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Sample records for partial discharge tests

  1. Development of Partial Discharging Simulation Test Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, Xue; Genghua, Liu; Yan, Jia; Ziqi, Chai; Jian, Lu

    2017-12-01

    In the case of partial discharge training for recruits who lack of on-site work experience, the risk of physical shock and damage of the test equipment may be due to the limited skill level and improper operation by new recruits. Partial discharge simulation tester is the use of simulation technology to achieve partial discharge test process simulation, relatively true reproduction of the local discharge process and results, so that the operator in the classroom will be able to get familiar with and understand the use of the test process and equipment.The teacher sets up the instrument to display different partial discharge waveforms so that the trainees can analyze the test results of different partial discharge types.

  2. Partial discharge testing of in-situ power cable accessories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orban, H. E.

    2002-07-01

    An overview of commercially available diagnostic methods for in-situ power cable accessories is given and relevant field experiences with these diagnostics are described. The discussion includes both PILC and polymeric insulated cables. Two major types of degradation are most frequently involved in cable systems. One is an overall condition caused by chemical aging and /or water treeing. Diagnostics for this type of aging include dissipation factor (loss angle), harmonic analysis, return voltage, isothermal relaxation current, dielectric response, or dc leakage current. The second type of degradation is discrete or incremental; condition assessment utilizes dissipation factor measurements or partial discharge (PD) level measurements. The focus in this paper is on PD diagnostics, especially off-line methods such as the 60 Hz test, the combined AC and VLF diagnostic, and the oscillating wave test system test. Among on-line diagnostics, ultrasonic detection of partial discharge and measurement of partial discharge by installing direct, capacitive or inductive couplers near cable accessories, are described. Overall, partial discharge detection and location in cable accessories is considered inadequate, since interpretation of results is difficult due to the number of variables involved. 28 refs., 1 tab.

  3. Partial Discharge Tests using the Cigré II method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casale, M. Di Lorenzo del; Schifani, R.; Holbøll, Joachim

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, the results of an experimental project on insulating material aging, performed in both Denmark and Italy, are reported. This study was concerned with partial discharge (PD) behavior at temperatures between 30 and 80°C using CIGRE method II. The material tested was a commercial...... polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) which was chosen not for its good dielectric properties but rather because much of its discharge resistance data at ambient temperature is already well documented. A description is given of the theoretical and experimental methodology followed in this work. Mixed Weibull analysis techniques...... in terms of the PD amplitude and phase distribution characteristics were employed to distinguish the presence of different aging mechanisms. Such a difference was observed at 30 and at 80°C. At 30°C the analysis inferred a single discharge aging process acting until breakdown, while at 80°C the results...

  4. Partial discharge tests and characterisation of the Advanced Photon Source linac modulator cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cours, A.

    2007-01-01

    The advanced photon source (APS) linac modulators are PFN-type pulsers with switch-mode charging power supplies (PSs). The PS and the PFN are connected to each other by 15 feet of 100-kV x-ray cable, with the PFN end of the cable terminated with a connector that was confirmed partial-discharge (PD)-free up to 38 kV ac (53.5 kV peak). Another end of the cable is terminated with a connector that was designed by the PS manufacturer and cannot easily be replaced with another type of connector, since part of it is located inside the densely packed PS. PD tests of the cables with this type of connector show that the PD inception voltages (PDIVs) in different cables turn out to be located within a wide voltage range: 21 to 27 kV ac that corresponds to 29 to 38 kV peak. In order to evaluate the insulation condition of the modulator cables, detect insulation deterioration, and ensure failure-preventing equipment maintenance, over the last two years the PDIVs of all high-voltage (HV) cables in use in the modulators have been tested about every three and a half months. Before the tests, all cables were removed from the equipment, carefully cleaned, inspected, and regreased. The tests were performed using a 40-kV PD detector. The test results show that: 1 The PDIVs remain almost unchanged in all tested cables. 2 From test to test, the PDIV of any particular cable may slightly oscillate around some average value. This possibly depends on the connector regreasing technique. 3 There is no direct evidence of cable insulation deterioration during more than two years of operation under voltage higher than the PD inception level.

  5. Partial discharge testing: a progress report. Statistical evaluation of PD data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, V.; Allan, J.

    2005-01-01

    It has long been known that comparing the partial discharge results obtained from a single machine is a valuable tool enabling companies to observe the gradual deterioration of a machine stator winding and thus plan appropriate maintenance for the machine. In 1998, at the annual Iris Rotating Machines Conference (IRMC), a paper was presented that compared thousands of PD test results to establish the criteria for comparing results from different machines and the expected PD levels. At subsequent annual Iris conferences, using similar analytical procedures, papers were presented that supported the previous criteria and: in 1999, established sensor location as an additional criterion; in 2000, evaluated the effect of insulation type and age on PD activity; in 2001, evaluated the effect of manufacturer on PD activity; in 2002, evaluated the effect of operating pressure for hydrogen-cooled machines; in 2003, evaluated the effect of insulation type and setting Trac alarms; in 2004, re-evaluated the effect of manufacturer on PD activity. Before going further in database analysis procedures, it would be prudent to statistically evaluate the anecdotal evidence observed to date. The goal was to determine which variables of machine conditions greatly influenced the PD results and which didn't. Therefore, this year's paper looks at the impact of operating voltage, machine type and winding type on the test results for air-cooled machines. Because of resource constraints, only data collected through 2003 was used; however, as before, it is still standardized for frequency bandwidth and pruned to include only full-load-hot (FLH) results collected for one sensor on operating machines. All questionable data, or data from off-line testing or unusual machine conditions was excluded, leaving 6824 results. Calibration of on-line PD test results is impractical; therefore, only results obtained using the same method of data collection and noise separation techniques are compared. For

  6. A novel technique for partial discharge measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrokh, Fattahi; Navid, Tagizadegan; Ahmad, Zentabchi; Mehdi, Rashidi

    2005-01-01

    Full text : Partial discharges are a sensitive measure of local electrical stress and therefore the measurements is very often used as a quality check of the insulation. The inception of partial discharges gives information on the limit of the electrical strength of the insulating material before a complete discharge between the conductors takes place. Therefore the insulating material can be tested with high stress but without damaging or reducing the performance of the insulation. Also, for partial discharge measurements it should be taken into account that every stress of the insulation will have an influence on the life expectancy of the material, but a reasonable compromise between the stress during the measurement in order to get reliable results and the influence of he lifetime should be found and established in the relevant standard for the particular equipment, for example transformers, cables and so on

  7. Influences of Traction Load Shock on Artificial Partial Discharge Faults within Traction Transformer—Experimental Test for Pattern Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuaibing Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Partial discharge (PD measurement and its pattern recognition are vital to fault diagnosis of transformers, especially to those traction substation transformers undergoing repetitive traction load shocks. This paper presents the primary factors induced by traction load shocks including high total harmonics distortion (THD, transient voltage impulse and high-temperature rise, and their effects on the feature parameters of PD. Experimental tests are conducted on six artificial PD models with these factors introduced one by one. Results reveal that the maximum PD quantity and the PD repetitive rate are favorable to be enlarged when the oil temperature exceeds 80 °C or the THD is higher than 16% with certain orders of harmonic. The decline in PD inception voltage can mainly be attributed to the transient voltage impulse. The variation in central frequency of the fast Fourier transformation (FFT spectra transformed from ultra-high frequency signals can mainly be attributed to high THD, especially when it exceeds 20%. The temperature rise has no significant influence on the FFT spectra; the transient voltage impulse, however, can result in a central frequency shift of the floating particle discharge. With the rapid development of high-speed railways, the study presented in this paper will be helpful for field PD detection and recognition of traction substation transformers in the future.

  8. Partial discharges and bulk dielectric field enhancement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAllister, Iain Wilson; Johansson, Torben

    2000-01-01

    A consequence of partial discharge activity within a gaseous void is the production of a field enhancement in the solid dielectric in the proximity of the void. This situation arises due to the charge created by the partial discharges accumulating at the void wall. The influence of the spatial...

  9. Partial discharge transients: The field theoretical approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAllister, Iain Wilson; Crichton, George C

    1998-01-01

    Up until the mid-1980s the theory of partial discharge transients was essentially static. This situation had arisen because of the fixation with the concept of void capacitance and the use of circuit theory to address what is in essence a field problem. Pedersen rejected this approach and instead...... began to apply field theory to the problem of partial discharge transients. In the present paper, the contributions of Pedersen using the field theoretical approach will be reviewed and discussed....

  10. Computer-based instrumentation for partial discharge detection in GIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Md Enamul Haque; Ahmad Darus; Yaacob, M.M.; Halil Hussain; Feroz Ahmed

    2000-01-01

    Partial discharge is one of the prominent indicators of defects and insulation degradation in a Gas Insulated Switchgear (GIS). Partial discharges (PD) have a harmful effect on the life of insulation of high voltage equipment. The PD detection using acoustic technique and subsequent analysis is currently an efficient method of performing non-destructive testing of GIS apparatus. A low cost PC-based acoustic PD detection instrument has been developed for the non-destructive diagnosis of GIS. This paper describes the development of a PC-based instrumentation system for partial discharge detection in GIS and some experimental results have also presented. (Author)

  11. Partial discharges in ellipsoidal and spheroidal voids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crichton, George C; Karlsson, P. W.; Pedersen, Aage

    1989-01-01

    Transients associated with partial discharges in voids can be described in terms of the charges induced on the terminal electrodes of the system. The relationship between the induced charge and the properties which are usually measured is discussed. The method is illustrated by applying it to a s......Transients associated with partial discharges in voids can be described in terms of the charges induced on the terminal electrodes of the system. The relationship between the induced charge and the properties which are usually measured is discussed. The method is illustrated by applying...

  12. Partial discharges in spheroidal voids: Void orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAllister, Iain Wilson

    1997-01-01

    Partial discharge transients can be described in terms of the charge induced on the detecting electrode. The influence of the void parameters upon the induced charge is examined and discussed for spheroidal voids. It is shown that a quantitative interpretation of the induced charge requires...

  13. Propagation of Partial Discharge and Noise Pulses in Turbine Generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Mogens; Stone, G. C.; Kurtz, M.

    1986-01-01

    Changes with time in the partial discharge (PD) activity originating in a generator stator's insulation system provide information about the electrical integrity of the stator winding. It is desirable to measure PD during normal service to minimize costs. To do this successfully, the influence...... of electrical interference must be reduced. Tests are reported which characterize the nature of discharge and noise pulses when using capacitive couplers mounted on each of the phase leads and an RF current transformer mounted on the neutral lead for signal detection. Significant differences between PD...... and electrical noise have been observed....

  14. Ultrasonic partial discharge monitoring method on instrument transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartalović Nenad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sonic and ultrasonic partial discharge monitoring have been applied since the early days of these phenomena monitoring. Modern measurement and partial discharge acoustic (ultrasonic and sonic monitoring method has been rapidly evolving as a result of new electronic component design, information technology and updated software solutions as well as the development of knowledge in the partial discharge diagnosis. Electrical discharges in the insulation system generate voltage-current pulses in the network and ultrasonic waves that propagate through the insulation system and structure. Amplitude-phase-frequency analysis of these signals reveals information about the intensity, type and location of partial discharges. The paper discusses the possibility of ultrasonic method selectivity improvement and the increase of diagnosis reliability in the field. Measurements were performed in the laboratory and in the field while a number of transformers were analysed for dissolved gases in the oil. A comparative review of methods for the partial discharge detection is also presented in this paper.

  15. Partial discharge transients and the influence of dielectric polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, A.; Crichton, George C; McAllister, Iain Wilson

    1996-01-01

    Based on a field-theoretical approach, a physically valid theory of partial discharge transients has been developed. The theory is based upon the concept of the charge induced upon the detecting electrode by the partial discharge. This induced charge is shown to be composed of a component...

  16. The theory and measurement of partial discharge transients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Aage; Crichton, George C; McAllister, Iain Wilson

    1991-01-01

    A theoretical approach to partial discharge transients is presented. This approach is based on the relationship between the charge induced on the measurement electrode by those created in the interelectrode volume during partial discharge activity. The primary sources for these induced charges ar...... electrode systems of practical interest is illustrated. A discussion of the salient features and practical aspects of the theory is included...

  17. Study and optimization of the partial discharges in capacitor model ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    that the main cause of failure of these devices is the appearance of partial discharges initiated on edges of armatures. These devices can quickly slam if discharges occur continuously during the liquid impregnation. One of the criteria for selecting impregnating liquids is the behavior of gas bubbles when discharges occur.

  18. Study and optimization of the partial discharges in capacitor model ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The initial potential as well as the temperature are known to influence the partial discharge ... The development of electrostatic industry has ... the liquid impregnation. One of the ..... the Surface of Corona charged Uniforms layers of HIPS.

  19. Partial Discharge Phase Distribution Of Palm Oil As Insulating Liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rajab

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to the low biodegradability level of mineral oil and its susceptibility to the fire, palm oil was proposed as alternative insulating liquid. This paper discusses partial discharge (PD in palm oil under sinusoidal voltages and the comparison with mineral oil. PD was generated using a needle-plane electrode configuration which is enable enhancing electric field at the needle tip. PD pulses were detected using RC detector and they were measured using a Computer-based partial discharge measurement system. The results showed that PD activities in both oils are similar. The PD was initiated at the negative polarity of applied voltage. The discharges took place in both polarity’s of applied voltage with PD number was higher at negative one. Several discharges phenomena showed the presence of space charge which changed electric field and governed PD activities besides the main field introduced by voltage application.

  20. SVM-based Partial Discharge Pattern Classification for GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Yin; Bai, Demeng; Wang, Menglin; Gong, Xiaojin; Gu, Chao

    2018-01-01

    Partial discharges (PD) occur when there are localized dielectric breakdowns in small regions of gas insulated substations (GIS). It is of high importance to recognize the PD patterns, through which we can diagnose the defects caused by different sources so that predictive maintenance can be conducted to prevent from unplanned power outage. In this paper, we propose an approach to perform partial discharge pattern classification. It first recovers the PRPD matrices from the PRPD2D images; then statistical features are extracted from the recovered PRPD matrix and fed into SVM for classification. Experiments conducted on a dataset containing thousands of images demonstrates the high effectiveness of the method.

  1. Study and optimization of the partial discharges in capacitor model ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Page 1 ... experiments methodology for the study of such processes, in view of their modeling and optimization. The obtained result is a mathematical model capable to identify the parameters and the interactions between .... 5mn; the next landing is situated in 200 V over the voltage of partial discharges appearance and.

  2. A Modular Approach for Teaching Partial Discharge Phenomenon through Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, B.; Dey, D.; Chakravorti, S.

    2011-01-01

    Partial discharge (PD) monitoring is an effective predictive maintenance tool for electrical power equipment. As a result, an understanding of the theory related to PD and the associated measurement techniques is now necessary knowledge for power engineers in their professional life. This paper presents a modular course on PD phenomenon in which…

  3. Timed Testing under Partial Observability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Alexandre; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Li, Shuhao

    2009-01-01

    observability of SUT using a set of predicates over the TGA state space, and specify the test purposes in Computation Tree Logic (CTL) formulas. A recently developed partially observable timed game solver is used to generate winning strategies, which are used as test cases. We propose a conformance testing...

  4. Partial discharge as a stator winding evaluation tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maughan, C.V.

    2005-01-01

    This paper has been prepared to illustrate the value of partial discharge (PD) testing in assessing the condition of stator windings on operating generators and motors. The database of one particular PD system vendor was chosen for this study because of the magnitude of data accumulated by this company over the last 15 years. It was felt that sufficient data had been accumulated to allow useful statistical analysis of the capabilities of PD testing. The PD detection technology used by Iris has been installed on about 6000 generators and motors, and has inspection information from about 3600 machines. On these 3600 generators and motors, PD has successfully identified 209 potential problems that were verified by inspection to be present. In most cases, moderate corrective maintenance permitted return of the equipment to service without major repairs. An estimate of the actual number of avoided failures was not possible from the available reports. But it is clear that many potentially serious stator winding failures were avoided as a result of removal of these machines from service because of high PD readings. No attempt has been made in the paper to provide technical background or details of the PD test/analysis processes. There are numerous technical papers and industry guides; the interested reader is referred to IEEE 1434, EPRI Reports, and other documents in the Bibliography. While this paper is based somewhat narrowly on data from only one company, there are several other companies involved in PD testing and evaluation. As described below in this paper, these companies have also been successful in identifying stator winding problems through the use of PD equipment. Clearly, PD testing is a useful tool in monitoring and assessing the condition of stator windings, as well as other associated electrical equipment in the power plant. Because of the power of PD testing, it is expected that the use of PD monitoring will continue to expand at a significant rate in

  5. Acoustic position finding of partial discharges in transformers. Combination of partial discharge measurement technology with 3D visualization; Akustische Ortung von Teilentladungen in Transformatoren. TE-Messtechnik und 3-D-Visualisierung kombiniert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraetge, Alexander; Hoek, Stefan [Omicron Electronics GmbH, Klaus (Austria)

    2013-11-01

    A new measuring system facilitates the detection of partial discharges in transformers by means of the fully synchronous combination of measurement technology for electrical partial discharges with intuitive 3D visualization of the test object. The contribution under consideration describes the application of this system with examples from the measurement practice.

  6. Partial discharge characteristics and mechanism in voids at impulse voltages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, X F; Guo, Z F; Wang, Y Y; Li, J H; Li, Y M; Yao, X

    2011-01-01

    Partial discharge (PD) characteristics and mechanism in artificial cavities in an epoxy plate have been investigated for different void dimensions and impulse voltage waveforms. A differential measurement system was developed in order to detect PD current pulses effectively. Experimental results showed that the 50% probability PD inception voltage (PDIV 50 ) increases initially as the cavity diameter decreases at constant depth for double exponential impulses as well as oscillating impulses, but after aging, it becomes independent of the cavity diameter. Moreover, some distinctive characteristics of PD (e.g. main discharge and reverse discharge during the rise and fall phases of the applied voltage) were also investigated. The differences of the PD propagation and the mechanism between double exponential impulses and oscillating impulse were discussed

  7. Evaluation of deterioration of insulators in high-voltage motors by partial discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikami, Masao

    2003-01-01

    For the purpose of early detection of deterioration of insulators in high-voltage motors which are widely utilized in nuclear power stations, a new type on-line partial discharge monitor developed at INSS was applied to test the deterioration of about 150 sets of high-voltage motors running in nuclear power stations practically. From the results, it is shown that (1) tendency of the deterioration can be obtained by this method in general, (2) the magnitude of the on-line partial discharge hardly correlates with that of off-line measurement, but depends on temperature and other environmental conditions, and (3) by observing phase characteristics of partial discharge, it is possible to make a diagnosis of phase-to-phase tracking in end-winding coils of a stator. (author)

  8. On-line Monitoring Device for High-voltage Switch Cabinet Partial Discharge Based on Pulse Current Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y Tao, S.; Zhang, X. Z.; Cai, H. W.; Li, P.; Feng, Y.; Zhang, T. C.; Li, J.; Wang, W. S.; Zhang, X. K.

    2017-12-01

    The pulse current method for partial discharge detection is generally applied in type testing and other off-line tests of electrical equipment at delivery. After intensive analysis of the present situation and existing problems of partial discharge detection in switch cabinets, this paper designed the circuit principle and signal extraction method for partial discharge on-line detection based on a high-voltage presence indicating systems (VPIS), established a high voltage switch cabinet partial discharge on-line detection circuit based on the pulse current method, developed background software integrated with real-time monitoring, judging and analyzing functions, carried out a real discharge simulation test on a real-type partial discharge defect simulation platform of a 10KV switch cabinet, and verified the sensitivity and validity of the high-voltage switch cabinet partial discharge on-line monitoring device based on the pulse current method. The study presented in this paper is of great significance for switch cabinet maintenance and theoretical study on pulse current method on-line detection, and has provided a good implementation method for partial discharge on-line monitoring devices for 10KV distribution network equipment.

  9. Analysis of Insulating Material of XLPE Cables considering Innovative Patterns of Partial Discharges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Figueroa Godoy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the quality of insulation in high voltage underground cables XLPE using a prototype which classifies the following usual types of patterns of partial discharge (PD: (1 internal PD, (2 superficial PD, (3 corona discharge in air, and (4 corona discharge in oil, in addition to considering two new PD patterns: (1 false contact and (2 floating ground. The tests and measurements to obtain the patterns and study cases of partial discharges were performed at the Testing Laboratory Equipment and Materials (LEPEM of the Federal Electricity Commission of Mexico (CFE using a measuring equipment LDIC and norm IEC60270. To classify the six patterns of partial discharges mentioned above a Probabilistic Neural Network Bayesian Modified (PNNBM method having the feature of using a large amount of data will be used and it is not saturated. In addition, PNN converges, always finding a solution in a short period of time with low computational cost. The insulation of two high voltage cables with different characteristics was analyzed. The test results allow us to conclude which wire has better insulation.

  10. Critical analysis of partial discharge dynamics in air filled spherical voids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callender, G.; Golosnoy, I. O.; Rapisarda, P.; Lewin, P. L.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper partial discharge (PD) is investigated inside a spherical air filled void at atmospheric pressure using a drift diffusion model. Discharge dynamics consisted of an electron avalanche transitioning into positive streamer, in agreement with earlier work on dielectric barrier discharges. Different model configurations were utilised to test many of the concepts employed in semi-analytical PD activity models, which use simplistic descriptions of the discharge dynamics. The results showed that many of these concepts may be erroneous, with significant discrepancies between the canonical reasoning and the simulation results. For example, the residual electric field, the electric field after a discharge, is significantly lower than the estimates used by classical PD activity models in the literature.

  11. A Rectangular Planar Spiral Antenna for GIS Partial Discharge Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxing Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A rectangular planar spiral antenna sensor was designed for detecting the partial discharge in gas insulation substations (GIS. It can expediently receive electromagnetic waves leaked from basin-type insulators and can effectively suppress low frequency electromagnetic interference from the surrounding environment. Certain effective techniques such as rectangular spiral structure, bow-tie loading, and back cavity structure optimization during the antenna design process can miniaturize antenna size and optimize voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR characteristics. Model calculation and experimental data measured in the laboratory show that the antenna possesses a good radiating performance and a multiband property when working in the ultrahigh frequency (UHF band. A comparative study between characteristics of the designed antenna and the existing quasi-TEM horn antenna was made. Based on the GIS defect simulation equipment in the laboratory, partial discharge signals were detected by the designed antenna, the available quasi-TEM horn antenna, and the microstrip patch antenna, and the measurement results were compared.

  12. Development of method for detecting signs deterioration in insulator of high-voltage motors. 2. Test Results of a new on-line partial discharge monitor for high-voltage motors in nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tochio, Atsushi; Kaneda, Yoshiharu; Urakawa, Nobuo

    2000-01-01

    For the purpose of early detection of deterioration of insulators in high-voltage motors which are widely utilized in nuclear power stations, a new on-line partial discharge (PD) monitor was developed and was tested for sixteen motors which were practically running in nuclear power stations. From the test results, it is seen that (1) good signal to noise ratio is obtained by adopting a two frequency correlation method, (2) a resistance temperature detector (RTD) in a motor has sufficient sensitivity to detect PD, (3) when RTD is not installed or is unable to use for this purpose, a radio frequency current transformer (RFCT) can be utilized, although its sensitivity is about 1/10 of that of the RTD monitor. Finally we found a good correlation between the results of this on-line method and the conventional off-line method in which the insulator resistance of a concerned motor was measured during its shut-down, and thereby we demonstrated that this method could be applicable to the on-line test of high-voltage motors in nuclear power stations. (author)

  13. Partial discharges and breakdown in C3F8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, M; Franck, C M

    2014-01-01

    Traditional search processes of gases or gas mixtures for replacing SF 6 involve time consuming measurements of partial discharges and breakdown behaviour for several voltage waveforms and different field configurations. Recently a model for prediction of this behaviour for SF 6 was described in literature. The model only requires basic properties of the gas such as the critical field strength and the effective ionization coefficient, which can be obtained by swarm parameter measurements, and thermodynamic properties, which can be calculated. In this paper, we show for the well-known and electronegative gas octafluoropropane (C 3 F 8 ) that it is possible to transfer the model developed for SF 6 to this gas to describe the breakdown behaviour of C 3 F 8 . Thus the model can be beneficial in the screening process of new insulation gases. (paper)

  14. Partial discharges and breakdown in C3F8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, M.; Franck, C. M.

    2014-10-01

    Traditional search processes of gases or gas mixtures for replacing SF6 involve time consuming measurements of partial discharges and breakdown behaviour for several voltage waveforms and different field configurations. Recently a model for prediction of this behaviour for SF6 was described in literature. The model only requires basic properties of the gas such as the critical field strength and the effective ionization coefficient, which can be obtained by swarm parameter measurements, and thermodynamic properties, which can be calculated. In this paper, we show for the well-known and electronegative gas octafluoropropane (C3F8) that it is possible to transfer the model developed for SF6 to this gas to describe the breakdown behaviour of C3F8. Thus the model can be beneficial in the screening process of new insulation gases.

  15. Inductive Sensor Performance in Partial Discharges and Noise Separation by Means of Spectral Power Ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alfredo Ardila-Rey

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Partial discharge (PD detection is a standardized technique to qualify electrical insulation in machines and power cables. Several techniques that analyze the waveform of the pulses have been proposed to discriminate noise from PD activity. Among them, spectral power ratio representation shows great flexibility in the separation of the sources of PD. Mapping spectral power ratios in two-dimensional plots leads to clusters of points which group pulses with similar characteristics. The position in the map depends on the nature of the partial discharge, the setup and the frequency response of the sensors. If these clusters are clearly separated, the subsequent task of identifying the source of the discharge is straightforward so the distance between clusters can be a figure of merit to suggest the best option for PD recognition. In this paper, two inductive sensors with different frequency responses to pulsed signals, a high frequency current transformer and an inductive loop sensor, are analyzed to test their performance in detecting and separating the sources of partial discharges.

  16. Characterization and comprehension of corona partial discharge in air under power frequency to very low frequency voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuanxiang, ZHOU; Zhongliu, ZHOU; Ling, ZHANG; Yunxiao, ZHANG; Yajun, MO; Jiantao, SUN

    2018-05-01

    For the partial discharge test of electrical equipment with large capacitance, the use of low-frequency voltage instead of power frequency voltage can effectively reduce the capacity requirements of test power supply. However, the validity of PD test under low frequency voltage needs to be evaluated. In order to investigate the influence of voltage frequency on corona discharge in the air, the discharge test of the tip-plate electrode under the frequency from 50 to 0.1 Hz is carried out based on the impulse current method. The results show that some of the main features of corona under low frequency do not change. The magnitude of discharge in a positive half cycle is obviously larger than that in a negative cycle. The magnitude of discharge and interval in positive cycle are random, while that in negative cycle are regular. With the decrease of frequency, the inception voltage increases. The variation trend of maximum and average magnitude and repetition rate of the discharge in positive and negative half cycle with the variation of voltage frequency and magnitude is demonstrated, with discussion and interpretation from the aspects of space charge transportation, effective discharge time and transition of discharge modes. There is an obvious difference in the phase resolved pattern of partial discharge and characteristic parameters of discharge patterns between power and low frequency. The experimental results can be the reference for mode identification of partial discharge under low frequency tests. The trend of the measured parameters with the variation of frequency provides more information about the insulation defect than traditional measurements under a single frequency (usually 50 Hz). Also it helps to understand the mechanism of corona discharge with an explanation of the characteristics under different frequencies.

  17. Partial discharges within two spherical voids in an epoxy resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illias, H A; Mokhlis, H; Tunio, M A; Chen, G; Bakar, A H A

    2013-01-01

    A void in a dielectric insulation material may exist due to imperfection in the insulation manufacturing or long term stressing. Voids have been identified as one of the common sources of partial discharge (PD) activity within an insulation system, such as in cable insulation and power transformers. Therefore, it is important to study PD phenomenon within void cavities in insulation. In this work, a model of PD activity within two spherical voids in a homogeneous dielectric material has been developed using finite element analysis software to study the parameters affecting PD behaviour. The parameters that have been taken into account are the void surface conductivity, electron generation rate and the inception and extinction fields. Measurements of PD activity within two spherical voids in an epoxy resin under ac sinusoidal applied voltage have also been performed. The simulation results have been compared with the measurement data to validate the model and to identify the parameters affecting PD behaviour. Comparison between measurements of PD activity within single and two voids in a dielectric material have also been made to observe the difference of the results under both conditions. (paper)

  18. Towards Optical Partial Discharge Detection with Micro Silicon Photomultipliers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Ren

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Optical detection is reliable in intrinsically characterizing partial discharges (PDs. Because of the great volume and high-level power supply of the optical devices that can satisfy the requirements in photosensitivity, optical PD detection can merely be used in laboratory studies. To promote the practical application of the optical approach in an actual power apparatus, a silicon photomultiplier (SiPM-based PD sensor is introduced in this paper, and its basic properties, which include the sensitivity, pulse resolution, correlation with PD severity, and electromagnetic (EM interference immunity, are experimentally evaluated. The stochastic phase-resolved PD pattern (PRPD for three typical insulation defects are obtained by SiPM PD detector and are compared with those obtained using a high-frequency current transformer (HFCT and a vacuum photomultiplier tube (PMT. Because of its good performances in the above aspects and its additional advantages, such as the small size, low power supply, and low cost, SiPM offers great potential in practical optical PD monitoring.

  19. A Review of Online Partial Discharge Measurement of Large Generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanlin Luo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Online partial discharge (PD measurements have long been used as an effective means to assess the condition of the stator windings of large generators. An increase in the use of PD online measurement systems during the last decade is evident. Improvements in the detection capabilities are partly the reason for the increased popularity. Another reason has been the development of digital signal processing techniques. In addition, rapid progress is being made in automated single PD source classification. However, there are still some factors hindering wider application of the system, such as the complex PD mechanism and PD pulse propagation in stator windings, the presence of detrimental noise and disturbances on-site, and multiple PD sources occurring simultaneously. To avoid repetition of past work and to provide an overview for fresh researchers in this area, this paper presents a comprehensive survey of the state-of-the-art knowledge on PD mechanism, PD pulse propagation in stator windings, PD signal detection methods and signal processing techniques. Areas for further research are also presented.

  20. Partial discharge measurements on 110kV current transformers. Setting the control value. Case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, C.; Morar, R.

    2017-05-01

    The case study presents a series of partial discharge measurements, reflecting the state of insulation of 110kV CURRENT TRANSFORMERS located in Sibiu county substations. Measurements were performed based on electrical method, using MPD600: an acquisition and analysis toolkit for detecting, recording, and analyzing partial discharges. MPD600 consists of one acquisition unit, an optical interface and a computer with dedicated software. The system allows measurements of partial discharge on site, even in presence of strong electromagnetic interferences because it provides synchronous acquisition from all measurement points. Therefore, measurements, with the ability to be calibrated, do render: - a value subject to interpretation according to IEC 61869-1:2007 + IEC 61869-2:2012 + IEC 61869-3:2011 + IEC 61869-5:2011 and IEC 60270: 2000; - the possibility to determine the quantitative limit of PD (a certain control value) to which the equipment can be operated safely and repaired with minimal costs (relative to the high costs implied by eliminating the consequences of a failure) identified empirically (process in which the instrument transformer subjected to the tests was completely destroyed).

  1. Design parameter based method of partial discharge detection and location in power transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Santosh Annadurai

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Insulation defect detection in time ensures higher operational reliability of power system assets. Power transformers are the most critical unit of power systems both from economical and operational front. Hence it becomes necessary to have knowledge of the actual insulation condition of transformer to increase dependability of the system. The performance and ageing of the transformer insulation is mainly affected by Partial discharges (PD. Proper diagnosis in terms of amplitude and location of partial discharge in a power transformer enables us to predict well in advance, with much confidence, the defect in insulation system, which avoids large catastrophic failures. In this work a 20kVA, 230/50kV single phase core type transformer is used for evaluation of the transfer function-based partial discharge detection and location using modeling of the winding, using design data. The simulation of capturing on-line PD pulses across the bushing tap capacitor is done for various tap positions. Standard PD source model is used to inject PD pulse signal at 10 tap locations in the winding and corresponding response signatures are captured at the bushing tap end (across 1000pF. The equivalent high frequency model of the winding is derived from the design parameters using analytical calculations and simulations in packages such as MAGNET and ANSOFT. The test conditions are simulated using ORCAD-9 and the results are evaluated for location accuracy using design parameter based PD monitoring method. .

  2. Partial oxidation of methane in a temperature-controlled dielectric barrier discharge reactor

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xuming

    2015-01-01

    We studied the relative importance of the reduced field intensity and the background reaction temperature in the partial oxidation of methane in a temperature-controlled dielectric barrier discharge reactor. We obtained important mechanistic insight from studying high-temperature and low-pressure conditions with similar reduced field intensities. In the tested range of background temperatures (297 < T < 773 K), we found that the conversion of methane and oxygen depended on both the electron-induced chemistry and the thermo-chemistry, whereas the chemical pathways to the products were overall controlled by the thermo-chemistry at a given temperature. We also found that the thermo-chemistry enhanced the plasma-assisted partial oxidation process. Our findings expand our understanding of the plasma-assisted partial oxidation process and may be helpful in the design of cost-effective plasma reformers. © 2014 The Combustion Institute.

  3. On the electrodynamics of partial discharges in voids in solid dielectrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Aage

    1989-01-01

    It is suggested that a correct interpretation of partial-discharge transients can be obtained only through the concept of induced charge. The application of this concept enables a partial-discharge theory to be developed by means of which the influence of relevant void parameters can be assessed ...

  4. Fiber Fabry-Perot sensors for detection of partial discharges in power transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bing; Kim, Dae Woong; Deng, Jiangdong; Xiao, Hai; Wang, Anbo

    2003-06-01

    A diaphragm-based interferometric fiberoptic sensor that uses a low-coherence light source was designed and tested for on-line detection of the acoustic waves generated by partial discharges inside high-voltage power transformers. The sensor uses a fused-silica diaphragm and a single-mode optical fiber encapsulated in a fused-silica glass tube to form an extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer, which is interrogated by low-coherence light. Test results indicate that these fiber optic acoustic sensors are capable of faithfully detecting acoustic signals propagating inside transformer oil with high sensitivity and wide bandwidth.

  5. Partial discharge patterns related to surface deterioration in voids in epoxy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbøll, Joachim; Henriksen, Mogens

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented from an investigation of the relationship between changes in partial discharge patterns and the surface deterioration process taking place in small naturally formed spherical voids in epoxy plastic. The voids were exposed to a moderate electric stress above inception level......, where partial discharges were present for more than 1500 h. Two types of electrical tree growth were found, the bush like tree and a single channel-like tree, which led to very different partial discharge patterns. It is concluded that the formation of crystals on a void surface leads to an immediate...... and easy-to-detect increase in the partial discharge activity with subsequent severe surface deterioration (deep pit formations) in the vicinity of the crystal. However, the partial discharge signal from a specimen with a black channel-like tree structure did not give any indication of channel growth...

  6. Solving of some Problems with On-Line Mode Measurement of Partial Discharges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Zalis

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the problems discussing the transition from off-line diagnostic methods to on-line ones. Based on the experience with commercial partial discharge measuring equipment a new digital system for the evaluation of partial discharge measurement including software and hardware facilities has been developed at the Czech Technical University in Prague. Two expert systems work in this complex evaluating system: a rule-based expert system performing an amplitude analysis of partial discharge impulses for determining the damage of the insulation system, and a neural network which is used for a phase analysis of partial discharge impulses to determine the kind of partial discharge activity. Problem of the elimination of disturbances is also discussed.

  7. Comments on evaluation of energy of partial discharges in ionization chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lechowski, Z.

    1980-01-01

    A method of evaluation of energy of partial discharges in ionization chambers which are intended for investigation on electric strength of insulating materials is presented. It is demonstrated that an ionization chamber must be considered as a set of discharge sources and that for energy evaluation an amplitude analysis of apparent charge of discharges is useful. (author)

  8. Optical fiber sensor of partial discharges in High Voltage DC experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Búa-Núñez, I.; Azcárraga-Ramos, C. G.; Posada-Román, J. E.; Garcia-Souto, J. A.

    2014-05-01

    A setup simulating High Voltage DC (HVDC) transformers barriers was developed to demonstrate the effectiveness of an optical fiber (OF) sensor in detecting partial discharges (PD) under these peculiar conditions. Different PD detection techniques were compared: electrical methods, and acoustic methods. Standard piezoelectric sensors (R15i-AST) and the above mentioned OF sensors were used for acoustic detection. The OF sensor was able to detect PD acoustically with a sensitivity better than the other detection methods. The multichannel instrumentation system was tested in real HVDC conditions with the aim of analyzing the behavior of the insulation (mineral oil/pressboard).

  9. Application to the system of insulated of diagnosis in high-voltage motors by partial discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikami, M.

    2005-01-01

    In order to detect electric insulators degradation of high-voltage electric motors at an early stage, measurements of partial discharge of operating high-voltage electric motors (about 150 units) in the nuclear power plants were conducted from 2001 to 2004 by the use of on-line monitoring systems that could measure partial discharge of electric insulators. Influencing factors for measured values were identified from measured data and evaluation criteria of electric insulators integrity were established based on variations of partial discharge values. (T. Tanaka)

  10. Development and verification of a software tool for the acoustic location of partial discharge in a power transformer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polužanski Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the development and verification of software tool for determining the location of partial discharge in a power transformer with the acoustic method. Classification and systematization of physical principles and detection methods and tests of partial discharge in power transformers are shown at the beginning of this paper. The most important mathematical models, features, algorithms, and real problems that affect measurement accuracy are highlighted. This paper describes the development and implementation of a software tool for determining the location of partial discharge in a power transformer based on a no iterative mathematical algorithm. Verification and accuracy of measurement are proved both by computer simulation and experimental results available in the literature.

  11. Partial Discharge Spectral Characterization in HF, VHF and UHF Bands Using Particle Swarm Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Guillermo; Fresno, José Manuel; Martínez-Tarifa, Juan Manuel; Ardila-Rey, Jorge Alfredo; Parrado-Hernández, Emilio

    2018-03-01

    The measurement of partial discharge (PD) signals in the radio frequency (RF) range has gained popularity among utilities and specialized monitoring companies in recent years. Unfortunately, in most of the occasions the data are hidden by noise and coupled interferences that hinder their interpretation and renders them useless especially in acquisition systems in the ultra high frequency (UHF) band where the signals of interest are weak. This paper is focused on a method that uses a selective spectral signal characterization to feature each signal, type of partial discharge or interferences/noise, with the power contained in the most representative frequency bands. The technique can be considered as a dimensionality reduction problem where all the energy information contained in the frequency components is condensed in a reduced number of UHF or high frequency (HF) and very high frequency (VHF) bands. In general, dimensionality reduction methods make the interpretation of results a difficult task because the inherent physical nature of the signal is lost in the process. The proposed selective spectral characterization is a preprocessing tool that facilitates further main processing. The starting point is a clustering of signals that could form the core of a PD monitoring system. Therefore, the dimensionality reduction technique should discover the best frequency bands to enhance the affinity between signals in the same cluster and the differences between signals in different clusters. This is done maximizing the minimum Mahalanobis distance between clusters using particle swarm optimization (PSO). The tool is tested with three sets of experimental signals to demonstrate its capabilities in separating noise and PDs with low signal-to-noise ratio and separating different types of partial discharges measured in the UHF and HF/VHF bands.

  12. Measurement of partial discharge inception characteristics in sub-cooled liquid nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, J.Y.; Lee, S.H.; Shin, W.J.; Khan, Umer A.; Oh, S.H.; Seong, J.K.; Lee, B.W.

    2011-01-01

    We measured partial discharge and partial discharge initiation voltage of subcooled liquid nitrogen. Various kinds of test samples have been prepared. Sub-cooled temperature in liquid nitrogen were changed. The number of PD pluses were decreased when 68 K liquid nitrogen was used. Sub-cooled liquid nitrogen has positive effects to suppress PD activities. Partial discharge (PD) measurement is one of the effective diagnostic techniques to predict abnormal high voltage dielectric insulation conditions of the electric equipments. PD diagnostic techniques were also could be utilized to evaluate the conditions of cryogenic dielectric insulation media of high temperature superconducting electric equipment in liquid nitrogen. Generally, liquid nitrogen at 77 K is used as cryogenic and dielectric media for high temperature superconducting devices for high voltage electric power systems. But due to generation of bubbles during quench conditions which cause harmful effect on the properties of liquid nitrogen insulation, sub-cooled nitrogen under 77 K was also employed to suppress bubble formation. In this work, investigation of PD characteristics of sub-cooled liquid nitrogen was conducted in order to clarify the relation between PD inception and the temperature of liquid nitrogen. It was observed that measured PDIV (PD inception voltage) shows little differences according to the sub-cooled temperature of liquid nitrogen, but the magnitude and total numbers of PD has been slightly decreased according the decrease of cooled temperature of liquid nitrogen. From experimental results, it was deduced that the sub-cooled liquid nitrogen from 68 K to 77 K, could be applicable without any considerations of the variation of PDIV.

  13. Partial oxidation of methane in a temperature-controlled dielectric barrier discharge reactor

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xuming; Cha, Min

    2015-01-01

    We studied the relative importance of the reduced field intensity and the background reaction temperature in the partial oxidation of methane in a temperature-controlled dielectric barrier discharge reactor. We obtained important mechanistic insight

  14. The electric strength of high-voltage transformers insulation at effect of partial dischargers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoshravan, E.; Zeraatparvar, A.; Gashimov, A.M.; Mehdizadeh, R.N.

    2001-01-01

    Full text : In paper the change of electric strength of high-voltage transformers insulation at the effect of partial discharges with space charge accumulation was investigated. It is revealed that the effect of partial discharges of insulation materials results the reduction of their pulsing electric strength which can restore the own initial value at releasing of saved charge the volume of a material under condition of absence the ineversible structural changes in it. Researches of high-voltage transformers insulation's non-failure operation conditions show, that at increasing of insulation work time in a strong electrical field the reduction of average breakdown voltages with simultaneous increasing of spread in discharge voltage values takes place. It authentically testifies to reduction of short-time discharge voltage of insulation materials during their electrical aging. As the basic reason of insulation electrical aging the partial discharges occurring in gas cavities inside insulation were considered. It is known that the space charges will be formed in insulation elements of high-voltage devices which effects in dielectrical property of these elements including the electric strength and the space charge formation can occur also at partial discharges in an alternating voltage while the service of high-voltage transformers. In the given work the experiments in revealing separate influence partial discharges in pulsing electric strength of insulation materials at presence and at absence inside them the space charge were spent

  15. Partial Discharge Monitoring in Power Transformers Using Low-Cost Piezoelectric Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Bruno; Clerice, Guilherme; Ramos, Caio; Andreoli, André; Baptista, Fabricio; Campos, Fernando; Ulson, José

    2016-08-10

    Power transformers are crucial in an electric power system. Failures in transformers can affect the quality and cause interruptions in the power supply. Partial discharges are a phenomenon that can cause failures in the transformers if not properly monitored. Typically, the monitoring requires high-cost corrective maintenance or even interruptions of the power system. Therefore, the development of online non-invasive monitoring systems to detect partial discharges in power transformers has great relevance since it can reduce significant maintenance costs. Although commercial acoustic emission sensors have been used to monitor partial discharges in power transformers, they still represent a significant cost. In order to overcome this drawback, this paper presents a study of the feasibility of low-cost piezoelectric sensors to identify partial discharges in mineral insulating oil of power transformers. The analysis of the feasibility of the proposed low-cost sensor is performed by its comparison with a commercial acoustic emission sensor commonly used to detect partial discharges. The comparison between the responses in the time and frequency domain of both sensors was carried out and the experimental results indicate that the proposed piezoelectric sensors have great potential in the detection of acoustic waves generated by partial discharges in insulation oil, contributing for the popularization of this noninvasive technique.

  16. Partial Discharge Monitoring in Power Transformers Using Low-Cost Piezoelectric Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Castro

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Power transformers are crucial in an electric power system. Failures in transformers can affect the quality and cause interruptions in the power supply. Partial discharges are a phenomenon that can cause failures in the transformers if not properly monitored. Typically, the monitoring requires high-cost corrective maintenance or even interruptions of the power system. Therefore, the development of online non-invasive monitoring systems to detect partial discharges in power transformers has great relevance since it can reduce significant maintenance costs. Although commercial acoustic emission sensors have been used to monitor partial discharges in power transformers, they still represent a significant cost. In order to overcome this drawback, this paper presents a study of the feasibility of low-cost piezoelectric sensors to identify partial discharges in mineral insulating oil of power transformers. The analysis of the feasibility of the proposed low-cost sensor is performed by its comparison with a commercial acoustic emission sensor commonly used to detect partial discharges. The comparison between the responses in the time and frequency domain of both sensors was carried out and the experimental results indicate that the proposed piezoelectric sensors have great potential in the detection of acoustic waves generated by partial discharges in insulation oil, contributing for the popularization of this noninvasive technique.

  17. Influence of void defects on partial discharge behavior of superconducting busbar insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chunyu; Huang, Xiongyi, E-mail: huangxy@ipp.ac.cn; Lu, Kun; Li, Guoliang; Zhu, Haisheng; Wang, Jun; Wang, Cao; Dai, Zhiheng; Fang, Linlin; Song, Yuntao

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • PD detection method was used to check the quality of the superconducting busbar insulation. • The samples with different void fraction were manufactured for comparing. • The discharge inception voltage, PRPD pattern was tested and studied for the samples with different void content. • The PD behaviors in oil bath and air condition were compared. - Abstract: For a magnetic confinement fusion device, the superconducting magnets and busbars need to be insulated with one layer of solid insulation to isolate the high voltage potential from the ground. The insulation layer commonly consists of several interleaved layers of epoxy resin-impregnated glass fiber tapes and polyimide films. The traditional electrical inspection methods for such solidified insulation on the magnet and busbar are a DC voltage test or a Paschen test. These tests measure the quality of the insulation based on the value of leakage currents. However, even if there is a larger quantity of high dielectric strength material implemented, if there are some microcavities or delaminations in the insulation system, the leakage current may be limited to microampere levels under testing levels over dozens of kilovolts. Therefore, it is difficult to judge the insulation quality just by the magnitudes of leakage current. Under long-term operation, such imperceptible defects will worsen and finally completely break down the insulation because of partial discharge (PD) incidents. Therefore, a PD detection test is an important complement to the DC voltage and Paschen tests for magnet and busbar insulations in the field of fusion. It is known that the PD detection test is a mature technique in the electric power industry. In this paper, the PD characteristics of samples containing glass fiber-reinforced composite insulations for use with the superconducting busbar were presented and discussed. Various samples with different void contents were prepared and the PD behaviors were tested.

  18. Influence of void defects on partial discharge behavior of superconducting busbar insulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Chunyu; Huang, Xiongyi; Lu, Kun; Li, Guoliang; Zhu, Haisheng; Wang, Jun; Wang, Cao; Dai, Zhiheng; Fang, Linlin; Song, Yuntao

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • PD detection method was used to check the quality of the superconducting busbar insulation. • The samples with different void fraction were manufactured for comparing. • The discharge inception voltage, PRPD pattern was tested and studied for the samples with different void content. • The PD behaviors in oil bath and air condition were compared. - Abstract: For a magnetic confinement fusion device, the superconducting magnets and busbars need to be insulated with one layer of solid insulation to isolate the high voltage potential from the ground. The insulation layer commonly consists of several interleaved layers of epoxy resin-impregnated glass fiber tapes and polyimide films. The traditional electrical inspection methods for such solidified insulation on the magnet and busbar are a DC voltage test or a Paschen test. These tests measure the quality of the insulation based on the value of leakage currents. However, even if there is a larger quantity of high dielectric strength material implemented, if there are some microcavities or delaminations in the insulation system, the leakage current may be limited to microampere levels under testing levels over dozens of kilovolts. Therefore, it is difficult to judge the insulation quality just by the magnitudes of leakage current. Under long-term operation, such imperceptible defects will worsen and finally completely break down the insulation because of partial discharge (PD) incidents. Therefore, a PD detection test is an important complement to the DC voltage and Paschen tests for magnet and busbar insulations in the field of fusion. It is known that the PD detection test is a mature technique in the electric power industry. In this paper, the PD characteristics of samples containing glass fiber-reinforced composite insulations for use with the superconducting busbar were presented and discussed. Various samples with different void contents were prepared and the PD behaviors were tested.

  19. Calibration of ultra-high frequency (UHF) partial discharge sensors using FDTD method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishak, Asnor Mazuan; Ishak, Mohd Taufiq

    2018-02-01

    Ultra-high frequency (UHF) partial discharge sensors are widely used for conditioning monitoring and defect location in insulation system of high voltage equipment. Designing sensors for specific applications often requires an iterative process of manufacturing, testing and mechanical modifications. This paper demonstrates the use of finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) technique as a tool to predict the frequency response of UHF PD sensors. Using this approach, the design process can be simplified and parametric studies can be conducted in order to assess the influence of component dimensions and material properties on the sensor response. The modelling approach is validated using gigahertz transverse electromagnetic (GTEM) calibration system. The use of a transient excitation source is particularly suitable for modeling using FDTD, which is able to simulate the step response output voltage of the sensor from which the frequency response is obtained using the same post-processing applied to the physical measurement.

  20. How to test for partially predictable chaos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernecke, Hendrik; Sándor, Bulcsú; Gros, Claudius

    2017-04-24

    For a chaotic system pairs of initially close-by trajectories become eventually fully uncorrelated on the attracting set. This process of decorrelation can split into an initial exponential decrease and a subsequent diffusive process on the chaotic attractor causing the final loss of predictability. Both processes can be either of the same or of very different time scales. In the latter case the two trajectories linger within a finite but small distance (with respect to the overall extent of the attractor) for exceedingly long times and remain partially predictable. Standard tests for chaos widely use inter-orbital correlations as an indicator. However, testing partially predictable chaos yields mostly ambiguous results, as this type of chaos is characterized by attractors of fractally broadened braids. For a resolution we introduce a novel 0-1 indicator for chaos based on the cross-distance scaling of pairs of initially close trajectories. This test robustly discriminates chaos, including partially predictable chaos, from laminar flow. Additionally using the finite time cross-correlation of pairs of initially close trajectories, we are able to identify laminar flow as well as strong and partially predictable chaos in a 0-1 manner solely from the properties of pairs of trajectories.

  1. Development of a method of partial discharge detection in extra-high voltage cross-linked polyethylene insulated cable lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsuta, G.; Toya, A.; Muraoka, K.; Endoh, T.; Sekii, Y.; Ikeda, C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that deterioration in the insulation performance of extra-high voltage XLPE cables is believed to be attributable to the deterioration caused by partial discharges. In the authors study, after using an XLPE cable to investigate the behavior of partial discharges under various adverse conditions, we succeeded in developing a highly sensitive new method of measuring partial discharge in XLPE cable lines. Partial discharges in a 275 kV XLPE cable live line has been measured using this newly developed method. As a result, a detection sensitivity of 1 pC has been achieved

  2. Influence of bulk dielectric polarization upon partial discharge transients effect of heterogeneous dielectric geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAllister, Iain Wilson; Crichton, George C.

    2000-01-01

    A physically valid theory of partial discharge (PD) transients is based upon the concept of the charge induced upon the detecting electrode by the PD. This induced charge consists of two components. One is associated with the actual space charge in the void, while the other is related to changes...

  3. Influence of bulk dielectric polarization upon partial discharge transients: Effect of void geometry and orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAllister, Iain Wilson; Crichton, G.C.

    2005-01-01

    The induced charge arising from a partial discharge consists of 2 components. One is associated with the actual space charge in the void. The other is related to changes in the polarization of the bulk dielectric. These changes are a direct consequence of the field produced by the space charge...

  4. Technical advancements in the integration of online partial discharge monitoring in distribution cable networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaars, P.; Wouters, P.A.A.F.; Wielen, van der P.C.J.M.; Steennis, F.

    2009-01-01

    Online partial discharge (PD) detection and location systems for medium-voltage (MV) cables have been developed over the past years and are currently introduced by utilities on an increasingly large scale. This paper addresses a few of the new challenges related to the integration of these systems

  5. Virtual-Instrument-Based Online Monitoring System for Hands-on Laboratory Experiment of Partial Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmakar, Subrata

    2017-01-01

    Online monitoring of high-voltage (HV) equipment is a vital tool for early detection of insulation failure. Most insulation failures are caused by partial discharges (PDs) inside the HV equipment. Because of the very high cost of establishing HV equipment facility and the limitations of electromagnetic interference-screened laboratories, only a…

  6. Online calibration of high-frequency partial discharge signals in three-phase belted power cables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, P.A.A.F.

    2005-01-01

    Partial discharge (PD) magnitudes from classical detection techniques are expressed in terms of apparent charges. Signals from HF/VHF/UHF techniques on substation components are often hard to express in this quantity because of complex signal excitation and propagation channels. A method to

  7. Partial Discharge Measurements in HV Rotating Machines in Dependence on Pressure of Coolant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Kršňák

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the pressure of the coolant used in high voltage rotating machines on partial discharges occurring in stator insulation is discussed in this paper. The first part deals with a theoretical analysis of the topic. The second part deals with the results obtained on a real generator in industrial conditions. Finally, theoretical assumptions and obtained results are compared.

  8. Shoulder replacement - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Total shoulder arthroplasty - discharge; Endoprosthetic shoulder replacement - discharge; Partial shoulder replacement - discharge; Partial shoulder arthroplasty - discharge; Replacement - shoulder - discharge; Arthroplasty - shoulder - discharge

  9. Pending laboratory tests and the hospital discharge summary in patients discharged to sub-acute care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walz, Stacy E; Smith, Maureen; Cox, Elizabeth; Sattin, Justin; Kind, Amy J H

    2011-04-01

    Previous studies have noted a high (41%) prevalence and poor discharge summary communication of pending laboratory (lab) tests at the time of hospital discharge for general medical patients. However, the prevalence and communication of pending labs within a high-risk population, specifically those patients discharged to sub-acute care (i.e., skilled nursing, rehabilitation, long-term care), remains unknown. To determine the prevalence and nature of lab tests pending at hospital discharge and their inclusion within hospital discharge summaries, for common sub-acute care populations. Retrospective cohort study. Stroke, hip fracture, and cancer patients discharged from a single large academic medical center to sub-acute care, 2003-2005 (N = 564) Pending lab tests were abstracted from the laboratory information system (LIS) and from each patient's discharge summary, then grouped into 14 categories and compared. Microbiology tests were sub-divided by culture type and number of days pending prior to discharge. Of sub-acute care patients, 32% (181/564) were discharged with pending lab tests per the LIS; however, only 11% (20/181) of discharge summaries documented these. Patients most often left the hospital with pending microbiology tests (83% [150/181]), particularly blood and urine cultures, and reference lab tests (17% [30/181]). However, 82% (61/74) of patients' pending urine cultures did not have 24-hour preliminary results, and 19% (13/70) of patients' pending blood cultures did not have 48-hour preliminary results available at the time of hospital discharge. Approximately one-third of the sub-acute care patients in this study had labs pending at discharge, but few were documented within hospital discharge summaries. Even after considering the availability of preliminary microbiology results, these omissions remain common. Future studies should focus on improving the communication of pending lab tests at discharge and evaluating the impact that this improved

  10. Selected hydraulic test analysis techniques for constant-rate discharge tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spane, F.A. Jr.

    1993-03-01

    The constant-rate discharge test is the principal field method used in hydrogeologic investigations for characterizing the hydraulic properties of aquifers. To implement this test, the aquifer is stressed by withdrawing ground water from a well, by using a downhole pump. Discharge during the withdrawal period is regulated and maintained at a constant rate. Water-level response within the well is monitored during the active pumping phase (i.e., drawdown) and during the subsequent recovery phase following termination of pumping. The analysis of drawdown and recovery response within the stress well (and any monitored, nearby observation wells) provides a means for estimating the hydraulic properties of the tested aquifer, as well as discerning formational and nonformational flow conditions (e.g., wellbore storage, wellbore damage, presence of boundaries, etc.). Standard analytical methods that are used for constant-rate pumping tests include both log-log type-curve matching and semi-log straight-line methods. This report presents a current ''state of the art'' review of selected transient analysis procedures for constant-rate discharge tests. Specific topics examined include: analytical methods for constant-rate discharge tests conducted within confined and unconfined aquifers; effects of various nonideal formation factors (e.g., anisotropy, hydrologic boundaries) and well construction conditions (e.g., partial penetration, wellbore storage) on constant-rate test response; and the use of pressure derivatives in diagnostic analysis for the identification of specific formation, well construction, and boundary conditions

  11. Disturbance Elimination for Partial Discharge Detection in the Spacer of Gas-Insulated Switchgears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoming Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing demand for precise condition monitoring and diagnosis of gas-insulated switchgears (GISs, it has become a challenge to improve the detection sensitivity of partial discharge (PD induced in the GIS spacer. This paper deals with the elimination of the capacitive component from the phase-resolved partial discharge (PRPD signal generated in GIS spacers based on discrete wavelet transform (WT. Three types of typical insulation defects were simulated using PD cells. The single PD pulses were detected and were further used to determine the optimal mother wavelet. As a result, the bior6.8 was selected to decompose the PD signal into 8 levels and the signal energy at each level was calculated. The decomposed components related with capacitive disturbance were discarded, whereas those associated with PD were de-noised by a threshold and a thresholding function. Finally, the PRPD signals were reconstructed using the de-noised components.

  12. Wireless Sensor Network for Radiometric Detection and Assessment of Partial Discharge in High-Voltage Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upton, D. W.; Saeed, B. I.; Mather, P. J.; Lazaridis, P. I.; Vieira, M. F. Q.; Atkinson, R. C.; Tachtatzis, C.; Garcia, M. S.; Judd, M. D.; Glover, I. A.

    2018-03-01

    Monitoring of partial discharge (PD) activity within high-voltage electrical environments is increasingly used for the assessment of insulation condition. Traditional measurement techniques employ technologies that either require off-line installation or have high power consumption and are hence costly. A wireless sensor network is proposed that utilizes only received signal strength to locate areas of PD activity within a high-voltage electricity substation. The network comprises low-power and low-cost radiometric sensor nodes which receive the radiation propagated from a source of PD. Results are reported from several empirical tests performed within a large indoor environment and a substation environment using a network of nine sensor nodes. A portable PD source emulator was placed at multiple locations within the network. Signal strength measured by the nodes is reported via WirelessHART to a data collection hub where it is processed using a location algorithm. The results obtained place the measured location within 2 m of the actual source location.

  13. Use of ultrasonic array method for positioning multiple partial discharge sources in transformer oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qing; Tao, Junhan; Wang, Yongqiang; Geng, Jianghai; Cheng, Shuyi; Lü, Fangcheng

    2014-08-01

    Fast and accurate positioning of partial discharge (PD) sources in transformer oil is very important for the safe, stable operation of power systems because it allows timely elimination of insulation faults. There is usually more than one PD source once an insulation fault occurs in the transformer oil. This study, which has both theoretical and practical significance, proposes a method of identifying multiple PD sources in the transformer oil. The method combines the two-sided correlation transformation algorithm in the broadband signal focusing and the modified Gerschgorin disk estimator. The method of classification of multiple signals is used to determine the directions of arrival of signals from multiple PD sources. The ultrasonic array positioning method is based on the multi-platform direction finding and the global optimization searching. Both the 4 × 4 square planar ultrasonic sensor array and the ultrasonic array detection platform are built to test the method of identifying and positioning multiple PD sources. The obtained results verify the validity and the engineering practicability of this method.

  14. Ageing of insulation and diagnosis of electrical equipment through detection of partial discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Vergara, T.; Velasco Bernal, C.

    1994-01-01

    Ageing in electrical equipment affects mainly its insulation system. Such ageing in the insulation system is determined by its organic nature, basically constituted by three families of materials: cellulose, resin and hydrocarbon. All of these are affected by high temperatures, which tend to produce a break in the molecular chains (if the temperatures are not too high) or carbonization and gasification of the material (if they are). The radiation absorbed by the insulating materials also destroys molecular chains, causing degradation of the material. The break of the molecular chains, especially in the polymer-based materials, fragments the material, mainly in areas subjected to mechanical forces and stresses. From the electrical point of view, fissures occurring the insulating material lead to a much lower dielectric strength in certain parts of the materials, which could produce partial discharge conditions. Therefore, the growth of partial discharges in electrical equipment items is frequently the consequences of ageing, and be used to evaluate their residual life. Empresarios Agrupados has developed a system to detect partial discharges which can be used while equipment is still in operation. The measurements taken with this system are sufficiently accurate and repetitive to be used in evaluating the condition of medium-voltage electrical equipment insulation. (Author)

  15. Statistical Analysis of Partial Discharge Characteristics in Transformer Oil at the “Point-Plane” Electrode at Alternating Voltage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korobeynikov S.M.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the problems related to measuring and analyzing the characteristics of partial discharges which are the main instrument for oil-filled high-voltage electrical equipment diagnosing. The experiments on recording of partial discharges in transformer oil have been carried out in the “point-plane” electrode system at alternating current. The instantaneous voltage and the apparent charge have been measured depending on the root-mean-square voltage and the phase angle of partial discharges. This paper aimes at carrying out a statistical analysis of the obtained experimental results, in particular, the construction of a parametric probabilistic model of the dependence of the partial discharge inception voltage distribution on the value of the root-mean-square voltage. It differs from usual discharges which occur in liquid dielectric materials in case of sharp inhomogeneous electrode system. It has been suggested that discharges of a different type are the discharges in gas bubbles that occur when partial discharges in a liquid emerge. This assumption is confirmed by the fact that the number of such discharges increases with increasing the root-mean-square voltage value. It is the main novelty of this paper. This corresponds to the nature of the occurrence of such discharges. After rejecting the observations corresponding to discharges in gas bubbles, a parametric probabilistic model has been constructed. The model obtained makes it possible to determine the probability of partial discharge occurrence in a liquid at a given value of the instantaneous voltage depending on the root-mean-square voltage.

  16. On-line Monitoring System Based on Principle of Electro-acoustic Monitoring for Transformer Partial Discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Ya LIU

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Partial discharge inside a transformer is mainly responsible for the insulation aging and damage of the transformer. However, partial discharge is usually accompanied by external signals like sound, light and electrical signals and detectable physical phenomena such as characteristical gas and dielectric loss. Therefore, it is of great significance to monitor online the external signals and phenomena formed during partial discharge of the transformer when the transformer diagnoses faults. This paper gives a comprehensive overview of the electro-acoustic joint monitoring principles and its monitoring systems and the judgment skills concerned, on the basis of which the monitoring system is designed.

  17. Artificial Neural Network Application for Partial Discharge Recognition: Survey and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullahi Abubakar Mas’ud

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate how artificial neural networks (ANNs have been applied for partial discharge (PD pattern recognition, this paper reviews recent progress made on ANN development for PD classification by a literature survey. Contributions from several authors have been presented and discussed. High recognition rate has been recorded for several PD faults, but there are still many factors that hinder correct recognition of PD by the ANN, such as high-amplitude noise or wide spectral content typical from industrial environments, trial and error approaches in determining an optimum ANN, multiple PD sources acting simultaneously, lack of comprehensive and up to date databank of PD faults, and the appropriate selection of the characteristics that allow a correct recognition of the type of source which are currently being addressed by researchers. Several suggestions for improvement are proposed by the authors include: (1 determining the optimum weights in training the ANN; (2 using PD data captured over long stressing period in training the ANN; (3 ANN recognizing different PD degradation levels; (4 using the same resolution sizes of the PD patterns when training and testing the ANN with different PD dataset; (5 understanding the characteristics of multiple concurrent PD faults and effectively recognizing them; and (6 developing techniques in order to shorten the training time for the ANN as applied for PD recognition Finally, this paper critically assesses the suitability of ANNs for both online and offline PD detections outlining the advantages to the practitioners in the field. It is possible for the ANNs to determine the stage of degradation of the PD, thereby giving an indication of the seriousness of the fault.

  18. Method for measuring the stochastic properties of corona and partial-discharge pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Brunt, R.J.; Kulkarni, S.V.

    1989-01-01

    A new method is described for measuring the stochastic behavior of corona and partial-discharge pulses which utilizes a pulse selection and sorting circuit in conjunction with a computer-controlled multichannel analyzer to directly measure various conditional and unconditional pulse-height and pulse-time-separation distributions. From these measured distributions it is possible to determine the degree of correlation between successive discharge pulses. Examples are given of results obtained from measurements on negative, point-to-plane (Trichel-type) corona pulses in a N 2 /O 2 gas mixture which clearly demonstrate that the phenomenon is inherently stochastic in the sense that development of a discharge pulse is significantly affected by the amplitude of and time separation from the preceding pulse. It is found, for example, that corona discharge pulse amplitude and time separation from an earlier pulse are not independent random variables. Discussions are given about the limitations of the method, sources of error, and data analysis procedures required to determine self-consistency of the various measured distributions

  19. Partial discharge location technique for covered-conductor overhead distribution lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isa, M.

    2013-02-01

    In Finland, covered-conductor (CC) overhead lines are commonly used in medium voltage (MV) networks because the loads are widely distributed in the forested terrain. Such parts of the network are exposed to leaning trees which produce partial discharges (PDs) in CC lines. This thesis presents a technique to locate the PD source on CC overhead distribution line networks. The algorithm is developed and tested using a simulated study and experimental measurements. The Electromagnetic Transient Program-Alternative Transient Program (EMTP-ATP) is used to simulate and analyze a three-phase PD monitoring system, while MATLAB is used for post-processing of the high frequency signals which were measured. A Rogowski coil is used as the measuring sensor. A multi-end correlation-based technique for PD location is implemented using the theory of maximum correlation factor in order to find the time difference of arrival (TDOA) between signal arrivals at three synchronized measuring points. The three stages of signal analysis used are: (1) denoising by applying discrete wavelet transform (DWT); (2) extracting the PD features using the absolute or windowed standard deviation (STD) and; (3) locating the PD point. The advantage of this technique is the ability to locate the PD source without the need to know the first arrival time and the propagation velocity of the signals. In addition, the faulty section of the CC line between three measuring points can also be identified based on the degrees of correlation. An experimental analysis is performed to evaluate the PD measurement system performance for PD location on CC overhead lines. The measuring set-up is arranged in a high voltage (HV) laboratory. A multi-end measuring method is chosen as a technique to locate the PD source point on the line. A power transformer 110/20 kV was used to energize the AC voltage up to 11.5 kV/phase (20 kV system). The tests were designed to cover different conditions such as offline and online

  20. Testing and analysis of a fast discharge homopolar machine (FDX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bullion, T.M.; Zowarka, R.; Driga, M.D.; Gully, J.H.; Rylander, H.G.; Tolk, K.M.; Weldon, W.F.; Woodson, H.H.

    1979-01-01

    The Fast Discharge Experiment (FDX) is a 0.36 MJ, 200 V homopolar machine designed to discharge in one millisecond. This experiment is intended to establish the fundamental limitations involved in extracting energy in the shortest time from a flywheel using homopolar conversion. After initial testing of FDX was completed and data was analyzed, problems limiting performance were identified. Various components of the machine were redesigned and modified to correct these problems. A second set of tests, including short circuit discharges from various speeds, has recently been conducted. Results and analysis of these tests will be presented. New problems encountered as well as recommendations for additional work will also be given

  1. Testing the generalized partial credit model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glas, Cornelis A.W.

    1996-01-01

    The partial credit model (PCM) (G.N. Masters, 1982) can be viewed as a generalization of the Rasch model for dichotomous items to the case of polytomous items. In many cases, the PCM is too restrictive to fit the data. Several generalizations of the PCM have been proposed. In this paper, a

  2. Classification of Partial Discharge Measured under Different Levels of Noise Contamination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Jee Keen Raymond

    Full Text Available Cable joint insulation breakdown may cause a huge loss to power companies. Therefore, it is vital to diagnose the insulation quality to detect early signs of insulation failure. It is well known that there is a correlation between Partial discharge (PD and the insulation quality. Although many works have been done on PD pattern recognition, it is usually performed in a noise free environment. Also, works on PD pattern recognition in actual cable joint are less likely to be found in literature. Therefore, in this work, classifications of actual cable joint defect types from partial discharge data contaminated by noise were performed. Five cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE cable joints with artificially created defects were prepared based on the defects commonly encountered on site. Three different types of input feature were extracted from the PD pattern under artificially created noisy environment. These include statistical features, fractal features and principal component analysis (PCA features. These input features were used to train the classifiers to classify each PD defect types. Classifications were performed using three different artificial intelligence classifiers, which include Artificial Neural Networks (ANN, Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS and Support Vector Machine (SVM. It was found that the classification accuracy decreases with higher noise level but PCA features used in SVM and ANN showed the strongest tolerance against noise contamination.

  3. Influence of Nanosilica Filler Content in LDPE Composites on Partial Discharge Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z. Abdul-Malek; A.M. Azzin; Y.Z. Ariel; Aulia; K.Y. Lau; M. Jaafar

    2011-01-01

    Partial discharges (PDs) due to artificial void in samples of LDPE nanocomposite sheet have been investiga- ted in this work. PDs may cause the degradation of insulating materials and may affect the lifetime of high-voltage ap- paratus. An experimental work using sphere ball-plane electrode system (CIGRE Method II) and a 1.0 mm LDPE composite sheet was carried out. Different weight percentages of nanosilica (0%, 2%, 4%, 6% and 8%) were used. PD experimental results, such as PD magnitude and PD number (both PD pulse polarities), as functions of the ap- plied stress duration at a specified applied voltage were compared. The surface morphology of specimens was also presented and this conforms to the PD findings. The experimental results show that the PD characteristics of the LDPE generally improve with the introduction of nanosilica, the composite with the highest content of filler, namely the 8% (wt) nanosilica sample has the least partial discharge activities.

  4. Partial Discharge Monitoring on Metal-Enclosed Switchgear with Distributed Non-Contact Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongxing Zhang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Metal-enclosed switchgear, which are widely used in the distribution of electrical energy, play an important role in power distribution networks. Their safe operation is directly related to the reliability of power system as well as the power quality on the consumer side. Partial discharge detection is an effective way to identify potential faults and can be utilized for insulation diagnosis of metal-enclosed switchgear. The transient earth voltage method, an effective non-intrusive method, has substantial engineering application value for estimating the insulation condition of switchgear. However, the practical application effectiveness of TEV detection is not satisfactory because of the lack of a TEV detection application method, i.e., a method with sufficient technical cognition and analysis. This paper proposes an innovative online PD detection system and a corresponding application strategy based on an intelligent feedback distributed TEV wireless sensor network, consisting of sensing, communication, and diagnosis layers. In the proposed system, the TEV signal or status data are wirelessly transmitted to the terminal following low-energy signal preprocessing and acquisition by TEV sensors. Then, a central server analyzes the correlation of the uploaded data and gives a fault warning level according to the quantity, trend, parallel analysis, and phase resolved partial discharge pattern recognition. In this way, a TEV detection system and strategy with distributed acquisition, unitized fault warning, and centralized diagnosis is realized. The proposed system has positive significance for reducing the fault rate of medium voltage switchgear and improving its operation and maintenance level.

  5. Partial Discharge Monitoring on Metal-Enclosed Switchgear with Distributed Non-Contact Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chongxing; Dong, Ming; Ren, Ming; Huang, Wenguang; Zhou, Jierui; Gao, Xuze; Albarracín, Ricardo

    2018-02-11

    Metal-enclosed switchgear, which are widely used in the distribution of electrical energy, play an important role in power distribution networks. Their safe operation is directly related to the reliability of power system as well as the power quality on the consumer side. Partial discharge detection is an effective way to identify potential faults and can be utilized for insulation diagnosis of metal-enclosed switchgear. The transient earth voltage method, an effective non-intrusive method, has substantial engineering application value for estimating the insulation condition of switchgear. However, the practical application effectiveness of TEV detection is not satisfactory because of the lack of a TEV detection application method, i.e., a method with sufficient technical cognition and analysis. This paper proposes an innovative online PD detection system and a corresponding application strategy based on an intelligent feedback distributed TEV wireless sensor network, consisting of sensing, communication, and diagnosis layers. In the proposed system, the TEV signal or status data are wirelessly transmitted to the terminal following low-energy signal preprocessing and acquisition by TEV sensors. Then, a central server analyzes the correlation of the uploaded data and gives a fault warning level according to the quantity, trend, parallel analysis, and phase resolved partial discharge pattern recognition. In this way, a TEV detection system and strategy with distributed acquisition, unitized fault warning, and centralized diagnosis is realized. The proposed system has positive significance for reducing the fault rate of medium voltage switchgear and improving its operation and maintenance level.

  6. Partial discharge early-warning through ultraviolet spectroscopic detection of SO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Yu; Wang, Xianpei; Dai, Dangdang; Dong, Zhengcheng; Huang, Yunguang

    2014-01-01

    Surveillance of SF 6  decomposition products is significant for detection of partial discharge (PD) in gas insulation switchgear (GIS). As a basis in on-site detection and diagnosis, PD early-warning aims to quickly find the abnormalities using a simple and cheap device. In this paper, SO 2  is chosen as a feature product and detected through ultraviolet spectroscopy. The derivative method is employed for baseline correction and spectral enhancement. The standard gases of the main decomposition products are qualitatively and quantitatively detected. Then decomposition experiments with different defects are designed to further verify the feasibility. As a stable decomposition product under PD, SO 2  is proved to be applicable for PD early-warning in the field. By selecting the appropriate wavelength range, namely 290–310 nm, ultraviolet derivative spectroscopy is sensitive enough to the trace SO 2  in the decomposed gas and the interference of other products can be avoided. Fast Fourier transform could be used for feature extraction in qualitative detection. Concentrations of SO 2  and other by-products increase with increasing discharge time and could be affected by the discharge energy and PD type. Ultraviolet detection based on SO 2  is effective for PD early-warning but the threshold should still be carefully selected in practice. (paper)

  7. Improving detection sensitivity for partial discharge monitoring of high voltage equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, L.; Lewin, P. L.; Swingler, S. G.

    2008-05-01

    Partial discharge (PD) measurements are an important technique for assessing the health of power apparatus. Previous published research by the authors has shown that an electro-optic system can be used for PD measurement of oil-filled power transformers. A PD signal generated within an oil-filled power transformer may reach a winding and then travel along the winding to the bushing core bar. The bushing, acting like a capacitor, can transfer the high frequency components of the partial discharge signal to its earthed tap point. Therefore, an effective PD current measurement can be implemented at the bushing tap by using a radio frequency current transducer around the bushing-tap earth connection. In addition, the use of an optical transmission technique not only improves the electrical noise immunity and provides the possibility of remote measurement but also realizes electrical isolation and enhances safety for operators. However, the bushing core bar can act as an aerial and in addition noise induced by the electro-optic modulation system may influence overall measurement sensitivity. This paper reports on a machine learning technique, namely the use of a support vector machine (SVM), to improve the detection sensitivity of the system. Comparison between the signal extraction performances of a passive hardware filter and the SVM technique has been assessed. The results obtained from the laboratory-based experiment have been analysed and indicate that the SVM approach provides better performance than the passive hardware filter and it can reliably detect discharge signals with apparent charge greater than 30 pC.

  8. Improving detection sensitivity for partial discharge monitoring of high voltage equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, L; Lewin, P L; Swingler, S G

    2008-01-01

    Partial discharge (PD) measurements are an important technique for assessing the health of power apparatus. Previous published research by the authors has shown that an electro-optic system can be used for PD measurement of oil-filled power transformers. A PD signal generated within an oil-filled power transformer may reach a winding and then travel along the winding to the bushing core bar. The bushing, acting like a capacitor, can transfer the high frequency components of the partial discharge signal to its earthed tap point. Therefore, an effective PD current measurement can be implemented at the bushing tap by using a radio frequency current transducer around the bushing-tap earth connection. In addition, the use of an optical transmission technique not only improves the electrical noise immunity and provides the possibility of remote measurement but also realizes electrical isolation and enhances safety for operators. However, the bushing core bar can act as an aerial and in addition noise induced by the electro-optic modulation system may influence overall measurement sensitivity. This paper reports on a machine learning technique, namely the use of a support vector machine (SVM), to improve the detection sensitivity of the system. Comparison between the signal extraction performances of a passive hardware filter and the SVM technique has been assessed. The results obtained from the laboratory-based experiment have been analysed and indicate that the SVM approach provides better performance than the passive hardware filter and it can reliably detect discharge signals with apparent charge greater than 30 pC

  9. Defect Pattern Recognition Based on Partial Discharge Characteristics of Oil-Pressboard Insulation for UHVDC Converter Transformer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Si

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The ultra high voltage direct current (UHVDC transmission system has advantages in delivering electrical energy over long distance at high capacity. UHVDC converter transformer is a key apparatus and its insulation state greatly affects the safe operation of the transmission system. Partial discharge (PD characteristics of oil-pressboard insulation under combined AC-DC voltage are the foundation for analyzing the insulation state of UHVDC converter transformers. The defect pattern recognition based on PD characteristics is an important part of the state monitoring of converter transformers. In this paper, PD characteristics are investigated with the established experimental platform of three defect models (needle-plate, surface discharge and air gap under 1:1 combined AC-DC voltage. The different PD behaviors of three defect models are discussed and explained through simulation of electric field strength distribution and discharge mechanism. For the recognition of defect types when multiple types of sources coexist, the Random Forests algorithm is used for recognition. In order to reduce the computational layer and the loss of information caused by the extraction of traditional features, the preprocessed single PD pulses and phase information are chosen to be the features for learning and test. Zero-padding method is discussed for normalizing the features. Based on the experimental data, Random Forests and Least Squares Support Vector Machine are compared in the performance of computing time, recognition accuracy and adaptability. It is proved that Random Forests is more suitable for big data analysis.

  10. Testing the generalized partial credit model

    OpenAIRE

    Glas, Cornelis A.W.

    1996-01-01

    The partial credit model (PCM) (G.N. Masters, 1982) can be viewed as a generalization of the Rasch model for dichotomous items to the case of polytomous items. In many cases, the PCM is too restrictive to fit the data. Several generalizations of the PCM have been proposed. In this paper, a generalization of the PCM (GPCM), a further generalization of the one-parameter logistic model, is discussed. The model is defined and the conditional maximum likelihood procedure for the method is describe...

  11. The influence of spherical cavity surface charge distribution on the sequence of partial discharge events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illias, Hazlee A; Chen, George; Lewin, Paul L

    2011-01-01

    In this work, a model representing partial discharge (PD) behaviour of a spherical cavity within a homogeneous dielectric material has been developed to study the influence of cavity surface charge distribution on the electric field distribution in both the cavity and the material itself. The charge accumulation on the cavity surface after a PD event and charge movement along the cavity wall under the influence of electric field magnitude and direction has been found to affect the electric field distribution in the whole cavity and in the material. This in turn affects the likelihood of any subsequent PD activity in the cavity and the whole sequence of PD events. The model parameters influencing cavity surface charge distribution can be readily identified; they are the cavity surface conductivity, the inception field and the extinction field. Comparison of measurement and simulation results has been undertaken to validate the model.

  12. The influence of spherical cavity surface charge distribution on the sequence of partial discharge events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illias, Hazlee A [Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Chen, George; Lewin, Paul L, E-mail: h.illias@um.edu.my [Tony Davies High Voltage Laboratory, School of Electronics and Computer Science, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2011-06-22

    In this work, a model representing partial discharge (PD) behaviour of a spherical cavity within a homogeneous dielectric material has been developed to study the influence of cavity surface charge distribution on the electric field distribution in both the cavity and the material itself. The charge accumulation on the cavity surface after a PD event and charge movement along the cavity wall under the influence of electric field magnitude and direction has been found to affect the electric field distribution in the whole cavity and in the material. This in turn affects the likelihood of any subsequent PD activity in the cavity and the whole sequence of PD events. The model parameters influencing cavity surface charge distribution can be readily identified; they are the cavity surface conductivity, the inception field and the extinction field. Comparison of measurement and simulation results has been undertaken to validate the model.

  13. Partial discharge signal denoising with spatially adaptive wavelet thresholding and support vector machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mota, Hilton de Oliveira; Rocha, Leonardo Chaves Dutra da [Department of Computer Science, Federal University of Sao Joao del-Rei, Visconde do Rio Branco Ave., Colonia do Bengo, Sao Joao del-Rei, MG, 36301-360 (Brazil); Salles, Thiago Cunha de Moura [Department of Computer Science, Federal University of Minas Gerais, 6627 Antonio Carlos Ave., Pampulha, Belo Horizonte, MG, 31270-901 (Brazil); Vasconcelos, Flavio Henrique [Department of Electrical Engineering, Federal University of Minas Gerais, 6627 Antonio Carlos Ave., Pampulha, Belo Horizonte, MG, 31270-901 (Brazil)

    2011-02-15

    In this paper an improved method to denoise partial discharge (PD) signals is presented. The method is based on the wavelet transform (WT) and support vector machines (SVM) and is distinct from other WT-based denoising strategies in the sense that it exploits the high spatial correlations presented by PD wavelet decompositions as a way to identify and select the relevant coefficients. PD spatial correlations are characterized by WT modulus maxima propagation along decomposition levels (scales), which are a strong indicative of the their time-of-occurrence. Denoising is performed by identification and separation of PD-related maxima lines by an SVM pattern classifier. The results obtained confirm that this method has superior denoising capabilities when compared to other WT-based methods found in the literature for the processing of Gaussian and discrete spectral interferences. Moreover, its greatest advantages become clear when the interference has a pulsating or localized shape, situation in which traditional methods usually fail. (author)

  14. PWR pressurizer discharge piping system on-site testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anglaret, G.; Lasne, M.

    1983-08-01

    Framatome PWR systems includes the installation of safety valves and relief valves wich permit the discharge of steam from the pressurizer to the pressurizer relief tank through discharge piping system. Water seal expulsion pluration then depends on valve stem lift dynamics which can vary according to water-stem interaction. In order to approaches the different phenomenons, it was decided to perform a test on a 900 MWe French plant, test wich objectives are: characterize the mechanical response of the discharge piping to validate a mechanical model; open one, two or several valves among the following: one safety valve and three pilot operated relief valves, at a time or sequentially and measure the discharge piping transient response, the support loads, the

  15. Characteristics of Partial Discharge and Ozone Generation for Twisted-pair of Enameled Wires under High-repetitive Impulse Voltage Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Seiji; Enokizono, Masato; Shibakita, Toshihide; Umehara, Eiji; Toshimitsu, Jun; Ninomiya, Shinji; Taniguchi, Hideki; Abe, Yukari

    In recent years, inverter drive machines such as a hybrid vehicle and an electric vehicle are operated under high voltage pulse with high repetition rate. In this case, inverter surge is generated and affected the machine operation. Especially, the enameled wire of a motor is deteriorated due to the partial discharge (PD) and finally breakdown of the wire will occur. In order to investigate a PD on a resistant enameled wire, characteristics of PD in the twisted pair sample under bipolar repetitive impulse voltages are investigated experimentally. The relationship between the applied voltage and discharge current was measured at PD inception and extinction, and we estimated the repetitive PD inception and extinction voltages experimentally. The corresponding optical emission of the discharge was also observed by using an ICCD camera. Furthermore, ozone concentration due to the discharge was measured during the life-time test of the resistant enameled wires from a working environmental point of view.

  16. Temperature Effect on Electrical Treeing and Partial Discharge Characteristics of Silicone Rubber-Based Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Hafizi Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated electrical treeing and its associated phase-resolved partial discharge (PD activities in room-temperature, vulcanized silicone rubber/organomontmorillonite nanocomposite sample materials over a range of temperatures in order to assess the effect of temperature on different filler concentrations under AC voltage. The samples were prepared with three levels of nanofiller content: 0% by weight (wt, 1% by wt, and 3% by wt. The electrical treeing and PD activities of these samples were investigated at temperatures of 20°C, 40°C, and 60°C. The results show that the characteristics of the electrical tree changed with increasing temperature. The tree inception times decreased at 20°C due to space charge dynamics, and the tree growth time increased at 40°C due to the increase in the number of cross-link network structures caused by the vulcanization process. At 60°C, more enhanced and reinforced properties of the silicone rubber-based nanocomposite samples occurred. This led to an increase in electrical tree inception time and electrical tree growth time. However, the PD characteristics, particularly the mean phase angle of occurrence of the positive and negative discharge distributions, were insensitive to variations in temperature. This reflects an enhanced stability in the nanocomposite electrical properties compared with the base polymer.

  17. 21 CFR 864.7925 - Partial thromboplastin time tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Partial thromboplastin time tests. 864.7925 Section 864.7925 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7925 Partial...

  18. Partial-array test results in IFSMTF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lue, J.W.; Dresner, L.; Koizumi, K.; Lubell, M.S.; Luton, J.N.; Shen, S.S.; Zahn, G.R.; Zichy, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    Preliminary performance tests of two large superconducting magnets have been carried out in the International Fusion Superconducting Magnet Test Facility (IFSMTF). Each of the Japanese (JA) and General Dynamics/Convair (GD) coils was operated up to its full design current of 10.2 kA with the other serving as an adjacent background coil at 40% of design current. Cryostatic stability was demonstrated for both coils by noting recovery from a full half-turn (5 m) driven normal. A new pick-up coil compensation scheme was successfully used for the quench detection system. Each coil remained superconducting when the other was dumped. Unique instrumentation was used to measure changes in bore dimensions and displacement of the winding from the coil case. Agreement between structural analysis and measurement of bore dimension changes resulting from magnetic loads is good. The Swiss (CH) coil underwent only a cryogenic test. The forced cooling worked well and an inlet temperature of 3.8 K was demonstrated

  19. A default Bayesian hypothesis test for correlations and partial correlations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wetzels, R.; Wagenmakers, E.J.

    2012-01-01

    We propose a default Bayesian hypothesis test for the presence of a correlation or a partial correlation. The test is a direct application of Bayesian techniques for variable selection in regression models. The test is easy to apply and yields practical advantages that the standard frequentist tests

  20. Analysis of Partial Discharge Activity for Evaluation of the State of High Power Electric Generators Stator Windings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitrescu Sorin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows the importance of trending of partial discharge activity in assessing the insulation condition. It is presented the principle of the measurement method and the quantities that characterize partial discharges and also the criteria utilized for the assessement of the insulation condition of the hydrogenerators. Results of the measurements made on several hydrogenerators are presented, like the variation with time of the two main quantities that characterize the partial discharges, maximum magnitude, Qm and the normalized quantity, NQN over a period of about 10 years. Further, a classification of the insulation condition by 3 main and 2 intermediary categories and the definition of these categories are given. The criteria used for the assessment of the insulation condition are presented in the form of a table: quantitative criteria by the ± NQN and ± Qm values and qualitative criteria for the analysis of the 2D and 3D diagrams. At the end of each set of measurements, an analyze of the insulation condition annual evaluation is made, also a verdict is put, and of course, the recommendations made relating to the maintenance and the decisions that have been taken. The paper ends with several considerations on the method of on-line partial discharges and especially, on the conditions for valid trending activity in time.

  1. An Intelligent Sensor for the Ultra-High-Frequency Partial Discharge Online Monitoring of Power Transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-high-frequency (UHF partial discharge (PD online monitoring is an effective way to inspect potential faults and insulation defects in power transformers. The construction of UHF PD online monitoring system is a challenge because of the high-frequency and wide-frequency band of the UHF PD signal. This paper presents a novel, intelligent sensor for UHF PD online monitoring based on a new method, namely a level scanning method. The intelligent sensor can directly acquire the statistical characteristic quantities and is characterized by low cost, few data to output and transmit, Ethernet functionality, and small size for easy installation. The prototype of an intelligent sensor was made. Actual UHF PD experiments with three typical artificial defect models of power transformers were carried out in a laboratory, and the waveform recording method and intelligent sensor proposed were simultaneously used for UHF PD measurement for comparison. The results show that the proposed intelligent sensor is qualified for the UHF PD online monitoring of power transformers. Additionally, three methods to improve the performance of intelligent sensors were proposed according to the principle of the level scanning method.

  2. Antenna Deployment for the Localization of Partial Discharges in Open-Air Substations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Guillermo; Fresno, José Manuel; Sánchez-Fernández, Matilde; Martínez-Tarifa, Juan Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Partial discharges are ionization processes inside or on the surface of dielectrics that can unveil insulation problems in electrical equipment. The charge accumulated is released under certain environmental and voltage conditions attacking the insulation both physically and chemically. The final consequence of a continuous occurrence of these events is the breakdown of the dielectric. The electron avalanche provokes a derivative of the electric field with respect to time, creating an electromagnetic impulse that can be detected with antennas. The localization of the source helps in the identification of the piece of equipment that has to be decommissioned. This can be done by deploying antennas and calculating the time difference of arrival (TDOA) of the electromagnetic pulses. However, small errors in this parameter can lead to great displacements of the calculated position of the source. Usually, four antennas are used to find the source but the array geometry has to be correctly deployed to have minimal errors in the localization. This paper demonstrates, by an analysis based on simulation and also experimentally, that the most common layouts are not always the best options and proposes a simple antenna layout to reduce the systematic error in the TDOA calculation due to the positions of the antennas in the array. PMID:27092501

  3. Resonant Frequency Calculation and Optimal Design of Peano Fractal Antenna for Partial Discharge Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-high-frequency (UHF approaches have caught increasing attention recently and have been considered as a promising technology for online monitoring partial discharge (PD signals. This paper presents a Peano fractal antenna for UHF PD online monitoring of transformer with small size and multiband. The approximate formula for calculating the first resonant frequency of the Peano fractal antenna is presented. The results show that the first resonant frequency of the Peano fractal antenna is smaller than the Hilbert fractal antenna when the outer dimensions are equivalent approximately. The optimal geometric parameters of the antenna were obtained through simulation. Actual PD experiments had been carried out for two typically artificial insulation defect models, while the proposed antenna and the existing Hilbert antenna were both used for the PD measurement. The experimental results show that Peano fractal antenna is qualified for PD online UHF monitoring and a little more suitable than the Hilbert fractal antenna for pattern recognition by analyzing the waveforms of detected UHF PD signals.

  4. A lower dimensional feature vector for identification of partial discharges of different origin using time measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evagorou, Demetres; Kyprianou, Andreas; Georghiou, George E; Lewin, Paul L; Stavrou, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Partial discharge (PD) classification into sources of different origin is essential in evaluating the severity of the damage caused by its activity on the insulation of power cables and their accessories. More specifically, some types of PD can be classified as having a detrimental effect on the integrity of the insulation while others can be deemed relatively harmless, rendering the correct classification of different PD types of vital importance to electrical utilities. In this work, a feature vector was proposed based on higher order statistics on selected nodes of the wavelet packet transform (WPT) coefficients of time domain measurements, which can compactly represent the characteristics of different PD sources. To assess its performance, experimental data acquired under laboratory conditions for four different PD sources encountered in power systems were used. The two learning machine methods, namely the support vector machine and the probabilistic neural network, employed as the classification algorithms, achieved overall classification rates of around 98%. In comparison, the utilization of the scaled, raw WPT coefficients as a feature vector resulted in classification accuracy of around 99%, but with a significantly higher number of dimensions (1304 to 16), validating the PD identification ability of the proposed feature. Dimensionality reduction becomes a key factor in online, real-time data collection and processing of PD measurements, reducing the classification effort and the data-storage requirements. Therefore, the proposed method can constitute a potential tool for such online measurements, after addressing issues related to on-site measurements such as the rejection of interference. (paper)

  5. Study on the Application of an Ultra-High-Frequency Fractal Antenna to Partial Discharge Detection in Switchgears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenguo Yao

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The ultra-high-frequency (UHF method is used to analyze the insulation condition of electric equipment by detecting the UHF electromagnetic (EM waves excited by partial discharge (PD. As part of the UHF detection system, the UHF sensor determines the detection system performance in signal extraction and recognition. In this paper, a UHF antenna sensor with the fractal structure for PD detection in switchgears was designed by means of modeling, simulation and optimization. This sensor, with a flat-plate structure, had two resonance frequencies of 583 MHz and 732 MHz. In the laboratory, four kinds of insulation defect models were positioned in the testing switchgear for typical PD tests. The results show that the sensor could reproduce the electromagnetic waves well. Furthermore, to optimize the installation position of the inner sensor for achieving best detection performance, the precise simulation model of switchgear was developed to study the propagation characteristics of UHF signals in switchgear by finite-difference time-domain (FDTD method. According to the results of simulation and verification test, the sensor should be positioned at the right side of bottom plate in the front cabinet. This research established the foundation for the further study on the application of UHF technique in switchgear PD online detection.

  6. Evaluation efficiency for mobile as discharge measurement device for partially filled circular channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M.H. Rashwan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Discharge measurement is an important step in engineering applications such as sewerage system, irrigation and drainage system. Mobile flume is a simple and low-cost discharge measuring device constructed of two pieces of pipes, one installed vertically inside the other. The circular mobile flume depends on the concept of developing a contracted zone to have a control section. To evaluate the efficiency of this type of device mathematical and experimental studies are presented. Specific energy, discharge and Froude number equations are used to develop mathematical model. Experimental work is carried out to measure the discharge values corresponding to the specific energy values. The experimental data is used to evaluate the mobile flume as a device to measure discharge. A new equation for the discharge coefficient is presented. This equation can be used to determined accurate discharge with knowing the contraction ratio and measured specific energy.

  7. Development of acoustic partial discharge detection device; Bubun hoden kenshutsusochi wo riyo shita onkyo niyoru hendensetsubi no zetsuen rekka shindan gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suenaga, Kiyoka [Kawasaki Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-06-15

    This paper introduces an acoustic partial discharge detection device, consisting of a microphone, amplifier circuit for analog signals, A/D (Digital Signal Processor). This device has the following unique characteristics: (1) Judging whether or not there is partial discharge by analyzing supersonic signals. (2) High sensitivity for detecting discharge ; 100 pC from a distance of 1.2 m. (3)Locating the position of discharge occurrence by using a sharpe directional parabola microphone and laser beam pointer. The detector was used in the steel works to detect partial discharge on high-voltage electrical apparatus, where faults due to partial discharge were found in the potential transformer and current transformer. The effectiveness of the device was thus verified. (author)

  8. A Comparison of Inductive Sensors in the Characterization of Partial Discharges and Electrical Noise Using the Chromatic Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alfredo Ardila-Rey

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Partial discharges (PDs are one of the most important classes of ageing processes that occur within electrical insulation. PD detection is a standardized technique to qualify the state of the insulation in electric assets such as machines and power cables. Generally, the classical phase-resolved partial discharge (PRPD patterns are used to perform the identification of the type of PD source when they are related to a specific degradation process and when the electrical noise level is low compared to the magnitudes of the PD signals. However, in practical applications such as measurements carried out in the field or in industrial environments, several PD sources and large noise signals are usually present simultaneously. In this study, three different inductive sensors have been used to evaluate and compare their performance in the detection and separation of multiple PD sources by applying the chromatic technique to each of the measured signals.

  9. A Comparison of Inductive Sensors in the Characterization of Partial Discharges and Electrical Noise Using the Chromatic Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardila-Rey, Jorge Alfredo; Montaña, Johny; de Castro, Bruno Albuquerque; Schurch, Roger; Covolan Ulson, José Alfredo; Muhammad-Sukki, Firdaus; Bani, Nurul Aini

    2018-03-29

    Partial discharges (PDs) are one of the most important classes of ageing processes that occur within electrical insulation. PD detection is a standardized technique to qualify the state of the insulation in electric assets such as machines and power cables. Generally, the classical phase-resolved partial discharge (PRPD) patterns are used to perform the identification of the type of PD source when they are related to a specific degradation process and when the electrical noise level is low compared to the magnitudes of the PD signals. However, in practical applications such as measurements carried out in the field or in industrial environments, several PD sources and large noise signals are usually present simultaneously. In this study, three different inductive sensors have been used to evaluate and compare their performance in the detection and separation of multiple PD sources by applying the chromatic technique to each of the measured signals.

  10. On the Feasibility of Gap Detection of Power Transformer Partial Discharge UHF Signals: Gap Propagation Characteristics of Electromagnetic Waves

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoxing Zhang; Guozhi Zhang; Yalong Li; Jian Zhang; Rui Huang

    2017-01-01

    This study analyzed the transformer electromagnetic gap propagation characteristics. The influence of gap size is also analyzed, and the results experimentally verified. The obtained results indicated that the gap propagation characteristics of electromagnetic wave signals radiated by the partial discharge (PD) source in different directions are substantially different. The intensity of the electromagnetic wave in the gap reaches a maximum at a gap height of 1 cm; and inside the gap, the inte...

  11. Stability test for a parabolic partial differential equation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vajta, Miklos

    2001-01-01

    The paper describes a stability test applied to coupled parabolic partial differential equations. The PDE's describe the temperature distribution of composite structures with linear inner heat sources. The distributed transfer functions are developed based on the transmission matrix of each layer.

  12. An all-fiber partial discharge monitoring system based on both intrinsic fiber optic interferometry sensor and fluorescent fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zelin; Zhang, Ruirui; Tong, Jie; Chen, Xi

    2013-12-01

    Partial discharges (PDs) are an electrical phenomenon that occurs within a transformer whenever the voltage stress is sufficient to produce ionization in voids or inclusions within a solid dielectric, at conductor/dielectric interfaces, or in bubbles within liquid dielectrics such as oil; high-frequency transient current discharges will then appear repeatedly and will progressively deteriorate the insulation, ultimately leading to breakdown. Fiber sensor has great potential on the partial discharge detection in high-voltage equipment for its immunity to electromagnetic interference and it can take direct measurement in the high voltage equipment. The energy released in PDs produces a number of effects, resulting in flash, chemical and structural changes and electromagnetic emissions and so on. Acoustic PD detection is based on the mechanical pressure wave emitted from the discharge and fluorescent fiber PD detection is based on the emitted light produced by ionization, excitation and recombination processes during the discharge. Both of the two methods have the shortage of weak anti-interference capacity in the physical environment, like thunder or other sound source. In order to avoid the false report, an all-fiber combined PD detection system of the two methods is developed in this paper. In the system the fluorescent fiber PD sensor is considered as a reference signal, three F-P based PD detection sensors are used to both monitor the PD intensity and calculate the exact position of the discharge source. Considering the wave band of the F-P cavity and the fluorescent probe are quite different, the reflection spectrum of the F-P cavity is in the infrared region, however the fluorescent probe is about 600nm to 700nm, thus the F-P sensor and fluorescent fiber probe can be connected in one fiber and the reflection light can be detected by two different detectors without mutual interference. The all-fiber partial discharge monitoring system not only can detect the PDs

  13. Using partial safety factors in wind turbine design and testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musial, W.D. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes the relationship between wind turbine design and testing in terms of the certification process. An overview of the current status of international certification is given along with a description of limit-state design basics. Wind turbine rotor blades are used to illustrate the principles discussed. These concepts are related to both International Electrotechnical Commission and Germanischer Lloyd design standards, and are covered using schematic representations of statistical load and material strength distributions. Wherever possible, interpretations of the partial safety factors are given with descriptions of their intended meaning. Under some circumstances, the authors` interpretations may be subjective. Next, the test-load factors are described in concept and then related to the design factors. Using technical arguments, it is shown that some of the design factors for both load and materials must be used in the test loading, but some should not be used. In addition, some test factors not used in the design may be necessary for an accurate test of the design. The results show that if the design assumptions do not clearly state the effects and uncertainties that are covered by the design`s partial safety factors, outside parties such as test labs or certification agencies could impose their own meaning on these factors.

  14. Partial discharge patterns and surface deterioration in voids in filled and unfilled epoxy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbøll, Joachim; Henriksen, Mogens

    1992-01-01

    /height analyses were performed over a period of 2400 h and showed very characteristic discharge patterns for each material combination. A unique behavior with regard to changes of pulse repetition rate and maximum apparent charge was observed for PD in alumina- and silica-filled epoxy. The void surfaces were...

  15. 77 FR 58830 - State Program Requirements; Application To Administer Partial National Pollutant Discharge...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-24

    .... ODAFF does not have jurisdiction over storm water discharges associated with industrial activity (as defined at 40 CFR 122.26(b)(14)) at facilities whose primary industrial activity is storage of grain, feed... regulated by ODAFF that only incidentally store grain, feed, seed, fertilizer, and agriculture chemicals to...

  16. Structural, mechanical, electrical and wetting properties of ZrNx films deposited by Ar/N2 vacuum arc discharge: Effect of nitrogen partial pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, B.; Naddaf, M.; A-Kharroub, M.

    2013-03-01

    Non-stiochiometric zirconium nitride (ZrNx) thin films have been deposited on silicon substrates by vacuum arc discharge of (N2 + Ar) gas mixtures at different N2 partial pressure ratio. The microstructure, mechanical, electrical and wetting properties of these films are studied by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), micro-Raman spectroscopy, Rutherford back scattering (RBS) technique, conventional micro-hardness testing, electrical resistivity, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and contact angle (CA) measurements. RBS results and analysis show that the (N/Zr) ratio in the film increases with increasing the N2 partial pressure. A ZrNx film with (Zr/N) ratio in the vicinity of stoichiometric ZrN is obtained at N2 partial pressure of 10%. XRD and Raman results indicate that all deposited films have strained cubic crystal phase of ZrN, regardless of the N2 partial pressure. On increasing the N2 partial pressure, the relative intensity of (1 1 1) orientation with respect to (2 0 0) orientation is seen to decrease. The effect of N2 partial pressure on micro-hardness and the resistivity of the deposited film is revealed and correlated to the alteration of grain size, crystallographic texture, stoichiometry and residual stress developed in the film. In particular, it is found that residual stress and nitrogen incorporation in the film play crucial role in the alteration of micro-hardness and resistivity respectively. In addition, CA and AFM results demonstrate that as N2 partial pressure increases, both the surface hydrophobicity and roughness of the deposited film increase, leading to a significant decrease in the film surface free energy (SFE).

  17. Development of a perpendicular vibration-induced electrical discharge machining process for fabrication of partially wavy inner structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ju Chul; Park, Sang Hu; Min, June Kee; Ha, Man Yeong; Shin, Bo Sung [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jong Rae [Korea Maritime University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Heat transfer enhancement is an important issue in energy systems. To improve the efficiency of a cooling channel used inside injection molds, turbine blades, and high-temperature devices, channels with various shapes, such as wavy, elliptical, and twisted, have been studied. A cooling channel with a partially wavy inner structure has shown outstanding cooling performance despite a small increase in friction factor. However, generating a partially wavy inner structure inside a channel through conventional machining processes is not easy. To address this problem, we developed a new process called Perpendicular vibration-induced electrical discharge machining (PV-EDM). A specific electrode and one- and random-directional vibrating devices controlled by a pneumatic load were designed for the PV-EDM process. Experimental results showed that local shaping on the inner wall of a channel is possible, which confirmed the possibility of application of this process to actual industrial problems.

  18. The partial coherence modulation transfer function in testing lithography lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiun-Woei

    2018-03-01

    Due to the lithography demanding high performance in projection of semiconductor mask to wafer, the lens has to be almost free in spherical and coma aberration, thus, in situ optical testing for diagnosis of lens performance has to be established to verify the performance and to provide the suggesting for further improvement of the lens, before the lens has been build and integrated with light source. The measurement of modulation transfer function of critical dimension (CD) is main performance parameter to evaluate the line width of semiconductor platform fabricating ability for the smallest line width of producing tiny integrated circuits. Although the modulation transfer function (MTF) has been popularly used to evaluation the optical system, but in lithography, the contrast of each line-pair is in one dimension or two dimensions, analytically, while the lens stand along in the test bench integrated with the light source coherent or near coherent for the small dimension near the optical diffraction limit, the MTF is not only contributed by the lens, also by illumination of platform. In the study, the partial coherence modulation transfer function (PCMTF) for testing a lithography lens is suggested by measuring MTF in the high spatial frequency of in situ lithography lens, blended with the illumination of partial and in coherent light source. PCMTF can be one of measurement to evaluate the imperfect lens of lithography lens for further improvement in lens performance.

  19. State Waste Discharge Permit Application: Electric resistance tomography testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    This permit application documentation is for a State Waste Discharge Permit issued in accordance with requirements of Washington Administrative Code 173-216. The activity being permitted is a technology test using electrical resistance tomography. The electrical resistance tomography technology was developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and has been used at other waste sites to track underground contamination plumes. The electrical resistance tomography technology measures soil electrical resistance between two electrodes. If a fluid contaminated with electrolytes is introduced into the soil, the soil resistance is expected to drop. By using an array of measurement electrodes in several boreholes, the areal extent of contamination can be estimated. At the Hanford Site, the purpose of the testing is to determine if the electrical resistance tomography technology can be used in the vicinity of large underground metal tanks without the metal tank interfering with the test. It is anticipated that the electrical resistance tomography technology will provide a method for accurately detecting leaks from the bottom of underground tanks, such as the Hanford Site single-shell tanks.

  20. State Waste Discharge Permit Application: Electric resistance tomography testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    This permit application documentation is for a State Waste Discharge Permit issued in accordance with requirements of Washington Administrative Code 173-216. The activity being permitted is a technology test using electrical resistance tomography. The electrical resistance tomography technology was developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and has been used at other waste sites to track underground contamination plumes. The electrical resistance tomography technology measures soil electrical resistance between two electrodes. If a fluid contaminated with electrolytes is introduced into the soil, the soil resistance is expected to drop. By using an array of measurement electrodes in several boreholes, the areal extent of contamination can be estimated. At the Hanford Site, the purpose of the testing is to determine if the electrical resistance tomography technology can be used in the vicinity of large underground metal tanks without the metal tank interfering with the test. It is anticipated that the electrical resistance tomography technology will provide a method for accurately detecting leaks from the bottom of underground tanks, such as the Hanford Site single-shell tanks

  1. CFD simulation of air discharge tests in the PPOOLEX facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanskanen, V.; Puustinen, M. (Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology, Nuclear Safety Research Unit (Finland))

    2008-07-15

    This report summarizes the CFD simulation results of two air discharge tests of the characterizing test program in 2007 with the scaled down PPOOLEX facility. Air was blown to the dry well compartment and from there through a DN200 blowdown pipe into the condensation pool (wet well). The selected tests were modeled with Fluent CFD code. Test CHAR-09-1 was simulated to 28.92 seconds of real time and test CHAR-09-3 to 17.01 seconds. The VOF model was used as a multiphase model and the standard k epsilon-model as a turbulence model. Occasional convergence problems, usually at the beginning of bubble formation, required the use of relatively short time stepping. The simulation time costs threatened to become unbearable since weeks or months of wall-clock time with 1-2 processors were needed. Therefore, the simulated time periods were limited from the real duration of the experiments. The results obtained from the CFD simulations are in a relatively good agreement with the experimental results. Simulated pressures correspond well to the measured ones and, in addition, fluctuations due to bubble formations and breakups are also captured. Most of the differences in temperature values and in their behavior seem to depend on the locations of the measurements. In the vicinity of regions occupied by water in the experiments, thermocouples getting wet and drying slowly may have had an effect on the measured temperature values. Generally speaking, most temperatures were simulated satisfyingly and the largest discrepancies could be explained by wetted thermocouples. However, differences in the dry well and blowdown pipe top measurements could not be explained by thermocouples getting wet. Heat losses and dry well / wet well heat transfer due to conduction have neither been estimated in the experiments nor modeled in the simulations. Estimation of heat conduction and heat losses should be carried out in future experiments and they should be modeled in future simulations, too. (au)

  2. CFD simulation of air discharge tests in the PPOOLEX facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanskanen, V.; Puustinen, M.

    2008-07-01

    This report summarizes the CFD simulation results of two air discharge tests of the characterizing test program in 2007 with the scaled down PPOOLEX facility. Air was blown to the dry well compartment and from there through a DN200 blowdown pipe into the condensation pool (wet well). The selected tests were modeled with Fluent CFD code. Test CHAR-09-1 was simulated to 28.92 seconds of real time and test CHAR-09-3 to 17.01 seconds. The VOF model was used as a multiphase model and the standard k ε-model as a turbulence model. Occasional convergence problems, usually at the beginning of bubble formation, required the use of relatively short time stepping. The simulation time costs threatened to become unbearable since weeks or months of wall-clock time with 1-2 processors were needed. Therefore, the simulated time periods were limited from the real duration of the experiments. The results obtained from the CFD simulations are in a relatively good agreement with the experimental results. Simulated pressures correspond well to the measured ones and, in addition, fluctuations due to bubble formations and breakups are also captured. Most of the differences in temperature values and in their behavior seem to depend on the locations of the measurements. In the vicinity of regions occupied by water in the experiments, thermocouples getting wet and drying slowly may have had an effect on the measured temperature values. Generally speaking, most temperatures were simulated satisfyingly and the largest discrepancies could be explained by wetted thermocouples. However, differences in the dry well and blowdown pipe top measurements could not be explained by thermocouples getting wet. Heat losses and dry well / wet well heat transfer due to conduction have neither been estimated in the experiments nor modeled in the simulations. Estimation of heat conduction and heat losses should be carried out in future experiments and they should be modeled in future simulations, too. (au)

  3. Field tests on partial embedment effects (embedment effect tests on soil-structure interaction)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurimoto, O.; Tsunoda, T.; Inoue, T.; Izumi, M.; Kusakabe, K.; Akino, K.

    1993-01-01

    A series of Model Tests of Embedment Effect on Reactor Buildings has been carried out by the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC), under the sponsorship of the Ministry of International Trade and lndustry (MITI) of Japan. The nuclear reactor buildings are partially embedded due to conditions for the construction or building arrangement in Japan. It is necessary to verify the partial embedment effects by experiments and analytical studies in order to incorporate the effects in the seismic design. Forced vibration tests, therefore, were performed using a model with several types of embedment. Correlated simulation analyses were also performed and the characteristics of partial embedment effects on soil-structure interaction were evaluated. (author)

  4. Proposed test method for determining discharge rates from water closets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, V.; Fjord Jensen, T.

    At present the rates at which discharge takes place from sanitary appliances are mostly known only in the form of estimated average values. SBI has developed a measuring method enabling determination of the exact rate of discharge from a sanitary appliance as function of time. The methods depends...

  5. Partial discharge localization in power transformers based on the sequential quadratic programming-genetic algorithm adopting acoustic emission techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hua-Long; Liu, Hua-Dong

    2014-10-01

    Partial discharge (PD) in power transformers is one of the prime reasons resulting in insulation degradation and power faults. Hence, it is of great importance to study the techniques of the detection and localization of PD in theory and practice. The detection and localization of PD employing acoustic emission (AE) techniques, as a kind of non-destructive testing, plus due to the advantages of powerful capability of locating and high precision, have been paid more and more attention. The localization algorithm is the key factor to decide the localization accuracy in AE localization of PD. Many kinds of localization algorithms exist for the PD source localization adopting AE techniques including intelligent and non-intelligent algorithms. However, the existed algorithms possess some defects such as the premature convergence phenomenon, poor local optimization ability and unsuitability for the field applications. To overcome the poor local optimization ability and easily caused premature convergence phenomenon of the fundamental genetic algorithm (GA), a new kind of improved GA is proposed, namely the sequence quadratic programming-genetic algorithm (SQP-GA). For the hybrid optimization algorithm, SQP-GA, the sequence quadratic programming (SQP) algorithm which is used as a basic operator is integrated into the fundamental GA, so the local searching ability of the fundamental GA is improved effectively and the premature convergence phenomenon is overcome. Experimental results of the numerical simulations of benchmark functions show that the hybrid optimization algorithm, SQP-GA, is better than the fundamental GA in the convergence speed and optimization precision, and the proposed algorithm in this paper has outstanding optimization effect. At the same time, the presented SQP-GA in the paper is applied to solve the ultrasonic localization problem of PD in transformers, then the ultrasonic localization method of PD in transformers based on the SQP-GA is proposed. And

  6. Effect of electric field configuration on streamer and partial discharge phenomena in a hydrocarbon insulating liquid under AC stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Z; Liu, Q; Wang, Z D

    2016-01-01

    This paper concerns pre-breakdown phenomena, including streamer characteristics from a fundamental perspective and partial discharge (PD) measurements from an industrial perspective, in a hydrocarbon insulating liquid. The aim was to investigate the possible changes of the liquid’s streamer and PD characteristics and their correlations when the uniformity of the AC electric field varies. In the experiments, a plane-to-plane electrode system incorporating a needle protrusion was used in addition to a needle-to-plane electrode system. When the applied electric field became more uniform, fewer radial branches occurred and streamer propagation towards the ground electrode was enhanced. The transition from streamer propagation dominated breakdown in divergent fields to streamer initiation dominated breakdown in uniform fields was evidenced. Relationships between streamer and PD characteristics were established, which were found to be electric field dependent. PD of the same apparent charge would indicate longer streamers if the electric field is more uniform. (paper)

  7. On the Feasibility of Gap Detection of Power Transformer Partial Discharge UHF Signals: Gap Propagation Characteristics of Electromagnetic Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxing Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the transformer electromagnetic gap propagation characteristics. The influence of gap size is also analyzed, and the results experimentally verified. The obtained results indicated that the gap propagation characteristics of electromagnetic wave signals radiated by the partial discharge (PD source in different directions are substantially different. The intensity of the electromagnetic wave in the gap reaches a maximum at a gap height of 1 cm; and inside the gap, the intensity of the electromagnetic wave depicted an increasing trend at the tail area of the gap. Finally, from the obtained results, some suggestions on where to install sensors in practical systems for ultra high frequency (UHF PD signal detection in the transformer gap are provided. The obtained results confirmed the feasibility of using this approach. These results can be seen as a benchmark and a challenge for further research in this field.

  8. Using computerized provider order entry to enforce documentation of tests with pending results at hospital discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadwallader, J; Asirwa, C; Li, X; Kesterson, J; Tierney, W M; Were, M C

    2012-01-01

    Small numbers of tests with pending results are documented in hospital discharge summaries leading to breakdown in communication and medical errors due to inadequate followup. Evaluate effect of using a computerized provider order entry (CPOE) system to enforce documentation of tests with pending results into hospital discharge summaries. We assessed the percent of all tests with pending results and those with actionable results that were documented before (n = 182 discharges) and after (n = 203 discharges) implementing the CPOE-enforcement tool. We also surveyed providers (n = 52) about the enforcement functionality. Documentation of all tests with pending results improved from 12% (87/701 tests) before to 22% (178/812 tests) (p = 0.02) after implementation. Documentation of tests with eventual actionable results increased from 0% (0/24) to 50% (14/28)(ppending results into discharge summaries significantly increased documentation rates, especially of actionable tests. However, gaps in documentation still exist.

  9. Detection of partial discharges in oil transformers with the aid of acoustic emission analysis; Detektion von Teilentladungen in Oeltransformatoren durch die Schallemissionsanalyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loehr, M. [Physical Acoustics BV - Deutschland, Hamburg (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Since the early eighties, acoustic emission analysis has been used for functional testing of transformers. Partial discharges of 150 pC and above are detected reliably. Transformers with oil/paper insulation as a rule are inspected during operation by analysis of the transformer oil at regular intervals or continuously. This integral method provides no information on the operating conditions causing partial discharge and no information on their location. This information gap may be closed by acoustic emission analysis, which will provide the key information required for selective planning of preventive measures. Physical Acoustics (PAC) tested several hundreds of transformers successfully for their operating performance (see also EPRI Project I.D. No. 051481). As a result, e.g., transformers can now be operated for a longer period of time below critical load. [German] Die Schallemissionsanalyse wird seit den fruehen 80-iger Jahren letzten Jahrhunderts von Transformator-Herstellern bei der Funktionspruefung eingesetzt. Hierbei werden Teilentladungen von 150 pC und mehr zuverlaessig detektiert. Oel-papierisolierte Transformatoren werden in der Regel waehrend des Betriebs durch eine Analyse des Transformator-Oels inspeziert. Die Oelanalyse kann in regelmaessigen Abstaenden oder dauerhaft erfolgen. Als integrales Verfahren bietet diese Methode keine Information zu den Betriebsbedingungen unter den Teilentladungen auftreten und gibt auch keine Information zum Ort deren Auftretens. Diese Informationsluecke kann durch den Einsatz einer Schallemissionspruefung (AT) geschlossen werden. Mit dem Messen der Schallemission durch am Trafokessel angebrachte Sensoren kann der Ort und der Zeitpunkt von Stoerungen festgestellt werden. Mit diesen Schluesselinformationen wird es moeglich, die weiteren notwendigen Massnahmen gezielt zu planen. Physical Acoustics (PAC) hat mehrere hunderte von Transformatoren erfolgreich auf ihr Betriebsverhalten untersucht (siehe auch EPRI-Projekt I

  10. Testing Ionizers for Nitrogen Discharge of Interferometer Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amen, Timothy; Ugolini, Dennis

    2010-10-01

    Interferometric gravitational-wave observatories consist of suspended optics in a vacuum chamber. Charge can build up on and then discontinuously jump across an optic, creating a changing electric field, causing the optic to sway, creating a false signal. We studied possible ways to discharge an optic without damaging their reflective coatings. We tried two types of electron guns. The first was built at the University of Washington and uses an ultraviolet LED to free electrons from a magnesium target. We found the current to be three orders of magnitude less than necessary for discharge in a reasonable time. The second gun used was a Bayard-Alpert gauge. To eliminate sputtering caused by the gauge above 10-4 torr, we employed a differential pumping system. We were able to flow nitrogen gas through the main chamber at pressures between 10-2 and 10-3 torr while the gauge chamber was kept two orders of magnitude lower. We successfully discharged the optic. The discharge rate varied exponentially with charge level and operating current and nearly linearly with acceleration voltage, and peaked when the pressure was 8 x 10-3 torr in the main chamber.

  11. Dielectric strength behaviour and mechanical properties of transparent insulation materials suitable to optical monitoring of partial discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lothongkam, Chaiyaporn

    2014-01-01

    A novel optical detection method for partial discharge in HV/EHV cable terminations has been proposed. Optical sensor fibres integrated into the HV equipment provide high sensitivity as well as immunity to electromagnetic interference and enable therefore on-line monitoring in electromagnetically noisy environment. The availability of optically transparent silicone rubbers that meet strict dielectric and mechanical criteria is a crucial prerequisite for the implementation of this method. The optically transparent silicone rubbers can be applied for the fabrication of a modern rubber stress cone as well as for the development of a new optical sensing element sensitive to PD activities. In this thesis, AC dielectric strength behaviour and mechanical properties of three types of commercially available silicone rubbers were investigated. One of the characterized silicone rubbers was a translucent type whereas the two others were optically transparent types, however with different chemical curing reactions. The measurements of tensile strength and elongation at break were carried out according to the ISO 37 standard. For investigation of the dielectric strength E b behaviour of the virgin and modified silicone rubbers, a new methodology was developed. It is, at the same time, highly reliable and efficient, saves time and reduces material consumption in comparison to previously reported methodologies. The key component of this methodology is a specifically developed test facility. Furthermore, the methodology comprises determinations for easy preparation and handling of high-quality test specimens. This test method provides various advantages over other methods that have previously been used for measurement of the fundamental quantity E b value of silicone rubbers. Both technical and economic demands are satisfied. The new facility also enables cost-effective routine tests in material research laboratories. The high quality of the obtained test results was verified by

  12. Limpieza de patrones φ,q,n de descargas parciales; Denoising of partial discharge φ,q,n patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Alfredo Dorrbercker Drake

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available La medición de descargas parciales (DP se sustenta en la detección y filtraje de pulsos de corriente que aparecen en una banda de frecuencia que abarca desde los kilohertzios hasta los gigahertzios, por tal motivo los detectores de descargas parciales (DDP poseen sistemas para desagregar dichos pulsos de corriente. Sin embargo, los DDP también permiten el paso de otras señales de alta frecuencia (ruidos que se mezclan con los pulsos de DP y afectan la medición, interpretación y caracterización de las DP. Para atenuar ese efecto, se han desarrollado distintas técnicas para separar los ruidos tanto asociados a las señales como los existentes en los patrones φ,q,n.  En este artículo se presentan los resultados obtenidos en la reducción de los ruidos asociados a la conmutación de tiristores y los ruidos esporádicos, de los patrones φ,q,n mediante el empleo de técnicas de procesamiento de imágenes digitales. The measurement of partial (PD discharges is sustained in the detection and filtration of current pulses which appear in a band of frequency that include from the kilohertz until the gigahertzios, for such a reason the detectors of partial (PDD discharges they possess systems for the separation of this current pulses. However, PDD also allows the step of other signals of high frequency, denominated noises, that mix with the pulses of PD and they affect measurement, interpretation and characterization of PD. To attenuate that effect, different techniques have been developed to separate the noises so much associated to the signs like the existent ones in the φ,q,n patterns. In this paper are presented the results obtained in the noise reduction of the noises associated to the thyristor’s commutation and the sporadic noises, in the φ,q,n patterns by means of the technical of digital images processing

  13. Speciation and susceptibility testing of Candida isolates from vaginal discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapna Muthusamy

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Candida is a normal commensal that takes the role of a pathogen under compromised conditions. Increased longevity of human life and immunocompromised conditions together paves the way for the increase in opportunistic infections like candidiasis. Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC is the second most common cause of vaginal discharge next to Chlamydia.1 VVC is the leading cause of abnormal vaginal discharge due to microbial causes. Untreated VVC is a possible risk factor for acquisition of HIV.2 Prevention of sexually transmitted infections (STIs including VVC can reduce the transmission of HIV since STIs and HIV have the common mode of transmission and one enhances the risk of infection with the other. Early diagnosis and treatment of candidiasis can reduce the pregnancy related morbidity

  14. A Novel Partial Discharge Ultra-High Frequency Signal De-Noising Method Based on a Single-Channel Blind Source Separation Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangliang Wei

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available To effectively de-noise the Gaussian white noise and periodic narrow-band interference in the background noise of partial discharge ultra-high frequency (PD UHF signals in field tests, a novel de-noising method, based on a single-channel blind source separation algorithm, is proposed. Compared with traditional methods, the proposed method can effectively de-noise the noise interference, and the distortion of the de-noising PD signal is smaller. Firstly, the PD UHF signal is time-frequency analyzed by S-transform to obtain the number of source signals. Then, the single-channel detected PD signal is converted into multi-channel signals by singular value decomposition (SVD, and background noise is separated from multi-channel PD UHF signals by the joint approximate diagonalization of eigen-matrix method. At last, the source PD signal is estimated and recovered by the l1-norm minimization method. The proposed de-noising method was applied on the simulation test and field test detected signals, and the de-noising performance of the different methods was compared. The simulation and field test results demonstrate the effectiveness and correctness of the proposed method.

  15. Partial discharge characteristics of polymer nanocomposite materials in electrical insulation: a review of sample preparation techniques, analysis methods, potential applications, and future trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzati, Wan Akmal; Arief, Yanuar Z; Adzis, Zuraimy; Shafanizam, Mohd

    2014-01-01

    Polymer nanocomposites have recently been attracting attention among researchers in electrical insulating applications from energy storage to power delivery. However, partial discharge has always been a predecessor to major faults and problems in this field. In addition, there is a lot more to explore, as neither the partial discharge characteristic in nanocomposites nor their electrical properties are clearly understood. By adding a small amount of weight percentage (wt%) of nanofillers, the physical, mechanical, and electrical properties of polymers can be greatly enhanced. For instance, nanofillers in nanocomposites such as silica (SiO2), alumina (Al2O3) and titania (TiO2) play a big role in providing a good approach to increasing the dielectric breakdown strength and partial discharge resistance of nanocomposites. Such polymer nanocomposites will be reviewed thoroughly in this paper, with the different experimental and analytical techniques used in previous studies. This paper also provides an academic review about partial discharge in polymer nanocomposites used as electrical insulating material from previous research, covering aspects of preparation, characteristics of the nanocomposite based on experimental works, application in power systems, methods and techniques of experiment and analysis, and future trends.

  16. Fundamental aspects of excitation and propagation of on-line partial discharge signals in three-phase medium voltage cable systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wielen, van der P.C.J.M.; Steennis, E.F.; Wouters, P.A.A.F.

    2003-01-01

    On-line partial discharge (PD) detection of three-phase belted medium voltage cable connections results in a number of interpretation differences as compared to off-line measurements where only one phase is energized. The induced currents and charges in the phase conductors and earth screen upon a

  17. UHF Signal Processing and Pattern Recognition of Partial Discharge in Gas-Insulated Switchgear Using Chromatic Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohua; Li, Xi; Rong, Mingzhe; Xie, Dingli; Ding, Dan; Wang, Zhixiang

    2017-01-18

    The ultra-high frequency (UHF) method is widely used in insulation condition assessment. However, UHF signal processing algorithms are complicated and the size of the result is large, which hinders extracting features and recognizing partial discharge (PD) patterns. This article investigated the chromatic methodology that is novel in PD detection. The principle of chromatic methodologies in color science are introduced. The chromatic processing represents UHF signals sparsely. The UHF signals obtained from PD experiments were processed using chromatic methodology and characterized by three parameters in chromatic space ( H , L , and S representing dominant wavelength, signal strength, and saturation, respectively). The features of the UHF signals were studied hierarchically. The results showed that the chromatic parameters were consistent with conventional frequency domain parameters. The global chromatic parameters can be used to distinguish UHF signals acquired by different sensors, and they reveal the propagation properties of the UHF signal in the L-shaped gas-insulated switchgear (GIS). Finally, typical PD defect patterns had been recognized by using novel chromatic parameters in an actual GIS tank and good performance of recognition was achieved.

  18. A Novel High-Performance Beam-Supported Membrane Structure with Enhanced Design Flexibility for Partial Discharge Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenzhao Fu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel beam-supported membrane (BSM structure for the fiber optic extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer (EFPI sensors showing an enhanced performance and an improved resistance to the temperature change was proposed for detecting partial discharges (PDs. The fundamental frequency, sensitivity, linear range, and flatness of the BSM structure were investigated by employing the finite element simulations. Compared with the intact membrane (IM structure commonly used by EFPI sensors, BSM structure provides extra geometrical parameters to define the fundamental frequency when the diameter of the whole membrane and its thickness is determined, resulting in an enhanced design flexibility of the sensor structure. According to the simulation results, it is noted that BSM structure not only shows a much higher sensitivity (increased by almost four times for some cases, and a wider working range of fundamental frequency to choose, but also an improved linear range, making the system development much easier. In addition, BSM structure presents a better flatness than its IM counterpart, providing an increased signal-to-noise ratio (SNR. A further improvement of performance is thought to be possible with a step-forward structural optimization. The BSM structure shows a great potential to design the EFPI sensors, as well as others for detecting the acoustic signals.

  19. Moisture Migration in an Oil-Paper Insulation System in Relation to Online Partial Discharge Monitoring of Power Transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Sikorski

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Most power transformers operating in a power system possess oil-paper insulation. A serious defect of this type of insulation, which is associated with long operation time, is an increase in the moisture content. Moisture introduces a number of threats to proper operation of the transformer, e.g., ignition of partial discharges (PDs. Due to the varying temperature of the insulation system during the unit’s normal operation, a dynamic change (migration of water takes place, precipitating the oil-paper system from a state of hydrodynamic equilibrium. This causes the PDs to be variable in time, and they may intensify or extinguish. Studies on model objects have been conducted to determine the conditions (temperature, humidity, time that will have an impact on the ignition and intensity of the observed phenomenon of PDs. The conclusions of this study will have a practical application in the evaluation of measurements conducted in the field, especially in relation to the registration of an online PD monitoring system.

  20. Fitting and Testing Conditional Multinormal Partial Credit Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessen, David J.

    2012-01-01

    A multinormal partial credit model for factor analysis of polytomously scored items with ordered response categories is derived using an extension of the Dutch Identity (Holland in "Psychometrika" 55:5-18, 1990). In the model, latent variables are assumed to have a multivariate normal distribution conditional on unweighted sums of item…

  1. Electrostatic discharge attenuation test for the characterization of ESD protective materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paasi, Jaakko; Viheriaekoski, Toni; Sutela, Lassi; Tamminen, Pasi K

    2008-01-01

    New experimental method has been developed to evaluate materials, tools, equipment and packaging used in the electronics production environment under Charged Device Model (CDM) type of electrostatic discharge (ESD) transients. The method is intended to characterize the ability of the material or object to attenuate ESD energy and peak discharge current when a charged device is discharged into the material under test. The test is supplementary for the standard quasi-static measurements of ESD control programs in the cases where standard measurements do not give sufficient information due to voltage non-linearity, complexity or shape of the material or object under test.

  2. Criterion for testing multiparticle negative-partial-transpose entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, B.; Zhou, D.L.; Zhang, P.; Xu, Z.; You, L.

    2003-01-01

    We revisit the criterion of multiparticle entanglement based on the overlaps of a given quantum state ρ with maximally entangled states. For a system of m particles, each with N distinct states, we prove that ρ is m-particle negative partial transpose entangled, if there exists a maximally entangled state vertical bar MES>, such that >1/N. While this sufficiency condition is weaker than the Peres-Horodecki criterion in all cases, it applies to multi-particle systems, and becomes especially useful when the number of particles (m) is large. We also consider the converse of this criterion and illustrate its invalidity with counter examples

  3. Lessons learned from implementation of a computerized application for pending tests at hospital discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalal, Anuj K; Poon, Eric G; Karson, Andrew S; Gandhi, Tejal K; Roy, Christopher L

    2011-01-01

    Patients are often discharged from the hospital before test results are finalized. Awareness of these results is poor and therefore an important patient safety concern. Few computerized systems have been deployed at care transitions to address this problem. We describe an attempt to implement a computerized application to help inpatient physicians manage these test results. We modified an ambulatory electronic medical record (EMR)-based results management application to track pending tests at hospital discharge (Hospitalist Results Manager, HRM). We trained inpatient physicians at 2 academic medical centers to track these tests using this application. We surveyed inpatient physicians regarding usage of and satisfaction with the application, barriers to use, and the characteristics of an ideal system to track pending tests at discharge. Of 29 survey respondents, 14 (48%) reported never using HRM, and 13 (45%) used it 1 to 2 times per week. A total of 23 (79%) reported barriers prohibiting use, including being inundated with clinically "irrelevant" results, not having sufficient time, and a lack of integration of post-discharge test result management into usual workflow. Twenty-one (72%) wanted to receive notification of abnormal and clinician-designated pending test results. Twenty-seven physicians (93%) agreed that an ideally designed computerized application would be valuable for managing pending tests at discharge. Although inpatient physicians would highly value a computerized application to manage pending tests at discharge, the characteristics of an ideal system are unclear and there are important barriers prohibiting adoption and optimal usage of such systems. We outline suggestions for future electronic systems to manage pending tests at discharge. Copyright © 2010 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  4. Development and feasibility testing of the Pediatric Emergency Discharge Interaction Coding Scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Janet A; Taylor, Alexandra; Chorney, Jill; Porter, Stephen; Murphy, Andrea; MacPhee, Shannon; Bishop, Andrea; Haworth, Rebecca

    2017-08-01

    Discharge communication is an important aspect of high-quality emergency care. This study addresses the gap in knowledge on how to describe discharge communication in a paediatric emergency department (ED). The objective of this feasibility study was to develop and test a coding scheme to characterize discharge communication between health-care providers (HCPs) and caregivers who visit the ED with their children. The Pediatric Emergency Discharge Interaction Coding Scheme (PEDICS) and coding manual were developed following a review of the literature and an iterative refinement process involving HCP observations, inter-rater assessments and team consensus. The coding scheme was pilot-tested through observations of HCPs across a range of shifts in one urban paediatric ED. Overall, 329 patient observations were carried out across 50 observational shifts. Inter-rater reliability was evaluated in 16% of the observations. The final version of the PEDICS contained 41 communication elements. Kappa scores were greater than .60 for the majority of communication elements. The most frequently observed communication elements were under the Introduction node and the least frequently observed were under the Social Concerns node. HCPs initiated the majority of the communication. Pediatric Emergency Discharge Interaction Coding Scheme addresses an important gap in the discharge communication literature. The tool is useful for mapping patterns of discharge communication between HCPs and caregivers. Results from our pilot test identified deficits in specific areas of discharge communication that could impact adherence to discharge instructions. The PEDICS would benefit from further testing with a different sample of HCPs. © 2017 The Authors. Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Various verifying tests using full size partial models of PCCV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, Kaoru; Fukihara, Masaaki; Takemoto, Yasushi.

    1987-01-01

    The prestressed concrete containment vessel (PCCV) for Tsuruga No.2 plant of Japan Atomic Power Co. was adopted for the first time in Japan, and the necessity of experimental verification was pointed out about a number of items in the design and construction. In this report, the various tests carried out with full size models are described. The tendon system adopted for this PCCV is BBRV type, in which PC wires are bundled in parallel to make cables, and involves many matters inexperienced in Japan, such as the stretching capacity is as large as 1000 t class, the longest cable is 160 m, and it is the unbonded system of injecting rust inhibitor. It was demanded to confirm by testing the propriety of the small coefficient of friction at the time of stretching tendons. For the tests, the materials, equipment and their size were prepared all as those for actual works. The test works became the rehearsal of the actual prestressing works. Besides, by utilizing these full size test beds, the workability test on concrete at the time of their construction, the confirmation test on tendon strength and the safety of concrete at fixing part at the time of friction test, thereafter, greasing test, the simulation test of in-service inspection, and the thermal loading test on liners were carried out. The results of these tests are briefly reported. (Kako, I.)

  6. On the Use of Monopole Antennas for Determining the Effect of the Enclosure of a Power Transformer Tank in Partial Discharges Electromagnetic Propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarracín, Ricardo; Ardila-Rey, Jorge Alfredo; Mas'ud, Abdullahi Abubakar

    2016-01-25

    A well-defined condition-monitoring for power transformers is key to implementing a correct condition-based maintenance (CBM). In this regard, partial discharges (PD) measurement and its analysis allows to carry out on-line maintenance following the standards IEC-60270 and IEC-60076. However, new PD measurements techniques, such as acoustics or electromagnetic (EM) acquisitions using ultra-high-frequency (UHF) sensors are being taken into account, IEC-62478. PD measurements with antennas and the effect of their EM propagation in power transformer tanks is an open research topic that is considered in this paper. In this sense, an empty tank model is studied as a rectangular cavity and their resonances are calculated and compared with their measurement with a network analyser. Besides, two low cost improved monopole antennas deployed inside and outside of the tank model capture background noise and PD pulses in three different test objects (Nomex, twisted pair and insulator). The average spectrum of them are compared and can be found that mainly, the antenna frequency response, the frequency content distribution depending on the PD source and the enclosure resonances modes are the main factors to be considered in PD acquisitions with these sensors. Finally, with this set-up, it is possible to measure PD activity inside the tank from outside.

  7. Influence of N2 partial pressure on structural and microhardness properties of TiN/ZrN multilayers deposited by Ar/N2 vacuum arc discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naddaf, M.; Abdallah, B.; Ahmad, M.; A-Kharroub, M.

    2016-08-01

    The influence of N2 partial pressure on structural, mechanical and wetting properties of multilayered TiN/ZrN thin films deposited on silicon substrates by vacuum arc discharge of (N2 + Ar) gas mixtures is investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results show that the average texturing coefficient of (1 1 1) orientation and the grain size of both TiN and ZrN individual layers increase with increasing the N2 partial pressure. The Rutherford back scattering (RBS) measurements and analysis reveal that incorporation of the nitrogen in the film increases with increasing the N2 partial pressure and both TiN and ZrN individual layers have a nitrogen over-stoichiometry for N2 partial pressure ⩾50%. The change in the film micro-hardness is correlated to the changes in crystallographic texture, grain size, stoichiometry and the residual stress in the film as a function of the N2 partial pressure. In particular, stoichiometry of ZrN and TiN individual is found to play the vital role in determining the multilayer hardness. The multilayer film deposited at N2 partial pressure of 25% has the best stoichiometric ratio of both TiN and ZrN layers and the highest micro-hardness of about 32 GPa. In addition, water contact angle (WCA) measurements and analysis show a decrease in the work of adhesion on increasing the N2 partial pressure.

  8. Influence of N_2 partial pressure on structural and microhardness properties of TiN/ZrN multilayers deposited by Ar/N_2 vacuum arc discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naddaf, M.; Abdallah, B.; Ahmad, M.; A-Kharroub, M.

    2016-01-01

    The influence of N_2 partial pressure on structural, mechanical and wetting properties of multilayered TiN/ZrN thin films deposited on silicon substrates by vacuum arc discharge of (N_2 + Ar) gas mixtures is investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results show that the average texturing coefficient of (1 1 1) orientation and the grain size of both TiN and ZrN individual layers increase with increasing the N_2 partial pressure. The Rutherford back scattering (RBS) measurements and analysis reveal that incorporation of the nitrogen in the film increases with increasing the N_2 partial pressure and both TiN and ZrN individual layers have a nitrogen over-stoichiometry for N_2 partial pressure ⩾50%. The change in the film micro-hardness is correlated to the changes in crystallographic texture, grain size, stoichiometry and the residual stress in the film as a function of the N_2 partial pressure. In particular, stoichiometry of ZrN and TiN individual is found to play the vital role in determining the multilayer hardness. The multilayer film deposited at N_2 partial pressure of 25% has the best stoichiometric ratio of both TiN and ZrN layers and the highest micro-hardness of about 32 GPa. In addition, water contact angle (WCA) measurements and analysis show a decrease in the work of adhesion on increasing the N_2 partial pressure.

  9. Recurrent plot analysis of discharge sequences in tracking test of polybutylene polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, B X; Gu, L; Dong, D S [Key Laboratory of Power System Simulation and Control of Ministry of Education, Department of Electrical Engineering, School of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Zheng, X L [Henan Electric Power Survey and Design Institute, Henan 450007 (China)], E-mail: duboxue@tju.edu.cn

    2008-10-07

    Polymers are required to use in radiation environments as insulation materials. However, they often suffer from tracking failure. There is an increasing demand to evaluate radiation effects on dielectric performance. This paper presents a recurrence plot (RP) approach to analyse surface discharge sequences of gamma-ray irradiated polymer materials based on tracking test. Studying the non-linear characteristics of discharge sequences can assist in understanding the underlying mechanism of the discharge process. Discharge sequences of the test are extended to m-dimensional phase space by using the phase space reconstructed method. As test samples, polybutylene terephthalate (PBT) and polybutylene naphthalate (PBN) were irradiated to 100 kGy and then up to 1 MGy with a dosage rate of 10 kGy h{sup -1} by using a {sup 60}Co gamma source. The tracking tests were carried out according to the test method described in IEC60112. It is found that the RPs can give visual recurrent patterns of discharge sequences for identification of the effects of gamma-ray radiation dosage on the resistance to tracking of the polymers. The detection of recurrent patterns together with comparative tracking index value results indicate that with the increase in the radiation dosage, the resistance to tracking of PBT decreases, but increases for PBN.

  10. Scale testing of a partially confined blast chamber

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grundling, W

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available in pressure readings. A scale model of the blast chamber, Emily, was constructed with the addition of a pendulum plate hanging concentrically covering 65% of the open area. PURPOSE OF SCALED BLAST CHAMBER The purpose of this particular test is to evaluate... PHASE Illustrated in Figure 3 and 4 are the results obtained during testing of the scaled blast chamber. In both cases the pressure dissipates over time, showing pulsating behaviour as the shockwaves reflect off the chamber walls. By looking...

  11. A Systematic Review of Interventions to Follow-Up Test Results Pending at Discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darragh, Patrick J; Bodley, T; Orchanian-Cheff, A; Shojania, K G; Kwan, J L; Cram, P

    2018-05-01

    Patients are frequently discharged from the hospital before all test results have been finalized. Thirty to 40% of tests pending at discharge (TPADs) return potentially actionable results that could necessitate change in the patients' management, often unbeknownst to their physicians. Delayed follow-up of TPADs can lead to patient harm. We sought to synthesize the existing literature on interventions intended to improve the management of TPADs, including interventions designed to enhance documentation of TPADs, increase physician awareness when TPAD results finalize post-discharge, decrease adverse events related to missed TPADs, and increase physician satisfaction with TPAD management. We searched Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Database of Controlled Clinical Trials and Medline (January 1, 2000-November 10, 2016) for randomized controlled trials and prospective, controlled observational studies that evaluated interventions to improve follow-up of TPADs for adult patients discharged from acute care hospitals or emergency department settings. From each study we extracted characteristics of the intervention being evaluated and its impact on TPAD management. Nine studies met the criteria for inclusion. Six studies evaluated electronic discharge summary templates with a designated field for documenting TPADs, and three of six of these studies reported a significant improvement in documentation of TPADs in discharge summaries in pre- and post-intervention analysis. One study reported that auditing discharge summaries and providing feedback to physicians were associated with improved TPAD documentation in discharge summaries. Two studies found that email alerts when TPADs were finalized improved physicians' awareness of the results and documentation of their follow-up actions. Of the four studies that assessed patient morbidity, two showed a positive effect; however, none specifically measured the impact of their interventions

  12. Transport processes in partially saturate concrete: Testing and liquid properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villani, Chiara

    The measurement of transport properties of concrete is considered by many to have the potential to serve as a performance criterion that can be related to concrete durability. However, the sensitivity of transport tests to several parameters combined with the low permeability of concrete complicates the testing. Gas permeability and diffusivity test methods are attractive due to the ease of testing, their non-destructive nature and their potential to correlate to in-field carbonation of reinforced concrete structures. This work was aimed at investigating the potential of existing gas transport tests as a way to reliably quantify transport properties in concrete. In this study gas permeability and diffusivity test methods were analyzed comparing their performance in terms of repeatability and variability. The influence of several parameters was investigated such as moisture content, mixture proportions and gas flow. A closer look to the influence of pressure revealed an anomalous trend of permeability with respect to pressure. An alternative calculation is proposed in an effort to move towards the determination of intrinsic material properties that can serve as an input for service life prediction models. The impact of deicing salts exposure was also analyzed with respect to their alteration of the degree of saturation as this may affect gas transport in cementitious materials. Limited information were previously available on liquid properties over a wide range of concentrations. To overcome this limitation, this study quantified surface tension, viscosity in presence of deicing salts in a broad concentration range and at different temperatures. Existing models were applied to predict the change of fluid properties during drying. Vapor desorption isotherms were obtained to investigate the influence of deicing salts presence on the non-linear moisture diffusion coefficient. Semi-empirical models were used to quantify the initiation and the rate of drying using liquid

  13. A non-parametric test for partial monotonicity in multiple regression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beek, M.; Daniëls, H.A.M.

    Partial positive (negative) monotonicity in a dataset is the property that an increase in an independent variable, ceteris paribus, generates an increase (decrease) in the dependent variable. A test for partial monotonicity in datasets could (1) increase model performance if monotonicity may be

  14. Design, fabrication, and testing of a fast discharge homopolar machine (FDX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gully, J.H.; Driga, M.D.; Grant, B.; Rylander, H.G.; Tolk, K.M.; Weldon, W.F.; Woodson, H.H.

    1977-01-01

    The Fast Discharge Experiment (FDX) is a 0.36 MJ, 200 V homopolar machine designed to discharge in one millisecond. All components, including dual brush actuation systems, a room-temperature 2 x 10 6 A-t pulsed copper coil, two aluminum rotors with copper slip rings, low inductance return conductors, coaxial transmission line, four fast closing (30 μsec), megamp switches, hydrostatic journal bearings, squeeze film thrust bearings and a fiberglass reinforced epoxy structure have been fabricated and assembled. The detail design of machine components is presented. Preliminary testing, including rotor spin-ups, brush actuation, switch making, and pulsed field coil tests have been concluded. A low speed, short-circuit discharge of FDX has recently been conducted. Experimental data from these tests are compared with theoretical predictions

  15. 基于听觉场景分析的局部放电降噪算法研究%A Study of Ambient Noise Cancellation Algorithm of Partial Discharge Using CASA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘闻

    2016-01-01

    In this paper,based on the partial discharge test of the high pressure chamber of the subway,the factory area and other noise environment,the paper proposes a kind of CASA algorithm,which is indepen-dent of the type of noise and the partial discharge noise reduction based on the analysis of the auditory scene.The algorithm uses two channels to col ect the signal energy,the simulation of the test instrument to extract the intensity difference of different channel signals,as a basis to identify the signal and noise.Then,the acoustic masking effect is used to cover the noise,and the enhancement of the partial discharge signal is realized.%该文针对周围为地铁,厂区等噪声环境下的高压室进行超声波局部放电测试,提出一种与噪声的类型无关、基于听觉场景分析的局部放电降噪CASA算法。该算法利用两个通道采集到的信号能量的不同,模拟局放测试仪提取不同信道信号的强度差,以此为依据来辨别信号和噪声。然后利用声学掩蔽效应,对噪声进行掩蔽,实现局部放电信号的增强。

  16. Designing, developing, and testing an app for parents being discharged early postnatally

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danbjørg, Dorthe Boe; Wagner, Lis; Clemensen, Jane

    2014-01-01

    In Denmark and internationally, earlier discharge of postnatal patients presents a challenge to find innovative ways of providing follow-up support to new mothers who may be discharged early. The purpose of this participatory design study is to describe the process of the design, development, and...... testing. •We designed, developed, and testet an app for the iPad.•The app was viable, but the app requires refinements and wider testing.•The app met the new families' needs for follow-up support.•There is a potential for ensuring postnatal security with the use of technology....

  17. Guidelines for confirmatory inplant tests of safety-relief valve discharges for BWR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, T.M.

    1981-05-01

    Inplant tests of safety/relief valve (SRV) discharges may be required to confirm generically established specifications for SRV loads and the maximum suppression pool temperature, and to evaluate possible effects of plant-unique parameters. These tests are required in those plants which have features that differ substantially from those previously tested. Guidelines for formulating appropriate test matrices, establishing test procedures, selecting necessary instrumentation, and reporting the test results are provided in this report. Guidelines to determine if inplant tests are required on the basis of the plant unique parameters are also included in the report

  18. Power source for inactivation of micro-organisms with partial high voltage discharge in a continuous process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creyghton, Y.; Beurskens, R.; Fiala, A.; Haan, S.W.H. de

    2002-01-01

    An electrical discharge technology is investigated as non-thermal method for inactivation of microorganisms. Potential applications include treatment of drinking water (e.g. legionella) and liquid food pasteurization (e.g. fruit juices). A strong interest exists in mild food conservation processes

  19. Validation of mathematical models for predicting the swirling flow and the vortex rope in a Francis turbine operated at partial discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuibin, P.A.; Okulov, Valery; Susan-Resiga, R.F.

    2010-01-01

    recover all this information without actually computing the full three-dimensional unsteady flow in the hydraulic turbine. As a result, we provide valuable mathematical tools for assessing the turbine behaviour at off-design operating regimes in the early stages of runner design, with computational effort......The vortex rope in a hydro turbine draft tube is one the main and strong sources of pulsations in non-optimal modes of hydro turbine operation. We examine the case of a Francis turbine model operated at partial discharge, where a strong precessing vortex rope is developed in the discharge cone...... several orders of magnitude less than the current approaches of simulating the complex turbine flow....

  20. Design and implementation of an automated email notification system for results of tests pending at discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalal, Anuj K; Schnipper, Jeffrey L; Poon, Eric G; Williams, Deborah H; Rossi-Roh, Kathleen; Macleay, Allison; Liang, Catherine L; Nolido, Nyryan; Budris, Jonas; Bates, David W; Roy, Christopher L

    2012-01-01

    Physicians are often unaware of the results of tests pending at discharge (TPADs). The authors designed and implemented an automated system to notify the responsible inpatient physician of the finalized results of TPADs using secure, network email. The system coordinates a series of electronic events triggered by the discharge time stamp and sends an email to the identified discharging attending physician once finalized results are available. A carbon copy is sent to the primary care physicians in order to facilitate communication and the subsequent transfer of responsibility. Logic was incorporated to suppress selected tests and to limit notification volume. The system was activated for patients with TPADs discharged by randomly selected inpatient-attending physicians during a 6-month pilot. They received approximately 1.6 email notifications per discharged patient with TPADs. Eighty-four per cent of inpatient-attending physicians receiving automated email notifications stated that they were satisfied with the system in a brief survey (59% survey response rate). Automated email notification is a useful strategy for managing results of TPADs.

  1. Measuring system of partial discharges with optical links and interphase for PC; Sistema de medicion de descargas parciales con enlaces opticos e interfase para PC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacheco Arteaga, Maria Jojutla Olimpia

    1999-07-01

    In this work a measuring system of partial discharges based on the traditional electrical detection technique is presented, but that unlike the existing systems it uses an optical link of communication. On one hand, the optical fiber avoids that the electromagnetic interference of the area affects the measurement and on the other hand, allows to make measurements online. With a personal computer and an application program the system is controlled, besides storing and displaying graphically the acquired data. As a result of this thesis the developed system obtains the magnitude and the phase of every partial discharge occurred during a time interval fixed or selected by the user, as well as the total number of discharges. In a graphical form it presents the magnitude and the phase of each discharge, in addition to the corresponding histogram of frequencies. [Spanish] En este trabajo se presenta un sistema de medicion de descargas parciales basado en la tecnica de deteccion electrica tradicional, pero que a diferencia de los sistemas existentes utiliza un enlace de comunicacion optico. Por un lado, la fibra optica evita que la interferencia electromagnetica del medio afecte la medicion y por otro, permite hacer mediciones en linea. Con una computadora personal y un programa de aplicacion se controla el sistema, ademas de almacenar y presentar graficamente la informacion adquirida. Como resultado de esta tesis el sistema desarrollado obtiene la magnitud y la fase de cada descarga parcial ocurrida durante un intervalo de tiempo fijo o seleccionado por el usuario, asi como el numero total de descargas. En forma grafica presenta la magnitud y la fase de cada descarga, ademas del histograma de frecuencias correspondiente.

  2. Electrostatic Discharge Test of Multi-Junction Solar Array Coupons After Combined Space Environmental Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Kenneth H.; Schneider, Todd; Vaughn, Jason; Hoang, Bao; Funderburk, Victor V.; Wong, Frankie; Gardiner, George

    2010-01-01

    A set of multi-junction GaAs/Ge solar array test coupons were subjected to a sequence of 5-year increments of combined environmental exposure tests. The test coupons capture an integrated design intended for use in a geosynchronous (GEO) space environment. A key component of this test campaign is conducting electrostatic discharge (ESD) tests in the inverted gradient mode. The protocol of the ESD tests is based on the ISO/CD 11221, the ISO standard for ESD testing on solar array panels. This standard is currently in its final review with expected approval in 2010. The test schematic in the ISO reference has been modified with Space System/Loral designed circuitry to better simulate the on-orbit operational conditions of its solar array design. Part of the modified circuitry is to simulate a solar array panel coverglass flashover discharge. All solar array coupons used in the test campaign consist of 4 cells. The ESD tests are performed at the beginning of life (BOL) and at each 5-year environment exposure point. The environmental exposure sequence consists of UV radiation, electron/proton particle radiation, thermal cycling, and ion thruster plume. This paper discusses the coverglass flashover simulation, ESD test setup, and the importance of the electrical test design in simulating the on-orbit operational conditions. Results from 5th-year testing are compared to the baseline ESD characteristics determined at the BOL condition.

  3. Development and validation of a partial life-cycle test with Potamopyrgus antipodarum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiss, Cornelia; Holbech, Henrik; Kinnberg, Karin Lund

    endpoints. The present study aims to develop and validate the partial life-cycle test on the reproduction of P. antipodarum. Here, results from two pre-validation studies of the reproduction test with the chemicals tributyltin (TBT) with nominal concentrations of 10 - 400 ng TBT-Sn/L and cadmium...

  4. Strategies for Controlling Item Exposure in Computerized Adaptive Testing with the Generalized Partial Credit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Laurie Laughlin

    2004-01-01

    Choosing a strategy for controlling item exposure has become an integral part of test development for computerized adaptive testing (CAT). This study investigated the performance of six procedures for controlling item exposure in a series of simulated CATs under the generalized partial credit model. In addition to a no-exposure control baseline…

  5. Angina - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chest pain - discharge; Stable angina - discharge; Chronic angina - discharge; Variant angina - discharge; Angina pectoris - discharge; Accelerating angina - discharge; New-onset angina - discharge; Angina-unstable - discharge; ...

  6. Post-Test Inspection of NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster Long-Duration Test Hardware: Discharge and Neutralizer Cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shastry, Rohit; Soulas, George C.

    2016-01-01

    The NEXT Long-Duration Test is part of a comprehensive thruster service life assessment intended to demonstrate overall throughput capability, validate service life models, quantify wear rates as a function of time and operating condition, and identify any unknown life-limiting mechanisms. The test was voluntarily terminated in February 2014 after demonstrating 51,184 hours of high-voltage operation, 918 kg of propellant throughput, and 35.5 MN-s of total impulse. The post-test inspection of the thruster hardware began shortly afterwards with a combination of non-destructive and destructive analysis techniques, and is presently nearing completion. This paper presents relevant results of the post-test inspection for both discharge and neutralizer cathodes. Discharge keeper erosion was found to be significantly reduced from what was observed in the NEXT 2 kh wear test and NSTAR Extended Life Test, providing adequate protection of vital cathode components throughout the test with ample lifetime remaining. The area of the discharge cathode orifice plate that was exposed by the keeper orifice exhibited net erosion, leading to cathode plate material building up in the cathode-keeper gap and causing a thermally-induced electrical short observed during the test. Significant erosion of the neutralizer cathode orifice was also found and is believed to be the root cause of an observed loss in flow margin. Deposition within the neutralizer keeper orifice as well as on the downstream surface was thicker than expected, potentially resulting in a facility-induced impact on the measured flow margin from plume mode. Neutralizer keeper wall erosion on the beam side was found to be significantly lower compared to the NEXT 2 kh wear test, likely due to the reduction in beam extraction diameter of the ion optics that resulted in decreased ion impingement. Results from the post-test inspection have led to some minor thruster design improvements.

  7. Preliminary investigation Area 12 fleet operations steam cleaning discharge area Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-07-01

    This report documents the characterization activities and findings of a former steam cleaning discharge area at the Nevada Test Site. The former steam cleaning site is located in Area 12 east of Fleet Operations Building 12-16. The characterization project was completed as a required condition of the ''Temporary Water Pollution Control Permit for the Discharge From Fleet Operations Steam Cleaning Facility'' issued by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection. The project objective was to collect shallow soil samples in eight locations in the former surface discharge area. Based upon field observations, twelve locations were sampled on September 6, 1995 to better define the area of potential impact. Samples were collected from the surface to a depth of approximately 0.3 meters (one foot) below land surface. Discoloration of the surface soil was observed in the area of the discharge pipe and in localized areas in the natural drainage channel. The discoloration appeared to be consistent with the topographically low areas of the site. Hydrocarbon odors were noted in the areas of discoloration only. Samples collected were analyzed for bulk asbestos, Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) metals, total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), semi-volatile organic compounds (Semi-VOCs), and gamma scan

  8. Hairy carbon electrodes studied by cyclic voltammetry and battery discharge testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Deborah D. L.; Shui, Xiaoping; Frysz, Christine A.

    1993-01-01

    Hairy carbon is a new material developed by growing submicron carbon filaments on conventional carbon substrates. Typical substrate materials include carbon black, graphite powder, carbon fibers, and glassy carbon. A catalyst is used to initiate hair growth with carbonaceous gases serving as the carbon source. To study the electrochemical behavior of hairy carbons, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and discharge testing were conducted. In both cases, hairy carbon results surpassed those of the substrate material alone.

  9. Flow to partially penetrating wells in unconfined heterogeneous aquifers: Mean head and interpretation of pumping tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagan, G.; Lessoff, S. C.

    2011-06-01

    A partially penetrating well of length Lw and radius Rw starts to pump at constant discharge Qw at t = 0 from an unconfined aquifer of thickness D. The aquifer is of random and stationary conductivity characterized by KG (geometric mean), σY2 (log conductivity variance), and I and Iv (the horizontal and vertical integral scales). The flow problem is solved under a few simplifying assumptions commonly adopted in the literature for homogeneous media: Rw/Lw ≪ 1, linearization of the free surface condition, and constant drainable porosity n. Additionally, it is assumed that Rw/I well boundary conditions) and that a first-order approximation in σY2 (extended to finite σY2 on a conjectural basis) is adopted. The solution is obtained for the mean head field and the associated water table equation. The main result of the analysis is that the flow domain can be divided into three zones for : (1) the neighborhood of the well R ≪ I, where = (Qw/LwKA)h0(R, z, tKefuv/nD), with h0 being the zero-order solution pertaining to a homogeneous and isotropic aquifer, KA being the conductivity arithmetic mean, and Kefuv being the effective vertical conductivity in mean uniform flow, (2) an exterior zone R ⪆ I in which ?H? = (Qw/LwKefuh)h0(R?, z, tKefuv/nD), with Kefuh being the horizontal effective conductivity, and (3) an intermediate zone in which the solution requires a few numerical quadratures, not carried out here. The application to pumping tests reveals that identification of the aquifer parameters for homogeneous and anisotropic aquifers by commonly used methods can be applied for the drawdown measured in an observation well of length Low?Iv (to ensure exchange of space and ensemble head averages) in the second zone in order to identify Kefuh, Kefuv, and n. In contrast, the use of the drawdown in the well (first zone) leads to an overestimation of Kefuh by the factor KA/Kefuh.

  10. Electrostatic Discharge Testing of Carbon Composite Solar Array Panels for Use in the Jovian Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Nelson W.; Dawson, Stephen F.

    2015-01-01

    NASA is currently considering a mission to investigate the moons of Jupiter. When designing a spacecraft for this type of mission, there are a number of engineering challenges, especially if the mission chooses to utilize solar arrays to provide the spacecraft power. In order for solar arrays to be feasible for the mission, their total mass needed to fit within the total budget for the mission, which strongly suggested the use of carbon composite facesheets on an aluminum core for the panel structure. While these composite structures are a good functional substitution for the metallic materials they replace, they present unique challenges when interacting with the harsh Jovian space environment. As a composite material, they are composed of more than one material and can show different base properties depending in differing conditions. Looking at the electrical properties, in an Earth-based environment the carbon component of the composite dominates the response of the material to external stimulus. Under these conditions, the structures strongly resembles a conductor. In the Jovian environment, with temperatures reaching 50K and under the bombardment from energetic electrons, the non-conducting pre-preg binding materials may come to the forefront and change the perceived response. Before selecting solar arrays as the baseline power source for a mission to Jupiter, the response of the carbon composites to energetic electrons while held at cryogenic temperatures needed to be determined. A series of tests were devised to exam the response of a sample solar array panel composed of an M55J carbon weave layup with an RS-3 pre-preg binder. Test coupons were fabricated and exposed to electrons ranging from 10 keV to 100 keV, at 1 nA/cm2, while being held at cryogenic temperatures. While under electron bombardment, electrical discharges were observed and recorded with the majority of discharges occurring with electron energies of 25 keV. A decrease in temperature to liquid

  11. Sensitivity of SWOT discharge algorithm to measurement errors: Testing on the Sacramento River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Micheal; Andreadis, Konstantinos; Yoon, Yeosang; Rodriguez, Ernesto

    2013-04-01

    Scheduled for launch in 2019, the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission will utilize a Ka-band radar interferometer to measure river heights, widths, and slopes, globally, as well as characterize storage change in lakes and ocean surface dynamics with a spatial resolution ranging from 10 - 70 m, with temporal revisits on the order of a week. A discharge algorithm has been formulated to solve the inverse problem of characterizing river bathymetry and the roughness coefficient from SWOT observations. The algorithm uses a Bayesian Markov Chain estimation approach, treats rivers as sets of interconnected reaches (typically 5 km - 10 km in length), and produces best estimates of river bathymetry, roughness coefficient, and discharge, given SWOT observables. AirSWOT (the airborne version of SWOT) consists of a radar interferometer similar to SWOT, but mounted aboard an aircraft. AirSWOT spatial resolution will range from 1 - 35 m. In early 2013, AirSWOT will perform several flights over the Sacramento River, capturing river height, width, and slope at several different flow conditions. The Sacramento River presents an excellent target given that the river includes some stretches heavily affected by management (diversions, bypasses, etc.). AirSWOT measurements will be used to validate SWOT observation performance, but are also a unique opportunity for testing and demonstrating the capabilities and limitations of the discharge algorithm. This study uses HEC-RAS simulations of the Sacramento River to first, characterize expected discharge algorithm accuracy on the Sacramento River, and second to explore the required AirSWOT measurements needed to perform a successful inverse with the discharge algorithm. We focus on the sensitivity of the algorithm accuracy to the uncertainty in AirSWOT measurements of height, width, and slope.

  12. Effectiveness comparison of partially executed t-way test suite based generated by existing strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Rozmie R.; Ahmad, Mohd Zamri Zahir; Ali, Mohd Shaiful Aziz Rashid; Zakaria, Hasneeza Liza; Rahman, Md. Mostafijur

    2015-05-01

    Consuming 40 to 50 percent of software development cost, software testing is one of the most resource consuming activities in software development lifecycle. To ensure an acceptable level of quality and reliability of a typical software product, it is desirable to test every possible combination of input data under various configurations. Due to combinatorial explosion problem, considering all exhaustive testing is practically impossible. Resource constraints, costing factors as well as strict time-to-market deadlines are amongst the main factors that inhibit such consideration. Earlier work suggests that sampling strategy (i.e. based on t-way parameter interaction or called as t-way testing) can be effective to reduce number of test cases without effecting the fault detection capability. However, for a very large system, even t-way strategy will produce a large test suite that need to be executed. In the end, only part of the planned test suite can be executed in order to meet the aforementioned constraints. Here, there is a need for test engineers to measure the effectiveness of partially executed test suite in order for them to assess the risk they have to take. Motivated by the abovementioned problem, this paper presents the effectiveness comparison of partially executed t-way test suite generated by existing strategies using tuples coverage method. Here, test engineers can predict the effectiveness of the testing process if only part of the original test cases is executed.

  13. Toxicity of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) in zebrafish (Danio rerio) in a partial life-cycle test.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, R V; Brandhof, E J van den; Leonards, P E G; Ven, L T M van der; Wester, P W; Vos, J G

    2006-01-01

    Toxicological effects of the widely used flame retardant, tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) were assessed in a partial life-cycle test with zebrafish (Danio rerio). Exposure of adult fish during 30 days to water-borne TBBPA in nominal concentrations ranging from 0 (control) to 1.5 muM was followed by

  14. Toxicity of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) in zebrafish (Danio rerio) in a partial life-cycle test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, R.V.; Brandhof, Van den E.J.; Leonards, P.E.G.; Ven, van der L.T.M.; Wester, P.W.; Vos, J.G.

    2007-01-01

    Toxicological effects of the widely used flame retardant, tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) were assessed in a partial life-cycle test with zebrafish (Danio rerio). Exposure of adult fish during 30 days to water-borne TBBPA in nominal concentrations ranging from 0 (control) to 1.5 ¿M was followed by

  15. Partial sums of lagged cross-products of AR residuals and a test for white noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Gooijer, J.G.

    2008-01-01

    Partial sums of lagged cross-products of AR residuals are defined. By studying the sample paths of these statistics, changes in residual dependence can be detected that might be missed by statistics using only the total sum of cross-products. Also, a test statistic for white noise is proposed. It is

  16. Interventions to Improve Follow-Up of Laboratory Test Results Pending at Discharge: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Nedra S; Williams, Laurina; Meleth, Sreelatha; Kennedy, Sara; Epner, Paul; Singh, Hardeep; Wooldridge, Kathleene; Dalal, Anuj K; Walz, Stacy E; Lorey, Tom; Graber, Mark L

    2018-02-28

    Failure to follow up test results pending at discharge (TPAD) from hospitals or emergency departments is a major patient safety concern. The purpose of this review is to systematically evaluate the effectiveness of interventions to improve follow-up of laboratory TPAD. We conducted literature searches in PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane, and EMBASE using search terms for relevant health care settings, transition of patient care, laboratory tests, communication, and pending or missed tests. We solicited unpublished studies from the clinical laboratory community and excluded articles that did not address transitions between settings, did not include an intervention, or were not related to laboratory TPAD. We also excluded letters, editorials, commentaries, abstracts, case reports, and case series. Of the 9,592 abstracts retrieved, 8 met the inclusion criteria and reported the successful communication of TPAD. A team member abstracted predetermined data elements from each study, and a senior scientist reviewed the abstraction. Two experienced reviewers independently appraised the quality of each study using published LMBP™ A-6 scoring criteria. We assessed the body of evidence using the A-6 methodology, and the evidence suggested that electronic tools or one-on-one education increased documentation of pending tests in discharge summaries. We also found that automated notifications improved awareness of TPAD. The interventions were supported by suggestive evidence; this type of evidence is below the level of evidence required for LMBP™ recommendations. We encourage additional research into the impact of these interventions on key processes and health outcomes. © 2018 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  17. Analysis of pumping tests of partially penetrating wells in an unconfined aquifer using inverse numerical optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvilshøj, S.; Jensen, K. H.; Barlebo, H. C.; Madsen, B.

    1999-08-01

    Inverse numerical modeling was applied to analyze pumping tests of partially penetrating wells carried out in three wells established in an unconfined aquifer in Vejen, Denmark, where extensive field investigations had previously been carried out, including tracer tests, mini-slug tests, and other hydraulic tests. Drawdown data from multiple piezometers located at various horizontal and vertical distances from the pumping well were included in the optimization. Horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivities, specific storage, and specific yield were estimated, assuming that the aquifer was either a homogeneous system with vertical anisotropy or composed of two or three layers of different hydraulic properties. In two out of three cases, a more accurate interpretation was obtained for a multi-layer model defined on the basis of lithostratigraphic information obtained from geological descriptions of sediment samples, gammalogs, and flow-meter tests. Analysis of the pumping tests resulted in values for horizontal hydraulic conductivities that are in good accordance with those obtained from slug tests and mini-slug tests. Besides the horizontal hydraulic conductivity, it is possible to determine the vertical hydraulic conductivity, specific yield, and specific storage based on a pumping test of a partially penetrating well. The study demonstrates that pumping tests of partially penetrating wells can be analyzed using inverse numerical models. The model used in the study was a finite-element flow model combined with a non-linear regression model. Such a model can accommodate more geological information and complex boundary conditions, and the parameter-estimation procedure can be formalized to obtain optimum estimates of hydraulic parameters and their standard deviations.

  18. End points in discharge cleaning on TFTR (Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, D.; Dylla, H.F.; Bell, M.G.; Blanchard, W.R.; Bush, C.E.; Gettelfinger, G.; Hawryluk, R.J.; Hill, K.W.; Janos, A.C.; Jobes, F.C.

    1989-07-01

    It has been found necessary to perform a series of first-wall conditioning steps prior to successful high power plasma operation in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). This series begins with glow discharge cleaning (GDC) and is followed by pulse discharge cleaning (PDC). During machine conditioning, the production of impurities is monitored by a Residual Gas Analyzer (RGA). PDC is made in two distinct modes: Taylor discharge cleaning (TDC), where the plasma current is kept low (15--50 kA) and of short duration (50 ms) by means of a relatively high prefill pressure and aggressive PDC, where lower prefill pressure and higher toroidal field result in higher current (200--400 kA) limited by disruptions at q(a) /approx/ 3 at /approx/ 250 ms. At a constant repetition rate of 12 discharges/minute, the production rate of H/sub 2/O, CO, or other impurities has been found to be an unreliable measure of progress in cleaning. However, the ability to produce aggressive PDC with substantial limiter heating, but without the production of x-rays from runaway electrons, is an indication that TDC is no longer necessary after /approx/ 10/sup 5/ pulses. During aggressive PDC, the uncooled limiters are heated by the plasma from the bakeout temperature of 150/degree/C to about 250/degree/C over a period of three to eight hours. This limiter heating is important to enhance the rate at which H/sub 2/O is removed from the graphite limiter. 14 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  19. End points in discharge cleaning on TFTR [Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, D.; Dylla, H.F.; Bell, M.G.

    1989-07-01

    It has been found necessary to perform a series of first-wall conditioning steps prior to successful high power plasma operation in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). This series begins with glow discharge cleaning (GDC) and is followed by pulse discharge cleaning (PDC). During machine conditioning, the production of impurities is monitored by a Residual Gas Analyzer (RGA). PDC is made in two distinct modes: Taylor discharge cleaning (TDC), where the plasma current is kept low (15--50 kA) and of short duration (50 ms) by means of a relatively high prefill pressure and aggressive PDC, where lower prefill pressure and higher toroidal field result in higher current (200--400 kA) limited by disruptions at q(a) approx 3 at approx 250 ms. At a constant repetition rate of 12 discharges/minute, the production rate of H 2 O, CO, or other impurities has been found to be an unreliable measure of progress in cleaning. However, the ability to produce aggressive PDC with substantial limiter heating, but without the production of x-rays from runaway electrons, is an indication that TDC is no longer necessary after approx 10 5 pulses. During aggressive PDC, the uncooled limiters are heated by the plasma from the bakeout temperature of 150 degree C to about 250 degree C over a period of three to eight hours. This limiter heating is important to enhance the rate at which H 2 O is removed from the graphite limiter. 14 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  20. Estimating Full IM240 Emissions from Partial Test Results: Evidence from Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Amy W; Harrington, Winston; McConnell, Virginia

    1999-10-01

    The expense and inconvenience of enhanced-vehicle-emissions testing using the full 240-second dynamometer test has led states to search for ways to shorten the test process. In fact, all states that currently use the IM240 allow some type of fast-pass, usually as early in the test as second 31, and Arizona has allowed vehicles to fast-fail after second 93. While these shorter tests save states millions of dollars in inspection lanes and driver costs, there is a loss of information since test results are no longer comparable across vehicles. This paper presents a methodology for estimating full 240-second results from partial-test results for three pollutants: HC, CO, and NO x . If states can convert all tests to consistent IM240 readings, they will be able to better characterize fleet emissions and to evaluate the impact of inspection and maintenance and other programs on emissions over time. Using a random sample of vehicles in Arizona which received full 240-second tests, we use regression analysis to estimate the relationship between emissions at second 240 and emissions at earlier seconds in the test. We examine the influence of other variables such as age, model-year group, and the pollution level itself on this relationship. We also use the estimated coefficients in several applications. First, we try to shed light on the frequent assertion that the results of the dynamometer test provide guidance for vehicle repair of failing vehicles. Using a probit analysis, we find that the probability that a failing vehicle will pass the test on the first retest is greater the longer the test has progressed. Second, we test the accuracy of our estimates for forecasting fleet emissions from partial-test emissions results in Arizona. We find forecasted fleet average emissions to be very close to the actual fleet averages for light-duty vehicles, but not quite as good for trucks, particularly when NO x emissions are forecast.

  1. Partial hydatidiform mole with false-negative urine human chorionic gonadatropin test in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundangepfupfu, Tichaendepi; Waseem, Muhammad

    2014-03-01

    Hydatidiform mole (molar pregnancy) is a benign tumor of placental trophoblastic cells, which release human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). Several case reports have described complete hydatidiform moles with false-negative urine qualitative hCG tests. These negative pregnancy tests have been attributed to the hook effect. We report an unusual presentation of a partial mole and review an alternative explanation for the negative hCG test. As partial moles are usually not associated with a large proliferation of trophoblastic cells, levels of hCG are commonly negative and serum quantitative hCG was 1,094,950 mIU/mL. Pelvic ultrasonography showed a uterine cavity containing a soft-tissue mass with multiple cystic lesions and the hydatidiform mole was extracted with suction curettage. Tissue pathology confirmed partial hydatidiform mole. In addition to the hook effect, we present another possible explanation for the false-negative test; namely the inability of some assays to detect hCG-degradation products, which may be higher in clinical samples from patients with hydatidiform mole. This case underscores the importance of knowing the limitations of the commonly used hCG assays. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Model test on partial expansion in stratified subsidence during foundation pit dewatering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianxiu; Deng, Yansheng; Ma, Ruiqiang; Liu, Xiaotian; Guo, Qingfeng; Liu, Shaoli; Shao, Yule; Wu, Linbo; Zhou, Jie; Yang, Tianliang; Wang, Hanmei; Huang, Xinlei

    2018-02-01

    Partial expansion was observed in stratified subsidence during foundation pit dewatering. However, the phenomenon was suspected to be an error because the compression of layers is known to occur when subsidence occurs. A slice of the subsidence cone induced by drawdown was selected as the prototype. Model tests were performed to investigate the phenomenon. The underlying confined aquifer was generated as a movable rigid plate with a hinge at one end. The overlying layers were simulated with remolded materials collected from a construction site. Model tests performed under the conceptual model indicated that partial expansion occurred in stratified settlements under coordination deformation and consolidation conditions. During foundation pit dewatering, rapid drawdown resulted in rapid subsidence in the dewatered confined aquifer. The rapidly subsiding confined aquifer top was the bottom deformation boundary of the overlying layers. Non-coordination deformation was observed at the top and bottom of the subsiding overlying layers. The subsidence of overlying layers was larger at the bottom than at the top. The layers expanded and became thicker. The phenomenon was verified using numerical simulation method based on finite difference method. Compared with numerical simulation results, the boundary effect of the physical tests was obvious in the observation point close to the movable endpoint. The tensile stress of the overlying soil layers induced by the underlying settlement of dewatered confined aquifer contributed to the expansion phenomenon. The partial expansion of overlying soil layers was defined as inversed rebound. The inversed rebound was induced by inversed coordination deformation. Compression was induced by the consolidation in the overlying soil layers because of drainage. Partial expansion occurred when the expansion exceeded the compression. Considering the inversed rebound, traditional layer-wise summation method for calculating subsidence should be

  3. Partial scram incident in FBTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usha, S.; Pillai, C.P.; Muralikrishna, G.

    1989-01-01

    Evaluation of a partial scram incident occurred at the Fast Breeder Test Reactor at Kalpakkam was carried out. Based on the observations of the experiments it was ascertained that the nonpersistant order was due to superimposed noise component on the channel that was close to the threshold and had resulted in intermittent supply to electro-magnetic (EM) coils. Owing to a larger discharge time and a smaller charge time, the EM coils got progressively discharged. It was confirmed that during the incident, partial scram took place since the charging and discharging patterns of the EM coils are dissimilar and EM coils of rods A, E and F had discharged faster than others for noise component of a particular duty cycle. However, nonlatching of scram order was because of the fact that noise pulse duration was less than latching time. (author)

  4. Life time test of a partial model of HTGR helium-helium heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitagawa, Masaki; Hattori, Hiroshi; Ohtomo, Akira; Teramae, Tetsuo; Hamanaka, Junichi; Itoh, Mitsuyoshi; Urabe, Shigemi

    1984-01-01

    Authors had proposed a design guide for the HTGR components and applied it to the design and construction of the 1.5 Mwt helium heat exchanger test loop for the nuclear steel making under the financial support of the Japanese Ministry of International Trade and Industry. In order to assure that the design method covers all the conceivable failure mode and has enough safety margin, a series of life time tests of partial model may be needed. For this project, three types of model tests were performed. A life time test of a partial model of the center manifold pipe and eight heat exchanger tubes were described in this report. A damage criterion with a set of material constants and a simplified method for stress-strain analysis for stub tube under three dimensional load were newly developed and used to predict the lives of each tube. The predicted lives were compared with the experimental lives and good agreement was found between the two. The life time test model was evaluated according to the proposed design guide and it was found that the guide has a safety factor of approximately 200 in life for this particular model. (author)

  5. Detection of improvement in the masticatory function from old to new removable partial dentures using mixing ability test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, A; Fueki, K; Ohyama, T

    2005-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the sensitivity of the Mixing Ability Test to detect improvement of masticatory function in subjects on transition from old to new removable partial dentures. Thirty-two subjects (seven males, 25 females, mean age 65.0 years) with distal extension partially edentulous area in mandible and/or maxilla participated in the study. The following reasons were presented for replacing the old removable partial dentures with new ones: fracture and/or poor fitness of retainers, extraction of abutment teeth, poor fitness of denture base, severe wear of artificial teeth and request for metal base dentures. Masticatory function with old and new removable partial dentures after an adaptation period (mean 27.4 weeks) was evaluated by the Mixing Ability Test. Subjects were asked to masticate five two-coloured wax cubes with each removable partial denture. Mixing Ability Index was obtained from the colour mixture and shape of the masticated cubes. Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to test the difference of Mixing Ability Indexes between old and new removable partial dentures. The mixing ability indexes with new removable partial dentures (mean+/- s.d.: 0.70+/- 0.68) was significantly higher (Premovable partial dentures (-0.11+/-1.13). The results suggest that the Mixing Ability Test was capable of detecting improvement in masticatory function with new removable partial dentures.

  6. Analysis of the Sensitivity of K-Type Molecular Sieve-Deposited MWNTs for the Detection of SF₆ Decomposition Gases under Partial Discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoxing; Li, Xin; Luo, Chenchen; Dong, Xingchen; Zhou, Lei

    2015-11-11

    Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) is widely utilized in gas-insulated switchgear (GIS). However, part of SF6 decomposes into different components under partial discharge (PD) conditions. Previous research has shown that the gas responses of intrinsic and 4 Å-type molecular sieve-deposited multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) to SOF2 and SO2F2, two important decomposition components of SF6, are not obvious. In this study, a K-type molecular sieve-deposited MWNTs sensor was developed. Its gas response characteristics and the influence of the mixture ratios of gases on the gas-sensing properties were studied. The results showed that, for sensors with gas mixture ratios of 5:1, 10:1, and 20:1, the resistance change rate increased by nearly 13.0% after SOF2 adsorption, almost 10 times that of MWNTs sensors, while the sensors' resistance change rate with a mixture ratio of 10:1 reached 17.3% after SO2F2 adsorption, nearly nine times that of intrinsic MWNT sensors. Besides, a good linear relationship was observed between concentration of decomposition components and the resistance change rate of sensors.

  7. Analysis of the Sensitivity of K-Type Molecular Sieve-Deposited MWNTs for the Detection of SF6 Decomposition Gases under Partial Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoxing; Li, Xin; Luo, Chenchen; Dong, Xingchen; Zhou, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) is widely utilized in gas-insulated switchgear (GIS). However, part of SF6 decomposes into different components under partial discharge (PD) conditions. Previous research has shown that the gas responses of intrinsic and 4 Å-type molecular sieve-deposited multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) to SOF2 and SO2F2, two important decomposition components of SF6, are not obvious. In this study, a K-type molecular sieve-deposited MWNTs sensor was developed. Its gas response characteristics and the influence of the mixture ratios of gases on the gas-sensing properties were studied. The results showed that, for sensors with gas mixture ratios of 5:1, 10:1, and 20:1, the resistance change rate increased by nearly 13.0% after SOF2 adsorption, almost 10 times that of MWNTs sensors, while the sensors’ resistance change rate with a mixture ratio of 10:1 reached 17.3% after SO2F2 adsorption, nearly nine times that of intrinsic MWNT sensors. Besides, a good linear relationship was observed between concentration of decomposition components and the resistance change rate of sensors. PMID:26569245

  8. Efficient method for location and detection of partial discharge in transformer oil by DOA estimation of circular array of ultrasonic sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanakumar, N.; Sathiyasekar, K.

    2018-01-01

    The electrical insulation failures in oil transformers are mainly occurs due to the inappropriate placing of Partial Discharge (PD) sources. In order to eliminate the insulation defects and also to locate the PD sources in an appropriate location, a new approach called circular array of ultrasonic sensors (CAUS) with various analysis is proposed. At first de-noise the PD signal from the CAUS using the fast independent component analysis (Fast ICA) algorithm. Secondly, the wide band signal from CAUS is converted into narrow band signal by using the total least square algorithm (TLS). Third, parse representation of array covariance vector (SRACV) technique is utilized to separate DOA (Direction of Arrival) in three directions from PD to CAUS. Finally, the PD sources are placed in an appropriate location by using the pitch and azimuth angles of those three DOAs and the exact coordination of three planes are calculated by using the particle swarm optimization algorithm. The simulation result demonstrates the effectiveness of proposed approach in terms of PD location in transformer oil.

  9. Analysis of the Sensitivity of K-Type Molecular Sieve-Deposited MWNTs for the Detection of SF6 Decomposition Gases under Partial Discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxing Zhang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6 is widely utilized in gas-insulated switchgear (GIS. However, part of SF6 decomposes into different components under partial discharge (PD conditions. Previous research has shown that the gas responses of intrinsic and 4 Å-type molecular sieve-deposited multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs to SOF2 and SO2F2, two important decomposition components of SF6, are not obvious. In this study, a K-type molecular sieve-deposited MWNTs sensor was developed. Its gas response characteristics and the influence of the mixture ratios of gases on the gas-sensing properties were studied. The results showed that, for sensors with gas mixture ratios of 5:1, 10:1, and 20:1, the resistance change rate increased by nearly 13.0% after SOF2 adsorption, almost 10 times that of MWNTs sensors, while the sensors’ resistance change rate with a mixture ratio of 10:1 reached 17.3% after SO2F2 adsorption, nearly nine times that of intrinsic MWNT sensors. Besides, a good linear relationship was observed between concentration of decomposition components and the resistance change rate of sensors.

  10. Online partial discharges localization system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primo Alberto Calva Chavarria

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presentan el diseño y construcción de un sistema no invasivo de localización de descargas parciales (PD's en línea; el cual consiste básicamente de cuatro antenas iguales tipo discono con un ancho de banda de 30 MHz a 1.2 GHZ y una frecuencia central de 615 MHz, conectada a un registrador digital de alta velocidad y cuatro canales; las señales electromagnéticas obtenidas se procesan en una computadora portátil empleando la Transformada Wavelet y la Transformada Rápida de Fourier (FFT para la discriminación del ruido electromagnético y la identificación de la fuente de origen de las descargas parciales (DPs respectivamente, adicionalmente se emplea un método esférico de localización espacial en R3. Se reportan mediciones obtenidas en un laboratorio de alta tensión y en campo.

  11. Developing and testing an intervention to prevent homelessness among individuals discharged from psychiatric wards to shelters and 'No Fixed Address'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forchuk, C; MacClure, S K; Van Beers, M; Smith, C; Csiernik, R; Hoch, J; Jensen, E

    2008-09-01

    Shelter data in a recent study revealed discharges from psychiatric facilities to shelters or the street occurred at least 194 times in 2002 in London, Ontario, Canada. This problem must be addressed to reduce the disastrous effects of such discharge, including re-hospitalization and prolonged homelessness. An intervention was developed and tested to prevent homelessness associated with discharge directly to no fixed address. A total of 14 participants at-risk of being discharged without housing were enrolled, with half randomized into the intervention group. The intervention group was provided with immediate assistance in accessing housing and assistance in paying their first and last month's rent. The control group received usual care. Data was collected from participants prior to discharge, at 31 and 6-months post-discharge. All the individuals in the intervention group maintained housing after 3 and 6 months. All but one individual in the control group remained homeless after 3 and 6 months. The exception joined the sex trade to avoid homelessness. The results of this pilot were so dramatic that randomizing to the control group was discontinued. Discussions are underway to routinely implement the intervention. Systemic improvements can prevent homelessness for individuals being discharged from psychiatric wards.

  12. Filtering a statistically exactly solvable test model for turbulent tracers from partial observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gershgorin, B.; Majda, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    A statistically exactly solvable model for passive tracers is introduced as a test model for the authors' Nonlinear Extended Kalman Filter (NEKF) as well as other filtering algorithms. The model involves a Gaussian velocity field and a passive tracer governed by the advection-diffusion equation with an imposed mean gradient. The model has direct relevance to engineering problems such as the spread of pollutants in the air or contaminants in the water as well as climate change problems concerning the transport of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide with strongly intermittent probability distributions consistent with the actual observations of the atmosphere. One of the attractive properties of the model is the existence of the exact statistical solution. In particular, this unique feature of the model provides an opportunity to design and test fast and efficient algorithms for real-time data assimilation based on rigorous mathematical theory for a turbulence model problem with many active spatiotemporal scales. Here, we extensively study the performance of the NEKF which uses the exact first and second order nonlinear statistics without any approximations due to linearization. The role of partial and sparse observations, the frequency of observations and the observation noise strength in recovering the true signal, its spectrum, and fat tail probability distribution are the central issues discussed here. The results of our study provide useful guidelines for filtering realistic turbulent systems with passive tracers through partial observations.

  13. Analysis of pumping tests: Significance of well diameter, partial penetration, and noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, M.; Ghiassi, K.; Mehnert, E.

    1999-01-01

    The nonlinear least squares (NLS) method was applied to pumping and recovery aquifer test data in confined and unconfined aquifers with finite diameter and partially penetrating pumping wells, and with partially penetrating piezometers or observation wells. It was demonstrated that noiseless and moderately noisy drawdown data from observation points located less than two saturated thicknesses of the aquifer from the pumping well produced an exact or acceptable set of parameters when the diameter of the pumping well was included in the analysis. The accuracy of the estimated parameters, particularly that of specific storage, decreased with increases in the noise level in the observed drawdown data. With consideration of the well radii, the noiseless drawdown data from the pumping well in an unconfined aquifer produced good estimates of horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivities and specific yield, but the estimated specific storage was unacceptable. When noisy data from the pumping well were used, an acceptable set of parameters was not obtained. Further experiments with noisy drawdown data in an unconfined aquifer revealed that when the well diameter was included in the analysis, hydraulic conductivity, specific yield and vertical hydraulic conductivity may be estimated rather effectively from piezometers located over a range of distances from the pumping well. Estimation of specific storage became less reliable for piezemeters located at distances greater than the initial saturated thickness of the aquifer. Application of the NLS to field pumping and recovery data from a confined aquifer showed that the estimated parameters from the two tests were in good agreement only when the well diameter was included in the analysis. Without consideration of well radii, the estimated values of hydraulic conductivity from the pumping and recovery tests were off by a factor of four.The nonlinear least squares method was applied to pumping and recovery aquifer test data in

  14. The Impact of Partial Measurement Invariance on Testing Moderation for Single and Multi-Level Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Yu Hsiao

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Moderation effect is a commonly used concept in the field of social and behavioral science. Several studies regarding the implication of moderation effects have been done; however, little is known about how partial measurement invariance influences the properties of tests for moderation effects when categorical moderators were used. Additionally, whether the impact is the same across single and multilevel data is still unknown. Hence, the purpose of the present study is twofold: (a To investigate the performance of the moderation test in single-level studies when measurement invariance does not hold; (b To examine whether unique features of multilevel data, such as intraclass correlation (ICC and number of clusters, influence the effect of measurement non-invariance on the performance of tests for moderation. Simulation results indicated that falsely assuming measurement invariance lead to biased estimates, inflated Type I error rates, and more gain or more loss in power (depends on simulation conditions for the test of moderation effects. Such patterns were more salient as sample size and the number of non-invariant items increase for both single- and multi-level data. With multilevel data, the cluster size seemed to have a larger impact than the number of clusters when falsely assuming measurement invariance in the moderation estimation. ICC was trivially related to the moderation estimates. Overall, when testing moderation effects with categorical moderators, employing a model that accounts for the measurement (noninvariance structure of the predictor and/or the outcome is recommended.

  15. The Impact of Partial Measurement Invariance on Testing Moderation for Single and Multi-Level Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Yu-Yu; Lai, Mark H C

    2018-01-01

    Moderation effect is a commonly used concept in the field of social and behavioral science. Several studies regarding the implication of moderation effects have been done; however, little is known about how partial measurement invariance influences the properties of tests for moderation effects when categorical moderators were used. Additionally, whether the impact is the same across single and multilevel data is still unknown. Hence, the purpose of the present study is twofold: (a) To investigate the performance of the moderation test in single-level studies when measurement invariance does not hold; (b) To examine whether unique features of multilevel data, such as intraclass correlation (ICC) and number of clusters, influence the effect of measurement non-invariance on the performance of tests for moderation. Simulation results indicated that falsely assuming measurement invariance lead to biased estimates, inflated Type I error rates, and more gain or more loss in power (depends on simulation conditions) for the test of moderation effects. Such patterns were more salient as sample size and the number of non-invariant items increase for both single- and multi-level data. With multilevel data, the cluster size seemed to have a larger impact than the number of clusters when falsely assuming measurement invariance in the moderation estimation. ICC was trivially related to the moderation estimates. Overall, when testing moderation effects with categorical moderators, employing a model that accounts for the measurement (non)invariance structure of the predictor and/or the outcome is recommended.

  16. Modelling the cooling and partial dismantling of the Febex in-situ test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, M.; Gens, A.; Guimaraes, L.

    2010-01-01

    predictions from analysis. The operation related to the partial dismantling included the demolition of the concrete plug and the removal of the sections of the barrier corresponding to 'Heater 1'. The objective was to carry out the partial dismantling causing minimum disturbance to the sections of test corresponding to the second heater, which remained in operation at all times. A new concrete plug was constructed immediately after excavation. A detailed description of the work performed during the partial dismantling of the in-situ test can be found in Huertas et al. (2006). This contribution focuses on the modelling of the cooling and partly dismantling of the FEBEX in-situ experiment. The finite element computer program CODE-BRIGHT has been used for the numerical analysis. CODE-BRIGHT is a program developed to handle coupled Thermo-Hydro- Mechanical and Geochemical problems in geological media. It has been observed a very good performance of the model to reproduce the evolution of the main THM variables of the tests, during the cooling of the Heater No.1, concrete demolition and excavation of the clay barrier. It is worth mentioning that these are a kind of 'blind model predictions', as the constitutive laws and model parameters adopted at the beginning of the heating were used in this analysis. (authors)

  17. Experimental test of the viscous anisotropy hypothesis for partially molten rocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Chao; Kohlstedt, David L; Katz, Richard F; Takei, Yasuko

    2015-10-13

    Chemical differentiation of rocky planets occurs by melt segregation away from the region of melting. The mechanics of this process, however, are complex and incompletely understood. In partially molten rocks undergoing shear deformation, melt pockets between grains align coherently in the stress field; it has been hypothesized that this anisotropy in microstructure creates an anisotropy in the viscosity of the aggregate. With the inclusion of anisotropic viscosity, continuum, two-phase-flow models reproduce the emergence and angle of melt-enriched bands that form in laboratory experiments. In the same theoretical context, these models also predict sample-scale melt migration due to a gradient in shear stress. Under torsional deformation, melt is expected to segregate radially inward. Here we present torsional deformation experiments on partially molten rocks that test this prediction. Microstructural analyses of the distribution of melt and solid reveal a radial gradient in melt fraction, with more melt toward the center of the cylinder. The extent of this radial melt segregation grows with progressive strain, consistent with theory. The agreement between theoretical prediction and experimental observation provides a validation of this theory.

  18. Partial F-tests with multiply imputed data in the linear regression framework via coefficient of determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaurasia, Ashok; Harel, Ofer

    2015-02-10

    Tests for regression coefficients such as global, local, and partial F-tests are common in applied research. In the framework of multiple imputation, there are several papers addressing tests for regression coefficients. However, for simultaneous hypothesis testing, the existing methods are computationally intensive because they involve calculation with vectors and (inversion of) matrices. In this paper, we propose a simple method based on the scalar entity, coefficient of determination, to perform (global, local, and partial) F-tests with multiply imputed data. The proposed method is evaluated using simulated data and applied to suicide prevention data. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Integration Testing of a Modular Discharge Supply for NASA's High Voltage Hall Accelerator Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinero, Luis R.; Kamhawi, hani; Drummond, Geoff

    2010-01-01

    NASA s In-Space Propulsion Technology Program is developing a high performance Hall thruster that can fulfill the needs of future Discovery-class missions. The result of this effort is the High Voltage Hall Accelerator thruster that can operate over a power range from 0.3 to 3.5 kW and a specific impulse from 1,000 to 2,800 sec, and process 300 kg of xenon propellant. Simultaneously, a 4.0 kW discharge power supply comprised of two parallel modules was developed. These power modules use an innovative three-phase resonant topology that can efficiently supply full power to the thruster at an output voltage range of 200 to 700 V at an input voltage range of 80 to 160 V. Efficiencies as high as 95.9 percent were measured during an integration test with the NASA103M.XL thruster. The accuracy of the master/slave current sharing circuit and various thruster ignition techniques were evaluated.

  20. SUPERCRITICAL WATER PARTIAL OXIDATION PHASE I - PILOT-SCALE TESTING / FEASIBILITY STUDIES FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SPRITZER,M; HONG,G

    2005-01-01

    Under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC36-00GO10529 for the Department of Energy, General Atomics (GA) is developing Supercritical Water Partial Oxidation (SWPO) as a means of producing hydrogen from low-grade biomass and other waste feeds. The Phase I Pilot-scale Testing/Feasibility Studies have been successfully completed and the results of that effort are described in this report. The Key potential advantages of the SWPO process is the use of partial oxidation in-situ to rapidly heat the gasification medium, resulting in less char formation and improved hydrogen yield. Another major advantage is that the high-pressure, high-density aqueous environment is ideal for reaching and gasifying organics of all types. The high water content of the medium encourages formation of hydrogen and hydrogen-rich products and is especially compatible with high water content feeds such as biomass materials. The high water content of the medium is also effective for gasification of hydrogen-poor materials such as coal. A versatile pilot plant for exploring gasification in supercritical water has been established at GA's facilities in San Diego. The Phase I testing of the SWPO process with wood and ethanol mixtures demonstrated gasification efficiencies of about 90%, comparable to those found in prior laboratory-scale SCW gasification work carreid out at the University of Hawaii at Manoa (UHM) as well as other biomass gasification experience with conventional gasifiers. As in the prior work at UHM, a significant amount of the hydrogen found in the gas phase products is derived from the water/steam matrix. The studies at UHM utilized an indirectly heated gasifier with an acitvated carbon catalyst. In contrast, the GA studies utilized a directly heated gasifier without catalyst, plus a surrogate waste fuel. Attainment of comparable gasification efficiencies without catalysis is an important advancement for the GA process, and opens the way for efficient hydrogen production from low

  1. Treatment of discharge water from hydrostatic testing of natural gas pipelines. Volume 4. Topical report, January 1989-June 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallon, J.T.; Lee-Ryan, P.B.; Volpi, K.A.; Fillo, J.P.

    1992-06-01

    The report presents results developed from bench- and full-scale treatment testing conducted on discharge water from hydrostatic testing of natural gas pipelines. Bench-scale testing examined sedimentation with and without chemical coagulants for reducing iron and total suspended solids, aeration for removal of volatile organics, and activated carbon adsorption for removal of organic constituents. Treatment results are provided for a full-scale treatment process, which utilized a hay bale structure and adsorbent booms for removing suspended solids and oil from the discharge water. Detailed characterization results are presented for test water collected before and after treatment. Results developed from an economic analysis of other potential treatment/disposal alternatives are also presented. A total of eight approaches that may be applied for managing constituents present in hydrostatic test waters are examined. The report is Volume 4 of a five-volume report series

  2. Estimation of AUC or Partial AUC under Test-Result-Dependent Sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaofei; Ma, Junling; George, Stephen; Zhou, Haibo

    2012-01-01

    The area under the ROC curve (AUC) and partial area under the ROC curve (pAUC) are summary measures used to assess the accuracy of a biomarker in discriminating true disease status. The standard sampling approach used in biomarker validation studies is often inefficient and costly, especially when ascertaining the true disease status is costly and invasive. To improve efficiency and reduce the cost of biomarker validation studies, we consider a test-result-dependent sampling (TDS) scheme, in which subject selection for determining the disease state is dependent on the result of a biomarker assay. We first estimate the test-result distribution using data arising from the TDS design. With the estimated empirical test-result distribution, we propose consistent nonparametric estimators for AUC and pAUC and establish the asymptotic properties of the proposed estimators. Simulation studies show that the proposed estimators have good finite sample properties and that the TDS design yields more efficient AUC and pAUC estimates than a simple random sampling (SRS) design. A data example based on an ongoing cancer clinical trial is provided to illustrate the TDS design and the proposed estimators. This work can find broad applications in design and analysis of biomarker validation studies.

  3. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 151: Septic Systems and Discharge Area, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2007-01-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 151, Septic Systems and Discharge Area, is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996 (FFACO, 1996). CAU 151 consists of eight Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 2, 12, and 18 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), which is located approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada

  4. BWR recirculation loop discharge line break LOCA tests with break areas of 50 and 100% assuming HPCS failure at ROSA-III test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Mitsuhiro; Tasaka, Kanji; Yonomoto, Taisuke; Anoda, Yoshinari; Kumamaru, Hiroshige; Nakamura, Hideo; Murata, Hideo; Shiba, Masayoshi; Iriko, Masanori.

    1985-03-01

    This report presents the experimental results of RUN 962 and RUN 963 in ROSA-III program, which are 50 and 100 % break LOCA tests at the BWR recirculation pump discharge line, respectively. The ROSA-III test facility simulates a volumetrically scaled (1/424) BWR system and has four half-length electrically heated fuel bundles, two active recirculation loops, three types of ECCSs and steam and feedwater systems. The experimental data of RUN 962 and RUN 963 were compared with those of RUN 961, a 200 % discharge line break test to study the break area effects on the transient thermal hydraulic phenomena. The least flow areas at the jet pump drive nozzles and recirculation pump discharge nozzle in the broken recirculation loop limitted the discharge flows from the pressure vessel and the depressurization rate in the 100 and 200 % break tests, whereas the least flow area at break nozzle limitted the depressurization rate in the 50 % break test. The highest PCT was observed in the 50 % break test among the three tests. (author)

  5. Gamma-Ray Emission Tomography: Modeling and Evaluation of Partial-Defect Testing Capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsson Svard, S.; Jansson, P.; Davour, A.; Grape, S.; White, T.A.; Smith, L.E.; Deshmukh, N.; Wittman, R.S.; Mozin, V.; Trellue, H.

    2015-01-01

    Gamma emission tomography (GET) for spent nuclear fuel verification is the subject for IAEA MSP project JNT1955. In line with IAEA Safeguards R&D plan 2012-2023, the aim of this effort is to ''develop more sensitive and less intrusive alternatives to existing NDA instruments to perform partial defect test on spent fuel assembly prior to transfer to difficult to access storage''. The current viability study constitutes the first phase of three, with evaluation and decision points between each phase. Two verification objectives have been identified; (1) counting of fuel pins in tomographic images without any a priori knowledge of the fuel assembly under study, and (2) quantitative measurements of pinby- pin properties, e.g., burnup, for the detection of anomalies and/or verification of operator-declared data. Previous measurements performed in Sweden and Finland have proven GET highly promising for detecting removed or substituted fuel rods in BWR and VVER-440 fuel assemblies even down to the individual fuel rod level. The current project adds to previous experiences by pursuing a quantitative assessment of the capabilities of GET for partial defect detection, across a broad range of potential IAEA applications, fuel types and fuel parameters. A modelling and performance-evaluation framework has been developed to provide quantitative GET performance predictions, incorporating burn-up and cooling-time calculations, Monte Carlo radiation-transport and detector-response modelling, GET instrument definitions (existing and notional) and tomographic reconstruction algorithms, which use recorded gamma-ray intensities to produce images of the fuel's internal source distribution or conclusive rod-by-rod data. The framework also comprises image-processing algorithms and performance metrics that recognize the inherent tradeoff between the probability of detecting missing pins and the false-alarm rate. Here, the modelling and analysis framework is

  6. Effect of inflow discharges on the development of matric suction and volumetric water content for dike during overtopping tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Marwan A.; Ismail, Mohd A. M.

    2017-10-01

    The point of this review is to depict the impact of various inflow discharge rate releases on the instruments of matric suction and volumetric water content during an experimental test of spatial overtopping failure at school of civil engineering in universiti Sains of Malaysia. A dry sand dike was conducted inside small flume channel with twelve sensors of tensiometer and Time-Domain Reflectometer (TDR). Instruments are installed in the soil at different locations in downstream and upstream slopes of the dike for measuring the response of matric suction and volumetric water content, respectively. Two values of inflow discharge rates of 30 and 40 L/min are utilized as a part of these experiments to simulate the effectiveness of water reservoirs in erosion mechanism. The outcomes demonstrate that the matric suction and volumetric water content are decreased and increased, respectively for both inflow discharges. The higher inflow discharges accelerate the saturation of dike soil and the erosion process faster than that for the lower inflow discharges.

  7. Structural and numerical chromosome aberration inducers in liver micronucleus test in rats with partial hepatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Satoru; Hattori, Chiharu; Nagata, Mayumi; Sanbuissho, Atsushi

    2012-08-30

    The liver micronucleus test is an important method to detect pro-mutagens such as active metabolites not reaching bone marrow due to their short lifespan. We have already reported that dosing of the test compound after partial hepatectomy (PH) is essential to detect genotoxicity of numerical chromosome aberration inducers in mice [Mutat. Res. 632 (2007) 89-98]. In naive animals, the proportion of binucleated cells in rats is less than half of that in mice, which suggests a species difference in the response to chromosome aberration inducers. In the present study, we investigated the responses to structural and numerical chromosome aberration inducers in the rat liver micronucleus test. Two structural chromosome aberretion inducers (diethylnitrosamine and 1,2-dimethylhydrazine) and two numerical chromosome aberration inducers (colchicine and carbendazim) were used in the present study. PH was performed a day before or after the dosing of the test compound in 8-week old male F344 rats and hepatocytes were isolated 4 days after the PH. As a result, diethylnitrosamine and 1,2-dimethylhydrazine, structural chromosome aberration inducers, exhibited significant increase in the incidence of micronucleated hepatocyte (MNH) when given either before and after PH. Colchicine and carbendazim, numerical chromosome aberration inducers, did not result in any toxicologically significant increase in MNH frequency when given before PH, while they exhibited MNH induction when given after PH. It is confirmed that dosing after PH is essential in order to detect genotoxicity of numerical chromosome aberration inducers in rats as well as in mice. Regarding the species difference, a different temporal response to colchicine was identified. Colchicine increased the incidence of MNH 4 days after PH in rats, although such induction in mice was observed 8-10 days after PH. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 151: Septic Systems and Discharge Area, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 151 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as Septic Systems and Discharge Area. CAU 151 consists of the following eight Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Areas 2, 12, and 18 of the Nevada Test Site, approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada: (1) CAS 02-05-01, UE-2ce Pond; (2) CAS 12-03-01, Sewage Lagoons (6); (3) CAS 12-04-01, Septic Tanks; (4) CAS 12-04-02, Septic Tanks; (5) CAS 12-04-03, Septic Tank; (6) CAS 12-47-01, Wastewater Pond; (7) CAS 18-03-01, Sewage Lagoon; and (8) CAS 18-99-09, Sewer Line (Exposed). CAU 151 closure activities were conducted according to the FFACO (FFACO, 1996; as amended February 2008) and the Corrective Action Plan for CAU 151 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, 2007) from October 2007 to January 2008. The corrective action alternatives included no further action, clean closure, and closure in place with administrative controls. CAU 151 closure activities are summarized in Table 1. Closure activities generated liquid remediation waste, sanitary waste, hydrocarbon waste, and mixed waste. Waste generated was appropriately managed and disposed. Waste that is currently staged onsite is being appropriately managed and will be disposed under approved waste profiles in permitted landfills. Waste minimization activities included waste characterization sampling and segregation of waste streams. Some waste exceeded land disposal restriction limits and required offsite treatment prior to disposal. Other waste meeting land disposal restrictions was disposed of in appropriate onsite or offsite landfills. Waste disposition documentation is included as Appendix C

  9. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 516: Septic Systems and Discharge Points, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2007-01-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 516 is located in Areas 3, 6, and 22 of the Nevada Test Site. CAU 516 is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order of 1996 as Septic Systems and Discharge Points, and is comprised of six Corrective Action Sites (CASs): (sm b ullet) CAS 03-59-01, Bldg 3C-36 Septic System (sm b ullet) CAS 03-59-02, Bldg 3C-45 Septic System (sm b ullet) CAS 06-51-01, Sump and Piping (sm b ullet) CAS 06-51-02, Clay Pipe and Debris (sm b ullet) CAS 06-51-03, Clean Out Box and Piping (sm b ullet) CAS 22-19-04, Vehicle Decontamination Area The Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved corrective action alternative for CASs 06-51-02 and 22-19-04 is no further action. The NDEP-approved corrective action alternative for CASs 03-59-01, 03-59-02, 06-51-01, and 06-51-03 is clean closure. Closure activities included removing and disposing of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH)-impacted septic tank contents, septic tanks, distribution/clean out boxes, and piping. CAU 516 was closed in accordance with the NDEP-approved CAU 516 Corrective Action Plan (CAP). The closure activities specified in the CAP were based on the recommendations presented in the CAU 516 Corrective Action Decision Document (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, 2004). This Closure Report documents CAU 516 closure activities. During closure activities, approximately 186 tons of hydrocarbon waste in the form of TPH-impacted soil and debris, as well as 89 tons of construction debris, were generated and managed and disposed of appropriately. Waste minimization techniques, such as field screening of soil samples and the utilization of laboratory analysis to characterize and classify waste streams, were employed during the performance of closure work

  10. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 151: Septic Systems and Discharge Area, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2008-04-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 151 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as Septic Systems and Discharge Area. CAU 151 consists of the following eight Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Areas 2, 12, and 18 of the Nevada Test Site, approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada: (1) CAS 02-05-01, UE-2ce Pond; (2) CAS 12-03-01, Sewage Lagoons (6); (3) CAS 12-04-01, Septic Tanks; (4) CAS 12-04-02, Septic Tanks; (5) CAS 12-04-03, Septic Tank; (6) CAS 12-47-01, Wastewater Pond; (7) CAS 18-03-01, Sewage Lagoon; and (8) CAS 18-99-09, Sewer Line (Exposed). CAU 151 closure activities were conducted according to the FFACO (FFACO, 1996; as amended February 2008) and the Corrective Action Plan for CAU 151 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, 2007) from October 2007 to January 2008. The corrective action alternatives included no further action, clean closure, and closure in place with administrative controls. CAU 151 closure activities are summarized in Table 1. Closure activities generated liquid remediation waste, sanitary waste, hydrocarbon waste, and mixed waste. Waste generated was appropriately managed and disposed. Waste that is currently staged onsite is being appropriately managed and will be disposed under approved waste profiles in permitted landfills. Waste minimization activities included waste characterization sampling and segregation of waste streams. Some waste exceeded land disposal restriction limits and required offsite treatment prior to disposal. Other waste meeting land disposal restrictions was disposed of in appropriate onsite or offsite landfills. Waste disposition documentation is included as Appendix C.

  11. Design and testing of 45 kV, 50 kHz pulse power supply for dielectric barrier discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Surender Kumar; Shyam, Anurag

    2016-10-01

    The design, construction, and testing of high frequency, high voltage pulse power supply are reported. The purpose of the power supply is to generate dielectric barrier discharges for industrial applications. The power supply is compact and has the advantage of low cost, over current protection, and convenient control for voltage and frequency selection. The power supply can generate high voltage pulses of up to 45 kV at the repetitive frequency range of 1 kHz-50 kHz with 1.2 kW input power. The output current of the power supply is limited to 500 mA. The pulse rise time and fall time are less than 2 μs and the pulse width is 2 μs. The power supply is short circuit proof and can withstand variable plasma load conditions. The power supply mainly consists of a half bridge series resonant converter to charge an intermediate capacitor, which discharges through a step-up transformer at high frequency to generate high voltage pulses. Semiconductor switches and amorphous cores are used for power modulation at higher frequencies. The power supply is tested with quartz tube dielectric barrier discharge load and worked stably. The design details and the performance of the power supply on no load and dielectric barrier discharge load are presented.

  12. Are white evangelical Protestants lower class? A partial test of church-sect theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwadel, Philip

    2014-07-01

    Testing hypotheses derived from church-sect theory and contemporary research about changes in evangelical Protestants' social status, I use repeated cross-sectional survey data spanning almost four decades to examine changes in the social-class hierarchy of American religious traditions. While there is little change in the social-class position of white evangelical Protestants from the early 1970s to 2010, there is considerable change across birth cohorts. Results from hierarchical age-period-cohort models show: (1) robust, across-cohort declines in social-class differences between white evangelical Protestants and liberal Protestants, affiliates of "other" religions, and the unaffiliated, (2) stability in social-class differences between white evangelical Protestants and moderate, Pentecostal, and nondenominational Protestants, (3) moderate across-cohort growth in social-class differences between white evangelical Protestants and Catholics, and (4) these patterns vary across indicators of social class. The findings in this article provide partial support for church-sect theory as well as other theories of social change that emphasize the pivotal role of generations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Internal Structure and Partial Invariance across Gender in the Spanish Version of the Reasoning Test Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elosua, Paula; Mujika, Josu

    2015-10-13

    The Reasoning Test Battery (BPR) is an instrument built on theories of the hierarchical organization of cognitive abilities and therefore consists of different tasks related with abstract, numerical, verbal, practical, spatial and mechanical reasoning. It was originally created in Belgium and later adapted to Portuguese. There are three forms of the battery consisting of different items and scales which cover an age range from 9 to 22. This paper focuses on the adaptation of the BPR to Spanish, and analyzes different aspects of its internal structure: (a) exploratory item factor analysis was applied to assess the presence of a dominant factor for each partial scale; (b) the general underlined model was evaluated through confirmatory factor analysis, and (c) factorial invariance across gender was studied. The sample consisted of 2624 Spanish students. The results concluded the presence of a general factor beyond the scales, with equivalent values for men and women, and gender differences in the factorial structure which affect the numerical reasoning, abstract reasoning and mechanical reasoning scales.

  14. Role reversal and problem solving in international negotiations: the Partial Nuclear Test Ban case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, T.D.

    1978-01-01

    To facilitate finding bargaining space and to reinforce cooperative potential, a number of analysts have promoted the use of role reversal and problem solving. Role reversal involves restating the positions of one's adversary to demonstrate understanding and to develop empathy, while problem solving involves searching for alternatives that promote joint interests. The case of the negotiations in the Eighteen Nation Disarmament Conference from 1962--1963 leading to the Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty provided the context for examining bargaining relationships involving role reversal and problem solving. Interactions among the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union, as recorded in transcripts of 112 sessions, were coded using Bargaining Process Analysis II, a content analysis instrument used to classify negotiation behaviors. Role reversal was measured by the frequency of paraphrases of the adversary's positions. Problem solving was measured by the frequency of themes promoting the exploration of alternatives and the search for mutually beneficial outcomes. The findings on the use of paraphrasing suggest that it can be used to restrict exploration as well as to promote it. The exploratory focus of problem solving was somewhat limited by its use in association with demands, suggesting that problem solving was interpreted as a sign of weakness

  15. Calculation of the energy of explosives with a partial reaction model. Comparison with cylinder test data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchidrian, Jose A.; Lopez, Lina M. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid - E.T.S.I. Minas, Rios Rosas 21, E-28003 Madrid (Spain)

    2006-02-15

    The energy delivered by explosives is described by means of the useful expansion work along the isentrope of the detonation products. A thermodynamic code (W-DETCOM) is used, in which a partial reaction model has been implemented. In this model, the reacted fraction of the explosive in the detonation state is used as a fitting factor so that the calculated detonation velocity meets the experimental value. Calculations based on such a model have been carried out for a number of commercial explosives of ANFO and emulsion types. The BKW (Becker-Kistiakowsky-Wilson) equation of state is used for the detonation gases with the Sandia parameter set (BKWS). The energy delivered in the expansion (useful work) is calculated, and the values obtained are compared with the Gurney energies from cylinder test data at various expansion ratios. The expansion work values obtained are much more realistic than those from an ideal detonation calculation and, in most cases, the values predicted by the calculation are in good agreement with the experimental ones. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  16. Analysis of conditions for magnetron discharge initiation at vacuum camera testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzeneva, Raina; Dineff, Peter; Darjanova, Denitza

    2002-01-01

    Models of electric field distribution for two typical cases of vacuum camera internal pressure control are investigated. New relations between the maximum magnetron discharge current value I max and the maximum electric field strength radial component value E τ max are established. (Author)

  17. 75 FR 35712 - National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES): Use of Sufficiently Sensitive Test...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-23

    ... necessary to meet water quality standards. With respect to the protection of water quality, NPDES permits... protection of human health; for discharges to the Great Lakes Basin, the applicable water quality criteria...: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is proposing minor amendments to its...

  18. The English translation and testing of the Problems After Discharge Questionnaire.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holland, D.E.; Mistiaen, P.; Knafl, G.J.; Bowles, K.H.

    2011-01-01

    The quality of hospital discharge planning assessments determines whether patients receive the health and social services they need or are sent home with unmet needs and without services. There is a valid and reliable Dutch instrument that measures problems and unmet needs patients encounter after

  19. Partial-Discharge Tests of Multiwinding High-Voltage Transformers for Space TWTAs (Traveling-Wave Tube Amplifiers).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-23

    34" .-* .V° --. 𔄁° "’" . y-. " .,- .r- ..-- . ru-. . La.L 4.’. C’... o 0 0 I,-- E - o Q0 Ldhi z0 LA-, =E ;’-’. -0 L.C AA. r- 0"" 7-- ., I-:. ILI.’ I I I

  20. Clinical diagnosis of partial or complete anterior cruciate ligament tears using patients' history elements and physical examination tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Décary, Simon; Fallaha, Michel; Belzile, Sylvain; Martel-Pelletier, Johanne; Pelletier, Jean-Pierre; Feldman, Debbie; Sylvestre, Marie-Pierre; Vendittoli, Pascal-André; Desmeules, François

    2018-01-01

    To assess the diagnostic validity of clusters combining history elements and physical examination tests to diagnose partial or complete anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears. Prospective diagnostic study. Orthopaedic clinics (n = 2), family medicine clinics (n = 2) and community-dwelling. Consecutive patients with a knee complaint (n = 279) and consulting one of the participating orthopaedic surgeons (n = 3) or sport medicine physicians (n = 2). Not applicable. History elements and physical examination tests performed independently were compared to the reference standard: an expert physicians' composite diagnosis including history elements, physical tests and confirmatory magnetic resonance imaging. Penalized logistic regression (LASSO) was used to identify history elements and physical examination tests associated with the diagnosis of ACL tear and recursive partitioning was used to develop diagnostic clusters. Diagnostic accuracy measures including sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp), predictive values and positive and negative likelihood ratios (LR+/-) with associated 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Forty-three individuals received a diagnosis of partial or complete ACL tear (15.4% of total cohort). The Lachman test alone was able to diagnose partial or complete ACL tears (LR+: 38.4; 95%CI: 16.0-92.5). Combining a history of trauma during a pivot with a "popping" sensation also reached a high diagnostic validity for partial or complete tears (LR+: 9.8; 95%CI: 5.6-17.3). Combining a history of trauma during a pivot, immediate effusion after trauma and a positive Lachman test was able to identify individuals with a complete ACL tear (LR+: 17.5; 95%CI: 9.8-31.5). Finally, combining a negative history of pivot or a negative popping sensation during trauma with a negative Lachman or pivot shift test was able to exclude both partial or complete ACL tears (LR-: 0.08; 95%CI: 0.03-0.24). Diagnostic clusters combining history elements and physical

  1. SUPERCRITICAL WATER PARTIAL OXIDATION PHASE I - PILOT-SCALE TESTING/FEASIBILTY SUDIES FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SPRITZER.M; HONG,G

    2005-01-01

    General Atomics (GA) is developing Supercritical Water Partial Oxidation (SWPO) as a means of producing hydrogen from low-grade biomass and other waste feeds. The Phase I Pilot-scale Testing/Feasibility Studies have been successfully completed and the results of that effort are described in this report. The key potential advantage of the SWPO process is the use of partial oxidation in-situ to rapidly heat the gasification medium, resulting in less char formation and improved hydrogen yield. Another major advantage is that the high-pressure, high-density aqueous environment is ideal for reacting and gasifying organics of all types. The high water content of the medium encourages formation of hydrogen and hydrogen-rich products and is especially compatible with high water content feeds such as biomass materials. The high water content of the medium is also effective for gasification of hydrogen-poor materials such as coal. A versatile pilot plant for exploring gasification in supercritical water has been established at GA's facilities in San Diego. The Phase I testing of the SWPO process with wood and ethanol mixtures demonstrated gasification efficiencies of about 90%, comparable to those found in prior laboratory-scale SCW gasification work carried out at the University of Hawaii at Manoa (UHM), as well as other biomass gasification experience with conventional gasifiers. As in the prior work at UHM, a significant amount of the hydrogen found in the gas phase products is derived from the water/steam matrix. The studies at UHM utilized an indirectly heated gasifier with an activated carbon catalyst. In contrast, the GA studies utilized a directly heated gasifier without catalyst, plus a surrogate waste fuel. Attainment of comparable gasification efficiencies without catalysis is an important advancement for the GA process, and opens the way for efficient hydrogen production from low-value, dirty feed materials. The Phase I results indicate that a practical

  2. Influence of N{sub 2} partial pressure on structural and microhardness properties of TiN/ZrN multilayers deposited by Ar/N{sub 2} vacuum arc discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naddaf, M., E-mail: ascientific24@aec.org.sy [Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Atomic Energy Commission of Syria (AECS), P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Abdallah, B. [Department of Physics, Atomic Energy Commission of Syria, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Ahmad, M. [IBA Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Atomic Energy Commission of Syria, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); A-Kharroub, M. [Department of Physics, Atomic Energy Commission of Syria, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)

    2016-08-15

    The influence of N{sub 2} partial pressure on structural, mechanical and wetting properties of multilayered TiN/ZrN thin films deposited on silicon substrates by vacuum arc discharge of (N{sub 2} + Ar) gas mixtures is investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results show that the average texturing coefficient of (1 1 1) orientation and the grain size of both TiN and ZrN individual layers increase with increasing the N{sub 2} partial pressure. The Rutherford back scattering (RBS) measurements and analysis reveal that incorporation of the nitrogen in the film increases with increasing the N{sub 2} partial pressure and both TiN and ZrN individual layers have a nitrogen over-stoichiometry for N{sub 2} partial pressure ⩾50%. The change in the film micro-hardness is correlated to the changes in crystallographic texture, grain size, stoichiometry and the residual stress in the film as a function of the N{sub 2} partial pressure. In particular, stoichiometry of ZrN and TiN individual is found to play the vital role in determining the multilayer hardness. The multilayer film deposited at N{sub 2} partial pressure of 25% has the best stoichiometric ratio of both TiN and ZrN layers and the highest micro-hardness of about 32 GPa. In addition, water contact angle (WCA) measurements and analysis show a decrease in the work of adhesion on increasing the N{sub 2} partial pressure.

  3. Limited diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging and clinical tests for detecting partial-thickness tears of the rotator cuff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmeyer, Matthias; Schmitt, Cornelia; Haupert, Alexander; Kohn, Dieter; Lorbach, Olaf

    2017-12-01

    The reliable diagnosis of partial-thickness tears of the rotator cuff is still elusive in clinical practise. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of MR imaging and clinical tests for detecting partial-thickness tears of the rotator cuff as well as the combination of these parameters. 334 consecutive shoulder arthroscopies for rotator cuff pathologies performed during the time period between 2010 and 2012 were analyzed retrospectively for the findings of common clinical signs for rotator cuff lesions and preoperative MR imaging. These were compared with the intraoperative arthroscopic findings as "gold standard". The reports of the MR imaging were evaluated with regard to the integrity of the rotator cuff. The Ellman Classification was used to define partial-thickness tears of the rotator cuff in accordance with the arthroscopic findings. Descriptive statistics, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value were calculated. MR imaging showed 80 partial-thickness and 70 full-thickness tears of the rotator cuff. The arthroscopic examination confirmed 64 partial-thickness tears of which 52 needed debridement or refixation of the rotator cuff. Sensitivity for MR imaging to identify partial-thickness tears was 51.6%, specificity 77.2%, positive predictive value 41.3% and negative predictive value 83.7%. For the Jobe-test, sensitivity was 64.1%, specificity 43.2%, positive predictive value 25.9% and negative predictive value 79.5%. Sensitivity for the Impingement-sign was 76.7%, specificity 46.6%, positive predictive value 30.8% and negative predictive value 86.5%. For the combination of MR imaging, Jobe-test and Impingement-sign sensitivity was 46.9%, specificity 85.4%, positive predictive value 50% and negative predictive value 83.8%. The diagnostic accuracy of MR imaging and clinical tests (Jobe-test and Impingement-sign) alone is limited for detecting partial-thickness tears of the rotator cuff. Additionally

  4. A Multidimensional Partial Credit Model with Associated Item and Test Statistics: An Application to Mixed-Format Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lihua; Schwarz, Richard D.

    2006-01-01

    Multidimensional item response theory (IRT) models have been proposed for better understanding the dimensional structure of data or to define diagnostic profiles of student learning. A compensatory multidimensional two-parameter partial credit model (M-2PPC) for constructed-response items is presented that is a generalization of those proposed to…

  5. Pancreatitis - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic pancreatitis - discharge; Pancreatitis - chronic - discharge; Pancreatic insufficiency - discharge; Acute pancreatitis - discharge ... You were in the hospital because you have pancreatitis. This is a swelling of the pancreas. You ...

  6. Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD), Area 12 fleet operations steam cleaning discharge area, Nevada Test Site Corrective Action Unit 339

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonn, J.F.

    1996-12-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) incorporates the methodology used for evaluating the remedial alternatives completed for a former steam cleaning discharge area at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The former steam cleaning site is located in Area 12, east of the Fleet Operations Building 12-16. The discharge area has been impacted by Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) F Listed volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and petroleum hydrocarbons waste. Based upon these findings, resulting from Phase 1 and Phase 2 site investigations, corrective action is required at the site. To determine the appropriate corrective action to be proposed, an evaluation of remedial alternatives was completed. The evaluation was completed using a Corrective Measures Study (CMS). Based on the results of the CMS, the favored closure alternative for the site is plugging the effluent discharge line, removing the sandbagged barrier, completing excavation of VOC impacted soils, and fencing the soil area impacted by total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), east of the discharge line and west of the soil berm. Management of the F Listed VOCs are dictated by RCRA. Due to the small volume of impacted soil, excavation and transportation to a Treatment Storage and Disposal Facility (TSDF) is the most practical method of management. It is anticipated that the TPH (as oil) impacted soils will remain in place based upon; the A through K Analysis, concentrations detected (maximum 8,600 milligrams per kilogram), expected natural degradation of the hydrocarbons over time, and the findings of the Phase 2 Investigation that vertical migration has been minimal.

  7. Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD), Area 12 fleet operations steam cleaning discharge area, Nevada Test Site Corrective Action Unit 339

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonn, J.F.

    1996-12-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) incorporates the methodology used for evaluating the remedial alternatives completed for a former steam cleaning discharge area at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The former steam cleaning site is located in Area 12, east of the Fleet Operations Building 12-16. The discharge area has been impacted by Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) F Listed volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and petroleum hydrocarbons waste. Based upon these findings, resulting from Phase 1 and Phase 2 site investigations, corrective action is required at the site. To determine the appropriate corrective action to be proposed, an evaluation of remedial alternatives was completed. The evaluation was completed using a Corrective Measures Study (CMS). Based on the results of the CMS, the favored closure alternative for the site is plugging the effluent discharge line, removing the sandbagged barrier, completing excavation of VOC impacted soils, and fencing the soil area impacted by total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), east of the discharge line and west of the soil berm. Management of the F Listed VOCs are dictated by RCRA. Due to the small volume of impacted soil, excavation and transportation to a Treatment Storage and Disposal Facility (TSDF) is the most practical method of management. It is anticipated that the TPH (as oil) impacted soils will remain in place based upon; the A through K Analysis, concentrations detected (maximum 8,600 milligrams per kilogram), expected natural degradation of the hydrocarbons over time, and the findings of the Phase 2 Investigation that vertical migration has been minimal

  8. Experimental testing of anchoring devices for bottom rails in partially anchored timber frame shear walls

    OpenAIRE

    Caprolu, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    Källsner and Girhammar have presented a new plastic design method of wood-framed shear walls at ultimate limit state. This method allows the designer to calculate the load-carrying capacity of shear walls partially anchored, where the leading stud is not anchored against the uplift.The anchorage system of shear walls is provided from anchor bolts and hold downs. Anchor bolts provide horizontal shear continuity between the bottom rail and the foundation. Hold downs are directly connected from ...

  9. Clinical diagnosis of partial or complete anterior cruciate ligament tears using patients' history elements and physical examination tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallaha, Michel; Belzile, Sylvain; Martel-Pelletier, Johanne; Pelletier, Jean-Pierre; Feldman, Debbie; Sylvestre, Marie-Pierre; Vendittoli, Pascal-André; Desmeules, François

    2018-01-01

    Objective To assess the diagnostic validity of clusters combining history elements and physical examination tests to diagnose partial or complete anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears. Design Prospective diagnostic study. Settings Orthopaedic clinics (n = 2), family medicine clinics (n = 2) and community-dwelling. Participants Consecutive patients with a knee complaint (n = 279) and consulting one of the participating orthopaedic surgeons (n = 3) or sport medicine physicians (n = 2). Interventions Not applicable. Main outcome measures History elements and physical examination tests performed independently were compared to the reference standard: an expert physicians’ composite diagnosis including history elements, physical tests and confirmatory magnetic resonance imaging. Penalized logistic regression (LASSO) was used to identify history elements and physical examination tests associated with the diagnosis of ACL tear and recursive partitioning was used to develop diagnostic clusters. Diagnostic accuracy measures including sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp), predictive values and positive and negative likelihood ratios (LR+/-) with associated 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Results Forty-three individuals received a diagnosis of partial or complete ACL tear (15.4% of total cohort). The Lachman test alone was able to diagnose partial or complete ACL tears (LR+: 38.4; 95%CI: 16.0–92.5). Combining a history of trauma during a pivot with a “popping” sensation also reached a high diagnostic validity for partial or complete tears (LR+: 9.8; 95%CI: 5.6–17.3). Combining a history of trauma during a pivot, immediate effusion after trauma and a positive Lachman test was able to identify individuals with a complete ACL tear (LR+: 17.5; 95%CI: 9.8–31.5). Finally, combining a negative history of pivot or a negative popping sensation during trauma with a negative Lachman or pivot shift test was able to exclude both partial or complete ACL tears (LR

  10. Heart pacemaker - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardiac pacemaker implantation - discharge; Artificial pacemaker - discharge; Permanent pacemaker - discharge; Internal pacemaker - discharge; Cardiac resynchronization therapy - discharge; CRT - discharge; ...

  11. A General Semi-Analytical Solution for Three Types of Well Tests in Confined Aquifers with a Partially Penetrating Well

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaw-Yang Yang Hund-Der Yeh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This note develops a general mathematical model for describing the transient hydraulic head response for constant-head test, constant-flux test, and slug test in a radial confined aquifer system with a partially penetrating well. The Laplace-domain solution for the model is derived by applying the Laplace transform with respect to time and finite Fourier cosine transform with respect to the z-direction. This new solution has been shown to reduce to the constant-head test when discounting the wellbore storage and maintaining a constant well water level. This solution can also be reduced to the constant-flux test solution when discounting the wellbore storage and keeping a constant pumping rate in the well. Moreover, the solution becomes the slug test solution when there is no pumping in the well. This general solution can be used to develop a single computer code to estimate aquifer parameters if coupled with an optimization algorithm or to assess the effect of well partial penetration on hydraulic head distribution for three types of aquifer tests.

  12. Effects of test design and temperature in a partial life-cycle study with the freshwater gastropod Potamopyrgus antipodarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macken, Ailbhe; Le Page, Gareth; Hayfield, Amanda; Williams, Timothy D; Brown, Rebecca J

    2012-09-01

    Potamopyrgus antipodarum is a candidate for a standardized mollusk partial life-cycle study. This is a comparative study of two test designs (microplate and beaker), with additional endpoints to the proposed guideline methods, for example, tracking of continuous reproductive output over 28 d and attributing it to individual female snails. In addition, an investigation of the effects of temperature (16, 20, and 25°C) on reproduction was also conducted employing the microplate design. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  13. Fracture toughness of partially welded joints of SUS316 stainless steel at 4 K by large bend tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, A.; Tobler, R.L.; Tamura, H.; Imagawa, S.; Mito, T.; Yamamoto, J.; Motojima, O.; Takahashi, H.; Suzuki, S.

    1996-01-01

    Austenitic stainless steels in relatively thick sections are specified in support structure designs for huge superconducting magnets in fusion energy machines such as the Large Helical Device (LHD). In the LHD under construction at the National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS) in Japan, partial welding of SUS 316 stainless steel is employed to fabricate the 100-mm thick coil can and coil support structures. Partial welding lowers the heat input and reduces residual deformation after welding. The main disadvantage is that a sizable crack-like defect remains embedded in the unwelded portion of the primary structural component. Here, SUS 316 stainless steel bars were partially welded and tested in 3-point bending to evaluate the effect of natural cracks on fusion zone toughness at 4 K. The specimens had a cross-section 87.5 mm x 175 mm and were fractured in liquid helium using a 10 MN cryogenic mechanical testing machine. In two tests, unstable fracture occurred at maximum load and at critical stress intensity factors K max = 227 and 228 MPa√m. Results indicate a high resistance to fracture initiation but no stable tearing. Therefore, no resistance to crack propagation may exist in a fusion zone at a weld root under cryogenic temperature

  14. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 262: Area 25 Septic Systems and Underground Discharge Point, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K. B. Campbell email = campbek@nv.doe.gov

    2002-01-01

    This Corrective Action Plan (CAP) provides selected corrective action alternatives and proposes the closure methodology for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 262, Area 25 Septic Systems and Underground Discharge Point. CAU 262 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996. Remediation of CAU 262 is required under the FFACO. CAU 262 is located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), approximately 100 kilometers (km) (62 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The nine Corrective Action Sites (CASs) within CAU 262 are located in the Nuclear Rocket Development Station complex. Individual CASs are located in the vicinity of the Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (R-MAD); Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (E-MAD); and Test Cell C compounds. CAU 262 includes the following CASs as provided in the FFACO (1996); CAS 25-02-06, Underground Storage Tank; CAS 25-04-06, Septic Systems A and B; CAS 25-04-07, Septic System; CAS 25-05-03, Leachfield; CAS 25-05-05, Leachfield; CAS 25-05-06, Leachfield; CAS 25-05-08, Radioactive Leachfield; CAS 25-05-12, Leachfield; and CAS 25-51-01, Dry Well. Figures 2, 3, and 4 show the locations of the R-MAD, the E-MAD, and the Test Cell C CASs, respectively. The facilities within CAU 262 supported nuclear rocket reactor engine testing. Activities associated with the program were performed between 1958 and 1973. However, several other projects used the facilities after 1973. A significant quantity of radioactive and sanitary waste was produced during routine operations. Most of the radioactive waste was managed by disposal in the posted leachfields. Sanitary wastes were disposed in sanitary leachfields. Septic tanks, present at sanitary leachfields (i.e., CAS 25-02-06,2504-06 [Septic Systems A and B], 25-04-07, 25-05-05,25-05-12) allowed solids to settle out of suspension prior to entering the leachfield. Posted leachfields do not contain septic tanks. All CASs located in CAU 262 are

  15. Real time flaw detection and characterization in tube through partial least squares and SVR: Application to eddy current testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Shamim; Miorelli, Roberto; Calmon, Pierre; Anselmi, Nicola; Salucci, Marco

    2018-04-01

    This paper describes Learning-By-Examples (LBE) technique for performing quasi real time flaw localization and characterization within a conductive tube based on Eddy Current Testing (ECT) signals. Within the framework of LBE, the combination of full-factorial (i.e., GRID) sampling and Partial Least Squares (PLS) feature extraction (i.e., GRID-PLS) techniques are applied for generating a suitable training set in offine phase. Support Vector Regression (SVR) is utilized for model development and inversion during offine and online phases, respectively. The performance and robustness of the proposed GIRD-PLS/SVR strategy on noisy test set is evaluated and compared with standard GRID/SVR approach.

  16. Examples for simple solutions in using manual ultrasonic testing with partial mechanisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prestel, W.; Meyer, H.J.; Weiss, M.

    1989-01-01

    Fully automatic ultrasonic testing regarding test technique, manipulation and evaluation can only be used economically if one is either testing large number of parts or if manual testing of safety-related components is impossible because of inaccessibility, e.g.: for primary circuit components of nuclear powerstations. The described examples (multi-layer ceramic condensers, turbine rotors, cast steel components, central holes in forged shafts, weld seams and piston bolts) show that by individually designed and, where necessary, computer-aided part-mechanisation, ultrasonic testing is able to combine high probability of finding faults in the interests of the greatest possible operating safety and the requirement for the description or documentation of the fault suitable for the required case with the necessity for economical testing. (orig./MM) [de

  17. Developmental testing of partially volatile neutron shields for high-performance shipping casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, R.B.; Allen, G.C.; Rack, H.J.; Joseph, B.J.; Dupree, S.A.

    1980-01-01

    Results of the phase one tests have demonstrated that the neutron-shielding concept described in this paper is a viable design option for spent fuel shipping casks. The tests have shown that the Boro-silicone 236 shield is superior to the other shield materials considered. Repeated TGA, aging and fire tests demonstrated the reliability of the data. A second phase of the test program is now being pursued where the Boro-silicone 236 is injected into all-steel slab sections, and cured in place. 5 tables

  18. Lithium-ion batteries for hearing aid applications. II. Pulse discharge and safety tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passerini, S.; Coustier, F.; Owens, B. B.

    Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries were designed to meet the power requirements of hearing aid devices (HADs). The batteries were designed in a 312-button cell size, compatible with existing hearing aids. The batteries were tested to evaluate the design and the electrochemical performance, as they relate to a typical hearing aid application. The present report covers the pulse capabilities, cycle life and preliminary safety tests. The results are compared with other battery chemistries: secondary lithium-alloy and nickel-metal hydride batteries and primary Zn-air batteries. The cell AC impedance was stable over the frequency range between 1 and 50 kHz, ranging between 5 Ω at the higher frequency and 12 Ω at the lower extreme. Pulse tests were consistent with these values, as the cells were capable of providing a series of 100 mA pulses of 10-s duration. The safety tests suggest that the design is intrinsically safe with respect to the most common types of abuse conditions.

  19. Nipple Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... any unexpected nipple discharge evaluated by a doctor. Nipple discharge in men under any circumstances could be a problem and needs further evaluation. One or both breasts may produce a nipple discharge, either spontaneously or when you squeeze your ...

  20. Towards evidence-based emergency medicine: Best BETs from the Manchester Royal Infirmary. BET 2: Is there value in testing troponin levels after ICD discharge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Targett, Chris; Harris, Tim

    2014-03-01

    A short cut review was carried out to establish whether testing for troponin levels is useful after discharge of an Implanted Cardioverter-Defibrillator (ICD). Many papers were found using the reported searches, none of which directly addressed the problem but some 13 presented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The author, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes, results and study weaknesses of those best papers are tabulated. It is concluded that the number of ICD discharges must be taken into account when evaluating any troponin level rise. Overall a positive troponin assay post ICD discharge is independently associated with an increased mortality.

  1. A Comparison of Computer-Based Classification Testing Approaches Using Mixed-Format Tests with the Generalized Partial Credit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jiseon

    2010-01-01

    Classification testing has been widely used to make categorical decisions by determining whether an examinee has a certain degree of ability required by established standards. As computer technologies have developed, classification testing has become more computerized. Several approaches have been proposed and investigated in the context of…

  2. Application of the DC potential drop and the partial unloading methods to fracture mechanics tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heerens, J.; Schwalbe, K.H.; Hellmann, D.; Knaack, J.; Mueller-Roos, J.

    1985-01-01

    The ability of the DC potential drop method and the partial unloading technique to measure crack growth and to detect initation of crack growth has been investigated using a number of steels and aluminium alloys. It was found that within the range of parameters investigated both of these methods can be recommended for the determination of the R-curve; however, since at small amounts of crack growth the DC potential drop method gave more consistent results it is therefore considered to be superior. The initation values J(0) of J determined by fractography were compared with J(Ic) as obtained by current practice. It was found that J(Ic) is poorly related to initation or to specific amount of crack growth. A modification of the J(Ic) procedure is proposed. Two contacting arrangements of the DC potential drop method were checked for initation detection: one indicates initation by a potential minimum (related to a J value J(min)), the other by the intersection of the R-curve with the blunting line (related to a J value J(int)). (orig.) [de

  3. Interpretation of Cone Penetration Testing in Silty Soils Conducted under Partially Drained Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmsgaard, Rikke; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2016-01-01

    The standard penetration rate used in cone penetration tests (CPTs) is 20 mm=s, regardless of soil type, which yields fully drained penetration in sand and fully undrained penetration in clay. However, for silty soils that represent an intermediate grain size composition and unique characteristic...

  4. Cognitive Learning Strategy as a Partial Effect on Major Field Test in Business Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, Kenneth David

    2014-01-01

    An experiment was developed to determine if cognitive learning strategies improved standardized university business exam results. Previous studies revealed that factors such as prior ability, age, gender, and culture predicted a student's Major Field Test in Business (MFTB) score better than course content. The experiment control consisted of…

  5. A Partial Test and Development of Delone and Mclean's Model of IS Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Seddon

    1996-11-01

    Full Text Available DeLone and McLean's (1992 comprehensive review of different information system success measures concludes with a model of interrelationships between six IS Success constructs. This paper critically examines the meaning of four of these constructs and the evidence of relationships between them. It then provides results from empirical tests of these relationships. Tests are conducted using both conventional ordinary least squares regression path analysis and structural equation modeling - with substantially similar results. The empirical results provide substantial support for the "up stream" two thirds of DeLone and McLean's model. Three factors. System Quality, Information Quality, and Usefulness, are found to explain 75% of the variance in the overall User Satisfaction measure. The empirical results also provide substantial support for the use of usefulness as an IS success measure, and of the hitherto-unreported importance of "Importance of the task" in user perceptions of IS usefulness.

  6. Experimental test of theory for the stability of partially saturated vertical cut slopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Michael M.; Lu, N.; Wayllace, Alexandra; Godt, Jonathan W.; Take, W.A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper extends Culmann's vertical-cut analysis to unsaturated soils. To test the extended theory, unsaturated sand was compacted to a uniform porosity and moisture content in a laboratory apparatus. A sliding door that extended the height of the free face of the slope was lowered until the vertical cut failed. Digital images of the slope cross section and upper surface were acquired concurrently. A recently developed particle image velocimetry (PIV) tool was used to quantify soil displacement. The PIV analysis showed strain localization at varying distances from the sliding door prior to failure. The areas of localized strain were coincident with the location of the slope crest after failure. Shear-strength and soil-water-characteristic parameters of the sand were independently tested for use in extended analyses of the vertical-cut stability and of the failure plane angle. Experimental failure heights were within 22.3% of the heights predicted using the extended theory.

  7. Probabilistic Requirements (Partial) Verification Methods Best Practices Improvement. Variables Acceptance Sampling Calculators: Empirical Testing. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kenneth L.; White, K. Preston, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center was requested to improve on the Best Practices document produced for the NESC assessment, Verification of Probabilistic Requirements for the Constellation Program, by giving a recommended procedure for using acceptance sampling by variables techniques as an alternative to the potentially resource-intensive acceptance sampling by attributes method given in the document. In this paper, the results of empirical tests intended to assess the accuracy of acceptance sampling plan calculators implemented for six variable distributions are presented.

  8. Impact of an automated email notification system for results of tests pending at discharge: a cluster-randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalal, Anuj K; Roy, Christopher L; Poon, Eric G; Williams, Deborah H; Nolido, Nyryan; Yoon, Cathy; Budris, Jonas; Gandhi, Tejal; Bates, David W; Schnipper, Jeffrey L

    2014-01-01

    Physician awareness of the results of tests pending at discharge (TPADs) is poor. We developed an automated system that notifies responsible physicians of TPAD results via secure, network email. We sought to evaluate the impact of this system on self-reported awareness of TPAD results by responsible physicians, a necessary intermediary step to improve management of TPAD results. We conducted a cluster-randomized controlled trial at a major hospital affiliated with an integrated healthcare delivery network in Boston, Massachusetts. Adult patients with TPADs who were discharged from inpatient general medicine and cardiology services were assigned to the intervention or usual care arm if their inpatient attending physician and primary care physician (PCP) were both randomized to the same study arm. Patients of physicians randomized to discordant study arms were excluded. We surveyed these physicians 72 h after all TPAD results were finalized. The primary outcome was awareness of TPAD results by attending physicians. Secondary outcomes included awareness of TPAD results by PCPs, awareness of actionable TPAD results, and provider satisfaction. We analyzed data on 441 patients. We sent 441 surveys to attending physicians and 353 surveys to PCPs and received 275 and 152 responses from 83 different attending physicians and 112 different PCPs, respectively (attending physician survey response rate of 63%). Intervention attending physicians and PCPs were significantly more aware of TPAD results (76% vs 38%, adjusted/clustered OR 6.30 (95% CI 3.02 to 13.16), pemail notification represents a promising strategy for managing TPAD results, potentially mitigating an unresolved patient safety concern. ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01153451).

  9. An examination of vehicles at the brake-chassis test bed in the range of the partial engine load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł MARZEC

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The performance of a ZI engine is presented in the paper, as well as a project involving a device for applying a partial load in the performed examinations of a brakechassis test bed. The device was prepared for an Opel Astra and enabled the determination of exterior characteristics of the engine for different values of the engine load. The indicating pressure sensor and the angle marker on the crankshaft allowed for the recording of the indicating pressure obtained at different values of the load. The analysis of heat evolution in the process of burning, based on the registered results of the measurements at the brake-chassis test bed, has also been included in the presentation.

  10. The appropriacy of fluency tests in assessing epileptic seizure lateralization in children with partial epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuksanović Jasmina

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluency tests are frequently used in clinical practice to asses executive functions. The literature data are not unequivocal although in a great number of papers is pointed out the importance of the left hemisphere, specially of the left frontal lobes in the mediation of phonological fluency and the right hemisphere in the mediation of nonverbal fluency. This paper considers the suitability of fluency tests for the detection of left versus right seizure laterality. The sample consisted of thirty-two epilepsy patients divided into two groups: LHF-participants with the seizure focus in the left hemisphere (n=16, and DHF-participants with the seizure focus in the right hemisphere (n=16, and K-the control group of t age-matched healthy children (n=50 aged 7-11 years. The qualitative and quantitative comparison of the phonological and nonverbal fluency performance was carried out in consideration of the seizure laterality as well as compared to the healthy controls. The results of phonological fluency performance revealed that the performance of the LHF group was significantly reduced as compared to both DHF and K group. The analysis of nonverbal fluency performance revealed that the performance of the DHF group was significantly reduced as compared to both LHF and K group The qualitative analysis obtained valuable data, which could additionally contribute to the neuropsychological evaluation of the left versus right seizure laterality.

  11. Women's fatalistic suicide in Iran: a partial test of Durkheim in an Islamic Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliverdinia, Akbar; Pridemore, William Alex

    2009-03-01

    Durkheim's theory of fatalistic suicide, or suicide resulting from overregulation of behavior, has been neglected empirically. The authors test this hypothesis in Iran by examining the geographic distribution of female suicide. Employing the province as the unit of analysis, they examine the association between female suicide rates and multiple measures of social control of women, with rates expected to be higher in areas with greater social regulation of the lives of women and stronger traditional tribal cultures. Results show that provinces with lower levels of female education, female labor force participation, and urbanization have higher female suicide rates. Thus, whereas social deregulation is often associated with higher suicide rates in the West, the authors' findings reveal that hyperregulation is associated with higher suicide rates in Iran, at least for women.

  12. [Partial thyroxine binding globulin deficiency in test tube infants: report of cases and literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Y L; Wang, C L; Liang, L

    2016-06-02

    To investigate the clinical characteristics of twins with thyroxine binding globulin (TBG) deficiency and to find SERPINA7 gene mutations. Data(2015) related to clinical characteristics, serum biochemistry, gene mutations and pedigree of two children with TBG deficiency were collected in the First Affiliated Hospital of College of Medicine, Zhejiang University. The related literature was searched form China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Data Knowledge Service Platform, National Center for Biotechnology Information and PubMed (up to December 2015) by using search terms "Thyroxine binding globulin deficiency, gene, mutation" . Both patients were diagnosed as central hypothyroidism at the beginning and treated with L-thyroxine. Both of the identical twins of the triplet were observed for mutation in exon3, c. 631G﹥A(p.A211T), a new mutation had not been reported, but their parents and another non-identical triplet brother were normal. Literature review showed that 23 foreign cases with SERPINA7 gene mutation had been reported, however, no Chinese with SERPINA7 gene mutation had been reported. Among reported cases it was shown that SERPINA7 gene mutations located in exon, intron, promoter and enhancer. Up to now, 49 variants had been identified, 41 of them located in the mutated genes. Including these two cases, patients with thyroxine binding globulin deficiency were characterized by reduced serum TH levels, but normal free TH and TSH and absence of clinical manifestations. The new mutation of SERPINA7 gene c. 631G﹥A(p.A211T)is not transmitted via the known X chromosome linked heredity, and as the cases were test tube triplet infants, it is a de novo mutation. The serum thyroid function tests of TBG deficiency showed decreased TT4, TT3 and normal TSH and TBG deficiency is often misdiagnosed as central hypothyroidism.

  13. Field test facility for monitoring water/radionuclide transport through partially saturated geologic media: design, construction, and preliminary description. Appendix I. Engineering drawings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, S.J.; Campbell, A.C.; Campbell, M.D.; Gee, G.W.; Hoober, H.H.; Schwarzmiller, K.O.

    1979-11-01

    The engineering plans for a test facility to monitor radionuclide transport in water through partially saturated geological media are included. Drawings for the experimental set-up excavation plan and details, lysimeter, pad, access caisson, and caisson details are presented

  14. On-line diagnosis of high power motors based on ultra wide band partial discharge detection; Diagnostico en linea de motores de gran capacidad mediante la deteccion de descargas parciales utilizando tecnicas de banda ultra ancha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvajal M, F. Antonio; Garcia Colon H, Vicente R. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Asiain, Tomas [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Escuela Superior de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    In this work a non-standardized method for on-line diagnostic of high capacity motors based on Ultra Wide Band (UWB) Partial Discharge (PD) measuring techniques is theoretically supported, implemented and applied. The method developed is non invasive and consist in the measurement of PD in the main motor power supply cables and its ground shields connection using a near field sensor (Rogowski coil, clamp-on type) with a bandwidth of 2 to 40 MHz. The measured signals by the sensor, are stretched electronically, digitized and fed to a conventional Partial Discharge digital detector. The UWB PD detection system used displays the output in a Pulse repetition frequency-Charge-Phase angle (N-Q-?) PD pattern. The results obtained in thirteen 2500 H.P., 13.8 kV motors performed during operating in an Oil Pumping facility are presented, including its analysis and comparison with values and PD patterns reported in literature. [Spanish] En este trabajo se presentan los fundamentos teoricos, la implementacion y aplicacion de un metodo no normalizado, para el diagnostico en linea de motores de gran capacidad, basado en la deteccion de Descargas Parciales (DP) utilizando tecnicas de medicion de Banda Ultra Ancha. El metodo desarrollado es no invasivo y consiste en la medicion de las DP en los conductores y conexiones a tierra de la pantalla de los cables principales de suministro de energia al motor, utilizando un sensor de campo cercano (bobina Rogowski, tipo gancho) cuyo ancho de banda de medicion es de 2 a 40 MHz. Las senales medidas por el sensor son electronicamente procesadas para ampliar su duracion, digitalizadas y enviadas a un detector digital de Descargas Parciales convencional. El sistema de deteccion de DP en Banda Ultra Ancha despliega la medicion en un patron de DP tipo frecuencia de repeticion de Pulso-Carga-Angulo de fase (N-Q-?). Se presentan los resultados obtenidos de la evaluacion en linea de trece motores de 2500 C.P. a 13.8 kV, instalados y operando en una

  15. Full-scale testing of leakage of blast waves inside a partially vented room exposed to external air blast loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codina, R.; Ambrosini, D.

    2018-03-01

    For the last few decades, the effects of blast loading on structures have been studied by many researchers around the world. Explosions can be caused by events such as industrial accidents, military conflicts or terrorist attacks. Urban centers have been prone to various threats including car bombs, suicide attacks, and improvised explosive devices. Partially vented constructions subjected to external blast loading represent an important topic in protective engineering. The assessment of blast survivability inside structures and the development of design provisions with respect to internal elements require the study of the propagation and leakage of blast waves inside buildings. In this paper, full-scale tests are performed to study the effects of the leakage of blast waves inside a partially vented room that is subjected to different external blast loadings. The results obtained may be useful for proving the validity of different methods of calculation, both empirical and numerical. Moreover, the experimental results are compared with those computed using the empirical curves of the US Defense report/manual UFC 3-340. Finally, results of the dynamic response of the front masonry wall are presented in terms of accelerations and an iso-damage diagram.

  16. Testing of man-made overland-flow and wetlands systems for the treatment of discharged waters from oil and gas production operations in Wyoming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caswell, P.C.; Gelb, D.; Marinello, S.A.; Emerick, J.C.; Cohen, R.R.H.

    1992-01-01

    The quality of produced and discharged waters is of increasing concern as the overall quality of potable waters within many regions of the country becomes a critical issue. The impact of discharged waters on the downstream water quality, as well as the flora and fauna within a discharge zone, is dependent on the quality of the water ultimately released into the system. In many regions of the country, discharge permits are being re-evaluated and sometimes recalled due to the actual and perceived impact upon surface and subsurface waters, particularly those providing water utilized by the human population. The engineering, design and testing of a system to treat produced waters from oil operations in Wyoming is addressed in this study. This work was designed and performed by students and faculty in the Environmental Science and Engineering and Petroleum Engineering departments at the Colorado School of Mines. The system consists of overland flow units and a constructed wetlands unit. The system units can be independently evaluated. The water is drawn from active settling ponds above the test site. Produced waters are actively being discharged into the drainage basin. Waters flowing through the test units are likewise discharged after treatment. The system has been operational since June, 1991 and monthly sampling and testing will continue through March, 1992. Initial results having been very promising. Aeration, precipitation and bacterial activity in the overland flow and wetland units appears to nearly eliminate the sulfide problem present and significantly reduce the released radium concentration. These are the constituents of major concern although testing for other chemicals of concern, including hydrocarbon content is also analyzed

  17. Closure report for CAU 339: Area 12 Fleet Operations steam-cleaning discharge area, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    This Closure Report (CR) provides documentation of the completed corrective action at the Area 12 Fleet Operations site located in the southeast portion of the Area 12 Camp at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Field work was performed in July 1997 as outlined in the Corrective Action Plan (CAP). The CAP was approved by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) in June 1997. This site is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as Corrective Action Site (CAS) Number 12-19-01 and is the only CAS in Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 339. The former Area 12 Fleet Operations Building 12-16 functioned as a maintenance facility for light- and heavy-duty vehicles from approximately 1965 to January 1993. Services performed at the site included steam-cleaning, tire service, and preventative maintenance on vehicles and equipment. Past activities impacted the former steam-cleaning discharge area with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) as oil

  18. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 262: Area 25 Septic Systems and Underground Discharge Point, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobiason, D. S.

    2003-01-01

    This Closure Report (CR) documents the activities undertaken to close Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 262: Area 25 Septic Systems and Underground Discharge Point, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996. Site closure was performed in accordance with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved Corrective Action Plan (CAP) for CAU 262 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office [NNSA/NV, 2002a]). CAU 262 is located at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) approximately 105 kilometers (65 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAU 262 consists of the following nine Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Area 25 of the NTS: CAS 25-02-06, Underground Storage tank CAS 25-04-06, Septic Systems A and B CAS 25-04-07, Septic System CAS 25-05-03, Leachfield CAS 25-05-05, Leachfield CAS 25-05-06, Leachfield CAS 25-05-08, Radioactive Leachfield CAS 25-05-12, Leachfield CAS 25-51-01, Dry Well

  19. [Skull vibratory test in partial vestibular lesions--influence of the stimulus frequency on the nystagmus direction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, G; Perrin, P; Morel, N; N'Guyen, D Q; Schmerber, S

    2005-01-01

    Results of the skull vibratory test (SVT) in partial unilateral vestibular peripheral lesions (PUVL) are different from the results in total vestibular lesions (TUVL). To reveal a correlation between the results of the analysis of the skull vibratory nystagmus (SVN) horizontal component and the side of the lesion; to correlate these results with the stimulus frequency. To find out a predictive correlation between the SVN horizontal and vertical components and the topography of a vestibular lesion. To appreciate the degree of vestibular deafferentation (extended to high frequencies) provoked by gentamicin labyrinthectomy and its efficiency in Meniere's disease. 53 patients with a SVN and a PUVL were included and compared with 10 TUVL and 10 normal subjects. Protocol included a HST (2 Hz), a SVT at 30, 60 and 100 Hz and a caloric test. Recordings were performed with a 2D and 3D VNG device. In PUVL, SVN at 30, 60 and 100 Hz was obtained in 80, 90 and 90% of cases respectively. SVN is correlated with the side of the lesion at 30, 60 and 100 Hz respectively in 65%, 63%, 80% of cases. SVN is not correlated with the side of the lesion in 20% of Meniere's disease, in 8% of vestibular neuritis and in 6% of vestibular schwannoma. In PUVL HSN is correlated with the side of the lesion in 69% of cases. The direction of the HSN and of the SVN was different in 23% when the nystagmus attended at the same time for both tests. In PUVL the direction of the SVN is different at 100 Hz and 30 Hz in 16% of cases when they are concomittant on the same patient. After Gentamicine labyrinthectomy, the coherence of the results in caloric test, HSN and SVN (areflexy and lesional nystagmus beating toward the safe side) was correlated with the efficiency of the therapy. A SVN vertical component was met in 10% of PUVL (essentially in anterior canal dehiscence and few cases of partial labyrinthitis). The horizontal SVN SPV is significantly slower in PUVL than in TUVL patients (p=0.0004). The SVT

  20. Glow discharge, its sensitivity to infra-red radiation. Observations made during the testing of multiwire proportional chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, J.B.; Souten, K.H.; O'Hagan, B.

    1979-05-01

    It has been shown that under glow discharge conditions, multiwire proportional chambers are sensitive to infra-red radiation. Discharge current measurements and light change measurements have been made and the effect of the input window on the output signal and the importance of the finish of the anode and HT wires have been investigated. From these observations it would appear that a glow discharge in the form detailed in this report is sensitive to infra-red radiation though work is still required to optimise the parameters of such a device for IR detection or solar cell technology. (UK)

  1. Effectiveness of Partition and Graph Theoretic Clustering Algorithms for Multiple Source Partial Discharge Pattern Classification Using Probabilistic Neural Network and Its Adaptive Version: A Critique Based on Experimental Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Venkatesh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Partial discharge (PD is a major cause of failure of power apparatus and hence its measurement and analysis have emerged as a vital field in assessing the condition of the insulation system. Several efforts have been undertaken by researchers to classify PD pulses utilizing artificial intelligence techniques. Recently, the focus has shifted to the identification of multiple sources of PD since it is often encountered in real-time measurements. Studies have indicated that classification of multi-source PD becomes difficult with the degree of overlap and that several techniques such as mixed Weibull functions, neural networks, and wavelet transformation have been attempted with limited success. Since digital PD acquisition systems record data for a substantial period, the database becomes large, posing considerable difficulties during classification. This research work aims firstly at analyzing aspects concerning classification capability during the discrimination of multisource PD patterns. Secondly, it attempts at extending the previous work of the authors in utilizing the novel approach of probabilistic neural network versions for classifying moderate sets of PD sources to that of large sets. The third focus is on comparing the ability of partition-based algorithms, namely, the labelled (learning vector quantization and unlabelled (K-means versions, with that of a novel hypergraph-based clustering method in providing parsimonious sets of centers during classification.

  2. Charging and discharging tests for obtaining an accurate dynamic electro-thermal model of high power lithium-ion pack system for hybrid and EV applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mihet-Popa, Lucian; Camacho, Oscar Mauricio Forero; Nørgård, Per Bromand

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a battery test platform including two Li-ion battery designed for hybrid and EV applications, and charging/discharging tests under different operating conditions carried out for developing an accurate dynamic electro-thermal model of a high power Li-ion battery pack system....... The aim of the tests has been to study the impact of the battery degradation and to find out the dynamic characteristics of the cells including nonlinear open circuit voltage, series resistance and parallel transient circuit at different charge/discharge currents and cell temperature. An equivalent...... circuit model, based on the runtime battery model and the Thevenin circuit model, with parameters obtained from the tests and depending on SOC, current and temperature has been implemented in MATLAB/Simulink and Power Factory. A good alignment between simulations and measurements has been found....

  3. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 516: Septic Systems and Discharge Points, Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2004-04-28

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 516: Septic Systems and Discharge Points, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Areas 3, 6, and 22 on the NTS, CAU 516 includes six Corrective Action Sites (CASs) consisting of two septic systems, a sump and piping, a clean-out box and piping, dry wells, and a vehicle decontamination area. Corrective action investigation activities were performed from July 22 through August 14, 2003, with supplemental sampling conducted in late 2003 and early 2004. The potential exposure pathways for any contaminants of concern (COCs) identified during the development of the DQOs at CAU 516 gave rise to the following objectives: (1) prevent or mitigate exposure to media containing COCs at concentrations exceeding PALs as defined in the corrective action investigation plan; and (2) prevent the spread of COCs beyond each CAS. The following alternatives have been developed for consideration at CAU 516: Alternative 1 - No Further Action; Alternative 2 - Clean Closure; and Alternative 3 - Closure in Place with Administrative Controls. Alternative 1, No Further Action, is the preferred corrective action for two CASs (06-51-02 and 22-19-04). Alternative 2, Clean Closure, is the preferred corrective action for four CASs (03-59-01, 03-59-02, 06-51-01, and 06-51-03). The selected alternatives were judged to meet all requirements for the technical components evaluated, as well as meeting all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the site and will further eliminate the contaminated media at CAU 516.

  4. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Experimental Test Site (Site 300) Salinity Evaluation and Minimization Plan for Cooling Towers and Mechanical Equipment Discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daily III, W D

    2010-02-24

    This document was created to comply with the Central Valley Regional Water Quality Control Board (CVRWQCB) Waste Discharge Requirement (Order No. 98-148). This order established new requirements to assess the effect of and effort required to reduce salts in process water discharged to the subsurface. This includes the review of technical, operational, and management options available to reduce total dissolved solids (TDS) concentrations in cooling tower and mechanical equipment water discharges at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL's) Experimental Test Site (Site 300) facility. It was observed that for the six cooling towers currently in operation, the total volume of groundwater used as make up water is about 27 gallons per minute and the discharge to the subsurface via percolation pits is 13 gallons per minute. The extracted groundwater has a TDS concentration of 700 mg/L. The cooling tower discharge concentrations range from 700 to 1,400 mg/L. There is also a small volume of mechanical equipment effluent being discharged to percolation pits, with a TDS range from 400 to 3,300 mg/L. The cooling towers and mechanical equipment are maintained and operated in a satisfactory manner. No major leaks were identified. Currently, there are no re-use options being employed. Several approaches known to reduce the blow down flow rate and/or TDS concentration being discharged to the percolation pits and septic systems were reviewed for technical feasibility and cost efficiency. These options range from efforts as simple as eliminating leaks to implementing advanced and innovative treatment methods. The various options considered, and their anticipated effect on water consumption, discharge volumes, and reduced concentrations are listed and compared in this report. Based on the assessment, it was recommended that there is enough variability in equipment usage, chemistry, flow rate, and discharge configurations that each discharge location at Site 300

  5. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Experimental Test Site (Site 300) Salinity Evaluation and Minimization Plan for Cooling Towers and Mechanical Equipment Discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daily, W.D. III

    2010-01-01

    This document was created to comply with the Central Valley Regional Water Quality Control Board (CVRWQCB) Waste Discharge Requirement (Order No. 98-148). This order established new requirements to assess the effect of and effort required to reduce salts in process water discharged to the subsurface. This includes the review of technical, operational, and management options available to reduce total dissolved solids (TDS) concentrations in cooling tower and mechanical equipment water discharges at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL's) Experimental Test Site (Site 300) facility. It was observed that for the six cooling towers currently in operation, the total volume of groundwater used as make up water is about 27 gallons per minute and the discharge to the subsurface via percolation pits is 13 gallons per minute. The extracted groundwater has a TDS concentration of 700 mg/L. The cooling tower discharge concentrations range from 700 to 1,400 mg/L. There is also a small volume of mechanical equipment effluent being discharged to percolation pits, with a TDS range from 400 to 3,300 mg/L. The cooling towers and mechanical equipment are maintained and operated in a satisfactory manner. No major leaks were identified. Currently, there are no re-use options being employed. Several approaches known to reduce the blow down flow rate and/or TDS concentration being discharged to the percolation pits and septic systems were reviewed for technical feasibility and cost efficiency. These options range from efforts as simple as eliminating leaks to implementing advanced and innovative treatment methods. The various options considered, and their anticipated effect on water consumption, discharge volumes, and reduced concentrations are listed and compared in this report. Based on the assessment, it was recommended that there is enough variability in equipment usage, chemistry, flow rate, and discharge configurations that each discharge location at Site 300 should be

  6. NIPPLE DISCHARGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Bukharova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the data available in the literature, as high as 50% of women have benign breast tumors frequently accompanied by nip- ple discharge. Nipple discharge may be serous, bloody, purulent, and colostric. The most common causes are breast abscess, injury, drugs, prolactinoma, intraductal pappiloma, ductal ectasia, intraductal cancer (not more than 10%.

  7. Validation of a CFD model simulating charge and discharge of a small heat storage test module based on a sodium acetate water mixture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dannemand, Mark; Fan, Jianhua; Furbo, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical investigations are carried out to study the heating of a 302 x 302 x 55 mm test box of steel containing a sodium acetate water mixture. A thermostatic bath has been set up to control the charging and discharging of the steel box. The charging and discharging has been...... for a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model. The CFD calculated temperatures are compared to measured temperatures internally in the box to validate the CFD model. Four cases are investigated; heating the test module with the sodium acetate water mixture in solid phase from ambient temperature to 52˚C; heating...... the module starting with the salt water mixture in liquid phase from 72˚C to 95˚C; heating up the module from ambient temperature with the salt water mixture in solid phase, going through melting, ending in liquid phase at 78˚C/82˚C; and discharging the test module from liquid phase at 82˚C, going through...

  8. Corrective action plan for CAU Number 339: Area 12 Fleet Operations, Steam Cleaning Discharge Area, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-05-01

    The purpose of this Corrective Action Plan (CAP) is to provide the method for implementing the corrective action alternative as provided in the Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD). Detailed information of the site history and results of previous characterizations can be found in the Work Plan, the Preliminary Investigation Report, and the Phase 2 Characterization Report. Previous characterization investigations were completed as a condition of the Temporary Water Pollution Control Permit issued by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) on July 14, 1992. The scope of this report is to prepare a CAP based upon the selected remedial alternative for closure of the Area 12, Building 12-16 Fleet Operations steam cleaning discharge area. The effluent discharge area has been impacted by volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) as oil. The maximum hydrocarbon and VOC concentrations detected in the Preliminary and Phase 2 Site Characterization Investigations are summarized

  9. Testing a two step Nursing intervention focused on decreasing rehospitalizations and nursing home sdmission post discharge from acute care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosted, Elizabeth Emilie; Poulsen, Ingrid; Hendriksen, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    Older adults are at high risk of readmission on discharge from the Acute Medical and Emergency Department (ED). This study examines the effect of a two-stage nursing assessment and intervention to address older adults' uncompensated problems and thus intend to prevent readmission and functional...... decline. A randomized controlled study was conducted. Included were 271 patients aged 70 and over admitted to an ED. A brief standardized nursing assessment and intervention was carried out after discharge and at follow-up. No effect was found on readmission to hospital, admission to nursing home......, or death but the intervention group was less likely to be at risk of depression after 180 days. Whether this method can be recommended needs further study as well as knowledge is needed as to the organization and to reveal older adults' experiences on follow-up after ED stay....

  10. Experiment data of 200% recirculation pump discharge line break integral test run 961 with HPCS failure at ROSA-III and comparison with results of suction line break tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Mitsuhiro; Tasaka, Kanji; Nakamura, Hideo; Anoda, Yoshinari; Kumamaru, Hiroshige; Murata, Hideo; Yonomoto, Taisuke; Shiba, Masayoshi

    1984-03-01

    This report presents the experimental data of RUN 961, a 200% double-ended break test at the recirculation pump discharge line in the ROSA-III test facility. The ROSA-III test facility is a volumetrically scaled (1/424) system of the BWR/6. The facility has the electrically heated core, the break simulator and the scaled ECCS (Emergency Core Cooling System). The MSIV (Main Steam Isolation Valve) closure and the ECCS actuation were tripped by the liquid level in the upper downcomer. The PCT (Peak Cladding Temperature) was 894 K, which was 107 K higher than a 200% pump suction line break test (RUN 926) due to the smaller depressurization rate. The effect of break location on transient LOCA phenomena was clarified by comparing the discharge and suction break tests. The whole core was quenched 71 s after LPCI actuation and the effectiveness of ECCS has been confirmed. (author)

  11. Validity and sensitivity of a brief psychomotor vigilance test (PVT-B) to total and partial sleep deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basner, Mathias; Mollicone, Daniel; Dinges, David F.

    2011-12-01

    The Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT) objectively assesses fatigue-related changes in alertness associated with sleep loss, extended wakefulness, circadian misalignment, and time on task. The standard 10-min PVT is often considered impractical in applied contexts. To address this limitation, we developed a modified brief 3-min version of the PVT (PVT-B). The PVT-B was validated in controlled laboratory studies with 74 healthy subjects (34 female, aged 22-45 years) that participated either in a total sleep deprivation (TSD) study involving 33 h awake ( N=31 subjects) or in a partial sleep deprivation (PSD) protocol involving 5 consecutive nights of 4 h time in bed ( N=43 subjects). PVT and PVT-B were performed regularly during wakefulness. Effect sizes of 5 key PVT outcomes were larger for TSD than PSD and larger for PVT than for PVT-B for all outcomes. Effect size was largest for response speed (reciprocal response time) for both the PVT-B and the PVT in both TSD and PSD. According to Cohen's criteria, effect sizes for the PVT-B were still large (TSD) or medium to large (PSD, except for fastest 10% RT). Compared to the 70% decrease in test duration the 22.7% (range 6.9-67.8%) average decrease in effect size was deemed an acceptable trade-off between duration and sensitivity. Overall, PVT-B performance had faster response times, more false starts and fewer lapses than PVT performance (all psleep loss between PVT-B and PVT for all outcome variables (all P>0.15) but the fastest 10% response times during PSD ( P<0.001), and effect sizes increased from 1.38 to 1.49 (TSD) and 0.65 to 0.76 (PSD), respectively. In conclusion, PVT-B tracked standard 10-min PVT performance throughout both TSD and PSD, and yielded medium to large effect sizes. PVT-B may be a useful tool for assessing behavioral alertness in settings where the duration of the 10-min PVT is considered impractical, although further validation in applied settings is needed.

  12. Technical note: Intraobserver, interobserver, and test-retest reliabilities of an assessment of vaginal discharge from cows with and without acute puerperal metritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sannmann, I; Heuwieser, W

    2015-08-01

    Acute puerperal metritis (APM) in dairy cows is a common disease occurring in the first 10 d after calving. According to a widely accepted definition, the diagnosis is primarily based on body temperature and sensorial assessment of vaginal discharge. The scope of this study was to evaluate the reliability for color, smell, and viscosity of vaginal discharge from healthy cows and cows with APM. Fifteen investigators evaluated 6 vaginal discharge samples 10 times. Subsequently, the investigators rated the health status of the cows and the diagnostic value of color, smell, and viscosity. In a final questionnaire, the investigators estimated their ability to diagnose APM correctly and the influence of experience. Reliability was tested using Cohen's kappa (κ). Our study revealed slight to moderate reliabilities concerning the assessment of vaginal discharge. Overall interobserver reliability for color, smell, and viscosity was κ=0.15, 0.27, and 0.44, respectively. Overall intraobserver reliability for color, smell, and viscosity was κ=0.35, 0.39, and 0.6, respectively. By means of a questionnaire, overall personal expertise to detect cows suffering from APM correctly as such was estimated to be 59%, whereas the diagnostic value of a combination of color, smell, and viscosity to detect cows with APM correctly was estimated to be 91.1% perfect. We found a discrepancy between reliability and the personal perception of diagnostic value. Our study shows that the sensorial assessment of color, smell, and viscosity of vaginal discharge in cows postpartum is subjective. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A flowing liquid test system for assessing the linearity and time-response of rapid fibre optic oxygen partial pressure sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R; Hahn, C E W; Farmery, A D

    2012-08-15

    The development of a methodology for testing the time response, linearity and performance characteristics of ultra fast fibre optic oxygen sensors in the liquid phase is presented. Two standard medical paediatric oxygenators are arranged to provide two independent extracorporeal circuits. Flow from either circuit can be diverted over the sensor under test by means of a system of rapid cross-over solenoid valves exposing the sensor to an abrupt change in oxygen partial pressure, P O2. The system is also capable of testing the oxygen sensor responses to changes in temperature, carbon dioxide partial pressure P CO2 and pH in situ. Results are presented for a miniature fibre optic oxygen sensor constructed in-house with a response time ≈ 50 ms and a commercial fibre optic sensor (Ocean Optics Foxy), when tested in flowing saline and stored blood. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Ileostomy - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dried fruits (such as raisins), mushrooms, chunky relishes, coconut, and some Chinese vegetables. Tips for when no ... ask your doctor Living with your ileostomy Low-fiber diet Small bowel resection - discharge Total colectomy or ...

  15. Corrective action investigation plan for Corrective Action Unit Number 423: Building 03-60 Underground Discharge Point, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) Number 423, the Building 03-60 Underground Discharge Point (UDP), which is located in Area 3 at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). The TTR, part of the Nellis Air Force Range, is approximately 225 kilometers (140 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAU Number 423 is comprised of only one Corrective Action Site (CAS) which includes the Building 03-60 UDP and an associated discharge line extending from Building 03-60 to a point approximately 73 meters (240 feet) northwest. The UDP was used between approximately 1965 and 1990 to dispose of waste fluids from the Building 03-60 automotive maintenance shop. It is likely that soils surrounding the UDP have been impacted by oil, grease, cleaning supplies and solvents as well as waste motor oil and other automotive fluids released from the UDP

  16. Corrective action investigation plan for Corrective Action Unit Number 423: Building 03-60 Underground Discharge Point, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-27

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) Number 423, the Building 03-60 Underground Discharge Point (UDP), which is located in Area 3 at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). The TTR, part of the Nellis Air Force Range, is approximately 225 kilometers (140 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAU Number 423 is comprised of only one Corrective Action Site (CAS) which includes the Building 03-60 UDP and an associated discharge line extending from Building 03-60 to a point approximately 73 meters (240 feet) northwest. The UDP was used between approximately 1965 and 1990 to dispose of waste fluids from the Building 03-60 automotive maintenance shop. It is likely that soils surrounding the UDP have been impacted by oil, grease, cleaning supplies and solvents as well as waste motor oil and other automotive fluids released from the UDP.

  17. Age estimation of large trees: New method based on partial increment core tested on an example of veteran oaks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Altman, Jan; Doležal, Jiří; Čížek, Lukáš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 380, č. 11 (2016), s. 82-89 ISSN 0378-1127 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-12262S; GA ČR GAP504/12/1952 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : Tree age estimation * Dendrochronology * Partial cores Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.064, year: 2016

  18. The perchlorate discharge test with {sup 123}I for the diagnosis of the Pendred syndrome in children; Der Depletionstest mit {sup 123}Iod zur Diagnose des Pendred-Syndroms bei Kindern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, K.; Fischer, S. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ. Muenchen (Germany)

    2009-03-15

    The method for the diagnosis of the Pendred Syndrome in children by the Perchlorate discharge test using {sup 123}I is described. The older child, who has the Pendred Syndrome and the obligatory hearing deficit, frequently has neither a goitre nor hypothyroidism, but other investigations (bone growth, scars and function tests) can also show changes. However a more certain diagnosis of this disorder in children is possible by the perchlorate discharge test using {sup 123}I. (orig.)

  19. Non-invasive coronary angiography for patients with acute atypical chest pain discharged after negative screening including maximal negative treadmill stress test. A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonello, L; Armero, S; Jacquier, A; Com, O; Sarran, A; Sbragia, P; Panuel, M; Arques, S; Paganelli, F

    2009-05-01

    Among patients admitted in the emergency department for acute atypical chest pain those with an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) who are mistakenly discharged home have high mortality. A recent retrospective study has demonstrated that multislice computed tomography (MSCT) coronary angiography could improve triage of these patients. We aimed to prospectively confirm these data on patients with a negative screening including maximal treadmill stress. 30 patients discharged from the emergency department after negative screening for an ACS were included. All patients underwent MSCT angiography of the coronary artery. Patients with coronary atheroma on MSCT had an invasive coronary angiography to confirm these findings. Seven patients (23%) had obstructive coronary artery disease on MSCT. Invasive coronary angiography (ICA) confirmed the diagnosis in all patients. In patients with no previously known coronary artery disease admitted to the emergency department with atypical acute chest pain and discharged after negative screening, including maximal treadmill stress test, MSCT coronary angiography is useful for the diagnosis of obstructive coronary artery disease.

  20. Advanced practice nurses core competencies: a framework for developing and testing an advanced practice nurse discharge intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Liz; Gemmill, Robin; Grant, Marcia

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to describe evidenced-based interventions as implemented by advanced practice nurses (APNs) conducting intervention research with a vulnerable population of blood and marrow transplant patients. In addition, each of the 6 core competencies of the APN role identified by Hamric are outlined and applied using a patient case study. These competencies are the following: direct clinical practice, expert coaching and advice, consultation, research skills, clinical and professional leadership, collaboration, and ethical decision making. This article chronicles a typical patient's journey through a post-hospital discharge nursing research study involving APNs as "intervention nurses" and discusses the various aspects of the APN core competencies throughout the process.

  1. Discharge Dialogue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsbøl, Anders

    2012-01-01

    For several years, efforts have been made to strengthen collaboration between health professionals with different specializations and to improve patient transition from hospital to home (care). In the Danish health care system, these efforts have concentrated on cancer and heart diseases, whereas...... coordinator, employed at the hospital, is supposed to anticipate discharge and serve as mediator between the hospital and the municipal home care system. Drawing on methods from discourse and interaction analysis, the paper studies the practice of the discharge coordinator in two encounters between patients...... how the home context provides different resources for identification of patient needs and mutual decision making....

  2. Hospitalization for partial nephrectomy was not associated with intrathecal opioid analgesia: Retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingarten, Toby N; Del Mundo, Serena B; Yeoh, Tze Yeng; Scavonetto, Federica; Leibovich, Bradley C; Sprung, Juraj

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this retrospective study is to test the hypothesis that the use of spinal analgesia shortens the length of hospital stay after partial nephrectomy. We reviewed all patients undergoing partial nephrectomy for malignancy through flank incision between January 1, 2008, and June 30, 2011. We excluded patients who underwent tumor thrombectomy, used sustained-release opioids, or had general anesthesia supplemented by epidural analgesia. Patients were grouped into "spinal" (intrathecal opioid injection for postoperative analgesia) versus "general anesthetic" group, and "early" discharge group (within 3 postoperative days) versus "late" group. Association between demographics, patient physical status, anesthetic techniques, and surgical complexity and hospital stay were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression analysis. Of 380 patients, 158 (41.6%) were discharged "early" and 151 (39.7%) were "spinal" cases. Both spinal and early discharge groups had better postoperative pain control and used less postoperative systemic opioids. Spinal analgesia was associated with early hospital discharge, odds ratio 1.52, (95% confidence interval 1.00-2.30), P = 0.05, but in adjusted analysis was no longer associated with early discharge, 1.16 (0.73-1.86), P = 0.52. Early discharge was associated with calendar year, with more recent years being associated with early discharge. Spinal analgesia combined with general anesthesia was associated with improved postoperative pain control during the 1(st) postoperative day, but not with shorter hospital stay following partial nephrectomy. Therefore, unaccounted practice changes that occurred during more recent times affected hospital stay.

  3. The Impact of Automated Notification on Follow-up of Actionable Tests Pending at Discharge: a Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalal, Anuj K; Schaffer, Adam; Gershanik, Esteban F; Papanna, Ranganath; Eibensteiner, Katyuska; Nolido, Nyryan V; Yoon, Cathy S; Williams, Deborah; Lipsitz, Stuart R; Roy, Christopher L; Schnipper, Jeffrey L

    2018-03-12

    Follow-up of tests pending at discharge (TPADs) is poor. We previously demonstrated a twofold increase in awareness of any TPAD by attendings and primary care physicians (PCPs) using an automated email intervention OBJECTIVE: To determine whether automated notification improves documented follow-up for actionable TPADs DESIGN: Cluster-randomized controlled trial SUBJECTS: Attendings and PCPs caring for adult patients discharged from general medicine and cardiology services with at least one actionable TPAD between June 2011 and May 2012 INTERVENTION: An automated system that notifies discharging attendings and network PCPs of finalized TPADs by email MAIN MEASURES: The primary outcome was the proportion of actionable TPADs with documented action determined by independent physician review of the electronic health record (EHR). Secondary outcomes included documented acknowledgment, 30-day readmissions, and adjusted median days to documented follow-up. Of the 3378 TPADs sampled, 253 (7.5%) were determined to be actionable by physician review. Of these, 150 (123 patients discharged by 53 attendings) and 103 (90 patients discharged by 44 attendings) were assigned to intervention and usual care groups, respectively, and underwent chart review. The proportion of actionable TPADs with documented action was 60.7 vs. 56.3% (p = 0.82) in the intervention vs. usual care groups, similar for documented acknowledgment. The proportion of patients with actionable TPADs readmitted within 30 days was 22.8 vs. 31.1% in the intervention vs. usual care groups (p = 0.24). The adjusted median days [95% CI] to documented action was 9 [6.2, 11.8] vs. 14 [10.2, 17.8] (p = 0.04) in the intervention vs. usual care groups, similar for documented acknowledgment. In sub-group analysis, the intervention had greater impact on documented action for patients with network PCPs compared with usual care (70 vs. 50%, p = 0.03). Automated notification of actionable TPADs shortened time to

  4. Test on the splitting failure capacity of the bottom rail due to uplift in partially anchored shear walls

    OpenAIRE

    Caprolu, Giuseppe; Girhammar, Ulf Arne; Källsner, Bo; Johnsson, Helena

    2012-01-01

    Källsner and Girhammar have developed a new plastic design method for wood-frame shear walls at ultimate limit state. The method is capable of calculating the load-carrying capacity of partially anchored shear walls, where the leading stud is not necessarily anchored against uplift. In fully anchored shear walls, the leading stud needs to be anchored using some kind of hold-downs to resist uplift and the bottom rail needs to be fixed by anchor bolts to resist horizontal shear forces. In parti...

  5. Results from a partial lifetime test of a 40 mm-aperture 17 mm SSC model dipole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radusewicz, P.; Devred, A.; Bush, T.; Coombes, R.; DiMarco, J.; Goodzeit, C.; Kuzminski, J.; Ogitsu, T.; Potter, J.; Puglisi, M.; Sanger, P.; Schermer, R.; Tompkins, J.; Yu, Y.; Zhao, Y.; Zheng, H.; Anerella, M.; Cottingham, J.; Ganetis, G.; Garber, M.; Ghosh, A.; Greene, A.; Gupta, R.; Jain, A.; Kahn, S.; Kelly, E.; Morgan, G.; Muratore, J.; Prodell, A.; Rehak, M.; Roher, E.P.; Sampson, W.; Shutt, R.; Thomas, R.; Thompson, P.; Wanderer, P.; Willen, E.; Bleadon, M.; Hanft, R.; Kuchnir, M.; Mantsch, P.; Mazur, P.O.; Orris, D.; Peterson, T.; Strait, J.; Royett, J.; Scanlan, R.; Taylor, C.

    1992-03-01

    A 40-mm-aperture, 17-m-long Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) model dipole was assembled at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and tested initially at Fermi National Accelerator Lab (FNAL) and later at BNL. At BNL an extended cycle test was devised to examine the magnet's performance through numerous cold tests and thermal cycles. This paper discusses the magnet's mechanical and quench performance and magnet field measurements during the tests

  6. Angioplasty and stent - heart - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drug-eluting stents - discharge; PCI - discharge; Percutaneous coronary intervention - discharge; Balloon angioplasty - discharge; Coronary angioplasty - discharge; Coronary artery angioplasty - discharge; Cardiac ...

  7. Radiological discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodliffe, J.

    1990-01-01

    Current practice of North Sea States on the discharge and disposal of liquid radioactive wastes to the North Sea are based on the declaration issued at the Second International Conference on the Protection of the North Sea, known as the London Declaration. This has three main points the first of which emphasises the application of the Best Available Technology to protect the North Sea, the second provides a framework on which future controls on radioactive discharges should be based. The third identifies two parts of the framework; to take into account the recommendations of international organizations and that any repositories of radioactive waste which are built should not pollute the North Sea. This chapter looks at how the concensus based on the London Declaration is working, gauges the progress made in the implementation of the policy goal, identifies existing and future areas for concern and proposes ways of strengthening the control of radioactive discharges. The emphasis is on the United Kingdom practice and regulations for liquid wastes, most of which comes from the Sellafield Reprocessing Plant. (author)

  8. Influence of partially known parameter on flaw characterization in Eddy Current Testing by using a random walk MCMC method based on metamodeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Caifang; Lambert, Marc; Rodet, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    First, we present the implementation of a random walk Metropolis-within-Gibbs (MWG) sampling method in flaw characterization based on a metamodeling method. The role of metamodeling is to reduce the computational time cost in Eddy Current Testing (ECT) forward model calculation. In such a way, the use of Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods becomes possible. Secondly, we analyze the influence of partially known parameters in Bayesian estimation. The objective is to evaluate the importance of providing more specific prior information. Simulation results show that even partially known information has great interest in providing more accurate flaw parameter estimations. The improvement ratio depends on the parameter dependence and the interest shows only when the provided information is specific enough

  9. How is the high vaginal swab used to investigate vaginal discharge in primary care and how do GPs' expectations of the test match the tests performed by their microbiology services?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, H; Estcourt, C; Ison, C; Goold, P; Tite, L; Carter, Y H

    2004-06-01

    To describe the management of vaginal discharge in general practice, with particular regard to the use of the high vaginal swab (HVS), and to compare GPs' expectations of this test with the processing and reporting undertaken by different laboratories. A postal questionnaire survey of 2146 GPs in the North Thames area and postal questionnaire study of the 22 laboratories serving the same GPs were carried out. GPs were asked how they would manage a young woman with vaginal discharge and what information they would like on an HVS report. Laboratories were asked how they would process and report on the HVS sample from the same patient. Response rate was 26%. 72% of GPs would take an HVS and 62% would refer on to a genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinic. 45% would offer empirical therapy and 47% of these would treat for candida initially. 75% of GPs routinely request "M,C&S" on HVS samples but 55% only want to be informed about specific pathogens. Routine processing of HVS samples varies widely between laboratories and 86% only report specific pathogens. 78% of GPs would like to be offered a suggested diagnosis on HVS reports, and 74% would like a suggested treatment. 43% of laboratories ever provide a diagnosis, and 14% provide a suggested treatment. GPs frequently manage vaginal discharge and most of them utilise the HVS. GPs' expectations of the test are not well matched to laboratory processing or reporting of the samples.

  10. 76 FR 21712 - Notice of Intent To Grant a Partially Exclusive Patent License; PopTest Cortisol LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-18

    ... Patent License; PopTest Cortisol LLC AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of the Navy hereby gives notice of its intent to grant to PopTest Cortisol LLC, a revocable... detection of stress biomarkers including cortisol by fluorescence polarization''; and U.S. Patent...

  11. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 151: Septic Systems and Discharge Area, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David A. Strand

    2004-06-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains project-specific information for conducting site investigation activities at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 151: Septic Systems and Discharge Area, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. Information presented in this CAIP includes facility descriptions, environmental sample collection objectives, and criteria for the selection and evaluation of environmental corrective action alternatives. Corrective Action Unit 151 is located in Areas 2, 12, 18, and 20 of the Nevada Test Site, which is 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 151 is comprised of the nine Corrective Action Sites (CAS) listed below: (1) 02-05-01, UE-2ce Pond; (2) 12-03-01, Sewage Lagoons (6); (3) 12-04-01, Septic Tanks; (4) 12-04-02, Septic Tanks; (5) 12-04-03, Septic Tank; (6) 12-47-01, Wastewater Pond; (7) 18-03-01, Sewage Lagoon; (8) 18-99-09, Sewer Line (Exposed); and (9) 20-19-02, Photochemical Drain. The CASs within CAU 151 are discharge and collection systems. Corrective Action Site 02-05-01 is located in Area 2 and is a well-water collection pond used as a part of the Nash test. Corrective Action Sites 12-03-01, 12-04-01, 12-04-02, 12-04-03, and 12-47-01 are located in Area 12 and are comprised of sewage lagoons, septic tanks, associated piping, and two sumps. The features are a part of the Area 12 Camp housing and administrative septic systems. Corrective Action Sites 18-03-01 and 18-99-09 are located in the Area 17 Camp in Area 18. These sites are sewage lagoons and associated piping. The origin and terminus of CAS 18-99-09 are unknown; however, the type and configuration of the pipe indicates that it may be a part of the septic systems in Area 18. Corrective Action Site 20-19-02 is located in the Area 20 Camp. This site is comprised of a surface discharge of photoprocessing chemicals.

  12. Hysterectomy - vaginal - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaginal hysterectomy - discharge; Laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy - discharge; LAVH - discharge ... you were in the hospital, you had a vaginal hysterectomy. Your surgeon made a cut in your ...

  13. Partial Defect Verification of Spent Fuel Assemblies by PDET: Principle and Field Testing in Interim Spent Fuel Storage Facility (CLAB) in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ham, Y.S.; Kerr, P.; Sitaraman, S.; Swan, R. [Global Security Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Rossa, R. [SCK-CEN, Mol (Belgium); Liljenfeldt, H. [SKB in Oskarshamn (Sweden)

    2015-07-01

    The need for the development of a credible method and instrument for partial defect verification of spent fuel has been emphasized over a few decades in the safeguards communities as the diverted spent fuel pins can be the source of nuclear terrorism or devices. The need is increasingly more important and even urgent as many countries have started to transfer spent fuel to so called 'difficult-to-access' areas such as dry storage casks, reprocessing or geological repositories. Partial defect verification is required by IAEA before spent fuel is placed into 'difficult-to-access' areas. Earlier, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has reported the successful development of a new, credible partial defect verification method for pressurized water reactor (PWR) spent fuel assemblies without use of operator data, and further reported the validation experiments using commercial spent fuel assemblies with some missing fuel pins. The method was found to be robust as the method is relatively invariant to the characteristic variations of spent fuel assemblies such as initial fuel enrichment, cooling time, and burn-up. Since then, the PDET system has been designed and prototyped for 17x17 PWR spent fuel assemblies, complete with data acquisition software and acquisition electronics. In this paper, a summary description of the PDET development followed by results of the first successful field testing using the integrated PDET system and actual spent fuel assemblies performed in a commercial spent fuel storage site, known as Central Interim Spent fuel Storage Facility (CLAB) in Sweden will be presented. In addition to partial defect detection initial studies have determined that the tool can be used to verify the operator declared average burnup of the assembly as well as intra-assembly burnup levels. (authors)

  14. Partial Cancellation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Partial Cancellation. Full Cancellation is desirable. But complexity requirements are enormous. 4000 tones, 100 Users billions of flops !!! Main Idea: Challenge: To determine which cross-talker to cancel on what “tone” for a given victim. Constraint: Total complexity is ...

  15. 77 FR 47380 - Final National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) General Permit for Discharges From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    ... test fluids, sanitary waste, domestic waste and miscellaneous discharges is authorized. More stringent... permit. Major changes also include definition of ``operator'', acute toxicity test for produced water, spill prevention best management practices, and electronic reporting requirements. To obtain discharge...

  16. Mechanical testing of newly developed biomaterial designed for intra-articular reinforcement of partially ruptured cranial cruciate ligament: ex vivo pig model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Fedorová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with mechanical testing of newly developed material polyethylene terephtalate coated with polycaprolactone nanofibers in combination with biodagradable Hexalon ACL/PCL screws as a new possibility of intra-articular reinforcement of partially ruptured cranial cruciate ligament. Four groups of ex vivo models of pig stifle joints were prepared and tested: a model with intact CCL (group 1, a model with partial CCL rupture (group 2, a model with CCL rupture stabilized with 7 mm Mersilene® strip (group 3, and a model with CCL rupture stabilized with 5 mm PET/PCL biomaterial strip (group 4. The models were loaded in the standing angle of 100° and the maximum load (N and the shift (mm were monitored. The mean maximum peak power and the shift were 1266.0 ± 146.9 N and 13.7 ± 2.5 mm for group 1, and 1164.7 ± 228.2 N and 1 6.8 ± 3.3 mm for group 2, respectively. In all cases after reaching the maximum load, a tibial fracture occurred but never a CCL rupture. In groups 3 and 4, the initial fixation failure occurred in the mean values of 375.7 ± 81.5 and 360.4 ± 52.0 N, respectively, and with a bigger shift of 52.3 ± 11.9 mm and 39.4 ± 14.6 mm, respectively, compared to group 1. A critical point of failure was the anchoring in the bone. It can be concluded that the PET/PCL substitute in the ex vivo model has mechanically comparable properties with the clinically used Mersilene®, and based on its proven ability to carry stem cells it could be appropriate for partially ruptured CCL protection.

  17. Short-and long-term effects of discharged OBM cuttings, with and without previous washing, tested in field and laboratory studies on the Dutch continental shelf, 1985-1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Jong, A.; Zevenboom, W.; Van Het Groenewoud, H.; Daan, R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on a Dutch programme that was carried out to study the distribution of discharged washed and unwashed oil-containing cuttings in the sediment and waterphase and their effects on selected test species in the Dutch part of the North Sea. The distribution of OBM cuttings in sediment around drilling locations was related to the total amount of oil discharged in the watercolumn. Increased oil contents were found over a range of 1000 to 5000 m in residual current direction. Total oil contents remained high at locations where unwashed OBM cuttings were discharged. At one location oil was found in high concentrations up to 6 years after discharge of OBM cuttings, especially due to the persistence of the oil fractions Other peaks and UCM. Washing of OBM cuttings resulted in lower amounts of oil discharged, lower concentrations in the sediment in the vicinity of the platform (up to 100 m), equal concentrations at 250 m but higher concentrations up to at more than 500 m off the platform when compared with unwashed cuttings and the respective amount of oil discharged. However, within one year, degradation of oil seems to have taken place at one of the washed sites at 5000 m. During discharge in the watercolumn, oil was taken up by Mytilus edulis from washed cuttings as well as from unwashed cuttings. Leaching of oil from the sediment into the waterphase was measurable in the field for only a limited period to time, less than a year after discharge. Several sediment-inhabiting species were tested on their response to oil contamination. Four species tested in experimental boxcosm set-ups, Echinocardium cordatum, Amphiura filiformis, Lagis koreni and Nucula turgida responded to elevated contamination levels by increased mortality

  18. Lung surgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lung biopsy - discharge; Thoracoscopy - discharge; Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery - discharge; VATS - discharge ... milk) for 2 weeks after video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery and 6 to 8 weeks after open surgery. ...

  19. Pediatric heart surgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... discharge; Heart valve surgery - children - discharge; Heart surgery - pediatric - discharge; Heart transplant - pediatric - discharge ... Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 434. ...

  20. Investigation of slot discharge on a 239 MVA hydro generator stator winding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, S.; Hong, W. [BC Hydro and Power Authority, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This paper discussed a slot discharge investigation conducted on a 239 MVA generator stator winding. The generator in which the winding was located had experienced core split distortion, stator winding phase-to-phase failures, winding failures during Hipot testing, and high partial discharge (PD) activity. The results of on-line PD testing data were evaluated. The stator winding was subjected to visual inspections, bar dissections, and failure mechanism analyses. Eleven winding bars were removed from the stator slots in order to assess groundwall insulation conditions and identify the cause of the slot discharge activity. It was determined that the root cause of the slot discharge was a loose, non-uniform bar in the slot. The vibrating bar caused the semi-conductive coating to wear out and degraded the armour tape. Results of the study demonstrated the importance of on-line PD monitoring for detecting slot PD activity. 4 refs., 3 tabs., 11 figs.

  1. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit No. 423: Building 03-60 Underground Discharge Point, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE/NV

    1997-10-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP), and the US Department of Defense. The CAIP is a document that provides or references all of the specific information for investigation activities associated with Corrective Action Units (CAUS) or Corrective Action Sites (CASs) (FFACO, 1996). As per the FFACO (1996), CASs are sites potentially requiring corrective action(s) and may include solid waste management units or individual disposal or release sites. Corrective Action Units consist of one or more CASs grouped together based on geography, technical similarity, or agency responsibility for the purpose of determining corrective actions. This CAIP contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at CAU No. 423, the Building 03-60 Underground Discharge Point (UDP), which is located in Area 3 at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). The TTR, part of the Nellis Air Force Range, is approximately 225 kilometers (km) (140 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figures 1-1 and 1-2). Corrective Action Unit No. 423 is comprised of only one CAS (No. 03-02-002-0308), which includes the Building 03-60 UDP and an associated discharge line extending from Building 03-60 to a point approximately 73 meters (m) (240 feet [ft]) northwest as shown on Figure 1-3.

  2. Partial processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    This discussion paper considers the possibility of applying to the recycle of plutonium in thermal reactors a particular method of partial processing based on the PUREX process but named CIVEX to emphasise the differences. The CIVEX process is based primarily on the retention of short-lived fission products. The paper suggests: (1) the recycle of fission products with uranium and plutonium in thermal reactor fuel would be technically feasible; (2) it would, however, take ten years or more to develop the CIVEX process to the point where it could be launched on a commercial scale; (3) since the majority of spent fuel to be reprocessed this century will have been in storage for ten years or more, the recycling of short-lived fission products with the U-Pu would not provide an effective means of making refabrication fuel ''inaccessible'' because the radioactivity associated with the fission products would have decayed. There would therefore be no advantage in partial processing

  3. Stability Test of Partially Purified Bromelain from Pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr) Core Extract in Artificial Stomach Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiasih, S.; Adimas, A. Ch. D.; Dzikria, V.; Hudiyono, S.

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to isolate and purify bromelain from pineapple core (Ananascomosus (L.) Merr) accompanied by a stability test of its enzyme activity in artificial gastric juice. Purification steps start with fractionation by a precipitation method were carried out stepwise using several concentration of ammonium sulfate salt, followed by dialysis prosess and ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose column. Each step of purification produced an increasing specific activity in enzyme fraction, starting with crude extract, respectively: 0.276 U/mg; 14.591 U/mg; and 16.05 U/mg. Bromelain fraction with the highest level of purity was obtained in 50-80% ammonium sulphate fraction after dialyzed in the amount of 58.15 times compared to the crude extract. Further purification of the enzyme by DEAE-cellulose column produced bromelain which had a purity level 160-fold compared to crude enzyme. The result of bromelain stability test in artificial stomach juice by milk clotting units assay bromelain fraction have proteolytic activity in clotting milk substrate. Exposing bromelain fraction in artificial stomach juice which gave the highest core bromelain proteolytic activity was achieved at estimated volume of 0.4-0.5 mL. Exposure in a period of reaction time to artificial stomach juice that contained pepsin showed relatively stable proteolytic activity in the first 4 hours.

  4. Partial gigantism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М.М. Karimova

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A girl with partial gigantism (the increased I and II fingers of the left foot is being examined. This condition is a rare and unresolved problem, as the definite reason of its development is not determined. Wait-and-see strategy is recommended, as well as correcting operations after closing of growth zones, and forming of data pool for generalization and development of schemes of drug and radial therapeutic methods.

  5. The Influence of the Presence of Multiple Voids on the Discharge Patterns in Solid Epoxy Insulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbøll, Joachim T.; Henriksen, Mogens; Larsen, Esben

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, partial discharge test results from initial long term testing on samples which contain more voids, when exposed to a high electric stress will be presented. The influence on the discharge patterns, phase- and height-analyses, of such parameter as the number of voids and the void...... diameters will be given. A first evaluation/opinion of the impact this could have on the estimation of the insulation condition of electrical equipment, based on the identification of PD-patterns, will also be given....

  6. Concerning partial revision of regulations on installation, operation, etc., of nuclear reactor, etc., for test and research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    To enforce the rules relating to nuclear material protection at nuclear power facilities as covered by the Nuclear Reactor Control Law, which was revised in May last year, orders should be issued by the Prime Minister's Office (or Ministry of International Trade and Industry) to specify the following matters: (1) measures to be carried out by the operators of nuclear facilities to ensure the protection of specially designated nuclear fuel materials, (2) procedures for the application for permission as covered by nuclear material protection rules, and (3) requirements for managers in charge of nuclear material protection. The new regulations should cover the following: (1) rules relating to the business of refining of nuclear fuels, and raw materials for nuclear substances, (2) rules relating to the business of processing of nuclear fuels, (3) rules relating to the installation, operation, etc., of nuclear reactor, etc., for test and research, (4) rules relating to the business of reprocessing of spent fules, (5) rules relating to the business of management of nuclear fuels or waste contaminated with nuclear fuels, and (6) rules relating to the application of nuclear fuels. (N.K)

  7. Field test facility for monitoring water/radionuclide transport through partially saturated geologic media: design, construction, and preliminary description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, S.J.; Campbell, A.C.; Campbell, M.D.; Gee, G.W.; Hoober, H.H.; Schwarzmiller, K.O.

    1979-11-01

    Shallow land burial has been a common practice for disposing radioactive waste materials since the beginning of plutonium production operations. Accurate monitoring of radionuclide transport and factors causing transport within the burial sites is essential to minimizing risks associated with disposal. However, monitoring has not always been adequate. Consequently, the Department of Energy (DOE) has begun a program aimed at better assuring and evaluating containment of radioactive wastes at shallow land burial sites. This program includes a technological base for monitoring transport. As part of the DOE program, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is developing geohydrologic monitoring systems to evaluate burial sites located in arid regions. For this project, a field test facility was designed and constructed to assess monitoring systems for near-surface disposal of radioactive waste and to provide information for evaluating site containment performance. The facility is an integrated network of monitoring devices and data collection instruments. This facility is used to measure water and radionuclide migration under field conditions typical of arid regions. Monitoring systems were developed to allow for measurement of both mass and energy balance. Work on the facility is ongoing. Continuing work includes emplacement of prototype monitoring instruments, data collection, and data synthesis. At least 2 years of field data are needed to fully evaluate monitoring information

  8. A proposal of ITER vacuum vessel fabrication specification and results of the full-scale partial mock-up test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakahira, Masataka; Takeda, Nobukazu; Onozuka, Masanori [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (Japan); Kakudate, Satoshi [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. (Japan)

    2007-07-01

    The structure and fabrication methods of the ITER vacuum vessel have been investigated and defined by the ITER international team. However, some of the current specifications are very difficult to be achieved from the manufacturing point of view and will lead to cost increase. In the mock-up fabrication, it is planned to conduct the following items: 1. Feasibility of the Japanese proposed VV structure and fabrication methods and the applicability to the ITER are to be confirmed; 2. Assembly procedure and inspection procedure are to be confirmed; 3. Manufacturing tolerances are to be assessed; 4. Manufacturing schedule is to be assessed. This report summarizes the Japanese proposed specification of the VV mock-up describing differences between the ITER supplied design. General scope of the mock-up fabrication and the detailed dimensions are also shown. In the VV fabrication, several types of weld joint configuration will be used. This report shows the joint configurations proposed by Japan to be used for the inner shell connection, the rib-to-shell connection and outer shell connection, and the housing-to-shell connection, respectively. Non-destructive testing considered to be applied to each joint configuration is also presented. A series of the fabrication and assembly procedures for the mock-up are presented in this report, together with candidates of welding configurations. Finally, the report summarizes the results of mock-up fabrication, including results of nondestructive examination of weld lines, obtained welding deformation and issues revealed from the fabrication experience. (orig.)

  9. The Effects of Life Domains, Constraints, and Motivations on Academic Dishonesty: A Partial Test and Extension of Agnew's General Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, John K

    2017-08-01

    Recently, Robert Agnew introduced a new general theory of crime and delinquency in which he attempted to corral the vast array of theoretical "causes" of criminal conduct into a more parsimonious statement organized into one of five life domains: self, family, peers, school, and work as well as constraints against crime and motivation for it. These domains are depicted as the source of constraints and motivations and whose effects are, in part, mediated by these constraints and motivations. Based on self-report data on academic dishonesty from a sample of college students, the present study attempts to test this general theory. While several of the life domain variables had significant effects of cheating in the baseline model, all of these effects were fully mediated by constraints and motivations. In the final model, academic dishonesty was observed to be most significantly affected by the perceived severity of formal sanction threats, the number of credit hours enrolled, the frequency of skipping classes, and pressure from friends.

  10. COLLISIONLESS SHOCKS IN A PARTIALLY IONIZED MEDIUM. I. NEUTRAL RETURN FLUX AND ITS EFFECTS ON ACCELERATION OF TEST PARTICLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blasi, P.; Morlino, G.; Bandiera, R.; Amato, E. [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi, 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Caprioli, D. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Peyton Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)

    2012-08-20

    A collisionless shock may be strongly modified by the presence of neutral atoms through the processes of charge exchange between ions and neutrals and ionization of the latter. These two processes lead to exchange of energy and momentum between charged and neutral particles both upstream and downstream of the shock. In particular, neutrals that suffer a charge exchange downstream with shock-heated ions generate high-velocity neutrals that have a finite probability of returning upstream. These neutrals might then deposit heat in the upstream plasma through ionization and charge exchange, thereby reducing the fluid Mach number. A consequence of this phenomenon, which we refer to as the neutral return flux, is a reduction of the shock compression factor and the formation of a shock precursor upstream. The scale length of the precursor is determined by the ionization and charge-exchange interaction lengths of fast neutrals moving toward upstream infinity. In the case of a shock propagating in the interstellar medium, the effects of ion-neutral interactions are especially important for shock velocities <3000 km s{sup -1}. Such propagation velocities are common among shocks associated with supernova remnants, the primary candidate sources for the acceleration of Galactic cosmic rays. We then investigate the effects of the return flux of neutrals on the spectrum of test particles accelerated at the shock. We find that, for shocks slower than {approx}3000 km s{sup -1}, the particle energy spectrum steepens appreciably with respect to the naive expectation for a strong shock, namely, {proportional_to}E{sup -2}.

  11. Monitoring of lightning discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigor'ev, V.A.

    2001-01-01

    The paper presents a brief description of a lightning discharge recording system developed at the NPO 'Monitoring Techniques' under the direction of V.M. Moskolenko (Moscow). The system provides information about dangerous environmental occurrences such as tornados and hurricanes, making the forecast of extreme situations possible, especially in the areas of dangerous industries and objects. The created automatic system can be useful in solving the tasks relating to nuclear test monitoring. (author)

  12. Physics of partially ionized plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Krishan, Vinod

    2016-01-01

    Plasma is one of the four fundamental states of matter; the other three being solid, liquid and gas. Several components, such as molecular clouds, diffuse interstellar gas, the solar atmosphere, the Earth's ionosphere and laboratory plasmas, including fusion plasmas, constitute the partially ionized plasmas. This book discusses different aspects of partially ionized plasmas including multi-fluid description, equilibrium and types of waves. The discussion goes on to cover the reionization phase of the universe, along with a brief description of high discharge plasmas, tokomak plasmas and laser plasmas. Various elastic and inelastic collisions amongst the three particle species are also presented. In addition, the author demonstrates the novelty of partially ionized plasmas using many examples; for instance, in partially ionized plasma the magnetic induction is subjected to the ambipolar diffusion and the Hall effect, as well as the usual resistive dissipation. Also included is an observation of kinematic dynam...

  13. Combination of physico-chemical analysis, Allium cepa test system and Oreochromis niloticus erythrocyte based comet assay/nuclear abnormalities tests for cyto-genotoxicity assessments of treated effluents discharged from textile industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemachandra, Chamini K; Pathiratne, Asoka

    2016-09-01

    Bioassays for cyto-genotoxicity assessments are generally not required in current textile industry effluent discharge management regulations. The present study applied in vivo plant and fish based toxicity tests viz. Allium cepa test system and Oreochromis niloticus erythrocyte based comet assay and nuclear abnormalities tests in combination with physico-chemical analysis for assessing potential cytotoxic/genotoxic impacts of treated textile industry effluents reaching a major river (Kelani River) in Sri Lanka. Of the treated effluents tested from two textile industries, color in the Textile industry 1 effluents occasionally and color, biochemical oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand in the Textile industry 2 effluents frequently exceeded the specified Sri Lankan tolerance limits for discharge of industrial effluents into inland surface waters. Exposure of A. cepa bulbs to 100% and 12.5% treated effluents from both industries resulted in statistically significant root growth retardation, mito-depression, and induction of chromosomal abnormalities in root meristematic cells in comparison to the dilution water in all cases demonstrating cyto-genotoxicity associated with the treated effluents. Exposure of O. niloticus to the 100% and 12.5% effluents, resulted in erythrocytic genetic damage as shown by elevated total comet scores and induction of nuclear abnormalities confirming the genotoxicity of the treated effluents even with 1:8 dilution. The results provide strong scientific evidence for the crucial necessity of incorporating cyto-genotoxicity impact assessment tools in textile industry effluent management regulations considering human health and ecological health of the receiving water course under chronic exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. An e-learning program to prevent pressure ulcers in adults with spinal cord injury: a pre- and post- pilot test among rehabilitation patients following discharge to home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubart, Jane

    2012-10-01

    Pressure ulcers (PrUs) are the most common medical complication following spinal cord injury (SCI), as well as costly and potentially life-threatening. Every individual with SCI is at life-long risk for developing PrUs, yet many lack access to readily available, understandable, and effective PrU prevention strategies and practices. To address barriers to adequate PrU prevention education, an interactive e-learning program to educate adults with SCI about PrU prevention and management was developed and previously pilot-tested among inpatients. This recent pilot study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using the learning portion of the program by adults with SCI following discharge to home among 15 outpatients with SCI. Fourteen patients (nine men, five women, median age 37 years) completed the program intervention and pre- and follow-up questionnaires. The median score for pre-program knowledge and skin care management practice was 96 (possible score: 0 to 120; range 70-100). Post-program use median score was 107 (range 97-114). The greatest improvement was in the responses to knowledge and practice questions about skin checks and preventing skin problems (P effect of this e-learning program on PrU incidence. Internet interventions that are proven effective hold tremendous potential for bringing prevention education to groups who would otherwise not receive it.

  15. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 516: Septic Systems and Discharge Points, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 1 with ROTC 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfred N. Wickline

    2004-04-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 516, Septic Systems and Discharge Points, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (1996). Corrective Action Unit 516 is comprised of the following Corrective Action Sites (CASs): (1) 03-59-01 - Bldg 3C-36 Septic System; (2) 03-59-02 - Bldg 3C-45 Septic System; (3) 06-51-01 - Sump and Piping; (4) 06-51-02 - Clay Pipe and Debris; (5) 06-51-03 - Clean Out Box and Piping; and (7) 22-19-04 - Vehicle Decontamination Area. The purpose of this CADD is to identify and provide the rationale for the recommendation of an acceptable corrective action alternative for each CAS within CAU 516. Corrective action investigation activities were performed between July 22 and August 14, 2003, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan. Supplemental sampling was conducted in late 2003 and early 2004.

  16. Photogenic partial seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, M J; Binnie, C D

    2000-01-01

    To establish the incidence and symptoms of partial seizures in a cohort of patients investigated on account of known sensitivity to intermittent photic stimulation and/or precipitation of seizures by environmental visual stimuli such as television (TV) screens or computer monitors. We report 43 consecutive patients with epilepsy, who had exhibited a significant EEG photoparoxysmal response or who had seizures precipitated by environmental visual stimuli and underwent detailed assessment of their photosensitivity in the EEG laboratory, during which all were questioned concerning their ictal symptoms. All patients were considered on clinical grounds to have an idiopathic epilepsy syndrome. Twenty-eight (65%) patients reported visually precipitated attacks occurring initially with maintained consciousness, in some instances evolving to a period of confusion or to a secondarily generalized seizure. Visual symptoms were most commonly reported and included positive symptoms such as coloured circles or spots, but also blindness and subjective symptoms such as "eyes going funny." Other symptoms described included nonspecific cephalic sensations, deja-vu, auditory hallucinations, nausea, and vomiting. No patient reported any clear spontaneous partial seizures, and there were no grounds for supposing that any had partial epilepsy excepting the ictal phenomenology of some or all of the visually induced attacks. These findings provide clinical support for the physiological studies that indicate that the trigger mechanism for human photosensitivity involves binocularly innervated cells located in the visual cortex. Thus the visual cortex is the seat of the primary epileptogenic process, and the photically triggered discharges and seizures may be regarded as partial with secondary generalization.

  17. Hydrologic and water quality characteristics of a partially-flooded, abandoned underground coal mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aljoe, W.W.

    1994-01-01

    The hydrologic and water quality characteristics of a partially flooded, abandoned underground coal mine near Latrobe, PA, were studied to support the development of techniques for in situ abatement of its acidic discharge. A quantitative understanding of the conditions affecting discharge flow was considered to be very important in this regard. Statistical analysis of hydrologic data collected at the site shows that the flow rate of the main discharge (a borehole that penetrates the mine workings just behind a set of portal seals) is a linear function of the height of the mine pool above the borehole outlet. Seepage through or around the portal seals is collected by a set of french drains whose discharge rate is largely independent of the mine pool elevation. This seepage was enhanced after a breakthrough that occurred during a period of unusually high pool levels. The mine pool recharge rate during winter is about 2.5 times greater than that of any other season; recharge rates during spring, summer, and fall are approximately equal. Mine pool and discharge water quality information, along with bromide tracer tests, suggest that the original main entries discharge primarily to the french drains, while the borehole carries the discharge from an unmonitored set of entries northwest of the mains. The water quality of the east french drain discharge may have been improved substantially after seepage through the alkaline materials used to construct the portal seals

  18. Tennis elbow surgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... epicondylitis surgery - discharge; Lateral tendinosis surgery - discharge; Lateral tennis elbow surgery - discharge ... long as you are told. This helps ensure tennis elbow will not return. You may be prescribed a ...

  19. Ankle replacement - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... total - discharge; Total ankle arthroplasty - discharge; Endoprosthetic ankle replacement - discharge; Osteoarthritis - ankle ... You had an ankle replacement. Your surgeon removed and reshaped ... an artificial ankle joint. You received pain medicine and were ...

  20. Hip fracture - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... neck fracture repair - discharge; Trochanteric fracture repair - discharge; Hip pinning surgery - discharge ... in the hospital for surgery to repair a hip fracture, a break in the upper part of ...

  1. Asthma - child - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pediatric asthma - discharge; Wheezing - discharge; Reactive airway disease - discharge ... Your child has asthma , which causes the airways of the lungs to swell and narrow. In the hospital, the doctors and nurses helped ...

  2. Influence of expander components on the processes at the negative plates of lead-acid cells on high-rate partial-state-of-charge cycling. Part II. Effect of carbon additives on the processes of charge and discharge of negative plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlov, D.; Nikolov, P.; Rogachev, T. [Institute of Electrochemistry and Energy Systems, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. Georgi Bonchev Street, bl. 10, Sofia 1113 (Bulgaria)

    2010-07-15

    Lead-acid batteries operated in the high-rate partial-state-of-charge (HRPSoC) duty rapidly lose capacity on cycling, because of sulfation of the negative plates. As the battery operates from a partially discharged state, the small PbSO{sub 4} crystals dissolve and precipitate onto the bigger crystals. The latter have low solubility and hence PbSO{sub 4} accumulates progressively in the negative plates causing capacity loss. In order to suppress this process, the rate of the charge process should be increased. In a previous publication of ours we have established that reduction of Pb{sup 2+} ions to Pb may proceed on the surface of both Pb and carbon black particles. Hence, the reversibility of the charge-discharge processes improves, which leads to improved cycle life performance of the batteries in the HRPSoC mode. However, not all carbon forms accelerate the charge processes. The present paper discusses the electrochemical properties of two groups of carbon blacks: Printex and active carbons. The influence of Vaniseprse A and BaSO{sub 4} (the other two components of the expander added to the negative plates) on the reversibility of the charge-discharge processes on the negative plates is also considered. It has been established that lignosulfonates are adsorbed onto the lead surface and retard charging of the battery. BaSO{sub 4} has the opposite effect, which improves the reversibility of the processes on cycling and hence prolongs battery life in the HRPSoC duty. It has been established that the cycle life of lead-acid cells depends on the type of carbon black or active carbon added to the negative plates. When the carbon particles are of nano-sizes (<180 nm), the HRPSoC cycle life is between 10,000 and 20,000 cycles. Lignosulfonates suppress this beneficial effect of carbon black and activated carbon additives to about 10,000 cycles. Cells with active carbons have the longest cycle life when they contain also BaSO{sub 4} but no lignosulfonate. A summary of

  3. Prostate brachytherapy - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Implant therapy - prostate cancer - discharge; Radioactive seed placement - discharge ... You had a procedure called brachytherapy to treat prostate cancer. Your treatment lasted 30 minutes or more, ...

  4. Medical Injury Identification Using Hospital Discharge Data

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Layde, Peter M; Meurer, Linda N; Guse, Clare; Meurer, John R; Yang, Hongyan; Laud, Prakash; Kuhn, Evelyn M; Brasel, Karen J; Hargarten, Stephen W

    2005-01-01

    .... The development, validation, and testing of screening criteria for medical injury was based on International Classification of Disease code discharge diagnoses using 2001 patient data from Wisconsin hospitals...

  5. Simultaneous testing of multiclass organic contaminants in food and environment by liquid chromatography/dielectric barrier discharge ionization-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert-López, Bienvenida; García-Reyes, Juan F; Meyer, Cordula; Michels, Antje; Franzke, Joachim; Molina-Díaz, Antonio; Hayen, Heiko

    2012-11-21

    A Dielectric Barrier Discharge Ionization (DBDI) LC/MS interface is based on the use of a low-temperature helium plasma, which features the possibility of simultaneous ionization of species with a wide variety of physicochemical properties. In this work, the performance of LC/DBDI-MS for trace analysis of highly relevant species in food and environment has been examined. Over 75 relevant species including multiclass priority organic contaminants and residues such as pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, organochlorine species, pharmaceuticals, personal care products, and drugs of abuse were tested. LC/DBDI-MS performance for this application was assessed and compared with standard LC/MS sources (electrospray ionization (ESI) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI)). The used benchtop Orbitrap mass spectrometer features a 10 Hz polarity switching mode, so that both positive and negative ion mode acquisitions are possible with acquisition cycles matching the requirements of fast liquid chromatography. Both polar and nonpolar species (including those typically analyzed by GC/electron ionization-MS) can be tested in a single run using polarity switching mode. The methodology was found to be effective in detecting a wide array of organic compounds at concentration levels in the low ng L(-1) to μg kg(-1) range in wastewater and food matrices, respectively. The linearity was evaluated in an olive oil extract, obtaining good correlation coefficients in the studied range. Additionally, minor matrix effects (≤15% of signal suppression or enhancement) were observed for most of the studied analytes in this complex fatty matrix. The results obtained were compared with data from both ESI and APCI sources, obtaining a merged coverage between ESI and APCI in terms of analyte ionization and higher overall sensitivity for the proposed ion source based on the DBD principle. The use of this approach further extends the coverage of current LC/MS methods towards

  6. Capacity fading of LiAlyNi1-x-yCoxO2 cathode for lithium-ion batteries during accelerated calendar and cycle life tests (effect of depth of discharge in charge-discharge cycling on the suppression of the micro-crack generation of LiAlyNi1-x-yCoxO2 particle)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Shoichiro; Kinoshita, Masahiro; Hosokawa, Takashi; Morigaki, Kenichi; Nakura, Kensuke

    2014-08-01

    Cycle performance of a LiAl0.10Ni0.76Co0.14O2 (NCA) cathode/graphite cell closely depended on the range of depth of discharge in charge-discharge processes (ΔDOD). When ΔDOD was 10-70%, cycle performance at 25 °C was maintained even at 60 °C. Deterioration phenomena were analyzed by electrochemical method, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), and micro-cracks in NCA particles were analyzed with cross-sectional views by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Many micro-cracks were observed only after a 0-100% DOD region cycle test. Cycle tests in several restricted ΔDOD conditions showed that the deterioration was closely related to not the upper and lower limits of DOD or operation voltage but the width of ΔDOD.

  7. A Comparative Study on the Formation Mechanism of Wear Scars during the Partial and Full Scale Fretting Wear Tests of Spacer Grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Ho; Shin, Chang Hwan; Oh, Dong Seok; Kang, Heung Seok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    traces without considering flow field effects. So, in this study, fretting wear tests of nuclear fuel rod with partial and full scale spacer girds have been performed to compare the morphology of wear scars at each test condition and to verify the flow field effect on the variation of fretting wear mechanism

  8. A Comparative Study on the Formation Mechanism of Wear Scars during the Partial and Full Scale Fretting Wear Tests of Spacer Grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Ho; Shin, Chang Hwan; Oh, Dong Seok; Kang, Heung Seok

    2012-01-01

    traces without considering flow field effects. So, in this study, fretting wear tests of nuclear fuel rod with partial and full scale spacer girds have been performed to compare the morphology of wear scars at each test condition and to verify the flow field effect on the variation of fretting wear mechanism

  9. Specification of a test problem for HYDROCOIN [Hydrologic Code Intercomparison] Level 3 Case 2: Sensitivity analysis for deep disposal in partially saturated, fractured tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prindle, R.W.

    1987-08-01

    The international Hydrologic Code Intercomparison Project (HYDROCOIN) was formed to evaluate hydrogeologic models and computer codes and their use in performance assessment for high-level radioactive waste repositories. Three principal activities in the HYDROCOIN Project are Level 1, verification and benchmarking of hydrologic codes; Level 2, validation of hydrologic models; and Level 3, sensitivity and uncertainty analyses of the models and codes. This report presents a test case defined for the HYDROCOIN Level 3 activity to explore the feasibility of applying various sensitivity-analysis methodologies to a highly nonlinear model of isothermal, partially saturated flow through fractured tuff, and to develop modeling approaches to implement the methodologies for sensitivity analysis. These analyses involve an idealized representation of a repository sited above the water table in a layered sequence of welded and nonwelded, fractured, volcanic tuffs. The analyses suggested here include one-dimensional, steady flow; one-dimensional, nonsteady flow; and two-dimensional, steady flow. Performance measures to be used to evaluate model sensitivities are also defined; the measures are related to regulatory criteria for containment of high-level radioactive waste. 14 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  10. Micro-hybrid electric vehicle application of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries in absorbent glass mat technology: Testing a partial-state-of-charge operation strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaeck, S.; Stoermer, A.O.; Hockgeiger, E. [BMW Group, Powertrain Development, Energy Storage, Hufelandstrasse 4, 80788 Muenchen (Germany)

    2009-05-01

    The BMW Group has launched two micro-hybrid functions in high volume models in order to contribute to reduction of fuel consumption in modern passenger cars. Both the brake energy regeneration (BER) and the auto-start-stop function (ASSF) are based on the conventional 14 V vehicle electrical system and current series components with only little modifications. An intelligent control algorithm of the alternator enables recuperative charging in braking and coasting phases, known as BER. By switching off the internal combustion engine at a vehicle standstill the idling fuel consumption is effectively reduced by ASSF. By reason of economy and package a lead-acid battery is used as electrochemical energy storage device. The BMW Group assembles valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries in absorbent glass mat (AGM) technology in the micro-hybrid electrical power system since special challenges arise for the batteries. By field data analysis a lower average state-of-charge (SOC) due to partial state-of-charge (PSOC) operation and a higher cycling rate due to BER and ASSF are confirmed in this article. Similar to a design of experiment (DOE) like method we present a long-term lab investigation. Two types of 90 Ah VRLA AGM batteries are operated with a test bench profile that simulates the micro-hybrid vehicle electrical system under varying conditions. The main attention of this lab testing is focused on capacity loss and charge acceptance over cycle life. These effects are put into context with periodically refresh charging the batteries in order to prevent accelerated battery aging due to hard sulfation. We demonstrate the positive effect of refresh chargings concerning preservation of battery charge acceptance. Furthermore, we observe moderate capacity loss over 90 full cycles both at 25 C and at 3 C battery temperature. (author)

  11. Micro-hybrid electric vehicle application of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries in absorbent glass mat technology: Testing a partial-state-of-charge operation strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeck, S.; Stoermer, A. O.; Hockgeiger, E.

    The BMW Group has launched two micro-hybrid functions in high volume models in order to contribute to reduction of fuel consumption in modern passenger cars. Both the brake energy regeneration (BER) and the auto-start-stop function (ASSF) are based on the conventional 14 V vehicle electrical system and current series components with only little modifications. An intelligent control algorithm of the alternator enables recuperative charging in braking and coasting phases, known as BER. By switching off the internal combustion engine at a vehicle standstill the idling fuel consumption is effectively reduced by ASSF. By reason of economy and package a lead-acid battery is used as electrochemical energy storage device. The BMW Group assembles valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries in absorbent glass mat (AGM) technology in the micro-hybrid electrical power system since special challenges arise for the batteries. By field data analysis a lower average state-of-charge (SOC) due to partial state-of-charge (PSOC) operation and a higher cycling rate due to BER and ASSF are confirmed in this article. Similar to a design of experiment (DOE) like method we present a long-term lab investigation. Two types of 90 Ah VRLA AGM batteries are operated with a test bench profile that simulates the micro-hybrid vehicle electrical system under varying conditions. The main attention of this lab testing is focused on capacity loss and charge acceptance over cycle life. These effects are put into context with periodically refresh charging the batteries in order to prevent accelerated battery aging due to hard sulfation. We demonstrate the positive effect of refresh chargings concerning preservation of battery charge acceptance. Furthermore, we observe moderate capacity loss over 90 full cycles both at 25 °C and at 3 °C battery temperature.

  12. Supersonic CO electric-discharge lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hason, R. K.; Mitchner, M.; Stanton, A.

    1975-01-01

    Laser modeling activity is described which involved addition of an option allowing N2 as a second diatomic gas. This option is now operational and a few test cases involving N2/CO mixtures were run. Results from these initial test cases are summarized. In the laboratory, a CW double-discharge test facility was constructed and tested. Features include: water-cooled removable electrodes, O-ring construction to facilitate cleaning and design modifications, increased discharge length, and addition of a post-discharge observation section. Preliminary tests with this facility using N2 yielded higher power loadings than obtained in the first-generation facility. Another test-section modification, recently made and as yet untested, will permit injection of secondary gases into the cathode boundary layer. The objective will be to vary and enhance the UV emission spectrum from the auxiliary discharge, thereby influencing the level of photoionization in the main discharge region.

  13. [Severe vaginal discharge following rectal surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burg, L C; Bremers, A J A; Heesakkers, J P F A; Kluivers, K B

    2018-01-01

    Almost 50% of women who have had rectal surgery subsequently develop vaginal discharge. Due to the recurrent and unexpected nature of this heavy discharge, they often experience it as very distressing. Many of these women undergo extensive diagnostic tests that are mainly focused on identifying fistula formation. If no fistula is found, in most cases no other cause for severe vaginal discharge can be demonstrated. In our practice, we saw three patients (49-, 54- and 74-years-old, respectively) with similar severe vaginal discharge after rectal surgery and in whom no explanation for the vaginal discharge could be found. For this reason we conducted a literature search into this condition. Anatomical changes appear to be responsible for heavy vaginal discharge following rectal surgery. Changes in pelvic floor muscles and compression of the distal part of the vagina may lead to pooling of fluid in the proximal part of the vagina, resulting in severe discharge. Symptomatic treatment may reduce the symptoms.

  14. Estimating sediment discharge: Appendix D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, John R.; Simões, Francisco J. M.

    2008-01-01

    Sediment-discharge measurements usually are available on a discrete or periodic basis. However, estimates of sediment transport often are needed for unmeasured periods, such as when daily or annual sediment-discharge values are sought, or when estimates of transport rates for unmeasured or hypothetical flows are required. Selected methods for estimating suspended-sediment, bed-load, bed- material-load, and total-load discharges have been presented in some detail elsewhere in this volume. The purposes of this contribution are to present some limitations and potential pitfalls associated with obtaining and using the requisite data and equations to estimate sediment discharges and to provide guidance for selecting appropriate estimating equations. Records of sediment discharge are derived from data collected with sufficient frequency to obtain reliable estimates for the computational interval and period. Most sediment- discharge records are computed at daily or annual intervals based on periodically collected data, although some partial records represent discrete or seasonal intervals such as those for flood periods. The method used to calculate sediment- discharge records is dependent on the types and frequency of available data. Records for suspended-sediment discharge computed by methods described by Porterfield (1972) are most prevalent, in part because measurement protocols and computational techniques are well established and because suspended sediment composes the bulk of sediment dis- charges for many rivers. Discharge records for bed load, total load, or in some cases bed-material load plus wash load are less common. Reliable estimation of sediment discharges presupposes that the data on which the estimates are based are comparable and reliable. Unfortunately, data describing a selected characteristic of sediment were not necessarily derived—collected, processed, analyzed, or interpreted—in a consistent manner. For example, bed-load data collected with

  15. Influence of expander components on the processes at the negative plates of lead-acid cells on high-rate partial-state-of-charge cycling. Part I: Effect of lignosulfonates and BaSO{sub 4} on the processes of charge and discharge of negative plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlov, D.; Nikolov, P.; Rogachev, T. [Institute of Electrochemistry and Energy Systems, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. Georgi Bonchev Street, bl. 10, Sofia 1113 (Bulgaria)

    2010-07-15

    This study investigates the influence of the organic expander component (Vanisperse A) and of BaSO{sub 4} on the performance of negative lead-acid battery plates on high-rate partial-state-of-charge (HRPSoC) cycling. Batteries operating in the HRPSoC mode should be classified as a separate type of lead-acid batteries. Hence, the additives to the negative plates should differ from the conventional expander composition. It has been established that lignosulfonates are adsorbed onto the lead surface and thus impede the charge processes, which results in impaired reversibility of the charge-discharge processes and hence shorter cycle life on HRPSoC operation, limited by sulfation of the negative plates. BaSO{sub 4} exerts the opposite effect: it improves the reversibility of the processes in the HRPSoC mode and hence prolongs the cycle life of the cells. The most pronounced effect of BaSO{sub 4} has been registered when it is added in concentration of 1.0 wt.% versus the leady oxide (LO) used for paste preparation. It has also been established that BaSO{sub 4} lowers the overpotential of PbSO{sub 4} nucleation. The results of the present investigation indicate that BaSO{sub 4} affects also the crystallization process of Pb during cell charging. Thus, BaSO{sub 4} eventually improves the performance characteristics of lead-acid cells on HRPSoC cycling. (author)

  16. Vessel Sewage Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vessel sewage discharges are regulated under Section 312 of the Clean Water Act, which is jointly implemented by the EPA and Coast Guard. This homepage links to information on marine sanitation devices and no discharge zones.

  17. Early discharge following birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Ingrid M. S.; Kronborg, Hanne; Knight, Christopher H.

    2017-01-01

    .26–0.48) and primiparous compared to multiparous had an OR of 0.22 (CI 0.17–0.29) for early discharge. Other predictors for early discharge were: no induction of labour, no epidural painkiller, bleeding less than 500 ml during delivery, higher gestational age, early expected discharge and positive breastfeeding experience...

  18. Heart attack - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and lifestyle Cholesterol - drug treatment Controlling your high blood pressure Deep vein thrombosis - discharge Dietary fats explained Fast food tips Heart attack - discharge Heart attack - what to ask your doctor Heart bypass ... pacemaker - discharge High blood pressure - what to ask your doctor How to read ...

  19. Electrodeless discharge lamp is easily started, has high stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, W. E.; Bloom, A. L.

    1966-01-01

    Electrodeless discharge borosilicate glass lamp is used in various high-resolution optical systems. It is partially charged with krypton, contains small amounts of rubidium, and is enclosed in a hermetically sealed envelope that maintains the lamp at an optimum temperature during discharge. The lamp is quickly started by its excitation coil.

  20. Experimental Investigation of the Corona Discharge in Electrical Transmission due to AC/DC Electric Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuangpian Phanupong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, using of High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC transmission to maximize the transmission efficiency, bulk power transmission, connection of renewable power source from wind farm to the grid is of prime concern for the utility. However, due to the high electric field stress from Direct Current (DC line, the corona discharge can easily be occurred at the conductor surface leading to transmission loss. Therefore, the polarity effect of DC lines on corona inception and breakdown voltage should be investigated. In this work, the effect of DC polarity and Alternating Current (AC field stress on corona inception voltage and corona discharge is investigated on various test objects, such as High Voltage (HV needle, needle at ground plane, internal defect, surface discharge, underground cable without cable termination, cable termination with simulated defect and bare overhead conductor. The corona discharge is measured by partial discharge measurement device with high-frequency current transformer. Finally, the relationship between supply voltage and discharge intensity on each DC polarity and AC field stress can be successfully determined.

  1. Feasibility study on partial insulation winding technique for the development of self-protective MgB2 magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y. G.; Kim, J. C.; Kim, J. M.; Yoo, B. H.; Hwang, D. Y.; Lee, H. G.

    2018-06-01

    This study investigates the feasibility of using the partial insulation winding technique for the development of a self-protective MgB2 MRI magnet with a fast charge-discharge rate. Charge-discharge and quench tests for a prototype PI MgB2 magnet confirmed that the magnet was successfully operated at full-field performance and exhibited self-protecting behavior in the event of a quench. Nonetheless, the required time to charge the 0.5-T/300-mm PI MgB2 magnet was almost five days, implying that the charge-discharge delay of the PI MgB2 magnet still needs to be ameliorated further to develop a real-scale MgB2 MRI magnet with a fast charge-discharge rate.

  2. Current-Induced Membrane Discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mathias Bækbo; van Soestbergen, M.; Mani, A.

    2012-01-01

    . Salt depletion leads to a large electric field resulting in a local pH shift within the membrane with the effect that the membrane discharges and loses its ion selectivity. Since salt co-ions, H+ ions, and OH- ions contribute to OLC, CIMD interferes with electrodialysis (salt counterion removal...... neglects chemical effects and remains to be quantitatively tested. Here, we show that charge regulation and water self-ionization can lead to OLC by "current-induced membrane discharge'' (CIMD), even in the absence of fluid flow, in ion-exchange membranes much thicker than the local Debye screening length...

  3. Methane partial oxidation over a LaCr0.85Ru0.15O3 catalyst : Characterization, activity tests and kinetic modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melchiori, T.; Di Felice, L.; Mota, N.; Navarro, R.M.; Fierro, J.L.G.; Sint Annaland, van M.; Gallucci, F.

    2014-01-01

    A new LaCr0.85Ru0.15O3 perovskite-type catalyst for CH4 partial oxidation with a high activity and selectivity for syngas with good thermal stability and resistance against coking has been developed. In this paper, the catalyst preparation method, catalyst characterization, results of catalytic

  4. [Severe vaginal discharge following rectal surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burg, L.C.; Bremers, A.J.A.; Heesakkers, J.P.; Kluivers, K.B.

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Almost 50% of women who have had rectal surgery subsequently develop vaginal discharge. Due to the recurrent and unexpected nature of this heavy discharge, they often experience it as very distressing. Many of these women undergo extensive diagnostic tests that are mainly focused on

  5. Cast Partial Denture versus Acrylic Partial Denture for Replacement of Missing Teeth in Partially Edentulous Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramita Suwal

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To compare the effects of cast partial denture with conventional all acrylic denture in respect to retention, stability, masticatory efficiency, comfort and periodontal health of abutments. Methods: 50 adult partially edentulous patient seeking for replacement of missing teeth having Kennedy class I and II arches with or without modification areas were selected for the study. Group-A was treated with cast partial denture and Group-B with acrylic partial denture. Data collected during follow-up visit of 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year by evaluating retention, stability, masticatory efficiency, comfort, periodontal health of abutment. Results: Chi-square test was applied to find out differences between the groups at 95% confidence interval where p = 0.05. One year comparison shows that cast partial denture maintained retention and stability better than acrylic partial denture (p< 0.05. The masticatory efficiency was significantly compromising from 3rd month to 1 year in all acrylic partial denture groups (p< 0.05. The comfort of patient with cast partial denture was maintained better during the observation period (p< 0.05. Periodontal health of abutment was gradually deteriorated in all acrylic denture group (p

  6. GRACE-based estimates of water discharge over the Yellow River basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available As critical component of hydrologic cycle, basin discharge is a key issue for understanding the hydrological and climatologic related to water and energy cycles. Combining GRACE gravity field models with ET from GLDAS models and precipitation from GPCP, discharge of the Yellow River basin are estimated from the water balance equation. While comparing the results with discharge from GLDAS model and in situ measurements, the results reveal that discharge from Mosaic and CLM GLDAS model can partially represent the river discharge and the discharge estimation from water balance equation could reflect the discharge from precipitation over the Yellow River basin.

  7. Computational physics of electric discharges in gas flows

    CERN Document Server

    Surzhikov, Sergey T

    2012-01-01

    Gas discharges are of interest for many processes in mechanics, manufacturing, materials science and aerophysics. To understand the physics behind the phenomena is of key importance for the effective use and development of gas discharge devices. This worktreats methods of computational modeling of electrodischarge processes and dynamics of partially ionized gases. These methods are necessary to tackleproblems of physical mechanics, physics of gas discharges and aerophysics.Particular attention is given to a solution of two-dimensional problems of physical mechanics of glow discharges.The use o

  8. Disinfection of tertiary wastewater effluent prior to river discharge using peracetic acid; treatment efficiency and results on by-products formed in full scale tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Per Overgaard; Brodersen, Erling; Cecil, David

    2013-01-01

    This is an investigation of chemical disinfection, with peracetic acid (PAA), in a tertiary sand filter at a full scale activated sludge plant with nitrification/denitrification and P-removal. The reduction efficiency of Escherichia coli and intestinal enterococci in the sand filter is reported. E. coli log reductions of between 0.4 and 2.2 were found with contact times from 6 to 37 min and with dosing from 0 to 4.8 mg L(-1). The average log reduction was 1.3. The decomposition products, bromophenols, chlorophenols and formaldehyde and residual H2O2 were measured before and after the sand filter. The residual H2O2 concentration in the effluent was critical at short contact times and high dosages of PAA due to the discharge limit of 25 μg L(-1). The other three products could not be detected at 0.1 μg L(-1) levels. The chemical cost of PAA dosing is estimated to be 0.039 US$ m(-3) treated wastewater.

  9. Glow discharging device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeno, Katsuki; Kawasaki, Kozo; Hiratsuka, Hajime; Kawashima, Shuichi.

    1989-01-01

    In a thermonuclear device, etc. impurities adsorbed to inner walls of a vacuum vessel by glow discharge are released to clean the vacuum vessel for preventing intrusion of the impurities into plasmas. The object of the present invention is to minimize the capacity of a power source equipment for the glow discharge device to the least extent. That is, a stabilization resistance is connected in series between each of a plurality of anodes which are inserted and arranged at the inside of a vacuum vessel as a cathode and a power source respectively. The resistance value R is selected so as to satisfy the relation: R < (Vi - Vm)/Ii, in which Vi: glow discharge starting voltage, Vm: glow discharge keeping voltage, Ii: glow discharge starting current. Accordingly, if a voltage is applied from a power source to a plurality of anodes, scattering of electric discharge between the anodes can be suppressed and the effect of voltage drop during discharge by the stabilization resistance can be eliminated. As a result, it is possible to provide an economically advantageous glow discharge device with the capacity for the power source facility being to the least extent. (K.M.)

  10. CO-AXIAL DISCHARGES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luce, J.S.; Smith, L.P.

    1960-11-22

    A method and apparatus are given for producing coaxial arc discharges in an evacuated enclosure and within a strong, confining magnetic field. The arcs are maintained at a high potential difference. Electrons will diffuse to the more positive arc from the negative arc, and positive ions will diffuse from the more positive arc to the negative arc. Coaxial arc discharges have the advantage that ions which return to strike the positive arc discharge will lose no energy since they do not strike a solid wall or electrode. Those discharges are useful in confining an ionized plasma between the discharges, and have the advantage of preventing impurities from the walls of the enclosure from entering ihe plasma area because of the arc barrier set up bv the cylindrical outer arc.

  11. Modelling electric discharge chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarlane, J.; Wren, J.C.

    1991-07-01

    The chemistry occurring in a electric discharge was modelled to predict how it would be influenced by discharge conditions. The discharge was characterized by a calculated Boltzmann electron-energy distribution, from which rate constants for electron-molecule processes in air were determined. These rate constants were used in a chemical kinetics calculation that also included reactions between neutral molecules, ions, free radicals and electronically excited species. The model describes how the discharge chemistry was influenced by humidity, electric field, electron number density, and concentrations of key reagents identified in the study. The use of an electric discharge to destroy airborne contaminant molecules was appraised, the targeted contaminants being CF 2 Cl 2 , HCN, and SO 2 . The modelling results indicate that an electric discharge should be able to remove HCN and CF 2 Cl 2 effectively, especially if the discharge conditions have been optimized. Effective destruction is achieved with a moderate electric field (over 1 x 10 -15 V.cm 2 ), a substantial electron number density (over 1 x 10 12 cm -3 ), and the presence of H 2 0 in the process air. The residence time in the discharge was also shown to be important in contaminant destruction. An attempt was made to explain the results of the electric discharge abatement of SO 2 , a component of a simulated flue-gas mixture. Results from the model indicate that the discharge parameters that increase the concentration of hydroxyl radical also increase the rate of decomposition of SO 2 . An objective of the study was to explain the apparent enhancement of SO 2 destruction by the presence of a small amount of NO 2 . It was thought that a likely explanation would be the stabilization of HOSO 2 , an important intermediate in the oxidation of SO 2 by NO 2 . (49 figs., 14 tabs., 75 refs.)

  12. A Comparison of Item Selection Procedures Using Different Ability Estimation Methods in Computerized Adaptive Testing Based on the Generalized Partial Credit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Tsung-Han

    2010-01-01

    Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) provides a highly efficient alternative to the paper-and-pencil test. By selecting items that match examinees' ability levels, CAT not only can shorten test length and administration time but it can also increase measurement precision and reduce measurement error. In CAT, maximum information (MI) is the most…

  13. Numerical Modelling of Electrical Discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durán-Olivencia, F J; Pontiga, F; Castellanos, A

    2014-01-01

    The problem of the propagation of an electrical discharge between a spherical electrode and a plane has been solved by means of finite element methods (FEM) using a fluid approximation and assuming weak ionization and local equilibrium with the electric field. The numerical simulation of this type of problems presents the usual difficulties of convection-diffusion-reaction problems, in addition to those associated with the nonlinearities of the charged species velocities, the formation of steep gradients of the electric field and particle densities, and the coexistence of very different temporal scales. The effect of using different temporal discretizations for the numerical integration of the corresponding system of partial differential equations will be here investigated. In particular, the so-called θ-methods will be used, which allows to implement implicit, semi-explicit and fully explicit schemes in a simple way

  14. Central peaking of magnetized gas discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Francis F.; Curreli, Davide

    2013-01-01

    Partially ionized gas discharges used in industry are often driven by radiofrequency (rf) power applied at the periphery of a cylinder. It is found that the plasma density n is usually flat or peaked on axis even if the skin depth of the rf field is thin compared with the chamber radius a. Previous attempts at explaining this did not account for the finite length of the discharge and the boundary conditions at the endplates. A simple 1D model is used to focus on the basic mechanism: the short-circuit effect. It is found that a strong electric field (E-field) scaled to electron temperature T e , drives the ions inward. The resulting density profile is peaked on axis and has a shape independent of pressure or discharge radius. This “universal” profile is not affected by a dc magnetic field (B-field) as long as the ion Larmor radius is larger than a

  15. Partial tooth gear bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A partial gear bearing including an upper half, comprising peak partial teeth, and a lower, or bottom, half, comprising valley partial teeth. The upper half also has an integrated roller section between each of the peak partial teeth with a radius equal to the gear pitch radius of the radially outwardly extending peak partial teeth. Conversely, the lower half has an integrated roller section between each of the valley half teeth with a radius also equal to the gear pitch radius of the peak partial teeth. The valley partial teeth extend radially inwardly from its roller section. The peak and valley partial teeth are exactly out of phase with each other, as are the roller sections of the upper and lower halves. Essentially, the end roller bearing of the typical gear bearing has been integrated into the normal gear tooth pattern.

  16. The risk of leukaemia in young children from exposure to tritium and carbon-14 in the discharges of German nuclear power stations and in the fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakeford, Richard [The University of Manchester, Centre for Occupational and Environmental Health, Institute of Population Health, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-15

    Towards the end of 2007, the results were published from a case-control study (the ''KiKK Study'') of cancer in young children, diagnosed <5 years of age during 1980-2003 while resident near nuclear power stations in western Germany. The study found a tendency for cases of leukaemia to live closer to the nearest nuclear power station than their matched controls, producing an odds ratio that was raised to a statistically significant extent for residence within 5 km of a nuclear power station. The findings of the study received much publicity, but a detailed radiological risk assessment demonstrated that the radiation doses received by young children from discharges of radioactive material from the nuclear reactors were much lower than those received from natural background radiation and far too small to be responsible for the statistical association reported in the KiKK Study. This has led to speculation that conventional radiological risk assessments have grossly underestimated the risk of leukaemia in young children posed by exposure to man-made radionuclides, and particular attention has been drawn to the possible role of tritium and carbon-14 discharges in this supposedly severe underestimation of risk. Both {sup 3}H and {sup 14}C are generated naturally in the upper atmosphere, and substantial increases in these radionuclides in the environment occurred as a result of their production by atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons during the late 1950s and early 1960s. If the leukaemogenic effect of these radionuclides has been seriously underestimated to the degree necessary to explain the KiKK Study findings, then a pronounced increase in the worldwide incidence of leukaemia among young children should have followed the notably elevated exposure to {sup 3}H and {sup 14}C from nuclear weapons testing fallout. To investigate this hypothesis, the time series of incidence rates of leukaemia among young children <5 years of age at diagnosis has been

  17. The risk of leukaemia in young children from exposure to tritium and carbon-14 in the discharges of German nuclear power stations and in the fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeford, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Towards the end of 2007, the results were published from a case-control study (the "KiKK Study") of cancer in young children, diagnosed study found a tendency for cases of leukaemia to live closer to the nearest nuclear power station than their matched controls, producing an odds ratio that was raised to a statistically significant extent for residence within 5 km of a nuclear power station. The findings of the study received much publicity, but a detailed radiological risk assessment demonstrated that the radiation doses received by young children from discharges of radioactive material from the nuclear reactors were much lower than those received from natural background radiation and far too small to be responsible for the statistical association reported in the KiKK Study. This has led to speculation that conventional radiological risk assessments have grossly underestimated the risk of leukaemia in young children posed by exposure to man-made radionuclides, and particular attention has been drawn to the possible role of tritium and carbon-14 discharges in this supposedly severe underestimation of risk. Both (3)H and (14)C are generated naturally in the upper atmosphere, and substantial increases in these radionuclides in the environment occurred as a result of their production by atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons during the late 1950s and early 1960s. If the leukaemogenic effect of these radionuclides has been seriously underestimated to the degree necessary to explain the KiKK Study findings, then a pronounced increase in the worldwide incidence of leukaemia among young children should have followed the notably elevated exposure to (3)H and (14)C from nuclear weapons testing fallout. To investigate this hypothesis, the time series of incidence rates of leukaemia among young children risk of leukaemia in young children following the peak of above-ground nuclear weapons testing, or that incidence rates are related to level of exposure to fallout, is

  18. Essays on partial retirement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kantarci, T.

    2012-01-01

    The five essays in this dissertation address a range of topics in the micro-economic literature on partial retirement. The focus is on the labor market behavior of older age groups. The essays examine the economic and non-economic determinants of partial retirement behavior, the effect of partial

  19. Partially Observed Mixtures of IRT Models: An Extension of the Generalized Partial-Credit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Davier, Matthias; Yamamoto, Kentaro

    2004-01-01

    The generalized partial-credit model (GPCM) is used frequently in educational testing and in large-scale assessments for analyzing polytomous data. Special cases of the generalized partial-credit model are the partial-credit model--or Rasch model for ordinal data--and the two parameter logistic (2PL) model. This article extends the GPCM to the…

  20. Discharge lamp technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakin, James

    1994-01-01

    This talk is an overview of discharge lamp technology commonly employed in general lighting, with emphasis on issues pertinent to lighting for plant growth. Since the audience is primarily from the plant growth community, and this begins the light source part of the program, we will start with a brief description of the discharge lamps. Challenges of economics and of thermal management make lamp efficiency a prime concern in controlled environment agriculture, so we will emphasize science considerations relating to discharge lamp efficiency. We will then look at the spectra and ratings of some representative lighting products, and conclude with a discussion of technological advances.

  1. Capacitor discharge engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Früngel, Frank B A

    1976-01-01

    High Speed Pulse Technology, Volume III: Capacitor Discharge Engineering covers the production and practical application of capacitor dischargers for the generation and utilization of high speed pulsed of energy in different forms. This nine-chapter volume discusses the principles of electric current, voltage, X-rays, gamma rays, heat, beams of electrons, neutrons and ions, magnetic fields, sound, and shock waves in gases and liquids. Considerable chapters consider the applications of capacitor discharges, such as impulse hardening of steel, ultrapulse welding of precision parts, X-ray flash t

  2. Predicting tile drainage discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Bo Vangsø; Kjærgaard, Charlotte; Petersen, Rasmus Jes

    used in the analysis. For the dynamic modelling, a simple linear reservoir model was used where different outlets in the model represented tile drain as well as groundwater discharge outputs. This modelling was based on daily measured tile drain discharge values. The statistical predictive model...... was based on a polynomial regression predicting yearly tile drain discharge values using site specific parameters such as soil type, catchment topography, etc. as predictors. Values of calibrated model parameters from the dynamic modelling were compared to the same site specific parameter as used...

  3. Electric discharge during electrosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shashurin, Alexey; Scott, David; Zhuang, Taisen; Canady, Jerome; Beilis, Isak I; Keidar, Michael

    2015-04-16

    Electric discharge utilized for electrosurgery is studied by means of a recently developed method for the diagnostics of small-size atmospheric plasma objects based on Rayleigh scattering of microwaves on the plasma volume. Evolution of the plasma parameters in the near-electrode sheaths and in the positive column is measured and analyzed. It is found that the electrosurgical system produces a glow discharge of alternating current with strongly contracted positive column with current densities reaching 10(3) A/cm(2). The plasma electron density and electrical conductivities in the channel were found be 10(16) cm(-3) and (1-2) Ohm(-1) cm(-1), respectively. The discharge interrupts every instance when the discharge-driving AC voltage crosses zero and re-ignites again every next half-wave at the moment when the instant voltage exceeds the breakdown threshold.

  4. Vaginal delivery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pregnancy - discharge after vaginal delivery ... You may have bleeding from your vagina for up to 6 weeks. Early on, you may pass some small clots when you first get up. Bleeding will slowly become ...

  5. Prostate radiation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000399.htm Prostate radiation - discharge To use the sharing features on ... keeping or getting an erection may occur after prostate radiation therapy. You may not notice this problem ...

  6. Brain injury - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000163.htm Brain injury - discharge To use the sharing features on ... know was in the hospital for a serious brain injury. At home, it will take time for ...

  7. Brain aneurysm repair - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000123.htm Brain aneurysm repair - discharge To use the sharing features ... this page, please enable JavaScript. You had a brain aneurysm . An aneurysm is a weak area in ...

  8. Brain radiation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation - brain - discharge; Cancer - brain radiation; Lymphoma - brain radiation; Leukemia - brain radiation ... Decadron) while you are getting radiation to the brain. It may make you hungrier, cause leg swelling ...

  9. Atrial fibrillation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000237.htm Atrial fibrillation - discharge To use the sharing features on this ... have been in the hospital because you have atrial fibrillation . This condition occurs when your heart beats faster ...

  10. Pneumonia - adults - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000017.htm Pneumonia in adults - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. You have pneumonia, which is an infection in your lungs. In ...

  11. Knee arthroscopy - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000199.htm Knee arthroscopy - discharge To use the sharing features on this ... surgery to treat problems in your knee (knee arthroscopy). You may have been checked for: Torn meniscus. ...

  12. Cosmetic breast surgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000273.htm Cosmetic breast surgery - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. You had cosmetic breast surgery to change the size or shape ...

  13. Shoulder surgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000179.htm Shoulder surgery - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. You had shoulder surgery to repair the tissues inside or around your ...

  14. Recurrent Partial Words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine Blanchet-Sadri

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Partial words are sequences over a finite alphabet that may contain wildcard symbols, called holes, which match or are compatible with all letters; partial words without holes are said to be full words (or simply words. Given an infinite partial word w, the number of distinct full words over the alphabet that are compatible with factors of w of length n, called subwords of w, refers to a measure of complexity of infinite partial words so-called subword complexity. This measure is of particular interest because we can construct partial words with subword complexities not achievable by full words. In this paper, we consider the notion of recurrence over infinite partial words, that is, we study whether all of the finite subwords of a given infinite partial word appear infinitely often, and we establish connections between subword complexity and recurrence in this more general framework.

  15. Discharges for lighting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoffels, W W; Nimalasuriya, T; Flikweert, A J; Mulders, H C J

    2007-01-01

    The most common man-made discharge is a lamp. Even though lamps are often considered a mature technology, the discharge physics is often poorly understood. Two recent initiatives discussed here show that plasma research can help to make significant improvements. First we discuss color separation in metal halide lamps, which is a problem that prevents these highly efficient lamps from being used in more applications. Secondly a novel lamp concept is presented that may replace the current mercury based fluorescent lamps

  16. Tissue oxygen partial pressure in the tibialis anterior muscle in patients with claudication before, during and after a two-stage treadmill stress test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, F; Krüger, A; Pindur, G; Sternitzky, R; Franke, R P; Gori, T

    2014-01-01

    The role of the microcirculation in the pathophysiology and symptoms of peripheral arterial obliterative disease (PAOD) has been progressively emphasized during the past decades. Under resting conditions, already, the tissue oxygen partial pressure in the m. tibialis anterior (pO2im) is reduced to about 50% compared to healthy subjects. In the framework of this study the pO2im of patients with PAOD stage II according to Fontaine (n=16) in the m. tibialis anterior was measured under resting conditions and during walking on a treadmill in comparison to healthy subjects (n=10). Under resting conditions the pO2im only marginally differed between PAOD patients and healthy subjects. But during exercise the pO2im dropped significantly more severely in PAOD patients and a return to baseline values could only be reached when the treadmill was stopped and the patients stood still. The pO2im minima correlated clearly with the clinical symptom of calf pain. The data revealed that the pO2im values were lower in PAOD patients and dropped significantly faster during walking compared to the pO2im values in healthy subjects. The pO2im decrease correlated with the calf pain occurring when the pO2im values approached or fell below 10 mmHg.

  17. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 262: Area 25 Septic Systems and Underground Discharge Point, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision No. 1 (9/2001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This corrective action investigation plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 262 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 262 consists of nine Corrective Action Sites (CASs): Underground Storage Tank (25-02-06), Septic Systems A and B (25-04-06), Septic System (25-04-07), Leachfield (25-05-03), Leachfield (25-05-05), Leachfield (25-05-06), Radioactive Leachfield (25-05-08), Leachfield (25-05-12), and Dry Well (25-51-01). Situated in Area 25 at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), sites addressed by CAU 262 are located at the Reactor-Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (R-MAD); Test Cell C; and Engine-Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (E-MAD) facilities. The R-MAD, Test Cell C, and E-MAD facilities supported nuclear rocket reactor and engine testing as part of the Nuclear Rocket Development Station. The activities associated with the testing program were conducted between 1958 and 1973. Based on site history collected to support the Data Quality Objectives process, contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) for the site include oil/diesel-range total petroleum hydrocarbons, volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, and gamma-emitting radionuclides, isotopic uranium, isotopic plutonium, strontium-90, and tritium. The scope of the corrective action field investigation at the CAU will include the inspection of portions of the collection systems, sampling the contents of collection system features in situ of leachfield logging materials, surface soil sampling, collection of samples of soil underlying the base of inlet and outfall ends of septic tanks and outfall ends of diversion structures and distribution boxes, collection of soil samples from biased or a combination of

  18. Discharge lamp technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dakin, J. [GE Lighting, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    1994-12-31

    This talk is an overview of discharge lamp technology commonly employed in general lighting, with emphasis on issues pertinent to lighting for plant growth. Since the audience is primarily from the plant growth community, and this begins the light source part of the program, we will start with a brief description of the discharge lamps. Challenges of economics and of thermal management make lamp efficiency a prime concern in controlled environment agriculture, so we will emphasize science considerations relating to discharge lamp efficiency. We will then look at the spectra and ratings of some representative lighting products, and conclude with a discussion of technological advance. A general overview of discharge lighting technology can be found in the book of Waymouth (1971). A recent review of low pressure lighting discharge science is found in Dakin (1991). The pioneering paper of Reiling (1964) provides a good introduction to metal halide discharges. Particularly relevant to lighting for plant growth, a recent and thorough treatment of high pressure Na lamps is found in the book by deGroot and vanVliet (1986). Broad practical aspects of lighting application are thoroughly covered in the IES Lighting Handbook edited by Kaufman (1984).

  19. Chaos in gas discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piel, A.

    1993-01-01

    Many gas discharges exhibit natural oscillations which undergo a transition from regular to chaotic behavior by changing an experimental parameter or by applying external modulation. Besides several isolated investigations, two classes of discharge phenomena have been studied in more detail: ionization waves in medium pressure discharges and potential relaxation oscillations in filament cathode discharges at very low pressure. The latter phenomenon will be discussed by comparing experimental results from different discharge arrangements with particle-in-cell simulations and with a model based on the van-der-Pol equation. The filament cathode discharge has two stable modes of operation: the low current anode-glow-mode and the high current temperature-limited-mode, which form the hysteresis curve in the I(U) characteristics. Close to the hysteresis point of the AGM periodic relaxation oscillations occur. The authors demonstrate that the AGM can be understood by ion production in the anode layer, stopping of ions by charge exchange, and trapping in the virtual cathode around the filament. The relaxation oscillations consist of a slow filling phase and a rapid phase that invokes formation of an unstable double-layer, current-spiking, and ion depletion from the cathodic plasma. The relaxation oscillations can be mode-locked by external modulation. Inside a mode-locked state, a period doubling cascade is observed at high modulation degree

  20. Microscopic degradation mechanism of polyimide film caused by surface discharge under bipolar continuous square impulse voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Yang; Wu Guang-Ning; Liu Ji-Wu; Peng Jia; Gao Guo-Qiang; Zhu Guang-Ya; Wang Peng; Cao Kai-Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Polyimide (PI) film is an important type of insulating material used in inverter-fed motors. Partial discharge (PD) under a sequence of high-frequency square impulses is one of the key factors that lead to premature failures in insulation systems of inverter-fed motors. In order to explore the damage mechanism of PI film caused by discharge, an aging system of surface discharge under bipolar continuous square impulse voltage (BCSIV) is designed based on the ASTM 2275 01 standard and the electrical aging tests of PI film samples are performed above the partial discharge inception voltage (PDIV). The chemical bonds of PI polymer chains are analyzed through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and the dielectric properties of unaged and aged PI samples are investigated by LCR testers HIOKI 3532-50. Finally, the micro-morphology and micro-structure changes of PI film samples are observed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that the physical and chemical effects of discharge cut off the chemical bonds of PI polymer chains. The fractures of ether bond (C—O—C) and imide ring (C—N—C) on the backbone of a PI polymer chain leads to the decrease of molecular weight, which results in the degradation of PI polymers and the generation of new chemical groups and materials, like carboxylic acid, ketone, aldehydes, etc. The variation of microscopic structure of PI polymers can change the orientation ability of polarizable units when the samples are under an AC electric field, which would cause the dielectric constant ε to increase and dielectric loss tan δ to decrease. The SEM images show that the degradation path of PI film is initiated from the surface and then gradually extends to the interior with continuous aging. The injection charge could result in the PI macromolecular chain degradation and increase the trap density in the PI polymer bulk. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  1. Investigations on afterglows of neon gas discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steenhuysen, L.W.G.

    1979-01-01

    Experimental and numerical investigations on afterglows of neon gas discharges are described. The investigated pressure range extends from 0.5 torr to 100 torr; the discharge currents lie between about 1 mA and 100 mA. The decay of the 1s atom densities has been determined experimentally as function of the time elapsed in the afterglow. From the measured decay of metastable 1s 5 atom densities at gas pressure 5 atoms as well as the coefficinets of atomic collisional transfer between the 1s 5 and 1s 4 level are determined. To obtain more insight in the mutual influences of the various loss and production processes of 1s atoms and charge carriers in the afterglow a numerical model has been formed. The behaviour of the afterglow radiation intensity has been measured on discharges with a gas pressure of 1, 10, 20, 50 and 100 torr and a discharge current of 22, 24 and 50 mA. From the results the recombination distribution fractions of the 1s levels are determined and the electron densities at the start of the afterglow of 20, 50 and 100 torr discharges. With the help of the selective excitation spectroscopy the coefficients of atomic transfer between the 2p levels have been measured in the afterglow of discharge with a gas pressure of 1, 10, 20, 50 and 100 torr and a discharge current of 22 mA. From these results and the measured intensities of the various spectral lines in the afterglow the partial recombination coefficients for the 2p levels are calculated. (Auth. )

  2. Are Canadian-born Major League Baseball players more likely to bat left-handed? A partial test of the hockey-influence on batting hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairney, John; Chirico, Daniele; Li, Yao-Chuen; Bremer, Emily; Graham, Jeffrey D

    2018-01-01

    It has been suggested that Canadian-born Major League Baseball (MLB) players are more likely to bat left-handed, possibly owing to the fact that they learn to play ice hockey before baseball, and that there is no clear hand-preference when shooting with a hockey stick; approximately half of all ice hockey players shoot left. We constructed a database on active (i.e., October, 2016) MLB players from four countries/regions based on place of birth (Canada, United States of America [USA], Dominican Republic and South Asia [i.e., Japan, Taiwan and South Korea]), including information on which hand they use to bat and throw. We also extracted information on all Canadian-born MLB players, dating back to 1917. Our results confirm that the proportion of left-handed batters born in Canada is higher when compared to the other countries selected; also, since 1917, the proportion of Canadian MLB players who bat left has been consistently higher than the league average. We also compared the proportion of left-handed batters in Canada with players born in states in the USA grouped into high, average and low based on hockey participation. The proportion of MLB players born in states with a high level of hockey participation were more likely to bat left, although the differences were significant at trend level only (p bat left-handed, this did not correspond with a greater left-hand dominance, as determined by throwing hand. In conclusion, the present study confirms that Canadian-born MLB players are more likely to bat left-handed when compared to American, Dominican Republic and South Asian-born MLB players, providing partial support for the hockey influence on batting hypothesis.

  3. Hydrogen production with short contact time. Catalytic partial oxidation of hydrocarbons and oxygenated compounds: Recent advances in pilot- and bench-scale testing and process design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guarinoni, A.; Ponzo, R.; Basini, L. [ENI Refining and Marketing Div., San Donato Milanese (Italy)

    2010-12-30

    ENI R and D has been active for fifteen years in the development of Short Contact Time - Catalytic Partial Oxidation (SCT-CPO) technologies for producing Hydrogen/Synthesis Gas. From the beginning the experimental work addressed either at defining the fundamental principles or the technical and economical potential of the technology. Good experimental responses, technical solutions' simplicity and flexibility, favourable techno-economical evaluations promoted the progressive widening of the field of the investigations. From Natural Gas (NG) the range of ''processable'' Hydrocarbons extended to Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) and Gasoils, including those characterised by high levels of unsaturated and sulphurated molecules and, lately, to other compounds with biological origin. The extensive work led to the definition of different technological solutions, grouped as follows: Technology 1: Air Blown SCT-CPO of Gaseous Hydrocarbons and/or Light Compounds with biological origin Technology 2: Enriched Air/Oxygen Blown SCT-CPO of Gaseous Hydrocarbons and/or Light Compounds with biological origin Technology 3: Enriched Air/Oxygen Blown SCT-CPO of Liquid Hydrocarbons and/or Compounds with biological origin Recently, the licence rights on a non-exclusive basis for the commercialisation of SCT-CPO based processes for H{sub 2}/Synthesis gas production from light hydrocarbons with production capacity lower than 5,000 Nm{sup 3}/h of H{sub 2} or 7,500 Nm3/h of syngas have been assigned to two external companies. In parallel, development of medium- and large-scale plant solutions is progressing within the ENI group framework. These last activities are addressed to the utilisation of SCT-CPO for matching the variable Hydrogen demand in several contexts of oil refining operation. This paper will report on the current status of SCT-CPO with a focus on experimental results obtained, either at pilot- and bench- scale level. (orig.)

  4. Hazardous gas treatment by atmospheric discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizeraczyk, J.

    2005-01-01

    The emissions of NO x ; SO x , CO 2 and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including fluorocarbons to the atmosphere influence heavily our environment, NO x and SO x emitted to the atmosphere are the major cause of acid rains, while CO 2 and VOCs emissions cause the greenhouse effect which leads to abnormal global heating of the atmosphere and creating in a temperature inversion layer that traps gaseous pollutants. Therefore, there is an increasing interest in controlling these emissions. A new technique, which uses the plasma processes induced by energetic electrons, emerges as one of the most effective methods of reducing concentrations of the emitted gaseous pollutants. Various plasma techniques have been tested for gaseous pollution control. The electron bean irradiation was found to be physically and economically efficient for NO x and SO x reduction in the exhaust gases from electrical and heat power plants. The capability of the non-thermal plasmas, produced in atmospheric pressure electrical discharges, for decomposition of the gaseous pollutants has been widely tested. These atmospheric pressure electrical discharges are dielectric barrier discharges, pulsed and de corona discharges (in the reactors with the point-to-plate, wire-cylinder and wire-plate geometries, in the reactors with flow stabilized corona torch and corona radical shower), gliding discharges, inductively coupled high-frequency discharges, ac surface discharges, ac discharges in the packed bed reactors, and microwave torch discharges. In this paper, after reviewing the methods and devices used for producing the non-thermal plasmas for gaseous pollutant control, some results of the laboratory experiments on the plasmas abatement of NO x ; SO x and various VOCs will be presented, followed by a discussion on the energy efficiency and by-products. Also some results obtained in the pilot-plants will be given. finally other possible applications of the presented plasma devices for controlling

  5. Pre-discharge exercise test for evaluation of patients with complete or incomplete revascularization following primary percutaneous coronary intervention: a DANAMI-2 sub-study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valeur, N.; Clemmensen, P.; Grande, P.

    2008-01-01

    revascularization had lower exercise capacity [6.5 (95% CI: 1.9-12.8) vs. 7.0 (95% CI: 2.1-14.0) METs, p = 0.004] and more frequently ST depression [43 (20%) vs. 39 (13%), p = 0.02] compared to patients with complete revascularization. ST depression was not predictive of outcome in either groups, while...... with complete revascularization. CONCLUSIONS: Exercise capacity was prognostic of reinfarction and/or death in patients with incomplete revascularization, but not in completely revascularized patients. ST segment depression alone did not predict residual coronary stenosis or dismal prognosis Udgivelsesdato......OBJECTIVES: It is unclear whether the completeness of revascularization impacts on the prognostic value of an exercise test after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). METHODS: The DANAMI-2 trial included patients with ST elevation acute myocardial infarction randomized to primary PCI...

  6. Effect of an offshore sinkhole perforation in a coastal confined aquifer on submarine groundwater discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratesi, S.E.; Leonard, V.; Sanford, W.E.

    2007-01-01

    In order to explore submarine groundwater discharge in the vicinity of karst features that penetrate the confining layer of an offshore, partially confined aquifer, we constructed a three-dimensional groundwater model using the SUTRA (Saturated-Unsaturated TRAnsport) variable-density groundwater flow model. We ran a parameter sensitivity analysis, testing the effects of recharge rates, permeabilities of the aquifer and confining layer, and thickness of the confining layer. In all simulations, less than 20% of the freshwater recharge for the entire model exits through the sinkhole. Recirculated seawater usually accounts for 10-30% of the total outflow from the model. Often, the sinkhole lies seaward of the transition zone and acts as a recharge feature for recirculating seawater. The permeability ratio between aquifer and confining layer influences the configuration of the freshwater wedge the most; as confining layer permeability decreases, the wedge lengthens and the fraction of total discharge exiting through the sinkhole increases. Copyright ?? 2007 IAHS Press.

  7. Discharge characteristics in inhomogeneous fields under air flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Stephan; Holbøll, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    the frequency and magnitude of partial discharges in the vicinity of the electrode due to an increased rate of space charge removal around the tip of the needle and in the gap. The positive polarity shows higher dependency on air flow compared to the negative polarity. It is shown that positive breakdown......This research investigates the impact of high velocity air flow on Partial Discharge (PD) patterns generated in strongly inhomogeneous fields. In the laboratory, a needle plane electrode configuration was exposed to a high electrical DC-field and a laminar air flow up to 22 ms. The needle...

  8. Multipactor discharge apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The invention deals with a multipactor discharge apparatus which can be used for tuning microwave organs such as magnetron oscillators and other cavity resonators. This apparatus is suitable for delivering an improved tuning effect in a resonation organ wherefrom the working frequency must be set. This apparatus is equipped with two multipactor discharge electrodes set in a configuration such to that a net current flows from one electrode to another. These electrodes are parallel and flat. The apparatus can be used in magnetron devices as well for continuous waves as for impulses

  9. Red herring vaginal discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun Hee; Pringle, Kirsty; Rajimwale, Ashok

    2013-09-18

    Labial hair tourniquet syndrome is a rare condition that can be easily misdiagnosed and ultimately lead to irreversible damage. An 11-year-old premenarche girl presented with a 5-day history of pain and swelling in the labia with associated vaginal discharge. The general practitioner treated her with clotrimazole without improvement. On examination, there was an oedematous swelling of the right labia with a proximal hair tourniquet. Local anaesthetic was applied and the hair removed with forceps. There was instant relief of pain and the discharge stopped within 24 h. The patient was sent home with a course of antibiotics.

  10. Partial HELLP Syndrome: maternal and perinatal outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelcio Francisco Abbade

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: HELLP syndrome is a severe complication of pregnancy characterized by hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelet count. Some pregnant women develop just one or two of the characteristics of this syndrome, which is termed Partial HELLP Syndrome (PHS. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the repercussions on maternal and perinatal outcomes among women that developed PHS and to compare these women with those whose gestational hypertension or preeclampsia did not show alterations for HELLP syndrome in laboratory tests. DESIGN: Observational, retrospective and analytical study. SETTING: Maternity Department of Hospital das Clínicas, Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil. SAMPLE: Pregnant or post-delivery women who had a blood pressure elevation that was first detected after mid-pregnancy, with or without proteinuria, between January 1990 and December 1995. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Analysis was made of maternal age, race, parity, hypertension classification, gestational age at the PHS diagnosis, alterations in laboratory tests for HELLP syndrome, time elapsed to discharge from hospital, maternal complications, mode of delivery, incidence of preterm birth, intrauterine growth restriction, stillborn and neonatal death. RESULTS: Three hundred and eighteen women were selected; forty-one women (12.9% had PHS and 277 of them (87.1% did not develop any of the alterations of the HELLP syndrome diagnosis. Preeclampsia was a more frequent type of hypertension in the PHS group than in the hypertension group. None of the women with isolated chronic hypertension developed PHS. The rate of cesarean delivery, eclampsia, and preterm delivery was significantly greater in the PHS group than in the hypertension group. CONCLUSION: We observed that aggressive procedures had been adopted for patients with PHS. These resulted in immediate interruption of pregnancy, with elevated cesarean

  11. Glow discharge based device for solving mazes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubinov, Alexander E., E-mail: dubinov-ae@yandex.ru; Mironenko, Maxim S.; Selemir, Victor D. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center − All-Russian Scientific and Research Institute of Experimental Physics (RFNC-VNIIEF), Sarov, Nizhni Novgorod region 607188 (Russian Federation); Sarov Institute of Physics and Technology (SarFTI) of National Research Nuclear University “MEPhI,” Sarov, Nizhni Novgorod region 607188 (Russian Federation); Maksimov, Artem N.; Pylayev, Nikolay A. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center − All-Russian Scientific and Research Institute of Experimental Physics (RFNC-VNIIEF), Sarov, Nizhni Novgorod region 607188 (Russian Federation)

    2014-09-15

    A glow discharge based device for solving mazes has been designed and tested. The device consists of a gas discharge chamber and maze-transformer of radial-azimuth type. It allows changing of the maze pattern in a short period of time (within several minutes). The device has been tested with low pressure air. Once switched on, a glow discharge has been shown to find the shortest way through the maze from the very first attempt, even if there is a section with potential barrier for electrons on the way. It has been found that ionization waves (striations) can be excited in the maze along the length of the plasma channel. The dependancy of discharge voltage on the length of the optimal path through the maze has been measured. A reduction in discharge voltage with one or two potential barriers present has been found and explained. The dependency of the magnitude of discharge ignition voltage on the length of the optimal path through the maze has been measured. The reduction of the ignition voltage with the presence of one or two potential barriers has been observed and explained.

  12. Travelling-wave-sustained discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlueter, Hans; Shivarova, Antonia

    2007-01-01

    This review is on discharges maintained by travelling waves: new plasma sources, discovered in 1974 and considered as a prototype of the gas discharges according to their definition as nonlinear systems which unify in a self-consistent manner plasmas and fields. In the presentation here of the fluid-plasma models of the diffusion-controlled regime of the travelling-wave-sustained discharges (TWSDs), the basic features of the discharge maintenance-the discharge self-consistency and the electron heating in the high-frequency field-are stressed. Operation of stationary and pulsed discharges, discharge maintenance without and in external magnetic fields as well as discharge production in different gases (argon, helium, helium-argon gas mixtures and hydrogen) are covered. Modulation instability of diffusion-controlled discharges and discharge filamentation at higher gas pressures are also included in the review. Experimental findings which motivate aspects of the reported modelling are pointed out

  13. Development and testing of a system for partially automated evaluation of holographic interferograms in the experimental stress analysis of reactor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jueptner, W.; Kreitlow, H.; Kreis, T.; Steinlein, P.; Hock, F.; Garbe, B.

    1984-12-01

    Initially the deformation fields at the side surfaces of tensile test specimens with varying internal cracks have been calculated by the method of finite elements. From these now already known surface-deformations the stresses in the interior were calculated. By a variation of the parameters it was proven, that exact deformations at the input yield the exact stress distributions at the output. A systematic error in the deformations in one direction gave a proportional error in the determined stresses. Statistical errors in the deformations propagated less than proportional, thus an error of +10% in the deformation yields an error of 2% in the determined stress. For that reason an accuracy of 5% is demanded for the deformation measurements. The determination of the stresses is non-critical, as long as the error in the deformation measurement remains less than 5%. The second substantial result: A method has been found, that with the used test specimen allows to infer from the measured surface deformations on the length of the crack by iteration. This result exceeds the original aims. To prove, that the surface-deformations can be determined sufficiently exact at adequate many points, an automated recording and evaluation of interference patterns was done by an image processing system according to the method with phase-shifted reference-wave by Jueptner. With this system deformations in a field of 1024x512 points are recorded and evaluated with an accuracy better than 5% in less than 30 minutes. (orig./HP) [de

  14. Effects of oxygen partial pressure on Li-air battery performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyuk Jae; Lee, Heung Chan; Ko, Jeongsik; Jung, In Sun; Lee, Hyun Chul; Lee, Hyunpyo; Kim, Mokwon; Lee, Dong Joon; Kim, Hyunjin; Kim, Tae Young; Im, Dongmin

    2017-10-01

    For application in electric vehicles (EVs), the Li-air battery system needs an air intake system to supply dry oxygen at controlled concentration and feeding rate as the cathode active material. To facilitate the design of such air intake systems, we have investigated the effects of oxygen partial pressure (≤1 atm) on the performance of the Li-air cell, which has not been systematically examined. The amounts of consumed O2 and evolved CO2 from the Li-air cell are measured with a custom in situ differential electrochemical gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (DEGC-MS). The amounts of consumed O2 suggest that the oxygen partial pressure does not affect the reaction mechanism during discharge, and the two-electron reaction occurs under all test conditions. On the other hand, the charging behavior varies by the oxygen partial pressure. The highest O2 evolution ratio is attained under 70% O2, along with the lowest CO2 evolution. The cell cycle life also peaks at 70% O2 condition. Overall, an oxygen partial pressure of about 0.5-0.7 atm maximizes the Li-air cell capacity and stability at 1 atm condition. The findings here indicate that the appropriate oxygen partial pressure can be a key factor when developing practical Li-air battery systems.

  15. Discharges from nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    HM Inspectorate of Pollution commissioned, with authorising responsibilities in England and Wales, a study into the discharges of radioactive effluents from Nuclear Power Stations. The study considered arisings from nuclear power stations in Europe and the USA and the technologies to treat and control the radioactive discharges. This report contains details of the technologies used at many nuclear power stations to treat and control radioactive discharges and gives, where information was available, details of discharges and authorised discharge limits. (author)

  16. Brain histamine depletion enhances the behavioural sequences complexity of mice tested in the open-field: Partial reversal effect of the dopamine D2/D3 antagonist sulpiride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santangelo, Andrea; Provensi, Gustavo; Costa, Alessia; Blandina, Patrizio; Ricca, Valdo; Crescimanno, Giuseppe; Casarrubea, Maurizio; Passani, M Beatrice

    2017-02-01

    Markers of histaminergic dysregulation were found in several neuropsychiatric disorders characterized by repetitive behaviours, thoughts and stereotypies. We analysed the effect of acute histamine depletion by means of i. c.v. injections of alpha-fluoromethylhistidine, a blocker of histidine decarboxylase, on the temporal organization of motor sequences of CD1 mice behaviour in the open-field test. An ethogram encompassing 9 behavioural components was employed. Durations and frequencies were only slightly affected by treatments. However, as revealed by multivariate t-pattern analysis, histamine depletion was associated with a striking increase in the number of behavioural patterns. We found 42 patterns of different composition occurring, on average, 520.90 ± 50.23 times per mouse in the histamine depleted (HD) group, whereas controls showed 12 different patterns occurring on average 223.30 ± 20.64 times. Exploratory and grooming behaviours clustered separately, and the increased pattern complexity involved exclusively exploratory patterns. To test the hypothesis of a histamine-dopamine interplay on behavioural pattern phenotype, non-sedative doses of the D2/D3 antagonist sulpiride (12.5-25-50 mg/kg) were additionally administered to different groups of HD mice. Sulpiride counterbalanced the enhancement of exploratory patterns of different composition, but it did not affect the mean number of patterns at none of the doses used. Our results provide new insights on the role of histamine on repetitive behavioural sequences of freely moving mice. Histamine deficiency is correlated with a general enhancement of pattern complexity. This study supports a putative involvement of histamine in the pathophysiology of tics and related disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 406: Area 3 Building 03-74 and Building 03-58 Under ground Discharge Points and Corrective Action Unit 429: Area 3 Building 03-55 and Area 9 Building 09-52 Underground Discharge Points, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE/NV

    1999-05-20

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV); the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP); and the US Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The CAIP is a document that provides or references all of the specific information for investigation activities associated with Corrective Action Units (CAUs) or Corrective Action Sites (CASs). According to the FFACO (1996), CASs are sites potentially requiring corrective action(s) and may include solid waste management units or individual disposal or release sites. Corrective Action Units consist of one or more CASs grouped together based on geography, technical similarity, or agency responsibility for the purpose of determining corrective actions. This CAIP contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at the Underground Discharge Points (UDPs) included in both CAU 406 and CAU 429. The CAUs are located in Area 3 and Area 9 of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). The TTR, included in the Nellis Air Force Range, is approximately 255 kilometers (km) (140 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada.

  18. Synergetic mechanism of methanol–steam reforming reaction in a catalytic reactor with electric discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Taegyu; Jo, Sungkwon; Song, Young-Hoon; Lee, Dae Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Methanol–steam reforming was performed on Cu catalysts under an electric discharge. • Discharge had a synergetic effect on the catalytic reaction for methanol conversion. • Discharge lowered the temperature for catalyst activation or light off. • Discharge controlled the yield and selectivity of species in a reforming process. • Adsorption triggered by a discharge was a possible mechanism for a synergetic effect. - Abstract: Methanol–steam reforming was performed on Cu/ZnO/Al 2 O 3 catalysts under an electric discharge. The discharge occurred between the electrodes where the catalysts were packed. The electric discharge was characterized by the discharge voltage and electric power to generate the discharge. The existence of a discharge had a synergetic effect on the catalytic reaction for methanol conversion. The electric discharge provided modified reaction paths resulting in a lower temperature for catalyst activation or light off. The discharge partially controlled the yield and selectivity of species in a reforming process. The aspect of control was examined in view of the reaction kinetics. The possible mechanisms for the synergetic effect between the catalytic reaction and electric discharge on methanol–steam reforming were addressed. A discrete reaction path, particularly adsorption triggered by an electric discharge, was suggested to be the most likely mechanism for the synergetic effect. These results are expected to provide a guide for understanding the plasma–catalyst hybrid reaction

  19. A 5-day dialectical behavior therapy partial hospital program for women with borderline personality disorder: predictors of outcome from a 3-month follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Shirley; Johnson, Jennifer; Costello, Ellen; Simpson, Elizabeth B

    2009-05-01

    This study describes naturalistic 3-month follow-up after discharge from a 5-day partial hospitalization dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) program for women diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD). We also examined individual BPD criteria as predictors of treatment response. Fifty women diagnosed with BPD were consecutively recruited from a partial hospital DBT program, 47 of whom (94%) completed all assessments including baseline (prior to discharge) and 3-months post-discharge assessments. Most continued with some combination of individual psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy, and all had the option of continuing with weekly DBT skills classes. Baseline scores were compared to 3-month scores using paired two-tailed non-parametric (sign) tests. Regression analyses were conducted to identify predictors of outcome. Depression, hopelessness, anger expression, dissociation, and general psychopathology scores significantly decreased over the 3-month follow-up interval, although scores on several measures remained in the clinical range. Those who endorsed emptiness, impulsivity, and relationship disturbance demonstrated improvement on a number of outcomes, while those who endorsed identity disturbance and fear of abandonment had less improvement on some outcomes. These findings illustrate (1) that improvement occurred over a 3-month interval on a number of measures in patients receiving treatment as usual following discharge from a partial hospitalization program, and (2) that BPD is a complex, heterogeneous disorder for which there is no single pathognomonic criterion, so that each criterion should be considered individually in determining its potential effect on treatment outcomes.

  20. Hyperbolic partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Witten, Matthew

    1986-01-01

    Hyperbolic Partial Differential Equations III is a refereed journal issue that explores the applications, theory, and/or applied methods related to hyperbolic partial differential equations, or problems arising out of hyperbolic partial differential equations, in any area of research. This journal issue is interested in all types of articles in terms of review, mini-monograph, standard study, or short communication. Some studies presented in this journal include discretization of ideal fluid dynamics in the Eulerian representation; a Riemann problem in gas dynamics with bifurcation; periodic M

  1. Successful removable partial dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Christopher D

    2012-03-01

    Removable partial dentures (RPDs) remain a mainstay of prosthodontic care for partially dentate patients. Appropriately designed, they can restore masticatory efficiency, improve aesthetics and speech, and help secure overall oral health. However, challenges remain in providing such treatments, including maintaining adequate plaque control, achieving adequate retention, and facilitating patient tolerance. The aim of this paper is to review the successful provision of RPDs. Removable partial dentures are a successful form of treatment for replacing missing teeth, and can be successfully provided with appropriate design and fabrication concepts in mind.

  2. Beginning partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    O'Neil, Peter V

    2011-01-01

    A rigorous, yet accessible, introduction to partial differential equations-updated in a valuable new edition Beginning Partial Differential Equations, Second Edition provides a comprehensive introduction to partial differential equations (PDEs) with a special focus on the significance of characteristics, solutions by Fourier series, integrals and transforms, properties and physical interpretations of solutions, and a transition to the modern function space approach to PDEs. With its breadth of coverage, this new edition continues to present a broad introduction to the field, while also addres

  3. Is it acceptable to use coagulation plasma samples stored at room temperature and 4°C for 24 hours for additional prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, fibrinogen, antithrombin, and D-dimer testing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimac, V; Coen Herak, D

    2017-10-01

    Coagulation laboratories are faced on daily basis with requests for additional testing in already analyzed fresh plasma samples. This prompted us to examine whether plasma samples stored at room temperature (RT), and 4°C for 24 hours can be accepted for additional prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), fibrinogen (Fbg), antithrombin (AT), and D-dimer testing. We measured PT, aPTT, Fbg in 50 and AT in 30 plasma samples with normal and pathological values, within 4 hours of blood collection (baseline results) and after 24-hours storage at RT (primary tubes), and 4°C (aliquots). D-dimer stability was investigated in 20 samples stored in primary tubes at 4°C. No statistically significant difference between baseline results and results in samples stored at RT and 4°C was observed for PT (P=.938), aPTT (P=.186), Fbg (P=.962), AT (P=.713), and D-dimers (P=.169). The highest median percentage changes were found for aPTT, being more pronounced for samples stored at 4°C (13.0%) than at RT (8.7%). Plasma samples stored both at RT and 4°C for 24 hours are acceptable for additional PT, Fbg, and AT testing. Plasma samples stored 24 hours in primary tubes at 4°C are suitable for D-dimer testing. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Partial knee replacement - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100225.htm Partial knee replacement - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Knee Replacement A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited ...

  5. Vessel Sewage Discharges: No-Discharge Zones (NDZs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    States may petition the EPA to establish areas, called no discharge zones (NDZs), where vessel sewage discharges are prohibited. This page describes how NDZs are designated, the types of designations, who enforces them, and how to comply.

  6. Beginning partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    O'Neil, Peter V

    2014-01-01

    A broad introduction to PDEs with an emphasis on specialized topics and applications occurring in a variety of fields Featuring a thoroughly revised presentation of topics, Beginning Partial Differential Equations, Third Edition provides a challenging, yet accessible,combination of techniques, applications, and introductory theory on the subjectof partial differential equations. The new edition offers nonstandard coverageon material including Burger's equation, the telegraph equation, damped wavemotion, and the use of characteristics to solve nonhomogeneous problems. The Third Edition is or

  7. Experimental Evaluation of Discharge Characteristics in Inhomogeneous Fields under Air Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Stephan; Holbøll, Joachim

    2018-01-01

    voltages and a laminar air flow up to 22 m/s. In the first setup, the gap was exposed to a variable DC potential of up to 100 kV in order to create space charges in the vicinity of the electrode. The impact of the air flow on partial discharges and the dynamic behavior of the space charges is evaluated...... by means of partial discharge measurement and ultraviolet photography. The results show that the air flow increases the frequency of partial discharges in the gap due to an increased rate of space charge removal in the high field area around the tip of the electrode. The partial discharge behavior shows...... higher dependency on air flow at positive tip polarity as compared to the negative polarity. In the second setup, the standard impulse voltage created by a multistage impulse voltage generator was superimposed to a DC voltage, which continuously created corona and space charges around the tip...

  8. Pulse electrical discharges in water and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunka, Pavel

    2001-01-01

    Partial electrical discharges in a water solution as a function of conductivity have been studied experimentally. Using needle-plate electrodes it has been demonstrated that the discharge evolves in two phases. During the first streamer-like phase, the discharge propagated with a velocity of 10 6 cm/s, while during the second arc-like phase the length of the discharge remained almost constant although the current still increased. Higher solution conductivity resulted in the generation of shorter channels, in larger discharge current, and in a higher plasma electron density. Degradation of phenol by the discharge has also been demonstrated. A special metallic electrode covered by a thin layer of porous ceramic has been developed and used for generation of a multichannel discharge. At comparable solution conductivity the ceramic-coated electrode produced plasma with very similar parameters as the needle-plate electrode configuration. Generation of strong focused shock waves by the multichannel discharge in a highly conductive solution has also been demonstrated

  9. The design of remote discharge scenario management system on EAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chai, W.T, E-mail: wtchai@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui (China); Xiao, B.J [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui (China); Yuan, Q.P; Zhang, R.R. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui (China)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • The remote discharge scenario management system is established on EAST, it provides some useful function for operators to manage discharge scenarios and formulate discharge schedule. • Operators can use this system to formulate discharge schedule on account of it can electing optimal scenarios automatically. • The system is not only for local user but also for remote user. • In the future, we can combine with actual discharge data and data mining technology to acquire optimal configuration, which to generate expert database and guiding experiment. - Abstract: The discharge scenarios on EAST plasma control system (PCS), characterized by different waveform parameters and different hardware requirements, will need a systematic discharge scenario management system for remote and local operators, in order to optimize storage structure and rationally manage discharge time. The remote management of discharge scenarios will require extending the functionalities of the present PCS “future shot” and “next shot” modules. Taking advantage of database technique, the operators can acquire detail information of all discharge scenarios directly without PCS user interface and search the specified scenarios by key words. In addition, the system can elect optimal scenarios automatically based on discharge schedule and plasma pulse setting for later artificial selection. To this purpose, a new remote discharge scenario management system (RDSMS) basis for Web is being conceived on EAST. The system contains a database with functions of “user management”, “scenario verification”, “prepared scenario management”, “actual discharge scenario management” and “discharge schedule management”. This paper will present the relevant conceptual design and give an account of the test results for implementation on EAST discharges.

  10. The design of remote discharge scenario management system on EAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai, W.T; Xiao, B.J; Yuan, Q.P; Zhang, R.R.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The remote discharge scenario management system is established on EAST, it provides some useful function for operators to manage discharge scenarios and formulate discharge schedule. • Operators can use this system to formulate discharge schedule on account of it can electing optimal scenarios automatically. • The system is not only for local user but also for remote user. • In the future, we can combine with actual discharge data and data mining technology to acquire optimal configuration, which to generate expert database and guiding experiment. - Abstract: The discharge scenarios on EAST plasma control system (PCS), characterized by different waveform parameters and different hardware requirements, will need a systematic discharge scenario management system for remote and local operators, in order to optimize storage structure and rationally manage discharge time. The remote management of discharge scenarios will require extending the functionalities of the present PCS “future shot” and “next shot” modules. Taking advantage of database technique, the operators can acquire detail information of all discharge scenarios directly without PCS user interface and search the specified scenarios by key words. In addition, the system can elect optimal scenarios automatically based on discharge schedule and plasma pulse setting for later artificial selection. To this purpose, a new remote discharge scenario management system (RDSMS) basis for Web is being conceived on EAST. The system contains a database with functions of “user management”, “scenario verification”, “prepared scenario management”, “actual discharge scenario management” and “discharge schedule management”. This paper will present the relevant conceptual design and give an account of the test results for implementation on EAST discharges.

  11. Underwater Ship Husbandry Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    which entered into force in September of 2008, prohibits the use of harmful organotins such as tributyltin ( TBT ) in AFCs used on international...States. The use of TBT AFCs is explicitly prohibited under the VGP, and vessels must remove such coatings or paint over them to prevent toxic ...to hull husbandry include (1) the discharge of toxic chemicals used as biocides in AFCs and (2) biofouling as a vector for aquatic nuisance species

  12. Radioactive wastes and discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The guide sets out the radiation safety requirements and limits for the treatment of radioactive waste. They shall be observed when discharging radioactive substances into the atmosphere or sewer system, or when delivering solid, low-activity waste to a landfill site without a separate waste treatment plan. The guide does not apply to the radioactive waste resulting from the utilisation of nuclear energy or natural resources.

  13. Radioactive wastes and discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The guide sets out the radiation safety requirements and limits for the treatment of radioactive waste. They shall be observed when discharging radioactive substances into the atmosphere or sewer system, or when delivering solid, low-activity waste to a landfill site without a separate waste treatment plan. The guide does not apply to the radioactive waste resulting from the utilisation of nuclear energy or natural resources

  14. Development of an innovative plate-type SG for fast breeder reactor. Proposal of the concept and the evaluation of the fabricating method by the test fabrication of the partial model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishi, Yoshihisa; Kinoshita, Izumi

    2006-01-01

    The concept of an innovative plate type SG for the fast reactor fabricated by using the HIP (Hot Isostatic Pressing) method was proposed. The heat transfer plate, which is assembled with rectangular tubes and is fabricated by HIP method, is surrounded by leakage detection spaces. It is possible to apply it to both the pool-type and the loop-type LMFR. In this report, the fabrication technique was studied about the concept for the loop-type LMFR, and the following results were obtained. Hip tests, tensile tests, and structure observation were performed to clarify the suitable HIP condition for the modified 9Cr-1Mo steel. As a result, the optimum condition of 1150 deg C x 1200 kgf/cm 2 x 3 hr was found. Nickel-type solder (BNi-5) and gold-type solder (BAu-4) were selected as a joining material to laminate the heat transfer tube plates. Through the comparison of tensile tests, BAu-4 that showed a more excellent joining performance was selected on the assumption of the margin of 5 mm from the welding line. After buckling load had been clarified, the BAu-4 brazing of the heat transfer tube plates was performed using a hot pressing method. Problems were not observed in the welding of simulated header, and in the fabricating of the partial model of SG. (author)

  15. Structural bifurcation of microwave helium jet discharge at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamura, Shuichi; Kitoh, Masakazu; Soga, Tadasuke

    2008-01-01

    Structural bifurcation of microwave-sustained jet discharge at atmospheric gas pressure was found to produce a stable helium plasma jet, which may open the possibility of a new type of high-flux test plasma beam for plasma-wall interactions in fusion devices. The fundamental discharge properties are presented including hysteresis characteristics, imaging of discharge emissive structure, and stable ignition parameter area. (author)

  16. Plasma Discharge Process in a Pulsed Diaphragm Discharge System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jianjin; Hu, Jue; Zhang, Chao; Wen, Yuanbin; Meng, Yuedong; Zhang, Chengxu

    2014-12-01

    As one of the most important steps in wastewater treatment, limited study on plasma discharge process is a key challenge in the development of plasma applications. In this study, we focus on the plasma discharge process of a pulsed diaphragm discharge system. According to the analysis, the pulsed diaphragm discharge proceeds in seven stages: (1) Joule heating and heat exchange stage; (2) nucleated site formation; (3) plasma generation (initiation of the breakdown stage); (4) avalanche growth and plasma expansion; (5) plasma contraction; (6) termination of the plasma discharge; and (7) heat exchange stage. From this analysis, a critical voltage criterion for breakdown is obtained. We anticipate this finding will provide guidance for a better application of plasma discharges, especially diaphragm plasma discharges.

  17. Compact Intracloud Discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, David A. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1998-11-01

    In November of 1993, mysterious signals recorded by a satellite-borne broadband VHF radio science experiment called Blackboard led to a completely unexpected discovery. Prior to launch of the ALEXIS satellite, it was thought that its secondary payload, Blackboard, would most often detect the radio emissions from lightning when its receiver was not overwhelmed by noise from narrowband communication carriers. Instead, the vast majority of events that triggered the instrument were isolated pairs of pulses that were one hundred times more energetic than normal thunderstorm electrical emissions. The events, which came to be known as TIPPs (for transionospheric pulse pairs), presented a true mystery to the geophysics community. At the time, it was not even known whether the events had natural or anthropogenic origins. After two and one half years of research into the unique signals, two ground-based receiver arrays in New Mexico first began to detect and record thunderstorm radio emissions that were consistent with the Blackboard observations. On two occasions, the ground-based systems and Blackboard even recorded emissions that were produced by the same exact events. From the ground based observations, it has been determined that TIPP events areproduced by brief, singular, isolated, intracloud electrical discharges that occur in intense regions of thunderstorms. These discharges have been dubbed CIDS, an acronym for compact intracloud discharges. During the summer of 1996, ground-based receiver arrays were used to record the electric field change signals and broadband HF emissions from hundreds of CIDS. Event timing that was accurate to within a few microseconds made possible the determination of source locations using methods of differential time of arrival. Ionospheric reflections of signals were recorded in addition to groundwave/line-of-sight signals and were used to determine accurate altitudes for the discharges. Twenty-four CIDS were recorded from three

  18. Partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Lawrence C

    2010-01-01

    This text gives a comprehensive survey of modern techniques in the theoretical study of partial differential equations (PDEs) with particular emphasis on nonlinear equations. The exposition is divided into three parts: representation formulas for solutions; theory for linear partial differential equations; and theory for nonlinear partial differential equations. Included are complete treatments of the method of characteristics; energy methods within Sobolev spaces; regularity for second-order elliptic, parabolic, and hyperbolic equations; maximum principles; the multidimensional calculus of variations; viscosity solutions of Hamilton-Jacobi equations; shock waves and entropy criteria for conservation laws; and, much more.The author summarizes the relevant mathematics required to understand current research in PDEs, especially nonlinear PDEs. While he has reworked and simplified much of the classical theory (particularly the method of characteristics), he primarily emphasizes the modern interplay between funct...

  19. Discharging a DC bus capacitor of an electrical converter system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajouke, Lateef A; Perisic, Milun; Ransom, Ray M

    2014-10-14

    A system and method of discharging a bus capacitor of a bidirectional matrix converter of a vehicle are presented here. The method begins by electrically shorting the AC interface of the converter after an AC energy source is disconnected from the AC interface. The method continues by arranging a plurality of switching elements of a second energy conversion module into a discharge configuration to establish an electrical current path from a first terminal of an isolation module, through an inductive element, and to a second terminal of the isolation module. The method also modulates a plurality of switching elements of a first energy conversion module, while maintaining the discharge configuration of the second energy conversion module, to at least partially discharge a DC bus capacitor.

  20. Continuous pile discharging machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.P.

    1976-01-01

    A device for discharging cartridges from tubes under fluid pressure includes a cylindrical housing adapted to be seated in a leak-tight manner on the end of one of the tubes, a chute depending from the cylindrical housing near the end seated on the end of the tube, a rotatable piston having a wrench on the forward end thereof disposed in the cylindrical housing and adapted to manipulate a plug in the end of the tube, and a telescopic hydraulic ram adapted to move the piston toward the plug. In addition the wrench contains a magnet which prevents inadvertent uncoupling of the wrench and the plug. 7 claims, 10 drawing figures

  1. Capacitive discharge exciplex lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sosnin, E A; Erofeev, M V; Tarasenko, V F [High Current Electronics Institute, 2/3, Akademichesky Ave., Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation)

    2005-09-07

    Simple-geometry exciplex lamps of a novel type excited by a capacitive discharge (CD-excilamps) have been investigated. An efficient radiation has been obtained on KrBr*, KrCl*, XeBr*, XeCl* molecules and I* atom. The highest values of efficiency of various working molecules are approximately 10-18%. The lifetime of the operating gas mixture in KrCl*, XeCl*, I* and XeBr* exciplex lamps excited by a CD is above 1000 h. Owing to the above-mentioned characteristics, the exciplex lamps excited by a CD are supposed to be very promising for various applications.

  2. Capacitive discharge exciplex lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosnin, E A; Erofeev, M V; Tarasenko, V F

    2005-01-01

    Simple-geometry exciplex lamps of a novel type excited by a capacitive discharge (CD-excilamps) have been investigated. An efficient radiation has been obtained on KrBr*, KrCl*, XeBr*, XeCl* molecules and I* atom. The highest values of efficiency of various working molecules are approximately 10-18%. The lifetime of the operating gas mixture in KrCl*, XeCl*, I* and XeBr* exciplex lamps excited by a CD is above 1000 h. Owing to the above-mentioned characteristics, the exciplex lamps excited by a CD are supposed to be very promising for various applications

  3. Continuous pile discharging machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Phillips P.

    1976-05-11

    A device for discharging cartridges from tubes under fluid pressure includes a cylindrical housing adapted to be seated in a leak-tight manner on the end of one of the tubes, a chute depending from the cylindrical housing near the end seated on the end of the tube, a rotatable piston having a wrench on the forward end thereof disposed in the cylindrical housing and adapted to manipulate a plug in the end of the tube, and a telescopic hydraulic ram adapted to move the piston toward the plug. In addition the wrench contains a magnet which prevents inadvertent uncoupling of the wrench and the plug.

  4. Dielectric barrier discharge processing of aerospace materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, S J; Figgures, C C; Dixon, D G

    2004-01-01

    We report the use of atmospheric pressure, air based, dielectric barrier discharges (DBD) to treat materials commonly used in the aerospace industries. The material samples were processed using a test-bed of a conventional DBD configuration in which the sample formed one of the electrodes and was placed in close proximity to a ceramic electrode. The discharges generated a powerful, cold oxidizing environment which was able to remove organic contaminants, etch primer and paint layers, oxidize aluminium and roughen carbon fibre composites by the selective removal of resin

  5. Statistical time lags in ac discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobota, A; Kanters, J H M; Van Veldhuizen, E M; Haverlag, M; Manders, F

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents statistical time lags measured for breakdown events in near-atmospheric pressure argon and xenon. Ac voltage at 100, 400 and 800 kHz was used to drive the breakdown processes, and the voltage amplitude slope was varied between 10 and 1280 V ms -1 . The values obtained for the statistical time lags are roughly between 1 and 150 ms. It is shown that the statistical time lags in ac-driven discharges follow the same general trends as the discharges driven by voltage of monotonic slope. In addition, the validity of the Cobine-Easton expression is tested at an alternating voltage form.

  6. Statistical time lags in ac discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobota, A; Kanters, J H M; Van Veldhuizen, E M; Haverlag, M [Eindhoven University of Technology, Department of Applied Physics, Postbus 513, 5600MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Manders, F, E-mail: a.sobota@tue.nl [Philips Lighting, LightLabs, Mathildelaan 1, 5600JM Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2011-04-06

    The paper presents statistical time lags measured for breakdown events in near-atmospheric pressure argon and xenon. Ac voltage at 100, 400 and 800 kHz was used to drive the breakdown processes, and the voltage amplitude slope was varied between 10 and 1280 V ms{sup -1}. The values obtained for the statistical time lags are roughly between 1 and 150 ms. It is shown that the statistical time lags in ac-driven discharges follow the same general trends as the discharges driven by voltage of monotonic slope. In addition, the validity of the Cobine-Easton expression is tested at an alternating voltage form.

  7. Optimization of partial search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korepin, Vladimir E

    2005-01-01

    A quantum Grover search algorithm can find a target item in a database faster than any classical algorithm. One can trade accuracy for speed and find a part of the database (a block) containing the target item even faster; this is partial search. A partial search algorithm was recently suggested by Grover and Radhakrishnan. Here we optimize it. Efficiency of the search algorithm is measured by the number of queries to the oracle. The author suggests a new version of the Grover-Radhakrishnan algorithm which uses a minimal number of such queries. The algorithm can run on the same hardware that is used for the usual Grover algorithm. (letter to the editor)

  8. Evaluating Annual Maximum and Partial Duration Series for Estimating Frequency of Small Magnitude Floods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazlul Karim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the nature of frequent floods is important for characterising channel morphology, riparian and aquatic habitat, and informing river restoration efforts. This paper presents results from an analysis on frequency estimates of low magnitude floods using the annual maximum and partial series data compared to actual flood series. Five frequency distribution models were fitted to data from 24 gauging stations in the Great Barrier Reef (GBR lagoon catchments in north-eastern Australia. Based on the goodness of fit test, Generalised Extreme Value, Generalised Pareto and Log Pearson Type 3 models were used to estimate flood frequencies across the study region. Results suggest frequency estimates based on a partial series are better, compared to an annual series, for small to medium floods, while both methods produce similar results for large floods. Although both methods converge at a higher recurrence interval, the convergence recurrence interval varies between catchments. Results also suggest frequency estimates vary slightly between two or more partial series, depending on flood threshold, and the differences are large for the catchments that experience less frequent floods. While a partial series produces better frequency estimates, it can underestimate or overestimate the frequency if the flood threshold differs largely compared to bankfull discharge. These results have significant implications in calculating the dependency of floodplain ecosystems on the frequency of flooding and their subsequent management.

  9. Cryogenic high current discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meierovich, B.E.

    1994-01-01

    Z-pinches formed from frozen deuterium fibers by a rapidly rising current have enhanced stability and high neutron yield. The efforts to understand the enhanced stability and neutron yield on the basis of classical picture of Bennett equilibrium of the current channel has not given satisfactory results. The traditional approach does not take into account the essential difference between the frozen deuterium fiber Z-pinches and the usual Z-pinches such as exploding wires or classical gas-puffed Z-pinches. The very low temperature of the fiber atoms (10 K), together with the rapidly rising current, result in the coexistence of a high current channel with unionized fiber atoms for a substantial period of time. This phenomena lasts during the risetime. This approach takes into account the difference of the breakdown in a dielectric deuterium fiber and the breakdown in a metallic wire. This difference is essential to the understanding of specific features of cryogenic high current discharges. Z-pinches in frozen deuterium fibers should be considered as a qualitatively new phenomenon on the boundary of cryogenic and high current physics. It is a start of a new branch in plasma physics: the physics of cryogenic high current discharges

  10. Comparison of hollow cathode discharge plasma configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farnell, Casey C; Farnell, Cody C; Williams, John D

    2011-01-01

    Hollow cathodes used in plasma contactor and electric propulsion devices provide electrons for sustaining plasma discharges and enabling plasma bridge neutralization. Life tests show erosion on hollow cathodes exposed to the plasma environment produced in the region downstream of these devices. To explain the observed erosion, plasma flow field measurements are presented for hollow cathode generated plasmas using both directly immersed probes and remotely located plasma diagnostics. Measurements on two cathode discharge configurations are presented: (1) an open, no magnetic field configuration and (2) a setup simulating the discharge chamber environment of an ion thruster. In the open cathode configuration, large amplitude plasma potential oscillations, ranging from 20 to 85 V within a 34 V discharge, were observed using a fast response emissive probe. These oscillations were observed over a dc potential profile that included a well-defined potential hill structure. A remotely located electrostatic analyzer (ESA) was used to measure the energy of ions produced within the plasma, and energies were detected that met, and in some cases exceeded, the peak oscillatory plasma potentials detected by the emissive probe. In the ion thruster discharge chamber configuration, plasma potentials from the emissive probe again agreed with ion energies recorded by the remotely located ESA; however, much lower ion energies were detected compared with the open configuration. A simplified ion-transit model that uses temporal and spatial plasma property measurements is presented and used to predict far-field plasma streaming properties. Comparisons between the model and remote measurements are presented.

  11. Evaluation of common organisms causing vaginal discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shazia A; Amir, Fauzia; Altaf, Shagufta; Tanveer, Raazia

    2009-01-01

    Vaginal discharge is very common problem among females. Alteration in balance of normal vaginal organisms can cause the overgrowth of the bacteria that creates vaginal discharge. It is common among sexually active women yet there still remain gaps in our knowledge of this infectious disorder. To evaluate the frequency of bacterial vaginosis (BV), vaginal candidiasis (VC), vaginal trichomoniasis and Group B streptococcus in women complaining of vaginal discharge in our setup. A total of 100 women of reproductive age group with the complaint of vaginal discharge were included in the study. After filling proforma patients were examined by speculum examination and two high vaginal swabs (HVS) were collected aseptically from each patient. One swab was used for making wet mount for clue cells, pus cells and for motility of Trichomonas vaginalis. The other swab was used to check pH and Amine test. The growth was confirmed by Gram staining in each case. Gardnerrella vaginalis were isolated in 28%, Group B streptococcus in 5% and T. vaginolis in 4% of women. Gardnerella vaginalis causing BV is the most common cause of vaginal discharge in otherwise healthy women of reproductive age group in our setup.

  12. Auxiliary partial liver transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.B. Reuvers (Cornelis Bastiaan)

    1986-01-01

    textabstractIn this thesis studies on auxiliary partial liver transplantation in the dog and the pig are reported. The motive to perform this study was the fact that patients with acute hepatic failure or end-stage chronic liver disease are often considered to form too great a risk for successful

  13. Partial Remission Definition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Marie Louise Max; Hougaard, Philip; Pörksen, Sven

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To validate the partial remission (PR) definition based on insulin dose-adjusted HbA1c (IDAA1c). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The IDAA1c was developed using data in 251 children from the European Hvidoere cohort. For validation, 129 children from a Danish cohort were followed from the onset...

  14. Fundamental partial compositeness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannino, Francesco; Strumia, Alessandro; Tesi, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    We construct renormalizable Standard Model extensions, valid up to the Planck scale, that give a composite Higgs from a new fundamental strong force acting on fermions and scalars. Yukawa interactions of these particles with Standard Model fermions realize the partial compositeness scenario. Unde...

  15. Partially ordered models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez, R.; Deveaux, V.

    2010-01-01

    We provide a formal definition and study the basic properties of partially ordered chains (POC). These systems were proposed to model textures in image processing and to represent independence relations between random variables in statistics (in the later case they are known as Bayesian networks).

  16. Partially Hidden Markov Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren Otto; Rissanen, Jorma

    1996-01-01

    Partially Hidden Markov Models (PHMM) are introduced. They differ from the ordinary HMM's in that both the transition probabilities of the hidden states and the output probabilities are conditioned on past observations. As an illustration they are applied to black and white image compression where...

  17. Honesty in partial logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. van der Hoek (Wiebe); J.O.M. Jaspars; E. Thijsse

    1995-01-01

    textabstractWe propose an epistemic logic in which knowledge is fully introspective and implies truth, although truth need not imply epistemic possibility. The logic is presented in sequential format and is interpreted in a natural class of partial models, called balloon models. We examine the

  18. Algebraic partial Boolean algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Derek

    2003-01-01

    Partial Boolean algebras, first studied by Kochen and Specker in the 1960s, provide the structure for Bell-Kochen-Specker theorems which deny the existence of non-contextual hidden variable theories. In this paper, we study partial Boolean algebras which are 'algebraic' in the sense that their elements have coordinates in an algebraic number field. Several of these algebras have been discussed recently in a debate on the validity of Bell-Kochen-Specker theorems in the context of finite precision measurements. The main result of this paper is that every algebraic finitely-generated partial Boolean algebra B(T) is finite when the underlying space H is three-dimensional, answering a question of Kochen and showing that Conway and Kochen's infinite algebraic partial Boolean algebra has minimum dimension. This result contrasts the existence of an infinite (non-algebraic) B(T) generated by eight elements in an abstract orthomodular lattice of height 3. We then initiate a study of higher-dimensional algebraic partial Boolean algebras. First, we describe a restriction on the determinants of the elements of B(T) that are generated by a given set T. We then show that when the generating set T consists of the rays spanning the minimal vectors in a real irreducible root lattice, B(T) is infinite just if that root lattice has an A 5 sublattice. Finally, we characterize the rays of B(T) when T consists of the rays spanning the minimal vectors of the root lattice E 8

  19. Charge Management in LISA Pathfinder: The Continuous Discharging Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Becca Elizabeth

    2018-01-01

    Test mass charging is a significant source of excess force and force noise in LISA Pathfinder (LPF). The planned design scheme for mitigation of charge induced force noise in LISA is a continuous discharge by UV light illumination. We report on analysis of a charge management experiment on-board LPF conducted during December 2016. We discuss the measurement of test mass charging noise with and without continuous UV illumination, in addition to the dynamic response in the continuous discharge scheme. Results of the continuous discharge system will be discussed for their application to operating LISA with lower test mass charge.

  20. Self-stabilized discharge filament in plane-parallel barrier discharge configuration: formation, breakdown mechanism, and memory effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschiersch, R.; Nemschokmichal, S.; Bogaczyk, M.; Meichsner, J.

    2017-10-01

    Single self-stabilized discharge filaments were investigated in the plane-parallel electrode configuration. The barrier discharge was operated inside a gap of 3 mm shielded by glass plates to both electrodes, using helium-nitrogen mixtures and a square-wave feeding voltage at a frequency of 2 kHz. The combined application of electrical measurements, ICCD camera imaging, optical emission spectroscopy and surface charge diagnostics via the electro-optic Pockels effect allowed the correlation of the discharge development in the volume and on the dielectric surfaces. The formation criteria and existence regimes were found by systematic variation of the nitrogen admixture to helium, the total pressure and the feeding voltage amplitude. Single self-stabilized discharge filaments can be operated over a wide parameter range, foremost, by significant reduction of the voltage amplitude after the operation in the microdischarge regime. Here, the outstanding importance of the surface charge memory effect on the long-term stability was pointed out by the recalculated spatio-temporally resolved gap voltage. The optical emission revealed discharge characteristics that are partially reminiscent of both the glow-like barrier discharge and the microdischarge regime, such as a Townsend pre-phase, a fast cathode-directed ionization front during the breakdown and radially propagating surface discharges during the afterglow.

  1. Diffusion of condenser water discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwakiri, Toshio

    1977-01-01

    Thermal and nuclear power stations in Japan are mostly located in coastal area, and the cooling water is discharged into sea as warm water. Recently, large interest is taken in this matter, and it is desirable to predict the diffusion of warm discharge accurately and to take effective measures for lowering the temperature. As for the methods of predicting the diffusion of warm discharge, simplified estimation, mathematical analysis and hydrographical model experiment are used corresponding to objects and conditions. As for the measures to lower temperature, the method of discharging warm water into deep sea bottom was confirmed to be very effective. In this paper, the phenomena of diffusion of warm discharge in sea, the methods of predicting the diffusion of warm discharge, and the deep sea discharge as the measure for lowering temperature are outlined. The factors concerning the diffusion of warm discharge in sea are the conditions of discharge, topography and sea state, and the diffusion is roughly divided into mixing diffusion in the vicinity of warm water outlet and eddy diffusion in distant region. It is difficult to change artificially the conditions of diffusion in distant region, and the measures of raising the rate of dilution in near region are effective, therefore the deep sea discharge is adopted. (Kako, I.)

  2. Capacity fade of LiAlyNi1-x-yCoxO2 cathode for lithium-ion batteries during accelerated calendar and cycle life tests (surface analysis of LiAlyNi1-x-yCoxO2 cathode after cycle tests in restricted depth of discharge ranges)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Shoichiro; Kinoshita, Masahiro; Hosokawa, Takashi; Morigaki, Kenichi; Nakura, Kensuke

    2014-07-01

    Cycle performance at 60 °C for a Li Al0.10Ni0.76Co0.14O2 (NCA) cathode/graphite cell was greatly improved when a DOD range in charge-discharge cycling (ΔDOD) was restricted. The deterioration mechanism was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopy-electron energy-loss spectroscopy (STEM-EELS). Only after the cycle test in the ΔDOD of 0-100%, many micro-cracks were generated in the inter-surface between the primary particles which aggregated to form the secondary particles, and a NiO-like resistance layer with Fm3m rock salt structure was formed on each primary particle which was contact with other primary particles and electrolyte. It can be concluded that the lack of contact between the primary particles with the micro-crack generation and the formation of the new resistance layer are responsible for the capacity fading and the rise in impedance during charge-discharge cycle in the wide ΔDOD.

  3. The relationship between inpatient discharge timing and emergency department boarding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Emilie S; Khare, Rahul K; Venkatesh, Arjun K; Van Roo, Ben D; Adams, James G; Reinhardt, Gilles

    2012-02-01

    Patient crowding and boarding in Emergency Departments (EDs) impair the quality of care as well as patient safety and satisfaction. Improved timing of inpatient discharges could positively affect ED boarding, and this hypothesis can be tested with computer modeling. Modeling enables analysis of the impact of inpatient discharge timing on ED boarding. Three policies were tested: a sensitivity analysis on shifting the timing of current discharge practices earlier; discharging 75% of inpatients by 12:00 noon; and discharging all inpatients between 8:00 a.m. and 4:00 p.m. A cross-sectional computer modeling analysis was conducted of inpatient admissions and discharges on weekdays in September 2007. A model of patient flow streams into and out of inpatient beds with an output of ED admitted patient boarding hours was created to analyze the three policies. A mean of 38.8 ED patients, 22.7 surgical patients, and 19.5 intensive care unit transfers were admitted to inpatient beds, and 81.1 inpatients were discharged daily on September 2007 weekdays: 70.5%, 85.6%, 82.8%, and 88.0%, respectively, occurred between noon and midnight. In the model base case, total daily admitted patient boarding hours were 77.0 per day; the sensitivity analysis showed that shifting the peak inpatient discharge time 4h earlier eliminated ED boarding, and discharging 75% of inpatients by noon and discharging all inpatients between 8:00 a.m. and 4:00 p.m. both decreased boarding hours to 3.0. Timing of inpatient discharges had an impact on the need to board admitted patients. This model demonstrates the potential to reduce or eliminate ED boarding by improving inpatient discharge timing in anticipation of the daily surge in ED demand for inpatient beds. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Heart bypass surgery - minimally invasive - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... invasive direct coronary artery bypass - discharge; MIDCAB - discharge; Robot assisted coronary artery bypass - discharge; RACAB - discharge; Keyhole ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  5. Vaginal Discharge: What's Normal, What's Not

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Vaginal Discharge: What's Normal, What's Not KidsHealth / For Teens / ... Discharge: What's Normal, What's Not Print What Is Vaginal Discharge? Vaginal discharge is fluid that comes from ...

  6. Groundwater flow in a coastal peatland and its influence on submarine groundwater discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptak, T.; Ibenthal, M.; Janssen, M.; Massmann, G.; Lenartz, B.

    2017-12-01

    Coastal peatlands are characterized by intense interactions between land and sea, comprising both a submarine discharge of fresh groundwater and inundations of the peatland with seawater. Nutrients and salts can influence the biogeochemical processes both in the shallow marine sediments and in the peatland. The determination of flow direction and quantity of groundwater flow are therefore elementary. Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) has been reported from several locations in the Baltic. The objective of this study is to quantify the exchange of fresh and brackish water across the shoreline in a coastal peatland in Northeastern Germany, and to assess the influence of a peat layer extending into the Baltic Sea. Below the peatland, a shallow fine sand aquifer differs in depth and is limited downwards by glacial till. Water level and electrical conductivity (EC) are permanently measured in different depths at eight locations in the peatland. First results indicate a general groundwater flow direction towards the sea. Electrical conductivity measurements suggest different permeabilities within the peat layer, depending on its thickness and degradation. Near the beach, EC fluctuates partially during storm events due to seawater intrusion and reverse discharge afterwards. The groundwater flow will be verified with a 3D model considering varying thicknesses of the aquifer. Permanent water level and electrical conductivity readings, meteorological data and hydraulic conductivity from slug tests and grain size analysis are the base for the calibration of the numerical model.

  7. Analysis of Multipactor Discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, Y. Y.

    2005-01-01

    Several comprehensive studies of radio frequency (rf) breakdown and rf heating are reported. They are of general interest to magnetic confinement fusion, rf linac, and high power microwave source development. The major results include: (1) a ground-breaking theory of multipactor discharge on dielectric, including a successful proof-of-principle experiment that verified the newly developed scaling laws, (2) an in depth investigation of the failure mechanisms of diamond windows and ceramic windows, and of the roles of graphitization, thin films of coating and contaminants, and (3) a most comprehensive theory, to date, on the heating of particulates by an electromagnetic pulse, and on the roles of rf magnetic field heating and of rf electric field heating, including the construction of new scaling laws that govern them. The above form a valuable knowledge base for the general problem of heating phenomenology

  8. Radioactive wastes and discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    According to the Section 24 of the Finnish Radiation Decree (1512/91), the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety shall specify the concentration and activity limits and principles for the determination whether a waste can be defined as a radioactive waste or not. The radiation safety requirements and limits for the disposal of radioactive waste are given in the guide. They must be observed when discharging radioactive waste into the atmosphere or sewer system, or when delivering solid low-activity waste to a landfill site without a separate waste disposal plan. The guide does not apply to the radioactive waste resulting from the utilization of nuclear energy of natural resources. (4 refs., 1 tab.)

  9. The use of discharge perturbations to understand in situ vegetation resistance in wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, A. M. Wasantha; Moustafa, M. Zaki; Wilcox, Walter M.

    2015-04-01

    The ability to better quantify resistance to water flow exerted by vegetation is receiving increased attention due to ongoing worldwide efforts to restore natural vegetation communities in the wetlands and use of vegetation for environmental benefits in streams and wetlands. In south Florida, vegetation resistance affects discharge through shallow wetlands of the Everglades and projects under way in the system to restore remaining natural systems. A more detailed knowledge of the flow dynamics in these wetlands is required to improve modeling of these systems that supports restoration and management efforts. The goal of this investigation is to understand the flow dynamics and the vegetation resistance within a 3 km by 7 km area in the Everglades referred to as STA-3/4 Cell 3A. Methods are developed to demonstrate the use of analytical solutions of partial differential equations (PDEs) and inverse methods to obtain bulk and spatially varying resistance parameters. To achieve this goal, a field test was conducted using sinusoidal discharge disturbances capable of creating water waves in the storm water treatment area (STAs). The discharges, wave speeds, and the wave attenuation rates from the test are used to develop graphical and empirical functions expressing discharge in terms of water depth and energy slope. The empirical functions developed are power law type, and different functions are developed for different depths. The results show that the Manning's equation is not applicable for wetlands with thick emergent vegetation, as well as the difficulty of applying a single power law-type expression for vegetation resistance over a wide range of depths and energy slopes without errors. This is partly due to the existence of multiple flow regimes and different power exponents over depth and energy slopes in these regimes. Results show that the flow regime at low depths is similar to porous media flow, and the flow regime at higher depths is more turbulent.

  10. The characteristics of SPECT images in childhood benign partial epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Shaowei; Liao Jianxiang; Liu Xiaoyan; Zheng Xiyuan; Qin Jiong; Pan Zhongyun; Zuo Qihua

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate childhood benign partial epilepsy (BPE) with SPECT. Methods: Double SPECT imaging was performed on 21 cases of BPE at the stage of wake (interval spike discharge) and sleep (spike discharge), under EEG monitoring. The transverse images were reconstructed after digital image subtraction. The quantitative analysis was conducted with brain flow change rate (BFCR) % mathematical model. Results: EEG monitoring demonstrated approximately normal background of 21 cases of BPE during the stage of wake, and spike discharge frequency markedly increased during the stage of sleep, 117 foci were showed by SPeCT in cases of BPE, and the average was 5.6 +- 1.6 foci/case. The characteristics of SPECT transverse images were 1) multiple foci of mirror, 2) mostly seen in Rolandic region, 3) circular symbol, 4) the radioactivity in foci decreased during the stage of wake (interval spike discharge) and increased during the stage of sleep (spike discharge). The concordance of SPECT and EEG was 93.1% (109/117 foci). The BFCR% of all epileptogenic foci exceeded normal limit (99% confidence interval). There was no correlation between the spike discharge frequency and BFCR% (r = 0.45, P>0.05). Conclusions: Regional cerebral blood flow and function were abnormal during the epileptogenic foci were discharging abnormally in BPE

  11. Partially composite Higgs models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alanne, Tommi; Buarque Franzosi, Diogo; Frandsen, Mads T.

    2018-01-01

    We study the phenomenology of partially composite-Higgs models where electroweak symmetry breaking is dynamically induced, and the Higgs is a mixture of a composite and an elementary state. The models considered have explicit realizations in terms of gauge-Yukawa theories with new strongly...... interacting fermions coupled to elementary scalars and allow for a very SM-like Higgs state. We study constraints on their parameter spaces from vacuum stability and perturbativity as well as from LHC results and find that requiring vacuum stability up to the compositeness scale already imposes relevant...... constraints. A small part of parameter space around the classically conformal limit is stable up to the Planck scale. This is however already strongly disfavored by LHC results. in different limits, the models realize both (partially) composite-Higgs and (bosonic) technicolor models and a dynamical extension...

  12. Arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dašić Žarko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Meniscal injuries are common in professional or recreational sports as well as in daily activities. If meniscal lesions lead to physical impairment they usually require surgical treatment. Arthroscopic treatment of meniscal injuries is one of the most often performed orthopedic operative procedures. Methods. The study analyzed the results of arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy in 213 patients in a 24-month period, from 2006, to 2008. Results. In our series of arthroscopically treated medial meniscus tears we noted 78 (36.62% vertical complete bucket handle lesions, 19 (8.92% vertical incomplete lesions, 18 (8.45% longitudinal tears, 35 (16.43% oblique tears, 18 (8.45% complex degenerative lesions, 17 (7.98% radial lesions and 28 (13.14% horisontal lesions. Mean preoperative International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC score was 49.81%, 1 month after the arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy the mean IKDC score was 84.08%, and 6 months after mean IKDC score was 90.36%. Six months after the procedure 197 (92.49% of patients had good or excellent subjective postoperative clinical outcomes, while 14 (6.57% patients subjectively did not notice a significant improvement after the intervention, and 2 (0.93% patients had no subjective improvement after the partial medial meniscectomy at all. Conclusion. Arthroscopic partial medial meniscetomy is minimally invasive diagnostic and therapeutic procedure and in well selected cases is a method of choice for treatment of medial meniscus injuries when repair techniques are not a viable option. It has small rate of complications, low morbidity and fast rehabilitation.

  13. Same-day discharge after laparoscopic hysterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perron-Burdick, Misa; Yamamoto, Miya; Zaritsky, Eve

    2011-05-01

    To estimate readmission rates and emergency care use by patients discharged home the same day after laparoscopic hysterectomy. This was a retrospective case series of patients discharged home the same-day after total or supracervical laparoscopic hysterectomy in a managed care setting. Chart reviews were performed for outcomes of interest which included readmission rates, emergency visits, and surgical and demographic characteristics. The two hysterectomy groups were compared using χ² tests for categorical variables and t tests or Wilcoxon rank-sum tests for continuously measured variables. One-thousand fifteen laparoscopic hysterectomies were performed during the 3-year study period. Fifty-two percent (n=527) of the patients were discharged home the same-day; of those, 46% (n=240) had total laparoscopic hysterectomies and 54% (n=287) had supracervical. Cumulative readmission rates were 0.6%, 3.6%, and 4.0% at 48 hours, 3 months, and 12 months, respectively. The most common readmission diagnoses included abdominal incision infection, cuff dehiscence, and vaginal bleeding. Less than 4% of patients presented for emergency care within 48 or 72 hours, most commonly for nausea or vomiting, pain, and urinary retention. Median uterine weight was 155 g, median blood loss was 70 mL, and median surgical time was 150 minutes. There was no difference in readmission rates or emergency visits for the total compared with the supracervical laparoscopic hysterectomy group. Same-day discharge after laparoscopic hysterectomy is associated with low readmission rates and minimal emergency visits in the immediate postoperative period. Same-day discharge may be a safe option for healthy patients undergoing uncomplicated laparoscopic hysterectomy.

  14. Dicarboxylic acids from electric discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitman, B.; Chang, S.; Lawless, J. G.

    1974-01-01

    An investigation was conducted concerning the possible synthesis of a suite of dicarboxylic acids similar to that found in the Murchison meteorite. The investigation included the conduction of a chemical evolution experiment which simulated electric discharge through the primitive atmosphere of the earth. The suite of dicarboxylic acids obtained in the electric discharge experiment is similar to that of the Murchison meteorite, except for the fact that 2-chlorosuccinic acid is present in the spark discharge.

  15. Hierarchical partial order ranking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsen, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Assessing the potential impact on environmental and human health from the production and use of chemicals or from polluted sites involves a multi-criteria evaluation scheme. A priori several parameters are to address, e.g., production tonnage, specific release scenarios, geographical and site-specific factors in addition to various substance dependent parameters. Further socio-economic factors may be taken into consideration. The number of parameters to be included may well appear to be prohibitive for developing a sensible model. The study introduces hierarchical partial order ranking (HPOR) that remedies this problem. By HPOR the original parameters are initially grouped based on their mutual connection and a set of meta-descriptors is derived representing the ranking corresponding to the single groups of descriptors, respectively. A second partial order ranking is carried out based on the meta-descriptors, the final ranking being disclosed though average ranks. An illustrative example on the prioritisation of polluted sites is given. - Hierarchical partial order ranking of polluted sites has been developed for prioritization based on a large number of parameters

  16. Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers.......Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers....

  17. [Automatic adjustment control system for DC glow discharge plasma source].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Zhen-zhen; Wang, Yong-qing; Li, Xiao-jia; Wang, Hai-zhou; Shi, Ning

    2011-03-01

    There are three important parameters in the DC glow discharge process, the discharge current, discharge voltage and argon pressure in discharge source. These parameters influence each other during glow discharge process. This paper presents an automatic control system for DC glow discharge plasma source. This system collects and controls discharge voltage automatically by adjusting discharge source pressure while the discharge current is constant in the glow discharge process. The design concept, circuit principle and control program of this automatic control system are described. The accuracy is improved by this automatic control system with the method of reducing the complex operations and manual control errors. This system enhances the control accuracy of glow discharge voltage, and reduces the time to reach discharge voltage stability. The glow discharge voltage stability test results with automatic control system are provided as well, the accuracy with automatic control system is better than 1% FS which is improved from 4% FS by manual control. Time to reach discharge voltage stability has been shortened to within 30 s by automatic control from more than 90 s by manual control. Standard samples like middle-low alloy steel and tin bronze have been tested by this automatic control system. The concentration analysis precision has been significantly improved. The RSDs of all the test result are better than 3.5%. In middle-low alloy steel standard sample, the RSD range of concentration test result of Ti, Co and Mn elements is reduced from 3.0%-4.3% by manual control to 1.7%-2.4% by automatic control, and that for S and Mo is also reduced from 5.2%-5.9% to 3.3%-3.5%. In tin bronze standard sample, the RSD range of Sn, Zn and Al elements is reduced from 2.6%-4.4% to 1.0%-2.4%, and that for Si, Ni and Fe is reduced from 6.6%-13.9% to 2.6%-3.5%. The test data is also shown in this paper.

  18. PARTIAL REINFORCEMENT (ACQUISITION) EFFECTS WITHIN SUBJECTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AMSEL, A; MACKINNON, J R; RASHOTTE, M E; SURRIDGE, C T

    1964-03-01

    Acquisition performance of 22 rats in a straight alley runway was examined. The animals were subjected to partial reinforcement when the alley was black (B+/-) and continuous reinforcement when it was white (W+). The results indicated (a) higher terminal performance, for partial as against continuous reinforcement conditions, for starting-time and running-time measures, and (b) lower terminal performance under partial conditions for a goal-entry-time measure. These results confirm within subjects an effect previously demonstrated, in the runway, only in between-groups tests, where one group is run under partial reinforcement and a separate group is run under continuous reinforcement in the presence of the same external stimuli. Differences between the runway situation, employing a discrete-trial procedure and performance measures at three points in the response chain, and the Skinner box situation, used in its free-operant mode with a single performance measure, are discussed in relation to the present findings.

  19. Newborn jaundice - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Biliary atresia Bili lights Bilirubin blood test Bilirubin encephalopathy Exchange transfusion Jaundice and breastfeeding Newborn jaundice Premature infant Rh incompatibility Patient Instructions Newborn ...

  20. Partially ordered algebraic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Fuchs, Laszlo

    2011-01-01

    Originally published in an important series of books on pure and applied mathematics, this monograph by a distinguished mathematician explores a high-level area in algebra. It constitutes the first systematic summary of research concerning partially ordered groups, semigroups, rings, and fields. The self-contained treatment features numerous problems, complete proofs, a detailed bibliography, and indexes. It presumes some knowledge of abstract algebra, providing necessary background and references where appropriate. This inexpensive edition of a hard-to-find systematic survey will fill a gap i

  1. Infinite partial summations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprung, D.W.L.

    1975-01-01

    This paper is a brief review of those aspects of the effective interaction problem that can be grouped under the heading of infinite partial summations of the perturbation series. After a brief mention of the classic examples of infinite summations, the author turns to the effective interaction problem for two extra core particles. Their direct interaction is summed to produce the G matrix, while their indirect interaction through the core is summed in a variety of ways under the heading of core polarization. (orig./WL) [de

  2. On universal partial words

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Herman Z. Q.; Kitaev, Sergey; Mütze, Torsten; Sun, Brian Y.

    2016-01-01

    A universal word for a finite alphabet $A$ and some integer $n\\geq 1$ is a word over $A$ such that every word in $A^n$ appears exactly once as a subword (cyclically or linearly). It is well-known and easy to prove that universal words exist for any $A$ and $n$. In this work we initiate the systematic study of universal partial words. These are words that in addition to the letters from $A$ may contain an arbitrary number of occurrences of a special `joker' symbol $\\Diamond\

  3. Partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Agranovich, M S

    2002-01-01

    Mark Vishik's Partial Differential Equations seminar held at Moscow State University was one of the world's leading seminars in PDEs for over 40 years. This book celebrates Vishik's eightieth birthday. It comprises new results and survey papers written by many renowned specialists who actively participated over the years in Vishik's seminars. Contributions include original developments and methods in PDEs and related fields, such as mathematical physics, tomography, and symplectic geometry. Papers discuss linear and nonlinear equations, particularly linear elliptic problems in angles and gener

  4. Partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Levine, Harold

    1997-01-01

    The subject matter, partial differential equations (PDEs), has a long history (dating from the 18th century) and an active contemporary phase. An early phase (with a separate focus on taut string vibrations and heat flow through solid bodies) stimulated developments of great importance for mathematical analysis, such as a wider concept of functions and integration and the existence of trigonometric or Fourier series representations. The direct relevance of PDEs to all manner of mathematical, physical and technical problems continues. This book presents a reasonably broad introductory account of the subject, with due regard for analytical detail, applications and historical matters.

  5. Partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Sloan, D; Süli, E

    2001-01-01

    /homepage/sac/cam/na2000/index.html7-Volume Set now available at special set price ! Over the second half of the 20th century the subject area loosely referred to as numerical analysis of partial differential equations (PDEs) has undergone unprecedented development. At its practical end, the vigorous growth and steady diversification of the field were stimulated by the demand for accurate and reliable tools for computational modelling in physical sciences and engineering, and by the rapid development of computer hardware and architecture. At the more theoretical end, the analytical insight in

  6. Elliptic partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Qing

    2011-01-01

    Elliptic Partial Differential Equations by Qing Han and FangHua Lin is one of the best textbooks I know. It is the perfect introduction to PDE. In 150 pages or so it covers an amazing amount of wonderful and extraordinary useful material. I have used it as a textbook at both graduate and undergraduate levels which is possible since it only requires very little background material yet it covers an enormous amount of material. In my opinion it is a must read for all interested in analysis and geometry, and for all of my own PhD students it is indeed just that. I cannot say enough good things abo

  7. Generalized Partial Volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darkner, Sune; Sporring, Jon

    2011-01-01

    Mutual Information (MI) and normalized mutual information (NMI) are popular choices as similarity measure for multimodal image registration. Presently, one of two approaches is often used for estimating these measures: The Parzen Window (PW) and the Generalized Partial Volume (GPV). Their theoret...... of view as well as w.r.t. computational complexity. Finally, we present algorithms for both approaches for NMI which is comparable in speed to Sum of Squared Differences (SSD), and we illustrate the differences between PW and GPV on a number of registration examples....

  8. Discharge cleaning for a tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Shigeyuki

    1983-01-01

    Various methods of discharge cleaning for tokamaks are described. The material of the first walls of tokamaks is usually stainless steel, inconel, titanium and so on. Hydrogen is exclusively used as the discharge gas. Glow discharge cleaning (GDC), Taylor discharge cleaning (TDC), and electron cyclotron resonance discharge cleaning (ECR-DC) are discussed in this paper. The cleaning by GDC is made by moving a movable anode to the center of a tokamak vassel. Taylor found the good cleaning effect of induced discharge by high pressure and low power discharge. This is called TDC. When the frequency of high frequency discharge in a magnetic field is equal to that of the electron cyclotron resonance, the break down potential is lowered if the pressure is sufficiently low. The ECR-CD is made by using this effect. In TDC and ECR-DC, the electron temperature, which has a close relation to the production rate of H 0 , can be controlled by the pressure. In GDC, the operating pressure was improved by the radio frequency glow (RG) method. However, there is still the danger of arcing. In case of GDC and ECR-DC, the position of plasma can be controlled, but not in case of TDC. The TDC is accepted by most of takamak devices in the world. (Kato, T.)

  9. Model and prototype investigations of upper partial load unsteady phenomena on the Francis turbine designed for head up to 120 m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Power Machines - LMZ, Saint-Petersburg, str. Vatutina 3A (Russian Federation))" data-affiliation=" (OJSC Power Machines - LMZ, Saint-Petersburg, str. Vatutina 3A (Russian Federation))" >Kuznetsov, I; Power Machines - LMZ, Saint-Petersburg, str. Vatutina 3A (Russian Federation))" data-affiliation=" (OJSC Power Machines - LMZ, Saint-Petersburg, str. Vatutina 3A (Russian Federation))" >Zakharov, A; Power Machines - LMZ, Saint-Petersburg, str. Vatutina 3A (Russian Federation))" data-affiliation=" (OJSC Power Machines - LMZ, Saint-Petersburg, str. Vatutina 3A (Russian Federation))" >Arm, V; Power Machines - LMZ, Saint-Petersburg, str. Vatutina 3A (Russian Federation))" data-affiliation=" (OJSC Power Machines - LMZ, Saint-Petersburg, str. Vatutina 3A (Russian Federation))" >Akulaev, R

    2014-01-01

    The upper partial load unsteady phenomena are often observed at model tests for Francis turbine with high and middle specific speed. It is appears approximately between 7085% of optima point discharge for constant unit speed value and has accompanied by additional phenomenon with much higher frequency than draft tube vortex precession frequency and also runner rotational frequency. There are some discussions about nature of this phenomena and transposition of unsteady model test results to the prototype. In this paper are presented the results of above mentioned phenomena model investigations and some results of investigation at prototype turbine. Based on the results of model tests the following extensive data have been obtained: pressure fluctuation in the draft tube cone and spiral case, axial force fluctuations, it is demonstrated the significant influence of cavitation on upper partial load unsteady phenomena. The result of measurements of bearing vibrations and pressure pulsations are presented for prototype turbine at corresponded or very close operation points to model. In accordance with obtained data it is demonstrated that at upper partial load operation the unsteady phenomenon is observed as for the model also for the prototype turbine. On the base of model investigation has been demonstrated the influence of air admission and special design solutions to diminish unsteady phenomena at upper partial load range. All investigations were based on the physical experiment. Thus, based on model and prototype experimental investigations it is obtained additional information about upper partial load unsteady phenomenon and confirmed the transposition of model results to prototype turbine

  10. The practice of terminal discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radha Krishna, Lalit Kumar; Murugam, Vengadasalam; Quah, Daniel Song Chiek

    2017-01-01

    'Terminal discharges' are carried out in Singapore for patients who wish to die at home. However, if due diligence is not exercised, parallels may be drawn with euthanasia. We present a theoretical discussion beginning with the definition of terminal discharges and the reasons why they are carried out in Singapore. By considering the intention behind terminal discharges and utilising a multidisciplinary team to deliberate on the clinical, social and ethical intricacies with a patient- and context-specific approach, euthanasia is avoided. It is hoped that this will provide a platform for professionals in palliative medicine to negotiate challenging issues when arranging a terminal discharge, so as to avoid the pitfall of committing euthanasia in a country such as Singapore where euthanasia is illegal. It is hoped that a set of guidelines for terminal discharges may someday be realised to assist professionals in Singapore and around the world.

  11. The ASDEX Upgrade discharge schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neu, G.; Engelhardt, K.; Raupp, G.; Treutterer, W.; Zasche, D.; Zehetbauer, T.

    2007-01-01

    ASDEX Upgrade's recently commissioned discharge control system (DCS) marks the transition from a traditional programmed system to a highly flexible 'data driven' one. The allocation of application processes (APs) to controllers, the interconnection of APs through uniquely named signals, and AP control parameter values are all defined as data, and can easily be adapted to the requirements of a particular discharge. The data is laid down in a set of XML documents which APs request via HTTP from a configuration server before a discharge. The use of XML allows for easy parsing, and structural validation through (XSD) schemas. The central input to the configuration process is the discharge schedule (DS), which embodies the dynamic behaviour of a planned discharge as reference trajectories grouped in segments, concatenated through transition conditions. Editing, generation and validation tools, and version control through CVS allow for efficient management of DSs

  12. MANAGEMENT OF VAGINAL DISCHARGE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    clinical trials and has a research interest in ... ent of the NRFs grant for research in sexually ..... as initial stream of urine and self-administered swabs ... Bedside tests of pH determination, whiff test and wet smear microscopy can easily ...

  13. Peptic ulcer disease - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or raw area in the lining of the stomach (gastric ulcer) or upper part of the small intestine (duodenal ... You have peptic ulcer disease (PUD). You may have had tests to help diagnose your ulcer. One of these tests may have ...

  14. Pulsed Corona Discharge Generated By Marx Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sretenovic, G. B.; Obradovic, B. M.; Kovacevic, V. V.; Kuraica, M. M.; Puric J.

    2010-07-01

    The pulsed plasma has a significant role in new environmental protection technologies. As a part of a pulsed corona system for pollution control applications, Marx type repetitive pulse generator was constructed and tested in arrangement with wire-plate corona reactor. We performed electrical measurements, and obtained voltage and current signals, and also power and energy delivered per pulse. Ozone formation by streamer plasma in air was chosen to monitor chemical activity of the pulsed corona discharge.

  15. Unilateral removable partial dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodall, W A; Greer, A C; Martin, N

    2017-01-27

    Removable partial dentures (RPDs) are widely used to replace missing teeth in order to restore both function and aesthetics for the partially dentate patient. Conventional RPD design is frequently bilateral and consists of a major connector that bridges both sides of the arch. Some patients cannot and will not tolerate such an extensive appliance. For these patients, bridgework may not be a predictable option and it is not always possible to provide implant-retained restorations. This article presents unilateral RPDs as a potential treatment modality for such patients and explores indications and contraindications for their use, including factors relating to patient history, clinical presentation and patient wishes. Through case examples, design, material and fabrication considerations will be discussed. While their use is not widespread, there are a number of patients who benefit from the provision of unilateral RPDs. They are a useful treatment to have in the clinician's armamentarium, but a highly-skilled dental team and a specific patient presentation is required in order for them to be a reasonable and predictable prosthetic option.

  16. The partial Siberian snake experiment at the Brookhaven AGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H.; Caussyn, D.D.; Ellison, T.; Jones, B.; Lee, S.Y.; Schwandt, P.; Ahren, L.; Alessi, J.; Bleser, E.J.; Bunce, G.; Cameron, P.; Courant, E.D.; Foelsche, H.W.; Gardner, C.J.; Geller, J.; Lee, Y.Y.; Makdisi, Y.I.; Mane, S.R.; Ratner, L.; Reece, K.; Roser, T.; Skelly, J.F.; Soukas, A.; Tepikian, S.; Thern, R.E.; van Asselt, W.; Spinka, H.; Teng, L.; Underwood, D.G.; Yokosawa, A.; Wienands, U.; Bharadwaj, V.; Hsueh, S.; Hiramatsu, S.; Mori, Y.; Sato, H.; Yokoya, K.

    1992-01-01

    We are building a 4.7 Tesla-meter room temperature solenoid to be installed in a 10-foot long AGS straight section. This experiment will test the idea of using a partial snake to correct all depolarizing imperfection resonances and also test the feasibility of betatron tune jump in correction intrinsic resonances in the presence of a partial snake

  17. Tutorial on Online Partial Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William R. Cook

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a short tutorial introduction to online partial evaluation. We show how to write a simple online partial evaluator for a simple, pure, first-order, functional programming language. In particular, we show that the partial evaluator can be derived as a variation on a compositionally defined interpreter. We demonstrate the use of the resulting partial evaluator for program optimization in the context of model-driven development.

  18. Improving Posthospital Discharge Telephone Reach Rates Through Prehospital Discharge Face-to-Face Meetings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara, Franz H; Sheridan, Daniel J; Sullivan, Nancy J; Budhathoki, Chakra

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether a face-to-face meeting with patients by a telephonic case manager prehospital discharge would result in increased telephone follow-up (TFU) reach rates posthospital discharge. Acute care adult medicine inpatient units. A quasiexperimental design was utilized. Two adult inpatient medicine units were selected as the intervention and comparison groups. The framework of the study is the transitions theory. A convenience sampling technique was used, whereby 88 eligible patients on the intervention unit received face-to-face meetings prehospital discharge whereas 123 patients on the comparison unit received standard care (no face-to-face meetings). Cross-tabulation and chi-square tests were employed to examine the association of face-to-face meeting intervention and TFU reach rates. Implementing brief (face-to-face meetings by a telephonic case manager prehospital discharge resulted in a TFU reach rate of 87% on the intervention unit, whereas the comparison unit only had a 58% TFU reach rate (p communication with more patients posthospital discharge. A brief prehospital discharge face-to-face meeting with patients assisted them to understand the reasons for a posthospital discharge telephone call, identified the best times to call using accurate telephone numbers, and taught patients how best to prepare for the call. In addition, by meeting patients face-to-face, the telephonic case manager was no longer an unknown person on the telephone asking them questions about their medical condition. These factors combined may have significantly helped to increase TFU reach rates.

  19. Type-Directed Partial Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier

    1998-01-01

    Type-directed partial evaluation uses a normalization function to achieve partial evaluation. These lecture notes review its background, foundations, practice, and applications. Of specific interest is the modular technique of offline and online type-directed partial evaluation in Standard ML...

  20. Type-Directed Partial Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier

    1998-01-01

    Type-directed partial evaluation uses a normalization function to achieve partial evaluation. These lecture notes review its background, foundations, practice, and applications. Of specific interest is the modular technique of offline and online type-directed partial evaluation in Standard ML of ...

  1. Discharge Planning in Chronic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMartin, K

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronically ill people experience frequent changes in health status accompanied by multiple transitions between care settings and care providers. Discharge planning provides support services, follow-up activities, and other interventions that span pre-hospital discharge to post-hospital settings. Objective To determine if discharge planning is effective at reducing health resource utilization and improving patient outcomes compared with standard care alone. Data Sources A standard systematic literature search was conducted for studies published from January 1, 2004, until December 13, 2011. Review Methods Reports, randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses with 1 month or more of follow-up and limited to specified chronic conditions were examined. Outcomes included mortality/survival, readmissions and emergency department (ED) visits, hospital length of stay (LOS), health-related quality of life (HRQOL), and patient satisfaction. Results One meta-analysis compared individualized discharge planning to usual care and found a significant reduction in readmissions favouring individualized discharge planning. A second meta-analysis compared comprehensive discharge planning with postdischarge support to usual care. There was a significant reduction in readmissions favouring discharge planning with postdischarge support. However, there was significant statistical heterogeneity. For both meta-analyses there was a nonsignificant reduction in mortality between the study arms. Limitations There was difficulty in distinguishing the relative contribution of each element within the terms “discharge planning” and “postdischarge support.” For most studies, “usual care” was not explicitly described. Conclusions Compared with usual care, there was moderate quality evidence that individualized discharge planning is more effective at reducing readmissions or hospital LOS but not mortality, and very low quality evidence that it is more

  2. Recurrent vaginal discharge in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGreal, Sharon; Wood, Paul

    2013-08-01

    Childhood vaginal discharge remains a frequent reason for referral from primary to secondary care. The Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology (PAG) service at Kettering General Hospital was established in 1993 and provides a specialized service that meets the needs of children with gynaecological conditions. To investigate recurrent vaginal discharge noting symptomatology, defining pathogens, common and rarer causes, exploring management regimes, and any changes in practice over time. Retrospective review spanning 15 years identifying prepubertal children attending the outpatient PAG clinic with recurrent vaginal discharge. We reviewed the medical notes individually. 110 patients were identified; 85% were referred from primary care. The age distribution was bimodal at four and eight years. Thirty-five percent of our patients were discharged after the initial consultation. The commonest cause of discharge was vulvovaginitis (82%). Other important causes included suspected sexual abuse (5%), foreign body (3%), labial adhesions (3%), vaginal agenesis (2%). 35% of patients were admitted for vaginoscopy. Vaginal discharge is the most common gynecological symptom in prepubertal girls and can cause repeated clinical episodes. Vulvovaginitis is the most common cause and often responds to simple hygiene measures. Awareness of the less common causes of vaginal discharge is essential. Copyright © 2013 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Applied partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Logan, J David

    2004-01-01

    This primer on elementary partial differential equations presents the standard material usually covered in a one-semester, undergraduate course on boundary value problems and PDEs. What makes this book unique is that it is a brief treatment, yet it covers all the major ideas: the wave equation, the diffusion equation, the Laplace equation, and the advection equation on bounded and unbounded domains. Methods include eigenfunction expansions, integral transforms, and characteristics. Mathematical ideas are motivated from physical problems, and the exposition is presented in a concise style accessible to science and engineering students; emphasis is on motivation, concepts, methods, and interpretation, rather than formal theory. This second edition contains new and additional exercises, and it includes a new chapter on the applications of PDEs to biology: age structured models, pattern formation; epidemic wave fronts, and advection-diffusion processes. The student who reads through this book and solves many of t...

  4. Inductance loop and partial

    CERN Document Server

    Paul, Clayton R

    2010-01-01

    "Inductance is an unprecedented text, thoroughly discussing "loop" inductance as well as the increasingly important "partial" inductance. These concepts and their proper calculation are crucial in designing modern high-speed digital systems. World-renowned leader in electromagnetics Clayton Paul provides the knowledge and tools necessary to understand and calculate inductance." "With the present and increasing emphasis on high-speed digital systems and high-frequency analog systems, it is imperative that system designers develop an intimate understanding of the concepts and methods in this book. Inductance is a much-needed textbook designed for senior and graduate-level engineering students, as well as a hands-on guide for working engineers and professionals engaged in the design of high-speed digital and high-frequency analog systems."--Jacket.

  5. Fundamental partial compositeness

    CERN Document Server

    Sannino, Francesco

    2016-11-07

    We construct renormalizable Standard Model extensions, valid up to the Planck scale, that give a composite Higgs from a new fundamental strong force acting on fermions and scalars. Yukawa interactions of these particles with Standard Model fermions realize the partial compositeness scenario. Successful models exist because gauge quantum numbers of Standard Model fermions admit a minimal enough 'square root'. Furthermore, right-handed SM fermions have an SU(2)$_R$-like structure, yielding a custodially-protected composite Higgs. Baryon and lepton numbers arise accidentally. Standard Model fermions acquire mass at tree level, while the Higgs potential and flavor violations are generated by quantum corrections. We further discuss accidental symmetries and other dynamical features stemming from the new strongly interacting scalars. If the same phenomenology can be obtained from models without our elementary scalars, they would reappear as composite states.

  6. Fundamental partial compositeness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sannino, Francesco; Strumia, Alessandro; Tesi, Andrea; Vigiani, Elena

    2016-01-01

    We construct renormalizable Standard Model extensions, valid up to the Planck scale, that give a composite Higgs from a new fundamental strong force acting on fermions and scalars. Yukawa interactions of these particles with Standard Model fermions realize the partial compositeness scenario. Under certain assumptions on the dynamics of the scalars, successful models exist because gauge quantum numbers of Standard Model fermions admit a minimal enough ‘square root’. Furthermore, right-handed SM fermions have an SU(2)_R-like structure, yielding a custodially-protected composite Higgs. Baryon and lepton numbers arise accidentally. Standard Model fermions acquire mass at tree level, while the Higgs potential and flavor violations are generated by quantum corrections. We further discuss accidental symmetries and other dynamical features stemming from the new strongly interacting scalars. If the same phenomenology can be obtained from models without our elementary scalars, they would reappear as composite states.

  7. Partial oxidation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najjar, M.S.

    1987-01-01

    A process is described for the production of gaseous mixtures comprising H/sub 2/+CO by the partial oxidation of a fuel feedstock comprising a heavy liquid hydrocarbonaceous fuel having a nickel, iron, and vanadium-containing ash or petroleum coke having a nickel, iron, and vanadium-containing ash, or mixtures thereof. The feedstock includes a minimum of 0.5 wt. % of sulfur and the ash includes a minimum of 5.0 wt. % vanadium, a minimum of 0.5 ppm nickel, and a minimum of 0.5 ppm iron. The process comprises: (1) mixing together a copper-containing additive with the fuel feedstock; wherein the weight ratio of copper-containing additive to ash in the fuel feedstock is in the range of about 1.0-10.0, and there is at least 10 parts by weight of copper for each part by weight of vanadium; (2) reacting the mixture from (1) at a temperature in the range of 2200 0 F to 2900 0 F and a pressure in the range of about 5 to 250 atmospheres in a free-flow refactory lined partial oxidation reaction zone with a free-oxygen containing gas in the presence of a temperature moderator and in a reducing atmosphere to produce a hot raw effluent gas stream comprising H/sub 2/+CO and entrained molten slag; and where in the reaction zone and the copper-containing additive combines with at least a portion of the nickel and iron constituents and sulfur found in the feedstock to produce a liquid phase washing agent that collects and transports at least a portion of the vanadium-containing oxide laths and spinels and other ash components and refractory out of the reaction zone; and (3) separating nongaseous materials from the hot raw effluent gas stream

  8. Legal aspects of thermal discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, A.J.

    1974-01-01

    An overview of those legal areas which directly affect technical and planning decisions is presented in the form of 2 legal approaches which constrain the indiscriminate release of thermal discharges to receiving waters. One takes the form of private remedies which have traditionally been available to aggrieved parties who are in some way damaged by the harmful discharge. The 2nd approach utilizes the various statutory constraints leading to direct governmental action. It appears that statutory law is playing the prominent role in restricting the temperature to which receiving waters may be raised as a result of such discharges by using effluent limitations and water quality standards. (Water Resour. Abstr.)

  9. An introduction to gas discharges

    CERN Document Server

    Howatson, A M

    2013-01-01

    An Introduction to Gas Discharges: Second Edition aims to provide a compact introduction to the subject of gas discharges, which continues to make both scientific and industrial progress. In this second edition, the author has made minor corrections, rewritten and expanded some sections, used SI units and modernized notions, in hopes of making the book more up to date. Included in the book is a short history of the subject, an introduction that enumerates the types of gas discharges, the fundamental processes, and then moves on to the more specific areas such as the breakdown, the self-sustai

  10. CQI project improves discharge process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-08-01

    At Gibson Rehab Center in Williamsport, PA, a continuous quality improvement project to bolster the institution's discharge planning process has resulted in increased satisfaction and an award for quality. The 15-month project was spearheaded by a multidisciplinary team charged with identifying areas that had a significant impact on customer service and suggesting better ways of delivering that service. Among the changes the group suggested were establishing a weekly discharge planning group for new neuro patients, assigning a discharge coordinator for each treatment team, and creating an interdisciplinary communication sheet for the home health therapy staff.

  11. Modeling the probability distribution of peak discharge for infiltrating hillslopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiamonte, Giorgio; Singh, Vijay P.

    2017-07-01

    Hillslope response plays a fundamental role in the prediction of peak discharge at the basin outlet. The peak discharge for the critical duration of rainfall and its probability distribution are needed for designing urban infrastructure facilities. This study derives the probability distribution, denoted as GABS model, by coupling three models: (1) the Green-Ampt model for computing infiltration, (2) the kinematic wave model for computing discharge hydrograph from the hillslope, and (3) the intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) model for computing design rainfall intensity. The Hortonian mechanism for runoff generation is employed for computing the surface runoff hydrograph. Since the antecedent soil moisture condition (ASMC) significantly affects the rate of infiltration, its effect on the probability distribution of peak discharge is investigated. Application to a watershed in Sicily, Italy, shows that with the increase of probability, the expected effect of ASMC to increase the maximum discharge diminishes. Only for low values of probability, the critical duration of rainfall is influenced by ASMC, whereas its effect on the peak discharge seems to be less for any probability. For a set of parameters, the derived probability distribution of peak discharge seems to be fitted by the gamma distribution well. Finally, an application to a small watershed, with the aim to test the possibility to arrange in advance the rational runoff coefficient tables to be used for the rational method, and a comparison between peak discharges obtained by the GABS model with those measured in an experimental flume for a loamy-sand soil were carried out.

  12. Vaginal itching and discharge - child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruritus vulvae; Itching - vaginal area; Vulvar itching; Yeast infection - child ... Common causes of vaginal itching and discharge in young girls include: Chemicals such as perfumes and dyes in detergents, fabric softeners, creams, ointments, ...

  13. Microwave discharges in capillary tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dervisevic, Emil

    1984-01-01

    This research thesis aims at being a contribution to the study of microwave discharge by a surface wave, and more precisely focusses on the discharge in capillary tubes filled with argon. The author first present theoretical models which describe, on the one hand, the propagation of the surface wave along the plasma column, and, on the other hand, longitudinal and radial profiles of the main discharge characteristics. The second part addresses the study of the influence of parameters (gas pressure and tube radius) on discharge operation and characteristics. Laws of similitude as well as empirical relationships between argon I and argon II emission line intensities, electron density, and electric field in the plasma have been established [fr

  14. Ion source of discharge type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enchevich, I.B. [TRIUMF, Cyclotron Div., Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Korenev, S.A. [JINR, Hihg Energy Physics Lab., Dubna, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1992-07-01

    A new scheme of ion source based on a dielectric surface sliding discharge is described. The conditions to form this type of discharge are analyzed and experimental results are shown. The main parameters of this ion source are: accelerating voltage U = 1/20kV; continuous extracted ion beam; current density j = 0.01/0.5 A/cm{sup 2}; ions of Cl, F, C, H; residual gas pressure P = 10{sup -6} Torr. A magnetic system is used to separate the different types of ions. The dielectric material in the discharge circuit (anode plasma emitter) defines the type of ions. The emission characteristics of plasma emitter and the discharge parameters are presented. The ion current yield satisfies the Child-Langmuir law. (author)

  15. Ion source of discharge type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enchevich, I.B.; Korenev, S.A.

    1992-07-01

    A new scheme of ion source based on a dielectric surface sliding discharge is described. The conditions to form this type of discharge are analyzed and experimental results are shown. The main parameters of this ion source are: accelerating voltage U = 1/20kV; continuous extracted ion beam; current density j = 0.01/0.5 A/cm 2 ; ions of Cl, F, C, H; residual gas pressure P = 10 -6 Torr. A magnetic system is used to separate the different types of ions. The dielectric material in the discharge circuit (anode plasma emitter) defines the type of ions. The emission characteristics of plasma emitter and the discharge parameters are presented. The ion current yield satisfies the Child-Langmuir law. (author)

  16. Estimation of combined sewer overflow discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahm, Malte; Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Nielsen, Jesper Ellerbæk

    2016-01-01

    Combined sewer overflow (CSO) structures are constructed to effectively discharge excess water during heavy rainfall, to protect the urban drainage system from hydraulic overload. Consequently, most CSO structures are not constructed according to basic hydraulic principles for ideal measurement......-balance in combined sewer catchments. A closed mass-balance is an advantage for calibration of all urban drainage models based on mass-balance principles. This study presents three different software sensor concepts based on local water level sensors, which can be used to estimate CSO discharge volumes from hydraulic...... complex CSO structures. The three concepts was tested and verified under real practical conditions. All three concepts were accurate when compared to electromagnetic flow measurements....

  17. Early Home Supported Discharge of Stroke Patients:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben; Olsen, T. Skyhøj; Sørensen, Jan

    2006-01-01

    : A systematic literature search for randomized trials (RCTs) on "early supported discharge" was closed in April 2005. RCTs on EHSD without information on (i) death or institution at follow-up, (ii) change in Barthél Index, (iii) length of hospital stay, (iv) intensity of home rehabilitation, or (v) baseline...... data are excluded. Seven RCTs on EHSD with 1,108 patients followed 3-12 months after discharge are selected for statistical meta-analysis of outcomes. The costs are calculated as a function of the average number of home training sessions. Economic evaluation is organized as a test of dominance (both...... of death is not significant. Length of stay is significantly reduced by 10 days (CI, 2.6-18 days). All outcomes have a nonsignificant positive covariance. The median number of home sessions is eleven, and the average cost per EHSD is 1,340 USD. The "action mechanism" and financial barriers to EHSD...

  18. Radioactive discharges from Sellafield (UK)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pentreath, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    This study of low-level liquid radioactive discharges from the British Nuclear Fuels Ltd Sellafield site into the eastern basin of the Irish Sea, prepared on the basis of existing publications and documents, reviews chemical forms and rate of discharges, physical oceanography, sediment distribution and fisheries of the Irish Sea, behaviour of radionuclides in seawater, association with sedimentary materials, accumulation of radionuclides by biological materials, environmental monitoring, surveillance and assessment of radiation exposure of the public and impact on the environment

  19. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - adults - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... coughing up dark mucus Your fingertips or the skin around your fingernails are blue Alternative Names COPD - adults - discharge; Chronic obstructive airways disease - adults - discharge; Chronic obstructive lung disease - adults - discharge; ...

  20. Ballooning stability of JET discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huysmans, G.T.A.; Goedbloed, J.P.; Galvao, R.M.O.; Lazzaro, E.; Smeulders, P.

    1989-01-01

    Conditions under which ballooning modes are expected to be excited have recently been obtained in two different types of discharges in JET. In the first type, extremely large pressure gradients have been produced in the plasma core through pellet injections in the current rise phase followed by strong additional heating. In the second type, the total pressure of the discharge is approaching the Troyon limit. The stability of these discharges with respect to the ideal MHD ballooning modes has been studied with the stability code HBT. The equilibria are reconstructed with the IDENTC code using the external magnetic measurements and the experimental pressure profile. The results show that the evaluated high beta discharge is unstable in the central region of the plasma. This instability is related to the low shear and not to a large pressure gradient, as expected at the Troyon limit. In the pellet discharges the regions with the large pressure gradients are unstable to ballooning modes at the time of the beta decay, which ends the period of enhanced performance. The maximum pressure gradient in these discharges is limited by the boundary of the first region of stability. The observed phenomena at the beta decay are similar to those observed at the beta limit in DIII-D and TFTR. (author)