on histopathology have been reorganized into the luminal A, luminal B, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), and basal-like subtypes based on gene expression profiling. Each molecular subtype has shown varying risk for progression, response to treatment, and survival outcomes. Research linking the imaging phenotype with the molecular subtype has revealed that non-calcified, relatively circumscribed masses with posterior acoustic enhancement are common in the basal-like subtype, spiculated masses with a poorly circumscribed margin and posterior acoustic shadowing in the luminal subtype, and pleomorphic calcifications in the HER2-enriched subtype. Understanding the clinical implications of the molecular subtypes and imaging phenotypes could help radiologists guide precision medicine, tailoring medical treatment to patients and their tumor characteristics.

  20. Current situation of H9N2 subtype avian influenza in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Min; Xu, Lijun; Wang, Xiaoquan; Liu, Xiufan

    2017-09-15

    In China, H9N2 subtype avian influenza outbreak is firstly reported in Guangdong province in 1992. Subsequently, the disease spreads into vast majority regions nationwide and has currently become endemic there. Over vicennial genetic evolution, the viral pathogenicity and transmissibility have showed an increasing trend as year goes by, posing serious threat to poultry industry. In addition, H9N2 has demonstrated significance to public health as it could not only directly infect mankind, but also donate partial or even whole cassette of internal genes to generate novel human-lethal reassortants like H5N1, H7N9, H10N8 and H5N6 viruses. In this review, we mainly focused on the epidemiological dynamics, biological characteristics, molecular phylogeny and vaccine strategy of H9N2 subtype avian influenza virus in China to present an overview of the situation of H9N2 in China.

  1. Essays on partial retirement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kantarci, T.

    2012-01-01

    The five essays in this dissertation address a range of topics in the micro-economic literature on partial retirement. The focus is on the labor market behavior of older age groups. The essays examine the economic and non-economic determinants of partial retirement behavior, the effect of partial

  2. A new subtype of hepatitis C virus genotype 1: complete genome and phylogenetic relationships of an Equatorial Guinea isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracho, Maria Alma; Carrillo-Cruz, Francy Yolima; Ortega, Enrique; Moya, Andrés; González-Candelas, Fernando

    2006-06-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the leading cause of chronic liver disease and is associated with hepatocellular carcinoma. However, there have been few studies on the distribution and genetic diversity of HCV isolates in non-developed countries. Here, the complete genome sequence of an HCV genotype 1 isolate from Equatorial Guinea is reported, the first complete HCV-1 genome of African origin. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that this sequence always grouped with sequences of genotype 1, but did not group clearly with any subtype described so far. An analysis of partial NS5B gene sequences with additional sequences of African origin also failed to find close similarities between the new sequence and any previously known isolate. Genetic divergence of the coding region of this new sequence with respect to the recognized subtypes of HCV-1 ranged from 20 to 22%. It is proposed that this isolate is a representative of a new, distinct variant of HCV subtype 1.

  3. Recurrent Partial Words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine Blanchet-Sadri

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Partial words are sequences over a finite alphabet that may contain wildcard symbols, called holes, which match or are compatible with all letters; partial words without holes are said to be full words (or simply words. Given an infinite partial word w, the number of distinct full words over the alphabet that are compatible with factors of w of length n, called subwords of w, refers to a measure of complexity of infinite partial words so-called subword complexity. This measure is of particular interest because we can construct partial words with subword complexities not achievable by full words. In this paper, we consider the notion of recurrence over infinite partial words, that is, we study whether all of the finite subwords of a given infinite partial word appear infinitely often, and we establish connections between subword complexity and recurrence in this more general framework.

  4. Subtype distribution of Blastocystis isolates from synanthropic and zoo animals and identification of a new subtype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensvold, C. R.; Alfellani, M. A.; Nørskov-Lauritsen, S.

    2009-01-01

    Blastocystis isolates from 56 Danish synanthropic and zoo animals, 62 primates primarily from United Kingdom (UK) collections and 16 UK primate handlers were subtyped by PCR, sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. A new subtype (ST) from primates and artiodactyls was identified and designated...... infections from primates by their handlers had occurred in these cases. Data from published studies of non-human primates, other mammals and birds were collected and interpreted to generate a comprehensive overview on the ST distribution in such animals. On the basis of information on 438 samples...

  5. Tracing the associations between sex, the atypical and the combined atypical-melancholic depression subtypes: A path analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Stephanie; Vandeleur, Caroline L; Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta; Aleksandrowicz, Aleksandra A; Strippoli, Marie-Pierre F; Castelao, Enrique; Glaus, Jennifer; Lasserre, Aurélie M; Müller, Mario; Rössler, Wulf; Angst, Jules; Preisig, Martin

    2016-01-15

    Numerous studies have examined determinants leading to preponderance of women in major depressive disorder (MDD), which is particularly accentuated for the atypical depression subtype. It is thus of interest to explore the specific indirect effects influencing the association between sex and established depression subtypes. The data of 1624 subjects with a lifetime diagnosis of MDD derived from the population-based PsyCoLaus data were used. An atypical (n=256), a melancholic (n=422), a combined atypical and melancholic features subtype (n=198), and an unspecified MDD group (n=748) were constructed according to the DSM-IV specifiers. Path models with direct and indirect effects were applied to the data. Partial mediation of the female-related atypical and combined atypical-melancholic depression subtypes was found. Early anxiety disorders and high emotion-orientated coping acted as mediating variables between sex and the atypical depression subtype. In contrast, high Body Mass Index (BMI) served as a suppression variable, also concerning the association between sex and the combined atypical-melancholic subtype. The latter association was additionally mediated by an early age of MDD onset and early/late anxiety disorders. The use of cross-sectional data does not allow causal conclusions. This is the first study that provides evidence for a differentiation of the general mechanisms explaining sex differences of overall MDD by depression subtypes. Determinants affecting the pathways begin early in life. Since some of them are primarily of behavioral nature, the present findings could be a valuable target in mental health care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Full-length genome sequences of five hepatitis C virus isolates representing subtypes 3g, 3h, 3i and 3k, and a unique genotype 3 variant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ling; Li, Chunhua; Yuan, Jie; Lu, Teng; Okamoto, Hiroaki; Murphy, Donald G

    2013-03-01

    We characterized the full-length genomes of five distinct hepatitis C virus (HCV)-3 isolates. These represent the first complete genomes for subtypes 3g and 3h, the second such genomes for 3k and 3i, and of one novel variant presently not assigned to a subtype. Each genome was determined from 18-25 overlapping fragments. They had lengths of 9579-9660 nt and each contained a single ORF encoding 3020-3025 aa. They were isolated from five patients residing in Canada; four were of Asian origin and one was of Somali origin. Phylogenetic analysis using 64 partial NS5B sequences differentiated 10 assigned subtypes, 3a-3i and 3k, and two additional lineages within genotype 3. From the data of this study, HCV-3 full-length sequences are now available for six of the assigned subtypes and one unassigned. Our findings should add insights to HCV evolutionary studies and clinical applications.

  7. BSRF-3B3 Medium Energy X-ray Beamline and Its Application for XAFS Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Chenyan; Cui Mingqi; Zhou Kejin; Zhao Yidong; Tian Yulian; Wu Ziyu; Zheng Lei; Zhu Jie; Zhao Jia; Chen Kai; Sun Lijuan

    2007-01-01

    A new medium X-ray beamline 3B3 covering energy from 1.2 keV up to 6.0 keV was built at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF) in 2005. With perfect capability of high monochromaticity, good focus and low harmonics, it could be applied to study metrology, optic component characteristics and medium X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). A simple XAFS apparatus has been set up and some measurements such as S, P, Cl, Ca, Al, Mg K-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) in their compounds have also been carried out. The results show that it is feasible to do XAFS research at 3B3 beamline under present condition. The fabrication of a more delicate medium XAFS spectrometer is underway including transmission, fluorescence and electronic yield modes

  8. Modeling amorphous Si3B3N7: Structure and elastic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannemann, A.; Schoen, J.C.; Jansen, M.; Putz, H.; Lengauer, T.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the structure and elastic properties of the amorphous high-temperature ceramic a-Si 3 B 3 N 7 . Several different structural models are generated and their properties such as the radial and angular distribution functions, the degree of local order, the density, the bulk modulus and the phonon spectrum, are calculated and compared with the experiment. The best structural agreement between model and experimental observations is found for models exhibiting a certain degree of local ( 3 B 3 N 7 has not been synthesized by cooling from the melt but via the polymerization and subsequent pyrolysis of molecular precursors. Furthermore, we suggest that, due to the synthesis process, stable nanoscale cavities (diameter 3 )

  9. Thymoma (World Health Organization type B3) with neuroendocrine differentiation in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1

    OpenAIRE

    Tomita, Masaki; Ichiki, Nobuhiko; Ayabe, Takanori; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Kataoka, Hiroaki; Nakamura, Kunihide

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Thymic epithelial tumors occur in 1?5% of patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN 1). Majority of these thymic epithelial tumors are thymic carcinoids and patients with thymoma in MEN 1 is rare. Furthermore, thymoma with neuroendocrine differentiation was also rarely reported. Herein, we report a 68-year-old man having type B3 thymoma with neuroendocrine differentiation in MEN 1 and to the best of our knowledge this is the first such case ever reported.

  10. Measles outbreak linked to European B3 outbreaks, Wales, United Kingdom, 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Jonny; Davies, Llion; McCarthy, Joanne; Perry, Malorie; Moore, Catherine; Cottrell, Simon; Bowley, Mererid; Williams, Chris; Shankar, Ananda Giri; Stiff, Rhianwen

    2017-10-01

    The United Kingdom achieved interrupted endemic measles transmission for 36 months in 2016. Despite this, ongoing challenges from sporadic measles cases typically imported from abroad remain. We summarise a B3 measles genotype outbreak in south-east Wales occurring between May and September 2017, linked with other European outbreaks, and lessons learnt. Seventeen confirmed cases and one probable case occurred principally in education and healthcare-settings. Six confirmed cases attended healthcare settings when infectious, without being isolated.

  11. checkCIF/PLATON report Datablock: b3_0m

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    As a result the full set of tests cannot be run. No syntax errors found. CIF dictionary Interpreting this report. Datablock: b3_0m. Bond precision: C-C = 0.0207 A. Wavelength=0.71073. Cell: a=11.0782(11) b=6.6521(7) c=12.1645(12) alpha=90 beta=101.798(4) gamma=90. Temperature: 296 K. Calculated. Reported. Volume.

  12. Theoretical study of B3-to-B1 phase transition in ZnS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Qiang; Zhang, Rui; Lv, Tianquan; Cao, Qilong

    2016-01-01

    The pressure-induced phase transformation from B3 to B1 structures in ZnS using first-principle projector-augmented wave method is studied. To understand the nature and driving force behind the transition, the interesting properties in both phases, including enthalpy, phonon dispersion curves and elastic constants, are systematically investigated. The results show that the calculated transition pressure is within the range of 16.33 GPa to 19.04 GPa, which is in good agreement with the available experimental and theoretical data. The transition process can be viewed as the appearance and disappearance of very slight lattice distortion accompanied by the movement of Zn and S atoms along the [111] crystallographic axis. The physical driving force of the B3–B1 phase transition is confirmed to be a coupling effect between the mechanical instability of B3 phase under pressure and the softening acoustic phonon mode resulting from the pressure-induced lattice deformation. For B1 phase, it is further predicted that a new phase transition takes place at about 59.9 GPa. - Highlights: • The phase transformation from B3 to B1 structures in ZnS is studied using first-principle method. • The predicted transition pressure is within the range of 16.33 to 19.04 GPa. • The transition process can be viewed as the appearance and disappearance of very slight lattice distortion. • Physical driving force of the transition is a coupling effect between the mechanical instability and softening phonon. • For B1 phase, it is further predicted that a new phase transition takes place at about 59.9 GPa.

  13. Expression of OATP1B3 determines uptake of Gd-EOB-DTPA in hepatocellular carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Narita, Masato; Hatano, Etsuro; Arizono, Shigeki; Miyagawa-Hayashino, Aya; Isoda, Hiroyoshi; Kitamura, Koji; Yasuchika, Kentaro; Nitta, Takashi; Uemoto, Shinji

    2009-01-01

    Background: Gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA) is an MRI contrast agent with perfusion and hepatoselective properties. The purpose of the study was to examine uptake of Gd-EOB-DTPA in the hepatobiliary phase in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods: A retrospective analysis of 22 patients with HCC who underwent preoperative Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI was performed. Enhancement ratios (ERs) and expression levels of the organic anion transporter (OATP) 1B3...

  14. Immunohistochemical visualization of mouse interneuron subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Simon Mølgaard; Ulrichsen, Maj; Boggild, Simon

    2014-01-01

    , and calretinin are also commonly used as markers to narrow down the specific interneuron subtype. Here, we describe a journey to find the necessary immunological reagents for studying GABAergic interneurons of the mouse hippocampus. Based on web searches there are several hundreds of different antibodies...... of the hippocampus where they have previously been described. Additionally, the antibodies were also tested on sections from mouse spinal cord with similar criteria for specificity of the antibodies. Using the antibodies with a high rating on pAbmAbs, stainings with high signal-to-noise ratios and location...

  15. First Report of Avian Metapneumovirus Subtype B Field Strain in a Romanian Broiler Flock During an Outbreak of Respiratory Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzo, Giovanni; Tucciarone, Claudia Maria; Enache, Mirel; Bejan, Violeta; Ramon, Gema; Koutoulis, Konstantinos C; Cecchinato, Mattia

    2017-06-01

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) represents one of the most prevalent diseases of turkey, especially in combination with other pathogens, and its frequency is also increasing among chickens. Despite this evidence, epidemiologic data are poor and scattered, severely preventing control of the disease even in highly developed areas such as Europe. In the present study, the detection and characterization of an aMPV subtype B strain circulating in a vaccinated but symptomatic Romanian broiler flock is reported for the first time. The phylogenetic analysis based on the partial G gene sequence demonstrates the close relationship of the Romanian virus with a group of recently emerged Italian field strains for which vaccine-induced protection was experimentally proven to be partial. These preliminary results allow us to hypothesize the spreading of vaccine-escaping aMPV subtype B strains through Europe and, consequently, dictate the carrying out of a more systematic survey to confirm this theory and enforce adequate countermeasures.

  16. Avian metapneumovirus subtype A in China and subtypes A and B in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owoade, A A; Ducatez, M F; Hübschen, J M; Sausy, A; Chen, H; Guan, Y; Muller, C P

    2008-09-01

    In order to detect and characterize avian metapneumovirus, organs or swabs were collected from 697 chicken and 110 turkeys from commercial farms in Southwestern Nigeria and from 107 chickens from live bird markets in Southeastern China. In Nigeria, 15% and 6% of the chicken and turkey samples, respectively, and 39% of the chicken samples from China, were positive for aMPV genome by PCR. The sequence of a 400 nt fragment of the attachment protein gene (G gene) revealed the presence of aMPV subtype A in both Nigeria and Southeastern China. Essentially identical subtype A viruses were found in both countries and were also previously reported from Brazil and the United Kingdom, suggesting a link between these countries or a common source of this subtype. In Nigeria, subtype B was also found, which may be a reflection of chicken importations from most major poultry-producing countries in Europe and Asia. In order to justify countermeasures, further studies are warranted to better understand the metapneumoviruses and their impact on poultry production.

  17. Liposarcoma : MR findings in the histologic subtypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong Hoon; Sohn, Jeong Eun; Chung, Soo Jeong; Kim, Kie Hwan; Chin, Soo Yil

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate the MR imaging findings of liposarcomas of different histologic subtypes. We evaluated MR images of 21 patients (5 men and 16 women, mean age, 55 years) with liposarcoma and correlated the findings with the results of histopathology. In the study group seven liposarcomas were well-differentiated, seven were myxoid, three were mixed, two were pleomorphic, and one was round cell. On T1-and T2-weighted images, six of seven well-differentiated liposarcomas showed signal intensity equal to the fat and hypointense septa, while the other showed low signal intensity on a T1-weighted image, heterogeneous high signal intensity on a T2-weighted image, heterogeneous enhancement after the administration of contrast media and was dedifferentiate. Nine masses in seven patients with myxoid liposarcoma showed low signal intensity on T1-weighted images, six of the nine showed lace-like foci of high signal intensity. On T2-weighted images, all masses showed homogeneous high signal intensity. After administration of contrast media, five of seven masses showed heterogeneous enhancement. Two of three mixed form were well-differentiated and myxoid types, and two subtypes were separable on MR. Pleomorphic, round cell, mixed type myxoid and pleomorphic and unclassified cases showed low signal intensity on T1-weighted images, heterogeneous high signal intensity on T2-weighted and heterogeneous enhancement. Using MR imaging, well-differentiated and myxoid liposcarcomas may be differentiated from other types

  18. Cigarette smoking and risk of Hodgkin lymphoma and its subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Rostgaard, K; Glaser, S L

    2013-01-01

    The etiology of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) remains incompletely characterized. Studies of the association between smoking and HL have yielded ambiguous results, possibly due to differences between HL subtypes....

  19. Salmonella source attribution based on microbial subtyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barco, Lisa; Barrucci, Federica; Olsen, John Elmerdahl

    2013-01-01

    Source attribution of cases of food-borne disease represents a valuable tool for identifying and prioritizing effective food-safety interventions. Microbial subtyping is one of the most common methods to infer potential sources of human food-borne infections. So far, Salmonella microbial subtyping...... source attribution through microbial subtyping approach. It summarizes the available microbial subtyping attribution models and discusses the use of conventional phenotypic typing methods, as well as of the most commonly applied molecular typing methods in the European Union (EU) laboratories...

  20. Pré-resfriamento em água de lichia 'B3' mantida em armazenamento refrigerado Hydrocooling of 'B3' lychee fruit maintained in cold storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Saavedra del Aguila

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento visou a estudar o efeito de diferentes temperaturas e tempos de pré-resfriamento em água sobre a qualidade de lichias 'B3', após a frigoconservação. Os tratamentos foram: T1 = controle (sem pré-resfriamento; T2 = imersão por cinco minutos em água a 2,5°C; T3 = imersão por 10 minutos em água a 2,5°C; T4 = imersão por 20 minutos em água a 2,5°C; T5 = imersão por sete minutos em água a 6°C; T6 = imersão por 20 minutos em água a 8°C e T7 = imersão por 10 minutos em água a 10°C. Após a aplicação dos respectivos tratamentos, os frutos foram acondicionados em filmes de polietileno de 24µm, selados e posteriormente armazenados a 5°C e 90% UR, por um período de sete dias, seguido por três dias de comercialização simulada a 20°C e 70% UR. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente ao acaso, com tratamentos fatoriais de 7x3 (tratamentosxtempo. Foram utilizadas quatro repetições por tratamento, sendo cada uma composta por 150g de frutos. Determinaram-se: perda de massa fresca, coloração (L*, a e b, escurecimento (% e podridões (%. De acordo com os resultados, o pré-resfriamento com água reduz a percentagem de escurecimento, o decréscimo da luminosidade (L* e os valores de a. Por outro lado, esse tratamento favorece o surgimento de altos índices de podridão.This project studied the effects of different precooling temperatures and times with water on lychee 'B3' fruit quality cold storage. The treatments were: T1 = control (without precooling; T2 = immersed in water at 2.5°C for five minutes; T3 = immersed in water at 2.5°C for ten minutes; T4 = immersed in water at 2.5°C for 20 minutes; T5 = immersed in water at 6°C for seven minutes; T6 = immersed in water at 8°C for 20 minutes and T7 = immersed in water at 10°C for ten minutes. After treatments application, the fruits were then placed into polyethylene bags of 24µm, sealed, and stored for seven days at 5°C and 90% RH, plus 3 days at 20

  1. Interactions and encapsulation of vitamins C, B3, and B6 with dendrimers in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisselier, Elodie; Liang, Liyuan; Dalko-Csiba, Maria; Ruiz, Jaime; Astruc, Didier

    2010-05-25

    Titrations of commercial diaminobutane (DAB) and polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers by vitamins C (ascorbic acid, AA), B(3) (nicotinic acid), and B(6) (pyridoxine) were monitored by (1)H NMR spectroscopy using the chemical shifts of both dendrimer and vitamin protons and analyzed by comparison with the titration of propylamine. Quaternarizations of the terminal primary amino groups and intradendritic tertiary amino groups, which are nearly quantitative with vitamin C, were characterized by more or less sharp variations (Deltadelta) of the (1)H chemical shift (delta) at the equivalence points. The peripheral primary amino groups of the DAB dendrimers were quaternarized first, but not selectively, whereas a sharp chemical-shift variation was recorded for the inner methylene protons near the tertiary amines, thereby indicating encapsulation, when all the dendritic amines were quaternarized. With DAB-G5-64-NH(2), some excess acid is required to protonate the inner amino groups, presumably because of basicity decrease due to excess charge repulsion. On the other hand, this selectivity was not observed with PAMAM dendrimers. The special case of the titration of the dendrimers by vitamin B(6) indicates only dominant supramolecular hydrogen-bonding interactions and no quaternarization, with core amino groups being privileged, which indicates the strong tendency to encapsulate vitamins. With vitamin B(3), a carboxylic acid, titration of DAB-G3-16-NH(2) shows that only six peripheral amino groups are protonated on average, even with excess vitamin B(3), because protonation is all the more difficult due to increased charge repulsion, as positive charges accumulate around the dendrimer. Inner amino groups interact with this vitamin, however, thus indicating encapsulation presumably with supramolecular hydrogen bonding without much charge transfer.

  2. Investigation of the binding free energies of FDA approved drugs against subtype B and C-SA HIV PR: ONIOM approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanusi, Z K; Govender, T; Maguire, G E M; Maseko, S B; Lin, J; Kruger, H G; Honarparvar, B

    2017-09-01

    Human immune virus subtype C is the most widely spread HIV subtype in Sub-Sahara Africa and South Africa. A profound structural insight on finding potential lead compounds is therefore necessary for drug discovery. The focus of this study is to rationalize the nine Food and Drugs Administration (FDA) HIV antiviral drugs complexed to subtype B and C-SA PR using ONIOM approach. To achieve this, an integrated two-layered ONIOM model was used to optimize the geometrics of the FDA approved HIV-1 PR inhibitors for subtype B. In our hybrid ONIOM model, the HIV-1 PR inhibitors as well as the ASP 25/25' catalytic active residues were treated at high level quantum mechanics (QM) theory using B3LYP/6-31G(d), and the remaining HIV PR residues were considered using the AMBER force field. The experimental binding energies of the PR inhibitors were compared to the ONIOM calculated results. The theoretical binding free energies (?G bind ) for subtype B follow a similar trend to the experimental results, with one exemption. The computational model was less suitable for C-SA PR. Analysis of the results provided valuable information about the shortcomings of this approach. Future studies will focus on the improvement of the computational model by considering explicit water molecules in the active pocket. We believe that this approach has the potential to provide much improved binding energies for complex enzyme drug interactions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. DFT/B3LYP study of tocopherols and chromans antioxidant action energetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, Erik; Lukes, Vladimir; Ilcin, Michal

    2007-01-01

    Gas-phase reaction enthalpies related to the individual steps of three phenolic antioxidants action mechanisms - hydrogen atom transfer (HAT), single-electron transfer-proton transfer (SET-PT) and sequential proton loss electron transfer (SPLET) for four tocopherols and seven chromans - were calculated using DFT/B3LYP method. For α-tocopherol, one of the chromans and phenol, reaction enthalpies in water were computed. In comparison to gas phase, water causes severe changes in the energetics of studied compounds antioxidant action. From the thermodynamic point of view, entering SPLET mechanism represents the most probable process in water

  4. DFT/B3LYP study of tocopherols and chromans antioxidant action energetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Erik [Institute of Physical Chemistry and Chemical Physics, Slovak University of Technology, Radlinskeho 9, SK-812 37 Bratislava (Slovakia)], E-mail: erik.klein@stuba.sk; Lukes, Vladimir; Ilcin, Michal [Institute of Physical Chemistry and Chemical Physics, Slovak University of Technology, Radlinskeho 9, SK-812 37 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2007-07-09

    Gas-phase reaction enthalpies related to the individual steps of three phenolic antioxidants action mechanisms - hydrogen atom transfer (HAT), single-electron transfer-proton transfer (SET-PT) and sequential proton loss electron transfer (SPLET) for four tocopherols and seven chromans - were calculated using DFT/B3LYP method. For {alpha}-tocopherol, one of the chromans and phenol, reaction enthalpies in water were computed. In comparison to gas phase, water causes severe changes in the energetics of studied compounds antioxidant action. From the thermodynamic point of view, entering SPLET mechanism represents the most probable process in water.

  5. Measles in Italy: Co-circulation of B3 variants during 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magurano, Fabio; Baggieri, Melissa; Bordi, Licia; Lalle, Eleonora; Chironna, Maria; Lazzarotto, Tiziana; Amendola, Antonella; Baldanti, Fausto; Ansaldi, Filippo; Filia, Antonietta; Declich, Silvia; Iannazzo, Stefania; Pompa, Maria Grazia; Bucci, Paola; Marchi, Antonella; Nicoletti, Loredana

    2016-06-01

    In 2013, the majority of the WHO/EUR countries reported an annual incidence of >1 case per one million population indicating that the elimination target is far from being met. Thus, there is the urgent need to uncover and analyze chains of measles virus (MV) transmission with the objective to identify vulnerable groups and avoid possible routes of introduction of MV variants in the European population. The analysis of molecular epidemiology of MV B3 strains identified in 2014 has shown that four different variants co-circulated in Italy, including the strain that caused a cruise-line ship outbreak at the beginning of the year. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Molecular Subtyping of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum in Lisbon, Portugal▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, R.; Prieto, E.; Águas, M. J.; Manata, M. J.; Botas, J.; Martins Pereira, F.

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the reproducibility of a molecular method for the subtyping of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum and to discriminate strains of this microorganism from strains from patients with syphilis. We studied 212 specimens from a total of 82 patients with different stages of syphilis (14 primary, 7 secondary and 61 latent syphilis). The specimens were distributed as follows: genital ulcers (n = 9), skin and mucosal lesions (n = 7), blood (n = 82), plasma (n = 82), and ear lobe scrapings (n = 32). The samples were assayed by a PCR technique to amplify a segment of the polymerase gene I (polA). Positive samples were typed on the basis of the analysis of two variable genes, tpr and arp. Sixty-two of the 90 samples positive for polA yielded typeable Treponema pallidum DNA. All skin lesions in which T. pallidum was identified (six of six [100%]) were found to contain enough DNA for typing of the organism. It was also possible to type DNA from 7/9 (77.7%) genital ulcer samples, 13/22 (59.1%) blood samples, 20/32 (62.5%) plasma samples, and 16/21 (76.2%) ear lobe scrapings. The same subtype was identified in all samples from the same patient. Five molecular subtypes (subtypes 10a, 14a, 14c, 14f, and 14g) were identified, with the most frequently found subtype being subtype 14a and the least frequently found subtype being subtype 10a. In conclusion, the subtyping technique used in this study seems to have good reproducibility. To our knowledge, subtype 10a was identified for the first time. Further studies are needed to explain the presence of this subtype in Portugal, namely, its relationship to the Treponema pallidum strains circulating in the African countries where Portuguese is spoken. PMID:19494073

  7. Difference of achalasia subtypes based on clinical symptoms, radiographic findings, and stasis scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Meillier

    2018-01-01

    Conclusions: Achalasia subtypes had similar clinical symptoms, except for increased vomiting severity in subtype i. The maximum esophageal diameter in subtype ii was significantly greater than in subtype iii. Esophageal stasis scores were similar. Thus, high-resolution esophageal manometry remains essential in assessing achalasia subtypes.

  8. Subtype selective kainic acid receptor agonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunch, Lennart; Krogsgaard-Larsen, Povl

    2009-01-01

    (S)-Glutamic acid (Glu) is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system, activating the plethora of glutamate receptors (GluRs). In broad lines, the GluRs are divided into two major classes: the ionotropic Glu receptors (iGluRs) and the metabotropic Glu receptors (m......GluRs). Within the iGluRs, five subtypes (KA1, KA2, iGluR5-7) show high affinity and express full agonist activity upon binding of the naturally occurring amino acid kainic acid (KA). Thus these receptors have been named the KA receptors. This review describes all-to our knowledge-published KA receptor agonists...

  9. Production and characterization of biosurfactant from marine Streptomyces species B3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khopade, Abhijit; Ren, Biao; Liu, Xiang-Yang; Mahadik, Kakasaheb; Zhang, Lixin; Kokare, Chandrakant

    2012-02-01

    The present study demonstrates the production and properties of a biosurfactant isolated from marine Streptomyces species B3. The production of the biosurfactant was found to be higher in medium containing sucrose and lower in the medium containing glycerol. Yeast extract was the best nitrogen source for the production of the biosurfactant. The isolated biosurfactant reduced the surface tension of water to 29 mN/m. The purified biosurfactant was shown critical micelle concentrations of 110 mg/l. The emulsifying activity and stability of the biosurfactant was investigated at different salinities, pH, and temperature. The biosurfactant was effective at very low concentrations over a wide range of temperature, pH, and salt concentration. The purified biosurfactant was shown strong antimicrobial activity. The biosurfactant was produced from the marine Streptomyces sp. using non-hydrocarbon substrates such as sucrose that was readily available and not required extensive purification procedure. Streptomyces species B3 can be used for microbially enhanced oil recovery process. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Influence of carbohydrates on the interaction of procyanidin B3 with trypsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Rui; Mateus, Nuno; De Freitas, Victor

    2011-11-09

    The biological properties of procyanidins, in particular their inhibition of digestive enzymes, have received much attention in the past few years. Dietary carbohydrates are an environmental factor that is known to affect the interaction of procyanidins with proteins. This work aimed at understanding the effect of ionic food carbohydrates (polygalacturonic acid, arabic gum, pectin, and xanthan gum) on the interaction between procyanidins and trypsin. Physical-chemical techniques such as saturation transfer difference-NMR (STD-NMR) spectroscopy, fluorescence quenching, and nephelometry were used to evaluate the interaction process. Using STD-NMR, it was possible to identify the binding of procyanidin B3 to trypsin. The tested carbohydrates prevented the association of procyanidin B3 and trypsin by a competition mechanism in which the ionic character of carbohydrates and their ability to encapsulate procyanidins seem crucial leading to a reduction in STD signal and light scattering and to a recovery of the proteins intrinsic fluorescence. On the basis of these results, it was possible to grade the carbohydrates in their aggregation inhibition ability: XG > PA > AG ≫ PC. These effects may be relevant since the coingestion of procyanidins and ionic carbohydrates are frequent and furthermore since these might negatively affect the antinutritional properties ascribed to procyanidins in the past.

  11. Pressure dependent elastic and structural (B3-B1) properties of Ga based monopnictides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varshney, Dinesh; Joshi, Geetanjali; Varshney, Meenu; Shriya, Swarna

    2010-01-01

    By formulating an effective interionic interaction potential that incorporates the long-range Coulomb, the covalency effects, the charge transfer caused by the deformation of the electron shells of the overlapping ions, the Hafemeister and Flygare type short-range overlap repulsion extended up to the second neighbour ions and the van der Waals (vdW) interaction, the pressure dependent elastic and thermodynamical properties of the III-V semiconductors as GaY (Y = N, P, As) are studied. The estimated values of phase transition pressure of GaY (Y = N, P, As) are in reasonably good agreement with the available data on the phase transition pressures (P t = 41, 22, 17 GPa). The vast volume discontinuity in pressure-volume phase diagram identifies a structural phase transition from zinc-blende (B3) to rock salt (B1) structure. Later on, the Poisson's ratio ν, the ratio R S/B of S (Voigt averaged shear modulus) over B (bulk modulus), elastic anisotropy parameter, elastic wave velocity, average wave velocity and Debye temperature as functions of pressure is calculated. From Poisson's ratio and the ratio R S/B it is inferred that GaY (Y = N, P, As) is brittle [ductile] in zinc-blende (B3) [Sodium Chloride (B1)] phase. To our knowledge this is the first quantitative theoretical prediction of the pressure dependence of ductile (brittle) nature of GaY compounds and still awaits experimental confirmations.

  12. Theoretical charge-exchange total cross sections for B+3 + He and C+4 + He collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipsey, E.J.; Browne, J.C.; Olson, R.E.

    1977-01-01

    Charge-exchange total cross sections for the B +3 + He and C +4 + He systems have been calculated in the velocity range v = (1--10) x 10 7 cm/sec. Ab initio potential-energy curves and coupling-matrix elements were computed and employed in the impact-parameter classical-coupled equations that describe the collision to obtain the cross sections. For the B +3 + He system, our calculations are in excellent agreement with experimental results with the finding that the single-electron-transfer cross section rises rapidly to a maximum of 1.45 x 10 -15 cm 2 at v = 5.5 x 10 7 cm/sec. For the C +4 + He system, however, we find that the double-electron-transfer process is more important than the single-electron-transfer process. For example, at v = 5 x 10 7 cm/sec, the double-electron-transfer cross section is found to be 0.6 x 10 -16 cm 2 vs 5.5 x 10 -17 for the single-electron transfer. This is in disagreement with an experiment of Crandall which gave the single-charge-transfer process as dominant. However, the more recent experiment reported by Crandall, Olson, Browne, and Shipsey verifies the double charge transfer as the dominant process for low energies

  13. Genetic characterization of canine parvovirus type 2 subtypes in Maputo, Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, J; Miranda, C; Souto, R; Silva, E; Fafetine, J; Thompson, G

    2017-05-01

    Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) comprises three antigenic subtypes (2a, 2b and 2c) that have been reported in many countries. These subtypes cause serious disease in dogs with characteristic gastroenteritis signs. Little information has been documented in Africa about the genetic characterization of CPV-2. The aim of this study was to detect and to characterize the CPV-2 subtypes circulating in dogs admitted to Veterinary Clinics from two cities of Mozambique, Maputo and Matola, in 2010. A total of 40 field fecal samples were collected and tested for CPV-2 by polymerase chain reaction assay. The partial length VP2 gene of the positive samples were sequenced and genetically analyzed. Twenty-six (65%) fecal samples were positive for CPV-2. The restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was also performed from positive samples and did not reveal the presence of CPV-2c subtype. The results of the sequencing revealed the presence of CPV-2a (n = 9) and CPV-2b (n = 17). No CPV-2 and CPV-2c were detected. Sequence analysis comparison showed nucleotide identities of 99.6-100% among our CPV-2 isolates. Amino acid analysis showed predicted amino acid changes. Phylogenetically, all of the CPV-2a strains isolated formed a cluster together with South African and Nigerian isolates. Most of Mozambican CPV-2b isolates also tended to cluster together with South African isolates; however, four were more closely related to French strain and one isolates to the American strain. The present study was the first to characterize the CPV-2 circulating in the Mozambican dog population.

  14. Dynamic volume perfusion CT in patients with lung cancer: Baseline perfusion characteristics of different histological subtypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Jingyun; Schmid-Bindert, Gerald; Fink, Christian; Sudarski, Sonja; Apfaltrer, Paul; Pilz, Lothar R.; Liu, Bo; Haberland, Ulrike; Klotz, Ernst

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate dynamic volume perfusion CT (dVPCT) tumor baseline characteristics of three different subtypes of lung cancer in untreated patients. Materials and methods: 173 consecutive patients (131 men, 42 women; mean age 61 ± 10 years) with newly diagnosed lung cancer underwent dVPCT prior to biopsy. Tumor permeability, blood flow (BF), blood volume (BV) and mean transit time (MTT) were quantitatively assessed as well as tumor diameter and volume. Tumor subtypes were histologically determined and compared concerning their dVPCT results. dVPCT results were correlated to tumor diameter and volume. Results: Histology revealed adenocarcinoma in 88, squamous cell carcinoma in 54 and small cell lung cancer (SCLC) in 31 patients. Tumor permeability was significantly differing between adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and SCLC (all p < 0.05). Tumor BF and BV were higher in adenocarcinomathan in SCLC (p = 0.001 and p = 0.0002 respectively). BV was also higher in squamous cell carcinoma compared to SCLC (p = 0.01). MTT was not differing between tumor subtypes. Regarding all tumors, tumor diameter did not correlate with any of the dVPCT parameters, whereas tumor volume was negatively associated with permeability, BF and BV (r = −0.22, −0.24, −0.24, all p < 0.05). In squamous cell carcinoma, tumor diameter und volume correlated with BV (r = 0.53 and r = −0.40, all p < 0.05). In SCLC, tumor diameter und volume correlated with MTT (r = 0.46 and r = 0.39, all p < 0.05). In adenocarcinoma, no association between morphological and functional tumor characteristics was observed. Conclusions: dVPCT parameters are only partially related to tumor diameter and volume and are significantly differing between lung cancer subtypes

  15. Influence of histological subtype on survival after combined therapy of surgery and radiation in WHO grade 3 glioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirai, Katsuyuki; Suzuki, Yoshiyuki; Okamoto, Masahiko

    2010-01-01

    World Health Organization (WHO) grade 3 glioma is one of the common brain tumors and has three main histological subtypes, including anaplastic astrocytoma (AA), anaplastic oligoastrocytoma (AOA) and anaplastic oligodendroglioma (AO). However, most previous studies have considered AOA and AO as one group because of the difficult differential diagnosis between AOA and AO. Therefore the prognostic difference among patients with these histological subtypes has been unclear. In this study, 68 patients with histologically proven WHO grade 3 glioma, consecutively received postoperative radiotherapy at the Gunma University Hospital, Japan, between 1983 and 2005, were investigated to assess the impact of histological subtype on the survival. The number of AA, AOA and AO patients was 41, 16 and 11, respectively. The mean and median follow-up periods were 72 and 48 months, respectively. The number of patients treated with gross total resection, partial resection and biopsy was 14, 38 and 16, respectively. The mean and median radiation doses were 58±5 Gy and 60 Gy, respectively. The 5-year overall survival rates of AA, AOA and AO were 21%, 38% and 80%, and median survival period were 16 months, 58 months and not reached, respectively. Univariate analysis showed that the histological subtype (P<0.01) and extent of surgery (P<0.01) were significant prognostic factors for survival. Selective comparison showed that overall survival of patients with AA was significantly worse than for those with AOA (P=0.01) and AO (P<0.01). The overall survival of patients with AO was better than for those with AOA; however, the difference was not statistically significant (P=0.14). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that histological subtype, age and extent of surgery were the significant independent variable for survival (P<0.01, P<0.01 and P=0.04). In our study, histological subtype was one of the most important prognostic factors of WHO grade 3 glioma. (author)

  16. The validity and utility of subtyping bulimia nervosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoeken, Daphne; Veling, Wim; Sinke, Sjoukje; Mitchell, James E.; Hoek, Hans W.

    Objective: To review the evidence for the validity and utility of subtyping bulimia nervosa (BN) into a purging (BN-P) and a nonpurging subtype (BN-NP), and of distinguishing BN-NP from binge eating disorder (BED), by comparing course, complications, and treatment. Method: A literature search of

  17. The validity and utility of subtyping bulimia nervosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoeken, Daphne; Veling, Wim; Sinke, Sjoukje; Mitchell, James E.; Hoek, Hans W.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To review the evidence for the validity and utility of subtyping bulimia nervosa (BN) into a purging (BN-P) and a nonpurging subtype (BN-NP), and of distinguishing BN-NP from binge eating disorder (BED), by comparing course, complications, and treatment. Method: A literature search of

  18. ADHD subtype differences in reinforcement sensitivity and visuospatial working memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dovis, S.; van der Oord, S.; Wiers, R.W.; Prins, P.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Both cognitive and motivational deficits are thought to give rise to the problems in the combined (ADHD-C) and inattentive subtype (ADHD-I) of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In both subtypes one of the most prominent cognitive weaknesses appears to be in visuospatial working memory

  19. The Association between Physical Morbidity and Subtypes of Severe Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Søren Dinesen; Petrides, Georgio; Dinesen, Peter Thisted

    2013-01-01

    Physical illness and depression are related, but the association between specific physical diseases and diagnostic subtypes of depression remains poorly understood. This study aimed to clarify the relationship between a number of physical diseases and the nonpsychotic and psychotic subtype...... of severe depression....

  20. Integrative Analysis of Prognosis Data on Multiple Cancer Subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin; Huang, Jian; Zhang, Yawei; Lan, Qing; Rothman, Nathaniel; Zheng, Tongzhang; Ma, Shuangge

    2014-01-01

    Summary In cancer research, profiling studies have been extensively conducted, searching for genes/SNPs associated with prognosis. Cancer is diverse. Examining the similarity and difference in the genetic basis of multiple subtypes of the same cancer can lead to a better understanding of their connections and distinctions. Classic meta-analysis methods analyze each subtype separately and then compare analysis results across subtypes. Integrative analysis methods, in contrast, analyze the raw data on multiple subtypes simultaneously and can outperform meta-analysis methods. In this study, prognosis data on multiple subtypes of the same cancer are analyzed. An AFT (accelerated failure time) model is adopted to describe survival. The genetic basis of multiple subtypes is described using the heterogeneity model, which allows a gene/SNP to be associated with prognosis of some subtypes but not others. A compound penalization method is developed to identify genes that contain important SNPs associated with prognosis. The proposed method has an intuitive formulation and is realized using an iterative algorithm. Asymptotic properties are rigorously established. Simulation shows that the proposed method has satisfactory performance and outperforms a penalization-based meta-analysis method and a regularized thresholding method. An NHL (non-Hodgkin lymphoma) prognosis study with SNP measurements is analyzed. Genes associated with the three major subtypes, namely DLBCL, FL, and CLL/SLL, are identified. The proposed method identifies genes that are different from alternatives and have important implications and satisfactory prediction performance. PMID:24766212

  1. Ethnic variation of the histological subtypes of renal cell carcinoma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    E.V. Ezenwa

    The content of the data obtained included the ethnicity categorized as Chinese, Malays, Indians and others (Indonesians, Vietnamese and other minor groups). Other data collected included age, gender and the histological subtype categorized as clear cell, papillary, chromophobe, collecting duct and unclassified subtypes.

  2. Tubal ligation and risk of ovarian cancer subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sieh, Weiva; Salvador, Shannon; McGuire, Valerie

    2013-01-01

    Tubal ligation is a protective factor for ovarian cancer, but it is unknown whether this protection extends to all invasive histological subtypes or borderline tumors. We undertook an international collaborative study to examine the association between tubal ligation and ovarian cancer subtypes....

  3. Integrative subtype discovery in glioblastoma using iCluster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronglai Shen

    Full Text Available Large-scale cancer genome projects, such as the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA project, are comprehensive molecular characterization efforts to accelerate our understanding of cancer biology and the discovery of new therapeutic targets. The accumulating wealth of multidimensional data provides a new paradigm for important research problems including cancer subtype discovery. The current standard approach relies on separate clustering analyses followed by manual integration. Results can be highly data type dependent, restricting the ability to discover new insights from multidimensional data. In this study, we present an integrative subtype analysis of the TCGA glioblastoma (GBM data set. Our analysis revealed new insights through integrated subtype characterization. We found three distinct integrated tumor subtypes. Subtype 1 lacks the classical GBM events of chr 7 gain and chr 10 loss. This subclass is enriched for the G-CIMP phenotype and shows hypermethylation of genes involved in brain development and neuronal differentiation. The tumors in this subclass display a Proneural expression profile. Subtype 2 is characterized by a near complete association with EGFR amplification, overrepresentation of promoter methylation of homeobox and G-protein signaling genes, and a Classical expression profile. Subtype 3 is characterized by NF1 and PTEN alterations and exhibits a Mesenchymal-like expression profile. The data analysis workflow we propose provides a unified and computationally scalable framework to harness the full potential of large-scale integrated cancer genomic data for integrative subtype discovery.

  4. 5 CFR 2640.302 - Waivers issued pursuant to 18 U.S.C. 208(b)(3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... actual or potential profit or loss or cost of the matter to the company issuing the stock, the change in...) Requirements for issuing an individual waiver under 18 U.S.C. 208(b)(3). Pursuant to 18 U.S.C. 208(b)(3), an...) The type of interest that is creating the disqualification (e.g. stock, bonds, real estate, other...

  5. Hyperbolic partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Witten, Matthew

    1986-01-01

    Hyperbolic Partial Differential Equations III is a refereed journal issue that explores the applications, theory, and/or applied methods related to hyperbolic partial differential equations, or problems arising out of hyperbolic partial differential equations, in any area of research. This journal issue is interested in all types of articles in terms of review, mini-monograph, standard study, or short communication. Some studies presented in this journal include discretization of ideal fluid dynamics in the Eulerian representation; a Riemann problem in gas dynamics with bifurcation; periodic M

  6. Successful removable partial dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Christopher D

    2012-03-01

    Removable partial dentures (RPDs) remain a mainstay of prosthodontic care for partially dentate patients. Appropriately designed, they can restore masticatory efficiency, improve aesthetics and speech, and help secure overall oral health. However, challenges remain in providing such treatments, including maintaining adequate plaque control, achieving adequate retention, and facilitating patient tolerance. The aim of this paper is to review the successful provision of RPDs. Removable partial dentures are a successful form of treatment for replacing missing teeth, and can be successfully provided with appropriate design and fabrication concepts in mind.

  7. Beginning partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    O'Neil, Peter V

    2011-01-01

    A rigorous, yet accessible, introduction to partial differential equations-updated in a valuable new edition Beginning Partial Differential Equations, Second Edition provides a comprehensive introduction to partial differential equations (PDEs) with a special focus on the significance of characteristics, solutions by Fourier series, integrals and transforms, properties and physical interpretations of solutions, and a transition to the modern function space approach to PDEs. With its breadth of coverage, this new edition continues to present a broad introduction to the field, while also addres

  8. Osteoclastic finger arthrosis - a subtype of polyarthrosis of the hand; Osteoklastische Fingerarthrose - Subtyp der Handpolyarthrose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dihlmann, W. [Radiologische Praxis, Hamburg-Barmbek (Germany); Dihlmann, A. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Unfallkrankenhaus Hamburg (Germany)

    1998-02-01

    Aim: Description of a subtype of arthrosis deformans of the hand which is characterised as osteoclastic arthrosis. Patients and methods: Retrospective analysis of radiographs of the hands of 150 women and 100 men with radiological findings of arthrosis deformans. Results: 5% of women and 2% of men showed at least one digital joint with subchondral osteolysis of one or both articulating bones involving at least a third of the phalanx. This subchondral osteolysis far exceeds the cysts which are situated in the epiphyseal part of the articular region. It may develop within a year. Conclusion: Osteoclastic arthrosis of the finger is a subtype of polyarthrosis of the hand. Serial observations suggest that an osteoclast stimulating substance is produced by the cysts or arises directly from the synovial fluid; this enters the subchondral part of the bone through clefts which may or may not be visible radiologically and that this produces osteoclastic activity. The most important differential diagnoses are chronic tophacious gout and a benign tumor. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel: Beschreibung eines Subtyps der Arthrosis deformans an der Hand, der als osteoklastische Arthrose bezeichnet wird. Patienten und Methode: Retrospektive Analyse der Handroentgenaufnahmen von 150 Frauen und 100 Maennern mit Roentgenbefunden der Arthrosis deformans. Ergebnisse: 5% der Frauen und 2% der maennlichen Patienten des durchgesehenen Krankenguts zeigten an mindestens einem Fingergelenk eine Arthrose mit subchondralen Osteolysen an einem oder beiden artikulierenden Knochen, die mindestens ein Drittel der Phalanxlaenge erfasst hatten. Diese subchondralen Osteolysen gehen ueber die Groesse und Form der arthrotischen Geroellzysten, die lediglich im knoechernen (epiphysaeren) Gelenksockel sitzen, weit hinaus. Sie koennen innerhalb eines Jahres entstehen. Schlussfolgerung: Die osteoklastische Arthrose der Finger ist ein Subtyp der Handpolyarthrose. Nach Verlaufsbeobachtungen wird vermutet, dass eine

  9. Salmonella Source Attribution in Japan by a Microbiological Subtyping Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toyofuku, Hajime; Pires, Sara Monteiro; Hald, Tine

    2011-01-01

    In order to estimate the number of human Salmonella infections attributable to each of major animal-food source, and help identifying the best Salmonella intervention strategies, a microbial subtyping approach for source attribution was applied. We adapted a Bayesian model that attributes illnesses......-food sources, subtype-related factors, and source-related factors. National-surveillance serotyping data from 1998 to 2007 were applied to the model. Results suggested that the relative contribution of the sources to salmonellosis varied during the 10 year period, and that eggs are the most important source...... to specific sources and allows for the estimation of the differences in the ability of Salmonella subtypes and food types to result in reported salmonellosis. The number of human cases caused by different Salmonella subtypes is estimated as a function of the prevalence of these subtypes in the animal...

  10. Genome-wide identification and analysis of the B3 superfamily of transcription factors in Brassicaceae and major crop plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Fred Y; Weselake, Randall J

    2013-05-01

    The plant-specific B3 superfamily of transcription factors has diverse functions in plant growth and development. Using a genome-wide domain analysis, we identified 92, 187, 58, 90, 81, 55, and 77 B3 transcription factor genes in the sequenced genome of Arabidopsis, Brassica rapa, castor bean (Ricinus communis), cocoa (Theobroma cacao), soybean (Glycine max), maize (Zea mays), and rice (Oryza sativa), respectively. The B3 superfamily has substantially expanded during the evolution in eudicots particularly in Brassicaceae, as compared to monocots in the analysis. We observed domain duplication in some of these B3 proteins, forming more complex domain architectures than currently understood. We found that the length of B3 domains exhibits a large variation, which may affect their exact number of α-helices and β-sheets in the core structure of B3 domains, and possibly have functional implications. Analysis of the public microarray data indicated that most of the B3 gene pairs encoding Arabidopsis-rice orthologs are preferentially expressed in different tissues, suggesting their different roles in these two species. Using ESTs in crops, we identified many B3 genes preferentially expressed in reproductive tissues. In a sequence-based quantitative trait loci analysis in rice and maize, we have found many B3 genes associated with traits such as grain yield, seed weight and number, and protein content. Our results provide a framework for future studies into the function of B3 genes in different phases of plant development, especially the ones related to traits in major crops.

  11. Discrimination of Deletion and Duplication Subtypes of the Deleted in Azoospermia Gene Family in the Context of Frequent Interloci Gene Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaszkó, Tibor; Papp, János; Krausz, Csilla; Casamonti, Elena; Géczi, Lajos; Olah, Edith

    2016-01-01

    Due to its palindromic setup, AZFc (Azoospermia Factor c) region of chromosome Y is one of the most unstable regions of the human genome. It contains eight gene families expressed mainly in the testes. Several types of rearrangement resulting in changes in the cumulative copy number of the gene families were reported to be associated with diseases such as male infertility and testicular germ cell tumors. The best studied AZFc rearrangement is gr/gr deletion. Its carriers show widespread phenotypic variation from azoospermia to normospermia. This phenomenon was initially attributed to different gr/gr subtypes that would eliminate distinct members of the affected gene families. However, studies conducted to confirm this hypothesis have brought controversial results, perhaps, in part, due to the shortcomings of the utilized subtyping methodology. This proof-of-concept paper is meant to introduce here a novel method aimed at subtyping AZFc rearrangements. It is able to differentiate the partial deletion and partial duplication subtypes of the Deleted in Azoospermia (DAZ) gene family. The keystone of the method is the determination of the copy number of the gene family member-specific variant(s) in a series of sequence family variant (SFV) positions. Most importantly, we present a novel approach for the correct interpretation of the variant copy number data to determine the copy number of the individual DAZ family members in the context of frequent interloci gene conversion.Besides DAZ1/DAZ2 and DAZ3/DAZ4 deletions, not yet described rearrangements such as DAZ2/DAZ4 deletion and three duplication subtypes were also found by the utilization of the novel approach. A striking feature is the extremely high concordance among the individual data pointing to a certain type of rearrangement. In addition to being able to identify DAZ deletion subtypes more reliably than the methods used previously, this approach is the first that can discriminate DAZ duplication subtypes as well

  12. Molecular Subtyping of Tumors from Patients with Familial Glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Vanessa Y; Praska, Corinne E; Armstrong, Georgina; Kollmeyer, Thomas M; Yamada, Seiji; Decker, Paul A; Kosel, Matthew L; Eckel-Passow, Jeanette E; Consortium, The Gliogene; Lachance, Daniel H; Bainbridge, Matthew N; Melin, Beatrice S; Bondy, Melissa L; Jenkins, Robert B

    2017-10-10

    Single-gene mutation syndromes account for some familial glioma (FG); however, they make up only a small fraction of glioma families. Gliomas can be classified into 3 major molecular subtypes based on IDH mutation and 1p/19q co-deletion. We hypothesized that the prevalence of molecular subtypes might differ in familial versus sporadic gliomas, and that tumors in the same family should have the same molecular subtype. Participants in the FG study (Gliogene) provided samples for germline DNA analysis. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumor was obtained for a subset of FG cases, and DNA was extracted. We analyzed tissue from 75 families, including 10 families containing a second affected family member. Copy number variation (CNV) data was obtained using a first-generation Affymetrix molecular inversion probe (MIP) array. Samples from 62 of 75 (83%) FG cases could be classified into the 3 subtypes. The prevalence of the molecular subtypes was: 30 (48%) IDH-wild type, 21 (34%) IDH-mutant non-codeleted, and 11 (19%) IDH-mutant and 1p/19q-codeleted. This distribution of molecular subtypes was not statistically different from that of sporadic gliomas (p=0.54). Of 10 paired FG samples, molecular subtypes were concordant for 7 (κ=0.59): 3 IDH-mutant non-codeleted, 2 IDH-wild type, and 2 IDH-mutant and 1p/19q-codeleted gliomas. Our data suggest that within individual families, patients develop gliomas of the same molecular subtype. However, we did not observe differences in the prevalence of the molecular subtypes in FG compared with sporadic gliomas. These observations provide further insight about the distribution of molecular subtypes in FG. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  13. Partial knee replacement - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100225.htm Partial knee replacement - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Knee Replacement A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited ...

  14. Beginning partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    O'Neil, Peter V

    2014-01-01

    A broad introduction to PDEs with an emphasis on specialized topics and applications occurring in a variety of fields Featuring a thoroughly revised presentation of topics, Beginning Partial Differential Equations, Third Edition provides a challenging, yet accessible,combination of techniques, applications, and introductory theory on the subjectof partial differential equations. The new edition offers nonstandard coverageon material including Burger's equation, the telegraph equation, damped wavemotion, and the use of characteristics to solve nonhomogeneous problems. The Third Edition is or

  15. The HIV-1 epidemic in Bolivia is dominated by subtype B and CRF12_BF "family" strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Monick L; Velarde-Dunois, Ketty G; Segurondo, David; Morgado, Mariza G

    2012-01-16

    Molecular epidemiological studies of HIV-1 in South America have revealed the occurrence of subtypes B, F1 and BF1 recombinants. Even so, little information concerning the HIV-1 molecular epidemiology in Bolivia is available. In this study we performed phylogenetic analyses from samples collected in Bolivia at two different points in time over a 10 year span. We analyzed these samples to estimate the trends in the HIV subtype and recombinant forms over time. Fifty one HIV-1 positive samples were collected in Bolivia over two distinct periods (1996 and 2005). These samples were genetically characterized based on partial pol protease/reverse transcriptase (pr/rt) and env regions. Alignment and neighbor-joining (NJ) phylogenetic analyses were established from partial env (n = 37) and all pol sequences using Mega 4. The remaining 14 env sequences from 1996 were previously characterized based on HMA-env (Heteroduplex mobility assay). The Simplot v.3.5.1 program was used to verify intragenic recombination, and SplitsTree 4.0 was employed to confirm the phylogenetic relationship of the BF1 recombinant samples. Phylogenetic analysis of both env and pol regions confirmed the predominance of "pure" subtype B (72.5%) samples circulating in Bolivia and revealed a high prevalence of BF1 genotypes (27.5%). Eleven out of 14 BF1 recombinants displayed a mosaic structure identical or similar to that described for the CRF12_BF variant, one sample was classified as CRF17_BF, and two others were F1pol/Benv. No "pure" HIV-1 subtype F1 or B" variant of subtype B was detected in the present study. Of note, samples characterized as CRF12_BF-related were depicted only in 2005. HIV-1 genetic diversity in Bolivia is mostly driven by subtype B followed by BF1 recombinant strains from the CRF12_BF "family". No significant temporal changes were detected between the mid-1990s and the mid-2000s for subtype B (76.2% vs 70.0%) or BF1 recombinant (23.8% vs 30.0%) samples from Bolivia.

  16. The HIV-1 epidemic in Bolivia is dominated by subtype B and CRF12_BF "family" strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guimarães Monick L

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular epidemiological studies of HIV-1 in South America have revealed the occurrence of subtypes B, F1 and BF1 recombinants. Even so, little information concerning the HIV-1 molecular epidemiology in Bolivia is available. In this study we performed phylogenetic analyses from samples collected in Bolivia at two different points in time over a 10 year span. We analyzed these samples to estimate the trends in the HIV subtype and recombinant forms over time. Materials and methods Fifty one HIV-1 positive samples were collected in Bolivia over two distinct periods (1996 and 2005. These samples were genetically characterized based on partial pol protease/reverse transcriptase (pr/rt and env regions. Alignment and neighbor-joining (NJ phylogenetic analyses were established from partial env (n = 37 and all pol sequences using Mega 4. The remaining 14 env sequences from 1996 were previously characterized based on HMA-env (Heteroduplex mobility assay. The Simplot v.3.5.1 program was used to verify intragenic recombination, and SplitsTree 4.0 was employed to confirm the phylogenetic relationship of the BF1 recombinant samples. Results Phylogenetic analysis of both env and pol regions confirmed the predominance of "pure" subtype B (72.5% samples circulating in Bolivia and revealed a high prevalence of BF1 genotypes (27.5%. Eleven out of 14 BF1 recombinants displayed a mosaic structure identical or similar to that described for the CRF12_BF variant, one sample was classified as CRF17_BF, and two others were F1pol/Benv. No "pure" HIV-1 subtype F1 or B" variant of subtype B was detected in the present study. Of note, samples characterized as CRF12_BF-related were depicted only in 2005. Conclusion HIV-1 genetic diversity in Bolivia is mostly driven by subtype B followed by BF1 recombinant strains from the CRF12_BF "family". No significant temporal changes were detected between the mid-1990s and the mid-2000s for subtype B (76.2% vs 70

  17. Improved crystallization of the coxsackievirus B3 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jabafi, Ilham; Selisko, Barbara; Coutard, Bruno; De Palma, Armando M.; Neyts, Johan; Egloff, Marie-Pierre; Grisel, Sacha; Dalle, Karen; Campanacci, Valerie; Spinelli, Silvia; Cambillau, Christian; Canard, Bruno; Gruez, Arnaud, E-mail: arnaud.gruez@maem.uhp-nancy.fr [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique and Universités d’Aix-Marseille I et II, UMR 6098, Architecture et Fonction des Macromolécules Biologiques, Ecole Supérieure d’Ingénieurs de Luminy-Case 925, 163 Avenue de Luminy, 13288 Marseille CEDEX 9 (France)

    2007-06-01

    The first crystal of a coxsackievirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase is reported. The Picornaviridae virus family contains a large number of human pathogens such as poliovirus, hepatitis A virus and rhinoviruses. Amongst the viruses belonging to the genus Enterovirus, several serotypes of coxsackievirus coexist for which neither vaccine nor therapy is available. Coxsackievirus B3 is involved in the development of acute myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy and is thought to be an important cause of sudden death in young adults. Here, the first crystal of a coxsackievirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase is reported. Standard crystallization methods yielded crystals that were poorly suited to X-ray diffraction studies, with one axis being completely disordered. Crystallization was improved by testing crystallization solutions from commercial screens as additives. This approach yielded crystals that diffracted to 2.1 Å resolution and that were suitable for structure determination.

  18. 2D numerical comparison of trailing edge flaps - UpWind WP1B3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buhl, T.; Andersen, Peter B. (Risoe National Lab., DTU (DK)); Barlas, T.K. (DUWIND, Delft Technical Univ. (NL))

    2007-11-15

    This report covers the investigations and comparisons of trailing edge flaps carried out by Delft and Risoe. The work is a part of the W1B3 work package of the UpWind EU-project. This report covers only 2D test cases with simple control of the trailing edge flap with the objective of keeping CL constant. The 5MW UpWind reference turbine is used for the calculations. The section in 75% radius is investigated for three different cases; (1) a wind step from 10m/s to 11m/s, (2) a wind 'gust' from 10 m/s to 14m/s in 1 second and followed by 10m/s, (3) finally a turbulent wind series is simulated, and the performance of the flaps is investigated. The two different codes from Delft and Risoe are compared in the mentioned cases. (au)

  19. N-propyl nitrate vibrational spectrum analysis using DFT B3LYP quantum-chemical method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikhullina, R. M.; Hrapkovsky, G. M.; Shaikhullina, M. M.

    2018-05-01

    Calculation of a molecular structure, conformation and related vibrational spectra of the n- propyl nitrate C3H7NO3 was carried out by means of density functional theory (DFT) by employing the Gaussian 03 package. The molecular geometries were fully optimized by using the Becker's three-parameter hybrid exchange functional combined with the Lee–Yang–Parr correlation functional (B3LYP) and using the 6-31G(d) basis set. By scanning the dihedral angles around C-O and C-C bonds, five energetically most favorable conformers of n-propyl nitrate - TG, TT, GT, GG and G´G forms were found. Vibrational spectra of the most energetically favorable conformers were calculated. The comparative analysis of calculated and experimental spectra is carried out, the spectral features of the conformational state of n-propyl nitrate and the spectral effects of formation of intramolecular hydrogen bonds are established.

  20. Improved crystallization of the coxsackievirus B3 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabafi, Ilham; Selisko, Barbara; Coutard, Bruno; De Palma, Armando M.; Neyts, Johan; Egloff, Marie-Pierre; Grisel, Sacha; Dalle, Karen; Campanacci, Valerie; Spinelli, Silvia; Cambillau, Christian; Canard, Bruno; Gruez, Arnaud

    2007-01-01

    The first crystal of a coxsackievirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase is reported. The Picornaviridae virus family contains a large number of human pathogens such as poliovirus, hepatitis A virus and rhinoviruses. Amongst the viruses belonging to the genus Enterovirus, several serotypes of coxsackievirus coexist for which neither vaccine nor therapy is available. Coxsackievirus B3 is involved in the development of acute myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy and is thought to be an important cause of sudden death in young adults. Here, the first crystal of a coxsackievirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase is reported. Standard crystallization methods yielded crystals that were poorly suited to X-ray diffraction studies, with one axis being completely disordered. Crystallization was improved by testing crystallization solutions from commercial screens as additives. This approach yielded crystals that diffracted to 2.1 Å resolution and that were suitable for structure determination

  1. Pré-resfriamento em água de lichia 'B3' mantida em armazenamento refrigerado

    OpenAIRE

    del Aguila,Juan Saavedra; Hofman,Peter; Campbell,Terrence; Marques,José Roberto; Heiffig-del Aguila,Lília Sichmann; Kluge,Ricardo Alfredo

    2009-01-01

    Este experimento visou a estudar o efeito de diferentes temperaturas e tempos de pré-resfriamento em água sobre a qualidade de lichias 'B3', após a frigoconservação. Os tratamentos foram: T1 = controle (sem pré-resfriamento); T2 = imersão por cinco minutos em água a 2,5°C; T3 = imersão por 10 minutos em água a 2,5°C; T4 = imersão por 20 minutos em água a 2,5°C; T5 = imersão por sete minutos em água a 6°C; T6 = imersão por 20 minutos em água a 8°C e T7 = imersão por 10 minu...

  2. Groundwater monitoring plan for the Hanford Site 216-B-3 pond RCRA facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, D.B.; Chou, C.J.

    1998-06-01

    The 216-B-3 pond system was a series of ponds for disposal of liquid effluent from past Hanford production facilities. In operation since 1945, the B Pond system has been a RCRA facility since 1986, with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) interim-status groundwater monitoring in place since 1988. In 1994, discharges were diverted from the main pond, where the greatest potential for contamination was thought to reside, to the 3C expansion pond. In 1997, all discharges to the pond system were discontinued. In 1990, the B Pond system was elevated from detection groundwater monitoring to an assessment-level status because total organic halogens and total organic carbon were found to exceed critical means in two wells. Subsequent groundwater quality assessment failed to find any specific hazardous waste contaminant that could have accounted for the exceedances, which were largely isolated in occurrence. Thus, it was recommended that the facility be returned to detection-level monitoring

  3. Ground water impact assessment report for the 216-B-3 Pond system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, V.G.; Law, A.G.; Reidel, S.P.; Evelo, S.D.; Barnett, D.B.; Sweeney, M.D.

    1995-01-01

    Ground water impact assessments were required for a number of liquid effluent receiving sites according to the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order Milestones M-17-00A and M-17-00B, as agreed upon by the US Department of Energy. This report is one of the last three assessments required and addresses the impact of continued discharge of uncontaminated wastewater to the 216-B-3C expansion lobe of the B Pond system in the 200 East Area until June 1997. Evaluation of past and projected effluent volumes and composition, geohydrology of the receiving site, and contaminant plume distribution patterns, combined with ground water modeling, were used to assess both changes in ground water flow regime and contaminant-related impacts

  4. 2D numerical comparison of trailing edge flaps - UpWind WP1B3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Thomas; Andersen, Peter Bjørn; Barlas, T.K.

    This report covers the investigations and comparisons of trailing edge flaps carried out by Delft and Risø. The work is a part of the W1B3 work package of the UpWind EU-project. This report covers only 2D test cases with simple control of the trailing edge flap with the objective of keeping CL...... constant. The 5MW UpWind reference turbine is used for the calculations. The section in 75% radius is investigated for three different cases; 1) a wind step from 10m/s to 11m/s, 2) a wind “gust” from 10 m/s to 14m/s in 1 second and followed by 10m/s, 3) finally a turbulent wind series is simulated...

  5. Microcystin-LR induces anoikis resistance to the hepatocyte uptake transporter OATP1B3-expressing cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, Hiroyuki; Takumi, Shota; Ikema, Satoshi; Mizoue, Nozomi; Hotta, Yuki; Shiozaki, Kazuhiro; Sugiyama, Yasumasa; Furukawa, Tatsuhiko; Komatsu, Masaharu

    2014-01-01

    Microcystin-LR is a cyclic peptide released by several bloom-forming cyanobacteria. Understanding the mechanism of microcystin-LR toxicity is important, because of the both potencies of its acute cytotoxicity and tumor-promoting activity in hepatocytes of animals and humans. Recently, we have reported that the expression of human hepatocyte uptake transporter OATP1B3 was critical for the selective uptake of microcystin-LR into hepatocytes and for induction of its fatal cytotoxicity. In this study, we demonstrated a novel function of microcystin-LR which induced bipotential changes including anoikis resistance and cytoskeleton reorganization to OATP1B3-transfected HEK293 cells (HEK293-OATP1B3). After exposure to microcystin-LR, HEK293-OATP1B3 cells were divided to the floating cells and remaining adherent cells. After collection and reseeding the floating cells into a fresh flask, cells were confluently proliferated (HEK293-OATP1B3-FL) under the microcystin-LR-free condition. Both the proliferated HEK293-OATP1B3-FL and remaining adherent HEK293-OATP1B3-AD cells changed the character with down- and up-regulation of E-cadherin, respectively. Additionally, these cells acquired resistance to microcystin-LR. These results suggest that microcystin-LR could be associated with not only tumor promotion, but also epithelial–mesenchymal transition-mediated cancer metastasis. Furthermore, microcystin-LR might induce the cytoskeleton reorganization be accompanied epithelial–mesenchymal transition

  6. High occurrence of Blastocystis sp. subtypes 1-3 and Giardia intestinalis assemblage B among patients in Zanzibar, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsell, Joakim; Granlund, Margareta; Samuelsson, Linn; Koskiniemi, Satu; Edebro, Helén; Evengård, Birgitta

    2016-06-29

    Blastocystis is a common intestinal parasite with worldwide distribution but the distribution of Blastocystis and its subtypes in East Africa is largely unknown. In this study, we investigate the distribution of Blastocystis subtypes in Zanzibar, Tanzania and report the prevalence of intestinal parasites using both molecular methods and microscopy. Stool samples were collected from both diarrhoeic and non-diarrhoeic outpatients in Zanzibar. In addition to microscopy, real-time PCR for Blastocystis, Entamoeba histolytica and E. dispar, Giardia intestinalis, Cryptosporidium spp., and Dientamoeba fragilis was used. Blastocystis subtypes were determined by a conventional PCR followed by partial sequencing of the SSU-rRNA gene. Genetic assemblages of Giardia were determined by PCR with assemblage specific primers. Intestinal parasites were detected in 85 % of the 174 participants, with two or more parasites present in 56 %. Blastocystis sp. and Giardia intestinalis were the most common parasites, identified by PCR in 61 and 53 % of the stool samples respectively, but no correlation between carriage of Blastocystis and Giardia was found. The Blastocystis subtype distribution was ST1 34.0 %, ST2 26.4 %, ST3 25.5 %, ST7 0.9 %, and 13.2 % were positive only by qPCR (non-typable). The Giardia genetic assemblages identified were A 6.5 %, B 85 %, A + B 4.3 %, and non-typable 4.3 %. The detection rate with microscopy was substantially lower than with PCR, 20 % for Blastocystis and 13.8 % for Giardia. The prevalence of Blastocystis increased significantly with age while Giardia was most prevalent in children two to five years old. No correlation between diarrhoea and the identification of Giardia, Blastocystis, or their respective genetic subtypes could be shown and, as a possible indication of parasite load, the mean cycle threshold values in the qPCR for Giardia were equal in diarrhoeic and non-diarrhoeic patients. Carriage of intestinal parasites was very

  7. Appreciating HIV-1 diversity: subtypic differences in ENV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gnanakaran, S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shen, Tongye [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lynch, Rebecca M [NON LANL; Derdeyn, Cynthia A [NON LANL

    2008-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) group M is responsible for the current AIDS pandemic and exhibits exceedingly high levels of viral genetic diversity around the world, necessitating categorization of viruses into distinct lineages, or subtypes. These subtypes can differ by around 35% in the envelope (Env) glycoproteins of the virus, which are displayed on the surface of the virion and are targets for both neutralizing antibody and cell-mediated immune responses. This diversity reflects the remarkable ability of the virus to adapt to selective pressures, the bulk of which is applied by the host immune response, and represents a serious obstacle for developing an effective vaccine with broad coverage. Thus, it is important to understand the underlying biological consequences of inter-subtype diversity. Recent studies have revealed that the HIV-1 subtypes exhibit phenotypic differences that result from subtle differences in Env structure, particularly within the highly immunogenic V3 domain, which participates directly in viral entry. This review will therefore explore current research that describes subtypic differences in Env at the genetic and phenotypic level, focusing in particular on V3, and highlighting recent discoveries about the unique features of subtype C Env, which is the most prevalent subtype globally.

  8. Racial difference in histologic subtype of renal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olshan, Andrew F; Kuo, Tzy-Mey; Meyer, Anne-Marie; Nielsen, Matthew E; Purdue, Mark P; Rathmell, W Kimryn

    2013-01-01

    In the United States, renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has rapidly increased in incidence for over two decades. The most common histologic subtypes of RCC, clear cell, papillary, and chromophobe have distinct genetic and clinical characteristics; however, epidemiologic features of these subtypes have not been well characterized, particularly regarding any associations between race, disease subtypes, and recent incidence trends. Using data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program, we examined differences in the age-adjusted incidence rates and trends of RCC subtypes, including analysis focusing on racial differences. Incidence rates increased over time (2001–2009) for all three subtypes. However, the proportion of white cases with clear cell histology was higher than among blacks (50% vs. 31%, respectively), whereas black cases were more likely than white cases to have papillary RCC (23% vs. 9%, respectively). Moreover, papillary RCC incidence increased more rapidly for blacks than whites (P < 0.01) over this period. We also observed that increased incidence of papillary histology among blacks is not limited to the smallest size strata. We observed racial differences in proportionate incidence of RCC subtypes, which appear to be increasing over time; this novel finding motivates further etiologic, clinical, molecular, and genetic studies. Using national data, we observed a higher proportion of black renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cases with papillary histology compared to Caucasian cases. We also observed time trends in black-white incidence differences in histologic RCC subtypes, with rapid increases in the disproportionate share of black cases with papillary histology

  9. Two key residues in ephrinB3 are critical for its use as an alternative receptor for Nipah virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available EphrinB2 was recently discovered as a functional receptor for Nipah virus (NiV, a lethal emerging paramyxovirus. Ephrins constitute a class of homologous ligands for the Eph class of receptor tyrosine kinases and exhibit overlapping expression patterns. Thus, we examined whether other ephrins might serve as alternative receptors for NiV. Here, we show that of all known ephrins (ephrinA1-A5 and ephrinB1-B3, only the soluble Fc-fusion proteins of ephrinB3, in addition to ephrinB2, bound to soluble NiV attachment protein G (NiV-G. Soluble NiV-G bound to cell surface ephrinB3 and B2 with subnanomolar affinities (Kd = 0.58 nM and 0.06 nM for ephrinB3 and B2, respectively. Surface plasmon resonance analysis indicated that the relatively lower affinity of NiV-G for ephrinB3 was largely due to a faster off-rate (K(off = 1.94 x 10(-3 s(-1 versus 1.06 x 10(-4 s(-1 for ephrinB3 and B2, respectively. EphrinB3 was sufficient to allow for viral entry of both pseudotype and live NiV. Soluble ephrinB2 and B3 were able to compete for NiV-envelope-mediated viral entry on both ephrinB2- and B3-expressing cells, suggesting that NiV-G interacts with both ephrinB2 and B3 via an overlapping site. Mutational analysis indicated that the Leu-Trp residues in the solvent exposed G-H loop of ephrinB2 and B3 were critical determinants of NiV binding and entry. Indeed, replacement of the Tyr-Met residues in the homologous positions in ephrinB1 with Leu-Trp conferred NiV receptor activity to ephrinB1. Thus, ephrinB3 is a bona fide alternate receptor for NiV entry, and two residues in the G-H loop of the ephrin B-class ligands are critical determinants of NiV receptor activity.

  10. EphrinB1/EphB3b Coordinate Bidirectional Epithelial-Mesenchymal Interactions Controlling Liver Morphogenesis and Laterality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cayuso, Jordi; Dzementsei, Aliaksandr; Fischer, Johanna C

    2016-01-01

    Positioning organs in the body often requires the movement of multiple tissues, yet the molecular and cellular mechanisms coordinating such movements are largely unknown. Here, we show that bidirectional signaling between EphrinB1 and EphB3b coordinates the movements of the hepatic endoderm...... and adjacent lateral plate mesoderm (LPM), resulting in asymmetric positioning of the zebrafish liver. EphrinB1 in hepatoblasts regulates directional migration and mediates interactions with the LPM, where EphB3b controls polarity and movement of the LPM. EphB3b in the LPM concomitantly repels hepatoblasts...

  11. HIV-1 subtype A gag variability and epitope evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidi, Syed Hani; Kalish, Marcia L; Abbas, Farhat; Rowland-Jones, Sarah; Ali, Syed

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the course of time-dependent evolution of HIV-1 subtype A on a global level, especially with respect to the dynamics of immunogenic HIV gag epitopes. We used a total of 1,893 HIV-1 subtype A gag sequences representing a timeline from 1985 through 2010, and 19 different countries in Africa, Europe and Asia. The phylogenetic relationship of subtype A gag and its epidemic dynamics was analysed through a Maximum Likelihood tree and Bayesian Skyline plot, genomic variability was measured in terms of G → A substitutions and Shannon entropy, and the time-dependent evolution of HIV subtype A gag epitopes was examined. Finally, to confirm observations on globally reported HIV subtype A sequences, we analysed the gag epitope data from our Kenyan, Pakistani, and Afghan cohorts, where both cohort-specific gene epitope variability and HLA restriction profiles of gag epitopes were examined. The most recent common ancestor of the HIV subtype A epidemic was estimated to be 1956 ± 1. A period of exponential growth began about 1980 and lasted for approximately 7 years, stabilized for 15 years, declined for 2-3 years, then stabilized again from about 2004. During the course of evolution, a gradual increase in genomic variability was observed that peaked in 2005-2010. We observed that the number of point mutations and novel epitopes in gag also peaked concurrently during 2005-2010. It appears that as the HIV subtype A epidemic spread globally, changing population immunogenetic pressures may have played a role in steering immune-evolution of this subtype in new directions. This trend is apparent in the genomic variability and epitope diversity of HIV-1 subtype A gag sequences.

  12. HIV-1 subtype A gag variability and epitope evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Hani Abidi

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the course of time-dependent evolution of HIV-1 subtype A on a global level, especially with respect to the dynamics of immunogenic HIV gag epitopes. METHODS: We used a total of 1,893 HIV-1 subtype A gag sequences representing a timeline from 1985 through 2010, and 19 different countries in Africa, Europe and Asia. The phylogenetic relationship of subtype A gag and its epidemic dynamics was analysed through a Maximum Likelihood tree and Bayesian Skyline plot, genomic variability was measured in terms of G → A substitutions and Shannon entropy, and the time-dependent evolution of HIV subtype A gag epitopes was examined. Finally, to confirm observations on globally reported HIV subtype A sequences, we analysed the gag epitope data from our Kenyan, Pakistani, and Afghan cohorts, where both cohort-specific gene epitope variability and HLA restriction profiles of gag epitopes were examined. RESULTS: The most recent common ancestor of the HIV subtype A epidemic was estimated to be 1956 ± 1. A period of exponential growth began about 1980 and lasted for approximately 7 years, stabilized for 15 years, declined for 2-3 years, then stabilized again from about 2004. During the course of evolution, a gradual increase in genomic variability was observed that peaked in 2005-2010. We observed that the number of point mutations and novel epitopes in gag also peaked concurrently during 2005-2010. CONCLUSION: It appears that as the HIV subtype A epidemic spread globally, changing population immunogenetic pressures may have played a role in steering immune-evolution of this subtype in new directions. This trend is apparent in the genomic variability and epitope diversity of HIV-1 subtype A gag sequences.

  13. An Overview of Achalasia and Its Subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dhyanesh A.; Lappas, Brian M.

    2017-01-01

    Achalasia is one of the most studied esophageal motility disorders. However, the pathophysiology and reasons that patients develop achalasia are still unclear. Patients often present with dysphagia to solids and liquids, regurgitation, and varying degrees of weight loss. There is significant latency prior to diagnosis, which can have nutritional implications. The diagnosis is suspected based on clinical history and confirmed by esophageal high-resolution manometry testing. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy is necessary to rule out potential malignancy that can mimic achalasia. Recent data presented in abstract form suggest that patients with type II achalasia may be most likely, and patients with type III achalasia may be least likely, to report weight loss compared to patients with type I achalasia. Although achalasia cannot be permanently cured, palliation of symptoms is possible in over 90% of patients with the treatment modalities currently available (pneumatic dilation, Heller myotomy, or peroral endoscopic myotomy). This article reviews the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management options in patients with achalasia, as well as potential insights into histopathologic differences and nutritional implications of the subtypes of achalasia. PMID:28867969

  14. (Re-)programming of subtype specific cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausburg, Frauke; Jung, Julia Jeannine; Hoch, Matti; Wolfien, Markus; Yavari, Arash; Rimmbach, Christian; David, Robert

    2017-10-01

    Adult cardiomyocytes (CMs) possess a highly restricted intrinsic regenerative potential - a major barrier to the effective treatment of a range of chronic degenerative cardiac disorders characterized by cellular loss and/or irreversible dysfunction and which underlies the majority of deaths in developed countries. Both stem cell programming and direct cell reprogramming hold promise as novel, potentially curative approaches to address this therapeutic challenge. The advent of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has introduced a second pluripotent stem cell source besides embryonic stem cells (ESCs), enabling even autologous cardiomyocyte production. In addition, the recent achievement of directly reprogramming somatic cells into cardiomyocytes is likely to become of great importance. In either case, different clinical scenarios will require the generation of highly pure, specific cardiac cellular-subtypes. In this review, we discuss these themes as related to the cardiovascular stem cell and programming field, including a focus on the emergent topic of pacemaker cell generation for the development of biological pacemakers and in vitro drug testing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Ischemic stroke subtype is associated with outcome in thrombolyzed patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitz, Marie Louise; Simonsen, Claus Ziegler; Svendsen, M L

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The impact of ischemic stroke subtype on clinical outcome in patients treated with intravenous tissue-type plasminogen activator (IV-tPA) is sparsely examined. We studied the association between stroke subtype and clinical outcome in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-evaluated patients...... patients were more likely to achieve early neurological improvement and favorable outcome compared with LVD stroke following MRI-based IV-tPA treatment. This finding may reflect a difference in the effect of IV-tPA among stroke subtypes....

  16. Partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Lawrence C

    2010-01-01

    This text gives a comprehensive survey of modern techniques in the theoretical study of partial differential equations (PDEs) with particular emphasis on nonlinear equations. The exposition is divided into three parts: representation formulas for solutions; theory for linear partial differential equations; and theory for nonlinear partial differential equations. Included are complete treatments of the method of characteristics; energy methods within Sobolev spaces; regularity for second-order elliptic, parabolic, and hyperbolic equations; maximum principles; the multidimensional calculus of variations; viscosity solutions of Hamilton-Jacobi equations; shock waves and entropy criteria for conservation laws; and, much more.The author summarizes the relevant mathematics required to understand current research in PDEs, especially nonlinear PDEs. While he has reworked and simplified much of the classical theory (particularly the method of characteristics), he primarily emphasizes the modern interplay between funct...

  17. CRISPR-cas subtype I-Fb in Acinetobacter baumannii: evolution and utilization for strain subtyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karah, Nabil; Samuelsen, Ørjan; Zarrilli, Raffaele; Sahl, Jason W; Wai, Sun Nyunt; Uhlin, Bernt Eric

    2015-01-01

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) are polymorphic elements found in the genome of some or all strains of particular bacterial species, providing them with a system of acquired immunity against invading bacteriophages and plasmids. Two CRISPR-Cas systems have been identified in Acinetobacter baumannii, an opportunistic pathogen with a remarkable capacity for clonal dissemination. In this study, we investigated the mode of evolution and diversity of spacers of the CRISPR-cas subtype I-Fb locus in a global collection of 76 isolates of A. baumannii obtained from 14 countries and 4 continents. The locus has basically evolved from a common ancestor following two main lineages and several pathways of vertical descent. However, this vertical passage has been interrupted by occasional events of horizontal transfer of the whole locus between distinct isolates. The isolates were assigned into 40 CRISPR-based sequence types (CST). CST1 and CST23-24 comprised 18 and 9 isolates, representing two main sub-clones of international clones CC1 and CC25, respectively. Epidemiological data showed that some of the CST1 isolates were acquired or imported from Iraq, where it has probably been endemic for more than one decade and occasionally been able to spread to USA, Canada, and Europe. CST23-24 has shown a remarkable ability to cause national outbreaks of infections in Sweden, Argentina, UAE, and USA. The three isolates of CST19 were independently imported from Thailand to Sweden and Norway, raising a concern about the prevalence of CST19 in Thailand. Our study highlights the dynamic nature of the CRISPR-cas subtype I-Fb locus in A. baumannii, and demonstrates the possibility of using a CRISPR-based approach for subtyping a significant part of the global population of A. baumannii.

  18. CRISPR-cas Subtype I-Fb in Acinetobacter baumannii: Evolution and Utilization for Strain Subtyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karah, Nabil; Samuelsen, Ørjan; Zarrilli, Raffaele; Sahl, Jason W.; Wai, Sun Nyunt; Uhlin, Bernt Eric

    2015-01-01

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) are polymorphic elements found in the genome of some or all strains of particular bacterial species, providing them with a system of acquired immunity against invading bacteriophages and plasmids. Two CRISPR-Cas systems have been identified in Acinetobacter baumannii, an opportunistic pathogen with a remarkable capacity for clonal dissemination. In this study, we investigated the mode of evolution and diversity of spacers of the CRISPR-cas subtype I-Fb locus in a global collection of 76 isolates of A. baumannii obtained from 14 countries and 4 continents. The locus has basically evolved from a common ancestor following two main lineages and several pathways of vertical descent. However, this vertical passage has been interrupted by occasional events of horizontal transfer of the whole locus between distinct isolates. The isolates were assigned into 40 CRISPR-based sequence types (CST). CST1 and CST23-24 comprised 18 and 9 isolates, representing two main sub-clones of international clones CC1 and CC25, respectively. Epidemiological data showed that some of the CST1 isolates were acquired or imported from Iraq, where it has probably been endemic for more than one decade and occasionally been able to spread to USA, Canada, and Europe. CST23-24 has shown a remarkable ability to cause national outbreaks of infections in Sweden, Argentina, UAE, and USA. The three isolates of CST19 were independently imported from Thailand to Sweden and Norway, raising a concern about the prevalence of CST19 in Thailand. Our study highlights the dynamic nature of the CRISPR-cas subtype I-Fb locus in A. baumannii, and demonstrates the possibility of using a CRISPR-based approach for subtyping a significant part of the global population of A. baumannii. PMID:25706932

  19. Optimization of partial search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korepin, Vladimir E

    2005-01-01

    A quantum Grover search algorithm can find a target item in a database faster than any classical algorithm. One can trade accuracy for speed and find a part of the database (a block) containing the target item even faster; this is partial search. A partial search algorithm was recently suggested by Grover and Radhakrishnan. Here we optimize it. Efficiency of the search algorithm is measured by the number of queries to the oracle. The author suggests a new version of the Grover-Radhakrishnan algorithm which uses a minimal number of such queries. The algorithm can run on the same hardware that is used for the usual Grover algorithm. (letter to the editor)

  20. 17 CFR 274.13 - Form N-8B-3, registration statement of unincorporated management investment companies currently...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... statement of unincorporated management investment companies currently issuing periodic payment plan...-8B-3, registration statement of unincorporated management investment companies currently issuing..., pursuant to section 8(b) of the Investment Company Act of 1940, by unincorporated management investment...

  1. SiB3 Modeled Global 1-degree Hourly Biosphere-Atmosphere Carbon Flux, 1998-2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Simple Biosphere Model, Version 3 (SiB3) was used to produce a global data set of hourly carbon fluxes between the atmosphere and the terrestrial biosphere for...

  2. 29 CFR 516.21 - Bulk petroleum employees partially exempt from overtime pay requirements pursuant to section 7(b...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bulk petroleum employees partially exempt from overtime pay requirements pursuant to section 7(b)(3) of the Act. 516.21 Section 516.21 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor....21 Bulk petroleum employees partially exempt from overtime pay requirements pursuant to section 7(b...

  3. Draft Genome Sequences of Pseudomonas aeruginosa B3 Strains Isolated from a Cystic Fibrosis Patient Undergoing Antibiotic Chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marvig, Rasmus Lykke; Jochumsen, Nicholas; Johansen, Helle Krogh

    2013-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa frequently establishes chronic infections in the airways of patients suffering from cystic fibrosis (CF). Here, we report the draft genome sequences of four P. aeruginosa B3 strains isolated from a chronically infected CF patient undergoing antibiotic chemotherapy.......Pseudomonas aeruginosa frequently establishes chronic infections in the airways of patients suffering from cystic fibrosis (CF). Here, we report the draft genome sequences of four P. aeruginosa B3 strains isolated from a chronically infected CF patient undergoing antibiotic chemotherapy....

  4. The Involvement of miR-29b-3p in Arterial Calcification by Targeting Matrix Metalloproteinase-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhong Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular calcification is a risk predictor and common pathological change in cardiovascular diseases that are associated with elastin degradation and phenotypic transformation of vascular smooth muscle cells via gelatinase matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2. However, the mechanisms involved in this process remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the relationships between miR-29b-3p and MMP2, to confirm miR-29b-3p-mediated MMP2 expression at the posttranscriptional level in arterial calcification. In male Sprague Dawley rats, arterial calcification was induced by subcutaneous injection of a toxic dose of cholecalciferol. In vivo, the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR showed that MMP2 expression was upregulated in calcified arterial tissues, and miR-29b-3p expression was downregulated. There was a negative correlation between MMP2 mRNA expression and miR-29b-3p levels (P=0.0014, R2=0.481. Western blotting showed that MMP2 expression was significantly increased in rats treated with cholecalciferol. In vitro, overexpression of miR-29b-3p led to decreased MMP2 expression in rat vascular smooth muscle cells, while downregulation of miR-29b-3p expression led to increased MMP2 expression. Moreover, the luciferase reporter assay confirmed that MMP2 is the direct target of miR-29b-3p. Together, our results demonstrated that a role of miR-29b-3p in vascular calcification involves targeting MMP2.

  5. A prognostic model of triple-negative breast cancer based on miR-27b-3p and node status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songjie Shen

    Full Text Available Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC is an aggressive but heterogeneous subtype of breast cancer. This study aimed to identify and validate a prognostic signature for TNBC patients to improve prognostic capability and to guide individualized treatment.We retrospectively analyzed the prognostic performance of clinicopathological characteristics and miRNAs in a training set of 58 patients with invasive ductal TNBC diagnosed between 2002 and 2012. A prediction model was developed based on independent clinicopathological and miRNA covariates. The prognostic value of the model was further validated in a separate set of 41 TNBC patients diagnosed between 2007 and 2008.Only lymph node status was marginally significantly associated with poor prognosis of TNBC (P = 0.054, whereas other clinicopathological factors, including age, tumor size, histological grade, lymphovascular invasion, P53 status, Ki-67 index, and type of surgery, were not. The expression levels of miR-27b-3p, miR-107, and miR-103a-3p were significantly elevated in the metastatic group compared with the disease-free group (P value: 0.008, 0.005, and 0.050, respectively. The Cox proportional hazards regression analysis revealed that lymph node status and miR-27b-3p were independent predictors of poor prognosis (P value: 0.012 and 0.027, respectively. A logistic regression model was developed based on these two independent covariates, and the prognostic value of the model was subsequently confirmed in a separate validation set. The two different risk groups, which were stratified according to the model, showed significant differences in the rates of distant metastasis and breast cancer-related death not only in the training set (P value: 0.001 and 0.040, respectively but also in the validation set (P value: 0.013 and 0.012, respectively.This model based on miRNA and node status covariates may be used to stratify TNBC patients into different prognostic subgroups for potentially

  6. Paleoenvironmental informa-tion recorded by pollen in B-3GC gravity core in Okinawa Trough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Based on pollen records in B-3GC gravity core, environmental change since 9500 aBP of Okinawa Trough and its adjacent islands was derived. The result showed that the most time during this period was in a warm temperate climate except in middle Holocene (6800-4400 aBP) that was under subtropical climate control. During 9500-8300 aBP and 3100-2000 aBP periods, it appeared colder and drier than the rest time. The original area of pollen sources surrounding Okinawa Trough was covered by evergreen and deciduous broadleaf forest alternatively with mixed broad-leaf-conifer forest distributed in high mountainous areas. Usually, these three kinds of forests existed at the same time with difference in altitude. Pollen from subtropical and tropical plants increased obviously in about 5000-6000 aBP, reflecting a great lifting of vegetation zone and expansion of evergreen broad-leaf forest in the study area. However, there was a slight descending of plant zone and shrinking of evergreen broadleaf forest during 9500-8300 aBP and 3000-2000 aBP. During the remaining periods vegetation zone was higher than the present but in a limited range.

  7. On the formation of niacin (vitamin B3) and pyridine carboxylic acids in interstellar model ices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMurtry, Brandon M.; Turner, Andrew M.; Saito, Sean E.J.; Kaiser, Ralf I. [W. M. Keck Research Laboratory in Astrochemistry, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawaii, HI 96822 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawaii, HI 96822 (United States)

    2016-06-15

    The formation of pyridine carboxylic acids in interstellar ice grains was simulated by electron exposures of binary pyridine (C{sub 5}H{sub 5}N)-carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) ice mixtures at 10 K under contamination-free ultrahigh vacuum conditions. Chemical processing of the pristine ice and subsequent warm-up phase was monitored on line and in situ via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to probe for the formation of new radiation induced species. In the infrared spectra of the irradiated ice, bands assigned to nicotinic acid (niacin; vitamin B3; m-C{sub 5}H{sub 4}NCOOH) along with 2,3-, 2,5-, 3,4-, and 3,5-pyridine dicarboxylic acid (C{sub 5}H{sub 3}N(COOH){sub 2}) were unambiguously identified along with the hydroxycarbonyl (HOCO) radical. Our study suggests that the reactive pathway responsible for pyridine carboxylic acids formation involves a HOCO intermediate, which forms through the reaction of suprathermal hydrogen ejected from pyridine with carbon dioxide. The newly formed pyridinyl radical may then undergo radical–radical recombination with a hydroxycarbonyl radical to form a pyridine carboxylic acid.

  8. Coxsackievirus B3 vaccines: use as an expression vector for prevention of myocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henke, Andreas; Jarasch, Nadine; Wutzler, Peter

    2008-12-01

    Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3), a member of the Picornaviridae family, is considered to be one of the most important infectious agents to cause virus-induced myocarditis. Despite improvements in studying virus pathology, structure and molecular biology, as well as the diagnosis of this disease, there is still no virus-specific drug or vaccine in clinical use. During the last 20 years many investigations have been performed to develop classic and modern immunization techniques against CVB3-induced heart disease. One promising approach among others includes the insertion of coding sequences of cytokines into the viral genome. The application of an IFN-gamma-expressing recombinant coxsackievirus vector is especially efficient against CVB3-induced myocarditis. Beside direct IFN-gamma-mediated antiviral effects, the local and simultaneous expression of IFN-gamma by the virus itself activates the immune system in a strong and long-lasting manner, which protects animals completely against subsequent lethal infections independently of the age of the immunized individual and the route of vaccine administration.

  9. Modified creep and shrinkage prediction model B3 for serviceability limit state analysis of composite slabs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholamhoseini, Alireza

    2016-03-01

    Relatively little research has been reported on the time-dependent in-service behavior of composite concrete slabs with profiled steel decking as permanent formwork and little guidance is available for calculating long-term deflections. The drying shrinkage profile through the thickness of a composite slab is greatly affected by the impermeable steel deck at the slab soffit, and this has only recently been quantified. This paper presents the results of long-term laboratory tests on composite slabs subjected to both drying shrinkage and sustained loads. Based on laboratory measurements, a design model for the shrinkage strain profile through the thickness of a slab is proposed. The design model is based on some modifications to an existing creep and shrinkage prediction model B3. In addition, an analytical model is developed to calculate the time-dependent deflection of composite slabs taking into account the time-dependent effects of creep and shrinkage. The calculated deflections are shown to be in good agreement with the experimental measurements.

  10. Internalization and trafficking mechanisms of coxsackievirus B3 in HeLa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Sun-Ku; Kim, Joo-Young; Kim, In-Beom; Park, Sang-Ick; Paek, Kyung-Hee; Nam, Jae-Hwan

    2005-01-01

    Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) is nonenveloped and has a single-stranded positive-sense RNA genome. CVB3 induces myocarditis and ultimately dilated cardiomyopathy. Although there are mounting evidences of an interaction between CVB3 particles and the cellular receptors, coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) and decay-accelerating factor (DAF), very little is known about the mechanisms of internalization and trafficking. In the present study, we used the CVB3 H3 strain, which is CAR-dependent but DAF-independent Woodruff variant and found that during entry, CVB3 particles were colocalized in clathrin, after interacting primarily with CAR, which was not recycled to the plasma membrane. We also found that CVB3 internalization was dependent on the function of dynamin, a large GTPase that has an essential role in endocytosis. Heat-shock cognate protein, Hsc70, which acts as a chaperone in the release of coat proteins from clathrin-coated vesicles (CCV), played a role in CVB3 trafficking processes. Moreover, endosomal acidification was crucial for CVB3 endocytosis. Finally, CVB3 was colocalized in early endosome autoantigen 1 (EEA1) molecules, which are involved in endosome-endosome tethering and fusion. In conclusion, these data together indicate that CVB3 uses clathrin-mediated endocytosis and is transcytosed to early endosomes

  11. Results of RCRA groundwater quality assessment at the 216-B-3 Pond Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, D.B.; Teel, S.S.

    1997-06-01

    This document describes a groundwater quality assessment of the 216-B-3 pond system, a Resources Conservation and Recovery act of 1976 (RCRA) waste facility. In 1990, sampling and chemical analysis of groundwater underlying the facility indicated that the contamination indicator parameters, total organic halogens (TOX), and total organic carbon (TOC) had exceeded established limits in two wells. This discovery placed the facility into RCRA groundwater assessment status and subsequently led to a more detailed hydrochemical analysis of groundwater underlying the facility. Comprehensive chemical analyses of groundwater samples from 1994 through 1996 revealed one compound, tris (2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TRIS2CH), that may have contributed to elevated TOX concentrations. No compound was identified as a contributor to TOC. Detailed evaluations of TOX, TOC, and TRIS2CH and comparison of occurrences of these parameters led to conclusions that (1) with few exceptions, these constituents occur at low concentrations below or near limits of quantitation; (2) it is problematic whether the low concentrations of TRIS2CH represent a contaminant originating from the facility or if it is a product of well construction; and (3) given the low and diminishing concentration of TOX, TOC, and TRIS2CH, no further investigation into the occurrent of these constituents is justified. Continued groundwater monitoring should include an immediate recalculation of background critical means of upgradient/downgradient comparisons and a return to seminannual groundwater monitoring under a RCRA indicator parameter evaluation program

  12. Photoinduced nonlinear optical effects in Nd-doped δ-BiB3O6 crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majchrowski, A.; Wojciechowski, A.; Kityk, I.V.; Chrunik, M.; Jaroszewicz, L.R.; Michalski, E.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • New type of optically operated rare earth doped borates is proposed. • Principal role of the phonon subsystem in photoinduced electrooptics, SHG and piezooptics is shown. • The possibility to create the laser operated materials is shown for the such kind of sold state alloys. - Abstract: The studies of the second harmonic generation, Pockels effect and piezoelectricity were performed for the new synthesized δ-BiB 3 O 6 single crystals. The incorporation of Nd 3+ ions into these crystals plays an important role for the increasing of the photoinduced nonlinear optical properties. Temperature dependences of the optical and piezoelectric features showed existence of some anomalies in the vicinity of 160 K and 220 K. This may confirm a principal role of the photopolarization and of the localized impurity states which give additional contribution into the observed effect. It is crucial that the effect is dependent on the number of the photoinducing pulses. The effect is completely reversible after switching off of the photoinducing laser beam

  13. Interpersonal subtypes in social phobia: diagnostic and treatment implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Nicole M; Pincus, Aaron L; Grosse Holtforth, Martin

    2010-11-01

    Interpersonal assessment may provide a clinically useful way to identify subtypes of social phobia. In this study, we examined evidence for interpersonal subtypes in a sample of 77 socially phobic outpatients. A cluster analysis based on the dimensions of dominance and love on the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-Circumplex Scales (Alden, Wiggins, & Pincus, 1990) found 2 interpersonal subtypes of socially phobic patients. These subtypes did not differ on pretreatment global symptom severity as measured by the Brief Symptom Inventory (Derogatis, 1993) or diagnostic comorbidity but did exhibit differential responses to outpatient psychotherapy. Overall, friendly-submissive social phobia patients had significantly lower scores on measures of social anxiety and significantly higher scores on measures of well-being and satisfaction at posttreatment than cold-submissive social phobia patients. We discuss the results in terms of interpersonal theory and the clinical relevance of assessment of interpersonal functioning prior to beginning psychotherapy with socially phobic patients.

  14. New paradigms for Salmonella source attribution based on microbial subtyping.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Franz, Eelco; van Pelt, Wilfrid

    Microbial subtyping is the most common approach for Salmonella source attribution. Typically, attributions are computed using frequency-matching models like the Dutch and Danish models based on phenotyping data (serotyping, phage-typing, and antimicrobial resistance profiling). Herewith, we

  15. Common Molecular Subtypes Among Asian Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Cholangiocarcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaisaingmongkol, Jittiporn; Budhu, Anuradha; Dang, Hien

    2017-01-01

    Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are clinically disparate primary liver cancers with etiological and biological heterogeneity. We identified common molecular subtypes linked to similar prognosis among 199 Thai ICC and HCC patients through systems integratio...

  16. Auxiliary partial liver transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.B. Reuvers (Cornelis Bastiaan)

    1986-01-01

    textabstractIn this thesis studies on auxiliary partial liver transplantation in the dog and the pig are reported. The motive to perform this study was the fact that patients with acute hepatic failure or end-stage chronic liver disease are often considered to form too great a risk for successful

  17. Partial Remission Definition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Marie Louise Max; Hougaard, Philip; Pörksen, Sven

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To validate the partial remission (PR) definition based on insulin dose-adjusted HbA1c (IDAA1c). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The IDAA1c was developed using data in 251 children from the European Hvidoere cohort. For validation, 129 children from a Danish cohort were followed from the onset...

  18. Fundamental partial compositeness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannino, Francesco; Strumia, Alessandro; Tesi, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    We construct renormalizable Standard Model extensions, valid up to the Planck scale, that give a composite Higgs from a new fundamental strong force acting on fermions and scalars. Yukawa interactions of these particles with Standard Model fermions realize the partial compositeness scenario. Unde...

  19. Partially ordered models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez, R.; Deveaux, V.

    2010-01-01

    We provide a formal definition and study the basic properties of partially ordered chains (POC). These systems were proposed to model textures in image processing and to represent independence relations between random variables in statistics (in the later case they are known as Bayesian networks).

  20. Partially Hidden Markov Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren Otto; Rissanen, Jorma

    1996-01-01

    Partially Hidden Markov Models (PHMM) are introduced. They differ from the ordinary HMM's in that both the transition probabilities of the hidden states and the output probabilities are conditioned on past observations. As an illustration they are applied to black and white image compression where...

  1. Honesty in partial logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. van der Hoek (Wiebe); J.O.M. Jaspars; E. Thijsse

    1995-01-01

    textabstractWe propose an epistemic logic in which knowledge is fully introspective and implies truth, although truth need not imply epistemic possibility. The logic is presented in sequential format and is interpreted in a natural class of partial models, called balloon models. We examine the

  2. Anxiety After Stroke: The Importance of Subtyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Ho-Yan Yvonne; Whiteley, William N; Dennis, Martin S; Mead, Gillian E; Carson, Alan J

    2018-03-01

    Anxiety after stroke is common and disabling. Stroke trialists have treated anxiety as a homogenous condition, and intervention studies have followed suit, neglecting the different treatment approaches for phobic and generalized anxiety. Using diagnostic psychiatric interviews, we aimed to report the frequency of phobic and generalized anxiety, phobic avoidance, predictors of anxiety, and patient outcomes at 3 months poststroke/transient ischemic attack. We followed prospectively a cohort of new diagnosis of stroke/transient ischemic attack at 3 months with a telephone semistructured psychiatric interview, Fear Questionnaire, modified Rankin Scale, EuroQol-5D5L, and Work and Social Adjustment Scale. Anxiety disorder was common (any anxiety disorder, 38 of 175 [22%]). Phobic disorder was the predominant anxiety subtype: phobic disorder only, 18 of 175 (10%); phobic and generalized anxiety disorder, 13 of 175 (7%); and generalized anxiety disorder only, 7 of 175 (4%). Participants with anxiety disorder reported higher level of phobic avoidance across all situations on the Fear Questionnaire. Younger age (per decade increase in odds ratio, 0.64; 95% confidence interval, 0.45-0.91) and having previous anxiety/depression (odds ratio, 4.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.94-9.89) were predictors for anxiety poststroke/transient ischemic attack. Participants with anxiety disorder were more dependent (modified Rankin Scale score 3-5, [anxiety] 55% versus [no anxiety] 29%; P anxiety] 19.5, 10-27 versus [no anxiety] 0, 0-5; P Anxiety after stroke/transient ischemic attack is predominantly phobic and is associated with poorer patient outcomes. Trials of anxiety intervention in stroke should consider the different treatment approaches needed for phobic and generalized anxiety. © 2018 The Authors.

  3. Molecular subtypes of glioblastoma are relevant to lower grade glioma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Guan

    Full Text Available Gliomas are the most common primary malignant brain tumors in adults with great heterogeneity in histopathology and clinical course. The intent was to evaluate the relevance of known glioblastoma (GBM expression and methylation based subtypes to grade II and III gliomas (ie. lower grade gliomas.Gene expression array, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP array and clinical data were obtained for 228 GBMs and 176 grade II/II gliomas (GII/III from the publically available Rembrandt dataset. Two additional datasets with IDH1 mutation status were utilized as validation datasets (one publicly available dataset and one newly generated dataset from MD Anderson. Unsupervised clustering was performed and compared to gene expression subtypes assigned using the Verhaak et al 840-gene classifier. The glioma-CpG Island Methylator Phenotype (G-CIMP was assigned using prediction models by Fine et al.Unsupervised clustering by gene expression aligned with the Verhaak 840-gene subtype group assignments. GII/IIIs were preferentially assigned to the proneural subtype with IDH1 mutation and G-CIMP. GBMs were evenly distributed among the four subtypes. Proneural, IDH1 mutant, G-CIMP GII/III s had significantly better survival than other molecular subtypes. Only 6% of GBMs were proneural and had either IDH1 mutation or G-CIMP but these tumors had significantly better survival than other GBMs. Copy number changes in chromosomes 1p and 19q were associated with GII/IIIs, while these changes in CDKN2A, PTEN and EGFR were more commonly associated with GBMs.GBM gene-expression and methylation based subtypes are relevant for GII/III s and associate with overall survival differences. A better understanding of the association between these subtypes and GII/IIIs could further knowledge regarding prognosis and mechanisms of glioma progression.

  4. Progranulin expression in breast cancer with different intrinsic subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li Qin; Min, Li Shan; Jiang, Qun; Ping, Jin Liang; Li, Jing; Dai, Li Cheng

    2012-04-15

    Progranulin is a newly discovered 88-kDa glycoprotein originally purified from the highly tumorigenic mouse teratoma-derived cell line PC. We found that high progranulin expression was associated with higher breast carcinoma angiogenesis, reflected by increased vascular endothelial growth factor expression and higher microvessel density. However, no immunohistochemical evidence currently exists to correlate progranulin expression with clinicopathological features in different intrinsic subtypes of breast carcinoma biopsies. The aim of this study was to investigate the progranulin expression profiles in the intrinsic subtypes of breast carcinomas and their relevance to histopathological and clinicopathological features. Tissue blocks containing 264 cases of breast carcinomas from 2006 to 2009 were classified as different intrinsic subtypes. Tissues of four intrinsic subtypes were immunostained for progranulin, vascular endothelial growth factor and CD105. Their relevance to histopathological and clinicopathological features was also analyzed. Twenty tissue samples from breast fibroadenomas were included in this study. Progranulin expression showed no significant differences in different intrinsic subtypes, although an increasing tendency could be found in the triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) subgroup (χ(2)=5.00, df=3, p=0.17). However, differences were significant when pathologically node metastasis-positive (pN(+)) TNBC were excluded (χ(2)=17.84, df=3, pprogranulin in pathologically node metastasis-negative (pN(-)) TNBC. It was noted that the EGFR expression level of the pN(-) TNBC subtype was significantly higher in cases with strong progranulin expression than in cases with weak progranulin expression (χ(2)=11.26, df=1, pprogranulin in pN(-) TNBC suggests that progranulin is a promising new target for pN(-) TNBC treatment. Strong expression of progranulin correlates with positive EGFR expression in the pN(-) TNBC subtype. The close relationship between

  5. Algebraic partial Boolean algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Derek

    2003-01-01

    Partial Boolean algebras, first studied by Kochen and Specker in the 1960s, provide the structure for Bell-Kochen-Specker theorems which deny the existence of non-contextual hidden variable theories. In this paper, we study partial Boolean algebras which are 'algebraic' in the sense that their elements have coordinates in an algebraic number field. Several of these algebras have been discussed recently in a debate on the validity of Bell-Kochen-Specker theorems in the context of finite precision measurements. The main result of this paper is that every algebraic finitely-generated partial Boolean algebra B(T) is finite when the underlying space H is three-dimensional, answering a question of Kochen and showing that Conway and Kochen's infinite algebraic partial Boolean algebra has minimum dimension. This result contrasts the existence of an infinite (non-algebraic) B(T) generated by eight elements in an abstract orthomodular lattice of height 3. We then initiate a study of higher-dimensional algebraic partial Boolean algebras. First, we describe a restriction on the determinants of the elements of B(T) that are generated by a given set T. We then show that when the generating set T consists of the rays spanning the minimal vectors in a real irreducible root lattice, B(T) is infinite just if that root lattice has an A 5 sublattice. Finally, we characterize the rays of B(T) when T consists of the rays spanning the minimal vectors of the root lattice E 8

  6. Subtypes of depressive symptoms and inflammatory biomarkers: An exploratory study on a sample of HIV-positive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norcini Pala, A; Steca, P; Bagrodia, R; Helpman, L; Colangeli, V; Viale, P; Wainberg, M L

    2016-08-01

    Depressive symptoms cause major impairment and may accelerate HIV progression despite the use of antiretroviral medication. The somatic symptoms criteria for HIV infection and depression partially overlap, which can make differential diagnosis challenging. Because of chronic inflammation caused by HIV infection, HIV-positive patients may develop somatic and affective-cognitive symptoms of depression. Inflammation-related depression is primarily characterized with severe somatic symptoms such as fatigue and sleep disturbance. This study sought to explore the patterns of somatic and cognitive-affective depressive symptoms that characterize HIV-positive patients. Our specific aims were (1) to identify subtypes of depressive symptoms in a sample of HIV-positive patients; and (2) to test the subtypes' difference on inflammatory and HIV disease progression biomarkers. HIV-positive men and women (N=102) with and without depressive symptoms were randomly selected from an Italian HIV clinic. Depressive symptoms (PHQ-9), viral load (VL), CD4+, Il-6, TNF-α, and monocytes were assessed. The three subtypes formed using Latent Class Analysis (LCA) identified patients with (1) severe cognitive-affective and somatic depressive symptoms; (2) severe/moderate somatic symptoms; and (3) absent or low depressive symptoms. The subtype with severe/moderate somatic symptoms was characterized with elevated levels of Il-6 and monocytes. No difference on HIV progression biomarkers was found. The subtypes of depressive symptoms might help differentiating depressive symptoms from HIV- and inflammatory-related somatic symptoms. When present, cognitive-affective and/or somatic symptoms cause significant impairment to patients' lives and thus warrant further assessment and treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Epidemic dynamics of two coexisting hepatitis C virus subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Hernández, Nuria; Torres-Puente, Manuela; Bracho, Maria Alma; García-Robles, Inmaculada; Ortega, Enrique; del Olmo, Juan; Carnicer, Fernando; González-Candelas, Fernando; Moya, Andrés

    2007-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection affects about 3% of the human population. Phylogenetic analyses have grouped its variants into six major genotypes, which have a star-like distribution and several minor subtypes. The most abundant genotype in Europe is the so-called genotype 1, with two prevalent subtypes, 1a and 1b. In order to explain the higher prevalence of subtype 1b over 1a, a large-scale sequence analysis (100 virus clones) has been carried out over 25 patients of both subtypes in two regions of the HCV genome: one comprising hypervariable region 1 and another including the interferon sensitivity-determining region. Neither polymorphism analysis nor molecular variance analysis (attending to intra- and intersubtype differences, age, sex and previous history of antiviral treatment) was able to show any particular difference between subtypes that might account for their different prevalence. Only the demographic history of the populations carrying both subtypes and analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) for risk practice suggested that the route of transmission may be the most important factor to explain the observed difference.

  8. [Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtypes in Djibouti].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abar, A Elmi; Jlizi, A; Darar, H Youssouf; Ben Nasr, M; Abid, S; Kacem, M Ali Ben Hadj; Slim, A

    2012-01-01

    The authors had for aim to study the distribution of HIV-1 subtypes in a cohort of HIV positive patients in the hospital General Peltier of Djibouti. An epidemiological study was made on 40 HIV-1 positive patients followed up in the Infectious Diseases Department over three months. All patients sample were subtyped by genotyping. Thirty-five patients (15 men and 20 women) were found infected by an HIV-1 strain belonging to the M group. Genotyping revealed that - 66% of samples were infected with subtype C, 20% with CRF02_AG, 8.5% with B, 2.9% with CRF02_AG/C and 2.9% with K/C. In fact, Subtype C prevalence has been described in the Horn of Africa and a similar prevalence was previously reported in Djibouti. However our study describes the subtype B in Djibouti for the first time. It is the predominant subtype in the Western world. The detection of CRF02_AG strains indicates that they are still circulating in Djibouti, the only country in East Africa in which this recombinant virus was found. CRF02_AG recombinant isolates were primarily described in West and Central Africa. The presence of this viral heterogeneity, probably coming from the mixing of populations in Djibouti, which is an essential economic and geographical crossroads, incites us to vigilance in the surveillance of this infection.

  9. Subtyping pathological gamblers based on impulsivity, depression, and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledgerwood, David M; Petry, Nancy M

    2010-12-01

    This study examined putative subtypes of pathological gamblers (PGs) based on the Pathways model, and it also evaluated whether the subtypes would benefit differentially from treatment. Treatment-seeking PGs (N = 229) were categorized into Pathways subtypes based on scores from questionnaires assessing anxiety, depression, and impulsivity. The Addiction Severity Index-Gambling assessed severity of gambling problems at baseline, posttreatment, and 12-month follow-up. Compared with behaviorally conditioned (BC) gamblers, emotionally vulnerable (EV) gamblers had higher psychiatric and gambling severity, and were more likely to have a parent with a psychiatric history. Antisocial impulsive (AI) gamblers also had elevated gambling and psychiatric severity relative to BC gamblers. They were more likely to have antisocial personality disorder and had the highest legal and family/social severity scores. They were also most likely to have a history of substance abuse treatment, history of inpatient psychiatric treatment, and a parent with a substance use or gambling problem. AI and EV gamblers experienced greater gambling severity throughout treatment than BC gamblers, but all three subtypes demonstrated similar patterns of treatment response. Thus, the three Pathways subtypes differ on some baseline characteristics, but subtyping did not predict treatment outcomes beyond a simple association with problem gambling severity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Heterogeneity of muscarinic receptor subtypes in cerebral blood vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Villalon, A.L.; Krause, D.N.; Ehlert, F.J.; Duckles, S.P.

    1991-01-01

    The identity and distribution of muscarinic cholinergic receptor subtypes and associated signal transduction mechanisms was characterized for the cerebral circulation using correlated functional and biochemical investigations. Subtypes were distinguished by the relative affinities of a panel of muscarinic antagonists, pirenzepine, AF-DX 116 [11-2-[[2-[diethylaminomethyl]- 1-piperidinyl]acetyl]-5,11-dihydro-6H- pyrido[2,3-b][1,4]benzodiazepine-6-one], hexahydrosiladifenidol, methoctramine, 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine methobromide, dicyclomine, para-fluoro-hexahydrosiladifenidol and atropine. Muscarinic receptors characterized by inhibition of [3H]quinuclidinylbenzilate binding in membranes of bovine pial arteries were of the M2 subtype. In contrast pharmacological analysis of [3H]-quinuclidinylbenzilate binding in bovine intracerebral microvessels suggests the presence of an M4 subtype. Receptors mediating endothelium-dependent vasodilation in rabbit pial arteries were of the M3 subtype, whereas muscarinic receptors stimulating endothelium-independent phosphoinositide hydrolysis in bovine pial arteries were of the M1 subtype. These findings suggest that characteristics of muscarinic receptors in cerebral blood vessels vary depending on the type of vessel, cellular location and function mediated

  11. NOMINAL VALUES FOR SELECTED SOLAR AND PLANETARY QUANTITIES: IAU 2015 RESOLUTION B3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prša, Andrej; Harmanec, Petr; Torres, Guillermo; Mamajek, Eric; Asplund, Martin; Capitaine, Nicole; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jørgen; Depagne, Éric; Haberreiter, Margit; Hekker, Saskia; Hilton, James; Kopp, Greg

    2016-01-01

    In this brief communication we provide the rationale for and the outcome of the International Astronomical Union (IAU) resolution vote at the XXIXth General Assembly in Honolulu, Hawaii, in 2015, on recommended nominal conversion constants for selected solar and planetary properties. The problem addressed by the resolution is a lack of established conversion constants between solar and planetary values and SI units: a missing standard has caused a proliferation of solar values (e.g., solar radius, solar irradiance, solar luminosity, solar effective temperature, and solar mass parameter) in the literature, with cited solar values typically based on best estimates at the time of paper writing. As precision of observations increases, a set of consistent values becomes increasingly important. To address this, an IAU Working Group on Nominal Units for Stellar and Planetary Astronomy formed in 2011, uniting experts from the solar, stellar, planetary, exoplanetary, and fundamental astronomy, as well as from general standards fields to converge on optimal values for nominal conversion constants. The effort resulted in the IAU 2015 Resolution B3, passed at the IAU General Assembly by a large majority. The resolution recommends the use of nominal solar and planetary values, which are by definition exact and are expressed in SI units. These nominal values should be understood as conversion factors only, not as the true solar/planetary properties or current best estimates. Authors and journal editors are urged to join in using the standard values set forth by this resolution in future work and publications to help minimize further confusion.

  12. NOMINAL VALUES FOR SELECTED SOLAR AND PLANETARY QUANTITIES: IAU 2015 RESOLUTION B3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prša, Andrej [Villanova University, Department of Astrophysics and Planetary Science, 800 Lancaster Ave., Villanova, PA 19085 (United States); Harmanec, Petr [Astronomical Institute of the Charles University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, V Holešovičkách 2, CZ-180 00 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Torres, Guillermo [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Mamajek, Eric [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627-0171 (United States); Asplund, Martin [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Capitaine, Nicole [SYRTE, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, CNRS, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC, LNE, 61 avenue de lObservatoire, F-75014 Paris (France); Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jørgen [Stellar Astrophysics Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Depagne, Éric [South African Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 9 Observatory, Cape Town (South Africa); Haberreiter, Margit [Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos/World Radiation Center, Dorfstrasse 33, Davos (Switzerland); Hekker, Saskia [Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany); Hilton, James [US Naval Observatory, 3450 Massachusetts Ave. NW, Washington, DC 20392-5420 (United States); Kopp, Greg [Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, 1234 Innovation Drive, Boulder, CO 80303-7814 (United States); and others

    2016-08-01

    In this brief communication we provide the rationale for and the outcome of the International Astronomical Union (IAU) resolution vote at the XXIXth General Assembly in Honolulu, Hawaii, in 2015, on recommended nominal conversion constants for selected solar and planetary properties. The problem addressed by the resolution is a lack of established conversion constants between solar and planetary values and SI units: a missing standard has caused a proliferation of solar values (e.g., solar radius, solar irradiance, solar luminosity, solar effective temperature, and solar mass parameter) in the literature, with cited solar values typically based on best estimates at the time of paper writing. As precision of observations increases, a set of consistent values becomes increasingly important. To address this, an IAU Working Group on Nominal Units for Stellar and Planetary Astronomy formed in 2011, uniting experts from the solar, stellar, planetary, exoplanetary, and fundamental astronomy, as well as from general standards fields to converge on optimal values for nominal conversion constants. The effort resulted in the IAU 2015 Resolution B3, passed at the IAU General Assembly by a large majority. The resolution recommends the use of nominal solar and planetary values, which are by definition exact and are expressed in SI units. These nominal values should be understood as conversion factors only, not as the true solar/planetary properties or current best estimates. Authors and journal editors are urged to join in using the standard values set forth by this resolution in future work and publications to help minimize further confusion.

  13. Human cardiac-derived adherent proliferating cells reduce murine acute Coxsackievirus B3-induced myocarditis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapka Miteva

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Under conventional heart failure therapy, inflammatory cardiomyopathy typically has a progressive course, indicating a need for alternative therapeutic strategies to improve long-term outcomes. We recently isolated and identified novel cardiac-derived cells from human cardiac biopsies: cardiac-derived adherent proliferating cells (CAPs. They have similarities with mesenchymal stromal cells, which are known for their anti-apoptotic and immunomodulatory properties. We explored whether CAPs application could be a novel strategy to improve acute Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3-induced myocarditis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To evaluate the safety of our approach, we first analyzed the expression of the coxsackie- and adenovirus receptor (CAR and the co-receptor CD55 on CAPs, which are both required for effective CVB3 infectivity. We could demonstrate that CAPs only minimally express both receptors, which translates to minimal CVB3 copy numbers, and without viral particle release after CVB3 infection. Co-culture of CAPs with CVB3-infected HL-1 cardiomyocytes resulted in a reduction of CVB3-induced HL-1 apoptosis and viral progeny release. In addition, CAPs reduced CD4 and CD8 T cell proliferation. All CAPs-mediated protective effects were nitric oxide- and interleukin-10-dependent and required interferon-γ. In an acute murine model of CVB3-induced myocarditis, application of CAPs led to a decrease of cardiac apoptosis, cardiac CVB3 viral load and improved left ventricular contractility parameters. This was associated with a decline in cardiac mononuclear cell activity, an increase in T regulatory cells and T cell apoptosis, and an increase in left ventricular interleukin-10 and interferon-γ mRNA expression. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that CAPs are a unique type of cardiac-derived cells and promising tools to improve acute CVB3-induced myocarditis.

  14. Narrowband UVB emitting (LaGd)B3O6:Bi3+ phosphor for phototherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatkar, N.V.; Thakare, D.S.; Bhatkar, V.B.

    2011-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) phototherapy is useful for treating more than 40 types of skin diseases and disorders, such as psoriasis, vitiligo, atopic dermatitis, morphea, scleroderma, cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, etc. Action spectrum studies have shown that the peak therapeutic activity is between 295 - 310 nm. A recent advance in phototherapy of psoriasis has been the introduction of narrowband UVB using a fluorescence irradiation device delivering virtually monochromatic light at 311 nm. Combining narrowband UVB with calcipotriol, a vitamin D 3 analogue, is considered a very effective treatment for psoriasis. Narrowband UVB is a useful therapy for the treatment of Vitiligo. Research into the influence of wavelength on therapeutic efficacy in phototherapy, confirmed that narrowband UVB is more effective and probably has no greater risk than conventional wideband UVB phototherapy in the treatment of skin disease. In addition, it was recognized that this would be an opportunity for better control and evaluation of treatment, faster and easier treatment time and potentially improved clearance. Lanthanum metaborate (LaGd)B 3 O 6 :Bi 3+ is a well- known commercial narrowband emitting phosphor used in phototherapy lamps for the treatment of psoriasis. The phosphor was prepared by a novel method which is a variation of the solution combustion synthesis. Heat generated in the exothermic reaction between ammonium nitrate and urea is used to carry out the synthesis. The XRD pattern of the prepared phosphor matches with the standard ICDD data. The PL emission of the prepared phosphor shows a narrowband emission spectrum centered around 310 nm in good agreement with the literature. (author)

  15. Ephrin-B3 is the midline barrier that prevents corticospinal tract axons from recrossing, allowing for unilateral motor control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullander, K; Croll, S D; Zimmer, M; Pan, L; McClain, J; Hughes, V; Zabski, S; DeChiara, T M; Klein, R; Yancopoulos, G D; Gale, N W

    2001-04-01

    Growing axons follow highly stereotypical pathways, guided by a variety of attractive and repulsive cues, before establishing specific connections with distant targets. A particularly well-known example that illustrates the complexity of axonal migration pathways involves the axonal projections of motor neurons located in the motor cortex. These projections take a complex route during which they first cross the midline, then form the corticospinal tract, and ultimately connect with motor neurons in the contralateral side of the spinal cord. These obligatory contralateral connections account for why one side of the brain controls movement on the opposing side of the body. The netrins and slits provide well-known midline signals that regulate axonal crossings at the midline. Herein we report that a member of the ephrin family, ephrin-B3, also plays a key role at the midline to regulate axonal crossing. In particular, we show that ephrin-B3 acts as the midline barrier that prevents corticospinal tract projections from recrossing when they enter the spinal gray matter. We report that in ephrin-B3(-/-) mice, corticospinal tract projections freely recross in the spinal gray matter, such that the motor cortex on one side of the brain now provides bilateral input to the spinal cord. This neuroanatomical abnormality in ephrin-B3(-/-) mice correlates with loss of unilateral motor control, yielding mice that simultaneously move their right and left limbs and thus have a peculiar hopping gait quite unlike the alternate step gait displayed by normal mice. The corticospinal and walking defects in ephrin-B3(-/-) mice resemble those recently reported for mice lacking the EphA4 receptor, which binds ephrin-B3 as well as other ephrins, suggesting that the binding of EphA4-bearing axonal processes to ephrin-B3 at the midline provides the repulsive signal that prevents corticospinal tract projections from recrossing the midline in the developing spinal cord.

  16. miR-130b-3p Modulates Epithelial-Mesenchymal Crosstalk in Lung Fibrosis by Targeting IGF-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuhong; Geng, Jing; Xu, Xuefeng; Huang, Xiaoxi; Leng, Dong; Jiang, Dingyuan; Liang, Jiurong; Wang, Chen; Jiang, Dianhua; Dai, Huaping

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic, progressive and usually lethal fibrotic lung disease with largely unknown etiology and pathogenesis. Evidence suggests microRNAs (miRNA) contribute to pathogenesis of IPF. In this study, we sought to identify miRNA expression signatures and determine the role of miR-130b-3p in lung fibrosis. The miRNA expression profile of the lungs from patients with IPF and normal donors was determined by Affymetrix microarray, and transcriptome with Affymetrix array. The functions and signal pathways as well as miRNA-mRNA networks were established by bioinformatics analysis. Luciferase assays and ELISA were used to confirm the miRNA target gene. The effect of miRNA-transfected epithelium on fibroblast activities was assessed using a co-culture system. The fibroblast activities were determined by qRT-PCR, western blotting, Transwell and BrdU assays. Seven miRNAs were significantly decreased in IPF lungs, with miR-130b-3p being the highest in the miRNA-mRNA network. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) was a target gene of miR-130b-3p in the epithelium. miR-130b-3p inhibition in the epithelium induced collagen I expression and enhanced the proliferation and migration ability of fibroblast in co-culture systems, which mimicked the functions of exogenous IGF-1 on fibroblasts. Neutralizing IGF-1 with an antibody significantly reduced the modulatory effects of miR-130b-3p inhibitor-transfected epithelium on the activation of fibroblasts. Our results show that miR-130b-3p was downregulated in IPF lungs. miR-130b-3p downregulation contributed to the activation of fibroblasts and the dysregulated epithelial-mesenchymal crosstalk by promoting IGF-1 secretion from lung epithelium, suggesting a key regulatory role for this miRNA in preventing lung fibrosis.

  17. Abundance of intrinsic structural disorder in the histone H1 subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Andrzej

    2015-12-01

    The intrinsically disordered proteins consist of partially structured regions linked to the unstructured stretches, which consequently form the transient and dynamic conformational ensembles. They undergo disorder to order transition upon binding their partners. Intrinsic disorder is attributed to histones H1, perceived as assemblers of chromatin structure and the regulators of DNA and proteins activity. In this work, the comparison of intrinsic disorder abundance in the histone H1 subtypes was performed both by the analysis of their amino acid composition and by the prediction of disordered stretches, as well as by identifying molecular recognition features (MoRFs) and ANCHOR protein binding regions (APBR) that are responsible for recognition and binding. Both human and model organisms-animals, plants, fungi and protists-have H1 histone subtypes with the properties typical of disordered state. They possess a significantly higher content of hydrophilic and charged amino acid residues, arranged in the long regions, covering over half of the whole amino acid residues in chain. Almost complete disorder corresponds to histone H1 terminal domains, including MoRFs and ANCHOR. Those motifs were also identified in a more ordered histone H1 globular domain. Compared to the control (globular and fibrous) proteins, H1 histones demonstrate the increased folding rate and a higher proportion of low-complexity segments. The results of this work indicate that intrinsic disorder is an inherent structural property of histone H1 subtypes and it is essential for establishing a protein conformation which defines functional outcomes affecting on DNA- and/or partner protein-dependent cell processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Molecular subtypes of osteosarcoma identified by reducing tumor heterogeneity through an interspecies comparative approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Milcah C.; Sarver, Aaron L.; Gavin, Katherine J.; Thayanithy, Venugopal; Getzy, David M.; Newman, Robert A.; Cutter, Gary R.; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Kisseberth, William C.; Hunter, Lawrence E.; Subramanian, Subbaya; Breen, Matthew; Modiano, Jaime F.

    2011-01-01

    The heterogeneous and chaotic nature of osteosarcoma has confounded accurate molecular classification, prognosis, and prediction for this tumor. The occurrence of spontaneous osteosarcoma is largely confined to humans and dogs. While the clinical features are remarkably similar in both species, the organization of dogs into defined breeds provides a more homogeneous genetic background that may increase the likelihood to uncover molecular subtypes for this complex disease. We thus hypothesized that molecular profiles derived from canine osteosarcoma would aid in molecular subclassification of this disease when applied to humans. To test the hypothesis, we performed genome wide gene expression profiling in a cohort of dogs with osteosarcoma, primarily from high-risk breeds. To further reduce inter-sample heterogeneity, we assessed tumor-intrinsic properties through use of an extensive panel of osteosarcoma-derived cell lines. We observed strong differential gene expression that segregated samples into two groups with differential survival probabilities. Groupings were characterized by the inversely correlated expression of genes associated with G2/M transition and DNA damage checkpoint and microenvironment-interaction categories. This signature was preserved in data from whole tumor samples of three independent dog osteosarcoma cohorts, with stratification into the two expected groups. Significantly, this restricted signature partially overlapped a previously defined, predictive signature for soft tissue sarcomas, and it unmasked orthologous molecular subtypes and their corresponding natural histories in five independent data sets from human patients with osteosarcoma. Our results indicate that the narrower genetic diversity of dogs can be utilized to group complex human osteosarcoma into biologically and clinically relevant molecular subtypes. This in turn may enhance prognosis and prediction, and identify relevant therapeutic targets. PMID:21621658

  19. Partially composite Higgs models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alanne, Tommi; Buarque Franzosi, Diogo; Frandsen, Mads T.

    2018-01-01

    We study the phenomenology of partially composite-Higgs models where electroweak symmetry breaking is dynamically induced, and the Higgs is a mixture of a composite and an elementary state. The models considered have explicit realizations in terms of gauge-Yukawa theories with new strongly...... interacting fermions coupled to elementary scalars and allow for a very SM-like Higgs state. We study constraints on their parameter spaces from vacuum stability and perturbativity as well as from LHC results and find that requiring vacuum stability up to the compositeness scale already imposes relevant...... constraints. A small part of parameter space around the classically conformal limit is stable up to the Planck scale. This is however already strongly disfavored by LHC results. in different limits, the models realize both (partially) composite-Higgs and (bosonic) technicolor models and a dynamical extension...

  20. Photogenic partial seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, M J; Binnie, C D

    2000-01-01

    To establish the incidence and symptoms of partial seizures in a cohort of patients investigated on account of known sensitivity to intermittent photic stimulation and/or precipitation of seizures by environmental visual stimuli such as television (TV) screens or computer monitors. We report 43 consecutive patients with epilepsy, who had exhibited a significant EEG photoparoxysmal response or who had seizures precipitated by environmental visual stimuli and underwent detailed assessment of their photosensitivity in the EEG laboratory, during which all were questioned concerning their ictal symptoms. All patients were considered on clinical grounds to have an idiopathic epilepsy syndrome. Twenty-eight (65%) patients reported visually precipitated attacks occurring initially with maintained consciousness, in some instances evolving to a period of confusion or to a secondarily generalized seizure. Visual symptoms were most commonly reported and included positive symptoms such as coloured circles or spots, but also blindness and subjective symptoms such as "eyes going funny." Other symptoms described included nonspecific cephalic sensations, deja-vu, auditory hallucinations, nausea, and vomiting. No patient reported any clear spontaneous partial seizures, and there were no grounds for supposing that any had partial epilepsy excepting the ictal phenomenology of some or all of the visually induced attacks. These findings provide clinical support for the physiological studies that indicate that the trigger mechanism for human photosensitivity involves binocularly innervated cells located in the visual cortex. Thus the visual cortex is the seat of the primary epileptogenic process, and the photically triggered discharges and seizures may be regarded as partial with secondary generalization.

  1. Arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dašić Žarko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Meniscal injuries are common in professional or recreational sports as well as in daily activities. If meniscal lesions lead to physical impairment they usually require surgical treatment. Arthroscopic treatment of meniscal injuries is one of the most often performed orthopedic operative procedures. Methods. The study analyzed the results of arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy in 213 patients in a 24-month period, from 2006, to 2008. Results. In our series of arthroscopically treated medial meniscus tears we noted 78 (36.62% vertical complete bucket handle lesions, 19 (8.92% vertical incomplete lesions, 18 (8.45% longitudinal tears, 35 (16.43% oblique tears, 18 (8.45% complex degenerative lesions, 17 (7.98% radial lesions and 28 (13.14% horisontal lesions. Mean preoperative International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC score was 49.81%, 1 month after the arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy the mean IKDC score was 84.08%, and 6 months after mean IKDC score was 90.36%. Six months after the procedure 197 (92.49% of patients had good or excellent subjective postoperative clinical outcomes, while 14 (6.57% patients subjectively did not notice a significant improvement after the intervention, and 2 (0.93% patients had no subjective improvement after the partial medial meniscectomy at all. Conclusion. Arthroscopic partial medial meniscetomy is minimally invasive diagnostic and therapeutic procedure and in well selected cases is a method of choice for treatment of medial meniscus injuries when repair techniques are not a viable option. It has small rate of complications, low morbidity and fast rehabilitation.

  2. Hierarchical partial order ranking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsen, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Assessing the potential impact on environmental and human health from the production and use of chemicals or from polluted sites involves a multi-criteria evaluation scheme. A priori several parameters are to address, e.g., production tonnage, specific release scenarios, geographical and site-specific factors in addition to various substance dependent parameters. Further socio-economic factors may be taken into consideration. The number of parameters to be included may well appear to be prohibitive for developing a sensible model. The study introduces hierarchical partial order ranking (HPOR) that remedies this problem. By HPOR the original parameters are initially grouped based on their mutual connection and a set of meta-descriptors is derived representing the ranking corresponding to the single groups of descriptors, respectively. A second partial order ranking is carried out based on the meta-descriptors, the final ranking being disclosed though average ranks. An illustrative example on the prioritisation of polluted sites is given. - Hierarchical partial order ranking of polluted sites has been developed for prioritization based on a large number of parameters

  3. Luteolin Inhibits Ischemia/Reperfusion-Induced Myocardial Injury in Rats via Downregulation of microRNA-208b-3p.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Bian

    Full Text Available Luteolin (LUT, a kind of flavonoid which is extracted from a variety of diets, has been reported to convey protective effects of various diseases. Recent researches have suggested that LUT can carry out cardioprotective effects during ischemia/reperfusion (I/R. However, there have no reports on whether LUT can exert protective effects against myocardial I/R injury through the actions of specific microRNAs (miRs. The purpose of this study was to determine which miRs and target genes LUT exerted such function through.Expression of various miRs in perfused rat hearts was detected using a gene chip. Target genes were predicted with TargetScan, MiRDB and MiRanda. Anoxia/reoxygenation was used to simulate I/R. Cells were transfected by miR-208b-3p mimic, inhibitor and small interfering RNA of Ets1 (avian erythroblastosis virus E26 (v ets oncogene homolog 1. MiR-208b-3p and Ets1 mRNA were quantified by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The percentage of apoptotic cells was detected by annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide dyeing and flow cytometry. The protein expression levels of cleaved caspase-3, Bcl-2, Bax, and Ets1 were examined by western blot analysis. A luciferase reporter assay was used to verify the combination between miR-208b-3p and the 3'-untranslated region of Ets1.LUT pretreatment reduced miR-208b-3p expression in myocardial tissue, as compared to the I/R group. And LUT decreased miR-208b-3p expression and apoptosis caused by I/R. However, overexpression of miR-208b-3p further aggravated the changes caused by I/R and blocked all the effects of LUT. Knockdown of miR-208b-3p expression also attenuated apoptosis, while knockdown of Ets1 promoted apoptosis. Further, the luciferase reporter assay showed that miR-208b-3p could inhibit Ets1 expression.LUT pretreatment conveys anti-apoptotic effects after myocardial I/R injury by decreasing miR-208b-3p and increasing Ets1 expression levels.

  4. Evaluation of partial beta-adrenoceptor agonist activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipworth, B J; Grove, A

    1997-01-01

    A partial beta-adrenoceptor (beta-AR) agonist will exhibit opposite agonist and antagonist activity depending on the prevailing degree of adrenergic tone or the presence of a beta-AR agonist with higher intrinsic activity. In vivo partial beta-AR agonist activity will be evident at rest with low endogenous adrenergic tone, as for example with chronotropicity (beta 1/beta 2), inotropicity (beta 1) or peripheral vasodilatation and finger tremor (beta 2). beta-AR blocking drugs which have partial agonist activity may exhibit a better therapeutic profile when used for hypertension because of maintained cardiac output without increased systemic vascular resistance, along with an improved lipid profile. In the presence of raised endogenous adrenergic tone such as exercise or an exogenous full agonist, beta-AR subtype antagonist activity will become evident in terms of effects on exercise induced heart rate (beta 1) and potassium (beta 2) responses. Reduction of exercise heart rate will occur to a lesser degree in the case of a beta-adrenoceptor blocker with partial beta 1-AR agonist activity compared with a beta-adrenoceptor blocker devoid of partial agonist activity. This may result in reduced therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of angina on effort when using beta-AR blocking drugs with partial beta 1-AR agonist activity. Effects on exercise hyperkalaemia are determined by the balance between beta 2-AR partial agonist activity and endogenous adrenergic activity. For predominantly beta 2-AR agonist such as salmeterol and salbutamol, potentiation of exercise hyperkalaemia occurs. For predominantly beta 2-AR antagonists such as carteolol, either potentiation or attenuation of exercise hyperkalaemia occurs at low and high doses respectively. beta 2-AR partial agonist activity may also be expressed as antagonism in the presence of an exogenous full agonist, as for example attenuation of fenoterol induced responses by salmeterol. Studies are required to investigate whether

  5. Pulmonary emphysema subtypes on computed tomography: the MESA COPD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Benjamin M; Austin, John H M; Newell, John D; D'Souza, Belinda M; Rozenshtein, Anna; Hoffman, Eric A; Ahmed, Firas; Barr, R Graham

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary emphysema is divided into 3 major subtypes at autopsy: centrilobular, paraseptal, and panlobular emphysema. These subtypes can be defined by visual assessment on computed tomography (CT); however, clinical characteristics of emphysema subtypes on CT are not well defined. We developed a reliable approach to visual assessment of emphysema subtypes on CT and examined if emphysema subtypes have distinct characteristics. The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis COPD Study recruited smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and controls ages 50-79 years with ≥ 10 pack-years. Participants underwent CT following a standardized protocol. Definitions of centrilobular, paraseptal, and panlobular emphysema were obtained by literature review. Six-minute walk distance and pulmonary function were performed following guidelines. Twenty-seven percent of 318 smokers had emphysema on CT. Interrater reliability of emphysema subtype was substantial (K: 0.70). Compared with participants without emphysema, individuals with centrilobular or panlobular emphysema had greater dyspnea, reduced walk distance, greater hyperinflation, and lower diffusing capacity. In contrast, individuals with paraseptal emphysema were similar to controls, except for male predominance. Centrilobular, but not panlobular or paraseptal, emphysema was associated with greater smoking history (+21 pack-years P emphysema, was associated with reduced body mass index (-5 kg/m(2); P = .01). Other than for dyspnea, these findings were independent of the forced expiratory volume in 1 second. Seventeen percent of smokers without COPD on spirometry had emphysema, which was independently associated with reduced walk distance. Emphysema subtypes on CT are common in smokers with and without COPD. Centrilobular and panlobular emphysema, but not paraseptal emphysema, have considerable symptomatic and physiological consequences. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Is PIGD a legitimate motor subtype in Parkinson disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotagal, Vikas

    2016-06-01

    Parkinson disease is a chronic progressive syndrome with a broad array of clinical features. Different investigators have suggested the heterogeneous motor manifestations of early Parkinson disease can be conceptualized through a taxonomy of clinical subtypes including tremor-predominant and postural instability and gait difficulty-predominant subtypes. Although it is theoretically valuable to distinguish subtypes of Parkinson disease, the reality is that few patients fit these discrete categories well and many transition from exhibiting elements of one subtype to elements of another. In the time since the initial description of the postural instability and gait difficulty-predominant subtype, Parkinson disease clinical research has blossomed in many ways - including an increased emphasis on the role of medical comorbidities and extranigral pathologies in Parkinson disease as markers of prognostic significance. By conceptualizing the pathogenesis of an expansive disease process in the limited terms of categorical motor subtypes, we run the risk of overlooking or misclassifying clinically significant pathogenic risk factors that lead to the development of motor milestones such as falls and related axial motor disability. Given its critical influence on quality of life and overall prognosis, we are in need of a model of postural instability and gait difficulty-predominant features in Parkinson disease that emphasizes the overlooked pathological influence of aging and medical comorbidities on the development of axial motor burden and postural instability and gait difficulty-predominant features. This Point of View proposes thinking of postural instability and gait difficulties in Parkinson disease not as a discrete subtype, but rather as multidimensional continuum influenced by several overlapping age-related pathologies.

  7. Pulmonary Emphysema Subtypes on Computed Tomography in Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Benjamin M.; Austin, John H.M.; Newell, John D.; D’Souza, Belinda M.; Rozenshtein, Anna; Hoffman, Eric A.; Ahmed, Firas; Barr, R. Graham

    2013-01-01

    Background Pulmonary emphysema is divided into three major subtypes at autopsy: centrilobular, paraseptal and panlobular emphysema. These subtypes can be defined by visual assessment on computed tomography (CT); however, clinical characteristics of emphysema subtypes on CT are not well-defined. We developed a reliable approach to visual assessment of emphysema subtypes on CT and examined if emphysema subtypes have distinct characteristics. Methods The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis COPD Study recruited smokers with COPD and controls age 50–79 years with ≥10 pack-years. Participants underwent CT following a standardized protocol. Definitions of centrilobular, paraseptal and panlobular emphysema were obtained by literature review. Six-minute walk distance and pulmonary function were performed following guidelines. Results Twenty-seven percent of 318 smokers had emphysema on CT. Inter-rater reliability of emphysema subtype was substantial (K:0.70). Compared to participants without emphysema, individuals with centrilobular or panlobular emphysema had greater dyspnea, reduced walk distance, greater hyperinflation, and lower diffusing capacity. In contrast, individuals with PSE were similar to controls, except for male predominance. Centrilobular but not panlobular or paraseptal emphysema was associated with greater smoking history (+21 pack-years Pemphysema was associated with reduced body mass index (−5 kg/m2;P=0.01). Other than for dyspnea, these findings were independent of the forced expiratory volume in one second. Seventeen percent of smokers without COPD on spirometry had emphysema, which was independently associated with reduced walk distance. Conclusions Emphysema subtypes on CT are common in smokers with and without COPD. Centrilobular and panlobular emphysema but not paraseptal emphysema have considerable symptomatic and physiological consequences. PMID:24384106

  8. Ultrasonographic Features of Papillary Thyroid Carcinomas According to Their Subtypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Jin Baek

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe ultrasonographic characteristics and difference for various subtypes of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC are still unclear. The aim of this study was to compare the ultrasonographic features of PTC according to its subtype in patients undergoing thyroid surgery.MethodsIn total, 140 patients who underwent preoperative thyroid ultrasonography (US and thyroid surgery between January 2016 and December 2016 were included. The ultrasonographic features and the Korean Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (K-TIRADS category of each thyroid nodule were retrospectively evaluated by a single radiologist, and differences in ultrasonographic features according to the PTC subtype were assessed.ResultsAccording to histopathological analyses, there were 97 classic PTCs (62.2%, 34 follicular variants (21.8%, 5 tall cell variants (3.2%, 2 oncocytic variants (1.3%, 1 Warthin-like variant (0.6%, and 1 diffuse sclerosing variant (0.6%. Most PTCs were classified under K-TIRADS category 5. Among the ultrasonographic features, the nodule margin and the presence of calcification were significantly different among the PTC subtypes. A spiculated/microlobulated margin was the most common type of margin, regardless of the PTC subtype. In particular, all tall cell variants exhibited a spiculated/microlobulated margin. The classic PTC group exhibited the highest prevalence of intranodular calcification, with microcalcification being the most common. The prevalence of multiplicity and nodal metastasis was high in the tall cell variant group.ConclusionThe majority of PTCs in the present study belonged to K-TIRADS category 5, regardless of the subtype. Our findings suggest that ultrasonographic features are not useful for distinguishing PTC subtypes.

  9. DFT study on the isomerization and tautomerism in vitamins B3 (niacin), B5 (pantothenic acid) and B7 (biotin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valadbeigi, Younes; Farrokhpour, Hossein; Tabrizchi, Mahmoud

    2014-05-01

    Isomerization and tautomerism of the three water soluble vitamins including B3, B5 and B7 were studied applying density functional theory using B3LYP method in gas and aqueous phases. Activation energies (Ea), Gibbs free energies of activation (ΔG#), and imaginary frequencies of the transition state structures were calculated for all the isomerization and tautomerism reactions. Activation energies of the neutral → zwitterion (amine-enamine) tautomerism in vitamin B3 were 310-360 kJ/mol where these values for the keto-enol tautomerism were 100-130 kJ/mol. It was found that water molecule catalyzes the tautomerism and decreases the activation energies about 90-160 kJ/mol.

  10. Adult body mass index and risk of ovarian cancer by subtype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dixon, Suzanne C; Nagle, Christina M; Thrift, Aaron P

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Observational studies have reported a positive association between body mass index (BMI) and ovarian cancer risk. However, questions remain as to whether this represents a causal effect, or holds for all histological subtypes. The lack of association observed for serous cancers may......, for instance, be due to disease-associated weight loss. Mendelian randomization (MR) uses genetic markers as proxies for risk factors to overcome limitations of observational studies. We used MR to elucidate the relationship between BMI and ovarian cancer, hypothesizing that genetically predicted BMI would...... be associated with increased risk of non-high grade serous ovarian cancers (non-HGSC) but not HGSC. METHODS: We pooled data from 39 studies (14 047 cases, 23 003 controls) in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium. We constructed a weighted genetic risk score (GRS, partial F-statistic = 172), summing alleles...

  11. Association of Apolipoprotein E Polymorphism with Ischemic Stroke Subtypes in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiou-Lian Lai

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to clarify whether the apolipoprotein E gene (APOE is related to ischemic stroke subtypes in Taiwan's Chinese population. Using the classification of Cerebrovascular Diseases III, 143 patients with lacunar infarction, 114 patients with atherothrombotic infarction, and 112 healthy controls were enrolled. APOE genotype was determined using polymerase chain reaction. Regarding the distribution of APOE genotypes, the frequency of ϵ3/ϵ4 genotypes in lacunar patients was significantly different from that in control subjects, by logistic regression, using ϵ3/ϵ3 as a reference group. There was no significant difference between atherothrombotic patients and the control group in the distribution of APOE genotypes or alleles. The present finding suggests that there is a probable association between ϵ3/ϵ4 genotype and lacunar infarcts, but not atherothrombotic infarcts. This indicates that genetic factors may play a role, at least partially, in lacunar infarction in Taiwan's Chinese population.

  12. First Identification and Molecular Characterization of Avian metapneumovirus Subtype B from Chickens in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucciarone, Claudia Maria; Andreopoulou, Marianna; Franzo, Giovanni; Prentza, Zoi; Chaligiannis, Ilias; Cecchinato, Mattia

    2017-09-01

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) is considered a major pathogen for turkeys but its impact on chicken production is still partially neglected, even though it is fully acknowledged as a primary pathogen in chickens as well. The lack of structured diagnostic surveys does not allow a pervasive understanding of aMPV epidemiology. Being that aMPV is almost an everyday challenge for farmers and veterinarians, a more accurate report of its presence should be detailed, posing the basis for a deep and global epidemiologic analysis. With these premises, the present work aims to report the first detection and molecular characterization of aMPV subtype B field strains from unvaccinated chickens in Greece. The Greek strains appear to be phylogenetically related among each other and with other recent Mediterranean strains while being distant from the currently applied vaccines, thus stressing once more the necessity to evaluate aMPV diffusion and evolution.

  13. Diagnosis and subtypes of adolescent antisocial personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Meredith; Westen, Drew

    2010-04-01

    The present study examined the application of the Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD) diagnosis to adolescents and investigated the possibility of subtypes of APD adolescents. As part of a broader study of adolescent personality in clinically-referred patients, experienced clinicians provided personality data on a randomly selected patient in their care using the SWAP-II-A personality pathology instrument. Three hundred thirteen adolescents met adult DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for APD. To characterize adolescents with the disorder, we aggregated the data to identify the items most descriptive and distinctive of APD adolescents relative to other teenagers in the sample (N = 950). Q-factor analysis identified five personality subtypes: psychopathic-like, socially withdrawn, impulsive-histrionic, emotionally dysregulated, and attentionally dysregulated. The five subtypes differed in predictable ways on a set of external criteria related to global adaptive functioning, childhood family environment, and family history of psychiatric illness. Both the APD diagnosis and the empirically derived APD subtypes provided incremental validity over and above the DSM-IV disruptive behavior disorders in predicting global adaptive functioning, number of arrests, early-onset severe externalizing pathology, and quality of peer relationships. Although preliminary, these results provide support for the use of both APD and personality-based subtyping systems in adolescents.

  14. Clinically-inspired automatic classification of ovarian carcinoma subtypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aicha BenTaieb

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: It has been shown that ovarian carcinoma subtypes are distinct pathologic entities with differing prognostic and therapeutic implications. Histotyping by pathologists has good reproducibility, but occasional cases are challenging and require immunohistochemistry and subspecialty consultation. Motivated by the need for more accurate and reproducible diagnoses and to facilitate pathologists′ workflow, we propose an automatic framework for ovarian carcinoma classification. Materials and Methods: Our method is inspired by pathologists′ workflow. We analyse imaged tissues at two magnification levels and extract clinically-inspired color, texture, and segmentation-based shape descriptors using image-processing methods. We propose a carefully designed machine learning technique composed of four modules: A dissimilarity matrix, dimensionality reduction, feature selection and a support vector machine classifier to separate the five ovarian carcinoma subtypes using the extracted features. Results: This paper presents the details of our implementation and its validation on a clinically derived dataset of eighty high-resolution histopathology images. The proposed system achieved a multiclass classification accuracy of 95.0% when classifying unseen tissues. Assessment of the classifier′s confusion (confusion matrix between the five different ovarian carcinoma subtypes agrees with clinician′s confusion and reflects the difficulty in diagnosing endometrioid and serous carcinomas. Conclusions: Our results from this first study highlight the difficulty of ovarian carcinoma diagnosis which originate from the intrinsic class-imbalance observed among subtypes and suggest that the automatic analysis of ovarian carcinoma subtypes could be valuable to clinician′s diagnostic procedure by providing a second opinion.

  15. Serial prenatal and postnatal MRI of dystroglycanopathy in a patient with familial B3GALNT2 mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Mai-Lan; Glenn, Orit A.; Sherr, Eliott H.; Strober, Jonathan B.

    2017-01-01

    The dystroglycanopathies are a heterogeneous group of conditions, with mutations in B3GALNT2 described in association with congenital muscular dystrophy. The serial prenatal MRI findings in this disorder have not been well described. We present sequential prenatal and postnatal MRI findings in a boy with compound heterozygous mutations in B3GALNT2, as well as the MRI findings of his two siblings with similar mutations. These findings provide new insight into the molecular pathogenesis and neurodevelopment of congenital muscular dystrophy. (orig.)

  16. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 128-B-3 Burn Pit Site, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-058

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2006-11-17

    The 128-B-3 waste site is a former burn and disposal site for the 100-B/C Area, located adjacent to the Columbia River. The 128-B-3 waste site has been remediated to meet the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results of sampling at upland areas of the site also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  17. Serial prenatal and postnatal MRI of dystroglycanopathy in a patient with familial B3GALNT2 mutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Mai-Lan [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, Rochester, MN (United States); Glenn, Orit A. [University of California, Department of Radiology, San Francisco, CA (United States); Sherr, Eliott H. [University of California, Department of Neurology, San Francisco, CA (United States); University of California, Department of Pediatrics, San Francisco, CA (United States); Strober, Jonathan B. [University of California, Department of Neurology, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2017-06-15

    The dystroglycanopathies are a heterogeneous group of conditions, with mutations in B3GALNT2 described in association with congenital muscular dystrophy. The serial prenatal MRI findings in this disorder have not been well described. We present sequential prenatal and postnatal MRI findings in a boy with compound heterozygous mutations in B3GALNT2, as well as the MRI findings of his two siblings with similar mutations. These findings provide new insight into the molecular pathogenesis and neurodevelopment of congenital muscular dystrophy. (orig.)

  18. Quantum-chemical ab initio and B3LYP investigation of tricyanides and triisocyanides of Al, Ga, In

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timoshkin, A.Yu.; Shefer, G.F.

    2000-01-01

    Ab initio and density functional B3LYP methods are used to obtain structural parameters, standard entropies and vibrational spectra of cyanides and isocyanides of trivalent Al, Ga, In for the first time. It is pointed out that for In cyanide form is more stable. There is divergence in data obtained in the framework of self-consistent field and by B3LYP methods what indicates importance of estimation of energy of electronic correlation and in the same time comparison of basic sets DZP and LANL2DZP demonstrates insufficiency of basic sets with effective potentials of skeleton for description molecular tricyanides of elements of the 3a group [ru

  19. [6-chloro-3-pyridylmethyl-3H]neonicotinoids as high-affinity radioligands for the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor: preparation using NaB3H4 and LiB3H4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latli, Bachir; Casida, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    NaB 3 H 4 and LiB 3 H 4 at 78% and 97% isotopic enrichments, respectively, were used in the synthesis of 3 H-labeled 1-(6-chloro-3-pyridyl)-methyl-2-nitromethyleneimidazolidine (CH-IMI) and N'-[(6-chloro-3-pyridyl)methyl]-n''-cyano-n'-methylacetamidine (acetamiprid) (two very potent insecticides) and of 1-(6-chloro-3-pyridyl)methyl-2-iminoimidazolidine (desnitro-IMI) (a metabolite of the commercial insecticides imidacloprid). 6-Chloronicotinoyl chloride was treated with either NaB 3 H 4 in methanol or LiB 3 H 4 in tetrahydrofuran and the resulting alcohol transformed to 2-chloro-5-chloromethylpyridine, which was then coupled to N-cyano-N'-methylacetamidine to give [ 3 H] acetamiprid (45 Ci/mmol). 2-Chloro-5-chloro[ 3 H]methylpyridine was also reacted with ethylenediamine and the product was either refluxed in absolute ethanol with 1,1-bis(methylthio)-2-nitro-ethylene to provide [ 3 H]CH-IMI or reacted in toluene with a solution of cyanogen bromide to produce [ 3 H] desnitro-IMI (each 55 Ci/mmol. (author)

  20. Partially ordered algebraic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Fuchs, Laszlo

    2011-01-01

    Originally published in an important series of books on pure and applied mathematics, this monograph by a distinguished mathematician explores a high-level area in algebra. It constitutes the first systematic summary of research concerning partially ordered groups, semigroups, rings, and fields. The self-contained treatment features numerous problems, complete proofs, a detailed bibliography, and indexes. It presumes some knowledge of abstract algebra, providing necessary background and references where appropriate. This inexpensive edition of a hard-to-find systematic survey will fill a gap i

  1. Infinite partial summations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprung, D.W.L.

    1975-01-01

    This paper is a brief review of those aspects of the effective interaction problem that can be grouped under the heading of infinite partial summations of the perturbation series. After a brief mention of the classic examples of infinite summations, the author turns to the effective interaction problem for two extra core particles. Their direct interaction is summed to produce the G matrix, while their indirect interaction through the core is summed in a variety of ways under the heading of core polarization. (orig./WL) [de

  2. On universal partial words

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Herman Z. Q.; Kitaev, Sergey; Mütze, Torsten; Sun, Brian Y.

    2016-01-01

    A universal word for a finite alphabet $A$ and some integer $n\\geq 1$ is a word over $A$ such that every word in $A^n$ appears exactly once as a subword (cyclically or linearly). It is well-known and easy to prove that universal words exist for any $A$ and $n$. In this work we initiate the systematic study of universal partial words. These are words that in addition to the letters from $A$ may contain an arbitrary number of occurrences of a special `joker' symbol $\\Diamond\

  3. Partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Agranovich, M S

    2002-01-01

    Mark Vishik's Partial Differential Equations seminar held at Moscow State University was one of the world's leading seminars in PDEs for over 40 years. This book celebrates Vishik's eightieth birthday. It comprises new results and survey papers written by many renowned specialists who actively participated over the years in Vishik's seminars. Contributions include original developments and methods in PDEs and related fields, such as mathematical physics, tomography, and symplectic geometry. Papers discuss linear and nonlinear equations, particularly linear elliptic problems in angles and gener

  4. Partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Levine, Harold

    1997-01-01

    The subject matter, partial differential equations (PDEs), has a long history (dating from the 18th century) and an active contemporary phase. An early phase (with a separate focus on taut string vibrations and heat flow through solid bodies) stimulated developments of great importance for mathematical analysis, such as a wider concept of functions and integration and the existence of trigonometric or Fourier series representations. The direct relevance of PDEs to all manner of mathematical, physical and technical problems continues. This book presents a reasonably broad introductory account of the subject, with due regard for analytical detail, applications and historical matters.

  5. Partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Sloan, D; Süli, E

    2001-01-01

    /homepage/sac/cam/na2000/index.html7-Volume Set now available at special set price ! Over the second half of the 20th century the subject area loosely referred to as numerical analysis of partial differential equations (PDEs) has undergone unprecedented development. At its practical end, the vigorous growth and steady diversification of the field were stimulated by the demand for accurate and reliable tools for computational modelling in physical sciences and engineering, and by the rapid development of computer hardware and architecture. At the more theoretical end, the analytical insight in

  6. Elliptic partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Qing

    2011-01-01

    Elliptic Partial Differential Equations by Qing Han and FangHua Lin is one of the best textbooks I know. It is the perfect introduction to PDE. In 150 pages or so it covers an amazing amount of wonderful and extraordinary useful material. I have used it as a textbook at both graduate and undergraduate levels which is possible since it only requires very little background material yet it covers an enormous amount of material. In my opinion it is a must read for all interested in analysis and geometry, and for all of my own PhD students it is indeed just that. I cannot say enough good things abo

  7. Generalized Partial Volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darkner, Sune; Sporring, Jon

    2011-01-01

    Mutual Information (MI) and normalized mutual information (NMI) are popular choices as similarity measure for multimodal image registration. Presently, one of two approaches is often used for estimating these measures: The Parzen Window (PW) and the Generalized Partial Volume (GPV). Their theoret...... of view as well as w.r.t. computational complexity. Finally, we present algorithms for both approaches for NMI which is comparable in speed to Sum of Squared Differences (SSD), and we illustrate the differences between PW and GPV on a number of registration examples....

  8. [Analysis on HIV-1 subtypes and transmission clusters in newly reported HIV/AIDS cases in Yiwu, Zhejiang Province, 2016].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J F; Yao, J M; Fan, Q; Chen, W J; Pan, X H; Ding, X B; Yang, J Z; Fu, T

    2017-12-10

    Objective: To understand the characteristics of distribution on HIV-1 subtypes and the transmission clusters in Yiwu in Zhejiang province. Methods: A cross-sectional study of molecular epidemiology was carried out on newly reported HIV/AIDS cases in Yiwu. RNA was extracted from 168 plasma samples, followed by RT-PCR and nest-PCR for pol gene amplification, sequencing, phylogenetic tree construction used for analyzing the subtypes and transmission clusters. Mutations on drug resistance was analyzed by CPR 6.0 online tool. Results: Subjects were mainly males (86.3%, 145/168), with average age as (39.1±13.4) years old and most of them were migrants (66.7%, 112/168). The major routes of transmission included homosexual (51.2%, 86/168) and heterosexual (48.8%, 82/168) contacts. The rate of success for sequence acquisition was 89.9% (151/168). The dominant subtypes showed as CRF01_AE (74, 49.0%) and CRF07_BC (64, 42.4%), followed by CRF08_BC (5, 3.3%), CRF55_01B (3, 2.0%), each case of subtype B, CRF45_cpx, CRF59_01B, CRF85_BC and URF (B/C). CRF45_cpx and CRF85_BC were discovered the first time in Zhejiang province. Twenty-six transmission clusters involving 65 cases were found, with the total clustered rate as 43.0% (65/151), in which the CRF01_AE clustered rate appeared as 54.1% (40/74), higher than that of CRF07_BC (21/64, 32.8%). The average size of cluster was 2.5 cases/cluster, with average size of cluster in CRF01_AE patients infected through heterosexual transmission as the largest (3.5 cases/cluster). The prevalence of transmitted drug resistance was 4.6% (7/151). Seven cases with surveillance drug resistant mutations (SDRM) were found, including 5 cases of M46L (3.3%), and one case of F77L or Y181C. Conclusion: HIV genetic diversity and a variety of transmission clusters had been noticed in this study area (Yiwu). Programs on monitoring the subtypes and transmission clusters should be continued and strengthened.

  9. Unilateral removable partial dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodall, W A; Greer, A C; Martin, N

    2017-01-27

    Removable partial dentures (RPDs) are widely used to replace missing teeth in order to restore both function and aesthetics for the partially dentate patient. Conventional RPD design is frequently bilateral and consists of a major connector that bridges both sides of the arch. Some patients cannot and will not tolerate such an extensive appliance. For these patients, bridgework may not be a predictable option and it is not always possible to provide implant-retained restorations. This article presents unilateral RPDs as a potential treatment modality for such patients and explores indications and contraindications for their use, including factors relating to patient history, clinical presentation and patient wishes. Through case examples, design, material and fabrication considerations will be discussed. While their use is not widespread, there are a number of patients who benefit from the provision of unilateral RPDs. They are a useful treatment to have in the clinician's armamentarium, but a highly-skilled dental team and a specific patient presentation is required in order for them to be a reasonable and predictable prosthetic option.

  10. The spectrum of aphasia subtypes and etiology in subacute stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Michael; Chen, Ren

    2013-11-01

    Aphasia is one of the most common stroke syndrome presentations, yet little is known about the spectrum of different subtypes or their stroke mechanisms. Yet, subtypes and etiology are known to influence the prognosis and recovery. Our aim is to analyze aphasia subtypes and etiology in a large subacute stroke population. Consecutive patients from a dedicated cognitive stroke registry were accrued. A validated cognitive screening examination was administered during the first month of stroke presentation, which enabled a diagnosis of 14 different aphasic subtypes. The evolution from one subtype to another in the acute and subacute period, at times, resulted in more than 1 subtype being diagnosed. Etiology of stroke was determined by the modified Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment criteria that included intracerebral hemorrhage. Exclusions included dementia, chronic medical illness, substance abuse, and severe depression. Of 2389 stroke patients, after exclusions (n=593), aphasias numbered 625 (625 of 1796; 34.8%), and the subtype frequencies included Broca aphasia (n=170; 27.2%), anomic aphasia (n=165; 26.4%), global aphasia (n=119; 19.04%), and subcortical aphasia (n=57; 9.12%). Less frequent subtypes (total n=40; 6.7%) included transcortical aphasia (n=11), Wernicke aphasia (n=10), conduction aphasia (n=7), aphemia (n=3), semantic aphasia (n=3), crossed aphasia (n=3), pure word deafness (n=2), and foreign accent syndrome (n=1). Aphasia subtypes and etiologies had some significant associations (chi-square: 855.8, P valueaphasia had a significant association with small-vessel disease (SVD) (odds ratio [OR]=2.0254, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3820-2.9681), and global aphasia patients mostly had cardioembolic (CE) causes (OR=2.3589, 95% CI: 1.5506-3.5885) and less likely SVD (OR=.2583, 95% CI: .1444-.4654). Other notable inferences were included. Wernicke aphasia was caused by either CE (6 of 12; 50%) or hemorrhage (4 of 12; 33.3%) in a combined 83% of

  11. Parkinson's disease severity and motor subtype influence physical capacity components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Pinto Pereira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The severity of Parkinson's disease (PD and PD's motor subtypes influence the components of physical capacity. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of both PD severity and motor subtype in the performance of these components. Thirty-six PD patients were assigned into four groups: Tremor (TD initial and TD mild, akinetic-rigid (AR initial, and AR mild. Patients' strength, balance, coordination, mobility and aerobic capacity were evaluated and groups were compared using a two-way ANOVA (severity and subtype as factors. AR presents a poorer performance than TD in almost all tests. Also this performance was worsened with the advance of the disease in AR, contrary to TD. We conclude that AR and TD subgroups are different about their performance on physical capacity components, moreover, this performance worsens with the advance of the disease of the AR group, but not for TD.

  12. HLA-B27 subtypes among the Chukotka native groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krylov, M.Y.; Alexeeva, L.I.; Erdesz, S.; Benevolenskaya, L.I.; Reveille, J.D.; Arnett, F.C.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the relative frequency of the known HLA-B27 subtypes in HLA-B27 positive Chukotka natives, which have higher frequencies of HLA-B27 (to 40%) and spondylarthropathies (to 2%) than the Russian Caucasian population. Using oligotyping of the polymerase-chain reaction amplified second and third exons of the HLA-B27 gene in 86 DNA samples from HLA-B27 positive individuals were successfully typed. All had HLA-B*2705, including 4 patients with Reiter's syndrome and 5 with ankylosing spondyloarthritis, except one Eskimo who had HLA-B*2702. None had HLA-B*2704, a frequent subtype in Orientals. With respect to HLA-B27 subtypes the indigenous populations from the eastern part of the Chukotka Peninsula are genetically more closely related to Caucasians than to Orientals. (author). 18 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs

  13. Fixation Characteristics of Severe Amblyopia Subtypes: Which One is Worse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koylu, Mehmet Talay; Ozge, Gokhan; Kucukevcilioglu, Murat; Mutlu, Fatih Mehmet; Ceylan, Osman Melih; Akıncıoglu, Dorukcan; Ayyıldız, Onder

    2017-01-01

    To determine differences in macular sensitivity and fixation patterns in different subtypes of severe amblyopia. This case-control study enrolled a total of 73 male adults, including 18 with pure strabismic severe amblyopia, 19 with pure anisometropic severe amblyopia, 18 with mixed (strabismic plus anizometropic) severe amblyopia, and 18 healthy controls. MP-1 microperimetry was used to evaluate macular sensitivity, location of fixation, and stability of fixation. Mean macular sensitivity, stability of fixation, and location of fixation were significantly worse in all amblyopia subtypes when compared with healthy controls. Intergroup comparisons between amblyopia subtypes revealed that mean macular sensitivity, stability of fixation, and location of fixation were significantly worse in pure strabismic and mixed amblyopic eyes when compared with pure anisometropic amblyopic eyes. Strabismus seems to be a worse prognostic factor in severe amblyopia than anisometropia in terms of fixation characteristics and retinal sensitivity.

  14. HLA-B27 subtypes among the Chukotka native groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krylov, M.Y.; Alexeeva, L.I.; Erdesz, S.; Benevolenskaya, L.I. [Akademiya Meditsinskikh Nauk SSSR, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. Revmatizma; Reveille, J.D.; Arnett, F.C. [Texas Univ., Houston, TX (United States). Health Science Center

    1995-12-31

    The purpose of this study was to assess the relative frequency of the known HLA-B27 subtypes in HLA-B27 positive Chukotka natives, which have higher frequencies of HLA-B27 (to 40%) and spondylarthropathies (to 2%) than the Russian Caucasian population. Using oligotyping of the polymerase-chain reaction amplified second and third exons of the HLA-B27 gene in 86 DNA samples from HLA-B27 positive individuals were successfully typed. All had HLA-B*2705, including 4 patients with Reiter`s syndrome and 5 with ankylosing spondyloarthritis, except one Eskimo who had HLA-B*2702. None had HLA-B*2704, a frequent subtype in Orientals. With respect to HLA-B27 subtypes the indigenous populations from the eastern part of the Chukotka Peninsula are genetically more closely related to Caucasians than to Orientals. (author). 18 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  15. 7 CFR Exhibit B-3 to Subpart B of... - Letter for Notifying Applicants, Lender, Holders and Borrowers of Adverse Decisions Where the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Farmer Program Primary Loan Servicing Actions) B Exhibit B-3 to Subpart B of Part 1900 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE... GENERAL Adverse Decisions and Administrative Appeals Pt. 1900, Subpt. B, Exh. B-3 Exhibit B-3 to Subpart B...

  16. Nikkaji Dictionary: フモニシンB3 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term フモニシンB3 名詞 一般 * * * * フモニシン...B3 ... Nikkaji J484.489K 200906017113973109 C CA06 UNKNOWN_2 フモニシン B 3

  17. Therapeutic response to benzodiazepine in panic disorder subtypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Martins Valença

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: This study makes a comparison between two subtypes of panic disorder regarding the clinical efficacy of clonazepam, a benzodiazepine. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the clinical efficacy of clonazepam in a fixed dosage (2 mg/day, compared to placebo, in the treatment of panic disorder patients and to verify whether there are any differences in the responses to clonazepam between panic disorder patients with the respiratory and non-respiratory subtypes. TYPE OF STUDY: Randomized study with clonazepam and placebo. SETTING: Outpatient Anxiety and Depression Unit of the Institute of Psychiatry, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. PARTICIPANTS: 34 patients with a diagnosis of panic disorder with agoraphobia, between 18 and 55 years old. PROCEDURES: Administration of clonazepam or placebo for 6 weeks, in panic disorder patients, after they were classified within two subtypes of panic disorder: respiratory and non-respiratory. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Changes in the number of panic attacks in comparison with the period before the beginning of the study; Hamilton Anxiety Scale; Global Clinical Impression Scale; and Patient's Global Impression scale. RESULTS: In the group that received clonazepam, by the end of the 6th week there was a statistically significant clinical improvement, shown by the remission of panic attacks (p < 0.001 and decrease in anxiety (p = 0.024. In the group that received clonazepam there was no significant difference between the respiratory and non-respiratory subtypes of panic disorder, regarding the therapeutic response to clonazepam. CONCLUSION: Clonazepam was equally effective in the treatment of the respiratory and non-respiratory subtypes of panic disorder, suggesting there is no difference in the therapeutic response between the two subtypes.

  18. Competing endogenous RNA network analysis identifies critical genes among the different breast cancer subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juan; Xu, Juan; Li, Yongsheng; Zhang, Jinwen; Chen, Hong; Lu, Jianping; Wang, Zishan; Zhao, Xueying; Xu, Kang; Li, Yixue; Li, Xia; Zhang, Yan

    2017-02-07

    Although competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) have been implicated in many solid tumors, their roles in breast cancer subtypes are not well understood. We therefore generated a ceRNA network for each subtype based on the significance of both, positive co-expression and the shared miRNAs, in the corresponding subtype miRNA dys-regulatory network, which was constructed based on negative regulations between differentially expressed miRNAs and targets. All four subtype ceRNA networks exhibited scale-free architecture and showed that the common ceRNAs were at the core of the networks. Furthermore, the common ceRNA hubs had greater connectivity than the subtype-specific hubs. Functional analysis of the common subtype ceRNA hubs highlighted factors involved in proliferation, MAPK signaling pathways and tube morphogenesis. Subtype-specific ceRNA hubs highlighted unique subtype-specific pathways, like the estrogen response and inflammatory pathways in the luminal subtypes or the factors involved in the coagulation process that participates in the basal-like subtype. Ultimately, we identified 29 critical subtype-specific ceRNA hubs that characterized the different breast cancer subtypes. Our study thus provides new insight into the common and specific subtype ceRNA interactions that define the different categories of breast cancer and enhances our understanding of the pathology underlying the different breast cancer subtypes, which can have prognostic and therapeutic implications in the future.

  19. Identification of Multiple Subtypes of Campylobacter jejuni in Chicken Meat and the Impact on Source Attribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Hudson

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Most source attribution studies for Campylobacter use subtyping data based on single isolates from foods and environmental sources in an attempt to draw epidemiological inferences. It has been suggested that subtyping only one Campylobacter isolate per chicken carcass incurs a risk of failing to recognise the presence of clinically relevant, but numerically infrequent, subtypes. To investigate this, between 21 and 25 Campylobacter jejuni isolates from each of ten retail chicken carcasses were subtyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE using the two restriction enzymes SmaI and KpnI. Among the 227 isolates, thirteen subtypes were identified, the most frequently occurring subtype being isolated from three carcasses. Six carcasses carried a single subtype, three carcasses carried two subtypes each and one carcass carried three subtypes. Some subtypes carried by an individual carcass were shown to be potentially clonally related. Comparison of C. jejuni subtypes from chickens with isolate subtypes from human clinical cases (n = 1248 revealed seven of the thirteen chicken subtypes were indistinguishable from human cases. None of the numerically minor chicken subtypes were identified in the human data. Therefore, typing only one Campylobacter isolate from individual chicken carcasses may be adequate to inform Campylobacter source attribution.

  20. 26 CFR 1.367(b)-3T - Repatriation of foreign corporate assets in certain nonrecognition transactions (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... assets; third, intangible assets that are amortizable; and finally, the remaining assets of the foreign... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Repatriation of foreign corporate assets in... Corporation § 1.367(b)-3T Repatriation of foreign corporate assets in certain nonrecognition transactions...

  1. Structure and physical properties of Cr_5B_3-type Ta_5Si_3 and Ta_5Ge_3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Fang; Forbes, Scott; Ramachandran, Krishna Kumar; Mozharivskyj, Yurij

    2015-01-01

    The Cr_5B_3-type Ta_5Si_3 phase was prepared by arc-melting, while the Cr_5B_3-type Ta_5Ge_3 one was synthesized through sintering at 1000 °C. X-ray single crystal diffraction was employed to elucidate their structure. According to the magnetization measurements, both Ta_5Si_3 and Ta_5Ge_3 are Pauli paramagnets, with Ta_5Ge_3 showing a Curie-Weiss-like paramagnetic behavior at low temperatures likely due to presence of paramagnetic impurity. Both Ta_5Si_3 and Ta_5Ge_3 display a very low electrical resistivity from 2 to 300 K. The resistivity is constant below 20 K, but displays a positive temperature coefficient above 20 K. Electronic structure calculations with the TB-LMTO-ASA method support the metallic character of the two phases and suggest that the bonding is optimized in both phases. - Highlights: • Synthesis of Cr_5B_3-type Ta_5Si_3 and Ta_5Ge_3 phases with high purity by arc-melting and sintering, respectively. • Magnetization data and electrical resistivity of the Cr_5B_3-type Ta_5Si_3 and Ta_5Ge_3 phases. • Crystal and electronic structure analysis for Ta_5Si_3 and Ta_5Ge_3 phase by X-ray diffraction and TB-LMTO-ASA calculations.

  2. 26 CFR 1.852-9 - Special procedural requirements applicable to designation under section 852(b)(3)(D).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... notice by the Internal Revenue Service that the regulated investment company has failed to comply with... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special procedural requirements applicable to designation under section 852(b)(3)(D). 1.852-9 Section 1.852-9 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE...

  3. Impact of calcium ion on cytotoxic effect of the boroxine derivative, K2[B3O3F4OH].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivankovic, Sinisa; Stojkovic, Ranko; Maksimovic, Milka; Galic, Borivoj; Milos, Mladen

    2016-01-01

    The effect of Ca 2+ ions on the cytotoxic ability of boron heterocyclic compound dipotassium-trioxohydroxytetrafluorotriborate (K 2 [B 3 O 3 F 4 OH]), on in vitro tumor cells (mammary adenocarcinoma 4T1, melanoma B16F10 and squamous cell carcinoma SCCVII) and non-tumoral fibroblast cells (mouse dermal L929 and hamster lung V79) was examined. At small concentrations of Ca 2+ ions (0.42 mM), K 2 [B 3 O 3 F 4 OH] (3.85 mM) has a very strong cytotoxic effect on all cancer cells tested (89.1, 85.6 and 84.6%) and significantly less effect on normal cells (19.5 and 24.2%), respectively. Applying larger concentrations of Ca 2+ ions (9.42-72.42 mM), at the same concentration of K 2 [B 3 O 3 F 4 OH], no significant cytotoxic effect was detected on cancer cells and normal cells investigated. The selective ability of K 2 [B 3 O 3 F 4 OH], in the medium with a low concentration of Ca 2+ ions has a strong cytotoxic effect on cancer cells and very weak effect in normal cells, opens up the possibility of its application in antitumor therapy.

  4. Scintillation characteristics of LiB3O5 and β-BaB2O4 single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarenko, B.P.; Pedash, V.Yu.; Shekhovtsov, A.N.; Tarasov, V.A.; Zelenskaya, O.V.

    2006-01-01

    LiB 3 O 5 and β-BaB 2 O 4 single crystals have been grown by the top seeded solution growth technique. The optical characteristics and scintillation parameters of the grown single crystals have been tested and discussed

  5. Tutorial on Online Partial Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William R. Cook

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a short tutorial introduction to online partial evaluation. We show how to write a simple online partial evaluator for a simple, pure, first-order, functional programming language. In particular, we show that the partial evaluator can be derived as a variation on a compositionally defined interpreter. We demonstrate the use of the resulting partial evaluator for program optimization in the context of model-driven development.

  6. Value of subtyping in studies of irradiation and human leukaemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darby, S C

    1985-01-01

    The two largest studies of the effects of irradiation on humans in postnatal life are described. These are 1) the Ankylosing Spondylitis Study(ASS) carried out on patients given X-ray therapy as treatment for spondylitis in the UK and 2) the Life Span Study(LSS) carried out on the survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. From these studies, a limited degree of subtyping of leukemias is indicated. Chronic lymphatic leukemia is much less readily induced by radiation than the other major subtypes. The inducibility of acute myeloid leukemia increases with age at exposure.

  7. Parent stress across molecular subtypes of children with Angelman syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miodrag, N; Peters, S

    2015-09-01

    Parenting stress has been consistently reported among parents of children with developmental disabilities. However, to date, no studies have investigated the impact of a molecular subtype of Angelman syndrome (AS) on parent stress, despite distinct phenotypic differences among subtypes. Data for 124 families of children with three subtypes of AS: class I and II deletions (n = 99), imprinting centre defects (IC defects; n = 11) and paternal uniparental disomy (UPD; n = 14) were drawn from the AS Rare Diseases Clinical Research Network (RDCRN) database and collected from five research sites across the Unites States. The AS study at the RDCRN gathered health information to understand how the syndrome develops and how to treat it. Parents completed questionnaires on their perceived psychological stress, the severity of children's aberrant behaviour and children's sleep patterns. Children's adaptive functioning and developmental levels were clinically evaluated. Child-related stress reached clinical levels for 40% of parents of children with deletions, 100% for IC defects and 64.3% for UPD. Sleep difficulties were similar and elevated across subtypes. There were no differences between molecular subtypes for overall child and parent-related stress. However, results showed greater isolation and lack of perceived parenting skills for parents of children with UPD compared with deletions. Better overall cognition for children with deletions was significantly related to more child-related stress while their poorer adaptive functioning was associated with more child-related stress. For all three groups, the severity of children's inappropriate behaviour was positively related to different aspects of stress. How parents react to stress depends, in part, on children's AS molecular subtype. Despite falling under the larger umbrella term of AS, it is important to acknowledge the unique aspects associated with children's molecular subtype. Identifying these factors can

  8. The whole-genome landscape of medulloblastoma subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Northcott, Paul A.; Buchhalter, Ivo; Morrissy, A. Sorana

    2017-01-01

    actionable targets. Driver mutations were confidently assigned to most patients belonging to Group 3 and Group 4 medulloblastoma subgroups, greatly enhancing previous knowledge. New molecular subtypes were differentially enriched for specific driver events, including hotspot in-frame insertions that target...... KBTBD4 and 'enhancer hijacking' events that activate PRDM6. Thus, the application of integrative genomics to an extensive cohort of clinical samples derived from a single childhood cancer entity revealed a series of cancer genes and biologically relevant subtype diversity that represent attractive...

  9. Type-Directed Partial Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier

    1998-01-01

    Type-directed partial evaluation uses a normalization function to achieve partial evaluation. These lecture notes review its background, foundations, practice, and applications. Of specific interest is the modular technique of offline and online type-directed partial evaluation in Standard ML...

  10. Type-Directed Partial Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier

    1998-01-01

    Type-directed partial evaluation uses a normalization function to achieve partial evaluation. These lecture notes review its background, foundations, practice, and applications. Of specific interest is the modular technique of offline and online type-directed partial evaluation in Standard ML of ...

  11. Optical fiber sensor based on surface plasmon resonance for rapid detection of avian influenza virus subtype H6: Initial studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xihong; Tsao, Yu-Chia; Lee, Fu-Jung; Tsai, Woo-Hu; Wang, Ching-Ho; Chuang, Tsung-Liang; Wu, Mu-Shiang; Lin, Chii-Wann

    2016-07-01

    A side-polished fiber optic surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor was fabricated to expose the core surface and then deposited with a 40 nm thin gold film for the near surface sensing of effective refractive index changes with surface concentration or thickness of captured avian influenza virus subtype H6. The detection surface of the SPR optical fiber sensor was prepared through the plasma modification method for binding a self-assembled monolayer of isopropanol chemically on the gold surface of the optical fiber. Subsequently, N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N'-ethylcarbodiimide/N-hydroxysuccinimide was activated to enable EB2-B3 monoclonal antibodies to capture A/chicken/Taiwan/2838V/00 (H6N1) through a flow injection system. The detection limit of the fabricated optical fiber sensor for A/chicken/Taiwan/2838V/00 was 5.14 × 10(5) EID50/0.1 mL, and the response time was 10 min on average. Moreover, the fiber optic sensor has the advantages of a compact size and low cost, thus rendering it suitable for online and remote sensing. The results indicated that the optical fiber sensor can be used for epidemiological surveillance and diagnosing of avian influenza subtype H6 rapidly. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Semantics-Based Compiling: A Case Study in Type-Directed Partial Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Vestergaard, René

    1996-01-01

    , block-structured, higher-order, call-by-value, allows subtyping, and obeys stack discipline. It is bigger than what is usually reported in the literature on semantics-based compiling and partial evaluation. Our compiling technique uses the first Futamura projection, i.e., we compile programs......-directed compilation, in the spirit of Scott and Strachey. Our conclusion is that lambda-calculus normalization suffices for compiling by specializing an interpreter....

  13. Semantics-based compiling: A case study in type-directed partial evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Vestergaard, René

    1996-01-01

    , block-structured, higher-order, call-by-value, allows subtyping, and obeys stack discipline. It is bigger than what is usually reported in the literature on semantics-based compiling and partial evaluation. Our compiling technique uses the first Futamura projection, i.e., we compile programs......-directed compilation, in the spirit of Scott and Strachey. Our conclusion is that lambda-calculus normalization suffices for compiling by specializing an interpreter....

  14. Assessing the Differences in Public Health Impact of Salmonella Subtypes Using a Bayesian Microbial Subtyping Approach for Source Attribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pires, Sara Monteiro; Hald, Tine

    2010-01-01

    Salmonella is a major cause of human gastroenteritis worldwide. To prioritize interventions and assess the effectiveness of efforts to reduce illness, it is important to attribute salmonellosis to the responsible sources. Studies have suggested that some Salmonella subtypes have a higher health...... impact than others. Likewise, some food sources appear to have a higher impact than others. Knowledge of variability in the impact of subtypes and sources may provide valuable added information for research, risk management, and public health strategies. We developed a Bayesian model that attributes...... illness to specific sources and allows for a better estimation of the differences in the ability of Salmonella subtypes and food types to result in reported salmonellosis. The model accommodates data for multiple years and is based on the Danish Salmonella surveillance. The number of sporadic cases caused...

  15. Applied partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Logan, J David

    2004-01-01

    This primer on elementary partial differential equations presents the standard material usually covered in a one-semester, undergraduate course on boundary value problems and PDEs. What makes this book unique is that it is a brief treatment, yet it covers all the major ideas: the wave equation, the diffusion equation, the Laplace equation, and the advection equation on bounded and unbounded domains. Methods include eigenfunction expansions, integral transforms, and characteristics. Mathematical ideas are motivated from physical problems, and the exposition is presented in a concise style accessible to science and engineering students; emphasis is on motivation, concepts, methods, and interpretation, rather than formal theory. This second edition contains new and additional exercises, and it includes a new chapter on the applications of PDEs to biology: age structured models, pattern formation; epidemic wave fronts, and advection-diffusion processes. The student who reads through this book and solves many of t...

  16. Inductance loop and partial

    CERN Document Server

    Paul, Clayton R

    2010-01-01

    "Inductance is an unprecedented text, thoroughly discussing "loop" inductance as well as the increasingly important "partial" inductance. These concepts and their proper calculation are crucial in designing modern high-speed digital systems. World-renowned leader in electromagnetics Clayton Paul provides the knowledge and tools necessary to understand and calculate inductance." "With the present and increasing emphasis on high-speed digital systems and high-frequency analog systems, it is imperative that system designers develop an intimate understanding of the concepts and methods in this book. Inductance is a much-needed textbook designed for senior and graduate-level engineering students, as well as a hands-on guide for working engineers and professionals engaged in the design of high-speed digital and high-frequency analog systems."--Jacket.

  17. Fundamental partial compositeness

    CERN Document Server

    Sannino, Francesco

    2016-11-07

    We construct renormalizable Standard Model extensions, valid up to the Planck scale, that give a composite Higgs from a new fundamental strong force acting on fermions and scalars. Yukawa interactions of these particles with Standard Model fermions realize the partial compositeness scenario. Successful models exist because gauge quantum numbers of Standard Model fermions admit a minimal enough 'square root'. Furthermore, right-handed SM fermions have an SU(2)$_R$-like structure, yielding a custodially-protected composite Higgs. Baryon and lepton numbers arise accidentally. Standard Model fermions acquire mass at tree level, while the Higgs potential and flavor violations are generated by quantum corrections. We further discuss accidental symmetries and other dynamical features stemming from the new strongly interacting scalars. If the same phenomenology can be obtained from models without our elementary scalars, they would reappear as composite states.

  18. Fundamental partial compositeness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sannino, Francesco; Strumia, Alessandro; Tesi, Andrea; Vigiani, Elena

    2016-01-01

    We construct renormalizable Standard Model extensions, valid up to the Planck scale, that give a composite Higgs from a new fundamental strong force acting on fermions and scalars. Yukawa interactions of these particles with Standard Model fermions realize the partial compositeness scenario. Under certain assumptions on the dynamics of the scalars, successful models exist because gauge quantum numbers of Standard Model fermions admit a minimal enough ‘square root’. Furthermore, right-handed SM fermions have an SU(2)_R-like structure, yielding a custodially-protected composite Higgs. Baryon and lepton numbers arise accidentally. Standard Model fermions acquire mass at tree level, while the Higgs potential and flavor violations are generated by quantum corrections. We further discuss accidental symmetries and other dynamical features stemming from the new strongly interacting scalars. If the same phenomenology can be obtained from models without our elementary scalars, they would reappear as composite states.

  19. Partial oxidation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najjar, M.S.

    1987-01-01

    A process is described for the production of gaseous mixtures comprising H/sub 2/+CO by the partial oxidation of a fuel feedstock comprising a heavy liquid hydrocarbonaceous fuel having a nickel, iron, and vanadium-containing ash or petroleum coke having a nickel, iron, and vanadium-containing ash, or mixtures thereof. The feedstock includes a minimum of 0.5 wt. % of sulfur and the ash includes a minimum of 5.0 wt. % vanadium, a minimum of 0.5 ppm nickel, and a minimum of 0.5 ppm iron. The process comprises: (1) mixing together a copper-containing additive with the fuel feedstock; wherein the weight ratio of copper-containing additive to ash in the fuel feedstock is in the range of about 1.0-10.0, and there is at least 10 parts by weight of copper for each part by weight of vanadium; (2) reacting the mixture from (1) at a temperature in the range of 2200 0 F to 2900 0 F and a pressure in the range of about 5 to 250 atmospheres in a free-flow refactory lined partial oxidation reaction zone with a free-oxygen containing gas in the presence of a temperature moderator and in a reducing atmosphere to produce a hot raw effluent gas stream comprising H/sub 2/+CO and entrained molten slag; and where in the reaction zone and the copper-containing additive combines with at least a portion of the nickel and iron constituents and sulfur found in the feedstock to produce a liquid phase washing agent that collects and transports at least a portion of the vanadium-containing oxide laths and spinels and other ash components and refractory out of the reaction zone; and (3) separating nongaseous materials from the hot raw effluent gas stream

  20. Bulimia nervosa-nonpurging subtype: closer to the bulimia nervosa-purging subtype or to binge eating disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Jennifer; McIntosh, Virginia V W; Carter, Janet D; Rowe, Sarah; Taylor, Kathryn; Frampton, Christopher M A; McKenzie, Janice M; Latner, Janet; Joyce, Peter R

    2014-04-01

    DSM-5 has dropped subtyping of bulimia nervosa (BN), opting to continue inclusion of the somewhat contentious diagnosis of BN-nonpurging subtype (BN-NP) within a broad BN category. Some contend however that BN-NP is more like binge eating disorder (BED) than BN-P. This study examines clinical characteristics, eating disorder symptomatology, and Axis I comorbidity in BN-NP, BN-P, and BED groups to establish whether BN-NP more closely resembles BN-P or BED. Women with BN-P (n = 29), BN-NP (n = 29), and BED (n = 54) were assessed at baseline in an outpatient psychotherapy trial for those with binge eating. Measures included the Structured Clinical Interviews for DSM-IV, Eating Disorder Examination, and Eating Disorder Inventory-2. The BN-NP subtype had BMIs between those with BN-P and BED. Both BN subtypes had higher Restraint and Drive for Thinness scores than BED. Body Dissatisfaction was highest in BN-NP and predicted BN-NP compared to BN-P. Higher Restraint and lower BMI predicted BN-NP relative to BED. BN-NP resembled BED with higher lifetime BMIs; and weight-loss clinic than eating disorder clinic attendances relative to the BN-P subtype. Psychiatric comorbidity was comparable except for higher lifetime cannabis use disorder in the BN-NP than BN-P subtype These results suggest that BN-NP sits between BN-P and BED however the high distress driving inappropriate compensatory behaviors in BN-P requires specialist eating disorder treatment. These results support retaining the BN-NP group within the BN category. Further research is needed to determine whether there are meaningful differences in outcome over follow-up. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. HIV-1 subtypes B and C unique recombinant forms (URFs and transmitted drug resistance identified in the Western Cape Province, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme Brendon Jacobs

    Full Text Available South Africa has the largest worldwide HIV/AIDS population with 5.6 million people infected and at least 2 million people on antiretroviral therapy. The majority of these infections are caused by HIV-1 subtype C. Using genotyping methods we characterized HIV-1 subtypes of the gag p24 and pol PR and RT fragments, from a cohort of female participants in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. These participants were recruited as part of a study to assess the combined brain and behavioural effects of HIV and early childhood trauma. The partial HIV-1 gag and pol fragments of 84 participants were amplified by PCR and sequenced. Different online tools and manual phylogenetic analysis were used for HIV-1 subtyping. Online tools included: REGA HIV Subtyping tool version 3; Recombinant Identification Program (RIP; Context-based Modeling for Expeditious Typing (COMET; jumping profile Hidden Markov Models (jpHMM webserver; and subtype classification using evolutionary algorithms (SCUEAL. HIV-1 subtype C predominates within the cohort with a prevalence of 93.8%. We also show, for the first time, the presence of circulating BC strains in at least 4.6% of our study cohort. In addition, we detected transmitted resistance associated mutations in 4.6% of analysed sequences. With tourism and migration rates to South Africa currently very high, we are detecting more and more HIV-1 URFs within our study populations. It is still unclear what role these unique strains will play in terms of long term antiretroviral treatment and what challenges they will pose to vaccine development. Nevertheless, it remains vitally important to monitor the HIV-1 diversity in South Africa and worldwide as the face of the epidemic is continually changing.

  2. Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL overexpression inhibits cytochrome c release, activation of multiple caspases, and virus release following coxsackievirus B3 infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carthy, Christopher M.; Yanagawa, Bobby; Luo Honglin; Granville, David J.; Yang, Decheng; Cheung, Paul; Cheung, Caroline; Esfandiarei, Mitra; Rudin, Charles M.; Thompson, Craig B.; Hunt, David W.C.; McManus, Bruce M.

    2003-01-01

    Coxsackievirus B3, a cytopathic virus in the family Picornaviridae, induces degenerative changes in host cell morphology. Here we demonstrate cytochrome c release and caspases-2, -3, -6, -7, -8, and -9 processing. Enforced Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL expression markedly reduced release of cytochrome c, presentation of the mitochondrial epitope 7A6, and depressed caspase activation following infection. In comparison, cell death using TRAIL ligand caused caspase-8 processing prior to cytochrome c release and executioner caspases and cell death was only partially rescued by Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL overexpression. Disruption of the mitochondrial inner membrane potential following CVB3 infection was not inhibited by zVAD.fmk treatment. Bcl-2 or Bcl-xL overexpression or zVAD.fmk treatment delayed the loss of host cell viability and decreased progeny virus release following infection. Our data suggest that mitochondrial release of cytochrome c may be an important early event in caspase activation in CVB3 infection, and, as such, may contribute to the loss of host-cell viability and progeny virus release

  3. Brain neurodevelopmental markers related to the deficit subtype of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Tsutomu; Takayanagi, Yoichiro; Nishikawa, Yumiko; Nakamura, Mihoko; Komori, Yuko; Furuichi, Atsushi; Kido, Mikio; Sasabayashi, Daiki; Noguchi, Kyo; Suzuki, Michio

    2017-08-30

    Deficit schizophrenia is a homogeneous subtype characterized by a trait-like feature of primary and prominent negative symptoms, but the etiologic factors related to this specific subtype remain largely unknown. This magnetic resonance imaging study aimed to examine gross brain morphology that probably reflects early neurodevelopment in 38 patients with deficit schizophrenia, 37 patients with non-deficit schizophrenia, and 59 healthy controls. Potential brain neurodevelopmental markers investigated in this study were the adhesio interthalamica (AI), cavum septi pellucidi (CSP), and surface morphology (i.e., olfactory sulcus depth, sulcogyral pattern, and number of orbital sulci) of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). The subtype classification of schizophrenia patients was based on the score of Proxy for the Deficit Syndrome. The deficit schizophrenia group had a significantly shorter AI compared with the non-deficit group and controls. The deficit group, but not the non-deficit group, was also characterized by an altered distribution of the OFC sulcogyral pattern, as well as fewer posterior orbital sulcus compared with controls. Other neurodevelopmental markers did not differentiate the deficit and non-deficit subgroups. These results suggest that the deficit subtype of schizophrenia and its clinical manifestation may be at least partly related to prominent neurodevelopmental pathology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Outcomes of treatment for achalasia depend on manometric subtype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rohof, Wout O.; Salvador, Renato; Annese, Vito; Bruley des Varannes, Stanislas; Chaussade, Stanislas; Costantini, Mario; Elizalde, J. Ignasi; Gaudric, Marianne; Smout, Andre J.; Tack, Jan; Busch, Olivier R.; Zaninotto, Giovanni; Boeckxstaens, Guy E.

    2013-01-01

    Patients with achalasia are treated with either pneumatic dilation (PD) or laparoscopic Heller myotomy (LHM), which have comparable rates of success. We evaluated whether manometric subtype was associated with response to treatment in a large population of patients treated with either PD or LHM (the

  5. Social Withdrawal Subtypes during Early Adolescence in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, Julie C.; Raja, Radhi

    2011-01-01

    The overarching goal of this study was to examine the associations between three social withdrawal subtypes (shyness, unsociability, avoidance), peer isolation, peer difficulties (victimization, rejection, exclusion, low acceptance), and loneliness in India during early adolescence. Participants were 194 adolescents in Surat, India (M age=13.35…

  6. Effects of tamsulosin metabolites at alpha-1 adrenoceptor subtypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taguchi, K.; Saitoh, M.; Sato, S.; Asano, M.; Michel, M. C.

    1997-01-01

    We have investigated the affinity and selectivity of tamsulosin and its metabolites, M1, M2, M3, M4 and AM1, at the tissue and the cloned alpha-1 adrenoceptor subtypes in the radioligand binding and the functional studies. In the radioligand binding studies, the compounds competed for [3H]prazosin

  7. Psychosocial and Adaptive Deficits Associated with Learning Disability Subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backenson, Erica M.; Holland, Sara C.; Kubas, Hanna A.; Fitzer, Kim R.; Wilcox, Gabrielle; Carmichael, Jessica A.; Fraccaro, Rebecca L.; Smith, Amanda D.; Macoun, Sarah J.; Harrison, Gina L.; Hale, James B.

    2015-01-01

    Children with specific learning disabilities (SLD) have deficits in the basic psychological processes that interfere with learning and academic achievement, and for some SLD subtypes, these deficits can also lead to emotional and/or behavior problems. This study examined psychosocial functioning in 123 students, aged 6 to 11, who underwent…

  8. The global spread of HIV-1 subtype B epidemic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magiorkinis, Gkikas; Angelis, Konstantinos; Mamais, Ioannis; Katzourakis, Aris; Hatzakis, Angelos; Albert, Jan; Lawyer, Glenn; Hamouda, Osamah; Struck, Daniel; Vercauteren, Jurgen; Wensing, Annemarie; Alexiev, Ivailo; Åsjö, Birgitta; Balotta, Claudia; Gomes, Perpétua; Camacho, Ricardo J.; Coughlan, Suzie; Griskevicius, Algirdas; Grossman, Zehava; Horban, Anders; Kostrikis, Leondios G.; Lepej, Snjezana J.; Liitsola, Kirsi; Linka, Marek; Nielsen, Claus; Otelea, Dan; Paredes, Roger; Poljak, Mario; Puchhammer-Stöckl, Elizabeth; Schmit, Jean Claude; Sönnerborg, Anders; Staneková, Danica; Stanojevic, Maja; Stylianou, Dora C.; Boucher, Charles A B; Nikolopoulos, Georgios; Vasylyeva, Tetyana; Friedman, Samuel R.; van de Vijver, David; Angarano, Gioacchino; Chaix, Marie Laure; de Luca, Andrea; Korn, Klaus; Loveday, Clive; Soriano, Vincent; Yerly, Sabine; Zazzi, Mauricio; Vandamme, Anne Mieke; Paraskevis, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) was discovered in the early 1980s when the virus had already established a pandemic. For at least three decades the epidemic in the Western World has been dominated by subtype B infections, as part of a sub-epidemic that traveled from Africa through Haiti

  9. Cognitive Profiling and Preliminary Subtyping in Chinese Developmental Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Connie Suk-Han; Chan, David Wai-Ock; Lee, Suk-Han; Tsang, Suk-Man; Luan, Vivian Hui

    2004-01-01

    The present study examined the cognitive profile and subtypes of developmental dyslexia in a nonalphabetic script, Chinese. One hundred and forty-seven Chinese primary school children with developmental dyslexia were tested on a number of literacy and cognitive tasks. The results showed that rapid naming deficit and orthographic deficit were the…

  10. Longitudinal Stability of Phonological and Surface Subtypes of Developmental Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Robin L.; Pennington, Bruce F.; Olson, Richard K.; Wadsworth, Sally J.

    2014-01-01

    Limited evidence supports the external validity of the distinction between developmental phonological and surface dyslexia. We previously identified children ages 8 to 13 meeting criteria for these subtypes (Peterson, Pennington, & Olson, 2013) and now report on their reading and related skills approximately 5 years later. Longitudinal…

  11. Brief Report: Further Evidence of Sensory Subtypes in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Alison E.; Dennis, Simon J.; Geraghty, Maureen E.

    2011-01-01

    Distinct sensory processing (SP) subtypes in autism have been reported previously. This study sought to replicate the previous findings in an independent sample of thirty children diagnosed with an Autism Spectrum Disorder. Model-based cluster analysis of parent-reported sensory functioning (measured using the Short Sensory Profile) confirmed the…

  12. Sensory Processing Subtypes in Autism: Association with Adaptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Alison E.; Young, Robyn L.; Baker, Amy E. Z.; Angley, Manya T.

    2010-01-01

    Children with autism are frequently observed to experience difficulties in sensory processing. This study examined specific patterns of sensory processing in 54 children with autistic disorder and their association with adaptive behavior. Model-based cluster analysis revealed three distinct sensory processing subtypes in autism. These subtypes…

  13. Distinct Response Time Distributions in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querne, Laurent; Berquin, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To address the issue of response time (RT) profiles in hyperactive-impulsive (ADHD-HI), inattentive (ADHD-IA), and combined (ADHD-C) subtypes of ADHD. We hypothesized that children with ADHD-HI should respond more rapidly than children without ADHD and children with ADHD-IA and ADHD-C should respond more slowly than children without…

  14. Breast cancer molecular subtype classifier that incorporates MRI features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Elizabeth J; Dashevsky, Brittany Z; Oh, Jung Hun; Veeraraghavan, Harini; Apte, Aditya P; Thakur, Sunitha B; Morris, Elizabeth A; Deasy, Joseph O

    2016-07-01

    To use features extracted from magnetic resonance (MR) images and a machine-learning method to assist in differentiating breast cancer molecular subtypes. This retrospective Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)-compliant study received Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval. We identified 178 breast cancer patients between 2006-2011 with: 1) ERPR + (n = 95, 53.4%), ERPR-/HER2 + (n = 35, 19.6%), or triple negative (TN, n = 48, 27.0%) invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), and 2) preoperative breast MRI at 1.5T or 3.0T. Shape, texture, and histogram-based features were extracted from each tumor contoured on pre- and three postcontrast MR images using in-house software. Clinical and pathologic features were also collected. Machine-learning-based (support vector machines) models were used to identify significant imaging features and to build models that predict IDC subtype. Leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV) was used to avoid model overfitting. Statistical significance was determined using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Each support vector machine fit in the LOOCV process generated a model with varying features. Eleven out of the top 20 ranked features were significantly different between IDC subtypes with P machine-learning-based predictive model using features extracted from MRI that can distinguish IDC subtypes with significant predictive power. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2016;44:122-129. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Molecular Subtypes and Clinical Outcomes of Breast Cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-01-04

    Jan 4, 2010 ... Some early work has started in earnest at both the. AKUH(N) and Kijabe Hospitals to try and stratify our breast cancer patients to those mentioned subtypes to help in both diagnosis and treatment. The limiting fac- tors are small numbers of patients expense to undertake the tests and lack of both internal ...

  16. [Distorted cognition of bodily sensations in subtypes of social anxiety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanai, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Shoko; Iwanaga, Makoto; Seiwa, Hidetoshi

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between subtypes of social anxiety and distorted cognition of bodily sensations. The package of questionnaires including the Social Phobia Scale (SPS) and the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) was administered to 582 undergraduate students. To identify subtypes of social anxiety, cluster analysis was conducted using scores of the SPS and SIAS. Five clusters were identified and labeled as follows: Generalized type characterized by intense anxiety in most social situations, Non-anxious type characterized by low anxiety levels in social situations, Averaged type whose anxiety levels are averaged, Interaction anxiety type who feels anxiety mainly in social interaction situations, and Performance anxiety type who feels anxiety mainly in performance situations. Results of an ANOVA indicated that individuals with interaction type fear the negative evaluation from others regarding their bodily sensations whereas individuals with performance type overestimate the visibility of their bodily sensations to others. Differences in salient aspects of cognitive distortion among social anxiety subtypes may show necessity to select intervention techniques in consideration of subtypes.

  17. A study of symptom profile and clinical subtypes of delirium

    OpenAIRE

    Meagher, David

    2012-01-01

    Delineating delirium phenomenology facilitates detection, understanding neuroanatomical endophenotypes, and patient management. This compendium reflects an integrated research plan executed over a five year period, employing detailed, standardized phenomenological assessments cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Motor activity studies were controlled and included both subjective and objective measures, aimed at identifying a new approach to defining this clinical subtype as a more pure motor...

  18. Central Timing Deficits in Subtypes of Primary Speech Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Beate; Stoel-Gammon, Carol

    2008-01-01

    Childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) is a proposed speech disorder subtype that interferes with motor planning and/or programming, affecting prosody in many cases. Pilot data (Peter & Stoel-Gammon, 2005) were consistent with the notion that deficits in timing accuracy in speech and music-related tasks may be associated with CAS. This study…

  19. Preoperative subtyping of meningiomas by perfusion MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hao [University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen (Netherlands); Shanghai Jiaotong University affiliated First People' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Shanghai (China); Department of Radiology, University of Groningen (Netherlands); Roediger, Lars A.; Oudkerk, Matthijs [University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen (Netherlands); Department of Radiology, University of Groningen (Netherlands); Shen, Tianzhen [Fudan University Huashan Hospital, Department of Radiology, Shanghai (China); Miao, Jingtao [Shanghai Jiaotong University affiliated First People' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Shanghai (China)

    2008-10-15

    This paper aims to evaluate the value of perfusion magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the preoperative subtyping of meningiomas by analyzing the relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) of three benign subtypes and anaplastic meningiomas separately. Thirty-seven meningiomas with peritumoral edema (15 meningothelial, ten fibrous, four angiomatous, and eight anaplastic) underwent perfusion MR imaging by using a gradient echo echo-planar sequence. The maximal rCBV (compared with contralateral normal white matter) in both tumoral parenchyma and peritumoral edema of each tumor was measured. The mean rCBVs of each two histological subtypes were compared using one-way analysis of variance and least significant difference tests. A p value less than 0.05 indicated a statistically significant difference. The mean rCBV of meningothelial, fibrous, angiomatous, and anaplastic meningiomas in tumoral parenchyma were 6.93{+-}3.75, 5.61{+-}4.03, 11.86{+-}1.93, and 5.89{+-}3.85, respectively, and in the peritumoral edema 0.87{+-}0.62, 1.38{+-}1.44, 0.87{+-}0.30, and 3.28{+-}1.39, respectively. The mean rCBV in tumoral parenchyma of angiomatous meningiomas and in the peritumoral edema of anaplastic meningiomas were statistically different (p<0.05) from the other types of meningiomas. Perfusion MR imaging can provide useful functional information on meningiomas and help in the preoperative diagnosis of some subtypes of meningiomas. (orig.)

  20. Detection and subtyping avian metapneumovirus from turkeys in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayahi, Mansour; Momtaz, Hassan; Jafari, Ramezan Ali; Zamani, Pejman

    2017-01-01

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) causes diseases like rhinotracheitis in turkeys, swollen head syndrome in chickens and avian rhinotracheitis in other birds. Causing respiratory problems, aMPV adversely affects production and inflicts immense economic losses and mortalities, especially in turkey flocks. In recent years, several serological and molecular studies have been conducted on this virus, especially in poultry in Asia and Iran. The purpose of the present study was detecting and subtyping aMPV by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) from non-vaccinated, commercial turkey flocks in Iran for the first time. Sixty three meat-type unvaccinated turkey flocks from several provinces of Iran were sampled in major turkey abattoirs. Samples were tested by RT-PCR for detecting and subtyping aMPV. The results showed that 26 samples from three flocks (4.10%) were positive for viral RNA and all of the viruses were found to be subtype B of aMPV. As a result, vaccination especially against subtype B of aMPV should be considered in turkey flocks in Iran to control aMPV infections.

  1. Racial Differences by Ischemic Stroke Subtype: A Comprehensive Diagnostic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Song

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Previous studies have suggested that black populations have more small-vessel and fewer cardioembolic strokes. We sought to analyze racial differences in ischemic stroke subtype employing a comprehensive diagnostic workup with magnetic resonance-imaging-(MRI- based evaluation including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI. Methods. 350 acute ischemic stroke patients admitted to an urban hospital with standardized comprehensive diagnostic evaluations were retrospectively analyzed. Ischemic stroke subtype was determined by three Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST classification systems. Results. We found similar proportions of cardioembolic and lacunar strokes in the black and white cohort. The only subtype category with a significant difference by race was “stroke of other etiology,” more common in whites. Black stroke patients were more likely to have an incomplete evaluation, but this did not reach significance. Conclusions. We found similar proportions by race of cardioembolic and lacunar strokes when employing a full diagnostic evaluation including DWI MRI. The relatively high rate of cardioembolism may have been underappreciated in black stroke patients when employing a CT approach to stroke subtype diagnosis. Further research is required to better understand the racial differences in frequency of “stroke of other etiology” and explore disparities in the extent of diagnostic evaluations.

  2. The global spread of HIV-1 subtype B epidemic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Magiorkinis (Gkikas); K. Angelis (Konstantinos); I. Mamais (Ioannis); Katzourakis, A. (Aris); A. Hatzakis (Angelos); J. Albert (Jan); Lawyer, G. (Glenn); O. Hamouda (Osamah); D. Struck (Daniel); J. Vercauteren (Jurgen); A. Wensing (Amj); I. Alexiev (Ivailo); B. Åsjö (Birgitta); C. Balotta (Claudia); Gomes, P. (Perpétua); R.J. Camacho (Ricardo Jorge); S. Coughlan (Suzie); A. Griskevicius (Algirdas); Z. Grossman (Zehava); Horban, A. (Anders); L.G. Kostrikis (Leondios); Lepej, S.J. (Snjezana J.); K. Liitsola (Kirsi); M. Linka (Marek); C. Nielsen; D. Otelea (Dan); R. Paredes (Roger); M. Poljak (Mario); E. Puchhammer-Stöckl (Elisabeth); J.C. Schmit; A. Sonnerborg (Anders); D. Stanekova (Danica); M. Stanojevic (Maja); Stylianou, D.C. (Dora C.); C.A.B. Boucher (Charles); Nikolopoulos, G. (Georgios); Vasylyeva, T. (Tetyana); Friedman, S.R. (Samuel R.); D.A.M.C. van de Vijver (David); G. Angarano (Guiseppe); M.L. Chaix (Marie Laure); A. de Luca (Andrea); K. Korn (Klaus); Loveday, C. (Clive); V. Soriano (Virtudes); S. Yerly (Sabine); M. Zazzi; A.M. Vandamme (Anne Mieke); D. Paraskevis (Dimitrios)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) was discovered in the early 1980s when the virus had already established a pandemic. For at least three decades the epidemic in the Western World has been dominated by subtype B infections, as part of a sub-epidemic that traveled from Africa

  3. Multiple estrogen receptor subtypes influence ingestive behavior in female rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santollo, Jessica; Daniels, Derek

    2015-12-01

    Postmenopausal women are at an increased risk of obesity and cardiovascular-related diseases. This is attributable, at least in part, to loss of the ovarian hormone estradiol, which inhibits food and fluid intake in humans and laboratory animal models. Although the hypophagic and anti-dipsogenic effects of estradiol have been well documented for decades, the precise mechanisms underlying these effects are not fully understood. An obvious step toward addressing this open question is identifying which estrogen receptor subtypes are involved and what intracellular processes are involved. This question, however, is complicated not only by the variety of estrogen receptor subtypes that exist, but also because many subtypes have multiple locations of action (i.e. in the nucleus or in the plasma membrane). This review will highlight our current understanding of the roles that specific estrogen receptor subtypes play in mediating estradiol's anorexigenic and anti-dipsogenic effects along with highlighting the many open questions that remain. This review will also describe recent work being performed by our laboratory aimed at answering these open questions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Retinal Ganglion Cell Diversity and Subtype Specification from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirstin B. Langer

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs are the projection neurons of the retina and transmit visual information to postsynaptic targets in the brain. While this function is shared among nearly all RGCs, this class of cell is remarkably diverse, comprised of multiple subtypes. Previous efforts have identified numerous RGC subtypes in animal models, but less attention has been paid to human RGCs. Thus, efforts of this study examined the diversity of RGCs differentiated from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs and characterized defined subtypes through the expression of subtype-specific markers. Further investigation of these subtypes was achieved using single-cell transcriptomics, confirming the combinatorial expression of molecular markers associated with these subtypes, and also provided insight into more subtype-specific markers. Thus, the results of this study describe the derivation of RGC subtypes from hPSCs and will support the future exploration of phenotypic and functional diversity within human RGCs. : In this article, Langer and colleagues present extensive characterization of RGC subtypes derived from human pluripotent stem cells, with multiple subtypes identified by subtype-specific molecular markers. Their results present a more detailed analysis of RGC diversity in human cells and yield the use of different markers to identify RGC subtypes. Keywords: iPSC, retina, retinal ganglion cell, RGC subtype, stem cell, ipRGC, alpha RGC, direction selective RGC, RNA-seq

  5. Dough properties and bread-making quality-related characteristics of Yumechikara near-isogenic wheat lines carrying different Glu-B3 alleles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Miwako; Maruyama-Funatsuki, Wakako; Ikeda, Tatsuya M; Nishio, Zenta; Nagasawa, Koichi; Tabiki, Tadashi

    2015-06-01

    We investigated the relationships of three allelic variations in Glu-B3 (ab, g, and h) with dough properties and bread-making quality-related characteristics using near-isogenic lines (NILs) of 'Yumechikara' that commonly carry Glu-A1a, Glu-B1b, Glu-D1d, Glu-A3f, Glu-B3ab and Glu-D3a. Measurement of peak time (PT) in a 2-g mixograph indicated that Glu-B3g was the most effective for a strong dough property, followed by Glu-B3ab, with Glu-B3h being the least effective. The results of measurement of mixing time during bread-making were similar to those for PTs, i.e., the lines carrying Glu-B3g showed the longest mixing time, followed by those of Glu-B3ab, and those of Glu-B3h showed the shortest mixing time. Since two parameters of bread-making quality, loaf volume (LV) and specific loaf volume (SLV), were affected by flour protein contents in all groups of the Glu-B3 genotype, we compared the effects of the three Glu-B3 alleles on those parameters using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) to remove the effect of protein content. The results indicated that the Glu-B3h group showed the largest SLV, followed by the Glu-B3ab group, and the Glu-B3g group showed the smallest SLV. These results suggest that the introduction of Glu-B3h into 'Yumechikara' makes it possible to breed varieties with good bread-making quality-related characteristics.

  6. The subtype of VSD and the angiographic differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, Kyu Ok; Sul, Jun Hee; Lee, Sung Kyu; Cho, Bum Koo; Hong, Sung Nok

    1985-01-01

    VSD is the most common congenital cardiac malformation and the natural history depends not only on the age of patients and the size of defect but the subtype of VSD as well, important factor in clinical management of those patients. In 110 patients, with surgically repaired VSD in Yonsei Medical Center in 1984, the subtype of VSDs evaluated by surgical observation were correlated with LV angiogram findings to verify the incidence of subtype in Korean and the diagnostic accuracy to predict the subtype by angiogram. 1. 110 patients included 64 boys and 46 girls, the age ranged from 3 months to 14 years (average 4.6 years old). 2. Angiographic findings were interpreted as follows; a. Perimembranous defects were profiled in LAO 60 .deg. LV angiogram and located below the aortic valve. In inlet excavation the shunted blood opacified the recess between septal leaflet of tricuspid valve and interventricular septum in early phase, in infundibular excavation opacified the recess between anterior leaflet of TV and anterior free wall of RV and in trabecular excavation the shunted blood traversed anterior portion of TV ring, opacified trabecular portion of RV cavity. b. Subarterial types were profiled in RAO 30 .deg. LV angiogram, just below aortic valve as well as pulmonic valve. Total infundibular defects were profiled in RAO 30 .deg. and LAO 60 .deg. LV angiogram subaortic in location in both views. c. In muscular VSD the profiled angle was varied according to the subtype but the defects were separated from the aortic valve as muscular septum interposed between the aortic valve and the defect. 3. The incidence of subtype of VSDs evaluated by surgical observation were as follows. Subarterial type : 32 cases (29.1%) Total infundibular defect : 5 cases (4.5%) Perimembranous type : 73 cases (66.3%) Infundibular excavation : 32 cases (29.2%) Trabecular excavation : 28 cases (25.5%) Inlet excavation : 10 cases (9.1%) Mixed : 3 cases (2.7%) Muscular type : 1 cases (0.9%) Total 63

  7. An NS5A single optimized method to determine genotype, subtype and resistance profiles of Hepatitis C strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Andre-Garnier

    Full Text Available The objective was to develop a method of HCV genome sequencing that allowed simultaneous genotyping and NS5A inhibitor resistance profiling. In order to validate the use of a unique RT-PCR for genotypes 1-5, 142 plasma samples from patients infected with HCV were analysed. The NS4B-NS5A partial region was successfully amplified and sequenced in all samples. In parallel, partial NS3 sequences were analyzed obtained for genotyping. Phylogenetic analysis showed concordance of genotypes and subtypes with a bootstrap >95% for each type cluster. NS5A resistance mutations were analyzed using the Geno2pheno [hcv] v0.92 tool and compared to the list of known Resistant Associated Substitutions recently published. In conclusion, this tool allows determination of HCV genotypes, subtypes and identification of NS5A resistance mutations. This single method can be used to detect pre-existing resistance mutations in NS5A before treatment and to check the emergence of resistant viruses while undergoing treatment in major HCV genotypes (G1-5 in the EU and the US.

  8. Experts' understanding of partial derivatives using the Partial Derivative Machine

    OpenAIRE

    Roundy, David; Dorko, Allison; Dray, Tevian; Manogue, Corinne A.; Weber, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Partial derivatives are used in a variety of different ways within physics. Most notably, thermodynamics uses partial derivatives in ways that students often find confusing. As part of a collaboration with mathematics faculty, we are at the beginning of a study of the teaching of partial derivatives, a goal of better aligning the teaching of multivariable calculus with the needs of students in STEM disciplines. As a part of this project, we have performed a pilot study of expert understanding...

  9. Clinical neurological characteristics of ischemic stroke subtypes in acute phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Shkrobot

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of the present study was to clarify clinical neurological characteristics and different ischemic stroke subtypes unfavorable course predictors in acute phase. Material and Methods. 482 patients with different ischemic stroke subtypes were observed. Among them there were 125 (25.9 % with cardioembolic infarct (CEI, 119 (24.7 % with large artery atherosclerosis (LAAS infarct, 122 (25.3 % with lacunar stroke (LAC, 116 (24.1 % with stroke of undetermined etiology (UDE. The comparative analysis of clinical picture was performed. The predictors of unfavorable course of acute phase were established. Results. We have found out that severe neurological deficit, high mortality and the worst functional outcome during the first 14 days were observed in patients with CEI and LAAS. The highest frequency of early neurological deterioration (END was detected at LAC (in 22.7 % of patients. There was a relationship between END and presence of transient ischemic attack (TIA in past medical history, the level of systolic blood pressure (SBP at the beginning of the disease and the degree of carotid arteries stenosis on the side of lesion. The patients with LAC had mild neurological deficit and better prognosis compared with other ischemic stroke subtypes. Among the clinical factors that have impact on the CEI, LAAS and UDE acute phase course were: the size of lesion, the level of consciousness on the 1st day, the baseline SBP, patient’s age. At LAAS, the presence of transient ischemic attack (TIA in past medical history and low SBP in the onset of the disease (less than140 mm Hg has an additional prognostic value for an unfavorable functional outcome. The severity of LAC in acute period depended on its localization and size. Localization of LAC in the internal capsule, thalamus and pons were characterized by the highest severity. Conclusions. Clinical neurological features of ischemic stroke depend on its subtype and have some prognostic value

  10. Gene specific actions of thyroid hormone receptor subtypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Z Lin

    Full Text Available There are two homologous thyroid hormone (TH receptors (TRs α and β, which are members of the nuclear hormone receptor (NR family. While TRs regulate different processes in vivo and other highly related NRs regulate distinct gene sets, initial studies of TR action revealed near complete overlaps in their actions at the level of individual genes. Here, we assessed the extent that TRα and TRβ differ in target gene regulation by comparing effects of equal levels of stably expressed exogenous TRs +/- T(3 in two cell backgrounds (HepG2 and HeLa. We find that hundreds of genes respond to T(3 or to unliganded TRs in both cell types, but were not able to detect verifiable examples of completely TR subtype-specific gene regulation. TR actions are, however, far from identical and we detect TR subtype-specific effects on global T(3 response kinetics in HepG2 cells and many examples of TR subtype specificity at the level of individual genes, including effects on magnitude of response to TR +/- T(3, TR regulation patterns and T(3 dose response. Cycloheximide (CHX treatment confirms that at least some differential effects involve verifiable direct TR target genes. TR subtype/gene-specific effects emerge in the context of widespread variation in target gene response and we suggest that gene-selective effects on mechanism of TR action highlight differences in TR subtype function that emerge in the environment of specific genes. We propose that differential TR actions could influence physiologic and pharmacologic responses to THs and selective TR modulators (STRMs.

  11. Molecular subtype classification of urothelial carcinoma in Lynch syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therkildsen, Christina; Eriksson, Pontus; Höglund, Mattias; Jönsson, Mats; Sjödahl, Gottfrid; Nilbert, Mef; Liedberg, Fredrik

    2018-05-23

    Lynch syndrome confers an increased risk for urothelial carcinoma (UC). Molecular subtypes may be relevant to prognosis and therapeutic possibilities, but have to date not been defined in Lynch syndrome-associated urothelial cancer. We aimed to provide a molecular description of Lynch syndrome-associated UC. Thus, Lynch syndrome-associated UC of the upper urinary tract and the urinary bladder were identified in the Danish hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) register and were transcriptionally and immunohistochemically profiled and further related to data from 307 sporadic urothelial carcinomas. Whole genome mRNA expression profiles of 41 tumors and immunohistochemical stainings against FGFR3, KRT5, CCNB1, RB1, and CDKN2A (p16) of 37 tumors from Lynch syndrome patients were generated. Pathological data, microsatellite instability, anatomic location, and overall survival data was analyzed and compared with sporadic bladder cancer. The 41 Lynch syndrome-associated UC developed at a mean age of 61 years with 59% women. mRNA expression profiling and immunostaining classified the majority of the Lynch syndrome-associated UC as Urothelial-like tumors with only 20% being Genomically Unstable, Basal/SCC-like or other subtypes. The subtypes were associated with stage, grade, and microsatellite instability. Comparison to larger data sets revealed that Lynch syndrome-associated UC share molecular similarities with sporadic UC. In conclusion, transcriptomic and immunohistochemical profiling identifies a predominance of the Urothelial-like molecular subtype in Lynch syndrome and reveals that the molecular subtypes of sporadic bladder cancer are relevant also within this hereditary, mismatch-repair defective subset. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. Molecular Oncology (2018) © 2018 The Authors. Published by FEBS Press and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Breast cancer molecular subtype classification using deep features: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhe; Albadawy, Ehab; Saha, Ashirbani; Zhang, Jun; Harowicz, Michael R.; Mazurowski, Maciej A.

    2018-02-01

    Radiogenomics is a field of investigation that attempts to examine the relationship between imaging characteris- tics of cancerous lesions and their genomic composition. This could offer a noninvasive alternative to establishing genomic characteristics of tumors and aid cancer treatment planning. While deep learning has shown its supe- riority in many detection and classification tasks, breast cancer radiogenomic data suffers from a very limited number of training examples, which renders the training of the neural network for this problem directly and with no pretraining a very difficult task. In this study, we investigated an alternative deep learning approach referred to as deep features or off-the-shelf network approach to classify breast cancer molecular subtypes using breast dynamic contrast enhanced MRIs. We used the feature maps of different convolution layers and fully connected layers as features and trained support vector machines using these features for prediction. For the feature maps that have multiple layers, max-pooling was performed along each channel. We focused on distinguishing the Luminal A subtype from other subtypes. To evaluate the models, 10 fold cross-validation was performed and the final AUC was obtained by averaging the performance of all the folds. The highest average AUC obtained was 0.64 (0.95 CI: 0.57-0.71), using the feature maps of the last fully connected layer. This indicates the promise of using this approach to predict the breast cancer molecular subtypes. Since the best performance appears in the last fully connected layer, it also implies that breast cancer molecular subtypes may relate to high level image features

  13. Comparing two basic subtypes in OCD across three large community samples: a pure compulsive versus a mixed obsessive-compulsive subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Stephanie; Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta; Kawohl, Wolfram; Müller, Mario; Rössler, Wulf; Hengartner, Michael P; Castelao, Enrique; Vandeleur, Caroline; Angst, Jules; Preisig, Martin

    2015-12-01

    Due to its heterogeneous phenomenology, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been subtyped. However, these subtypes are not mutually exclusive. This study presents an alternative subtyping approach by deriving non-overlapping OCD subtypes. A pure compulsive and a mixed obsessive-compulsive subtype (including subjects manifesting obsessions with/without compulsions) were analyzed with respect to a broad pattern of psychosocial risk factors and comorbid syndromes/diagnoses in three representative Swiss community samples: the Zurich Study (n = 591), the ZInEP sample (n = 1500), and the PsyCoLaus sample (n = 3720). A selection of comorbidities was examined in a pooled database. Odds ratios were derived from logistic regressions and, in the analysis of pooled data, multilevel models. The pure compulsive subtype showed a lower age of onset and was characterized by few associations with psychosocial risk factors. The higher social popularity of the pure compulsive subjects and their families was remarkable. Comorbidities within the pure compulsive subtype were mainly restricted to phobias. In contrast, the mixed obsessive-compulsive subtype had a higher prevalence and was associated with various childhood adversities, more familial burden, and numerous comorbid disorders, including disorders characterized by high impulsivity. The current comparison study across three representative community surveys presented two basic, distinct OCD subtypes associated with differing psychosocial impairment. Such highly specific subtypes offer the opportunity to learn about pathophysiological mechanisms specifically involved in OCD.

  14. Organic anion transporter 3- and organic anion transporting polypeptides 1B1- and 1B3-mediated transport of catalposide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong HU

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyeon-Uk Jeong,1 Mihwa Kwon,2 Yongnam Lee,3 Ji Seok Yoo,3 Dae Hee Shin,3 Im-Sook Song,2 Hye Suk Lee1 1College of Pharmacy, The Catholic University of Korea, Bucheon 420-743, Korea; 2College of Pharmacy and Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701, Korea; 3Central R&D Institute, Yungjin Pharm Co., Ltd., Suwon 443-270, Korea Abstract: We investigated the in vitro transport characteristics of catalposide in HEK293 cells overexpressing organic anion transporter 1 (OAT1, OAT3, organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1, OATP1B3, organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1, OCT2, P-glycoprotein (P-gp, and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP. The transport mechanism of catalposide was investigated in HEK293 and LLC-PK1 cells overexpressing the relevant transporters. The uptake of catalposide was 319-, 13.6-, and 9.3-fold greater in HEK293 cells overexpressing OAT3, OATP1B1, and OATP1B3 transporters, respectively, than in HEK293 control cells. The increased uptake of catalposide via the OAT3, OATP1B1, and OATP1B3 transporters was decreased to basal levels in the presence of representative inhibitors such as probenecid, furosemide, and cimetidine (for OAT3 and cyclosporin A, gemfibrozil, and rifampin (for OATP1B1 and OATP1B3. The concentration-dependent OAT3-mediated uptake of catalposide revealed the following kinetic parameters: Michaelis constant (Km =41.5 µM, maximum uptake rate (Vmax =46.2 pmol/minute, and intrinsic clearance (CLint =1.11 µL/minute. OATP1B1- and OATP1B3-mediated catalposide uptake also showed concentration dependency, with low CLint values of 0.035 and 0.034 µL/minute, respectively. However, the OCT1, OCT2, OAT1, P-gp, and BCRP transporters were apparently not involved in the uptake of catalposide into cells. In addition, catalposide inhibited the transport activities of OAT3, OATP1B1, and OATP1B3 with half-maximal inhibitory concentration values of 83, 200, and 235 µ

  15. Association between endometriosis and risk of histological subtypes of ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pearce, Celeste Leigh; Templeman, Claire; Rossing, Mary Anne

    2012-01-01

    Endometriosis is a risk factor for epithelial ovarian cancer; however, whether this risk extends to all invasive histological subtypes or borderline tumours is not clear. We undertook an international collaborative study to assess the association between endometriosis and histological subtypes...

  16. Second Harmonic Generation of Violet Light in Femtosecond-Laser-Inscribed BiB3O6 Cladding Waveguides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Yuechen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We report on the second harmonic generation of violet light of a nonlinear cladding waveguide in BiB3O6 crystal produced by femtosecond laser inscription. Under continuous-wave pump laser at 800 nm, the guided second harmonic wave at 400 nm with a conversion efficiency of ~0.32% has been realized through the Type I birefringence phase matching configuration.

  17. The molecular signature of impaired diabetic wound healing identifies serpinB3 as a healing biomarker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadini, Gian Paolo; Albiero, Mattia; Millioni, Renato; Poncina, Nicol; Rigato, Mauro; Scotton, Rachele; Boscari, Federico; Brocco, Enrico; Arrigoni, Giorgio; Villano, Gianmarco; Turato, Cristian; Biasiolo, Alessandra; Pontisso, Patrizia; Avogaro, Angelo

    2014-09-01

    Chronic foot ulceration is a severe complication of diabetes, driving morbidity and mortality. The mechanisms underlying delaying wound healing in diabetes are incompletely understood and tools to identify such pathways are eagerly awaited. Wound biopsies were obtained from 75 patients with diabetic foot ulcers. Matched subgroups of rapidly healing (RH, n = 17) and non-healing (NH, n = 11) patients were selected. Proteomic analysis was performed by labelling with isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification and mass spectrometry. Differentially expressed proteins were analysed in NH vs RH for identification of pathogenic pathways. Individual sample gene/protein validation and in vivo validation of candidate pathways in mouse models were carried out. Pathway analyses were conducted on 92/286 proteins that were differentially expressed in NH vs RH. The following pathways were enriched in NH vs RH patients: apoptosis, protease inhibitors, epithelial differentiation, serine endopeptidase activity, coagulation and regulation of defence response. SerpinB3 was strongly upregulated in RH vs NH wounds, validated as protein and mRNA in individual samples. To test the relevance of serpinB3 in vivo, we used a transgenic mouse model with α1-antitrypsin promoter-driven overexpression of human SERPINB3. In this model, wound healing was unaffected by SERPINB3 overexpression in non-diabetic or diabetic mice with or without hindlimb ischaemia. In an independent validation cohort of 47 patients, high serpinB3 protein content was confirmed as a biomarker of healing improvement. We provide a benchmark for the unbiased discovery of novel molecular targets and biomarkers of impaired diabetic wound healing. High serpinB3 protein content was found to be a biomarker of successful healing in diabetic patients.

  18. Numerical Modelling of Time-Dependent Behaviour of Reinforced Concrete Structure with Use of B3 Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koktan Jiří

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes an implementation of creep analysis of reinforced concrete structures which utilizes the B3 model and the direct stiffness method for reinforced concrete frames. The analysis is based on a numerical integration and it is implemented in an algorithmic programming language. There is presented a solution with the mentioned approaches which is compared with solution based on the EN 1992-1-1 technical standard.

  19. Neurocognitive Impairments Are More Severe in the Binge-Eating/Purging Anorexia Nervosa Subtype Than in the Restricting Subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamiya, Hiroko; Ouchi, Atushi; Chen, Runshu; Miyazawa, Shiho; Akimoto, Yoritaka; Kaneda, Yasuhiro; Sora, Ichiro

    2018-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate cognitive function impairment in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) of either the restricting (ANR) or binge-eating/purging (ANBP) subtype. Method: We administered the Japanese version of the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery to 22 patients with ANR, 18 patients with ANBP, and 69 healthy control subjects. Our participants were selected from among the patients at the Kobe University Hospital and community residents. Results: Compared to the healthy controls, the ANR group had significantly lower visual learning and social cognition scores, and the ANBP group had significantly lower processing speed, attention/vigilance, visual learning, reasoning/problem-solving, and social cognition scores. Compared to the ANR group, the ANBP group had significantly lower attention/vigilance scores. Discussion: The AN subtypes differed in cognitive function impairments. Participants with ANBP, which is associated with higher mortality rates than ANR, exhibited greater impairment severities, especially in the attention/vigilance domain, confirming the presence of impairments in continuous concentration. This may relate to the impulsivity, an ANBP characteristic reported in the personality research. Future studies can further clarify the cognitive impairments of each subtype by addressing the subtype cognitive functions and personality characteristics.

  20. Preparation of metastable bcc permalloy epitaxial thin films on GaAs(011){sub B3} single-crystal substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohtake, Mitsuru, E-mail: ohtake@futamoto.elect.chuo-u.ac.jp [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Chuo University, 1-13-27 Kasuga, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8551 (Japan); Higuchi, Jumpei; Yabuhara, Osamu [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Chuo University, 1-13-27 Kasuga, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8551 (Japan); Kirino, Fumiyoshi [Graduate School of Fine Arts, Tokyo National University of Fine Arts and Music, 12-8 Ueno-koen, Taito-ku, Tokyo 110-8714 (Japan); Futamoto, Masaaki [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Chuo University, 1-13-27 Kasuga, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8551 (Japan)

    2011-09-30

    Permalloy (Py) single-crystal films with bcc structure were obtained on GaAs(011){sub B3} single-crystal substrates by ultra high vacuum rf magnetron sputtering. The film growth and the detailed film structures were investigated by refection high energy electron diffraction and pole figure X-ray diffraction. bcc-Py films epitaxially grow on the substrates in the orientation relationship of Py(011)[011-bar]{sub bcc} || GaAs(011)[011-bar]{sub B3}. The lattice constant of bcc-Py film is determined to be a = 0.291 nm. With increasing the film thickness, parts of the bcc crystal transform into more stable fcc structure by atomic displacement parallel to the bcc{l_brace}011{r_brace} close-packed planes. The resulting film thus consists of a mixture of bcc and fcc crystals. The phase transformation mechanism is discussed based on the experimental results. The in-plane magnetization properties reflecting the magnetocrystalline anisotropy of bcc-Py crystal are observed for the Py films grown on GaAs(011){sub B3} substrates.

  1. Pressure effect on the mechanical and electronic properties of B3N3: A first-principle study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Mohammad; Faez, Rahim

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we perform Self-Consistent Field (SCF) energy calculation of Tetragonal B3N3 in the homogenous pressure range of -30 GPa to +160 GPa. Also, we study mechanical and electronic properties of this compound as a potential candidate for a conventional phonon-mediated superconductor with a high transition temperature. To do this, the volume changes of B3N3, and its bulk modulus, due to applying pressure in the range of -30 GPa to +160 GPa are calculated and analyzed. The calculated Bulk modulus of B3N3 at 230 GPa in the relaxed condition indicates the strength of bonds and its low compressibility. We calculated and analyzed the electronic effective mass in both XM and MA directions and anisotropy parameter in these two directions in the relaxed condition and under pressure in the range of -30 GPa to +160 GPa. It is shown that in overall, the direction in which the transport of electrons is parallel to the two perpendicular honeycomb planes has less effective mass and better conductivity than the other direction, in which the electronic transport is perpendicular to at least one of the hexagonal structure planes.

  2. Genetic variation at the ApoB 3' HVR minisatellite locus in the Mbenzele Pygmies from the Central African Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destro-Bisol, Giovanni; Belledi, Michele; Capelli, Cristian; Maviglia, Riccardo; Spedini, Gabriella

    2000-09-01

    This study analyzes the polymorphic minisatellite ApoB 3' HVR in the Mbenzele Pygmies from the Central African Republic. A total of 14 alleles was observed, with frequencies ranging from 0.020 (19, 21, 27, and 45 repeat unit alleles) to 0.210 (37 repeat unit allele). Departure from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was not statistically significant. The estimated heterozygosity was 0.874 +/- 0.016. Taking data from the literature into consideration, the results support the hypothesis that the Africans are different from non-Africans due to greater ApoB 3' HVR genetic diversity and a unimodal profile of ApoB 3' HVR allele frequency distribution. Interpopulational relationships were also analyzed using an F(ST) based genetic distance. The results highlight the similarity between the Mbenzele Pygmies and Bantu-speaking groups (Ewondo and Zulu), and the divergence between the Mbenzele and San, the two groups which are often considered to be the most direct descendants of proto-Africans. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 12:588-592, 2000. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. BO2-functionalized B3N3C54 heterofullerene as a possible candidate for molecular spintronics and nonlinear optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Ambrish Kumar; Pandey, Sarvesh Kumar; Misra, Neeraj

    2016-04-01

    BO2-substituted B3N3C54 heterofullerene was studied using density functional theory, and its electronic, magnetic and nonlinear optical properties are discussed. The substitution was considered at the B and N sites of the heterofullerene, in lower and higher spin states. We notice that BO2 substitution at the B sites of B3N3C54 heterofullerene leads to interesting properties, such as a smaller energy gap (0.66 eV) and a high spin magnetic moment (3 μ B). The density-of-states curves, molecular orbitals and spin density surfaces have been used to explain these facts. In addition, the first-order mean hyperpolarizability of B3N3C54 heterofullerene has been found to be significantly large (3.6 × 103 a.u.), which is due to smaller transition energy in the crucial excited state. This is reflected by the absorption spectra calculated using the time-dependent density functional theory method. These findings may be exploited to design novel materials for possible spintronic and electro-optical applications.

  4. Preparation of metastable bcc permalloy epitaxial thin films on GaAs(011)B3 single-crystal substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtake, Mitsuru; Higuchi, Jumpei; Yabuhara, Osamu; Kirino, Fumiyoshi; Futamoto, Masaaki

    2011-01-01

    Permalloy (Py) single-crystal films with bcc structure were obtained on GaAs(011) B3 single-crystal substrates by ultra high vacuum rf magnetron sputtering. The film growth and the detailed film structures were investigated by refection high energy electron diffraction and pole figure X-ray diffraction. bcc-Py films epitaxially grow on the substrates in the orientation relationship of Py(011)[011-bar] bcc || GaAs(011)[011-bar] B3 . The lattice constant of bcc-Py film is determined to be a = 0.291 nm. With increasing the film thickness, parts of the bcc crystal transform into more stable fcc structure by atomic displacement parallel to the bcc{011} close-packed planes. The resulting film thus consists of a mixture of bcc and fcc crystals. The phase transformation mechanism is discussed based on the experimental results. The in-plane magnetization properties reflecting the magnetocrystalline anisotropy of bcc-Py crystal are observed for the Py films grown on GaAs(011) B3 substrates.

  5. Identification of Subtype-Specific Prognostic Genes for Early-Stage Lung Adenocarcinoma and Squamous Cell Carcinoma Patients Using an Embedded Feature Selection Algorithm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suyan Tian

    Full Text Available The existence of fundamental differences between lung adenocarcinoma (AC and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC in their underlying mechanisms motivated us to postulate that specific genes might exist relevant to prognosis of each histology subtype. To test on this research hypothesis, we previously proposed a simple Cox-regression model based feature selection algorithm and identified successfully some subtype-specific prognostic genes when applying this method to real-world data. In this article, we continue our effort on identification of subtype-specific prognostic genes for AC and SCC, and propose a novel embedded feature selection method by extending Threshold Gradient Descent Regularization (TGDR algorithm and minimizing on a corresponding negative partial likelihood function. Using real-world datasets and simulated ones, we show these two proposed methods have comparable performance whereas the new proposal is superior in terms of model parsimony. Our analysis provides some evidence on the existence of such subtype-specific prognostic genes, more investigation is warranted.

  6. Partial Actions and Power Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Ávila

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a partial action (X,α with enveloping action (T,β. In this work we extend α to a partial action on the ring (P(X,Δ,∩ and find its enveloping action (E,β. Finally, we introduce the concept of partial action of finite type to investigate the relationship between (E,β and (P(T,β.

  7. Algorithms over partially ordered sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baer, Robert M.; Østerby, Ole

    1969-01-01

    in partially ordered sets, answer the combinatorial question of how many maximal chains might exist in a partially ordered set withn elements, and we give an algorithm for enumerating all maximal chains. We give (in § 3) algorithms which decide whether a partially ordered set is a (lower or upper) semi......-lattice, and whether a lattice has distributive, modular, and Boolean properties. Finally (in § 4) we give Algol realizations of the various algorithms....

  8. Anatomic partial nephrectomy: technique evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, Raed A; Metcalfe, Charles; Gill, Inderbir S

    2015-03-01

    Partial nephrectomy provides equivalent long-term oncologic and superior functional outcomes as radical nephrectomy for T1a renal masses. Herein, we review the various vascular clamping techniques employed during minimally invasive partial nephrectomy, describe the evolution of our partial nephrectomy technique and provide an update on contemporary thinking about the impact of ischemia on renal function. Recently, partial nephrectomy surgical technique has shifted away from main artery clamping and towards minimizing/eliminating global renal ischemia during partial nephrectomy. Supported by high-fidelity three-dimensional imaging, novel anatomic-based partial nephrectomy techniques have recently been developed, wherein partial nephrectomy can now be performed with segmental, minimal or zero global ischemia to the renal remnant. Sequential innovations have included early unclamping, segmental clamping, super-selective clamping and now culminating in anatomic zero-ischemia surgery. By eliminating 'under-the-gun' time pressure of ischemia for the surgeon, these techniques allow an unhurried, tightly contoured tumour excision with point-specific sutured haemostasis. Recent data indicate that zero-ischemia partial nephrectomy may provide better functional outcomes by minimizing/eliminating global ischemia and preserving greater vascularized kidney volume. Contemporary partial nephrectomy includes a spectrum of surgical techniques ranging from conventional-clamped to novel zero-ischemia approaches. Technique selection should be tailored to each individual case on the basis of tumour characteristics, surgical feasibility, surgeon experience, patient demographics and baseline renal function.

  9. Partial order infinitary term rewriting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    We study an alternative model of infinitary term rewriting. Instead of a metric on terms, a partial order on partial terms is employed to formalise convergence of reductions. We consider both a weak and a strong notion of convergence and show that the metric model of convergence coincides with th...... to the metric setting -- orthogonal systems are both infinitarily confluent and infinitarily normalising in the partial order setting. The unique infinitary normal forms that the partial order model admits are Böhm trees....

  10. The Shifting Subtypes of ADHD: Classification Depends on How Symptom Reports Are Combined

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Andrew S.; Skipper, Betty; Rabiner, David L.; Umbach, David M.; Stallone, Lil; Campbell, Richard A.; Hough, Richard L.; Naftel, A. J.; Sandler, Dale P.

    2008-01-01

    Research on the correlates of ADHD subtypes has yielded inconsistent findings, perhaps because the procedures used to define subtypes vary across studies. We examined this possibility by investigating whether the ADHD subtype distribution in a community sample was sensitive to different methods for combining informant data. We conducted a study to…

  11. Empirically Derived Learning Disability Subtypes: A Replication Attempt and Longitudinal Patterns over 15 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spreen, Otfried; Haaf, Robert G.

    1986-01-01

    Test scores of two groups of learning disabled children (N=63 and N=96) were submitted to cluster analysis in an attempt to replicate previously described subtypes. All three subtypes (visuo-perceptual, linguistic, and articulo-graphomotor types) were identified along with minimally and severely impaired subtypes. Similar clusters in the same…

  12. 1 original article diverse genetic subtypes of hiv-1 among female sex

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    Keywords: Diverse, HIV, subtypes, Female Sex workers and Vaccine ... significant probability that infection with this subtype occurred with a short incubation period (p< 0.05). Conclusion: This study .... regression was used to adjust for potential cofounders. .... TABLE 2: DISTRIBUTION OF HIV-1 SUBTYPES AMONG FSWS.

  13. Effect of HIV type 1 subtype on virological and immunological response to combination antiretroviral therapy: evidence for a more rapid viral suppression for subtype A than subtype B-infected Greek individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraskevis, Dimirios; Touloumi, Giota; Bakoyannis, Giorgos; Paparizos, Vassilios; Lazanas, Marios; Gargalianos, Panagiotis; Chryssos, Georgios; Antoniadou, Anastasia; Psichogiou, Mina; Panos, Georgios; Katsarou, Olga; Sambatakou, Helen; Kordossis, Theodoros; Hatzakis, Angelos

    2013-03-01

    Whether response to combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) differs between those infected with HIV-1 subtype A or B remains unclear. We compared virological and immunological response to cART in individuals infected with subtype A or B in an ethnically homogeneous population. Data derived from the Athens Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (AMACS) and analysis were restricted to those of Greek origin. Time to virological response (confirmed HIV-RNA 500 copies/ml at any time or no response by month 6) were analyzed using survival models and CD4 changes after cART initiation using piecewise linear mixed effects models. Of the 571 subjects included in the analysis, 412 (72.2%) were infected with subtype B and 159 (27.8%) with subtype A. After adjusting for various prognostic factors, the rate of virological response was higher for those infected with subtype A versus B (adjusted HR: 1.35; 95% CI: 1.08-1.68; p=0.009). Subtype A was also marginally associated with a lower hazard of virological failure compared to subtype B (HR=0.73; 95% CI: 0.53-1.02; p=0.062). Further adjustment for treatment adherence did not substantially changed the main results. No significant differences were observed in the rates of CD4 increases by subtype. The overall median (95% CI) CD4 increase at 2 years of cART was 193 (175, 212) cells/μl. Our study, based on one of the largest homogeneous groups of subtype A and B infections in Europe, showed that individuals infected with subtype A had an improved virological but similar immunological response to cART compared to those infected with subtype B.

  14. B3GNT3 Expression Is a Novel Marker Correlated with Pelvic Lymph Node Metastasis and Poor Clinical Outcome in Early-Stage Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Chunhao; Song, Libing; Zhang, Yanna

    2015-01-01

    Background The β1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase-3 gene (B3GNT3) encodes a member of the B3GNT family that functions as the backbone structure of dimeric sialyl-Lewis A and is involved in L-selectin ligand biosynthesis, lymphocyte homing and lymphocyte trafficking. B3GNT3 has been implicated as an important element in the development of certain cancers. However, the characteristics of B3GNT3 in the development and progression of cancer remain largely unknown. Thus, our study aimed to investigate the expression pattern and the prognostic value of B3GNT3 in patients with early-stage cervical cancer. Methods The mRNA and protein levels of B3GNT3 expression were examined in eight cervical cancer cell lines and ten paired cervical cancer tumors, using real-time PCR and western blotting, respectively. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to analyze B3GNT3 protein expression in paraffin-embedded tissues from 196 early-stage cervical cancer patients. Statistical analyses were applied to evaluate the association between B3GNT3 expression scores and clinical parameters, as well as patient survival. Results B3GNT3 expression was significantly upregulated in cervical cancer cell lines and lesions compared with normal cells and adjacent noncancerous cervical tissues. In the 196 cases of tested early-stage cervical cancer samples, the B3GNT3 protein level was positively correlated with high risk TYPES of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection (P = 0.026), FIGO stage (P cervical cancer patients. Conclusions Our study demonstrated that elevated B3GNT3 expression is associated with pelvic lymph node metastasis and poor outcome in early-stage cervical cancer patients. B3GNT3 may be a novel prognostic marker and therapeutic target for the treatment of cervical cancer. PMID:26709519

  15. HIV subtype, epidemiological and mutational correlations in patients from Paraná, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Monica Maria Gomes da; Telles, Flavio Queiroz; da Cunha, Clovis Arns; Rhame, Frank S

    2010-01-01

    Analyze patients with HIV infection from Curitiba, Paraná, their epidemiological characteristics and HIV RAM. Patients regularly followed in an ID Clinic had their medical data evaluated and cases of virological failure were analyzed with genotypic report. Patients with complete medical charts were selected (n = 191). Demographic and clinical characteristics were compared. One hundred thirty two patients presented with subtype B infection (69.1%), 41 subtype C (21.5%), 10 subtype F (5.2%), 7 BF (3.7%) and 1 CF (0.5%). Patients with subtype B infection had been diagnosed earlier than patients with subtype non-B. Also, subtype B infection was more frequent in men who have sex with men, while non-B subtypes occurred more frequently in heterosexuals and women. Patients with previous history of three classes of ARVs (n = 161) intake were selected to evaluate resistance. For RT inhibitors, 41L and 210W were more frequently observed in subtype B than in non-B strains. No differences between subtypes and mutations were observed to NNTRIs. Mutations at 10, 32 and 63 position of protease were more observed in subtype B viruses than non-B, while positions 20 and 36 of showed more amino acid substitutions in subtype non-B viruses. Patients with history of NFV intake were evaluated to resistance pathway. The 90M pathway was more frequent in subtypes B and non-B. Mutations previously reported as common in non-B viruses, such as 65R and 106M, were uncommon in our study. Mutations 63P and 36I, previously reported as common in HIV-1 subtypes B and C from Brazil, respectively, were common. There is a significant frequency of HIV-1 non-B infections in Paraná state, with isolates classified as subtypes C, F, BF and BC. Patients with subtype C infection were more frequently female, heterosexual and had a longer average time of HIV diagnosis.

  16. Structural features of subtype-selective EP receptor modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovič, Tijana; Jakopin, Žiga; Dolenc, Marija Sollner; Mlinarič-Raščan, Irena

    2017-01-01

    Prostaglandin E2 is a potent endogenous molecule that binds to four different G-protein-coupled receptors: EP1-4. Each of these receptors is a valuable drug target, with distinct tissue localisation and signalling pathways. We review the structural features of EP modulators required for subtype-selective activity, as well as the structural requirements for improved pharmacokinetic parameters. Novel EP receptor subtype selective agonists and antagonists appear to be valuable drug candidates in the therapy of many pathophysiological states, including ulcerative colitis, glaucoma, bone healing, B cell lymphoma, neurological diseases, among others, which have been studied in vitro, in vivo and in early phase clinical trials. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Unique Migraine Subtypes, Rare Headache Disorders, and Other Disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goadsby, Peter J

    2015-08-01

    The medical aphorism that common things happen commonly makes unique (and less common) migraine subtypes especially appropriate to review for the general neurologist. This article also identifies some rare headache disorders and other disturbances, and offers strategies to manage them. This article discusses migraine with brainstem aura, which is troublesome clinically and has had a change in terminology in the International Classification of Headache Disorders, Third Edition, beta version (ICHD-3 beta), and hemiplegic migraine, which is also troublesome in practice. The rare headache disorder hypnic headache and the exploding head syndrome are also discussed. When hypnic headache is recognized, it is eminently treatable, while exploding head syndrome is a benign condition with no reported consequences. Unique migraine subtypes, rare headache disorders, and other disturbances present to neurologists. When recognized, they can often be managed very well, which offers significant benefits to patients and practice satisfaction to neurologists.

  18. Etiologic stroke subtypes: updated definition and efficient workup strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehndiratta, Prachi; Chapman Smith, Sherita; Worrall, Bradford B

    2015-01-01

    Stroke affects approximately 16.9 million individuals per year worldwide and is the second leading cause of death. Stroke represents a family of related, but distinct subtypes. Classifying stroke subtypes must take into account various aspects of a standardized stroke workup to allow optimization of treatment and prevention strategies. Secondary prevention and pharmacologic treatment is tailored based on stroke mechanism. Additionally prognostication and recurrent risk also depends on stroke etiology. Efficient workup of stroke relies on a thorough history, clinical examination, imaging studies, and putative mechanism of stroke that lead the treating physician to a particular etiological path. Here , we provide the reader with updated definitions of etiologic ischemic stroke types as well as efficient workup strategies.

  19. Reproductive profiles and risk of breast cancer subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouckaert, Olivier; Rudolph, Anja; Laenen, Annouschka

    2017-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have shown that reproductive factors are differentially associated with breast cancer (BC) risk by subtypes. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between reproductive factors and BC subtypes, and whether these vary by age at diagnosis. Methods: We used...... pooled data on tumor markers (estrogen and progesterone receptor, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2)) and reproductive risk factors (parity, age at first full-time pregnancy (FFTP) and age at menarche) from 28,095 patients with invasive BC from 34 studies participating in the Breast Cancer...... the risk for TNBC (OR = 0.78, CI 0.70-0.88, p diagnosis, whereas the association with luminal HER2-like BC was present only for early onset BC....

  20. The whole-genome landscape of medulloblastoma subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northcott, Paul A.; Buchhalter, Ivo; Morrissy, A. Sorana; Hovestadt, Volker; Weischenfeldt, Joachim; Ehrenberger, Tobias; Groebner, Susanne; Segura-Wang, Maia; Zichner, Thomas; Rudneva, Vasilisa; Warnatz, Hans-Jörg; Sidiropoulos, Nikos; Phillips, Aaron H.; Schumacher, Steven; Kleinheinz, Kortine; Waszak, Sebastian M.; Erkek, Serap; Jones, David T.W.; Worst, Barbara C.; Kool, Marcel; Zapatka, Marc; Jäger, Natalie; Chavez, Lukas; Hutter, Barbara; Bieg, Matthias; Paramasivam, Nagarajan; Heinold, Michael; Gu, Zuguang; Ishaque, Naveed; Jäger-Schmidt, Christina; Imbusch, Charles D.; Jugold, Alke; Hübschmann, Daniel; Risch, Thomas; Amstislavskiy, Vyacheslav; Gonzalez, Francisco German Rodriguez; Weber, Ursula D.; Wolf, Stephan; Robinson, Giles W.; Zhou, Xin; Wu, Gang; Finkelstein, David; Liu, Yanling; Cavalli, Florence M.G.; Luu, Betty; Ramaswamy, Vijay; Wu, Xiaochong; Koster, Jan; Ryzhova, Marina; Cho, Yoon-Jae; Pomeroy, Scott L.; Herold-Mende, Christel; Schuhmann, Martin; Ebinger, Martin; Liau, Linda M.; Mora, Jaume; McLendon, Roger E.; Jabado, Nada; Kumabe, Toshihiro; Chuah, Eric; Ma, Yussanne; Moore, Richard A.; Mungall, Andrew J.; Mungall, Karen L.; Thiessen, Nina; Tse, Kane; Wong, Tina; Jones, Steven J.M.; Witt, Olaf; Milde, Till; Von Deimling, Andreas; Capper, David; Korshunov, Andrey; Yaspo, Marie-Laure; Kriwacki, Richard; Gajjar, Amar; Zhang, Jinghui; Beroukhim, Rameen; Fraenkel, Ernest; Korbel, Jan O.; Brors, Benedikt; Schlesner, Matthias; Eils, Roland; Marra, Marco A.; Pfister, Stefan M.; Taylor, Michael D.; Lichter, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Summary Current therapies for medulloblastoma (MB), a highly malignant childhood brain tumor, impose debilitating effects on the developing child, warranting deployment of molecularly targeted treatments with reduced toxicities. Prior studies failed to disclose the full spectrum of driver genes and molecular processes operative in MB subgroups. Herein, we detail the somatic landscape across 491 sequenced MBs and molecular heterogeneity amongst 1,256 epigenetically analyzed cases, identifying subgroup-specific driver alterations including previously unappreciated actionable targets. Driver mutations explained the majority of Group 3 and Group 4 patients, remarkably enhancing previous knowledge. Novel molecular subtypes were differentially enriched for specific driver events, including hotspot in-frame insertions targeting KBTBD4 and ‘enhancer hijacking’ driving PRDM6 activation. Thus, application of integrative genomics to an unprecedented cohort of clinical samples derived from a single childhood cancer entity disclosed a series of new cancer genes and biologically relevant subtype diversity that represent attractive therapeutic targets for treating MB patients. PMID:28726821

  1. Historical Perspectives and Guidelines for Botulinum Neurotoxin Subtype Nomenclature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael W. Peck

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Botulinum neurotoxins are diverse proteins. They are currently represented by at least seven serotypes and more than 40 subtypes. New clostridial strains that produce novel neurotoxin variants are being identified with increasing frequency, which presents challenges when organizing the nomenclature surrounding these neurotoxins. Worldwide, researchers are faced with the possibility that toxins having identical sequences may be given different designations or novel toxins having unique sequences may be given the same designations on publication. In order to minimize these problems, an ad hoc committee consisting of over 20 researchers in the field of botulinum neurotoxin research was convened to discuss the clarification of the issues involved in botulinum neurotoxin nomenclature. This publication presents a historical overview of the issues and provides guidelines for botulinum neurotoxin subtype nomenclature in the future.

  2. On Degenerate Partial Differential Equations

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Gui-Qiang G.

    2010-01-01

    Some of recent developments, including recent results, ideas, techniques, and approaches, in the study of degenerate partial differential equations are surveyed and analyzed. Several examples of nonlinear degenerate, even mixed, partial differential equations, are presented, which arise naturally in some longstanding, fundamental problems in fluid mechanics and differential geometry. The solution to these fundamental problems greatly requires a deep understanding of nonlinear degenerate parti...

  3. [Acrylic resin removable partial dentures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baat, C. de; Witter, D.J.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2011-01-01

    An acrylic resin removable partial denture is distinguished from other types of removable partial dentures by an all-acrylic resin base which is, in principle, solely supported by the edentulous regions of the tooth arch and in the maxilla also by the hard palate. When compared to the other types of

  4. Partial Epilepsy with Auditory Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The clinical characteristics of 53 sporadic (S cases of idiopathic partial epilepsy with auditory features (IPEAF were analyzed and compared to previously reported familial (F cases of autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features (ADPEAF in a study at the University of Bologna, Italy.

  5. Osteosarcoma subtypes: Magnetic resonance and quantitative diffusion weighted imaging criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitoun, Rania; Shokry, Ahmed M; Ahmed Khaleel, Sahar; Mogahed, Shaimaa M

    2018-03-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is a primary bone malignancy, characterized by spindle cells producing osteoid. The objective of this study is to describe the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of different OS subtypes, record their attenuation diffusion coefficient (ADC) values and to point to the relation of their pathologic base and their corresponding ADC value. We performed a retrospective observational lesion-based analysis for 31 pathologically proven osteosarcoma subtypes: osteoblastic (n = 9), fibroblastic (n = 8), chondroblastic (n = 6), para-osteal (n = 3), periosteal (n = 1), telangiectatic (n = 2), small cell (n = 1) and extra-skeletal (n = 1). On conventional images we recorded: bone of origin, epicenter, intra-articular extension, and invasion of articulating bones, skip lesions, distant metastases, pathological fractures, ossified matrix, hemorrhage and necrosis. We measured the mean ADC value for each lesion. Among the included OS lesions, 51.6% originated at the femur, 29% showed intra-articular extension, 16% invaded neighboring bone, 9% were associated with pathological fracture and 25.8% were associated with distant metastases. On MRI, all lesions showed ossified matrix, 35.5% showed hemorrhage and 58% showed necrosis. The mean ADC values for OS lesions ranged from 0.74 × 10 -3  mm 2 /s (recorded for conventional osteoblastic OS) to 1.50 × 10 -3  mm 2 /s (recorded for telangiectatic OS) with an average value of 1.16 ± 0.18 × 10 -3  mm 2 /s. Conventional chondroblastic OS recorded higher values compared to the other two conventional subtypes. Osteosarcoma has different pathologic subtypes which correspondingly vary in their imaging criteria and their ADC values. Copyright © 2018. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Maltreatment and psychopathy subtypes in high-risk adolescent females

    OpenAIRE

    Coupland, Ruth Louise

    2011-01-01

    Psychopathy is often viewed as a unitary construct, however, research with adults and adolescent males has revealed two heterogeneous subtypes. Primary psychopathy is presumed to have biological underpinnings and is associated with low levels of anxiety and psychological distress. In contrast, secondary psychopathy is believed to result from exposure to adversity, including childhood maltreatment, and is associated with emotional reactivity, impulsivity, and comorbid psychological problems. T...

  7. Somatostatin receptor subtype expression in human thyroid tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klagge, A; Krause, K; Schierle, K; Steinert, F; Dralle, H; Fuhrer, D

    2010-04-01

    Somatostatin receptors (SSTR) are expressed in various endocrine tumours. The expression of SSTR at the tumour cell surface confers the possibility for diagnostic imaging and therapy of tumours using radiolabeled somatostatin analogues. The majority of currently available somatostatin analogues show a higher binding affinity for the SSTR2 subtype. To date, the precise expression pattern of the SSTR subtypes 1-5 in thyroid epithelial tumours remains to be determined. We investigated the mRNA expression of SSTR1-5 in benign and malignant epithelial thyroid tumours [20 cold thyroid nodules (CTNs), 20 toxic thyroid nodules (TTNs), 20 papillary, 20 follicular, and 5 anaplastic carcinomas (PTCs, FTCs, ATCs, respectively)] and compared them to normal surrounding thyroid tissues. Four out of five SSTR subtypes were detected in malignant thyroid tumours, benign neoplasia, and normal surrounding tissue with a predominant expression of SSTR2 and SSTR5, and a weak expression of SSTR1 and SSTR3. Weak SSTR4 mRNA expression was detected in some PTCs. Compared to normal thyroid tissue, SSTR2 was significantly upregulated in PTC and ATC. In addition significant upregulation of SSTR3 was found in PTC. SSTR5 mRNA expression was increased in PTC and FTC and significantly decreased in CTN and TTN compared to normal thyroid tissue. SSTR2 is the predominant subtype in thyroid epithelial tumours with a high expression pattern, in particular, in PTC . Perspectively, the expression of distinct SSTR in thyroid epithelial tumours might represent a promising avenue for diagnostics and therapy of advanced thyroid cancer with somatostatin analogues. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart New York.

  8. Major depressive disorder subtypes to predict long-term course

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loo, Hanna M.; Cai, Tianxi; Gruber, Michael J.; Li, Junlong; de Jonge, Peter; Petukhova, Maria; Rose, Sherri; Sampson, Nancy A.; Schoevers, Robert A.; Wardenaar, Klaas J.; Wilcox, Marsha A.; Al-Hamzawi, Ali Obaid; Andrade, Laura Helena; Bromet, Evelyn J.; Bunting, Brendan; Fayyad, John; Florescu, Silvia E.; Gureje, Oye; Hu, Chiyi; Huang, Yueqin; Levinson, Daphna; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Nakane, Yoshibumi; Posada-Villa, Jose; Scott, Kate M.; Xavier, Miguel; Zarkov, Zahari; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Variation in course of major depressive disorder (MDD) is not strongly predicted by existing subtype distinctions. A new subtyping approach is considered here. Methods Two data mining techniques, ensemble recursive partitioning and Lasso generalized linear models (GLMs) followed by k-means cluster analysis, are used to search for subtypes based on index episode symptoms predicting subsequent MDD course in the World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys. The WMH surveys are community surveys in 16 countries. Lifetime DSM-IV MDD was reported by 8,261 respondents. Retrospectively reported outcomes included measures of persistence (number of years with an episode; number of with an episode lasting most of the year) and severity (hospitalization for MDD; disability due to MDD). Results Recursive partitioning found significant clusters defined by the conjunctions of early onset, suicidality, and anxiety (irritability, panic, nervousness-worry-anxiety) during the index episode. GLMs found additional associations involving a number of individual symptoms. Predicted values of the four outcomes were strongly correlated. Cluster analysis of these predicted values found three clusters having consistently high, intermediate, or low predicted scores across all outcomes. The high-risk cluster (30.0% of respondents) accounted for 52.9-69.7% of high persistence and severity and was most strongly predicted by index episode severe dysphoria, suicidality, anxiety, and early onset. A total symptom count, in comparison, was not a significant predictor. Conclusions Despite being based on retrospective reports, results suggest that useful MDD subtyping distinctions can be made using data mining methods. Further studies are needed to test and expand these results with prospective data. PMID:24425049

  9. Multiple Receptor Subtypes for the CGRP Super-Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Quirion

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular evidence for the existence of multiple receptors for CGRP has been rather difficult to obtain. Over 10 years after suggesting the existence of at least two classes (CGRP1 and CGRP2 of CGRP receptors on the basis of pharmacological data[1], molecular data on the CGRP2 receptor subtype are still lacking as well as potent and selective antagonists. The situation is somewhat different for the functional CGRP1 subtype which is likely composed of diverse subunits CRLR, RAMP1 and possibly RCP[2]. Moreover, BIBN 4096BS was recently reported as the first nonpeptide highly potent CGRP1 receptor antagonist[3]. However, in situ hybridization and receptor autoradiographic data have clearly shown the existence of major mismatches (e.g., cerebellum between the discrete localization of CRLR, RAMP1, and specific CGRP binding sites supporting the existence of CGRP receptor subtypes. Functional studies have also provided evidence in that regard (for a recent review: [4]. Accordingly, additional studies aiming at cloning additional CGRP receptors are certainly warranted. Similarly, recent evidence from various laboratories including ours suggests the existence of more than one class (CRLR and RAMP2 of adrenomedullin receptors at least in the rat brain. In contrast, most evidence suggests the existence of a single class of amylin receptors. In brief, it appears that multiple receptors or receptor complexes do exist for CGRP and related peptides but their composition is apparently unique among the GPCR super-family and additional data are needed to fully establish the molecular organization of each subtype. Supported by CIHR of Canada.

  10. Memory Processes in Learning Disability Subtypes of Children Born Preterm

    OpenAIRE

    McCoy, Thomasin E.; Conrad, Amy L.; Richman, Lynn C.; Nopoulos, Peg C.; Bell, Edward F.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate immediate auditory and visual memory processes in learning disability subtypes of 40 children born preterm. Three subgroups of children were examined: (a) primary language disability group (n = 13), (b) perceptual-motor disability group (n = 14), and (c) no learning disability diagnosis group without identified language or perceptual-motor learning disability (n = 13). Between-group comparisons indicate no significant differences in immediate auditory...

  11. Anatomic mapping of molecular subtypes in diffuse glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qisheng; Lian, Yuxi; Yu, Jinhua; Wang, Yuanyuan; Shi, Zhifeng; Chen, Liang

    2017-09-15

    Tumor location served as an important prognostic factor in glioma patients was considered to postulate molecular features according to cell origin theory. However, anatomic distribution of unique molecular subtypes was not widely investigated. The relationship between molecular phenotype and histological subgroup were also vague based on tumor location. Our group focuses on the study of glioma anatomic location of distinctive molecular subgroups and histology subtypes, and explores the possibility of their consistency based on clinical background. We retrospectively reviewed 143 cases with both molecular information (IDH1/TERT/1p19q) and MRI images diagnosed as cerebral diffuse gliomas. The anatomic distribution was analyzed between distinctive molecular subgroups and its relationship with histological subtypes. The influence of tumor location, molecular stratification and histology diagnosis on survival outcome was investigated as well. Anatomic locations of cerebral diffuse glioma indicate varied clinical outcome. Based on that, it can be stratified into five principal molecular subgroups according to IDH1/TERT/1p19q status. Triple-positive (IDH1 and TERT mutation with 1p19q codeletion) glioma tended to be oligodendroglioma present with much better clinical outcome compared to TERT mutation only group who is glioblastoma inclined (median overall survival 39 months VS 18 months). Five molecular subgroups were demonstrated with distinctive locational distribution. This kind of anatomic feature is consistent with its corresponding histological subtypes. Each molecular subgroup in glioma has unique anatomic location which indicates distinctive clinical outcome. Molecular diagnosis can be served as perfect complementary tool for the precise diagnosis. Integration of histomolecular diagnosis will be much more helpful in routine clinical practice in the future.

  12. Functional characteristics of HIV-1 subtype C compatible with increased heterosexual transmissibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walter, Brandon L; Armitage, Andrew E; Graham, Stephen C

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite the existence of over 50 subtypes and circulating recombinant forms of HIV-1, subtype C dominates the heterosexual pandemic causing approximately 56% of all infections. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether viral genetic factors may contribute to the observed subtype-C predominance. ....... CONCLUSION: As CD4-CCR5-T cells are key targets for genital HIV infection and cervical selection can favor compact V1-V2 loops and 316T, which increase viral infectivity, we propose that these conserved subtype-C motifs may contribute to transmission and spread of this subtype....

  13. Partial twisting for scalar mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agadjanov, Dimitri; Meißner, Ulf-G.; Rusetsky, Akaki

    2014-01-01

    The possibility of imposing partially twisted boundary conditions is investigated for the scalar sector of lattice QCD. According to the commonly shared belief, the presence of quark-antiquark annihilation diagrams in the intermediate state generally hinders the use of the partial twisting. Using effective field theory techniques in a finite volume, and studying the scalar sector of QCD with total isospin I=1, we however demonstrate that partial twisting can still be performed, despite the fact that annihilation diagrams are present. The reason for this are delicate cancellations, which emerge due to the graded symmetry in partially quenched QCD with valence, sea and ghost quarks. The modified Lüscher equation in case of partial twisting is given

  14. Association of Blastocystis subtypes with diarrhea in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulfa, F.; Sari, I. P.; Kurniawan, A.

    2017-08-01

    Blastocystis hominis is an intestinal zoonotic protozoa that epidemiological surveys have shown, is highly prevalent among children and may cause chronic diarrhea. This study aimed to identify Blastocystis subtypes among children and associate those subtypes to pathology. The study’s population was children aged 6-12 years old divided into asymptomatic and symptomatic (diarrhea) groups. The asymptomatic samples were obtained from primary school students in the Bukit Duri area of South Jakarta, while the symptomatic samples were obtained from patients who visited nearby primary health centers (Puskesmas). Symptomatic stool samples were examined inParasitology Laboratory FKUI. Microscopic examination of the stool samples was performed to screen for single Blastocystic infection, followed by culture, PCR of 18S rRNA, and sequencing. In the study, 53.2% of children (n = 156) harbored intestinal parasites, Blastocysts sp. A single infection of Blastocystis sp. was present in 69 (44.23%) samples, comprised of 36 symptomatic and 33 asymptomatic participants. The Blastocystis subtypes (STs) identified in this study were STs 1-4 ST3 was the most dominant and was observed with statistically significant higher frequency in the symptomatic group. ST4 was only found in one sample in the symptomatic group. While ST1 and ST2 were found more frequently in the asymptomatic group, no statistical association was observed. ST3 is more likely to be associated with clinical symptoms than ST1 and ST2.

  15. Somatoform disorders and the subtypes: do differences exist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychiatric diagnoses, especially somatoform disorders, are based on phenomenology, i.e. the subjective experience of the symptoms by the patient. The concept of “medically unexplained symptoms” (MUS is now getting away with much focus on the symptoms per se rather than its explanation by some medical illness. Aim of the study: To study the symptom profile of somatoform disorders and to see its variability in relation to different subtypes of the disorder. Materials and methods: Hundred consecutive patients of somatoform disorders, diagnosed clinically based on the tenth revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10 criteria, were chosen after applying various inclusion and exclusion criteria.The Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGI Health Questionnaire N-2 was used to evaluate symptoms of the patients. Data was analysed with chi-square test. Result: Patients of somatization disorder (SD have significantly higher prevalence of symptoms related to eyes (p=.0412 and higher complaints of hot sensation in the body (p=.0007as compared to undifferentiated somatoform (UD disorder and other somatoform disorders. Hypochondriacal ideas are significantly less in UD and SD. Conclusion: Although traditionally, subtypes of somatoform disorders are supposed to have differences in the phenomenology, there is considerable overlap between them in clinical practice. It may mean that all somatoform disorders are virtually same and there may be no need to have many subtypes.

  16. Ruminative subtypes and impulsivity in risk for suicidal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valderrama, Jorge; Miranda, Regina; Jeglic, Elizabeth

    2016-02-28

    Rumination has been previously linked to negative psychological outcomes, including depression and suicidal behavior. However, there has been conflicting research on whether or not two different subtypes of rumination - brooding and reflection - are more or less maladaptive. The present research sought to (1) examine whether individuals high in brooding but lower in reflection would show higher trait and behavioral impulsivity, relative to individuals low in brooding and low in reflection; and (2) examine impulsivity as a mediator of the relation between ruminative subtypes and suicidal ideation. In Study 1, participants (N=78) were recruited based on high, average, and low scores on a measure of brooding and reflective rumination. Individuals who scored high in brooding and average in reflection scored significantly higher in negative urgency, that is, in the tendency to act rashly in an attempt to reduce negative affect, than did those who scored low in brooding and low in reflection. Study 2 (N=1638) examined the relationship between ruminative subtypes, impulsivity, and suicide risk. We found an indirect relationship between brooding and suicide risk through lack of premeditation and lack of perseverance, independently of reflection. These findings are discussed in relation to cognitive risk for suicide. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The global spread of HIV-1 subtype B epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magiorkinis, Gkikas; Angelis, Konstantinos; Mamais, Ioannis; Katzourakis, Aris; Hatzakis, Angelos; Albert, Jan; Lawyer, Glenn; Hamouda, Osamah; Struck, Daniel; Vercauteren, Jurgen; Wensing, Annemarie; Alexiev, Ivailo; Åsjö, Birgitta; Balotta, Claudia; Gomes, Perpétua; Camacho, Ricardo J; Coughlan, Suzie; Griskevicius, Algirdas; Grossman, Zehava; Horban, Anders; Kostrikis, Leondios G; Lepej, Snjezana J; Liitsola, Kirsi; Linka, Marek; Nielsen, Claus; Otelea, Dan; Paredes, Roger; Poljak, Mario; Puchhammer-Stöckl, Elizabeth; Schmit, Jean Claude; Sönnerborg, Anders; Staneková, Danica; Stanojevic, Maja; Stylianou, Dora C; Boucher, Charles A B; Nikolopoulos, Georgios; Vasylyeva, Tetyana; Friedman, Samuel R; van de Vijver, David; Angarano, Gioacchino; Chaix, Marie-Laure; de Luca, Andrea; Korn, Klaus; Loveday, Clive; Soriano, Vincent; Yerly, Sabine; Zazzi, Mauricio; Vandamme, Anne-Mieke; Paraskevis, Dimitrios

    2016-12-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) was discovered in the early 1980s when the virus had already established a pandemic. For at least three decades the epidemic in the Western World has been dominated by subtype B infections, as part of a sub-epidemic that traveled from Africa through Haiti to United States. However, the pattern of the subsequent spread still remains poorly understood. Here we analyze a large dataset of globally representative HIV-1 subtype B strains to map their spread around the world over the last 50years and describe significant spread patterns. We show that subtype B travelled from North America to Western Europe in different occasions, while Central/Eastern Europe remained isolated for the most part of the early epidemic. Looking with more detail in European countries we see that the United Kingdom, France and Switzerland exchanged viral isolates with non-European countries than with European ones. The observed pattern is likely to mirror geopolitical landmarks in the post-World War II era, namely the rise and the fall of the Iron Curtain and the European colonialism. In conclusion, HIV-1 spread through specific migration routes which are consistent with geopolitical factors that affected human activities during the last 50years, such as migration, tourism and trade. Our findings support the argument that epidemic control policies should be global and incorporate political and socioeconomic factors. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Stroke subtype classification by geometrical descriptors of lesion shape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastian Cheng

    Full Text Available Inference of etiology from lesion pattern in acute magnetic resonance imaging is valuable for management and prognosis of acute stroke patients. This study aims to assess the value of three-dimensional geometrical lesion-shape descriptors for stroke-subtype classification, specifically regarding stroke of cardioembolic origin.Stroke Etiology was classified according to ASCOD in retrospectively selected patients with acute stroke. Lesions were segmented on diffusion-weighed datasets, and descriptors of lesion shape quantified: surface area, sphericity, bounding box volume, and ratio between bounding box and lesion volume. Morphological measures were compared between stroke subtypes classified by ASCOD and between patients with embolic stroke of cardiac and non-cardiac source.150 patients (mean age 77 years; 95% CI, 65-80 years; median NIHSS 6, range 0-22 were included. Group comparison of lesion shape measures demonstrated that lesions caused by small-vessel disease were smaller and more spherical compared to other stroke subtypes. No significant differences of morphological measures were detected between patients with cardioembolic and non-cardioembolic stroke.Stroke lesions caused by small vessel disease can be distinguished from other stroke lesions based on distinctive morphological properties. However, within the group of embolic strokes, etiology could not be inferred from the morphology measures studied in our analysis.

  19. Association of human herpesvirus 6 subtypes with symptomatic apical periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernádi, Katinka; Csoma, Eszter; Adám, Balázs; Szalmás, Anita; Gyöngyösi, Eszter; Veress, György; Ildikó-Márton; Kónya, József

    2011-09-01

    The occurrence of human herpesvirus (HHV) 6 subtypes A and B in apical periodontitis was determined. The relationship of HHV-6 subtypes to other disease associated herpesviruses, i.e., Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and human cytomegalovirus, was also investigated. Forty apical periodontitis samples (17 symptomatic and 23 asymptomatic) and 40 healthy pulp control samples were collected. Nested polymerase chain reaction was used to detect HHV-6 DNA. HHV-6 DNA was observed in significantly higher frequencies in apical periodontitis samples than in control samples (20% vs. 2.5%; P = .03). Further classification of apical lesions revealed that subtype B of HHV-6 was significantly associated with large-sized and symptomatic lesions (P apical lesions (77%) harbored ≥1 of the tested herpesviruses: EBV was the most frequent herpesvirus (72.5%) in apical periodontitis, followed by HHV-6 (20%). Our findings suggest that EBV and HHV-6B infections can be associated with symptomatic apical periodontitis. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Clinical investigation of set-shifting subtypes in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbate-Daga, Giovanni; Buzzichelli, Sara; Marzola, Enrica; Amianto, Federico; Fassino, Secondo

    2014-11-30

    While evidence continues to accumulate on the relevance of cognitive inflexibility in anorexia nervosa (AN), its clinical correlates remain unclear. We aimed at examining the relationship between set-shifting and clinical variables (i.e., eating psychopathology, depression, and personality) in AN. Ninety-four individuals affected by AN and 59 healthy controls (HC) were recruited. All participants were assessed using: Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2), Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). The AN group scored worse than HCs on set-shifting. According to their neuropsychological performances, AN patients were split into two groups corresponding to poor (N=30) and intact (N=64) set-shifting subtypes. Interoceptive awareness, impulse regulation, and maturity fears on the EDI-2 and depression on the BDI differed across all groups (HC, intact, and poor set-shifting subtype). Self-directedness on the TCI differed significantly among all groups. Cooperativeness and reward dependence differed instead only between HC and AN poor set-shifting subtype. After controlling for depression, only interoceptive awareness remained significant with reward dependence showing a trend towards statistical significance. These findings suggest that multiple clinical variables may be correlated with set-shifting performances in AN. The factors contributing to impaired cognitive inflexibility could be more complex than heretofore generally considered. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Identification and functional analysis of pheromone and receptor genes in the B3 mating locus of Pleurotus eryngii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung-Hee; Kang, Young Min; Im, Chak Han; Ali, Asjad; Kim, Sun Young; Je, Hee-Jeong; Kim, Min-Keun; Rho, Hyun Su; Lee, Hyun Sook; Kong, Won-Sik; Ryu, Jae-San

    2014-01-01

    Pleurotus eryngii has recently become a major cultivated mushroom; it uses tetrapolar heterothallism as a part of its reproductive process. Sexual development progresses only when the A and B mating types are compatible. Such mating incompatibility occasionally limits the efficiency of breeding programs in which crossing within loci-shared strains or backcrossing strategies are employed. Therefore, understanding the mating system in edible mushroom fungi will help provide a short cut in the development of new strains. We isolated and identified pheromone and receptor genes in the B3 locus of P. eryngii and performed a functional analysis of the genes in the mating process by transformation. A genomic DNA library was constructed to map the entire mating-type locus. The B3 locus was found to contain four pheromone precursor genes and four receptor genes. Remarkably, receptor PESTE3.3.1 has just 34 amino acid residues in its C-terminal cytoplasmic region; therefore, it seems likely to be a receptor-like gene. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR (real-time qRT-PCR) revealed that most pheromone and receptor genes showed significantly higher expression in monokaryotic cells than dikaryotic cells. The pheromone genes PEphb3.1 and PEphb3.3 and the receptor gene PESTE3.3.1 were transformed into P5 (A3B4). The transformants were mated with a tester strain (A4B4), and the progeny showed clamp connections and a normal fruiting body, which indicates the proposed role of these genes in mating and fruiting processes. This result also confirms that PESTE3.3.1 is a receptor gene. In this study, we identified pheromone and receptor genes in the B3 locus of P. eryngii and found that some of those genes appear to play a role in the mating and fruiting processes. These results might help elucidate the mechanism of fruiting differentiation and improve breeding efficiency.

  2. Outbreak of enterovirus D68 of the new B3 lineage in Stockholm, Sweden, August to September 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyrdak, Robert; Grabbe, Malin; Hammas, Berit; Ekwall, Jonas; Hansson, Karin E; Luthander, Joachim; Naucler, Pontus; Reinius, Henrik; Rotzén-Östlund, Maria; Albert, Jan

    2016-11-17

    We report an enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) outbreak in Stockholm Sweden in 2016. Between 22 August and 25 September EV-D68 was detected in 74/495 respiratory samples analysed at the Karolinska University Hospital. During the peak week, 30/91 (33%) samples were EV-D68 positive. Viral protein (VP)P4/VP2 sequencing revealed that cases were caused by B3 lineage strains. Forty-four (59%) EV-D68-positive patients were children aged ≤ 5 years. Ten patients had severe respiratory or neurological symptoms and one died. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2016.

  3. Absorption, fluorescence and second harmonic generation in Cr3+-doped BiB3O6 glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznik, W.; Fuks-Janczarek, I.; Wojciechowski, A.; Kityk, I. V.; Kiisk, V.; Majchrowski, A.; Jaroszewicz, L. R.; Brik, M. G.; Nagy, G. U. L.

    2015-06-01

    Synthesis, spectral properties and photoinduced nonlinear optical effects of chromium-doped BiB3O6 glass are studied in the present paper. Absorption, excitation and time resolved luminescence spectra are presented and luminescence decay behavior is discussed. Detailed analysis of the obtained spectra (assignment of the most prominent spectral features in terms of the corresponding Cr3+ energy levels, crystal field strength Dq, Racah parameters B and C) was performed. A weak photostimulated second harmonic generation signal was found to increase drastically due to poling by proton implantation in the investigated sample.

  4. Strategies for subtyping influenza viruses circulating in the Danish pig population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Trebbien, Ramona

    2010-01-01

    in the Danish pig population functional and rapid subtyping assays are required. The conventional RT-PCR influenza subtyping assays developed by Chiapponi et al. (2003) have been implemented and used for typing of influenza viruses found positive in a pan influenza A real time RT-PCR assay. The H1 and N1 assays......Influenza viruses are endemic in the Danish pig population and the dominant circulating subtypes are H1N1, a Danish H1N2 reassortant, and H3N2. Here we present our current and future strategies for influenza virus subtyping. For diagnostic and surveillance of influenza subtypes circulating...... were specific when applied on Danish influenza positive samples, whereas the N2 assay consistently showed several unspecific PCR products. A subset of positive influenza samples detected by the real time RT-PCR screening assay could not be subtyped using these assays. Therefore, new influenza subtyping...

  5. Efficacy of a partial hospital programme for adults with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tiffany A; Cusack, Anne; Anderson, Leslie K; Trim, Julie; Nakamura, Tiffany; Trunko, Mary Ellen; Kaye, Walter H

    2018-05-01

    Partial hospital programmes (PHPs) have demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of eating disorders (EDs); however, few programmes have examined long-term outcomes across diagnoses, including subtypes of anorexia nervosa (AN). The present study examined the effectiveness of PHP for adult patients (n = 243) with AN-restricting subtype (n = 79), AN binge/purge subtype (n = 46), and bulimia nervosa (n = 118). These patients tended to have long-standing courses of illness (43%, illness duration >7 years) and high levels of psychiatric comorbidity (92.2%). Patients completed questionnaires at admission, discharge, and follow-up, M (SD) = 11.50 months (5.29). Through follow-up, all diagnoses demonstrated significant improvements in weight, ED psychopathology, and comorbid symptoms, with some exceptions for the AN binge/purge group. In exploratory analyses, 49% of patients met criteria for full or partial remission at discharge and 37% at follow-up. Results provide support for the effectiveness of PHP in improving ED outcomes in a severe sample through longer-term follow-up. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  6. Cast Partial Denture versus Acrylic Partial Denture for Replacement of Missing Teeth in Partially Edentulous Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramita Suwal

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To compare the effects of cast partial denture with conventional all acrylic denture in respect to retention, stability, masticatory efficiency, comfort and periodontal health of abutments. Methods: 50 adult partially edentulous patient seeking for replacement of missing teeth having Kennedy class I and II arches with or without modification areas were selected for the study. Group-A was treated with cast partial denture and Group-B with acrylic partial denture. Data collected during follow-up visit of 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year by evaluating retention, stability, masticatory efficiency, comfort, periodontal health of abutment. Results: Chi-square test was applied to find out differences between the groups at 95% confidence interval where p = 0.05. One year comparison shows that cast partial denture maintained retention and stability better than acrylic partial denture (p< 0.05. The masticatory efficiency was significantly compromising from 3rd month to 1 year in all acrylic partial denture groups (p< 0.05. The comfort of patient with cast partial denture was maintained better during the observation period (p< 0.05. Periodontal health of abutment was gradually deteriorated in all acrylic denture group (p

  7. Distribution of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtypes in the State of Amazonas, Brazil, and subtype C identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha, L.K.H.; Kashima, S.; Amarante, M.F.C.; Haddad, R.; Rodrigues, E.S.; Silva, K.L.T.; Lima, T.A.; Castro, D.B.; Brito, F.C.; Almeida, E.G.; Covas, D.T.; Malheiro, A.

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have reported the molecular epidemiological characterization of HIV-1 in the Northern region of Brazil. The present study reports the molecular and epidemiological characterization of 31 HIV-1 isolates from blood donors from the State of Amazonas who donated blood between April 2006 and March 2007. Serum/plasma samples from all donors were screened for HIV antibodies by ELISA and the results confirmed by Western blot analysis. Genomic DNA was extracted from the buffy coat using the Super Quik-Gene-DNA Isolation kit. Nested PCR was performed on the env, gag, and pol regions of HIV-1 using the Gene Amp PCR System 9700. Sequencing reactions were performed using the inner PCR primers and the DYEnamic™ ET Dye Terminator Kit, and phylogenetic analysis was performed using the gag, pol, and env gene sequences. We collected samples from 31 blood donors who tested positive for HIV-1 in confirmatory experiments. The male:female ratio of blood donors was 3.4:1, and the mean age was 32.4 years (range: 19 to 61 years). Phylogenetic analysis showed that subtype B is the most prevalent among Northern Brazilian HIV-1-seropositive blood donors. One HIV-1 subtype C and one circulating recombinant form (CRF-BF) of HIV-1 were identified in the State of Amazonas. This is the first study showing the occurrence of a possible “homogenous” subtype C in this region of Brazil. This finding could contribute to a better characterization of the HIV-1 strains that circulate in the country. Key words: HIV-1; Subtypes; Phylogenetic analysis; Blood donors; Molecular and epidemiological characterization

  8. Gene expression profiling, pathway analysis and subtype classification reveal molecular heterogeneity in hepatocellular carcinoma and suggest subtype specific therapeutic targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Rahul; Narayan, Jitendra; Bhattacharyya, Amitava; Saraswat, Mayank; Tomar, Anil Kumar

    2017-10-01

    A very low 5-year survival rate among hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients is mainly due to lack of early stage diagnosis, distant metastasis and high risk of postoperative recurrence. Hence ascertaining novel biomarkers for early diagnosis and patient specific therapeutics is crucial and urgent. Here, we have performed a comprehensive analysis of the expression data of 423 HCC patients (373 tumors and 50 controls) downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) followed by pathway enrichment by gene ontology annotations, subtype classification and overall survival analysis. The differential gene expression analysis using non-parametric Wilcoxon test revealed a total of 479 up-regulated and 91 down-regulated genes in HCC compared to controls. The list of top differentially expressed genes mainly consists of tumor/cancer associated genes, such as AFP, THBS4, LCN2, GPC3, NUF2, etc. The genes over-expressed in HCC were mainly associated with cell cycle pathways. In total, 59 kinases associated genes were found over-expressed in HCC, including TTK, MELK, BUB1, NEK2, BUB1B, AURKB, PLK1, CDK1, PKMYT1, PBK, etc. Overall four distinct HCC subtypes were predicted using consensus clustering method. Each subtype was unique in terms of gene expression, pathway enrichment and median survival. Conclusively, this study has exposed a number of interesting genes which can be exploited in future as potential markers of HCC, diagnostic as well as prognostic and subtype classification may guide for improved and specific therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Distribution of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtypes in the State of Amazonas, Brazil, and subtype C identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, L.K.H. [Departamento de Parasitologia, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Manaus, AM (Brazil); Kashima, S.; Amarante, M.F.C.; Haddad, R.; Rodrigues, E.S. [Laboratório de Biologia Molecular, Hemocentro de Ribeirão Preto, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Silva, K.L.T.; Lima, T.A.; Castro, D.B.; Brito, F.C.; Almeida, E.G. [Diretoria de Ensino e Pesquisa,Fundação de Hematologia e Hemoterapia do Amazonas, Manaus, AM (Brazil); Covas, D.T. [Laboratório de Biologia Molecular, Hemocentro de Ribeirão Preto, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Malheiro, A. [Departamento de Parasitologia, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Manaus, AM (Brazil); Diretoria de Ensino e Pesquisa,Fundação de Hematologia e Hemoterapia do Amazonas, Manaus, AM (Brazil)

    2012-01-20

    Few studies have reported the molecular epidemiological characterization of HIV-1 in the Northern region of Brazil. The present study reports the molecular and epidemiological characterization of 31 HIV-1 isolates from blood donors from the State of Amazonas who donated blood between April 2006 and March 2007. Serum/plasma samples from all donors were screened for HIV antibodies by ELISA and the results confirmed by Western blot analysis. Genomic DNA was extracted from the buffy coat using the Super Quik-Gene-DNA Isolation kit. Nested PCR was performed on the env, gag, and pol regions of HIV-1 using the Gene Amp PCR System 9700. Sequencing reactions were performed using the inner PCR primers and the DYEnamic™ ET Dye Terminator Kit, and phylogenetic analysis was performed using the gag, pol, and env gene sequences. We collected samples from 31 blood donors who tested positive for HIV-1 in confirmatory experiments. The male:female ratio of blood donors was 3.4:1, and the mean age was 32.4 years (range: 19 to 61 years). Phylogenetic analysis showed that subtype B is the most prevalent among Northern Brazilian HIV-1-seropositive blood donors. One HIV-1 subtype C and one circulating recombinant form (CRF-BF) of HIV-1 were identified in the State of Amazonas. This is the first study showing the occurrence of a possible “homogenous” subtype C in this region of Brazil. This finding could contribute to a better characterization of the HIV-1 strains that circulate in the country. Key words: HIV-1; Subtypes; Phylogenetic analysis; Blood donors; Molecular and epidemiological characterization.

  10. Subtypes of Patients Experiencing Exacerbations of COPD and Associations with Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arostegui, Inmaculada; Esteban, Cristobal; García-Gutierrez, Susana; Bare, Marisa; Fernández-de-Larrea, Nerea; Briones, Eduardo; Quintana, José M.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a complex and heterogeneous condition characterized by occasional exacerbations. Identifying clinical subtypes among patients experiencing COPD exacerbations (ECOPD) could help better understand the pathophysiologic mechanisms involved in exacerbations, establish different strategies of treatment, and improve the process of care and patient prognosis. The objective of this study was to identify subtypes of ECOPD patients attending emergency departments using clinical variables and to validate the results using several outcomes. We evaluated data collected as part of the IRYSS-COPD prospective cohort study conducted in 16 hospitals in Spain. Variables collected from ECOPD patients attending one of the emergency departments included arterial blood gases, presence of comorbidities, previous COPD treatment, baseline severity of COPD, and previous hospitalizations for ECOPD. Patient subtypes were identified by combining results from multiple correspondence analysis and cluster analysis. Results were validated using key outcomes of ECOPD evolution. Four ECOPD subtypes were identified based on the severity of the current exacerbation and general health status (largely a function of comorbidities): subtype A (n = 934), neither high comorbidity nor severe exacerbation; subtype B (n = 682), moderate comorbidities; subtype C (n = 562), severe comorbidities related to mortality; and subtype D (n = 309), very severe process of exacerbation, significantly related to mortality and admission to an intensive care unit. Subtype D experienced the highest rate of mortality, admission to an intensive care unit and need for noninvasive mechanical ventilation, followed by subtype C. Subtypes A and B were primarily related to other serious complications. Hospitalization rate was more than 50% for all the subtypes, although significantly higher for subtypes C and D than for subtypes A and B. These results could help identify

  11. Synthesis, spectroscopic, computational (DFT/B3LYP), AChE inhibition and antioxidant studies of imidazole derivative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Faheem; Alam, Mohammad Jane; Alam, Mahboob; Azaz, Shaista; Parveen, Mehtab; Park, Soonheum; Ahmad, Shabbir

    2018-01-01

    The present study reports the synthesis and evaluation of biological properties of 3a,8a-dihydroxy-8-oxo-1,3,3a,8a-tetrahydroindeno[1,2-d]imidazol-2(1H)-iminium chloride (3). The structure was confirmed by the FTIR, NMR, MS, CHN microanalysis and X-ray crystallographic analysis. Quantum chemical calculations have been performed at B3LYP-D3/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory to study the molecular geometry, IR, (1H and 13C) NMR, UV/Vis spectra and other molecular parameters of the asymmetric unit of crystal of imidazole compound (3). An empirical dispersion correction to hybrid functional (B3LYP-D3) has been incorporated in the present calculations due to presence of non-covalent interaction, Cl⋯H-O, in the present compound. The remarkable agreement has been observed between theoretical data and those measured experimentally. Moreover, the Hirshfeld analysis was carried out to ascertain the secondary interactions and associated 2D fingerprint plots. The synthesized imidazole derivative showed promising antioxidant property and inhibitory activity against acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Molecular docking was also performed in order to explain in silico antioxidant studies and to ascertain the probable binding mode of compound with the amino acid residues of protein.

  12. Graphene-containing PCL- coated Porous 13-93B3 Bioactive Glass Scaffolds for Bone Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türk, Mert; Deliormanlı, Aylin M.

    2018-04-01

    Borate-based 13-93B3 bioactive glass scaffolds were coated with the graphene-containing poly-caprolactone (PCL) solution to prepare electrically conductive composites for biomedical applications. Results revealed that electrical conductivity of the scaffolds increased with increasing concentration of graphene nanoparticles. Significant difference was not observed in hydroxyapatite forming ability of the bare and the graphene-containing scaffolds immersed in simulated body fluid. In vitro cytotoxicity experiments (XTT tests) showed that pre-osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cell viability percentages of the graphene- containing samples was higher than control group samples after 7 days of incubation. However, a decrease in cell viability rates was obtained after 14 days of incubation for samples coated with PCL containing graphene starting from 3 wt%. Additionally, results obtained in the live-dead assay were consistent with the results of XTT tests. A higher ALP activity was detected in cells cultured on the graphene-containing borate glass scaffolds than those on the bare PCL coated 13-93B3 scaffolds suggesting the presence of graphene nanopowders stimulated an early stage of osteoblastic differentiation. SEM analysis showed that MC3T3-E1 cells exhibited a flat appearance and spread out through the surface in all groups of scaffolds starting from 3 days of incubation.

  13. 18 CFR Appendix I to Subpart F of... - Procedures for Compliance With the Endangered Species Act of 1973 Under § 157.206(b)(3)(i)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Compliance With the Endangered Species Act of 1973 Under § 157.206(b)(3)(i) I Appendix I to Subpart F of... Compliance With the Endangered Species Act of 1973 Under § 157.206(b)(3)(i) The following procedures apply to... ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT APPLICATIONS FOR CERTIFICATES OF PUBLIC CONVENIENCE AND...

  14. 26 CFR 31.3406(b)(3)-2 - Reportable barter exchanges and gross proceeds of sales of securities or commodities by brokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of sales of securities or commodities by brokers. 31.3406(b)(3)-2 Section 31.3406(b)(3)-2 Internal... or commodities by brokers. (a) Transactions subject to backup withholding. A payment of a kind, and to a payee, that any broker (as defined in section 6045(c) and § 1.6045-1(a)(1) of this chapter) or...

  15. 26 CFR 48.6416(b)(3)-3 - Supporting evidence required in case of tax-paid articles used for further manufacture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... articles used for further manufacture. 48.6416(b)(3)-3 Section 48.6416(b)(3)-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL... manufacture. (a) Evidence to be submitted by claimant. No claim for credit or refund of an overpayment, within... of payment, (5) Indicating that the article was used by the claimant as material in the manufacture...

  16. The Region of Difference Four is a Robust Genetic Marker for Subtyping Mycobacterium caprae Isolates and is Linked to Spatial Distribution of Three Subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettinger, A; Broeckl, S; Fink, M; Prodinger, W M; Blum, H; Krebs, S; Domogalla, J; Just, F; Gellert, S; Straubinger, R K; Büttner, M

    2017-06-01

    Alpine Mycobacterium caprae isolates found in cattle and red deer display at least three genetic variations in the region of difference four (RD4) that can be used for further differentiation of the isolates into the subtypes 'Allgäu', 'Karwendel' and 'Lechtal'. Each genomic subtype is thereby characterized by a specific nucleotide deletion pattern in the 12.7-kb RD4 region. Even though M. caprae infections are frequently documented in cattle and red deer, little is known about the transmission routes. Hence, robust markers for M. caprae subtyping are needed to gain insight into the molecular epidemiology. For this reason, a rapid and robust multiplex PCR was developed for the simultaneous detection of three M. caprae RD4 subtypes and was used to subtype a total number of 241 M. caprae isolates from animals (145 cattle, 95 red deer and one fox) from Bavaria and Austria. All three subtypes occur spatially distributed and are found in cattle and in red deer suggesting transmission between the two species. As subtypes are genetically stable in both species it is hypothesized that the described genetic variations developed within the host due to 'within-host replication'. The results of this study recommend the genomic RD4 region as a reliable diagnostic marker for M. caprae subtype differentiation. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Physics of partially ionized plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Krishan, Vinod

    2016-01-01

    Plasma is one of the four fundamental states of matter; the other three being solid, liquid and gas. Several components, such as molecular clouds, diffuse interstellar gas, the solar atmosphere, the Earth's ionosphere and laboratory plasmas, including fusion plasmas, constitute the partially ionized plasmas. This book discusses different aspects of partially ionized plasmas including multi-fluid description, equilibrium and types of waves. The discussion goes on to cover the reionization phase of the universe, along with a brief description of high discharge plasmas, tokomak plasmas and laser plasmas. Various elastic and inelastic collisions amongst the three particle species are also presented. In addition, the author demonstrates the novelty of partially ionized plasmas using many examples; for instance, in partially ionized plasma the magnetic induction is subjected to the ambipolar diffusion and the Hall effect, as well as the usual resistive dissipation. Also included is an observation of kinematic dynam...

  18. Partially massless fields during inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Daniel; Goon, Garrett; Lee, Hayden; Pimentel, Guilherme L.

    2018-04-01

    The representation theory of de Sitter space allows for a category of partially massless particles which have no flat space analog, but could have existed during inflation. We study the couplings of these exotic particles to inflationary perturbations and determine the resulting signatures in cosmological correlators. When inflationary perturbations interact through the exchange of these fields, their correlation functions inherit scalings that cannot be mimicked by extra massive fields. We discuss in detail the squeezed limit of the tensor-scalar-scalar bispectrum, and show that certain partially massless fields can violate the tensor consistency relation of single-field inflation. We also consider the collapsed limit of the scalar trispectrum, and find that the exchange of partially massless fields enhances its magnitude, while giving no contribution to the scalar bispectrum. These characteristic signatures provide clean detection channels for partially massless fields during inflation.

  19. Methylphenidate Ameliorates Depressive Comorbidity in ADHD Children without any Modification on Differences in Serum Melatonin Concentration between ADHD Subtypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cubero-Millán

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The vast majority of Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD patients have other associated pathologies, with depressive symptoms as one of the most prevalent. Among the mediators that may participate in ADHD, melatonin is thought to regulate circadian rhythms, neurological function and stress response. To determine (1 the serum baseline daily variations and nocturnal excretion of melatonin in ADHD subtypes and (2 the effect of chronic administration of methylphenidate, as well as the effects on symptomatology, 136 children with ADHD (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision: DSM-IV-TR criteria were divided into subgroups using the “Children’s Depression Inventory” (CDI. Blood samples were drawn at 20:00 and 09:00 h, and urine was collected between 21:00 and 09:00 h, at inclusion and after 4.61 ± 2.29 months of treatment. Melatonin and its urine metabolite were measured by radioimmunoassay RIA. Factorial analysis was performed using STATA 12.0. Melatonin was higher predominantly in hyperactive-impulsive/conduct disordered children (PHI/CD of the ADHD subtype, without the influence of comorbid depressive symptoms. Methylphenidate ameliorated this comorbidity without induction of any changes in the serum melatonin profile, but treatment with it was associated with a decrease in 6-s-melatonin excretion in both ADHD subtypes. Conclusions: In untreated children, partial homeostatic restoration of disrupted neuroendocrine equilibrium most likely led to an increased serum melatonin in PHI/CD children. A differential cerebral melatonin metabolization after methylphenidate may underlie some of the clinical benefit.

  20. Correlation of microarray-based breast cancer molecular subtypes and clinical outcomes: implications for treatment optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu Hui-Chi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Optimizing treatment through microarray-based molecular subtyping is a promising method to address the problem of heterogeneity in breast cancer; however, current application is restricted to prediction of distant recurrence risk. This study investigated whether breast cancer molecular subtyping according to its global intrinsic biology could be used for treatment customization. Methods Gene expression profiling was conducted on fresh frozen breast cancer tissue collected from 327 patients in conjunction with thoroughly documented clinical data. A method of molecular subtyping based on 783 probe-sets was established and validated. Statistical analysis was performed to correlate molecular subtypes with survival outcome and adjuvant chemotherapy regimens. Heterogeneity of molecular subtypes within groups sharing the same distant recurrence risk predicted by genes of the Oncotype and MammaPrint predictors was studied. Results We identified six molecular subtypes of breast cancer demonstrating distinctive molecular and clinical characteristics. These six subtypes showed similarities and significant differences from the Perou-Sørlie intrinsic types. Subtype I breast cancer was in concordance with chemosensitive basal-like intrinsic type. Adjuvant chemotherapy of lower intensity with CMF yielded survival outcome similar to those of CAF in this subtype. Subtype IV breast cancer was positive for ER with a full-range expression of HER2, responding poorly to CMF; however, this subtype showed excellent survival when treated with CAF. Reduced expression of a gene associated with methotrexate sensitivity in subtype IV was the likely reason for poor response to methotrexate. All subtype V breast cancer was positive for ER and had excellent long-term survival with hormonal therapy alone following surgery and/or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy did not provide any survival benefit in early stages of subtype V patients. Subtype V was

  1. Correlation of microarray-based breast cancer molecular subtypes and clinical outcomes: implications for treatment optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, Kuo-Jang; Chang, Kai-Ming; Hsu, Hui-Chi; Huang, Andrew T

    2011-01-01

    Optimizing treatment through microarray-based molecular subtyping is a promising method to address the problem of heterogeneity in breast cancer; however, current application is restricted to prediction of distant recurrence risk. This study investigated whether breast cancer molecular subtyping according to its global intrinsic biology could be used for treatment customization. Gene expression profiling was conducted on fresh frozen breast cancer tissue collected from 327 patients in conjunction with thoroughly documented clinical data. A method of molecular subtyping based on 783 probe-sets was established and validated. Statistical analysis was performed to correlate molecular subtypes with survival outcome and adjuvant chemotherapy regimens. Heterogeneity of molecular subtypes within groups sharing the same distant recurrence risk predicted by genes of the Oncotype and MammaPrint predictors was studied. We identified six molecular subtypes of breast cancer demonstrating distinctive molecular and clinical characteristics. These six subtypes showed similarities and significant differences from the Perou-Sørlie intrinsic types. Subtype I breast cancer was in concordance with chemosensitive basal-like intrinsic type. Adjuvant chemotherapy of lower intensity with CMF yielded survival outcome similar to those of CAF in this subtype. Subtype IV breast cancer was positive for ER with a full-range expression of HER2, responding poorly to CMF; however, this subtype showed excellent survival when treated with CAF. Reduced expression of a gene associated with methotrexate sensitivity in subtype IV was the likely reason for poor response to methotrexate. All subtype V breast cancer was positive for ER and had excellent long-term survival with hormonal therapy alone following surgery and/or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy did not provide any survival benefit in early stages of subtype V patients. Subtype V was consistent with a unique subset of luminal A intrinsic

  2. Introduction to partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Greenspan, Donald

    2000-01-01

    Designed for use in a one-semester course by seniors and beginning graduate students, this rigorous presentation explores practical methods of solving differential equations, plus the unifying theory underlying the mathematical superstructure. Topics include basic concepts, Fourier series, second-order partial differential equations, wave equation, potential equation, heat equation, approximate solution of partial differential equations, and more. Exercises appear at the ends of most chapters. 1961 edition.

  3. The simultaneous expression of both ephrin B3 receptor and E-cadherin in Barrett`s adenocarcinoma is associated with favorable clinical staging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schauer Matthias C

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In intestinal epithelium, tyrosine kinase receptor Ephrin B3 (Eph B3 maintains the architecture of the crypt-villus axis by repulsive interaction with its ligand ephrin-B1. While loss of Eph B3 is linked to colorectal cancer initiation, overexpression of Eph B3 in cancer cell lines inhibits growth and induces functional changes with decreased mesenchymal and increased epithelial markers. In order to study this tumor suppressor activity of Eph B3 in esophageal adenocarcinoma we analyzed the simultaneous expression of Eph B3 and E-cadherin in both the healthy esophagus and in Barrett’s carcinoma. Methods Simultaneous expression of Eph B3 and E-cadherin was investigated in samples from 141 patients with Barrett’s carcinoma and from 20 healthy esophagi using immunhistology and quantitative PCR. Results from healthy squamous epithelium, Barrett’s metaplasia and staging-specific esophageal adenocarcinoma were correlated. Results A significantly reduced E-cadherin mRNA expression could be detected in adenocarcinoma compared to dysplasia. The immunhistological activity of E-cadherin and Eph B3 was reduced in adenocarcinoma compared to dysplasia or healthy esophageal mucosa. The intracellular E-cadherin distribution changed significantly from the cytoplasm to the membrane, when the Eph receptor was simultaneously expressed. Simultaneous expression of E-cadherin and Eph B3 showed a significant inverse correlation to tumor stage. Conclusions We present novel evidence of the tumor suppressor activity of Eph B3 in esophageal adenocarcinoma possibly due to the impact on redistribution of cellular E-cadherin to the membrane. Our results suggest that this effect might play a role in the dysplasia-adenocarcinoma sequence, the infiltrative growth pattern and the development of lymph node metastases.

  4. [Acrylic resin removable partial dentures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Baat, C; Witter, D J; Creugers, N H J

    2011-01-01

    An acrylic resin removable partial denture is distinguished from other types of removable partial dentures by an all-acrylic resin base which is, in principle, solely supported by the edentulous regions of the tooth arch and in the maxilla also by the hard palate. When compared to the other types of removable partial dentures, the acrylic resin removable partial denture has 3 favourable aspects: the economic aspect, its aesthetic quality and the ease with which it can be extended and adjusted. Disadvantages are an increased risk of caries developing, gingivitis, periodontal disease, denture stomatitis, alveolar bone reduction, tooth migration, triggering of the gag reflex and damage to the acrylic resin base. Present-day indications are ofa temporary or palliative nature or are motivated by economic factors. Special varieties of the acrylic resin removable partial denture are the spoon denture, the flexible denture fabricated of non-rigid acrylic resin, and the two-piece sectional denture. Furthermore, acrylic resin removable partial dentures can be supplied with clasps or reinforced by fibers or metal wires.

  5. The Genetic Diversity and Evolution of HIV-1 Subtype B Epidemic in Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo López

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available HIV-1 epidemics in Caribbean countries, including Puerto Rico, have been reported to be almost exclusively associated with the subtype B virus (HIV-1B. However, while HIV infections associated with other clades have been only sporadically reported, no organized data exist to accurately assess the prevalence of non-subtype B HIV-1 infection. We analyzed the nucleotide sequence data of the HIV pol gene associated with HIV isolates from Puerto Rican patients. The sequences (n = 945 were obtained from our “HIV Genotyping” test file, which has been generated over a period of 14 years (2001–2014. REGA subtyping tool found the following subtypes: B (90%, B-like (3%, B/D recombinant (6%, and D/B recombinant (0.6%. Though there were fewer cases, the following subtypes were also found (in the given proportions: A1B (0.3%, BF1 (0.2%, subtype A (01-AE (0.1%, subtype A (A2 (0.1%, subtype F (12BF (0.1%, CRF-39 BF-like (0.1%, and others (0.1%. Some of the recombinants were identified as early as 2001. Although the HIV epidemic in Puerto Rico is primarily associated with HIV-1B virus, our analysis uncovered the presence of other subtypes. There was no indication of subtype C, which has been predominantly associated with heterosexual transmission in other parts of the world.

  6. The Genetic Diversity and Evolution of HIV-1 Subtype B Epidemic in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Pablo; Rivera-Amill, Vanessa; Rodríguez, Nayra; Vargas, Freddie; Yamamura, Yasuhiro

    2015-12-23

    HIV-1 epidemics in Caribbean countries, including Puerto Rico, have been reported to be almost exclusively associated with the subtype B virus (HIV-1B). However, while HIV infections associated with other clades have been only sporadically reported, no organized data exist to accurately assess the prevalence of non-subtype B HIV-1 infection. We analyzed the nucleotide sequence data of the HIV pol gene associated with HIV isolates from Puerto Rican patients. The sequences (n = 945) were obtained from our "HIV Genotyping" test file, which has been generated over a period of 14 years (2001-2014). REGA subtyping tool found the following subtypes: B (90%), B-like (3%), B/D recombinant (6%), and D/B recombinant (0.6%). Though there were fewer cases, the following subtypes were also found (in the given proportions): A1B (0.3%), BF1 (0.2%), subtype A (01-AE) (0.1%), subtype A (A2) (0.1%), subtype F (12BF) (0.1%), CRF-39 BF-like (0.1%), and others (0.1%). Some of the recombinants were identified as early as 2001. Although the HIV epidemic in Puerto Rico is primarily associated with HIV-1B virus, our analysis uncovered the presence of other subtypes. There was no indication of subtype C, which has been predominantly associated with heterosexual transmission in other parts of the world.

  7. Semantics-Based Compiling: A Case Study in Type-Directed Partial Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Vestergaard, René

    1996-01-01

    in the style of denotational semantics; – the output of the generated compiler is effectively three-address code, in the fashion and efficiency of the Dragon Book; – the generated compiler processes several hundred lines of source code per second. The source language considered in this case study is imperative......, block-structured, higher-order, call-by-value, allows subtyping, and obeys stack discipline. It is bigger than what is usually reported in the literature on semantics-based compiling and partial evaluation. Our compiling technique uses the first Futamura projection, i.e., we compile programs...... by specializing a definitional interpreter with respect to the program. Specialization is carried out using type-directed partial evaluation, which is a mild version of partial evaluation akin to lambda-calculus normalization. Our definitional interpreter follows the format of denotational semantics, with a clear...

  8. Clinical Features Associated with Delirium Motor Subtypes in Older Inpatients: Results of a Multicenter Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morandi, Alessandro; Di Santo, Simona G; Cherubini, Antonio; Mossello, Enrico; Meagher, David; Mazzone, Andrea; Bianchetti, Angelo; Ferrara, Nicola; Ferrari, Alberto; Musicco, Massimo; Trabucchi, Marco; Bellelli, Giuseppe

    2017-10-01

    To date motor subtypes of delirium have been evaluated in single-center studies with a limited examination of the relationship between predisposing factors and motor profile of delirium. We sought to report the prevalence and clinical profile of subtypes of delirium in a multicenter study. This is a point prevalence study nested in the "Delirium Day 2015", which included 108 acute and 12 rehabilitation wards in Italy. Delirium was detected using the 4-AT and motor subtypes were measured with the Delirium Motor Subtype Scale (DMSS). A multinomial logistic regression was used to determine the factors associated with delirium subtypes. Of 429 patients with delirium, the DMSS was completed in 275 (64%), classifying 21.5% of the patients with hyperactive delirium, 38.5% with hypoactive, 27.3% with mixed and 12.7% with the non-motor subtype. The 4-AT score was higher in the hyperactive subtype, similar in the hypoactive, mixed subtypes, while it was lowest in the non-motor subtype. Dementia was associated with all three delirium motor subtypes (hyperactive, OR 3.3, 95% CI: 1.2-8.7; hypoactive, OR 2.8, 95% CI: 1.2-6.5; mixed OR 2.6, 95% CI: 1.1-6.2). Atypical antipsychotics were associated with hypoactive delirium (OR 0.23, 95% CI: 0.1-0.7), while intravenous lines were associated with mixed delirium (OR 2.9, 95% CI: 1.2-6.9). The study shows that hypoactive delirium is the most common subtype among hospitalized older patients. Specific clinical features were associated with different delirium subtypes. The use of standardized instruments can help to characterize the phenomenology of different motor subtypes of delirium. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Robust stratification of breast cancer subtypes using differential patterns of transcript isoform expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas P Stricker

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer, the second leading cause of cancer death of women worldwide, is a heterogenous disease with multiple different subtypes. These subtypes carry important implications for prognosis and therapy. Interestingly, it is known that these different subtypes not only have different biological behaviors, but also have distinct gene expression profiles. However, it has not been rigorously explored whether particular transcriptional isoforms are also differentially expressed among breast cancer subtypes, or whether transcript isoforms from the same sets of genes can be used to differentiate subtypes. To address these questions, we analyzed the patterns of transcript isoform expression using a small set of RNA-sequencing data for eleven Estrogen Receptor positive (ER+ subtype and fourteen triple negative (TN subtype tumors. We identified specific sets of isoforms that distinguish these tumor subtypes with higher fidelity than standard mRNA expression profiles. We found that alternate promoter usage, alternative splicing, and alternate 3'UTR usage are differentially regulated in breast cancer subtypes. Profiling of isoform expression in a second, independent cohort of 68 tumors confirmed that expression of splice isoforms differentiates breast cancer subtypes. Furthermore, analysis of RNAseq data from 594 cases from the TCGA cohort confirmed the ability of isoform usage to distinguish breast cancer subtypes. Also using our expression data, we identified several RNA processing factors that were differentially expressed between tumor subtypes and/or regulated by estrogen receptor, including YBX1, YBX2, MAGOH, MAGOHB, and PCBP2. RNAi knock-down of these RNA processing factors in MCF7 cells altered isoform expression. These results indicate that global dysregulation of splicing in breast cancer occurs in a subtype-specific and reproducible manner and is driven by specific differentially expressed RNA processing factors.

  10. Perfluorooctanoic acid affects endocytosis involving clathrin light chain A and microRNA-133b-3p in mouse testes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Yin; Wang, Jianshe [Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Guo, Xuejiang [State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029, PR China. (China); Yan, Shengmin [Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Dai, Jiayin, E-mail: daijy@ioz.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China)

    2017-03-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is an abundant perfluoroalkyl substance widely applied in industrial and consumer products. Among its potential health hazards, testicular toxicity is of major concern. To explore the potential effect of miRNA on post-translational regulation after PFOA exposure, changes in miRNAs were detected via miRNA array. Seventeen miRNAs were differentially expressed (eight upregulated, nine downregulated) in male mouse testes after exposure to 5 mg/kg/d of PFOA for 28 d (> 1.5-fold and P < 0.05 compared with the control). Eight of these miRNAs were further selected for TaqMan qPCR analysis. Proteomic profile analysis indicated that many changed proteins after PFOA treatment, including intersectin 1 (ITSN1), serine protease inhibitor A3K (Serpina3k), and apolipoprotein a1 (APOA1), were involved in endocytosis and blood-testis barrier (BTB) processes. These changes were further verified by immunohistochemical and Western blot analyses. Endocytosis-related genes were selected for qPCR analysis, with many found to be significantly changed after PFOA treatment, including epidermal growth factor receptor pathway substrate 8 (Eps8), Eps15, cortactin, cofilin, espin, vinculin, and zyxin. We further predicted the potential interaction between changed miRNAs and proteins, which indicated that miRNAs might play a role in the post-translational regulation of gene expression after PFOA treatment in mouse testes. Among them, miR-133b-3p/clathrin light chain A (CLTA) was selected and verified in vitro by transfection and luciferase activity assay. Results showed that PFOA exposure affects endocytosis in mouse testes and that CLTA is a potential target of miR-133b-3p. - Highlights: • Endocytosis and blood-testis barrier proteins were changed after PFOA exposure. • Seventeen miRNAs were differentially expressed in testes after PFOA exposure. • MiRNAs might play a role in gene regulation in testes after PFOA exposure.CLTA is a potential target of miR-133b

  11. Perfluorooctanoic acid affects endocytosis involving clathrin light chain A and microRNA-133b-3p in mouse testes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Yin; Wang, Jianshe; Guo, Xuejiang; Yan, Shengmin; Dai, Jiayin

    2017-01-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is an abundant perfluoroalkyl substance widely applied in industrial and consumer products. Among its potential health hazards, testicular toxicity is of major concern. To explore the potential effect of miRNA on post-translational regulation after PFOA exposure, changes in miRNAs were detected via miRNA array. Seventeen miRNAs were differentially expressed (eight upregulated, nine downregulated) in male mouse testes after exposure to 5 mg/kg/d of PFOA for 28 d (> 1.5-fold and P < 0.05 compared with the control). Eight of these miRNAs were further selected for TaqMan qPCR analysis. Proteomic profile analysis indicated that many changed proteins after PFOA treatment, including intersectin 1 (ITSN1), serine protease inhibitor A3K (Serpina3k), and apolipoprotein a1 (APOA1), were involved in endocytosis and blood-testis barrier (BTB) processes. These changes were further verified by immunohistochemical and Western blot analyses. Endocytosis-related genes were selected for qPCR analysis, with many found to be significantly changed after PFOA treatment, including epidermal growth factor receptor pathway substrate 8 (Eps8), Eps15, cortactin, cofilin, espin, vinculin, and zyxin. We further predicted the potential interaction between changed miRNAs and proteins, which indicated that miRNAs might play a role in the post-translational regulation of gene expression after PFOA treatment in mouse testes. Among them, miR-133b-3p/clathrin light chain A (CLTA) was selected and verified in vitro by transfection and luciferase activity assay. Results showed that PFOA exposure affects endocytosis in mouse testes and that CLTA is a potential target of miR-133b-3p. - Highlights: • Endocytosis and blood-testis barrier proteins were changed after PFOA exposure. • Seventeen miRNAs were differentially expressed in testes after PFOA exposure. • MiRNAs might play a role in gene regulation in testes after PFOA exposure.CLTA is a potential target of miR-133b

  12. Predicting Subtype Selectivity for Adenosine Receptor Ligands with Three-Dimensional Biologically Relevant Spectrum (BRS-3D)

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Song-Bing; Ben Hu; Kuang, Zheng-Kun; Wang, Dong; Kong, De-Xin

    2016-11-01

    Adenosine receptors (ARs) are potential therapeutic targets for Parkinson’s disease, diabetes, pain, stroke and cancers. Prediction of subtype selectivity is therefore important from both therapeutic and mechanistic perspectives. In this paper, we introduced a shape similarity profile as molecular descriptor, namely three-dimensional biologically relevant spectrum (BRS-3D), for AR selectivity prediction. Pairwise regression and discrimination models were built with the support vector machine methods. The average determination coefficient (r2) of the regression models was 0.664 (for test sets). The 2B-3 (A2B vs A3) model performed best with q2 = 0.769 for training sets (10-fold cross-validation), and r2 = 0.766, RMSE = 0.828 for test sets. The models’ robustness and stability were validated with 100 times resampling and 500 times Y-randomization. We compared the performance of BRS-3D with 3D descriptors calculated by MOE. BRS-3D performed as good as, or better than, MOE 3D descriptors. The performances of the discrimination models were also encouraging, with average accuracy (ACC) 0.912 and MCC 0.792 (test set). The 2A-3 (A2A vs A3) selectivity discrimination model (ACC = 0.882 and MCC = 0.715 for test set) outperformed an earlier reported one (ACC = 0.784). These results demonstrated that, through multiple conformation encoding, BRS-3D can be used as an effective molecular descriptor for AR subtype selectivity prediction.

  13. Complete genomic sequences for hepatitis C virus subtypes 4b, 4c, 4d, 4g, 4k, 4l, 4m, 4n, 4o, 4p, 4q, 4r and 4t.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunhua; Lu, Ling; Wu, Xianghong; Wang, Chuanxi; Bennett, Phil; Lu, Teng; Murphy, Donald

    2009-08-01

    In this study, we characterized the full-length genomic sequences of 13 distinct hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 4 isolates/subtypes: QC264/4b, QC381/4c, QC382/4d, QC193/4g, QC383/4k, QC274/4l, QC249/4m, QC97/4n, QC93/4o, QC139/4p, QC262/4q, QC384/4r and QC155/4t. These were amplified, using RT-PCR, from the sera of patients now residing in Canada, 11 of which were African immigrants. The resulting genomes varied between 9421 and 9475 nt in length and each contains a single ORF of 9018-9069 nt. The sequences showed nucleotide similarities of 77.3-84.3 % in comparison with subtypes 4a (GenBank accession no. Y11604) and 4f (EF589160) and 70.6-72.8 % in comparison with genotype 1 (M62321/1a, M58335/1b, D14853/1c, and 1?/AJ851228) reference sequences. These similarities were often higher than those currently defined by HCV classification criteria for subtype (75.0-80.0 %) and genotype (67.0-70.0 %) division, respectively. Further analyses of the complete and partial E1 and partial NS5B sequences confirmed these 13 'provisionally assigned subtypes'.

  14. Changes in insomnia subtypes in early Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tholfsen, Lena K; Larsen, Jan P; Schulz, Jörn; Tysnes, Ole-Bjørn; Gjerstad, Michaela D

    2017-01-24

    To examine the development of factors associated with insomnia in a cohort of originally drug-naive patients with incident Parkinson disease (PD) during the first 5 years after diagnosis. One hundred eighty-two drug-naive patients with PD derived from a population-based incident cohort and 202 control participants were assessed for insomnia before treatment initiation and were repeatedly examined after 1, 3, and 5 years. Insomnia was diagnosed according to the Stavanger Sleepiness Questionnaire. The Parkinson's Disease Sleep Scale was used to differentiate sleep initiation problems from problems of sleep maintenance. Generalized estimating equation models were applied for statistical measures. The prevalence of insomnia in general was not higher in patients with PD compared to controls at the 5-year follow-up. There were changes in the prevalence of the different insomnia subtypes over the 5-year follow-up. The prevalence of solitary problems in sleep maintenance increased from 31% (n = 18) in the drug-naive patients at baseline to 49% (n = 29) after 1 year and were associated with the use of dopamine agonists and higher Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale scores. The prevalence of solitary sleep initiation problems decreased continuously from 21% (n = 12) at baseline to 7.4% (n = 4) after 5 years; these were associated with less daytime sleepiness. The prevalence rates of the different insomnia subtypes changed notably in patients with early PD. The frequency of sleep maintenance problems increased, and these problems were associated with dopamine agonist use and depressive symptoms, while the total number of patients with insomnia remained stable. Our findings reflect the need for early individual assessments of insomnia subtypes and raise the possibility of intervention to reduce these symptoms in patients with early PD. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  15. OCD with comorbid OCPD: a subtype of OCD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Meredith E; Pinto, Anthony; Mancebo, Maria C; Rasmussen, Steven A; Eisen, Jane L

    2008-03-01

    The current study examined the validity of using comorbid obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) to identify a subtype of individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Data for the current study were drawn from an ongoing, longitudinal study of the course of OCD and include intake assessments for 238 subjects with primary and current DSM-IV OCD who were treatment seeking. More than one fourth of the subjects (N=65, 27%) met criteria for comorbid OCPD. As compared to OCD-OCPD subjects, the OCD+OCPD subjects had a significantly younger age at onset of first OC symptoms (p=0.013), and a higher rate of symmetry and hoarding obsessions, and cleaning, ordering, repeating, and hoarding compulsions (all p'sOCPD had higher rates of comorbid anxiety disorders (p=0.007) and avoidant personality disorder (p=0.006). The OCD+OCPD subjects also had significantly lower ratings of global functioning (p=0.001) and more impaired social functioning (p=0.004), despite a lack of significant differences on overall severity of OCD symptoms. Our findings indicate that individuals with both OCD and OCPD have distinct clinical characteristics in terms of age at onset of initial OC symptoms, the types of obsessions and compulsions they experience, and psychiatric comorbidity. Our findings, coupled with data from family studies showing a higher than expected frequency of OCPD in first degree relatives of OCD probands, suggest that OCD associated with OCPD may represent a specific subtype of OCD. Additional research is warranted to further establish the validity of this subtype.

  16. Spreading of hepatitis C virus subtypes 1a and 1b through the central region of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culasso, Andrés Carlos Alberto; Farías, Adrián; Di Lello, Federico Alejandro; Golemba, Marcelo Darío; Ré, Viviana; Barbini, Luciana; Campos, Rodolfo

    2014-08-01

    The recent history of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) subtypes 1a and 1b in the central region of Argentina is hypothesized by phylogeographic reconstruction using coalescent based Bayesian analyses. Direct partial E2 sequences from HCV 1a and 1b infected patients attending different health-care centers of the country were analyzed. The inferred date of the most recent common ancestor (tMRCA) for HCV-1a was: 1962 (between 1943 and 1977) and for HCV-1b was earlier: 1929 (between 1895 and 1953). Diverse ancestral populations were inferred from both subtypes in Córdoba and in Buenos Aires cities and after that, HCV spread within and between larger cities and to other smaller cities. The analyses suggested that HCV-1b was dispersed first and it is currently in a stationary phase whereas HCV-1a was dispersed latter and it is still in a growth phase. Finally, as it was observed in the developed countries, while the transmission of HCV-1b appears to have been somehow prevented, the HCV-1a may still represent a concern in the public health. Further work should be carried out to address their current transmission rate (and its main transmission route) in the Argentinean population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Eradication of bovine viral diarrhea virus in Germany-Diversity of subtypes and detection of live-vaccine viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernike, Kerstin; Schirrmeier, Horst; Strebelow, Heinz-Günter; Beer, Martin

    2017-09-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) causes high economic losses in the cattle population worldwide. In Germany, an obligatory control program with detection and removal of persistently infected animals is in force since 2011. For molecular tracing of virus transmission, a comprehensive sequence data base of the currently circulating BVD viruses was established. Partial sequences of 1007 samples collected between 2008 and 2016 were generated. As dominant viruses, subtypes 1b (47.0%) and 1d (26.5%) could be identified with no marked geographic or sampling year effect, a much higher amount of BVDV-2c was detected in 2013 compared to other years, predominantly in Western Germany. In addition, subtypes 1a, 1e, 1f, 1h, 1g, 1k, and 2a were found. Interestingly, besides field-viruses, two different live-vaccine viruses were detected in tissue samples of newborn calves (n=37) whose mothers were immunized during pregnancy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Machine Learning Methods to Predict Density Functional Theory B3LYP Energies of HOMO and LUMO Orbitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Florbela; Xiao, Kaixia; Latino, Diogo A R S; Wu, Chengcheng; Zhang, Qingyou; Aires-de-Sousa, Joao

    2017-01-23

    Machine learning algorithms were explored for the fast estimation of HOMO and LUMO orbital energies calculated by DFT B3LYP, on the basis of molecular descriptors exclusively based on connectivity. The whole project involved the retrieval and generation of molecular structures, quantum chemical calculations for a database with >111 000 structures, development of new molecular descriptors, and training/validation of machine learning models. Several machine learning algorithms were screened, and an applicability domain was defined based on Euclidean distances to the training set. Random forest models predicted an external test set of 9989 compounds achieving mean absolute error (MAE) up to 0.15 and 0.16 eV for the HOMO and LUMO orbitals, respectively. The impact of the quantum chemical calculation protocol was assessed with a subset of compounds. Inclusion of the orbital energy calculated by PM7 as an additional descriptor significantly improved the quality of estimations (reducing the MAE in >30%).

  19. Geological studies of the COST No. B-3 Well, United States Mid-Atlantic continental slope area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholle, Peter A.

    1980-01-01

    The COST No. B-3 well is the first deep stratigraphic test to be drilled on the Continental Slope off the Eastern United States. The well was drilled in 2,686 ft (819 m) of water in the Baltimore Canyon trough area to a total depth of 15,820 ft (4,844 m) below the drill platform. It penetrated a section composed of mudstones, calcareous mudstones, and limestones of generally deep water origin to a depth of about 8.200 ft (2,500 m) below the drill floor. Light-colored, medium- to coarse-grained sandstones with intercalated gray and brown shales, micritic limestones, and minor coal and dolomite predominate from about 8,200 to 12,300 ft (2,500 to 3,750 m). From about 12,300 ft (3,750 m) to the bottom, the section consists of limestones (including oolitic and intraclastic grainstones) with interbedded fine-to medium-grained sandstones, dark-colored fissile shales, and numerous coal seams. Biostratigraphic examination has shown that the section down to approximately 6,000 ft (1,830 m) is Tertiary. The boundary between the Lower and Upper Cretaceous sections is placed between 8,600 and 9,200 ft (2,620 and 2,800 m) by various workers. Placement of the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary shows an even greater range based on different organisms; it is placed variously between 12,250 and 13,450 ft (3,730 and 5,000 m). The oldest unit penetrated in the well is considered to be Upper Jurassic (Kimmeridgian) by some workers and Middle Jurassic (Callovian) by others. The Lower Cretaceous and Jurassic parts of the section represent nonmarine to shallow-marine shelf sedimentation. Upper Cretaceous and Tertiary units reflect generally deeper water conditions at the B-3 well site and show a general transition from deposition at shelf to slope water depths. Examination of cores, well cuttings, and electric logs indicates that potential hydrocarbon-reservoir units are present throughout the Jurassic and Cretaceous section. Porous and moderately permeable limestones and sandstones have been

  20. Historical Perspectives and Guidelines for Botulinum Neurotoxin Subtype Nomenclature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-26

    Each neurotoxin subtype within a serotype cleaves its target substrate at the same single conserved peptide bond, except for BoNT/F5 (Table 2) [55...common for strains of C. botulinum Group III to form a chimeric or hybrid protein that combines elements of BoNT/C and BoNT/D neurotoxin, rather than a...Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. UNCLASSIFIED 15 reported as BoNT/CD or BoNT/DC chimeric toxins [22]. Two exotoxins

  1. RP-HPLC Determination of vitamins B1, B3, B6, folic acid and B12 in multivitamin tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOTE VLADIMIROV

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:Asimple and sensitive reversed-phase, ion-pair HPLC method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of B-group vitamins, thiamine chloride hydrochloride (B1, nicotinamide (B3, pyridoxine hydrochloride (B6 and folic acid in Pentovit® coated tablets. The cyanocobalamine (B12 was determined separately, because of its low concentration in the investigated multivitamin preparation. RP-HPLC analysis was performed with a LKB 2150 HPLC system, equipped with a UV/VIS Waters M484 detector. The procedures for the determination of B1, B2, B6 and folic acid were carried out on a Supelcosil ABZ+ (15 cm 4.6 mm; 5 µm column with methanol-5mM heptanesulphonic acid sodium salt 0.1%triethylamine TEA(25:75 V/V; pH 2.8 as themobile phase. For the determination of B12 a Suplex pKb-100 (15 cm 4.6 mm; 5 µm column andmethanol–water (22:78 V/V as themobile phase were used. The column effluentsweremonitored at 290 nm for B 1, B3, B6 and folic acid, and at 550 nm for B12. The obtained results and statistical parameters for all the investigated vitamins of the B-group in Pentovit® coated tablets were satisfactory and ranged from 90.4 % to 108.5 % (RSD. from 0.5% to 4.1 %. The parameters for the validation of the methods are given.

  2. Identification and functional analysis of SOX10 missense mutations in different subtypes of Waardenburg syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaoui, Asma; Watanabe, Yuli; Touraine, Renaud; Baral, Viviane; Goossens, Michel; Pingault, Veronique; Bondurand, Nadege

    2011-12-01

    Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is a rare disorder characterized by pigmentation defects and sensorineural deafness, classified into four clinical subtypes, WS1-S4. Whereas the absence of additional features characterizes WS2, association with Hirschsprung disease defines WS4. WS is genetically heterogeneous, with six genes already identified, including SOX10. About 50 heterozygous SOX10 mutations have been described in patients presenting with WS2 or WS4, with or without myelination defects of the peripheral and central nervous system (PCWH, Peripheral demyelinating neuropathy-Central dysmyelinating leukodystrophy-Waardenburg syndrome-Hirschsprung disease, or PCW, PCWH without HD). The majority are truncating mutations that most often remove the main functional domains of the protein. Only three missense mutations have been thus far reported. In the present study, novel SOX10 missense mutations were found in 11 patients and were examined for effects on SOX10 characteristics and functions. The mutations were associated with various phenotypes, ranging from WS2 to PCWH. All tested mutations were found to be deleterious. Some mutants presented with partial cytoplasmic redistribution, some lost their DNA-binding and/or transactivation capabilities on various tissue-specific target genes. Intriguingly, several mutants were redistributed in nuclear foci. Whether this phenomenon is a cause or a consequence of mutation-associated pathogenicity remains to be determined, but this observation could help to identify new SOX10 modes of action. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Molecular mechanism of ligand recognition by NR3 subtype glutamate receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Yongneng; Harrison, Chris B.; Freddolino, Peter L.; Schulten, Klaus; Mayer, Mark L. (UIUC); (NIH)

    2008-10-27

    NR3 subtype glutamate receptors have a unique developmental expression profile, but are the least well-characterized members of the NMDA receptor gene family, which have key roles in synaptic plasticity and brain development. Using ligand binding assays, crystallographic analysis, and all atom MD simulations, we investigate mechanisms underlying the binding by NR3A and NR3B of glycine and D-serine, which are candidate neurotransmitters for NMDA receptors containing NR3 subunits. The ligand binding domains of both NR3 subunits adopt a similar extent of domain closure as found in the corresponding NR1 complexes, but have a unique loop 1 structure distinct from that in all other glutamate receptor ion channels. Within their ligand binding pockets, NR3A and NR3B have strikingly different hydrogen bonding networks and solvent structures from those found in NR1, and fail to undergo a conformational rearrangement observed in NR1 upon binding the partial agonist ACPC. MD simulations revealed numerous interdomain contacts, which stabilize the agonist-bound closed-cleft conformation, and a novel twisting motion for the loop 1 helix that is unique in NR3 subunits.

  4. Investigating the dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder in a sample of traumatized detained youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Diana C; Modrowski, Crosby A; Kerig, Patricia K; Chaplo, Shannon D

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we tested the validity of a dissociative subtype in a sample of 225 detained adolescents (142 boys, 83 girls) likely meeting full or partial criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Competing theories of dissociation pose controversy regarding dissociation as a taxon versus a continuum, and results of the current study contribute to this debate by providing evidence of distinct group differences between those high and low in dissociation. Mixture modeling revealed 2 groups of youth with differing levels of depersonalization/derealization dissociative symptoms. Differences between the 2 groups of youth were investigated regarding trauma exposure and several posttraumatic reactions: posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), emotion dysregulation, and emotional numbing. Compared with youth classified in the low-dissociation group, youth who exhibited high levels of dissociation demonstrated higher levels of total PTSS, posttraumatic symptom clusters of emotional numbing, intrusion, and associated features, as well as reporting more difficulties with emotion dysregulation. To test theory regarding the factors that increase the likelihood of persistent dissociation, bootstrapped regression analyses were performed to examine the possibility of an indirect effect of peritraumatic dissociation. Results consistent with statistical mediation suggested that the presence of peritraumatic dissociation at the time of trauma may contribute to the continuation of dissociative symptoms as a more generalized pattern. The results of the current study have implications for clinical treatment with traumatized youth. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. In vitro and in vivo antitumor activity of the halogenated boroxine dipotassium-trioxohydroxytetrafluorotriborate (K2[B3O3F4OH]).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivankovic, Sinisa; Stojkovic, Ranko; Galic, Zoran; Galic, Borivoj; Ostojic, Jelena; Marasovic, Maja; Milos, Mladen

    2015-06-01

    Dipotassium-trioxohydroxytetrafluorotriborate K2[B3O3F4OH] was listed as a promising new therapeutic for cancer diseases. For in vitro and in vivo investigation of its antitumor effects 4T1 mammary adenocarcinoma, B16F10 melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma SCCVII were used. The detailed in vitro investigation undoubtedly showed that K2[B3O3F4OH] affects the growth of cancer cells. The proliferation of cells depends on the concentration so that aqueous solution of K2[B3O3F4OH], the concentrations of 10(-4) M and less, does not affect cell growth, but the concentrations of 10(-3) M or more, significantly slows cells growth. B16F10 and SCCVII cells show higher sensitivity to the cytotoxic effects of K2[B3O3F4OH] compared to 4T1 cells. Under in vivo conditions, K2[B3O3F4OH] slows the growth of all three tumors tested compared to the control, and the inhibitory effect was most pronounced during the application of the substance. There is almost no difference if K2[B3O3F4OH] was applied intraperitoneally, intratumor, peroral or as ointment. Addition of 5-FU did not further increase the antitumor efficacy of K2[B3O3F4OH].

  6. Rhythmic expression of miR-27b-3p targets the clock gene Bmal1 at the posttranscriptional level in the mouse liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenxiang; Wang, Peng; Chen, Siyu; Zhang, Zhao; Liang, Tingming; Liu, Chang

    2016-06-01

    Circadian clocks orchestrate daily oscillations in mammalian behaviors, physiology, and gene expression. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a crucial role in fine-tuning of the circadian system. However, little is known about the direct regulation of the clock genes by specific miRNAs. In this study, we found that miR-27b-3p exhibits rhythmic expression in the metabolic tissues of the mice subjected to constant darkness. MiR-27b-3p's expression is induced in livers of unfed and ob/ob mice. In addition, the oscillation phases of miR-27b-3p can be reversed by restricted feeding, suggesting a role of peripheral clock in regulating its rhythmicity. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like (also known as Bmal1) may be a direct target of miR-27b-3p. Luciferase reporter assay showed that miR-27b-3p suppressed Bmal1 3' UTR activity in a dose-dependent manner, and mutagenesis of their binding site abolished this suppression. Furthermore, overexpression of miR-27b-3p dose-dependently reduced the protein expression levels of BMAL1 and impaired the endogenous BMAL1 and gluconeogenic protein rhythmicity. Collectively, our results suggest that miR-27b-3p plays an important role in the posttranscriptional regulation of BMAL1 protein in the liver. MiR-27b-3p may serve as a novel node to integrate the circadian clock and energy metabolism.-Zhang, W., Wang, P., Chen, S., Zhang, Z., Liang, T., Liu, C. Rhythmic expression of miR-27b-3p targets the clock gene Bmal1 at the posttranscriptional level in the mouse liver. © FASEB.

  7. The Arabidopsis UDP-glycosyltransferases UGT79B2 and UGT79B3, contribute to cold, salt and drought stress tolerance via modulating anthocyanin accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pan; Li, Yan-Jie; Zhang, Feng-Ju; Zhang, Gui-Zhi; Jiang, Xiao-Yi; Yu, Hui-Min; Hou, Bing-Kai

    2017-01-01

    The plant family 1 UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs) are the biggest GT family in plants, which are responsible for transferring sugar moieties onto a variety of small molecules, and control many metabolic processes; however, their physiological significance in planta is largely unknown. Here, we revealed that two Arabidopsis glycosyltransferase genes, UGT79B2 and UGT79B3, could be strongly induced by various abiotic stresses, including cold, salt and drought stresses. Overexpression of UGT79B2/B3 significantly enhanced plant tolerance to low temperatures as well as drought and salt stresses, whereas the ugt79b2/b3 double mutants generated by RNAi (RNA interference) and CRISPR-Cas9 strategies were more susceptible to adverse conditions. Interestingly, the expression of UGT79B2 and UGT79B3 is directly controlled by CBF1 (CRT/DRE-binding factor 1, also named DREB1B) in response to low temperatures. Furthermore, we identified the enzyme activities of UGT79B2/B3 in adding UDP-rhamnose to cyanidin and cyanidin 3-O-glucoside. Ectopic expression of UGT79B2/B3 significantly increased the anthocyanin accumulation, and enhanced the antioxidant activity in coping with abiotic stresses, whereas the ugt79b2/b3 double mutants showed reduced anthocyanin levels. When overexpressing UGT79B2/B3 in tt18 (transparent testa 18), a mutant that cannot synthesize anthocyanins, both genes fail to improve plant adaptation to stress. Taken together, we demonstrate that UGT79B2 and UGT79B3, identified as anthocyanin rhamnosyltransferases, are regulated by CBF1 and confer abiotic stress tolerance via modulating anthocyanin accumulation. © 2016 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. An independent occurrence of the chimeric P450 enzyme CYP337B3 of Helicoverpa armigera confers cypermethrin resistance in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasool, Akhtar; Joußen, Nicole; Lorenz, Sybille; Ellinger, Renate; Schneider, Bernd; Khan, Sher Afzal; Ashfaq, Muhammad; Heckel, David G

    2014-10-01

    The increasing resistance level of insect pest species is a major concern to agriculture worldwide. The cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, is one of the most important pest species due to being highly polyphagous, geographically widespread, and resistant towards many chemical classes of insecticides. We previously described the mechanism of fenvalerate resistance in Australian populations conferred by the chimeric cytochrome P450 monooxygenase CYP337B3, which arose by unequal crossing-over between CYP337B1 and CYP337B2. Here, we show that this mechanism is also present in the cypermethrin-resistant FSD strain from Pakistan. The Pakistani and the Australian CYP337B3 alleles differ by 18 synonymous and three nonsynonymous SNPs and additionally in the length and sequence of the intron. Nevertheless, the activity of both CYP337B3 proteins is comparable. We demonstrate that CYP337B3 is capable of metabolizing cypermethrin (trans- and especially cis-isomers) to the main metabolite 4'-hydroxycypermethrin, which exhibits no intrinsic toxicity towards susceptible larvae. In a bioassay, CYP337B3 confers a 7-fold resistance towards cypermethrin in FSD larvae compared to susceptible larvae from the Australian TWB strain lacking CYP337B3. Linkage analysis shows that presence of CYP337B3 accounts for most of the cypermethrin resistance in the FSD strain; up-regulation of other P450s in FSD plays no detectable role in resistance. The presence or absence of CYP337B3 can be easily detected by a simple PCR screen, providing a powerful tool to rapidly distinguish resistant from susceptible individuals in the field and to determine the geographical distribution of this resistance gene. Our results suggest that CYP337B3 evolved twice independently by unequal crossing-over between CYP337B2 and two different CYP337B1 alleles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Parachute technique for partial penectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Korkes

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Penile carcinoma is a rare but mutilating malignancy. In this context, partial penectomy is the most commonly applied approach for best oncological results. We herein propose a simple modification of the classic technique of partial penectomy, for better cosmetic and functional results. TECHNIQUE: If partial penectomy is indicated, the present technique can bring additional benefits. Different from classical technique, the urethra is spatulated only ventrally. An inverted "V" skin flap with 0.5 cm of extension is sectioned ventrally. The suture is performed with vicryl 4-0 in a "parachute" fashion, beginning from the ventral portion of the urethra and the "V" flap, followed by the "V" flap angles and than by the dorsal portion of the penis. After completion of the suture, a Foley catheter and light dressing are placed for 24 hours. CONCLUSIONS: Several complex reconstructive techniques have been previously proposed, but normally require specific surgical abilities, adequate patient selection and staged procedures. We believe that these reconstructive techniques are very useful in some specific subsets of patients. However, the technique herein proposed is a simple alternative that can be applied to all men after a partial penectomy, and takes the same amount of time as that in the classic technique. In conclusion, the "parachute" technique for penile reconstruction after partial amputation not only improves the appearance of the penis, but also maintains an adequate function.

  10. GWAS of clinically defined gout and subtypes identifies multiple susceptibility loci that include urate transporter genes

    OpenAIRE

    Nakayama, Akiyoshi; Nakaoka, Hirofumi; Yamamoto, Ken; Sakiyama, Masayuki; Shaukat, Amara; Toyoda, Yu; Okada, Yukinori; Kamatani, Yoichiro; Nakamura, Takahiro; Takada, Tappei; Inoue, Katsuhisa; Yasujima, Tomoya; Yuasa, Hiroaki; Shirahama, Yuko; Nakashima, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Objective A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of gout and its subtypes was performed to identify novel gout loci, including those that are subtype-specific. Methods Putative causal association signals from a GWAS of 945 clinically defined gout cases and 1213 controls from Japanese males were replicated with 1396 cases and 1268 controls using a custom chip of 1961 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We also first conducted GWASs of gout subtypes. Replication with Caucasian and New Zeala...

  11. Evidence of multiple introductions of HIV-1 subtype C in Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, Joana Morais; Morgado, Mariza G; Bello, Gonzalo

    2012-10-01

    HIV-1 subtype C is the most prevalent group M clade in southern Africa and some eastern African countries. Subtype C is also the most frequent subtype in Angola (southwestern Africa), with an estimated prevalence of 10-20%. In order to better understand the origin of the HIV-1 subtype C strains circulating in Angola, 31 subtype C pol sequences of Angolan origin were compared with 1950 subtype C pol sequences sampled in other African countries. Phylogenetic analyses reveal that the Angolan subtype C sequences were distributed in 16 different lineages that were widely dispersed among other African strains. Ten subtype C Angolan lineages were composed by only one sequence, while the remaining six clades contain between two and seven sequences. Bayesian phylogeographic analysis indicates that most Angolan clades probably originated in different southern African countries with the exception of one lineage that most likely originated in Burundi. Evolutionary analysis suggests that those Angolan subtype C clades composed by ≥ 2 sequences were introduced into the country between the late 1970s and the mid 2000s. The median estimated time frame for the origin of those Angolan lineages coincides with periods of positive migration influx in Angola that were preceded by phases of negative migratory outflow. These results demonstrate that the Angolan subtype C epidemic resulted from multiple introductions of subtype C viruses mainly imported from southern African countries over the last 30years, some of which have been locally disseminated establishing several autochthonous transmission networks. This study also suggests that population mobility between Angola and southern African countries during civil war (1974-2002) may have played a key role in the emergence of the Angolan subtype C epidemic. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Efficacy of zolpidem for dystonia: a study among different subtypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshimichi eMiyazaki

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Although there are some newly-developed options to treat dystonia, its medical treatment is not always satisfactory. Zolpidem, an imidazopyridine agonist with a high affinity on benzodiazepine subtype receptor BZ1(ω1 , was found to improve clinical symptoms of dystonia in a limited number of case reports. To investigate what subtype of dystonia is responsive to the therapy, we conducted an open label study to assess the efficacy of zolpidem (5-20mg in 34 patients suffering from miscellaneous types of dystonia using the Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale (BFMDRS. Patients were entered into the study if they had been refractory to other medications as evaluated by BFMDRS (no change in the previous 2 successive visits. After zolpidem therapy, the scores in the patients as a whole were decreased from 7.2±7.9 to 5.5±5.0 (P=0.042. Patients with generalized dystonia, Meige syndrome/blepharospasm, and hand dystonia improved in the scale by 27.8%, 17.8% and 31.0%, respectively, whereas no improvement was found in cervical dystonia patients. Overall response rate among patients were comparable to that of trihexyphenidyl. Zolpidem may be a therapeutic option for generalized dystonia, Meige syndrome and hand dystonia including musician’s. Drowsiness was the dose-limiting factor.

  13. CT assessment of subtypes of pulmonary emphysema in females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Togami, Taro; Yamamoto, Yuka; Kameyama, Reiko; Murota, Makiko; Kimura, Naruhide; Nishiyama, Yoshihiro; Satoh, Katashi

    2011-01-01

    We performed a retrospective study examining the prevalence and subtypes of pulmonary emphysema (PE) identified by computed tomography (CT) in females. We reviewed the records of 1,687 female subjects who had undergone CT. They were divided into the following 2 age groups: group A (<50 years) and group B (≥50 years). PE was diagnosed by the presence of low-attenuation areas using visual assessment (grades 0-3) on CT images. Two subtypes of PE were observed: centrilobular emphysema (CLE) and paraseptal emphysema (PSE). PE was divided into the following 3 categories: I (CLE or CLE-predominant); II (CLE and PSE of equal extent); and III (PSE or PSE-predominant). PE was found in 64 of 274 smokers (23.3%) and 54 of 1,413 non-smokers (3.8%). In smoking subjects, when grades 1 and 2 were grouped together as mild PE, the mean age for CT grade 3 (severe PE) was significantly higher than that for mild PE. In group A, category III predominated, whereas category I was more prevalent in group B, in both smoking and non-smoking subjects. A high incidence of PE was found in smoking subjects as compared with non-smoking subjects. PSE predominated in younger subjects, whereas CLE predominated in older subjects. (author)

  14. Genomic analyses identify molecular subtypes of pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Peter; Chang, David K; Nones, Katia; Johns, Amber L; Patch, Ann-Marie; Gingras, Marie-Claude; Miller, David K; Christ, Angelika N; Bruxner, Tim J C; Quinn, Michael C; Nourse, Craig; Murtaugh, L Charles; Harliwong, Ivon; Idrisoglu, Senel; Manning, Suzanne; Nourbakhsh, Ehsan; Wani, Shivangi; Fink, Lynn; Holmes, Oliver; Chin, Venessa; Anderson, Matthew J; Kazakoff, Stephen; Leonard, Conrad; Newell, Felicity; Waddell, Nick; Wood, Scott; Xu, Qinying; Wilson, Peter J; Cloonan, Nicole; Kassahn, Karin S; Taylor, Darrin; Quek, Kelly; Robertson, Alan; Pantano, Lorena; Mincarelli, Laura; Sanchez, Luis N; Evers, Lisa; Wu, Jianmin; Pinese, Mark; Cowley, Mark J; Jones, Marc D; Colvin, Emily K; Nagrial, Adnan M; Humphrey, Emily S; Chantrill, Lorraine A; Mawson, Amanda; Humphris, Jeremy; Chou, Angela; Pajic, Marina; Scarlett, Christopher J; Pinho, Andreia V; Giry-Laterriere, Marc; Rooman, Ilse; Samra, Jaswinder S; Kench, James G; Lovell, Jessica A; Merrett, Neil D; Toon, Christopher W; Epari, Krishna; Nguyen, Nam Q; Barbour, Andrew; Zeps, Nikolajs; Moran-Jones, Kim; Jamieson, Nigel B; Graham, Janet S; Duthie, Fraser; Oien, Karin; Hair, Jane; Grützmann, Robert; Maitra, Anirban; Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine A; Wolfgang, Christopher L; Morgan, Richard A; Lawlor, Rita T; Corbo, Vincenzo; Bassi, Claudio; Rusev, Borislav; Capelli, Paola; Salvia, Roberto; Tortora, Giampaolo; Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata; Petersen, Gloria M; Munzy, Donna M; Fisher, William E; Karim, Saadia A; Eshleman, James R; Hruban, Ralph H; Pilarsky, Christian; Morton, Jennifer P; Sansom, Owen J; Scarpa, Aldo; Musgrove, Elizabeth A; Bailey, Ulla-Maja Hagbo; Hofmann, Oliver; Sutherland, Robert L; Wheeler, David A; Gill, Anthony J; Gibbs, Richard A; Pearson, John V; Waddell, Nicola; Biankin, Andrew V; Grimmond, Sean M

    2016-03-03

    Integrated genomic analysis of 456 pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas identified 32 recurrently mutated genes that aggregate into 10 pathways: KRAS, TGF-β, WNT, NOTCH, ROBO/SLIT signalling, G1/S transition, SWI-SNF, chromatin modification, DNA repair and RNA processing. Expression analysis defined 4 subtypes: (1) squamous; (2) pancreatic progenitor; (3) immunogenic; and (4) aberrantly differentiated endocrine exocrine (ADEX) that correlate with histopathological characteristics. Squamous tumours are enriched for TP53 and KDM6A mutations, upregulation of the TP63∆N transcriptional network, hypermethylation of pancreatic endodermal cell-fate determining genes and have a poor prognosis. Pancreatic progenitor tumours preferentially express genes involved in early pancreatic development (FOXA2/3, PDX1 and MNX1). ADEX tumours displayed upregulation of genes that regulate networks involved in KRAS activation, exocrine (NR5A2 and RBPJL), and endocrine differentiation (NEUROD1 and NKX2-2). Immunogenic tumours contained upregulated immune networks including pathways involved in acquired immune suppression. These data infer differences in the molecular evolution of pancreatic cancer subtypes and identify opportunities for therapeutic development.

  15. Metastatic Organotropism: An Intrinsic Property of Breast Cancer Molecular Subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shi; Siegal, Gene P

    2017-03-01

    It has long been known that some cancers have the propensity to metastasize to certain organs thus creating a nonrandom distribution of sites for distant relapse, a phenomenon known as "metastatic organotropism." Some of these examples include ovary primary to abdominal cavity, prostate primary to bone, and pancreas primary to liver. In contrast, other tumor types, such as mammary and renal cell carcinoma, can relapse in multiple organs although approximately half of advanced breast cancers metastasize to bone. On the other hand gene expression profiling studies have identified various breast cancer classes with prognostic significance. Recent studies have revealed that breast cancer subtypes differ not only in primary tumor characteristics but also in their metastatic behavior. In particular, the luminal tumors are remarkable for their significant bone-seeking phenotype; the HER2 subtype demonstrates a significant liver-homing characteristic; whereas so-called triple-negative breast cancers predispose to lung metastases. These findings suggest that this knowledge could potentially be utilized in the development of effective disease surveillance strategies in the pursuit of precision medicine, thus necessitating further investigation.

  16. posttraumatic stress disorder: a theoretical model of the hyperarousal subtype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Stewart Weston

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD is a frequent and distressing mental disorder, about which much remains to be learned. It is a heterogeneous disorder; the hyperarousal subtype (about 70% of occurrences and simply termed PTSD in this paper is the topic of this article, but the dissociative subtype (about 30% of occurrences and likely involving quite different brain mechanisms is outside its scope. A theoretical model is presented that integrates neuroscience data on diverse brain regions known to be involved in PTSD, and extensive psychiatric findings on the disorder. Specifically, the amygdala is a multifunctional brain region that is crucial to PTSD, and processes peritraumatic hyperarousal on grounded cognition principles to produce hyperarousal symptoms. Amygdala activity also modulates hippocampal function, which is supported by a large body of evidence, and likewise amygdala activity modulates several brainstem regions, visual cortex, rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC, and medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC, to produce diverse startle, visual, memory, numbing, anger, and recklessness symptoms. Additional brain regions process other aspects of peritraumatic responses to produce further symptoms. These contentions are supported by neuroimaging, neuropsychological, neuroanatomical, physiological, cognitive, and behavioral evidence. Collectively, the model offers an account of how responses at the time of trauma are transformed into an extensive array of the 20 PTSD symptoms that are specified in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition. It elucidates the neural mechanisms of a specific form of psychopathology, and accords with the Research Domain Criteria framework

  17. Cognitive process-based subtypes of developmental coordination disorder (DCD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asonitou, Katerina; Koutsouki, Dimitra

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify the cognitive subtypes demonstrated by children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) using the Planning-Attention-Simultaneous-Successive Processing (PASS) theory and the Cognitive Assessment System (D-N CAS). Participants were 108 children aged 5- and 6-years old, 54 with DCD and 54 without DCD, all attending typical kindergartens. They were examined on 31 cognitive-motor variables. Hierarchical-agglomerative and iterative partitioning cluster analyses including 9 motor and 7 cognitive variables revealed the following six subtypes: o C1 = children at risk (having considerable difficulty with jumping and minor difficulty with manual dexterity and simultaneous coding); o C2 = children on the mean (all cognitive-motor scores close to the mean); o C3 = free from cognitive-motor problems (all scores above average); o C4 = manual dexterity, planning and simultaneous coding difficulties; o C5 = manual dexterity, dynamic balance, and planning difficulties; o C6 = generalized cognitive-motor dysfunction (all scores considerably below average). It is well known that DCD is a heterogeneous condition. However, whenever cognitive processes were lower than average, cognitive-motor relationship was evident in subgroups C1, C4, C5 and C6. Early identification of task-specific cognitive-motor difficulties may be essential for early educational intervention practices in order to anticipate and improve learning, academic and performing difficulties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Efficacy of Zolpidem for Dystonia: A Study Among Different Subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Yoshimichi; Sako, Wataru; Asanuma, Kotaro; Izumi, Yuishin; Miki, Tetsuro; Kaji, Ryuji

    2012-01-01

    Although there are some newly developed options to treat dystonia, its medical treatment is not always satisfactory. Zolpidem, an imidazopyridine agonist with a high affinity on benzodiazepine subtype receptor BZ1 (ω1), was found to improve clinical symptoms of dystonia in a limited number of case reports. To investigate what subtype of dystonia is responsive to the therapy, we conducted an open label study to assess the efficacy of zolpidem (5–20 mg) in 34 patients suffering from miscellaneous types of dystonia using the Burke–Fahn–Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale (BFMDRS). Patients were entered into the study if they had been refractory to other medications as evaluated by BFMDRS (no change in the previous two successive visits). After zolpidem therapy, the scores in the patients as a whole were decreased from 7.2 ± 7.9 to 5.5 ± 5.0 (P = 0.042). Patients with generalized dystonia, Meige syndrome/blepharospasm, and hand dystonia improved in the scale by 27.8, 17.8, and 31.0%, respectively, whereas no improvement was found in cervical dystonia patients. Overall response rate among patients were comparable to that of trihexyphenidyl. Zolpidem may be a therapeutic option for generalized dystonia, Meige syndrome, and hand dystonia including musician’s. Drowsiness was the dose-limiting factor. PMID:22529836

  19. Osteoclastic finger arthrosis - a subtype of polyarthrosis of the hand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dihlmann, W.; Dihlmann, A.

    1998-01-01

    Aim: Description of a subtype of arthrosis deformans of the hand which is characterised as osteoclastic arthrosis. Patients and methods: Retrospective analysis of radiographs of the hands of 150 women and 100 men with radiological findings of arthrosis deformans. Results: 5% of women and 2% of men showed at least one digital joint with subchondral osteolysis of one or both articulating bones involving at least a third of the phalanx. This subchondral osteolysis far exceeds the cysts which are situated in the epiphyseal part of the articular region. It may develop within a year. Conclusion: Osteoclastic arthrosis of the finger is a subtype of polyarthrosis of the hand. Serial observations suggest that an osteoclast stimulating substance is produced by the cysts or arises directly from the synovial fluid; this enters the subchondral part of the bone through clefts which may or may not be visible radiologically and that this produces osteoclastic activity. The most important differential diagnoses are chronic tophacious gout and a benign tumor. (orig.) [de

  20. Relationship between EDNOS and its subtypes and borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, M F; Zanarini, M C

    2001-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) and four well-defined subtypes of this disorder found in a sample of female borderline patients. The lifetime prevalence of EDNOS and its various subtypes among 233 female borderline patients and 46 female Axis II comparison subjects was assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R Axis I disorders. Thirty-three percent of female borderline patients met DSM-III-R criteria for EDNOS at some point in their lives. Of these 76 women, 20% reported a pattern of restricting without low weight, 37% reported a pattern of binging without purging, 37% reported a pattern of purging without binging, and 33% reported a pattern of low weight without loss of menses. However, less than 25% of these 76 borderline women had ever met criteria for anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa. The results of this study suggest that EDNOS is a separate cluster of eating disorders among borderline women, rather than a prodromal or residual form of a more clear-cut case of anorexia or bulimia nervosa. Copyright 2001 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  1. [Neuropsychological subtypes of the inattention and hyperactivity syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etchepareborda, M C

    1999-02-01

    One of the commonest neurological development disorders is the syndrome of inattention with hyperactivity, ADHD. The complex neurobiological network which intervenes in paying attention permits us to maintain a basal state of alertness, to focalize and maintain attention for long periods, select the stimulus-signal required and analyze its components, and also to simultaneously carry out processes of input-output and performance (tutorial, controlling). Damage to the various systems participating in 'paying attention' leads to a syndrome of inattention, with or without hyperactivity. The distinction into clinical sub-types (combined, mainly lacking attention or mainly hyperactive and impulsive) gives a primary differentiation of the syndrome. However, from the neuropsychological point of view, some degree of heterogeneity within the groups which defines academic behaviour and conduct may also be recognized. This type of study permits a more specific neuro-cognitive and pharmacological approach. Some clinical characteristics of the syndrome of inattention improve with different drugs, such as the state of alterness (methylphenidate), impulsivity (pipamperone) and selective attention (tiapride). However, this treatment is symptomatic and in most cases is useful to accompany the ultimate biological development of the neocortical control mechanisms. A neuro-cognitive approach which permits acquisition of habits of control, functional strategies, sequential planning of activities and per- and post-functional surveillance is fundamental. The EFE programme for training executive functions is directed towards working with the damaged processing mechanisms in each neuropsychological subtype.

  2. Complete nucleotide sequences of avian metapneumovirus subtype B genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Miki; Ito, Hiroshi; Hata, Yusuke; Ono, Eriko; Ito, Toshihiro

    2010-12-01

    Complete nucleotide sequences were determined for subtype B avian metapneumovirus (aMPV), the attenuated vaccine strain VCO3/50 and its parental pathogenic strain VCO3/60616. The genomes of both strains comprised 13,508 nucleotides (nt), with a 42-nt leader at the 3'-end and a 46-nt trailer at the 5'-end. The genome contains eight genes in the order 3'-N-P-M-F-M2-SH-G-L-5', which is the same order shown in the other metapneumoviruses. The genes are flanked on either side by conserved transcriptional start and stop signals and have intergenic sequences varying in length from 1 to 88 nt. Comparison of nt and predicted amino acid (aa) sequences of VCO3/60616 with those of other metapneumoviruses revealed higher homology with aMPV subtype A virus than with other metapneumoviruses. A total of 18 nt and 10 deduced aa differences were seen between the strains, and one or a combination of several differences could be associated with attenuation of VCO3/50.

  3. Partial Transposition on Bipartite System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi-Jun, Ren; Yong-Jian, Han; Yu-Chun, Wu; Guang-Can, Guo

    2008-01-01

    Many properties of partial transposition are unclear as yet. Here we carefully consider the number of the negative eigenvalues of ρ T (ρ's partial transposition) when ρ is a two-partite state. There is strong evidence to show that the number of negative eigenvalues of ρ T is N(N − 1)/2 at most when ρ is a state in Hilbert space C N C N . For the special case, the 2 × 2 system, we use this result to give a partial proof of the conjecture |ρ T | T ≥ 0. We find that this conjecture is strongly connected with the entanglement of the state corresponding to the negative eigenvalue of ρ T or the negative entropy of ρ

  4. Partial volume effect in MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Munehiro; Yoshiya, Kazuhiko; Suzuki, Eiji

    1989-01-01

    According to the direction and the thickness of the imaging slice in tomography, the border between the tissues becomes unclear (partial volume effect). In the present MRI experiment, we examined border area between fat and water components using phantom in order to investigate the partial volume effect in MRI. In spin echo sequences, the intensity of the border area showed a linear relationship with composition of fat and water. Whereas, in inversion recovery and field echo sequences, we found the parameters to produce an extremely low intensity area at the border region between fat and water. This low intensity area was explained by cancellation of NMR signals from fat and water due to the difference in the direction of magnetic vectors. Clinically, partial volume effect can cause of mis-evaluation of walls, small nodules, tumor capsules and the tumor invasion in the use of inversion recovery and field echo sequences. (author)

  5. Partially composite Goldstone Higgs boson

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alanne, Tommi; Franzosi, Diogo Buarque; Frandsen, Mads T.

    2017-01-01

    We consider a model of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking with a partially composite Goldstone Higgs boson. The model is based on a strongly interacting fermionic sector coupled to a fundamental scalar sector via Yukawa interactions. The SU(4)×SU(4) global symmetry of these two sectors...... is broken to a single SU(4) via Yukawa interactions. Electroweak symmetry breaking is dynamically induced by condensation due to the strong interactions in the new fermionic sector which further breaks the global symmetry SU(4)→Sp(4). The Higgs boson arises as a partially composite state which is an exact...... Goldstone boson in the limit where SM interactions are turned off. Terms breaking the SU(4) global symmetry explicitly generate a mass for the Goldstone Higgs boson. The model realizes in different limits both (partially) composite Higgs and (bosonic) technicolor models, thereby providing a convenient...

  6. Landsliding in partially saturated materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godt, J.W.; Baum, R.L.; Lu, N.

    2009-01-01

    [1] Rainfall-induced landslides are pervasive in hillslope environments around the world and among the most costly and deadly natural hazards. However, capturing their occurrence with scientific instrumentation in a natural setting is extremely rare. The prevailing thinking on landslide initiation, particularly for those landslides that occur under intense precipitation, is that the failure surface is saturated and has positive pore-water pressures acting on it. Most analytic methods used for landslide hazard assessment are based on the above perception and assume that the failure surface is located beneath a water table. By monitoring the pore water and soil suction response to rainfall, we observed shallow landslide occurrence under partially saturated conditions for the first time in a natural setting. We show that the partially saturated shallow landslide at this site is predictable using measured soil suction and water content and a novel unified effective stress concept for partially saturated earth materials. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  7. Distinguishing subtypes of extrinsic motivation among people with mild to borderline intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frielink, N; Schuengel, C; Embregts, P

    2017-07-01

    According to self-determination theory, motivation is ordered in types, including amotivation, extrinsic motivation and intrinsic motivation. Self-determination theory defines four subtypes of extrinsic motivation: external motivation, introjected motivation, identified motivation and integrated motivation. Although it has been argued theoretically that the different types of motivation are universally applicable, Reid et al. () proposed a dichotomy of broad subtypes of extrinsic motivation for people with intellectual disability (ID) due to their cognitive limitations. The current study challenges this proposal by testing whether the four subtypes of extrinsic motivation can be differentiated among people with ID as well. The subtypes of extrinsic motivation were measured using two adapted versions of the Self-Regulation Questionnaire, one regarding exercise and one regarding support. In total, 186 adults with mild to borderline ID participated in the study. Results supported the distinction between the four subtypes of extrinsic motivation regarding both exercise and support. In addition, the correlation coefficients supported a quasi-simplex pattern of correlations among the subtypes, indicating that adjacent subtypes were more closely related than non-adjacent subtypes. Moreover, the study showed sufficient Cronbach's alphas and test-retest reliabilities for early stage research. Overall, the results of the current study provide initial evidence for the universality of the four subtypes of extrinsic motivation across populations with and without ID. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research published by MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disibilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. The dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder: rationale, clinical and neurobiological evidence, and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanius, Ruth A; Brand, Bethany; Vermetten, Eric; Frewen, Paul A; Spiegel, David

    2012-08-01

    Clinical and neurobiological evidence for a dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has recently been documented. A dissociative subtype of PTSD is being considered for inclusion in the forthcoming Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition (DSM-5) to address the symptoms of depersonalization and derealization found among a subset of patients with PTSD. This article reviews research related to the dissociative subtype including antecedent, concurrent, and predictive validators as well as the rationale for recommending the dissociative subtype. The relevant literature pertaining to the dissociative subtype of PTSD was reviewed. Latent class analyses point toward a specific subtype of PTSD consisting of symptoms of depersonalization and derealization in both veteran and civilian samples of PTSD. Compared to individuals with PTSD, those with the dissociative subtype of PTSD also exhibit a different pattern of neurobiological response to symptom provocation as well as a differential response to current cognitive behavioral treatment designed for PTSD. We recommend that consideration be given to adding a dissociative subtype of PTSD in the revision of the DSM. This facilitates more accurate analysis of different phenotypes of PTSD, assist in treatment planning that is informed by considering the degree of patients' dissociativity, will improve treatment outcome, and will lead to much-needed research about the prevalence, symptomatology, neurobiology, and treatment of individuals with the dissociative subtype of PTSD. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Molecular Characterization and Clinical Relevance of Metabolic Expression Subtypes in Human Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinxin Peng

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Metabolic reprogramming provides critical information for clinical oncology. Using molecular data of 9,125 patient samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas, we identified tumor subtypes in 33 cancer types based on mRNA expression patterns of seven major metabolic processes and assessed their clinical relevance. Our metabolic expression subtypes correlated extensively with clinical outcome: subtypes with upregulated carbohydrate, nucleotide, and vitamin/cofactor metabolism most consistently correlated with worse prognosis, whereas subtypes with upregulated lipid metabolism showed the opposite. Metabolic subtypes correlated with diverse somatic drivers but exhibited effects convergent on cancer hallmark pathways and were modulated by highly recurrent master regulators across cancer types. As a proof-of-concept example, we demonstrated that knockdown of SNAI1 or RUNX1—master regulators of carbohydrate metabolic subtypes—modulates metabolic activity and drug sensitivity. Our study provides a system-level view of metabolic heterogeneity within and across cancer types and identifies pathway cross-talk, suggesting related prognostic, therapeutic, and predictive utility. : Peng et al. analyze a cohort of 9,125 TCGA samples across 33 cancer types to characterize tumor subtypes based on the expression of seven metabolic pathways. They find metabolic expression subtypes are associated with patient survivals and suggest the therapeutic and predictive relevance of subtype-related master regulators. Keywords: The Cancer Genome Atlas, tumor subtypes, prognostic markers, somatic drivers, master regulator, therapeutic targets, drug sensitivity, carbohydrate metabolism

  10. Clinical Manifestations of Cryptosporidiosis and Identification of a New Cryptosporidium Subtype in Patients From Sonora, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrea-Quezada, Alejandro; González-Díaz, Mariana; Villegas-Gómez, Isaac; Durazo, María; Hernández, Jesús; Xiao, Lihua; Valenzuela, Olivia

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the clinical manifestations of cryptosporidiosis and the distribution of Cryptosporidium spp. and subtypes in children in Sonora, Mexico. Two subtypes of C. parvum, including IIaA15G2R1 and IIcA5G3a, and 6 subtypes of Cryptosporidium hominis, including IaA14R3, IaA15R3, IbA12G3, IdA23, IeA11G3T3, and a new subtype IaA14R11, were identified. Cryptosporidium as an etiologic agent for acute gastroenteritis is discussed.

  11. Subtype and pathway specific responses to anticancer compounds in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiser, Laura M; Sadanandam, Anguraj; Kuo, Wen-Lin; Benz, Stephen C; Goldstein, Theodore C; Ng, Sam; Gibb, William J; Wang, Nicholas J; Ziyad, Safiyyah; Tong, Frances; Bayani, Nora; Hu, Zhi; Billig, Jessica I; Dueregger, Andrea; Lewis, Sophia; Jakkula, Lakshmi; Korkola, James E; Durinck, Steffen; Pepin, François; Guan, Yinghui; Purdom, Elizabeth; Neuvial, Pierre; Bengtsson, Henrik; Wood, Kenneth W; Smith, Peter G; Vassilev, Lyubomir T; Hennessy, Bryan T; Greshock, Joel; Bachman, Kurtis E; Hardwicke, Mary Ann; Park, John W; Marton, Laurence J; Wolf, Denise M; Collisson, Eric A; Neve, Richard M; Mills, Gordon B; Speed, Terence P; Feiler, Heidi S; Wooster, Richard F; Haussler, David; Stuart, Joshua M; Gray, Joe W; Spellman, Paul T

    2012-02-21

    Breast cancers are comprised of molecularly distinct subtypes that may respond differently to pathway-targeted therapies now under development. Collections of breast cancer cell lines mirror many of the molecular subtypes and pathways found in tumors, suggesting that treatment of cell lines with candidate therapeutic compounds can guide identification of associations between molecular subtypes, pathways, and drug response. In a test of 77 therapeutic compounds, nearly all drugs showed differential responses across these cell lines, and approximately one third showed subtype-, pathway-, and/or genomic aberration-specific responses. These observations suggest mechanisms of response and resistance and may inform efforts to develop molecular assays that predict clinical response.

  12. Identifying molecular subtypes in human colon cancer using gene expression and DNA methylation microarray data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhonglu; Wang, Wenhui; Li, Jinming

    2016-02-01

    Identifying colon cancer subtypes based on molecular signatures may allow for a more rational, patient-specific approach to therapy in the future. Classifications using gene expression data have been attempted before with little concordance between the different studies carried out. In this study we aimed to uncover subtypes of colon cancer that have distinct biological characteristics and identify a set of novel biomarkers which could best reflect the clinical and/or biological characteristics of each subtype. Clustering analysis and discriminant analysis were utilized to discover the subtypes in two different molecular levels on 153 colon cancer samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Data Portal. At gene expression level, we identified two major subtypes, ECL1 (expression cluster 1) and ECL2 (expression cluster 2) and a list of signature genes. Due to the heterogeneity of colon cancer, the subtype ECL1 can be further subdivided into three nested subclasses, and HOTAIR were found upregulated in subclass 2. At DNA methylation level, we uncovered three major subtypes, MCL1 (methylation cluster 1), MCL2 (methylation cluster 2) and MCL3 (methylation cluster 3). We found only three subtypes of CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) in colon cancer instead of the four subtypes in the previous reports, and we found no sufficient evidence to subdivide MCL3 into two distinct subgroups.

  13. FY 1997 Report on the data processing for the geothermal development promotion investigation. No.B-3 Kumaishi Area (Phase 3); 1997 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa data shori hokokusho. 3. No.B-3 Kumaishi chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    Described herein are the results of the comprehensive analysis of the No.B-3 Kumaishi Area, investigated in the FY 1995 to 1997 period as part of the geothermal development promotion investigation project. The ground investigation project covers geological and altered band, geochemical, gravitational and electromagnetic investigations. The drilling investigation project covers the test drilling for the structural investigation, temperature logging, water injection and temperature recovery tests at the N7-KI-1, N7-KI-2, N8-KI-3, N8-KI-4 and N9-KI-5; core cutting investigation; hot water investigation at the 4 wells; environmental impact investigation; and supplementary investigations for determination of ages of rocks and alteration, and analysis of the substances contained in the fluid. The following conclusions are derived from the findings by the comprehensive analysis. The geothermal hot water in the test area came from seawater (fossil seawater) locally captured by the highly water-permeable strata (e.g., interfaces in the strata, and fractured strata) and underground water from rain water, heated by the conducted heat to around 200 degrees C at the highest. It is estimated that the center of the conducted heat is located in the eastern part of the Yagumo Area. (NEDO)

  14. FY 1995 Report on the data processing for the geothermal development promotion investigation. No.B-3 Kumaishi Area (Phase 1); 1995 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa data shori hokokusho. 1. No.B-3 Kumaishi chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    Described herein are the FY 1995 results of the No.B-3 Kumaishi Area investigation, conducted as part of the geothermal development promotion investigation project. The project covers the geological structure, geochemical, gravitational, electromagnetic, environmental impact and supplementary investigations. The following findings are obtained by the comprehensive analysis of the data. The Kumaishi Area is based on the sedimentary rocks and granite formed in the Pre-Ternary, which are unconformably covered by the strata belonging to Upper Oligocene of Ternary to Lower Pleistocene of Quaternary. The presence of NW-SE to E-W to NE-SW systems is suggested as the main fracture systems. It is estimated by the K-Ar method that the intrusion was formed in the 2.06 to 2.28Ma. The geochemical temperature suggests the presence of the fluid of 200 degrees C or higher as the deep hot water temperature. The resistivity structure generally indicates the NW-SE direction. Each stratum is confirmed by the test drilling for the structural investigation. The fluid motion model suggests possibility of hot water of high salt content, similar to that confirmed deep in the Yagumo Area, distributed deep in the Kumaishi Area. (NEDO)

  15. FY 1996 Report on the data processing for the geothermal development promotion investigation. No.B-3 Kumaishi Area (Phase 2); 1996 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin data shori hokokusho. 2 . No.B-3 Kumaishi chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    Described herein are the FY 1996 results of the No.B-3 Kumaishi Area investigation, conducted as part of the geothermal development promotion investigation project. The ground investigation project covers geological and altered band, geochemical, gravitational and electromagnetic investigations. The drilling investigation project covers the test drilling for the structural investigation, temperature logging, water injection and temperature recovery tests at the N7-KI-1, N7-KI-2, N8-KI-3 and N8-KI-4; core cutting investigation; hot water investigation at the N8-KI-1 and N8-KI-2; and environmental impact investigation. The following conclusions are derived from the findings. The geothermal hot water in the test area came from seawater (fossil seawater) locally captured by the highly water-permeable strata (e.g., interfaces in the strata, and fractured strata) and underground water from rain water, heated by the conducted heat to around 200 degrees C at the highest. It is estimated that the center of the conducted heat is located in the eastern part of the Yagumo Area. The geothermal hot water was not heated to an extent to form the widely distributed convection systems, but arise in the form of separate, small-scale systems. (NEDO)

  16. Basic linear partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Treves, Francois

    1975-01-01

    Focusing on the archetypes of linear partial differential equations, this text for upper-level undergraduates and graduate students features most of the basic classical results. The methods, however, are decidedly nontraditional: in practically every instance, they tend toward a high level of abstraction. This approach recalls classical material to contemporary analysts in a language they can understand, as well as exploiting the field's wealth of examples as an introduction to modern theories.The four-part treatment covers the basic examples of linear partial differential equations and their

  17. Elements of partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Sneddon, Ian Naismith

    1957-01-01

    Geared toward students of applied rather than pure mathematics, this volume introduces elements of partial differential equations. Its focus is primarily upon finding solutions to particular equations rather than general theory.Topics include ordinary differential equations in more than two variables, partial differential equations of the first and second orders, Laplace's equation, the wave equation, and the diffusion equation. A helpful Appendix offers information on systems of surfaces, and solutions to the odd-numbered problems appear at the end of the book. Readers pursuing independent st

  18. ERK, Akt, and STAT5 are differentially activated by the two growth hormone receptors subtypes of a teleost fish (Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey eKittilson

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Previously, we found that the teleost fish, rainbow trout, possesses two growth hormone receptor (GHR subtypes that display distinct ligand binding and agonist-induced regulation features. In this study, we used Chinese hamster ovary-K1 cells stably transfected individually with the two trout GHR subtypes, GHR1 and GHR2, to elucidate receptor-effector pathway linkages. Growth hormone (GH stimulated rapid (5-10 min phosphorylation of ERK, Akt, JAk2, and STAT5 in both GHR1- and GHR2-expressing cells; however; STAT5 was activated to a greater extent through GHR1 than through GHR2, whereas ERK and Akt were activated to a greater through GHR2 than through GHR1. Although blockade of the ERK pathway had no effect on the activation of Akt, inhibition of PI3k-Akt partially prevented activation of ERK, suggesting cross-talk between the ERK and PI3K-Akt pathways. JAK2 inhibition completely blocked activation of ERK, Akt, and STAT5, suggesting that all of these pathways link to GHR1 and GHR2 via JAK2. These findings establish important receptor-effector pathway linkages and suggest that the GHR subtypes of teleost fish may be functionally distinct.

  19. Activation of ErbB3, EGFR and Erk is essential for growth of human breast cancer cell lines with acquired resistance to fulvestrant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frogne, Thomas; Benjaminsen, Rikke; Sonne-Hansen, Katrine

    2008-01-01

    cell lines concomitant with inhibition of Erk and unaltered Akt activation. In concert, inhibition of Erk with U0126 preferentially reduced growth of resistant cell lines. Treatment with ErbB3 neutralizing antibodies inhibited ErbB3 activation and resulted in a modest but statistically significant...... activation was observed only in the parental MCF-7 cells. The downstream kinases pAkt and pErk were increased in five of seven and in all seven resistant cell lines, respectively. Treatment with the EGFR inhibitor gefitinib preferentially inhibited growth and reduced the S phase fraction in the resistant...... growth inhibition of two resistant cell lines. These data indicate that ligand activated ErbB3 and EGFR, and Erk signaling play important roles in fulvestrant resistant cell growth. Furthermore, the decreased level of ErbB4 in resistant cells may facilitate heterodimerization of ErbB3 with EGFR and ErbB2...

  20. Impact of HIV-1 subtype and antiretroviral therapy on protease and reverse transcriptase genotype: results of a global collaboration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rami Kantor

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The genetic differences among HIV-1 subtypes may be critical to clinical management and drug resistance surveillance as antiretroviral treatment is expanded to regions of the world where diverse non-subtype-B viruses predominate.To assess the impact of HIV-1 subtype and antiretroviral treatment on the distribution of mutations in protease and reverse transcriptase, a binomial response model using subtype and treatment as explanatory variables was used to analyze a large compiled dataset of non-subtype-B HIV-1 sequences. Non-subtype-B sequences from 3,686 persons with well characterized antiretroviral treatment histories were analyzed in comparison to subtype B sequences from 4,769 persons. The non-subtype-B sequences included 461 with subtype A, 1,185 with C, 331 with D, 245 with F, 293 with G, 513 with CRF01_AE, and 618 with CRF02_AG. Each of the 55 known subtype B drug-resistance mutations occurred in at least one non-B isolate, and 44 (80% of these mutations were significantly associated with antiretroviral treatment in at least one non-B subtype. Conversely, of 67 mutations found to be associated with antiretroviral therapy in at least one non-B subtype, 61 were also associated with antiretroviral therapy in subtype B isolates.Global surveillance and genotypic assessment of drug resistance should focus primarily on the known subtype B drug-resistance mutations.

  1. The Implement of a Multi-layer Frozen Soil Scheme into SSiB3 and its Evaluation over Cold Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q.

    2016-12-01

    The SSiB3 is a biophysics-based model of land-atmosphere interactions and is designed for global and regional studies. It has three soil layers, three snow layers, as well as one vegetation layer. Soil moisture of the three soil layers, interception water store for the canopy, subsurface soil temperature, ground temperature, canopy temperature and snow water equivalent are all predicted based on the water and energy balance at canopy, soil and snow. SSiB3 substantially enhances the model's capability for cold season studies and produces reasonable results compared with observations. However, frozen soil processes are ignored in the SSiB3 and may have effects on the interannual variability of soil temperature and deep soil memory. A multi-layer comprehensive frozen soil scheme (FSM), which is developed for climate study has been implemented into the SSiB3 to describe soil heat transfer and water flow affected by frozen processed in soil. In the coupled SSiB3-FSM, both liquid water and ice content have been taken into account in the frozen soil hydrologic and thermal property parameterization. The maximum soil layer depth could reach 10 meters thick depending on land conditions. To better evaluate the models' performance, the coupled offline SSiB3-FSM and SSiB3 have been driven from 1948 to 1958 by the Princeton global meteorological data set, respectively. For the 10yrs run, the coupled SSiB3-FSM almost captures the features over different regions, especially cold regions. In order to analysis and compare the differences of SSIB3-FSM and SSIB3 in detail, monthly mean surface temperature for different regions are compared with CAMS data. The statistical results of surface skin temperature show that high latitude regions, Africa, Eastern Australia, and North American monsoon regions have been greatly improved in SSIB3-FSM. For the global statistics, the RMSE of the surface temperature simulated by SSiB3-FSM can be improved about 0.6K compared to SSiB3. In this study

  2. Biochemical Characterization of Echinococcus multilocularis Antigen B3 Reveals Insight into Adaptation and Maintenance of Parasitic Homeostasis at the Host-Parasite Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Chun-Seob; Kim, Jeong-Geun; Han, Xiumin; Bae, Young-An; Park, Woo-Jae; Kang, Insug; Wang, Hu; Kong, Yoon

    2017-02-03

    Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) caused by Echinococcus multilocularis metacestode is frequently associated with deleterious zoonotic helminthiasis. The growth patterns and morphological features of AE, such as invasion of the liver parenchyme and multiplication into multivesiculated masses, are similar to those of malignant tumors. AE has been increasingly detected in several regions of Europe, North America, Central Asia, and northwestern China. An isoform of E. multilocularis antigen B3 (EmAgB3) shows a specific immunoreactivity against patient sera of active-stage AE, suggesting that EmAgB3 might play important roles during adaptation of the parasite to hosts. However, expression patterns and biochemical properties of EmAgB3 remained elusive. The protein profile and nature of component proteins of E. multilocularis hydatid fluid (EmHF) have never been addressed. In this study, we conducted proteome analysis of EmHF of AE cysts harvested from immunocompetent mice. We observed the molecular and biochemical properties of EmAgB3, including differential transcription patterns of paralogous genes, macromolecular protein status by self-assembly, distinct oligomeric states according to individual anatomical compartments of the worm, and hydrophobic ligand-binding protein activity. We also demonstrated tissue expression patterns of EmAgB3 transcript and protein. EmAgB3 might participate in immune response and recruitment of essential host lipids at the host-parasite interface. Our results might contribute to an in depth understanding of the biophysical and biological features of EmAgB3, thus providing insights into the design of novel targets to control AE.

  3. Biochemical Characterization of CPS-1, a Subclass B3 Metallo-β-Lactamase from a Chryseobacterium piscium Soil Isolate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudeta, Dereje Dadi; Pollini, Simona; Docquier, Jean-Denis

    2016-01-01

    CPS-1 is a subclass B3 metallo-β-lactamase from a Chryseobacterium piscium isolated from soil, showing 68 % amino acid identity to GOB-1 enzyme. CPS-1 was overproduced in Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3), purified by chromatography and biochemically characterized. This enzyme exhibits a broad spect...... spectrum substrate profile including penicillins, cephalosporins and carbapenems, which overall resembles those of L1, GOB-1 and acquired subclass B3 enzymes AIM-1 and SMB-1....

  4. Timed Testing under Partial Observability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Alexandre; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Li, Shuhao

    2009-01-01

    observability of SUT using a set of predicates over the TGA state space, and specify the test purposes in Computation Tree Logic (CTL) formulas. A recently developed partially observable timed game solver is used to generate winning strategies, which are used as test cases. We propose a conformance testing...

  5. Variable Selection via Partial Correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Runze; Liu, Jingyuan; Lou, Lejia

    2017-07-01

    Partial correlation based variable selection method was proposed for normal linear regression models by Bühlmann, Kalisch and Maathuis (2010) as a comparable alternative method to regularization methods for variable selection. This paper addresses two important issues related to partial correlation based variable selection method: (a) whether this method is sensitive to normality assumption, and (b) whether this method is valid when the dimension of predictor increases in an exponential rate of the sample size. To address issue (a), we systematically study this method for elliptical linear regression models. Our finding indicates that the original proposal may lead to inferior performance when the marginal kurtosis of predictor is not close to that of normal distribution. Our simulation results further confirm this finding. To ensure the superior performance of partial correlation based variable selection procedure, we propose a thresholded partial correlation (TPC) approach to select significant variables in linear regression models. We establish the selection consistency of the TPC in the presence of ultrahigh dimensional predictors. Since the TPC procedure includes the original proposal as a special case, our theoretical results address the issue (b) directly. As a by-product, the sure screening property of the first step of TPC was obtained. The numerical examples also illustrate that the TPC is competitively comparable to the commonly-used regularization methods for variable selection.

  6. Adaptive Partially Hidden Markov Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren Otto; Rasmussen, Tage

    1996-01-01

    Partially Hidden Markov Models (PHMM) have recently been introduced. The transition and emission probabilities are conditioned on the past. In this report, the PHMM is extended with a multiple token version. The different versions of the PHMM are applied to bi-level image coding....

  7. Partially molten magma ocean model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirley, D.N.

    1983-01-01

    The properties of the lunar crust and upper mantle can be explained if the outer 300-400 km of the moon was initially only partially molten rather than fully molten. The top of the partially molten region contained about 20% melt and decreased to 0% at 300-400 km depth. Nuclei of anorthositic crust formed over localized bodies of magma segregated from the partial melt, then grew peripherally until they coverd the moon. Throughout most of its growth period the anorthosite crust floated on a layer of magma a few km thick. The thickness of this layer is regulated by the opposing forces of loss of material by fractional crystallization and addition of magma from the partial melt below. Concentrations of Sr, Eu, and Sm in pristine ferroan anorthosites are found to be consistent with this model, as are trends for the ferroan anorthosites and Mg-rich suites on a diagram of An in plagioclase vs. mg in mafics. Clustering of Eu, Sr, and mg values found among pristine ferroan anorthosites are predicted by this model

  8. [Posterior ceramic bonded partial restorations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainjot, Amélie; Vanheusden, Alain

    2006-01-01

    Posterior ceramic bonded partial restorations are conservative and esthetic approaches for compromised teeth. Overlays constitute a less invasive alternative for tooth tissues than crown preparations. With inlays and onlays they are also indicated in case of full arch or quadrant rehabilitations including several teeth. This article screens indications and realization of this type of restorations.

  9. Implementing circularity using partial evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawall, Julia Laetitia

    2001-01-01

    of an imperative C-like language, by extending the language with a new construct, persistent variables. We show that an extension of partial evaluation can eliminate persistent variables, producing a staged C program. This approach has been implemented in the Tempo specializer for C programs, and has proven useful...

  10. Breast Conservation Therapy: The Influence of Molecular Subtype and Margins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirci, Senem; Broadwater, Gloria; Marks, Lawrence B.; Clough, Robert; Prosnitz, Leonard R.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate treatment results and prognostic factors, especially margin status and molecular subtype, in early-stage breast cancer patients treated with breast conservation therapy (BCT). Methods and Materials: The records of 1,058 Stage I or II breast cancer patients treated with BCT (surgical excision plus radiotherapy) at Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, from 1985–2005 were retrospectively reviewed. Conventional receptor analyses were used as surrogate markers for molecular subtype classification (luminal A, luminal B, Her2 positive, and basal like). Actuarial estimates of overall survival (OS), cause-specific survival (CSS), failure-free survival, and locoregional control (LRC) were computed by use of Kaplan-Meier plots. We analyzed prognostic variables for significance using Cox proportional hazards univariate and multivariate analysis. The study was approved by the Duke University Medical Center Institutional Review Board. Results: The median age of the patients was 56 years (range, 18–89 years). Of the patients, 80% had T1 disease and 66% N0 disease pathologically. With a median follow-up of 9.8 years, an in-breast recurrence developed in 53 patients and 10 patients had nodal failure. For all patients, the 10-year CSS rate was 94%; LRC rate, 94%; and failure-free survival rate, 88%. Luminal A patients had a CSS rate of 95% and LRC rate of 99%. Basal-type patients appeared to do worse, with regard to both CSS rate (74%) and LRC rate (76%), but the numbers were small and the difference was not statistically significant. LRC rates of patients with negative margins (widely negative, close, and extent of margin not known) were virtually identical (93%, 96%, and 94%, respectively). Those with positive margins appeared to fare slightly worse based on LRC rate (88%), but again, the numbers were small and the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusions: BCT remains the treatment of choice for early-stage breast cancer

  11. Breast Conservation Therapy: The Influence of Molecular Subtype and Margins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirci, Senem, E-mail: senem.demirci@ege.edu.tr [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Ege University Faculty of Medicine, Izmir (Turkey); Broadwater, Gloria [Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Duke Cancer Institute, Durham, NC (United States); Cancer and Leukemia Group B Statistical Center, Duke Cancer Institute, Durham, NC (United States); Marks, Lawrence B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Clough, Robert; Prosnitz, Leonard R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate treatment results and prognostic factors, especially margin status and molecular subtype, in early-stage breast cancer patients treated with breast conservation therapy (BCT). Methods and Materials: The records of 1,058 Stage I or II breast cancer patients treated with BCT (surgical excision plus radiotherapy) at Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, from 1985-2005 were retrospectively reviewed. Conventional receptor analyses were used as surrogate markers for molecular subtype classification (luminal A, luminal B, Her2 positive, and basal like). Actuarial estimates of overall survival (OS), cause-specific survival (CSS), failure-free survival, and locoregional control (LRC) were computed by use of Kaplan-Meier plots. We analyzed prognostic variables for significance using Cox proportional hazards univariate and multivariate analysis. The study was approved by the Duke University Medical Center Institutional Review Board. Results: The median age of the patients was 56 years (range, 18-89 years). Of the patients, 80% had T1 disease and 66% N0 disease pathologically. With a median follow-up of 9.8 years, an in-breast recurrence developed in 53 patients and 10 patients had nodal failure. For all patients, the 10-year CSS rate was 94%; LRC rate, 94%; and failure-free survival rate, 88%. Luminal A patients had a CSS rate of 95% and LRC rate of 99%. Basal-type patients appeared to do worse, with regard to both CSS rate (74%) and LRC rate (76%), but the numbers were small and the difference was not statistically significant. LRC rates of patients with negative margins (widely negative, close, and extent of margin not known) were virtually identical (93%, 96%, and 94%, respectively). Those with positive margins appeared to fare slightly worse based on LRC rate (88%), but again, the numbers were small and the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusions: BCT remains the treatment of choice for early-stage breast cancer

  12. HIV subtype, epidemiological and mutational correlations in patients from Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Maria Gomes da Silva

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Analyze patients with HIV infection from Curitiba, Paraná, their epidemiological characteristics and HIV RAM. METHODS: Patients regularly followed in an ID Clinic had their medical data evaluated and cases of virological failure were analyzed with genotypic report. RESULTS: Patients with complete medical charts were selected (n = 191. Demographic and clinical characteristics were compared. One hundred thirty two patients presented with subtype B infection (69.1%, 41 subtype C (21.5%, 10 subtype F (5.2%, 7 BF (3.7% and 1 CF (0.5%. Patients with subtype B infection had been diagnosed earlier than patients with subtype non-B. Also, subtype B infection was more frequent in men who have sex with men, while non-B subtypes occurred more frequently in heterosexuals and women. Patients with previous history of three classes of ARVs (n = 161 intake were selected to evaluate resistance. For RT inhibitors, 41L and 210W were more frequently observed in subtype B than in non-B strains. No differences between subtypes and mutations were observed to NNTRIs. Mutations at 10, 32 and 63 position of protease were more observed in subtype B viruses than non-B, while positions 20 and 36 of showed more amino acid substitutions in subtype non-B viruses. Patients with history of NFV intake were evaluated to resistance pathway. The 90M pathway was more frequent in subtypes B and non-B. Mutations previously reported as common in non-B viruses, such as 65R and 106M, were uncommon in our study. Mutations 63P and 36I, previously reported as common in HIV-1 subtypes B and C from Brazil, respectively, were common. CONCLUSION: There is a significant frequency of HIV-1 non-B infections in Paraná state, with isolates classified as subtypes C, F, BF and BC. Patients with subtype C infection were more frequently female, heterosexual and had a longer average time of HIV diagnosis

  13. The fosfomycin resistance gene fosB3 is located on a transferable, extrachromosomal circular intermediate in clinical Enterococcus faecium isolates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaogang Xu

    Full Text Available Some VanM-type vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolates from China are also resistant to fosfomycin. To investigate the mechanism of fosfomycin resistance in these clinical isolates, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, filter-mating, Illumina/Solexa sequencing, inverse PCR and fosfomycin resistance gene cloning were performed. Three E. faecium clinical isolates were highly resistant to fosfomycin and vancomycin with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs >1024 µg/ml and >256 µg/ml, respectively. The fosfomycin and vancomycin resistance of these strains could be co-transferred by conjugation. They carried a fosfomycin resistance gene fosB encoding a protein differing by one or two amino acids from FosB, which is encoded on staphylococcal plasmids. Accordingly, the gene was designated fosB3. The fosB3 gene was cloned into pMD19-T, and transformed into E. coli DH5α. The fosfomycin MIC for transformants with fosB3 was 750-fold higher than transformants without fosB3. The fosB3 gene could be transferred by an extrachromosomal circular intermediate. The results indicate that the fosB3 gene is transferable, can mediate high level fosfomycin resistance in both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and can be located on a circular intermediate.

  14. Preparation of quadri-subtype influenza virus-like particles using bovine immunodeficiency virus gag protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tretyakova, Irina; Hidajat, Rachmat; Hamilton, Garrett; Horn, Noah; Nickols, Brian; Prather, Raphael O. [Medigen, Inc., 8420 Gas House Pike, Suite S, Frederick, MD (United States); Tumpey, Terrence M. [Influenza Division, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road N.E., Atlanta, GA (United States); Pushko, Peter, E-mail: ppushko@medigen-usa.com [Medigen, Inc., 8420 Gas House Pike, Suite S, Frederick, MD (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Influenza VLPs comprised of hemagglutinin (HA), neuraminidase (NA), and matrix (M1) proteins have been previously used for immunological and virological studies. Here we demonstrated that influenza VLPs can be made in Sf9 cells by using the bovine immunodeficiency virus gag (Bgag) protein in place of M1. We showed that Bgag can be used to prepare VLPs for several influenza subtypes including H1N1 and H10N8. Furthermore, by using Bgag, we prepared quadri-subtype VLPs, which co-expressed within the VLP the four HA subtypes derived from avian-origin H5N1, H7N9, H9N2 and H10N8 viruses. VLPs showed hemagglutination and neuraminidase activities and reacted with specific antisera. The content and co-localization of each HA subtype within the quadri-subtype VLP were evaluated. Electron microscopy showed that Bgag-based VLPs resembled influenza virions with the diameter of 150–200 nm. This is the first report of quadri-subtype design for influenza VLP and the use of Bgag for influenza VLP preparation. - Highlights: • BIV gag protein was configured as influenza VLP core component. • Recombinant influenza VLPs were prepared in Sf9 cells using baculovirus expression system. • Single- and quadri-subtype VLPs were prepared by using BIV gag as a VLP core. • Co-localization of H5, H7, H9, and H10 HA was confirmed within quadri-subtype VLP. • Content of HA subtypes within quadri-subtype VLP was determined. • Potential advantages of quadri-subtype VLPs as influenza vaccine are discussed.

  15. Frequent intra-subtype recombination among HIV-1 circulating in Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ireen E Kiwelu

    Full Text Available The study estimated the prevalence of HIV-1 intra-subtype recombinant variants among female bar and hotel workers in Tanzania. While intra-subtype recombination occurs in HIV-1, it is generally underestimated. HIV-1 env gp120 V1-C5 quasispecies from 45 subjects were generated by single-genome amplification and sequencing (median (IQR of 38 (28-50 sequences per subject. Recombination analysis was performed using seven methods implemented within the recombination detection program version 3, RDP3. HIV-1 sequences were considered recombinant if recombination signals were detected by at least three methods with p-values of ≤0.05 after Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. HIV-1 in 38 (84% subjects showed evidence for intra-subtype recombination including 22 with HIV-1 subtype A1, 13 with HIV-1 subtype C, and 3 with HIV-1 subtype D. The distribution of intra-patient recombination breakpoints suggested ongoing recombination and showed selective enrichment of recombinant variants in 23 (60% subjects. The number of subjects with evidence of intra-subtype recombination increased from 29 (69% to 36 (82% over one year of follow-up, although the increase did not reach statistical significance. Adjustment for intra-subtype recombination is important for the analysis of multiplicity of HIV infection. This is the first report of high prevalence of intra-subtype recombination in the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Tanzania, a region where multiple HIV-1 subtypes co-circulate. HIV-1 intra-subtype recombination increases viral diversity and presents additional challenges for HIV-1 vaccine design.

  16. Novel molecular subtypes of serous and endometrioid ovarian cancer linked to clinical outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tothill, Richard W; Tinker, Anna V; George, Joshy; Brown, Robert; Fox, Stephen B; Lade, Stephen; Johnson, Daryl S; Trivett, Melanie K; Etemadmoghadam, Dariush; Locandro, Bianca; Traficante, Nadia; Fereday, Sian; Hung, Jillian A; Chiew, Yoke-Eng; Haviv, Izhak; Gertig, Dorota; DeFazio, Anna; Bowtell, David D L

    2008-08-15

    The study aim to identify novel molecular subtypes of ovarian cancer by gene expression profiling with linkage to clinical and pathologic features. Microarray gene expression profiling was done on 285 serous and endometrioid tumors of the ovary, peritoneum, and fallopian tube. K-means clustering was applied to identify robust molecular subtypes. Statistical analysis identified differentially expressed genes, pathways, and gene ontologies. Laser capture microdissection, pathology review, and immunohistochemistry validated the array-based findings. Patient survival within k-means groups was evaluated using Cox proportional hazards models. Class prediction validated k-means groups in an independent dataset. A semisupervised survival analysis of the array data was used to compare against unsupervised clustering results. Optimal clustering of array data identified six molecular subtypes. Two subtypes represented predominantly serous low malignant potential and low-grade endometrioid subtypes, respectively. The remaining four subtypes represented higher grade and advanced stage cancers of serous and endometrioid morphology. A novel subtype of high-grade serous cancers reflected a mesenchymal cell type, characterized by overexpression of N-cadherin and P-cadherin and low expression of differentiation markers, including CA125 and MUC1. A poor prognosis subtype was defined by a reactive stroma gene expression signature, correlating with extensive desmoplasia in such samples. A similar poor prognosis signature could be found using a semisupervised analysis. Each subtype displayed distinct levels and patterns of immune cell infiltration. Class prediction identified similar subtypes in an independent ovarian dataset with similar prognostic trends. Gene expression profiling identified molecular subtypes of ovarian cancer of biological and clinical importance.

  17. Preparation of quadri-subtype influenza virus-like particles using bovine immunodeficiency virus gag protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tretyakova, Irina; Hidajat, Rachmat; Hamilton, Garrett; Horn, Noah; Nickols, Brian; Prather, Raphael O.; Tumpey, Terrence M.; Pushko, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Influenza VLPs comprised of hemagglutinin (HA), neuraminidase (NA), and matrix (M1) proteins have been previously used for immunological and virological studies. Here we demonstrated that influenza VLPs can be made in Sf9 cells by using the bovine immunodeficiency virus gag (Bgag) protein in place of M1. We showed that Bgag can be used to prepare VLPs for several influenza subtypes including H1N1 and H10N8. Furthermore, by using Bgag, we prepared quadri-subtype VLPs, which co-expressed within the VLP the four HA subtypes derived from avian-origin H5N1, H7N9, H9N2 and H10N8 viruses. VLPs showed hemagglutination and neuraminidase activities and reacted with specific antisera. The content and co-localization of each HA subtype within the quadri-subtype VLP were evaluated. Electron microscopy showed that Bgag-based VLPs resembled influenza virions with the diameter of 150–200 nm. This is the first report of quadri-subtype design for influenza VLP and the use of Bgag for influenza VLP preparation. - Highlights: • BIV gag protein was configured as influenza VLP core component. • Recombinant influenza VLPs were prepared in Sf9 cells using baculovirus expression system. • Single- and quadri-subtype VLPs were prepared by using BIV gag as a VLP core. • Co-localization of H5, H7, H9, and H10 HA was confirmed within quadri-subtype VLP. • Content of HA subtypes within quadri-subtype VLP was determined. • Potential advantages of quadri-subtype VLPs as influenza vaccine are discussed.

  18. Different frequencies of drug resistance mutations among HIV-1 subtypes circulating in China: a comprehensive study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongshuai Sui

    Full Text Available The rapid spreading of HIV drug resistance is threatening the overall success of free HAART in China. Much work has been done on drug-resistant mutations, however, most of which were based on subtype B. Due to different genetic background, subtypes difference would have an effect on the development of drug-resistant mutations, which has already been proved by more and more studies. In China, the main epidemic subtypes are CRF07_BC, CRF08_BC, Thai B and CRF01_AE. The depiction of drug resistance mutations in those subtypes will be helpful for the selection of regimens for Chinese. In this study, the distributions difference of amino acids at sites related to HIV drug resistance were compared among subtype B, CRF01_AE, CRF07_BC and CRF08_BC strains prevalent in China. The amino acid composition of sequences belonging to different subtypes, which were obtained from untreated and treated individuals separately, were also compared. The amino acids proportions of 19 sites in RT among subtype B, CRF01_AE and CRF08_BC have significant difference in drug resistance groups (chi-square test, p<0.05. Genetic barriers analysis revealed that sites 69, 138, 181, 215 and 238 were significantly different among subtypes (Kruskal Wallis test, p<0.05. All subtypes shared three highest prevalent drug resistance sites 103, 181 and 184 in common. Many drug resistant sites in protease show surprising high proportions in almost all subtypes in drug-naïve patients. This is the first comprehensive study in China on different development of drug resistance among different subtypes. The detailed data will lay a foundation for HIV treatment regimens design and improve HIV therapy in China.

  19. Theoretical analysis of the structural phase transformation from B3 to B1 in BeO under high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Arvind; Verma, Saligram; Nagarch, R. K.; Shah, S.; Kaurav, Netram

    2018-05-01

    We have performed the phase transformation and elastic properties of BeO at high pressure by formulating effective interionic interaction potential. The elastic constants, including the long-range Coulomb and van der Waals (vdW) interactions and the short-range repulsive interaction of up to second-neighbor ions within the Hafemeister and Flygare approach, are derived. Assuming that both the ions are polarizable, we employed the Slater-Kirkwood variational method to estimate the vdW coefficients, a structural phase transition (Pt) from ZnS structure (B3) to NaCl structure (B1) at 108 GPa has been predicted for BeO. The estimated value of the phase transition pressure (Pt) and the magnitude of the discontinuity in volume at the transition pressure are consistent as compared to the theoretical data. The variations of elastic constants with pressure follow a systematic trend identical to that observed in others compounds of ZnS type structure family.

  20. Alterations in cell growth and signaling in ErbB3 binding protein-1 (Ebp1 deficient mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Myounghee

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ErbB3 binding protein-1 (Ebp1 belongs to a family of DNA/RNA binding proteins implicated in cell growth, apoptosis and differentiation. However, the physiological role of Ebp1 in the whole organism is not known. Therefore, we generated Ebp1-deficient mice carrying a gene trap insertion in intron 2 of the Ebp1 (pa2g4 gene. Results Ebp1-/- mice were on average 30% smaller than wild type and heterozygous sex matched littermates. Growth retardation was apparent from Day 10 until Day 30. IGF-1 production and IGBP-3 and 4 protein levels were reduced in both embryo fibroblasts and adult knock-out mice. The proliferation of fibroblasts derived from Day 12.5 knock out embryos was also decreased as compared to that of wild type cells. Microarray expression analysis revealed changes in genes important in cell growth including members of the MAPK signal transduction pathway. In addition, the expression or activation of proliferation related genes such as AKT and the androgen receptor, previously demonstrated to be affected by Ebp1 expression in vitro, was altered in adult tissues. Conclusion These results indicate that Ebp1 can affect growth in an animal model, but that the expression of proliferation related genes is cell and context specific. The Ebp1-/- mouse line represents a new in vivo model to investigate Ebp1 function in the whole organism.

  1. Use of SRIM and Garfield with Geant4 for the characterization of a hybrid 10B/3He neutron detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ende, B. M.; Rand, E. T.; Erlandson, A.; Li, L.

    2018-06-01

    This paper describes a method for more complete neutron detector characterization using Geant4's Monte Carlo methods for characterizing overall detector response rate and Garfield interfaced with SRIM for the simulation of the detector's raw pulses, as applied to a hybrid 10B/3He detector. The Geant4 models characterizing the detector's interaction with a 252Cf point source and parallel beams of mono-energetic neutrons (assuming ISO 8529 reference energy values) compare and agree well with calibrated 252Cf measurements to within 6.4%. Validated Geant4 model outputs serve as input to Garfield+SRIM calculations to provide meaningful pulse height spectra. Modifications to Garfield for this work were necessary to account for simultaneous tracking of electrons resulting from proton and triton reaction products from a single 3He neutron capture event, and it was further necessary to interface Garfield with the energy loss, range, and straggling calculations provided by SRIM. Individual raw pulses generated by Garfield+SRIM are also observed to agree well with experimentally measured raw pulses from the detector.

  2. Age-Associated Changes in Estrogen Receptor Ratios Correlate with Increased Female Susceptibility to Coxsackievirus B3-Induced Myocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Koenig

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Sexual bias is a hallmark in various diseases. This review evaluates sexual dimorphism in clinical and experimental coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3 myocarditis, and how sex bias in the experimental disease changes with increased age. Coxsackieviruses are major causes of viral myocarditis, an inflammation of the heart muscle, which is more frequent and severe in men than women. Young male mice infected with CVB3 develop heart-specific autoimmunity and severe myocarditis. Females infected during estrus (high estradiol develop T-regulatory cells and when infected during diestrus (low estradiol develop autoimmunity similar to males. During estrus, protection depends on estrogen receptor alpha (ERα, which promotes type I interferon, activation of natural killer/natural killer T cells and suppressor cell responses. Estrogen receptor beta has opposing effects to ERα and supports pro-inflammatory immunity. However, the sexual dimorphism of the disease is significantly ameliorated in aged animals when old females become as susceptible as males. This correlates to a selective loss of the ERα that is required for immunosuppression. Therefore, sex-associated hormones control susceptibility in the virus-mediated disease, but their impact can alter with the age and physiological stage of the individual.

  3. The partial-birth stratagem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-01

    In Wisconsin, physicians stopped performing abortions when a Federal District Court Judge refused to issue a temporary restraining order against the state's newly enacted "partial birth" abortion ban that was couched in such vague language it actually covered all abortions. While ostensibly attempting to ban late-term "intact dilation and extraction," the language of the law did not refer to that procedure or to late terms. Instead, it prohibited all abortions in which a physician "partially vaginally delivers a living child, causes the death of the partially delivered child with the intent to kill the child and then completes the delivery of the child." The law also defined "child" as "a human being from the time of fertilization" until birth. It is clear that this abortion ban is unconstitutional under Row v. Wade, and this unconstitutionality is compounded by the fact that the law allowed no exception to protect a woman's health, which is required by Roe for abortion bans after fetal viability. Wisconsin is only one of about 28 states that have enacted similar laws, and only two have restricted the ban to postviability abortions. Many of these laws have been struck down in court, and President Clinton has continued to veto the Federal partial-birth bill. The Wisconsin Judge acknowledged that opponents of the ban will likely prevail when the case is heard, but his action in denying the temporary injunction means that many women in Wisconsin will not receive timely medical care. The partial birth strategy is really only another anti-abortion strategy.

  4. Characterization of muscarinic receptor subtypes in human tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraldo, E.; Martos, F.; Gomez, A.; Garcia, A.; Vigano, M.A.; Ladinsky, H.; Sanchez de La Cuesta, F.

    1988-01-01

    The affinities of selective, pirenzepine and AF-DX 116, and classical, N-methylscopolamine and atropine, muscarinic cholinergic receptor antagonists were investigated in displacement binding experiments with [ 3 H]Pirenzepine and [ 3 H]N-methylscopolamine in membranes from human autoptic tissues (forebrain, cerebellum, atria, ventricle and submaxillary salivary glands). Affinity estimates of N-methylscopolamine and atropine indicated a non-selective profile. Pirenzepine showed differentiation between the M 1 neuronal receptor of the forebrain and the receptors in other tissues while AF-DX 116 clearly discriminated between muscarinic receptors of heart and glands. The results in human tissues confirm the previously described selectivity profiles of pirenzepine and AF-DX 116 in rat tissues. These findings thus reveal the presence also in man of three distinct muscarinic receptor subtypes: the neuronal M 1 , the cardiac M 2 and the glandular M 3

  5. Groin hernia subtypes are associated in patients with bilateral hernias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Jakob; Andresen, Kristoffer; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian

    2015-01-01

    repair (89.9% males) were registered, and of those were 12,041 persons operated bilaterally (94.9% males). Females and males operated for a unilaterally direct inguinal hernia (DIH) had increased Hazard Ratios (HR) of 3.85 (CI 95% 2.14-6.19) and 4.46 (CI 95% 2.57-7.88) of being contralaterally operated...... for a DIH. Females and males operated for a unilaterally indirect inguinal hernia (IIH) had HRs of 6.93 (CI 95% 3.66-13.11) and 1.89 (CI95% 1.24-2.88) for being contralaterally operated for an IIH. The same tendency was seen for femoral hernias. CONCLUSIONS: All hernia subtypes were bilaterally associated...

  6. Diagnostic subtypes of bipolar disorder in older versus younger adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate differences in diagnostic subtypes of bipolar disorder as according to ICD-10 between patients whose first contact with psychiatric health care occurs late in life (over 50 years of age) and patients who have first contact earlier in life (50 years of age or below......). METHODS: From 1994 to 2002 all patients who received a diagnosis of a manic episode or bipolar disorder at initial contact with the mental healthcare system, whether outpatient or inpatient, were identified in Denmark's nationwide register. RESULTS: A total of 852 (49.6%) patients, who were over age 50......, and 867 patients, who were 50 or below, received a diagnosis of a manic episode or bipolar disorder at the first contact ever. Older inpatients presented with psychotic symptoms (35.4%) significantly less than younger inpatients (42.6%) due specifically to a lower prevalence of manic episodes...

  7. Do neurocognitive deficits in decision making differentiate conduct disorder subtypes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanti, Kostas A; Kimonis, Eva R; Hadjicharalambous, Maria-Zoe; Steinberg, Laurence

    2016-09-01

    The present study aimed to test whether neurocognitive deficits involved in decision making underlie subtypes of conduct-disorder (CD) differentiated on the basis of callous-unemotional (CU) traits. Eighty-five participants (M age = 10.94 years) were selected from a sample of 1200 children based on repeated assessment of CD and CU traits. Participants completed a multi-method battery of well-validated measures of risky decision making and associated constructs of selective attention and future orientation (Stroop, Stoplight, and Delay-Discounting Tasks). Findings indicated that impaired decision making, selective attention, and future orientation contribute to the antisocial presentations displayed by children with CD, irrespective of level of CU traits. Youth high on CU traits without CD showed less risky decision making, as indicated by their performance on the Stoplight laboratory task, than those high on both CD and CU traits, suggesting a potential protective factor against the development of antisocial behavior.

  8. Diversity of Blastocystis subtypes in dogs in different geographical settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Wenqi; Cuttell, Leigh; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle

    2013-01-01

    Background: Blastocystis is a ubiquitous, globally distributed intestinal protist infecting humans and a wide range of animals. Several studies have shown that Blastocystis is a potentially zoonotic parasite. A 1996 study reported a 70% Blastocystis prevalence in Brisbane pound dogs while another...... study found that pet dogs/cats of 11 symptomatic Blastocystis infected patients harboured at least one Blastocystis subtype (ST) in common with the patient. These results raised the possibility that dogs might be natural hosts of Blastocystis. In this study, we aimed to investigate this hypothesis...... by estimating the prevalence of Blastocystis carriage and characterising the diversity of STs in dogs from three different environmental settings and comparing these STs with the range that humans harbour. Methods: Two hundred and forty faecal samples from dogs from three different geographical regions...

  9. Incidence of dementia and major subtypes in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fratiglioni, L; Launer, L J; Andersen, K

    2000-01-01

    The authors examined the association of incident dementia and subtypes with age, sex, and geographic area in Europe. Incidence data from eight population-based studies carried out in seven European countries were compared and pooled. The pooled data included 835 mild to severe dementia cases and 42......,996 person-years of follow-up. In all studies a higher proportion of cases were diagnosed with AD (60 to 70% of all demented cases) than vascular dementia (VaD). The incidence of dementia and AD continued to increase with age up to age 85 years, after which rates increased in women but not men....... There was a large variation in VaD incidence across studies. In the pooled analysis, the incidence rates increased with age without any substantial difference between men and women. Surprisingly, higher incidence rates of dementia and AD were found in the very old in northwest countries than in southern countries...

  10. Subtyping Ageism: Policy Issues in Succession and Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Michael S; Fiske, Susan T

    2013-01-01

    Ageism research tends to lump "older people" together as one group, as do policy matters that conceptualize everyone over-65 as "senior." This approach is problematic primarily because it often fails to represent accurately a rapidly growing, diverse, and healthy older population. In light of this, we review the ageism literature, emphasizing the importance of distinguishing between the still-active "young-old" and the potentially more impaired "old-old" (Neugarten, 1974). We argue that ageism theory has disproportionately focused on the old-old and differentiate the forms of age discrimination that apparently target each elder subgroup. In particular, we highlight the young-old's plights predominantly in the workplace and tensions concerning succession of desirable resources; by contrast, old-old predicaments likely center on consumption of shared resources outside of the workplace. For both social psychological researchers and policymakers, accurately subtyping ageism will help society best accommodate a burgeoning, diverse older population.

  11. [Cognitive performance in schizophrenia (paranoid vs residual subtype)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Carol; Taragano, Fernando; Sarasola, Diego; Iturry, Mónica; Serrano, Cecilia; Raczkowski, Amalia; Allegri, Ricardo

    2007-01-01

    Several studies refer to the relationship between schizophrenia and cognitive dysfunctions. The most frequent disturbances accepted are the deficits in the executive, memory and verbal tests. However, there are few comparative data about the cognitive functioning of the different subtypes of schizophrenia. Analyze and compare the neuropsychological disturbances present in patients with paranoid and residual schizophrenia. Eleven patients with paranoid schizophrenia, eleven patients with residual schizophrenia (DSM-IV criteria), and thirty one normal subjects matched by age, educational level, and general cognitive level (Mini Mental State Examination (Folstein, 1975), were assessed with a semistructured psychiatric examination and an extensive neuropsychological battery. Significant differences were found in memory, language, and executive functions when schizophrenics were compared with normal subjects. Differences in similarities were found between paranoid and residual schizophrenics. Residual schizophrenics had more disturbances in neuropsychological tests in comparison with paranoid schizophrenics. Schizophrenics demonstrated disturbances in memory, language, executive functions and attention. Residual schizophrenics had more impairment in neuropsychological tests than paranoid schizophrenics.

  12. Granulomatous slack skin: a rare subtype of mycosis fungoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, Letícia Marra da; Soares, Cleverson Teixeira; Nakandakari, Sadamitsu; Silva, Gardênia Viana da; Nigro, Maria Helena Mazzi Freire; Brandão, Leticia Stella Gardini

    2017-01-01

    We report a case of granulomatous slack skin, a rare and indolent subtype of mycosis fungoides. It affects mainly men between the third and fourth decades. It is characterized by hardened and erithematous plaques that mainly affect flexural areas and become pedunculated after some years. Histological examination shows a dense infiltrate of small atypical lymphocytes involving the dermis (and sometimes the subcutaneous tissue) associated with histiocytic and multinucleated giant cells containing lymphocytes and elastic fibers (lymphophagocytosis and elastophagocytosis, respectively). Patients affected by this entity can develop secondary lymphomas. There are several but little effective therapeutic modalities described. Despite the indolent behavior of granulomatous slack skin, its early recognition and continuous monitoring by a dermatologist becomes essential for its management and prevention of an unfavorable outcome.

  13. Molecular subtype classification of urothelial carcinoma in Lynch syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkildsen, Christina; Eriksson, Pontus; Höglund, Mattias

    2018-01-01

    Lynch syndrome confers an increased risk for urothelial carcinoma (UC). Molecular subtypes may be relevant to prognosis and therapeutic possibilities, but have to date not been defined in Lynch syndrome-associated urothelial cancer. We aimed to provide a molecular description of Lynch syndrome......-associated UC. Thus, Lynch syndrome-associated UC of the upper urinary tract and the urinary bladder were identified in the Danish hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) register and were transcriptionally and immunohistochemically profiled and further related to data from 307 sporadic urothelial...... carcinomas. Whole genome mRNA expression profiles of 41 tumors and immunohistochemical stainings against FGFR3, KRT5, CCNB1, RB1, and CDKN2A (p16) of 37 tumors from Lynch syndrome patients were generated. Pathological data, microsatellite instability, anatomic location, and overall survival data was analyzed...

  14. Crystalline Subtype of Pre-Descemetic Corneal Dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Dolz-Marco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report corneal findings in a familial case of the crystalline subtype of pre- Descemetic corneal dystrophy. Case Report: A 19-year-old girl and her 44-year-old mother were found to have asymptomatic, bilateral, punctiform and multi-colored crystalline opacities across the whole posterior layer of the corneas. Endothelial specular microscopy revealed the presence of white round flecks located at different levels anterior to the endothelium. No systemic abnormalities or medications could be related to account for these findings. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the third familial report of this rare corneal disorder. Differential diagnosis may include Schnyder corneal dystrophy, cystinosis, Bietti΄s dystrophy and monoclonal gammopathy.

  15. Crystalline Subtype of Pre-Descemetic Corneal Dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolz-Marco, Rosa; Gallego-Pinazo, Roberto; Pinazo-Durán, María Dolores; Díaz-Llopis, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To report corneal findings in a familial case of the crystalline subtype of pre-Descemetic corneal dystrophy. Case Report A 19-year-old girl and her 44-year-old mother were found to have asymptomatic, bilateral, punctiform and multi-colored crystalline opacities across the whole posterior layer of the corneas. Endothelial specular microscopy revealed the presence of white round flecks located at different levels anterior to the endothelium. No systemic abnormalities or medications could be related to account for these findings. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, this is the third familial report of this rare corneal disorder. Differential diagnosis may include Schnyder corneal dystrophy, cystinosis, Bietti´s dystrophy and monoclonal gammopathy. PMID:25279130

  16. Subtypes of depressive episodes according to ICD-10

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2003-01-01

    a period from 1994 to 1999 were identified. The risk of relapse leading to readmission and the risk of committing suicide were compared for patients discharged with an ICD-10 diagnosis of a single depressive episode with and without melancholic syndrome and for patients with and without psychotic symptoms......BACKGROUND: The long-term predictive ability of the ICD-10 subtypes of depression with melancholic syndrome and depression with psychosis has not been investigated. SAMPLING AND METHODS: All patients in Denmark who had a diagnosis of a single depressive episode at their first ever discharge during......, respectively. RESULTS: In all, 1,639 patients had a diagnosis of depressive episode without psychotic symptoms, 1,275 patients a diagnosis with psychotic symptoms, 293 a diagnosis without melancholic syndrome, and 248 a diagnosis with melancholic symptoms at first discharge. The risk of relapse leading...

  17. Antisocial personality disorder--stable and unstable subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, Simone; Coid, Jeremy

    2010-04-01

    There have been criticisms that the criteria for antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) are over-dependent on criminal behavior. This study aimed to identify unrelated criteria of social and behavioral problems and instability, and to investigate their associations in a representative household sample of adults in the UK. Approximately one third of adults with ASPD did not fulfill any of the criteria for instability. They were less aggressive and involved in illegal activities but expressed less remorse for their behaviors. Instability in ASPD was mediated primarily through comorbid anxiety disorders and borderline personality disorder. The concept of Secondary Psychopathy, which has not generally been applied to ASPD, demonstrated many similarities to the unstable subtype.

  18. Relationship between serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and modified TOAST classification as well as OCSP subtypes in patients with acute ischemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-jun CHANG

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate the relationship between serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP level and modified TOAST classification as well as OCSP subtypes in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Serum hs-CRP was measured in 240 patients with acute ischemic stroke and 120 normal controls. All patients were classified according to modified TOAST classification and OCSP criteria. Serum hs-CRP levels in acute ischemic stroke group were significantly higher than those in normal control group [(13.68 ± 6.92 mg/L vs (3.98 ± 0.76 mg/L; t = 6.922, P = 0.002]. Among modified TOAST subtypes, the highest serum hs-CRP level was in cardioembolism (CE group [(16.82 ± 6.16 mg/L], followed by arterothrombosis (AT group [(15.17 ± 5.68 mg/L], stroke of undetermined etiology (SUD group [(10.06 ± 3.89 mg/L] and small artery disease (SAD group [(9.86 ± 3.75 mg/L, P = 0.027]. Among OCSP subtypes, the highest serum hs-CRP level was in total anterior circulation infarct (TACI group [(17.02 ± 6.98 mg/L], followed by posterior circulation infarct (POCI group [(15.91 ± 7.12 mg/L], partial anterior circulation infarct (PACI group [(12.83 ± 4.95 mg/L] and lacunar infarct (LACI group [(10.61 ± 5.73 mg/L, P = 0.005]. Serum hs-CRP levels are various in different modified TOAST and OCSP subtypes, which may reflect etiological and pathophysiological diversity of acute ischemic stroke, guide clinical treatment and help to predict prognosis. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2014.10.013

  19. Neurocognitive impairment in the deficit subtype of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fervaha, Gagan; Agid, Ofer; Foussias, George; Siddiqui, Ishraq; Takeuchi, Hiroyoshi; Remington, Gary

    2016-08-01

    Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous disorder characterized by numerous diverse signs and symptoms. Individuals with prominent, persistent, and idiopathic negative symptoms are thought to encompass a distinct subtype of schizophrenia. Previous work, including studies involving neuropsychological evaluations, has supported this position. The present study sought to further examine whether deficit patients are cognitively distinct from non-deficit patients with schizophrenia. A comprehensive neurocognitive battery including tests of verbal memory, vigilance, processing speed, reasoning, and working memory was administered to 657 patients with schizophrenia. Of these, 144 (22 %) patients were classified as deficit patients using a proxy identification method based on severity, persistence over time, and possible secondary sources (e.g., depression) of negative symptoms. Deficit patients with schizophrenia performed worse on all tests of cognition relative to non-deficit patients. These patients were characterized by a generalized cognitive impairment on the order of about 0.4 standard deviations below that of non-deficit patients. However, when comparing deficit patients to non-deficit patients who also present with negative symptoms, albeit not enduring or primary, no group differences in cognitive performance were found. Furthermore, a discriminant function analysis classifying patients into deficit/non-deficit groups based on cognitive scores demonstrated only 62.3 % accuracy, meaning over one-third of individuals were misclassified. The deficit subtype of schizophrenia is not markedly distinct from non-deficit schizophrenia in terms of neurocognitive performance. While deficit patients tend to have poorer performance on cognitive tests, the magnitude of this effect is relatively modest, translating to over 70 % overlap in scores between groups.

  20. The strategic value of partial vertical integration

    OpenAIRE

    Fiocco, Raffaele

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the strategic incentives for partial vertical integration, namely, partial ownership agreements between manufacturers and retailers, when retailers privately know their costs and engage in differentiated good price competition. The partial misalignment between the profit objectives within a partially integrated manufacturer-retailer hierarchy entails a higher retail price than under full integration. This `information vertical effect' translates into an opposite ...