WorldWideScience

Sample records for part ii numerical

  1. Numerical Relativity, Black Hole Mergers, and Gravitational Waves: Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centrella, Joan

    2012-01-01

    This series of 3 lectures will present recent developments in numerical relativity, and their applications to simulating black hole mergers and computing the resulting gravitational waveforms. In this second lecture, we focus on simulations of black hole binary mergers. We hig hlight the instabilities that plagued the codes for many years, the r ecent breakthroughs that led to the first accurate simulations, and the current state of the art.

  2. Modeling multibody systems with uncertainties. Part II: Numerical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandu, Corina; Sandu, Adrian; Ahmadian, Mehdi

    2006-01-01

    This study applies generalized polynomial chaos theory to model complex nonlinear multibody dynamic systems operating in the presence of parametric and external uncertainty. Theoretical and computational aspects of this methodology are discussed in the companion paper 'Modeling Multibody Dynamic Systems With Uncertainties. Part I: Theoretical and Computational Aspects .In this paper we illustrate the methodology on selected test cases. The combined effects of parametric and forcing uncertainties are studied for a quarter car model. The uncertainty distributions in the system response in both time and frequency domains are validated against Monte-Carlo simulations. Results indicate that polynomial chaos is more efficient than Monte Carlo and more accurate than statistical linearization. The results of the direct collocation approach are similar to the ones obtained with the Galerkin approach. A stochastic terrain model is constructed using a truncated Karhunen-Loeve expansion. The application of polynomial chaos to differential-algebraic systems is illustrated using the constrained pendulum problem. Limitations of the polynomial chaos approach are studied on two different test problems, one with multiple attractor points, and the second with a chaotic evolution and a nonlinear attractor set. The overall conclusion is that, despite its limitations, generalized polynomial chaos is a powerful approach for the simulation of multibody dynamic systems with uncertainties

  3. Modeling multibody systems with uncertainties. Part II: Numerical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandu, Corina, E-mail: csandu@vt.edu; Sandu, Adrian; Ahmadian, Mehdi [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Mechanical Engineering Department (United States)

    2006-04-15

    This study applies generalized polynomial chaos theory to model complex nonlinear multibody dynamic systems operating in the presence of parametric and external uncertainty. Theoretical and computational aspects of this methodology are discussed in the companion paper 'Modeling Multibody Dynamic Systems With Uncertainties. Part I: Theoretical and Computational Aspects .In this paper we illustrate the methodology on selected test cases. The combined effects of parametric and forcing uncertainties are studied for a quarter car model. The uncertainty distributions in the system response in both time and frequency domains are validated against Monte-Carlo simulations. Results indicate that polynomial chaos is more efficient than Monte Carlo and more accurate than statistical linearization. The results of the direct collocation approach are similar to the ones obtained with the Galerkin approach. A stochastic terrain model is constructed using a truncated Karhunen-Loeve expansion. The application of polynomial chaos to differential-algebraic systems is illustrated using the constrained pendulum problem. Limitations of the polynomial chaos approach are studied on two different test problems, one with multiple attractor points, and the second with a chaotic evolution and a nonlinear attractor set. The overall conclusion is that, despite its limitations, generalized polynomial chaos is a powerful approach for the simulation of multibody dynamic systems with uncertainties.

  4. A thermoelectric power generating heat exchanger: Part IINumerical modeling and optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarhadi, Ali; Bjørk, Rasmus; Lindeburg, Niels; Viereck, Peter; Pryds, Nini

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A comprehensive model was developed to optimize the integrated TEG-heat exchanger. • The developed model was validated with the experimental data. • The effect of using different interface materials on the output power was assessed. • The influence of TEG arrangement on the power production was investigated. • Optimized geometrical parameters and proper interface materials were suggested. - Abstract: In Part I of this study, the performance of an experimental integrated thermoelectric generator (TEG)-heat exchanger was presented. In the current study, Part II, the obtained experimental results are compared with those predicted by a finite element (FE) model. In the simulation of the integrated TEG-heat exchanger, the thermal contact resistance between the TEG and the heat exchanger is modeled assuming either an ideal thermal contact or using a combined Cooper–Mikic–Yovanovich (CMY) and parallel plate gap formulation, which takes into account the contact pressure, roughness and hardness of the interface surfaces as well as the air gap thermal resistance at the interface. The combined CMY and parallel plate gap model is then further developed to simulate the thermal contact resistance for the case of an interface material. The numerical results show good agreement with the experimental data with an average deviation of 17% for the case without interface material and 12% in the case of including additional material at the interfaces. The model is then employed to evaluate the power production of the integrated system using different interface materials, including graphite, aluminum (Al), tin (Sn) and lead (Pb) in a form of thin foils. The numerical results show that lead foil at the interface has the best performance, with an improvement in power production of 34% compared to graphite foil. Finally, the model predicts that for a certain flow rate, increasing the parallel TEG channels for the integrated systems with 4, 8, and 12 TEGs

  5. Experimental investigation and numerical modeling of carbonation process in reinforced concrete structures Part II. Practical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saetta, Anna V.; Vitaliani, Renato V.

    2005-01-01

    The mathematical-numerical method developed by the authors to predict the corrosion initiation time of reinforced concrete structures due to carbonation process, recalled in Part I of this work, is here applied to some real cases. The final aim is to develop and test a practical method for determining the durability characteristics of existing buildings liable to carbonation, as well as estimating the corrosion initiation time of a building at the design stage. Two industrial sheds with different ages and located in different areas have been analyzed performing both experimental tests and numerical analyses. Finally, a case of carbonation-induced failure in a prestressed r.c. beam is presented

  6. A thermoelectric power generating heat exchanger: Part IINumerical modeling and optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarhadi, Ali; Bjørk, Rasmus; Lindeburg, N.

    2016-01-01

    In Part I of this study, the performance of an experimental integrated thermoelectric generator (TEG)-heat exchanger was presented. In the current study, Part II, the obtained experimental results are compared with those predicted by a finite element (FE) model. In the simulation of the integrated...... TEG-heat exchanger, the thermal contact resistance between the TEG and the heat exchanger is modeled assuming either an ideal thermal contact or using a combined Cooper–Mikic–Yovanovich (CMY) and parallel plate gap formulation, which takes into account the contact pressure, roughness and hardness...

  7. Quantitative impact of aerosols on numerical weather prediction. Part II: Impacts to IR radiance assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquis, J. W.; Campbell, J. R.; Oyola, M. I.; Ruston, B. C.; Zhang, J.

    2017-12-01

    This is part II of a two-part series examining the impacts of aerosol particles on weather forecasts. In this study, the aerosol indirect effects on weather forecasts are explored by examining the temperature and moisture analysis associated with assimilating dust contaminated hyperspectral infrared radiances. The dust induced temperature and moisture biases are quantified for different aerosol vertical distribution and loading scenarios. The overall impacts of dust contamination on temperature and moisture forecasts are quantified over the west coast of Africa, with the assistance of aerosol retrievals from AERONET, MPL, and CALIOP. At last, methods for improving hyperspectral infrared data assimilation in dust contaminated regions are proposed.

  8. Sub-impacts of simply supported beam struck by steel sphere—part II: Numerical simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Qi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This part of the article describes numerical simulations of the problem investigated experimentally. A three-dimensional finite element model of elastic–plastic for sphere falling on beam has been implemented using the nonlinear dynamic finite element software LS-DYNA. From the numerical simulations, it was found that the LS-DYNA is suitable to study complex sub-impact phenomenon, and good agreement is in general obtained between the simulation and experimental results. The numerical simulations show that the initial impact velocity, equivalent elasticity modulus, contact curvature radius of the sphere, and equivalent mass have great influence on the contact–impact time of the sub-impact, and an applicable range of the theoretical expression of contact–impact time of the sub-impact was determined. In addition, the numerical simulations demonstrate the ratios of maximum amplitudes of the first-, second-, and third-order vibrations to the maximum amplitudes of the beam vibrations, and the phase angle of the first-order vibration will change suddenly when the sub-impacts occur. Furthermore, the occurrence conditions of the sub-impacts were clarified numerically. It was found that the occurrence conditions of the sub-impacts can be represented by a mass ratio threshold, and the thickness or length of the beam has also a great influence on the occurrence of the sub-impacts. Once the sub-impacts occur, which would result in an uncertain behavior of the apparent coefficient of restitution.

  9. Quasi-direct numerical simulation of a pebble bed configuration, Part-II: Temperature field analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shams, A.; Roelofs, F.; Komen, E.M.J.; Baglietto, E.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Quasi direct numerical simulations (q-DNSs) of a pebble bed configuration have been performed. ► This q-DNS database may serve as a reference for the validation of different turbulence modeling approaches. ► A wide range of qualitative and quantitative data throughout the computational domain has been generated. ► Results for mean, RMS of temperature and respective turbulent heat fluxes are extensively reported in this paper. -- Abstract: Good prediction of the flow and heat transfer phenomena in the pebble bed core of a high temperature reactor (HTR) is a challenge for available turbulence models, which still require to be validated. While experimental data are generally desirable in this validation process, due to the complex geometric configuration and measurement difficulties, a very limited amount of data is currently available. On the other hand, direct numerical simulation (DNS) is considered an accurate simulation technique, which may serve as an alternative for validating turbulence models. In the framework of the present study, quasi-direct numerical simulation (q-DNS) of a single face cubic centered pebble bed is performed, which will serve as a reference for the validation of different turbulence modeling approaches in order to perform calculations for a randomly arranged pebble bed. These simulations were performed at a Reynolds number of 3088, based on pebble diameter, with a porosity level of 0.42. Results related to flow field (mean, RMS and covariance of velocity) have been presented in Part-I, whereas, in the present article, we focus our attention to the analysis of the temperature field. A wide range of qualitative and quantitative data for the thermal field (mean, RMS and turbulent heat flux) has been generated

  10. Study of a phase change energy storage using spherical capsules. Part II: Numerical modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedecarrats, J.P.; Castaing-Lasvignottes, J.; Strub, F.; Dumas, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this work is the numerical study of an industrial process of energy storage which consists in the use of a cylindrical tank filled with encapsulated phase change materials (PCM). A particularity is present in this kind of processes; it concerns the delay of the crystallization of the PCM, called supercooling phenomenon. The development of the model for cold storage with heat transfer fluid flowing enables a detailed analysis of this process. The effects of different parameters on the behaviour of the tank, such as the inlet temperature, the flow rate, are examined when the tank is in vertical position. There is substantial agreement between the prediction and the experimental values already presented in part I.

  11. Adaptive Core Simulation Employing Discrete Inverse Theory - Part II: Numerical Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Khalik, Hany S.; Turinsky, Paul J.

    2005-01-01

    Use of adaptive simulation is intended to improve the fidelity and robustness of important core attribute predictions such as core power distribution, thermal margins, and core reactivity. Adaptive simulation utilizes a selected set of past and current reactor measurements of reactor observables, i.e., in-core instrumentation readings, to adapt the simulation in a meaningful way. The companion paper, ''Adaptive Core Simulation Employing Discrete Inverse Theory - Part I: Theory,'' describes in detail the theoretical background of the proposed adaptive techniques. This paper, Part II, demonstrates several computational experiments conducted to assess the fidelity and robustness of the proposed techniques. The intent is to check the ability of the adapted core simulator model to predict future core observables that are not included in the adaption or core observables that are recorded at core conditions that differ from those at which adaption is completed. Also, this paper demonstrates successful utilization of an efficient sensitivity analysis approach to calculate the sensitivity information required to perform the adaption for millions of input core parameters. Finally, this paper illustrates a useful application for adaptive simulation - reducing the inconsistencies between two different core simulator code systems, where the multitudes of input data to one code are adjusted to enhance the agreement between both codes for important core attributes, i.e., core reactivity and power distribution. Also demonstrated is the robustness of such an application

  12. Prediction of 222 Rn exhalation rates from phosphogypsum based stacks. Part II: preliminary numerical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabi, Jose A.; Mohamad, Abdulmajeed A.

    2004-01-01

    The first part of this paper proposes a steady-state 2-D model for 222 Rn transport in phosphogypsum stacks. In this second part, the dimensionless model equations are solved numerically with the help of an existing finite-volume simulator that has been successfully used to solve heat and mass transfer problems in porous media. As a test case, a rectangular shaped stack is considered in order to verify the ability of the proposed parametric approach to account for concurrent effects on the 222 Rn exhalation into the local atmosphere. Air flow is supposed to be strictly buoyancy driven and the ground is assumed to be impermeable to 222 Rn and at a higher temperature under the stack base. Dimensionless controlling parameters are set to representative values and results are presented for Grashof number in the range 10 6 ≤Gr≤ 10 8 , corresponding to very small to small temperature differences between incoming air and ground underneath the stack base. For the particular set of parameters and inasmuch as Gr increases, streamlines presented basically the same pattern while internal isotherms and iso concentration lines remained almost unchanged. Total average Sherwood number proved to be rather insensitive to Gr while total average Nusselt increased slightly with Gr. (author)

  13. Part I. Inviscid, swirling flows and vortex breakdown. Part II. A numerical investigation of the Lundgren turbulence model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buntine, J.D.

    1994-01-01

    Part I. A study of the behaviour of an inviscid, swirling fluid is performed. This flow can be described by the Squire-Long equation if the constraints of time-independence and axisymmetry are invoked. The particular case of flow through a diverging pipe is selected and a study is conducted to determine over what range of parameters does a solution exist. The work is performed with a view to understanding how the phenomenon of vortex breakdown develops. Experiments and previous numerical studies have indicated that the flow is sensitive to boundary conditions particularly at the pipe inlet. A open-quotes quasi-cylindricalclose quotes amplification of the Squire-Long equation is compared with the more complete model and shown to be able to account for most of its behaviour. An advantage of this latter representation is the relatively undetailed description of the flow geometry it requires in order to calculate a solution. open-quotes Criticalityclose quotes or the ability of small disturbances to propagate upstream is related to results of the quasi-cylindrical and axisymmetric flow models. This leads to an examination of claims made by researchers such as Benjamin and Hall concerning the interrelationship between open-quotes failureclose quotes of the quasi-cylindrical model and the occurrence of a open-quotes criticalclose quotes flow state. Lundgren developed an analytical model for homogeneous turbulence based on a collection of contracting spiral vortices each embedded in an axisymmetric strain field. Using asymptotic approximations he was able to deduce the Kolmogorov k -5/3 behaviour for inertial scales in the turbulence energy spectrum. Pullin ampersand Saffman have enlarged upon his work to make a number of predictions about the behaviour of turbulence described by the model. This work investigates the model numerically. The first part considers how the flow description compares with numerical simulations using the Navier-Stokes equations

  14. Numerical analysis II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, The Editors of; Staff of Research Education Association

    1989-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Numerical Analysis II covers simultaneous linear systems and matrix methods, differential equations, Fourier transformations, partial differential equations, and Monte Carlo methods.

  15. Global optimization of truss topology with discrete bar areas-Part II: Implementation and numerical results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achtziger, Wolfgang; Stolpe, Mathias

    2009-01-01

    we use the theory developed in Part I to design a convergent nonlinear branch-and-bound method tailored to solve large-scale instances of the original discrete problem. The problem formulation and the needed theoretical results from Part I are repeated such that this paper is self-contained. We focus...... the largest discrete topology design problems solved by means of global optimization....

  16. Displacement-Based Seismic Design Procedure for Framed Buildings with Dissipative Braces Part II: Numerical Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazza, Fabio; Vulcano, Alfonso

    2008-01-01

    For a widespread application of dissipative braces to protect framed buildings against seismic loads, practical and reliable design procedures are needed. In this paper a design procedure based on the Direct Displacement-Based Design approach is adopted, assuming the elastic lateral storey-stiffness of the damped braces proportional to that of the unbraced frame. To check the effectiveness of the design procedure, presented in an associate paper, a six-storey reinforced concrete plane frame, representative of a medium-rise symmetric framed building, is considered as primary test structure; this structure, designed in a medium-risk region, is supposed to be retrofitted as in a high-risk region, by insertion of diagonal braces equipped with hysteretic dampers. A numerical investigation is carried out to study the nonlinear static and dynamic responses of the primary and the damped braced test structures, using step-by-step procedures described in the associate paper mentioned above; the behaviour of frame members and hysteretic dampers is idealized by bilinear models. Real and artificial accelerograms, matching EC8 response spectrum for a medium soil class, are considered for dynamic analyses

  17. Numerical modelling of flexible pavement incorporating cross-anisotropic material properties. Part II: Surface rectangular loading

    OpenAIRE

    Maina, J W; Kawana, F; Matsui, K

    2017-01-01

    In order to better understand the impact of increased loading on roads, studies on tyre-road interaction have gained prominence in recent years. Tyres form an essential interface between vehicles and road pavement surfaces. These are the only parts of the vehicle that are in contact with the road and transmit the vehicle loading to the road surface. The use of the Cartesian coordinate system is convenient in dealing with a uniform/non-uniform tyre load acting over a rectangular area, but few ...

  18. Modification of Concrete Damaged Plasticity model. Part II: Formulation and numerical tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamińska Inez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A refined model for elastoplastic damaged material is formulated based on the plastic potential introduced in Part I [1]. Considered model is an extension of Concrete Damaged Plasticity material implemented in Abaqus [2]. In the paper the stiffness tensor for elastoplastic damaged behaviour is derived. In order to validate the model, computations for the uniaxial tests are performed. Response of the model for various cases of parameter’s choice is shown and compared to the response of the CDP model.

  19. Numerical simulation of projectile impact on mild steel armour plates using LS-DYNA, Part II: Parametric studies

    OpenAIRE

    Raguraman, M; Deb, A; Gupta, NK; Kharat, DK

    2008-01-01

    In Part I of the current two-part series, a comprehensive simulation-based study of impact of Jacketed projectiles on mild steel armour plates has been presented. Using the modelling procedures developed in Part I, a number of parametric studies have been carried out for the same mild steel plates considered in Part I and reported here in Part II. The current investigation includes determination of ballistic limits of a given target plate for different projectile diameters and impact velociti...

  20. Numerical Simulation of Projectile Impact on Mild Steel Armour Platesusing LS-DYNA, Part II: Parametric Studies

    OpenAIRE

    M. Raguraman; A. Deb; N. K. Gupta; D. K. Kharat

    2008-01-01

    In Part I of the current two-part series, a comprehensive simulation-based study of impact of jacketed projectiles on mild steel armour plates has been presented. Using the modelling procedures developed in Part I, a number of parametric studies have been carried out for the same mild steel plates considered in Part I and reported here in Part II. The current investigation includes determination of ballistic limits of a given target plate for different projectile diameters and impact velociti...

  1. Control of uncertain systems by feedback linearization with neural networks augmentation. Part II. Controller validation by numerical simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian TOADER

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper was conceived in two parts. Part I, previously published in this journal, highlighted the main steps of adaptive output feedback control for non-affine uncertain systems, having a known relative degree. The main paradigm of this approach was the feedback linearization (dynamic inversion with neural network augmentation. Meanwhile, based on new contributions of the authors, a new paradigm, that of robust servomechanism problem solution, has been added to the controller architecture. The current Part II of the paper presents the validation of the controller hereby obtained by using the longitudinal channel of a hovering VTOL-type aircraft as mathematical model.

  2. Numerical resolution of the time-domain three-dimensional Maxwell equations by a conform finite element approximation. Part II: numerical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heintze, E.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this report is to validate the program MAX3D built up from the discretization of the formulation (FB) established in part 1. A qualitative and quantitative analysis is carried out on numerical results obtained with various test cases of which, for most of them, analytical solutions are known. 32 figs., 3 refs

  3. Numerical study of cullet glass subjected to microwave heating and SiC susceptor effects. Part II: Exergy transfer analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acevedo, Luis; Usón, Sergio; Uche, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Exergy transfer analysis is proposed for the analysis of microwave glass heating. • Distribution of exergy transferred, accumulated and destroyed is quantified. • The method is applied to the comparison of different susceptor positions. - Abstract: The mathematical model of exergy transfer in cullet glass heated by microwave inside of a cubical cavity with the aid of a susceptor is presented. Part I of this paper presented a numerical combined electromagnetic and heat transfer model by applying both transient Maxwell’s equations and heat transfer equations. Then, the electromagnetic and temperature fields were used to obtain the exergy transfer analysis in the oven. Exergy transfer analysis informs us about the efficiency of energy transformations taking place during the heating process, since it explains how the quality of the energy behaves along the heating process. The rate of internal exergy, exergy flowing and destroyed exergy were obtained and presented for this transient process. Part I showed that the susceptor location could change the temperature fields of cullet glass. So, an exergy analysis is important to understand the irreversibilities produced by a susceptor during preheating (microwaves activation) and heating process of the cullet glass, and how they could be minimized. Exergy transfer analysis shows how both, electromagnetic and heat transfer, are responsible of the irreversibilities generated in the heating process

  4. Two dimensional modeling of elastic wave propagation in solids containing cracks with rough surfaces and friction - Part II: Numerical implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delrue, Steven; Aleshin, Vladislav; Truyaert, Kevin; Bou Matar, Olivier; Van Den Abeele, Koen

    2018-01-01

    Our study aims at the creation of a numerical toolbox that describes wave propagation in samples containing internal contacts (e.g. cracks, delaminations, debondings, imperfect intergranular joints) of known geometry with postulated contact interaction laws including friction. The code consists of two entities: the contact model and the solid mechanics module. Part I of the paper concerns an in-depth description of a constitutive model for realistic contacts or cracks that takes into account the roughness of the contact faces and the associated effects of friction and hysteresis. In the crack model, three different contact states can be recognized: contact loss, total sliding and partial slip. Normal (clapping) interactions between the crack faces are implemented using a quadratic stress-displacement relation, whereas tangential (friction) interactions were introduced using the Coulomb friction law for the total sliding case, and the Method of Memory Diagrams (MMD) in case of partial slip. In the present part of the paper, we integrate the developed crack model into finite element software in order to simulate elastic wave propagation in a solid material containing internal contacts or cracks. We therefore implemented the comprehensive crack model in MATLAB® and introduced it in the Structural Mechanics Module of COMSOL Multiphysics®. The potential of the approach for ultrasound based inspection of solids with cracks showing acoustic nonlinearity is demonstrated by means of an example of shear wave propagation in an aluminum sample containing a single crack with rough surfaces and friction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Analysis of Dynamic Fracture Compliance Based on Poroelastic Theory - Part II: Results of Numerical and Experimental Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ding; Ding, Pin-bo; Ba, Jing

    2018-03-01

    In Part I, a dynamic fracture compliance model (DFCM) was derived based on the poroelastic theory. The normal compliance of fractures is frequency-dependent and closely associated with the connectivity of porous media. In this paper, we first compare the DFCM with previous fractured media theories in the literature in a full frequency range. Furthermore, experimental tests are performed on synthetic rock specimens, and the DFCM is compared with the experimental data in the ultrasonic frequency band. Synthetic rock specimens saturated with water have more realistic mineral compositions and pore structures relative to previous works in comparison with natural reservoir rocks. The fracture/pore geometrical and physical parameters can be controlled to replicate approximately those of natural rocks. P- and S-wave anisotropy characteristics with different fracture and pore properties are calculated and numerical results are compared with experimental data. Although the measurement frequency is relatively high, the results of DFCM are appropriate for explaining the experimental data. The characteristic frequency of fluid pressure equilibration calculated based on the specimen parameters is not substantially less than the measurement frequency. In the dynamic fracture model, the wave-induced fluid flow behavior is an important factor for the fracture-wave interaction process, which differs from the models at the high-frequency limits, for instance, Hudson's un-relaxed model.

  6. Numerical simulation of L.E.L. in Compton regime. Part II, GONDOLE, a three-dimensional code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deck, D.

    1992-07-01

    In the first part of this report, the BIWI two-dimensional numerical simulation code of L.E.L. in Compton regime has been described; the question was to simulate L.E.L. experiments in 'optical mode', that is to say for wavelengths of the order of one micron. The axisymmetric cylindrical geometry (r,z) of the BIWI code is adapted to these experiments. However, the increasingly frequent use of L.E.L. in the regime of microwaves requires the presence of a waveguide within the inverter, which breaks the cylindrical symmetry and forces us to adopt another geometry. On the other hand, the desire to take into account fields of inverters having a gradient in the direction transverse to the direction of propagation of the beam, and thus allowing various focalizations (quadrupole, parabolic, etc.), leads to work in Cartesian geometry. For these reasons (and for others that will appear later), the GONDOLE code has been written and is described in this note. The Gondole code is three-dimensional (x, y, z) and allows to simulate a large variety of L.E.L experiences. Then, all the inverter fields that the GONDOLE code takes into account are introduced. These fields are responsible for the existence of a current J(vector) perpendicular to the Z axis of propagation, and source of radiation. The dynamics of the electrons is then deduced, which derives directly from these fields, and it is shown to which equations of propagation of the laser wave each different J(vector) is coupling [fr

  7. Non-hydrostatic semi-elastic hybrid-coordinate SISL extension of HIRLAM. Part II: numerical testing

    OpenAIRE

    Rõõm, Rein; Männik, Aarne; Luhamaa, Andres; Zirk, Marko

    2007-01-01

    The semi-implicit semi-Lagrangian (SISL), two-time-level, non-hydrostatic numerical scheme, based on the non-hydrostatic, semi-elastic pressure-coordinate equations, is tested in model experiments with flow over given orography (elliptical hill, mountain ridge, system of successive ridges) in a rectangular domain with emphasis on the numerical accuracy and non-hydrostatic effect presentation capability. Comparison demonstrates good (in strong primary wave generation) to satisfactory (in weak ...

  8. Workshop 96. Part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    Part II of the seminar proceedings contains contributions in various areas of science and technology, among them materials science in mechanical engineering, materials science in electrical, chemical and civil engineering, and electronics, measuring and communication engineering. In those areas, 6 contributions have been selected for INIS. (P.A.).

  9. Workshop 96. Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    Part II of the seminar proceedings contains contributions in various areas of science and technology, among them materials science in mechanical engineering, materials science in electrical, chemical and civil engineering, and electronics, measuring and communication engineering. In those areas, 6 contributions have been selected for INIS. (P.A.)

  10. Non-hydrostatic semi-elastic hybrid-coordinate SISL extension of HIRLAM. Part II: numerical testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rõõm, Rein; Männik, Aarne; Luhamaa, Andres; Zirk, Marko

    2007-10-01

    The semi-implicit semi-Lagrangian (SISL), two-time-level, non-hydrostatic numerical scheme, based on the non-hydrostatic, semi-elastic pressure-coordinate equations, is tested in model experiments with flow over given orography (elliptical hill, mountain ridge, system of successive ridges) in a rectangular domain with emphasis on the numerical accuracy and non-hydrostatic effect presentation capability. Comparison demonstrates good (in strong primary wave generation) to satisfactory (in weak secondary wave reproduction in some cases) consistency of the numerical modelling results with known stationary linear test solutions. Numerical stability of the developed model is investigated with respect to the reference state choice, modelling dynamics of a stationary front. The horizontally area-mean reference temperature proves to be the optimal stability warrant. The numerical scheme with explicit residual in the vertical forcing term becomes unstable for cross-frontal temperature differences exceeding 30 K. Stability is restored, if the vertical forcing is treated implicitly, which enables to use time steps, comparable with the hydrostatic SISL.

  11. Mathematical modelling and numerical solution of swelling of cartilaginous tissues. Part II: Mixed hybrid finite element solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malakpoor, K.; Kaasschieter, E.F.; Huyghe, J.M.R.J.

    2007-01-01

    The swelling and shrinkage of biological tissues are modelled by a four-component mixture theory [J.M. Huyghe and J.D. Janssen, Int. J. Engng. Sci. 35 (1997) 793-802; K. Malakpoor, E.F. Kaasschieter and J.M. Huyghe, Mathematical modelling and numerical solution of swelling of cartilaginous tissues.

  12. Loading and fracture response of CFRP-to-steel adhesively bonded joints with thick adherents – Part II: Numerical simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anyfantis, Konstantinos; Tsouvalis, Nicholas G.

    2013-01-01

    This work is focused on the numerical simulation of experimentally tested single lap joints, based on cohesive zone modeling techniques. Seven cases have been considered for analysis. The models were built in a 3-dimensional finite element space. The adherents were modeled with continuum elements...... the developed peel, in-plane and out-of-plane shear stresses over the adhesive area. Thus, the global measured response of all cases was justified by examining the stress fields and their variation through the loading history. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  13. Numerical Study of Particle Interaction in Gas-Particle and Liquid-Particle Flows: Part II Particle Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mohanarangam

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the numerical model, which was presented in the first paper (Mohanarangam & Tu; 2009 of this series of study, is employed to study the different particle responses under the influence of two carrier phases namely the gas and the liquid. The numerical model takes into consideration the turbulent behaviour of both the carrier and the dispersed phases, with additional equations to take into account the combined fluid particle behaviour, thereby effecting a two-way coupling. The first paper in this series showed the distinct difference in particulate response both at the mean as well as at the turbulent level for two varied carrier phases. In this paper further investigation has been carried out over a broad range of particle Stokes number to further understand their behaviour in turbulent environments. In order to carry out this prognostic study, the backward facing step geometry of Fessler and Eaton (1999 has been adopted, while the inlet conditions for the carrier as well as the particle phases correspond to that of the experiments of Founti and Klipfel (1998. It is observed that at the mean velocity level the particulate velocities increased with a subsequent increase in the Stokes number for both the GP (Gas-Particle as well as the LP (Liquid-Particle flow. It was also observed that across the Stokes number there was a steady increase in the particulate turbulence for the GP flows with successive increase in Stokes number. However, for the LP flows, the magnitude of the increase in the particulate turbulence across the increasing of Stokes number is not as characteristic as the GP flow. Across the same sections for LP flows the majority of the trend shows a decrease after which they remain more or less a constant.

  14. Modeling microbiological and chemical processes in municipal solid waste bioreactor, Part II: Application of numerical model BIOKEMOD-3P.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawande, Nitin A; Reinhart, Debra R; Yeh, Gour-Tsyh

    2010-02-01

    Biodegradation process modeling of municipal solid waste (MSW) bioreactor landfills requires the knowledge of various process reactions and corresponding kinetic parameters. Mechanistic models available to date are able to simulate biodegradation processes with the help of pre-defined species and reactions. Some of these models consider the effect of critical parameters such as moisture content, pH, and temperature. Biomass concentration is a vital parameter for any biomass growth model and often not compared with field and laboratory results. A more complex biodegradation model includes a large number of chemical and microbiological species. Increasing the number of species and user defined process reactions in the simulation requires a robust numerical tool. A generalized microbiological and chemical model, BIOKEMOD-3P, was developed to simulate biodegradation processes in three-phases (Gawande et al. 2009). This paper presents the application of this model to simulate laboratory-scale MSW bioreactors under anaerobic conditions. BIOKEMOD-3P was able to closely simulate the experimental data. The results from this study may help in application of this model to full-scale landfill operation.

  15. Proof of fatigue strength of nuclear components part II: Numerical fatigue analysis for transient stratification loading considering environmental effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krätschmer, D.; Roos, E.; Schuler, X.; Herter, K.-H.

    2012-01-01

    For the construction, design and operation of nuclear components and systems the appropriate technical codes and standards provide detailed analysis procedures which guarantee a reliable behaviour of the structural components throughout the specified lifetime. Especially for cyclic stress evaluation the different codes and standards provide different fatigue analyses procedures to be performed considering the various mechanical and thermal loading histories and geometric complexities of the components. To consider effects of light water reactor coolant environments, new design curves included in report NUREG/CR-6909 for austenitic stainless steels and for low alloy steels have been presented. For the usage of these new design curves an environmental fatigue correction factor for incorporating environmental effects has to be calculated and used. The application of this environmental correction factor to a fatigue analysis of a nozzle with transient stratification loads, derived by in-service monitoring, has been performed. The results are used to compare with calculated usage factors, based on design curves without taking environmental effects particularly into account. - Highlights: ► We model an nozzle for fatigue analysis und mechanical and thermal loading conditions. ► A simplified as well as a general elastic–plastic fatigue analysis considering environmental effects is performed. ► The influence of different factors calculating the environmental factor F en are shown. ► The presented numerical evaluation methodology allows the consideration of all relevant parameters to assess lifetime.

  16. Extending market activities for a distribution company in hourly-ahead energy and reserve markets-Part II: Numerical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashhour, M.; Golkar, M.A.; Moghaddas-Tafreshi, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    The present work is to show the application and implementation of the algorithms and models proposed in part I. It also represents the simulation results of (a) extracting a lumped financial model (the aggregated model) of the distribution system with distributed generations (DGs) and interruptible loads (ILs), (b) distribution company's (DISCO's) process of decision-making, based on the created financial model, on allocating its generating capability for internal usage and proposing to the hourly-ahead energy and reserve markets, and (c) a profit-based network reconfiguration methodology that increases the DISCO's technical ability and directs its financial affairs towards more profitable transactions in the upcoming markets. The function of the algorithms used for detecting unfeasible configurations, namely loop path and/or isolated part in the network are shown and well exemplified. Influential factors in DISCO's generating capability and in the coefficients of DISCO's internal cost function (ICF) are investigated. The present study substantiates the ICF-based optimization method by comparing the relevant results with the results obtained based on the use of total cost function (TCF). Several scenarios on market prices of energy and reserve and on the contingency probability factor pertaining to the real-time generation in reserve market are considered. Simulation results indicate that getting more economical benefits, DISCO may necessarily play different roles in the market and change the network configuration, at different hours.

  17. A Numerical Study of Factors Affecting Fracture-Fluid Cleanup and Produced Gas/Water in Marcellus Shale: Part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seales, Maxian B.; Dilmore, Robert; Ertekin, Turgay; Wang, John Yilin

    2017-04-01

    Horizontal wells combined with successful multi-stage hydraulic fracture treatments are currently the most established method for effectively stimulating and enabling economic development of gas bearing organic-rich shale formations. Fracture cleanup in the Stimulated Reservoir Volume (SRV) is critical to stimulation effectiveness and long-term well performance. However, fluid cleanup is often hampered by formation damage, and post-fracture well performance frequently falls below expectations. A systematic study of the factors that hinder fracture fluid cleanup in shale formations can help optimize fracture treatments and better quantify long term volumes of produced water and gas. Fracture fluid cleanup is a complex process influenced by multi-phase flow through porous media (relative permeability hysteresis, capillary pressure etc.), reservoir rock and fluid properties, fracture fluid properties, proppant placement, fracture treatment parameters, and subsequent flowback and field operations. Changing SRV and fracture conductivity as production progresses further adds to the complexity of this problem. Numerical simulation is the best, and most practical approach to investigate such a complicated blend of mechanisms, parameters, their interactions, and subsequent impact on fracture fluid cleanup and well deliverability. In this paper, a 3-dimensional, 2-phase, dual-porosity model was used to investigate the impact of multiphase flow, proppant crushing, proppant diagenesis, shut-in time, reservoir rock compaction, gas slippage, and gas desorption on fracture fluid cleanup, and well performance in Marcellus shale. The research findings have shed light on the factors that substantially constrains efficient fracture fluid cleanup in gas shales, and provided guidelines for improved fracture treatment designs and water management.

  18. On joint numerical radius II

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drnovšek, R.; Müller, Vladimír

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 9 (2014), s. 1197-1204 ISSN 0308-1087 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/09/0473; GA AV ČR IAA100190903 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : joint numerical range * numerical radius Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.738, year: 2014 http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/03081087.2013.816303

  19. Stiffnites. Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Pareschi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available

    The dynamics of a stiffnite are here inferred. A stiffnite is a sheet-shaped, gravity-driven submarine sediment flow, with a fabric made up of marine ooze. To infer stiffnite dynamics, order of magnitude estimations are used. Field deposits and experiments on materials taken from the literature are also used. Stiffnites can be tens or hundreds of kilometers wide, and a few centimeters/ meters thick. They move on the sea slopes over hundreds of kilometers, reaching submarine velocities as high as 100 m/s. Hard grain friction favors grain fragmentation and formation of triboelectrically electrified particles and triboplasma (i.e., ions + electrons. Marine lipids favor isolation of electrical charges. At first, two basic assumptions are introduced, and checked a posteriori: (a in a flowing stiffnite, magnetic dipole moments develop, with the magnetization proportional to the shear rate. I have named those dipoles as Ambigua. (b Ambigua are ‘vertically frozen’ along stiffnite streamlines. From (a and (b, it follows that: (i Ambigua create a magnetic field (at peak, >1 T. (ii Lorentz forces sort stiffnite particles into two superimposed sheets. The lower sheet, L+, has a sandy granulometry and a net positive electrical charge density. The upper sheet, L–, has a silty muddy granulometry and a net negative electrical charge density; the grains of sheet L– become finer upwards. (iii Faraday forces push ferromagnetic grains towards the base of a stiffnite, so that a peak of magnetic susceptibility characterizes a stiffnite deposit. (iv Stiffnites harden considerably during their motion, due to magnetic confinement. Stiffnite deposits and inferred stiffnite characteristics are compatible with a stable flow behavior against bending, pinch, or other macro instabilities. In the present report, a consistent hypothesis about the nature of Ambigua is provided.

  20. Part II. Population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This monograph deals with assessment of radiological health effects of the Chernobyl accident for emergency workers (part 1) and the population of the contaminated areas in Russia (part 2). The Chernobyl emergency workers and people living in the contaminated areas of Russia received much lower doses than the population of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and it was unclear whether risks of radiation-induced cancers derived with the Japanese data could be extrapolated to the low dose range However, it was predicted as early as in 1990 that the thyroid cancer incidence might be increasing due to incorporated 131 irradiation. What conclusions can be drawn from regarding cancer incidence among emergency workers and residents of the contaminated areas in Russia and the role of the radiation factor on the basis of the registry data? Leukemia incidence. Leukemia incidence is known to be one of principal indications of radiation effects. The radiation risk for leukemias is 3-4 times higher that for solid cancers and its latent period is estimated to be 2-3 years after exposure. Results of the radiation epidemiological studies discussed in this book show that in the worst contaminated Bryansk region the leukemia incidence rate is not higher than in the country in general. Even though some evidence exists for the dose response relationship, the radiation risks appear to be not statistically significant. Since risks of leukemia are known to be higher for those who were children at exposure, long-term epidemiological studies need to be continued. The study of leukemias among emergency workers strongly suggest the existence of dose response relationship. In those who received external doses more than 0.15 Gy the leukemia incidence rate is two time higher and these emergency workers should be referred to as a group of increased radiation risk. Solid cancers. The obtained results provide no evidence to a radiation-induced increase in solid cancers among residents of the contaminated areas

  1. Numerical methods in nuclear engineering. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, G.J.

    1983-08-01

    These proceedings, published in two parts contain the full text of 56 papers and summaries of six papers presented at the conference. They cover the use of numerical methods in thermal hydraulics, reactor physics, neutron diffusion, subchannel analysis, risk assessment, transport theory, and fuel behaviour

  2. Synchronization of Two Non-Identical Coupled Exciters in a Non-Resonant Vibrating System of Linear Motion. Part II: Numeric Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyu Zhao

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the quantitative analysis of the coupling dynamic characteristics of two non-identical exciters in a non-resonant vibrating system. The load torque of each motor consists of three items, including the torque of sine effect of phase angles, that of coupling sine effect and that of coupling cosine effect. The torque of frequency capture results from the torque of coupling cosine effect, which is equal to the product of the coupling kinetic energy, the coefficient of coupling cosine effect, and the sine of phase difference of two exciters. The motions of the system excited by two exciters in the same direction make phase difference close to π and that in opposite directions makes phase difference close to 0. Numerical results show that synchronous operation is stable when the dimensionless relative moments of inertia of two exciters are greater than zero and four times of their product is greater than the square of their coefficient of coupling cosine effect. The stability of the synchronous operation is only dependent on the structural parameters of the system, such as the mass ratios of two exciters to the vibrating system, and the ratio of the distance between an exciter and the centroid of the system to the equivalent radius of the system about its centroid.

  3. Exploring Water Pollution. Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1975-01-01

    This is part two of a three part article related to the science activity of exploring environmental problems. Part one dealt with background information for the classroom teacher. Presented here is a suggested lesson plan on water pollution. Objectives, important concepts and instructional procedures are suggested. (EB)

  4. Collisionless microinstabilities in stellarators. II. Numerical simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proll, J. H. E.; Xanthopoulos, P.; Helander, P.

    2013-01-01

    Microinstabilities exhibit a rich variety of behavior in stellarators due to the many degrees of freedom in the magnetic geometry. It has recently been found that certain stellarators (quasi-isodynamic ones with maximum-J geometry) are partly resilient to trapped-particle instabilities, because fast-bouncing particles tend to extract energy from these modes near marginal stability. In reality, stellarators are never perfectly quasi-isodynamic, and the question thus arises whether they still benefit from enhanced stability. Here, the stability properties of Wendelstein 7-X and a more quasi-isodynamic configuration, QIPC, are investigated numerically and compared with the National Compact Stellarator Experiment and the DIII-D tokamak. In gyrokinetic simulations, performed with the gyrokinetic code GENE in the electrostatic and collisionless approximation, ion-temperature-gradient modes, trapped-electron modes, and mixed-type instabilities are studied. Wendelstein 7-X and QIPC exhibit significantly reduced growth rates for all simulations that include kinetic electrons, and the latter are indeed found to be stabilizing in the energy budget. These results suggest that imperfectly optimized stellarators can retain most of the stabilizing properties predicted for perfect maximum-J configurations

  5. The importance of Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical couplings and microstructure to strain localization in 3D continua with application to seismic faults. Part II: Numerical implementation and post-bifurcation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattez, Hadrien; Stefanou, Ioannis; Sulem, Jean; Veveakis, Manolis; Poulet, Thomas

    2018-06-01

    In this paper we study the phenomenon of localization of deformation in fault gouges during seismic slip. This process is of key importance to understand frictional heating and energy budget during an earthquake. A infinite layer of fault gouge is modeled as a Cosserat continuum taking into account Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical (THM) couplings. The theoretical aspects of the problem are presented in the companion paper (Rattez et al., 2017a), together with a linear stability analysis to determine the conditions of localization and estimate the shear band thickness. In this Part II of the study, we investigate the post-bifurcation evolution of the system by integrating numerically the full system of non-linear equations using the method of Finite Elements. The problem is formulated in the framework of Cosserat theory. It enables to introduce information about the microstructure of the material in the constitutive equations and to regularize the mathematical problem in the post-localization regime. We emphasize the influence of the size of the microstructure and of the softening law on the material response and the strain localization process. The weakening effect of pore fluid thermal pressurization induced by shear heating is examined and quantified. It enhances the weakening process and contributes to the narrowing of shear band thickness. Moreover, due to THM couplings an apparent rate-dependency is observed, even for rate-independent material behavior. Finally, comparisons show that when the perturbed field of shear deformation dominates, the estimation of the shear band thickness obtained from linear stability analysis differs from the one obtained from the finite element computations, demonstrating the importance of post-localization numerical simulations.

  6. Roots/Routes: Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Dalene M.

    2009-01-01

    This narrative acts as an articulation of a journey of many routes. Following Part I of the same research journey of rootedness/routedness, it debates the nature of transformation and transcendence beyond personal and political paradoxes informed by neoliberalism and related repressive globalizing discourses. Through a more personal, descriptive,…

  7. Atmospheric fluoride pollution. Part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, T; Yamazaki, Y

    1969-01-01

    In East Osaka, agricultural crops either died or showed poor growth in the neighborhood of a factory producing white cosmetic bottles. Since fluorite was used as a material and there was no damage before the establishment of the factory, it was suspected that fluorine compounds were causing the damage. Quantitative analysis was performed on the agricultural crops and the exhaust gas as well as the dust particles in order to determine the fluorine content. Gas samplers were used to collect the dusts from the surrounding atmosphere. The fluorine content of dust near the factory was about 93 mg per cubic meter per day, and in some parts, as high as 1.54 mq per cubic meter per day. Relatively larger quantities of fluorine were measured at the southwestern and southeastern area of the factory, corresponding to the general wind pattern. Rice and soy beans from the neighborhood of the factory showed concentrations of fluorine and, especially in the leaves of the damaged crops, the concentrations were several hundred times higher than those of the undamaged leaves.

  8. Unlearning Established Organizational Routines--Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiol, C. Marlena; O'Connor, Edward J.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of Part II of this two-part paper is to uncover important differences in the nature of the three unlearning subprocesses, which call for different leadership interventions to motivate people to move through them. Design/methodology/approach: The paper draws on research in behavioral medicine and psychology to demonstrate that…

  9. Nuclear medicine and thyroid disease - part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterton, B.E.

    2005-01-01

    Part 1 of this article discussed the anatomy, physiology and basic pathology of the thyroid gland. Techniques of thyroid scanning and a few clinical examples are shown part II Copyright (2005) The Australian and New Zealand Society Of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  10. Compact tokamak reactors part 2 (numerical results)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiley, J.C.; Wootton, A.J.; Ross, D.W.

    1996-01-01

    The authors describe a numerical optimization scheme for fusion reactors. The particular application described is to find the smallest copper coil spherical tokamak, although the numerical scheme is sufficiently general to allow many other problems to be solved. The solution to the steady state energy balance is found by first selecting the fixed variables. The range of all remaining variables is then selected, except for the temperature. Within the specified ranges, the temperature which satisfies the power balance is then found. Tests are applied to determine that remaining constraints are satisfied, and the acceptable results then stored. Results are presented for a range of auxiliary current drive efficiencies and different scaling relationships; for the range of variables chosen the machine encompassing volume increases or remains approximately unchanged as the aspect ratio is reduced

  11. Numerical integration subprogrammes in Fortran II-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fry, C. R.

    1966-12-15

    This note briefly describes some integration subprogrammes written in FORTRAN II-D for the IBM 1620-II at CARDE. These presented are two Newton-Cotes, Chebyshev polynomial summation, Filon's, Nordsieck's and optimum Runge-Kutta and predictor-corrector methods. A few miscellaneous numerical integration procedures are also mentioned covering statistical functions, oscillating integrands and functions occurring in electrical engineering.

  12. Typewriting Syllabus: Part II: Modules. 1976 Revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational and Career Curriculum Development.

    The document is the second of a two-part set on typewriting and focuses on the nine modules of instruction. The nine modules are: (1) keyboard mastery and skill development, (2) basic typewriting competencies, (2a) personal use typewriting, (3) introduction to office typewriting I, (4) introduction to office typewriting II, (5) intermediate office…

  13. Globalization in the pharmaceutical industry, Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadio Tarabusi, C; Vickery, G

    1998-01-01

    This is the second of a two-part report on the pharmaceutical industry. Part II begins with a discussion of foreign direct investment and inter-firm networks, which covers international mergers, acquisitions, and minority participation; market shares of foreign-controlled firms; international collaboration agreements (with a special note on agreements in biotechnology); and licensing agreements. The final section of the report covers governmental policies on health and safety regulation, price regulation, industry and technology, trade, foreign investment, protection of intellectual property, and competition.

  14. Cytogenetic and genetic studies of radiation-induced chromosome damage in mouse oocytes. Part 1. Numerical and structural chromosome anomalies in metaphase II oocytes, pre- and post-implantation embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tease, Charles; Fisher, Graham

    1996-01-01

    The incidences of X-ray induced numerical and structural chromosome anomalies were screened in a range of developmental stages from metaphase II oocytes through to post-implantation embryos. Following 1 Gy of acute X-rays to immediately preovulatory stage oocytes, the rate of hyperploidy (chromosome gain) was found to be elevated over levels in unirradiated controls, at metaphase II, in 1-cell and 3.5 day pre-implantation embryos but not in 8.5 day post-implantation foetuses. In the latter, however, the frequency of mosaicism was significantly increased. A similar response of an increase in mosaicism but not in hyperploidy in 8.5 day post-implantation embryos was also found after irradiation of dictyate stage oocytes with 4 Gy of acute X-rays. Significantly elevated frequencies of structural chromosome anomalies were present in metaphase II oocytes and pre-implantation embryonic stages, but could not be detected in block-stained chromosome preparations from 8.5 day post-implantation foetuses. However, analysis of chromosome preparations after G-banding showed that almost 14% of 14.5 day foetuses carried a chromosome rearrangement after 1 Gy of X-rays to immediately preovulatory stage oocytes. Overall, our data indicate that the presence of radiation-induced chromosome gains are incompatible with embryonic survival but that a proportion of embryos with structural chromosome damage develop past mid-gestation. These latter embryos are therefore potentially capable of contributing to the genetic burden of the next generation

  15. Continuum Thermodynamics - Part II: Applications and Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, Bettina; Wilmanski, Krzysztof

    The intention by writing Part II of the book on continuum thermodynamics was the deepening of some issues covered in Part I as well as a development of certain skills in dealing with practical problems of oscopic processes. However, the main motivation for this part is the presentation of main facets of thermodynamics which appear when interdisciplinary problems are considered. There are many monographs on the subjects of solid mechanics and thermomechanics, on fluid mechanics and on coupled fields but most of them cover only special problems in great details which are characteristic for the chosen field. It is rather seldom that relations between these fields are discussed. This concerns, for instance, large deformations of the skeleton of porous materials with diffusion (e.g. lungs), couplings of deformable particles with the fluid motion in suspensions, couplings of adsorption processes and chemical reactions in immiscible mixtures with diffusion, various multi-component aspects of the motion, e.g. of avalanches, such as segregation processes, etc...

  16. Compressor Part II: Volute Flow Predictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Tai Lee

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical method that solves the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations is used to study an inefficient component of a shipboard air-conditioning HCFC-124 compressor system. This high-loss component of the centrifugal compressor was identified as the volute through a series of measurements given in Part I of the paper. The predictions were made using three grid topologies. The first grid closes the connection between the cutwater and the discharge diffuser. The other two grids connect the cutwater area with the discharge diffuser. Experiments were performed to simulate both the cutwater conditions used in the predictions. Surface pressures along the outer wall and near the inlet of the volute were surveyed for comparisons with the predictions. Good agreements between the predicted results and the measurements validate the calculations. Total pressure distributions and flow stream traces from the prediction results support the loss distribution through the volute. A modified volute configuration is examined numerically for further loss comparison.

  17. The Mid America Heart Institute: part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallister, Ben D; Steinhaus, David M

    2003-01-01

    The Mid America Heart Institute (MAHI) is one of the first and largest hospitals developed and designed specifically for cardiovascular care. The MAHI hybrid model, which is a partnership between the not-for-profit Saint Luke's Health System, an independent academic medical center, and a private practice physician group, has been extremely successful in providing high-quality patient care as well as developing strong educational and research programs. The Heart Institute has been the leader in providing cardiovascular care in the Kansas City region since its inception in 1975. Although challenges in the future are substantial, it is felt that the MAHI is in an excellent position to deal with the serious issues in health care because of the Heart Institute, its facility, organization, administration, dedicated medical and support staff, and its unique business model of physician management. In part I, the authors described the background and infrastructure of the Heart Institute. In part II, cardiovascular research and benefits of physician management are addressed.

  18. Benchmark matrix and guide: Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    In the last issue of the Journal of Quality Assurance (September/October 1991, Volume 13, Number 5, pp. 14-19), the benchmark matrix developed by Headquarters Air Force Logistics Command was published. Five horizontal levels on the matrix delineate progress in TQM: business as usual, initiation, implementation, expansion, and integration. The six vertical categories that are critical to the success of TQM are leadership, structure, training, recognition, process improvement, and customer focus. In this issue, "Benchmark Matrix and Guide: Part II" will show specifically how to apply the categories of leadership, structure, and training to the benchmark matrix progress levels. At the intersection of each category and level, specific behavior objectives are listed with supporting behaviors and guidelines. Some categories will have objectives that are relatively easy to accomplish, allowing quick progress from one level to the next. Other categories will take considerable time and effort to complete. In the next issue, Part III of this series will focus on recognition, process improvement, and customer focus.

  19. HERBICIDAS INIBIDORES DO FOTOSSISTEMA IIPARTE II / PHOTOSYSTEM II INHIBITOR HERBICIDES - PART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ILCA P. DE F. E SILVA

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Os herbicidas inibidores do fotossistema II (PSII ligam-se ao sítio da QB localizado na proteína D1 o qual se localiza na membrana dos tilacóides dos cloroplastos, causando, o bloqueia do transporte de elétrons da QA para QB, tendo como consequência, a peroxidação dos lipídios. Os principais fatores que afetam a evolução da resistência de plantas daninhas aos herbicidas têm sido agrupados em: genéticos, bioecológicos e agronômicos. A resistência de plantas daninhas a herbicidas é definida como a habilidade de uma planta sobreviver e reproduzir, após exposição a uma dose de herbicida normalmente letal para um biótipo normal da planta. A seletividade de um herbicida está relacionada à capacidade de eliminar plantas daninhas sem interferir na qualidade da planta de interesse econômico.

  20. Intelligent control of HVAC systems. Part II: perceptron performance analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan URSU

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This is the second part of a paper on intelligent type control of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning (HVAC systems. The whole study proposes a unified approach in the design of intelligent control for such systems, to ensure high energy efficiency and air quality improving. In the first part of the study it is considered as benchmark system a single thermal space HVAC system, for which it is assigned a mathematical model of the controlled system and a mathematical model(algorithm of intelligent control synthesis. The conception of the intelligent control is of switching type, between a simple neural network, a perceptron, which aims to decrease (optimize a cost index,and a fuzzy logic component, having supervisory antisaturating role for neuro-control. Based on numerical simulations, this Part II focuses on the analysis of system operation in the presence only ofthe neural control component. Working of the entire neuro-fuzzy system will be reported in a third part of the study.

  1. Blade System Design Study. Part II, final project report (GEC).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, Dayton A. (DNV Global Energy Concepts Inc., Seattle, WA)

    2009-05-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Low Wind Speed Turbine program, Global Energy Concepts LLC (GEC)1 has studied alternative composite materials for wind turbine blades in the multi-megawatt size range. This work in one of the Blade System Design Studies (BSDS) funded through Sandia National Laboratories. The BSDS program was conducted in two phases. In the Part I BSDS, GEC assessed candidate innovations in composite materials, manufacturing processes, and structural configurations. GEC also made recommendations for testing composite coupons, details, assemblies, and blade substructures to be carried out in the Part II study (BSDS-II). The BSDS-II contract period began in May 2003, and testing was initiated in June 2004. The current report summarizes the results from the BSDS-II test program. Composite materials evaluated include carbon fiber in both pre-impregnated and vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) forms. Initial thin-coupon static testing included a wide range of parameters, including variation in manufacturer, fiber tow size, fabric architecture, and resin type. A smaller set of these materials and process types was also evaluated in thin-coupon fatigue testing, and in ply-drop and ply-transition panels. The majority of materials used epoxy resin, with vinyl ester (VE) resin also used for selected cases. Late in the project, testing of unidirectional fiberglass was added to provide an updated baseline against which to evaluate the carbon material performance. Numerous unidirectional carbon fabrics were considered for evaluation with VARTM infusion. All but one fabric style considered suffered either from poor infusibility or waviness of fibers combined with poor compaction. The exception was a triaxial carbon-fiberglass fabric produced by SAERTEX. This fabric became the primary choice for infused articles throughout the test program. The generally positive results obtained in this program for the SAERTEX material have led to its

  2. Reproduce and die! Why aging? Part II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuiling, GA

    Whilst in part I of this diptych on aging the question why aging exists at all is discussed; this part deals with the question which mechanisms underly aging and, ultimately, dying. It appears that aging is not just an active process as such - although all kinds of internal (e.g., oxigen-free

  3. Coal-fired power materials - Part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viswanathan, V.; Purgert, R.; Rawls, P. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2008-09-15

    Part 1 discussed some general consideration in selection of alloys for advanced ultra supercritical (USC) coal-fired power plant boilers. This second part covers results reported by the US project consortium, which has extensively evaluated the steamside oxidation, fireside corrosion, and fabricability of the alloys selected for USC plants. 3 figs.

  4. CHILD WELFARE IN CANADA : PART II

    OpenAIRE

    松本, 眞一; Shinichi, Matsumoto; 桃山学院大学社会学部

    2006-01-01

    This part study aims to research on the whole aspect of child protection in Canada. And so, this paper consists of five chapters as follows: (1)Canadian history of child protection, (2)definition of child abuse, (3)current situation of child protection in Canada, (4)outline of child protection and treatment, (5)triangular comparison of child protection and prevention in Canada, Australia and England. The first efforts at identifying and combating child abuse occurred in the latter part of the...

  5. The Many Meanings of History, Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szasz, Ferenc M.

    1974-01-01

    This article contains a collection of quotations about history collected by Professor Szasz. The first part of the collection appeared in the August 1974 issue of "The History Teacher." Readers are invited to send in other definitions they have found. (Author/RM)

  6. Cubby : Multiscreen Desktop VR Part II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gribnau, M.W.; Djajadiningrat, J.P.

    2000-01-01

    In this second part of our 'Cubby: Multiscreen Desktop VR' trilogy, we will introduce you to the art of creating a driver to read an Origin Instruments Dynasight input device. With the Dynasight, the position of the head of the user is established so that Cubby can display the correct images on its

  7. Plasma Astrophysics, part II Reconnection and Flares

    CERN Document Server

    Somov, Boris V

    2007-01-01

    This well-illustrated monograph is devoted to classic fundamentals, current practice, and perspectives of modern plasma astrophysics. The first part is unique in covering all the basic principles and practical tools required for understanding and working in plasma astrophysics. The second part presents the physics of magnetic reconnection and flares of electromagnetic origin in space plasmas within the solar system; single and double stars, relativistic objects, accretion disks, and their coronae are also covered. This book is designed mainly for professional researchers in astrophysics. However, it will also be interesting and useful to graduate students in space sciences, geophysics, as well as advanced students in applied physics and mathematics seeking a unified view of plasma physics and fluid mechanics.

  8. 46 CFR Table II to Part 150 - Grouping of Cargoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... solution Potassium oleate Potassium salt of polyolefin acid Propyl acetate Propylene carbonate Propylene... lignosulfonate solution Sodium polyacrylate solution 2 Sodium salt of Ferric hydroxyethylethylenediamine... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Grouping of Cargoes II Table II to Part 150 Shipping...

  9. 10 CFR Appendix II to Part 504 - Fuel Price Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS EXISTING POWERPLANTS Pt. 504, App. II Appendix II to Part... effects of future real price increases for each fuel. The delivered price of an alternate fuel used to calculate delivered fuel expenses must reflect the petitioner's delivered price of the alternate fuel and...

  10. LHC related projects and studies - Part (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, L.; De Maria, R.

    2012-01-01

    The session was devoted to address some aspects of the HL-LHC (High Luminosity LHC) project and explore ideas on new machines for the long term future. The session had two parts. The former focused on some of the key issues of the HL-LHC projects: beam current limits, evolution of the collimation system, research plans for the interaction region magnets and crab cavities. The latter explored the ideas for the long term future projects (LHeC and HE-LHC) and how the current research-development program for magnets and RF structures could fit in the envisaged scenarios

  11. [Neurohumoral mechanisms for vasovagal syncopes. Part II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajek, Jacek; Zyśko, Dorota

    2003-04-01

    Vasovagal syncope is defined as a reflex loss of consciousness related to reaction to various stimuli as orthostatic stress, pain or emotions connected with loss of muscle postural tone. In the second part of the paper the authors describe the possible role of the particular neurohumoral factors and autonomic nervous system in the development of vasovagal syncope. The studies on the involvement of neurohumoral factors in vasovagal syncope can play a key role in a more precise evaluation of affected patients, long term prophylaxis against syncopal events and may contribute to development of more reliable diagnostic tests.

  12. Drugs, money and society (Part II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walley, Tom

    2010-09-01

    Pharmacoeconomics started as marketing but has developed into a valuable tool in the fuller assessment of drug therapies. Its principles are now widely accepted, and many countries have government-funded agencies with responsibility for its application, most notably the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence in England. Many clinical pharmacologists are active in this area, and the discipline itself is part of the clinical pharmacology trainees' curriculum. Further developments will include value-based pricing and its use in cost sharing arrangements between health service and manufacturers.

  13. The sociogeometry of inequality: Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2015-05-01

    The study of socioeconomic inequality is of prime economic and social importance, and the key quantitative gauges of socioeconomic inequality are Lorenz curves and inequality indices - the most notable of the latter being the popular Gini index. In this series of papers we present a sociogeometric framework to the study of socioeconomic inequality. In this part we focus on the gap between the rich and the poor, which is quantified by gauges termed disparity curves. We shift from disparity curves to disparity sets, define inequality indices in terms of disparity sets, and introduce and explore a collection of distance-based and width-based inequality indices stemming from the geometry of disparity sets. We conclude with mean-absolute-deviation (MAD) representations of the inequality indices established in this series of papers, and with a comparison of these indices to the popular Gini index.

  14. Has the tsunami arrived? Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halverson, Dean; Glowac, Wayne

    2009-01-01

    Healthcare is an industry in the midst of significant change. After years of double-digit cost increases, the system has reached a tipping point. Where once only employers were heard crying out for change, the call is now coming from all levels of American society. The voice that is most important to effect change is the newest--that of the consumer. In part two of our overview of the healthcare tsunami, we hope to offer you some insights and practical ideas on how to improve the return on investment of your marketing. We believe those who work to understand the new market forces and react with insight will not just survive during the tsunami, they will thrive.

  15. [Conceptual Development in Cognitive Science. Part II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierro, Marco

    2012-03-01

    Cognitive science has become the most influential paradigm on mental health in the late 20(th) and the early 21(st) centuries. In few years, the concepts, problem approaches and solutions proper to this science have significantly changed. Introduction and discussion of the fundamental concepts of cognitive science divided in four stages: Start, Classic Cognitivism, Connectionism, and Embodying / Enacting. The 2(nd) Part of the paper discusses the above mentioned fourth stage and explores the clinical setting, especially in terms of cognitive psychotherapy. The embodying/enacting stage highlights the role of the body including a set of determined evolutionary movements which provide a way of thinking and exploring the world. The performance of cognitive tasks is considered as a process that uses environmental resources that enhances mental skills and deploys them beyond the domestic sphere of the brain. On the other hand, body and mind are embedded in the world, thus giving rise to cognition when interacting, a process known as enacting. There is a close connection between perception and action, hence the interest in real-time interactions with the world rather than abstract reasoning. Regarding clinics, specifically the cognitive therapy, there is little conceptual discussion maybe due to good results from practice that may led us to consider that theoretical foundations are firm and not problem-raising. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  16. The rodeo athlete: injuries - Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Michael C; Laurent, C Matthew

    2010-10-01

    A previous instalment to this review focused on the sport science for rodeo, the history behind the sport and what is currently known about the physical and physiological status, coronary risk profile, strength and power levels, event-specific kinesiological and biomechanical aspects, nutritional habits and psychological indices associated with the rodeo athlete. In regards to injury, rodeo is well known for its high-velocity, high-impact atmosphere where athletes compete against the clock and uncooperative livestock. Considered by many to be a dangerous sport with high vulnerability towards trauma and frequent injuries, animal/human contact events comprise ∼80% of reported injuries. Severe trauma includes fractures, dislocations, subluxations, concussions, ligament ruptures, pneumothorax and various neurapraxias. Head and neck trauma account for 10-29% of total trauma and up to 63% of upper body injuries, with concussion incidence rates of 3.4 per 1000 competitive exposures. The incidence of thoracic, back and abdominal injuries comprise 11-84% of trauma, while shoulder injuries, involving anterior/posterior arthralgia, inflammation, instability and increasing weakness, account for 8-15% of upper extremity cases. Lower extremity trauma accounts for 26-34% of cases, with the majority involving the knee. Many believe that the incidence of trauma is underestimated, with studies hampered by numerous limitations such as a lack of injury awareness, missing data, poor injury recall, an array of reporting sources, delays in subject response and treatment, no uniform definition of injury or reporting system and predisposing factors prior to injury. Primary mechanisms of injuries are attributed to physical immaturity, fatigue, age and experience, behaviour, the violent nature of the sport and lack of adequate medical intervention. Although there is limited adherence to organized conditioning programmes, when properly planned, sport-specific conditioning may enhance

  17. Calculus of Elementary Functions, Part II. Teacher's Commentary. Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herriot, Sarah T.; And Others

    This course is intended for students who have a thorough knowledge of college preparatory mathematics, including algebra, axiomatic geometry, trigonometry, and analytic geometry. This teacher's guide is for Part II of the course. It is designed to follow Part I of the text. The guide contains background information, suggested instructional…

  18. Calculus of Elementary Functions, Part II. Student Text. Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herriot, Sarah T.; And Others

    This course is intended for students who have a thorough knowledge of college preparatory mathematics, including algebra, axiomatic geometry, trigonometry, and analytic geometry. This text, Part II, contains material designed to follow Part I. Chapters included in this text are: (6) Derivatives of Exponential and Related Functions; (7) Area and…

  19. Kick, Glide, Pole! Cross-Country Skiing Fun (Part II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duoos, Bridget A.

    2012-01-01

    Part I of Kick, Glide, Pole! Cross-Country Skiing Fun, which was published in last issue, discussed how to select cross-country ski equipment, dress for the activity and the biomechanics of the diagonal stride. Part II focuses on teaching the diagonal stride technique and begins with a progression of indoor activities. Incorporating this fun,…

  20. Numerical Relativity, Black Hole Mergers, and Gravitational Waves: Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centrella, Joan

    2012-01-01

    This series of 3 lectures will present recent developments in numerical relativity, and their applications to simulating black hole mergers and computing the resulting gravitational waveforms. In this first lecture, we introduce the basic ideas of numerical relativity, highlighting the challenges that arise in simulating gravitational wave sources on a computer.

  1. Numerical Relativity, Black Hole Mergers, and Gravitational Waves: Part III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centrella, Joan

    2012-01-01

    This series of 3 lectures will present recent developments in numerical relativity, and their applications to simulating black hole mergers and computing the resulting gravitational waveforms. In this third and final lecture, we present applications of the results of numerical relativity simulations to gravitational wave detection and astrophysics.

  2. A method of numerically controlled machine part programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    1970-01-01

    Computer program is designed for automatically programmed tools. Preprocessor computes desired tool path and postprocessor computes actual commands causing machine tool to follow specific path. It is used on a Cincinnati ATC-430 numerically controlled machine tool.

  3. Numerical optimization of Combined Heat and Power Organic Rankine Cycles – Part A: Design optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martelli, Emanuele; Capra, Federico; Consonni, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    This two-part paper proposes an approach based on state-of-the-art numerical optimization methods for simultaneously determining the most profitable design and part-load operation of Combined Heat and Power Organic Rankine Cycles. Compared to the usual design practice, the important advantages of the proposed approach are (i) to consider the part-load performance of the ORC at the design stage, (ii) to optimize not only the cycle variables, but also the main turbine design variables (number of stages, stage loads, rotational speed). In this first part (Part A), the design model and the optimization algorithm are presented and tested on a real-world test case. PGS-COM, a recently proposed hybrid derivative-free algorithm, allows to efficiently tackle the challenging non-smooth black-box problem. - Highlights: • Algorithm for the simultaneous optimization Organic Rakine Cycle and turbine. • Thermodynamic and economic models of boiler, cycle, turbine are developed. • Non-smooth black-box optimization problem is successfully tackled with PGS-COM. • Test cases show that the algorithm returns optimal solutions within 4 min. • Toluene outperforms MDM (a siloxane) in terms of efficiency and costs.

  4. Biosensor enhancement using grooved micromixers: Part I, numerical studies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lynn, Nicholas Scott; Homola, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 11 (2015), s. 5516-5523 ISSN 0003-2700 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP205/12/G118 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : Numerical methods * Micromixers * Analytes Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 5.886, year: 2015

  5. Recent Economic Perspectives on Political Economy, Part II*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewan, Torun; Shepsle, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years some of the best theoretical work on the political economy of political institutions and processes has begun surfacing outside the political science mainstream in high quality economics journals. This two-part paper surveys these contributions from a recent five-year period. In Part I, the focus is on elections, voting and information aggregation, followed by treatments of parties, candidates, and coalitions. In Part II, papers on economic performance and redistribution, constitutional design, and incentives, institutions, and the quality of political elites are discussed. Part II concludes with a discussion of the methodological bases common to economics and political science, the way economists have used political science research, and some new themes and arbitrage opportunities. PMID:23606754

  6. Multi-instantons and exact results II: specific cases, higher-order effects, and numerical calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinn-Justin, Jean; Jentschura, Ulrich D.

    2004-01-01

    In this second part of the treatment of instantons in quantum mechanics, the focus is on specific calculations related to a number of quantum mechanical potentials with degenerate minima. We calculate the leading multi-instanton contributions to the partition function, using the formalism introduced in the first part of the treatise [Ann. Phys. (N. Y.) (previous issue) (2004)]. The following potentials are considered: (i) asymmetric potentials with degenerate minima, (ii) the periodic cosine potential, (iii) anharmonic oscillators with radial symmetry, and (iv) a specific potential which bears an analogy with the Fokker-Planck equation. The latter potential has the peculiar property that the perturbation series for the ground-state energy vanishes to all orders and is thus formally convergent (the ground-state energy, however, is non-zero and positive). For the potentials (ii), (iii), and (iv), we calculate the perturbative B-function as well as the instanton A-function to fourth order in g. We also consider the double-well potential in detail, and present some higher-order analytic as well as numerical calculations to verify explicitly the related conjectures up to the order of three instantons. Strategies analogous to those outlined here could result in new conjectures for problems where our present understanding is more limited

  7. Nursing Care of Patients Undergoing Chemotherapy Desensitization: Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakel, Patricia; Carsten, Cynthia; Carino, Arvie; Braskett, Melinda

    2016-04-01

    Chemotherapy desensitization protocols are safe, but labor-intensive, processes that allow patients with cancer to receive medications even if they initially experienced severe hypersensitivity reactions. Part I of this column discussed the pathophysiology of hypersensitivity reactions and described the development of desensitization protocols in oncology settings. Part II incorporates the experiences of an academic medical center and provides a practical guide for the nursing care of patients undergoing chemotherapy desensitization.
.

  8. Methods of humidity determination Part II: Determination of material humidity

    OpenAIRE

    Rübner, Katrin; Balköse, Devrim; Robens, E.

    2008-01-01

    Part II covers the most common methods of measuring the humidity of solid material. State of water near solid surfaces, gravimetric measurement of material humidity, measurement of water sorption isotherms, chemical methods for determination of water content, measurement of material humidity via the gas phase, standardisation, cosmonautical observations are reviewed.

  9. Numerical simulation of the PEP-II beam position monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurita, N; Martin, D; Ng, C -K; Smith, S [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Weiland, T

    1996-08-01

    We use MAFIA to analyze the PEP-II button-type beam position monitor (BPM). Employing proper termination of the BPM into a coaxial cable, the output signal at the BPM is determined. Thus the issues of signal sensitivity and power output can be addressed quantitatively, including all transient effects and wakefields. Besides this first quantitative analysis of a true BPM 3D structure, we find that internal resonant modes are a major source of high value narrow-band impedances. The effects of these resonances on coupled-bunch instabilities are discussed. An estimate of the power dissipation in the ceramic vacuum seal under high current operation is given. (author)

  10. Numerical simulation of the PEP-II beam position monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurita, N.; Martin, D.; Ng, C.K.; Smith, S.; Weiland, T.

    1995-09-01

    The authors use MAFIA to analyze the PEP-II button-type beam position monitor (BPM). Employing proper termination of the BPM into a coaxial cable, the output signal at the BPM is determined. Thus the issues of signal sensitivity and power output can be addressed quantitatively, including all transient effects and wakefields. Besides this first quantitative analysis of a true BPM 3D structure, they find that internal resonant modes are a major-source of high value narrow-band impedances. The effects of these resonances on coupled-bunch instabilities are discussed. An estimate of the power dissipation in the ceramic vacuum seal under high current operation is given

  11. Spurious solutions in few-body equations. II. Numerical investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adhikari, S.K.

    1979-01-01

    A recent analytic study of spurious solutions in few-body equations by Adhikari and Gloeckle is here complemented by numerical investigations. As proposed by Adhikari and Gloeckle we study numerically the spurious solutions in the three-body Weinberg type equations and draw some general conclusions about the existence of spurious solutions in three-body equations with the Weinberg kernel and in other few-body formulations. In particular we conclude that for most of the potentials we encounter in problems of nuclear physics the three-body Weinberg type equation will not have a spurious solution which may interfere with the bound state or scattering calculation. Hence, if proven convenient, the three-body Weinberg type equation can be used in practical calculations. The same conclusion is true for the three-body channel coupling array scheme of Kouri, Levin, and Tobocman. In the case of the set of six coupled four-body equations proposed by Rosenberg et al. and the set of the Bencze-Redish-Sloan equations a careful study of the possible spurious solutions is needed before using these equations in practical calculations

  12. Numerical simulation of a DFB - fiber laser sensor (part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan SAVASTRU

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the preliminary results obtained in developing a numerical simulationanalysis of fiber optic bending sensitivity aiming to improve the design of fiber lasers. The developednumerical simulation method relies on an analysis of both the fundamental mode propagation alongan optical fiber and of how bending of this fiber influence the optical radiation losses. The cases ofsimple, undoped and of doped with Er3+ ions optical fibers are considered. The presented results arebased on numerical simulation of eigen-modes of a laser intensity distribution by the use of finiteelement method (FEM developed in the frame of COMSOL software package. The numericalsimulations are performed by considering the cases of both normal, non-deformed optic fiber and ofsymmetrically deformed optic fiber resembling micro-bending of it. Both types of fiber optic bendinglosses are analyzed, namely: the transition loss, associated with the abrupt or rapid change incurvature at the beginning and the end of a bend, and pure bend loss is associated with the loss fromthe bend of constant curvature in between.

  13. Numerical method for solving integral equations of neutron transport. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loyalka, S.K.; Tsai, R.W.

    1975-01-01

    In a recent paper it was pointed out that the weakly singular integral equations of neutron transport can be quite conveniently solved by a method based on subtraction of singularity. This previous paper was devoted entirely to the consideration of simple one-dimensional isotropic-scattering and one-group problems. The present paper constitutes interesting extensions of the previous work in that in addition to a typical two-group anisotropic-scattering albedo problem in the slab geometry, the method is also applied to an isotropic-scattering problem in the x-y geometry. These results are compared with discrete S/sub N/ (ANISN or TWOTRAN-II) results, and for the problems considered here, the proposed method is found to be quite effective. Thus, the method appears to hold considerable potential for future applications. (auth)

  14. HERBICIDAS INIBIDORES DO FOTOSSISTEMA IIPARTE I /\tPHOTOSYSTEM II INHIBITOR HERBICIDES - PART I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ILCA P. DE F. E SILVA

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available O controle químico tem sido o mais utilizado em grandes áreas de plantio, principalmente por ser um método rápido e eficiente. Os herbicidas inibidores do fotossistema II (PSII são fundamentais para o manejo integrado de plantas daninhas e práticas conservacionista de solo. A aplicação é realizada em pré-emergência ou pós-emergência inicial das plantas daninhas. A absorção é pelas raízes, tendo como barreira as estrias de Caspari, sendo a translocação realizada pelo xilema. O processo de absorção e translocação também são dependentes das próprias características do produto, como as propriedades lipofílicas e hidrofílicas, as quais podem ser medidas através do coeficiente de partição octanol-água (Kow. A inibição da fotossíntese acontece pela ligação dos herbicidas deste grupo ao sítio de ligação da QB, na proteína D1 do fotossistema II, o qual se localiza na membrana dos tilacóides dos cloroplastos, causando, o bloqueia do transporte de elétrons da QA para QB, interrompendo a fixação do CO2 e a produção de ATP e NAPH2.

  15. Combustion Behaviour of Pulverised Wood - Numerical and Experimental Studies. Part 1 Numerical Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elfasakhany, A.; Xue-Song Bai [Lund Inst. of Tech. (Sweden). Dept. of Heat and Power Engineering

    2002-12-01

    This report describes a theoretical/numerical investigation of the particle motion and the particle drying, pyrolysis, oxidation of volatile and char in a pulverised biofuel (wood) flame. This work, along with the experimental measurement of a pulverised wood flame in a vertical furnace at TPS, is supported by the Swedish Energy Agency, STEM. The fundamental combustion process of a pulverised wood flame with determined size distribution and anisotropy character is studied. Comprehensive submodels are studied and some models not available in the literature are developed. The submodels are integrated to a CFD code, previously developed at LTH. The numerical code is used to simulate the experimental flame carried out at TPS (as sub-task 2 within the project). The sub-models describe the drying, devolatilization, char formation of wood particles, and the oxidation reaction of char and the gas phase volatile. At the present stage, the attention is focused on the understanding and modelling of non-spherical particle dynamics and the drying, pyrolysis, and oxidation of volatile and char. Validation of the sub-models against the experimental data is presented and discussed in this study. The influence of different factors on the pulverised wood flame in the TPS vertical furnace is investigated. This includes shape of the particles, the effect of volatile release, as well as the orientation of the particles on the motion of the particles. The effect of particle size on the flame structure (distribution of species and temperature along the axis of the furnace) is also studied. The numerical simulation is in close agreement with the TPS experimental data in the concentrations of species O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2} as well as temperature. Some discrepancy between the model simulations and measurements is observed, which suggests that further improvement in our understanding and modeling the pulverised wood flame is needed.

  16. First international 26Al interlaboratory comparison - Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merchel, Silke; Bremser, Wolfram

    2005-01-01

    After finishing Part I of the first international 26 Al interlaboratory comparison with accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) laboratories [S. Merchel, W. Bremser, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 223-224 (2004) 393], the evaluation of Part II with radionuclide counting laboratories took place. The evaluation of the results of the seven participating laboratories on four meteorite samples shows a good overall agreement between laboratories, i.e. it does not reveal any statistically significant differences if results are compared sample-by-sample. However, certain interlaboratory bias is observed with a more detailed statistical analysis including some multivariate approaches

  17. Numerical investigation of a straw combustion boiler – Part I: Modelling of the thermo-chemical conversion of straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dernbecher Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of a European project, a straw combustion boiler in conjunction with an organic Rankine cycle is developed. One objective of the project is the enhancement of the combustion chamber by numerical methods. A comprehensive simulation of the combustion chamber is prepared, which contains the necessary submodels for the thermo-chemical conversion of straw and for the homogeneous gas phase reactions. Part I introduces the modelling approach for the thermal decomposition of the biomass inside the fuel bed, whereas part II deals with the simulation of the gas phase reactions in the freeboard.

  18. Numerical simulation of a wind turbine airfoil : part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramdenee, D.; Minea, I.S.; Tardiff d' Hamonville, T.; Illinca, A. [Quebec Univ., Rimouski, PQ (Canada). Laboratoire de Recherche en Energie Eolienne

    2010-07-01

    This 2-part study used computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to identify and model the aerodynamic and aeroelastic phenomena around wind turbine blades. The aim of the study was to better understand the mechanisms surrounding unsteady flow-structure interactions. Aerodynamic and elastic models were coupled using an ANSYS multi-domain program to simulate the aeroelastic divergence of a typical section airfoil with a single rotational structural degree of freedom. Solvers were used to realize a sequence of multi-domain time steps and coupling iterations between time steps. Each element of the airfoil was divided into interpolation faces which were then transformed into 2-D polygons. An intersection process was used to create a large number of control surfaces that were used to study interactions between the structural and fluid domains. The calculations were used to determine the divergence speed and Eigen modes of vibration. A literature review was also included. 19 refs., 7 figs.

  19. Healing and relaxation in flows of helium II. Part II. First, second, and fourth sound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hills, R.N.; Roberts, P.H.

    1978-01-01

    In Part I of this series, a theory of helium II incorporating the effects of quantum healing and relaxation was developed. In this paper, the propagation of first, second, and fourth sound is discussed. Particular attention is paid to sound propagation in the vicinity of the lambda point where the effects of relaxation and quantum healing become important

  20. Two-dimensional numerical modeling and solution of convection heat transfer in turbulent He II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Burt X.; Karr, Gerald R.

    1991-01-01

    Numerical schemes are employed to investigate heat transfer in the turbulent flow of He II. FEM is used to solve a set of equations governing the heat transfer and hydrodynamics of He II in the turbulent regime. Numerical results are compared with available experimental data and interpreted in terms of conventional heat transfer parameters such as the Prandtl number, the Peclet number, and the Nusselt number. Within the prescribed Reynolds number domain, the Gorter-Mellink thermal counterflow mechanism becomes less significant, and He II acts like an ordinary fluid. The convection heat transfer characteristics of He II in the highly turbulent regime can be successfully described by using the conventional turbulence and heat transfer theories.

  1. Recommended ALIs and DACs for 10 CFR part 220: A consistent numerical set

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckerman, K.F.

    1996-05-01

    Appendix B to 10 CFR Part 20 contains numerical data for controlling the intake of radionuclides in the workplace or in the environment. These data, derived from the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), do not provide a numerically consistent basis for demonstrating compliance with the limitation on dose stated in the regulation. This situation is largely a consequence of the numerical procedures used by the ICRP which did not maintain, in a strict numerical sense, the hierarchial relationship among the radiation protection quantities. In this work recommended values of the quantities in Appendix B to CFR Part 20 are developed using the dose coefficients of the applicable ICRP publications and a numerical procedure which ensures that the tabulated quantities are numerically consistent.

  2. Polycystic ovary syndrome: a review for dermatologists: Part II. Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzney, Elizabeth; Sheu, Johanna; Buzney, Catherine; Reynolds, Rachel V

    2014-11-01

    Dermatologists are in a key position to treat the manifestations of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The management of PCOS should be tailored to each woman's specific goals, reproductive interests, and particular constellation of symptoms. Therefore, a multidisciplinary approach is recommended. In part II of this continuing medical education article, we present the available safety and efficacy data regarding treatments for women with acne, hirsutism, and androgenetic alopecia. Therapies discussed include lifestyle modification, topical therapies, combined oral contraceptives, antiandrogen agents, and insulin-sensitizing drugs. Treatment recommendations are made based on the current available evidence. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Impedance-Source Networks for Electric Power Conversion Part II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siwakoti, Yam P.; Peng, Fang Zheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    Impedance-source networks cover the entire spectrum of electric power conversion applications (dc-dc, dc-ac, ac-dc, ac-ac) controlled and modulated by different modulation strategies to generate the desired dc or ac voltage and current at the output. A comprehensive review of various impedance......-source-network-based power converters has been covered in a previous paper and main topologies were discussed from an application point of view. Now Part II provides a comprehensive review of the most popular control and modulation strategies for impedance-source network-based power converters/inverters. These methods...

  4. Signs of revision in Don Quixote, Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Pontón

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article provides new evidences in favour of the hypothesis that Cervantes, after finishing Don Quixote, Part II, partially revised the original, introducing some significant changes and additions, mainly in the last chapters. The analysis of some narrative inconsistencies, that cannot be interpreted as mere mistakes but as significant textual traces, reveals a process of re-elaboration –a process that affects at least four sections of the novel. Most of the evidence gathered here suggests that this revision is closely linked to Avellaneda’s continuation, in the sense that Cervantes tried to challenge the apocriphal Quixote making last-time interventions in his own text.

  5. Design of analog networks in the control theory formulation. Part 2: Numerical results

    OpenAIRE

    Zemliak, A. M.

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents numerical results of design of nonlinear electronic networks based on the problem formulation in terms of the control theory. Several examples illustrate the prospects of the approach suggested in the first part of the work.

  6. The "Pseudocommando" mass murderer: part II, the language of revenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, James L

    2010-01-01

    In Part I of this article, research on pseudocommandos was reviewed, and the important role that revenge fantasies play in motivating such persons to commit mass murder-suicide was discussed. Before carrying out their mass shootings, pseudocommandos may communicate some final message to the public or news media. These communications are rich sources of data about their motives and psychopathology. In Part II of this article, forensic psycholinguistic analysis is applied to clarify the primary motivations, detect the presence of mental illness, and discern important individual differences in the final communications of two recent pseudocommandos: Seung-Hui Cho (Virginia Tech) and Jiverly Wong (Binghamton, NY). Although both men committed offenses that qualify them as pseudocommandos, their final communications reveal striking differences in their psychopathology.

  7. Structure Learning and Statistical Estimation in Distribution Networks - Part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deka, Deepjyoti [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Backhaus, Scott N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chertkov, Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-02-13

    Limited placement of real-time monitoring devices in the distribution grid, recent trends notwithstanding, has prevented the easy implementation of demand-response and other smart grid applications. Part I of this paper discusses the problem of learning the operational structure of the grid from nodal voltage measurements. In this work (Part II), the learning of the operational radial structure is coupled with the problem of estimating nodal consumption statistics and inferring the line parameters in the grid. Based on a Linear-Coupled(LC) approximation of AC power flows equations, polynomial time algorithms are designed to identify the structure and estimate nodal load characteristics and/or line parameters in the grid using the available nodal voltage measurements. Then the structure learning algorithm is extended to cases with missing data, where available observations are limited to a fraction of the grid nodes. The efficacy of the presented algorithms are demonstrated through simulations on several distribution test cases.

  8. CE and nanomaterials - Part II: Nanomaterials in CE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Vojtech; Vaculovicova, Marketa

    2017-10-01

    The scope of this two-part review is to summarize publications dealing with CE and nanomaterials together. This topic can be viewed from two broad perspectives, and this article is trying to highlight these two approaches: (i) CE of nanomaterials, and (ii) nanomaterials in CE. The second part aims at summarization of publications dealing with application of nanomaterials for enhancement of CE performance either in terms of increasing the separation resolution or for improvement of the detection. To increase the resolution, nanomaterials are employed as either surface modification of the capillary wall forming open tubular column or as additives to the separation electrolyte resulting in a pseudostationary phase. Moreover, nanomaterials have proven to be very beneficial for increasing also the sensitivity of detection employed in CE or even they enable the detection (e.g., fluorescent tags of nonfluorescent molecules). © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. PREREM: an interactive data preprocessing code for INREM II. Part I: user's manual. Part II: code structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, M.T.; Fields, D.E.

    1981-05-01

    PREREM is an interactive computer code developed as a data preprocessor for the INREM-II (Killough, Dunning, and Pleasant, 1978a) internal dose program. PREREM is intended to provide easy access to current and self-consistent nuclear decay and radionuclide-specific metabolic data sets. Provision is made for revision of metabolic data, and the code is intended for both production and research applications. Documentation for the code is in two parts. Part I is a user's manual which emphasizes interpretation of program prompts and choice of user input. Part II stresses internal structure and flow of program control and is intended to assist the researcher who wishes to revise or modify the code or add to its capabilities. PREREM is written for execution on a Digital Equipment Corporation PDP-10 System and much of the code will require revision before it can be run on other machines. The source program length is 950 lines (116 blocks) and computer core required for execution is 212 K bytes. The user must also have sufficient file space for metabolic and S-factor data sets. Further, 64 100 K byte blocks of computer storage space are required for the nuclear decay data file. Computer storage space must also be available for any output files produced during the PREREM execution. 9 refs., 8 tabs.

  10. 29 CFR Appendix II to Part 1918 - Tables for Selected Miscellaneous Auxiliary Gear (Mandatory)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tables for Selected Miscellaneous Auxiliary Gear (Mandatory) II Appendix II to Part 1918 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND.... 1918, App. II Appendix II to Part 1918—Tables for Selected Miscellaneous Auxiliary Gear (Mandatory...

  11. A Survey of Optometry Graduates to Determine Practice Patterns: Part II: Licensure and Practice Establishment Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleimann, Robert L.; Smith, Lee W.

    1985-01-01

    A summary of Part II of a two-volume study of optometry graduates conducted by the Association of Schools and Colleges of Optometry is presented. Part II includes the analysis of the graduates' licensure and practice establishment experiences. (MLW)

  12. Nursing as concrete philosophy, Part II: Engaging with reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodoridis, Kyriakos

    2018-04-01

    This is the second paper of an essay in two parts. The first paper (Part I) is a critical discussion of Mark Risjord's conception of nursing knowledge where I argued against the conception of nursing knowledge as a kind of nursing science. The aim of the present paper (Part II) is to explicate and substantiate the thesis of nursing as a kind of concrete philosophy. My strategy is to elaborate upon certain themes from Wittgenstein's Tractatus in order to canvass a general scheme of philosophy based on a distinction between reality and the world. This distinction will be employed in the appropriation of certain significant features of nursing and nursing knowledge. By elaborating on the contrast between the abstract and the concrete, I will suggest that nursing may be seen as a kind of concrete philosophy, being primarily concerned with reality (and secondarily with the world). This thesis, I will argue, implies that philosophy is the kind of theory that is essential to nursing (which is not so much a theory than a certain kind of activity). © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Bayesian inference for psychology. Part II: Example applications with JASP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan; Love, Jonathon; Marsman, Maarten; Jamil, Tahira; Ly, Alexander; Verhagen, Josine; Selker, Ravi; Gronau, Quentin F; Dropmann, Damian; Boutin, Bruno; Meerhoff, Frans; Knight, Patrick; Raj, Akash; van Kesteren, Erik-Jan; van Doorn, Johnny; Šmíra, Martin; Epskamp, Sacha; Etz, Alexander; Matzke, Dora; de Jong, Tim; van den Bergh, Don; Sarafoglou, Alexandra; Steingroever, Helen; Derks, Koen; Rouder, Jeffrey N; Morey, Richard D

    2018-02-01

    Bayesian hypothesis testing presents an attractive alternative to p value hypothesis testing. Part I of this series outlined several advantages of Bayesian hypothesis testing, including the ability to quantify evidence and the ability to monitor and update this evidence as data come in, without the need to know the intention with which the data were collected. Despite these and other practical advantages, Bayesian hypothesis tests are still reported relatively rarely. An important impediment to the widespread adoption of Bayesian tests is arguably the lack of user-friendly software for the run-of-the-mill statistical problems that confront psychologists for the analysis of almost every experiment: the t-test, ANOVA, correlation, regression, and contingency tables. In Part II of this series we introduce JASP ( http://www.jasp-stats.org ), an open-source, cross-platform, user-friendly graphical software package that allows users to carry out Bayesian hypothesis tests for standard statistical problems. JASP is based in part on the Bayesian analyses implemented in Morey and Rouder's BayesFactor package for R. Armed with JASP, the practical advantages of Bayesian hypothesis testing are only a mouse click away.

  14. Two-loop renormalization in the standard model, part II. Renormalization procedures and computational techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Actis, S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Passarino, G. [Torino Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica Teorica; INFN, Sezione di Torino (Italy)

    2006-12-15

    In part I general aspects of the renormalization of a spontaneously broken gauge theory have been introduced. Here, in part II, two-loop renormalization is introduced and discussed within the context of the minimal Standard Model. Therefore, this paper deals with the transition between bare parameters and fields to renormalized ones. The full list of one- and two-loop counterterms is shown and it is proven that, by a suitable extension of the formalism already introduced at the one-loop level, two-point functions suffice in renormalizing the model. The problem of overlapping ultraviolet divergencies is analyzed and it is shown that all counterterms are local and of polynomial nature. The original program of 't Hooft and Veltman is at work. Finite parts are written in a way that allows for a fast and reliable numerical integration with all collinear logarithms extracted analytically. Finite renormalization, the transition between renormalized parameters and physical (pseudo-)observables, are discussed in part III where numerical results, e.g. for the complex poles of the unstable gauge bosons, are shown. An attempt is made to define the running of the electromagnetic coupling constant at the two-loop level. (orig.)

  15. II: Through the Western Part of the City: Charlottenburg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Dieter

    Until 1920 the city we now call Berlin was a collection of independent towns and villages — among them Charlottenburg, which was one of the most important and was the proud sister of Berlin, Prussia’s and Germany’s capital, where the wealthy and innovative bourgeoisie lived. Werner von Siemens, Germany’s pioneer in the modern electrical industry, was a prime example of that elite. His castle-like villa was located not far from today’s Ernst-Reuter-Platz at Otto-Suhr-Allee 10-16, and important parts of his enterprise expanded into the “meadows outside of Charlottenburg” during the second half of the 19th century. It was no accident that the efforts to unite Berlin’s two colleges for trade and construction (both founded around 1800) led to the foundation of a modern Technical College in Charlottenburg in 1879, today’s Technical University of Berlin. Its magnificent main building (figure 1), which was opened in 1882 by the German Emperor, was an expression of the great self-confidence of this new institution of higher learning and of Charlottenburg’s bourgeoisie. Although large parts of the building were destroyed by bombs during World War II, you can still get an impression of its monumentality from what survived at number 135 Strasse des 17. Juni.

  16. Reforming Science Education: Part II. Utilizing Kieran Egan's Educational Metatheory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Roland M.

    2009-04-01

    This paper is the second of two parts and continues the conversation which had called for a shift in the conceptual focus of science education towards philosophy of education, with the requirement to develop a discipline-specific “philosophy” of science education. In Part I, conflicting conceptions of science literacy were identified with disparate “visions” tied to competing research programs as well as school-based curricular paradigms. The impasse in the goals of science education and thereto, the contending views of science literacy, were themselves associated with three underlying fundamental aims of education (knowledge-itself; personal development; socialization) which, it was argued, usually undercut the potential of each other. During periods of “crisis-talk” and throughout science educational history these three aims have repeatedly attempted to assert themselves. The inability of science education research to affect long-term change in classrooms was correlated not only to the failure to reach a consensus on the aims (due to competing programs and to the educational ideologies of their social groups), but especially to the failure of developing true educational theories (largely neglected since Hirst). Such theories, especially metatheories, could serve to reinforce science education’s growing sense of academic autonomy and independence from socio-economic demands. In Part II, I offer as a suggestion Egan’s cultural-linguistic theory as a metatheory to help resolve the impasse. I hope to make reformers familiar with his important ideas in general, and more specifically, to show how they can complement HPS rationales and reinforce the work of those researchers who have emphasized the value of narrative in learning science.

  17. Biology and Mechanics of Blood Flows Part II: Mechanics and Medical Aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Thiriet, Marc

    2008-01-01

    Biology and Mechanics of Blood Flows presents the basic knowledge and state-of-the-art techniques necessary to carry out investigations of the cardiovascular system using modeling and simulation. Part II of this two-volume sequence, Mechanics and Medical Aspects, refers to the extraction of input data at the macroscopic scale for modeling the cardiovascular system, and complements Part I, which focuses on nanoscopic and microscopic components and processes. This volume contains chapters on anatomy, physiology, continuum mechanics, as well as pathological changes in the vasculature walls including the heart and their treatments. Methods of numerical simulations are given and illustrated in particular by application to wall diseases. This authoritative book will appeal to any biologist, chemist, physicist, or applied mathematician interested in the functioning of the cardiovascular system.

  18. Tunable, Flexible and Efficient Optimization of Control Pulses for Superconducting Qubits, part II - Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    AsséMat, Elie; Machnes, Shai; Tannor, David; Wilhelm-Mauch, Frank

    In part I, we presented the theoretic foundations of the GOAT algorithm for the optimal control of quantum systems. Here in part II, we focus on several applications of GOAT to superconducting qubits architecture. First, we consider a control-Z gate on Xmons qubits with an Erf parametrization of the optimal pulse. We show that a fast and accurate gate can be obtained with only 16 parameters, as compared to hundreds of parameters required in other algorithms. We present numerical evidences that such parametrization should allow an efficient in-situ calibration of the pulse. Next, we consider the flux-tunable coupler by IBM. We show optimization can be carried out in a more realistic model of the system than was employed in the original study, which is expected to further simplify the calibration process. Moreover, GOAT reduced the complexity of the optimal pulse to only 6 Fourier components, composed with analytic wrappers.

  19. Recovery in soccer : part ii-recovery strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nédélec, Mathieu; McCall, Alan; Carling, Chris; Legall, Franck; Berthoin, Serge; Dupont, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    In the formerly published part I of this two-part review, we examined fatigue after soccer matchplay and recovery kinetics of physical performance, and cognitive, subjective and biological markers. To reduce the magnitude of fatigue and to accelerate the time to fully recover after completion, several recovery strategies are now used in professional soccer teams. During congested fixture schedules, recovery strategies are highly required to alleviate post-match fatigue, and then to regain performance faster and reduce the risk of injury. Fatigue following competition is multifactorial and mainly related to dehydration, glycogen depletion, muscle damage and mental fatigue. Recovery strategies should consequently be targeted against the major causes of fatigue. Strategies reviewed in part II of this article were nutritional intake, cold water immersion, sleeping, active recovery, stretching, compression garments, massage and electrical stimulation. Some strategies such as hydration, diet and sleep are effective in their ability to counteract the fatigue mechanisms. Providing milk drinks to players at the end of competition and a meal containing high-glycaemic index carbohydrate and protein within the hour following the match are effective in replenishing substrate stores and optimizing muscle-damage repair. Sleep is an essential part of recovery management. Sleep disturbance after a match is common and can negatively impact on the recovery process. Cold water immersion is effective during acute periods of match congestion in order to regain performance levels faster and repress the acute inflammatory process. Scientific evidence for other strategies reviewed in their ability to accelerate the return to the initial level of performance is still lacking. These include active recovery, stretching, compression garments, massage and electrical stimulation. While this does not mean that these strategies do not aid the recovery process, the protocols implemented up until

  20. 10 CFR Appendix II to Part 1050 - DOE Form 3735.3-Foreign Travel Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... is official agency business. Spouses and dependents may accept such travel and expenses only when... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false DOE Form 3735.3-Foreign Travel Statement II Appendix II to.... II Appendix II to Part 1050—DOE Form 3735.3—Foreign Travel Statement EC01OC91.041 Statement...

  1. Thinking in nursing education. Part II. A teacher's experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ironside, P M

    1999-01-01

    Across academia, educators are investigating teaching strategies that facilitate students' abilities to think critically. Because may these strategies require low teacher-student ratios or sustained involvement over time, efforts to implement them are often constrained by diminishing resources for education, faculty reductions, and increasing number of part-time teachers and students. In nursing, the challenges of teaching and learning critical thinking are compounded by the demands of providing care to patients with increasingly acute and complex problems in a wide variety of settings. To meet these challenges, nurse teachers have commonly used a variety of strategies to teach critical thinking (1). For instance, they often provide students with case studies or simulated clinical situations in classroom and laboratory settings (2). At other times, students are taught a process of critical thinking and given structured clinical assignments, such as care plans or care maps, where they apply this process in anticipating the care a particular patient will require. Accompanying students onto clinical units, teachers typically evaluate critical thinking ability by reviewing a student's preparation prior to the experience and discussing it with the student during the course of the experience. The rationales students provide for particular nursing interventions are taken as evidence of their critical thinking ability. While this approach is commonly thought to be effective, the evolving health care system has placed increased emphasis on community nursing (3,4), where it is often difficult to prespecify learning experiences or to anticipate patient care needs. In addition, teachers are often not able to accompany each student to the clinical site. Thus, the traditional strategies for teaching and learning critical thinking common to hospital-based clinical courses are being challenged, transformed, and extended (5). Part II of this article describes findings that suggest

  2. All About Dowels - A Review Part II Considerations After Cementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zishan Dangra

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The present review summarizes the published literature examining cementation of the dowel and factors related to it. The peer reviewed English language literature was reviewed from the period 1990 to 2015. Articles were searched in Pubmed/ Medline for the relevant terms. Additional manual searches of some dental journals were also carried out. The original key terms resulted in 228 articles. After applying inclusion criteria, 64 articles remained to be included in part II of this review. Article search indicates that most published literature on dowels are in the form of in vitro analysis. Literature on prefabricated dowel systems far exceeds than the custom cast dowel and newer fibre dowels. Clinical evidence is not sufficient and cannot be used to inform practice confidently. However, within the limitations of this review it is suggested that adhesive fixation is preferred in case of short dowel. Dowel width should be as small as possible. A ferrule of 2 mm has to be provided. Composites have proven to be a good core material provided that adequate tooth structure remained for bonding. Dowel should be inserted if endodontically treated tooth is to be used as abutment for removable partial dentures.

  3. 46 CFR Appendix II to Part 150 - Explanation of Figure 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... COMPATIBILITY OF CARGOES Pt. 150, App. II Appendix II to Part 150—Explanation of Figure 1 Definition of a..., aromatic hydrocarbons or paraffins. Others will form hazardous combinations with many groups: For example...

  4. Adaptive pressure-controlled cellular structures for shape morphing: II. Numerical and experimental validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Quantian; Tong, Liyong

    2013-01-01

    This part presents finite element analysis to verify the present formulations on mechanics of the pressurized cellular structures derived in Part I and experimental testing for a pressurized cellular actuator to demonstrate feasibility and realization of the proposed pressurized cellular structures. Linear and nonlinear finite element analyses are implemented in a commercial finite element analysis package and the numerical results are compared with those of the novel formulations given in Part I. A pressurized cellular structure specimen with 3 cells is fabricated and tested. The fabricated 3-cell cellular structure is capable of yielding a free actuation strain of around 24%. The measured pressure-induced displacement and blocking force compare favorably with the numerical results predicted by the finite element analysis and analytical formulations. (paper)

  5. Determination of Solution Accuracy of Numerical Schemes as Part of Code and Calculation Verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blottner, F.G.; Lopez, A.R.

    1998-10-01

    This investigation is concerned with the accuracy of numerical schemes for solving partial differential equations used in science and engineering simulation codes. Richardson extrapolation methods for steady and unsteady problems with structured meshes are presented as part of the verification procedure to determine code and calculation accuracy. The local truncation error de- termination of a numerical difference scheme is shown to be a significant component of the veri- fication procedure as it determines the consistency of the numerical scheme, the order of the numerical scheme, and the restrictions on the mesh variation with a non-uniform mesh. Genera- tion of a series of co-located, refined meshes with the appropriate variation of mesh cell size is in- vestigated and is another important component of the verification procedure. The importance of mesh refinement studies is shown to be more significant than just a procedure to determine solu- tion accuracy. It is suggested that mesh refinement techniques can be developed to determine con- sistency of numerical schemes and to determine if governing equations are well posed. The present investigation provides further insight into the conditions and procedures required to effec- tively use Richardson extrapolation with mesh refinement studies to achieve confidence that sim- ulation codes are producing accurate numerical solutions.

  6. Numerical study of the Columbia high-beta device: Torus-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izzo, R.

    1981-01-01

    The ionization, heating and subsequent long-time-scale behavior of the helium plasma in the Columbia fusion device, Torus-II, is studied. The purpose of this work is to perform numerical simulations while maintaining a high level of interaction with experimentalists. The device is operated as a toroidal z-pinch to prepare the gas for heating. This ionization of helium is studied using a zero-dimensional, two-fluid code. It is essentially an energy balance calculation that follows the development of the various charge states of the helium and any impurities (primarily silicon and oxygen) that are present. The code is an atomic physics model of Torus-II. In addition to ionization, we include three-body and radiative recombination processes

  7. Numerical study of the Columbia high-beta device: Torus-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izzo, R.

    1981-01-01

    The ionization, heating and subsequent long-time-scale behavior of the helium plasma in the Columbia fusion device, Torus-II, is studied. The purpose of this work is to perform numerical simulations while maintaining a high level of interaction with experimentalists. The device is operated as a toroidal z-pinch to prepare the gas for heating. This ionization of helium is studied using a zero-dimensional, two-fluid code. It is essentially an energy balance calculation that follows the development of the various charge states of the helium and any impurities (primarily silicon and oxygen) that are present. The code is an atomic physics model of Torus-II. In addition to ionization, we include three-body and radiative recombination processes.

  8. HYDRA-II: A hydrothermal analysis computer code: Volume 1, Equations and numerics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCann, R.A.

    1987-04-01

    HYDRA-II is a hydrothermal computer code capable of three-dimensional analysis of coupled conduction, convection, and thermal radiation problems. This code is especially appropriate for simulating the steady-state performance of spent fuel storage systems. The code has been evaluated for this application for the US Department of Energy's Commercial Spent Fuel Management Program. HYDRA-II provides a finite difference solution in Cartesian coordinates to the equations governing the conservation of mass, momentum, and energy. A cylindrical coordinate system may also be used to enclose the Cartesian coordinate system. This exterior coordinate system is useful for modeling cylindrical cask bodies. The difference equations for conservation of momentum are enhanced by the incorporation of directional porosities and permeabilities that aid in modeling solid structures whose dimensions may be smaller than the computational mesh. The equation for conservation of energy permits of modeling of orthotropic physical properties and film resistances. Several automated procedures are available to model radiation transfer within enclosures and from fuel rod to fuel rod. The documentation of HYDRA-II is presented in three separate volumes. This volume, Volume I - Equations and Numerics, describes the basic differential equations, illustrates how the difference equations are formulated, and gives the solution procedures employed. Volume II - User's Manual contains code flow charts, discusses the code structure, provides detailed instructions for preparing an input file, and illustrates the operation of the code by means of a model problem. The final volume, Volume III - Verification/Validation Assessments, presents results of numerical simulations of single- and multiassembly storage systems and comparisons with experimental data. 4 refs

  9. Psychiatric emergencies (part II): psychiatric disorders coexisting with organic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, A; Giannuzzi, R; Sollazzo, F; Petrongolo, L; Bernardini, L; Dain, S

    2013-02-01

    In this Part II psychiatric disorders coexisting with organic diseases are discussed. "Comorbidity phenomenon" defines the not univocal interrelation between medical illnesses and psychiatric disorders, each other negatively influencing morbidity and mortality. Most severe psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and depression, show increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease, related to poverty, use of psychotropic medication, and higher rate of preventable risk factors such as smoking, addiction, poor diet and lack of exercise. Moreover, psychiatric and organic disorders can develop together in different conditions of toxic substance and prescription drug use or abuse, especially in the emergency setting population. Different combinations with mutual interaction of psychiatric disorders and substance use disorders are defined by the so called "dual diagnosis". The hypotheses that attempt to explain the psychiatric disorders and substance abuse relationship are examined: (1) common risk factors; (2) psychiatric disorders precipitated by substance use; (3) psychiatric disorders precipitating substance use (self-medication hypothesis); and (4) synergistic interaction. Diagnostic and therapeutic difficulty concerning the problem of dual diagnosis, and legal implications, are also discussed. Substance induced psychiatric and organic symptoms can occur both in the intoxication and withdrawal state. Since ancient history, humans selected indigene psychotropic plants for recreational, medicinal, doping or spiritual purpose. After the isolation of active principles or their chemical synthesis, higher blood concentrations reached predispose to substance use, abuse and dependence. Abuse substances have specific molecular targets and very different acute mechanisms of action, mainly involving dopaminergic and serotoninergic systems, but finally converging on the brain's reward pathways, increasing dopamine in nucleus accumbens. The most common

  10. PGE Production in Southern Africa, Part II: Environmental Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedikt Buchspies

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Platinum group elements (PGEs, 6E PGE = Pt + Pd + Rh + Ru + Ir + Au are used in numerous applications that seek to reduce environmental impacts of mobility and energy generation. Consequently, the future demand for PGEs is predicted to increase. Previous studies indicate that environmental impacts of PGE production change over time emphasizing the need of up-to-date data and assessments. In this context, an analysis of environmental aspects of PGE production is needed to support the environmental assessment of technologies using PGEs, to reveal environmental hotspots within the production chain and to identify optimization potential. Therefore, this paper assesses greenhouse gas (GHG emissions, cumulative fossil energy demand (CEDfossil, sulfur dioxide (SO2 emissions and water use of primary PGE production in Southern Africa, where most of today’s supply originates from. The analysis shows that in 2015, emissions amounted to 45 t CO2-eq. and 502 kg SO2 per kg 6E PGE in the case GHG and SO2 emissions, respectively. GHG emissions are dominated by emissions from electricity provision contributing more than 90% to the overall GHG emissions. The CEDfossil amounted to 0.60 TJ per kg 6E PGE. A detailed analysis of the CEDfossil reveals that electricity provision based on coal power consumes the most fossil energy carriers among all energy forms. Results show that the emissions are directly related to the electricity demand. Thus, the reduction in the electricity demand presents the major lever to reduce the consumption of fossil energy resources and the emission of GHGs and SO2. In 2015, the water withdrawal amounted to 0.272 million L per kg 6E PGE. Additionally, 0.402 million L of recycled water were used per kg 6E PGE. All assessed indicators except ore grades and production volumes reveal increasing trends in the period from 2010 to 2015. It can be concluded that difficult market conditions (see part I of this paper series and increasing

  11. Numerical simulation of complex part manufactured by selective laser melting process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Belle, Laurent

    2017-10-01

    Selective Laser Melting (SLM) process belonging to the family of the Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies, enable to build parts layer by layer, from metallic powder and a CAD model. Physical phenomena that occur in the process have the same issues as conventional welding. Thermal gradients generate significant residual stresses and distortions in the parts. Moreover, the large and complex parts to manufacturing, accentuate the undesirable effects. Therefore, it is essential for manufacturers to offer a better understanding of the process and to ensure production reliability of parts with high added value. This paper focuses on the simulation of manufacturing turbine by SLM process in order to calculate residual stresses and distortions. Numerical results will be presented.

  12. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 1042 - Steady-State Duty Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Steady-State Duty Cycles II Appendix..., App. II Appendix II to Part 1042—Steady-State Duty Cycles (a) The following duty cycles apply as specified in § 1042.505(b)(1): (1) The following duty cycle applies for discrete-mode testing: E3 mode No...

  13. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 1054 - Duty Cycles for Laboratory Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Duty Cycles for Laboratory Testing II.... 1054, App. II Appendix II to Part 1054—Duty Cycles for Laboratory Testing (a) Test handheld engines with the following steady-state duty cycle: G3 mode No. Engine speed a Torque(percent) b Weighting...

  14. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 600 - Sample Fuel Economy Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sample Fuel Economy Calculations II... FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Pt. 600, App. II Appendix II to Part 600—Sample Fuel Economy Calculations (a) This sample fuel economy calculation is applicable to...

  15. Numerical simulation of thermal loading produced by shaped high power laser onto engine parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Hongwei; Li Shaoxia; Zhang Ling; Yu Gang; Zhou Liang; Tan Jiansong

    2010-01-01

    Recently a new method for simulating the thermal loading on pistons of diesel engines was reported. The spatially shaped high power laser is employed as the heat source, and some preliminary experimental and numerical work was carried out. In this paper, a further effort was made to extend this simulation method to some other important engine parts such as cylinder heads. The incident Gaussian beam was transformed into concentric multi-circular patterns of specific intensity distributions, with the aid of diffractive optical elements (DOEs). By incorporating the appropriate repetitive laser pulses, the designed transient temperature fields and thermal loadings in the engine parts could be simulated. Thermal-structural numerical models for pistons and cylinder heads were built to predict the transient temperature and thermal stress. The models were also employed to find the optimal intensity distributions of the transformed laser beam that could produce the target transient temperature fields. Comparison of experimental and numerical results demonstrated that this systematic approach is effective in simulating the thermal loading on the engine parts.

  16. Numerical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Boumaza

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Transient convection heat transfer is of fundamental interest in many industrial and environmental situations, as well as in electronic devices and security of energy systems. Transient fluid flow problems are among the more difficult to analyze and yet are very often encountered in modern day technology. The main objective of this research project is to carry out a theoretical and numerical analysis of transient convective heat transfer in vertical flows, when the thermal field is due to different kinds of variation, in time and space of some boundary conditions, such as wall temperature or wall heat flux. This is achieved by the development of a mathematical model and its resolution by suitable numerical methods, as well as performing various sensitivity analyses. These objectives are achieved through a theoretical investigation of the effects of wall and fluid axial conduction, physical properties and heat capacity of the pipe wall on the transient downward mixed convection in a circular duct experiencing a sudden change in the applied heat flux on the outside surface of a central zone.

  17. Complexometric determination, Part II: Complexometric determination of Cu2+-ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajković Miloš B.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A copper-selective electrode of the coated wire type based on sulphidized copper wire was applied successfully for determining Cu(II ions by complexometric titration with the disodium salt of EDTA (complexon III. By the formation of internal complex compounds with the Cu(II ion, the copper concentration in the solution decreases, and all this is followed by a change of potential of the indicator system Cu-DWISE (or Cu-EDWISE/SCE. At the terminal point of titration, when all the Cu(II ions are already utilized for the formation of the complex with EDTA, there occurs a steep rise of potential, thus enabling us, through the first or second derivative to note the quantity of copper that is present in the solution. Copper-selective electrode showed a responsivity towards titration with EDTA as a complexing agent, with the absence of "fatigue" due to a great number of repeated measurings. Errors occurring during quantitative measurements were more a characteristic of the overall procedure which involve, because of the impossibility of the complete absence of subjectivity, a constant error, and the reproducibility of the results confirmed this fact. The disodium salt of EDTA appeared as a very efficient titrant in all titrations and with various concentrations ot Cu(II ions in the solution, with somewhat weaker response at lower concentrations in the solution.

  18. A Conversation with William A. Fowler Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, John

    2005-06-01

    Physicist William A.Fowler initiated an experimental program in nuclear astrophysics after World War II. He recalls here the Steady State versus Big Bang controversy and his celebrated collaboration with Fred Hoyle and Geoffrey and Margaret Burbidge on nucleosynthesis in stars. He also comments on the shift away from nuclear physics in universities to large accelerators and national laboratories.

  19. Numerical Prediction Of Elastic Springback In An Automotive Complex Structural Part

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fratini, Livan; Ingarao, Giuseppe; Micari, Fabrizio; Lo Franco, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    The routing and production of 3D complex parts for automotive applications is characterized by springback phenomena affecting the final geometry of the components both after the stamping operations and the trimming ones. FE analyses have to assure effectiveness and consistency in order to be utilized as design tool to be coupled to proper compensating techniques allowing to obtain the desired geometry at the and of the production sequence. In the present paper the full routing of a DP 600 steel automotive structural part is considered and the springback phenomena occurring after forming and trimming are investigated through FE analyses utilizing two different commercial codes. Althought finite element analysis is successful in simulating industrial sheet forming operations, the accurate and reliable applications of this phenomenon and its numerical prediction has not been widely demonstrated. In this paper the influence of the main numerical parameters has been considered i.e. type of the utilized shell element and number of integration points along the thickness, with the aim to improve the effectiveness and reliability of the numerical results. The obtained results have been compared with the experimental evidences derived from CMM acquisitions

  20. FINELM: a multigroup finite element diffusion code. Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davierwalla, D.M.

    1981-05-01

    The author presents the axisymmetric case in cylindrical coordinates for the finite element multigroup neutron diffusion code, FINELM. The numerical acceleration schemes incorporated viz. the Lebedev extrapolations and the coarse mesh rebalancing, space collapsing, are discussed. A few benchmark computations are presented as validation of the code. (Auth.)

  1. Inteligencia Artificial y Neurología: II Parte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Camacho Pinto

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Algunos comentarios sobre la primera parte me han inducido a ampliar las bases de este trabajo mediante la presentación de aspectos comunes y conceptos disímiles sobre la hipotética relación entre inteligencia artificial (lA e inteligencia humana(IH. El tema es tan complejo que un intento por resumirlo de por sí ya es atrayente además de necesario.

    Microhistoria de la lA. Ciñéndome a una cruda realidad la lA nació en la Conferencia de Darmouth, año 1956, cuando John McCarthy, profesor de ciencia de computador en Stanford Un. acuñó el término de lA. Sin embargo, especulando un poco podemos decir que cierta inquietud existió desde la antigüedad, mucho antes de los computadores y aún de la electrónica (1 cuando el ser humano irresistiblemente mostraba inquietud por crear I fuera del cerebro humano. Se encuentran algunos ejemplos en la Mitología griega: Hefestos. dios del fuego y de los metales, confeccionaba creaciones semihumanas en su forja. Pigmalión desencantado de las mujeres modeló su propia ninfa en mármol y para poder casarse con ella imploró suplicante hasta conseguir que Afrodita le diera vida.

    En la Europa medioeval al papa Silvestre II (apodado el hechicero por su sabiduría, año 909 D.C. se le atribuye que construía cabezas parlantes. En el siglo XVI Para celso clamó haber inventado un homúnculo. Y el rabino checo Jundo ben Loew esculpió un hombre en arcilla, José Golem, y lo constituyó espía en Praga. En 1854 el matemático británico George Boole propuso un sistema para describir lógica (2 -las leyes del pensamiento en términos matemáticos: “álgebra booliana”, “mathematical logics” que representa procesos lógicos con dos dígitos, 9 y 1.

    En 1937 Alan Turing demostró que una máquina binaria podía ser programada para realizar cualquier tarea algorítmica. Esta máquina de Turing sólo podía ejecutar dos acciones: dibujar y borrar. En el mismo año Claude

  2. The Search for Another Earth–Part II

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/021/10/0899-0910. Keywords. Exoplanets, earth, super-earth, diamond planet, neptune, habitability, extra-terrestrial life. Abstract. In the first part, we discussed the various methods for thedetection of planets outside the solar system known as theexoplanets. In this part ...

  3. Numerical simulations of type II gradient drift irregularities in the equatorial electrojet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferch, R.L.; Sudan, R.N.

    1977-01-01

    Two-dimensional numerical studies of the development of type II irregularities in the equatorial electrojet have been carried out using a method similar to that of McDonald et al., (1974) except that ion inertia has been neglected. This simplification is shown to be a valid approximation whenever the electron drift velocity is small in comparison with the ion acoustic velocity and the values of the other parameters are those appropriate for the equatorial E layer. This code enables us to follow the development of quasi-steady state turbulence from appropriate initial pertubations. The two-dimensional turbulent spectrum of electron density perturbations excited is studied both for the case of devlopment from initial perturbations and for the case of a continuously pumped single driving wave

  4. Cardiac nuclear medicine, part II: diagnosis of coronary artery diseas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polak, J.F.; Holman, B.L.

    1981-01-01

    Diagnosing coronary artery disease is difficult and requires careful consideration of the roles and limitations of the tests used. Standard ECG tests are not reliable indicators of the presence of disease in asymptomatic patients. Thallium stress testing to assess ischemia and exercise ventriculography to assess functional status of the heart are limited in sensitivity and specificity. This is the second of a three-part series on cardiac nuclear medicine. Part I (Med. Instrum., May-June, 1981) focused on the commonly used examinations in cardiac physiology and pathophysiology. Part III will focus on myocardial infarction and other cardiac diseases

  5. 30 CFR Appendix II to Subpart D of... - Appendix II to Subpart D of Part 18

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Machines Assembled With Certified or Explosion-Proof Components, Field Modifications of Approved Machines, and Permits To Use Experimental Equipment Pt. 18, Subpt. D, App. II Appendix II to Subpart D of...

  6. Guidelines for acute ischemic stroke treatment: part II: stroke treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Cristina Ouriques Martins

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The second part of these Guidelines covers the topics of antiplatelet, anticoagulant, and statin therapy in acute ischemic stroke, reperfusion therapy, and classification of Stroke Centers. Information on the classes and levels of evidence used in this guideline is provided in Part I. A translated version of the Guidelines is available from the Brazilian Stroke Society website (www.sbdcv.com.br.

  7. Experimental and numerical determination of the dynamic properties of the reactor building of Atucha II NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceballos, M.A.; Car, E.J.; Prato, T.A.; Prato, C.A.; Alvarez, L.M.; Godoy, A.R.

    1995-01-01

    Determination of the dynamic properties of the reactor building of Atucha II NPP is carried out in order to: i) Obtain valuable information for seismic qualification of the plant, and ii) Assess some procedures for testing and analysis that are used in the process of seismic evaluation of existing nuclear facilities founded on Quaternary soil deposits. Both steady state and impulsive dynamic tests were performed but attention is centered here in tile techniques used to determine natural frequencies and modal damping ratios with impulsive tests. Numerical analyses were performed by means of a 3-D model model of the superstructure together with foundation stiffness coefficients derived in a separate paper from steady state vibration tests, and also from analysis with a 2-D F.E. model of the soil layers capable of approximating the 3-D features of the problem. The computed foundation stiffness coefficients are compared both with those obtained from the tests and from an axisymmetric F.E. model; results indicate that foundation stiffness coefficients calculated with F.E. models with soil parameters given by laboratory tests performed on cored samples are significantly lower than those given by the steady state vibration tests. (author)

  8. SEACAS Theory Manuals: Part II. Nonlinear Continuum Mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attaway, S.W.; Laursen, T.A.; Zadoks, R.I.

    1998-09-01

    This report summarizes the key continuum mechanics concepts required for the systematic prescription and numerical solution of finite deformation solid mechanics problems. Topics surveyed include measures of deformation appropriate for media undergoing large deformations, stress measures appropriate for such problems, balance laws and their role in nonlinear continuum mechanics, the role of frame indifference in description of large deformation response, and the extension of these theories to encompass two dimensional idealizations, structural idealizations, and rigid body behavior. There are three companion reports that describe the problem formulation, constitutive modeling, and finite element technology for nonlinear continuum mechanics systems.

  9. EL español andino. II parte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Arboleda Toro

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available En el número 13 de esta revista (nov. del 2000 se publicó una primera parte del estudio sobre el español andino. Presentamos ahora una segunda parte que comprende aspectos histórico-geográficos de Nariño y Putumayo andinos, región de Colombia donde se habla esa variedad, y una descripción general de su realidad lingüística. Esperamos que sean objeto de otra publicación la descripción de los rasgos dialectales del español andino, parte nuclear del trabajo, y la presentación de la metodología y el corpus. En esto nos encontramos trabajando. Incluimos no obstante un inventario de rasgos más amplio que el presentado en la primera parte. Pero por ahora se trata de eso, de un inventario ilustrativo, no del análisis en el que estamos empeñados, en el marco del contacto de lenguas, el cambio lingüístico y la relación entre la norma y las posibilidades del sistema. Para contextualizar esta segunda parte, incluimos, a manera de introducción, un resumen de la primera.

  10. A relaxation-projection method for compressible flows. Part I: The numerical equation of state for the Euler equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saurel, Richard; Franquet, Erwin; Daniel, Eric; Le Metayer, Olivier

    2007-01-01

    A new projection method is developed for the Euler equations to determine the thermodynamic state in computational cells. It consists in the resolution of a mechanical relaxation problem between the various sub-volumes present in a computational cell. These sub-volumes correspond to the ones traveled by the various waves that produce states with different pressures, velocities, densities and temperatures. Contrarily to Godunov type schemes the relaxed state corresponds to mechanical equilibrium only and remains out of thermal equilibrium. The pressure computation with this relaxation process replaces the use of the conventional equation of state (EOS). A simplified relaxation method is also derived and provides a specific EOS (named the Numerical EOS). The use of the Numerical EOS gives a cure to spurious pressure oscillations that appear at contact discontinuities for fluids governed by real gas EOS. It is then extended to the computation of interface problems separating fluids with different EOS (liquid-gas interface for example) with the Euler equations. The resulting method is very robust, accurate, oscillation free and conservative. For the sake of simplicity and efficiency the method is developed in a Lagrange-projection context and is validated over exact solutions. In a companion paper [F. Petitpas, E. Franquet, R. Saurel, A relaxation-projection method for compressible flows. Part II: computation of interfaces and multiphase mixtures with stiff mechanical relaxation. J. Comput. Phys. (submitted for publication)], the method is extended to the numerical approximation of a non-conservative hyperbolic multiphase flow model for interface computation and shock propagation into mixtures

  11. Parameter sampling capabilities of sequential and simultaneous data assimilation: II. Statistical analysis of numerical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fossum, Kristian; Mannseth, Trond

    2014-01-01

    We assess and compare parameter sampling capabilities of one sequential and one simultaneous Bayesian, ensemble-based, joint state-parameter (JS) estimation method. In the companion paper, part I (Fossum and Mannseth 2014 Inverse Problems 30 114002), analytical investigations lead us to propose three claims, essentially stating that the sequential method can be expected to outperform the simultaneous method for weakly nonlinear forward models. Here, we assess the reliability and robustness of these claims through statistical analysis of results from a range of numerical experiments. Samples generated by the two approximate JS methods are compared to samples from the posterior distribution generated by a Markov chain Monte Carlo method, using four approximate measures of distance between probability distributions. Forward-model nonlinearity is assessed from a stochastic nonlinearity measure allowing for sufficiently large model dimensions. Both toy models (with low computational complexity, and where the nonlinearity is fairly easy to control) and two-phase porous-media flow models (corresponding to down-scaled versions of problems to which the JS methods have been frequently applied recently) are considered in the numerical experiments. Results from the statistical analysis show strong support of all three claims stated in part I. (paper)

  12. Ultra-violet radiation: hazard in workplaces? (part II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Yusof Mohd Ali

    2003-01-01

    Not many workers are aware that apart from chemicals, physical agents, noise and machines which are known to be hazardous in workplaces, there exist another source of hazard which is equally important to be recognised and respected, that is hazard due to ultrviolet radiation (UV). This is the continuation of part I, which was discussed in the later issue. In this part, hazard of ultraviolet radiation were briefly discused i.e. effects on the skin and the eyes. Other subjects discussed are exposure limits, how to assess the radiation, protection against ultraviolet radiation

  13. Programming Models for Three-Dimensional Hydrodynamics on the CM-5 (Part II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amala, P.A.K.; Rodrigue, G.H.

    1994-01-01

    This is a two-part presentation of a timing study on the Thinking Machines CORP. CM-5 computer. Part II is given in this study and represents domain-decomposition and message-passing models. Part I described computational problems using a SIMD model and connection machine FORTRAN (CMF)

  14. [Low grade renal trauma (Part II): diagnostic validity of ultrasonography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grill, R; Báca, V; Otcenásek, M; Zátura, F

    2010-04-01

    The aim of the study was to verify whether ultrasonography can be considered a reliable method for the diagnosis of low-grade renal trauma. The group investigated included patients with grade I or grade II blunt renal trauma, as classified by the AAST grading system, in whom ultrasonography alone or in conjunction with computed tomography was used as a primary diagnostic method. B-mode ultrasound with a transabdominal probe working at frequencies of 2.5 to 5.0 MHz was used. Every finding of post-traumatic changes in the renal tissues, i.e., post-contusion hypotonic infiltration of the renal parenchyma or subcapsular haematoma, was included. The results were statistically evaluated by the Chi-square test with the level of significance set at 5%, using Epi Info Version 6 CZ software. The group comprised 112 patients (43 women, 69 men) aged between 17 and 82 years (average, 38 years). It was possible to diagnose grade I or grade II renal injury by ultrasonography in only 60 (54%) of them. The statistical significance of ultrasonography as the only imaging method for the diagnosis of low-grade renal injury was not confirmed (p=0.543) Low-grade renal trauma is a problem from the diagnostic point of view. It usually does not require revision surgery and, if found during repeat surgery for more serious injury of another organ, it usually does not receive attention. Therefore, the macroscopic presentation of grade I and grade II renal injury is poorly understood, nor are their microscopic findings known, because during revision surgery these the traumatised kidneys are not usually removed and their injuries at autopsy on the patients who died of multiple trauma are not recorded either. The results of this study demonstrated that the validity of ultrasonography for the diagnosis of low-grade renal injury is not significant, because this examination can reveal only some of the renal injuries such as perirenal haematoma. An injury to the renal parenchyma is also indicated by

  15. Aesthetic Pursuits: Windows, Frames, Words, Images--Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Ken

    2005-01-01

    In Part I of this study (Burke, 2005), the author presented the essentials of Image Presentation Theory--IPT--and its application to the analytical explication of various spatial designs in and psychological responses to images, from the illusions of depth in what is referred to as "windows" in cinema theory to the more patterned abstractions of…

  16. Topics in Finance: Part II--Financial Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laux, Judy

    2010-01-01

    The second article in a series designed to supplement the introductory financial management course, this essay addresses financial statement analysis, including its impact on stock valuation, disclosure, and managerial behavior. [For "Topics in Finance Part I--Introduction and Stockholder Wealth Maximization," see EJ1060345.

  17. Small Business Management. Part II. A Suggested Adult Course Outline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Continuing Education Curriculum Development.

    This teacher's guide is a companion to "Small Business Management Part I" published by the New York State Education Department in 1968. The course outlined by the guide is primarily for those who aspire to own and operate their own business, and those in business who wish to improve their operations. The course consists of six lessons covering…

  18. On Railroad Tank Car Puncture Performance: Part II - Estimating Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-12

    This paper is the second in a two-part series on the puncture performance of railroad tank cars carrying hazardous materials in the event of an accident. Various metrics are often mentioned in the open literature to characterize the structural perfor...

  19. The Search for Another Earth – Part II

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this part, we will describe various kinds of ... the Earth will also be discussed. 1. .... life. system is oxygen rich because the interstellar cloud from which the Sun and the solar planets were born .... a habitable planet must be rocky in order to sustain liquid ... helped in keeping the atmosphere of the Earth habitable for a long.

  20. Solar Energy Education. Reader, Part II. Sun story. [Includes glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    Magazine articles which focus on the subject of solar energy are presented. The booklet prepared is the second of a four part series of the Solar Energy Reader. Excerpts from the magazines include the history of solar energy, mythology and tales, and selected poetry on the sun. A glossary of energy related terms is included. (BCS)

  1. Evaluation and Visualization of Surface Defects - a Numerical and Experimental Study on Sheet-Metal Parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, A.

    2005-01-01

    The ability to predict surface defects in outer panels is of vital importance in the automotive industry, especially for brands in the premium car segment. Today, measures to prevent these defects can not be taken until a test part has been manufactured, which requires a great deal of time and expense. The decision as to whether a certain surface is of acceptable quality or not is based on subjective evaluation. It is quite possible to detect a defect by measurement, but it is not possible to correlate measured defects and the subjective evaluation. If all results could be based on the same criteria, it would be possible to compare a surface by both FE simulations, experiments and subjective evaluation with the same result.In order to find a solution concerning the prediction of surface defects, a laboratory tool was manufactured and analysed both experimentally and numerically. The tool represents the area around a fuel filler lid and the aim was to recreate surface defects, so-called 'teddy bear ears'. A major problem with the evaluation of such defects is that the panels are evaluated manually and to a great extent subjectivity is involved in the classification and judgement of the defects. In this study the same computer software was used for the evaluation of both the experimental and the numerical results. In this software the surface defects were indicated by a change in the curvature of the panel. The results showed good agreement between numerical and experimental results. Furthermore, the evaluation software gave a good indication of the appearance of the surface defects compared to an analysis done in existing tools for surface quality measurements. Since the agreement between numerical and experimental results was good, this indicates that these tools can be used for an early verification of surface defects in outer panels

  2. Lagrangian intersection Floer theory anomaly and obstruction, part II

    CERN Document Server

    Fukaya, Kenji; Ohta, Hiroshi; Ono, Kaoru

    2009-01-01

    This is a two-volume series research monograph on the general Lagrangian Floer theory and on the accompanying homological algebra of filtered A_\\infty-algebras. This book provides the most important step towards a rigorous foundation of the Fukaya category in general context. In Volume I, general deformation theory of the Floer cohomology is developed in both algebraic and geometric contexts. An essentially self-contained homotopy theory of filtered A_\\infty algebras and A_\\infty bimodules and applications of their obstruction-deformation theory to the Lagrangian Floer theory are presented. Volume II contains detailed studies of two of the main points of the foundation of the theory: transversality and orientation. The study of transversality is based on the virtual fundamental chain techniques (the theory of Kuranishi structures and their multisections) and chain level intersection theories. A detailed analysis comparing the orientations of the moduli spaces and their fiber products is carried out. A self-co...

  3. Advanced Parkinson's disease: clinical characteristics and treatment. Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulisevsky, J; Luquin, M R; Arbelo, J M; Burguera, J A; Carrillo, F; Castro, A; Chacón, J; García-Ruiz, P J; Lezcano, E; Mir, P; Martinez-Castrillo, J C; Martínez-Torres, I; Puente, V; Sesar, A; Valldeoriola-Serra, F; Yañez, R

    2013-01-01

    Many patients who have had Parkinson's disease (PD) for several years will present severe motor fluctuations and dyskinesias which require more aggressive therapies. The different approaches which are now available include deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus or medial globus pallidus, subcutaneous infusion of apomorphine, and intestinal infusion of levodopa-carbidopa. To define the indications and results for the 3 available therapies for advanced PD. Exhaustive review of the literature concerning the indications and results of deep brain stimulation, subcutaneous apomorphine infusion and duodenal infusion of levodopa/carbidopa gel to treat patients with advanced Parkinson disease. Although numerous studies have confirmed the efficacy of the 3 different therapies in advanced PD, there are no comparative studies that would allow us to define the best candidate for each technique. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Part I. Mechanisms of injury associated with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy; Part II. Exsolution of volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Danny Dwayne

    Part I - Shock waves are focused in extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) machines to strengths sufficient to fracture kidney stones. Substantial side effects-most of them acute-have resulted from this procedure, including injury to soft tissue. The focusing of shock waves through various layers of tissue is a complex process which stimulates many bio-mechano-chemical responses.This thesis presents results of an in vitro study of the initial mechanical stimulus. Planar nitrocellulose membranes of order 10 um thick were used as models of thin tissue structures. Two modes of failure were recorded: Failure due to cavitation collapsing on or near the membranes, and failure induced by altering the structure of shock waves. Tests were done in water at and around F2 to characterize the extent of cavitation damage, and was found to be confined within the focal region, 1.2 cm along the axis of focus.Scattering media were used to simulate the effects of acoustic nonuniformity of tissue and to alter the structure of focusing shock waves. 40 um diameter (average) hollow glass spheres were added to ethylene glycol, glycerine and castor oil to vary the properties of the scattering media. Multiple layer samples of various types of phantom tissue were tested in degassed castor oil to gauge the validity of the scattering media. The scattering media and tissue samples increased the rise time decreased strain rate in a similar fashion. Membranes were damaged by the decreased strain rate and accumulated effects of the altered structure: After about 20 or so shocks immersed in the scattering media and after about 100 shocks behind the tissue samples. The mode of failure was tearing with multiple tears in some cases from about .1 cm to about 3 cm depending of the number of shocks and membrane thickness.Part II - This work examines the exsolution of volatiles-carbon dioxide from water-in a cylindrical test cell under different pressure conditions. Water was supersaturated with

  5. DEPRESSION, ANXIETY AND MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION: EVERYTHING JUST BEGINS. PART II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. Vasyuk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A review is devoted to a comorbidity of myocardial infarction and anxious and depressive disorders. In the first part (Rational Pharmacother. Cardiol. 2007;3:41-51 data concerning prevalence of depression in myocardial infarction, pathophysiological mechanisms connecting depression and ischemic heart disease (IHD were given. Influence of concomitant depressive disorders on clinical state and forecast of patients after myocardial infarction was discussed. The second part of the review is devoted to the anxious disorders in myocardial infarction as well as to influence of anxious and depressive disorders on life quality of patients with myocardial infarction. Besides, contemporary approaches to the therapy of anxious and depressive disorders in patients with IHD are discussed.

  6. GSTARS computer models and their applications, Part II: Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoes, F.J.M.; Yang, C.T.

    2008-01-01

    In part 1 of this two-paper series, a brief summary of the basic concepts and theories used in developing the Generalized Stream Tube model for Alluvial River Simulation (GSTARS) computer models was presented. Part 2 provides examples that illustrate some of the capabilities of the GSTARS models and how they can be applied to solve a wide range of river and reservoir sedimentation problems. Laboratory and field case studies are used and the examples show representative applications of the earlier and of the more recent versions of GSTARS. Some of the more recent capabilities implemented in GSTARS3, one of the latest versions of the series, are also discussed here with more detail. ?? 2008 International Research and Training Centre on Erosion and Sedimentation and the World Association for Sedimentation and Erosion Research.

  7. Operation of industrial electrical substations. Part II: practical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Jimenez, Juan J; Zerquera Izquierdo, Mariano D; Beltran Leon, Jose S; Garcia Martinez, Juan M; Alvarez Urena, Maria V; Meza Diaz, Guillermo [Universidad de Guadalajara (Mexico)]. E-mails: cheosj@yahoo.com; mdzi@hotmail.com; beltran5601@yahoo.com.mx; jmargarmtz@yahoo.com; victory_alvarez@telmexmail.com; depmec@cucei.udg.mx

    2013-03-15

    The practical application of the methodology explained in Part 1 in a Cuban industry is the principal objective of this paper. The calculus of the economical operation of the principal transformers of the industrial plant is shown of the one very easy form, as well as the determination of the equations of the losses when the transformers operate under a given load diagram. It is calculated the state load which will be passed to the operation in parallel. [Spanish] El objetivo principal de este trabajo es la aplicacion practica de la metodologia, en una industria cubana, que se explico en la Parte 1. El calculo de la operacion economica de los principales transformadores de la planta industrial se muestra de una forma muy facil, asi como la determinacion de las ecuaciones de las perdidas cuando los transformadores operan bajo un diagrama de carga dado. Se calcula la carga de estado que se pasa a la operacion en paralelo.

  8. The equivalence myth of quantum mechanics-part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, F. A.

    The author endeavours to show two things: first, that Schrödingers (and Eckarts) demonstration in March (September) 1926 of the equivalence of matrix mechanics, as created by Heisenberg, Born, Jordan and Dirac in 1925, and wave mechanics, as created by Schrödinger in 1926, is not foolproof; and second, that it could not have been foolproof, because at the time matrix mechanics and wave mechanics were neither mathematically nor empirically equivalent. That they were is the Equivalence Myth. In order to make the theories equivalent and to prove this, one has to leave the historical scene of 1926 and wait until 1932, when von Neumann finished his magisterial edifice. During the period 1926-1932 the original families of mathematical structures of matrix mechanics and of wave mechanics were stretched, parts were chopped off and novel structures were added. To Procrustean places we go, where we can demonstrate the mathematical, empirical and ontological equivalence of 'the final versions of' matrix mechanics and wave mechanics. The present paper claims to be a comprehensive analysis of one of the pivotal papers in the history of quantum mechanics: Schrödingers equivalence paper. Since the analysis is performed from the perspective of Suppes structural view ('semantic view') of physical theories, the present paper can be regarded not only as a morsel of the internal history of quantum mechanics, but also as a morsel of applied philosophy of science. The paper is self-contained and presupposes only basic knowledge of quantum mechanics. For reasons of length, the paper is published in two parts; Part I appeared in the previous issue of this journal. Section 1 contains, besides an introduction, also the papers five claims and a preview of the arguments supporting these claims; so Part I, Section 1 may serve as a summary of the paper for those readers who are not interested in the detailed arguments.

  9. Comparison of microstickies measurement methods. Part II, Results and discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahendra R. Doshi; Angeles Blanco; Carlos Negro; Concepcion Monte; Gilles M. Dorris; Carlos C. Castro; Axel Hamann; R. Daniel Haynes; Carl Houtman; Karen Scallon; Hans-Joachim Putz; Hans Johansson; R. A. Venditti; K. Copeland; H.-M. Chang

    2003-01-01

    In part I of the article we discussed sample preparation procedure and described various methods used for the measurement of microstickies. Some of the important features of different methods are highlighted in Table 1. Temperatures used in the measurement methods vary from room temperature in some cases, 45 °C to 65 °C in other cases. Sample size ranges from as low as...

  10. Slag Behavior in Gasifiers. Part II: Constitutive Modeling of Slag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massoudi, Mehrdad [National Energy Technology Laboratory; Wang, Ping

    2013-02-07

    The viscosity of slag and the thermal conductivity of ash deposits are among two of the most important constitutive parameters that need to be studied. The accurate formulation or representations of the (transport) properties of coal present a special challenge of modeling efforts in computational fluid dynamics applications. Studies have indicated that slag viscosity must be within a certain range of temperatures for tapping and the membrane wall to be accessible, for example, between 1,300 °C and 1,500 °C, the viscosity is approximately 25 Pa·s. As the operating temperature decreases, the slag cools and solid crystals begin to form. Since slag behaves as a non-linear fluid, we discuss the constitutive modeling of slag and the important parameters that must be studied. We propose a new constitutive model, where the stress tensor not only has a yield stress part, but it also has a viscous part with a shear rate dependency of the viscosity, along with temperature and concentration dependency, while allowing for the possibility of the normal stress effects. In Part I, we reviewed, identify and discuss the key coal ash properties and the operating conditions impacting slag behavior.

  11. 12 CFR Appendix II to Part 27 - Information for Government Monitoring Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... II Appendix II to Part 27 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Monitoring Purposes The following language is approved by the Comptroller of the Currency and will satisfy... used separately. This information may also be provided orally by the applicant. The following...

  12. 31 CFR Appendix II to Part 13 - Form of Bill for Reimbursement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Form of Bill for Reimbursement II Appendix II to Part 13 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury PROCEDURES FOR... title) of ______ (Country) to participate in the work of ______ (International Organization) or...

  13. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 1045 - Duty Cycles for Propulsion Marine Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Duty Cycles for Propulsion Marine... Pt. 1045, App. II Appendix II to Part 1045—Duty Cycles for Propulsion Marine Engines (a) The following duty cycle applies for discrete-mode testing: E4 Mode No. Enginespeed 1 Torque(percent) 2...

  14. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 1039 - Steady-State Duty Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Steady-State Duty Cycles II Appendix... Appendix II to Part 1039—Steady-State Duty Cycles (a) The following duty cycles apply for constant-speed engines: (1) The following duty cycle applies for discrete-mode testing: D2 mode number Engine speed...

  15. Marketing in the E-Business World, Parts I & II | Smith | LBS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marketing in the E-Business World, Parts I & II. ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... of many of Americas largest companies gather at the Waldorf Astoria Hotel in New York City for the Conference Boards Annual Marketing Conference.

  16. The year 2012 in the European Heart Journal-Cardiovascular Imaging. Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plein, Sven; Knuuti, Juhani; Edvardsen, Thor; Saraste, Antti; Piérard, Luc A; Maurer, Gerald; Lancellotti, Patrizio

    2013-07-01

    The part II of the best of the European Heart Journal - Cardiovascular Imaging in 2012 specifically focuses on studies of valvular heart diseases, heart failure, cardiomyopathies, and congenital heart diseases.

  17. Unknown facets of Well-Known Scientists Series - Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V S Dixit

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available 1st in the series of articles on “Unknown Facets of well-known Scientists” was about Sir Frederick Grant Banting, co-discoverer of Insulin, who also researched in Aviation and Diving Medicines, results of which brought extraordinary benefits for Flight crew during the World War II. The article was published in the previous issue of the Journal Unknown facets could be celebrated attributes, talents or otherwise, but it is necessary that we get to know fully about the “great mind". THIS ARTICLE IS ABOUT DR WERNER THEODOR OTTO FORSSMANN, A CARDIOLOGIST, WHO BECAME A UROLOGIST! Does the name Dr Forssmann ring a bell? He shared the 1956 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with “Andre Cournand and Dickinson Richards". The trio was awarded for their “discoveries concerning heart catheterization and pathological changes in the circulatory system". Dr Forssmann was nominated for performing an experiment in which he introduced a catheter into a vein of his arm, further passing it onward into his heart It was risky. This was in the year 1929. Subject of this article is the self-experimentation he carried out and what happened later.

  18. Biomimetic model systems of rigid hair beds: Part II - Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jammalamadaka, Mani S. S.; Hood, Kaitlyn; Hosoi, Anette

    2017-11-01

    Crustaceans - such as lobsters, crabs and stomapods - have hairy appendages that they use to recognize and track odorants in the surrounding fluid. An array of rigid hairs impedes flow at different rates depending on the spacing between hairs and the Reynolds number, Re. At larger Reynolds number (Re>1), fluid travels through the hairs rather than around them, a phenomenon called leakiness. Crustaceans flick their appendages at different speeds in order to manipulate the leakiness between the hairs, allowing the hairs to either detect the odors in a sample of fluid or collect a new sample. Theoretical and numerical studies predict that there is a fast flow region near the hairs that moves closer to the hairs as Re increases. Here, we test this theory experimentally. We 3D printed rigid hairs with an aspect ratio of 30:1 in rectangular arrays with different hair packing fractions. We custom built an experimental setup which establishes poiseuille flow at intermediate Re, Re <=200. We track the flow dynamics through the hair beds using tracer particles and Particle Imaging Velocimetry. We will then compare the modelling predictions with the experimental outcomes.

  19. On the Processing of Spalling Experiments. Part II: Identification of Concrete Fracture Energy in Dynamic Tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukić, Bratislav B.; Saletti, Dominique; Forquin, Pascal

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents a second part of the study aimed at investigating the fracture behavior of concrete under high strain rate tensile loading. The experimental method together with the identified stress-strain response of three tests conducted on ordinary concrete have been presented in the paper entitled Part I (Forquin and Lukić in Journal of Dynamic Behavior of Materials, 2017. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40870-017-0135-1). In the present paper, Part II, the investigation is extended towards directly determining the specific fracture energy of each observed fracture zone by visualizing the dynamic cracking process with a temporal resolution of 1 µs. Having access to temporal displacement fields of the sample surface, it is possible to identify the fracture opening displacement (FOD) and the fracture opening velocity of any principle (open) and secondary (closed) fracture at each measurement instance, that may or may not lead to complete physical failure of the sample. Finally, the local Stress-FOD curves were obtained for each observed fracture zone, opposed to previous works where indirect measurements were used. The obtained results indicated a much lower specific fracture energy compared to the results often found in the literature. Furthermore, numerical simulations were performed with a damage law to evaluate the validity of the proposed experimental data processing and compare it to the most often used one in the previous works. The results showed that the present method can reliably predict the specific fracture energy needed to open one macro-fracture and suggested that indirect measurement techniques can lead to an overestimate of specific fracture energy due to the stringent assumption of linear elasticity up-to the peak and the inability of having access to the real post-peak change of axial stress.

  20. Historia de la Conservación Preventiva. Parte II

    OpenAIRE

    García Fernández, Isabel M.

    2014-01-01

    La segunda parte de la historia de la conservación preventiva comienza en 1990; esta etapa es mucho más corta que la primera,pero más prolífica en materiales, proyectos y publicaciones. Vamos a ver cómo desde sus inicios, la conservación preventiva ha ido cobrando protagonismo en todos los ámbitos relacionados con la preservación y uso del patrimonio. En este artículo vamos a destacar los hitos fundamentales que han conseguido afianzar esta disciplina en los últimos 25 años y valorar- su desa...

  1. Designing carbon markets, Part II: Carbon markets in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fankhauser, Samuel; Hepburn, Cameron

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses the design of carbon markets in space (i.e., geographically). It is part of a twin set of papers that, starting from first principles, ask what an optimal global carbon market would look like by around 2030. Our focus is on firm-level cap-and-trade systems, although much of what we say would also apply to government-level trading and carbon offset schemes. We examine the 'first principles' of spatial design to maximise flexibility and to minimise costs, including key design issues in linking national and regional carbon markets together to create a global carbon market.

  2. Heavy lon Reactions The Elementary Processes, Parts I and II

    CERN Document Server

    Broglia, Ricardo A

    2004-01-01

    Combining elastic and inelastic processes with transfer reactions, this two-part volume explores how these events affect heavy ion collisions. Special attention is given to processes involving the transfer of two nucleons, which are specific for probing pairing correlations in nuclei. This novel treatment provides, together with the description of surface vibration and rotations, a unified picture of heavy ion reactions in terms of the elementary modes of nuclear excitation. Heavy Ion Reactions is essential reading for beginning graduate students as well as experienced researchers.

  3. Processes on Uncontrolled Aerodromes and Safety Indicators - Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Plos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article follows on the Part I, where the basic processes on uncontrolled aerodromes were introduced. The uncontrolled aerodromes face with the growing traffic and from that result the higher workload on AFIS officer. This means a higher potential for dangerous situations.The article describes some models of sub-processes and creates several safety indicators related to the operation at uncontrolled aerodromes. Thanks to monitoring and evaluation of safety indicators can be adopted targeted safety measures and thus increase safety on small uncontrolled aerodromes.

  4. Prevention of Dealloying in Manganese Aluminium Bronze Propeller: Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Napachat Tareelap

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the failure of manganese aluminium bronze (MAB propeller caused by dealloying corrosion as described in Part I [1], this work aims to study the prevention of dealloying corrosion using aluminium and zinc sacrificial anodes. The results indicated that both of the sacrificial anodes could prevent the propeller from dealloying. Moreover, the dealloying in seawater was less than that found in brackish water. It was possible that hydroxide ions, from cathodic reaction, reacted with calcium in seawater to form calcium carbonate film protecting the propeller from corrosion.

  5. Centric relation: concepts revision and recording techniques. Part II

    OpenAIRE

    Orozco Varo, Ana; Arroyo Cruz, Gema; Martinez De Fuentes, Rafael; Ventura de la Torre, Javier; Cañadas Rodríguez, Diego; Jiménez-Castellanos Ballesteros, Emilio

    2008-01-01

    La relación céntrica ha sido objeto de disparidad de criterios en la odontología durante más de un siglo. A lo largo de este trabajo, vamos a exponer diferentes métodos usados tanto para obtener el registro, como para comprobar su certeza y corroborar la posición condilar. Dado que no existe evidencia científica en el tema, en este trabajo, revisaremos los estudios experimentales que aparecen en la literatura. Los hemos divididos en dos partes, la primera relacionada con la definición de rela...

  6. AUTOMATION OF ACCOUNTING THE NUMERIC PARTS AND UNITS AT MANUFACTURING ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Vasev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The substantiation of the need and disclosure of the substantive and technological features of the design and  development of an information system for the registration of numeric parts and units at a manufacturing enterprise.Methods. Case-technology,object-oriented programming.Results. The development mechanism of an information system for registering numeric parts and units at a manufacturing enterprise is  described. The development process begins with an analysis of the  subject area, wherein the requirements for the information system  are defined. Two business processes related to the activity of the  production preparation engineer are identified and the entities and  types of these attributes are indicated. Using the case-tool  DBdesigner 4, a data scheme is constructed and code is generated for scripts used to create a database in the SQL language. The database is implemented on MySQL. The web-interface of the  information system is designed: website scheme, action sequence  diagram, website logical structure and layout. The resulting data  scheme is implemented within MySQL data base management  system (DBMS and a web-based system interface developed using  object-oriented programming using Notepad ++ text editor. The  web-interface allows a multi-user working mode to be provided with the information system. The separation of basic and summary data among different tabs is performed in order to simplify the work of personnel and minimise the human factor associated with the processing of disparate data. The requirements to be met by the developed information system are defined.All software used in the development process is free.Conclusion. The selection of software tools for the development of a system for accounting of numeric parts and units at a manufacturing enterprise is implemented, allowing the conceptual, logical and physical design of a database – as well as its web  interface – to

  7. The year's new drugs & biologics 2014 - Part II: trends & challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graul, A I; Serebrov, M; Cruces, E; Tracy, M; Dulsat, C

    2015-02-01

    2014 was a year of continued high activity in the pharma and biotech industry, as evidenced in part I of this annual two-part review article published last month in this journal (1). As of December 23, 2014, a total of 55 new chemical and biological entities had reached their first markets worldwide, together with another 29 important new line extensions. Another 19 products were approved for the first time during the year but not yet launched by December 23. Furthermore, during the now-traditional year-end sprint, several regulatory agencies issued last-minute approvals for other compounds that missed the deadline for inclusion in that article, bringing the total of new approvals for the year to a somewhat higher number. In addition to the successful development, registration and launch of new drugs and biologics, there are various other trends and tendencies that serve as indicators of the overall health and status of the industry. These include the pursuit of novel programs designed by regulators to stimulate the development of drugs for diseases that are currently under-treated; the regular and pragmatic culling by companies of their R&D pipelines; and the decision to unify pipelines, portfolios and sales forces through mergers and acquisitions. Copyright 2015 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.

  8. Histologic features of alopecias: part II: scarring alopecias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernárdez, C; Molina-Ruiz, A M; Requena, L

    2015-05-01

    The diagnosis of disorders of the hair and scalp can generally be made on clinical grounds, but clinical signs are not always diagnostic and in some cases more invasive techniques, such as a biopsy, may be necessary. This 2-part article is a detailed review of the histologic features of the main types of alopecia based on the traditional classification of these disorders into 2 major groups: scarring and nonscarring alopecias. Scarring alopecias are disorders in which the hair follicle is replaced by fibrous scar tissue, a process that leads to permanent hair loss. In nonscarring alopecias, the follicles are preserved and hair growth can resume when the cause of the problem is eliminated. In the second part of this review, we describe the histologic features of the main forms of scarring alopecia. Since a close clinical-pathological correlation is essential for making a correct histopathologic diagnosis of alopecia, we also include a brief description of the clinical features of the principal forms of this disorder. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  9. The simulation of transients in thermal plant. Part II: Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morini, G.L.; Piva, S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with the simulation of the transients of thermal plant with control systems. In the companion paper forming part I of this article [G.L. Morini, S. Piva, The simulation of transients in thermal plant. Part I: Mathematical model, Applied Thermal Engineering 27 (2007) 2138-2144] it has been described how a 'thermal-library' of customised blocks can be built and used, in an intuitive way, to study the transients of any kind of thermal plant. Each component of plant such as valves, boilers, and pumps, is represented by a single block. In this paper, the 'thermal-library' approach is demonstrated by the analysis of the dynamic behaviour of a central heating plant of a typical apartment house during a sinusoidal variation of the external temperature. A comparison of the behaviour of such a plant with three way valve working either in flow rate or in temperature control, is presented and discussed. Finally, the results show the delaying effect of the thermal capacity of the building on the performance of the control system

  10. Complex dynamics in diatomic molecules. Part II: Quantum trajectories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C.-D.; Weng, H.-J.

    2008-01-01

    The second part of this paper deals with quantum trajectories in diatomic molecules, which has not been considered before in the literature. Morse potential serves as a more accurate function than a simple harmonic oscillator for illustrating a realistic picture about the vibration of diatomic molecules. However, if we determine molecular dynamics by integrating the classical force equations derived from a Morse potential, we will find that the resulting trajectories do not consist with the probabilistic prediction of quantum mechanics. On the other hand, the quantum trajectory determined by Bohmian mechanics [Bohm D. A suggested interpretation of the quantum theory in terms of hidden variable. Phys. Rev. 1952;85:166-179] leads to the conclusion that a diatomic molecule is motionless in all its vibrational eigen-states, which also contradicts probabilistic prediction of quantum mechanics. In this paper, we point out that the quantum trajectory of a diatomic molecule completely consistent with quantum mechanics does exist and can be solved from the quantum Hamilton equations of motion derived in Part I, which is based on a complex-space formulation of fractal spacetime [El Naschie MS. A review of E-Infinity theory and the mass spectrum of high energy particle physics. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2004;19:209-36; El Naschie MS. E-Infinity theory - some recent results and new interpretations. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2006;29:845-853; El Naschie MS. The concepts of E-infinity. An elementary introduction to the cantorian-fractal theory of quantum physics. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2004;22:495-511; El Naschie MS. SU(5) grand unification in a transfinite form. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2007;32:370-374; Nottale L. Fractal space-time and microphysics: towards a theory of scale relativity. Singapore: World Scientific; 1993; Ord G. Fractal space time and the statistical mechanics of random works. Chaos, Soiltons and Fractals 1996;7:821-843] approach to quantum

  11. Towards automated diffraction tomography. Part II-Cell parameter determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolb, U.; Gorelik, T.; Otten, M.T.

    2008-01-01

    Automated diffraction tomography (ADT) allows the collection of three-dimensional (3d) diffraction data sets from crystals down to a size of only few nanometres. Imaging is done in STEM mode, and diffraction data are collected with quasi-parallel beam nanoelectron diffraction (NED). Here, we present a set of developed processing steps necessary for automatic unit-cell parameter determination from the collected 3d diffraction data. Cell parameter determination is done via extraction of peak positions from a recorded data set (called the data reduction path) followed by subsequent cluster analysis of difference vectors. The procedure of lattice parameter determination is presented in detail for a beam-sensitive organic material. Independently, we demonstrate a potential (called the full integration path) based on 3d reconstruction of the reciprocal space visualising special structural features of materials such as partial disorder. Furthermore, we describe new features implemented into the acquisition part

  12. [Scientific reductionism and social control of mind. Part II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viniegra Velázquez, Leonardo

    In the second part of this essay, the progressive subordination of scientific endeavor and knowledge of business and profit is pointed out. For instance, the way facts are prioritized over concepts and ideas in scientific knowledge can translate into technological innovation, central to enterprise competitiveness and key to social mechanisms of control (military, cybernetic, ideological). Overcoming the scientific reductionism approach indicates recognizing the need to define progress in another way, one that infuses scientific knowledge with real liberating and inquisitive power. Power is essential in the search for a more collaborative, inclusive and pluralistic society where respect for human dignity and care for the ecosystem that we live in are prioritized. Copyright © 2014 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  13. The Mechanism of Graviton Exchange between Bodies, Part II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javadi, Hossein; Forouzbakhsh, Farshid

    2016-01-01

    Further to Special Relativity, modern physics includes two great theories which describe universe in a new different way. One of them is Quantum Mechanics which describes elementary particles, atoms and molecules and the other one is General Relativity which has been replaced the Newtonian...... Gravitational Law by space-time curvature. Quantum gravity is a part of quantum mechanics which is expected to combine these two theories, and it describes gravity force according to the principles of quantum mechanics which has not got the desired result, yet. In CPH theory, after reconsidering and analyzing...... the behavior of photon in the gravitational field, a new definition of graviton based on carrying the gravity force is given. By using this definition, graviton exchange mechanism between bodies/objects is described. As the purpose of quantum gravity is describing the force of gravity by using the principles...

  14. Pulmonary Surfactants for Acute and Chronic Lung Diseases (Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Rozenberg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Part 2 of the review considers the problem of surfactant therapy for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS in adults and young and old children. It gives information on the results of surfactant therapy and prevention of ARDS in patients with severe concurrent trauma, inhalation injuries, complications due to complex expanded chest surgery, or severe pneumonias, including bilateral pneumonia in the presence of A/H1N1 influenza. There are data on the use of a surfactant in obstetric care and prevention of primary graft dysfunction during lung transplantation. The results of longterm use of surfactant therapy in Russia, suggesting that death rates from ARDS may be substantially reduced (to 20% are discussed. Examples of surfactant therapy for other noncritical lung diseases, such as permanent athelectasis, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, and asthma, as well tuberculosis, are also considered.

  15. On the problem of ethnophyletism: a historical study. Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venediktov Vadim Yuriyevich

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Holy and Great Council on Crete, 2016 has risen an important issue of Ethnophyletism. Russian, Georgian, Bulgarian, and Antiochian Orthodox Churches delegations were not present at the Great Council and were criticized for Ethnophyletism at the plenary session. The heresy of ethnophyletism was announced by the Council of Constantinople in 1872. Now we can see that it became essential nowadays. The article tells about the origin of this heresy and whether the Ethnophyletism may be decided to be the heresy. The second part of the paper deals with the events on the eve of the Pan-Orthodox Synod in 1872 (since the manifestation of the famous Abdülaziz Sultan's Firman 1870.

  16. Surface grafted chitosan gels. Part II. Gel formation and characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Chao; Thormann, Esben; Claesson, Per M.

    2014-01-01

    Responsive biomaterial hydrogels attract significant attention due to their biocompatibility and degradability. In order to make chitosan based gels, we first graft one layer of chitosan to silica, and then build a chitosan/poly(acrylic acid) multilayer using the layer-by-layer approach. After...... cross-linking the chitosan present in the polyelectrolyte multilayer, poly(acrylic acid) is partly removed by exposing the multilayer structure to a concentrated carbonate buffer solution at a high pH, leaving a surface-grafted cross-linked gel. Chemical cross-linking enhances the gel stability against...... detachment and decomposition. The chemical reaction between gluteraldehyde, the cross-linking agent, and chitosan was followed in situ using total internal reflection Raman (TIRR) spectroscopy, which provided a molecular insight into the complex reaction mechanism, as well as the means to quantify the cross...

  17. One-loop effective actions and higher spins. Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonora, L.; Cvitan, M.; Prester, P. Dominis; Giaccari, S.; Štemberga, T.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we continue and improve the analysis of the effective actions obtained by integrating out a scalar and a fermion field coupled to external symmetric sources, started in the previous paper. The first subject we study is the geometrization of the results obtained there, that is we express them in terms of covariant Jacobi tensors. The second subject concerns the treatment of tadpoles and seagull terms in order to implement off-shell covariance in the initial model. The last and by far largest part of the paper is a repository of results concerning all two point correlators (including mixed ones) of symmetric currents of any spin up to 5 and in any dimensions between 3 and 6. In the massless case we also provide formulas for any spin in any dimension.

  18. PERICARDITIS: ETIOLOGY, CLASSIFICATION, CLINIC, DIAGNOSTICS, TREATMENT. PART II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. Sugak

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Pericarditis maybe caused by different agents: viruses, bacteria, tuberculosis, and it may be autoimmune. All these types of diseases have similar clinical signs, but differ by prevalence, prognosis and medical tactics. Due to achievements of radial methods of visualization, molecular biology, and immunology, we have an opportunity to provide early specific diagnostics and etiological treatment of inflammatory diseases of pericardium. The second part of lecture presents main principles of differential diagnostics of specific types of pericarditis, gives characteristics of several often accruing types of disease, and describes treatment and tactics of management of patients with pericarditis.Key words: children, pericarditis.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2009;8(3:76-81

  19. Numerical Investigation of the Flow Structure in a Kaplan Draft Tube at Part Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddahian, R.; Cervantes, M. J.; Sotoudeh, N.

    2016-11-01

    This research presents numerical simulation of the unsteady flow field inside the draft tube of a Kaplan turbine at part load condition. Due to curvature of streamlines, the ordinary two-equations turbulence models fail to predict the flow features. Therefore, a modification of the Shear Stress Transport (SST-SAS) model is utilized to approximate the turbulent stresses. A guide vane, complete runner and draft tube are considered to insure the real boundary conditions at the draft tube inlet. The outlet boundary is assumed to discharge into the atmosphere. The obtained pressure fluctuations inside the draft tube are in good agreement with available experimental data. In order to further investigate the RVR formation and its movement, the λ2 criterion, relating the position of the vortex core and strength to the second largest Eigen value of the velocity gradient tensor, is employed. The method used for vortex identification shows the flow structure and vortex motion inside the draft tube accurately.

  20. Numerical solution of multiband k.p model for tunnelling in type-II heterostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. Botha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A new and very general method was developed for calculating the charge and spin-resolved electron tunnelling in type-II heterojunctions. Starting from a multiband k.p description of the bulk energy-band structure, a multiband k.p Riccati equation was derived. The reflection and transmission coefficients were obtained for each channel by integrating the Riccati equation over the entire heterostructure. Numerical instability was reduced through this method, in which the multichannel log-derivative of the envelope function matrix, rather than the envelope function itself, was propagated. As an example, a six-band k.p Hamiltonian was used to calculate the current-voltage characteristics of a 10-nm wide InAs/ GaSb/InAs single quantum well device which exhibited negative differential resistance at room temperature. The calculated current as a function of applied (bias voltage was found to be in semiquantitative agreement with the experiment, a result which indicated that inelastic transport mechanisms do not contribute significantly to the valley currents measured in this particular device.

  1. Shape Memory Alloys (Part II: Classification, Production and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Ivanic

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Shape memory alloys (SMAs have been extensively investigated because of their unique shape memory behaviour, i.e. their ability to recover their original shape they had before deformation. Shape memory effect is related to the thermoelastic martensitic transformation. Austenite to martensite phase transformation can be obtained by mechanical (loading and thermal methods (heating and cooling. Depending on thermomechanical conditions, SMAs demonstrate several thermomechanical phenomena, such as pseudoelasticity, superelasticity, shape memory effect (one-way and two-way and rubber-like behaviour. Numerous alloys show shape memory effect (NiTi-based alloys, Cu-based alloys, Fe-based alloys etc.. Nitinol (NiTi is the most popular and the most commonly used SMA due to its superior thermomechanical and thermoelectrical properties. NiTi alloys have greater shape memory strain and excellent corrosion resistance compared to Cu – based alloys. However, they are very costly. On the other hand, copper-based alloys (CuZn and CuAl based alloys are much less expensive, easier to manufacture and have a wider range of potential transformation temperatures. The characteristic transformation temperatures of martensitic transformation of CuAlNi alloys can lie between −200 and 200 °C, and these temperatures depend on Al and Ni content. Among the Cu – based SMAs, the most frequently applied are CuZnAl and CuAlNi alloys. Although CuZnAl alloys with better mechanical properties are the most popular among the Cu-based SMAs, they lack sufficient thermal stability, while CuAlNi shape memory alloys, in spite of their better thermal stability, have found only limited applications due to insufficient formability owing to the brittle γ2 precipitates. The most important disadvantage of polycrystalline CuAlNi alloys is a small reversible deformation (one-way shape memory effect: up to 4 %; two-way shape memory effect: only approximately 1.5 % due to intergranular

  2. Process maps for plasma spray. Part II: Deposition and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    XIANGYANG, JIANG; MATEJICEK, JIRI; KULKARNI, ANAND; HERMAN, HERBERT; SAMPATH, SANJAY; GILMORE, DELWYN L.; NEISER A, RICHARD Jr.

    2000-01-01

    This is the second paper of a two part series based on an integrated study carried out at the State University of New York at Stony Brook and Sandia National Laboratories. The goal of the study is the fundamental understanding of the plasma-particle interaction, droplet/substrate interaction, deposit formation dynamics and microstructure development as well as the deposit property. The outcome is science-based relationships, which can be used to link processing to performance. Molybdenum splats and coatings produced at 3 plasma conditions and three substrate temperatures were characterized. It was found that there is a strong mechanical/thermal interaction between droplet and substrate, which builds up the coatings/substrate adhesion. Hardness, thermal conductivity, and modulus increase, while oxygen content and porosity decrease with increasing particle velocity. Increasing deposition temperature resulted in dramatic improvement in coating thermal conductivity and hardness as well as increase in coating oxygen content. Indentation reveals improved fracture resistance for the coatings prepared at higher deposition temperature. Residual stress was significantly affected by deposition temperature, although not significant by particle energy within the investigated parameter range. Coatings prepared at high deposition temperature with high-energy particles suffered considerably less damage in wear tests. Possible mechanisms behind these changes are discussed within the context of relational maps which are under development

  3. Advanced statistics: linear regression, part II: multiple linear regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marill, Keith A

    2004-01-01

    The applications of simple linear regression in medical research are limited, because in most situations, there are multiple relevant predictor variables. Univariate statistical techniques such as simple linear regression use a single predictor variable, and they often may be mathematically correct but clinically misleading. Multiple linear regression is a mathematical technique used to model the relationship between multiple independent predictor variables and a single dependent outcome variable. It is used in medical research to model observational data, as well as in diagnostic and therapeutic studies in which the outcome is dependent on more than one factor. Although the technique generally is limited to data that can be expressed with a linear function, it benefits from a well-developed mathematical framework that yields unique solutions and exact confidence intervals for regression coefficients. Building on Part I of this series, this article acquaints the reader with some of the important concepts in multiple regression analysis. These include multicollinearity, interaction effects, and an expansion of the discussion of inference testing, leverage, and variable transformations to multivariate models. Examples from the first article in this series are expanded on using a primarily graphic, rather than mathematical, approach. The importance of the relationships among the predictor variables and the dependence of the multivariate model coefficients on the choice of these variables are stressed. Finally, concepts in regression model building are discussed.

  4. The Role of Regulatory Agencies and Intellectual Property: Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, Kevin E.

    2015-01-01

    Patent law and antitrust law have traditionally been areas of the law involving at least some inherent tension. Champions of antitrust argue that the patent “monopoly” must be strictly limited as an exception to the general legal principle that competition should be unfettered. Patent lawyers argue that patents are the result of an exercise of congressional authority, enshrined in the Constitution, reflecting the policy decision by the Founders that granting a limited exclusionary right was justified by the public benefits derived from full disclosure of the patented invention. In the modern era these competing values have played out in the context of so-called ANDA litigation, involving disputes between branded pharmaceutical companies and generic competitors. Settlement of such litigation has been identified by the Federal Trade Commission (FTC), and private parties encouraged by the FTC’s position, as an antitrust violation, in large part because such settlements are viewed as frustrating the congressional purpose in promoting early generic competition. After almost a decade of fighting these battles in the federal courts, the Supreme Court addressed the issue directly. The result is that such settlements are not per se illegal but are also not protected by the presumption of patent validity for activities within the “scope of the patent.” Rather, the court decided that these agreements should be assessed for antitrust liability under the “rule of reason” used in other antitrust contexts. PMID:25775920

  5. Oral health in Brazil - Part II: Dental Specialty Centers (CEOs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Pedrazzi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The concepts of health promotion, self-care and community participation emerged during the 1970s and, since then, their application has grown rapidly in the developed world, showing evidence of effectiveness. In spite of this, a major part of the population in the developing countries still has no access to specialized dental care such as endodontic treatment, dental care for patients with special needs, minor oral surgery, periodontal treatment and oral diagnosis. This review focuses on a program of the Brazilian Federal Government named CEOs (Dental Specialty Centers, which is an attempt to solve the dental care deficit of a population that is suffering from oral diseases and whose oral health care needs have not been addressed by the regular programs offered by the SUS (Unified National Health System. Literature published from 2000 to the present day, using electronic searches by Medline, Scielo, Google and hand-searching was considered. The descriptors used were Brazil, Oral health, Health policy, Health programs, and Dental Specialty Centers. There are currently 640 CEOs in Brazil, distributed in 545 municipal districts, carrying out dental procedures with major complexity. Based on this data, it was possible to conclude that public actions on oral health must involve both preventive and curative procedures aiming to minimize the oral health distortions still prevailing in developing countries like Brazil.

  6. A platform for quality management in research institutes (part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klembalska Agnieszka

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years there has been a particularly strong pressure on changing old structures and management models in research institutes. Contemporary research institutes are scientific units which are commercial in character – almost 80% of funds come from companies and contractual research activity and services. They are the basic sector of science aiming at cooperation with the economy, applied and innovative research. In order to maintain the current and start new cooperation it is necessary to pay particular attention to maintaining, improving and exposing high level of quality of conducted activity. Taking into consideration the necessity of carrying out ever more complex research projects, conducting activity requiring fast reaction to change, risk analysis, which is assessed every year by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education – it seems that it is necessary to apply tools supporting the assessment of quality. In the proposed three-aspect perspective the following scopes of activity are emphasized: implemented quality management systems, area of scientific information and the sphere of cooperation with the client. This article constitutes the continuation of the subjects discussed in the first part – an extension of issues associated with the scope of responsibilities of particular Sections of the proposed Quality Management Platform in research institutes.

  7. The Role of Regulatory Agencies and Intellectual Property: Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, Kevin E

    2015-03-16

    Patent law and antitrust law have traditionally been areas of the law involving at least some inherent tension. Champions of antitrust argue that the patent "monopoly" must be strictly limited as an exception to the general legal principle that competition should be unfettered. Patent lawyers argue that patents are the result of an exercise of congressional authority, enshrined in the Constitution, reflecting the policy decision by the Founders that granting a limited exclusionary right was justified by the public benefits derived from full disclosure of the patented invention. In the modern era these competing values have played out in the context of so-called ANDA litigation, involving disputes between branded pharmaceutical companies and generic competitors. Settlement of such litigation has been identified by the Federal Trade Commission (FTC), and private parties encouraged by the FTC's position, as an antitrust violation, in large part because such settlements are viewed as frustrating the congressional purpose in promoting early generic competition. After almost a decade of fighting these battles in the federal courts, the Supreme Court addressed the issue directly. The result is that such settlements are not per se illegal but are also not protected by the presumption of patent validity for activities within the "scope of the patent." Rather, the court decided that these agreements should be assessed for antitrust liability under the "rule of reason" used in other antitrust contexts. Copyright © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  8. Practice improvement, part II: update on patient communication technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roett, Michelle A; Coleman, Mary Thoesen

    2013-11-01

    Patient portals (ie, secure web-based services for patient health record access) and secure messaging to health care professionals are gaining popularity slowly. Advantages of web portals include timely communication and instruction, access to appointments and other services, and high patient satisfaction. Limitations include inappropriate use, security considerations, organizational costs, and exclusion of patients who are uncomfortable with or unable to use computers. Attention to the organization's strategic plan and office policies, patient and staff expectations, workflow and communication integration, training, marketing, and enrollment can facilitate optimal use of this technology. Other communication technologies that can enhance patient care include automated voice or text reminders and brief electronic communications. Social media provide another method of patient outreach, but privacy and access are concerns. Incorporating telehealthcare (health care provided via telephone or Internet), providing health coaching, and using interactive health communication applications can improve patient knowledge and clinical outcomes and provide social support. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  9. Cyclopentane combustion. Part II. Ignition delay measurements and mechanism validation

    KAUST Repository

    Rachidi, Mariam El

    2017-06-12

    This study reports cyclopentane ignition delay measurements over a wide range of conditions. The measurements were obtained using two shock tubes and a rapid compression machine, and were used to test a detailed low- and high-temperature mechanism of cyclopentane oxidation that was presented in part I of this study (Al Rashidi et al., 2017). The ignition delay times of cyclopentane/air mixtures were measured over the temperature range of 650–1350K at pressures of 20 and 40atm and equivalence ratios of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0. The ignition delay times simulated using the detailed chemical kinetic model of cyclopentane oxidation show very good agreement with the experimental measurements, as well as with the cyclopentane ignition and flame speed data available in the literature. The agreement is significantly improved compared to previous models developed and investigated at higher temperatures. Reaction path and sensitivity analyses were performed to provide insights into the ignition-controlling chemistry at low, intermediate and high temperatures. The results obtained in this study confirm that cycloalkanes are less reactive than their non-cyclic counterparts. Moreover, cyclopentane, a high octane number and high octane sensitivity fuel, exhibits minimal low-temperature chemistry and is considerably less reactive than cyclohexane. This study presents the first experimental low-temperature ignition delay data of cyclopentane, a potential fuel-blending component of particular interest due to its desirable antiknock characteristics.

  10. Cyclopentane combustion. Part II. Ignition delay measurements and mechanism validation

    KAUST Repository

    Rachidi, Mariam El; Má rmol, Juan C.; Banyon, Colin; Sajid, Muhammad Bilal; Mehl, Marco; Pitz, William J.; Mohamed, Samah; Alfazazi, Adamu; Lu, Tianfeng; Curran, Henry J.; Farooq, Aamir; Sarathy, Mani

    2017-01-01

    This study reports cyclopentane ignition delay measurements over a wide range of conditions. The measurements were obtained using two shock tubes and a rapid compression machine, and were used to test a detailed low- and high-temperature mechanism of cyclopentane oxidation that was presented in part I of this study (Al Rashidi et al., 2017). The ignition delay times of cyclopentane/air mixtures were measured over the temperature range of 650–1350K at pressures of 20 and 40atm and equivalence ratios of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0. The ignition delay times simulated using the detailed chemical kinetic model of cyclopentane oxidation show very good agreement with the experimental measurements, as well as with the cyclopentane ignition and flame speed data available in the literature. The agreement is significantly improved compared to previous models developed and investigated at higher temperatures. Reaction path and sensitivity analyses were performed to provide insights into the ignition-controlling chemistry at low, intermediate and high temperatures. The results obtained in this study confirm that cycloalkanes are less reactive than their non-cyclic counterparts. Moreover, cyclopentane, a high octane number and high octane sensitivity fuel, exhibits minimal low-temperature chemistry and is considerably less reactive than cyclohexane. This study presents the first experimental low-temperature ignition delay data of cyclopentane, a potential fuel-blending component of particular interest due to its desirable antiknock characteristics.

  11. Predicting performance in competitive apnea diving, part II: dynamic apnoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schagatay, Erika

    2010-03-01

    Part I of this series of articles identified the main physiological factors defining the limits of static apnea, while this paper reviews the factors involved when physical work is added in the dynamic distance disciplines, performed in shallow water in a swimming pool. Little scientific work has been done concerning the prerequisites and limitations of swimming with or without fins whilst breath holding to extreme limits. Apneic duration influences all competitive apnea disciplines, and can be prolonged by any means that increase gas storage or tolerance to asphyxia, or reduce metabolic rate, as reviewed in the first article. For horizontal underwater distance swimming, the main challenge is to restrict metabolism despite the work, and to direct blood flow only to areas where demand is greatest, to allow sustained function. Here, work economy, local tissue energy and oxygen stores and the anaerobic capacity of the muscles are key components. Improvements in swimming techniques and, especially in swimming with fins, equipment have already contributed to enhanced performance and may do so further. High lactate levels observed after competition swims suggest a high anaerobic component, and muscle hypoxia could ultimately limit muscle work and swimming distance. However, the frequency of syncope, especially in swimming without fins, suggests that cerebral oxygenation may often be compromised before this occurs. In these pool disciplines, safety is high and the dive can be interrupted by the competitor or safety diver within seconds. The safety routines in place during pool competitions are described.

  12. Practice improvement, part II: trends in employment versus private practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Mary Thoesen; Roett, Michelle A

    2013-11-01

    A growing percentage of physicians are selecting employment over solo practice, and fewer family physicians have hospital admission privileges. Results from surveys of recent medical school graduates indicate a high value placed on free time. Factors to consider when choosing a practice opportunity include desire for independence, decision-making authority, work-life balance, administrative responsibilities, financial risk, and access to resources. Compensation models are evolving from the simple fee-for-service model to include metrics that reward panel size, patient access, coordination of care, chronic disease management, achievement of patient-centered medical home status, and supervision of midlevel clinicians. When a practice is sold, tangible personal property and assets in excess of liabilities, patient accounts receivable, office building, and goodwill (ie, expected earnings) determine its value. The sale of a practice includes a broad legal review, addressing billing and coding deficiencies, noncompliant contractual arrangements, and potential litigations as well as ensuring that all employment agreements, leases, service agreements, and contracts are current, have been executed appropriately, and meet regulatory requirements. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  13. Recent applications of nuclear medicine in diagnostics: II part

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Treglia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Positron-emission tomography (PET and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT are effective diagnostic imaging tools in several clinical settings. The aim of this article (the second of a 2-part series is to examine some of the more recent applications of nuclear medicine imaging techniques, particularly in the fields of neurology, cardiology, and infection/inflammation. Discussion: A review of the literature reveals that in the field of neurology nuclear medicine techniques are most widely used to investigate cognitive deficits and dementia (particularly those associated with Alzheimer disease, epilepsy, and movement disorders. In cardiology, SPECT and PET also play important roles in the work-up of patients with coronary artery disease, providing accurate information on the state of the myocardium (perfusion, metabolism, and innervation. White blood cell scintigraphy and FDG-PET are widely used to investigate many infectious/inflammatory processes. In each of these areas, the review discusses the use of recently developed radiopharmaceuticals, the growth of tomographic nuclear medicine techniques, and the ways in which these advances are improving molecular imaging of biologic processes at the cellular level.

  14. Operational hydrological forecasting in Bavaria. Part II: Ensemble forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehret, U.; Vogelbacher, A.; Moritz, K.; Laurent, S.; Meyer, I.; Haag, I.

    2009-04-01

    In part I of this study, the operational flood forecasting system in Bavaria and an approach to identify and quantify forecast uncertainty was introduced. The approach is split into the calculation of an empirical 'overall error' from archived forecasts and the calculation of an empirical 'model error' based on hydrometeorological forecast tests, where rainfall observations were used instead of forecasts. The 'model error' can especially in upstream catchments where forecast uncertainty is strongly dependent on the current predictability of the atrmosphere be superimposed on the spread of a hydrometeorological ensemble forecast. In Bavaria, two meteorological ensemble prediction systems are currently tested for operational use: the 16-member COSMO-LEPS forecast and a poor man's ensemble composed of DWD GME, DWD Cosmo-EU, NCEP GFS, Aladin-Austria, MeteoSwiss Cosmo-7. The determination of the overall forecast uncertainty is dependent on the catchment characteristics: 1. Upstream catchment with high influence of weather forecast a) A hydrological ensemble forecast is calculated using each of the meteorological forecast members as forcing. b) Corresponding to the characteristics of the meteorological ensemble forecast, each resulting forecast hydrograph can be regarded as equally likely. c) The 'model error' distribution, with parameters dependent on hydrological case and lead time, is added to each forecast timestep of each ensemble member d) For each forecast timestep, the overall (i.e. over all 'model error' distribution of each ensemble member) error distribution is calculated e) From this distribution, the uncertainty range on a desired level (here: the 10% and 90% percentile) is extracted and drawn as forecast envelope. f) As the mean or median of an ensemble forecast does not necessarily exhibit meteorologically sound temporal evolution, a single hydrological forecast termed 'lead forecast' is chosen and shown in addition to the uncertainty bounds. This can be

  15. Synopsis Of The subfamily Spiranthoideae (Orchidaceae) In Colombia, Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duenas Gomez, Hilda del Carmen; Fernandez Alonso, Jose Luis

    2009-01-01

    As second and last contribution to the synoptic treatment of the Spiranthoideae for Colombia, the synopsis of the tribes Spirantheae (subtribes Cyclopogoninae: 3 genera, 41 species and Stenorrhynchidinae: 9 genera, 15 species) and Cranichideae (5 genera, 53 species), is presented. The most diverse genera in these tribes are: Cranichis (20 species), Cyclopogon (17), Ponthieva (15) and Pelexia (14). As part of the results of this study: a)- The transfer of Cybebus from the subtribe Spiranthinae (where it was commonly placed) to the subtribe Stenorhinchidinae, is proposed, based on the floral morphology (the rostellum and viscidium structure). b)- two genera are reported for Colombia as new records, each one with one species: Lyroglossa (L. grisebachii) and Helonoma; for the latter the new combination Helonoma peruviana (Szlach.) Salazar, Duenas and Fern. Alonso is proposed. c) New records in the previously known list of Colombian orchids are presented: Coccineorchis (C. cristata, C. navarrensis), Cyclopogon (C. maldonadoanus, C. olivaceus, C. rimbachii), Pelexia (P. hirta, P. palmorchidis), Ponthieva (P. venusta), and Sarcoglottis (S. grandiflora, S. maasorum, S. neglecta, S. stergiosii). d)- And additional 19 new records of species belonging to Aspidogyne and Microchilus, not reported in Duenas and Fernandez-Alonso (2007), are also included. e)- Finally an analysis of the distribution and diversity of the genera of this subfamily, according to altitude ranges in Colombia is presented. This group has predominant Andean distribution, being found mainly between 1300 and 3600 m of altitude. Genera broadly distributed as Microchilus, Gomphichis, Cyclopogon, Pelexia, Sarcoglottis, Coccineorchis, Stenorrhynchos, Cranichis and Ponthieva, are found almost from the level up to 3000 m, in all the regions of the country. In contrast, Beloglottis, Brachystele, Cybebus, Eltroplectris, Hapalorchis, Helonoma, Lankesterella, Lyroglossa, Kreodanthus, Pteroglossa and Sauroglossum

  16. FNR demonstration experiments Part II: Subcadmium neutron flux measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehe, D.K.; King, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    The FNR HEU-LEU Demonstration Experiments include a comprehensive set of experiments to identify and quantify significant operational differences between two nuclear fuel enrichments. One aspect of these measurements, the subcadmium flux profiling, is the subject of this paper. The flux profiling effort has been accomplished through foil and wire activations, and by rhodium self-powered neutron detector (SPND) mappings. Within the experimental limitations discussed, the program to measure subcadmium flux profiles, lead to the following conclusions: (1) Replacement of a single fresh HEU element by a fresh LEU element at the center of an equilibrium HEU core produces a local flux depression. The ratio of HEU to LEU local flux is 1.19 ± .036, which is, well within experimental uncertainty, equal to the inverse of the U-235 masses for the two elements. (2) Whole core replacement of a large 38 element equilibrium HEU core by a fresh or nearly unburned LEU core reduces the core flux and raises the flux in both D 2 O and H 2 O reflectors. The reduction in the central core region is 40% to 10.0% for the small fresh 29 element LEU core, and 16% to 18% for a 31 element LEU core 482) with low average burnup 2 O reflector fluxes relative to core fluxes as measured by SPND with a fixed value of sensitivity, are in gross disagreement with the same flux ratios measured by Fe and Rh wire activations. Space dependent refinements of S are calculated to give some improvement in the discrepancy but the major part of the correction remains to be resolved

  17. Stress analysis in oral obturator prostheses, part II: photoelastic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesqueira, Aldiéris Alves; Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; da Silva, Emily Vivianne Freitas; Haddad, Marcela Filié; Moreno, Amália; Zahoui, Abbas; dos Santos, Daniela Micheline

    2014-06-01

    In part I of the study, two attachment systems [O-ring; bar-clip (BC)] were used, and the system with three individualized O-rings provided the lowest stress on the implants and the support tissues. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the stress distribution, through the photoelastic method, on implant-retained palatal obturator prostheses associated with different attachment systems: BOC-splinted implants with a bar connected to two centrally placed O-rings, and BOD-splinted implants with a BC connected to two distally placed O-rings (cantilever). One photoelastic model of the maxilla with oral-sinus-nasal communication with three parallel implants was fabricated. Afterward, two implant-retained palatal obturator prostheses with the two attachment systems described above were constructed. Each assembly was positioned in a circular polariscope and a 100-N axial load was applied in three different regions with implants by using a universal testing machine. The results were obtained through photograph record analysis of stress. The BOD system exhibited the highest stress concentration, followed by the BOC system. The O-ring, centrally placed on the bar, allows higher mobility of the prostheses and homogeneously distributes the stress to the region of the alveolar ridge and implants. It can be concluded that the use of implants with O-rings, isolated or connected with a bar, to rehabilitate maxillectomized patients allows higher prosthesis mobility and homogeneously distributes the stress to the alveolar ridge region, which may result in greater chewing stress distribution to implants and bone tissue. The clinical implication of the augmented bone support loss after maxillectomy is the increase of stress in the attachment systems and, consequently, a higher tendency for displacement of the prosthesis.

  18. Overactive bladder – 18 years – Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Carlos Truzzi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Traditionally, the treatment of overactive bladder syndrome has been based on the use of oral medications with the purpose of reestablishing the detrusor stability. The recent better understanding of the urothelial physiology fostered conceptual changes, and the oral anticholinergics – pillars of the overactive bladder pharmacotherapy – started to be not only recognized for their properties of inhibiting the detrusor contractile activity, but also their action on the bladder afference, and therefore, on the reduction of the symptoms that constitute the syndrome. Beta-adrenergic agonists, which were recently added to the list of drugs for the treatment of overactive bladder, still wait for a definitive positioning – as either a second-line therapy or an adjuvant to oral anticholinergics. Conservative treatment failure, whether due to unsatisfactory results or the presence of adverse side effects, define it as refractory overactive bladder. In this context, the intravesical injection of botulinum toxin type A emerged as an effective option for the existing gap between the primary measures and more complex procedures such as bladder augmentation. Sacral neuromodulation, described three decades ago, had its indication reinforced in this overactive bladder era. Likewise, the electric stimulation of the tibial nerve is now a minimally invasive alternative to treat those with refractory overactive bladder. The results of the systematic literature review on the oral pharmacological treatment and the treatment of refractory overactive bladder gave rise to this second part of the review article Overactive Bladder – 18 years, prepared during the 1st Latin-American Consultation on Overactive Bladder.

  19. Neuromorphic meets neuromechanics, part II: the role of fusimotor drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalaleddini, Kian; Minos Niu, Chuanxin; Chakravarthi Raja, Suraj; Sohn, Won Joon; Loeb, Gerald E.; Sanger, Terence D.; Valero-Cuevas, Francisco J.

    2017-04-01

    Objective. We studied the fundamentals of muscle afferentation by building a Neuro-mechano-morphic system actuating a cadaveric finger. This system is a faithful implementation of the stretch reflex circuitry. It allowed the systematic exploration of the effects of different fusimotor drives to the muscle spindle on the closed-loop stretch reflex response. Approach. As in Part I of this work, sensory neurons conveyed proprioceptive information from muscle spindles (with static and dynamic fusimotor drive) to populations of α-motor neurons (with recruitment and rate coding properties). The motor commands were transformed into tendon forces by a Hill-type muscle model (with activation-contraction dynamics) via brushless DC motors. Two independent afferented muscles emulated the forces of flexor digitorum profundus and the extensor indicis proprius muscles, forming an antagonist pair at the metacarpophalangeal joint of a cadaveric index finger. We measured the physical response to repetitions of bi-directional ramp-and-hold rotational perturbations for 81 combinations of static and dynamic fusimotor drives, across four ramp velocities, and three levels of constant cortical drive to the α-motor neuron pool. Main results. We found that this system produced responses compatible with the physiological literature. Fusimotor and cortical drives had nonlinear effects on the reflex forces. In particular, only cortical drive affected the sensitivity of reflex forces to static fusimotor drive. In contrast, both static fusimotor and cortical drives reduced the sensitivity to dynamic fusimotor drive. Interestingly, realistic signal-dependent motor noise emerged naturally in our system without having been explicitly modeled. Significance. We demonstrate that these fundamental features of spinal afferentation sufficed to produce muscle function. As such, our Neuro-mechano-morphic system is a viable platform to study the spinal mechanisms for healthy muscle function—and its

  20. Numerical Simulation and Validation of a High Head Model Francis Turbine at Part Load Operating Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Rahul; Trivedi, Chirag; Kumar Gandhi, Bhupendra; Cervantes, Michel J.

    2017-07-01

    Hydraulic turbines are operated over an extended operating range to meet the real time electricity demand. Turbines operated at part load have flow parameters not matching the designed ones. This results in unstable flow conditions in the runner and draft tube developing low frequency and high amplitude pressure pulsations. The unsteady pressure pulsations affect the dynamic stability of the turbine and cause additional fatigue. The work presented in this paper discusses the flow field investigation of a high head model Francis turbine at part load: 50% of the rated load. Numerical simulation of the complete turbine has been performed. Unsteady pressure pulsations in the vaneless space, runner, and draft tube are investigated and validated with available experimental data. Detailed analysis of the rotor stator interaction and draft tube flow field are performed and discussed. The analysis shows the presence of a rotating vortex rope in the draft tube at the frequency of 0.3 times of the runner rotational frequency. The frequency of the vortex rope precession, which causes severe fluctuations and vibrations in the draft tube, is predicted within 3.9% of the experimental measured value. The vortex rope results pressure pulsations propagating in the system whose frequency is also perceive in the runner and upstream the runner.

  1. Three Mile Island: a report to the commissioners and to the public. Volume II, Part 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This is the third and final part of the second volume of a study of the Three Mile Island accident. Part 3 of Volume II contains descriptions and assessments of responses to the accident by the utility and by the NRC and other government agencies

  2. PIO I-II tendencies. Part 2. Improving the pilot modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan URSU

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The study is conceived in two parts and aims to get some contributions to the problem ofPIO aircraft susceptibility analysis. Part I, previously published in this journal, highlighted the mainsteps of deriving a complex model of human pilot. The current Part II of the paper considers a properprocedure of the human pilot mathematical model synthesis in order to analyze PIO II typesusceptibility of a VTOL-type aircraft, related to the presence of position and rate-limited actuator.The mathematical tools are those of semi global stability theory developed in recent works.

  3. Quasi-direct numerical simulation of a pebble bed configuration. Part I: Flow (velocity) field analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shams, A.; Roelofs, F.; Komen, E.M.J.; Baglietto, E.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Quasi direct numerical simulations (q-DNS) of a pebble bed configuration has been performed. ► This q-DNS database may serve as a reference for the validation of different turbulence modeling approaches. ► A wide range of qualitative and quantitative data throughout the computational domain has been generated. ► Results for mean, RMS and covariance of velocity field are extensively reported in this paper. -- Abstract: High temperature reactors (HTR) are being considered for deployment around the world because of their excellent safety features. The fuel is embedded in a graphite moderator and can sustain very high temperatures. However, the appearance of hot spots in the pebble bed cores of HTR's may affect the integrity of the pebbles. A good prediction of the flow and heat transport in such a pebble bed core is a challenge for available turbulence models and such models need to be validated. In the present article, quasi direct numerical simulations (q-DNS) of a pebble bed configuration are reported, which may serve as a reference for the validation of different turbulence modeling approaches. Such approaches can be used in order to perform calculations for a randomly arranged pebble bed. Simulations are performed at a Reynolds number of 3088, based on pebble diameter, with a porosity level of 0.42. Detailed flow analyses have shown complex physics flow behavior and make this case challenging for turbulence model validation. Hence, a wide range of qualitative and quantitative data for velocity and temperature field have been extracted for this benchmark. In the present article (part I), results related to the flow field (mean, RMS and covariance of velocity) are documented and discussed in detail. Moreover, the discussion regarding the temperature field will be published in a separate article

  4. International Working Group on Fast Reactors Thirteenth Annual Meeting. Summary Report. Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-10-01

    The Thirteenth Annual Meeting of the IAEA International Working Group on Fast Reactors was held at the IAEA Headquarters, Vienna, Austria from 9 to 11 April 1980. The Summary Report (Part I) contains the Minutes of the Meeting. The Summary Report (Part II) contains the papers which review the national programme in the field of LMFBRs and other presentations at the Meeting. The Summary Report (Part III) contains the discussions on the review of the national programmes

  5. On the Efficiency of Connection Charges---Part II: Integration of Distributed Energy Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Munoz-Alvarez, Daniel; Garcia-Franco, Juan F.; Tong, Lang

    2017-01-01

    This two-part paper addresses the design of retail electricity tariffs for distribution systems with distributed energy resources (DERs). Part I presents a framework to optimize an ex-ante two-part tariff for a regulated monopolistic retailer who faces stochastic wholesale prices on the one hand and stochastic demand on the other. In Part II, the integration of DERs is addressed by analyzing their endogenous effect on the optimal two-part tariff and the induced welfare gains. Two DER integrat...

  6. Synchrotron X-ray CT characterization of titanium parts fabricated by additive manufacturing. Part II. Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarlett, Nicola Vivienne Yorke; Tyson, Peter; Fraser, Darren; Mayo, Sheridan; Maksimenko, Anton

    2016-07-01

    Synchrotron X-ray tomography (SXRT) has been applied to the study of defects within three-dimensional printed titanium parts. These parts were made using the Arcam EBM(®) (electron beam melting) process which uses powdered titanium alloy, Ti64 (Ti alloy with approximately 6%Al and 4%V) as the feed and an electron beam for the sintering/welding. The experiment was conducted on the Imaging and Medical Beamline of the Australian Synchrotron. The samples represent a selection of complex shapes with a variety of internal morphologies. Inspection via SXRT has revealed a number of defects which may not otherwise have been seen. The location and nature of such defects combined with detailed knowledge of the process conditions can contribute to understanding the interplay between design and manufacturing strategy. This fundamental understanding may subsequently be incorporated into process modelling, prediction of properties and the development of robust methodologies for the production of defect-free parts.

  7. Discretization and numerical realization of contact problems for elastic-perfectly plastic bodies. PART II - numerical realization, limit analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čermák, M.; Haslinger, Jaroslav; Kozubek, T.; Sysala, Stanislav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 95, č. 12 (2015), s. 1348-1371 ISSN 0044-2267 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-18652S Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : frictionless contact * alternating direction method of multipliers * limit load analysis * elastic-perfect analplasticity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.293, year: 2015 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/zamm.201400069/epdf

  8. Charged NUT field : [Part] I. Motion of test particles and [Part] II. Cosmic censorship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krori, K.D.

    1981-01-01

    Some properties of the charged NUT field are studied. In the first part of the paper, some general aspects of the charged NUT field have been investigated using uncharged and charged particles. The behaviour of the particles near the singularity has also been considered. In the second part of the paper, the charged NUT sources in the context of cosmic censorship hypothesis are studied. Motion of charged particles in the equatorial plane and along the axis is considered. From this investigation the interesting result is discovered that by such a bombardment of charged test particles, the existing event horizons cannot be destroyed but, in contrast to the Reissner-Nordstrom field, naked singularities do not get enveloped by event horizons. (author)

  9. Controlled Nonlinear Stochastic Delay Equations: Part II: Approximations and Pipe-Flow Representations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushner, Harold J.

    2012-01-01

    This is the second part of a work dealing with key issues that have not been addressed in the modeling and numerical optimization of nonlinear stochastic delay systems. We consider new classes of models, such as those with nonlinear functions of several controls (such as products), each with is own delay, controlled random Poisson measure driving terms, admissions control with delayed retrials, and others. Part I was concerned with issues concerning the class of admissible controls and their approximations, since the classical definitions are inadequate for our models. This part is concerned with transportation equation representations and their approximations. Such representations of nonlinear stochastic delay models have been crucial in the development of numerical algorithms with much reduced memory and computational requirements. The representations for the new models are not obvious and are developed. They also provide a template for the adaptation of the Markov chain approximation numerical methods.

  10. Validating the standard for the National Board Dental Examination Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Tsung-Hsun; Neumann, Laura M; Littlefield, John H

    2012-05-01

    As part of the overall exam validation process, the Joint Commission on National Dental Examinations periodically reviews and validates the pass/fail standard for the National Board Dental Examination (NBDE), Parts I and II. The most recent standard-setting activities for NBDE Part II used the Objective Standard Setting method. This report describes the process used to set the pass/fail standard for the 2009 exam. The failure rate on the NBDE Part II increased from 5.3 percent in 2008 to 13.7 percent in 2009 and then decreased to 10 percent in 2010. This article describes the Objective Standard Setting method and presents the estimated probabilities of classification errors based on the beta binomial mathematical model. The results show that the probability of correct classifications of candidate performance is very high (0.97) and that probabilities of false negative and false positive errors are very small (.03 and <0.001, respectively). The low probability of classification errors supports the conclusion that the pass/fail score on the NBDE Part II is a valid guide for making decisions about candidates for dental licensure.

  11. [Verrucous pastern dermatitis syndrome in heavy draught horses. Part II: Clinical findings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geburek, F; Deegen, E; Hewicker-Trautwein, M; Ohnesorge, B

    2005-07-01

    In the present field study the skin of the feet of 37 heavy draught horses of different breeds showing verrucous pastern dermatitis was examined clinically. Included were the degree of severity of the disease and the prevalence of anatomically normal structures associated with the skin: fetlock tufts of hair ("feathering"), ergots, chestnuts, bulges in the pastern region, cannon circumference. Each horse was examined for Chorioptes sp. skin mites. Information was also collected on the development of the skin alterations and housing conditions and feeding. These individual data were correlated with the clinical degree of severity of verrucous pastern dermatitis, which was evaluated using a numerical code (scoring system). In addition, punch biopsies were taken from the diseased skin of the feet and from healthy skin of the neck for comparative patho-histological examination (see Part III). Verrucous pastern dermatitis is a chronic disease which can be divided into four groups: scaling (group I), hyperkeratotic and hyperplastic plaque-like lesions (group II), tuberous skin masses (group III), and verrucous skin lesions with rugged surfaces (group IV). No correlation was found between the clinical degree of severity of the skin lesions and sex, breed, amount of work, use of stallions for breeding, grooming condition of the hair, white markings in the foot region, or Chorioptes sp. infestation. In regard to feeding it was found that the amount of maize and oats fed had some influence on the clinical degree of severity. Statistical analysis revealed a significant correlation between the clinical degree of severity and the age, the grooming condition of the hooves, and the mean cannon circumference. The prevalence of fetlock tufts of hair, chestnuts, ergots, and anatomically normal bulges in the pastern region also increased significantly with the clinical degree of severity. Furthermore the study revealed that the clinical degree of severity depended on the hygienic

  12. Understanding Medicines: Conceptual Analysis of Nurses' Needs for Knowledge and Understanding of Pharmacology (Part I). Understanding Medicines: Extending Pharmacology Education for Dependent and Independent Prescribing (Part II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leathard, Helen L.

    2001-01-01

    Part I reviews what nurses need to know about the administration and prescription of medicines. Part II addresses drug classifications, actions and effects, and interactions. Also discussed are the challenges pharmacological issues pose for nursing education. (SK)

  13. A numerical assessment of rough surface scattering theories. I - Horizontal polarization. II - Vertical polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Ernesto; Kim, Yunjin; Durden, Stephen L.

    1992-01-01

    A numerical evaluation is presented of the regime of validity for various rough surface scattering theories against numerical results obtained by employing the method of moments. The contribution of each theory is considered up to second order in the perturbation expansion for the surface current. Considering both vertical and horizontal polarizations, the unified perturbation method provides best results among all theories weighed.

  14. Ocean Thermal Energy Converstion (OTEC) test facilities study program. Final report. Volume II. Part B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-17

    Results are presented of an 8-month study to develop alternative non-site-specific OTEC facilities/platform requirements for an integrated OTEC test program which may include land and floating test facilities. Volume II--Appendixes is bound in three parts (A, B, and C) which together comprise a compendium of the most significant detailed data developed during the study. Part B provides an annotated test list and describes component tests and system tests.

  15. Starting a hospital-based home health agency: Part II--Key success factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, P

    1993-09-01

    In Part II of a three-part series, the financial, technological and legislative issues of a hospital-based home health-agency are discussed. Beginning a home healthcare service requires intensive research to answer key environmental and operational questions--need, competition, financial projections, initial start-up costs and the impact of delayed depreciation. Assessments involving technology, staffing, legislative and regulatory issues can help project service volume, productivity and cost-control.

  16. Title II, Part A: Don't Scrap It, Don't Dilute It, Fix It

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coggshall, Jane G.

    2015-01-01

    The Issue: Washington is taking a close look at Title II, Part A (Title IIA) of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) as Congress debates reauthorization. The program sends roughly $2.5 billion a year to all states and nearly all districts to "(1) increase student academic achievement through strategies such as improving teacher…

  17. Instructional Climates in Preschool Children Who Are At-Risk. Part II: Perceived Physical Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Leah E.; Rudisill, Mary E.; Goodway, Jacqueline D.

    2009-01-01

    In Part II of this study, we examined the effect of two 9-week instructional climates (low-autonomy [LA] and mastery motivational climate [MMC]) on perceived physical competence (PPC) in preschoolers (N = 117). Participants were randomly assigned to an LA, MMC, or comparison group. PPC was assessed by a pretest, posttest, and retention test with…

  18. Numerical modeling of sodium fire – Part II: Pool combustion and combined spray and pool combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathiah, Pratap; Roelofs, Ferry

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A CFD based method is proposed for the simulation of sodium pool combustion. • A sodium evaporation based model is proposed to model sodium pool evaporation. • The proposed method is validated against sodium pool experiments of Newman and Payne. • The results obtained using the proposed method are in good agreement with the experiments. - Abstract: The risk of sodium-air reaction has received considerable attention after the sodium-fire accident in Monju reactor. The fires resulting from the sodium-air reaction can be detrimental to the safety of a sodium fast reactor. Therefore, predicting the consequences of a sodium fire is important from a safety point of view. A computational method based on CFD is proposed here to simulate sodium pool fire and understand its characteristics. The method solves the Favre-averaged Navier-Stokes equation and uses a non-premixed mixture fraction based combustion model. The mass transfer of sodium vapor from the pool surface to the flame is obtained using a sodium evaporation model. The proposed method is then validated against well-known sodium pool experiments of Newman and Payne. The flame temperature and location predicted by the model are in good agreement with experiments. Furthermore, the trends of the mean burning rate with initial pool temperature and oxygen concentration are captured well. Additionally, parametric studies have been performed to understand the effects of pool diameter and initial air temperature on the mean burning rate. Furthermore, the sodium spray and sodium pool combustion models are combined to simulate simultaneous spray and pool combustion. Simulations were performed to demonstrate that the combined code could be applied to simulate this. Once sufficiently validated, the present code can be used for safety evaluation of a sodium fast reactor

  19. Numerical modeling of sodium fire – Part II: Pool combustion and combined spray and pool combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathiah, Pratap, E-mail: pratap.sathiah78@gmail.com [Shell Global Solutions Ltd., Brabazon House, Concord Business Park, Threapwood Road, Manchester M220RR (United Kingdom); Roelofs, Ferry, E-mail: roelofs@nrg.eu [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG), Westerduinweg 3, 1755ZG Petten (Netherlands)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • A CFD based method is proposed for the simulation of sodium pool combustion. • A sodium evaporation based model is proposed to model sodium pool evaporation. • The proposed method is validated against sodium pool experiments of Newman and Payne. • The results obtained using the proposed method are in good agreement with the experiments. - Abstract: The risk of sodium-air reaction has received considerable attention after the sodium-fire accident in Monju reactor. The fires resulting from the sodium-air reaction can be detrimental to the safety of a sodium fast reactor. Therefore, predicting the consequences of a sodium fire is important from a safety point of view. A computational method based on CFD is proposed here to simulate sodium pool fire and understand its characteristics. The method solves the Favre-averaged Navier-Stokes equation and uses a non-premixed mixture fraction based combustion model. The mass transfer of sodium vapor from the pool surface to the flame is obtained using a sodium evaporation model. The proposed method is then validated against well-known sodium pool experiments of Newman and Payne. The flame temperature and location predicted by the model are in good agreement with experiments. Furthermore, the trends of the mean burning rate with initial pool temperature and oxygen concentration are captured well. Additionally, parametric studies have been performed to understand the effects of pool diameter and initial air temperature on the mean burning rate. Furthermore, the sodium spray and sodium pool combustion models are combined to simulate simultaneous spray and pool combustion. Simulations were performed to demonstrate that the combined code could be applied to simulate this. Once sufficiently validated, the present code can be used for safety evaluation of a sodium fast reactor.

  20. A new strategy for Discrete Element numerical models. Part II: Sandbox applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egholm, D.L.; Sandiford, M; Clausen, O.R.

    2007-01-01

    , stress tensors are stored at each circular particle. Further, SDEM includes rotational resistivity of particles and elastoplastic constitutive rules for governing particle deformation. When combining these new features, the SDEM is capable of reproducing the friction properties of rocks and soils...

  1. On solution of Maxwell's equations in axisymmetric domains with edges. Part II: Numerical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nkemzi, Boniface

    2003-10-01

    In this paper we consider the Fourier-finite-element method for treating the Maxwell's equations in three-dimensional axisymmetric domains with reentrant edges. By means of partial Fourier analysis, the 3D BVP is decomposed into an infinite sequence of 2D variational equations in the plane meridian domain of the axisymmetric domain, a finite number of which is considered and treated using nodal H 1 -conforming finite elements. For domains with reentrant edges, the singular field method is employed to compensate the singular behavior of the solutions. Emphases are given to estimates of the Fourier-finite-element approximation error and convergence analysis in the H 1 -norm under different regularity assumptions. (author)

  2. Cool products for building envelope - Part II: Experimental and numerical evaluation of thermal performances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Revel, G.M.; Martarelli, M.; Emiliani, M.; Celotti, L.; Nadalini, R.; Ferrari, A.D.; Hermanns, S.; Beckers, E.

    2014-01-01

    Cool materials have a large potential as cost-effective solution for reducing cooling energy consumption in hot summer and mild winter regions like Mediterranean countries. A previous paper has described in detail the development of cool coloured ceramic tiles, acrylic paints and bituminous

  3. On the Problem of Constructing Routes, Part II: Methodology and Numerical Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linis V. K.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We consider a periodic aviation schedule which is a finite collection of flights with given arrival/departure times. For this schedule, we solve the problem of finding the minimal number of aircrafts needed to carry out the flights. The crucial role in solving this problem is played by so-called deficit function (DFs defined as the difference between departures and arrivals on interval [0,t] for each terminal.

  4. High energy physics studies. Progress report. Part I. Experimental program. Part II. Theoretical program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanowski, T.A.; Tanaka, K.; Wada, W.W.

    1978-01-01

    Experimental Program: assembly of an experiment as Fermilab E-531 to measure decay lifetimes, with tagged emulsion of charmed particles produced by high energy neutrinos was finished, and data taking now is in progress. An experiment to measure prompt neutrino production at Fermilab, E-613, was approved and detailed design of it is continuing. Search for parity violation in scattering of polarized protons, an experiment E-446-ZGS at ANL, was performed with the sensitivity of 10 -6 for detection of that process and yielded null results. Another run with improved sensitivity of 10 -7 is in preparation. Data analysis of the neutrino experiment E-310 at Fermilab will continue. Trimuon events, a new discovery, were identified in those data. Analysis of data on meson production from experiments performed at the ZGS--ANL, E-397, E-420 and E-428, with charged and neutral spectrometer will continue. A new relatively broad resonance (T approx. 70 MeV) with quantum numbers IJ/sup P/ = 00 -1 was discovered in the data from E-397. Analysis of beta decay of polarized Σ - hyperons is in progress. Participation in the design of the experimental areas for the Isabelle colliding proton beam accelerator will continue. Theoretical Program: topics of current interest in particle theory which will be investigated in the coming year are: the instanton-anti-instanton QCD gauge fields, discrete symmetries which may determine quark masses in the SU(2) x U(1) model, calculation of charmed meson production in e + e - collisions and formation of gluon jets, Higgs boson production in pp collisions, calculation of Higgs boson mass in terms of vector boson mass, study of Lagrangians with gauge and Higgs scalar fields, investigation of Faddeev--Popov determinants as related to quantum chromodynamics, a study of quantum flavor dynamics and anomalies in the axial vector Ward identity and a study of super symmetry as a part of a realistic model of leptonic interactions

  5. Subseabed disposal program annual report, January-December 1979. Volume II. Appendices (principal investigator progress reports). Part 2 of 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talbert, D.M.

    1981-04-01

    Volume II of the sixth annual report describing the progress and evaluating the status of the Subseabed Disposal Program contains the appendices referred to in Volume II, Summary and Status. Because of the length of Volume II, it has been split into two parts for publication purposes. Part 1 contains Appendices A-O; Part 2 contains Appendices P-FF. Separate abstracts have been prepared for each appendix for inclusion in the Energy Data Base

  6. Asymptotic solutions of numerical transport problems in optically thick, diffusive regimes II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, E.W.; Morel, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    In a recent article (Larsen, Morel, and Miller, J. Comput. Phys. 69, 283 (1987)), a theoretical method is described for assessing the accuracy of transport differencing schemes in highly scattering media with optically thick spatial meshes. In the present article, this method is extended to enable one to determine the accuracy of such schemes in the presence of numerically unresolved boundary layers. Numerical results are presented that demonstrate the validity and accuracy of our analysis. copyright 1989 Academic Press, Inc

  7. Analysis of the finite deformation response of shape memory polymers: II. 1D calibration and numerical implementation of a finite deformation, thermoelastic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volk, Brent L; Lagoudas, Dimitris C; Chen, Yi-Chao

    2010-01-01

    This study presents the analysis of the finite deformation response of a shape memory polymer (SMP). This two-part paper addresses the thermomechanical characterization of SMPs, the derivation of material parameters for a finite deformation phenomenological model, the numerical implementation of such a model, and the predictions from the model with comparisons to experimental data. Part II of this work presents the calibration of a previously developed thermoelastic constitutive model which is capable of handling finite deformations. The model is proposed in a general three-dimensional framework; however, this work focuses on reducing the model to one dimension and subsequently calibrating the model using experimental data obtained in part I. The one-dimensional numerical implementation of the model is presented, including the handling of the system of nonlinear equations and the integral term resulting from the constitutive model. The model is then used to predict the uniaxial shape memory effect. Results indicate good agreement between the model predictions and the experimental results, but the predictions do not capture the irrecoverable deformation present at the end of recovery

  8. Time-dependent magnetization of a type-II superconductor numerically calculated by using the flux-creep equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. H.; Park, I. S.; Ahmad, D.; Kim, D.; Kim, Y. C.; Ko, R. K.; Jeong, D. Y.

    2012-01-01

    The macroscopic magnetic behaviors of a type-II superconductor, such as the field- or the temperature-dependent magnetization, have been described by using critical state models. However, because the models are time-independent, the magnetic relaxation in a type-II superconductor cannot be described by them, and the time dependence of the magnetization can affect the field or the temperature-dependent magnetization curve described by the models. In order to avoid the time independence of critical state models, we try the numerical calculation used by Qin et al., who mainly calculated the temperature dependence of the ac susceptibility χ(T). Their calculation showed that the frequency-dependent χ(T) could be obtained by using the flux-creep equation. We calculated the field-dependent magnetization and magnetic relaxation by using a numerical method. The calculated field-dependent magnetization M(H) curves shows the shapes of a typical type-II superconductor. The calculated magnetic relaxation do not show a logarithmic decay of the magnetization, but the addition of a surface barrier to the relaxation calculation caused a clear logarithmic decay of the magnetization, producing a crossover at a mid-time. This means that the logarithmic magnetic relaxation is caused by not only flux creep but also a combination of flux creep and a surface barrier.

  9. Numerical Study of Transonic Axial Flow Rotating Cascade Aerodynamics – Part 1: 2D Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Carmen ANDREI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present a 2D study regarding the numerical simulation of flow within a transonic highly-loaded rotating cascade from an axial compressor. In order to describe an intricate flow pattern of a complex geometry and given specific conditions of cascade’s loading and operation, an appropriate accurate flow model is a must. For such purpose, the Navier-Stokes equations system was used as flow model; from the computational point of view, the mathematical support is completed by a turbulence model. A numerical comparison has been performed for different turbulence models (e.g. KE, KO, Reynolds Stress and Spallart-Allmaras models. The convergence history was monitored in order to focus on the numerical accuracy. The force vector has been reported in order to express the aerodynamics of flow within the rotating cascade at the running regime, in terms of Lift and Drag. The numerical results, expressed by plots of the most relevant flow parameters, have been compared. It comes out that the selecting of complex flow models and appropriate turbulence models, in conjunction with CFD techniques, allows to obtain the best computational accuracy of the numerical results. This paper aims to carry on a 2D study and a prospective 3D will be intended for the same architecture.

  10. A quasi-stationary numerical model of atomized metal droplets, II: Prediction and assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pryds, Nini H.; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Thorborg, Jesper

    1999-01-01

    been illustrated.A comparison between the numerical model and the experimental results shows an excellent agreement and demonstrates the validity of the present model, e.g. the calculated gas temperature which has an important influence on the droplet solidification behaviour as well as the calculated......A new model which extends previous studies and includes the interaction between enveloping gas and an array of droplets has been developed and presented in a previous paper. The model incorporates the probability density function of atomized metallic droplets into the heat transfer equations....... The main thrust of the model is that the gas temperature was not predetermined and calculated empirically but calculated numerically based on heat balance consideration. In this paper, the accuracy of the numerical model and the applicability of the model as a predictive tool have been investigated...

  11. Numerical evaluation of path-integral solutions to Fokker-Planck equations. II. Restricted stochastic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehner, M.F.

    1983-01-01

    A path-integral solution is derived for processes described by nonlinear Fokker-Plank equations together with externally imposed boundary conditions. This path-integral solution is written in the form of a path sum for small time steps and contains, in addition to the conventional volume integral, a surface integral which incorporates the boundary conditions. A previously developed numerical method, based on a histogram representation of the probability distribution, is extended to a trapezoidal representation. This improved numerical approach is combined with the present path-integral formalism for restricted processes and is show t give accurate results. 35 refs., 5 figs

  12. F.B.R. Core mock-up RAPSODIE - II - numerical models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brochard, D.; Hammami, L.; Gantenbein, F.

    1990-01-01

    To study the behaviour of LMFBR cores excited by a seism, tests have been performed on the RAPSODIE core mock-up. The aim of this paper is to present the numerical models used to interprete these tests and the comparisons between calculations and experimental results

  13. Vaccines for viral and bacterial pathogens causing acute gastroenteritis: Part II: Vaccines for Shigella, Salmonella, enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) enterohemorragic E. coli (EHEC) and Campylobacter jejuni

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Ryan, Miguel; Vidal, Roberto; del Canto, Felipe; Carlos Salazar, Juan; Montero, David

    2015-01-01

    In Part II we discuss the following bacterial pathogens: Shigella, Salmonella (non-typhoidal), diarrheogenic E. coli (enterotoxigenic and enterohemorragic) and Campylobacter jejuni. In contrast to the enteric viruses and Vibrio cholerae discussed in Part I of this series, for the bacterial pathogens described here there is only one licensed vaccine, developed primarily for Vibrio cholerae and which provides moderate protection against enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) (Dukoral®), as well as a few additional candidates in advanced stages of development for ETEC and one candidate for Shigella spp. Numerous vaccine candidates in earlier stages of development are discussed. PMID:25715096

  14. Temperature measurement during solidification of thin wall ductile cast iron. Part 2: Numerical simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl Martin; Tiedje, Niels Skat

    2008-01-01

    Temperature measurements in castings are carried out with thermocouples (TC’s), which are inserted in the melt. The TC influence solidification of the casting, especially in thin wall castings where the heat content of the melt is small compared to the cooling power of the TC. A numerical analysi...

  15. LES of turbulent jet in cross-flow: Part 1 – A numerical validation study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavar, Dalibor; Meyer, Knud Erik

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents results of a LES based numerical simulation of the turbulent jet-in-cross-flow (JICF) flowfield, with Reynolds number based on cross-flow velocity and jet diameter Re=2400 and jet-to-cross-flow velocity ratio of R=3.3. The JICF flow case has been investigated in great detail...

  16. Bloqueio do nervo supraescapular: procedimento importante na prática clínica. Parte II Suprascapular nerve block: important procedure in clinical practice. Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Rassi Fernandes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available O bloqueio do nervo supraescapular é um método de tratamento reprodutível, confiável e extremamente efetivo no controle da dor no ombro. Esse método tem sido amplamente utilizado por profissionais na prática clínica, como reumatologistas, ortopedistas, neurologistas e especialistas em dor, na terapêutica de enfermidades crônicas, como lesão irreparável do manguito rotador, artrite reumatoide, sequelas de AVC e capsulite adesiva, o que justifica a presente revisão (Parte II. O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever as técnicas do procedimento e suas complicações descritas na literatura, já que a primeira parte reportou as indicações clínicas, drogas e volumes utilizados em aplicação única ou múltipla. Apresentamse, detalhadamente, os acessos para a realização do procedimento tanto direto como indireto, anterior e posterior, lateral e medial, e superior e inferior. Diversas são as opções para se realizar o bloqueio do nervo supraescapular. Apesar de raras, as complicações podem ocorrer. Quando bem indicado, este método deve ser considerado.The suprascapular nerve block is a reproducible, reliable, and extremely effective treatment method in shoulder pain control. This method has been widely used by professionals in clinical practice such as rheumatologists, orthopedists, neurologists, and pain specialists in the treatment of chronic diseases such as irreparable rotator cuff injury, rheumatoid arthritis, stroke sequelae, and adhesive capsulitis, which justifies the present review (Part II. The objective of this study was to describe the techniques and complications of the procedure described in the literature, as the first part reported the clinical indications, drugs, and volumes used in single or multiple procedures. We present in details the accesses used in the procedure: direct and indirect, anterior and posterior, lateral and medial, upper and lower. There are several options to perform suprascapular nerve block

  17. Numerical Predictions of Wind Turbine Power and Aerodynamic Loads for the NREL Phase II and IV Combined Experiment Rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Earl P. N.; Johnson, Wayne; vanDam, C. P.; Chao, David D.; Cortes, Regina; Yee, Karen

    1999-01-01

    Accurate, reliable and robust numerical predictions of wind turbine rotor power remain a challenge to the wind energy industry. The literature reports various methods that compare predictions to experiments. The methods vary from Blade Element Momentum Theory (BEM), Vortex Lattice (VL), to variants of Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RaNS). The BEM and VL methods consistently show discrepancies in predicting rotor power at higher wind speeds mainly due to inadequacies with inboard stall and stall delay models. The RaNS methodologies show promise in predicting blade stall. However, inaccurate rotor vortex wake convection, boundary layer turbulence modeling and grid resolution has limited their accuracy. In addition, the inherently unsteady stalled flow conditions become computationally expensive for even the best endowed research labs. Although numerical power predictions have been compared to experiment. The availability of good wind turbine data sufficient for code validation experimental data that has been extracted from the IEA Annex XIV download site for the NREL Combined Experiment phase II and phase IV rotor. In addition, the comparisons will show data that has been further reduced into steady wind and zero yaw conditions suitable for comparisons to "steady wind" rotor power predictions. In summary, the paper will present and discuss the capabilities and limitations of the three numerical methods and make available a database of experimental data suitable to help other numerical methods practitioners validate their own work.

  18. Societal Planning: Identifying a New Role for the Transport Planner-Part II: Planning Guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khisty, C. Jotin; Leleur, Steen

    1997-01-01

    The paper seeks to formulate planning guidelines based on Habermas's theory of communicative action. Specifically, this has led to the formulation of a set of four planning validity claims concerned to four types of planning guidelines concerning adequacy, dependency, suitability and adaptability......-a-vis the planning validity claims. Among other things the contingency of this process is outlined. It is concluded (part I & II) that transport planners can conveniently utilize the guidelines in their professional practice, tailored to their particular settings....

  19. Eleventh annual meeting, Bologna, Italy, 17-20 April 1978. Summary report. Part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1978-07-01

    The Summary Report - Part II of the Eleventh Annual Meeting of the IAEA International Working Group on Fast Reactors - includes reports on development of fast reactors in France from 1977 to 1978; review of the activities related to fast reactors in Germany; status of fast breeder reactors development in Belgium and Netherlands; status of activities related to fast reactors in USSR, Japan USA, UK and Italy.

  20. The basic science of dermal fillers: past and present Part II: adverse effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Erin; Hui, Andrea; Meehan, Shane; Waldorf, Heidi A

    2012-09-01

    The ideal dermal filler should offer long-lasting aesthetic improvement with a minimal side-effect profile. It should be biocompatible and stable within the injection site, with the risk of only transient undesirable effects from injection alone. However, all dermal fillers can induce serious and potentially long-lasting adverse effects. In Part II of this paper, we review the most common adverse effects related to dermal filler use.

  1. Eleventh annual meeting, Bologna, Italy, 17-20 April 1978. Summary report. Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-07-01

    The Summary Report - Part II of the Eleventh Annual Meeting of the IAEA International Working Group on Fast Reactors - includes reports on development of fast reactors in France from 1977 to 1978; review of the activities related to fast reactors in Germany; status of fast breeder reactors development in Belgium and Netherlands; status of activities related to fast reactors in USSR, Japan USA, UK and Italy

  2. The year 2013 in the European Heart Journal--Cardiovascular Imaging: Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plein, Sven; Edvardsen, Thor; Pierard, Luc A; Saraste, Antti; Knuuti, Juhani; Maurer, Gerald; Lancellotti, Patrizio

    2014-08-01

    The new multi-modality cardiovascular imaging journal, European Heart Journal - Cardiovascular Imaging, was created in 2012. Here we summarize the most important studies from the journal's second year in two articles. Part I of the review has summarized studies in myocardial function, myocardial ischaemia, and emerging techniques in cardiovascular imaging. Part II is focussed on valvular heart diseases, heart failure, cardiomyopathies, and congenital heart diseases. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2014. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. 40 CFR Appendix III to Part 266 - Tier II Emission Rate Screening Limits for Free Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tier II Emission Rate Screening Limits for Free Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride III Appendix III to Part 266 Protection of Environment... to Part 266—Tier II Emission Rate Screening Limits for Free Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride Terrain...

  4. Application of contact mechanics for fretting damage of fuel rod: part 1 influence functions and numerical method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H. K.; Yoon, K. H.; Kang, H. S.; Song, G. N.

    1998-01-01

    For the analysis of the fretting problem of the fuel rods, present paper(Part I) shows the numerical method developed for evaluating the stresses on the contact surfaces between the fuel rods and the spacer grids. Theory of Contact Mechanics was incorporated. Contact area was regarded as a plane strain condition, so plane problem was taken into consideration. Normal stress profile on the contact surface was assumed to be Hertzian. As for the direction of the shear load, a closed load path, e.g. load increase in transverse increase in axial decrease in transverse decrease in axial increase in transverse increase in axial direction was considered for simulating the rod vibration in a reactor core. Partial slip problem was consulted. As for the numerical method, a triangular traction element was utilized and the corresponding influence functions were evaluated. Numerical program has been implemented for the present analysis, of which the validity was verified by comparing the Mindlin-Cattaneo solution

  5. Pricing index-based catastrophe bonds: Part 1: Formulation and discretization issues using a numerical PDE approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, André J. A.

    2010-02-01

    This work is the first installment in a two-part series, and focuses on the development of a numerical PDE approach to price components of a Bermudan-style callable catastrophe (CAT) bond. The bond is based on two underlying stochastic variables; the PCS index which posts quarterly estimates of industry-wide hurricane losses as well as a single-factor CIR interest rate model for the three-month LIBOR. The aggregate PCS index is analogous to losses claimed under traditional reinsurance in that it is used to specify a reinsurance layer. The proposed CAT bond model contains a Bermudan-style call feature designed to allow the reinsurer to minimize their interest rate risk exposure on making substantial fixed coupon payments using capital from the reinsurance premium. Numerical PDE methods are the fundamental strategy for pricing early-exercise constraints, such as the Bermudan-style call feature, into contingent claim models. Therefore, the objective and unique contribution of this first installment in the two-part series is to develop a formulation and discretization strategy for the proposed CAT bond model utilizing a numerical PDE approach. Object-oriented code design is fundamental to the numerical methods used to aggregate the PCS index, and implement the call feature. Therefore, object-oriented design issues that relate specifically to the development of a numerical PDE approach for the component of the proposed CAT bond model that depends on the PCS index and LIBOR are described here. Formulation, numerical methods and code design issues that relate to aggregating the PCS index and introducing the call option are the subject of the companion paper.

  6. GITTAM program for numerical simulation of one-dimensional targets TIS. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arpishkin, Yu.P.; Basko, M.M.; Sokolovskij, M.V.

    1989-01-01

    A finite-difference algorithm for numeric solution of a system of one-dimensional hydrodynamics equation with heat conductivity, radiation diffusion and thermonuclear combustion is considered. The algorithm presented allows one to simulate one-dimensional thermonuclear targets for heavy-ion synthesis (HIS), irradiated with heavy ion beams. A brief description of a complex of GITTAM programs in which finite-difference algorithm for one-dimensional thermonuclear HIS target simulation is used, is given. 5 refs.; 3 figs

  7. Part I: quantum fluctuations in chains of Josephson junctions. Part II: directed aggregation on the Bethe lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, R.M.

    1985-01-01

    Part I studies the effect of quantum fluctuations of the phase on the low temperature behavior of two models of Josephson junction chains with Coulomb interactions taken into account. The first model, which represents a chain of junctions close to a ground plane, is the Hamiltonian version of the two-dimensional XY model in one space and one time dimension. In the second model, the charging energy for a single junction in the chain is just the parallel-plate capacitor energy. It is shown that quantum fluctuations produce exponential decay of the order parameter correlation junction for any finite value of the junction capacitance. Part II deals with two types of directed aggregation on the Bethe lattice - directed diffusion-limited aggregation DDLA and ballistic aggregation (BA). In the DDLA problem on finite lattices, an exact nonlinear recursion relation is constructed for the probability distribution of the density. The mean density tends to zero as the lattice size is taken into infinity. Using a mapping between the model with perfect adhesion on contact and another model with a particular value of the adhesion probability, it is shown that the adhesion probability is irrelevant over an interval of values

  8. Scope Oriented Thermoeconomic analysis of energy systems. Part II: Formation Structure of Optimality for robust design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piacentino, Antonio; Cardona, Ennio

    2010-01-01

    This paper represents the Part II of a paper in two parts. In Part I the fundamentals of Scope Oriented Thermoeconomics have been introduced, showing a scarce potential for the cost accounting of existing plants; in this Part II the same concepts are applied to the optimization of a small set of design variables for a vapour compression chiller. The method overcomes the limit of most conventional optimization techniques, which are usually based on hermetic algorithms not enabling the energy analyst to recognize all the margins for improvement. The Scope Oriented Thermoeconomic optimization allows us to disassemble the optimization process, thus recognizing the Formation Structure of Optimality, i.e. the specific influence of any thermodynamic and economic parameter in the path toward the optimal design. Finally, the potential applications of such an in-depth understanding of the inner driving forces of the optimization are discussed in the paper, with a particular focus on the sensitivity analysis to the variation of energy and capital costs and on the actual operation-oriented design.

  9. Part I: nonlinear analysis of three coupled Josephson junctions. Part II. general bond-to-site mapping in aggregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strenski, P.N.

    1985-01-01

    The first part of this thesis deals with the analysis of a small array of Josephson junctions, superconducting devices of markedly nonlinear behavior. The components of the array are modeled as resistively-shunted junctions and are driven by direct current. A chapter is provided that reviews the validity and features of such a model for the case of a single junction. This chapter also includes background information on the subjects of bifurcation, chaos, and fractals. In the following chapters, the array of three junctions is studied, first with one driving current and later with an additional bias current. The analysis includes both numerical results from computer simulations and analytic computations using a perturbative approach. The two approaches are shown to be in good agreement. The behavior of the array is dominated by hysteresis effects. The second part of the thesis describes an exact bound-to-site transformation for diffusion-limited aggregation. A review is provided that summarizes the field of aggregation and demonstrates the need for such exact results. The equivalence maps a class of partial adhesion problems on arbitrary lattices to absolute adhesion problems on transformed lattices. Examples are given for diffusion in the presence and absence of an external field

  10. GITTAM program for numerical simulation of one-dimensional targets TIS. Part 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basko, M.M.; Sokolovskij, M.V.

    1989-01-01

    Results of testing calculations according to GITTAM program, developed for numeric simulation of one-dimensional thermonuclear targets of heavy-ion synthesis are presented. Finite-difference method for solving a system of one-dimensional hydrodynamics equations with heat conductivity, radiation diffusion and thermonuclear combustion is used in the GITTAM program. In the tests presented, based on simple automodel solutions, adiabatic motion as well as distribution of shock, thermal and radial waves in gas with simple polytron state equation is investigated. 3 refs.; 6 figs

  11. A legacy of struggle: the OSHA ergonomics standard and beyond, Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delp, Linda; Mojtahedi, Zahra; Sheikh, Hina; Lemus, Jackie

    2014-11-01

    The OSHA ergonomics standard issued in 2000 was repealed within four months through a Congressional resolution that limits future ergonomics rulemaking. This section continues the conversation initiated in Part I, documenting a legacy of struggle for an ergonomics standard through the voices of eight labor, academic, and government key informants. Part I summarized important components of the standard; described the convergence of labor activism, research, and government action that laid the foundation for a standard; and highlighted the debates that characterized the rulemaking process. Part II explores the anti-regulatory political landscape of the 1990s, as well as the key opponents, power dynamics, and legal maneuvers that led to repeal of the standard. This section also describes the impact of the ergonomics struggle beyond the standard itself and ends with a discussion of creative state-level policy initiatives and coalition approaches to prevent work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) in today's sociopolitical context.

  12. Subseabed disposal program annual report, January-December 1979. Volume II. Appendices (principal investigator progress reports). Part 1 of 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talbert, D.M.

    1981-04-01

    Volume II of the sixth annual report describing the progress and evaluating the status of the Subseabed Disposal Program contains the appendices referred to in Volume I, Summary and Status. Because of the length of Volume II, it has been split into two parts for publication purposes. Part 1 contains Appendices A-O; Part 2 contains Appendices P-FF. Separate abstracts have been prepared of each Appendix for inclusion in the Energy Data Base

  13. Subseabed disposal program annual report, January-December 1980. Volume II. Appendices (principal investigator progress reports). Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinga, K.R. (ed.)

    1981-07-01

    Volume II of the sixth annual report describing the progress and evaluating the status of the Subseabed Disposal Program contains the appendices referred to in Volume I, Summary and Status. Because of the length of Volume II, it has been split into two parts for publication purposes. Part 1 contains Appendices A-Q; Part 2 contains Appendices R-MM. Separate abstracts have been prepared for each appendix for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  14. Subseabed disposal program annual report, January-December 1980. Volume II. Appendices (principal investigator progress reports). Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinga, K.R.

    1981-07-01

    Volume II of the sixth annual report describing the progress and evaluating the status of the Subseabed Disposal Program contains the appendices referred to in Volume I, Summary and Status. Because of the length of Volume II, it has been split into two parts for publication purposes. Part 1 contains Appendices A-Q; Part 2 contains Appendices R-MM. Separate abstracts have been prepared for each appendix for inclusion in the Energy Data Base

  15. Efficient numerical schemes for viscoplastic avalanches. Part 1: The 1D case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernández-Nieto, Enrique D., E-mail: edofer@us.es [Departamento de Matemática Aplicada I, Universidad de Sevilla, E.T.S. Arquitectura, Avda, Reina Mercedes, s/n, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); Gallardo, José M., E-mail: jmgallardo@uma.es [Departamento de Análisis Matemático, Universidad de Málaga, F. Ciencias, Campus Teatinos S/N (Spain); Vigneaux, Paul, E-mail: Paul.Vigneaux@math.cnrs.fr [Unitée de Mathématiques Pures et Appliquées, Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon, 46 allée d' Italie, 69364 Lyon Cedex 07 (France)

    2014-05-01

    This paper deals with the numerical resolution of a shallow water viscoplastic flow model. Viscoplastic materials are characterized by the existence of a yield stress: below a certain critical threshold in the imposed stress, there is no deformation and the material behaves like a rigid solid, but when that yield value is exceeded, the material flows like a fluid. In the context of avalanches, it means that after going down a slope, the material can stop and its free surface has a non-trivial shape, as opposed to the case of water (Newtonian fluid). The model involves variational inequalities associated with the yield threshold: finite-volume schemes are used together with duality methods (namely Augmented Lagrangian and Bermúdez–Moreno) to discretize the problem. To be able to accurately simulate the stopping behavior of the avalanche, new schemes need to be designed, involving the classical notion of well-balancing. In the present context, it needs to be extended to take into account the viscoplastic nature of the material as well as general bottoms with wet/dry fronts which are encountered in geophysical geometries. We derived such schemes and numerical experiments are presented to show their performances.

  16. Direct numerical simulation of turbulent concentric annular pipe flow Part 2: Heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Seo Yoon; Sung, Hyung Jin

    2003-01-01

    A direct numerical simulation is performed for turbulent heat transfer in a concentric annulus at Re D h =8900 and Pr=0.71 for two radius ratios (R 1 /R 2 =0.1 and 0.5) and wall heat flux ratio q * =1.0. Main emphasis is placed on the transverse curvature effect on near-wall turbulent thermal structures. Near-wall turbulent thermal structures close to the inner and outer walls are scrutinized by computing the lower-order statistics. The fluctuating temperature variance and turbulent heat flux budgets are illustrated to confirm the results of the lower-order statistics. Probability density functions of the splat/anti-splat process are investigated to analyze the transverse curvature effect on the strong relationship between sweep and splat events. The present numerical results show that the turbulent thermal structures near the outer wall are more activated than those near the inner wall, which may be attributed to the different vortex regeneration processes between the inner and outer walls

  17. Local mechanical properties of LFT injection molded parts: Numerical simulations versus experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desplentere, F.; Soete, K.; Bonte, H.; Debrabandere, E.

    2014-05-01

    In predictive engineering for polymer processes, the proper prediction of material microstructure from known processing conditions and constituent material properties is a critical step forward properly predicting bulk properties in the finished composite. Operating within the context of long-fiber thermoplastics (LFT, length Autodesk Simulation Moldflow Insight 2014 software has been used. In this software, a fiber breakage algorithm for the polymer flow inside the mold is available. Using well known micro mechanic formulas allow to combine the local fiber length with the local orientation into local mechanical properties. Different experiments were performed using a commercially available glass fiber filled compound to compare the measured data with the numerical simulation results. In this investigation, tensile tests and 3 point bending tests are considered. To characterize the fiber length distribution of the polymer melt entering the mold (necessary for the numerical simulations), air shots were performed. For those air shots, similar homogenization conditions were used as during the injection molding tests. The fiber length distribution is characterized using automated optical method on samples for which the matrix material is burned away. Using the appropriate settings for the different experiments, good predictions of the local mechanical properties are obtained.

  18. Numerical Prediction of Elastic Springback in An Automotive Complex Structural Part

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fratini, Livan; Ingarao, Giuseppe; Micari, Fabrizio

    2007-01-01

    The occurrence of elastic springback phenomena in sheet metal processing operations determines a relevant issue in the automotive industry. The routing and production of 3D complex parts for automotive applications is characterized by springback phenomena affecting the final geometry of the components both after the stamping operations and the trimming ones. In the present paper the full routing of a automotive structural part is considered and the springback phenomena occurring after forming and trimming are investigated through FE analyses utilizing an explicit implicit approach. In particular a sensitivity analysis on process parameter influencing springback occurrence is developed: blank holder force, draw bead penetration and blank shape

  19. Prospective phase II trial of regional hyperthermia and whole liver irradiation for numerous chemorefratory liver metastases from colerectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Jeong Il; Park, Hee Chul; Choi, Doo Ho [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2016-03-15

    A prospective phase II trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness and toxicity of regional hyperthermia and whole liver irradiation (WLI) for numerous chemorefractory liver metastases from colorectal cancer. Enrolled patients had numerous chemorefractory hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer. Five sessions of hyperthermia and seven fractions of 3-gray WLI were planned. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) was determined using the Korean version of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer quality of life questionnaire C-30 and the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Hepatobiliary version 4.0. Objective and pain response was evaluated. A total of 12 patients consented to the study and the 10 who received WLI and hyperthermia were analyzed. WLI was completed as planned in nine patients and hyperthermia in eight. Pain response was partial in four patients and stable in four. Partial objective response was achieved in three patients (30.0%) and stable disease was seen in four patients at the 1-month follow-up. One patient died 1 month after treatment because of respiratory failure related to pleural metastasis progression. Other grade III or higher toxicities were detected in three patients; however, all severe toxicities were related to disease progression rather than treatment. No significant difference in HRQoL was noted at the time of assessment for patients who were available for questionnaires. Combined WLI and hyperthermia were well tolerated without severe treatment-related toxicity with a promising response from numerous chemorefractory hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer.

  20. Formulation, computation and improvement of steady state security margins in power systems. Part II: Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echavarren, F.M.; Lobato, E.; Rouco, L.; Gomez, T.

    2011-01-01

    A steady state security margin for a particular operating point can be defined as the distance from this initial point to the secure operating limits of the system. Four of the most used steady state security margins are the power flow feasibility margin, the contingency feasibility margin, the load margin to voltage collapse, and the total transfer capability between system areas. This is the second part of a two part paper. Part I has proposed a novel framework of a general model able to formulate, compute and improve any steady state security margin. In Part II the performance of the general model is validated by solving a variety of practical situations in modern real power systems. Actual examples of the Spanish power system will be used for this purpose. The same computation and improvement algorithms outlined in Part I have been applied for the four security margins considered in the study, outlining the convenience of defining a general framework valid for the four of them. The general model is used here in Part II to compute and improve: (a) the power flow feasibility margin (assessing the influence of the reactive power generation limits in the Spanish power system), (b) the contingency feasibility margin (assessing the influence of transmission and generation capacity in maintaining a correct voltage profile), (c) the load margin to voltage collapse (assessing the location and quantity of loads that must be shed in order to be far away from voltage collapse) and (d) the total transfer capability (assessing the export import pattern of electric power between different areas of the Spanish system). (author)

  1. Formulation, computation and improvement of steady state security margins in power systems. Part II: Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Echavarren, F.M.; Lobato, E.; Rouco, L.; Gomez, T. [School of Engineering of Universidad Pontificia Comillas, C/Alberto Aguilera, 23, 28015 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-02-15

    A steady state security margin for a particular operating point can be defined as the distance from this initial point to the secure operating limits of the system. Four of the most used steady state security margins are the power flow feasibility margin, the contingency feasibility margin, the load margin to voltage collapse, and the total transfer capability between system areas. This is the second part of a two part paper. Part I has proposed a novel framework of a general model able to formulate, compute and improve any steady state security margin. In Part II the performance of the general model is validated by solving a variety of practical situations in modern real power systems. Actual examples of the Spanish power system will be used for this purpose. The same computation and improvement algorithms outlined in Part I have been applied for the four security margins considered in the study, outlining the convenience of defining a general framework valid for the four of them. The general model is used here in Part II to compute and improve: (a) the power flow feasibility margin (assessing the influence of the reactive power generation limits in the Spanish power system), (b) the contingency feasibility margin (assessing the influence of transmission and generation capacity in maintaining a correct voltage profile), (c) the load margin to voltage collapse (assessing the location and quantity of loads that must be shed in order to be far away from voltage collapse) and (d) the total transfer capability (assessing the export import pattern of electric power between different areas of the Spanish system). (author)

  2. EVOLVE : a Bridge between Probability, Set Oriented Numerics, and Evolutionary Computation II

    CERN Document Server

    Coello, Carlos; Tantar, Alexandru-Adrian; Tantar, Emilia; Bouvry, Pascal; Moral, Pierre; Legrand, Pierrick; EVOLVE 2012

    2013-01-01

    This book comprises a selection of papers from the EVOLVE 2012 held in Mexico City, Mexico. The aim of the EVOLVE is to build a bridge between probability, set oriented numerics and evolutionary computing, as to identify new common and challenging research aspects. The conference is also intended to foster a growing interest for robust and efficient methods with a sound theoretical background. EVOLVE is intended to unify theory-inspired methods and cutting-edge techniques ensuring performance guarantee factors. By gathering researchers with different backgrounds, a unified view and vocabulary can emerge where the theoretical advancements may echo in different domains. Summarizing, the EVOLVE focuses on challenging aspects arising at the passage from theory to new paradigms and aims to provide a unified view while raising questions related to reliability,  performance guarantees and modeling. The papers of the EVOLVE 2012 make a contribution to this goal. 

  3. Three Mile Island: a report to the commissioners and to the public. Volume II, Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This is part one of three parts of the second volume of the Special Inquiry Group's report to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission on the accident at Three Mile Island. The first volume contained a narrative description of the accident and a discussion of the major conclusions and recommendations. This second volume is divided into three parts. Part 1 of Volume II focuses on the pre-accident licensing and regulatory background. This part includes an examination of the overall licensing and regulatory system for nuclear powerplants viewed from different perspectives: the system as it is set forth in statutes and regulations, as described in Congressional testimony, and an overview of the system as it really works. In addition, Part 1 includes the licensing, operating, and inspection history of Three Mile Island Unit 2, discussions of relevant regulatory matters, a discussion of specific precursor events related to the accident, a case study of the pressurizer design issue, and an analysis of incentives to declare commercial operation

  4. A NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF COSMIC RAY MODULATION NEAR THE HELIOPAUSE. II. SOME PHYSICAL INSIGHTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Xi; Feng, Xueshang; Potgieter, Marius S.; Du Toit Strauss, R.; Zhang, Ming; Pogorelov, Nikolai V.

    2016-01-01

    Cosmic ray (CR) transport near the heliopause (HP) is studied using a hybrid transport model, with the parameters constrained by observations from the Voyager 1 spacecraft. We simulate the CR radial flux along different directions in the heliosphere. There is no well-defined thin layer between the solar wind region and the interstellar region along the tail and polar directions of the heliosphere. By analyzing the radial flux curve along the direction of Voyager 2 , together with its trajectory information, the crossing time of the HP by Voyager 2 is predicted to be in 2017.14. We simulate the CR radial flux for different energy values along the direction of Voyager 1 . We find that there is only a modest modulation region of about 10 au wide beyond the HP, so that Voyager 1 observing the Local Interstellar Spectra is justified in numerical modeling. We analyze the heliospheric exit information of pseudo-particles in our stochastic numerical (time-backward) method, conjecturing that they represent the behavior of CR particles, and we find that pseudo-particles that have been traced from the nose region exit in the tail region. This implies that many CR particles diffuse directly from the heliospheric tail region to the nose region near the HP. In addition, when pseudo-particles were traced from the Local Interstellar Medium (LISM), it is found that their exit location (entrance for real particles) from the simulation domain is along the prescribed Interstellar Magnetic Field direction. This indicates that parallel diffusion dominates CR particle transport in the LISM.

  5. PIC Simulations in Low Energy Part of PIP-II Proton Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanov, Gennady

    2014-07-01

    The front end of PIP-II linac is composed of a 30 keV ion source, low energy beam transport line (LEBT), 2.1 MeV radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ), and medium energy beam transport line (MEBT). This configuration is currently being assembled at Fermilab to support a complete systems test. The front end represents the primary technical risk with PIP-II, and so this step will validate the concept and demonstrate that the hardware can meet the specified requirements. SC accelerating cavities right after MEBT require high quality and well defined beam after RFQ to avoid excessive particle losses. In this paper we will present recent progress of beam dynamic study, using CST PIC simulation code, to investigate partial neutralization effect in LEBT, halo and tail formation in RFQ, total emittance growth and beam losses along low energy part of the linac.

  6. Numerical Investigation of Resistance Reduction of Fishing Boat by Improving Stern Part

    OpenAIRE

    Baso, Suandar

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, to achieve a goal of reducing greenhouse gas, a fishing boat which is very economical on gas should be needed. Over the last two decades, improvements of bow part in fishing boat have been researched to reduce water resistance. Moreover, stern End Bulb research took place mostly in Japan. No one finds universal knowledge for reducing drag resistance because many fishing boats run with individual catching styles for each fish. It is also difficult to appropriate some technique...

  7. Numerical study on injection parameters optimization of thin wall and biodegradable polymers parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, C.; Mendes, A.; Carreira, P.; Mateus, A.; Malça, C.

    2017-07-01

    Nowadays, the molds industry searches new markets, with diversified and added value products. The concept associated to the production of thin walled and biodegradable parts mostly manufactured by injection process has assumed a relevant importance due to environmental and economic factors. The growth of a global consciousness about the harmful effects of the conventional polymers in our life quality associated with the legislation imposed, become key factors for the choice of a particular product by the consumer. The target of this work is to provide an integrated solution for the injection of parts with thin walls and manufactured using biodegradable materials. This integrated solution includes the design and manufacture processes of the mold as well as to find the optimum values for the injection parameters in order to become the process effective and competitive. For this, the Moldflow software was used. It was demonstrated that this computational tool provides an effective responsiveness and it can constitute an important tool in supporting the injection molding of thin-walled and biodegradable parts.

  8. Numerical evaluation of ABS parts fabricated by fused deposition modeling and vapor smoothing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Uk Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The automotive industry has focused to use polymer materials in order to increase energy efficiency. So, the industry pays attention to use 3D printing technologies using several polymers. Among several 3D printer technologies, fused deposition modeling (FDM is one of the popular 3D printing technologies due to an inexpensive extrusion machine and multi-material printing. FDM could use thermoplastics such as ABS, PLA, ULTEM so on. However, it has a problem related to the post-processing because FDM has relatively poor layer resolution. In this study, the mechanical properties of ABS parts fabricated by FDM were measured. The ABS parts were divided into one with vapor smoothing process and the other without the vapor smoothing process which is one of the post-processing methods. Using dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA and dilatometer, temperature-dependent storage modulus and CTE for ABS specimens were measured. Based on the measured thermo-mechanical properties of ABS parts, finite element analysis was performed for an automotive bumper made of ABS. Moreover, response surface methodology was applied to study relationships among design parameters of thickness of the bumper, ambient temperature, and application of the vapor smoothing process. In result, a design guideline for a ABS product could be provided without time-consuming experiments

  9. Numerical Analysis of Blood Damage Potential of the HeartMate II and HeartWare HVAD Rotary Blood Pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamsen, Bente; Blümel, Bastian; Schaller, Jens; Paschereit, Christian O; Affeld, Klaus; Goubergrits, Leonid; Kertzscher, Ulrich

    2015-08-01

    Implantable left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) became the therapy of choice in treating end-stage heart failure. Although survival improved substantially and is similar in currently clinically implanted LVADs HeartMate II (HM II) and HeartWare HVAD, complications related to blood trauma are frequently observed. The aim of this study was to compare these two pumps regarding their potential blood trauma employing computational fluid dynamics. High-resolution structured grids were generated for the pumps. Newtonian flow was calculated, solving Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations with a sliding mesh approach and a k-ω shear stress transport turbulence model for the operating point of 4.5 L/min and 80 mm Hg. The pumps were compared in terms of volumes subjected to certain viscous shear stress thresholds, below which no trauma was assumed (von Willebrand factor cleavage: 9 Pa, platelet activation: 50 Pa, and hemolysis: 150 Pa), and associated residence times. Additionally, a hemolysis index was calculated based on a Eulerian transport approach. Twenty-two percent of larger volumes above 9 Pa were observed in the HVAD; above 50 Pa and 150 Pa the differences between the two pumps were marginal. Residence times were higher in the HVAD for all thresholds. The hemolysis index was almost equal for the HM II and HVAD. Besides the gap regions in both pumps, the inlet regions of the rotor and diffuser blades have a high hemolysis production in the HM II, whereas in the HVAD, the volute tongue is an additional site for hemolysis production. Thus, in this study, the comparison of the HM II and the HVAD using numerical methods indicated an overall similar tendency to blood trauma in both pumps. However, influences of turbulent shear stresses were not considered and effects of the pivot bearing in the HM II were not taken into account. Further in vitro investigations are required. Copyright © 2015 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and

  10. Radiation protection instruments based on tissue equivalent proportional counters: Part II of an international intercomparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberts, W.G.; Dietz, E.; Guldbakke, S.; Kluge, H.; Schumacher, H.

    1988-04-01

    This report describes the irradiation conditions and procedures of Part II of an international intercomparison of tissue-equivalent proportional counters used for radiation protection measurements. The irradiations took place in monoenergetic reference neutron fields produced by the research reactor and accelerator facilities of the PTB Braunschweig in the range from thermal neutrons to 14.8 MeV. In addition measurements were performed in 60 Co and D 2 O-moderated 252 Cf radiation fields. Prototype instruments from 7 European groups were investigated. The results of the measurements are summarized and compared with the reference data of the irradiations. (orig.) [de

  11. Optimal recombination in genetic algorithms for combinatorial optimization problems: Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eremeev Anton V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper surveys results on complexity of the optimal recombination problem (ORP, which consists in finding the best possible offspring as a result of a recombination operator in a genetic algorithm, given two parent solutions. In Part II, we consider the computational complexity of ORPs arising in genetic algorithms for problems on permutations: the Travelling Salesman Problem, the Shortest Hamilton Path Problem and the Makespan Minimization on Single Machine and some other related problems. The analysis indicates that the corresponding ORPs are NP-hard, but solvable by faster algorithms, compared to the problems they are derived from.

  12. Ab initio theory of superconductivity in a magnetic field. II. Numerical solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linscheid, A.; Sanna, A.; Gross, E. K. U.

    2015-07-01

    We numerically investigate the spin density functional theory for superconductors (SpinSCDFT) and the approximated exchange-correlation functional, derived and presented in the preceding Paper I [A. Linscheid et al., Phys. Rev. B 92, 024505 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevB.92.024505]. As a test system, we employ a free-electron gas featuring an exchange splitting, a phononic pairing field, and a Coulomb repulsion. SpinSCDFT results are compared with Sarma, the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory, and with an Eliashberg type of approach. We find that the spectrum of the superconducting Kohn-Sham SpinSCDFT system is not in agreement with the true quasiparticle structure. Therefore, starting from the Dyson equation, we derive a scheme that allows to compute the many-body excitations of the superconductor and represents the extension to superconductivity of the G0W0 method in band-structure theory. This superconducting G0W0 method vastly improves the predicted spectra.

  13. Recombination efficiency of molecular hydrogen on interstellar grains - II: A numerical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakrabarti, S.K.; Ankan, Das; Kinsuk, Acharyya; Sonali, Chakrabarti

    2006-05-01

    Knowledge of the recombination time on the grain surfaces has been a major obstacle in deciding the production rate of molecular hydrogen and other molecules in the interstellar medium. We present a numerical study to compute this time for molecular hydrogen for various cloud and grain parameters. We also find the time dependence, particularly when a grain is freshly injected into the system. Apart from the fact that the recombination times seem to be functions of the grain parameters such as the activation barrier energy, temperature etc., our result also shows the dependence on the number of sites in the grain S and the effective accretion rate per site a s of atomic hydrogen. To put simply the average time that a pair of atomic hydrogens will take to produce one molecular hydrogen depends on how heavily the grain is already populated by atomic and molecular hydrogens and how fast the hopping and desorption times are. We show that if we write the average recombination time as T r ∼ S α /A H , where, A H is the hopping rate, then α could be much greater than 1 for all astrophysically relevant accretion rates. Thus the average formation rate of H 2 is also dependent on the grain parameters, temperature and the accretion rate. We believe that our results will affect the overall rate of the formation of complex molecules such as methanol which requires successive hydrogenation on the grain surfaces in the interstellar medium. (author)

  14. Social class, political power, and the state: their implications in medicine--parts I and II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, V

    1976-01-01

    This three part article presents an anlysis of the distribution of power and of the nature of the state in Western industrialized societies and details their implications in medicine. Part I presents a critique of contemporary theories of the Western system of power; discusses the countervailing pluralist and power elite theories, as well as those of bureaucratic and professional control; and concludes with an examination of the Marxist theories of economic determinism, structural determinism, and corporate statism. Part II presents a Marxist theory of the role, nature, and characteristics of state intervention. Part III (which will appear in the next issue of this journal) focuses on the mode of that intervention and the reasons for its growth, with an added analysis of the attributes of state intervention in the health sector, and of the dialectical relationship between its growth and the current fiscal crisis of the state. In all three parts, the focus is on Western European countries and on North America, with many examples and categories from the area of medicine.

  15. Solar desalination using humidification dehumidification processes. Part I. A numerical investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nafey, A.S.; Fath, H.E.S.; El-Helaby, S.O.; Soliman, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    A numerical investigation of a humidification dehumidification desalination (HDD) process using solar energy is presented. The HDD system consists mainly of a concentrating solar water heating collector, flat plate solar air heating collector, humidifying tower and dehumidifying exchanger. Two separate circulating loops constitute the HDD system, the first for heating the feed water and the second for heating air. A mathematical model is developed, simulating the HDD system, to study the influence of the different system configurations, weather and operating conditions on the system productivity. The model validity is examined by comparing the theoretical and experimental results of the same authors. It is found that the results of the developed mathematical model are in good agreement with the experimental results and other published works. The results show also that the productivity of the unit is strongly influenced by the air flow rate, cooling water flow rate and total solar energy incident through the day. Wind speed and ambient temperature variations show a very small effect on the system productivity. In addition, the obtained results indicate that the solar water collector area strongly affects the system productivity, more so than the solar air collector area

  16. Thermoelectric Generators for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Systems Part I: Numerical Modeling and Baseline Model Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sumeet; Heister, Stephen D.; Xu, Xianfan; Salvador, James R.; Meisner, Gregory P.

    2013-04-01

    A numerical model has been developed to simulate coupled thermal and electrical energy transfer processes in a thermoelectric generator (TEG) designed for automotive waste heat recovery systems. This model is capable of computing the overall heat transferred, the electrical power output, and the associated pressure drop for given inlet conditions of the exhaust gas and the available TEG volume. Multiple-filled skutterudites and conventional bismuth telluride are considered for thermoelectric modules (TEMs) for conversion of waste heat from exhaust into usable electrical power. Heat transfer between the hot exhaust gas and the hot side of the TEMs is enhanced with the use of a plate-fin heat exchanger integrated within the TEG and using liquid coolant on the cold side. The TEG is discretized along the exhaust flow direction using a finite-volume method. Each control volume is modeled as a thermal resistance network which consists of integrated submodels including a heat exchanger and a thermoelectric device. The pressure drop along the TEG is calculated using standard pressure loss correlations and viscous drag models. The model is validated to preserve global energy balances and is applied to analyze a prototype TEG with data provided by General Motors. Detailed results are provided for local and global heat transfer and electric power generation. In the companion paper, the model is then applied to consider various TEG topologies using skutterudite and bismuth telluride TEMs.

  17. Arbitrary order 2D virtual elements for polygonal meshes: part II, inelastic problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artioli, E.; Beirão da Veiga, L.; Lovadina, C.; Sacco, E.

    2017-10-01

    The present paper is the second part of a twofold work, whose first part is reported in Artioli et al. (Comput Mech, 2017. doi: 10.1007/s00466-017-1404-5), concerning a newly developed Virtual element method (VEM) for 2D continuum problems. The first part of the work proposed a study for linear elastic problem. The aim of this part is to explore the features of the VEM formulation when material nonlinearity is considered, showing that the accuracy and easiness of implementation discovered in the analysis inherent to the first part of the work are still retained. Three different nonlinear constitutive laws are considered in the VEM formulation. In particular, the generalized viscoelastic model, the classical Mises plasticity with isotropic/kinematic hardening and a shape memory alloy constitutive law are implemented. The versatility with respect to all the considered nonlinear material constitutive laws is demonstrated through several numerical examples, also remarking that the proposed 2D VEM formulation can be straightforwardly implemented as in a standard nonlinear structural finite element method framework.

  18. Numerical models of protoneutron stars and type-II supernovae - recent developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janka, H T [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Garching (Germany)

    1996-11-01

    The results of recent multi-dimensional simulations of type-II supernovae are reviewed. They show that convective instabilities in the collapsed stellar core might play an important role already during the first second after the formation of the supernovae shock. Convectively unstable situations occur below and near the neutrinosphere as well as in the neutrino-heated region between the nascent neutron star and the supernova shock after the latter has stalled at a radiums of typically 100-200 km. While convective overturn in the layer of neutrino energy deposition clearly helps the explosion to develop and potentially provides an explanation of strong mantle and envelope mixing, asphericities, and non-uniform {sup 56}Ni distribution observed in supernova SN 1987A, its presence and importance depends on the strength of the neutrino heating and thus on the size of the neutrino fluxes from the neutrino star. Convection in the hot-bubble region can only be developed if the growth timescale of the instabilities and the heating timescale are both shorter than the accretion timescale of the matter advected through the stagnant shock. For too small neutrino luminosities this requirement is not fulfilled and convective activity cannot develop, leading to very weak explosions or even fizzling models, just as in the one-dimensional situations. Convectively enhanced neutrino luminosities from the protoneutron star can therefore provide an essential condition for the explosion of the star. Very recent two-dimensional, self-consistent, general relativistic simulations of the cooling of a newly-formed neutron star demonstrate and confirm the possibility that Ledoux convection, driven by negative lepton number and entropy gradients, may encompass the whole protoneutron star within less than one second and can lead to an increase of the neutrino fluxes by up to a factor of two. (author) 9 figs., refs.

  19. Design and verification of controllers for longitudinal oscillations using optimal control theory and numerical simulation: Predictions for PEP-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hindi, H.; Prabhakar, S.; Fox, J.; Teytelman, D.

    1997-12-01

    The authors present a technique for the design and verification of efficient bunch-by-bunch controllers for damping longitudinal multibunch instabilities. The controllers attempt to optimize the use of available feedback amplifier power--one of the most expensive components of a feedback system--and define the limits of closed loop system performance. The design technique alternates between analytic computation of single bunch optimal controllers and verification on a multibunch numerical simulator. The simulator identifies unstable coupled bunch modes and predicts their growth and damping rates. The results from the simulator are shown to be in reasonable agreement with analytical calculations based on the single bunch model. The technique is then used to evaluate the performance of a variety of controllers proposed for PEP-II

  20. Assessing and addressing moral distress and ethical climate Part II: neonatal and pediatric perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauerland, Jeanie; Marotta, Kathleen; Peinemann, Mary Anne; Berndt, Andrea; Robichaux, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Moral distress remains a pervasive and, at times, contested concept in nursing and other health care disciplines. Ethical climate, the conditions and practices in which ethical situations are identified, discussed, and decided, has been shown to exacerbate or ameliorate perceptions of moral distress. The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to explore perceptions of moral distress, moral residue, and ethical climate among registered nurses working in an academic medical center. Two versions of the Moral Distress Scale in addition to the Hospital Ethical Climate Survey were used, and participants were invited to respond to 2 open-ended questions. Part I reported the findings among nurses working in adult acute and critical care units. Part II presents the results from nurses working in pediatric/neonatal units. Significant differences in findings between the 2 groups are discussed. Subsequent interventions developed are also presented.

  1. Transferring diffractive optics from research to commercial applications: Part II - size estimations for selected markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Robert

    2014-04-01

    In a series of two contributions, decisive business-related aspects of the current process status to transfer research results on diffractive optical elements (DOEs) into commercial solutions are discussed. In part I, the focus was on the patent landscape. Here, in part II, market estimations concerning DOEs for selected applications are presented, comprising classical spectroscopic gratings, security features on banknotes, DOEs for high-end applications, e.g., for the semiconductor manufacturing market and diffractive intra-ocular lenses. The derived market sizes are referred to the optical elements, itself, rather than to the enabled instruments. The estimated market volumes are mainly addressed to scientifically and technologically oriented optical engineers to serve as a rough classification of the commercial dimensions of DOEs in the different market segments and do not claim to be exhaustive.

  2. Design of site specific radiopharmaceuticals for tumor imaging. (Parts I and II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dort, M.E.

    1983-01-01

    Part I. Synthetic methods were developed for the preparation of several iodinated benzoic acid hydrazides as labeling moieties for indirect tagging of carbonyl-containing bio-molecules and potential tumor-imaging agents. Biodistribution studies conducted in mice on the derivatives having the I-125 label ortho to a phenolic OH demonstrated a rapid in vivo deiodination. Part II. The reported high melanin binding affinity of quinoline and other heterocyclic antimalarial drugs led to the development of many analogues of such molecules as potential melanoma-imaging agents. Once such analogue iodochloroquine does exhibit high melanin binding, but has found limited clinical use due to appreciable accumulation in non-target tissues such as the adrenal cortex and inner ear. This project developed a new series of candidate melanoma imaging agents which would be easier to radio-label, could yield higher specific activity product, and which might demonstrate more favorable pharmacokinetic and dosimetric characteristics compared to iodochloroquine

  3. Joint Center Estimation Using Single-Frame Optimization: Part 1: Numerical Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Eric; Rahmatalla, Salam

    2018-04-04

    The biomechanical models used to refine and stabilize motion capture processes are almost invariably driven by joint center estimates, and any errors in joint center calculation carry over and can be compounded when calculating joint kinematics. Unfortunately, accurate determination of joint centers is a complex task, primarily due to measurements being contaminated by soft-tissue artifact (STA). This paper proposes a novel approach to joint center estimation implemented via sequential application of single-frame optimization (SFO). First, the method minimizes the variance of individual time frames’ joint center estimations via the developed variance minimization method to obtain accurate overall initial conditions. These initial conditions are used to stabilize an optimization-based linearization of human motion that determines a time-varying joint center estimation. In this manner, the complex and nonlinear behavior of human motion contaminated by STA can be captured as a continuous series of unique rigid-body realizations without requiring a complex analytical model to describe the behavior of STA. This article intends to offer proof of concept, and the presented method must be further developed before it can be reasonably applied to human motion. Numerical simulations were introduced to verify and substantiate the efficacy of the proposed methodology. When directly compared with a state-of-the-art inertial method, SFO reduced the error due to soft-tissue artifact in all cases by more than 45%. Instead of producing a single vector value to describe the joint center location during a motion capture trial as existing methods often do, the proposed method produced time-varying solutions that were highly correlated ( r > 0.82) with the true, time-varying joint center solution.

  4. Joint Center Estimation Using Single-Frame Optimization: Part 1: Numerical Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Frick

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The biomechanical models used to refine and stabilize motion capture processes are almost invariably driven by joint center estimates, and any errors in joint center calculation carry over and can be compounded when calculating joint kinematics. Unfortunately, accurate determination of joint centers is a complex task, primarily due to measurements being contaminated by soft-tissue artifact (STA. This paper proposes a novel approach to joint center estimation implemented via sequential application of single-frame optimization (SFO. First, the method minimizes the variance of individual time frames’ joint center estimations via the developed variance minimization method to obtain accurate overall initial conditions. These initial conditions are used to stabilize an optimization-based linearization of human motion that determines a time-varying joint center estimation. In this manner, the complex and nonlinear behavior of human motion contaminated by STA can be captured as a continuous series of unique rigid-body realizations without requiring a complex analytical model to describe the behavior of STA. This article intends to offer proof of concept, and the presented method must be further developed before it can be reasonably applied to human motion. Numerical simulations were introduced to verify and substantiate the efficacy of the proposed methodology. When directly compared with a state-of-the-art inertial method, SFO reduced the error due to soft-tissue artifact in all cases by more than 45%. Instead of producing a single vector value to describe the joint center location during a motion capture trial as existing methods often do, the proposed method produced time-varying solutions that were highly correlated (r > 0.82 with the true, time-varying joint center solution.

  5. A study of drying and cleaning methods used in preparation for fluorescent penetrant inspection - Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brasche, L.; Lopez, R.; Larson, B.

    2003-01-01

    Fluorescent penetrant inspection is the most widely used method for aerospace components such as critical rotating components of gas turbine engines. Successful use of FPI begins with a clean and dry part, followed by a carefully controlled and applied FPI process, and conscientious inspection by well trained personnel. A variety of cleaning methods are in use for cleaning of titanium and nickel parts with selection based on the soils or contamination to be removed. Cleaning methods may include chemical or mechanical methods with sixteen different types studied as part of this program. Several options also exist for use in drying parts prior to FPI. Samples were generated and exposed to a range of conditions to study the effect of both drying and cleaning methods on the flaw response of FPI. Low cycle fatigue (LCF) cracks were generated in approximately 40 nickel and 40 titanium samples for evaluation of the various cleaning methods. Baseline measurements were made for each of the samples using a photometer to measure sample brightness and a UVA videomicroscope to capture digital images of the FPI indications. Samples were exposed to various contaminants, cleaned and inspected. Brightness measurements and digital images were also taken to compare to the baseline data. A comparison of oven drying to flash dry in preparation for FPI has been completed and will be reported in Part I. Comparison of the effectiveness of various cleaning methods for the contaminants will be presented in Part II. The cleaning and drying studies were completed in cooperation with Delta Airlines using cleaning, drying and FPI processes typical of engine overhaul processes and equipment. The work was completed as part of the Engine Titanium Consortium and included investigators from Honeywell, General Electric, Pratt and Whitney, and Rolls Royce

  6. Numerical simulation of the divergence of a wind turbine airfoil : part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramdenee, D.; Minea, I.S.; Tardiff d' Hamonville, T.; Illinca, A. [Quebec Univ., Rimouski, PQ (Canada). Laboratoire de Recherche en Energie Eolienne

    2010-07-01

    The development of larger, more flexible wind turbine blades is creating the need for an improved understanding of the mechanisms surrounding unsteady flow-structure interactions. This 2-part study used computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to identify and model the aerodynamic and aeroelastic phenomena around wind turbine blades. Aeroelastic divergence was modelled using coupled aerodynamic and elastic models with an ANSYS software program. The fluid-structure interactions of an NACA0012 airfoil were simulated in order to determine the divergence phenomenon created by aerodynamic loads and transient fluid flow. The airfoil profile was fixed and exempted from all rotational degrees of liberty while being subjected to a constant flow of velocity. The fixing was then removed and the constant flow was compared with a shock wave on the airfoil profile. The profile then oscillated with damped amplitude due to the aerodynamic damping imposed. Results of the analysis will be compared with results obtained in future studies. 7 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  7. Genetic algorithm for design and manufacture optimization based on numerical simulations applied to aeronautic composite parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouton, S.; Ledoux, Y.; Teissandier, D.; Sebastian, P.

    2010-01-01

    A key challenge for the future is to reduce drastically the human impact on the environment. In the aeronautic field, this challenge aims at optimizing the design of the aircraft to decrease the global mass. This reduction leads to the optimization of every part constitutive of the plane. This operation is even more delicate when the used material is composite material. In this case, it is necessary to find a compromise between the strength, the mass and the manufacturing cost of the component. Due to these different kinds of design constraints it is necessary to assist engineer with decision support system to determine feasible solutions. In this paper, an approach is proposed based on the coupling of the different key characteristics of the design process and on the consideration of the failure risk of the component. The originality of this work is that the manufacturing deviations due to the RTM process are integrated in the simulation of the assembly process. Two kinds of deviations are identified: volume impregnation (injection phase of RTM process) and geometrical deviations (curing and cooling phases). The quantification of these deviations and the related failure risk calculation is based on finite element simulations (Pam RTM registered and Samcef registered softwares). The use of genetic algorithm allows to estimate the impact of the design choices and their consequences on the failure risk of the component. The main focus of the paper is the optimization of tool design. In the framework of decision support systems, the failure risk calculation is used for making the comparison of possible industrialization alternatives. It is proposed to apply this method on a particular part of the airplane structure: a spar unit made of carbon fiber/epoxy composite.

  8. Delivery systems for biopharmaceuticals. Part II: Liposomes, Micelles, Microemulsions and Dendrimers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Ana C; Lopes, Carla M; Lobo, José M S; Amaral, Maria H

    2015-01-01

    Biopharmaceuticals are a generation of drugs that include peptides, proteins, nucleic acids and cell products. According to their particular molecular characteristics (e.g. high molecular size, susceptibility to enzymatic activity), these products present some limitations for administration and usually parenteral routes are the only option. To avoid these limitations, different colloidal carriers (e.g. liposomes, micelles, microemulsions and dendrimers) have been proposed to improve biopharmaceuticals delivery. Liposomes are promising drug delivery systems, despite some limitations have been reported (e.g. in vivo failure, poor long-term stability and low transfection efficiency), and only a limited number of formulations have reached the market. Micelles and microemulsions require more studies to exclude some of the observed drawbacks and guarantee their potential for use in clinic. According to their peculiar structures, dendrimers have been showing good results for nucleic acids delivery and a great development of these systems during next years is expected. This is the Part II of two review articles, which provides the state of the art of biopharmaceuticals delivery systems. Part II deals with liposomes, micelles, microemulsions and dendrimers.

  9. Emerging Forms of the Part II of Jonathan Swift's Novel “Gulliver’s Travels”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana Tikhonenko

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of grotesque forms in Jonathan Swift's novel "Gulliver’s Travels" based on the text of part II of the novel "A Voyage to Brobdingnag". On the basis of the selected actual material, displays of the grotesque elements in the semantic field of the work’s text are traced. The grotesque world of the novel is the author's model of mankind, in which J. Swift presents his view not only on the state of the modern system of England, but also on the nature of man in general, reveals the peculiarities of the psychology of human nature, especially human socialization. In part II, the author continues to develop a complex and contradictory picture of human existence in front of the reader, the world of giants appears as an ambivalent system in which the features of an ideal society and ideal ruler, in author’s opinion, with the ugly face of man and society, are marvelously combined.

  10. Mineral resources of parts of the Departments of Antioquia and Caldas, Zone II, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, R.B.; Feininger, Tomas; Barrero, L.; Dario, Rico H.; ,; Alvarez, A.

    1970-01-01

    The mineral resources of an area of 40,000 sq km, principally in the Department of Antioquia, but including small parts of the Departments of Caldas, C6rdoba, Risaralda, and Tolima, were investigated during the period 1964-68. The area is designated Zone II by the Colombian Inventario Minero Nacional(lMN). The geology of approximately 45 percent of this area, or 18,000 sq km, has been mapped by IMN. Zone II has been a gold producer for centuries, and still produces 75 percent of Colombia's gold. Silver is recovered as a byproduct. Ferruginous laterites have been investigated as potential sources of iron ore but are not commercially exploitable. Nickeliferous laterite on serpentinite near Ure in the extreme northwest corner of the Zone is potentially exploitable, although less promising than similar laterites at Cerro Matoso, north of the Zone boundary. Known deposits of mercury, chromium, manganese, and copper are small and have limited economic potentia1. Cement raw materials are important among nonmetallic resources, and four companies are engaged in the manufacture of portland cement. The eastern half of Zone II contains large carbonate rock reserves, but poor accessibility is a handicap to greater development at present. Dolomite near Amalfi is quarried for the glass-making and other industries. Clay saprolite is abundant and widely used in making brick and tiles in backyard kilns. Kaolin of good quality near La Union is used by the ceramic industry. Subbituminous coal beds of Tertiary are an important resource in the western part of the zone and have good potential for greater development. Aggregate materials for construction are varied and abundant. Deposits of sodic feldspar, talc, decorative stone, and silica are exploited on a small scale. Chrysotils asbestos deposits north of Campamento are being developed to supply fiber for Colombia's thriving asbestos-cement industry, which is presently dependent upon imported fiber. Wollastonite and andalusite are

  11. Numerical relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Shibata, Masaru

    2016-01-01

    This book is composed of two parts: First part describes basics in numerical relativity, that is, the formulations and methods for a solution of Einstein's equation and general relativistic matter field equations. This part will be helpful for beginners of numerical relativity who would like to understand the content of numerical relativity and its background. The second part focuses on the application of numerical relativity. A wide variety of scientific numerical results are introduced focusing in particular on the merger of binary neutron stars and black holes.

  12. Seismic risk analysis for General Electric Plutonium Facility, Pleasanton, California. Final report, part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This report is the second of a two part study addressing the seismic risk or hazard of the special nuclear materials (SNM) facility of the General Electric Vallecitos Nuclear Center at Pleasanton, California. The Part I companion to this report, dated July 31, 1978, presented the seismic hazard at the site that resulted from exposure to earthquakes on the Calaveras, Hayward, San Andreas and, additionally, from smaller unassociated earthquakes that could not be attributed to these specific faults. However, while this study was in progress, certain additional geologic information became available that could be interpreted in terms of the existance of a nearby fault. Although substantial geologic investigations were subsequently deployed, the existance of this postulated fault, called the Verona Fault, remained very controversial. The purpose of the Part II study was to assume the existance of such a capable fault and, under this assumption, to examine the loads that the fault could impose on the SNM facility. This report first reviews the geologic setting with a focus on specifying sufficient geologic parameters to characterize the postulated fault. The report next presents the methodology used to calculate the vibratory ground motion hazard. Because of the complexity of the fault geometry, a slightly different methodology is used here compared to the Part I report. This section ends with the results of the calculation applied to the SNM facility. Finally, the report presents the methodology and results of the rupture hazard calculation

  13. Systematic Study of Separators in Air-Breathing Flat-Plate Microbial Fuel Cells—Part 2: Numerical Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sona Kazemi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The separator plays a key role on the performance of passive air-breathing flat-plate MFCs (FPMFC as it isolates the anaerobic anode from the air-breathing cathode. The goal of the present work was to study the separator characteristics and its effect on the performance of passive air-breathing FPMFCs. This was performed partially through characterization of structure, properties, and performance correlations of eight separators presented in Part 1. Current work (Part 2 presents a numerical model developed based on the mixed potential theory to investigate the sensitivity of the electrode potentials and the power output to the separator characteristics. According to this numerical model, the decreased peak power results from an increase in the mass transfer coefficients of oxygen and ethanol, but mainly increasing mixed potentials at the anode by oxygen crossover. The model also indicates that the peak power is affected by the proton transport number of the separator, which affects the cathode pH. Anode pH, on the other hand, remains constant due to application of phosphate buffer solution as the electrolyte. Also according to this model, the peak power is not sensitive to the resistivity of the separator because of the overshadowing effect of the oxygen crossover.

  14. Numerical Study of Particle Interaction in Gas-Particle and Liquid-Particle Flows: Part I Analysis and Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mohanarangam

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A detailed study into the turbulent behaviour of dilute particulate flow under the influence of two carrier phases namely gas and liquid has been carried out behind a sudden expansion geometry. The major endeavour of the study is to ascertain the response of the particles within the carrier (gas or liquid phase. The main aim prompting the current study is the density difference between the carrier and the dispersed phases. While the ratio is quite high in terms of the dispersed phase for the gas-particle flows, the ratio is far more less in terms of the liquid-particle flows. Numerical simulations were carried out for both these classes of flows using an Eulerian two-fluid model with RNG based k-emodel as the turbulent closure. An additional kinetic energy equation to better represent the combined fluid-particle behaviour is also employed in the current set of simulations. In the first part of this two part series, experimental results of Fessler and Eaton (1995 for Gas-Particle (GP flow and that of Founti and Klipfel (1998 for Liquid-Particle (LP flow have been compared and analysed. This forms the basis of the current study which aims to look at the particulate behaviour under the influence of two carrier phases. Further numerical simulations were carried out to test whether the current numerical formulation can used to simulate these varied type of flows and the same were validated against the experimental data of both GP as well LP flow. Qualitative results have been obtained for both these classes of flows with their respective experimental data both at the mean as well as at the turbulence level for carrier as well as the dispersed phases.

  15. A relaxation-projection method for compressible flows. Part II: Artificial heat exchanges for multiphase shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petitpas, Fabien; Franquet, Erwin; Saurel, Richard; Le Metayer, Olivier

    2007-01-01

    The relaxation-projection method developed in Saurel et al. [R. Saurel, E. Franquet, E. Daniel, O. Le Metayer, A relaxation-projection method for compressible flows. Part I: The numerical equation of state for the Euler equations, J. Comput. Phys. (2007) 822-845] is extended to the non-conservative hyperbolic multiphase flow model of Kapila et al. [A.K. Kapila, Menikoff, J.B. Bdzil, S.F. Son, D.S. Stewart, Two-phase modeling of deflagration to detonation transition in granular materials: reduced equations, Physics of Fluids 13(10) (2001) 3002-3024]. This model has the ability to treat multi-temperatures mixtures evolving with a single pressure and velocity and is particularly interesting for the computation of interface problems with compressible materials as well as wave propagation in heterogeneous mixtures. The non-conservative character of this model poses however computational challenges in the presence of shocks. The first issue is related to the Riemann problem resolution that necessitates shock jump conditions. Thanks to the Rankine-Hugoniot relations proposed and validated in Saurel et al. [R. Saurel, O. Le Metayer, J. Massoni, S. Gavrilyuk, Shock jump conditions for multiphase mixtures with stiff mechanical relaxation, Shock Waves 16 (3) (2007) 209-232] exact and approximate 2-shocks Riemann solvers are derived. However, the Riemann solver is only a part of a numerical scheme and non-conservative variables pose extra difficulties for the projection or cell average of the solution. It is shown that conventional Godunov schemes are unable to converge to the exact solution for strong multiphase shocks. This is due to the incorrect partition of the energies or entropies in the cell averaged mixture. To circumvent this difficulty a specific Lagrangian scheme is developed. The correct partition of the energies is achieved by using an artificial heat exchange in the shock layer. With the help of an asymptotic analysis this heat exchange takes a similar form as

  16. A relaxation-projection method for compressible flows. Part II: Artificial heat exchanges for multiphase shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitpas, Fabien; Franquet, Erwin; Saurel, Richard; Le Metayer, Olivier

    2007-08-01

    The relaxation-projection method developed in Saurel et al. [R. Saurel, E. Franquet, E. Daniel, O. Le Metayer, A relaxation-projection method for compressible flows. Part I: The numerical equation of state for the Euler equations, J. Comput. Phys. (2007) 822-845] is extended to the non-conservative hyperbolic multiphase flow model of Kapila et al. [A.K. Kapila, Menikoff, J.B. Bdzil, S.F. Son, D.S. Stewart, Two-phase modeling of deflagration to detonation transition in granular materials: reduced equations, Physics of Fluids 13(10) (2001) 3002-3024]. This model has the ability to treat multi-temperatures mixtures evolving with a single pressure and velocity and is particularly interesting for the computation of interface problems with compressible materials as well as wave propagation in heterogeneous mixtures. The non-conservative character of this model poses however computational challenges in the presence of shocks. The first issue is related to the Riemann problem resolution that necessitates shock jump conditions. Thanks to the Rankine-Hugoniot relations proposed and validated in Saurel et al. [R. Saurel, O. Le Metayer, J. Massoni, S. Gavrilyuk, Shock jump conditions for multiphase mixtures with stiff mechanical relaxation, Shock Waves 16 (3) (2007) 209-232] exact and approximate 2-shocks Riemann solvers are derived. However, the Riemann solver is only a part of a numerical scheme and non-conservative variables pose extra difficulties for the projection or cell average of the solution. It is shown that conventional Godunov schemes are unable to converge to the exact solution for strong multiphase shocks. This is due to the incorrect partition of the energies or entropies in the cell averaged mixture. To circumvent this difficulty a specific Lagrangian scheme is developed. The correct partition of the energies is achieved by using an artificial heat exchange in the shock layer. With the help of an asymptotic analysis this heat exchange takes a similar form as

  17. Pediatric cancer gone viral. Part II: potential clinical application of oncolytic herpes simplex virus-1 in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory K Friedman

    Full Text Available Oncolytic engineered herpes simplex viruses (HSVs possess many biologic and functional attributes that support their use in clinical trials in children with solid tumors. Tumor cells, in an effort to escape regulatory mechanisms that would impair their growth and progression, have removed many mechanisms that would have protected them from virus infection and eventual virus-mediated destruction. Viruses engineered to exploit this weakness, like mutant HSV, can be safely employed as tumor cell killers, since normal cells retain these antiviral strategies. Many preclinical studies and early phase trials in adults demonstrated that oncolytic HSV can be safely used and are highly effective in killing tumor cells that comprise pediatric malignancies, without generating the toxic side effects of nondiscriminatory chemotherapy or radiation therapy. A variety of engineered viruses have been developed and tested in numerous preclinical models of pediatric cancers and initial trials in patients are underway. In Part II of this review series, we examine the preclinical evidence to support the further advancement of oncolytic HSV in the pediatric population. We discuss clinical advances made to date in this emerging era of oncolytic virotherapy.

  18. A comprehensive review and update on the biologic treatment of adult noninfectious uveitis: part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyungmin; Bajwa, Asima; Freitas-Neto, Clovis A; Metzinger, Jamie Lynne; Wentworth, Bailey A; Foster, C Stephen

    2014-11-01

    Treatment of adult, noninfectious uveitis remains a major challenge for ophthalmologists around the world, especially in regard to recalcitrant cases. It is reported to comprise approximately 10% of preventable blindness in the USA. The cause of uveitis can be idiopathic or associated with infectious and systemic disorders. The era of biologic medical therapies provides new options for patients with otherwise treatment-resistant inflammatory eye disease. This two-part review gives a comprehensive overview of the existing medical treatment options for patients with adult, noninfectious uveitis, as well as important advances for the treatment ocular inflammation. Part I covers classic immunomodulation and latest information on corticosteroid therapy. In part II, emerging therapies are discussed, including biologic response modifiers, experimental treatments and ongoing clinical studies for uveitis. The hazard of chronic corticosteroid use in the treatment of adult, noninfectious uveitis is well documented. Corticosteroid-sparing therapies, which offer a very favorable risk-benefit profile when administered properly, should be substituted. Although nothing is currently approved for on-label use in this indication, many therapies, through either translation or novel basic science research, have the potential to fill the currently exposed gaps.

  19. Impact of monovalent cations on soil structure. Part II. Results of two Swiss soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahani, Elham; Emami, Hojat; Keller, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the impact of adding solutions with different potassium and sodium concentrations on dispersible clay, water retention characteristics, air permeability, and soil shrinkage behaviour using two agricultural soils from Switzerland with different clay content but similar organic carbon to clay ratio. Three different solutions (including only Na, only K, and the combination of both) were added to soil samples at three different cation ratio of soil structural stability levels, and the soil samples were incubated for one month. Our findings showed that the amount of readily dispersible clay increased with increasing Na concentrations and with increasing cation ratio of soil structural stability. The treatment with the maximum Na concentration resulted in the highest water retention and in the lowest shrinkage capacity. This was was associated with high amounts of readily dispersible clay. Air permeability generally increased during incubation due to moderate wetting and drying cycles, but the increase was negatively correlated with readily dispersible clay. Readily dispersible clay decreased with increasing K, while readily dispersible clay increased with increasing K in Iranian soil (Part I of our study). This can be attributed to the different clay mineralogy of the studied soils (muscovite in Part I and illite in Part II).

  20. Music in the exercise domain: a review and synthesis (Part II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karageorghis, Costas I; Priest, David-Lee

    2012-03-01

    Since a 1997 review by Karageorghis and Terry, which highlighted the state of knowledge and methodological weaknesses, the number of studies investigating musical reactivity in relation to exercise has swelled considerably. In this two-part review paper, the development of conceptual approaches and mechanisms underlying the effects of music are explicated (Part I), followed by a critical review and synthesis of empirical work (spread over Parts I and II). Pre-task music has been shown to optimise arousal, facilitate task-relevant imagery and improve performance in simple motoric tasks. During repetitive, endurance-type activities, self-selected, motivational and stimulative music has been shown to enhance affect, reduce ratings of perceived exertion, improve energy efficiency and lead to increased work output. There is evidence to suggest that carefully selected music can promote ergogenic and psychological benefits during high-intensity exercise, although it appears to be ineffective in reducing perceptions of exertion beyond the anaerobic threshold. The effects of music appear to be at their most potent when it is used to accompany self-paced exercise or in externally valid conditions. When selected according to its motivational qualities, the positive impact of music on both psychological state and performance is magnified. Guidelines are provided for future research and exercise practitioners.

  1. The prediction of creep damage in Type 347 weld metal: part II creep fatigue tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spindler, M.W.

    2005-01-01

    Calculations of creep damage under conditions of strain control are often carried out using either a time fraction approach or a ductility exhaustion approach. In part I of this paper the rupture strength and creep ductility data for a Type 347 weld metal were fitted to provide the material properties that are used to calculate creep damage. Part II of this paper examines whether the time fraction approach or the ductility exhaustion approach gives the better predictions of creep damage in creep-fatigue tests on the same Type 347 weld metal. In addition, a new creep damage model, which was developed by removing some of the simplifying assumptions that are made in the ductility exhaustion approach, was used. This new creep damage model is a function of the strain rate, stress and temperature and was derived from creep and constant strain rate test data using a reverse modelling technique (see part I of this paper). It is shown that the new creep damage model gives better predictions of creep damage in the creep-fatigue tests than the time fraction and the ductility exhaustion approaches

  2. Noncardiac findings on cardiac CT. Part II: spectrum of imaging findings.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Killeen, Ronan P

    2012-02-01

    Cardiac computed tomography (CT) has evolved into an effective imaging technique for the evaluation of coronary artery disease in selected patients. Two distinct advantages over other noninvasive cardiac imaging methods include its ability to directly evaluate the coronary arteries and to provide a unique opportunity to evaluate for alternative diagnoses by assessing the extracardiac structures, such as the lungs and mediastinum, particularly in patients presenting with the chief symptom of acute chest pain. Some centers reconstruct a small field of view (FOV) cropped around the heart but a full FOV (from skin to skin in the area irradiated) is obtainable in the raw data of every scan so that clinically relevant noncardiac findings are identifiable. Debate in the scientific community has centered on the necessity for this large FOV. A review of noncardiac structures provides the opportunity to make alternative diagnoses that may account for the patient\\'s presentation or to detect important but clinically silent problems such as lung cancer. Critics argue that the yield of biopsy-proven cancers is low and that the follow-up of incidental noncardiac findings is expensive, resulting in increased radiation exposure and possibly unnecessary further testing. In this 2-part review we outline the issues surrounding the concept of the noncardiac read, looking for noncardiac findings on cardiac CT. Part I focused on the pros and cons for and against the practice of identifying noncardiac findings on cardiac CT. Part II illustrates the imaging spectrum of cardiac CT appearances of benign and malignant noncardiac pathology.

  3. Second-order coupling of numerical and physical wave tanks for 2D irregular waves. Part I: Formulation, implementation and numerical properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhiwen; Liu, Shuxue; Bingham, Harry B.

    2014-01-01

    In this series of two papers, we report on the irregular wave extension of the second-order coupling theory of numerical and physical wave model described in [Z. Yang, S. Liu, H.B. Bingham and J. Li. Second-order theory for coupling numerical and physical wave tanks: Derivation, evaluation...

  4. Multiobjective Optimization for Fixture Locating Layout of Sheet Metal Part Using SVR and NSGA-II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fixture plays a significant role in determining the sheet metal part (SMP spatial position and restraining its excessive deformation in many manufacturing operations. However, it is still a difficult task to design and optimize SMP fixture locating layout at present because there exist multiple conflicting objectives and excessive computational cost of finite element analysis (FEA during the optimization process. To this end, a new multiobjective optimization method for SMP fixture locating layout is proposed in this paper based on the support vector regression (SVR surrogate model and the elitist nondominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II. By using ABAQUS™ Python script interface, a parametric FEA model is established. And the fixture locating layout is treated as design variables, while the overall deformation and maximum deformation of SMP under external forces are as the multiple objective functions. First, a limited number of training and testing samples are generated by combining Latin hypercube design (LHD with FEA. Second, two SVR prediction models corresponding to the multiple objectives are established by learning from the limited training samples and are integrated as the multiobjective optimization surrogate model. Third, NSGA-II is applied to determine the Pareto optimal solutions of SMP fixture locating layout. Finally, a multiobjective optimization for fixture locating layout of an aircraft fuselage skin case is conducted to illustrate and verify the proposed method.

  5. CERN scientists take part in the Tevatron Run II performance review committee

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    Tevatron Run II is under way at Fermilab, exploring the high-energy frontier with upgraded detectors that will address some of the biggest questions in particle physics.Until CERN's LHC switches on, the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider is the world's only source of top quarks. It is the only place where we can search for supersymmetry, for the Higgs boson, and for signatures of additional dimensions of space-time. The US Department of Energy (DOE) recently convened a high-level international review committee to examine Fermilab experts' first-phase plans for the accelerator complex. Pictured here with a dipole magnet in CERN's LHC magnet test facility are the four CERN scientists who took part in the DOE's Tevatron review. Left to right: Francesco Ruggiero, Massimo Placidi, Flemming Pedersen, and Karlheinz Schindl. Further information: CERN Courier 43 (1)

  6. Implementing AORN recommended practices for a safe environment of care, part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Lynne

    2014-09-01

    Construction in and around a working perioperative suite is a challenge beyond merely managing traffic patterns and maintaining the sterile field. The AORN "Recommended practices for a safe environment of care, part II" provides guidance on building design; movement of patients, personnel, supplies, and equipment; environmental controls; safety and security; and control of noise and distractions. Whether the OR suite evolves through construction, reconstruction, or remodeling, a multidisciplinary team of construction experts and health care professionals should create a functional plan and communicate at every stage of the project to maintain a safe environment and achieve a well-designed outcome. Emergency preparedness, a facility-wide security plan, and minimization of noise and distractions in the OR also help enhance the safety of the perioperative environment. Copyright © 2014 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Instructional climates in preschool children who are at-risk. Part II: perceived physical competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Leah E; Rudisill, Mary E; Goodway, Jacqueline D

    2009-09-01

    In Part II of this study, we examined the effect of two 9-week instructional climates (low-autonomy [LA] and mastery motivational climate [MMC]) on perceived physical competence (PPC) in preschoolers (N = 117). Participants were randomly assigned to an LA, MMC, or comparison group. PPC was assessed by a pretest, posttest, and retention test with the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance. A significant Treatment x Time interaction (p < .001) was present, supporting that MMC participants reported significantly higher PPC scores over time, while no positive changes were present in LA and comparison participants. The results show that an MMC leads to psychological benefits related to achievement motivation. These findings should encourage early childhood educators to consider the effect of instructional climates on children's self-perception.

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging of the elbow. Part II: Abnormalities of the ligaments, tendons, and nerves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kijowski, Richard; Tuite, Michael; Sanford, Matthew [University of Wisconsin Hospital, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Part II of this comprehensive review on magnetic resonance imaging of the elbow discusses the role of magnetic resonance imaging in evaluating patients with abnormalities of the ligaments, tendons, and nerves of the elbow. Magnetic resonance imaging can yield high-quality multiplanar images which are useful in evaluating the soft tissue structures of the elbow. Magnetic resonance imaging can detect tears of the ulnar collateral ligament and lateral collateral ligament of the elbow with high sensitivity and specificity. Magnetic resonance imaging can determine the extent of tendon pathology in patients with medial epicondylitis and lateral epicondylitis. Magnetic resonance imaging can detect tears of the biceps tendon and triceps tendon and can distinguishing between partial and complete tendon rupture. Magnetic resonance imaging is also helpful in evaluating patients with nerve disorders at the elbow. (orig.)

  9. Repository Planning, Design, and Engineering: Part II-Equipment and Costing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Phillip M; Gunter, Elaine W

    2016-08-01

    Part II of this article discusses and provides guidance on the equipment and systems necessary to operate a repository. The various types of storage equipment and monitoring and support systems are presented in detail. While the material focuses on the large repository, the requirements for a small-scale startup are also presented. Cost estimates and a cost model for establishing a repository are presented. The cost model presents an expected range of acquisition costs for the large capital items in developing a repository. A range of 5,000-7,000 ft(2) constructed has been assumed, with 50 frozen storage units, to reflect a successful operation with growth potential. No design or engineering costs, permit or regulatory costs, or smaller items such as the computers, software, furniture, phones, and barcode readers required for operations have been included.

  10. Mechanical performance of carbon-epoxy laminates. Part II: quasi-static and fatigue tensile properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Tarpani

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In Part II of this work, quasi-static tensile properties of four aeronautical grade carbon-epoxy composite laminates, in both the as-received and pre-fatigued states, have been determined and compared. Quasi-static mechanical properties assessed were tensile strength and stiffness, tenacity (toughness at the maximum load and for a 50% load drop-off. In general, as-molded unidirectional cross-ply carbon fiber (tape reinforcements impregnated with either standard or rubber-toughened epoxy resin exhibited the maximum performance. The materials also displayed a significant tenacification (toughening after exposed to cyclic loading, resulting from the increased stress (the so-called wear-in phenomenon and/or strain at the maximum load capacity of the specimens. With no exceptions, two-dimensional woven textile (fabric pre-forms fractured catastrophically under identical cyclic loading conditions imposed to the fiber tape architecture, thus preventing their residual properties from being determined.

  11. Advances in Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining 21st Pacific Asia Conference, PAKDD 2017 Held in Jeju, South Korea, May 23 26, 2017. Proceedings Part I, Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-27

    Data Mining 21’’ Pacific-Asia Conference, PAKDD 2017Jeju, South Korea, May 23-26, Sb. GRANT NUMBER 2017 Proceedings, Part I, Part II Sc. PROGRAM...Springer; Switzerland. 14. ABSTRACT The Pacific-Asia Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining (PAKDD) is a leading international conference...in the areas of knowledge discovery and data mining (KDD). We had three keynote speeches, delivered by Sang Cha from Seoul National University

  12. Analytical and numerical study of graphite IG110 parts in advanced reactor under high temperature and irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Jinling, E-mail: Jinling_Gao@yeah.net; Yao, Wenjuan, E-mail: wj_yao@yeah.net; Ma, Yudong

    2016-08-15

    Graphical abstract: An analytical model and a numerical procedure are developed to study the mechanical response of IG-110 graphite bricks in HTGR subjected to high temperature and irradiation. The calculation results show great accordance with each other. Rational suggestions on the calculation and design of the IG-110 graphite structure are proposed based on the sensitivity analyses including temperature, irradiation dimensional change, creep and Poisson’s ratio. - Highlights: • Analytical solution of stress and displacement of IG-110 graphite components in HTGR. • Finite element procedure developed for stress analysis of HTGR graphite component. • Parameters analysis of mechanical response of graphite components during the whole life of the reflector. - Abstract: Structural design of nuclear power plant project is an important sub-discipline of civil engineering. Especially after appearance of the fourth generation advanced high temperature gas cooled reactor, structural mechanics in reactor technology becomes a popular subject in structural engineering. As basic ingredients of reflector in reactor, graphite bricks are subjected to high temperature and irradiation and the stress field of graphite structures determines integrity of reflector and makes a great difference to safety of whole structure. In this paper, based on assumptions of elasticity, side reflector is regarded approximately as a straight cylinder structure and primary creep strain is ignored. An analytical study on stress of IG110 graphite parts is present. Meanwhile, a finite element procedure for calculating stresses in the IG110 graphite structure exposed in the high temperature and irradiation is developed. Subsequently, numerical solution of stress in IG110 graphite structure is obtained. Analytical solution agrees well with numerical solution, which indicates that analytical derivation is accurate. Finally, influence of temperature, irradiation dimensional change, creep and Poisson

  13. International Working Group on Fast Reactors Eight Annual Meeting, Vienna, Austria, 15-18 April 1975. Summary Report. Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-07-01

    The Eighth Annual Meeting of the IAEA International Working Group on Past Reactors was held at the IAEA Headquarters in Vienna, Austria, from 15 to 18 April 1975. The Summary Report (Part I) contains the Minutes of the Meeting. The Summary Report (Part II) contains the papers which review the national programmes in the field of LMPBR’s and other presentations at the Meeting. The Summary Report (Part III) contains the discussions on the review of the national programmes

  14. Tobacco control and gender in south-east Asia. Part II: Singapore and Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Martha; Barraclough, Simon

    2003-12-01

    In the World Health Organization's Western Pacific Region, being born male is the single greatest risk marker for tobacco use. While the literature demonstrates that risks associated with tobacco use may vary according to sex, gender refers to the socially determined roles and responsibilities of men and women, who initiate, continue and quit using tobacco for complex and often different reasons. Cigarette advertising frequently appeals to gender roles. Yet tobacco control policy tends to be gender-blind. Using a broad, gender-sensitivity framework, this contradiction is explored in four Western Pacific countries. Part I of the study presented the rationale, methodology and design of the study, discussed issues surrounding gender and tobacco, and analysed developments in Malaysia and the Philippines (see the previous issue of this journal). Part II deals with Singapore and Vietnam. In all four countries gender was salient for the initiation and maintenance of smoking. Yet, with a few exceptions, gender was largely unrecognized in control policy. Suggestions for overcoming this weakness in order to enhance tobacco control are made.

  15. Interview-Based Qualitative Research in Emergency Care Part II: Data Collection, Analysis and Results Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranney, Megan L.; Meisel, Zachary; Choo, Esther K.; Garro, Aris; Sasson, Comilla; Morrow, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative methods are increasingly being used in emergency care research. Rigorous qualitative methods can play a critical role in advancing the emergency care research agenda by allowing investigators to generate hypotheses, gain an in-depth understanding of health problems or specific populations, create expert consensus, and develop new intervention and dissemination strategies. In Part I of this two-article series, we provided an introduction to general principles of applied qualitative health research and examples of its common use in emergency care research, describing study designs and data collection methods most relevant to our field (observation, individual interviews, and focus groups). Here in Part II of this series, we outline the specific steps necessary to conduct a valid and reliable qualitative research project, with a focus on interview-based studies. These elements include building the research team, preparing data collection guides, defining and obtaining an adequate sample, collecting and organizing qualitative data, and coding and analyzing the data. We also discuss potential ethical considerations unique to qualitative research as it relates to emergency care research. PMID:26284572

  16. A case study of packaging waste collection systems in Portugal - Part II: Environmental and economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Ana; Sargedas, João; Miguel, Mécia; Pina, Joaquim; Martinho, Graça

    2017-03-01

    An understanding of the environmental impacts and costs related to waste collection is needed to ensure that existing waste collection schemes are the most appropriate with regard to both environment and cost. This paper is Part II of a three-part study of a mixed packaging waste collection system (curbside plus bring collection). Here, the mixed collection system is compared to an exclusive curbside system and an exclusive bring system. The scenarios were assessed using life cycle assessment and an assessment of costs to the waste management company. The analysis focuses on the collection itself so as to be relevant to waste managers and decision-makers who are involved only in this step of the packaging life cycle. The results show that the bring system has lower environmental impacts and lower economic costs, and is capable of reducing the environmental impacts of the mixed system. However, a sensitivity analysis shows that these results could differ if the curbside collection were to be optimized. From economic and environmental perspectives, the mixed system has few advantages. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Interview-based Qualitative Research in Emergency Care Part II: Data Collection, Analysis and Results Reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranney, Megan L; Meisel, Zachary F; Choo, Esther K; Garro, Aris C; Sasson, Comilla; Morrow Guthrie, Kate

    2015-09-01

    Qualitative methods are increasingly being used in emergency care research. Rigorous qualitative methods can play a critical role in advancing the emergency care research agenda by allowing investigators to generate hypotheses, gain an in-depth understanding of health problems or specific populations, create expert consensus, and develop new intervention and dissemination strategies. In Part I of this two-article series, we provided an introduction to general principles of applied qualitative health research and examples of its common use in emergency care research, describing study designs and data collection methods most relevant to our field (observation, individual interviews, and focus groups). Here in Part II of this series, we outline the specific steps necessary to conduct a valid and reliable qualitative research project, with a focus on interview-based studies. These elements include building the research team, preparing data collection guides, defining and obtaining an adequate sample, collecting and organizing qualitative data, and coding and analyzing the data. We also discuss potential ethical considerations unique to qualitative research as it relates to emergency care research. © 2015 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  18. [Education in our time: competency or aptitude? The case for medicine. Part II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viniegra-Velázquez, Leonardo

    Part II is focused on participatory education (PE), a distinctive way to understand and practice education in contrast to passive education. The core of PE is to develop everyone's own cognitive potentialities frequently mutilated, neglected or ignored. Epistemological and experiential basis of PE are defined: the concept of incisive and creative criticism, the idea of knowledge as each person's own construct and life experience as the main focus of reflection and cognition. The PE aims towards individuals with unprecedented cognitive and creative faculties, capable of approaching a more inclusive and hospitable world. The last part criticizes the fact that medical education has remained among the passive education paradigm. The key role of cognitive aptitudes, both methodological and practical (clinical aptitude), in the progress of medical education and practice is emphasized. As a conclusion, the knowhow of education is discussed, aiming towards a better world away from human and planetary degradation. Copyright © 2017 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  19. Long-term solar activity and terrestrial connections. Part II: at the beckon of the sun?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. D. Diamantides

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available The research task described herein aims at the structuring of an analytical tool that traces the time course of geophysical phenomena, regional or global, and compares it to the course of long-term solar conditions, long-term meaning decades or a few centuries. The model is based on the premise that since in a last analysis the preponderance of atmospheric, hydrospheric, and, possibly, some aspects of geospheric phenomena are, or have been, powered by energy issuing from the sun - either now or in the past - the long-term behavior of such phenomena is ultimately "connected" to long-term changes occurring in the sun itself. Accordingly, the proposed research firstly derives and models a stable surrogate pattern for the long-term solar activity, secondly introduces a transfer-function algorithm for modeling the connection between the surrogate and terrestrial phenomena viewed as partners in the connection, and thirdly probes the connection outcome for episodic or unanticipated effects that may arise due to the fact that in the present context, the connection, should it exist, is very likely nonlinear. Part I of the study presents the theory of the concept, while Part II demonstrates the concept's pertinence to a number of terrestrial phenomena.Key words. Solar activity · Kolmogorov algorithm

  20. Long-term solar activity and terrestrial connections. Part II: at the beckon of the sun?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. D. Diamantides

    Full Text Available The research task described herein aims at the structuring of an analytical tool that traces the time course of geophysical phenomena, regional or global, and compares it to the course of long-term solar conditions, long-term meaning decades or a few centuries. The model is based on the premise that since in a last analysis the preponderance of atmospheric, hydrospheric, and, possibly, some aspects of geospheric phenomena are, or have been, powered by energy issuing from the sun - either now or in the past - the long-term behavior of such phenomena is ultimately "connected" to long-term changes occurring in the sun itself. Accordingly, the proposed research firstly derives and models a stable surrogate pattern for the long-term solar activity, secondly introduces a transfer-function algorithm for modeling the connection between the surrogate and terrestrial phenomena viewed as partners in the connection, and thirdly probes the connection outcome for episodic or unanticipated effects that may arise due to the fact that in the present context, the connection, should it exist, is very likely nonlinear. Part I of the study presents the theory of the concept, while Part II demonstrates the concept's pertinence to a number of terrestrial phenomena.

    Key words. Solar activity · Kolmogorov algorithm

  1. Short stack modeling of degradation in solid oxide fuel cells. Part II. Sensitivity and interaction analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazzarri, J. I.; Kesler, O.

    In the first part of this two-paper series, we presented a numerical model of the impedance behaviour of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) aimed at simulating the change in the impedance spectrum induced by contact degradation at the interconnect-electrode, and at the electrode-electrolyte interfaces. The purpose of that investigation was to develop a non-invasive diagnostic technique to identify degradation modes in situ. In the present paper, we appraise the predictive capabilities of the proposed method in terms of its robustness to uncertainties in the input parameters, many of which are very difficult to measure independently. We applied this technique to the degradation modes simulated in Part I, in addition to anode sulfur poisoning. Electrode delamination showed the highest robustness to input parameter variations, followed by interconnect oxidation and interconnect detachment. The most sensitive degradation mode was sulfur poisoning, due to strong parameter interactions. In addition, we simulate several simultaneous two-degradation-mode scenarios, assessing the method's capabilities and limitations for the prediction of electrochemical behaviour of SOFC's undergoing multiple simultaneous degradation modes.

  2. Short stack modeling of degradation in solid oxide fuel cells. Part II. Sensitivity and interaction analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazzarri, J.I. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of British Columbia, 2054-6250 Applied Science Lane, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Kesler, O. [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, 5 King' s College Road, Toronto, ON M5S 3G8 (Canada)

    2008-01-21

    In the first part of this two-paper series, we presented a numerical model of the impedance behaviour of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) aimed at simulating the change in the impedance spectrum induced by contact degradation at the interconnect-electrode, and at the electrode-electrolyte interfaces. The purpose of that investigation was to develop a non-invasive diagnostic technique to identify degradation modes in situ. In the present paper, we appraise the predictive capabilities of the proposed method in terms of its robustness to uncertainties in the input parameters, many of which are very difficult to measure independently. We applied this technique to the degradation modes simulated in Part I, in addition to anode sulfur poisoning. Electrode delamination showed the highest robustness to input parameter variations, followed by interconnect oxidation and interconnect detachment. The most sensitive degradation mode was sulfur poisoning, due to strong parameter interactions. In addition, we simulate several simultaneous two-degradation-mode scenarios, assessing the method's capabilities and limitations for the prediction of electrochemical behaviour of SOFC's undergoing multiple simultaneous degradation modes. (author)

  3. Field Portable Low Temperature Porous Layer Open Tubular Cryoadsorption Headspace Sampling and Analysis Part II: Applications*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, Megan; Bukovsky-Reyes, Santiago; Bruno, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper details the sampling methods used with the field portable porous layer open tubular cryoadsorption (PLOT-cryo) approach, described in Part I of this two-part series, applied to several analytes of interest. We conducted tests with coumarin and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (two solutes that were used in initial development of PLOT-cryo technology), naphthalene, aviation turbine kerosene, and diesel fuel, on a variety of matrices and test beds. We demonstrated that these analytes can be easily detected and reliably identified using the portable unit for analyte collection. By leveraging efficiency-boosting temperature control and the high flow rate multiple capillary wafer, very short collection times (as low as 3 s) yielded accurate detection. For diesel fuel spiked on glass beads, we determined a method detection limit below 1 ppm. We observed greater variability among separate samples analyzed with the portable unit than previously documented in work using the laboratory-based PLOT-cryo technology. We identify three likely sources that may help explain the additional variation: the use of a compressed air source to generate suction, matrix geometry, and variability in the local vapor concentration around the sampling probe as solute depletion occurs both locally around the probe and in the test bed as a whole. This field-portable adaptation of the PLOT-cryo approach has numerous and diverse potential applications. PMID:26726934

  4. Field portable low temperature porous layer open tubular cryoadsorption headspace sampling and analysis part II: Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, Megan; Bukovsky-Reyes, Santiago; Bruno, Thomas J

    2016-01-15

    This paper details the sampling methods used with the field portable porous layer open tubular cryoadsorption (PLOT-cryo) approach, described in Part I of this two-part series, applied to several analytes of interest. We conducted tests with coumarin and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (two solutes that were used in initial development of PLOT-cryo technology), naphthalene, aviation turbine kerosene, and diesel fuel, on a variety of matrices and test beds. We demonstrated that these analytes can be easily detected and reliably identified using the portable unit for analyte collection. By leveraging efficiency-boosting temperature control and the high flow rate multiple capillary wafer, very short collection times (as low as 3s) yielded accurate detection. For diesel fuel spiked on glass beads, we determined a method detection limit below 1 ppm. We observed greater variability among separate samples analyzed with the portable unit than previously documented in work using the laboratory-based PLOT-cryo technology. We identify three likely sources that may help explain the additional variation: the use of a compressed air source to generate suction, matrix geometry, and variability in the local vapor concentration around the sampling probe as solute depletion occurs both locally around the probe and in the test bed as a whole. This field-portable adaptation of the PLOT-cryo approach has numerous and diverse potential applications. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Personalized translational epilepsy research - Novel approaches and future perspectives: Part II: Experimental and translational approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Sebastian; van Alphen, Natascha; Becker, Albert; Chiocchetti, Andreas; Deichmann, Ralf; Deller, Thomas; Freiman, Thomas; Freitag, Christine M; Gehrig, Johannes; Hermsen, Anke M; Jedlicka, Peter; Kell, Christian; Klein, Karl Martin; Knake, Susanne; Kullmann, Dimitri M; Liebner, Stefan; Norwood, Braxton A; Omigie, Diana; Plate, Karlheinz; Reif, Andreas; Reif, Philipp S; Reiss, Yvonne; Roeper, Jochen; Ronellenfitsch, Michael W; Schorge, Stephanie; Schratt, Gerhard; Schwarzacher, Stephan W; Steinbach, Joachim P; Strzelczyk, Adam; Triesch, Jochen; Wagner, Marlies; Walker, Matthew C; von Wegner, Frederic; Rosenow, Felix

    2017-11-01

    Despite the availability of more than 15 new "antiepileptic drugs", the proportion of patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsy has remained constant at about 20-30%. Furthermore, no disease-modifying treatments shown to prevent the development of epilepsy following an initial precipitating brain injury or to reverse established epilepsy have been identified to date. This is likely in part due to the polyetiologic nature of epilepsy, which in turn requires personalized medicine approaches. Recent advances in imaging, pathology, genetics, and epigenetics have led to new pathophysiological concepts and the identification of monogenic causes of epilepsy. In the context of these advances, the First International Symposium on Personalized Translational Epilepsy Research (1st ISymPTER) was held in Frankfurt on September 8, 2016, to discuss novel approaches and future perspectives for personalized translational research. These included new developments and ideas in a range of experimental and clinical areas such as deep phenotyping, quantitative brain imaging, EEG/MEG-based analysis of network dysfunction, tissue-based translational studies, innate immunity mechanisms, microRNA as treatment targets, functional characterization of genetic variants in human cell models and rodent organotypic slice cultures, personalized treatment approaches for monogenic epilepsies, blood-brain barrier dysfunction, therapeutic focal tissue modification, computational modeling for target and biomarker identification, and cost analysis in (monogenic) disease and its treatment. This report on the meeting proceedings is aimed at stimulating much needed investments of time and resources in personalized translational epilepsy research. This Part II includes the experimental and translational approaches and a discussion of the future perspectives, while the diagnostic methods, EEG network analysis, biomarkers, and personalized treatment approaches were addressed in Part I [1]. Copyright © 2017

  6. Fractional Programming for Communication Systems—Part II: Uplink Scheduling via Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Kaiming; Yu, Wei

    2018-05-01

    This two-part paper develops novel methodologies for using fractional programming (FP) techniques to design and optimize communication systems. Part I of this paper proposes a new quadratic transform for FP and treats its application for continuous optimization problems. In this Part II of the paper, we study discrete problems, such as those involving user scheduling, which are considerably more difficult to solve. Unlike the continuous problems, discrete or mixed discrete-continuous problems normally cannot be recast as convex problems. In contrast to the common heuristic of relaxing the discrete variables, this work reformulates the original problem in an FP form amenable to distributed combinatorial optimization. The paper illustrates this methodology by tackling the important and challenging problem of uplink coordinated multi-cell user scheduling in wireless cellular systems. Uplink scheduling is more challenging than downlink scheduling, because uplink user scheduling decisions significantly affect the interference pattern in nearby cells. Further, the discrete scheduling variable needs to be optimized jointly with continuous variables such as transmit power levels and beamformers. The main idea of the proposed FP approach is to decouple the interaction among the interfering links, thereby permitting a distributed and joint optimization of the discrete and continuous variables with provable convergence. The paper shows that the well-known weighted minimum mean-square-error (WMMSE) algorithm can also be derived from a particular use of FP; but our proposed FP-based method significantly outperforms WMMSE when discrete user scheduling variables are involved, both in term of run-time efficiency and optimizing results.

  7. The Influence of Injection Pockets on the Performance of Tilting-Pad Thrust Bearings: Part II – Comparison Between Theory and Experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinrichson, Niels; Santos, Ilmar

    2006-01-01

    This is Part II of a two-part series of papers describing the effects of high pressure injection pockets on the operating conditions of tilting-pad thrust bearings. Measurements of the distribution of pressure and oil film thickness are presented for tilting-pad thrust bearing pads of approximately...... 100 cm2 surface area. Two pads are measured in a laboratory test-rig at loads of approximately 0.5, 1.5 and 4.0 MPa and velocities of up to 33 m/s. One pad has a plain surface. The other pad has a conical injection pocket at the pivot point and a leading edge taper. The measurements are compared...... to theoretical values obtained using a three dimensional thermo-elasto-hydrodynamic (TEHD) numerical model. At low and intermediate loads the theoretical pressure distribution corresponds well to the measured values for both pads although the influence of the pocket is slightly underestimated. At high loads...

  8. Value of flexible resources, virtual bidding, and self-scheduling in two-settlement electricity markets with wind generation - Part II: ISO Models and Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazempour, Jalal; Hobbs, Benjamin F.

    2017-01-01

    In Part II of this paper, we present formulations for three two-settlement market models: baseline cost-minimization (Stoch-Opt); and two sequential market models in which an independent system operator (ISO) runs real-time (RT) balancing markets after making day-ahead (DA) generating unit...... commitment decisions based upon deterministic wind forecasts, while virtual bidders arbitrage the two markets (Seq and SeqSS). The latter two models differ in terms of whether some slow-start generators can self-schedule in the DA market while anticipating probabilities of RT prices. Models in Seq and Seq......-SS build on components of the two-settlement equilibrium model (Stoch-MP) defined in Part I of this paper [1]. We then provide numerical results for all four models. A simple single-node case illustrates the economic impacts of flexibility, virtual bidding, and self-schedules, and is followed by a larger...

  9. Sludge in the pulp and paper industry in Sweden, part II[Combustion of]; Slam fraan skogsindustrin, fas II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyllenhammar, Marianne; Herstad Svaerd, Solvie; Kjoerk, Anders; Larsson, Sara; Wennberg, Olle [S.E.P. Scandinavian Energy Project AB, Goeteborg (Sweden); Aamand, Lars-Erik [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden); Eskilsson, David [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden)

    2003-11-01

    During part II of this research program combustible sludge from the pulp and paper industry has been studied in detail. 560,000 tonnes of sludge per year (calculated as dry sludge) are produced in Sweden. The energy potential in the produced sludge is about 2 TWh/year. Today 1 TWh/year is produced in the pulp and paper mill's own boilers. This means that additional energy can be utilized from this material. An objective of this program has been to decide whether or not there are sludge types which are favourable respectively difficult to combust. By mixing different sludge types, or other waste products, emissions and/or problems during combustion can be minimized. These possibilities have been studied thoroughly in this program. A lot of sludge samples have been studied in laboratory scale at SP and in full-scale at Chalmers 12 MW CFB boiler. As a complement to the practical tests S.E.P. has done research regarding different aspects of sludge as a fuel; for example handling of sludge and regional drying. The results of 40 sintering tests at SP showed that the sintering temperature during combustion of sludge in a fluidised bed, with silica sand as bed material, varied between <850 deg C and >1100 deg C. The evaluation showed that the alkali content in the ash had the largest influence on the sintering temperature. Other factors were less important. During the tests at Chalmers eleven different sludge samples have been combusted together with wood pellets. Initially there were problems with the feeding to the boiler for some of the sludge samples. When the fuel feeding problems were solved the combustion took place without any problems. When sludge is co-combusted together with a 'clean' base fuel such as wood pellets the sulphur-, nitrogen- and chloride contents in the sludge have a large impact on the emissions. The normal way to reduce sulphur dioxide but also hydrogen chloride is to add lime in different positions into and after the boiler. In

  10. Association Between National Board Dental Examination Part II Scores and Comprehensive Examinations at Harvard School of Dental Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Kyeong; Allareddy, Veerasathpurush; Howell, T Howard; Karimbux, Nadeem Y

    2011-01-01

    Harvard School of Dental Medicine (HSDM) uses a hybrid problem-based approach to teaching in the predoctoral program. The objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) is a formative examination designed to assess the performance of students in the problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum. At HSDM three comprehensive examinations with OSCE components are administered during the third and fourth years of clinical training. The National Board Dental Examination (NBDE) Part II is taken in the final year of the predoctoral program. This study examines the association between the NBDE Part II and the comprehensive exams held at HSDM. Predoctoral students from the HSDM classes of 2005 and 2006 were included in this study. The outcome variable of interest was the scores obtained by students in the NBDE Part II, and the main independent variable of interest was the performance of students in the comprehensive exams (honors, pass, make-up exam to pass). The Mann-Whitney U-test was used to examine the association between the grades obtained in the each of the three comprehensive exams and the NBDE Part II scores. Multivariable linear regression analysis was also used to examine the association between the NBDE Part II scores and the comprehensive exam grades. The effect of potential confounding factors including age, sex, and race/ethnicity was adjusted. The results suggest that students who performed well in the comprehensive exams performed better on the NBDE Part II, even after adjusting for confounding factors. Future studies will examine the long-term impact of PBL on postdoctoral plans and career choices.

  11. Neutronics and thermohydraulics of the reactor C.E.N.E. Part II; Analisis neutronico y termohidraulico del reactor C.E.N.E. Parte II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caro, R

    1976-07-01

    In this report the analysis of neutronics thermohydraulics and shielding of the 10 HWt swimming pool reactor C.E.N.E is included. In each of these chapters is given a short description of the theoretical model used, along with the theoretical versus experimental checking carried out, whenever possible, with the reactors JEN-I and JEN-II of Junta de Energia Nuclear. (Author) 11 refs.

  12. A Coastal Bay Summer Breeze Study, Part 2: High-resolution Numerical Simulation of Sea-breeze Local Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calmet, Isabelle; Mestayer, Patrice G.; van Eijk, Alexander M. J.; Herlédant, Olivier

    2018-04-01

    We complete the analysis of the data obtained during the experimental campaign around the semi circular bay of Quiberon, France, during two weeks in June 2006 (see Part 1). A reanalysis of numerical simulations performed with the Advanced Regional Prediction System model is presented. Three nested computational domains with increasing horizontal resolution down to 100 m, and a vertical resolution of 10 m at the lowest level, are used to reproduce the local-scale variations of the breeze close to the water surface of the bay. The Weather Research and Forecasting mesoscale model is used to assimilate the meteorological data. Comparisons of the simulations with the experimental data obtained at three sites reveal a good agreement of the flow over the bay and around the Quiberon peninsula during the daytime periods of sea-breeze development and weakening. In conditions of offshore synoptic flow, the simulations demonstrate that the semi-circular shape of the bay induces a corresponding circular shape in the offshore zones of stagnant flow preceding the sea-breeze onset, which move further offshore thereafter. The higher-resolution simulations are successful in reproducing the small-scale impacts of the peninsula and local coasts (breeze deviations, wakes, flow divergences), and in demonstrating the complexity of the breeze fields close to the surface over the bay. Our reanalysis also provides guidance for numerical simulation strategies for analyzing the structure and evolution of the near-surface breeze over a semi-circular bay, and for forecasting important flow details for use in upcoming sailing competitions.

  13. Multiscale modeling, simulations, and experiments of coating growth on nanofibers. Part II. Deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buldum, A.; Clemons, C.B.; Dill, L.H.; Kreider, K.L.; Young, G.W.; Zheng, X.; Evans, E.A.; Zhang, G.; Hariharan, S.I.

    2005-01-01

    This work is Part II of an integrated experimental/modeling investigation of a procedure to coat nanofibers and core-clad nanostructures with thin-film materials using plasma-enhanced physical vapor deposition. In the experimental effort, electrospun polymer nanofibers are coated with aluminum materials under different operating conditions to observe changes in the coating morphology. This procedure begins with the sputtering of the coating material from a target. Part I [J. Appl. Phys. 98, 044303 (2005)] focused on the sputtering aspect and transport of the sputtered material through the reactor. That reactor level model determines the concentration field of the coating material. This field serves as input into the present species transport and deposition model for the region surrounding an individual nanofiber. The interrelationships among processing factors for the transport and deposition are investigated here from a detailed modeling approach that includes the salient physical and chemical phenomena. Solution strategies that couple continuum and atomistic models are used. At the continuum scale, transport dynamics near the nanofiber are described. At the atomic level, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are used to study the deposition and sputtering mechanisms at the coating surface. Ion kinetic energies and fluxes are passed from the continuum sheath model to the MD simulations. These simulations calculate sputtering and sticking probabilities that in turn are used to calculate parameters for the continuum transport model. The continuum transport model leads to the definition of an evolution equation for the coating-free surface. This equation is solved using boundary perturbation and level set methods to determine the coating morphology as a function of operating conditions

  14. [The external patello-tibial transfixation (EPTT). Part II: Clinical application and results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishaque, B; Gotzen, L; Ziring, E; Petermann, J

    1999-07-01

    In part I of the paper the biomechanical and technical background of the EPTT using the MPT fixator and the indications for this procedure have been described. In part II we report about the clinical application of the EPTT in 67 patients with a wide spectrum of repairs and reconstructions of the extensor mechanism. 48 patients had fresh injuries, 18 of them with severe concomitant knee lesions and 19 patients had neglected rsp. unsuccessfully operated injuries. There were 4 deep infections, two of them related to the MPT fixator. In the patients with uneventful healing the fixator remained in place for 7.3 weeks in average. The clinical, isokinetic and radiological results were reviewed in 17 patients with an average follow-up time of 37.3 months. There were 5 patients with partial patellectomy and tendon reattachment because of lower patella pole comminution and 12 patients with tendon reattachment ruptured at the inferior patella pole or suture repair in midsubstance rupture. The clinical results according to the IKDC score were rated in 3 patients as normal, in 10 patients as nearly normal and in 4 patients as abnormal. This rating was highly dependend on the subjective judgement by the patients who considered their operated knees not as normal as the contralateral knees. From our clinical experiences and results we can derive that the EPTT enables the surgical management of extensor mechanism disruptions with a minimum of internal fixation material and provides a safe protection of the repairs and reconstructions during the healing period. The EPTT allows immediate unrestricted functional rehabilitation and early walking without crutches. Thus the EPTT represents an effective alternative to the patello-tibial cerclage with a wire or synthetic ligaments.

  15. Stability Improvement of High-Pressure-Ratio Turbocharger Centrifugal Compressor by Asymmetrical Flow Control-Part II: Nonaxisymmetrical Self-Recirculation Casing Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xinqian; Zhang, Yangjun; Yang, Mingyang; Bamba, Takahiro; Tamaki, Hideaki

    2013-03-01

    This is part II of a two-part paper involving the development of an asymmetrical flow control method to widen the operating range of a turbocharger centrifugal compressor with high-pressure ratio. A nonaxisymmetrical self-recirculation casing treatment (SRCT) as an instance of asymmetrical flow control method is presented. Experimental and numerical methods were used to investigate the impact of nonaxisymmetrical SRCT on the surge point of the centrifugal compressor. First, the influence of the geometry of a symmetric SRCT on the compressor performance was studied by means of numerical simulation. The key parameter of the SRCT was found to be the distance from the main blade leading edge to the rear groove (S r ). Next, several arrangements of a nonaxisymmetrical SRCT were designed, based on flow analysis presented in part I. Then, a series of experiments were carried out to analyze the influence of nonaxisymmetrical SRCT on the compressor performance. Results show that the nonaxisymmetrical SRCT has a certain influence on the performance and has a larger potential for stability improvement than the traditional symmetric SRCT. For the investigated SRCT, the surge flow rate of the compressor with the nonaxisymmetrical SRCTs is about 10% lower than that of the compressor with symmetric SRCT. The largest surge margin (smallest surge flow rate) can be obtained when the phase of the largest S r is coincident with the phase of the minimum static pressure in the vicinity of the leading edge of the splitter blades.

  16. Testing and Analysis of a Composite Non-Cylindrical Aircraft Fuselage Structure . Part II; Severe Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przekop, Adam; Jegley, Dawn C.; Lovejoy, Andrew E.; Rouse, Marshall; Wu, Hsi-Yung T.

    2016-01-01

    The Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project aimed to develop aircraft technologies enabling significant fuel burn and community noise reductions. Small incremental changes to the conventional metallic alloy-based 'tube and wing' configuration were not sufficient to achieve the desired metrics. One airframe concept identified by the project as having the potential to dramatically improve aircraft performance was a composite-based hybrid wing body configuration. Such a concept, however, presented inherent challenges stemming from, among other factors, the necessity to transfer wing loads through the entire center fuselage section which accommodates a pressurized cabin confined by flat or nearly flat panels. This paper discusses a finite element analysis and the testing of a large-scale hybrid wing body center section structure developed and constructed to demonstrate that the Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure concept can meet these challenging demands of the next generation airframes. Part II of the paper considers the final test to failure of the test article in the presence of an intentionally inflicted severe discrete source damage under the wing up-bending loading condition. Finite element analysis results are compared with measurements acquired during the test and demonstrate that the hybrid wing body test article was able to redistribute and support the required design loads in a severely damaged condition.

  17. Stochastic theory of nonequilibrium steady states. Part II: Applications in chemical biophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge Hao; Qian Min; Qian Hong

    2012-01-01

    The mathematical theory of nonequilibrium steady state (NESS) has a natural application in open biochemical systems which have sustained source(s) and sink(s) in terms of a difference in their chemical potentials. After a brief introduction in Section , in Part II of this review, we present the widely studied biochemical enzyme kinetics, the workhorse of biochemical dynamic modeling, in terms of the theory of NESS (Section ). We then show that several phenomena in enzyme kinetics, including a newly discovered activation–inhibition switching (Section ) and the well-known non-Michaelis–Menten-cooperativity (Section ) and kinetic proofreading (Section ), are all consequences of the NESS of driven biochemical systems with associated cycle fluxes. Section is focused on nonlinear and nonequilibrium systems of biochemical reactions. We use the phosphorylation–dephosphorylation cycle (PdPC), one of the most important biochemical signaling networks, as an example (Section ). It starts with a brief introduction of the Delbrück–Gillespie process approach to mesoscopic biochemical kinetics (Sections ). We shall discuss the zeroth-order ultrasensitivity of PdPC in terms of a new concept — the temporal cooperativity (Sections ), as well as PdPC with feedback which leads to biochemical nonlinear bistability (Section ). Also, both are nonequilibrium phenomena. PdPC with a nonlinear feedback is kinetically isomorphic to a self-regulating gene expression network, hence the theory of NESS discussed here could have wide applications to many other biochemical systems.

  18. Reproduction in the space environment: Part II. Concerns for human reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, R. T.; Santy, P. A.

    1990-01-01

    Long-duration space flight and eventual colonization of our solar system will require successful control of reproductive function and a thorough understanding of factors unique to space flight and their impact on gynecologic and obstetric parameters. Part II of this paper examines the specific environmental factors associated with space flight and the implications for human reproduction. Space environmental hazards discussed include radiation, alteration in atmospheric pressure and breathing gas partial pressures, prolonged toxicological exposure, and microgravity. The effects of countermeasures necessary to reduce cardiovascular deconditioning, calcium loss, muscle wasting, and neurovestibular problems are also considered. In addition, the impact of microgravity on male fertility and gamete quality is explored. Due to current constraints, human pregnancy is now contraindicated for space flight. However, a program to explore effective countermeasures to current constraints and develop the required health care delivery capability for extended-duration space flight is suggested. A program of Earth- and space-based research to provide further answers to reproductive questions is suggested.

  19. Part II: Utilization of the methodology for irradiation of ethnic ready-to-eat meals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haruvy, Y.F.

    2009-01-01

    A multiparameter hazard analysis and critical control point methodology for foods under development has been described in Part I. It focused on a systematic fourfold assessment of safety hazards, sensorial failures, economic adversities and radiation specific pitfalls, and the critical control points for their early detection and/or mitigation. It attempted also at combining these four parameters to form a qualitative prioritization of the numerous control points, to screen the most cost effective ones for implementation. The further development of the methodology described in this report demonstrates its application for ethnic foods. These foods are often characterized with multi-ingredient recipes and multiple preparation steps, subtle ensemble of specific flavours, as well as relatively high bacterial loads. A group treatment of these ingredients has been demonstrated on several ready-to-eat foods investigated by Indonesian researchers. This approach has been found greatly effective in pinpointing the primary control points of the prepared ethnic meals. The primary achievement resulting from this approach is the insight that a two stage irradiation is apparently the best solution to attain both bacteria eradication and taste/flavour conservation or, in other words, the desired combination of high levels of safety and high quality. (author)

  20. Continuous integrity evaluation of corroded pipelines using complemented FEA results – Part II: Procedure application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varga, László; Fekete, Gábor

    2017-01-01

    The general objective of this paper is to execute the continuous integrity evaluation of corroded pipelines with the developed procedure has been presented in the Part I. This aim was performed with a large dataset of complemented finite element analysis (FEA) results and burst test values can be found in the References. The numerical investigations have been done with an assumed sample-case taking spherical and spheroid shaped characteristic and mobile defects into account. The most important achievements are the supplemented ductile failure analysis, the continuous suitability of the weak link, the strain-based design criteria and the continuous integrity assessment diagrams. - Highlights: • Finite Element Analysis (FEA) examinations are performed for selection of a sample-case to investigate corrosion defects. • Serial calculations are carried out to determine the continuous suitability of the corroded pipeline sections. • We investigate the shape and size effects of corrosion defects on load carrying capacities (LCCs) of defective pipelines. • Continuous integrity assessment diagram (CIAD) showing the decreasing competent LCCs in the operation time is introduced. • Verification of the proposed method is performed by comparing the FEA results with burst pressure values measured.

  1. Apple cultivars resistant to scab (Venturia inaequalis (Cke. Aderh. Part II. Winterhardiness of apple cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Borecki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The severe winter which occurred in Poland in 1986-1987 damaged the most part of scab resistant apple cultivars and selected apple hybrids. Cold hardiness studied in 1987 and 1988 showed significant differences in degree of frost injury on stem, branches, twigs and buds of apple trees. Two scab-resistance cultivars, namely Florina and Sir Prize, as well as two check culuvars, Idared and Golden Delicious, were killed by frost. Strong damages were noted in cultivars: Prima, Primula, and Priam. Lower susceptibility showed: Jonafree, Gavin, Liberty Sister and three hybrids selected from crosses of Bankroft with scab-resistant Primula. Relatively frost resistant was Novamac and three hybrids of U-breeding line: U-1101 and U-50, originated from crosses of polish culrivar Fantazja (McIntosh x Linda with Primula, Highest resistance to frost showed cultivars: Freedom. Liberty. new polish cultivar Witos (Fantazja x Primula and three hybrids: U-337, U-237 and U-1098. During the 1987 and 1988 seasons severe infection of apple trees by numerous fungi was noted. Twelve species of isolated fungi were identified as pathogens of apple trees bark and wood.

  2. Coordinator(a) de Servicios Clinicos. Parte I (Unidad I-IV). Parte II (Unidad V-VI). Guia. Documento de Trabajo (Clinical Services Coordinator. Part I. Units I-IV. Part II. Units V-VI. Guide. Working Document).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puerto Rico State Dept. of Education, Hato Rey. Area for Vocational and Technical Education.

    This guide is intended for instructing secondary students in the occupation of clinical services coordinator in a hospital. The first part contains four units on the following subjects: the occupation of clinical services coordinator; interpersonal relationships; ethical/legal aspects; and communications (telephone, intercom, and others). For each…

  3. Towards multi-resolution global climate modeling with ECHAM6-FESOM. Part II: climate variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rackow, T.; Goessling, H. F.; Jung, T.; Sidorenko, D.; Semmler, T.; Barbi, D.; Handorf, D.

    2018-04-01

    This study forms part II of two papers describing ECHAM6-FESOM, a newly established global climate model with a unique multi-resolution sea ice-ocean component. While part I deals with the model description and the mean climate state, here we examine the internal climate variability of the model under constant present-day (1990) conditions. We (1) assess the internal variations in the model in terms of objective variability performance indices, (2) analyze variations in global mean surface temperature and put them in context to variations in the observed record, with particular emphasis on the recent warming slowdown, (3) analyze and validate the most common atmospheric and oceanic variability patterns, (4) diagnose the potential predictability of various climate indices, and (5) put the multi-resolution approach to the test by comparing two setups that differ only in oceanic resolution in the equatorial belt, where one ocean mesh keeps the coarse 1° resolution applied in the adjacent open-ocean regions and the other mesh is gradually refined to 0.25°. Objective variability performance indices show that, in the considered setups, ECHAM6-FESOM performs overall favourably compared to five well-established climate models. Internal variations of the global mean surface temperature in the model are consistent with observed fluctuations and suggest that the recent warming slowdown can be explained as a once-in-one-hundred-years event caused by internal climate variability; periods of strong cooling in the model (`hiatus' analogs) are mainly associated with ENSO-related variability and to a lesser degree also to PDO shifts, with the AMO playing a minor role. Common atmospheric and oceanic variability patterns are simulated largely consistent with their real counterparts. Typical deficits also found in other models at similar resolutions remain, in particular too weak non-seasonal variability of SSTs over large parts of the ocean and episodic periods of almost absent

  4. The evolution of the temperature field during cavity collapse in liquid nitromethane. Part II: reactive case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, L.; Nikiforakis, N.

    2018-02-01

    This work is concerned with the effect of cavity collapse in non-ideal explosives as a means of controlling their sensitivity. The main objective is to understand the origin of localised temperature peaks (hot spots) which play a leading order role at the early stages of ignition. To this end, we perform two- and three-dimensional numerical simulations of shock-induced single gas-cavity collapse in liquid nitromethane. Ignition is the result of a complex interplay between fluid dynamics and exothermic chemical reaction. In the first part of this work, we focused on the hydrodynamic effects in the collapse process by switching off the reaction terms in the mathematical formulation. In this part, we reinstate the reactive terms and study the collapse of the cavity in the presence of chemical reactions. By using a multi-phase formulation which overcomes current challenges of cavity collapse modelling in reactive media, we account for the large density difference across the material interface without generating spurious temperature peaks, thus allowing the use of a temperature-based reaction rate law. The mathematical and physical models are validated against experimental and analytic data. In Part I, we demonstrated that, compared to experiments, the generated hot spots have a more complex topological structure and that additional hot spots arise in regions away from the cavity centreline. Here, we extend this by identifying which of the previously determined high-temperature regions in fact lead to ignition and comment on the reactive strength and reaction growth rate in the distinct hot spots. We demonstrate and quantify the sensitisation of nitromethane by the collapse of the isolated cavity by comparing the ignition times of nitromethane due to cavity collapse and the ignition time of the neat material. The ignition in both the centreline hot spots and the hot spots generated by Mach stems occurs in less than half the ignition time of the neat material. We compare

  5. Tratamento sistêmico da psoríase - Parte II: Imunomoduladores biológicos Systemic treatment of psoriasis - Part II: Biologic immunomodulator agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Arruda

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Em continuidade ao capítulo da edição anterior dos Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia, nesta segunda parte da EMC-D serão discutidas as novas drogas, os imunomoduladores biológicos, que agem em determinadas fases da imunopatogênese da doença, modificando fenotipicamente sua evolução. Também serão discutidos alguns aspectos imunológicos que, atualmente, são responsáveis pelo desencadeamento da doençaAs part of its continued studies of psoriasis, this second part of the Continuing Medical Education in Dermatology segment of the Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia introduces biological immunomodulators. Also known as "biologics", these drugs act on the immunopathogenetic steps of psoriasis by changing its features and progression. This paper also reviews some of the immunologic aspects of psoriasis.

  6. Developing guidelines for economic evaluation of environmental impacts in EIAs. Part II: Case studies and dose-response literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This Part II of the report contains full versions of the case studies for air, water and land (Chapters 2-4), which were only summarised in Part I. In addition, during the work the research team has collected a large amount of literature and information on dose response relationships for air and water pollution relevant to China. This information is included as Chapters 5 and 6.

  7. Developing guidelines for economic evaluation of environmental impacts in EIAs. Part II: Case studies and dose-response literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This Part II of the report contains full versions of the case studies for air, water and land (Chapters 2-4), which were only summarised in Part I. In addition, during the work the research team has collected a large amount of literature and information on dose response relationships for air and water pollution relevant to China. This information is included as Chapters 5 and 6

  8. Acuity and case management: a healthy dose of outcomes, part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Kathy; Huber, Diane L

    2007-01-01

    This is the second of a 3-part series presenting 2 effective applications-acuity and dosage-that describe how the business case for case management (CM) can be made. In Part I, dosage and acuity concepts were explained as client need-severity, CM intervention-intensity, and CM activity-dose prescribed by amount, frequency, duration, and breadth of activities. Part I also featured a specific exemplar, the CM Acuity Tool, and described how to use acuity to identify and score the complexity of a CM case. Appropriate dosage prescription of CM activity was discussed. Part II further explains dosage and presents two acuity instruments, the Acuity Tool and AccuDiff. Details are provided that show how these applications produce opportunities for better communication about CM cases and for more accurate measurement of the right content that genuinely reflects the essentials of CM practice. The information contained in the 3-part series applies to all CM practice settings and contains ideas and recommendations useful to CM generalists, specialists, and supervisors, plus business and outcomes managers. The Acuity Tools Project was developed from frontline CM practice in one large, national telephonic CM company. Dosage: A literature search failed to find research into dosage of a behavioral intervention. The Huber-Hall model was developed and tested in a longitudinal study of CM models in substance abuse treatment and reported in the literature. Acuity: A structured literature search and needs assessment launched the development of the suite of acuity tools. A gap analysis identified that an instrument to assign and measure case acuity specific to CM activities was needed. Clinical experts, quality specialists, and business analysts (n = 7) monitored the development and testing of the tools, acuity concepts, scores, differentials, and their operating principles and evaluated the validity of the Acuity Tools' content related to CM activities. During the pilot phase of

  9. The Historiography of British Imperial Education Policy, Part II: Africa and the Rest of the Colonial Empire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Clive

    2005-01-01

    Part II of this historiographical study examines British education policy in Africa, and in the many crown colonies, protectorates, and mandated territories around the globe. Up until 1920, the British government took far less interest than in India, in the development of schooling in Africa and the rest of the colonial empire, and education was…

  10. RA reactor safety analysis, Part II - Accident analysis; Analiza sigurnosti rada Reaktora RA I-III, Deo II - Analiza akcidenta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raisic, N; Radanovic, Lj; Milovanovic, M; Afgan, N; Kulundzic, P [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1963-02-15

    This part of the RA reactor safety analysis includes analysis of possible accidents caused by failures of the reactor devices and errors during reactor operation. Two types of accidents are analyzed: accidents resulting from uncontrolled reactivity increase, and accidents caused by interruption of cooling.

  11. Industry Wage Surveys: Banking and Life Insurance, December 1976. Part I--Banking. Part II--Life Insurance. Bulletin 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsky, Carl

    This report presents the results of a survey conducted by the Bureau of Labor Statistics to determine wages and related benefits in (1) the banking industry and (2) for employees in home offices and regional head offices of life insurance carriers. Part 1 discusses banking industry characteristics and presents data for tellers and selected…

  12. Study of diffuse H II regions potentially forming part of the gas streams around Sgr A*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armijos-Abendaño, J.; López, E.; Martín-Pintado, J.; Báez-Rubio, A.; Aravena, M.; Requena-Torres, M. A.; Martín, S.; Llerena, M.; Aldás, F.; Logan, C.; Rodríguez-Franco, A.

    2018-05-01

    We present a study of diffuse extended ionized gas towards three clouds located in the Galactic Centre (GC). One line of sight (LOS) is towards the 20 km s-1 cloud (LOS-0.11) in the Sgr A region, another LOS is towards the 50 km s-1 cloud (LOS-0.02), also in Sgr A, while the third is towards the Sgr B2 cloud (LOS+0.693). The emission from the ionized gas is detected from Hnα and Hmβ radio recombination lines (RRLs). Henα and Hemβ RRL emission is detected with the same n and m as those from the hydrogen RRLs only towards LOS+0.693. RRLs probe gas with positive and negative velocities towards the two Sgr A sources. The Hmβ to Hnα ratios reveal that the ionized gas is emitted under local thermodynamic equilibrium conditions in these regions. We find a He to H mass fraction of 0.29±0.01 consistent with the typical GC value, supporting the idea that massive stars have increased the He abundance compared to its primordial value. Physical properties are derived for the studied sources. We propose that the negative velocity component of both Sgr A sources is part of gas streams considered previously to model the GC cloud kinematics. Associated massive stars with what are presumably the closest H II regions to LOS-0.11 (positive velocity gas), LOS-0.02, and LOS+0.693 could be the main sources of ultraviolet photons ionizing the gas. The negative velocity components of both Sgr A sources might be ionized by the same massive stars, but only if they are in the same gas stream.

  13. Quality control of outpatient imaging examinations in North Rhine-Westphalia. Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krug, B.; Boettge, M.; Zaehringer, M.; Reinecke, T.; Coburger, S.; Harnischmacher, U.; Luengen, M.; Lauterbach, K.W.; Lehmacher, W.; Lackner, K.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: In the state of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW), Germany, a survey was conducted on radiologic examinations ordered by general practitioners (GPs). Part II of this study aims to determine the quality of the process and outcome. The reference standard is the assessment of both radiologists and physicians without board certification in radiology working at a university hospital and in outpatient facilities. Materials and Methods: All GPs in NRW were asked to cooperate. Participating GPs filled out a questionnaire for each patient. The patients recorded the symptoms prompting the imaging examinations. The radiologists or other physicians performing the examinations were asked to provide the images and written reports and to complete a questionnaire. A file was created for each of the 394 patients with image documentation of at least one examination. Each file, which included medical history, physical findings, imaging documentation and written report, was sequentially forwarded to a board-certified radiologist and to a physician without board certification in radiology working in a university hospital and in an outpatient facility. All physicians were requested to complete a structured questionnaire for each file. Results: The referral diagnoses were rated as medically plausible in 81%, the indications for imaging found correct in 76%, the examination techniques considered appropriate in 69%, the clinical question answered in 63%, the interpretation judged medically correct in 50% and all incidental findings documented in 49%. In retrospect, 32% of the examinations were judged superfluous. The sequence of multiple examinations performed on a particular patient was rated as appropriate in 51%. The interpretation revealed specialty-related differences. The plausibility of the referral diagnoses had a significant impact on the appropriateness of subsequent diagnostic investigations. Marked deficits showed sonography, performance by non-radiologists, self

  14. Notes on the Birds of Central Oaxaca, Part II: Columbidae to Vireonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M. Forcey

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Notas sobre las aves de Oaxaca central, parte II: Columbidae a Vireonidae Se reportan  nuevos datos que amplían y clarifican nuestro conocimiento del estatus y distribución de 70 especies de aves en la región central del Estado de Oaxaca. Las observaciones se realizaron abarcando partes de los distritos de Etla, Ixtlan, Tlacolula, y Zaachila, dentro de un círculo de radio de 35 km alrededor de la Ciudad de Oaxaca. El reporte se basa en observaciones tomadas durante 738 días, comprendidos entre diciembre 1996 y marzo 2002. Los hábitats principalmente visitados fueron pino-encino (incluyendo zonas pequeñas de pino-encino-oyamel y pino-encino mezclado con pastizales, matorral de encino, matorral subtropical, vegetación riparia, y vegetación secundaria, campos agrícolas y otros (incluyendo áreas urbanas, como jardines y parques. Las siguientes especies se reportan por primera vez en la zona: Heliomaster constantii, Tilmatura dupontii, Empidonax flaviventris, Empidonax virescens, Myiarchus crinitus, Myiodynastes luteiventris, Vireo philadelphicus, Vireo olivaceus y Vireo flavoviridis. Además, las siguientes diez especies se han reportado anteriormente una sola vez o solamente en los Conteos Navideños: Caprimulgus ridgwayi (residente,Panyptila sanctihieronymi (residente local, Amazilia cyanocephala (residente local, Amazilia viridifrons, Lamprolaima rhami, Momotus mexicanus (residente en la Sierra Juárez, Sayornis phoebe, Myiozetetes similis (residente, Pachyramphus major (residente y Vireo griseus. Se reportan datos de la reproducción de 25 especies, 18 de las cuales no se habían registrado como reproduciéndose en la zona antes. De estos, 24 se pueden agrupar como reproduciéndose en los meses de abril a julio, y 17 se reproducen en zonas riparias, seis de ellos casi exclusivamente.

  15. A primer of drug safety surveillance: an industry perspective. Part II: Product labeling and product knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, M C

    1992-01-01

    To place the fundamentals of clinical drug safety surveillance in a conceptual framework that will facilitate understanding and application of adverse drug event data to protect the health of the public and support a market for pharmaceutical manufacturers' products. Part II of this series discusses specific issues regarding product labeling, such as developing the labeling, changing the labeling, and the legal as well as commercial ramifications of the contents of the labeling. An adverse event report scenario is further analyzed and suggestions are offered for maintaining the product labeling as an accurate reflection of the drug safety surveillance data. This article also emphasizes the necessity of product knowledge in adverse event database management. Both scientific and proprietary knowledge are required. Acquiring product knowledge is a part of the day-to-day activities of drug safety surveillance. A knowledge of the history of the product may forestall adverse publicity, as shown in the illustration. This review uses primary sources from the federal laws (regulations), commentaries, and summaries. Very complex topics are briefly summarized in the text. Secondary sources, ranging from newspaper articles to judicial summaries, illustrate the interpretation of adverse drug events and opportunities for drug safety surveillance intervention. The reference materials used were articles theoretically or practically applicable in the day-to-day practice of drug safety surveillance. The role of clinical drug safety surveillance in product monitoring and drug development is described. The process of drug safety surveillance is defined by the Food and Drug Administration regulations, product labeling, product knowledge, and database management. Database management is subdivided into the functions of receipt, retention, retrieval, and review of adverse event reports. Emphasis is placed on the dynamic interaction of the components of the process. Suggestions are offered

  16. The 183-WSL Fast Rain Rate Retrieval Algorithm. Part II: Validation Using Ground Radar Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laviola, Sante; Levizzani, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    The Water vapour Strong Lines at 183 GHz (183-WSL) algorithm is a method for the retrieval of rain rates and precipitation type classification (convectivestratiform), that makes use of the water vapor absorption lines centered at 183.31 GHz of the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit module B (AMSU-B) and of the Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS) flying on NOAA-15-18 and NOAA-19Metop-A satellite series, respectively. The characteristics of this algorithm were described in Part I of this paper together with comparisons against analogous precipitation products. The focus of Part II is the analysis of the performance of the 183-WSL technique based on surface radar measurements. The ground truth dataset consists of 2.5 years of rainfall intensity fields from the NIMROD European radar network which covers North-Western Europe. The investigation of the 183-WSL retrieval performance is based on a twofold approach: 1) the dichotomous statistic is used to evaluate the capabilities of the method to identify rain and no-rain clouds; 2) the accuracy statistic is applied to quantify the errors in the estimation of rain rates.The results reveal that the 183-WSL technique shows good skills in the detection of rainno-rain areas and in the quantification of rain rate intensities. The categorical analysis shows annual values of the POD, FAR and HK indices varying in the range 0.80-0.82, 0.330.36 and 0.39-0.46, respectively. The RMSE value is 2.8 millimeters per hour for the whole period despite an overestimation in the retrieved rain rates. Of note is the distribution of the 183-WSL monthly mean rain rate with respect to radar: the seasonal fluctuations of the average rainfalls measured by radar are reproduced by the 183-WSL. However, the retrieval method appears to suffer for the winter seasonal conditions especially when the soil is partially frozen and the surface emissivity drastically changes. This fact is verified observing the discrepancy distribution diagrams where2the 183-WSL

  17. Uncertainty estimation with a small number of measurements, part II: a redefinition of uncertainty and an estimator method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hening

    2018-01-01

    This paper is the second (Part II) in a series of two papers (Part I and Part II). Part I has quantitatively discussed the fundamental limitations of the t-interval method for uncertainty estimation with a small number of measurements. This paper (Part II) reveals that the t-interval is an ‘exact’ answer to a wrong question; it is actually misused in uncertainty estimation. This paper proposes a redefinition of uncertainty, based on the classical theory of errors and the theory of point estimation, and a modification of the conventional approach to estimating measurement uncertainty. It also presents an asymptotic procedure for estimating the z-interval. The proposed modification is to replace the t-based uncertainty with an uncertainty estimator (mean- or median-unbiased). The uncertainty estimator method is an approximate answer to the right question to uncertainty estimation. The modified approach provides realistic estimates of uncertainty, regardless of whether the population standard deviation is known or unknown, or if the sample size is small or large. As an application example of the modified approach, this paper presents a resolution to the Du-Yang paradox (i.e. Paradox 2), one of the three paradoxes caused by the misuse of the t-interval in uncertainty estimation.

  18. Empty Sets as Part of the Numerical Continuum: Conceptual Precursors to the Zero Concept in Rhesus Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, Dustin J.; Rugani, Rosa; Brannon, Elizabeth M.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the current research was to explore whether monkeys possess conceptual precursors necessary for understanding zero. We trained rhesus monkeys on a nonsymbolic numerical matching-to-sample task, and on a numerical ordering task. We then introduced nondifferentially reinforced trials that contained empty sets to determine whether monkeys…

  19. Nuclear power plant simulators for operator licensing and training. Part I. The need for plant-reference simulators. Part II. The use of plant-reference simulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, W.L.; Bolton, P.A.; Shikiar, R.; Saari, L.M.

    1984-05-01

    Part I of this report presents technical justification for the use of plant-reference simulators in the licensing and training of nuclear power plant operators and examines alternatives to the use of plant-reference simulators. The technical rationale is based on research on the use of simulators in other industries, psychological learning and testing principles, expert opinion and user opinion. Part II discusses the central considerations in using plant-reference simulators for licensing examination of nuclear power plant operators and for incorporating simulators into nuclear power plant training programs. Recommendations are presented for the administration of simulator examinations in operator licensing that reflect the goal of maximizing both reliability and validity in the examination process. A series of organizational tasks that promote the acceptance, use, and effectiveness of simulator training as part of the onsite training program is delineated

  20. Part I: $\\beta$-delayed fission, laser spectroscopy and shape-coexistence studies with astatine beams; Part II: Delineating the island of deformation in the light gold isotopes by means of laser spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Andreyev, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    Part I: $\\beta$-delayed fission, laser spectroscopy and shape-coexistence studies with astatine beams; Part II: Delineating the island of deformation in the light gold isotopes by means of laser spectroscopy

  1. Introduction of organic/hydro-organic matrices in inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and mass spectrometry: a tutorial review. Part II. Practical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclercq, Amélie; Nonell, Anthony; Todolí Torró, José Luis; Bresson, Carole; Vio, Laurent; Vercouter, Thomas; Chartier, Frédéric

    2015-07-23

    Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) are increasingly used to carry out analyses in organic/hydro-organic matrices. The introduction of such matrices into ICP sources is particularly challenging and can be the cause of numerous drawbacks. This tutorial review, divided in two parts, explores the rich literature related to the introduction of organic/hydro-organic matrices in ICP sources. Part I provided theoretical considerations associated with the physico-chemical properties of such matrices, in an attempt to understand the induced phenomena. Part II of this tutorial review is dedicated to more practical considerations on instrumentation, instrumental and operating parameters, as well as analytical strategies for elemental quantification in such matrices. Two important issues are addressed in this part: the first concerns the instrumentation and optimization of instrumental and operating parameters, pointing out (i) the description, benefits and drawbacks of different kinds of nebulization and desolvation devices and the impact of more specific instrumental parameters such as the injector characteristics and the material used for the cone; and, (ii) the optimization of operating parameters, for both ICP-OES and ICP-MS. Even if it is at the margin of this tutorial review, Electrothermal Vaporization and Laser Ablation will also be shortly described. The second issue is devoted to the analytical strategies for elemental quantification in such matrices, with particular insight into the isotope dilution technique, particularly used in speciation analysis by ICP-coupled separation techniques. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Modulus of elasticity, creep and shrinkage of concrete, phase II : part 1, creep study, final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    A laboratory testing program was performed to evaluate the physical and mechanical properties of typical Class II, IV, V, and VI concrete mixtures made with a Miami Oolite limestone, a Georgia granite, and a lightweight aggregate Stalite, including c...

  3. Impacts of Realistic Urban Heating. Part II: Air Quality and City Breathability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarian, Negin; Martilli, Alberto; Norford, Leslie; Kleissl, Jan

    2018-03-01

    Urban morphology and inter-building shadowing result in a non-uniform distribution of surface heating in urban areas, which can significantly modify the urban flow and thermal field. In Part I, we found that in an idealized three-dimensional urban array, the spatial distribution of the thermal field is correlated with the orientation of surface heating with respect to the wind direction (i.e. leeward or windward heating), while the dispersion field changes more strongly with the vertical temperature gradient in the street canyon. Here, we evaluate these results more closely and translate them into metrics of "city breathability," with large-eddy simulations coupled with an urban energy-balance model employed for this purpose. First, we quantify breathability by, (i) calculating the pollutant concentration at the pedestrian level (horizontal plane at z≈ 1.5 -2 m) and averaged over the canopy, and (ii) examining the air exchange rate at the horizontal and vertical ventilating faces of the canyon, such that the in-canopy pollutant advection is distinguished from the vertical removal of pollution. Next, we quantify the change in breathability metrics as a function of previously defined buoyancy parameters, horizontal and vertical Richardson numbers (Ri_h and Ri_v , respectively), which characterize realistic surface heating. We find that, unlike the analysis of airflow and thermal fields, consideration of the realistic heating distribution is not crucial in the analysis of city breathability, as the pollutant concentration is mainly correlated with the vertical temperature gradient (Ri_v ) as opposed to the horizontal (Ri_h ) or bulk (Ri_b ) thermal forcing. Additionally, we observe that, due to the formation of the primary vortex, the air exchange rate at the roof level (the horizontal ventilating faces of the building canyon) is dominated by the mean flow. Lastly, since Ri_h and Ri_v depend on the meteorological factors (ambient air temperature, wind speed, and

  4. Peak-summer East Asian rainfall predictability and prediction part II: extratropical East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, So-Young; Wang, Bin; Xing, Wen

    2016-07-01

    The part II of the present study focuses on northern East Asia (NEA: 26°N-50°N, 100°-140°E), exploring the source and limit of the predictability of the peak summer (July-August) rainfall. Prediction of NEA peak summer rainfall is extremely challenging because of the exposure of the NEA to midlatitude influence. By examining four coupled climate models' multi-model ensemble (MME) hindcast during 1979-2010, we found that the domain-averaged MME temporal correlation coefficient (TCC) skill is only 0.13. It is unclear whether the dynamical models' poor skills are due to limited predictability of the peak-summer NEA rainfall. In the present study we attempted to address this issue by applying predictable mode analysis method using 35-year observations (1979-2013). Four empirical orthogonal modes of variability and associated major potential sources of variability are identified: (a) an equatorial western Pacific (EWP)-NEA teleconnection driven by EWP sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies, (b) a western Pacific subtropical high and Indo-Pacific dipole SST feedback mode, (c) a central Pacific-El Nino-Southern Oscillation mode, and (d) a Eurasian wave train pattern. Physically meaningful predictors for each principal component (PC) were selected based on analysis of the lead-lag correlations with the persistent and tendency fields of SST and sea-level pressure from March to June. A suite of physical-empirical (P-E) models is established to predict the four leading PCs. The peak summer rainfall anomaly pattern is then objectively predicted by using the predicted PCs and the corresponding observed spatial patterns. A 35-year cross-validated hindcast over the NEA yields a domain-averaged TCC skill of 0.36, which is significantly higher than the MME dynamical hindcast (0.13). The estimated maximum potential attainable TCC skill averaged over the entire domain is around 0.61, suggesting that the current dynamical prediction models may have large rooms to improve

  5. Market Analysis and Consumer Impacts Source Document. Part II. Review of Motor Vehicle Market and Consumer Expenditures on Motor Vehicle Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    This source document on motor vehicle market analysis and consumer impacts consists of three parts. Part II consists of studies and review on: motor vehicle sales trends; motor vehicle fleet life and fleet composition; car buying patterns of the busi...

  6. Propriedades termofísicas de soluções-modelo similares a sucos: parte II Thermophysical properties of model solutions similar to juice: part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Cristina Sobottka Rolim de Moura

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Propriedades termofísicas, densidade e viscosidade de soluções-modelo similares a sucos foram determinadas experimentalmente. Os resultados foram comparados aos preditos por modelos matemáticos (STATISTICA 6.0 e obtidos da literatura em função da sua composição química. Para definição das soluções-modelo, foi realizado um planejamento estrela, mantendo-se fixa a quanti-dade de ácido (1,5% e variando-se a água (82-98,5%, o carboidrato (0-15% e a gordura (0-1,5%. A densidade foi determinada em picnômetro. A viscosidade foi determinada em viscosímetro Brookfield modelo LVF. A condutividade térmica foi calculada com o conhecimento das propriedades difusividade térmica e calor específico (apresentados na Parte I deste trabalho MOURA [7] e da densidade. Os resultados de cada propriedade foram analisados através de superfícies de respostas. Foram encontrados resultados significativos para as propriedades, mostrando que os modelos encontrados representam as mudanças das propriedades térmicas e físicas dos sucos, com alterações na composição e na temperatura.Thermophysical properties, density and viscosity of model solutions similar to juices were experimentally determined. The results were compared to those predicted by mathematical models (STATISTIC 6.0 and to values mentioned in the literature, according to the chemical composition. A star planning was adopted to define model solutions composition; fixing the acid amount in 1.5% and varying water (82-98.5%, carbohydrate (0-15% and fat (0-1.5%. The density was determined by picnometer. The viscosity was determined by Brookfield LVF model viscosimeter. The thermal conductivity was calculated based on thermal diffusivity and specific heat values (presented at the 1st . Part of this paper - MOURA [7] and density. The results of each property were analyzed by the response surface method. The found results were significant, indicating that the models represent the changes of

  7. Nutrição em Unidade de Cuidados Intensivos -Parte II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília Mendonça

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: Nesta parte II do artigo “Nutrição em Unidade de Cuidados Intensivos” os autores privilegiam a via entérica para administração de nutrientes a doentes com um aparelho gastrointestinal funcionante. Refere-se quando e como iniciar a administração entérica e as contraindicações associadas à sua utilização, as sondas utilizadas e as técnicas de colocação. Quando a administração entérica está indicada por períodos prolongados pode ser importante discutir as vaotagens da efectivação de gastrostomia ou enterostomia.A colocação indevida das sondas na árvore traqueo-brônquica, a aspiração e a diarreia são as principais complicações da administração entérica.A administração entérica pode ser realizada de forma intermitente ou contínua. O resíduo gástrico deve ser avaliado regularmente e, se houver necessidade, pode recorrer-se à utilização de procinéticos.São discutidas fórmulas especiais de administração entérica dirigidas nomeadamente aos doentes com DPOC, Insuficiência Renal e Diabetes. É focada a problemática da realimentação e sobrealimentação.Finalmente são tratadas as indicações e controlo da alimentação parentérica. SUMMARY: In the second part of “Nutrition in Intensive Care Unit” the authors emphasise the importance of enteric route for the administration of nutrients to patients with a normal condition of the gastroinstestinal tract. The rules for when and how initiate the enteric feeding and the associate contra indications, as well as the utilised catheters and techniques of implementation, are expressed in this article. When the enteric feeding is indicated for a long period of time, the advantages of gastrostomy or enterostomy, should be considered.The incorrect positioning of the feeding catheter in tracheobronchial tree

  8. Characterization of sugar cane bagasse: part II: fluid dynamic characteristics; Caracterizacion del bagazo de la cana de azucar: parte II: caracteristicas fluidodinamicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alarcon, Guillermo A. Roca [Universidad de Oriente (CEEFE/UO), Santiago de Cuba (Cuba). Centro de Estudios de Eficiencia Energetica], Emails: roca@ceefe.uo.edu.cu, grocabayamon@hotmail.com; Sanchez, Caio Glauco [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica], Email: caio@fem.unicamp.br; Gomez, Edgardo Olivares [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (NIPE/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico], Emails: gomez@bioware.com.br, egomez@energiabr.org.br; Cortez, Luis Augusto Barbosa [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (NIPE/FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola. Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico], Email: cortez@reitoria.unicamp.br

    2006-07-01

    This paper is the second part of a general study about physic-geometrical and fluid-dynamics characteristic of the sugarcane bagasse particles. These properties has relevant importance on the dimensions and operation of the equipment for transport and treatment of solid particles. Was used the transport column method for the determination of the drag velocity and later on the drag coefficient of the sugarcane bagasse particles was calculated. Both, the installation and experimental technique used for materials of these characteristics are simple and innovations tools, but rigorous conceptually, thus the results obtained are reliable. Were used several sugarcane bagasse fractions of particles of known mean diameter. The properties determined were expressed as a function of Reynolds and Archimedes a dimensional criteria. The best considered model from statistical analysis (model from equation 8) was statistically validated for determined ranges of Reynolds and Archimedes. These empirical equations can be used to determine these properties in the range and conditions specified and also for modeling some processes where these fractions are employed. (author)

  9. Technical Information on the Carbonation of the EBR-II Reactor, Summary Report Part 1: Laboratory Experiments and Application to EBR-II Secondary Sodium System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven R. Sherman

    2005-04-01

    Residual sodium is defined as sodium metal that remains behind in pipes, vessels, and tanks after the bulk sodium metal has been melted and drained from such components. The residual sodium has the same chemical properties as bulk sodium, and differs from bulk sodium only in the thickness of the sodium deposit. Typically, sodium is considered residual when the thickness of the deposit is less than 5-6 cm. This residual sodium must be removed or deactivated when a pipe, vessel, system, or entire reactor is permanently taken out of service, in order to make the component or system safer and/or to comply with decommissioning regulations. As an alternative to the established residual sodium deactivation techniques (steam-and-nitrogen, wet vapor nitrogen, etc.), a technique involving the use of moisture and carbon dioxide has been developed. With this technique, sodium metal is converted into sodium bicarbonate by reacting it with humid carbon dioxide. Hydrogen is emitted as a by-product. This technique was first developed in the laboratory by exposing sodium samples to humidified carbon dioxide under controlled conditions, and then demonstrated on a larger scale by treating residual sodium within the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) secondary cooling system, followed by the primary cooling system, respectively. The EBR-II facility is located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in southeastern Idaho, U.S.A. This report is Part 1 of a two-part report. It is divided into three sections. The first section describes the chemistry of carbon dioxide-water-sodium reactions. The second section covers the laboratory experiments that were conducted in order to develop the residual sodium deactivation process. The third section discusses the application of the deactivation process to the treatment of residual sodium within the EBR-II secondary sodium cooling system. Part 2 of the report, under separate cover, describes the application of the technique to residual sodium

  10. Balanced and Unbalanced Circulations in a Primitive Equation Simulation of a Midlatitude MCC. Part I: The Numerical Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Peter Q.; Cotton, William R.

    1997-02-01

    banded vorticity structure at midtropospheric levels. These bands were found to be due to the apparent vertical transport of zonal momentum by the descending rear-to-front circulation, or rear-inflow jet. An equivalent alternative viewpoint of this process, deformation of horizontal vorticity filaments by the convective updrafts and rear-inflow jet, is discussed.Part II of this work presents a complementary approach to the analysis presented here, demonstrating that the circulations seen in this MCC simulation are, to a large degree, contained within the nonlinear balance approximation, the related balanced omega equation, and the PV as analyzed from the PE model results.

  11. On the symmetric difference quotient and its application to the correction of orbits. II - A numerical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, R. A.; Wnuk, E.

    The relative accuracy of ordinary and symmetric difference quotients for elementary functions employed in orbit corrections is investigated analytically. The theoretical results of Serafin (1982) are applied to numerical computations in rectangular coordinates, and results for a number of generalized and practical problems are presented in extensive graphs and discussed in detail. The numerical results confirm that symmetric difference quotients give significantly more accurate predictions than ordinary difference quotients.

  12. Overlooked Talent Sources and Corporate Strategies for Affirmative Action. Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacobelli, John L.; Muczyk, Jan P.

    1975-01-01

    Part Two of the two-part article describes corporate strategies for affirmative action in order to obtain the most qualified individuals available for professional positions among minority and female candidates. (Author/BP)

  13. Evaluación neurofuncional del tallo cerebral Parte II: Reflejo mandibular = Neurofunctional evaluation of brain stem. II. Mandibular reflex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Sarmiento, Fidias E.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available El reflejo mandibular o maseterino posee conexiones nerviosas únicas, diferentes de las exhi­bidas por otros reflejos monosinápticos humanos, y permite evaluar, de forma fácil y eficien­te, el tallo cerebral por medio de la estimulación mecánica, eléctrica o magnética. Diversos estudios han demostrado la participación en este reflejo de las interneuronas del tallo cerebral y su modulación por estructuras supraespinales, que hacen parte fundamental de su integra­ción motora. El reflejo mandibular es útil para evaluar la afectación trigémino-trigeminal en polineuropatías como la diabetes, neuromiopatías como la esclerosis múltiple y en pacientes con trastornos del movimiento, con o sin disfunción oromandibular. La evaluación neuro­funcional de este reflejo craneofacial ayuda a identificar la integración sensorimotora del tallo cerebral y las posibles alteraciones de estas vías reflejas, debidas a anormalidades del sistema nervioso central o del periférico. Su apropiada ejecución e interpretación, clínica y neurológica, permite aplicar de manera más personalizada diversos protocolos de neurorre­habilitación, con el fin de ayudar a mejorar la calidad de vida de los individuos con afectación de estas vías neurales.

  14. Current antiviral drugs and their analysis in biological materials - Part II: Antivirals against hepatitis and HIV viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nováková, Lucie; Pavlík, Jakub; Chrenková, Lucia; Martinec, Ondřej; Červený, Lukáš

    2018-01-05

    This review is a Part II of the series aiming to provide comprehensive overview of currently used antiviral drugs and to show modern approaches to their analysis. While in the Part I antivirals against herpes viruses and antivirals against respiratory viruses were addressed, this part concerns antivirals against hepatitis viruses (B and C) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Many novel antivirals against hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV have been introduced into the clinical practice over the last decade. The recent broadening portfolio of these groups of antivirals is reflected in increasing number of developed analytical methods required to meet the needs of clinical terrain. Part II summarizes the mechanisms of action of antivirals against hepatitis B virus (HBV), HCV, and HIV, their use in clinical practice, and analytical methods for individual classes. It also provides expert opinion on state of art in the field of bioanalysis of these drugs. Analytical methods reflect novelty of these chemical structures and use by far the most current approaches, such as simple and high-throughput sample preparation and fast separation, often by means of UHPLC-MS/MS. Proper method validation based on requirements of bioanalytical guidelines is an inherent part of the developed methods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Enhancement of synthetic jets by means of an integrated valve-less pump, Part II: Numerical and experimental studies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trávníček, Zdeněk; Tesař, Václav; Wang, A.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 125, č. 1 (2005), s. 50-58 ISSN 0924-4247 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KSK2076106 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : periodic jets * synthetic jets Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.363, year: 2005

  16. DOE program guide for universities and other research groups. Part I. DOE Research and Development Programs; Part II. DOE Procurement and Assistance Policies/Procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-03-01

    This guide addresses the DOE responsibility for fostering advanced research and development of all energy resources, both current and potential. It is intended to provide, in a single publication, all the fundamental information needed by an institution to develop a potential working relationship with DOE. Part I describes DOE research and development programs and facilities, and identifies areas of additional research needs and potential areas for new research opportunities. It also summarizes budget data and identifies the DOE program information contacts for each program. Part II provides researchers and research administrators with an introduction to the DOE administrative policies and procedures for submission and evaluation of proposals and the administration of resulting grants, cooperative agreements, and research contracts. (RWR)

  17. Programming an interim report on the SETL project. Part I: generalities. Part II: the SETL language and examples of its use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, J T

    1975-06-01

    A summary of work during the past several years on SETL, a new programming language drawing its dictions and basic concepts from the mathematical theory of sets, is presented. The work was started with the idea that a programming language modeled after an appropriate version of the formal language of mathematics might allow a programming style with some of the succinctness of mathematics, and that this might ultimately enable one to express and experiment with more complex algorithms than are now within reach. Part I discusses the general approach followed in the work. Part II focuses directly on the details of the SETL language as it is now defined. It describes the facilities of SETL, includes short libraries of miscellaneous and of code optimization algorithms illustrating the use of SETL, and gives a detailed description of the manner in which the set-theoretic primitives provided by SETL are currently implemented. (RWR)

  18. A critical overview of non-aqueous capillary electrophoresis. Part II: separation efficiency and analysis time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenndler, Ernst

    2014-03-28

    A survey of the literature on non-aqueous capillary zone electrophoresis leaves one with the impression of a prevailing notion that non-aqueous conditions are principally more favorable than conventional aqueous media. Specifically, the application of organic solvents in capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) is believed to provide the general advantages of superior separation efficiency, higher applicable electric field strength, and shorter analysis time. These advantages, however, are often claimed without providing any experimental evidence, or based on rather uncritical comparisons of limited sets of arbitrarily selected separation results. Therefore, the performance characteristics of non-aqueous vs. aqueous CZE certainly deserve closer scrutiny. The primary intention of Part II of this review is to give a critical survey of the literature on non-aqueous capillary electrophoresis (NACE) that has emerged over the last five years. Emphasis is mainly placed on those studies that are concerned with the aspects of plate height, plate number, and the crucial mechanisms contributing to zone broadening, both in organic and aqueous conditions. To facilitate a deeper understanding, this treatment covers also the theoretical fundamentals of peak dispersion phenomena arising from wall adsorption; concentration overload (electromigration dispersion); longitudinal diffusion; and thermal gradients. Theoretically achievable plate numbers are discussed, both under limiting (at zero ionic strength) and application-relevant conditions (at finite ionic strength). In addition, the impact of the superimposed electroosmotic flow contributions to overall CZE performance is addressed, both for aqueous and non-aqueous media. It was concluded that for peak dispersion due to wall adsorption and due to concentration overload (electromigration dispersion, leading to peak triangulation) no general conjunction with the solvent can be deduced. This is in contrast to longitudinal diffusion: the

  19. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 2. UNIT XV, UNDERSTANDING DC GENERATOR PRINCIPLES (PART II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 25-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES FOR DIRECT CURRENT GENERATORS USED ON DIESEL POWERED EQUIPMENT. TOPICS ARE SPECIAL GENERATOR CIRCUITS, GENERATOR TESTING, AND GENERATOR POLARITY. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAMED TRAINING FILM "DC GENERATORS II--GENERATOR…

  20. Studies on the sediments of Vembanad Lake, Kerala state: Part II - Distribution of phosphorus

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murty, P.S.N.; Veerayya, M.

    in the estuarine region has been attributed to several factors. The impoverishment of Mn and Co can be due to (i) desorption of these elements from the river borne detritus on coming into contact with saline waters, (ii) dredging operations which may lead...

  1. 49 CFR Appendix II to Part 805 - Employees Required To Submit Statements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...—Employees Required To Submit Statements Statements of employment and financial interests are required of the... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Employees Required To Submit Statements II...) Office of the managing director: (1) Legislative affairs officer. (2) Program analysis officer. (d...

  2. Metamorphic history of the Central Pyrenees Part II, Valle de Arán, Sheet 4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, H.J.

    1963-01-01

    The structural geology and metamorphic petrology of the Bosost area in the Valle de Arán (Central Pyrenees) is discussed. The rocks exposed in this area consist of Cambro-Ordovician mica-schists with numerous granite and pegmatite bodies, phyllites and limestones; Silurian slates and schists and

  3. Rise, fall and resurrection of chromosome territories: a historical perspective Part II. Fall and resurrection of chromosome territories during the 1950s to 1980s. Part III. Chromosome territories and the functional nuclear architecture: experiments and m

    OpenAIRE

    T Cremer; C Cremer

    2009-01-01

    Part II of this historical review on the progress of nuclear architecture studies points out why the original hypothesis of chromosome territories from Carl Rabl and Theodor Boveri (described in part I) was abandoned during the 1950s and finally proven by compelling evidence forwarded by laser-uvmicrobeam studies and in situ hybridization experiments. Part II also includes a section on the development of advanced light microscopic techniques breaking the classical Abbe limit written for reade...

  4. Not-for-profit versus for-profit health care providers--Part II: Comparing and contrasting their records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotarius, Timothy; Trujillo, Antonio J; Liberman, Aaron; Ramirez, Bernardo

    2006-01-01

    The debate over which health care providers are most capably meeting their responsibilities in serving the public's interest continues unabated, and the comparisons of not-for-profit (NFP) versus for-profit (FP) hospitals remain at the epicenter of the discussion. From the perspective of available factual information, which of the two sides to this debate is correct? This article is part II of a 2-part series on comparing and contrasting the performance records of NFP health care providers with their FP counterparts. Although it is demonstrated that both NFP and FP providers perform virtuous and selfless feats on behalf of America's public, it is also shown that both camps have been accused of being involved in potentially willful clinical and administrative missteps. Part I provided the background information (eg, legal differences, perspectives on social responsibility, and types of questionable and fraudulent behavior) required to adequately understand the scope of the comparison issue. Part II offers actual comparisons of the 2 organizational structures using several disparate factors such as specific organizational behaviors, approach to the health care priorities of cost and quality, and business-focused goals of profits, efficiency, and community benefit.

  5. Instrumentation: Photodiode Array Detectors in UV-VIS Spectroscopy. Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Dianna G.

    1985-01-01

    A previous part (Analytical Chemistry; v57 n9 p1057A) discussed the theoretical aspects of diode ultraviolet-visual (UV-VIS) spectroscopy. This part describes the applications of diode arrays in analytical chemistry, also considering spectroelectrochemistry, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), HPLC data processing, stopped flow, and…

  6. Empirical Psycho-Aesthetics and Her Sisters: Substantive and Methodological Issues--Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konecni, Vladimir J.

    2013-01-01

    Empirical psycho-aesthetics is approached in this two-part article from two directions. Part I, which appeared in the Winter 2012 issue of "JAE," addressed definitional and organizational issues, including the field's origins, its relation to "sister" disciplines (experimental philosophy, cognitive neuroscience of art, and neuroaesthetics), and…

  7. As sure as tax, rain or death (Part II) : digitalisation dragons?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staal, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Tax evasion, delayed trains & untidy death seem to be parts of our daily lives. But what about the digitalisation dragons? Will they wipe away B2B sales and procurement as we know it, our will we see a more nuanced picture? The first Part on this topic so far has attracted 3700+ readers at our PSF

  8. A study of flame spread in engineered cardboard fuelbeds: Part II: Scaling law approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittany A. Adam; Nelson K. Akafuah; Mark Finney; Jason Forthofer; Kozo Saito

    2013-01-01

    In this second part of a two part exploration of dynamic behavior observed in wildland fires, time scales differentiating convective and radiative heat transfer is further explored. Scaling laws for the two different types of heat transfer considered: Radiation-driven fire spread, and convection-driven fire spread, which can both occur during wildland fires. A new...

  9. Green's function of an infinite slot printed between two homogeneous dielectrics - Part II: Uniform asymptotic solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maci, S.; Neto, A.

    2004-01-01

    This second part of a two-paper sequence deals with the uniform asymptotic description of the Green's function of an infinite slot printed between two different homogeneous dielectric media. Starting from the magnetic current derived in Part I, the dyadic green's function is first formulated in

  10. Military Curricula for Vocational & Technical Education. Club Restaurant Operations, Part II, 9-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Army Quartermaster School, Ft. Lee, VA.

    These programmed instructional materials for part 2 of a secondary-postsecondary subcourse in club management operations are one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instruction and curriculum development in civilian settings. This part of the subcourse consists of three lessons and an…

  11. 10 CFR Appendix II to Part 960 - NRC and EPA Requirements for Preclosure Repository Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) that, except for variances permitted for unusual operations under Section 191.04 as an upper limit..., and schedule. 10 CFR part 20 establishes (a) exposure limits for operating personnel and (b... necessary to ensure consistency with 10 CFR part 60. ...

  12. RELAP-7 Software Verification and Validation Plan: Requirements Traceability Matrix (RTM) Part 1 – Physics and numerical methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yong Joon [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Yoo, Jun Soo [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Smith, Curtis Lee [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This INL plan comprehensively describes the Requirements Traceability Matrix (RTM) on main physics and numerical method of the RELAP-7. The plan also describes the testing-based software verification and validation (SV&V) process—a set of specially designed software models used to test RELAP-7.

  13. Neutronics and thermohydraulics of the reactor C.E.N.E. Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caro, R.

    1976-01-01

    In this report the analysis of neutronics thermohydraulics and shielding of the 10 HWt swimming pool reactor C.E.N.E is included. In each of these chapters is given a short description of the theoretical model used, along with the theoretical versus experimental checking carried out, whenever possible, with the reactors JEN-I and JEN-II of Junta de Energia Nuclear. (Author) 11 refs

  14. Numerical analysis of resonances induced by s wave neutrons in transmission time-of-flight experiments with a computer IBM 7094 II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corge, Ch.

    1969-01-01

    Numerical analysis of transmission resonances induced by s wave neutrons in time-of-flight experiments can be achieved in a fairly automatic way on an IBM 7094/II computer. The involved computations are carried out following a four step scheme: 1 - experimental raw data are processed to obtain the resonant transmissions, 2 - values of experimental quantities for each resonance are derived from the above transmissions, 3 - resonance parameters are determined using a least square method to solve the over determined system obtained by equalling theoretical functions to the correspondent experimental values. Four analysis methods are gathered in the same code, 4 - graphical control of the results is performed. (author) [fr

  15. Higher-order meshing of implicit geometries, Part II: Approximations on manifolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, T. P.; Schöllhammer, D.

    2017-11-01

    A new concept for the higher-order accurate approximation of partial differential equations on manifolds is proposed where a surface mesh composed by higher-order elements is automatically generated based on level-set data. Thereby, it enables a completely automatic workflow from the geometric description to the numerical analysis without any user-intervention. A master level-set function defines the shape of the manifold through its zero-isosurface which is then restricted to a finite domain by additional level-set functions. It is ensured that the surface elements are sufficiently continuous and shape regular which is achieved by manipulating the background mesh. The numerical results show that optimal convergence rates are obtained with a moderate increase in the condition number compared to handcrafted surface meshes.

  16. Reflooding phase of the LOCA in PWRs. Part II: rewetting and liquid entrainment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elias, E.; Yadigaroglu, G.

    1978-01-01

    Surface rewetting and liquid-droplet entrainment play an important role in the analysis of the reflooding phase of the loss-of-coolant accident in pressurized-water reactors. The definitions and the various interpretations given to the rewetting temperature and the rewetting mechanisms of the fuel rods are discussed. Published models of the axial-conduction-controlled rewetting process include one-dimensional solutions in two axial regions, one-dimensional solutions in three axial regions with or without precursory cooling, one- and two-dimensional numerical-difference techniques using temperature-dependent heat-transfer coefficients, and analytical two-dimensional solutions. The basic physical assumptions and the numerical values assigned to the various parameters, as well as empirical rewetting correlations, are discussed. The physical mechanisms for liquid-droplet entrainment and analytical formulations of the critical gas velocity and of the droplet diameter at the onset of entrainment are reviewed

  17. 1 kWe sodium borohydride hydrogen generation system Part II: Reactor modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jinsong; Zheng, Yuan; Gore, Jay P; Mudawar, Issam; Fisher, Timothy

    2007-01-01

    Sodium borohydride (NaBH4) hydrogen storage systems offer many advantages for hydrogen storage applications. The physical processes inside a NaBH4 packed bed reactor involve multi-component and multi-phase flow and multi-mode heat and mass transfer. These processes are also coupled with reaction kinetics. To guide reactor design and optimization, a reactor model involving all of these processes is desired. A onedimensional numerical model in conjunction with the assumption of homogeneous cata...

  18. Numerical implementation and oceanographic application of the thermodynamic potentials of liquid water, water vapour, ice, seawater and humid air – Part 2: The library routines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Wright

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The SCOR/IAPSO1 Working Group 127 on Thermodynamics and Equation of State of Seawater has prepared recommendations for new methods and algorithms for numerical estimation of the the thermophysical properties of seawater. As an outcome of this work, a new International Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater (TEOS–10 was endorsed by IOC/UNESCO2 in June 2009 as the official replacement and extension of the 1980 International Equation of State, EOS-80. As part of this new standard a source code package has been prepared that is now made freely available to users via the World Wide Web. This package includes two libraries referred to as the SIA (Sea-Ice-Air library and the GSW (Gibbs SeaWater library. Information on the GSW library may be found on the TEOS-10 web site (http://www.TEOS-10.org. This publication provides an introduction to the SIA library which contains routines to calculate various thermodynamic properties as discussed in the companion paper. The SIA library is very comprehensive, including routines to deal with fluid water, ice, seawater and humid air as well as equilibrium states involving various combinations of these, with equivalent code developed in different languages. The code is hierachically structured in modules that support (i almost unlimited extension with respect to additional properties or relations, (ii an extraction of self-contained sub-libraries, (iii separate updating of the empirical thermodynamic potentials, and (iv code verification on different platforms and between different languages. Error trapping is implemented to identify when one or more of the primary routines are accessed significantly beyond their established range of validity. The initial version of the SIA library is available in Visual Basic and FORTRAN as a supplement to this publication and updates will be maintained on the TEOS-10 web site.

    1

  19. Executive Summary: Parts on Demand Project (CATT Phase II) - Volume 1 of 2

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gates, Robert

    1996-01-01

    .... The GAO has profiled DoD challenges in: maintaining an aging aircraft fleet, reducing response time and cost of providing the spare parts, implementing commercial inventory management practices, reinventing buying and contracting practices...

  20. 48 CFR 14.201-3 - Part II-Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Solicitation of Bids 14.201-3 Part II—Contract clauses... law or by this regulation and any additional clauses expected to apply to any resulting contract, if...

  1. Strategic planning for hotel operations: The Ritz-Carlton Hotel Company (Part II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriver, S J

    1993-01-01

    The Ritz-Carlton Hotel Company won the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award in 1992. One key to its success is its strategic planning process. In this second part of a two-part article, Stephen Shriver concludes his review of the Ritz-Carlton's approach to strategic planning. Shriver begins by outlining some key steps in plan development and goes on to describe how the Ritz-Carlton disseminates, implements, and evaluates the plan.

  2. The motion planning problem and exponential stabilization of a heavy chain. Part II

    OpenAIRE

    Piotr Grabowski

    2008-01-01

    This is the second part of paper [P. Grabowski, The motion planning problem and exponential stabilization of a heavy chain. Part I, to appear in International Journal of Control], where a model of a heavy chain system with a punctual load (tip mass) in the form of a system of partial differential equations was interpreted as an abstract semigroup system and then analysed on a Hilbert state space. In particular, in [P. Grabowski, The motion planning problem and exponential stabilization of a h...

  3. The Exact Ground State of the Frenkel-Kontorova Model with Repeated Parabolic Potential: II. Numerical Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Scheidsteger, T.; Urbschat, H.; Griffiths, R. B.; Schellnhuber, H. J.

    1997-01-01

    A procedure is described for efficiently finding the ground state energy and configuration for a Frenkel-Kontorova model in a periodic potential, consisting of N parabolic segments of identical curvature in each period, through a numerical solution of the convex minimization problem described in the preceding paper. The key elements are the use of subdifferentials to describe the structure of the minimization problem; an intuitive picture of how to solve it, based on motion of quasiparticles;...

  4. Dark matter as a dynamic effect due to a non-minimal gravitational coupling with matter (II): Numerical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paramos, J; Bertolami, O

    2010-01-01

    Following the previous contribution discussing the rich phenomenology of models possessing a non-minimal coupling between matter and geometry, with emphasis on its characteristics and analytical results, the obtained 'dark matter' mimicking mechanism is numerically studied. This allows for ascertaining the order of magnitude of the relevant parameters, leading to a validation of the analytical results and the discussion of possible cosmological implications and deviation from universality.

  5. Quasi-periodic oscillations in accreting magnetic white dwarfs. II. The asset of numerical modelling for interpreting observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busschaert, C.; Falize, É.; Michaut, C.; Bonnet-Bidaud, J.-M.; Mouchet, M.

    2015-07-01

    Context. Magnetic cataclysmic variables are close binary systems containing a strongly magnetized white dwarf that accretes matter coming from an M-dwarf companion. The high magnetic field strength leads to the formation of an accretion column instead of an accretion disk. High-energy radiation coming from those objects is emitted from the column close to the white dwarf photosphere at the impact region. Its properties depend on the characteristics of the white dwarf and an accurate accretion column model allows the properties of the binary system to be inferred, such as the white dwarf mass, its magnetic field, and the accretion rate. Aims: We study the temporal and spectral behaviour of the accretion region and use the tools we developed to accurately connect the simulation results to the X-ray and optical astronomical observations. Methods: The radiation hydrodynamics code Hades was adapted to simulate this specific accretion phenomena. Classical approaches were used to model the radiative losses of the two main radiative processes: bremsstrahlung and cyclotron. Synthetic light curves and X-ray spectra were extracted from numerical simulations. A fast Fourier analysis was performed on the simulated light curves. The oscillation frequencies and amplitudes in the X-ray and optical domains are studied to compare those numerical results to observational ones. Different dimensional formulae were developed to complete the numerical evaluations. Results: The complete characterization of the emitting region is described for the two main radiative regimes: when only the bremsstrahlung losses and when both cyclotron and bremsstrahlung losses are considered. The effect of the non-linear cooling instability regime on the accretion column behaviour is analysed. Variation in luminosity on short timescales (~1 s quasi-periodic oscillations) is an expected consequence of this specific dynamic. The importance of secondary shock instability on the quasi-periodic oscillation

  6. Intercomparison of analysis methods for seismically isolated nuclear structures. Part 1: Advanced test data and numerical methods. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the meeting was to review proposed contributions from CRP participating organizations to discuss in detail the experimental data on seismic isolators, to review the numerical methods for the analysis of the seismic isolators, and to perform a first comparison of the calculation results. The aim of the CRP was to validate the reliable numerical methods used for both detailed evaluation of dynamic behaviour of isolation devices and isolated nuclear structures of different nuclear power plant types. The full maturity of seismic isolation for nuclear applications was stressed, as well as the excellent behaviour of isolated structures during the recent earthquakes in Japan and the USA. Participants from Italy, USA, Japan, Russian federation, Republic of Korea, United Kingdom, India and European Commission have presented overview papers on the present programs and their status of contribution to the CRP

  7. Intercomparison of analysis methods for seismically isolated nuclear structures. Part 1: Advanced test data and numerical methods. Working material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-07-01

    The purpose of the meeting was to review proposed contributions from CRP participating organizations to discuss in detail the experimental data on seismic isolators, to review the numerical methods for the analysis of the seismic isolators, and to perform a first comparison of the calculation results. The aim of the CRP was to validate the reliable numerical methods used for both detailed evaluation of dynamic behaviour of isolation devices and isolated nuclear structures of different nuclear power plant types. The full maturity of seismic isolation for nuclear applications was stressed, as well as the excellent behaviour of isolated structures during the recent earthquakes in Japan and the USA. Participants from Italy, USA, Japan, Russian federation, Republic of Korea, United Kingdom, India and European Commission have presented overview papers on the present programs and their status of contribution to the CRP.

  8. Experimental and numerical study of steel pipe with part-wall defect reinforced with fibre glass sleeve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazurkiewicz, Lukasz; Tomaszewski, Michal; Malachowski, Jerzy; Sybilski, Kamil; Chebakov, Mikhail; Witek, Maciej; Yukhymets, Peter; Dmitrienko, Roman

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents numerical and experimental burst pressure evaluation of the gas seamless hot-rolled steel pipe. The main goal was to estimate mechanical toughness of pipe wrapped with composite sleeve and verify selected sleeve thickness. The authors used a nonlinear explicit FE code with constitutive models which allows for steel and composite structure failure modelling. Thanks to the achieved numerical and analytical results it was possible to perform the comparison with data received from a capacity test and good correlation between the results were obtained. Additionally, the conducted analyses revealed that local reduction of pipe wall thickness from 6 mm to 2.4 mm due to corrosion defect can reduce high pressure resistance by about 40%. Finally, pipe repaired by a fibre glass sleeve with epoxy resin with 6 mm thickness turned out more resistant than an original steel pipe considering burst pressure. - Highlights: • Numerical and experimental burst pressure evaluation of steel pipe was performed. • Seamless hot-rolled steel pipe with and without corrosion defect were considered. • Local reduction of pipe wall thickness from 6 to 2.4 mm reduces resistance by 40%. • Pipe repaired by a 6 mm fibre glass sleeve was more resistant than an original pipe.

  9. The Influence of Injection Pockets on the Performance of Tilting-Pad Thrust Bearings - Part II: Comparison Between Theory and Experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinrichson, Niels; Fuerst, Axel; Santos, Ilmar

    2007-01-01

    This is Part II of a two-part series of papers describing the effects of high-pressure injection pockets on the operating conditions of tilting-pad thrust bearings. The paper has two main objectives. One is an experimental investigation of the influence of an oil injection pocket on the pressure...... and without oil injection) on the pressure distribution and oil film thickness. Measurements of the distribution of pressure and oil film thickness are presented for tilting-pad thrust bearing pads of approx. 100 cm^2 surface area. Two pads are measured in a laboratory test rig at loads of approx. 1.5 MPa...... and approx. 4.0 MPa and velocities of up to 33 m/s. One pad has a plain surface. The other pad has a conical injection pocket at the pivot point and a leading-edge taper. The measurements are compared to theoretical values obtained using a three-dimensional thermoelastohydrodynamic (TEHD) numerical model...

  10. Field Surveys, IOC Valleys. Biological Resources Survey, Dry Lake Valley, Nevada. Volume II, Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    years ago; the transplant was considered unsuccessful. Sagebrush is the principal item in the diet of adult sage grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), and...canyon areas in the normal chukar partridge range but can also extend its range to areas too dry for the chukar. The transplant was not con- sidered...determined. - Ertee E-TR-48-II-I SSL1’N SL xx- C - - _ 0S91’ - - I. 009t N - - 0’J o,, s). N, - . ,o 09 -SW,- - - ,o T z X -4 oseo 0L91 - N - = - ozot ma

  11. Project Monitor: Part II. Conservation in small business: an exploratory study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammond, P Y

    1979-08-01

    Project Monitor examined the energy conservation attitude and behavior of small samples of small business owners/operators in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, focusing on manufacturing concerns and retailers. Section I reports the findings on the energy conserving behavior of 92 smaller manufacturers and Section II identifies the factors which affect decision making concerning energy consuming activities by the owners/operators of 94 small retail establishments. In each, the impact of Project Pacesetter and of the coal strike and the general energy situation is considered. (MCW)

  12. The oscillatory behavior of heated channels: an analysis of the density effect. Part I. The mechanism (non linear analysis). Part II. The oscillations thresholds (linearized analysis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boure, J.

    1967-01-01

    The problem of the oscillatory behavior of heated channels is presented in terms of delay-times and a density effect model is proposed to explain the behavior. The density effect is the consequence of the physical relationship between enthalpy and density of the fluid. In the first part non-linear equations are derived from the model in a dimensionless form. A description of the mechanism of oscillations is given, based on the analysis of the equations. An inventory of the governing parameters is established. At this point of the study, some facts in agreement with the experiments can be pointed out. In the second part the start of the oscillatory behavior of heated channels is studied in terms of the density effect. The threshold equations are derived, after linearization of the equations obtained in Part I. They can be solved rigorously by numerical methods to yield: -1) a relation between the describing parameters at the onset of oscillations, and -2) the frequency of the oscillations. By comparing the results predicted by the model to the experimental behavior of actual systems, the density effect is very often shown to be the actual cause of oscillatory behaviors. (author) [fr

  13. Toward Improved Rotor-Only Axial Fans—Part II: Design Optimization for Maximum Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Dan Nørtoft; Thompson, M. C.; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2000-01-01

    Numerical design optimization of the aerodynamic performance of axial fans is carried out, maximizing the efficiency in a designinterval of flow rates. Tip radius, number of blades, and angular velocity of the rotor are fixed, whereas the hub radius andspanwise distributions of chord length......, stagger angle, and camber angle are varied to find the optimum rotor geometry.Constraints ensure a pressure rise above a specified target and an angle of attack on the blades below stall. The optimizationscheme is used to investigate the dependence of maximum efficiency on the width of the design interval...

  14. The One-on-One Stochastic Duel. Parts I and II

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-04-15

    University Microfilms, Inc., Ann Arbor, Michigan, No. M16f7) FM - CRIFT r miss 3 states hit, not killed hit, killed P[hit] -p, a constant; P[miss) - -p; and P...AB] Numerical examples Harkov chains number theory - matrix maniplations geoetric transforms B-3 * H 1. HARRIS, Terrell J., "In•y Versus )arz...34 Master’s Thesis, Dept. of Industrial Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 8 August, 1968.) (Also, DSL C2147 WP 68-4(U), Defense

  15. Studies on classifying Indian coals. Part II. A new system for grading and pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumuluri, S.G.; Shrikhande, S.K.; Rao, S.K.; Haque, R.

    1985-07-01

    The new system is self-complete through grading to pricing. It grades non-coking coal by moisture and ash contents. Coking coal is graded by GKLT coke type and ash content. Volatile matter content is used as a supporting indexer, where necessary. Through the grade data, a coal is evaluated into a single numeral which depicts the coaly matter content and its nature or effectiveness. This value, called effective coaly matter, is converted to a relative rupee value or price index/price. Pragmatics and versatility of the system are discussed.

  16. Anesthesia and ventilation strategies in children with asthma: part II - intraoperative management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regli, Adrian; von Ungern-Sternberg, Britta S

    2014-06-01

    As asthma is a frequent disease especially in children, anesthetists are increasingly providing anesthesia for children requiring elective surgery with well controlled asthma but also for those requiring urgent surgery with poorly controlled or undiagnosed asthma. This second part of this two-part review details the medical and ventilatory management throughout the perioperative period in general but also includes the perioperative management of acute bronchospasm and asthma exacerbations in children with asthma. Multiple observational trials assessing perioperative respiratory adverse events in healthy and asthmatic children provide the basis for identifying risk reduction strategies. Mainly, animal experiments and to a small extent clinical data have advanced our understanding of how anesthetic agents effect bronchial smooth muscle tone and blunt reflex bronchoconstriction. Asthma treatment outside anesthesia is well founded on a large body of evidence.Perioperative prevention strategies have increasingly been studied. However, evidence on the perioperative management, including mechanical ventilation strategies of asthmatic children, is still only fair, and further research is required. To minimize the considerable risk of perioperative respiratory adverse events in asthmatic children, perioperative management should be based on two main pillars: the preoperative optimization of asthma treatment (please refer to the first part of this two-part review) and - the focus of this second part of this review - the optimization of anesthesia management in order to optimize lung function and minimize bronchial hyperreactivity in the perioperative period.

  17. Transactive System: Part II: Analysis of Two Pilot Transactive Systems using Foundational Theory and Metrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lian, Jianming [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sun, Y. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kalsi, Karanjit [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Widergren, Steven E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wu, Di [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ren, Huiying [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2018-01-24

    This document is the second of a two-part report. Part 1 reviewed several demonstrations of transactive control and compared them in terms of their payoff functions, control decisions, information privacy, and mathematical solution concepts. It was suggested in Part 1 that these four listed components should be adopted for meaningful comparison and design of future transactive systems. Part 2 proposes qualitative and quantitative metrics that will be needed to compare alternative transactive systems. It then uses the analysis and design principles from Part 1 while conducting more in-depth analysis of two transactive demonstrations: the American Electric Power (AEP) gridSMART Demonstration, which used a double –auction market mechanism, and a consensus method like that used in the Pacific Northwest Smart Grid Demonstration. Ultimately, metrics must be devised and used to meaningfully compare alternative transactive systems. One significant contribution of this report is an observation that the decision function used for thermostat control in the AEP gridSMART Demonstration has superior performance if its decision function is recast to more accurately reflect the power that will be used under for thermostatic control under alternative market outcomes.

  18. A review of breast tomosynthesis. Part II. Image reconstruction, processing and analysis, and advanced applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sechopoulos, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    Many important post-acquisition aspects of breast tomosynthesis imaging can impact its clinical performance. Chief among them is the reconstruction algorithm that generates the representation of the three-dimensional breast volume from the acquired projections. But even after reconstruction, additional processes, such as artifact reduction algorithms, computer aided detection and diagnosis, among others, can also impact the performance of breast tomosynthesis in the clinical realm. In this two part paper, a review of breast tomosynthesis research is performed, with an emphasis on its medical physics aspects. In the companion paper, the first part of this review, the research performed relevant to the image acquisition process is examined. This second part will review the research on the post-acquisition aspects, including reconstruction, image processing, and analysis, as well as the advanced applications being investigated for breast tomosynthesis. PMID:23298127

  19. Computer program for regional assessment of lung perfusion defect. Part II - verification of the algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefaniak, B.

    2002-01-01

    As described earlier, a dedicated computer program was developed for quantitative evaluation of regional lung perfusion defects, visualized by pulmonary scintigraphy. The correctness of the basic assumptions accepted to construct the algorithms and of the all program functions needed to be checked, before application of the program into the clinical routine. The aim of this study was to verified the program using various software instruments and physical models. Evaluation of the proposed method was performed using software procedures, physical lung phantom, and selected lung image.The reproducibility of lung regions, defined by the program was found excellent. No significant distortion of registered data was observed after ROI transformation into the circle and retransformation into the original shape. The obtained results comprised parametric presentation of activity defects as well as a set of numerical indices which defined extent and intensity of decreased counts density. Among these indices PD2 and DM* were proved the most suitable for the above purposes. The obtained results indicate that the algorithms used for the program construction were correct and suitable for the aim of the study. The above algorithms enable function under study to be presented graphically with true imaging of activity distribution, as well as numerical indices, defining extent and intensity of activity defects to calculated. (author)

  20. Evaluation and diagnosis of the hair loss patient: part II. Trichoscopic and laboratory evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubki, Thamer; Rudnicka, Lidia; Olszewska, Malgorzata; Shapiro, Jerry

    2014-09-01

    The use of trichoscopy for evaluating a number of hair and scalp disorders is gaining popularity. It is a simple and noninvasive in vivo tool for visualizing hair shafts and the scalp. Recently, alopecias have been classified according to their trichoscopic findings. The second part of this 2-part continuing medical education article reviews recent advances in this field and describes a systematic approach for using the differential diagnostic findings of trichoscopy in alopecia. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Light detection and ranging measurements of wake dynamics. Part II: two-dimensional scanning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trujillo, Juan-José; Bingöl, Ferhat; Larsen, Gunner Chr.

    2011-01-01

    the instantaneous transversal wake position which is quantitatively compared with the prediction of the Dynamic Wake Meandering model. The results, shown for two 10-min time series, suggest that the conjecture of the wake behaving as a passive tracer is a fair approximation; this corroborates and expands...... the results of one-dimensional measurements already presented in the first part of this paper. Consequently, it is now possible to separate the deterministic and turbulent parts of the wake wind field, thus enabling capturing the wake in the meandering frame of reference. The results correspond, qualitatively...

  2. FROM ZERO-DIMENSIONAL TO 2-DIMENSIONAL CARBON NANOMATERIALS - part II: GRAPHENE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin IANCU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available As was presented in the first part of this review paper, lately, many theoretical and experimental studies have been carried out to develop one of the most interesting aspects of the science and nanotechnology which is called carbon-related nanomaterials. In this review paper are presented some of the most exciting and important developments in the synthesis, properties, and applications of low-dimensional carbon nanomaterials. In this part of the paper are presented the synthesis techniques used to produce the two-dimensional carbon nanomaterials (including graphene, and also the most important properties and potential applications of graphene.

  3. Optimisation of energy absorbing liner for equestrian helmets. Part II: Functionally graded foam liner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, L.; Forero Rueda, M.A.; Gilchrist, M.D.

    2009-01-01

    The energy absorbing liner of safety helmets was optimised using finite element modelling. In this present paper, a functionally graded foam (FGF) liner was modelled, while keeping the average liner density the same as in a corresponding reference single uniform density liner model. Use of a functionally graded foam liner would eliminate issues regarding delamination and crack propagation between interfaces of different density layers which could arise in liners with discrete density variations. As in our companion Part I paper [Forero Rueda MA, Cui L, Gilchrist MD. Optimisation of energy absorbing liner for equestrian helmets. Part I: Layered foam liner. Mater Des [submitted for publication

  4. Mammalian Toxicity of Munition Compounds. Phase II. Effects of Multiple Doses. Part III. 2,6-Dinitrotoluene

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-07-01

    and the neuromuscular effects in these dogs were not due to hypocalcemia . The lowest serum calcium concen- tration in these dogs was 4.2 meq/liter...motor end plate might produce a local hypocalcemia . Such a mechanism is purely speculative. Qualitatively and quantitavely, most of the effects of 2,6...I ýNw,- -MIM I/ MIDWEST RESEARCH INS14ITUTE H0q .3L I LU -_ MAMMALIAN TOXICITY OF MUNITIONS COMPOUlNDSPHASE II: EFFECTS OF MiULTIPLE DOSES C* •PART

  5. Estimating the Cross-Shelf Export of Riverine Materials: Part 1. General Relationships From an Idealized Numerical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izett, Jonathan G.; Fennel, Katja

    2018-02-01

    Rivers deliver large amounts of terrestrially derived materials (such as nutrients, sediments, and pollutants) to the coastal ocean, but a global quantification of the fate of this delivery is lacking. Nutrients can accumulate on shelves, potentially driving high levels of primary production with negative consequences like hypoxia, or be exported across the shelf to the open ocean where impacts are minimized. Global biogeochemical models cannot resolve the relatively small-scale processes governing river plume dynamics and cross-shelf export; instead, river inputs are often parameterized assuming an "all or nothing" approach. Recently, Sharples et al. (2017), https://doi.org/10.1002/2016GB005483 proposed the SP number—a dimensionless number relating the estimated size of a plume as a function of latitude to the local shelf width—as a simple estimator of cross-shelf export. We extend their work, which is solely based on theoretical and empirical scaling arguments, and address some of its limitations using a numerical model of an idealized river plume. In a large number of simulations, we test whether the SP number can accurately describe export in unforced cases and with tidal and wind forcings imposed. Our numerical experiments confirm that the SP number can be used to estimate export and enable refinement of the quantitative relationships proposed by Sharples et al. We show that, in general, external forcing has only a weak influence compared to latitude and derive empirical relationships from the results of the numerical experiments that can be used to estimate riverine freshwater export to the open ocean.

  6. The decision to extract: part II. Analysis of clinicians' stated reasons for extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, S; Korn, E L; Boyd, R L; Maxwell, R

    1996-04-01

    In a recently reported study, the pretreatment records of each subject in a randomized clinical trial of 148 patients with Class I and Class II malocclusions presenting for orthodontic treatment were evaluated independently by five experienced clinicians (drawn from a panel of 14). The clinicians displayed a higher incidence of agreement with each other than had been expected with respect to the decision as to whether extraction was indicated in each specific case. To improve our understanding of how clinicians made their decisions on whether to extract or not, the records of a subset of 72 subjects randomly selected from the full sample of 148, have now been examined in greater detail. In 21 of these cases, all five clinicians decided to treat without extraction. Among the remaining 51 cases, there were 202 decisions to extract (31 unanimous decision cases and 20 split decision cases). The clinicians cited a total of 469 reasons to support these decisions. Crowding was cited as the first reason in 49% of decisions to extract, followed by incisor protrusion (14%), need for profile correction (8%), Class II severity (5%), and achievement of a stable result (5%). When all the reasons for extraction in each clinician's decision were considered as a group, crowding was cited in 73% of decisions, incisor protrusion in 35%, need for profile correction in 27%, Class II severity in 15% and posttreatment stability in 9%. Tooth size anomalies, midline deviations, reduced growth potential, severity of overjet, maintenance of existing profile, desire to close the bite, periodontal problems, and anticipation of poor cooperation accounted collectively for 12% of the first reasons and were mentioned in 54% of the decisions, implying that these considerations play a consequential, if secondary, role in the decision-making process. All other reasons taken together were mentioned in fewer than 20% of cases. In this sample at least, clinicians focused heavily on appearance

  7. Transboundary air pollution in Europe. Part 2: Numerical addendum to emissions, dispersion and trends of acidifying and eutrophying agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berge, Erik [ed.

    1997-12-31

    This report was prepared for the twenty first session of the Steering Body of EMEP (Co-operative Programme for Monitoring and Evaluation of the Long-Range Transmission of Air Pollutants in Europe). It presents the numerical fields and budgets of the acidifying and eutrophying air pollution in the form of three appendices: annual average air concentrations of acidifying and eutrophying species, 1996; country-to-country deposition budgets for acidifying/eutrophying air pollutants, 1985-95; and grid square deposition of acidifying/eutrophying components allocated to emitting countries, mean 1985-95. 19 figs.

  8. Facilitating age diversity in organizations – part II: managing perceptions and interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hertel, Guido; van der Heijden, Beatrice; de Lange, Annet H.; Deller, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – Due to demographic changes in most industrialized countries, the average age of working people is continuously increasing, and the workforce is becoming more age-diverse. This review, together with the earlier JMP Special Issue “Facilitating age diversity in organizations – part I:

  9. Elastic and Piezoelectric Properties of Boron Nitride Nanotube Composites. Part II; Finite Element Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H. Alicia; Hardie, Robert; Yamakov, Vesselin; Park, Cheol

    2015-01-01

    This paper is the second part of a two-part series where the first part presents a molecular dynamics model of a single Boron Nitride Nanotube (BNNT) and this paper scales up to multiple BNNTs in a polymer matrix. This paper presents finite element (FE) models to investigate the effective elastic and piezoelectric properties of (BNNT) nanocomposites. The nanocomposites studied in this paper are thin films of polymer matrix with aligned co-planar BNNTs. The FE modelling approach provides a computationally efficient way to gain an understanding of the material properties. We examine several FE models to identify the most suitable models and investigate the effective properties with respect to the BNNT volume fraction and the number of nanotube walls. The FE models are constructed to represent aligned and randomly distributed BNNTs in a matrix of resin using 2D and 3D hollow and 3D filled cylinders. The homogenisation approach is employed to determine the overall elastic and piezoelectric constants for a range of volume fractions. These models are compared with an analytical model based on Mori-Tanaka formulation suitable for finite length cylindrical inclusions. The model applies to primarily single-wall BNNTs but is also extended to multi-wall BNNTs, for which preliminary results will be presented. Results from the Part 1 of this series can help to establish a constitutive relationship for input into the finite element model to enable the modeling of multiple BNNTs in a polymer matrix.

  10. Facilitating age diversity in organizations ‐ part II: managing perceptions and interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annet de Lange; Jürgen Deller; Beatrice van der Heijden; Guido Hertel

    2013-01-01

    Purpose ‐ Due to demographic changes in most industrialized countries, the average age of working people is continuously increasing, and the workforce is becoming more age-diverse. This review, together with the earlier JMP Special Issue "Facilitating age diversity in organizations ‐ part I:

  11. Composición de la pasta de cemento Pórtland (Parte II)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, H.J.H.

    2007-01-01

    Esta es Ia segunda parte del articulo que revisa el trabajo de Powers y Brownyard (1948) quienes fueron los primeros que investigaron sistemáticamente a reaccion del cemento con el agua y Ia composicion de Ia pasta de cemento.

  12. Cross-section crushing behaviour of hat-sections (Part II: Analytical modelling)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmeyer, H.

    2005-01-01

    Hat-sections are often used to experimentally investigate building sheeting subject to a concentrated load and bending. In car doors, hat-sections are used for side-impact protection. Their crushing behaviour can partly be explained by only observing their cross-sectional behaviour [1]. This

  13. The Concept of Time in Rehabilitation and Psychosocial Adaptation to Chronic Illness and Disability: Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livneh, Hanoch

    2013-01-01

    The first part of this article focused on providing the reader with a general overview of the concept of time with special emphasis on understanding time's role in the structure of personality theories and their associated therapeutic approaches, as well as linking the discussion to the understanding of time in the context of psychosocial…

  14. Institutional Advancement: A Marketing Perspective. Part II: A Status Report, 1978-79.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, Daniel F.

    This follow-up report examines the status of the recruitment and retention strategies implemented by Triton College in 1978 as part of an effort to utilize the marketing concept in identifying and meeting changing educational needs. The report first provides operational definitions for "institutional advancement,""marketing concept,""promotion,"…

  15. Uni-directional waves over slowly varying bottom, part II: Deformation of travelling waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pudjaprasetya, S.R.; Pudjaprasetya, S.R.; van Groesen, Embrecht W.C.

    1996-01-01

    A new Korteweg-de Vries type of equation for uni-directional waves over slowly varying bottom has been derived in Part I. The equation retains the Hamiltonian structure of the underlying complete set of equations for surface waves. For flat bottom it reduces to the standard Korteweg-de Vries

  16. Hip protectors: recommendations for conducting clinical trials--an international consensus statement (part II)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cameron, I D; Robinovitch, S; Birge, S

    2010-01-01

    While hip protectors are effective in some clinical trials, many, including all in community settings, have been unable to demonstrate effectiveness. This is due partly to differences in the design and analysis. The aim of this report is to develop recommendations for subsequent clinical research....

  17. MATLAB-based Applications for Image Processing and Image Quality Assessment – Part II: Experimental Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Krasula

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides an overview of some possible usage of the software described in the Part I. It contains the real examples of image quality improvement, distortion simulations, objective and subjective quality assessment and other ways of image processing that can be obtained by the individual applications.

  18. Sintering of Multilayered Porous Structures: Part II – Experiments and Model Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ni, De Wei; Olevsky, Eugene; Esposito, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    Experimental analyses of shrinkage and distortion kinetics during sintering of bilayered porous and dense gadolinium-doped ceria Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95d structures are carried out, and compared with the theoretical models developed in Part I of this work. A novel approach is developed for the determinat...

  19. LIGHT BRIDGE IN A DEVELOPING ACTIVE REGION. II. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF FLUX EMERGENCE AND LIGHT BRIDGE FORMATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toriumi, Shin; Katsukawa, Yukio; Cheung, Mark C. M.

    2015-01-01

    Light bridges, the bright structure dividing umbrae in sunspot regions, show various activity events. In Paper I, we reported on an analysis of multi-wavelength observations of a light bridge in a developing active region (AR) and concluded that the activity events are caused by magnetic reconnection driven by magnetconvective evolution. The aim of this second paper is to investigate the detailed magnetic and velocity structures and the formation mechanism of light bridges. For this purpose, we analyze numerical simulation data from a radiative magnetohydrodynamics model of an emerging AR. We find that a weakly magnetized plasma upflow in the near-surface layers of the convection zone is entrained between the emerging magnetic bundles that appear as pores at the solar surface. This convective upflow continuously transports horizontal fields to the surface layer and creates a light bridge structure. Due to the magnetic shear between the horizontal fields of the bridge and the vertical fields of the ambient pores, an elongated cusp-shaped current layer is formed above the bridge, which may be favorable for magnetic reconnection. The striking correspondence between the observational results of Paper I and the numerical results of this paper provides a consistent physical picture of light bridges. The dynamic activity phenomena occur as a natural result of the bridge formation and its convective nature, which has much in common with those of umbral dots and penumbral filaments

  20. Conceptual design of ICF reactor SENRI, Part II. Advances in design and pellet gain scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ido, S.; Mima, K.; Nakai, S.; Tsuji, R.; Yamanaka, C.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter reviews the recent design studies on reactor concepts with magnetically guided lithium flow, SENRI-I, SENRI-IA and SENRI-II. The routes from the present status to power reactors and an advanced fuel pellet concept is also discussed. Topics covered include pellet design, magnetohydrodynamic design of liquid lithium flow; reactor cavity concepts with magnetically guided lithium flow, a thermo-hydraulic analysis, a tritium recovery system; and an advanced fuel pellet concept for an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) reactor without a tritium breeding blanket. An advanced fuel pellet for an ICF reactor without a T breeder was studied in the model calculations, which showed sufficiently high values of pellet gain. Includes a table and 8 diagrams

  1. Use of modulated excitation signals in ultrasound. Part II: Design and performance for medical imaging applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misaridis, Thanassis; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2005-01-01

    ultrasound presents design methods of linear FM signals and mismatched filters, in order to meet the higher demands on resolution in ultrasound imaging. It is shown that for the small time-bandwidth (TB) products available in ultrasound, the rectangular spectrum approximation is not valid, which reduces....... The method is evaluated first for resolution performance and axial sidelobes through simulations with the program Field II. A coded excitation ultrasound imaging system based on a commercial scanner and a 4 MHz probe driven by coded sequences is presented and used for the clinical evaluation of the coded...... excitation/compression scheme. The clinical images show a significant improvement in penetration depth and contrast, while they preserve both axial and lateral resolution. At the maximum acquisition depth of 15 cm, there is an improvement of more than 10 dB in the signal-to-noise ratio of the images...

  2. Ceramic materials for porcelain veneers: part II. Effect of material, shade, and thickness on translucency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barizon, Karine T L; Bergeron, Cathia; Vargas, Marcos A; Qian, Fang; Cobb, Deborah S; Gratton, David G; Geraldeli, Saulo

    2014-10-01

    Information regarding the differences in translucency among new ceramic systems is lacking. The purpose of this study was to compare the relative translucency of the different types of ceramic systems indicated for porcelain veneers and to evaluate the effect of shade and thickness on translucency. Disk specimens 13 mm in diameter and 0.7-mm thick were fabricated for the following 9 materials (n=5): VITA VM9, IPS Empress Esthetic, VITA PM9, Vitablocks Mark II, Kavo Everest G-Blank, IPS Empress CAD, IPS e.max CAD, IPS e.maxPress, and Lava Zirconia. VITA VM9 served as the positive control and Lava as the negative control. The disks were fabricated with the shade that corresponds to A1. For IPS e.maxPress, additional disks were made with different shades (BL2, BL4, A1, B1, O1, O2, V1, V2, V3), thickness (0.3 mm), and translucencies (high translucency, low translucency). Color coordinates (CIE L∗ a∗ b∗) were measured with a tristimulus colorimeter. The translucency parameter was calculated from the color difference of the material on a black versus a white background. One-way ANOVA, the post hoc Tukey honestly significant difference, and the Ryan-Einot-Gabriel-Welsch multiple range tests were used to analyze the data (α=.05). Statistically significant differences in the translucency parameter were found among porcelains (PPM9, Empress Esthetic>Empress CAD>Mark II, Everest, e.max CAD>e.max Press>Lava. Significant differences also were noted when different shades and thickness were compared (Pceramic systems designed for porcelain veneers present varying degrees of translucency. The thickness and shade of lithium disilicate ceramic affect its translucency. Shade affects translucency parameter less than thickness. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Mixed ligand complexes of alkaline earth metals: Part XII. Mg(II, Ca(II, Sr(II and Ba(II complexes with 5-chlorosalicylaldehyde and salicylaldehyde or hydroxyaromatic ketones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MITHLESH AGRAWAL

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The reactions of alkaline earth metal chlorides with 5-chlorosalicylaldehyde and salicylaldehyde, 2-hydroxyacetophenone or 2-hydroxypropiophenone have been carried out in 1 : 1 : 1 mole ratio and the mixed ligand complexes of the type MLL’(H2O2 (where M = Mg(II, Ca(II, Sr(II and Ba(II, HL = 5-chlorosalicylaldehyde and HL’ = salicylaldehyde, 2-hydroxyacetophenone or 2-hydroxypropiophenone have been isolated. These complexes were characterized by TLC, conductance measurements, IR and 1H-NMR spectra.

  4. The impact of dynamic data assimilation on the numerical simulations of the QE II cyclone and an analysis of the jet streak influencing the precyclogenetic environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manobianco, John; Uccellini, Louis W.; Brill, Keith F.; Kuo, Ying-Hwa

    1992-01-01

    A mesoscale numerical model is combined with a dynamic data assimilation via Newtonian relaxation, or 'nudging', to provide initial conditions for subsequent simulations of the QE II cyclone. Both the nudging technique and the inclusion of supplementary data are shown to have a large positive impact on the simulation of the QE II cyclone during the initial phase of rapid cyclone development. Within the initial development period (from 1200 to 1800 UTC 9 September 1978), the dynamic assimilation of operational and bogus data yields a coherent two-layer divergence pattern that is not well defined in the model run using only the operational data and static initialization. Diagnostic analysis based on the simulations show that the initial development of the QE II storm between 0000 UTC 9 September and 0000 UTC 10 September was embedded within an indirect circulation of an intense 300-hPa jet streak, was related to baroclinic processes extending throughout a deep portion of the troposphere, and was associated with a classic two-layer mass-divergence profile expected for an extratropical cyclone.

  5. Numerical analysis of a downsized spark-ignition engine fueled by butanol/gasoline blends at part-load operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scala, F.; Galloni, E.; Fontana, G.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Bio-fuels will reduce the overall CO_2 emission. • The properties of butanol/gasoline–air mixtures have been determined. • A 1-D model of a SI engine has been calibrated and validated. • The butanol content reduces the combustion duration. • The optimal ignition timing slightly changes. - Abstract: In this paper, the performance of a turbocharged SI engine, firing with butanol/gasoline blends, has been investigated by means of numerical simulations of the engine behavior. When engine fueling is switched from gasoline to alcohol/gasoline mixture, engine control parameters must be adapted. The main necessary modifications in the Electronic Control Unit have been highlighted in the paper. Numerical analyses have been carried out at partial load operation and at two different engine speeds (3000 and 4000 rpm). Several n-butanol/gasoline mixtures, differing for the alcohol contents, have been analyzed. Such engine performances as torque and indicated efficiency have been evaluated. Both these characteristics decrease with the alcohol contents within the mixtures. On the contrary, when the engine is fueled by neat n-butanol, torque and efficiency reach values about 2% higher than those obtained with neat gasoline. Furthermore, the optimal spark timing, for alcohol/gasoline mixture operation, must be retarded (up to 13%) in comparison with the correspondent values of the gasoline operation. In general, engine performance and operation undergo little variations when fuel supplying is switched from gasoline to alcohol/gasoline blends.

  6. Numerical modelling of a bromide-polysulphide redox flow battery. Part 2: Evaluation of a utility-scale system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scamman, Daniel P.; Roberts, Edward P.L.; Reade, Gavin W.

    2009-01-01

    Numerical modelling of redox flow battery (RFB) systems allows the technical and commercial performance of different designs to be predicted without costly lab, pilot and full-scale testing. A numerical model of a redox flow battery was used in conjunction with a simple cost model incorporating capital and operating costs to predict the technical and commercial performance of a 120 MWh/15 MW utility-scale polysulphide-bromine (PSB) storage plant for arbitrage applications. Based on 2006 prices, the system was predicted to make a net loss of 0.45 p kWh -1 at an optimum current density of 500 A m -2 and an energy efficiency of 64%. The system was predicted to become economic for arbitrage (assuming no further costs were incurred) if the rate constants of both electrolytes could be increased to 10 -5 m s -1 , for example by using a suitable (low cost) electrocatalyst. The economic viability was found to be strongly sensitive to the costs of the electrochemical cells and the electrical energy price differential. (author)

  7. Converting Eucalyptus biomass into ethanol: Financial and sensitivity analysis in a co-current dilute acid process. Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, R.; Treasure, T.; Phillips, R.; Jameel, H.; Saloni, D.; Wright, J.; Abt, R.

    2011-01-01

    The technical and financial performance of high yield Eucalyptus biomass in a co-current dilute acid pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis process was simulated using WinGEMS registered and Excel registered . Average ethanol yield per dry Mg of Eucalyptus biomass was approximately 347.6 L of ethanol (with average carbohydrate content in the biomass around 66.1%) at a cost of 0.49 L -1 of ethanol, cash cost of ∝0.46 L -1 and CAPEX of 1.03 L -1 of ethanol. The main cost drivers are: biomass, enzyme, tax, fuel (gasoline), depreciation and labor. Profitability of the process is very sensitive to biomass cost, carbohydrate content (%) in biomass and enzyme cost. Biomass delivered cost was simulated and financially evaluated in Part I; here in Part II the conversion of this raw material into cellulosic ethanol using the dilute acid process is evaluated. (author)

  8. Japanese contributions to IAEA INTOR workshop, phase two A, part 2, chapter I: introduction, and chapter II: summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Sigeru; Tomabechi, Ken; Fujisawa, Noboru; Iida, Hiromasa; Sugihara, Masayoshi; Seki, Masahiro; Honda, Tsutomu; Kasai, Masao; Itoh, Shin-ichi.

    1985-07-01

    This report corresponds to Chapters I and II of Japanese contribution report to IAEA INTOR Workshop, Phase Two A, Part 2. The major objectives of the INTOR workshop, Phase Two A, Part 2 are to study critical technical issues, and to assess scientific and technical data bases, and to finally upgrade the INTOR design concept. To study critical technical issues that affect the feasibility or practicability of the INTOR design concept, the following five groups are organized; (A) Impurity control, (B) RF heating and current drive, (C) Transient electromagnetics, (D) Maintainability, (E) Technical benefit. In addition to those groups, the three disciplinary groups are organized to assess the worldiode scientific and technical data bases that exist now and that will exist 4-5 years to support the detailed design and construction of an INTOR-like machine, and to identify additional R D that is required; (F) Physics, (G) Engineering, (H) Nuclear. (author)

  9. Pedagogical progeniture or tactical translation? George Fordyce's additions and modifications to William Cullen's philosophical chemistry--Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Georgette

    2014-08-01

    This paper compares the affinity theories and the associated affinity diagrams of William Cullen (1710-1790) and George Fordyce (1736-1802), exploring in particular one episode that took place during the brief hiatus between Fordyce's student years at Edinburgh University and the start of his own pedagogical career in London. This investigation complements that contained in Part I of this paper, which compared the chemistry courses given by Cullen and Fordyce, demonstrating that the knowledge originally imparted to Fordyce by Cullen in his Edinburgh lectures was augmented and translated by Fordyce for his own pedagogical purposes. Part II offers greater insight into the flow of knowledge between Fordyce and Cullen. Their correspondence suggests that the relationship between master and student transmuted into something more complicated after Fordyce left Edinburgh, while the model of knowledge transmission between the two can be seen to be more collaborative than might be expected.

  10. Musculoskeletal disorders associated with HIV infection and AIDS. Part II: Non-infectious musculoskeletal conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tehranzadeh, Jamshid; Ter-Oganesyan, Ramon R.; Steinbach, Lynne S.

    2004-01-01

    This section of a two-part series on musculoskeletal disorders associated with HIV infection and AIDS reviews the non-infectious musculoskeletal conditions. In the first part, the infectious conditions were reviewed. The non-infectious conditions include polymyositis, drug-induced myopathy, myositis ossificans, adhesive capsulitis, avascular necrosis, bone marrow abnormalities, and hypertrophic osteoarthropathy. Inflammatory and reactive arthropathies are more prevalent in HIV-positive individuals, and a separate section is dedicated to these conditions, including Reiter's syndrome, psoriatic arthritis, HIV-associated arthritis, painful articular syndrome, and acute symmetric polyarthritis. Lastly, we include a discussion of HIV-related neoplastic processes that affect the musculoskeletal system, namely Kaposi's sarcoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. (orig.)

  11. Musculoskeletal disorders associated with HIV infection and AIDS. Part II: Non-infectious musculoskeletal conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tehranzadeh, Jamshid [Department of Radiological Sciences, University of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Department of Radiological Sciences, Orange, CA (United States); Ter-Oganesyan, Ramon R. [College of Medicine, University of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Steinbach, Lynne S. [Department of Radiological Sciences, University of California, San Francisco (United States)

    2004-06-01

    This section of a two-part series on musculoskeletal disorders associated with HIV infection and AIDS reviews the non-infectious musculoskeletal conditions. In the first part, the infectious conditions were reviewed. The non-infectious conditions include polymyositis, drug-induced myopathy, myositis ossificans, adhesive capsulitis, avascular necrosis, bone marrow abnormalities, and hypertrophic osteoarthropathy. Inflammatory and reactive arthropathies are more prevalent in HIV-positive individuals, and a separate section is dedicated to these conditions, including Reiter's syndrome, psoriatic arthritis, HIV-associated arthritis, painful articular syndrome, and acute symmetric polyarthritis. Lastly, we include a discussion of HIV-related neoplastic processes that affect the musculoskeletal system, namely Kaposi's sarcoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. (orig.)

  12. Traveling-wave piezoelectric linear motor part II: experiment and performance evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Yung; Li, Chun-Chung; Chen, Liang-Chiang; Yang, Chieh-Min

    2007-04-01

    This article continues the discussion of a traveling-wave piezoelectric linear motor. Part I of this article dealt with the design and analysis of the stator of a traveling-wave piezoelectric linear motor. In this part, the discussion focuses on the structure and modeling of the contact layer and the carriage. In addition, the performance analysis and evaluation of the linear motor also are dealt with in this study. The traveling wave is created by stator, which is constructed by a series of bimorph actuators arranged in a line and connected to form a meander-line structure. Analytical and experimental results of the performance are presented and shown to be almost in agreement. Power losses due to friction and transmission are studied and found to be significant. Compared with other types of linear motors, the motor in this study is capable of supporting heavier loads and provides a larger thrust force.

  13. Nanotechnology and its relationship to interventional radiology. Part II: Drug Delivery, Thermotherapy, and Vascular Intervention.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Power, Sarah

    2012-02-01

    Nanotechnology can be defined as the design, creation, and manipulation of structures on the nanometer scale. This two-part review is intended to acquaint the interventionalist with the field of nanotechnology, and provide an overview of potential applications, while highlighting advances relevant to interventional radiology. Part 2 of the article concentrates on drug delivery, thermotherapy, and vascular intervention. In oncology, advances in drug delivery allow for improved efficacy, decreased toxicity, and greater potential for targeted therapy. Magnetic nanoparticles show potential for use in thermotherapy treatments of various tumours, and the effectiveness of radiofrequency ablation can be enhanced with nanoparticle chemotherapy agents. In vascular intervention, much work is focused on prevention of restenosis through developments in stent technology and systems for localised drug delivery to vessel walls. Further areas of interest include applications for thrombolysis and haemostasis.

  14. Nanotechnology and its Relationship to Interventional Radiology. Part II: Drug Delivery, Thermotherapy, and Vascular Intervention.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Power, Sarah

    2010-09-16

    Nanotechnology can be defined as the design, creation, and manipulation of structures on the nanometer scale. This two-part review is intended to acquaint the interventionalist with the field of nanotechnology, and provide an overview of potential applications, while highlighting advances relevant to interventional radiology. Part 2 of the article concentrates on drug delivery, thermotherapy, and vascular intervention. In oncology, advances in drug delivery allow for improved efficacy, decreased toxicity, and greater potential for targeted therapy. Magnetic nanoparticles show potential for use in thermotherapy treatments of various tumours, and the effectiveness of radiofrequency ablation can be enhanced with nanoparticle chemotherapy agents. In vascular intervention, much work is focused on prevention of restenosis through developments in stent technology and systems for localised drug delivery to vessel walls. Further areas of interest include applications for thrombolysis and haemostasis.

  15. Imaging of juvenile spondyloarthritis. Part II: Ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Sudoł-Szopińska

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile spondyloarthropathies are mainly manifested by symptoms of peripheral arthritis and enthesitis. Early involvement of sacroiliac joints and spine is exceptionally rare in children; this usually happens in adulthood. Conventional radiographs visualize late inflammatory lesions. Early diagnosis is possible with the use of ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging. The first part of the article presented classifications and radiographic presentation of juvenile spondyloarthropathies. This part discusses changes seen on ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging. In patients with juvenile spondyloarthropathies, these examinations are conducted to diagnose inflammatory lesions in peripheral joints, tendon sheaths, tendons and bursae. Moreover, magnetic resonance also shows subchondral bone marrow edema, which is considered an early sign of inflammation. Ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging do not show specific lesions for any rheumatic disease. Nevertheless, they are conducted for early diagnosis, treatment monitoring and identifying complications. This article presents a spectrum of inflammatory changes and discusses the diagnostic value of ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging.

  16. Computational and experimental prediction of dust production in pebble bed reactors, Part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiruta, Mie; Johnson, Gannon [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Idaho, 1776 Science Center Drive, Idaho Falls, ID 83401 (United States); Rostamian, Maziar, E-mail: mrostamian@asme.org [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Idaho, 1776 Science Center Drive, Idaho Falls, ID 83401 (United States); Potirniche, Gabriel P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Idaho, 1776 Science Center Drive, Idaho Falls, ID 83401 (United States); Ougouag, Abderrafi M. [Idaho National Laboratory, 2525 N Fremont Avenue, Idaho Falls, ID 83401 (United States); Bertino, Massimo; Franzel, Louis [Department of Physics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23284 (United States); Tokuhiro, Akira [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Idaho, 1776 Science Center Drive, Idaho Falls, ID 83401 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Custom-built high temperature, high pressure tribometer is designed. • Two different wear phenomena at high temperatures are observed. • Experimental wear results for graphite are presented. • The graphite wear dust production in a typical Pebble Bed Reactor is predicted. -- Abstract: This paper is the continuation of Part I, which describes the high temperature and high pressure helium environment wear tests of graphite–graphite in frictional contact. In the present work, it has been attempted to simulate a Pebble Bed Reactor core environment as compared to Part I. The experimental apparatus, which is a custom-designed tribometer, is capable of performing wear tests at PBR relevant higher temperatures and pressures under a helium environment. This environment facilitates prediction of wear mass loss of graphite as dust particulates from the pebble bed. The experimental results of high temperature helium environment are used to anticipate the amount of wear mass produced in a pebble bed nuclear reactor.

  17. Computational and experimental prediction of dust production in pebble bed reactors, Part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mie Hiruta; Gannon Johnson; Maziar Rostamian; Gabriel P. Potirniche; Abderrafi M. Ougouag; Massimo Bertino; Louis Franzel; Akira Tokuhiro

    2013-10-01

    This paper is the continuation of Part I, which describes the high temperature and high pressure helium environment wear tests of graphite–graphite in frictional contact. In the present work, it has been attempted to simulate a Pebble Bed Reactor core environment as compared to Part I. The experimental apparatus, which is a custom-designed tribometer, is capable of performing wear tests at PBR relevant higher temperatures and pressures under a helium environment. This environment facilitates prediction of wear mass loss of graphite as dust particulates from the pebble bed. The experimental results of high temperature helium environment are used to anticipate the amount of wear mass produced in a pebble bed nuclear reactor.

  18. A review on fault classification methodologies in power transmission systems: Part-II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avagaddi Prasad

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The countless extent of power systems and applications requires the improvement in suitable techniques for the fault classification in power transmission systems, to increase the efficiency of the systems and to avoid major damages. For this purpose, the technical literature proposes a large number of methods. The paper analyzes the technical literature, summarizing the most important methods that can be applied to fault classification methodologies in power transmission systems.The part 2 of the article is named “A review on fault classification methodologies in power transmission systems”. In this part 2 we discussed the advanced technologies developed by various researchers for fault classification in power transmission systems. Keywords: Transmission line protection, Protective relaying, Soft computing techniques

  19. Autonomy, consent and responsibility. Part II. Informed consent in medical care and in the law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellado, J M

    Legal recognition of patient's rights aspired to change clinical relationship and medical lex artis. However, its implementation has been hampered by the scarcity of resources and the abundance of regulations. For several years, autonomy, consent, and responsibility have formed one of the backbones of the medical profession. However, they have sparked controversy and professional discomfort. In the first part of this article, we examine the conceptual and regulatory limitations of the principle of autonomy as the basis of informed consent. We approach the subject from philosophical, historical, legal, bioethical, deontological, and professional standpoints. In the second part, we cover the viability of informed consent in health care and its relationship with legal responsibility. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Visual servoing in medical robotics: a survey. Part II: tomographic imaging modalities--techniques and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizian, Mahdi; Najmaei, Nima; Khoshnam, Mahta; Patel, Rajni

    2015-03-01

    Intraoperative application of tomographic imaging techniques provides a means of visual servoing for objects beneath the surface of organs. The focus of this survey is on therapeutic and diagnostic medical applications where tomographic imaging is used in visual servoing. To this end, a comprehensive search of the electronic databases was completed for the period 2000-2013. Existing techniques and products are categorized and studied, based on the imaging modality and their medical applications. This part complements Part I of the survey, which covers visual servoing techniques using endoscopic imaging and direct vision. The main challenges in using visual servoing based on tomographic images have been identified. 'Supervised automation of medical robotics' is found to be a major trend in this field and ultrasound is the most commonly used tomographic modality for visual servoing. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Introduction of organic/hydro-organic matrices in inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and mass spectrometry: A tutorial review. Part II. Practical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leclercq, Amélie; Nonell, Anthony; Todolí Torró, José Luis; Bresson, Carole; Vio, Laurent; Vercouter, Thomas; Chartier, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: This tutorial review is dedicated to the analysis of organic/hydro-organic matrices by ICP techniques. A state-of-the-art focusing on sample introduction, relevant operating parameters optimization and analytical strategies for elemental quantification is provided. - Highlights: • Practical considerations to perform analyses in organic/hydro-organic matrices. • Description, benefits and drawbacks of recent introduction devices. • Optimization to improve plasma tolerance towards organic/hydro-organic matrices. • Analytical strategies for elemental quantification in organic/hydro-organic matrices. - Abstract: Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) are increasingly used to carry out analyses in organic/hydro-organic matrices. The introduction of such matrices into ICP sources is particularly challenging and can be the cause of numerous drawbacks. This tutorial review, divided in two parts, explores the rich literature related to the introduction of organic/hydro-organic matrices in ICP sources. Part I provided theoretical considerations associated with the physico-chemical properties of such matrices, in an attempt to understand the induced phenomena. Part II of this tutorial review is dedicated to more practical considerations on instrumentation, instrumental and operating parameters, as well as analytical strategies for elemental quantification in such matrices. Two important issues are addressed in this part: the first concerns the instrumentation and optimization of instrumental and operating parameters, pointing out (i) the description, benefits and drawbacks of different kinds of nebulization and desolvation devices and the impact of more specific instrumental parameters such as the injector characteristics and the material used for the cone; and, (ii) the optimization of operating parameters, for both ICP-OES and ICP-MS. Even if it is at the margin of this tutorial review

  2. Introduction of organic/hydro-organic matrices in inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and mass spectrometry: A tutorial review. Part II. Practical considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leclercq, Amélie, E-mail: amelie.leclercq@cea.fr [CEA Saclay, DEN, DANS, DPC, SEARS, Laboratoire de développement Analytique Nucléaire Isotopique et Elémentaire, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Nonell, Anthony, E-mail: anthony.nonell@cea.fr [CEA Saclay, DEN, DANS, DPC, SEARS, Laboratoire de développement Analytique Nucléaire Isotopique et Elémentaire, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Todolí Torró, José Luis, E-mail: jose.todoli@ua.es [Universidad de Alicante, Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatología, Ap. de Correos, 99, 03080 Alicante (Spain); Bresson, Carole, E-mail: carole.bresson@cea.fr [CEA Saclay, DEN, DANS, DPC, SEARS, Laboratoire de développement Analytique Nucléaire Isotopique et Elémentaire, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Vio, Laurent, E-mail: laurent.vio@cea.fr [CEA Saclay, DEN, DANS, DPC, SEARS, Laboratoire de développement Analytique Nucléaire Isotopique et Elémentaire, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Vercouter, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.vercouter@cea.fr [CEA Saclay, DEN, DANS, DPC, SEARS, Laboratoire de développement Analytique Nucléaire Isotopique et Elémentaire, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Chartier, Frédéric, E-mail: frederic.chartier@cea.fr [CEA Saclay, DEN, DANS, DPC, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2015-07-23

    Graphical abstract: This tutorial review is dedicated to the analysis of organic/hydro-organic matrices by ICP techniques. A state-of-the-art focusing on sample introduction, relevant operating parameters optimization and analytical strategies for elemental quantification is provided. - Highlights: • Practical considerations to perform analyses in organic/hydro-organic matrices. • Description, benefits and drawbacks of recent introduction devices. • Optimization to improve plasma tolerance towards organic/hydro-organic matrices. • Analytical strategies for elemental quantification in organic/hydro-organic matrices. - Abstract: Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) are increasingly used to carry out analyses in organic/hydro-organic matrices. The introduction of such matrices into ICP sources is particularly challenging and can be the cause of numerous drawbacks. This tutorial review, divided in two parts, explores the rich literature related to the introduction of organic/hydro-organic matrices in ICP sources. Part I provided theoretical considerations associated with the physico-chemical properties of such matrices, in an attempt to understand the induced phenomena. Part II of this tutorial review is dedicated to more practical considerations on instrumentation, instrumental and operating parameters, as well as analytical strategies for elemental quantification in such matrices. Two important issues are addressed in this part: the first concerns the instrumentation and optimization of instrumental and operating parameters, pointing out (i) the description, benefits and drawbacks of different kinds of nebulization and desolvation devices and the impact of more specific instrumental parameters such as the injector characteristics and the material used for the cone; and, (ii) the optimization of operating parameters, for both ICP-OES and ICP-MS. Even if it is at the margin of this tutorial review

  3. How to succeed in science: a concise guide for young biomedical scientists. Part II: making discoveries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yewdell, Jonathan W

    2008-06-01

    Making discoveries is the most important part of being a scientist, and also the most fun. Young scientists need to develop the experimental and mental skill sets that enable them to make discoveries, including how to recognize and exploit serendipity when it strikes. Here, I provide practical advice to young scientists on choosing a research topic, designing, performing and interpreting experiments and, last but not least, on maintaining your sanity in the process.

  4. How to succeed in science: a concise guide for young biomedical scientists. Part II: making discoveries

    OpenAIRE

    Yewdell, Jonathan W.

    2008-01-01

    Making discoveries is the most important part of being a scientist, and also the most fun. Young scientists need to develop the experimental and mental skill sets that enable them to make discoveries, including how to recognize and exploit serendipity when it strikes. Here, I provide practical advice to young scientists on choosing a research topic, designing, performing and interpreting experiments and, last but not least, on maintaining your sanity in the process.

  5. Revisiting the description of Protein-Protein interfaces. Part II: Experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Cazals , Frédéric; Proust , Flavien

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides a detailed experimental study of an interface model developed in the companion article F. Cazals and F. Proust, Revisiting the description of Protein-Protein interfaces. Part I: algorithms. Our experimental study is concerned with the usual database of protein-protein complexes, split into five families (Proteases, Immune system, Enzyme Complexes, Signal transduction, Misc.) Our findings, which bear some contradictions with usual statements are the following: (i)Connectivi...

  6. Nuclear energy and public safety (Part II): a bibliography of technical resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, M.R.

    1982-01-01

    Part 2 of the bibliography focuses on technical information of interest to those concerned with the operation of nuclear power plants and the subjects of safety and accidents. A subject index included after the bibliography provides a breakdown of the references into seven categories. There is also an author index. The material cited is available through the National Technical Information Service (NTIS) in Springfield, Virginia

  7. A survey on control schemes for distributed solar collector fields. Part II: Advanced control approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camacho, E.F.; Rubio, F.R. [Universidad de Sevilla, Escuela Superior de Ingenieros, Departamento de Ingenieria de Sistemas y Automatica, Camino de Los Descubrimientos s/n, E-41092 Sevilla (Spain); Berenguel, M. [Universidad de Almeria, Departamento de Lenguajes y Computacion, Area de Ingenieria de Sistemas y Automatica, Carretera Sacramento s/n, E-04120 La Canada, Almeria (Spain); Valenzuela, L. [Plataforma Solar de Almeria - CIEMAT, Carretera Senes s/n, P.O. Box 22, E-04200 Tabernas (Almeria) (Spain)

    2007-10-15

    This article presents a survey of the different advanced automatic control techniques that have been applied to control the outlet temperature of solar plants with distributed collectors during the last 25 years. A classification of the modeling and control approaches described in the first part of this survey is used to explain the main features of each strategy. The treated strategies range from classical advanced control strategies to those with few industrial applications. (author)

  8. FORMATION OF TOILET HABITS IN CHILDREN IN MOSCOW. RETROSPECTIVE STUDY RESULTS. PART II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Karkashadze

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of the first Russian study of toilet habits formation in children have been obtained. The article was planned to be published in 2 subsequent parts due to the extensiveness of the material. This article is the 2nd part*. It presents and comments on the remaining part of results in the form of the connection between main parameters and characteristics of toilet habits training processes and physiological, psychological and social factors; it also presents the discussion and conclusions. Comparative data (with foreign studies is given. A multitude of both physiological and social factors affect the process of children’s toilet habits training. The following physiological factors have been revealed: stool frequency, physiological involuntary night urination, peculiarities of falling asleep and pernicious habits – processes, which reflect the intestinal motility regulation and defecation states, urination control and neuropsychic activity. The selected training strategy and tactics, style of communication with a child also affect the training process. The most influential family-social factors in terms of toilet habits training processes are: two- or one-parent family, mother’s education and twins in the family. 

  9. PIO I-II tendencies case study. Part 1. Mathematical modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian TOADER

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, a study is performed from the perspective of giving a method to reduce the conservatism of the well known PIO (Pilot-Induced Oscillation criteria in predicting the susceptibility of an aircraft to this very harmful phenomenon. There are three interacting components of a PIO – the pilot, the vehicle, and the trigger (in fact, the hazard. The study, conceived in two parts, aims to underline the importance of human pilot model involved in analysis. In this first part, it is shown, following classical sources, how the LQG theory of control and estimation is used to obtain a complex model of human pilot. The approach is based on the argument, experimentally proved, that the human behaves “optimally” in some sense, subject to his inherent psychophysical limitations. The validation of such model is accomplished based on the experimental model of a VTOL-type aircraft. Then, the procedure of inserting typical saturation nonlinearities in the open loop transfer function is presented. A second part of the paper will illustrate PIO tendencies evaluation by means of a grapho-analytic method.

  10. Numerical modeling of optical coherent transient processes with complex configurations - II. Angled beams with arbitrary phase modulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Tiejun; Tian Mingzhen; Barber, Zeb W.; Randall Babbitt, Wm.

    2004-01-01

    This work is a continuation of the development of the theoretical model for optical coherent transient (OCT) processes with complex configurations. A theoretical model for angled beams with arbitrary phase modulation has been developed based on the model presented in our previous work for the angled beam geometry. A numerical tool has been devised to simulate the OCT processes involving angled beams with the frequency detuning, chirped, and phase-modulated laser pulses. The simulations for pulse shaping and arbitrary waveform generation (AWG) using OCT processes have been performed. The theoretical analysis of programming and probe schemes for pulse shaper and AWG is also presented including the discussions on the rephasing condition and the phase compensation. The results from the analysis, the simulation, and the experiment show very good agreement

  11. Neutronic Analysis of the 3 MW TRIGA MARK II Research Reactor, Part I: Monte Carlo Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huda, M.Q.; Chakrobortty, T.K.; Rahman, M.; Sarker, M.M.; Mahmood, M.S.

    2003-05-01

    This study deals with the neutronic analysis of the current core configuration of a 3 MW TRIGA MARK II research reactor at Atomic Energy Research Establishment (AERE), Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh and validation of the results by benchmarking with the experimental, operational and available Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) values. The three-dimensional continuous-energy Monte Carlo code MCNP4C was used to develop a versatile and accurate full-core model of the TRIGA core. The model represents in detail all components of the core with literally no physical approximation. All fresh fuel and control elements as well as the vicinity of the core were precisely described. Continuous energy cross-section data from ENDF/B-VI and S(α, β) scattering functions from the ENDF/B-V library were used. The validation of the model against benchmark experimental results is presented. The MCNP predictions and the experimentally determined values are found to be in very good agreement, which indicates that the Monte Carlo model is correctly simulating the TRIGA reactor. (author)

  12. Investigation of mixed mode - I/II fracture problems - Part 1: computational and experimental analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Demir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, to investigate and understand the nature of fracture behavior properly under in-plane mixed mode (Mode-I/II loading, three-dimensional fracture analyses and experiments of compact tension shear (CTS specimen are performed under different mixed mode loading conditions. Al 7075-T651 aluminum machined from rolled plates in the L-T rolling direction (crack plane is perpendicular to the rolling direction is used in this study. Results from finite element analyses and fracture loads, crack deflection angles obtained from the experiments are presented. To simulate the real conditions in the experiments, contacts are defined between the contact surfaces of the loading devices, specimen and loading pins. Modeling, meshing and the solution of the problem involving the whole assembly, i.e., loading devices, pins and the specimen, with contact mechanics are performed using ANSYSTM. Then, CTS specimen is analyzed separately using a submodeling approach, in which three-dimensional enriched finite elements are used in FRAC3D solver to calculate the resulting stress intensity factors along the crack front. Having performed the detailed computational and experimental studies on the CTS specimen, a new specimen type together with its loading device is also proposed that has smaller dimensions compared to the regular CTS specimen. Experimental results for the new specimen are also presented.

  13. Reliability of a new biokinetic model of zirconium in internal dosimetry: part II, parameter sensitivity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei Bo; Greiter, Matthias; Oeh, Uwe; Hoeschen, Christoph

    2011-12-01

    The reliability of biokinetic models is essential for the assessment of internal doses and a radiation risk analysis for the public and occupational workers exposed to radionuclides. In the present study, a method for assessing the reliability of biokinetic models by means of uncertainty and sensitivity analysis was developed. In the first part of the paper, the parameter uncertainty was analyzed for two biokinetic models of zirconium (Zr); one was reported by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), and one was developed at the Helmholtz Zentrum München-German Research Center for Environmental Health (HMGU). In the second part of the paper, the parameter uncertainties and distributions of the Zr biokinetic models evaluated in Part I are used as the model inputs for identifying the most influential parameters in the models. Furthermore, the most influential model parameter on the integral of the radioactivity of Zr over 50 y in source organs after ingestion was identified. The results of the systemic HMGU Zr model showed that over the first 10 d, the parameters of transfer rates between blood and other soft tissues have the largest influence on the content of Zr in the blood and the daily urinary excretion; however, after day 1,000, the transfer rate from bone to blood becomes dominant. For the retention in bone, the transfer rate from blood to bone surfaces has the most influence out to the endpoint of the simulation; the transfer rate from blood to the upper larger intestine contributes a lot in the later days; i.e., after day 300. The alimentary tract absorption factor (fA) influences mostly the integral of radioactivity of Zr in most source organs after ingestion.

  14. Interaction of Zn(II) with hematite nanoparticles and microparticles: Part 2. ATR-FTIR and EXAFS study of the aqueous Zn(II)/oxalate/hematite ternary system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Juyoung; Trainor, Thomas P; Farges, François; Brown, Gordon E

    2009-05-19

    Sorption of Zn(II) to hematite nanoparticles (HN) (av diam=10.5 nm) and microparticles (HM) (av diam=550 nm) was studied in the presence of oxalate anions (Ox2-(aq)) in aqueous solutions as a function of total Zn(II)(aq) to total Ox2-(aq) concentration ratio (R=[Zn(II)(aq)]tot/[Ox2-(aq)]tot) at pH 5.5. Zn(II) uptake is similar in extent for both the Zn(II)/Ox/HN and Zn(II)/Ox/HM ternary systems and the Zn(II)/HN binary system at [Zn(II)(aq)](tot)system than for the Zn(II)/Ox/HM ternary and the Zn(II)/HN and Zn(II)/HM binary systems at [Zn(II)(aq)]tot>4 mM. In contrast, Zn(II) uptake for the Zn(II)/HM binary system is a factor of 2 greater than that for the Zn(II)/Ox/HM and Zn(II)/Ox/HN ternary systems and the Zn(II)/HN binary system at [Zn(II)(aq)]totternary system at both R values examined (0.16 and 0.68), attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) results are consistent with the presence of inner-sphere oxalate complexes and outer-sphere ZnOx(aq) complexes, and/or type A ternary complexes. In addition, extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopic results suggest that type A ternary surface complexes (i.e., >O2-Zn-Ox) are present. In the Zn(II)/Ox/HN ternary system at R=0.15, ATR-FTIR results indicate the presence of inner-sphere oxalate and outer-sphere ZnOx(aq) complexes; the EXAFS results provide no evidence for inner-sphere Zn(II) complexes or type A ternary complexes. In contrast, ATR-FTIR results for the Zn/Ox/HN sample with R = 0.68 are consistent with a ZnOx(s)-like surface precipitate and possibly type B ternary surface complexes (i.e., >O2-Ox-Zn). EXAFS results are also consistent with the presence of ZnOx(s)-like precipitates. We ascribe the observed increase of Zn(II)(aq) uptake in the Zn(II)/Ox/HN ternary system at [Zn(II)(aq)]tot>or=4 mM relative to the Zn(II)/Ox/HM ternary system to formation of a ZnOx(s)-like precipitate at the hematite nanoparticle/water interface.

  15. Reflection of equatorial Kelvin waves at eastern ocean boundaries Part II: Pacific and Atlantic Oceans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Soares

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of viscosity, non linearities, incident wave period and realistic eastern coastline geometry on energy fluxes are investigated using a shallow water model with a spatial resolution of 1/4 degree in both meridional and zonal directions. Equatorial and mid-latitude responses are considered. It is found that (1 the influence of the coastline geometry and the incident wave period is more important for the westward energy flux than for the poleward flux, and (2 the effect of the inclination of the eastern ocean boundary on the poleward energy flux, for the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, decline as the period of the incident wave increases. Furthermore, the model simulations suggest that the poleward energy fluxes from meridional boundaries give plausible results for motions of seasonal and annual periods. For comparatively shorter periods, a realistic coastline geometry has to be included for more accurate results. It is recommended that any numerical model involving the reflection of baroclinic Rossby waves (of intraseasonal, seasonal or annual periods on the eastern Pacific or Atlantic Oceans, should consider the effect of the coastline geometry in order to improve the accuracy of the results.Key words. Oceanography: general (climate and interannual variability; equatorial oceanography. Oceanography: physical (eastern boundary currents.

  16. Design optimization of axial flow hydraulic turbine runner: Part II - multi-objective constrained optimization method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Guoyi; Cao, Shuliang; Ishizuka, Masaru; Hayama, Shinji

    2002-06-01

    This paper is concerned with the design optimization of axial flow hydraulic turbine runner blade geometry. In order to obtain a better design plan with good performance, a new comprehensive performance optimization procedure has been presented by combining a multi-variable multi-objective constrained optimization model with a Q3D inverse computation and a performance prediction procedure. With careful analysis of the inverse design of axial hydraulic turbine runner, the total hydraulic loss and the cavitation coefficient are taken as optimization objectives and a comprehensive objective function is defined using the weight factors. Parameters of a newly proposed blade bound circulation distribution function and parameters describing positions of blade leading and training edges in the meridional flow passage are taken as optimization variables.The optimization procedure has been applied to the design optimization of a Kaplan runner with specific speed of 440 kW. Numerical results show that the performance of designed runner is successfully improved through optimization computation. The optimization model is found to be validated and it has the feature of good convergence. With the multi-objective optimization model, it is possible to control the performance of designed runner by adjusting the value of weight factors defining the comprehensive objective function. Copyright

  17. The role of the illegality factor in the taxation of income. Part II

    OpenAIRE

    Čerka, Paulius; Gudynienė, Lina

    2012-01-01

    The taxation of illegal income is quite common in many foreign countries, but this practice is not yet applicable in Lithuania, though the recent movements of Lithuania’s Finance Minister, when she admitted that all income should be taxed despite it’s source show her positive attitude towards the taxation of illegal income. The article promotes the idea that all personal income, despite its source, should be taxed.The article is divided into two parts: the first one, which is not published he...

  18. A rare sugar xylitol. Part II: biotechnological production and future applications of xylitol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granström, Tom Birger; Izumori, Ken; Leisola, Matti

    2007-02-01

    Xylitol is the first rare sugar that has global markets. It has beneficial health properties and represents an alternative to current conventional sweeteners. Industrially, xylitol is produced by chemical hydrogenation of D-xylose into xylitol. The biotechnological method of producing xylitol by metabolically engineered yeasts, Saccharomyces cerevisiae or Candida, has been studied as an alternative to the chemical method. Due to the industrial scale of production, xylitol serves as an inexpensive starting material for the production of other rare sugars. The second part of this mini-review on xylitol will look more closely at the biotechnological production and future applications of the rare sugar, xylitol.

  19. Synchrotron radiation and x-ray topography. Part II. Examples of some applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilello, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    Synchrotron x-radiation topography is a powerful tool for studying defects in ''bulk'' metals and alloys. The general features of this technique, including both advantages and disadvantages, have been discussed in Part I of this review. This second report concentrates on some applications of the white beam topography method to studies of flow and fracture of materials and indicates fruitful areas for possible future application. Research investigations on cleavage surfaces of some bcc and hcp metals and alloys are reviewed and contrasted to other more usual methods of studying the morphology of the resulting microstructures

  20. Psychopathy, violence and crime: a psychological-forensic, psychiatric-legal and criminological analysis (Part II)

    OpenAIRE

    Pozueco Romero, J.M.; Romero Guillena, S.L.; Casas Barquero, N.

    2011-01-01

    La Jurisprudencia española se encuentra frecuentemente ante dictámenes periciales en los que aparecen términos como psicópata, trastorno antisocial de la personalidad, personalidad psicopática, psicópata desalmado, psicopatía epileptoide, sociopatía, etc. De esta forma, no es infrecuente que los juristas (magistrados, jueces, fiscales, abogados) se hallen desorientados ante tanta terminología que, pese a todo, en absoluto se constituyen en sinónimos. La Doctrina, por su parte, disiente de la ...