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Sample records for parents health care

  1. Managing Home Health Care (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this topic for: Parents Kids Teens Palliative Care Electronic Health Records When Your Child's in the Pediatric Intensive Care ... Us Contact Us Partners Editorial Policy Permissions Guidelines Privacy Policy & Terms of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit ...

  2. Mindful parenting in mental health care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogels, S.M.; Lehtonen, A.; Restifo, K.

    2010-01-01

    Mindfulness is a form of meditation based on the Buddhist tradition, which has been used over the last two decades to successfully treat a multitude of mental health problems. Bringing mindfulness into parenting ("mindful parenting") is one of the applications of mindfulness. Mindful parenting

  3. Unmet Health Care Needs among Children Exposed to Parental Incarceration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Kristin

    2017-05-01

    Objectives The incarceration rate in the United States has increased rapidly since the mid-1970s and, accordingly, a large number of children are exposed to parental incarceration. Research finds that parental incarceration is associated with deleterious physical and mental health outcomes among children, but little is known about these children's health care access. Methods I used data from the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health (N = 95,531), a population-based and nationally representative survey of non-institutionalized children ages 0-17 in the United States, to estimate the association between exposure to parental incarceration and children's unmet health care needs. Results In logistic regression models that adjust for an array of demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, children exposed to parental incarceration, compared to their counterparts, have 1.26 (95% CI 1.02-1.54) times the odds of having any unmet health care need. Analyses that disaggregate by type of unmet health care need (mental, dental, vision, mental health, or other) suggest this association is driven by a greater likelihood of unmet mental health care needs (OR 1.60; 95% CI 1.04-2.46). Conclusions Children exposed to parental incarceration, a vulnerable group especially at risk of physical and mental health problems, face challenges to health care access, especially mental health care access. Given that parental incarceration is concentrated among those children most in need of health care, parental incarceration may exacerbate existing inequalities in unmet health care needs.

  4. Views of parents and health-care providers regarding parental presence at bedside rounds in a neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzyb, M J; Coo, H; Rühland, L; Dow, K

    2014-02-01

    To examine the views of parents and health-care providers regarding parental presence during neonatal intensive care rounds. Cross-sectional survey of parents whose children were admitted to a tertiary-care neonatal intensive care unit (n=81). Medical trainees (n=67) and nurses (n=28) were also surveyed. The majority of parents reported that attending rounds reduced their anxiety and increased their confidence in the health-care team. Nurses were more likely than medical trainees to support parental presence at rounds (P=0.02). About three-quarters of medical trainees and nurses thought discussion is inhibited and 69% of trainees felt teaching is decreased when parents attend rounds. Most parents who attended rounds found the experience beneficial, but medical trainees' views were mixed. The positive impact on parents, and the learning opportunities created in family-centered care and communication when parents are present on rounds, should be highlighted for trainees and other neonatal intensive care personnel.

  5. Influence of Parental Encouragement towards Health Care of Their Wards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sophia, R. Grace; Veliappan, A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to explore how parents are encouraging towards health care of their wards. A "Survey Method" was used in the present study. A standardized "Agarwal Parental Encouragement Scale (APES)" was used to collect information from the students. The sample consists of thousand and ninety five higher…

  6. Differences in health care utilization between parents who perceive their child as vulnerable versus overprotective parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomasgard, M; Metz, W P

    1996-06-01

    While a parental perception of child vulnerability to illness/injury is often used interchangeably with parental overprotection, research suggests that they are independent constructs. We hypothesized more frequent pediatric nonwell-child visits for perceived child vulnerability, but not for parental overprotection. The parents of 300 children, ages 2-5 years, enrolled in a health maintenance organization, were sampled. For children without medical conditions, there were no differences in nonwell-child care visits between the high perceived vulnerability and high parental protection groups (Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test, WRST, P = .31). As expected, high parental protection was not significantly associated with increased nonwell-child care visits compared with the low parental protection group (WRST, P = .14). These findings suggest that markers other than health care utilization are required to identify these forms of parent-child relationship disorders.

  7. Parents' Perception of Satisfaction With Pediatric Nurse Practitioners' Care And Parental Intent to Adhere To Recommended Health Care Regimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinder, Frances DiAnna

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to explore parents' perceptions of satisfaction with care from primary care pediatric nurse practitioners (PNPs) and to explore the relationships of the four components of parental satisfaction with parents' intent to adhere to recommended health care regimen. The study used a descriptive correlational research design. A convenience sample of 91 participants was recruited from practices in southeastern Pennsylvania. The 28-item, Parents' Perceptions of Satisfaction with Care from Pediatric Nurse Practitioners (PPSC-PNP) tool was developed to measure four components of satisfaction and overall satisfaction of parents with PNP care after the health visit. A 100 mm visual analog (VAS) scale measured parental intent to adhere to the care regimen recommended by the PNP. Parents' perceptions of overall satisfaction with care from PNPs and satisfaction with each of the four components (communication, clinical competence, caring behavior, and decisional control) were high as measured by the PPSC-PNP. Multiple regression analysis revealed that clinical competence had the strongest positive relationship with parental intent to adhere to PNP recommended health regimen and was the only variable to enter the regression equation. The findings of this study have implications for nursing practice. The PPSC-PNP instrument may be used with a variety of pediatric populations and settings as a benchmark for quality care. Clinical competence is important for the role of the PNP. Other variables of parental intent to adhere to the health regimen should be explored in future studies.

  8. Masculine beliefs, parental communication, and male adolescents' health care use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcell, Arik V; Ford, Carol A; Pleck, Joseph H; Sonenstein, Freya L

    2007-04-01

    Male adolescents frequently become disconnected from health care, especially as they get older, which limits physicians' abilities to address their health needs and results in missed opportunities to connect them to the health care system as they enter adulthood. In this study we tested the ability of modifiable (beliefs about masculinity, parental communication, sex education, and health insurance) and nonmodifiable (age, race/ethnicity, and region of residence) factors to prospectively predict health care use by male adolescents. We conducted a prospective analysis of data from 1677 male participants aged 15 to 19 years who completed the National Survey of Adolescent Males, a household probability survey conducted throughout the United States in 1988 (wave 1, participation rate: 74%) and in 1990-1991 (wave 2, follow-up rate: 89%). We present percentages and adjusted relative risks of the factors that predict male adolescents' self-report of a physical examination by a regular provider in the past year measured at wave 2. On average, 1067 (66%) of 1677 male adolescents at wave 2 reported having a physical examination within the last year. Factors associated with a lower likelihood of a physical examination included living in the South, Midwest, and West; being older in age; and holding more traditional masculine beliefs. Factors associated with a higher likelihood of a physical examination included communicating about reproductive health with both parents and being insured. Male adolescents who were sexually active or engaged in > or = 2 other risk behaviors had neither a higher nor lower likelihood of a physical examination. Efforts to enhance male adolescents' health through health care should include work to modify masculine stereotypes, improve mothers' and fathers' communication about health with their sons, expand health insurance coverage, and identify interventions to connect male adolescents at increased risk for health problems with health care.

  9. Review of parental activation interventions for parents of children with special health care needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, M; Krischer, A; Stolley, M; Magaña, S; Martin, M

    2018-05-01

    A large number of U.S. children are identified as having special health care needs (CSHCN). Despite parents' central role in managing their child's needs, many parents report difficulties in navigating service systems, finding information about their child's condition, and accessing health care and community resources. Therefore, there is a need for interventions that "activate" parents of children with special health care needs to increase their knowledge, skills, and confidence in managing, coordinating, and advocating for their child's needs. This study sought to review the existing literature and examine the effects of parent support interventions that focus on parental activation either in part or whole, on child, parent, or family outcomes. Specific aims included (a) summarizing the nature and content of interventions; (b) describing changes in relevant outcomes; (c) identifying limitations and making recommendations for future research. Following electronic databases were searched: MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO via ProQuest, PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health via EBSCO, Education Resources Information Center (ERIC) via ProQuest, The Cochrane Library (Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Methodology Register), and Google Scholar. Twenty-two studies were selected, data were extracted, and quality was assessed using standardized procedures. Five intervention categories were identified: parent-to-parent supports, psycho-educational groups, content-specific groups, community health worker model, and self-management-based interventions. Although most studies showed positive effects of the intervention, evidence was inconsistent for parental outcomes such as self-efficacy, confidence, strain, depression, and perceived social support. Evidence was more consistent in showing improvement in parent coping and in use of community-based services and resources. There is a need to boost active

  10. E-health and health care behaviour of parents of young children: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Gugten, Anne C; de Leeuw, Rob J R J; Verheij, Theo J M; van der Ent, Cornelis K; Kars, Marijke C

    2016-06-01

    Internet plays a huge role in providing information about health care problems. However, it is unknown how parents use and perceive the internet as a source of information and how this influences health care utilisation when it comes to common complaints in infants. The objective was to evaluate the perception parents have on the role of internet in providing health care information on common symptoms in infants and its effects on health care utilisation. A qualitative design was chosen. Parents were recruited from a population-based birth-cohort and selected purposefully. Semi-structured interviews were used to receive information of parents' ideas. Thematic coding and constant comparison were used for interview transcript analysis. Ten parents were interviewed. Parents felt anxious and responsible when their child displayed common symptoms, and appeared to be in need of information. They tried to obtain information from relatives, but more so from the internet, because of its accessibility. Nevertheless, information found on the internet had several limitations, evoked new doubts and insecurity and although parents compared information from multiple sources, only the physician was able to take away the insecurity. The internet did not interfere in the decision to consult the physician. Parents need information about their children's symptoms and the internet is a major resource. However, only physicians could take away their symptom-related doubts and insecurities and internet information did not play a role in parental decision making. Information gathered online may complement the information from physicians, rather than replace it. Key points Internet plays an increasing role in providing health care information but it is unknown how this influences health care utilisation. Our study suggests that: Parents need information about their children's symptoms and the internet is a major resource. However, only physicians could take away their symptom-related doubts

  11. Chemotherapy versus supportive care alone in pediatric palliative care for cancer: comparing the preferences of parents and health care professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Deborah; Bartels, Ute; Gammon, Janet; Hinds, Pamela S; Volpe, Jocelyne; Bouffet, Eric; Regier, Dean A; Baruchel, Sylvain; Greenberg, Mark; Barrera, Maru; Llewellyn-Thomas, Hilary; Sung, Lillian

    2011-11-22

    The choice between palliative chemotherapy (defined as the use of cytotoxic medications delivered intravenously for the purpose of our study) and supportive care alone is one of the most difficult decisions in pediatric oncology, yet little is known about the preferences of parents and health care professionals. We compared the strength of these preferences by considering children's quality of life and survival time as key attributes. In addition, we identified factors associated with the reported preferences. We included parents of children whose cancer had no reasonable chance of being cured and health care professionals in pediatric oncology as participants in our study. We administered separate interviews to parents and to health care professionals. Visual analogue scales were shown to respondents to illustrate the anticipated level of the child's quality of life, the expected duration of survival and the probability of cure (shown only to health care professionals). Respondents were then asked which treatment option they would favour given these baseline attributes. In addition, respondents reported what factors might affect such a decision and ranked all factors identified in order of importance. The primary measure was the desirability score for supportive care alone relative to palliative chemotherapy, as obtained using the threshold technique. A total of 77 parents and 128 health care professionals participated in our study. Important factors influencing the decision between therapeutic options were child quality-of-life and survival time among both parents and health care professionals. Hope was particularly important to parents. Parents significantly favoured chemotherapy (42/77, 54.5%) compared with health care professionals (20/128, 15.6%; p parents' desire for supportive care; for health care professionals, the opinions of parents and children were significant factors influencing this decision. Compared with health care professionals, parents more

  12. The influence of parenting on early childhood health and health care utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serbin, Lisa A; Hubert, Michele; Hastings, Paul D; Stack, Dale M; Schwartzman, Alex E

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether parenting, specifically parental support, structure, and behavioral control, predicted early childhood health care use and moderated the negative effects of socioeconomic disadvantage. A sample of 250 parent-child dyads from a longitudinal intergenerational research program participated. Greater parental support was associated with increased rates of nonemergency care and a higher ratio of outpatient to emergency room (ER) services, a pattern reflecting better health and service use. Support also moderated the negative effects of disadvantaged family background. Greater behavioral control by parents predicted lower rates of both nonemergency care and ER visits. Structured parenting and behavioral control were associated with lower rates of respiratory illness. This study highlights the importance of considering parenting practices when examining variations in early childhood health and health care, and the relevance of parental behavior in designing interventions for high-risk populations. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Parent and child usual source of care and children's receipt of health care services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVoe, Jennifer E; Tillotson, Carrie J; Wallace, Lorraine S; Angier, Heather; Carlson, Matthew J; Gold, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE In the United States, children who have a usual source of care (USC) have better access to health care than those who do not, but little is known about how parental USC affects children's access. We examined the association between child and parent USC patterns and children's access to health care services. METHODS We undertook a secondary analysis of nationally representative, cross-sectional data from children participating in the 2002-2007 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (n = 56,302). We assessed 10 outcome measures: insurance coverage gaps, no doctor visits in the past year, less than yearly dental visits, unmet medical and prescription needs, delayed care, problems getting care, and unmet preventive counseling needs regarding healthy eating, regular exercise, car safety devices, and bicycle helmets. RESULTS Among children, 78.6% had a USC and at least 1 parent with a USC, whereas 12.4% had a USC but no parent USC. Children with a USC but no parent USC had a higher likelihood of several unmet needs, including an insurance coverage gap (adjusted risk ratio [aRR] 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.21-1.47), an unmet medical or prescription need (aRR 1.70; 95% CI 1.09-2.65), and no yearly dental visits (aRR 1.12; 95% CI 1.06-1.18), compared with children with a USC whose parent(s) had a USC. CONCLUSIONS Among children with a USC, having no parent USC was associated with a higher likelihood of reporting unmet needs when compared with children whose parent(s) had a USC. Policy reforms should ensure access to a USC for all family members.

  14. [What is parents' and medical health care specialists knowledge about vaccinations?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarczoń, Izabela; Domaradzka, Ewa; Czajka, Hanna

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to become familiar with parents' and Medical Health Care specialists knowledge and attitude towards vaccinations. The influence of information, provided to patients from various sources, on general opinion about immunization and its coverage within the last year were evaluated. Analysis of questionnaires about vaccinations performed among 151 parents and 180 Medical Health Care specialists. Medical Health Care specialists knowledge was considerably higher in comparison to questioned parents. Surprisingly enough, only approximately 90% of Medical Health Care workers knew about prophylaxis of Hib infections. A doctor is the main and the most reliable source of information for parents. Significant impact on parents' attitude to vaccinations is made not only by campaigns promoting vaccinations, but also by widespread opinions about their harmfulness. The doctor is the major source of reliable information about vaccinations for parents. Therefore, there is the need of continuous improvement of Medical Health Care specialists knowledge, but also the ability of successfully communicating it to parents.

  15. Children with mental versus physical health problems: differences in perceived disease severity, health care service utilization and parental health literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Michelle; Wang, Jen; Jorm, Anthony Francis; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun

    2015-03-01

    To compare children with mental and physical health problems regarding (1) perceived disease severity; (2) the impact of their condition on their families; (3) their utilization of health care services (including satisfaction with care); and (4) parents' health literacy about their child's condition and its treatment. Furthermore, we examined whether parents' health literacy differs between types of mental health condition. Parental reports about their 9- to 14-year-old children with mental (n = 785) or physical health problems (n = 475) were analyzed from the population-based National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs in Switzerland. Mental health problems were perceived as being more severe (p mental health problem mentioned having a particular person or place to contact if they needed information or advice regarding the child's condition (p = 0.004) and were satisfied with the health care services their child received (p mental health problems vs. parents of children with physical health problems (OR in the adjusted model = 1.92; 95 % CI 1.47-2.50; p mental health problem (although only a trend was observable for internalizing problems). The large impact of children's mental health conditions on themselves and their families might be reduced by adapting the provision of health care and by increasing parents' health literacy.

  16. Parents' experiences of parental groups in Swedish child health-care: Do they get what they want?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefèvre, Åsa; Lundqvist, Pia; Drevenhorn, Eva; Hallström, Inger

    2016-03-01

    Almost all parents in Sweden are invited to parental groups organized by the child health service (CHS) during their child's first year, but only 40% chose to attend. The aim of this study was to describe parents' experiences of participating in these parental groups. A total of 143 parents from 71 different parental groups at 27 child health-care (CHC) centres in one Swedish county completed an online questionnaire. A majority of the parents found the parental groups to be meaningful and more than 60% met someone in the group who they socialized with outside the meetings. Parents wanted a greater focus on child-related community information, existential questions, relationships and parenting in general. Group leadership seems to be of significance to how parents in a group connect and whether the parental role is affected. Making CHC nurses more aware of the topics parents desire could help them meet parents' needs. Education and training in group dynamics and group leadership could be of value in further improving the high-quality service CHC nurses already offer parents. More knowledge is needed about what would attract those parents who do not participate. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Parent and Adolescent Interest in Receiving Adolescent Health Communication Information From Primary Care Clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Carol A; Cheek, Courtney; Culhane, Jennifer; Fishman, Jessica; Mathew, Leny; Salek, Elyse C; Webb, David; Jaccard, James

    2016-08-01

    Patient-centered health care recognizes that adolescents and parents are stakeholders in adolescent health. We investigate adolescent and parent interest in receiving information about health topics and parent-teen communication from clinicians. Ninety-one parent-adolescent dyads in one practice completed individual interviews. Items assessed levels of interest in receiving health and health communication information from the adolescent's doctor about 18 topics, including routine, mental health, sexual health, substance use, and injury prevention issues. Analyses tested differences between parents and adolescents, within-dyad correlations, and associations with adolescent gender and age. Most parents were female (84%). Adolescents were evenly divided by gender; 36 were aged 12-13 years, 35 were aged 14-15 years, and 20 were aged 16-17 years. Adolescent race reflected the practice population (60% black; 35% white). The vast majority of parents and adolescents reported moderate or high levels of interest in receiving information about all 18 health issues and information to increase parent-teen communication about these topics. Parents' interest in receiving information varied by adolescent age when the expected salience of topics varied by age (e.g., acne, driving safety), whereas adolescents reported similar interest regardless of age. Adolescent gender influenced parent and adolescent interest. Level of interest in receiving information from doctors within adolescent-parent pairs was not significantly correlated for one-half of topics. Parents and adolescents want health care professionals to help them learn and talk about a wide range of adolescent health topics. Feasible primary care interventions that effectively improve parent-teen health communication, and specific adolescent health outcomes are needed. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Parents' Perceptions of Primary Health Care Physiotherapy With Preterm Infants: Normalization, Clarity, and Trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Håkstad, Ragnhild B; Obstfelder, Aud; Øberg, Gunn Kristin

    2016-08-01

    Having a preterm infant is a life-altering event for parents. The use of interventions intended to support the parents is recommended. In this study, we investigated how parents' perceptions of physiotherapy in primary health care influenced their adaptation to caring for a preterm child. We conducted 17 interviews involving parents of seven infants, at infants' corrected age (CA) 3, 6, and 12 months. The analysis was a systematic text condensation, connecting to theory of participatory sense-making. The parents described a progression toward a new normalcy in the setting of persistent uncertainty. Physiotherapists can ameliorate this uncertainty and support the parents' progression toward normalization, by providing knowledge and acknowledging both the child as subject and the parent-child relationship. Via embodied interaction and the exploration of their child's capacity, the parents learn about their children's individuality and gain the confidence necessary to support and care for their children in everyday life. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Factors Associated With Parents' Perceptions of Their Infants' Oral Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Jeanette M; Levy, Steven M; Xu, Yinghui; Jackson, Richard D; Eckert, George J; Levy, Barcey T; Fontana, Margherita

    2016-07-01

    Parents have an important role ensuring their infants receive oral and medical health care. Their decisions affect the well-being of their children. This study used data collected from a longitudinal, prospective study with the aim of developing and validating a caries risk assessment tool. The objectives of this study are to (a) compare parents' perceptions of how well they do in taking care of the infants' teeth and/or gums versus how well they do in taking care of the infants' medical health and (b) determine factors associated with parental perceptions of how well they do in taking care of the infants' teeth and/or gums. A total of 1323 parent/infant pairs were enrolled in the study at Duke University, Indiana University, and the University of Iowa. Through a survey, 283 (21%) of the parents perceived they did an excellent job of both taking care of both the infant's oral and medical health, while 861 (65%) perceived the care of their infant's medical health was better than their care of the teeth and/or gums. In the multivariable model, parents who perceived they provided excellent/very good/good care for the infants' teeth and/or gums were more likely to brush the infant's teeth daily, use toothpaste daily, clean inside the infant's mouth and/or gums daily, and not let the infant have something other than water after brushing and prior to bedtime. Also, those with infants having Medicaid or State Insurance, parents not eating sugary snacks frequently, and parents getting dental checkups at least annually were likely to perceive that they provided excellent/very good/good care for their infant's teeth and/or gums. Parents who provide good infant oral health care are more likely to perceive they provide good care and more likely to have better personal dental health behaviors. This agrees with previous studies concerning older children. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Parental satisfaction with quality of health care of children with sickle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessing parental satisfaction with the health system will be a pointer to attitude towards health institutions compliance with treatment and achievement of better treatment outcome, especially in the care of children with chronic diseases such as sickle cell disease (SCD). This study determined parental satisfaction with ...

  1. Family participation during intensive care unit rounds: goals and expectations of parents and health care providers in a tertiary pediatric intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickney, Carolyn A; Ziniel, Sonja I; Brett, Molly S; Truog, Robert D

    2014-12-01

    To compare perceptions, goals, and expectations of health care providers and parents regarding parental participation in morning rounds and target specific areas of opportunity for educational interventions. Semistructured interviews of parents and focus groups of health care providers to learn about their experiences in, goals for, and perceived barriers to successful parental participation in morning rounds. Qualitative methods were used to analyze interview and focus group transcripts. Parents (n = 21) and health care providers (n = 24) participated in interviews and focus groups, respectively. Analyses revealed key areas of agreement between providers and parents regarding goals for rounds when parents are present, including helping parents achieve an understanding of the child's current status and plan of care. Providers and parents disagreed, however, about the nature of opportunities to ask questions. Parents additionally reported a strong desire to provide expert advice about their children and expected transparency from their care team, while providers stated that parental presence sometimes hindered frank discussions and education. Some agreement in goals for parent participation in morning rounds exists, although there are opportunities to calibrate expectations for both parents and health care providers. Solutions may involve a protocol for orienting parents to morning rounds, focusing on improving communication with parents outside of morning rounds, and the preservation of a forum for providers to have private discussions as a team. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. An urban survey of paediatric environmental health concerns: Perceptions of parents, guardians and health care professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buka, Irena; Rogers, W Todd; Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro R; Hoffman, Harold; Pearce, Marni; Li, Yuen Yee

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To conduct a survey in Edmonton, Alberta, to gather information regarding concerns about the influence of environmental factors on children’s health and to use the information to set an agenda for the resources of the Paediatric Environmental Health Specialty Unit at Misericordia Hospital (Edmonton, Alberta). METHODS Two questionnaires with 28 closed-ended questions were developed to examine parents’, guardians’ and health care professionals’ concerns. They comprised items about six environmental factors (air, water and food quality; household supplies; radiation; and waste disposal). Health care professionals were also asked four questions about their knowledge of and their needs in Paediatric Environmental Health. Parents and guardians attending the public health centres and nurses working therein received questionnaires. Physicians were surveyed by e-mail. RESULTS After verification, the questionnaire data from 400 parents or guardians and 152 health care professionals were used for analyses. Results from contingency table, Hotelling’s T2 and effect size analyses revealed similarities in the levels of concern in both groups, and the results were combined. The greatest concern of both groups was with environmental tobacco smoke, followed by pesticides in water. Concerns about six additional environmental elements were also expressed. The health care professionals showed a high level of concern about the need for resources, specific training and public education regarding paediatric environmental health. CONCLUSION A significant level of concern was consistently found between the two groups studied, regardless of professional training. The highest level of concern was with a well-documented topic (ie, environmental tobacco smoke). Less concern associated with decreased documentation calls for increasing the knowledge of society, including health care professionals, to address the adverse effects of environmental factors on children. PMID

  3. Parent-identified barriers to pediatric health care: a process-oriented model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobo, Elisa J; Seid, Michael; Reyes Gelhard, Leticia

    2006-02-01

    To further understand barriers to care as experienced by health care consumers, and to demonstrate the importance of conjoining qualitative and quantitative health services research. Transcripts from focus groups conducted in San Diego with English- and Spanish-speaking parents of children with special health care needs. Participants were asked about the barriers to care they had experienced or perceived, and their strategies for overcoming these barriers. Using elementary anthropological discourse analysis techniques, a process-based conceptual model of the parent experience was devised. The analysis revealed a parent-motivated model of barriers to care that enriched our understanding of quantitative findings regarding the population from which the focus group sample was drawn. Parent-identified barriers were grouped into the following six temporally and spatially sequenced categories: necessary skills and prerequisites for gaining access to the system; realizing access once it is gained; front office experiences; interactions with physicians; system arbitrariness and fragmentation; outcomes that affect future interaction with the system. Key to the successful navigation of the system was parents' functional biomedical acculturation; this construct likens the biomedical health services system to a cultural system within which all parents/patients must learn to function competently. Qualitative analysis of focus group data enabled a deeper understanding of barriers to care--one that went beyond the traditional association of marker variables with poor outcomes ("what") to reveal an understanding of the processes by which parents experience the health care system ("how,"why") and by which disparities may arise. Development of such process-oriented models furthers the provision of patient-centered care and the creation of interventions, programs, and curricula to enhance such care. Qualitative discourse analysis, for example using this project's widely applicable

  4. Parental limited English proficiency and health outcomes for children with special health care needs: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eneriz-Wiemer, Monica; Sanders, Lee M; Barr, Donald A; Mendoza, Fernando S

    2014-01-01

    One in 10 US adults of childbearing age has limited English proficiency (LEP). Parental LEP is associated with worse health outcomes among healthy children. The relationship of parental LEP to health outcomes for children with special health care needs (CSHCN) has not been systematically reviewed. To conduct a systematic review of peer-reviewed literature examining relationships between parental LEP and health outcomes for CSHCN. PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library, Social Science Abstracts, bibliographies of included studies. Key search term categories: language, child, special health care needs, and health outcomes. US studies published between 1964 and 2012 were included if: 1) subjects were CSHCN; 2) studies included some measure of parental LEP; 3) at least 1 outcome measure of child health status, access, utilization, costs, or quality; and 4) primary or secondary data analysis. Three trained reviewers independently screened studies and extracted data. Two separate reviewers appraised studies for methodological rigor and quality. From 2765 titles and abstracts, 31 studies met eligibility criteria. Five studies assessed child health status, 12 assessed access, 8 assessed utilization, 2 assessed costs, and 14 assessed quality. Nearly all (29 of 31) studies used only parent- or child-reported outcome measures, rather than objective measures. LEP parents were substantially more likely than English-proficient parents to report that their CSHCN were uninsured and had no usual source of care or medical home. LEP parents were also less likely to report family-centered care and satisfaction with care. Disparities persisted for children with LEP parents after adjustment for ethnicity and socioeconomic status. Parental LEP is independently associated with worse health care access and quality for CSHCN. Health care providers should recognize LEP as an independent risk factor for poor health outcomes among CSHCN. Emerging models of chronic disease care should integrate and

  5. Parental health literacy and its impact on patient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotten, Mitzi

    2015-03-01

    The process of navigating through the modern American health care system is becoming progressively challenging. The range of tasks being asked of patients in the digital age is vast and complex and includes completing intricate insurance applications, signing complex consent forms, and translating medical data and prescription medication directions. Nearly 9 out of 10 adults have difficulty using the everyday health information that is routinely offered by medical providers. Mounting evidence now supports a growing awareness that general health literacy is the greatest individual factor affecting a person's health status. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Oral Health Knowledge, Past Oral Health Behaviors, and Barriers to Preventive Oral Care of Head Start Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlden, Adam P.; Hill, Lawrence F.; Alles-White, Monica L.; Cottrell, Randall R.

    2012-01-01

    Tooth decay remains the most common chronic disease of childhood. The CincySmiles Foundation (CSF) developed an instrument to evaluate Head Start parents' knowledge of oral health care practices and to identify barriers Head Start parents face when seeking dental treatment for their children. Data from Head Start parents (n = 675) across 3…

  7. Hidden consequences of success in pediatrics: parental health-related quality of life—results from the Care Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hatzmann, J.; Heymans, H.S.A.; Ferrer-i-Carbonell, A.; van Praag, B.M.S.; Grootenhuis, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    CONTEXT. The number of parents who care for a chronically ill child is increasing. Because of advances in medical care, parental caring tasks are changing. A detailed description of parental health-related quality of life will add to the understanding of the impact of caring for a chronically ill

  8. Hidden Consequences of Success in Pediatrics: Parental Health-Related Quality of Life-Results From the Care Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hatzmann, Janneke; Heymans, Hugo S. A.; Ferrer-I-Carbonell, Ada; van Praag, Bernard M. S.; Grootenhuis, Martha A.

    2008-01-01

    CONTEXT. The number of parents who care for a chronically ill child is increasing. Because of advances in medical care, parental caring tasks are changing. A detailed description of parental health-related quality of life will add to the understanding of the impact of caring for a chronically ill

  9. Parents' perspectives of the transition to home when a child has complex technological health care needs.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brenner, Maria

    2015-09-01

    There is an increasing number of children with complex care needs, however, there is limited evidence of the experience of families during the process of transitioning to becoming their child\\'s primary care giver. The aim of this study was to explore parents\\' perspectives of the transition to home of a child with complex respiratory health care needs.

  10. Working conditions and parents' ability to care for children's preventive health needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earle, Alison; Heymann, Jody

    2014-04-01

    To determine whether workplace flexibility policies influence parents' ability to meet their children's preventive primary health care needs. Study sample included 917 employed adults with at least 1 child younger than 18 years in their household from a nationally representative survey of US adults. Multivariate logistic regression analyses of factors influencing parental ability to meet their children's preventive primary health care needs were conducted. Analyses assessed the effect of having access to schedule flexibility, a supervisor who is accommodating about work adjustments when family issues arise, and the ability to make personal calls without consequences on the odds of a parents' being unable to meet their child's preventive health care needs. Being able to make a personal phone call at work was associated with a 56% (P flexibility at work could make a substantial difference in parents' ability to obtain preventive care for their children.

  11. Parent participation in decision-making in health-care services for children: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarthun, Antje; Akerjordet, Kristin

    2014-03-01

    To describe and synthesize previous research on parents' perceptions of their participation in decision making in child health-care services. Health policy in the area of user involvement emphasizes parent participation in decision-making (DM), thus ensuring that services are provided in accordance with their child's needs and enhancing parents' control over their child's health-care services. A systematic literature search, covering the period January 2000 to February 2011, found 18 studies that met the inclusion criteria. The analysis process involved data extraction, reduction, comparison and synthesizing. Three themes emerged: (1) relational factors and interdependence, (2) personal factors and attitudes and (3) organisational factors. Parents highlighted the importance of the parent-health professional relationship, professionals' competence and the possibility of varying the degree of participation in decision making. Challenges involved asymmetry in authority and power, professionals' attitudes and competence and organisational shortcomings in health-care services. Health professionals need to become more aware of their critical role and responsibility in involving parents in DM. Health professionals' attitudes and competence can be improved by knowledge of user involvement and research and facilitating the inclusion of parents in decision making by influencing the culture, routines and resources in the health service. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Parents, Mental Illness, and the Primary Health Care of Infants and Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This bulletin issue contains five papers on the theme of adults with mental illness who are parents of very young children. "Parents, Mental Illness, and the Primary Health Care of Infants and Young Children" (John N. Constantino) offers the experience of a trainee in a combined residency in pediatrics and psychiatry, focusing on…

  13. Parent education programmes for special health care needs children: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Alun C; Liang, Rachel P-T; Frydenberg, Erica; Higgins, Rosemary O; Murphy, Barbara M

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this review was to examine parent education programmes for families with children with special health care needs, to better design interventions focusing on the psychosocial aspects of living with a child's chronic condition. Studies of familial coping with children with special health care needs indicate high levels of parenting stress, with families with children with special health care needs at risk of major psychological and social disturbances and financial strain. Despite increased knowledge of the factors affecting children with special health care needs themselves, evidence for the effectiveness of preventative and treatment interventions in the form of parent education programmes remains limited. Systematic review using PRISMA guidelines. Multi database Boolean searches in EBSCO Discovery Services using the search terms 'complex/special health care needs children', 'child/pediatric/congenital heart disease', 'chronic illness (including diabetes, cancer and cystic fibrosis)', 'family coping', 'siblings' AND 'parenting/family support programs' were conducted. Analysis of 13 included studies showed evidence for the effectiveness of both mixed-health condition and condition-specific parenting programmes delivered in a variety of modes. Three common core intervention approaches were: use of narrative therapy enabling families to tell their own stories, thus facilitating emotional processing and (co-) construction of meaning; a focus on strengthening protective factors such as enhancing parents' skills in communication, and behavioural management and provision of psycho-education to deepen parents' understanding of their child's condition and associated developmental challenges. Irrespective of the type of outcome measures used in the studies, the review showed that there were positive gains and improvements across a range of areas of family functioning such as mental health, parenting, communication and problem-solving skills postprogramme

  14. Health professionals' beliefs related to parental involvement in ambulatory care: an international inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourigny, Jocelyne; Chartrand, Julie; Massicotte, Julie

    2008-01-01

    Changes in health care delivery in Canada and Europe, especially the shift to ambulatory care, have modified the care that children and parents receive and have prompted the need for a partnership alliance. The objectives of this exploratory study were to identify Canadian and Belgian health professionals' beliefs and attitudes towards parental involvement in their child's ambulatory care and to determine if these beliefs varied according to cultural background. Health professionals from both countries generally were in favor of parental involvement in their child's care, but are uncertain about its advantages and disadvantages. Facilitators and barriers mentioned by the health care providers were related to parents' abilities or their attitudes toward partnership, and they also expressed a need for more education on the subject. Results of this study indicate that health professionals working in ambulatory care are not fully ready to utilize parents as true partners in their interventions with children and families. Staff education is an important step towards the establishment and maintenance of a real partnership.

  15. Parents' Traditional Cultural Values and Mexican-Origin Young Adults' Routine Health and Dental Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Updegraff, Kimberly A; Kuo, Sally I-Chun; McHale, Susan M; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Wheeler, Lorey A

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the prospective associations between Mexican-origin mothers' and fathers' traditional cultural values and young adults' health and dental care utilization and to test the moderating role of youth gender. Mexican-origin parents and youth (N = 246 families) participated in home interviews and provided self-reports of parents' cultural values (time 1) and young adults' health status and routine health and dental care (time 2; 5 years later). Logistic regressions tested parents' traditional cultural values as predictors of routine health and dental care, accounting for parent nativity, parent acculturation, family socioeconomic status, youth gender, youth age, and youth physical health status. We also tested whether youth gender moderated the associations between parents' cultural values and young adults' routine care. Young adults whose mothers endorsed strong familism values when they were in mid-to-late adolescence were more likely to report at least one routine physician visit in the past year as young adults (odds ratio [OR] = 3.47, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.23-9.83, p = .019). Furthermore, for females only, mothers' more traditional gender role attitudes predicted reduced odds of receiving routine health (OR = .22; 95% CI: .08-.64, p = .005) and dental care (OR = .26; 95% CI: .09-.75, p culturally specific mechanisms to identify targets for addressing ethnic/racial disparities in health care utilization among Mexican-origin young adults, during a period of increased risk for health-compromising behaviors and reduced access to care. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Parental access to minors' health records in the South African health care context: concerns and recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MN Slabbert

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Privacy and confidentiality have long been recognized as essential elements of the doctor-patient relationship. Patients should feel free to disclose the most intimate and private medical facts about themselves to their physicians in order to facilitate optimal patient care. Medical records, whether hand-written or electronic, also play an important role in other contexts, such as medical research, health care management and financial audit. In South Africa there is little consistency in approaches to patient confidentiality. There are also no national standards or policies on patient confidentiality, apart from specific ethical rules, some ad hoc statutory provisions and general constitutional provisions not directly related to the intricacies of the doctor-patient relationship. A closer look at the relevant statutory provisions reveal the existence of conflicting standards, most notably in respect of parental access to a minors' health records. The purpose of this paper is to examine the discrepancies and contradictory provisions relating to the access to and disclosure of health information, in particular parental access to health records of minors. In the final instance, some recommendations will be suggested.

  17. Effectiveness of a presentation on infant oral health care for parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothe, Vincent; Kebriaei, Amy; Pitner, Sheryl; Balluff, Mary; Salama, Fouad

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate an infant oral health education programme, using a pre-post test design, for parents attending a paediatric clinic. The subjects were parents attending the well baby appointments at 3, 6, and 9 months of age. The study participants were men and women, all with an infant between 3 and 12 months of age. A 16 question assessment in the form of a questionnaire was completed immediately before and after the introduction of a 30 min educational intervention in the form of a PowerPoint presentation and a video of infant oral hygiene for parents. The parents completed the questionnaire twice (pre-post test design) in the same visit. Recruited parents attended only one presentation. The presentation educated parents about infant oral health and provided anticipatory guidance. Forty-seven parents or caretakers participated in the study. On the pre-test 28% had a score of 70% or less, and on the post-test 87% got a score of 88% or better. On the pre-test, 72% had a score of 70% or higher, and on the post-test 87% got a score of 88% or higher. Most parents (80%) reported that the presentation was helpful and indicated that the information would change the way they care for their baby's teeth at home. This study demonstrated the effectiveness of a 30 min PowerPoint and Video presentation in improving the oral health knowledge of parents caring for an infant.

  18. Child oral health concerns amongst parents and primary care givers in a Sure Start local programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, B; Clarke, W; McEvoy, W; Periam, K; Zoitopoulos, L

    2010-09-01

    To conduct an oral health promotion needs assessment amongst parents and primary care givers of pre-school children in a South East London Sure Start Local Programme (SSLP). To explore the oral health concerns and oral health literacy with regard to children's oral health amongst parents and primary care givers in a South East London SSLP. A qualitative study using four in-depth focus groups with a purposive sample of 20 participants. Data were analysed using the framework method. The SSLP was identified as an important source of information, support and social interaction for participants. Participants rated the informal networks of the programme as equally authoritative as other formal sources of information. Oral health concerns included: introducing healthy eating, establishing tooth brushing, teething and access to dental care. While participants had adequate knowledge of how to prevent oral disease they cited many barriers to acting on their knowledge which included: parents' tiredness, lack of confidence in parenting skills, confusing information, widespread availability of sugary foods and drinks, and lack of local child friendly dentists. Parenting skills and the social support provided by the SSLP appeared to be integral to the introduction of positive oral health behaviours. SSLPs were seen as a trusted source of support and information for carers of pre-school children. Integration of oral health promotion into SSLPs has the potential to tap into early interventions which tackle the wider support needs of carers of pre-school children while also supporting the development of positive oral health behaviours.

  19. How children with special health care needs affect the employment decisions of low-income parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprest, Pamela; Davidoff, Amy

    2004-09-01

    To better understand the impact of having a child with special health care needs (CSHCN), on low-income parents' employment decisions. Using data from the 1999 and 2000 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), we estimate multivariate statistical regressions (logit and tobit models) to estimate the relationship between having a CSHCN and the likelihood of employment and hours of employment for a sample-of low-income single parents. Controlling for differences in demographic and family characteristics, we find no significant association between having a CSHCN and the probability of work or the number of hours worked among low-income single-parent families. Separate analysis of different dimensions of special health care needs shows that parents of children with activity limitations are significantly less likely to work and work fewer hours. This result does not hold true for the group of children defined based on elevated or special service use, or for the group of children with specific chronic conditions. These results indicate that only a specific subset of children with special needs present difficulties for low-income parents' work. This suggests that policies to help low-income single parents of children with disabilities move into work should target this specific subset of children with special health care needs.

  20. Access Barriers to Dental Health Care in Children with Disability. A Questionnaire Study of Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerreth, Karolina; Borysewicz-Lewicka, Maria

    2016-03-01

    A patient's with disability everyday life is rife with many limitations such as architectural, transport, information as well as medical, psychological, legal, economic and social barriers. The aim of this study was to evaluate access to dental health care of special-care schoolchildren with intellectual disability on the basis of their parents' opinion. A questionnaire survey was carried out among 264 parents/caregivers of children from eight special-care schools in Poznan (Poland). Close-ended questions concerned children's barriers in access to dental care and parents' satisfaction with their children's dental care. Only 31.8% parents/caregivers did not have any problems with access to dental care and the most commonly reported barrier to obtaining dental care was protracted waiting time for a visit (36.7%). Most commonly, children were treated in dental surgery conditions (90.1%). Only 42.1% respondents were satisfied with their children's dental care. The research revealed that there is a need to improve the access of children with disability to dental care. Hence, it seems to be beneficial to set up specialist dental surgeries in special-care schools which would improve the access of children with disability to prophylaxis as well as dental treatment. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Need for and use of family leave among parents of children with special health care needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Paul J; Garfield, Craig F; Elliott, Marc N; Carey, Colleen; Eriksson, Carl; Schuster, Mark A

    2007-05-01

    Parents of children with special health care needs are especially vulnerable to work-family conflicts that family leave benefits might help resolve. We examined leave-taking among full-time-employed parents of children with special health care needs. We identified all children with special health care needs in 2 large inpatient/outpatient systems in Chicago, Illinois, and Los Angeles, California, and randomly selected 800 per site. From November 2003 to January 2004, we conducted telephone interviews with 1105 (87% of eligible and successfully contacted) parents. Among the sample's 574 full-time-employed parents, we examined whether leave benefits predicted missing any work for child illness, missing >4 weeks for child illness, and ability to miss work whenever their child needed them. Forty-eight percent of full-time-employed parents qualified for federal Family and Medical Leave Act benefits; 30% reported employer-provided leave benefits (not including sick leave/vacation). In the previous year, their children averaged 20 missed school/child care days, 12 doctor/emergency department visits, and 1.7 hospitalizations. Although 81% of parents missed work for child illness, 41% reported not always missing work when their child needed them, and 40% of leave-takers reported returning to work too soon. In multivariate regressions, parents who were eligible for Family and Medical Leave Act benefits and aware of their eligibility had 3.0 times greater odds of missing work for child illness than ineligible parents. Parents with >4 weeks of employer-provided leave benefits had 4.7 times greater odds of missing >4 weeks than parents without benefits. Parents with paid leave benefits had 2.8 times greater odds than other parents of missing work whenever their child needed them. Full-time-employed parents of children with special health care needs experience severe work-family conflicts. Although most have leave benefits, many report unmet need for leave. Access to Family and

  2. Meta-Analytic Structural Equation Modeling of the Influences of Family-Centered Care on Parent and Child Psychological Health

    OpenAIRE

    Dunst, Carl J.; Trivette, Carol M.

    2009-01-01

    Background. Family-centered care is now practiced throughout the world by physicians, nurses, and allied health care professionals. The call for adoption of family-centered care is based on the contention that the physical and psychological health of a child is influenced by parents' psychological health where family-centered care enhances parent well-being which in turn influences child well-being. We empirically assessed whether these relationships are supported by available evidence. M...

  3. The participation of parents of disabled children and young people in health and social care decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeilly, P; Macdonald, G; Kelly, B

    2017-11-01

    There is widespread acceptance that parents should be fully involved in decisions about their son or daughter's health and social care. This is reflected in partnership models of practice as well as local and national policy across the United Kingdom. Previous research indicates that parents' experiences of decision making with professionals are mixed. The research reported here aimed to explore parents' experiences of participating in decisions made with professionals about their disabled son or daughter's care. This research used mixed methods including survey methodology and qualitative in depth interviews. The research was conducted in one Trust in Northern Ireland. Participants were 77 parents of children and young people with a range of impairments aged between 3 and 28 years. Three themes emerged from the data: taking the lead, not knowing, and getting the balance right. Parents wanted to be involved in all aspects of decision making. Although parents reported many examples of good practice, there were also times when they did not feel listened to or did not have enough information to inform decisions. Parents in this research recounted positive as well as negative experiences. Parents took on a protective role when decisions were made about their son or daughter and at times, reported the need to "fight" for their child. The provision of information remains problematic for these families, and at times, this created a barrier to parents' participation in decision making. Partnership approaches to care that recognize parents' expertise are particularly important to parents when decisions are made with professionals. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Continuity of care for children with complex chronic health conditions: parents' perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaw Nicola

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Continuity of care has been explored largely from academic and service provider perspectives, and in relation to adult patient/client groups. We interviewed parents of children with complex chronic health conditions to examine how their experiences and perceptions of continuity of care fit with these perspectives; and to identify the salient factors in the experience of, and factors contributing to, continuity in this population. Methods Parents of 47 elementary school-aged children with spina bifida, Down syndrome, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, Duchenne muscular dystrophy or cystic fibrosis participated in semi-structured interviews. Parents described and mapped the pattern of their interactions with service providers over time in all domains relevant to their child's health, well-being, and development (medical, rehabilitational, educational, and social supportive services, with particular attention paid to their perceptions of connectedness or coherency in these interactions. Verbatim transcripts were analyzed thematically using a framework approach to impose structure regarding parents' perspectives on continuity of care. Results Existing academic concepts of relational, informational and management continuity were all discernable in parents' narratives. A thorough knowledge of the child on the part of service providers emerged as extremely important to parents; such knowledge was underpinned by continuity of personal relationships, principally, and also by written information. For this population, notions of continuity extend to the full range of service providers these children and families need to achieve optimal health status, and are not limited to physicians and nurses. Communication among providers was seen as integral to perceived continuity. Compartmentalization of services and information led to parents assuming a necessary, though at times, uncomfortable, coordinating role. Geographic factors

  5. Parental Satisfaction with Quality of Health Care of Children with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UNIBEN

    provider's success at meeting the patients' needs and .... The care of individuals and children with SCD ..... Hojat M., Louis DZ, Maxwell K,. Markham ... The John Insall Award: ... Geurts JW, Willems PC, Lockwood C, .... you think of your doctor?

  6. Older Parents Benefit More in Health Outcome From Daughters' Than Sons' Emotional Care in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yi; Brasher, Melanie Sereny; Gu, Danan; Vaupel, James W

    2016-12-01

    To examine whether older parents in China would benefit more from daughters' care than from sons' emotional care. Analysis of the unique data sets of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey conducted in 2002, 2005, and 2008-2009 in 22 provinces. As compared with having son(s), having daughter(s) is significantly more beneficial at older ages in China, with regard to maintaining higher cognitive capacity and reducing mortality risk. Such daughter advantages in providing emotional care to older parents are more profound among the oldest-old aged 80+ as compared with the young-old aged 65 to 79 and surprisingly more profound in rural areas as compared with urban areas, even though son preference is much more common among rural residents. We describe how educational campaigns aimed at informing the public about the benefits of daughter(s) for older parents' health outcome could help promote gender equality and reduce traditional son preference, especially in rural China.

  7. Caring for Mom and Neglecting Yourself? The Health Effects of Caring for an Elderly Parent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coe, N.B.; Van Houtven, C.H.

    2008-01-01

    We examine the physical and mental health effects of providing care to an elderly mother on the adult child caregiver. We address the endogeneity of the selection in and out of caregiving using an instrumental variable approach, and carefully control for baseline health and work status of the adult

  8. Perspectives toward oral mucositis prevention from parents and health care professionals in pediatric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethier, Marie-Chantal; Regier, Dean A; Tomlinson, Deborah; Judd, Peter; Doyle, John; Gassas, Adam; Naqvi, Ahmed; Sung, Lillian

    2012-08-01

    The objectives of this study were: (1) to describe parents and health care professionals (HCPs) perceived importance of oral mucositis prevention in children with cancer; (2) To describe utilities and willingness-to-pay (WTP) to prevent mucositis. Respondents included parents of children receiving intensive chemotherapy for leukemia/lymphoma or undergoing stem cell transplantation and HCPs caring for children with cancer. Importance of mild and severe oral mucositis was estimated using a visual analogue scale (VAS). Mucositis-associated utilities were elicited using the time trade-off technique (TTO). WTP to avoid mucositis was obtained using contingent valuation. These techniques quantify how much time or money the participant is willing to relinquish in order to prevent mucositis. Eighty-two parents and 60 HCPs were included. Parents and HCPs believed mild mucositis to be of similar importance (median VAS 2.5 versus 3.6; P = 0.357) while parents considered severe mucositis less important than HCPs (median VAS 8.3 versus 9.0; P parent versus HCP responses were seen with TTO (mild or severe mucositis) and most parents were not willing to trade any survival time to prevent severe mucositis. Parents were willing to pay significantly more than HCPs to prevent mild mucositis (average median WTP $1,371 CAN vs. $684 CAN, P = 0.031). No differences were seen in WTP to prevent severe mucositis. Parents and HCP believe severe mucositis to be important, although it is more important to HCPs. Parents would not be willing to reduce life expectancy to eliminate mucositis.

  9. Acculturation differences in communicating information about child mental health between Latino parents and primary care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lê Cook, Benjamin; Brown, Jonathan D; Loder, Stephen; Wissow, Larry

    2014-12-01

    Significant Latino-white disparities in youth mental health care access and quality exist yet little is known about Latino parents' communication with providers about youth mental health and the role of acculturation in influencing this communication. We estimated regression models to assess the association between time in the US and the number of psychosocial issues discussed with the medical assistant (MA) and doctor, adjusting for child and parent mental health and sociodemographics. Other proxies of acculturation were also investigated including measures of Spanish and English language proficiency and nativity. Parent's length of time in the US was positively associated with their communication of: their child's psychosocial problems with their child's MA, stress in their own life with their child's MA, and their child's school problems with their child's doctor. These differences were especially apparent for parents living in the US for >10 years. Parent-child language discordance, parent and child nativity were also significantly associated with communication of psychosocial problems. Greater provider and MA awareness of variation in resistance to communicating psychosocial issues could improve communication, and improve the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of youth mental illness.

  10. Communicating the benefits of combination vaccines to parents and health care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koslap-Petraco, Mary Beth; Parsons, Tamra

    2003-01-01

    Infants may receive as many as 5 separate injections at an office visit in order to comply with the 2002 childhood immunization schedule. Many parents and healthcare providers disagree with administering 4 or 5 injections at one visit, and therefore may delay some injections until another visit. This practice may lead to decreased compliance and can increase costs for the parent. New combination vaccines will help to simplify the immunization schedule, and health care providers will need to be able to address parental concerns regarding these vaccines. Nurses are often responsible for administering vaccines in the office setting, and therefore are also influential in deciding which vaccines should be ordered. The purpose of this article is to educate nurses on communicating the benefits of combination vaccines to parents and other healthcare providers.

  11. Promoting careers in health care for urban youth: What students, parents and educators can teach us.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Lynne; Rumala, Bernice; Carson, Patricia; Siegel, Elliot

    2014-01-01

    There are many obstacles that urban youth experience in pursuing health careers, but the benefits of diversifying the classroom and workforce are clear. This is especially true today as educators and policymakers seek to enhance underrepresented minority students' access to health careers, and also achieve the health workforce needed to support the Affordable Care Act. The creation of student pipeline programs began more than 40 years ago, but success has been equivocal. In 2008, Mentoring in Medicine (MIM) conducted a research project to identify how students learn about health careers; develop strategies for an integrated, experiential learning program that encourages underrepresented minority students to pursue careers in health; and translate these into best practices for supporting students through their entire preparatory journey. Six focus groups were conducted with educators, students, and their parents. The inclusion of parents was unusual in studies of this kind. The outcome yielded important and surprising differences between student and parent knowledge, attitudes and beliefs. They informed our understanding of the factors that motivate and deter underrepresented minority students to pursue careers in health care. Specific programmatic strategies emerged that found their place in the subsequent development of new MIM programming that falls into the following three categories: community-based, school-based and Internet based. Best practices derived from these MIM programs are summarized and offered for consideration by other health career education program developers targeting underrepresented minority students, particularly those located in urban settings.

  12. Lay beliefs about emotional problems and attitudes toward mental health care among parents and adolescents: Exploring the impact of immigration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhulp, Esmée E; Stevens, Gonneke W J M; Pels, Trees V M; Van Weert, Caroline M C; Vollebergh, Wilma A M

    2017-04-01

    Individuals' lay beliefs about mental health problems and attitudes toward mental health care are thought to be influenced by the cultural background of these individuals. In the current study, we investigated differences between immigrant Dutch and native Dutch parents and adolescents in lay beliefs about emotional problems and attitudes toward mental health care. Additionally, among immigrant Dutch parents, we examined the associations between acculturation orientations and lay beliefs about emotional problems as well as attitudes toward mental health care. In total, 349 pairs of parents and their adolescent children participated in our study (95 native Dutch, 85 Surinamese-Dutch, 87 Turkish-Dutch, 82 Moroccan-Dutch). A vignette was used to examine participants' lay beliefs. Immigrant Dutch and native Dutch parents differed in their lay beliefs and attitudes toward mental health care, whereas hardly any differences were revealed among their children. Turkish-Dutch and Moroccan-Dutch parents showed more passive and fewer active solutions to emotional problems compared to native Dutch parents. Additionally, Moroccan-Dutch and Surinamese-Dutch parents reported greater fear of mental health care compared to native Dutch parents. Furthermore, the results showed that immigrant Dutch parents who were more strongly oriented toward the Dutch culture reported less fear of mental health care. Our results showed clear differences in lay beliefs and attitudes toward mental health care between immigrant Dutch and native Dutch parents but not between their children. Substantial differences were also found between parents from different immigrant Dutch populations as well as within the population of immigrant Dutch parents. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Life Experience of Parents with Amblyopic Children in Contact with Health Care Providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Kamali

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Amblyopia is most common binocular vision anomalies. To comprise is decrease of visual acuity witch doesn't remove by optical correction. Nowadays because of the psychosocial problem with amblyopia, is a functional disability. Awareness of parents of children with amblyopic life experience, when facing with curing system can provide effective for promotion of self-assessment, treatment and rehabilitation. Methods: To explore parent's experience in relation with health care provider utilize a qualitative study with phenomenological method. This study involving semi-structured on-depth interviews with 9 parents of child with amblyopia. Interviews were tape recorded. Data analysis was based on Van manen method. Results: Parents of children describe five subjects in relation with health care providers include: on time and correct diagnosis, consultation, therapist's behavior, change the therapist and visual screening. Discussion: This study indicates that on time diagnosis and intervention, therapists appropriate behavior, consultation and prescribe an appropriate treatment can effect on parental and child acceptance and successful treatment.

  14. Oral health in children with Down syndrome: Parents' views on dental care in Flanders (Belgium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descamps, I; Marks, L A

    2015-06-01

    Evaluate the views and knowledge, regarding dental care, of parents who have a child with Down syndrome (DS). Parents of children with DS were invited to fill in a questionnaire. They were recruited by the Flemish Organization for DS, from schools for children with special needs and by four multidisciplinary medical DS teams at four University Hospitals. Chi-square tests were used to test the correlation between different variables. Results were assessed in the 95% confidence interval with pOral health was indicated as rather good by 53% of the parents. Of the children, 66% went to a dentist within the last six months. Most of the children (64%) received a dental examination. In 53% of the cases, parents visited the same dentist for their child with DS as their other child(ren) without DS. Eighty-three percent of the parents are pleased with their dentist. They expect the dentist to be kind and reassuring. Children aged 10 years or younger get significantly more help with tooth brushing (79%) than children older than 10 years (36%). However 20% of the parents never received any oral hygiene instructions for their child with DS. Prevention is the most frequent service provided by the dentist. Parents seem to be pleased with the dentist who treats their child with DS.

  15. Counseling About Skin Cancer Prevention Among Adolescents: What Do Parents Receive From Health Care Providers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRee, Annie-Laurie; Mays, Darren; Kornides, Melanie L; Gilkey, Melissa B

    2017-10-01

    Adolescence is a high-risk period for ultraviolet radiation exposure, a primary cause of skin cancer later in life. We sought to characterize receipt of health care provider-delivered counseling about skin cancer prevention (SCP) among parents of adolescents. In 2016, we conducted an online survey with a national sample of parents of adolescents aged 11-17 years (n = 1,253). Multivariable logistic regression assessed correlates of receiving counseling from a health care provider about any of the six skin cancer prevention (SCP) topics. Only half (49%) of parents recalled discussing any SCP topic with their child's provider; the prevalence was highest for sunscreen (39%) and lowest for indoor tanning (3%). Parents had greater odds of receiving counseling if they had a child with more sun-reactive skin (odds ratio [OR] = 1.53); a family history of skin cancer (OR = 1.38); or a higher quality relationship with the provider (OR = 1.47; all p attention to SCP counseling is needed, especially for exposures such as indoor tanning that remain prevalent among adolescents but are rarely addressed in clinical encounters. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Examining the Effects of Childhood Cancer on the Parental Subsystem: Implications for Parents and Health Care Professionals-Part 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moules, Nancy J; Estefan, Andrew; McCaffrey, Graham; Tapp, Dianne M; Strother, Douglas

    2016-11-01

    This article is the third part of a hermeneutic research study examining the impact of childhood cancer experiences on the parental relationship. In Part 1, we offered an exploration of the phenomenon with background literature; a description of the research question, method, and design; and finally a discussion of relationships that survived, thrived, or demised, with an emphasis on the notions of difference and trading. In Part 2, we furthered the interpretations to look at the complexities of issues such as teams, roles, focus, protection, intimacy, grieving, putting relationships on hold, and reclaiming them. In this article, we discuss the advice that the participants offered us and how that advice might have implications for other parents in similar situations and health care professionals working with families experiencing childhood cancer. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Parents' Experience of Hope When Their Child Has Cancer: Perceived Meaning and the Influence of Health Care Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Mary F; Pantaleao, Ashley; Popp, Jill M

    This study examined the role and importance of hopefulness for parents of children with cancer, how hope relates to parents' experience with the diagnosis, and the influence nurses and other health care professionals have on parents' hope. Using an interview format, 50 parents of children diagnosed with cancer were given the Reaction to Diagnosis Interview, and asked 5 open-ended questions about hope. Answers were analyzed using content analysis. Parents' adaptation to their child's diagnosis was compared with answers to the hope questions. Parents defined hope as a knowing, belief, or wish regarding their child's health. They emphasized the importance of hope over the course of their child's treatment. Staff increased parents' hope by providing care to children and families, educating parents, and by connecting with and providing a positive outlook for families. Most parents felt there was nothing staff did to decrease their hope. Understanding parents' experiences validates the quality care and connections we make with children and families, and encourages us to consider the effects of our interactions. This underscores the importance of education and support as a means of instilling hope in parents, who are valued, critical members of their child's health care team.

  18. The mental models of vaccination, trust in health care system and parental attitudes towards childhood vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan Gjorgjievski

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Many contradictory notions have been appearing in the area of health care in recent years, including those related to attitudes towards vaccination. On the basis of their understanding of the phenomenon some parents oppose to the vaccination. The purpose of this study was to compare mental models of laymen with expert models and examine the correlation of the mental models of vaccination and the trust in doctors and healthcare system with the parental attitudes on childhood vaccination. In doing so, we have considered the demographic characteristics of the parents and cultural differences between parents from Slovenia and Macedonia. We were also interested in the role of compulsory and optional vaccination, because in the latter the behavioral intention is expressed more clearly. The methods used in our study of mental models was based on the approach of Morgan, Fischhoff, Bostrom and Atman (2002 which has three phases: (1 obtaining expert mental models, (2 getting mental models of the laymen (e.g., parents and (3 comparison of both mental models. Expert models of vaccination were obtained from five doctors from Slovenia and five doctors from Macedonia. Laymen models of vaccination were obtained in structured interviews with 33 parents from Slovenia and 30 from Macedonia. Based on comparisons of expert and laymental models it can be concluded that the mental models of vaccination from parents of one-year old children differ from expert mental models. Most parents, both Macedonian and Slovenian, have also responded that they have greater confidence in the doctors rather than the healthcare system, mainly due to positive experiences with the selected pediatrician. In some Slovenian parents, a tendency to identify compulsory vaccination with force was noticed.

  19. An exploratory study of parental knowledge of early childhood oral health care in Southland, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Leonard; Densie, Ian; Morgan, Christian

    2015-03-01

    The primary objective was to clearly assess the oral health care knowledge of Southland parents. The secondary objective was to identify whether inequalities exist between parents with different ethnicity, education or income. An exploratory study based on a simple online/ paper questionnaire. Participants were recruited through Southland early childcare centres. Researchers contacted 115 centres, 66 agreed to participate and 58 returned questionnaires. Questionnaires were distributed to each centre to be completed by the parents. The questionnaire was able to be completed online or as a paper copy. Centres were supplied with dental brochures, which were distributed after the questionnaires were returned. Questionnaires were collated and the responses analysed. Six hundred and seventy questionnaires were returned, 213 online and 457 paper copies. The typical participant was a mother (93.9%), age 34 years (median), a non-smoker (86.3%), non-Maori (87.1%), with a university degree (33.9%) and an annual household income between $60,001 and $100,000 (36.5%). Twenty of the 47 questions were selected to reflect parental knowledge. Overall, 65.1% of the respondents answered all 20 questions correctly. Differences in knowledge were identified between mothers and other participants (65.4% vs. 59.4%), smokers and non-smokers (61.3% vs. 65.7%), Maori and non-Maori (61.6% vs. 65.6%) and education level (Primary 58.0% vs. Degree 68.7%) (P knowledge in early childhood oral health care. Participants who identified as non-mothers (fathers, step-fathers, legal care givers or other), smokers, Maori or low education displayed significantly less knowledge. Further education and oral health care promotion may be needed to improve this disparity.

  20. Internet use and eHealth literacy of low-income parents whose children have special health care needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Caprice; Madden, Vanessa; Wang, Hua; Sloyer, Phyllis; Shenkman, Elizabeth

    2011-09-29

    The Internet has revolutionized the way in which many Americans search for health care information. Unfortunately, being able to use the Internet for this purpose is predicated on having access to the Internet and being able to understand and comprehend online health information. This is especially important for parents of children with special health care needs who are forced to make many medical decisions throughout the lives of their children. Yet, no information is available about this vulnerable group. For parents of children with special health care needs we sought to (1) describe their Internet access and use, (2) determine which child and household factors were associated with Internet use, (3) describe eHealth literacy of Internet users, and (4) determine which child and household factors were associated with greater eHealth literacy. This was a cross-sectional telephone survey of 2371 parents whose children with special health care needs were enrolled in Florida's Medicaid and State Children's Health Insurance Plan (SCHIP) programs (4072 parents were approached). To be enrolled in the program, families must have incomes that are less than or equal to 200% of the federal poverty level. The eHealth Literacy Scale (eHEALS) was used to measure eHealth literacy. Descriptive and multivariate analyses were conducted to address the study objectives. The survey response rate was 58.2%. Participating parents were mainly female (2154/2371, 91%), white non-Hispanic (915/2371, 39%), English speaking (1827/2371, 77%), high school graduates (721/2371, 30%), married (1252/2371, 53%), and living in a two-parent household (1212/2371, 51%). Additionally, 82% of parents (1945/2371) in the sample reported that they used the Internet, and 49% of those parents used it daily (1158/2371). Almost three-quarters of Internet users had access to the Internet at home while about one-half had access at work. Parents who were African American, non-English speaking, older, and not

  1. [Young first-time parents' experiences with family-centred postpartal health care in Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kläusler-Troxler, Marianne; Kurth, Elisabeth; Spirig, Rebecca

    2014-08-01

    Routine postnatal care normally addresses only the mother and her child. In Switzerland, counselling for all parents and their children is provided by family nurses in a community-based health care setting. We implemented a new approach to ensure father involvement within the framework of the Calgary Family Assessment (CFAM) and the Calgary Intervention Model CFIM of Wright and Leahey (2013) in the northwest of Switzerland. This qualitative study explored how mothers and fathers experienced the newly developed family-centred consultation. Data collection was performed by means of participant observation and semi- structured interviews with a sample of five first-time parents with healthy neonates. Data were analysed by using content analysis according to Mayring. Mothers and fathers experienced family-centred consultation as effective. They felt more secure and confident "to handle the new situation" and obtained trustful, concrete and professional support to take care of their baby, particularly with regard to breast feeding, crying and sleeping patterns. Fathers felt included into postnatal care from the beginning. Family nursing offers a useful framework for family-centred postnatal health care.

  2. The role of parental health care utilization in children's unnecessary utilization in China: evidence from Shaanxi province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Zhou, Zhongliang; Si, Yafei

    2017-03-09

    China has a large population of children under 18 years of age, whose health is of great concern to the Chinese health care system. However, few studies have been conducted to analyze the factors associated with children's unnecessary health care utilization in China. The objective of this study is to provide some empirical evidence on this issue by investigating the role of parental health care utilization in children's unnecessary health care use. The data were obtained from the fifth Health Service Survey of Shaanxi province in 2013. We employed three dependent variables to measure children's health care utilization: the number of children's outpatient visits during the past 2 weeks, whether or not infusion was used if the child had any outpatient visits during the past 2 weeks, and the number of children's inpatient visits during last year. Based on specific characteristics of these outcome variables, negative binomial models were used for the non-negative numbers of outpatient and inpatient visits, while a probit model was used for the zero-one indicator variable showing whether infusion was used during outpatient visits. Based on a sample of 11,024 children, our results of multivariate analysis showed that children whose parents used outpatient care were estimated to have a larger number of outpatient visits than those whose parents did not have outpatient visits in the past 2 weeks (with a difference of 0.0393 visits). Among children having outpatient visits in the last 2 weeks, the probability of obtaining infusion was 57.01 percentage points higher for children whose parents used infusion in the past 2 weeks than the probability for those whose parents did not use infusion. The predicted number of inpatient visits was higher for children whose parents used inpatient services in the last year, compared with the group whose parents did not use (with a difference of 0.0567 visits). Moreover, we noted that the positive association between parental and

  3. Benefits of Medical Home Care Reaching Beyond Chronically Ill Teens: Exploring Parent Health-Related Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Laura J; Grannis, Connor; Dolce, Millie; Chisolm, Deena J

    2018-03-15

    Caring for teens with special health care needs places physical and mental health burdens on parents, which can be exacerbated by the stresses of transitions to independence. Medical homes can improve teen transitions to greater self-management and reduce health care-related time and financial burdens for families. We examined the association between parent-reported teen medical home status and caregiver health-related quality of life (HRQOL). The study sample included parents or caregivers of teens with special health care needs aged 15 to 18 recruited from a pediatric Medicaid accountable care organization who participated in a survey (response rate, 40.5%). The primary outcome was parent HRQOL scores (0-100 points) measured using the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Family Impact Module. Medical home status was based on parent report of teen's health care meeting medical home criteria. Linear regression models were used to estimate HRQOL scores, adjusted for demographic characteristics, health literacy, and teen functional limitation. Among 488 parents, 27% reported their teen received care consistent with a medical home. Adjusted parent HRQOL scores were significantly higher among those whose teens had a medical home (74.40; 95% confidence interval, 71.31-77.48), relative to those whose teens did not (65.78; 95% confidence interval, 63.92-67.65). Medical home subscale analyses showed HRQOL scores had significant positive associations with family-centered care and coordinated care, but not other subscales. Teen medical home status was positively associated with caregiver HRQOL, suggesting that the medical home may benefit overall caregiver well-being. In particular, receiving care that was family centered and coordinated appeared to be the most beneficial. Copyright © 2018 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Hidden consequences of success in pediatrics: parental health-related quality of life--results from the Care Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzmann, Janneke; Heymans, Hugo S A; Ferrer-i-Carbonell, Ada; van Praag, Bernard M S; Grootenhuis, Martha A

    2008-11-01

    The number of parents who care for a chronically ill child is increasing. Because of advances in medical care, parental caring tasks are changing. A detailed description of parental health-related quality of life will add to the understanding of the impact of caring for a chronically ill child. This will contribute to pediatric family care. Our goal was to determine the health-related quality of life of parents of chronically ill children compared with parents of healthy schoolchildren. A survey of 533 parents of children with chronic conditions (10 diagnosis groups, children aged 1-19 years, diagnosed >1 year ago, living at home) and 443 parents of schoolchildren was conducted between January 2006 and September 2007. Parents were approached through Emma Children's Hospital (which has a tertiary referral and a regional function) and through parent associations. The comparison group included parents of healthy schoolchildren. Health-related quality of life was assessed with the TNO-AZL Questionnaire for Adult's Health Related Quality of Life. Health-related quality of life measures gross and fine motor function, cognitive functioning, sleep, pain, social functioning, daily activities, sexuality, vitality, positive and depressive emotions, and aggressiveness. The health-related quality of life of the study group was compared with that of the comparison group, and effect sizes were estimated. The percentages of parents at risk for a low health-related quality of life were compared with the 25th percentile scores of the comparison group. RESULTS. Parents of chronically ill children had a significantly lower health-related quality of life. Subgroup analysis showed lower health-related quality of life on sleep, social functioning, daily activities, vitality, positive emotions, and depressive emotions in disease-specific groups. On average, 45% of the parents were at risk for health-related quality-of-life impairment. Parents of chronically ill children report a seriously

  5. Risk assessment of parents' concerns at 18 months in preventive child health care predicted child abuse and neglect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staal, I.I.E.; Hermanns, J.M.A.; Schrijvers, A.J.P.; van Stel, H.F.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: As child maltreatment has a major impact, prevention and early detection of parenting problems are of great importance. We have developed a structured interview which uses parents’ concerns for a joint needs assessment by parents and a child health care nurse, followed by a professional

  6. Assessing the congruence of transition preparedness as reported by parents and their adolescents with special health care needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Caprice; Huang, I-Chan; Hinojosa, Melanie; Baker, Kimberly; Sloyer, Phyllis

    2013-02-01

    Several studies have investigated how prepared adolescents are to transition to adult health care and barriers to transition for adolescents with special health care needs. The majority of these studies, however, have only assessed these experiences from the parents' point of view. Our study aims to assess the congruence of adolescents and parents reported transition planning and the factors associated with planning. A secondary data analysis was conducted using telephone survey data. Data were collected from parents and adolescents with special health care needs who received health care through Florida's Title V public insurance program. The final sample included 376 matched pairs of adolescent-parent surveys. To assess health care transition planning, respondents were asked if discussions had occurred with the adolescents' doctor, nurse, or with each other. Parents reported higher levels of planning than adolescents. Results show the lowest level of agreement between the parent and adolescent reports (κ < 0.2) and the highest level of agreement when parents and adolescents were asked if they discussed transition with each other (κ = 0.19). Regression results suggest that older adolescents are more prepared (vs. younger) and that adolescents whose parents have lower educational attainment are less prepared for transition. Results from this study suggest that there may be miscommunication around discussions related to transition, although further research is warranted. It is important to ensure that adolescents, not just parents, have a thorough understanding of transition since they will ultimately be responsible for their own health care once they reach adulthood.

  7. Determinants of parental satisfaction with ultrasound hip screening in child health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witting, Marjon; Boere-Boonekamp, Magda M; Fleuren, Margot A H; Sakkers, Ralph J B; Ijzerman, Maarten J

    2012-06-01

    Prior research has shown ultrasound (US) screening for developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) in preventive child health care to be more effective than the current screening method. In the present study, 3-month-old infants were screened for DDH with US. The objective of this study was to examine parental satisfaction with the screening and determinants that affect satisfaction. Parental satisfaction was measured using a questionnaire. Independent variables included socio-demographic determinants, structure, process and outcome-related determinants and the meeting of expectations. Satisfaction with the screening was high. Parents who perceived the screener as competent, had enough time to ask questions, perceived the proceeding as fluent, perceived a low burden on their infant and whose expectations were met, were more likely to be satisfied. Satisfaction was influenced by process-related factors and not by factors related to the structure and the outcome of the screening. Good information provision before the screening and communication during the screening are means by which parental satisfaction can be influenced positively.

  8. On duty all the time: health and quality of life among immigrant parents caring for a child with complex health needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravdal Kvarme, Lisbeth; Albertini-Früh, Elena; Brekke, Idunn; Gardsjord, Ragnhild; Halvorsrud, Liv; Liden, Hilde

    2016-02-01

    To provide knowledge about how immigrant parents of children with complex health needs manage their family lives and how this affects their own health and quality of life. Caregivers of children with complex health needs have additional risk for general health problems and mental health problems and immigrant parents may be more vulnerable to mental distress and failing health and quality of life. This qualitative study used an exploratory design with individual and focus group interviews. Data collection and analysis followed phenomenological hermeneutic guidelines. Individual and group interviews with 27 parents: 18 mothers and 9 fathers from Pakistan, Poland and Vietnam. Immigrant parents of children with complex health needs experience their own health and quality of life challenges. They described the burden of dealing with their child's needs and special care, which affects their sleep and physical and mental health. Single mothers are particularly vulnerable. Parents reported positive and negative effects of their caregiving experience that may affect their health and quality of life. Mothers were the primary caregivers and reported more health problems than did fathers. The lack of respite care, social networks and support impacted maternal health. Immigrant parents struggle to access resources for their child with complex health needs. Hospital nurses, schools and community health care can play a valuable role in supporting the parents of children with complex health needs. It is important that parents are informed about their rights and receive a coordinator and interdisciplinary group to ensure that their needs are met with assistance and respite care. That maternal health was worse in this sample implies that health care professionals should pay more attention to reducing stress among these caregivers. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender parents seeking health care for their children: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Linda; Zappia, Tess; Blackwood, Diana; Watkins, Rochelle; Wardrop, Joan; Chapman, Rose

    2012-12-01

    Few studies have examined the issues faced by lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT)-parented families in relation to their access to and satisfaction with healthcare services for their children. It is thought that LGBT individuals have experienced negative interactions with the healthcare environment. To systematically review the literature investigating the experience of LGBT parents seeking health care for their children. A search of the following databases: Cochrane Library, CINAHL, Embase, Google Scholar, Medline, PsychInfo, Science Direct, Sociological Abstracts, Proquest, Scopus, and Web of Science was conducted. Using the PRISMA flow chart and processes of the United Kingdom Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, we selected and analysed relevant studies. Four studies that met the inclusion criteria were identified. Studies showed that while the experience of LGBT parents seeking health care was largely positive, strategies need to be implemented to improve the quality of healthcare services for LGBT families and ensure that their needs are met. Although many LGBT parents have positive experiences of health care, some still experience discrimination and prejudice. Specific educational interventions are needed to support LGBT parents seeking health care for their children. Further research is required to explore LGBT-parented families' experiences of healthcare services, and this should include children's experiences. © 2012 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  10. Lay beliefs about emotional problems and attitudes toward mental health care among parents and adolescents : Exploring the impact of immigration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhulp, Esmée E.; Stevens, Gonneke W.J.M.; Van Weert, Caroline M.C.; Pels, Trees V.M.; Vollebergh, Wilma A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Individuals' lay beliefs about mental health problems and attitudes toward mental health care are thought to be influenced by the cultural background of these individuals. In the current study, we investigated differences between immigrant Dutch and native Dutch parents and adolescents in lay

  11. Lay Beliefs About Emotional Problems and Attitudes Toward Mental Health Care Among Parents and Adolescents : Exploring the Impact of Immigration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhulp, Esmée E.; Stevens, Gonneke W J M; Pels, Trees V M; Van Weert, Caroline M C; Vollebergh, Wilma A M

    Objective: Individuals' lay beliefs about mental health problems and attitudes toward mental health care are thought to be influenced by the cultural background of these individuals. In the current study, we investigated differences between immigrant Dutch and native Dutch parents and adolescents in

  12. Do parents who smoke underutilize health care services for their children? A cross sectional study within the longitudinal PIAMA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs-van der Bruggen, Monique A M; Wijga, Alet H; Brunekreef, Bert; de Jongste, Johan C; Baan, Caroline A; Kerkhof, Marjan; Smit, Henriette A

    2007-06-12

    A higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms and an associated increase in health care utilization among children with parents who smoke is to be expected. From previous studies however, it appears that parents who smoke may underutilize health services for their children, especially with respect to respiratory care. This study explores the validity and generalizability of the previous assumption. Data were obtained from a Dutch birth-cohort study; the Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) project. Information regarding parental smoking, the child's respiratory symptoms and health care use and potential confounders were obtained by postal questionnaires. Multivariate logistic models were used to relate parental smoking to the child's respiratory symptoms and health care use. The study comprised 3,564, 4-year old children. In the crude analysis, respiratory symptoms were more frequent among children with a parent who smoked, while health care utilization for respiratory symptoms was not significantly different between children with or without a parent who smoked. In the multivariate analyses, maternal smoking had a larger impact on the child's respiratory symptoms and health care use as compared to paternal smoking. Maternal smoking was positively associated with mild respiratory symptoms of the child, adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.50 (1.19-1.91), but not with severe respiratory symptoms AOR 1.03 (0.75-1.40). Among children with mild respiratory symptoms, children with a mother who smoked were less likely to be taken to the general practitioner (GP) for respiratory symptoms, than children with mothers who did not smoke, AOR 0.58 (0.33-1.01). This finding was less pronounced among children with severe respiratory symptoms AOR 0.86 (0.49-1.52). Neither GP visits for non-respiratory symptoms nor specialized care for respiratory disease were significantly associated with parental smoking. Mothers who smoke appear to underutilize health care for their

  13. Do parents who smoke underutilize health care services for their children? A cross sectional study within the longitudinal PIAMA study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baan Caroline A

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms and an associated increase in health care utilization among children with parents who smoke is to be expected. From previous studies however, it appears that parents who smoke may underutilize health services for their children, especially with respect to respiratory care. This study explores the validity and generalizability of the previous assumption. Methods Data were obtained from a Dutch birth-cohort study; the Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA project. Information regarding parental smoking, the child's respiratory symptoms and health care use and potential confounders were obtained by postal questionnaires. Multivariate logistic models were used to relate parental smoking to the child's respiratory symptoms and health care use. Results The study comprised 3,564, 4-year old children. In the crude analysis, respiratory symptoms were more frequent among children with a parent who smoked, while health care utilization for respiratory symptoms was not significantly different between children with or without a parent who smoked. In the multivariate analyses, maternal smoking had a larger impact on the child's respiratory symptoms and health care use as compared to paternal smoking. Maternal smoking was positively associated with mild respiratory symptoms of the child, adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.50 (1.19–1.91, but not with severe respiratory symptoms AOR 1.03 (0.75–1.40. Among children with mild respiratory symptoms, children with a mother who smoked were less likely to be taken to the general practitioner (GP for respiratory symptoms, than children with mothers who did not smoke, AOR 0.58 (0.33–1.01. This finding was less pronounced among children with severe respiratory symptoms AOR 0.86 (0.49–1.52. Neither GP visits for non-respiratory symptoms nor specialized care for respiratory disease were significantly associated with parental smoking

  14. Helping parents live with the hole in their heart: The role of health care providers and institutions in the bereaved parents' grief journeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snaman, Jennifer M; Kaye, Erica C; Torres, Carlos; Gibson, Deborah V; Baker, Justin N

    2016-09-01

    Bereaved parents experience significant psychosocial and health sequelae, suggesting that this population may benefit from the ongoing extension of support and resources throughout the grief journey. The interaction of hospital staff with patients and families at the end of a child's life and after death profoundly affects parental grief, offering a unique opportunity for the medical community to positively impact the bereavement experience. The current study was conducted to explore the role of the health care team and medical institutions in the grief journeys of parents whose child died a cancer-related death. Eleven bereaved parents participated in 2 focus groups. Responses to each of the 3 main prompts were coded and analyzed independently using semantic content analysis techniques. Four main concepts were identified within the parental narratives, including the importance of strong and ongoing relationships between providers and bereaved families, the importance of high-quality communication, the effect of negative experiences between providers and families on parental grief, and the importance of the institution's role in the grief journeys of bereaved parents. Bereaved parents consistently identified the critical role played by medical staff and medical institutions throughout the grief journey. Key components of bereavement support identified by parents should serve to guide the actions of providers as well as provide a template for the development of a comprehensive bereavement program within an institution. Cancer 2016. © 2016 American Cancer Society. Cancer 2016;122:2757-2765. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  15. Communication and support from health-care professionals to families, with dependent children, following the diagnosis of parental life-limiting illness: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnley, Rachel; Boland, Jason W

    2017-03-01

    Communication between parents and their children about parental life-limiting illness is stressful. Parents want support from health-care professionals; however, the extent of this support is not known. Awareness of family's needs would help ensure appropriate support. To find the current literature exploring (1) how parents with a life-limiting illness, who have dependent children, perceive health-care professionals' communication with them about the illness, diagnosis and treatments, including how social, practical and emotional support is offered to them and (2) how this contributes to the parents' feelings of supporting their children. A systematic literature review and narrative synthesis. Embase, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL and ASSIA ProQuest were searched in November 2015 for studies assessing communication between health-care professionals and parents about how to talk with their children about the parent's illness. There were 1342 records identified, five qualitative studies met the inclusion criteria (55 ill parents, 11 spouses/carers, 26 children and 16 health-care professionals). Parents wanted information from health-care professionals about how to talk to their children about the illness; this was not routinely offered. Children also want to talk with a health-care professional about their parents' illness. Health-care professionals are concerned that conversations with parents and their children will be too difficult and time-consuming. Parents with a life-limiting illness want support from their health-care professionals about how to communicate with their children about the illness. Their children look to health-care professionals for information about their parent's illness. Health-care professionals, have an important role but appear reluctant to address these concerns because of fears of insufficient time and expertise.

  16. Social support and mastery influence the association between stress and poor physical health in parents caring for children with developmental disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantwell, Joanne; Muldoon, Orla T; Gallagher, Stephen

    2014-09-01

    To date, much of the research linking the stress of caring for children with developmental disabilities (e.g. Autism & Down syndrome) with parental health outcomes have tended to concentrate on mental health with less attention paid to the physical health consequences. Thus, this study sought to explore the psychosocial predictors of poor physical health in these caring parents. One hundred and sixty-seven parents (109 caregivers and 58 control parents) completed measures of stress, child problem behaviours, social support, mastery and physical health. Parents of children with developmental disabilities had poorer physical health compared to control parents. Stress and mastery, but not social support and problem behaviours, were significant predictors of poor physical health within caring parents for children with developmental disabilities. However, the association between mastery and physical health was mediated by perceived stress such that those parents who were higher on mastery reported less stress and better physical health; furthermore, the association between stress and physical health was moderated by social support; those parents high on social support and low in stress had better physical health. These results indicate that the paths between psychosocial factors and poor physical health in the caring parents are working synergistically rather than in isolation. They also underscore the importance of providing multi-component interventions that offer a variety of psychosocial resources to meet the precise needs of the parents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Lesbian, gay and bisexual parents' experiences of nurses' attitudes in child health care-A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Anna-Eva; Moberg, Catherine; Bengtsson Tops, Anita; Garmy, Pernilla

    2017-12-01

    To describe lesbian, gay and bisexual parents' experiences of nurses' attitudes in child healthcare. Lesbian, gay and bisexual people are often reluctant to disclose their gender identity for fear of discrimination. This fear may lead to avoidance of healthcare for themselves or their children and may negatively affect families' health and well-being. A qualitative inductive design was employed. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 14 lesbian, gay or bisexual parents (11 mothers and three fathers) with child health care experiences in southern Sweden. Interviews were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Two themes were identified. One, a "sense of marginalisation," included lesbian, gay and bisexual parents' experiences of heteronormative attitudes among child healthcare nurses which led them to feel alienated and questioned as parents. Another, "being respected for who you are," included experiences of being respected and included at child healthcare appointments. Findings paint a complex picture of lesbian, gay and bisexual parents' interactions with child healthcare nurses in that they experienced both positive and negative attitudes. Knowledge gaps about lesbian, gay and bisexual families within the child healthcare field must be filled. Child health care nurses should work with the entire family to provide the best care for the child; however, discrimination in health care is common and often caused by a lack of knowledge. The number of children living with same-sex parents has increased more than ten-fold since the end of the 1990s. It is therefore important to explore lesbian, gay and bisexual parents' experiences with child healthcare nurses' attitudes to improve quality of care. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Parental acceptability of contraceptive methods offered to their teen during a confidential health care visit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Lauren B; Shafer, Mary-Ann; Pollack, Lance M; Wibbelsman, Charles; Chang, Fay; Tebb, Kathleen P

    2013-02-01

    To examine parental acceptability of contraceptive methods offered confidentially to their adolescent daughter. A random sample of 261 parents/guardians with a daughter aged 12-17 years completed a telephone survey examining the relationship between parental acceptability of seven contraceptive methods and adolescents' likelihood to have sex, parenting beliefs, parents' sexual health as teens, sexually transmitted infection knowledge, and demographic factors. Acceptability was highest for oral contraceptive pills (59%) and lowest for intrauterine device (18%). Parental acceptance of teens' autonomy was significantly associated with increased acceptability of all methods. Parental knowledge of sexually transmitted infections was poor, and 51% found it acceptable for clinicians to provide their sexually active teen with condoms. Parents were more accepting of oral contraceptive pills and condoms compared with intrauterine devices and implants. Parental recognition of their teen's autonomy was associated with greater parental acceptability of clinicians providing their adolescent with contraceptives (regardless of the specific type of method being offered). Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Until the last breath: exploring the concept of hope for parents and health care professionals during a child's serious illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reder, Elizabeth A Keene; Serwint, Janet R

    2009-07-01

    To investigate the concept of hope for families and pediatric health care professionals during a child's serious illness. Eight focus groups. Academic pediatric medical center. Bereaved parents, pediatricians, pediatric residents, and nurses (N = 39). Intervention Participants were asked standardized questions related to their definition of hope, its role in medical decisions, and the benefits and detriments of hope in focus group sessions. We identified attributes of participants' concepts of hope using qualitative analysis of audio-taped sessions. While all participants identified common elements in their definition of hope, parents identified their role as bearers of hope; it was a cornerstone of decision making. Health care professionals tended to view hope as related to a positive outcome. Some physicians reported difficulty in maintaining hope in the face of prognostic data; others acknowledged the importance of the family's hope. Nurses identified particular challenges around parents' decisions to continue treatment when it prolonged the child's suffering. All participants noted the changing nature of hope and its implications for care. The tension between maintaining hope and accepting the reality of the prognosis may lessen when acknowledging that parents see their role as bearers of hope. Supporting families around the changing nature of hope may allow health care professionals to partner with parents while maintaining honest communication.

  20. Parental use of the Internet to seek health information and primary care utilisation for their child: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Migeot Virginie

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Using the Internet to seek health information is becoming more common. Its consequences on health care utilisation are hardly known in the general population, in particular among children whose parents seek health information on the Internet. Our objective was to investigate the relationship between parental use of the Internet to seek health information and primary care utilisation for their child. Methods This cross-sectional survey has been carried out in a population of parents of pre-school children in France. The main outcome measure was the self-reported number of primary care consultations for the child, according to parental use of the Internet to seek health information, adjusted for the characteristics of the parents and their child respectively, and parental use of other health information sources. Results A total of 1 068 out of 2 197 questionnaires were returned (response rate of 49%. No association was found between parental use of the Internet to seek health information and the number of consultations within the last 12 months for their child. Variables related to the number of primary care consultations were characteristics of the child (age, medical conditions, homeopathic treatment, parental characteristics (occupation, income, stress level and consultation of other health information sources (advice from pharmacist, relatives. Conclusion We did not find any relationship between parental use of the Internet to seek health information and primary care utilisation for children. The Internet seems to be used as a supplement to health services rather than as a replacement.

  1. The dynamic system of parental work of care for children with special health care needs: A conceptual model to guide quality improvement efforts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hexem Kari R

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The work of care for parents of children with complex special health care needs may be increasing, while excessive work demands may erode the quality of care. We sought to summarize knowledge and develop a general conceptual model of the work of care. Methods Systematic review of peer-reviewed journal articles that focused on parents of children with special health care needs and addressed factors related to the physical and emotional work of providing care for these children. From the large pool of eligible articles, we selected articles in a randomized sequence, using qualitative techniques to identify the conceptual components of the work of care and their relationship to the family system. Results The work of care for a child with special health care needs occurs within a dynamic system that comprises 5 core components: (1 performance of tasks such as monitoring symptoms or administering treatments, (2 the occurrence of various events and the pursuit of valued outcomes regarding the child's physical health, the parent's mental health, or other attributes of the child or family, (3 operating with available resources and within certain constraints (4 over the passage of time, (5 while mentally representing or depicting the ever-changing situation and detecting possible problems and opportunities. These components interact, some with simple cause-effect relationships and others with more complex interdependencies. Conclusions The work of care affecting the health of children with special health care needs and their families can best be understood, studied, and managed as a multilevel complex system.

  2. The plan of physical culture and health work in the organization for orphans and children left without parental care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ukolov S.V.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available the article describes the scheme of physical culture and health work in the organization for orphans and children left without parental care, which includes organizational, moral-volitional, documentation, educational components, as well as a security unit. The essence and significance of each of the blocks are revealed. The authors consider physical culture and health work not as a set of competitions, but as one of the directions of work on the socialization of pupils.

  3. Allostatic Load: Single Parents, Stress-Related Health Issues, and Social Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johner, Randy L.

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the possible relationships between allostatic load (AL) and stress-related health issues in the low-income single-parent population, using both a population health perspective (PHP) and a biological framework. A PHP identifies associations among such factors as gender, income, employment, and social support and their…

  4. Influenza Vaccination Rates Among Parents and Health Care Personnel in a German Neonatology Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horst Buxmann

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The influenza vaccination is recommended for all German pregnant women and health care personnel (HCP. We are the first to publish vaccination rates of mothers of hospitalized newborns and HCP in neonatal units. Between September 2016 and March 2017, data were collected in our level-III neonatology department in this descriptive multidisciplinary study, using an anonymous questionnaire. As a result, 513 persons were asked to participate, including 330 parents and 183 HCP. We received an 80.3% (412/513 response rate, 87.3% (288/330, and 67.8% (124/183 from parents and HCP, respectively. Ten percent (16/160 of mothers and 4.7% (6/127 of fathers had been vaccinated in 2016–2017 and 54.4% (87/160 mothers and 52.2% (66/127 fathers ever in their lifetime. In 2016–2017, 51.2% (21/41 of physicians had been vaccinated, 25.5% (14/55 of nurses, and 50.0% (14/28 of other staff members. When comparing those who had more than five influenza vaccinations in their life time, physicians were at 43.9% (18/41 versus nurses at 10.9% (6/55 (p < 0.01, and other HCP at 7.4% (2/27 (p < 0.01. The influenza vaccine uptake rate of 10% in mothers of hospitalized neonates is disappointingly low, resulting in 90% of hospitalized neonates being potentially vulnerable to influenza infection at a time where the risk for influenza-related complication can be severe.

  5. Influenza Vaccination Rates Among Parents and Health Care Personnel in a German Neonatology Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxmann, Horst; Daun, Anne; Wicker, Sabine; Schlößer, Rolf Lambert

    2018-01-05

    The influenza vaccination is recommended for all German pregnant women and health care personnel (HCP). We are the first to publish vaccination rates of mothers of hospitalized newborns and HCP in neonatal units. Between September 2016 and March 2017, data were collected in our level-III neonatology department in this descriptive multidisciplinary study, using an anonymous questionnaire. As a result, 513 persons were asked to participate, including 330 parents and 183 HCP. We received an 80.3% (412/513) response rate, 87.3% (288/330), and 67.8% (124/183) from parents and HCP, respectively. Ten percent (16/160) of mothers and 4.7% (6/127) of fathers had been vaccinated in 2016-2017 and 54.4% (87/160) mothers and 52.2% (66/127) fathers ever in their lifetime. In 2016-2017, 51.2% (21/41) of physicians had been vaccinated, 25.5% (14/55) of nurses, and 50.0% (14/28) of other staff members. When comparing those who had more than five influenza vaccinations in their life time, physicians were at 43.9% (18/41) versus nurses at 10.9% (6/55) ( p < 0.01), and other HCP at 7.4% (2/27) ( p < 0.01). The influenza vaccine uptake rate of 10% in mothers of hospitalized neonates is disappointingly low, resulting in 90% of hospitalized neonates being potentially vulnerable to influenza infection at a time where the risk for influenza-related complication can be severe.

  6. Metasynthesis of youth suicidal behaviours: perspectives of youth, parents, and health care professionals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Lachal

    Full Text Available Youth suicide is a major public health issue throughout the world. Numerous theoretical models have been proposed to improve our understanding of suicidal behaviours, but medical science has struggled to integrate all the complex aspects of this question. The aim of this review is to synthesise the views of suicidal adolescents and young adults, their parents, and their healthcare professionals on the topics of suicidal behaviour and management of those who have attempted suicide, in order to propose new pathways of care, closer to the issues and expectations of each group.This systematic review of qualitative studies--Medline, PsycInfo, Embase, CINAHL, and SSCI from 1990 to 2014--concerning suicide attempts by young people used thematic synthesis to develop categories inductively from the themes identified in the studies. The synthesis included 44 studies from 16 countries: 31 interviewed the youth, 7 their parents, and 6 the healthcare professionals. The results are organised around three superordinate themes: the individual experience, that is, the individual burden and suffering related to suicide attempts in all three groups; the relational experience, which describes the importance of relationships with others at all stages of the process of suicidal behaviour; and the social and cultural experience, or how the group and society accept or reject young people in distress and their families and how that affects the suicidal process and its management.The violence of the message of a suicidal act and the fears associated with death lead to incomprehension and interfere with the capacity for empathy of both family members and professionals. The issue in treatment is to be able to witness this violence so that the patient feels understood and heard, and thus to limit recurrences.

  7. Efficacy of oral health promotion in primary care practice during early childhood: creating positive changes in parent's oral health beliefs and behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattheus, Deborah J

    2014-06-01

    Nurse practitioners frequently provide care to children suffering from poor oral health. Creative approaches to impacting dental disease are needed due to the current lack of traditional dental providers. This study investigated the effects of oral health promotion provided by primary care providers on parental oral health beliefs and behaviors. Participants receiving standard oral care during two well child visits and two additional enhanced oral health visits (n=44) were compared to participants receiving standard oral care during two well child visits alone (n=40). Results revealed changes in parent's perception of the importance of oral care for their children's primary teeth compared to general healthcare needs (pbrushing their children's teeth (pbrushing their teeth (pbrushing (pimportant study shows that oral health programs in primary care can produce changes that can improve oral health outcomes. Parents and children exposed to oral health programs during their frequent well child care visits in the first years of life may help decrease the rate of early childhood caries and improve their quality of life.

  8. Factors associated with the referral of anxious children to mental health care: the influence of family functioning, parenting, parental anxiety and child impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongerden, Loes; Simon, Ellin; Bodden, Denise H M; Dirksen, Carmen D; Bögels, Susan M

    2015-03-01

    This study aims to identify factors that predict the mental health care referral of anxious children. In total, 249 children and families, aged 8-13 years, participated: 73 children were referred with anxiety disorders to mental health care [mean (M) age = 10.28, standard deviation (SD) = 1.35], 176 non-referred anxious children recruited in primary schools (M age = 9.94, SD = 1.22). Child anxiety and other disorders were assessed with semi-structured interviews. Child anxiety symptoms, behavioural problems, parental anxiety, the parenting styles overprotection, autonomy encouragement, rejection, and the family functioning dimensions control and relational functioning, were assessed with child, father and mother report on questionnaires. The summed interference rating of children's anxiety disorders was a predictor of referral, consistent over child and parent reports, but not comorbidity. Most family and parenting variables did not predict referral, nor differed between the referred and non-referred sample. Contrary to our hypothesis, maternal self-reported anxiety decreased the odds of referral and child reported parental autonomy granting increased, while child reported overprotection decreased the odds of referral. The impairment for the child due to the number and severity of their anxiety disorder(s) is, based on child, mother and father report associated with referral. This indicates that those who need it most, receive clinical treatment. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. The effect of relational continuity of care in maternity and child health clinics on parenting self-efficacy of mothers and fathers with loneliness and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuominen, Miia; Junttila, Niina; Ahonen, Pia; Rautava, Päivi

    2016-06-01

    This study explored the parenting self-efficacy of the parents of 18-month-old children in the context of Finnish maternity and child health clinics. This parenting self-efficacy was observed in relation with the relational continuity of care and parents' experienced loneliness and depressive symptoms. The relational continuity of care was provided by a public health nurse in maternity and child health clinics. The participating parents were drawn from the STEPS study that is being carried out by the Institute for Child and Youth Research at the University of Turku. The results showed that relational continuity of care provided by the same public health nurse in the maternity and child health clinics was associated with mothers' higher emotional loneliness and with lower scores on three dimensions of parents' parenting self-efficacy. Loneliness and depressive symptoms negatively influenced parents' parenting self-efficacy - however, in the case where the family had experienced relational continuity of care, the parents' higher levels of depressive symptoms had not weakened their parenting self-efficacy beliefs. These results are discussed in terms of organizing maternity and child health clinic services. © 2016 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Effect of Caring for an Abusive Parent on Mental Health: The Mediating Role of Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Jooyoung

    2018-05-08

    This study examines a sample of filial caregivers to investigate whether and how a history of childhood abuse is associated with caregivers' mental health (i.e., depressed affect, psychological well-being, and life satisfaction). This study also investigates the mediational role of self-esteem between caring for an abusive parent and the mental health outcomes. Using the 2004-2006 National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States, data from 219 filial caregivers were analyzed. A series of ordinary least squares (OLS) regression and mediational analyses were conducted to estimate the direct and indirect effects of providing care to an abusive parent on negative affect, psychological well-being, and levels of life satisfaction. Key results showed that providing care to an abusive parent was associated with greater depressed affect and lower levels of life satisfaction. In addition, self-esteem served as a significant mediator: providing care to an abusive parent was associated with lower self-esteem, which was, in turn, ultimately associated with greater depressed affect, diminished psychological well-being, and lower levels of life satisfaction. Filial caregivers with a history of childhood abuse should be acknowledged as a high-risk group of caregivers so that they can gain attention and support for targeted interventions. Additionally, evidence-based intervention programs (e.g., improving self-esteem issues) should be designed and implemented to address this group's unique challenges and concerns.

  11. Parents' discursive resources: analysis of discourses in Swedish, Danish and Norwegian health care guidelines for children with diabetes type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boman, Ase; Borup, Ina; Povlsen, Lene; Dahlborg-Lyckhage, Elisabeth

    2012-06-01

    The incidence of diabetes type 1 in children, the most common metabolic disorder in childhood, increases worldwide, with highest incidence in Scandinavia. Having diabetes means demands in everyday life, and the outcome of the child's treatment highly depends on parents' engagement and involvement. The aim of this study was to explore and describe discourses in health care guidelines for children with diabetes type 1, in Sweden, Norway and Denmark during 2007-2010, with a focus on how parents were positioned. As method a Foucauldian approach to discourse analysis was applied, and a six-stage model was used to perform the analysis. The findings shows a Medical, a Pedagogic and a Public Health discourse embedded in the hegemonic Expert discourse. The Expert discourse positioned parents as dependent on expert knowledge, as recipients of education, as valuable and responsible for their child's health through practicing medical skills. This positioning may place parents on a continuum from being deprived of their own initiatives to being invited to take an active part and could result in feelings of guilt and uncertainty, but also of security and significance. From this study we conclude that guidelines rooted in the Expert discourse may reduce opportunities for parents' voices to be heard and may overlook their knowledge. By broadening the selection of authors of the guidelines to include patients and all professionals in the team, new discourses could emerge and the parents' voice might be more prominent. © 2011 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences © 2011 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  12. Risk assessment of parents' concerns at 18 months in preventive child health care predicted child abuse and neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staal, Ingrid I E; Hermanns, Jo M A; Schrijvers, Augustinus J P; van Stel, Henk F

    2013-07-01

    As child maltreatment has a major impact, prevention and early detection of parenting problems are of great importance. We have developed a structured interview which uses parents' concerns for a joint needs assessment by parents and a child health care nurse, followed by a professional judgment on the risk level of future parenting and developmental problems: the Structured Problem Analysis of Raising Kids (SPARK). Previous results have shown that the risk assessment of the SPARK is associated with risk factors for child maltreatment. This study reports the predictive value of the SPARK for reports on high impact parenting problems and child abuse and neglect. Cross-sectional study with a 1.5-year follow-up based on 1,850 18-month old children, living in Zeeland, a province of the Netherlands. Data on the SPARK were obtained in the period of June 2007 to March 2008. Outcomes of the SPARK were in October 2009 compared to reports of the Advice and Reporting Centers for Child Abuse and Neglect (ARCAN) and Youth Care Agency (YCA). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was done using the risk assessment, parents' concerns, the perceived need for support and known risk factors as predictors. The overall risk assessment of the SPARK is the strongest predictor for reports to ARCAN and YCA in the 1.5 years after completing the SPARK (odds ratio of high versus low risk: 16.3 [95% confidence interval: 5.2-50.8]. Controlling for the risk assessment, only the sum of known risk factors and an unemployed father remained as significant predictors. The reported groups differ significantly from the children without a report with regard to family characteristics, but not with regard to child characteristics. A structured assessment of the concerns and care needs of toddlers' parents by a child health care nurse is a valuable predictor of reports on child abuse and neglect and serious parenting problems in toddlers. Systematically exploring and evaluating parental

  13. Minor's rights versus parental rights: review of legal issues in adolescent health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maradiegue, Ann

    2003-01-01

    The right of adolescents to access confidential health care is sensitive and controversial. Recent challenges in the court system to adolescents' right to access abortion and contraception are eroding current law, including the Roe v Wade decision. The prospect of more than a million pregnancies in individuals under the age of 20 years in the United States with increasingly fewer alternatives to pregnancy is concerning. New regulations under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act are adding yet another layer of complexity to the care of adolescents. Understanding legal issues surrounding adolescent rights to care can help the health care provider make appropriate care available to this age group. Keywords previously identified in CINAHL and MEDLINE were used to perform the literature search. LexisNexis was the search engine used to identify the laws and statutes.

  14. A Relational Ethics Framework for Advancing Practice with Children with Complex Health Care Needs and Their Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevale, Franco A; Teachman, Gail; Bogossian, Aline

    2017-12-01

    Children with complex health care needs are an emerging population that commonly requires long-term supportive services. A growing body of evidence has highlighted that these children and their families experience significant challenges. Many of these challenges involve ethical concerns that have been under-recognized. In this article, we (a) outline ethical concerns that arise in clinical practice with children with complex health care needs and their families (e.g.: exclusion of children's voices in discussions and decisions that affect them; difficulties in defining their best interests; clashes across the array of social roles that parents manage; limited recognition of the ethical significance of parents' and other family members' interests) and (b) propose a relational ethics framework for addressing these concerns. Our framework draws on hermeneutical interpretation and moral experience as foundational orientations, recognizing children with complex health care needs as relationally embedded agents, who while dependent and entitled to protection, are simultaneously agential. Children's and parents' interests are relationally intertwined and interdependent. Families are recognized as significant social microcosms for the cultivation and transmission of intergenerational cultural heritage, narratives, and outlooks. We describe strategies for (a) conducting a relational ethics inquiry and (b) reconciliation of identified ethical concerns through a process of rapprochement. A relational ethics framework can promote clinical practices that are ethically attuned to the complexity of this population's needs.

  15. Confidentiality and parental involvement in adolescent sexual and reproductive health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaruseviciene, Lina; Lazarus, Jeff; Zaborskis, Apolinaras

    2011-01-01

    AIM: We surveyed Lithuanian general practitioners' (GPs) views on the importance of confidentiality for adolescents and on their practices in informing parents about sexual and reproductive health consultations with this age group. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, a 41-item questionnaire...... was sent to a random sample of 607 Lithuanian GPs. The purpose of this questionnaire was to gain knowledge about current practices of GPs in informing parents on the importance of confidentiality as well as in protecting the privacy of minors. GPs' knowledge of the current legal age limit...... consulting on general sexual issues, more than 70% stated that they would guarantee their minor patients confidentiality. However, when cases involved sexually transmitted infections or pregnancy, nearly the same percentage said they would inform the parents. 62.3% of GPs incorrectly believed that the law...

  16. Access Barriers to Dental Health Care in Children with Disability. A Questionnaire Study of Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerreth, Karolina; Borysewicz-Lewicka, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Background: A patient's with disability everyday life is rife with many limitations such as architectural, transport, information as well as medical, psychological, legal, economic and social barriers. The aim of this study was to evaluate access to dental health care of special-care schoolchildren with intellectual disability on the basis of…

  17. Perceived effects of leave from work and the role of paid leave among parents of children with special health care needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Mark A; Chung, Paul J; Elliott, Marc N; Garfield, Craig F; Vestal, Katherine D; Klein, David J

    2009-04-01

    We examined the perceived effects of leave from work among employed parents of children with special health care needs. Telephone interviews were conducted from November 2003 to January 2004 with 585 parents who had missed 1 or more workdays for their child's illness in the previous year. Most parents reported positive effects of leave on their child's physical (81%) and emotional (85%) health; 57% reported a positive effect on their own emotional health, although 24% reported a negative effect. Most parents reported no effect (44%) or a negative effect (42%) on job performance; 73% reported leave-related financial problems. In multivariate analyses, parents receiving full pay during leave were more likely than were parents receiving no pay to report positive effects on child physical (odds ratio [OR] = 1.85) and emotional (OR = 1.68) health and parent emotional health (OR = 1.70), and were less likely to report financial problems (OR = 0.20). Employed parents believed that leave-taking benefited the health of their children with special health care needs and their own emotional health, but compromised their job performance and finances. Parents who received full pay reported better consequences across the board. Access to paid leave, particularly with full pay, may improve parent and child outcomes.

  18. Job mobility among parents of children with chronic health conditions: Early effects of the 2010 Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterji, Pinka; Brandon, Peter; Markowitz, Sara

    2016-07-01

    We examine the effects of the 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act's (ACA) prohibition of preexisting conditions exclusions for children on job mobility among parents. We use a difference-in-difference approach, comparing pre-post policy changes in job mobility among privately-insured parents of children with chronic health conditions vs. privately-insured parents of healthy children. Data come from the 2004 and 2008 Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP). Among married fathers, the policy change is associated with about a 0.7 percentage point, or 35 percent increase, in the likelihood of leaving an employer voluntarily. We find no evidence that the policy change affected job mobility among married and unmarried mothers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Barriers and facilitators to health care professionals discussing child weight with parents: A meta-synthesis of qualitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Daisy; Chisholm, Anna; Watson, Paula M; Bundy, Christine; Bradbury, Nicola; Birtwistle, Sarah

    2018-04-26

    Childhood obesity is one of the most serious global public health challenges. However, obesity and its consequences are largely preventable. As parents play an important role in their children's weight-related behaviours, good communication between parents and health care professionals (HCPs) is essential. This systematic review provides a meta-synthesis of qualitative studies exploring the barriers and facilitators experienced by HCPs when discussing child weight with parents. Searches were conducted using the following databases: MEDLINE (OVID), Psych INFO (OVID), EMBASE (OVID), Web of Knowledge and CINAHL. Thirteen full-text qualitative studies published in English language journals since 1985 were included. Included studies collected data from HCPs (e.g., nurses, doctors, dieticians, psychologists, and clinical managers) concerning their experiences of discussing child weight-related issues with parents. An inductive thematic analysis was employed to synthesize findings. Emerging subthemes were categorized using a socio-ecological framework into intra/interpersonal factors, organizational factors, and societal factors. Perceived barriers and facilitators most commonly related to intra/interpersonal level factors, that is, relating to staff factors, parental factors, or professional-parent interactions. HCPs also attributed a number of barriers, but not facilitators, at the organizational and societal levels. The findings of this review may help to inform the development of future weight-related communication interventions. Whilst intra/interpersonal interventions may go some way to improving health care practice, it is crucial that all stakeholders consider the wider organizational and societal context in which these interactions take place. Statement of contribution What is already known on the subject? Childhood obesity is one of the United Kingdom's most serious current public health challenges. Health care professionals are in a prime position to identify

  20. Working With Parents to Prevent Childhood Obesity: Protocol for a Primary Care-Based eHealth Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avis, Jillian Ls; Cave, Andrew L; Donaldson, Stephanie; Ellendt, Carol; Holt, Nicholas L; Jelinski, Susan; Martz, Patricia; Maximova, Katerina; Padwal, Raj; Wild, T Cameron; Ball, Geoff Dc

    2015-03-25

    Parents play a central role in preventing childhood obesity. There is a need for innovative, scalable, and evidence-based interventions designed to enhance parents' motivation to support and sustain healthy lifestyle behaviors in their children, which can facilitate obesity prevention. (1) Develop an online screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) eHealth tool to enhance parents' concern for, and motivation to, support children's healthy lifestyle behaviors, (2) refine the SBIRT eHealth tool by assessing end-user acceptability, satisfaction, and usability through focus groups, and (3) determine feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of the refined SBIRT eHealth tool through a randomized controlled trial. This is a three-phase, multi-method study that includes SBIRT eHealth tool development (Phase I), refinement (Phase II), and testing (Phase III). Phase I: Theoretical underpinnings of the SBIRT tool, entitled the Resource Information Program for Parents on Lifestyle and Education (RIPPLE), will be informed by concepts applied within existing interventions, and content will be based on literature regarding healthy lifestyle behaviors in children. The SBIRT platform will be developed in partnership between our research team and a third-party intervention development company. Phase II: Focus groups with parents, as well as health care professionals, researchers, and trainees in pediatrics (n=30), will explore intervention-related perceptions and preferences. Qualitative data from the focus groups will inform refinements to the aesthetics, content, structure, and function of the SBIRT. Phase III: Parents (n=200) of children-boys and girls, 5 to 17 years old-will be recruited from a primary care pediatric clinic while they await their children's clinical appointment. Parents will be randomly assigned to one of five groups-four intervention groups and one control group-as they complete the SBIRT. The randomization function is built into the

  1. Challenges for health care providers, parents and patients who face a child hood cancer diagnosis in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walubita, Mulima; Sikateyo, Bornwell; Zulu, Joseph M

    2018-05-02

    Zambia is experiencing high prevalence of childhood cancer. However, very few children access and complete treatment for cancer. This study aimed to document the challenges for health care providers, parents and patients who face a child hood cancer diagnosis in Zambia, and their coping strategies. This was an exploratory health facility-based qualitative study that was conducted at a Paediatric oncology ward at referral hospital in Zambia. In-depth individual interviews conducted with fifteen (15) caregivers and seven (7) key informants were analysed using thematic analysis. Several challenges related to managing the childhood cancer diagnosis were recorded. Individual and family challenges were inadequate knowledge on childhood cancer, lack of finances to meet treatment and transport costs as well as long period of hospitalisation that affected women's ability to perform multiple responsibilities. Whereas challenges at community level were inadequate support to address emotional and physical distress and social stigmatisation experienced by caregivers. Health systems issues included inadequate specialised health workers, poor communication among health workers, limited space and beds as well as insufficient supplies such as blood. Cultural related factors were the belief that cancer is a product of witchcraft as well as religious beliefs regarding the role of faith healing in childhood cancer treatment. Coping strategies used by parents/ caregivers included praying to God, material support from organisations and church as well as delaying having another child. Addressing the challenges for health care providers, parents and patients who face a childhood cancer diagnosis may require adopting a systems or an ecological approach that allows developing strategies that simultaneously address challenges related to the individual, family, community, health system and cultural aspects.

  2. Parental immigration status is associated with children's health care utilization: findings from the 2003 new immigrant survey of US legal permanent residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Katherine; Fuentes-Afflick, Elena; Curry, Leslie A; Krumholz, Harlan M; Desai, Mayur M

    2013-12-01

    Our objective was to examine the association between parental immigration status and child health and health care utilization. Using data from a national sample of immigrant adults who had recently become legal permanent residents (LPR), children (n = 2,170) were categorized according to their parents' immigration status prior to LPR: legalized, mixed-status, refugee, temporary resident, or undocumented. Logistic regression with generalized estimating equations was used to compare child health and health care utilization by parental immigration status over the prior 12 months. Nearly all children in the sample were reported to be in good to excellent health. Children whose parents had been undocumented were least likely to have had an illness that was reported to have required medical attention (5.4 %). Children whose parents had been either undocumented or temporary residents were most likely to have a delayed preventive annual exam (18.2 and 18.7 %, respectively). Delayed dental care was most common among children whose parents had come to the US as refugees (29.1 %). Differences in the preventive annual exam remained significant after adjusting for socioeconomic characteristics. Parental immigration status before LPR was not associated with large differences in reported child health status. Parental immigration status before LPR was associated with the use of preventive annual exams and dental services. However, no group of children was consistently disadvantaged with respect to all measures.

  3. Determinants of parental satisfaction with ultrasound hip screening in child health care.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witting, Marjon; Boere-Boonekamp, Magdalena M.; Fleuren, M.A.H.; Sakkers, R.J.B.; IJzerman, Maarten Joost

    2012-01-01

    Prior research has shown ultrasound (US) screening for developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) in preventive child health care to be more effective than the current screening method. In the present study, 3-month-old infants were screened for DDH with US. The objective of this study was to examine

  4. Determinants of parental satisfaction with ultrasound hip screening in child health care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witting, M.; Boere-Boonekamp, M.M.; Fleuren, M.A.H.; Sakkers, R.J.B.; IJzerman, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Prior research has shown ultrasound (US) screening for developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) in preventive child health care to be more effective than the current screening method. In the present study, 3-month-old infants were screened for DDH with US. The objective of this study was to examine

  5. The experiences of parents of children with mental disability regarding access to mental health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coomer, R A

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to describe the problems that parents or caregivers of children with mental health disabilities and disorders in Namibia experience when accessing healthcare resources for their children. Data was collected through focus group discussions with the participants and individual interviews with the key informants. Overall, a total of 41 people provided information for this study. Thematic data analysis was used to assess the data. The main barriers experienced by the parents were poor service provision, transport and money, whilst access to education services facilitated access to healthcare services. The challenges go beyond commonly-reported problems such as sub-optimal service provision and include the basic challenge of lack of transportation to reach healthcare services. Many of the barriers identified in this study have been related to general problems with the healthcare system in Namibia. Therefore there is a need to address general concerns about healthcare provision as well as improve specific services for children with mental health disabilities and disorders in Namibia.

  6. Parental migration and the mental health of those who stay behind to care for children in South-East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Elspeth; Jordan, Lucy P; Yeoh, Brenda S A

    2015-05-01

    The international migration of parents from the global south raises questions about the health impacts of family separation on those who stay behind. This paper uses data collected in 2008 and 2009 for a project on Child Health and Migrant Parents in South-East Asia (CHAMPSEA) to address a largely neglected research area by investigating the mental health of those who stay behind in Indonesia, Philippines and Vietnam to care for the children of overseas migrants. A mixed-methods research design is employed to answer two questions. First, whether carers in transnational (migrant) households are more likely to suffer mental health problems than those in non-migrant households; and secondly, whether transnational family practices and characteristics of migration are associated with mental health outcomes for stay-behind carers. The Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20) was completed by carers in selected communities (N = 3026) and used to identify likely cases of common mental disorders (CMD). Multivariate logistic regression and thematic analysis of qualitative interviews (N = 149) reveal a nuanced picture. All stay-behind carers in the Indonesian sample are more likely than carers in non-migrant households to suffer CMD. Across the three study countries, however, it is stay-behind mothers with husbands working overseas who are most likely to experience poor mental health. Moreover, infrequent contact with the migrant, not receiving remittances and migrant destinations in the Middle East are all positively associated with carer CMD, whereas greater educational attainment and greater wealth are protective factors. These findings add new evidence on the 'costs' of international labour migration and point to the role of gendered expectations and wider geopolitical structures. Governments and international policy makers need to intervene to encourage transnational family practices that are less detrimental to the mental health of those who stay behind to care for the

  7. Longitudinal Trajectories of Metabolic Control across Adolescence: Associations with Parental Involvement, Adolescents’ Psychosocial Maturity, and Health Care Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Pamela S.; Berg, Cynthia A.; Butner, Jonathan; Drew, Linda M.; Foster, Carol; Donaldson, David; Murray, Mary; Swinyard, Michael; Wiebe, Deborah J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To predict trajectories of metabolic control across adolescence from parental involvement and adolescent psychosocial maturity, and to link metabolic control trajectories to health care utilization. Methods 252 adolescents (M age at study initiation = 12.5, SD=1.5, range 10–14 years) with type 1 diabetes (54.4% female, 92.8% Caucasian, length of diagnosis M=4.7 years, SD=3.0, range 1–12) participated in a 2-year longitudinal study. Metabolic control was gathered from medical records every three months. Adolescents completed measures of self-reliance (functional autonomy and extreme peer orientation), self-control (self-control and externalizing behavior), and parental involvement in diabetes care (acceptance, monitoring, and frequency of help). At the end of the study, mothers reported health care utilization (diabetes-related emergency room visits and hospitalizations) over the past six months. Results Latent class growth analyses indicated two distinct trajectories of metabolic control across adolescence: moderate control with slight deterioration (92% of the sample; average HbA1c = 8.18%) and poor control with rapid deterioration (8% of the sample; average HbA1c of 12.09%). Adolescents with poor and rapidly deteriorating metabolic control reported lower paternal monitoring and frequency of help with diabetes management, lower functional autonomy, and lower self-control than others. Those with poor and rapidly deteriorating metabolic control were 6.4 times more likely to report diabetes-related emergency room visits, and 9.3 times more likely to report diabetes-related hospitalizations near the end of the study. Conclusions Parental involvement and adolescents’ psychosocial maturity predict patterns of deteriorating metabolic control across adolescence and could be targeted for intervention. PMID:22525113

  8. Exploring Helpful Nursing Care in Pediatric Mental Health Settings: The Perceptions of Children with Suicide Risk Factors and Their Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montreuil, Marjorie; Butler, Kat J D; Stachura, Michal; Pugnaire Gros, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative descriptive study explored helpful nursing care from the perspective of children with suicide-associated risk factors, and their parents. Data were collected through participant observation followed by a debriefing session with children, and semi-structured interviews with parents. The inductive analysis revealed four themes of helpful interventions: (1) caring for the child as a special person; (2) caring for the parents; (3) managing the child's illness; and (4) creating a therapeutic environment. The study findings highlight the importance of the relational aspect of nursing care and provide important insights related to family-centered and strengths-based practice with children at increased risk for suicide later in life.

  9. The Role of Online Social Support in Supporting and Educating Parents of Young Children With Special Health Care Needs in the United States: A Scoping Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staten, Lisa K; Rodgers, Rylin Christine; Denne, Scott C

    2016-01-01

    Background When parents of young children with special health care needs (CSHCN) receive their child’s diagnosis, they encounter information they may not understand, emotions they may not know how to cope with, and questions about their child’s immediate and long-term future that frequently lack answers. The challenge of health care providers is how to prepare parents for caring for their CSHCN, for coping with any resulting challenges, and for accessing the systems and services that can assist them. Objective The purpose of this work was to review evidence of the information and support needs of parents of young CSHCN and to determine whether online social support can serve as an avenue for learning and empowerment for these parents. Methods A scoping review identified the challenges, coping mechanisms, and support needs among parents of CSHCN, and the reach and effectiveness of digital technologies with these families and health care providers. We also conducted interviews with professionals serving parents of CSHCN. Results The literature review and interviews suggested that parents best learn the information they need, and cope with the emotional challenges of raising a CSHCN, with support from other parents of CSHCN, and that young parents in recent years have most often been finding this parent-to-parent support through digital media, particularly social media, consistent with the theory of online social support. Evidence also shows that social media, particularly Facebook, is used by nearly all women aged 18-29 years across racial and socioeconomic lines in the United States. Conclusions Parents of young CSHCN experience significant stress but gain understanding, receive support, and develop the ability to care for and be advocates for their child through parent-to-parent emotional and informational social support. Online social support is most effective with young adults of childbearing age, with social media and apps being the most useful within the

  10. The Role of Online Social Support in Supporting and Educating Parents of Young Children With Special Health Care Needs in the United States: A Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeHoff, Beth A; Staten, Lisa K; Rodgers, Rylin Christine; Denne, Scott C

    2016-12-22

    When parents of young children with special health care needs (CSHCN) receive their child's diagnosis, they encounter information they may not understand, emotions they may not know how to cope with, and questions about their child's immediate and long-term future that frequently lack answers. The challenge of health care providers is how to prepare parents for caring for their CSHCN, for coping with any resulting challenges, and for accessing the systems and services that can assist them. The purpose of this work was to review evidence of the information and support needs of parents of young CSHCN and to determine whether online social support can serve as an avenue for learning and empowerment for these parents. A scoping review identified the challenges, coping mechanisms, and support needs among parents of CSHCN, and the reach and effectiveness of digital technologies with these families and health care providers. We also conducted interviews with professionals serving parents of CSHCN. The literature review and interviews suggested that parents best learn the information they need, and cope with the emotional challenges of raising a CSHCN, with support from other parents of CSHCN, and that young parents in recent years have most often been finding this parent-to-parent support through digital media, particularly social media, consistent with the theory of online social support. Evidence also shows that social media, particularly Facebook, is used by nearly all women aged 18-29 years across racial and socioeconomic lines in the United States. Parents of young CSHCN experience significant stress but gain understanding, receive support, and develop the ability to care for and be advocates for their child through parent-to-parent emotional and informational social support. Online social support is most effective with young adults of childbearing age, with social media and apps being the most useful within the theoretical framework of social support. This opens new

  11. Parents' perceptions about child abuse and their impact on physical and emotional child abuse: A study from primary health care centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Dosari, Mohammed N; Ferwana, Mazen; Abdulmajeed, Imad; Aldossari, Khaled K; Al-Zahrani, Jamaan M

    2017-01-01

    To determine perceptions of parents about child abuse, and their impact on physical and emotional child abuse. Two hundred parents attending three primary health care centers (PHCCs) in Riyadh serving National Guard employes and their families, were requested to participate in this survey. Data was collected by self administered questionnaire. Five main risk factors areas/domains were explored; three were parent related (personal factors, history of parents' childhood abuse, and parental attitude toward punishment), and two were family/community effects and factors specific to the child. SPSS was used for data entry and analysis. Descriptive analysis included computation of mean, median, mode, frequencies, and percentages; Chi-square test and t -test were used to test for statistical significance, and regression analysis performed to explore relationships between child abuse and various risk factors. Thirty-four percent of the parents reported a childhood history of physical abuse. Almost 18% of the parents used physical punishment. The risk factors associated significantly with child abuse were parents' history of physical abuse, young parent, witness to domestic violence, and poor self-control. Child-related factors included a child who is difficult to control or has attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Parents who did not own a house were more likely to use physical punishment. Abusive beliefs of parent as risk factors were: physical punishment as an effective educational tool for a noisy child; parents' assent to physical punishment for children; it is difficult to differentiate between physical punishment and child abuse; parents have the right to discipline their child as they deem necessary; and there is no need for a system for the prevention of child abuse. The causes of child abuse and neglect are complex. Though detecting child abuse may be difficult in primary care practice, many risk factors can be identified early. Parents' attitudes can

  12. COMMUNITY HEALTH & PRIMARY HEALTH CARE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    about teething the world over and especially ... children`s out-patients, dental and the ear, nose and throat clinics of a tertiary hospital in south-west Nigeria. ... parents, health care workers and personal experiences were the sources of beliefs ... None (0%) of the respondents had prior knowledge of proven causes of ear.

  13. COMMUNITY HEALTH & PRIMARY HEALTH CARE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the_monk

    VPDs, this represents 17% of global total. 1 ... Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Childhood Immunization ... Department of Community Health & Primary Care, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Idi-Araba, P.M.B. 12003, ... include access to services, parental (maternal) ... Calmette Guerin (BCG) vaccine Oral Polio.

  14. On duty all the time: Health and quality of life among immigrant parents caring for a child with complex health needs

    OpenAIRE

    Kvarme, Lisbeth Gravdal; Albertini Früh, Elena; Brekke, Idunn; Gardsjord, Ragnhild; Halvorsrud, Liv; Lidén, Hilde

    2016-01-01

    Aims and objectives: To provide knowledge about how immigrant parents of children with complex health needs manage their family lives and how this affects their own health and quality of life. Background: Caregivers of children with complex health needs have additional risk for general health problems and mental health problems and immigrant parents may be more vulnerable to mental distress and failing health and quality of life. Results: Immigrant parents of children with complex health need...

  15. What is the perceived nature of parental care and support for young people with cystic fibrosis as they enter adult health services?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iles, Nicola; Lowton, Karen

    2010-01-01

    The majority of those diagnosed with cystic fibrosis (CF) now live to adulthood. In response to increased survival age, transition services have been developed to ensure smooth transfer from paediatric to adult specialist healthcare, although the majority of treatment and care continues to be delivered in the home. However, little is known about how young adults and staff conceptualise the nature of the parental role after young people have left paediatric care. The aim of this study is to explore the nature of parental support that is perceived to be available at this time. As part of a larger study of transitional care, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 50 young people with CF aged 13-24 years (32 with experience of transition and/or adult CF services) and 23 specialist healthcare professionals (14 working in adult care) across two CF centres in Southeast England. Interviews took place in young people's homes or within CF services, using a topic guide and were recorded, transcribed and analysed thematically. Four domains of perceived parental support were identified by the young people interviewed, with varying degrees of continuity into adult care: (1) Providing non-clinical practical and emotional support; (2) Acting as 'troubleshooters' in times of health-related crisis; (3) Working in partnership with offspring in ongoing disease management in the home and clinic; (4) Acting as 'protectors' of their children. Young people and service staff expressed tensions in managing parental involvement in post-paediatric consultations and the degree to which parents should be aware of their offspring's deteriorating health and social concerns. Parental anxiety and over-involvement was perceived by many young people and staff as unsupportive. We suggest that although health and social care providers are mindful of the tensions that arise for those leaving paediatric services, the place of parental support in adult care is currently contentious for these 'new

  16. Parental knowledge, attitudes and cultural beliefs regarding oral health and dental care of preschool children in an Indian population: a quantitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, N; Chhabra, A

    2012-04-01

    Preschool children are dependent upon their parents for their dental care. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and beliefs of parents towards oral health and dental care of their children aged 1-4 years in an Indian population. Parents of 620 preschool children, who visited Krishna Dental College and Hospital, Ghaziabad, India for dental treatment were recruited into this study and completed a self administered questionnaire. It was revealed that the lack of knowledge and awareness of importance of the primary teeth, dental fear of the parents and the myths associated with dental treatment, created barriers to early preventive dental care of preschool children. The oral hygiene and feeding practices were found to be disappointing and the knowledge about the essential role of fluoride and transmission of Streptococcus mutans bacteria was found to be limited. The elders in the family, especially grandparents, highly influenced the decisions of the parents regarding dental treatment of their children. Parents' knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about the importance of dental health need to be improved. Coordinated efforts by paediatricians, paediatric dentists and other health professionals are required to impart dental health education about oral hygiene, feeding practices, importance of the primary dentition and to promote preventive dental programmes.

  17. Social Competence in Infants and Toddlers with Special Health Care Needs: The Roles of Parental Knowledge, Expectations, Attunement, and Attitudes toward Child Independence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra Zand

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Little research has empirically addressed the relationships among parental knowledge of child development, parental attunement, parental expectations, and child independence in predicting the social competence of infants and toddlers with special health care needs. We used baseline data from the Strengthening Families Project, a prevention intervention study that tested Bavolek’s Nurturing Program for Parents and Their Children with Health Challenges to explore the roles of these variables in predicting social competence in infants and toddlers with special health care needs. Bivariate relationships among the study variables were explored and used to develop and test a model for predicting social competence among these children. Study findings pointed to a combination of indirect and direct influences of parent variables in predicting social competence. Results indicated that parents who encouraged healthy behaviors for developing a sense of power/independence were more likely to have children with social competence developing on schedule. Elements related to parental expectations, however, did not have the hypothesized relationships to social competence. The present study provides preliminary data to support the development of knowledge based interventions. Within medical settings, such interventions may indeed maximize benefit while minimizing cost.

  18. Being the parent of a ventilator-assisted child: perceptions of the family-health care provider relationship when care is offered in the family home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Berit; Lindblad, Britt-Marie

    2013-11-01

    The number of medically fragile children cared for at home is increasing; however, there are few studies about the professional support these families receive in their homes. The aim of the study was to understand the meanings that parents had about the support they received from health care professionals who offered care for their ventilator-assisted child in the family home. A phenomenological-hermeneutic method was used. Data included the narratives of five mother-father couples living in Sweden who were receiving professional support for their ventilator-assisted child. The findings indicate that receiving professional support meant being at risk of and/or exposed to the exercise of control over family privacy. The professional support system in the families' homes worked more by chance than by competent and sensible planning. In good cases, caring encounters were characterized by a mutual relationship where various occupational groups were embraced as a part of family life. The findings are discussed in light of compassionate care, exercise of power, and the importance of holistic educational programs.

  19. Humanoid robotics in health care: An exploration of children's and parents' emotional reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Tanya N; Ramirez-Serrano, Alex; Vanderkooi, Otto G; Kuhn, Susan

    2015-07-01

    A new non-pharmacological method of distraction was tested with 57 children during their annual flu vaccination. Given children's growing enthusiasm for technological devices, a humanoid robot was programmed to interact with them while a nurse administered the vaccination. Children smiled more often with the robot, as compared to the control condition, but they did not cry less. Parents indicated that their children held stronger memories for the robot than for the needle, wanted the robot in the future, and felt empowered to cope. We conclude that children and their parents respond positively to a humanoid robot at the bedside. © The Author(s) 2013.

  20. Population Estimates, Health Care Characteristics, and Material Hardship Experiences of U.S. Children with Parent-Reported Speech-Language Difficulties: Evidence from Three Nationally Representative Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonik, Rajan A.; Parish, Susan L.; Akorbirshoev, Ilhom; Son, Esther; Rosenthal, Eliana

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To provide estimates for the prevalence of parent-reported speech-language difficulties in U.S. children, and to describe the levels of health care access and material hardship in this population. Method: We tabulated descriptive and bivariate statistics using cross-sectional data from the 2007 and 2011/2012 iterations of the National…

  1. Health Literacy Among Parents of Newborn Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackley, Amy; Winter, Michael; Guillen, Ursula; Paul, David A.; Locke, Robert

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Health Literacy is the ability to obtain, process, and understand health information to make knowledgeable health decisions. PURPOSE To determine baseline health literacy of NICU parents at a tertiary care hospital during periods of crucial information exchange. METHODS Health Literacy of English speaking NICU parents was assessed using the Newest vital Sign (NVS) on admission (n=121) and discharge (n=59). A quasi-control group of well newborn (WBN) parents (n=24) and prenatal obstetric clinic (PRE) parents (n=18) were included. A single, Likert-style question measured nurse’s assessment of parental comprehension with discharge teaching. Suspected limited health literacy (SLHL) was defined as NVS score of ≤3. FINDINGS / RESULTS Forty-three percent of parents on NICU admission and 32% at NICU discharge had SLHL (pNICU parents and 25% of WBN parents with SLHL at time of admission/infant birth had a college education. Nurse subjective measurement of parental comprehension of discharge instructions was not correlated to the objective measurement of health literacy (p=0.26). IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE SLHL is common during peak time periods of complex health discussion in the NICU, WBN, and PRE settings. NICU providers may not accurately gauge parent’s literacy status. IMPLICATIONS FOR RESEARCH Methods for improving health communication are needed. Studies should evaluate SLHL in a larger NICU population and across different languages and cultures. PMID:27391562

  2. Factors associated with the referral of anxious children to mental health care: The influence of family functioning, parenting, parental anxiety and child impairment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, L.; Simon, E.; Bodden, D.H.M.; Dirksen, C.D.; Bögels, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to identify factors that predict the mental health care referral of anxious children. In total, 249 children and families, aged 8–13 years, participated: 73 children were referred with anxiety disorders to mental health care [mean (M) age =10.28, standard deviation (SD) =1.35], 176

  3. Factors associated with the referral of anxious children to mental health care: the influence of family functioning, parenting, parental anxiety and child impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, L.; Simon, E.; Bodden, D.H.M.; Dirksen, C.D.; Bögels, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to identify factors that predict the mental health care referral of anxious children. In total, 249 children and families, aged 8-13 years, participated: 73 children were referred with anxiety disorders to mental health care [mean (M) age =10.28, standard deviation (SD) =1.35], 176

  4. Factors Associated with the Referral of Anxious Children to Mental Health Care: the Influence of Family Functioning, Parenting, Parental Anxiety and Child Impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, L.; Simon, E.; Bodden, D.H.M.; Dirksen, C.D.; Bögels, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to identify factors that predict the mental health care referral of anxious children. In total, 249 children and families, aged 8-13 years, participated: 73 children were referred with anxiety disorders to mental health care [mean (M) age =10.28, standard deviation (SD) =1.35], 176

  5. Fathers sharing about early parental support in health-care - virtual discussions on an Internet forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin; Eriksson, Henrik

    2013-07-01

    Becoming a father is a life changing event and this transition is associated with various emotions. Educational activities aimed at new parents are important in healthcare parental support (HCPS). HCPS has been critiqued for its predominant focus on mothers, while the needs of fathers seem to have been downplayed. As a result, fathers often turn to Internet-based forums for support. As virtual discussions and mutual support among fathers take place in cyberspace, it is important to monitor these forums to observe the ways in which the fathers discuss HCPS. The aim of this study is to explore the ways in which new fathers visiting an Internet-based forum for fathers communicated their experiences of HCPS. A netnographic method consisting of six steps was used to gather and analyse the data. The findings show that fathers shared with one another their experiences of the attitudes expressed by HCPS workers as well as their own attitudes towards HCPS. The attitudes of HCPS workers that were directed towards the fathers were perceived as highly personal and individual, while fathers described their attitudes towards the HCPS in general terms, towards HCPS as a system. Overall, the fathers described HCPS as a valuable confirmatory support that eased their worries concerning sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), colic, weight gain, fever and teething. Although the fathers expressed gratitude towards HCPS, they also shared their negative experiences, such as feeling invisible, disregarded and insulted. In fact, the twofold attitudes that exist in the relationship between the fathers and HCPS can act as a barrier rather than being a confirmatory support. We recommend that HCPS adopts a broader approach using more targeted and strategic didactic methods for supporting fathers in the growth of their own personal awareness, as such an approach would offer a competitive and professional alternative to the support offered in informal experience-based Internet forums. © 2013

  6. Parents' experiences of pediatric palliative care and the impact on long-term parental grief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Geest, Ivana M M; Darlington, Anne-Sophie E; Streng, Isabelle C; Michiels, Erna M C; Pieters, Rob; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M

    2014-06-01

    Approximately 25% of children diagnosed with cancer eventually die. Losing a child puts parents at increased risk for developing psychological problems. To explore parents' perceptions of the interaction with health care professionals (communication, continuity of care, and parental involvement) and symptom management during the pediatric palliative phase, and to investigate the influence on long-term grief in parents who lost a child to cancer. A total of 89 parents of 57 children who died of cancer between 2000 and 2004 participated in this retrospective cross-sectional study by completing a set of questionnaires measuring grief (Inventory of Traumatic Grief), parents' perceptions of the interaction with health care professionals (communication, continuity of care, and parental involvement), and symptom management during the palliative phase. Care was assessed on a five point Likert scale (1=disagree and 5=agree). Parents highly rated communication (4.6±0.6), continuity of care (4.3±0.6), and parental involvement (4.6±0.7) during the palliative phase. Parents' most often reported physical and psychological symptoms of their child during the palliative phase were fatigue (75%), pain (74%), anxiety to be alone (52%), and anger (48%). Higher ratings of parents on communication (β=-9.08, P=0.03) and continuity of care (β=-11.74, P=0.01) were associated with lower levels of long-term parental grief. The severity of the child's dyspnea (β=2.96, P=0.05), anxiety to be alone (β=4.52, Pparental grief. Multivariate models combining the interaction with health care professionals and symptom management showed a significant influence of both aspects on long-term parental grief. Both interaction with health care professionals, especially communication and continuity of care, and symptom management in children dying of cancer are associated with long-term parental grief levels. Copyright © 2014 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  7. Knowledge, attitude, and practices of oral health care in prevention of early childhood caries among parents of children in Belagavi city: A Questionnaire study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suma Sogi, H P; Hugar, Shivayogi M; Nalawade, Triveni Mohan; Sinha, Anjali; Hugar, Shweta; Mallikarjuna, Rachappa M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the existing knowledge, attitude, and practices of "oral health care" in the prevention of early childhood caries (ECCs) among parents of children in Belagavi city. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the outpatient Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, KLE VK Institute of Dental Sciences, Belagavi, Karnataka. Institutional Ethical Clearance was obtained. The study was conducted during the month of April 2014 to October 2014 after taking prior informed consent from the 218 parents. Inclusion criteria were parents getting their children treated for dental caries and who were willing to participate. Parents who could not read and write were excluded from the study. The self-administered, close-ended questionnaire was written in English. It was then translated in local languages, i.e. Kannada and Marathi, and a pilot study was conducted on 10 parents to check for its feasibility and any changes if required were done. The response rate was 100% as all 218 parents completed the questionnaire. Of 218 parents, 116 were mothers and 102 were fathers. The overall mean knowledge score was 69.5%. The overall mean attitude score was 53.5%. The overall attitude toward prevention of ECC was not in accordance to knowledge. The overall mean of "good" practices and "bad" practices score was 33.5% and 18.5%, respectively. Good knowledge and attitude toward oral health do not necessarily produce good practices.

  8. Authoritative Parenting, Parenting Stress, and Self-Care in Pre-Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Maureen; Horn, Ivor B.; Alvarez, Vanessa; Cogen, Fran R.; Streisand, Randi

    2012-01-01

    Parent involvement in type 1 diabetes (T1DM) care leads to improved adherence; however, the manner in which parents approach illness management interactions with children must also be considered. It was hypothesized that greater use of an authoritative parenting style and less parenting stress would be associated with greater behavioral adherence and better metabolic control. Ninety-five primary caregivers of preadolescents (ages 8-11) with T1DM completed questionnaires assessing parenting style, pediatric parenting stress, and child behavioral adherence. Caregivers primarily self-identified as using an authoritative parenting style. Greater authoritative parenting was associated with greater behavioral adherence and less difficulty with pediatric parenting stress; no differences in metabolic control were observed. Greater engagement in authoritative parenting behaviors may contribute to increased age-appropriate child behavioral adherence and less pediatric parenting stress. Interventions highlighting diabetes-specific authoritative parenting techniques may enhance health outcomes and improve overall family functioning. PMID:22350495

  9. Authoritative parenting, parenting stress, and self-care in pre-adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Maureen; Horn, Ivor B; Alvarez, Vanessa; Cogen, Fran R; Streisand, Randi

    2012-09-01

    Parent involvement in type 1 diabetes (T1DM) care leads to improved adherence; however, the manner in which parents approach illness management interactions with children must also be considered. It was hypothesized that greater use of an authoritative parenting style and less parenting stress would be associated with greater behavioral adherence and better metabolic control. Ninety-five primary caregivers of preadolescents (ages 8-11) with T1DM completed questionnaires assessing parenting style, pediatric parenting stress, and child behavioral adherence. Caregivers primarily self-identified as using an authoritative parenting style. Greater authoritative parenting was associated with greater behavioral adherence and less difficulty with pediatric parenting stress; no differences in metabolic control were observed. Greater engagement in authoritative parenting behaviors may contribute to increased age-appropriate child behavioral adherence and less pediatric parenting stress. Interventions highlighting diabetes-specific authoritative parenting techniques may enhance health outcomes and improve overall family functioning.

  10. Attitudes to lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender parents seeking health care for their children in two early parenting services in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Elaine; Berry, Karen; Emeto, Theophilus I; Burmeister, Oliver K; Young, Jeanine; Shields, Linda

    2017-04-01

    To examine the attitudes to and knowledge and beliefs about homosexuality of nurses and allied professionals in two early parenting services in Australia. Early parenting services employ nurses and allied professionals. Access and inclusion policies are important in community health and early childhood service settings. However, little is known about the perceptions of professionals who work within early parenting services in relation to lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender families. This is the final in a series of studies and was undertaken in two early parenting services in two states in Australia using a cross-sectional design with quantitative and qualitative approaches. Validated questionnaires were completed by 51 nurses and allied professionals and tested with chi-squared test of independence (or Fisher's exact test), Mann-Whitney U-test, Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance or Spearman's rank correlation. Thematic analysis examined qualitative data collected in a box for free comments. Of the constructs measured by the questionnaires, no significant relationships were found in knowledge, attitude and gay affirmative practice scores by sociodemographic variables or professional group. However, attitude scores towards lesbians and gay men were significantly negatively affected by conservative political affiliation (p = 0·038), held religious beliefs (p = 0·011) and frequency of praying (p = 0·018). Six overall themes were found as follows: respect, parenting role, implications for the child, management, disclosure, resources and training. The study provided an in-depth analysis of the attitudes, knowledge and beliefs of professionals in two early parenting services, showing that work is needed to promote acceptance of diversity and the inclusion of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender families in planning, developing, evaluating and accessing early parenting services. Access and inclusion plans for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender

  11. Families with children with diabetes: implications of parent stress for parent and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgeson, Vicki S; Becker, Dorothy; Escobar, Oscar; Siminerio, Linda

    2012-05-01

    To examine the relation of parent stress to parent mental health and child mental and physical health. We interviewed children with type 1 diabetes (n = 132; mean age 12 years) annually for 5 years and had one parent complete a questionnaire at each assessment. Parents completed measures of general life stress, stress related to caring for a child with diabetes, benefit finding, and mental health. Child outcomes were depressive symptoms, self-care behavior, and glycemic control. Multilevel modeling was used to examine concurrent and longitudinal relations. Greater parent general stress and greater parent diabetes-specific stress were associated with poorer parent mental health. Overall, greater parent general stress was associated with poorer child outcomes, whereas greater parent diabetes-specific stress was associated with better child outcomes. Families with high levels of general life stress should be identified as they are at risk for both poor parent and child health outcomes.

  12. Parental satisfaction with inpatient care of children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannelli, Maria; Harvey, Adrienne; O'Neill, Jenny; Reddihough, Dinah

    2015-11-01

    Children with cerebral palsy (CP) have complex health-care needs. This study examines levels of parental satisfaction with inpatient care for children with CP at a tertiary care hospital to identify areas for improvement. Parents/guardians of children with CP and parents/guardians of children without a disability admitted to hospital completed a custom-designed questionnaire assessing six areas of the hospital admission: (i) the admission process; (ii) the child's personal care; (iii) the child's medical care; (iv) overall care of the child; (v) the parent's experience in hospital; and (vi) keeping up to date in hospital. Differences between the two groups were analysed using Student's t-tests. Parents of children with CP were significantly less satisfied with the inpatient care as compared with parents of children without a disability in four of the six categories: 'my child's personal care' (P = 0.0033), 'my child's medical care' (P = 0.0350), 'overall care' (P = 0.0081) and 'my experience in the hospital' (P = 0.0209). When the overall questionnaire was compared between the two groups, parents of children with CP were less satisfied with care than parents of children without a disability (P = 0.0036). Parents of children with CP are less satisfied with the inpatient care of their child compared with parents of children without a disability. This information should be instrumental in informing change to ensure that parent satisfaction levels improve to a level consistent with other children admitted to a tertiary care setting. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2015 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  13. A predictive model of Health Related Quality of life of parents of chronically ill children: the importance of care-dependency of their child and their support system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzmann, Janneke; Maurice-Stam, Heleen; Heymans, Hugo S A; Grootenhuis, Martha A

    2009-07-28

    Parents of chronically ill children are at risk for a lower Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL). Insight in the dynamics of factors influencing parental HRQoL is necessary for development of interventions. Aim of the present study was to explore the influence of demographic and disease related factors on parental HRQoL, mediated by employment, income, leisure time, holiday and emotional support in a comprehensive model. In a cross-sectional design, 543 parents of chronically ill children completed questionnaires. A conceptual model of parental HRQoL was developed. Structural equation modeling was performed to explore the relations in the conceptual model, and to test if the model fitted the data. The model fitted the data closely (CHISQ(14) = 11.37, p = 0.66; RMSEA = 0.0, 90%CI [0.00;0.034]. The effect of socio-demographic and medical data on HRQoL was mediated by days on holiday (MCS: beta = .21) and emotional support (PCS: beta = .14; MCS: beta = .28). Also, female gender (beta = -.10), age (beta = .10), being chronically ill as a parent (beta = -.34), and care dependency of the child (beta = -.14; beta = -.15) were directly related to parental HRQoL. The final model was slightly different from the conceptual model. Main factors explaining parental HRQoL seemed to be emotional support, care dependency, days on holiday and being chronically ill as a parent. Holiday and emotional support mediated the effect of demographic and disease-related factors on HRQoL. Hours of employment, leisure time and household income did not mediate between background characteristics and HRQoL, contrasting the hypotheses.

  14. A predictive model of Health Related Quality of life of parents of chronically ill children: the importance of care-dependency of their child and their support system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heymans Hugo SA

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents of chronically ill children are at risk for a lower Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL. Insight in the dynamics of factors influencing parental HRQoL is necessary for development of interventions. Aim of the present study was to explore the influence of demographic and disease related factors on parental HRQoL, mediated by employment, income, leisure time, holiday and emotional support in a comprehensive model. Methods In a cross-sectional design, 543 parents of chronically ill children completed questionnaires. A conceptual model of parental HRQoL was developed. Structural equation modeling was performed to explore the relations in the conceptual model, and to test if the model fitted the data. Results The model fitted the data closely (CHISQ(14 = 11.37, p = 0.66; RMSEA = 0.0, 90%CI [0.00;0.034]. The effect of socio-demographic and medical data on HRQoL was mediated by days on holiday (MCS: β = .21 and emotional support (PCS: β = .14; MCS: β = .28. Also, female gender (β = -.10, age (β = .10, being chronically ill as a parent (β = -.34, and care dependency of the child (β = -.14; β = -.15 were directly related to parental HRQoL. Conclusion The final model was slightly different from the conceptual model. Main factors explaining parental HRQoL seemed to be emotional support, care dependency, days on holiday and being chronically ill as a parent. Holiday and emotional support mediated the effect of demographic and disease-related factors on HRQoL. Hours of employment, leisure time and household income did not mediate between background characteristics and HRQoL, contrasting the hypotheses.

  15. Implementing new routines in adult mental health care to identify and support children of mentally ill parents

    OpenAIRE

    Lauritzen, Camilla; Reedtz, Charlotte; Van Doesum, Karin TM; Martinussen, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mental health problems are often transmitted from one generation to the next. This knowledge has led to changes in Norwegian legislation, making it mandatory to assess whether or not patients have children, and to provide necessary support for the children of mentally ill patients. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the process of implementing new routines in adult mental health services to identify and support children of mentally ill parents. Methods: The design w...

  16. Novopen Echo® for the delivery of insulin: a comparison of usability, functionality and preference among pediatric subjects, their parents, and health care professionals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Birthe S; Lilleøre, Søren Kruse; Korsholm, Conny Nøhr

    2010-01-01

    Despite advances in insulin pen design and functionality, the selection of pens available for children with diabetes is limited. This study assessed the usability, functionality and attitudes towards NovoPen Echo®, a new durable insulin pen designed for pediatric patients that combines a simple...... memory function with half-increment dosing, versus NovoPen® Junior and HumaPen® Luxura™ HD in pediatric subjects, their parents, and health care professionals (HCPs)....

  17. A cross-sectional study of parental awareness of and reasons for lack of health insurance among minority children, and the impact on health, access to care, and unmet needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Glenn; Lin, Hua; Walker, Candy; Lee, Michael; Portillo, Alberto; Henry, Monica; Fierro, Marco; Massey, Kenneth

    2016-03-22

    Minority children have the highest US uninsurance rates; Latino and African-American children account for 53 % of uninsured American children, despite comprising only 48 % of the total US child population. The study aim was to examine parental awareness of and the reasons for lacking health insurance in Medicaid/CHIP-eligible minority children, and the impact of the children's uninsurance on health, access to care, unmet needs, and family financial burden. For this cross-sectional study, a consecutive series of uninsured, Medicaid/CHIP-eligible Latino and African-American children was recruited at 97 urban Texas community sites, including supermarkets, health fairs, and schools. Measures/outcomes were assessed using validated instruments, and included sociodemographic characteristics, uninsurance duration, reasons for the child being uninsured, health status, special healthcare needs, access to medical and dental care, unmet needs, use of health services, quality of care, satisfaction with care, out-of-pocket costs of care, and financial burden. The mean time uninsured for the 267 participants was 14 months; 5 % had never been insured. The most common reason for insurance loss was expired and never reapplied (30 %), and for never being insured, high insurance costs. Only 49 % of parents were aware that their uninsured child was Medicaid/CHIP eligible. Thirty-eight percent of children had suboptimal health, and 2/3 had special healthcare needs, but 64 % have no primary-care provider; 83 % of parents worry about their child's health more than others. Unmet healthcare needs include: healthcare, 73 %; mental healthcare, 70 %; mobility aids/devices, 67 %; dental, 61 %; specialty care, 57 %; and vision, 46 %. Due to the child's health, 35 % of parents had financial problems, 23 % cut work hours, and 10 % ceased work. Higher proportions of Latinos lack primary-care providers, and higher proportions of African-Americans experience family financial burden. Half of parents

  18. The contribution of Australian residential early parenting centres to comprehensive mental health care for mothers of infants: evidence from a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fisher Jane RW

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Australia's public access residential early parenting services provide programs to assist parents who self-refer, to care for their infants and young children. Treatment programs target infant feeding and sleeping difficulties and maternal mental health. There is limited systematic evidence of maternal and infant mental health, psychosocial circumstances or presenting problems, or the effectiveness of the programs. The aim of this study was to contribute to the evidence base about residential early parenting services. Methods A prospective cohort design was used. A consecutive sample of mothers with infants under one year old recruited during admission to a public access residential early parenting service for a 4 or 5 night stay in Melbourne, Australia was recruited. They completed structured self-report questionnaires, incorporating standardised measures of infant behaviour and maternal mood, during admission and at one and six months after discharge. Changes in infant behaviour and maternal psychological functioning after discharge were observed. Results 79 women completed the first questionnaire during admission, and 58 provided complete data. Women admitted to the residential program have poor physical and mental health, limited family support, and infants with substantial behaviour difficulties. One month after discharge significant improvements in infant behaviour and maternal psychological functioning were observed (mean (SD daily crying and fussing during admission = 101.02 (100.8 minutes reduced to 37.7 (55.2 at one month post discharge, p Conclusions This psycho-educational approach is an effective and acceptable early intervention for parenting difficulties and maternal mood disturbance, and contributes to a system of comprehensive mental health care for mothers of infants.

  19. Parental Care Aids, but Parental Overprotection Hinders, College Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Matthew B.; Pierce, John D., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Previous work has shown that students who have troublesome relationships with their parents show higher risk factors for poorer college adjustment. In the present study, we focused on the balance between two key aspects of parenting style, parental care and overprotection, as they affect the transition to college life. Eighty-three undergraduate…

  20. Should advertising parental care be honest?

    OpenAIRE

    Kokko, H.

    1998-01-01

    Species with paternal care show less exaggerated sexual ornamentation than those in which males do not care, although direct benefits from paternal care can vastly exceed the indirect benefits of mate choice. Whether condition-dependent handicaps can signal parenting ability is controversial. The good-parent process predicts the evolution of honest signals of parental investment, whereas the differential-allocation model suggests a trade-off between the attractiveness of a mate and his care-p...

  1. Barriers to successful recruitment of parents of overweight children for an obesity prevention intervention: a qualitative study among youth health care professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerards Sanne MPL

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The recruitment of participants for childhood overweight and obesity prevention interventions can be challenging. The goal of this study was to identify barriers that Dutch youth health care (YHC professionals perceive when referring parents of overweight children to an obesity prevention intervention. Methods Sixteen YHC professionals (nurses, physicians and management staff from eleven child health clinics participated in semi-structured interviews. An intervention implementation model was used as the framework for conducting, analyzing and interpreting the interviews. Results All YHC professionals were concerned about childhood obesity and perceived prevention of overweight and obesity as an important task of the YHC organization. In terms of frequency and perceived impact, the most important impeding factors for referring parents of overweight children to an intervention were denial of the overweight problem by parents and their resistance towards discussing weight issues. A few YHC professionals indicated that their communication skills in discussing weight issues could be improved, and some professionals mentioned that they had low self-efficacy in raising this topic. Conclusions We consider it important that YHC professionals receive more training to increase their self-efficacy and skills in motivating parents of overweight children to participate in obesity prevention interventions. Furthermore, parental awareness towards their child’s overweight should be addressed in future studies.

  2. Parenting style, parenting stress, and children's health-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyunjeong; Walton-Moss, Benita

    2012-07-01

    Parental guidance is critical to the development of children's health-related behaviors. The purpose of this study was to look at the relationship between parenting factors, including parenting style and parenting stress, and children's health-related behaviors. In this descriptive, correlational study, 284 parents of preschool children were interviewed using the Child Rearing Questionnaire and the Korean Parenting Stress Index-Short Form. Parent distress, authoritative and permissive parenting styles, family income, and mother's education were significantly associated with children's health-related behaviors. These findings suggest that higher levels of warmth, characteristics of both parenting styles, may be a critical factor in the development of health-related behaviors.

  3. Tensions among siblings in parent care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashewicz, Bonnie; Keating, Norah

    2009-06-01

    From a place of "genealogical equivalence" as children of their parents, siblings spend a lifetime developing separate identities. As parents near the end of their lives, issues of sibling equivalence are renegotiated in the face of equal obligations to provide care and equal entitlement to parent assets. In this paper, we hypothesize how unresolved issues of rivalry for parent affection/attention among siblings may be reasserted when parents need care. Data are drawn from a project about how parent care and assets are shared. In-depth interviews with three sibling groups experiencing conflict over sharing parent care and assets along with six Canadian legal case portrayals of disputes among siblings over how parent care and assets were shared are examined. Findings are that disputes occur when siblings perceive others as dominating parent care and assets through tactics such as separating the parent from other siblings and preventing other siblings from being engaged in decisions about care and assets. Discussion is focused on paradoxes faced by siblings given expectations for equity in parent relationships alongside perceived pre-eminence in care and asset decisions.

  4. Parenting and physical punishment: primary care interventions in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Stewart, C; Lara, M G; Amighetti, L D; Wissow, L S; Gutierrez, M I; Levav, I; Maddaleno, M

    2000-10-01

    Physical punishment is a form of intrafamilial violence associated with short- and long-term adverse mental health outcomes. Despite these possible consequences, it is among the most common forms of violent interpersonal behavior. For many children it begins within the first year of life. The goal of this study was to determine the feasibility of involving public sector primary health care providers to inform parents about alternatives to physical punishment. The study used a qualitative design utilizing focus groups and survey questionnaires with parents and providers at six clinic sites chosen to be representative of public sector practice settings in Costa Rica and in metropolitan Santiago, Chile. The data were collected during 1998 and 1999. In the focus groups and surveys the parents voiced a range of opinions about physical punishment. Most acknowledged its common use but listed it among their least preferred means of discipline. Frequency of its use correlated positively with the parents' belief in its effectiveness and inversely with their satisfaction with their children's behavior. Some parents wanted to learn more about discipline; others wanted help with life stresses they felt led them to use physical punishment. Parents reported they chose other family members more frequently as a source of parenting information than they did health care providers. Some parents saw providers as too rushed and not knowledgeable enough to give good advice. Providers, in turn, felt ill equipped to handle parents' questions, but many of the health professionals expressed interest in more training. Parents and providers agreed that problems of time, space, and resources were barriers to talking about child discipline in the clinics. Many parents and providers would welcome a primary-care-based program on physical punishment. Such a program would need to be customized to accommodate local differences in parent and provider attitudes and in clinic organization. Health care

  5. A multi-method assessment of satisfaction with services in the medical home by parents of children and youth with special health care needs (CYSHCN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, David L; McCaskill, Quimby E; Winterbauer, Nancy; Jobli, Edessa; Hou, Tao; Wludyka, Peter S; Stowers, Kristi; Livingood, William

    2009-01-01

    To assess satisfaction of parents of children with special health care needs with treatment by office staff, communication with the pediatrician, involvement in decision-making and coordination of services outside the practice. We used a mixed-method (qualitative and quantitative) approach to collect parental perceptions of the Medical Home services provided by their pediatricians. Six practices were selected to participate in the study based on geographic and patient demographic characteristics. In total, 262 (75% response rate) families completed surveys, and 28 families of these participated in focus groups. The Family Survey collected information (corroborated and enriched with focus group interviews) on parent and child demographics, severity of the child's condition and the burden on parents. We assessed parental satisfaction with treatment by office staff, communication with the pediatrician, involvement in decision-making, and connection to services outside the practice. Survey responses were analyzed using SAS with all associations considered significant at the P special health care needs. Overall, only a small percentage of families reported being dissatisfied with their treatment by office staff (13-14%), communication with the pediatrician (10%), and involvement in decision-making (15-16%). However, a majority of families (approximately 58%) were dissatisfied with the ability of the pediatrician and his/her office to connect the families with resources outside the pediatric office. Families whose children had more severe conditions, or whose conditions had more of an impact on the families, reported being less satisfied with all aspects of communication and care coordination Families of youth with special health care needs (>12 years of age) were less satisfied than families of younger children with the practice's ability to connect them to resources outside the practice. Both the focus groups and surveys demonstrated that families of children with

  6. Factors that affect parent perceptions of provider-family partnership for children with special health care needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Caprice A; Madden, Vanessa L; Marcu, Mircea I

    2010-09-01

    Partnering between families and their children's providers is a cornerstone of family-centered care. This study aimed to identify factors associated with family-provider partnership and determine the association between partnership and other outcome measures for children with special health care needs (CSHCN). Descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate analyses were conducted using data from the 2005-2006 National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs. Multivariate models showed that CSHCN who are White non-Hispanic, younger than 12, reside in households with incomes above 400% of the federal poverty level, and have a usual source of care were associated with family-provider partnership. Multivariate models showed that family-provider partnership was significantly associated with adequate insurance, early and continual screening, organized health care services, and transition preparedness. Family-provider partnership was associated with 20% fewer emergency department visits and 9% fewer school days missed. This study suggests that policies aimed at promoting family-provider partnership could increase health outcomes for CSHCN.

  7. Implementing new routines in adult mental health care to identify and support children of mentally ill parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauritzen, Camilla; Reedtz, Charlotte; Van Doesum, Karin T M; Martinussen, Monica

    2014-02-07

    Mental health problems are often transmitted from one generation to the next. This knowledge has led to changes in Norwegian legislation, making it mandatory to assess whether or not patients have children, and to provide necessary support for the children of mentally ill patients. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the process of implementing new routines in adult mental health services to identify and support children of mentally ill parents. The design was a pre-test post-test study. The sample (N = 219 at pre-test and N = 185 at post-test) included mental health professionals in the largest hospital in the region, who responded to a web-based survey on the routines of the services, attitudes within the workforce capacity, worker's knowledge on the impact of parental mental illness on children, knowledge on legislation concerning children of patients, and demographic variables. The results of this study indicated that some changes are taking place in clinical practice in terms of increased identification of children. Adult mental health services providing support for the children was however not fully implemented as a new practice. The main finding in this study is that the identification frequency had increased significantly according to self-reported data since the Family Assessment Form was implemented. The increase in self-reported identification behavior is however taking place very slowly. Three years after the legislation was changed to making it mandatory to assess whether or not patients have children, it was still not fully incorporated in the routines of the entire workforce. In terms of support for the families affected by parental mental illness, the changes are not yet significant.

  8. Parental perceptions of clown care in paediatric intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortamet, Guillaume; Merckx, Audrey; Roumeliotis, Nadia; Simonds, Caroline; Renolleau, Sylvain; Hubert, Philippe

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this study was to report family satisfaction with regards to the presence of clowns in the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU). This is a single-centre survey-based study, conducted over 4 months in a 12-bed third level PICU in a university hospital. All parents present at the bedside of their child during clowning were considered as potential participants. Eligible parents were approached by one of the two intensivists as investigators and asked to complete a survey within the 48 h following the clowns' intervention. Thirty-three parents consented to complete the survey. Median age of children was 14 months (15 days to 16 years) and median Pediatric Logistic Organ Dysfunction (PELOD) score was 1 (0-22). Twenty-four (72.7%) were considered as clinically stable while the clowns intervened. Twenty-eight parents (84.8%) and 27 (81.8%) considered that clowns had a positive effect on themselves and on their child, respectively. Clown care was considered as necessary in 19 cases (57.6%), optional in 13 (39.4%) and unnecessary in 1 (3.0%). The degree of parental satisfaction was not significantly associated with the child's clinical stability. We suggested that medical clowning in the PICU is well accepted by parents, regardless of severity of their child's condition. This study supports the adoption of medical clowning in PICUs as a patient- and family-centred care practice. © 2017 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  9. Effects of Health Education on Infant's Parents Participating in Child Health Care%健康教育对婴儿家长参与儿童保健的效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季冬

    2016-01-01

    目的:研究分析健康教育对婴儿家长参与儿童保健的效果。方法随机选取儿童保健门诊婴儿180例,将其平均分为观察组与对照组,对观察组婴儿家长实施健康教育,对照组不实施健康教育,一段时间后比较两组婴儿家长参加儿童保健的情况。结果观察组家长参与儿童保健情况优于对照组,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论对婴儿家长实施健康教育可有效提高儿童的保健质量。%ObjectiveTo study the effect of health education on infant's parents' participation in child health care.Methods Randomly selected child health clinic infants 180 cases. They were divided into observation group and control group. The parents of the observation group were carried out health education,and the control group did not carry out health education. After a period of time were compared between the two groups of the parents of the baby in child care.Results The parents of the observation group were significantly better than the control group in child care,and the difference was statisticaly significant(P<0.05).Conclusion Health education can effectively improve the quality of health care for infants and their parents.

  10. Sexual conflict between parents: offspring desertion and asymmetrical parental care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Székely, Tamás

    2014-09-25

    Parental care is an immensely variable social behavior, and sexual conflict offers a powerful paradigm to understand this diversity. Conflict over care (usually considered as a type of postzygotic sexual conflict) is common, because the evolutionary interests of male and female parents are rarely identical. I investigate how sexual conflict over care may facilitate the emergence and maintenance of diverse parenting strategies and argue that researchers should combine two fundamental concepts in social behavior to understand care patterns: cooperation and conflict. Behavioral evidence of conflict over care is well established, studies have estimated specific fitness implications of conflict for males or females, and experiments have investigated specific components of conflict. However, studies are long overdue to reveal the full implications of conflict for both males and females. Manipulating (or harming) the opposite sex seems less common in postzygotic conflicts than in prezygotic conflicts because by manipulating, coercing, or harming the opposite sex, the reproductive interest of the actor is also reduced. Parental care is a complex trait, although few studies have yet considered the implications of multidimensionality for parental conflict. Future research in parental conflict will benefit from understanding the behavioral interactions between male and female parents (e.g., negotiation, learning, and coercion), the genetic and neurogenomic bases of parental behavior, and the influence of social environment on parental strategies. Empirical studies are needed to put sexual conflict in a population context and reveal feedback between mate choice, pair bonds and parenting strategies, and their demographic consequences for the population such as mortalities and sex ratios. Taken together, sexual conflict offers a fascinating avenue for understanding the causes and consequences of parenting behavior, sex roles, and breeding system evolution. Copyright © 2014 Cold

  11. Involving Parents in Their Children's Dental Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Donna

    1998-01-01

    Asserts that parent education is vital to good dental hygiene for the whole family. Discusses what Head Start staffers can do to ensure that children's dental needs are being met, particularly in assisting parents with taking responsibility for children's dental hygiene. Covers dental care tips for parents, questions and answers about dental…

  12. Parents' socioeconomic factors related to high antibiotic prescribing in primary health care among children aged 0-6 years in the Capital Region of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jette Nygaard; Bjerrum, Lars; Boel, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the distribution of antibiotic prescriptions in primary health care among children aged 0-6 years and its association with socioeconomic factors. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study describing antibiotic prescriptions and socioeconomic factors, using different population......-based registers from Statistics Denmark. SETTING: Antibiotic prescriptions in 2012 from primary health care in the Capital Region of Denmark. SUBJECTS: The population of children aged 0-6 years (n = 139,398) in the Capital Region of Denmark. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: High use of antibiotics identified by number...... of antibiotic prescriptions (≥ 3 prescriptions per year) and defined daily doses (DDD). A multinomial logistic regression analysis estimating the association between high antibiotic use and parents' education, employment status, income, child's sex, and ethnic background. RESULTS: Ten percent of children...

  13. Parents, School Success, and Health

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-08-03

    In this podcast, Dr. William Jeynes, CDC Parenting Speaker Series guest, discusses the importance of parental involvement in children's academic success and lifelong health.  Created: 8/3/2009 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD).   Date Released: 8/3/2009.

  14. Parental care in Hemisus (Anura: Hemisotidae)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Parental care in Hemisus (Anura: Hemisotidae). DE van Dijk clo Department of Zoology, University of Stelienbosch,. Stelienbosch, 7600 South Africa. Received 18 December 1996; accepted J J February 1997. Accounts of parental care in Anura frequently include mention of the South African frog genus Hemisus and derive ...

  15. Semelparous Penna Ageing Model with Parental Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehsenfeld, K. M.; Sá Martins, J. S.; de Oliveira, S. Moss; Bernardes, A. T.

    In this paper we study the importance of parental care for the survival of semelparous species, that reproduce only once in life. We perform our simulations for sexual and asexual reproductions and show that catastrophic senescence (death soon after reproduction) is delayed if parental care is considered.

  16. COMMUNITY HEALTH & PRIMARY HEALTH CARE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    care policy which was intended to make health care which of the two alternative methods of health care available to individuals and families in the financing options of free health or DRF was community at very little or no cost at all. However, preferred by the community members within most health facilities would appear to ...

  17. Assessing the quality of life of children with sickle cell anaemia using self-, parent-proxy, and health care professional-proxy reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinou, Christina; Payne, Nicola; Inusa, Baba

    2015-05-01

    The quality of life (QoL) of children with sickle cell anaemia (SCA) in the United Kingdom has not been examined, and a discrepancy measure based on Gap theory has rarely been used. This study investigated whether (1) child self-reports of QoL using a discrepancy measure (the Generic Children's QoL Measure; GCQ) are lower than those from healthy children, (2) proxy reports from parents and health care professionals are lower than child self-reports, and (3) demographic and disease severity indicators are related to QoL. An interdependent groups, cross-sectional design was implemented. Seventy-four children with SCA, their parent, and members of their health care team completed the GCQ. Demographic and disease severity indicators were recorded. GCQ data from healthy children were obtained from the UK Data Archive. Contrary to past research, when examining generic discrepancy QoL, children with SCA did not report a lower QoL than healthy children, and parent- and health care professional-proxy reports were not lower than child self-reports. Few of the demographic and disease severity indicators were related to QoL. Proxy reports may be used to gain a more complete picture of QoL, but should not be a substitute for self-reports. The explanation for the relatively high levels of QoL reported is not clear, but children with SCA may have realistic expectations about their ideal-self, place greater emphasis on aspects other than health in shaping their QoL, and define achievements within the limits of their illness. Future research should focus on psychological factors in explaining QoL. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Children with sickle cell disease (SCD) generally have a reduced QoL compared with healthy children, but there appears to be no research measuring QoL in paediatric SCD in the United Kingdom. Proxy QoL reports from parents are often lower than child self-reports, but there is less research examining proxy reports from health

  18. Parents' perceptions about child abuse and their impact on physical and emotional child abuse: A study from primary health care centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed N Al Dosari

    2017-01-01

    CONCLUSION: The causes of child abuse and neglect are complex. Though detecting child abuse may be difficult in primary care practice, many risk factors can be identified early. Parents' attitudes can be measured, and prevention initiatives, such as screening and counseling for parents of children at risk, can be developed and incorporated into primary care practice.

  19. An Investigation of the Views of Parents in Otago on Dental Care for Primary School-Aged Children by the Community Oral Health Service Prior to the Introduction of the Hub-Based Clinic System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, B K; Gaffney, M; Marshall, K

    2016-12-01

    Prior to the introduction of the Southern District Health Board's reconfigured Community Oral Health Service in Otago, a project was undertaken with parents to investigate their knowledge, understanding and views of the historical School Dental Service and of the Community Oral Health Service that was being introduced. Focus groups were run during 2011 in ten selected schools (parents with children in years 1-8) across two areas in Otago to represent ur ban and rural settings and to represent parents who were already travelling to dental services. Parents valued the traditional School Dental Service in Otago highly, generally agreeing that the service based in schools was accessible and convenient for parents and children. Rural parents who had always taken their children to dental appointments viewed it as a normal process, accepting that there could not be a service located in every school. Parents were aware that facilities were out-of-date. They highlighted the challenges of locating therapists since they started moving from school to school in the later 1990s and felt it was difficult for children seeing different therapists at each recall. There were diverse views on the proposed new system. Some parents felt that school-aged children should go to dental clinics on their own or with peers, while other parents welcomed the opportunity to attend when their child was having health care. It appears that the Community Oral Health Services should have an ongoing process to seek the views of parents and children about the service.

  20. Human papillomavirus vaccine awareness, uptake, and parental and health care provider communication among 11- to 18-year-old adolescents in a rural Appalachian Ohio county in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatta, Madhav P; Phillips, Lynette

    2015-01-01

    This study examined human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine awareness and uptake, and communication with a parent and/or a health care provider among 11- to 18-year-old male and female adolescents in an Appalachian Ohio county. Five questions regarding the HPV vaccine were added to the 2012 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) surveys administered to middle and high school students in the county. The YRBSS surveys are school-based, anonymous, and voluntary. The questions added were about vaccine awareness and uptake, and communication with a parent or health care provider about the vaccine. Of the 1,299 participants, 51.9% were male and 90.3% were white. Overall, 49.2%, 23.5%, 19.2%, and 24.6%, respectively, reported vaccine awareness, uptake of at least 1 dose of the HPV vaccine, communication with a parent, and communication with a health care provider. Females and adolescents ≥ 15 years were significantly more likely to report awareness, uptake, and parental and provider communication than males and adolescents ≤ 14 years. Adolescents receiving any dose of the vaccine were significantly more likely to have had a parent (OR: 3.74; 95% CI: 2.30-6.06) or a health care provider (OR: 10.91; 95% CI: 6.42-18.6) discuss the vaccine than those who had not received any dose. Despite the strong link between parental and health care provider communication and HPV vaccine uptake, the levels of communication remain low in this Appalachian population. These findings suggest the need for public health education programs targeting the health care providers, the parents, and the adolescents to improve awareness, knowledge, and HPV vaccine uptake. © 2014 National Rural Health Association.

  1. Respiratory Home Health Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us Home > Healthy Living > Living With Lung Disease > Respiratory Home Health Care Font: Aerosol Delivery Oxygen Resources ... Teenagers Living With Lung Disease Articles written by Respiratory Experts Respiratory Home Health Care Respiratory care at ...

  2. 'Fighting for care': parents' perspectives of children's palliative care in South Tyrol, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbyshire, Philip; Mischo-Kelling, Maria; Lochner, Lukas; Messerschmidt-Grandi, Caterina

    2015-11-01

    Children's palliative care in Italy develops comparatively slowly. Recent legislation is enabling, but foundational research exploring parental experiences and perceptions is lacking. To investigate the experiences and perceptions of parents in South Tyrol, Italy regarding caring for a child with a life-threatening or life-limiting illness. A mixed qualitative design incorporated both an online survey and parent interviews. Using purposive sampling, 13 parents undertook 9 interviews and 7 parents completed the survey. The authors highlight a major parental theme describing difficult relationships with health services requiring them to 'fight the system' for services. The authors raise a disturbing possibility that such 'fighting the system' is now so widely recognised worldwide that it cannot be considered to be accidental. The authors recommend the establishment of a specialist, dedicated paediatric palliative care service in South Tyrol with the international recognised values and operating standards that would render such parental 'fighting' unnecessary.

  3. Parents\\' lived experience of providing kangaroo care to their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Premature and low birthweight infants pose particular challenges to health services in South Africa. While there is good evidence to demonstrate the benefits of kangaroo care in low birthweight infants, limited research has been conducted locally on the experiences of parents who provide kangaroo care to their preterm ...

  4. [Health Care Situation and Barriers for Working with Children of Mentally Ill Parents from the Perspective of Adult Psychiatry in Germany - A Nationwide Survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wlodarczyk, Olga; Metzner, Franka; Pawils, Silke

    2017-10-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to assess the health care situation and barriers to support minor children of mentally ill parents from the perspective of adult psychiatry in Germany. Methods Based on the German Hospital Register mental health practitioners of all psychiatric clinics in Germany were asked to answer a 37-item questionnaire. Overall, 441 practitioners of 239 psychiatric clinics participated in the cross sectional study. Results Most important barriers were high workload, scarce resources, patient-focused treatment, missing expertise as well as insufficient awareness. Conclusions More resources, training, clear declaration of competence and coordination of services are necessary to implement family sensitive services in psychiatric clinics. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Health care operations management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carter, M.W.; Hans, Elias W.; Kolisch, R.

    2012-01-01

    Health care operations management has become a major topic for health care service providers and society. Operations research already has and further will make considerable contributions for the effective and efficient delivery of health care services. This special issue collects seven carefully

  6. Empowerment of Parents in the Intensive Care: A journey discovering parental experiences and satisfaction with care

    OpenAIRE

    Latour, Jos

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of this thesis – the EMPATHIC studies – was to develop and implement validated parent satisfaction questionnaires for pediatric and neonatal intensive care units. Part I presents the general introduction, which justifies the construction, validation, and utilization of parent satisfaction instruments. Part II provides a review about the few existing parent and family satisfaction instruments. A theoretical framework incorporating family-centered care, parental needs and ex...

  7. 健康教育对社区婴儿家长参与儿童保健的效果评价%Effect of Health Education to Parental Involvement in Community Child Health Care

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨彦; 张德春; 李胜玲

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨健康教育对婴儿家长参与儿童保健的效果,为更好地开展社区儿童保健工作提供科学依据.方法 采用随机整群抽样方法,将银川市妇幼保健院高台寺社区卫生服务站所管辖的6个居民小区按其所处地理位置随机分为观察组120例和对照组120例.观察组采取发放宣传小册子、电话咨询、讲座等多种形式进行健康教育;对照组按社区常规工作制度向其介绍儿童保健相关知识.6个月后就婴儿家长参与儿童保健的效果进行评价.结果 健康教育后观察组社区婴儿家长对儿童保健相关知识的知晓率、定期健康体检的参与率、Ⅰ类疫苗和Ⅱ类疫苗的按时接种率均高于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 对社区婴儿家长实施多种形式的健康教育,可明显提高社区婴儿家长对儿童保健相关知识的掌握程度,促进其参与社区儿童保健的行为.%Objective To explore the effect of health education to parental involvement in community child health care, in order to provide scientific basis for carrying out community child health care effectively.Methods Cluster random sampling was adopted, and the parents from six communities under the service of Gaotai temple community health service station of Yinchuan Maternal and Child Health Care Hospital were randomly divided into trial group ( n = 120 ) and control group ( n = 120 ) according to their geographic settings.Various ways of health education, such as handing out pamphlet, telephone consultation, lectures and so on were performed for the parents in the group; while, those in the control group received related knowledge of community child health care in accordance with conventional community working system.The effect of parental involvement in community child health care was evaluated after six months.Results Parental wareness rate on related knowledge of community child health care, participation rate of regular

  8. A comparison of four scoring methods based on the parent-rated Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire as used in the Dutch preventive child health care system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Treffers Philip DA

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Validated questionnaires can support the identification of psychosocial problems by the Preventive Child Health Care (PCH system. This study assesses the validity and added value of four scoring methods used with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ for the identification of psychosocial problems among children aged 7–12 by the PCH. Methods We included 711 (of 814 children (response: 87% aged 7–12 undergoing routine health assessments in nine PCH services across the Netherlands. Child health professionals interviewed and examined children and parents. Prior to the interview, parents completed the SDQ and the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL, which were not shown to the professionals. The CBCL and data about the child's current treatment status were used as criteria for the validity of the SDQ. We used four SDQ scoring approaches: an elevated SDQ Total Difficulties Score (TDS, parent-defined difficulties, an elevated score for emotional symptoms, conduct problems or hyperactivity in combination with a high impairment score, and a combined score: an elevated score for any of these three methods. Results The Cohen's Kappa ranged from 0.33 to 0.64 for the four scoring methods with the CBCL scores and treatment status, generally indicating a moderate to good agreement. All four methods added significantly to the identification of problems by the PCH. Classification based on the TDS yielded results similar to more complicated methods. Conclusion The SDQ is a valid tool for the identification of psychosocial problems by PCH. As a first step, the use of a simple classification based on the SDQ TDS is recommended.

  9. A qualitative interpretive study exploring parents' perception of the parental role in the paediatric intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Kaitlin E; Rennick, Janet E; Baillargeon, Sophie

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore parents' perception of the parental role in a tertiary care Canadian university affiliated hospital's paediatric intensive care unit (PICU). A descriptive interpretive design was used with a purposive heterogeneous sample to reflect the range of children and parents normally admitted to the PICU. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with seven parents. Interview data were collected and analysed using the constant comparative method. Three main themes emerged: (1) being present and participating in the child's care; (2) forming a partnership of trust with the PICU health care team; and (3) being informed of the child's progress and treatment plan as the person who "knows" the child best. Enhanced understanding of the parental role in the PICU from the perspective of parents can help guide the development of strategies to more effectively support parents and promote parenting during this extremely stressful time. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Parental leave and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhm, C J

    2000-11-01

    This study investigates whether rights to parental leave improve pediatric health. Aggregate data are used for 16 European countries over the 1969 through 1994 period. More generous paid leave is found to reduce deaths of infants and young children. The magnitudes of the estimated effects are substantial, especially where a causal effect of leave is most plausible. In particular, there is a much stronger negative relationship between leave durations and post-neonatal or child fatalities than for perinatal mortality, neonatal deaths, or low birth weight. The evidence further suggests that parental leave may be a cost-effective method of bettering child health.

  11. Adolescent Health Risk Behaviors: Parental Concern and Concordance Between Parent and Adolescent Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersh, Elon; Richardson, Laura P; Katzman, Katherine; Spielvogle, Heather; Arghira, Adriana Cristina; Zhou, Chuan; McCarty, Carolyn A

    We investigated which adolescent health risk behaviors are of concern to parents generally, according to adolescent age, gender, and in the context of perceived risk. We compared adolescent and parent reports of the presence of health-risk behaviors and factors predicting agreement. Three hundred adolescents aged 13 to 18 years (mean, 14.5 years; 52% female) who presenting for well care completed an electronic screening tool used to assess health-risk behaviors. Parents completed parallel measures of their child's behavior and parental concern. Adolescent and parent reports were compared using McNemar test. Hierarchical linear regression was used to examine predictors of agreement. High parental concern was most commonly reported for screen time and diet. When parents identified their adolescent as at-risk, high parental concern was near universal for mental health but less commonly reported for substance use. There were no differences in parental concern according to adolescent gender. Parents of older adolescents expressed more concern regarding physical activity and alcohol. Compared with adolescents, parents were more likely to report risk regarding anxiety, fruit and vegetable consumption, and physical activity, and less likely to report risk regarding screen time, sleep, and marijuana use. Younger adolescent age and higher family relationship quality were predictive of stronger parent-adolescent agreement. Parents in well-care visits commonly have concerns about adolescent lifestyle behaviors. Although parents are more likely to report concern when they know about a behavior, parental concern is not always aligned with parental awareness of risk, particularly for substance use. Parent report of higher prevalence of some risk behaviors suggests their input might assist in risk identification. Copyright © 2017 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. INFORMAL CARE AND CAREGIVER’S HEALTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    DO, YOUNG KYUNG; NORTON, EDWARD C.; STEARNS, SALLY C.; VAN HOUTVEN, COURTNEY HAROLD

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to measure the causal effect of informal caregiving on the health and health care use of women who are caregivers, using instrumental variables. We use data from South Korea, where daughters and daughters-in-law are the prevalent source of caregivers for frail elderly parents and parents-in-law. A key insight of our instrumental variable approach is that having a parent-in-law with functional limitations increases the probability of providing informal care to that parent-in-law, but a parent-in-law’s functional limitation does not directly affect the daughter-in-law’s health. We compare results for the daughter-in-law and daughter samples to check the assumption of the excludability of the instruments for the daughter sample. Our results show that providing informal care has significant adverse effects along multiple dimensions of health for daughter-in-law and daughter caregivers in South Korea. PMID:24753386

  13. Consumer Directed Health Care

    OpenAIRE

    John Goodman

    2006-01-01

    Consumer driven health care (CDHC) is a potential solution to two perplexing problems: (1) How to choose between health care and other uses of money, and (2) how to allocate resources in an industry where normal market forces have been systemically suppressed. In the consumer-driven model, consumers occupy the primary decision-making role regarding the health care that they receive. From an employee benefits perspective, consumer driven health care in the broadest sense may refer to limited e...

  14. Iranian parent-staff communication and parental stress in the neonatal Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanpour, Marzieh; Alavi, Mousa; Azizi, Fatemeh; Als, Heidelise; Armanian, Amir Mohmmad

    2017-01-01

    The birth of an infant requiring hospitalization in the neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) uniformly is reported to be stressful for parents and family members. This study aimed to determine parent-staff communication in the NICU and its relationship to parent stress. Two hundred and three Iranian parents with preterm infants hospitalized in the NICU participated in this descriptive-correlational study. The participants were selected by the quota sampling method. Data collected included a three-part: questionnaire, the first part covered demographic parent and infant information, the second was the Parent-Staff Communication Scale (the score of which ranged from 0 to 180), and the third was the Parental Stress Scale (the score of which ranged from 0 to 102). Descriptive and inferential statistics including the Pearson's correlation coefficient test were applied to the data, using SPSS software Version 16. This study revealed that fathers and mothers' stress and communication scores were almost comparable and both higher than expected. The total mean score of the two main variables, i.e., parent-staff communication and parental stress were, respectively, 100.72 ± 18.89 and 75.26 ± 17.6. A significant inverse correlation was found between parental stress and parent-staff communication scores ( r = -0.144, P = 0.041). Based on this study finding showed that better parent-staff communication is related to lower parent stress scores, it is recommended that nurses and physicians receive specific skill training for the establishment of effective parent-staff communication. It is anticipated that such improved staff skills will help decrease parent stress and therewith likely promote parent and infant health in the NICU.

  15. The Effect of Health Education on Infant's Parents' Participation in Chil-dren's Health Care%健康教育对社区婴儿家长参与儿童保健的效果探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董静

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of health education on the role of community infant parents in child health care. Methods 140 infants parents were selected during the period July 2014 to 2015 September a community service station un-der the jurisdiction as the research object, randomly divided for the study group and the control group, each 70 cases in each, control group received routine community publicity, research group on the basis of the control group also be issue of free manuals, lectures on health and telephone consultation etc. methods of publicity, compared two groups of infants and parents on children's health knowledge understanding. Results Degree of 88.6%in the control group infants parents of child care knowledge, parents of infants in the study group child care knowledge of 97.1%, degree (χ2=3.877,P< 0.05) of under-standing children's health knowledge of parents of infants in the two groups, control group of the parents of the baby in the infant nutrition guidance and disease prevention, growth and development index, immunity index score were lower than those of the study group and between groups (P< 0.05). Conclusion The application of health education to children's par-ents to participate in child health care can improve the knowledge of infant parents to children's health knowledge, to en-sure the healthy growth of infants has important significance.%目的:探究应用健康教育对社区婴儿家长参与儿童保健的作用效果。方法选取2014年7月—2015年9月期间某社区服务站管辖的140例婴儿家长作为研究对象,将其随机分为对照组和研究组,每组70例,对照组行常规的社区工作方法宣传,研究组在对照组的基础上同时予以发放免费的手册、健康讲座以及电话咨询等方法进行宣传,对比两组婴儿家长对儿童保健知识的了解情况。结果对照组婴儿家长的儿童保健知识了解度为88.6%,研究组婴儿家长的儿童保健知识了解度为97

  16. Parenting and child mental health: a cross-cultural perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Marc H

    2013-10-01

    In its most general instrumental sense, parenting consists of care of the young in preparing them to manage the tasks of life. Parents provide childhood experiences and populate the environments that guide children's development and so contribute to child mental health. Parenting is expressed in cognitions and practices. However, parents do not parent, and children do not grow up, in isolation, but in multiple contexts, and one notable context of parenting and child mental health is culture. Every culture is characterized, and distinguished from other cultures, by deep-rooted and widely acknowledged ideas about how one needs to feel, think, and act as an adequately functioning member of the culture. Insofar as parents subscribe to particular conventions of a culture, they likely follow prevailing "cultural scripts" in childrearing. Broadening our definition, it is therefore the continuing task of parents also to enculturate children by preparing them for the physical, psychosocial, and educational situations that are characteristic of their specific culture. Cross-cultural comparisons show that virtually all aspects of parenting children are informed by culture: culture influences when and how parents care for children, what parents expect of children, and which behaviors parents appreciate, emphasize and reward or discourage and punish. Thus, cultural norms become manifest in the mental health of children through parenting. Furthermore, variations in what is normative in different cultures challenge our assumptions about what is universal and inform our understanding of how parent-child relationships unfold in ways both culturally universal and specific. This essay concerns the contributions of culture to parenting and child mental health. No study of a single society can address this broad issue. It is possible, however, to learn lessons about parenting and child mental health from the study of different societies. Copyright © 2013 World Psychiatric Association.

  17. Is Part-Time Child Care Surrogate Parenting? Parents' Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Avis

    The purpose of this survey and report is to gain information about parental planning for child-rearing when the mother is employed. This study is intended to explore mothers' perceptions of possible delegation of some basic child-rearing functions during the mothers' absence for employment. Comparison of the child care arrangements which the…

  18. A predictive model of Health Related Quality of life of parents of chronically ill children: the importance of care-dependency of their child and their support system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hatzmann, Janneke; Maurice-Stam, Heleen; Heymans, Hugo S. A.; Grootenhuis, Martha A.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Parents of chronically ill children are at risk for a lower Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL). Insight in the dynamics of factors influencing parental HRQoL is necessary for development of interventions. Aim of the present study was to explore the influence of demographic and

  19. Caring for an intimate stranger: parenting a child with psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmi, E; Bellali, T; Papazoglou, I; Karamitri, I; Papadatou, D

    2017-05-01

    therapeutic change and accompany families through the course of their adult child's illness trajectory. Introduction Children who are diagnosed with psychosis often rely on their parents for prolonged care. The impact of such care is partially understood as most studies use quantitative methods and pre-existing theoretical frameworks that limit their investigation to emotional burden, and emotional responses. Aim Explore the parents' lived experience of caring for a child with psychosis. Method A hermeneutic phenomenological design was used with a sample of 16 parents of children with psychotic disorders who were hospitalized or attended the outpatient clinic of a large psychiatric Greek hospital. Results Identified themes were as follows: (i) the psychosis experience, (ii) redefinition of the parent-child relationship over the course of the disorder and (iii) challenges of parenting a child with psychosis. Discussion 'Caring for an intimate stranger' reflects the parents' overall experience, involving changes in the parent-child relationship, ambivalence towards caretaking and profound guilt, compensated by self-sacrifice parenting practices. Findings highlight the necessity to train mental health professionals to provide individualized information; facilitate family communication; address the parents' guilt, ambivalence, meaning attributions that compromise adjustment; and support them through the challenges of parenting a son or daughter with psychosis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. COMMUNITY HEALTH & PRIMARY HEALTH CARE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the_monk

    Journal of Community Medicine and Primary Health Care. 26 (1) 12-20 .... large proportions of the population work in the poor people use health care services far less than. 19 ... hypertension, cancers and road traffic accidents) below 1 dollar ...

  1. Designing quality of care--contributions from parents: Parents' experiences of care processes in paediatric care and their contribution to improvements of the care process in collaboration with healthcare professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsson, Susanne; Gremyr, Ida; Kenne Sarenmalm, Elisabeth

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this article was to explore whether current quality dimensions for health care services are sufficient to capture how parents perceive and contribute to quality of health care. New quality improvement initiatives that actively involve patients must be examined with a critical view on established quality dimensions to ensure that these measures support patient involvement. This paper used a qualitative and descriptive design. This paper is based on interviews with parents participating in two experience-based co-design projects in a Swedish hospital that included qualitative content analysis of data from 12 parent interviews in paediatric care. Health care professionals often overemphasize their own significance for value creation in care processes and underappreciate parents' ability to influence and contribute to better quality. However, quality is not based solely on how professionals accomplish their task, but is co-created by health care professionals and parents. Consequently, assessment of quality outcomes also must include parents' ability and context. This paper questions current models of quality dimensions in health care, and suggests additional sub-dimensions, such as family quality and involvement quality. This paper underscores the importance of involving parents in health care improvements with health care professionals to capture as many dimensions of quality as possible. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Negative attitude of highly educated parents and health care workers towards future vaccinations in the Dutch childhood vaccination program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hak, E; Schönbeck, Y; De Melker, H; Van Essen, G A; Sanders, E A M

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether further expansion of the Dutch childhood vaccination program with other vaccines will be accepted and whom should be targeted in educational strategies. AIM: To determine attitudes of parents towards possible future vaccinations for their children and the

  3. The Cry of the Child and its Relationship to Hearing Loss in Parental Guardians and Health Care Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon, Lindsay E; Carney, Logan D; Kavanagh, Kevin T

    2016-01-01

    In this study the authors investigate the sound pressure levels produced by crying children and discuss the possible adverse effects that direct exposure may impose on a tending guardian or healthcare professional. Sound intensity levels from various pediatric patients (N = 26) were measured under two segregate conditions, one imitating the exposure of an examining physician and the other resembling that of parental guardians. Interestingly, all of the recorded sound levels fell between 99-120 dB(A) of sound pressure; children presenting the greatest risk for intense cries with potentially harmful sound intensities were between the ages of 9 months and 6 years. The authors found that elevated noise levels produced from crying children can cause acute discomfort and mild pain to those exposed. In addition, there is a theoretical risk that chronic exposure to these intense sound pressures may result in noise-induced hearing loss in a parental guardian or an examining physician. Parents of young children may be more likely to succumb to impulsive reactions in attempting to arrest the crying, which could be a precipitating factor for child abuse, responding to physical stress as much as emotional stress. Social workers and medical personnel should consider suggesting the use of ear plugs by parental guardians of frequently crying children as a modality for the prevention of child abuse.

  4. Roles of nurses and parents caring for hospitalised children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedells, Ella; Bevan, Ann

    2016-03-01

    This article reviews the literature on nurses' and parents' self-perceived roles when caring for hospitalised children, focusing on research conducted since the Department of Health published the National Service Framework for Children: Standard for Hospital Services in 2003. Three main themes emerge from the review: nurses' perceptions, parents' perceptions, and negotiation. Clarification of what nurses and parents consider to be their respective roles when caring for hospitalised children is a prerequisite for negotiation of those roles. The family's background, life experiences and circumstances influence the effectiveness of negotiation between nurses and parents. The article explores potential barriers to negotiation, including poor communication and failure to provide information. Limitations of the research and the implications for practice are considered.

  5. Systematic review of the literature on postpartum care: effectiveness of postpartum support to improve maternal parenting, mental health, quality of life, and physical health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Elizabeth; Levitt, Cheryl; Wong, Sharon; Kaczorowski, Janusz

    2006-09-01

    Postpartum support is recommended to prevent infant and maternal morbidity. This review examined the published evidence of the effectiveness of postpartum support programs to improve maternal knowledge, attitudes, and skills related to parenting, maternal mental health, maternal quality of life, and maternal physical health. MEDLINE, Cinahl, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Library were searched for randomized controlled trials of interventions initiated from immediately after birth to 1 year in postnatal women. The initial literature search was done in 1999 and was enhanced in 2003 and 2005. Studies were categorized based on the the above outcomes. Data were extracted in a systematic manner, and the quality of each study was reviewed. In the 1999 search, 9 studies met the inclusion criteria. The 2003 and 2005 searches identified 13 additional trials for a total of 22 trials. Universal postpartum support to unselected women at low risk did not result in statistically significant improvements for any outcomes examined. Educational visits to a pediatrician showed statistically significant improvements in maternal-infant parenting skills in low-income primiparous women. In women at high risk for family dysfunction and child abuse, nurse home visits combined with case conferencing produced a statistically significant improvement in home environment quality using the HOME (Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment) program. Similarly, in women at high risk for either family dysfunction or postpartum depression, home visitation or peer support, respectively, produced a statistically significant reduction in Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale scores (difference - 2.23, 95% CI -3.72 to -0.74, p= 0.004; and 15.0% vs 52.4%, OR 6.23, 95% CI 1.40 to 27.84, p= 0.01, respectively). Educational programs reduced repeat unplanned pregnancies (12.0% vs 28.3%, p= 0.003) and increased effective contraceptive use (RR 1.35, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.68, p= 0.007). Maternal satisfaction was

  6. Engaging Parents to Promote Children's Nutrition and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dev, Dipti A; Byrd-Williams, Courtney; Ramsay, Samantha; McBride, Brent; Srivastava, Deepa; Murriel, Ashleigh; Arcan, Chrisa; Adachi-Mejia, Anna M

    2017-03-01

    Using the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics benchmarks as a framework, this study examined childcare providers' (Head Start [HS], Child and Adult Care Food Program [CACFP] funded, and non-CACFP) perspectives regarding communicating with parents about nutrition to promote children's health. Qualitative. State-licensed center-based childcare programs. Full-time childcare providers (n = 18) caring for children 2 to 5 years old from varying childcare contexts (HS, CACFP funded, and non-CACFP), race, education, and years of experience. In-person interviews using semi-structured interview protocol until saturation were achieved. Thematic analysis was conducted. Two overarching themes were barriers and strategies to communicate with parents about children's nutrition. Barriers to communication included-(a) parents are too busy to talk with providers, (b) parents offer unhealthy foods, (c) parents prioritize talking about child food issues over nutrition, (d) providers are unsure of how to communicate about nutrition without offending parents, and (e) providers are concerned if parents are receptive to nutrition education materials. Strategies for communication included-(a) recognize the benefits of communicating with parents about nutrition to support child health, (b) build a partnership with parents through education, (c) leverage policy (federal and state) to communicate positively and avoid conflict, (d) implement center-level practices to reinforce policy, and (e) foster a respectful relationship between providers and parents. Policy and environmental changes were recommended for fostering a respectful relationship and building a bridge between providers and parents to improve communication about children's nutrition and health.

  7. Health Care Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starfield, Barbara

    1987-01-01

    The article reviews emerging health care delivery options for handicapped children. Cost structures, quality of care, and future prospects are considered for Health Maintenance Organizations, Preferred Provider Organizations, Tax Supported Direct Service Programs, Hospital-Based Services, and Ambulatory Care Organizations. (Author/DB)

  8. Parental Reflective Functioning: An Approach to Enhancing Parent-Child Relationships in Pediatric Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordway, Monica Roosa; Webb, Denise; Sadler, Lois S; Slade, Arietta

    2015-01-01

    The current state of science suggests that safe, responsive, and nurturing parent-child relationships early in children's lives promotes healthy brain and child development and protection against lifelong disease by reducing toxic stress and promoting foundational social-emotional health. Pediatric health care providers (HCPs) have a unique opportunity to foster these relationships. However, such a role requires a shift in pediatric health care from a focus only on children to one that includes families and communities, as well as the inclusion of children's social and emotional health with their physical health. To foster healthy parent-child relationships, HCPs must develop the expertise to integrate approaches that support the family's socioemotional health into pediatric primary care. This article suggests ways in which pediatric HCPs can integrate a focus on parental reflective functioning into their clinical work, helping parents to understand some of the thoughts and feelings that underlie their children's behavior. Copyright © 2015 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. COMMUNITY HEALTH & PRIMARY HEALTH CARE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The level of knowledge of HIV/AIDS among senior secondary school students in Ikpoba Okha LGA was poor. Parents were mainly the first source of information on HCT for the respondents. There is need for more research to update knowledge and information on adolescent health issues and services related to HIV/AIDS.

  10. Implementation of preventive mental health services for children of physically ill parents: experiences in seven European countries and health care systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühne, Franziska; Haagen, Miriam; Baldus, Christiane; Diareme, Stavroula; Grether, Andrea; Schmitt, Florence; Stanescu, Dan; Stöckl, Margit; Thastum, Mikael; Möller, Birgit; Romer, Georg

    2013-01-01

    Parental physical disease is a family issue, but families' minor children are seldom considered. The current study analyzed experiences with implementation of counseling for families with physically ill parents and minor children during a European multisite pilot project. Implementation protocols of seven European partner centers collaborating in a joint research project were analyzed by Mayring's qualitative content analysis. Both an inductive approach and a deductive approach were chosen. Satisfaction of families and therapists was considered based on information from three partner centers. Satisfaction with counseling was rather high. Mentioned problems referred to aspects related to liaison partners, family-related aspects and physicians' concerns. Recommendations related to contacting families, liaising with other professions, implementing counseling together with a research project, and training. Results are integrated in the current dissemination literature. Successful implementation was mostly determined by aspects of interdisciplinary cooperation and communication, perceived relative advantage and organizational premises. With regard to this kind of innovative child-centered family mental health services, top-down and bottom-up implementation strategies should be combined, and strategies of maintenance and sustainability should be considered from the very beginning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Apprehensive parents: a qualitative study on parents seeking immediate primary care for their children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hugenholtz, M.; Bröer, C.; van Daalen, R.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Children are more frequent users of out-of-hours primary care than other age groups, although their medical problems are less urgent. Aim: To gain insight into the health-seeking behaviour of parents who ask for immediate medical attention for their children. Design of study: Qualitative

  12. Health care delivery systems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, F.; Zee, J. van der

    2007-01-01

    A health care delivery system is the organized response of a society to the health problems of its inhabitants. Societies choose from alternative health care delivery models and, in doing so, they organize and set goals and priorities in such a way that the actions of different actors are effective,

  13. US health care crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirić, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    The United States health care is presently challenged by a significant economic crisis. The purpose of this report is to introduce the readers of Medicinski Pregled to the root causes of this crisis and to explain the steps undertaken to reform health care in order to solve the crisis. It is hoped that the information contained in this report will be of value, if only in small measure, to the shaping of health care in Serbia.

  14. Parents' preferred child health information sources: implications for nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keatinge, Diane

    2006-01-01

    To ascertain parents' preferences in sources of health information concerning their children's general health care needs, and caring for their children when they are sick. Exploratory/descriptive design. A telephone survey secured data for the study and qualitative content analysis and descriptive statistics were used for analysis. Part 2 of a larger study in which Part I evaluated parents' satisfaction with a paediatric telephone triage service. One hundred of the 101 parents who were recruited for Part 1 of the study participated in Part 2, an examination of parents' preferences in information sources relating to their child's health. Parents' preferences in child health information sources varied according to the perceived severity of their child's illness. Parents frequently selected more than one item on a list of health information sources provided. In a non-urgent situation when children were sick a total of 170 selections were made by parents, with 'telephone advice line' the source most frequently selected (58, 34%), followed by general practitioner (27, 15.8%). In an emergency situation the most frequently selected information source was again 'telephone advice line' (74, n=129, 57.4%), followed by 'other' (31, n=129, 24.3%) often identified as relating to dialing '000' (Australia's emergency services number). Finally, when parents required information about the general health care needs of their child, 'other' (most frequently identified as books) was selected on 40 (n=185, 21.6%) occasions, followed by child health clinic (35, n= 185, 18.9%). Parents prefer to receive information about the health care needs of their child from another person rather than a printed or audio-visual source.

  15. COMMUNITY HEALTH & PRIMARY HEALTH CARE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    adedamla

    Quarry industry has become a major means of livelihood in Ebonyi state, but insufficient data exists on their operations ... of Dust Mask among Crushers of Selected Quarry (Crushed ... Journal of Community Medicine and Primary Health Care.

  16. COMMUNITY HEALTH & PRIMARY HEALTH CARE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2Primary Health Care Department, Ikpoba Okha Local Government Area, Benin City, ... selected from each of the ten wards in the LGA using multistage sampling technique. ..... Knowledge of HIV/AIDS Insurance Companies in Lagos State.

  17. COMMUNITY HEALTH & PRIMARY HEALTH CARE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    adedamla

    Background: The well-being of women and children is one of the major determinants ... The Sample for the study were women recruited from 11 primary health care ... respondents educational level and knowledge of preconception care (X =24.76, ... single adult or married couple) are in an optimal state .... The major site for.

  18. Vasopressin and the Neurogenetics of Parental Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder-Mackler, Noah; Tung, Jenny

    2017-07-05

    Making robust connections between genetic variation, neurophysiology, and social behavior remains a challenge. A study by Bendesky et al. (2017) tackles this challenge by dissecting the genetic architecture of parental care in deer mice to discover an important contribution of vasopressin signaling to the evolution of nest building. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Keeping all options open: Parents' approaches to advance care planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beecham, Emma; Oostendorp, Linda; Crocker, Joanna; Kelly, Paula; Dinsdale, Andrew; Hemsley, June; Russell, Jessica; Jones, Louise; Bluebond-Langner, Myra

    2017-08-01

    Early engagement in advance care planning (ACP) is seen as fundamental for ensuring the highest standard of care for children and young people with a life-limiting condition (LLC). However, most families have little knowledge or experience of ACP. To investigate how parents of children and young people with LLCs approach and experience ACP. Open-ended, semi-structured interviews were conducted with parents of 18 children; nine children who were currently receiving palliative care services, and nine children who had received palliative care and died. Verbatim transcripts of audiotaped interviews were analysed following principles of grounded theory while acknowledging the use of deductive strategies, taking account of both the child's condition, and the timing and nature of decisions made. Parents reported having discussions and making decisions about the place of care, place of death and the limitation of treatment. Most decisions were made relatively late in the illness and by parents who wished to keep their options open. Parents reported different levels of involvement in a range of decisions; many wished to be involved in decision making but did not always feel able to do so. This study highlights that parents' approaches to decision making vary by the type of decision required. Their views may change over time, and it is important to allow them to keep their options open. We recommend that clinicians have regular discussions over the course of the illness in an effort to understand parents' approaches to particular decisions rather than to drive to closure prematurely. © 2016 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. COMMUNITY HEALTH & PRIMARY HEALTH CARE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    adedamla

    enrol in an insurance scheme feeling that they need more information on health insurance and the willingness to enrol in a ... and utilize the benefits of different types of health insurance services. Conclusion: The findings ..... improvements in access and quality of care, and the ... the 'rising tide' of and information technology.

  1. Copenhagen infant mental health project: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial comparing circle of security –parenting and care as usual as interventions targeting infant mental health risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mette Skovgaard Væver

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infant mental health is a significant public health issue as early adversity and exposure to early childhood stress are significant risk factors that may have detrimental long-term developmental consequences for the affected children. Negative outcomes are seen on a range of areas such as physical and mental health, educational and labor market success, social network and establishing of family. Secure attachment is associated with optimal outcomes in all developmental domains in childhood, and both insecure and disorganized attachment are associated with a range of later problems and psychopathologies. In disadvantaged populations insecure and disorganized attachment are common, which points to the need of identifying early risk and effective methods of addressing such problems. This protocol describes an experimental evaluation of an indicated group-based parental educational program, Circle of Security–Parenting (COS-P, currently being conducted in Denmark. Methods/design In a parallel randomized controlled trial of two intervention groups this study tests the efficacy of COS-P compared to Care as Usual (CAU in enhancing maternal sensitivity and child attachment in a community sample in the City of Copenhagen, Denmark. During the project a general population of an estimated 17.600 families with an infant aged 2–12 months are screened for two known infant mental health risks, maternal postnatal depression and infant social withdrawal. Eligible families (N = 314, who agree to participate, will be randomly allocated with a ratio of 2:1 into the COS-P intervention arm and into CAU. Data will be obtained at inclusion (baseline and at follow-up when the child is 12–16 months. The primary outcome is maternal sensitivity. Secondary outcomes include quality of infant attachment, language, cognitive and socioemotional development, family functioning, parental stress, parental mentalizing and maternal mental wellbeing

  2. Benchmarking HIV health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Podlekareva, Daria; Reekie, Joanne; Mocroft, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: State-of-the-art care involving the utilisation of multiple health care interventions is the basis for an optimal long-term clinical prognosis for HIV-patients. We evaluated health care for HIV-patients based on four key indicators. METHODS: Four indicators of health care we...... document pronounced regional differences in adherence to guidelines and can help to identify gaps and direct target interventions. It may serve as a tool for assessment and benchmarking the clinical management of HIV-patients in any setting worldwide....

  3. [Health care networks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Eugênio Vilaça

    2010-08-01

    The demographic and epidemiologic transition resulting from aging and the increase of life expectation means an increment related to chronic conditions. The healthcare systems contemporary crisis is characterized by the organization of the focus on fragmented systems turned to the acute conditions care, in spite of the chronic conditions prevalence, and by the hierarchical structure without communication flow among the different health care levels. Brazil health care situation profile is now presenting a triple burden of diseases, due to the concomitant presence of infectious diseases, external causes and chronic diseases. The solution is to restore the consistence between the triple burden of diseases on the health situation and the current system of healthcare practice, with the implantation of health care networks. The conclusion is that there are evidences in the international literature on health care networks that these networks may improve the clinical quality, the sanitation results and the user's satisfaction and the reduction of healthcare systems costs.

  4. Hospital-based child protection teams that care for parents who abuse or neglect their children recognize the need for multidisciplinary collaborative practice involving perinatal care and mental health professionals: a questionnaire survey conducted in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okato, Ayumi; Hashimoto, Tasuku; Tanaka, Mami; Tachibana, Masumi; Machizawa, Akira; Okayama, Jun; Endo, Mamiko; Senda, Masayoshi; Saito, Naoki; Iyo, Masaomi

    2018-01-01

    Child abuse and/or neglect is a serious issue, and in many cases, parents are the perpetrators. Hospital-based child protection teams (CPTs) play pivotal roles in the management of not only abused and/or neglected children but also of their parents; this is generally conducted through multidisciplinary practice. The aim of this study is to survey hospital-based CPT members to determine the professions they perceive to be most applicable to participation in CPTs. The participants were members of CPTs affiliated with hospitals that had pediatric emergency departments and which were located in Chiba Prefecture; specifically, 114 CPT members from 23 hospitals responded to this survey. The two main questionnaire items concerned are as follows: 1) each respondent's evaluation of conducting assessments, providing support, and implementing multidisciplinary collaborative practice in the treatment of abusive and negligent parents, and 2) each CPT member's opinion on the professions that are most important for CPT activities. An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was performed to explore the factor structure of the data, and a correlation analysis was performed using the result obtained. The EFA returned two factors: multidisciplinary collaborative practice (α = 0.84) and assessment and support (α = 0.89). A correlational analysis showed that multidisciplinary collaborative practice had a positive correlation for obstetricians ( r = 0.315, p = 0.001), neonatologists ( r = 0.261, p = 0.007), midwives ( r = 0.248, p = 0.011), and psychiatrists ( r = 0.194, p = 0.048); however, assessment and support was only significantly correlated with midwives ( r = 0.208, p = 0.039). This study showed that hospital-based CPT members highly evaluate multidisciplinary collaborative practice for the management of abusive and/or negligent parents, and they believe that, in addition to pediatric physicians and nurses, perinatal care and mental health professionals are the most important

  5. Factors affecting children's oral health: perceptions among Latino parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, Dharma E; Réategui-Sharpe, Ludmila; Spiro Iii, Avron; García, Raul I

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to understand factors that influence the oral health-related behaviors of Latino children, as reported by their parents. Focus groups and in-depth interviews assessed parental perceptions, experiences, attributions, and beliefs regarding their children's oral health. Guiding questions focused on a) the participant's child dental experiences; b) the impact of dental problems on the child's daily activities, emotions, self-esteem; c) parental experiences coping with child's dental problems; and d) hygienic and dietary habits. Participants were purposively sampled from dental clinics and public schools with a high concentration of Latinos; 92 urban low-income Latino Spanish-speaking parents participated. Transcriptions of the audio files were thematically analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Parents' explanations of their children's dental experiences were categorized under the following themes: caries and diet, access to dental care, migration experiences, and routines. Findings revealed fundamental multilevel (i.e., individual/child, family, and community) factors that are important to consider for future interventions to reduce oral health disparities: behaviors leading to caries, parental knowledge about optimal oral health, access to sugary foods within the living environment and to fluoridated water as well as barriers to oral health care such as lack of health insurance or limited health insurance coverage, among others. © 2011 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  6. Development of a 22q11DS psycho-educational programme: exploration of the views, concerns and educational needs of parents caring for children or adolescents with 22q11DS in relation to mental health issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alugo, T; Malone, H; Sheehan, A; Coyne, I; Lawlor, A; McNicholas, F

    2017-07-01

    22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is a multisystem genetic condition with a broad phenotype. It is associated with a high prevalence of depression and anxiety during childhood and increased risk of schizophrenia in adulthood. Despite this, studies report that families may receive inadequate information of mental health (MH) risks at diagnosis. Therefore, this study investigated parents' experiences of caring for a child with 22q11DS, investigated their knowledge regarding the risk of MH problems and assessed the need for a psycho-educational programme. A qualitative design and purposeful sampling was utilized. Parents registered with the '22q11 Ireland' support group, and parents listed on the cleft palate database in a children's hospital in Ireland were invited to participate. Focus groups were held with 22 parents. Data were thematically analysed using Burnard's method of analysis. Most parents had some knowledge of the relationship between 22q11DS and an increased risk of MH issues. Parents reported that MH information relating to 22q11DS was mainly obtained from 22q11DS conferences, the '22q11 Ireland' support group and the Internet. Parents expressed a need for information to prevent or cope with their child's MH issues. Parents suggested that the following topics would be quite useful in a psycho-educational programme. These included information on the early warning signs of MH issues and guidance on when and how to tell the child about the condition and how to manage the child or young person's anxiety, obsessive behaviour or hearing voices. The findings indicated parental support for a psycho-educational programme that would provide relevant, accurate and timely information on how to effectively care for a child with 22q11DS MH needs. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Parental availability for the care of sick children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymann, S J; Earle, A; Egleston, B

    1996-08-01

    Parents have always played a critical role in the care of sick children. Although parents' roles remain crucial to children's health, parental availability has declined during the past half century. The percentage of women with preschool children who work has risen almost fivefold in 45 years from 12% in 1947 to 58% in 1992. The percentage of women in the paid work force with school-aged children has almost tripled in the same period, from 27.3% to 75.9%. Research has examined the effects of a variety of parental work conditions on children. However, past research has not examined how working conditions affect the ability of parents to care for their sick children. In this article, we examine how often the children of working parents get sick and whether parents receive enough paid leave to care for their sick children. This analysis makes use of two national surveys, which provide complementary information regarding the care of sick children. The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth is a longitudinal survey of a nationally representative probability sample of 12,686 men and women; the National Medical Expenditure Survey is a panel survey of 34,459 people. First, we estimated the family illness burden. Second, we looked in detail at the number of days of sick leave mothers had. Third, we examined whether mothers who had sick leave had it consistently during a 5-year period. Finally, we conducted a logistic regression to determine what factors were significant predictors of both lacking sick leave. More than one in three families faced a family illness burden of 2 weeks or more each year. Yet, 28% of mothers had sick leave none of the time they were employed between 1985 and 1990. Employed mothers of children with chronic conditions had less sick leave than other employed mothers. Thirty-six percent of mothers whose children had chronic conditions had sick leave none of the time they were employed. Although 20% of working parents who did not live in poverty lacked

  8. Organizing Rural Health Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunkenborg, Mikkel

    2012-01-01

    to organize rural health care is more regulatory and distanced in its emphasis on nudging patients and doctors towards the right decisions through economic incentives. This bureaucratic approach to organizing health individually offers a sharp contrast to the religious collectivities that form around health...

  9. Negotiating Care in the Special Care Nursery: Parents' and Nurses' Perceptions of Nurse-Parent Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Liz; Taylor, Tara; Watson, Bernadette; Fenwick, Jennifer; Dordic, Tatjana

    2015-01-01

    Nursing staff are an important source of support for parents of a hospitalized preterm infant. This study aimed to describe parents' and nurses' perceptions of communicating with each other in the context of the special care nursery. A qualitative descriptive design was employed. Thirty two parents with a newborn admitted to one of two special care nurseries in Queensland, Australia participated, and 12 nurses participated in semi-structured interviews. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the interviews. Nurses and parents focused on similar topics, but their perceptions differed. Provision of information and enabling parenting were central to effective communication, supported by an appropriate interpersonal style by nurses. Parents described difficulties accessing or engaging nurses. Managing enforcement of policies was a specific area of difficulty for both parents and nurses. The findings indicated a tension between providing family-centered care that is individualized and based on family needs and roles, and adhering to systemic nursery policies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Communicating with parents about vaccination: a framework for health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leask, Julie; Kinnersley, Paul; Jackson, Cath; Cheater, Francine; Bedford, Helen; Rowles, Greg

    2012-09-21

    A critical factor shaping parental attitudes to vaccination is the parent's interactions with health professionals. An effective interaction can address the concerns of vaccine supportive parents and motivate a hesitant parent towards vaccine acceptance. Poor communication can contribute to rejection of vaccinations or dissatisfaction with care. We sought to provide a framework for health professionals when communicating with parents about vaccination. Literature review to identify a spectrum of parent attitudes or 'positions' on childhood vaccination with estimates of the proportion of each group based on population studies. Development of a framework related to each parental position with determination of key indicators, goals and strategies based on communication science, motivational interviewing and valid consent principles. Five distinct parental groups were identified: the 'unquestioning acceptor' (30-40%), the 'cautious acceptor' (25-35%); the 'hesitant' (20-30%); the 'late or selective vaccinator' (2-27%); and the 'refuser' of all vaccines (parents' readiness to vaccinate. In all encounters, health professionals should build rapport, accept questions and concerns, and facilitate valid consent. For the hesitant, late or selective vaccinators, or refusers, strategies should include use of a guiding style and eliciting the parent's own motivations to vaccinate while, avoiding excessive persuasion and adversarial debates. It may be necessary to book another appointment or offer attendance at a specialised adverse events clinic. Good information resources should also be used. Health professionals have a central role in maintaining public trust in vaccination, including addressing parents' concerns. These recommendations are tailored to specific parental positions on vaccination and provide a structured approach to assist professionals. They advocate respectful interactions that aim to guide parents towards quality decisions.

  11. American Health Care Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MO - St. Louis, Qualifications Required: Bachelor’s degree in business, marketing, health care administration or a related field Current ... Work for AHCA/NCAL News Provider Daily Publications Social Media News Releases LTC Leader Blog Research and Data ...

  12. Resilient health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollnagel, E.; Braithwaite, J.; Wears, R. L.

    Health care is everywhere under tremendous pressure with regard to efficiency, safety, and economic viability - to say nothing of having to meet various political agendas - and has responded by eagerly adopting techniques that have been useful in other industries, such as quality management, lean...... production, and high reliability. This has on the whole been met with limited success because health care as a non-trivial and multifaceted system differs significantly from most traditional industries. In order to allow health care systems to perform as expected and required, it is necessary to have...... engineering's unique approach emphasises the usefulness of performance variability, and that successes and failures have the same aetiology. This book contains contributions from acknowledged international experts in health care, organisational studies and patient safety, as well as resilience engineering...

  13. HealthCare.gov

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CAN CHANGE Looking for coverage for a small business? Learn more Need to submit documents? SEE HOW ... Find Local Help Visit the HealthCare.gov blog Facebook Twitter YouTube Google+ All Topics | Glossary | Contact Us | ...

  14. Your Health Care Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Rights Employment Discrimination Health Care Professionals Law Enforcement Driver's License For Lawyers Food & Fitness Home Food MyFoodAdvisor ... Fit Types of Activity Weight Loss Assess Your Lifestyle Getting Started Food Choices In My Community Home ...

  15. COMMUNITY HEALTH & PRIMARY HEALTH CARE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the_monk

    one strategy that could be conducted anywhere, if the health care workers are trained and positively disposed ... places; regulate advertising, manufacturing. 13 .... Gender. Male. 52 (46.0). 61 (54.0). 0.0001. Significant. Female. 82 (73.2).

  16. COMMUNITY HEALTH & PRIMARY HEALTH CARE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the_monk

    2012-05-01

    May 1, 2012 ... with the quality of care in a tertiary health facility in Delta State, Nigeria ... includes contributions from families, charges have been .... employees at 23.5%, self employed 19.1% of showed that most of the respondents (41.3%).

  17. Well-Child Care Redesign: A Mixed Methods Analysis of Parent Experiences in the PARENT Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimila, Naomi A; Chung, Paul J; Elliott, Marc N; Bethell, Christina D; Chacon, Sandra; Biely, Christopher; Contreras, Sandra; Chavis, Toni; Bruno, Yovana; Moss, Tanesha; Coker, Tumaini R

    Parent-focused Redesign for Encounters, Newborns to Toddlers (PARENT), is a well-child care (WCC) model that has demonstrated effectiveness in improving the receipt of comprehensive WCC services and reducing emergency department utilization for children aged 0 to 3 in low-income communities. PARENT relies on a health educator ("parent coach") to provide WCC services; it utilizes a Web-based previsit prioritization/screening tool (Well-Visit Planner) and an automated text message reminder/education service. We sought to assess intervention feasibility and acceptability among PARENT trial intervention participants. Intervention parents completed a survey after a 12-month study period; a 26% random sample of them were invited to participate in a qualitative interview. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using the constant comparative method of qualitative analysis; survey responses were analyzed using bivariate methods. A total of 115 intervention participants completed the 12-month survey; 30 completed a qualitative interview. Nearly all intervention participants reported meeting with the coach, found her helpful, and would recommend continuing coach-led well visits (97-99%). Parents built trusting relationships with the coach and viewed her as a distinct and important part of their WCC team. They reported that PARENT well visits more efficiently used in-clinic time and were comprehensive and family centered. Most used the Well-Visit Planner (87%), and found it easy to use (94%); a minority completed it at home before the visit (18%). Sixty-two percent reported using the text message service; most reported it as a helpful source of new information and a reinforcement of information discussed during visits. A parent coach-led intervention for WCC for young children is a model of WCC delivery that is both acceptable and feasible to parents in a low-income urban population. Copyright © 2017 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  18. Health Care Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misuse and Addiction Prevention Finance & Management Services Health Care Services Juvenile Justice , 2017 Warning - A phone number that was once used for the Denali KidCare program is now being used to ask people for their credit card number in order to win a prize. The phone number related to this

  19. Health care engineering management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarzembski, W B

    1980-01-01

    Today, health care engineering management is merely a concept of dreamers, with most engineering decisions in health care being made by nonengineers. It is the purpose of this paper to present a rationale for an integrated hospital engineering group, and to acquaint the clinical engineer with some of the salient features of management concepts. Included are general management concepts, organization, personnel management, and hospital engineering systems.

  20. The genetic basis of parental care evolution in monogamous mice

    OpenAIRE

    Bendesky, Andres; Kwon, Young-Mi; Lassance, Jean-Marc; Lewarch, Caitlin L; Yao, Shenqin; Peterson, Brant K; He, Meng Xiao; Dulac, Catherine; Hoekstra, Hopi E

    2017-01-01

    Summary Parental care is essential for the survival of mammals, yet the mechanisms underlying its evolution remain largely unknown. Here we show that two sister species of mice, Peromyscus polionotus and P. maniculatus, have large and heritable differences in parental behaviour. Using quantitative genetics, we identify 12 genomic regions that affect parental care, eight of which have sex-specific effects, suggesting that parental care can evolve independently in males and females. Furthermore...

  1. Communicating with parents about vaccination: a framework for health professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leask Julie

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A critical factor shaping parental attitudes to vaccination is the parent’s interactions with health professionals. An effective interaction can address the concerns of vaccine supportive parents and motivate a hesitant parent towards vaccine acceptance. Poor communication can contribute to rejection of vaccinations or dissatisfaction with care. We sought to provide a framework for health professionals when communicating with parents about vaccination. Methods Literature review to identify a spectrum of parent attitudes or ‘positions’ on childhood vaccination with estimates of the proportion of each group based on population studies. Development of a framework related to each parental position with determination of key indicators, goals and strategies based on communication science, motivational interviewing and valid consent principles. Results Five distinct parental groups were identified: the ‘unquestioning acceptor’ (30–40%, the ‘cautious acceptor’ (25–35%; the ‘hesitant’ (20–30%; the ‘late or selective vaccinator’ (2–27%; and the ‘refuser’ of all vaccines ( Conclusions Health professionals have a central role in maintaining public trust in vaccination, including addressing parents’ concerns. These recommendations are tailored to specific parental positions on vaccination and provide a structured approach to assist professionals. They advocate respectful interactions that aim to guide parents towards quality decisions.

  2. Parents and the High Cost of Child Care: 2012 Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child Care Aware of America, 2012

    2012-01-01

    "Parents and the High Cost of Child Care: 2012 Report" presents 2011 data reflecting what parents pay for full-time child care in America. It includes average fees for both child care centers and family child care homes. Information was collected through a survey conducted in January 2012 that asked for the average costs charged for…

  3. Controlling Health Care Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessoff, Alan

    2009-01-01

    This article examines issues on health care costs and describes measures taken by public districts to reduce spending. As in most companies in America, health plan designs in public districts are being changed to reflect higher out-of-pocket costs, such as higher deductibles on visits to providers, hospital stays, and prescription drugs. District…

  4. Understanding nurses' and parents' perceptions of family-centred care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Megan; Melling, Sally

    2014-09-01

    To explore and compare differences between parents' and nurses' perceptions of family-centred care (FCC) for children's acute short-stay admissions. Mixed-method questionnaires were designed to compare care task delegation between nurse and parent participants in the study. Parents and nurses had similar perceptions of task allocation in FCC. Parents generally were prepared to undertake basic care tasks only, rather than help with nursing interventions. Nurses had a comprehensive understanding of FCC. Most parents were not able to define FCC but carried it out naturally. In the UK, nurses and parents have similar expectations of FCC. It is unusual for parents to be given information or opportunities to engage in the care of the child beyond everyday tasks. The investigation highlighted the importance of negotiating with family members on each separate admission because, although most parents would be comfortable undertaking care tasks, each family and each situation is different.

  5. Parenting a child with a traumatic brain injury: experiences of parents and health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Felicity L; Whittingham, Koa; Sofronoff, Kate; Boyd, Roslyn N

    2013-01-01

    To qualitatively explore the experiences, challenges and needs of parents of children with traumatic brain injury (TBI) in order to inform future intervention research through incorporation of participant knowledge and experience. Parents of children with TBI (n = 10) and experienced health professionals in paediatric rehabilitation (n = 5) took part in focus groups or individual interviews. Audio recordings were transcribed verbatim and an inductive thematic analysis performed. Participants reported that, beyond the impact of the injury on the child, TBI affects the entire family. Parents need to adjust to and manage their child's difficulties and can also experience significant emotional distress, relationship discord and burden of care, further adding to the challenges of the parenting role. Parents can feel isolated and the importance of empowerment, support and information was emphasized. Coping styles of disengagement and avoidance were often reported, despite acknowledgement that these were not beneficial. Parenting interventions may provide essential support for parents in adjusting to and managing their child's difficulties and the efficacy of existing programmes needs evaluation. Addressing parent emotional adjustment and coping strategies is vital following paediatric TBI, given the impact on parent well-being and the potential negative effects on child outcomes through reduced parenting effectiveness. Group programmes may enable connection and support.

  6. Health behaviours and mental health status of parents with intellectual disabilities: cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, E; Brigham, P

    2013-12-01

    The authors sought to: (1) estimate the prevalence of health behaviours, mental health and exposure to social determinants of poorer health among parents with and without intellectual disability; and (2) determine the extent to which between-group differences in health behaviours/status may be attributable to differential exposure to social determinants of poorer health. Cross sectional survey. Secondary analysis of confidentialized needs analysis data collected in three Primary Care Trusts in England on 46,023 households with young children. Households containing a parent with intellectual disabilities are at increased risk of: (1) poorer parental mental health, parental drug and alcohol abuse and smoking; (2) exposure to a range of environmental adversities. Controlling for the latter eliminated the increased risk of poorer health for single parent households headed by a person with intellectual disabilities. For two parent headed households, risk of poorer parental mental health remained elevated. The poorer health of parents with intellectual disability may be accounted for by their markedly greater risk of exposure to common social determinants of poorer health rather than being directly attributable to their intellectual disability. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Adolescent Sexual Health Education: Parents Benefit Too!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinaj-Koci, Veronica; Deveaux, Lynette; Wang, Bo; Lunn, Sonya; Marshall, Sharon; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita

    2015-10-01

    The inclusion of parents in adolescent-targeted interventions is intended to benefit the adolescent. Limited research has explored whether parents participating in these programs also benefit directly. We examined the impact of Caribbean Informed Parents and Children Together, the parenting portion of an adolescent-targeted HIV prevention intervention, on parent-reported measures. Bahamian parent-youth dyads (N = 1,833) participating in the randomized control trial were assigned to receive one of four conditions. Parents were assessed longitudinally at baseline and 6 and 12 months later. Through 12 months follow-up, parents exposed to Caribbean Informed Parents and Children Together showed higher knowledge of condom use skills, perceptions of improved condom use competence on the part of their youth, and perceived improved parent-child communication about sex-related information. Although youth were the targeted beneficiary, parents also benefited directly from the sexual risk reduction parenting program. Parents demonstrated improved perceptions and knowledge that would enable them to more effectively guide their child and also protect themselves from sexual risk. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  8. The supportive care needs of parents caring for a child with a rare disease: A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelentsov, Lemuel J; Laws, Thomas A; Esterman, Adrian J

    2015-10-01

    Parents caring for a child with a rare disease report unmet needs, the origins of which are varied and complex. Few studies have systematically attempted to identify the supportive care needs of parents with a child with a rare disease comprehensively. We have used the widely accepted Supportive Care Needs Framework (SCNF) as the structure for this review. The purpose of the current review was to identify the supportive care needs of parents with a child with a rare disease, irrespective of condition. We conducted a scoping study review comprising 29 studies (1990-2014) to identify and examine the research literature related to the supportive care needs of parents, and to compare these needs with the seven domains outlined in the SCNF. Most common needs cited were social needs (72% of papers), followed by informational needs (65% of papers) and emotional needs (62% of papers), with the most common parental needs overall being information about their child's disease, emotional stress, guilt and uncertainty about their child's future health care needs, parents own caring responsibilities and the need for more general support. A paucity of studies exists that explore the supportive care needs of parents of a child with a rare disease. The SCNF only partially reflects the breadth and type of needs of these parents, and a preliminary revised framework has been suggested. Further research is required in this area, particularly empirical research to amend or confirm the suggested new framework. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Development of the parental needs scale for rare diseases: a tool for measuring the supportive care needs of parents caring for a child with a rare disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelentsov, Lemuel J; Fielder, Andrea L; Laws, Thomas A; Esterman, Adrian J

    2016-01-01

    Children and families affected by rare diseases have received scant consideration from the medical, scientific, and political communities, with parents' needs especially having received little attention. Affected parents often have limited access to information and support and appropriate health care services. While scales to measure the needs of parents of children with chronic illnesses have been developed, there have been no previous attempts to develop a scale to assess the needs of parents of children with rare diseases. To develop a scale for measuring the supportive care needs of parents of children with rare diseases. A total of 301 responses to our Parental Needs Survey were randomly divided into two halves, one for exploratory factor analysis and the other for confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). After removing unsuitable items, exploratory factor analysis was undertaken to determine the factor structure of the data. CFA using structural equation modeling was then undertaken to confirm the factor structure. Seventy-two items were entered into the CFA, with a scree plot showing a likely four-factor solution. The results provided four independent subscales of parental needs: Understanding the disease (four items); Working with health professionals (four items); Emotional issues (three items); and Financial needs (three items). The structural equation modeling confirmed the suitability of the four-factor solution and demonstrated that the four subscales could be added to provide an overall scale of parental need. This is the first scale developed to measure the supportive care needs of parents of children with rare diseases. The scale is suitable for use in surveys to develop policy, in individual clinical assessments, and, potentially, for evaluating new programs. Measuring the supportive care needs of parents caring for a child with a rare disease will hopefully lead to better physical and psychological health outcomes for parents and their affected

  10. Parent-adolescent dyads: association of parental autonomy support and parent-adolescent shared diabetes care responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, K M; Dashiff, C J; Stump, T E; Weaver, M T

    2013-09-01

    Parent-adolescent shared responsibility for diabetes care is advocated by experts to achieve beneficial diabetes and psychosocial outcomes for adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Parental autonomy support may be a way to facilitate this sharing. In this dyadic study, we examined parental diabetes-specific autonomy support experienced by adolescents with type 1 diabetes and their parents (n = 89 dyads), and its association with their experience of shared diabetes care responsibility. Path analysis was used to test an Actor-Partner Interdependence Model for parental autonomy support effects on shared responsibility. This was a secondary analysis of data from 89 parent-early/mid-adolescent dyads. Actor effects were identified. Parents' and adolescents' perceptions of parental autonomy support were associated with their respective reports of shared diabetes care responsibility. One partner effect was identified. Adolescents' reports of parental autonomy support were associated with parents' reports of shared responsibility. Parents and adolescents held similar views of autonomy support but discrepant views of shared responsibility. Older adolescents perceived less parental autonomy support. Increasing parental autonomy support may facilitate parent-adolescent sharing of diabetes care responsibility. Adolescent and parent perceptions influence each other and need to be considered when working with them to strengthen parental autonomy support. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Addressing the Mental Health Needs of Pregnant and Parenting Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beers, Lee; Southammakosane, Cathy; Lewin, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent parenthood is associated with a range of adverse outcomes for young mothers, including mental health problems such as depression, substance abuse, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Teen mothers are also more likely to be impoverished and reside in communities and families that are socially and economically disadvantaged. These circumstances can adversely affect maternal mental health, parenting, and behavior outcomes for their children. In this report, we provide an overview of the mental health challenges associated with teen parenthood, barriers that often prevent teen mothers from seeking mental health services, and interventions for this vulnerable population that can be integrated into primary care services. Pediatricians in the primary care setting are in a unique position to address the mental health needs of adolescent parents because teens often turn to them first for assistance with emotional and behavioral concerns. Consequently, pediatricians can play a pivotal role in facilitating and encouraging teen parents’ engagement in mental health treatment. PMID:24298010

  12. Cross-cultural care encounters in paediatric care: minority ethnic parents' experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavallali, Azar Gashasb; Jirwe, Maria; Kabir, Zarina Nahar

    2017-03-01

    Because of worldwide migration, the healthcare staff in general as well as in paedi"atric care specifically is challenged increasingly by people from various ethnic backgrounds. The challenge is related to providing culturally competent care and effectively communicating with people from diverse cultural and ethnic backgrounds who have different health beliefs, practices, values and languages. This also applies to the Swedish society and to Swedish paediatric care. The purpose of this study was to describe the expectations and experiences of cross-cultural care encounters among minority ethnic parents in Swedish paediatric care. A qualitative design was used in the study. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews between October 2011 and March 2012. The sample consisted of 12 parents of minority ethnic backgrounds who had their child in a ward at a children's hospital in the Stockholm County Council. The interviews were analysed using manifest content analysis. The Regional Ethical Review Committee approved the study (Ref: Nr: 2011/927-31/5). The analysis of the interviews led to three categories: fundamentals in nursing, cultural sensitivity and understanding, and influencing conditions. Generic knowledge and skills of nurses outweighed the need for the nurses to have culture-specific knowledge of their patients or relatives in cross-cultural care encounters. Language skills and the availability of bilingual nurses in a multi-ethnic society can facilitate communication and increase parents' satisfaction in cross-cultural care encounters. © 2016 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  13. Parents' global rating of mental health correlates with SF-36 scores and health services satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Jean K; Tough, Suzanne; Fung, Thomas; Douglas-England, Kathleen; Verhoef, Marja

    2006-10-01

    Patient satisfaction surveys are often used to measure quality of care. However, patient satisfaction may not be a reliable indicator of service quality because satisfaction can be influenced by clients' characteristics such as their health status. Parents of children attending a pediatric neurology clinic completed the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) and global ratings of their physical and mental health. They also completed the Client Satisfaction Questionnaire (CSQ), the Measure of Processes of Care (MPOC), and the Family-Centered Care Survey (FCCS). 104 parents completed the survey. The correlation between the global rating of physical or mental health and their corresponding SF-36 scores was high. The majority (88%) of parents were satisfied, with a median CSQ score of 28 (IQR, 24 to 31) and a FCCS score of 4.7 (IQR, 4.2 to 4.9). Logistic regression identified parents' mental health as a significant predictor of client satisfaction (OR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.14). Given the positive association between parents' mental health and satisfaction with care, it is important to consider mental status as a covariate in interpreting satisfaction surveys. Parents' global rating of mental health appears to be a reasonable indicator of their SF-36 mental scores.

  14. Health care utilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher; Andersen, Lotte Bøgh; Serritzlew, Søren

    An important task in governing health services is to control costs. The literatures on both costcontainment and supplier induced demand focus on the effects of economic incentives on health care costs, but insights from these literatures have never been integrated. This paper asks how economic cost...... containment measures affect the utilization of health services, and how these measures interact with the number of patients per provider. Based on very valid register data, this is investigated for 9.556 Danish physiotherapists between 2001 and 2008. We find that higher (relative) fees for a given service...... make health professionals provide more of this service to each patient, but that lower user payment (unexpectedly) does not necessarily mean higher total cost or a stronger association between the number of patients per supplier and the health care utilization. This implies that incentives...

  15. Do Parents Expect Pediatricians to Pay Attention to Behavioral Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Justine Julia; Lynch, Sean; Tarver, Leslie Bishop; Mitchell, Laura; Frosch, Emily; Solomon, Barry

    2015-08-01

    This study is a qualitative analysis examining caregivers' expectations for pediatricians with regard to behavioral health care. Fifty-five parents/caregivers of children seen in an urban primary care clinic participated in semistructured interviews. Participants were parents or guardians of children between the ages of 2 and 17 years, referred from the pediatric clinic to the mental health center. Interviews were analyzed using grounded theory methods. Pertinent themes were the following: expected range of care, components of an effective primary care provider (PCP) relationship, action of the PCP, and parent reaction to PCP intervention. Forty-seven percent of caregivers saw the PCP role as strictly for physical health care; 53% expected the PCP to have a role in both physical and behavioral health. Responses were overwhelmingly positive from caregivers when the PCP asked about or conducted a behavioral health intervention. Caregivers did not consistently expect but responded positively to PCPs engaging around behavioral health concerns. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Health care in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weel, C. van; Schers, H.J.; Timmermans, A.

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes Dutch experiences of health care reform--in particular in primary care--with emphasis on lessons for current United States health care reforms. Recent major innovations were the introduction of private insurance based on the principles of primary care-led health care and

  17. Parent & Child Perceptions of Child Health after Sibling Death

    OpenAIRE

    Roche, Rosa M.; Brooten, Dorothy; Youngblut, JoAnne M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Understanding children?s health after a sibling?s death and what factors may affect it is important for treatment and clinical care. This study compared children?s and their parents? perceptions of children?s health and identified relationships of children?s age, gender, race/ethnicity, anxiety, and depression and sibling?s cause of death to these perceptions at 2 and 4 months after sibling death. Methods 64 children and 48 parents rated the child?s health ?now? and ?now vs before?...

  18. What are the benefits of parental care? The importance of parental effects on developmental rate

    OpenAIRE

    Klug, Hope; Bonsall, Michael B

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of parental care is beneficial if it facilitates offspring performance traits that are ultimately tied to offspring fitness. While this may seem self-evident, the benefits of parental care have received relatively little theoretical exploration. Here, we develop a theoretical model that elucidates how parental care can affect offspring performance and which aspects of offspring performance (e.g., survival, development) are likely to be influenced by care. We begin by summarizing...

  19. Health care reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marušič, Dorjan; Prevolnik Rupel, Valentina

    2016-09-01

    In large systems, such as health care, reforms are underway constantly. The article presents a definition of health care reform and factors that influence its success. The factors being discussed range from knowledgeable personnel, the role of involvement of international experts and all stakeholders in the country, the importance of electoral mandate and governmental support, leadership and clear and transparent communication. The goals set need to be clear, and it is helpful to have good data and analytical support in the process. Despite all debates and experiences, it is impossible to clearly define the best approach to tackle health care reform due to a different configuration of governance structure, political will and state of the economy in a country.

  20. Health care reforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marušič Dorjan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In large systems, such as health care, reforms are underway constantly. The article presents a definition of health care reform and factors that influence its success. The factors being discussed range from knowledgeable personnel, the role of involvement of international experts and all stakeholders in the country, the importance of electoral mandate and governmental support, leadership and clear and transparent communication. The goals set need to be clear, and it is helpful to have good data and analytical support in the process. Despite all debates and experiences, it is impossible to clearly define the best approach to tackle health care reform due to a different configuration of governance structure, political will and state of the economy in a country.

  1. Health care need

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasman, Andreas; Hope, Tony; Østerdal, Lars Peter

    2006-01-01

    The argument that scarce health care resources should be distributed so that patients in 'need' are given priority for treatment is rarely contested. In this paper, we argue that if need is to play a significant role in distributive decisions it is crucial that what is meant by need can be precis......The argument that scarce health care resources should be distributed so that patients in 'need' are given priority for treatment is rarely contested. In this paper, we argue that if need is to play a significant role in distributive decisions it is crucial that what is meant by need can...... be precisely articulated. Following a discussion of the general features of health care need, we propose three principal interpretations of need, each of which focuses on separate intuitions. Although this account may not be a completely exhaustive reflection of what people mean when they refer to need...

  2. The genetic basis of parental care evolution in monogamous mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendesky, Andres; Kwon, Young-Mi; Lassance, Jean-Marc; Lewarch, Caitlin L; Yao, Shenqin; Peterson, Brant K; He, Meng Xiao; Dulac, Catherine; Hoekstra, Hopi E

    2017-04-27

    Parental care is essential for the survival of mammals, yet the mechanisms underlying its evolution remain largely unknown. Here we show that two sister species of mice, Peromyscus polionotus and Peromyscus maniculatus, have large and heritable differences in parental behaviour. Using quantitative genetics, we identify 12 genomic regions that affect parental care, 8 of which have sex-specific effects, suggesting that parental care can evolve independently in males and females. Furthermore, some regions affect parental care broadly, whereas others affect specific behaviours, such as nest building. Of the genes linked to differences in nest-building behaviour, vasopressin is differentially expressed in the hypothalamus of the two species, with increased levels associated with less nest building. Using pharmacology in Peromyscus and chemogenetics in Mus, we show that vasopressin inhibits nest building but not other parental behaviours. Together, our results indicate that variation in an ancient neuropeptide contributes to interspecific differences in parental care.

  3. Parental care and overprotection of children with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelli, M; McGrath, P J; MacDonald, N E; Katsanis, J; Lascelles, M

    1989-09-01

    Parental overprotection has often been clinically associated with the psychological maladjustment of children with a chronic disease. The purpose of this study was to examine parental care and overprotection in children with cystic fibrosis compared to healthy controls. Results indicated no differences in the level of parental care or overprotection between controls and children with cystic fibrosis. However, a number of significant correlations were found between parental care and overprotection and children's psychosocial functioning. In particular, positive correlations were found between parental overprotection and poor psychosocial functioning in children with cystic fibrosis, whereas, poor psychosocial functioning in healthy children was associated with lack of parental care. Parental overprotection and care appear to play important roles in the emotional and psychological functioning of healthy and chronically ill children.

  4. Parents' Perceived Satisfaction of Care, Communication and Environment of the Pediatric Intensive Care Units at a Tertiary Children's Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuqamar, Maram; Arabiat, Diana H; Holmes, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to identify parental perceptions on pediatric intensive care-related satisfaction within three domains: environment, child's care provided and communication. In addition, it aims to identify whether parent's socio-demographics and child's clinical variables predict parents' perceived satisfaction. In this study, a total of 123 parents whose child received care in the PICU of a tertiary children's hospital in Amman completed the Arabic version of the parents satisfaction survey (PSS). A cross-sectional, descriptive-correlational design was used to collect data. All data were collected between June and October of 2013. Central tendency measures and percentages of replies for each domain revealed that at least 7 items were rated poorly satisfied. More than half of the parents were not satisfied with the noise level of the PICU, the time nurses spent at the child's bedside, as well as the way the healthcare team prepare them for the child's admission. Almost 90% of the parents believed that the nurses ignored their child's needs by not listening to parents and by responding slowly to child's needs. Stepwise regression analysis showed that that the number of hospital admissions, health insurance and the severity of illness was the main predictor of parents' satisfaction. In conclusion, the availability of health care professionals, the support and the information they share with the child's parents are all significant to parent's satisfaction and hence to better quality of care. Targeting the domains of low satisfaction reported by the parents could increase parent's satisfaction and achieve quality improvement required for this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Satisfaction with care: a study of parents of children with congenital heart disease and parents of children with other diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawoko, Stephen; Soares, Joaquim J F

    2004-03-01

    We compared parents of children with congenital heart disease (PCCHD, n=1092) with parents of children with other diseases (PCOD, n=112) regarding satisfaction with their children's care (SCC). We also examined the association between parental/patient characteristics and SCC. The parents completed a questionnaire about such areas as satisfaction with care, children's health status, and financial situation. The design was cross-sectional and data were gathered over 20 consecutive days. The univariate and multivariate analyses showed that PCCHD were more satisfied with their children's medical care and waiting period for treatment of their ill children than PCOD, although the difference was only modest. Furthermore, mothers were less satisfied with staff attitudes than fathers, with the lowest satisfaction among mothers of children with CHD. However, the multivariate analysis indicated that less satisfaction with care was more associated with decreasing child age, unemployment, financial burden of disease, social isolation and psychological distress than with children's diseases, their severity and parental gender. We corroborated some previous findings and may have provided new insights regarding determinants of SCC among parents. Interventions to improve SCC may need to address issues of parental psychological distress, socialization, and financial burden of illness. Possible ways of achieving this are discussed. Finally, research in a longitudinal format is needed to further scrutinize determinants of parental SCC.

  6. Empowerment of Parents in the Intensive Care: A journey discovering parental experiences and satisfaction with care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Latour (Jos)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of this thesis – the EMPATHIC studies – was to develop and implement validated parent satisfaction questionnaires for pediatric and neonatal intensive care units. Part I presents the general introduction, which justifies the construction, validation, and utilization of

  7. Hospital-based child protection teams that care for parents who abuse or neglect their children recognize the need for multidisciplinary collaborative practice involving perinatal care and mental health professionals: a questionnaire survey conducted in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okato A

    2018-02-01

    returned two factors: multidisciplinary collaborative practice (α = 0.84 and assessment and support (α = 0.89. A correlational analysis showed that multidisciplinary collaborative practice had a positive correlation for obstetricians (r = 0.315, p = 0.001, neonatologists (r = 0.261, p = 0.007, midwives (r = 0.248, p = 0.011, and psychiatrists (r = 0.194, p = 0.048; however, assessment and support was only significantly correlated with midwives (r = 0.208, p = 0.039. Conclusion: This study showed that hospital-based CPT members highly evaluate multidisciplinary collaborative practice for the management of abusive and/or negligent parents, and they believe that, in addition to pediatric physicians and nurses, perinatal care and mental health professionals are the most important participants in advanced CPT activities. Keywords: child abuse and neglect, abusive parents, child protection services, multidisciplinary practice, maltreatment of children

  8. Parent Perspective on Care Coordination Services for Their Child with Medical Complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cady, Rhonda G; Belew, John L

    2017-06-06

    The overarching goal of care coordination is communication and co-management across settings. Children with medical complexity require care from multiple services and providers, and the many benefits of care coordination on health and patient experience outcomes have been documented. Despite these findings, parents still report their greatest challenge is communication gaps. When this occurs, parents assume responsibility for aggregating and sharing health information across providers and settings. A new primary-specialty care coordination partnership model for children with medical complexity works to address these challenges and bridge communication gaps. During the first year of the new partnership, parents participated in focus groups to better understand how they perceive communication and collaboration between the providers and services delivering care for their medically complex child. Our findings from these sessions reflect the current literature and highlight additional challenges of rural families, as seen from the perspective of the parents. We found that parents appreciate when professional care coordination is provided, but this is often the exception and not the norm. Additionally, parents feel that the local health system's inability to care for their medically complex child results in unnecessary trips to urban-based specialty care. These gaps require a system-level approach to care coordination and, consequently, new paradigms for delivery are urgently needed.

  9. Parent Perspective on Care Coordination Services for Their Child with Medical Complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhonda G. Cady

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The overarching goal of care coordination is communication and co-management across settings. Children with medical complexity require care from multiple services and providers, and the many benefits of care coordination on health and patient experience outcomes have been documented. Despite these findings, parents still report their greatest challenge is communication gaps. When this occurs, parents assume responsibility for aggregating and sharing health information across providers and settings. A new primary-specialty care coordination partnership model for children with medical complexity works to address these challenges and bridge communication gaps. During the first year of the new partnership, parents participated in focus groups to better understand how they perceive communication and collaboration between the providers and services delivering care for their medically complex child. Our findings from these sessions reflect the current literature and highlight additional challenges of rural families, as seen from the perspective of the parents. We found that parents appreciate when professional care coordination is provided, but this is often the exception and not the norm. Additionally, parents feel that the local health system’s inability to care for their medically complex child results in unnecessary trips to urban-based specialty care. These gaps require a system-level approach to care coordination and, consequently, new paradigms for delivery are urgently needed.

  10. Quality of Life, Stress, and Mental Health in Parents of Children with Parentally Diagnosed Food Allergy Compared to Medically Diagnosed and Healthy Controls

    OpenAIRE

    Birdi, Gurkiran; Cooke, Richard; Knibb, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Background. Food allergy is related to poorer quality of life (QoL) and mental health of caregivers. Many parents diagnose food allergy in their child without seeking medical care and there is limited research on this group. This study investigated parental QoL and mental health in parents of children with parent-diagnosed food allergy (PA), medically diagnosed food allergy (MA), and a control group with no allergy (NA). Methods. One hundred and fifty parents from a general population complet...

  11. Extended parental care in communal social groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen H. Forbes

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in social insect research have challenged the need for close kinship as a prerequisite for the evolution of stable group living. In a model communal bee species, Lasioglossum (Chilalictus hemichalceum, previous allozyme work indicated that groups of cooperating adult females are not relatives. Yet at any given time, not all group members perform the risky task of foraging. We previously hypothesized that tolerance for non-foragers was a component of extended parental care, previously known only for kin based social systems. DNA microsatellites were used to study colony genetic structure in order to test this hypothesis. Microsatellite polymorphism was substantial (He = 0.775. Overall intracolony relatedness, mainly of immatures, was low but significant in nine, late season nests (r = 0.136 plus or minus0.023, indicating that broods contain five to six unrelated sib ships. Detailed analyses of kinship between pairs of individuals revealed that most pairs were unrelated and most related pairs were siblings. Mothers are absent for 89-91% of the developing immature females, and 97% of developing males. Alternatively, 46% of adult females had neither sibs nor offspring in their nests. These findings indicate that the extended parental care model applies broadly to both kin based and nonkin based social systems in the Hymenoptera.

  12. Life history and the evolution of parental care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klug, Hope; Bonsall, Michael B

    2010-03-01

    Patterns of parental care are strikingly diverse in nature, and parental care is thought to have evolved repeatedly multiple times. Surprisingly, relatively little is known about the most general conditions that lead to the origin of parental care. Here, we use a theoretical approach to explore the basic life-history conditions (i.e., stage-specific mortality and maturation rates, reproductive rates) that are most likely to favor the evolution of some form of parental care from a state of no care. We focus on parental care of eggs and eggs and juveniles and consider varying magnitudes of the benefits of care. Our results suggest that parental care can evolve under a range of life-history conditions, but in general will be most strongly favored when egg death rate in the absence of care is high, juvenile survival in the absence of care is low (for the scenario in which care extends into the juvenile stage), adult death rate is relatively high, egg maturation rate is low, and the duration of the juvenile stage is relatively short. Additionally, parental care has the potential to be favored at a broad range of adult reproductive rates. The relative importance of these life-history conditions in favoring or limiting the evolution of care depends on the magnitude of the benefits of care, the relationship between initial egg allocation and subsequent offspring survival, and whether care extends into the juvenile stage. The results of our model provide a general set of predictions regarding when we would expect parental care to evolve from a state of no care, and in conjunction with other work on the topic, will enhance our understanding of the evolutionary dynamics of parental care and facilitate comparative analyses.

  13. Discussing childhood overweight and obesity with parents: a health communication dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailovich, Katja; Morrison, Paul

    2007-12-01

    Childhood obesity has reached alarming levels and the problem has assumed great significance for health care staff who work with overweight children and their families. Anecdotal accounts of the difficulties that may emerge when health care providers communicate that a child's weight is outside of the normal range, were a key stimulus for this review. A local government health department commissioned a review of literature on communicating with parents about childhood overweight and obesity. Literature concerned with communicating a child's overweight to parents was limited and, as a result, this review draws upon a disparate body of literature to examine what is known and what might be helpful for health care providers when discussing a child's weight with the child and parents. This paper identifies a range of factors influencing communication between health care workers and parents and offers a number of practical approaches and strategies for facilitating successful communication between health practitioners and the parents of children.

  14. Parents' work patterns and adolescent mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dockery, Alfred; Li, Jianghong; Kendall, Garth

    2009-02-01

    Previous research demonstrates that non-standard work schedules undermine the stability of marriage and reduce family cohesiveness. Limited research has investigated the effects of parents working non-standard schedules on children's health and wellbeing and no published Australian studies have addressed this important issue. This paper contributes to bridging this knowledge gap by focusing on adolescents aged 15-20 years and by including sole parent families which have been omitted in previous research, using panel data from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey. Multilevel linear regression models are estimated to analyse the association between parental work schedules and hours of work and measures of adolescents' mental health derived from the SF-36 Health Survey. Evidence of negative impacts of parents working non-standard hours upon adolescent wellbeing is found to exist primarily within sole parent families.

  15. Authoritative Parenting, Parenting Stress, and Self-Care in Pre-Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Monaghan, Maureen; Horn, Ivor B.; Alvarez, Vanessa; Cogen, Fran R.; Streisand, Randi

    2012-01-01

    Parent involvement in type 1 diabetes (T1DM) care leads to improved adherence; however, the manner in which parents approach illness management interactions with children must also be considered. It was hypothesized that greater use of an authoritative parenting style and less parenting stress would be associated with greater behavioral adherence and better metabolic control. Ninety-five primary caregivers of preadolescents (ages 8-11) with T1DM completed questionnaires assessing parenting st...

  16. The first year: the support needs of parents caring for a child with an intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Tracy; Redley, Bernice; Ottmann, Goetz

    2016-11-01

    To describe the support needs of parents caring for a child with an intellectual disability in the first year of life. Parents of children with intellectual disabilities face significant challenges during the first year of their child's life which is an important developmental period not previously addressed in the literature. The provision of support by health professionals, particularly nurses and midwives, during this crucial period can impact on parental well-being and on the health and developmental outcomes of their children. However, parents often feel unsupported. The study used a qualitative descriptive methodology. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with parents of eleven children with an intellectual disability in Victoria, Australia, during 2014. Interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic data analysis. Three key areas of support need were identified to assist parents to provide effective care for their child with an intellectual disability in the first year of life: (1) emotional support as parents adjusted to their role of caring for a child with an intellectual disability; (2) information support as they embarked on a quest for knowledge; and (3) support to facilitate their connection to peer networks. The findings highlighted inconsistent provision of support for parents. This study informs health professionals about how to provide holistic, timely support to parents of children with intellectual disabilities in the first year of life. There is an urgent need to review how nurses and midwives can provide relevant support that is responsive to parents' needs. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Care in subsequent pregnancies following stillbirth: an international survey of parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcieszek, A M; Boyle, F M; Belizán, J M; Cassidy, J; Cassidy, P; Erwich, Jjhm; Farrales, L; Gross, M M; Heazell, Aep; Leisher, S H; Mills, T; Murphy, M; Pettersson, K; Ravaldi, C; Ruidiaz, J; Siassakos, D; Silver, R M; Storey, C; Vannacci, A; Middleton, P; Ellwood, D; Flenady, V

    2018-01-01

    To assess the frequency of additional care, and parents' perceptions of quality, respectful care, in pregnancies subsequent to stillbirth. Multi-language web-based survey. International. A total of 2716 parents, from 40 high- and middle-income countries. Data were obtained from a broader survey of parents' experiences following stillbirth. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and stratified by geographic region. Subgroup analyses explored variation in additional care by gestational age at index stillbirth. Frequency of additional care, and perceptions of quality, respectful care. The majority (66%) of parents conceived their subsequent pregnancy within 1 year of stillbirth. Additional antenatal care visits and ultrasound scans were provided for 67% and 70% of all parents, respectively, although there was wide variation across geographic regions. Care addressing psychosocial needs was less frequently provided, such as additional visits to a bereavement counsellor (10%) and access to named care provider's phone number (27%). Compared with parents whose stillbirth occurred at ≤ 29 weeks of gestation, parents whose stillbirth occurred at ≥ 30 weeks of gestation were more likely to receive various forms of additional care, particularly the option for early delivery after 37 weeks. Around half (47-63%) of all parents felt that elements of quality, respectful care were consistently applied, such as spending enough time with parents and involving parents in decision-making. Greater attention is required to providing thoughtful, empathic and collaborative care in all pregnancies following stillbirth. Specific education and training for health professionals is needed. More support for providing quality care in pregnancies after stillbirth is needed. Study rationale and design More than two million babies are stillborn every year. Most parents will conceive again soon after having a stillborn baby. These parents are more likely to have another stillborn baby in

  18. Child health and parental relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loft, Lisbeth Trille Gylling

    2011-01-01

    Using longitudinal national-level representative data from Denmark, this study considers the link between child disability or chronic illness and parental relationship termination as measured by the point in time at which one parent, following the breakup of the relationship, no longer resides...... in the household. By means of event-history techniques, I examine whether a Danish family's experience of having a child diagnosed with a disability or chronic illness affects the chances of parental relationship termination. My findings suggest that families with a child with disabilities or chronic illness do...... have a higher risk of parental relationship termination, when compared to families where no diagnosis of child disability or chronic illness is reported....

  19. Health promotion in connection to the health care students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kyuchukova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The activities of health promotion for the students in health care specialties is organized and managed by the teacher process. During the training communication skills are acquired. It is the time for preparing students for work in counseling and patient education, collecting and providing health information - promotive function in the process of care (1. We assumed that these opportunities could be used in our work with children deprived of parental care. We set a goal to explore experiences, attitudes and ideas about students’ participation in health care in health promotion in the community of children and individuals. The study found that students are aware of the social importance of the knowledge acquired during the training and are convinced of the need to support adolescents to develop a responsible attitude towards their own health.

  20. Systematic review of qualitative studies exploring parental experiences in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Maghaireh, Dua'a Fayiz; Abdullah, Khatijah Lim; Chan, Chong Mei; Piaw, Chua Yan; Al Kawafha, Mariam Mofleh

    2016-10-01

    To determine the feasibility and utility of a thematic analysis approach to synthesising qualitative evidence about parental experiences in the neonatal intensive care unit. Admission of infants to the neonatal intensive care unit is usually an unexpected event for parents who can cause them to experience psychosocial difficulties. A qualitative systematic review is the best method for exploring these parents' experiences regarding this type of admission. Systematic review. Qualitative studies in peer-reviewed journals aimed at understanding parental experiences regarding infant neonatal intensive care unit admission were identified in six electronic databases. Three reviewers selected relevant articles and assessed the quality of the methodological studies using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme. A thematic analysis approach was used to identify the most common themes in the studies describing parental experiences in the neonatal intensive care unit. A total of eighty articles were identified; nine studies were included in this review. Four studies used semistructured interviews, three used interviews, one used self-reporting and one used both focus group and interview methodologies. Common themes across parents' experiences were the stress of hospitalisation, alteration in parenting roles and the impact of infant hospitalisation on psychological health. Having an infant hospitalised in the neonatal intensive care unit is a stressful experience for parents. This experience is the result of exposure to different stressors related to the infant's condition, an alteration in parenting roles or the neonatal intensive care unit environment and staffing. These parents suffered negative psychological effects, experienced an interrupted development of a healthy parent-infant attachment and/or felt parental role alteration. The study's findings are crucial for neonatal intensive care unit nurses to develop intervention strategies and programmes that help parents to

  1. Parental experiences of a developmentally focused care program for infants and children during prolonged hospitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Stephanie; Rogers, Alaine; Patterson, Catherine; Drew, Wendy; Maxwell, Julia; Darch, Jane; Hoyle, Carolyn; Patterson, Sarah; Pollock-BarZiv, Stacey

    2014-06-01

    This study investigates parental experiences and perceptions of the care received during their child's prolonged hospitalization. It relates this care to the Beanstalk Program (BP), a develop-mentally focused care program provided to these families within an acute care hospital setting. A total of 20 parents (of children hospitalized between 1-15 months) completed the Measures of Processes of Care (MPOC-20) with additional questions regarding the BP. Scores rate the extent of the health-care provider's behaviour as perceived by the family, ranging from 'to a great extent' (7) to 'never' (1). Parents rated Respectful and Supportive Care (6.33) as highest, while Providing General Information (5.65) was rated lowest. Eleven parents participated in a follow-up, qualitative, semi-structured interview. Interview data generated key themes: (a) parents strive for positive and normal experiences for their child within the hospital environment; (b) parents value the focus on child development in the midst of their child's complex medical care; and (c) appropriate developmentally focused education helps parents shift from feeling overwhelmed with a medically ill child to instilling feelings of confidence and empowerment to care for their child and transition home. These results emphasize the importance of enhancing child development for hospitalized infants and young children through programs such as the BP. © The Author(s) 2013.

  2. Public-Private Partnership in Health Care: A Comparative Cross-sectional Study of Perceived Quality of Care Among Parents of Children Admitted in Two Government District-hospitals, Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baliga, B Shantaram; Ravikiran, S R; Rao, Suchetha S; Coutinho, Anitha; Jain, Animesh

    2016-02-01

    Perceived better quality of care draws lower socio-economic classes of Indians to more expensive private setups, leading to poverty illness poverty cycle. Urgent measures need to be taken to improve perceived quality of public hospitals. The present study compares the difference in perceived quality of care among parents of children admitted at two government district hospitals. A cross-sectional, comparative, questionnaire based study was conducted between February 2011 and February 2012 at Government medical college hospitals of two district headquarters in South-India: one with private-public-partnership (PPP-model); another directly operated by government - Public Hospital-model (PH-model). A total of 461 inpatients from the PH model hospital and 580 from the PPP model hospital were eligible. Patients who left against advice (LAMA) (n=44 in PH and 19 in PPP) and expired (n=25 in PH and 59 in PPP) were excluded. Fourteen incomplete forms from PH and 10 from PPP model hospital were also excluded. Responders rated perception on a 1-5 scale in each domain: accessibility of health-facility, time spent waiting, manner and quality of physician, manner and quality of nurse, manner and quality of supporting staff, perception of equipment, explanation of treatment details and general comfort. The responders also rated overall satisfaction on a 1-10 scale. In the 1-5 scale, rating≥4 in each domain was considered good. Rating≥8 in 1-10 scale was considered satisfaction. Responders from PPP-model hospital were significantly more satisfied than those from PH-model {n=529 (91.2%) vs. n=148 (32.1%) p<0.001}. This was true even when controlled for age-group, sex, maternal education, family-type, days of hospital-stay and socioeconomic class {O.R.(CI) =23.58 (16.13-34.48); p<0.001} by binary logistic regression model. In the PPP-model hospital the time spent waiting for treatment {4.28(2.07-8.82), p<.001} and manner of support staff {3.64(1.02-12.99), p=0.04} significantly

  3. What are the benefits of parental care? The importance of parental effects on developmental rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klug, Hope; Bonsall, Michael B

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of parental care is beneficial if it facilitates offspring performance traits that are ultimately tied to offspring fitness. While this may seem self-evident, the benefits of parental care have received relatively little theoretical exploration. Here, we develop a theoretical model that elucidates how parental care can affect offspring performance and which aspects of offspring performance (e.g., survival, development) are likely to be influenced by care. We begin by summarizing four general types of parental care benefits. Care can be beneficial if parents (1) increase offspring survival during the stage in which parents and offspring are associated, (2) improve offspring quality in a way that leads to increased offspring survival and/or reproduction in the future when parents are no longer associated with offspring, and/or (3) directly increase offspring reproductive success when parents and offspring remain associated into adulthood. We additionally suggest that parental control over offspring developmental rate might represent a substantial, yet underappreciated, benefit of care. We hypothesize that parents adjust the amount of time offspring spend in life-history stages in response to expected offspring mortality, which in turn might increase overall offspring survival, and ultimately, fitness of parents and offspring. Using a theoretical evolutionary framework, we show that parental control over offspring developmental rate can represent a significant, or even the sole, benefit of care. Considering this benefit influences our general understanding of the evolution of care, as parental control over offspring developmental rate can increase the range of life-history conditions (e.g., egg and juvenile mortalities) under which care can evolve. PMID:25360271

  4. What are the benefits of parental care? The importance of parental effects on developmental rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klug, Hope; Bonsall, Michael B

    2014-06-01

    The evolution of parental care is beneficial if it facilitates offspring performance traits that are ultimately tied to offspring fitness. While this may seem self-evident, the benefits of parental care have received relatively little theoretical exploration. Here, we develop a theoretical model that elucidates how parental care can affect offspring performance and which aspects of offspring performance (e.g., survival, development) are likely to be influenced by care. We begin by summarizing four general types of parental care benefits. Care can be beneficial if parents (1) increase offspring survival during the stage in which parents and offspring are associated, (2) improve offspring quality in a way that leads to increased offspring survival and/or reproduction in the future when parents are no longer associated with offspring, and/or (3) directly increase offspring reproductive success when parents and offspring remain associated into adulthood. We additionally suggest that parental control over offspring developmental rate might represent a substantial, yet underappreciated, benefit of care. We hypothesize that parents adjust the amount of time offspring spend in life-history stages in response to expected offspring mortality, which in turn might increase overall offspring survival, and ultimately, fitness of parents and offspring. Using a theoretical evolutionary framework, we show that parental control over offspring developmental rate can represent a significant, or even the sole, benefit of care. Considering this benefit influences our general understanding of the evolution of care, as parental control over offspring developmental rate can increase the range of life-history conditions (e.g., egg and juvenile mortalities) under which care can evolve.

  5. Evolution of parental care driven by mutual reinforcement of parental food provisioning and sibling competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Andy; Smiseth, Per T

    2011-01-22

    In mammals, altricial birds and some invertebrates, parents care for their offspring by providing them with food and protection until independence. Although parental food provisioning is often essential for offspring survival and growth, very little is known about the conditions favouring the evolutionary innovation of this key component of care. Here, we develop a mathematical model for the evolution of parental food provisioning. We find that this evolutionary innovation is favoured when the efficiency of parental food provisioning is high relative to the efficiency of offspring self-feeding and/or parental guarding. We also explore the coevolution between food provisioning and other components of parental care, as well as offspring behaviour. We find that the evolution of food provisioning prompts evolutionary changes in other components of care by allowing parents to choose safer nest sites, and that it promotes the evolution of sibling competition, which in turn further drives the evolution of parental food provisioning. This mutual reinforcement of parental care and sibling competition suggests that evolution of parental food provisioning should show a unidirectional trend from no parental food provisioning to full parental food provisioning.

  6. Sleep of Parents Living With a Child Receiving Hospital-Based Home Care: A Phenomenographical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelhoff, Charlotte; Edéll-Gustafsson, Ulla; Mörelius, Evalotte

    2015-01-01

    Caring for an ill child at home gives the family the chance to be together in a familiar environment. However, this involves several nocturnal sleep disturbances, such as frequent awakenings and bad sleep quality, which may affect parents' ability to take care of the child and themselves. The aim of this study was to describe parents' perceptions of circumstances influencing their own sleep when living with a child enrolled in hospital-based home care (HBHC) services. This is a phenomenographical study with an inductive, exploratory design. Fifteen parents (11 mothers and 4 fathers) with children enrolled in HBHC services were interviewed. Data were analyzed to discover content-related categories describing differences in ways parents experienced sleep when caring for their children receiving HBHC. Four descriptive categories were detected: sleep influences mood and mood influences sleep; support influences safeness and safeness influences sleep; the child's needs influence routines and routines influence sleep; and "me time" influences sleep. Sleep does not affect only the parents' well-being but also the child's care. Symptoms of stress may limit the parents' capacity to meet the child's needs. Support, me time, and physical activity were perceived as essential sources for recovery and sleep. It is important for nurses to acknowledge parental sleep in the child's nursing care plan and help the parents perform self-care to promote sleep and maintain life, health, and well-being.

  7. Parental presence or absence during paediatric burn wound care procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egberts, Marthe R; de Jong, Alette E E; Hofland, Helma W C; Geenen, Rinie; Van Loey, Nancy E E

    2017-12-18

    Differing views on benefits and disadvantages of parental presence during their child's wound care after burn injury leave the topic surrounded by controversies. This study aimed to describe and explain parents' experiences of their presence or absence during wound care. Shortly after the burn event, 22 semi-structured interviews were conducted with parents of children (0-16 years old) that underwent hospitalization in one of the three Dutch burn centers. Eighteen of these parents also participated in follow-up interviews three to six months after discharge. Interviews were analyzed using grounded theory methodology. Analyses resulted in themes that were integrated into a model, summarizing key aspects of parental presence during wound care. These aspects include parental cognitions and emotions (e.g., shared distress during wound care), parental abilities and needs (e.g., controlling own emotions, being responsive, and gaining overall control) and the role of burn care professionals. Findings emphasize the distressing nature of wound care procedures. Despite the distress, parents expressed their preference to be present. The abilities to control their own emotions and to be responsive to the child's needs were considered beneficial for both the child and the parent. Importantly, being present increased a sense of control in parents that helped them to cope with the situation. For parents not present, the professional was the intermediary to provide information about the healing process that helped parents to deal with the situation. In sum, the proposed model provides avenues for professionals to assess parents' abilities and needs on a daily basis and to adequately support the child and parent during wound care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  8. We Care for Kids: A Handbook for Foster Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois State Dept. of Children and Family Services, Springfield.

    This handbook outlines essential information for foster parents under these basic headings: (1) legal rights and responsibilities of children, parents and foster parents; (2) recruitment, licensing, training, and evaluation of foster homes; (3) placement and removal of foster children; (4) payments and expenses; (5) medical care; (6)…

  9. Stress Profile of Peruvian Parents Caring for Children with Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagwanji, Yash; Suarez-Sousa, Ximena

    2002-01-01

    A study involving 77 Peruvian parents of children with autism and 77 parents of typical children found that parents of children with autism reported significantly higher stress levels related to the cognitive impairment of their children and life-span care. They also showed significantly higher overall stress levels than controls. (Contains…

  10. Parent' s experiences and perceives at premature newborn in the neonatal intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaudia Urbančič

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Text treats parent's experiences and perceives and the significant of their newborn premature infants in the neonatal intensive care unit in the Ljubljana maternity hospital. Aim of health promotion, the significance of health education in health education counselling are presented. The purpose of this study was to introduction parent' s experiences and make an implementation in nursing practice. The advantage is represent by performing health education counselling for parents in intensive care unit permanently. Perceives of parents during living their newborn infant in neonatal intensive care unit are present on five concepts: perceive parents themselves, perceive their infant, perceive the staff and the intensive care setting and perceive their home setting. Results are showing statistic important differences between mothers and fathers at the time of deliver and at the time charging infant home. A questionare was used for collecting data. Process of development instrument is represent. Descriptive statistics and T-test was used for quantitative data analysed. Using method of internal consistent Chronbach alpha tested reliability of scales and mean differences in time are graf protrayed by 95% confident intervals. Results show statistical significant differences on all five concepts of parent's experiences. Methodological findings and reseaarch limitations are also present. Authoress positive evaluates the effect of health education counselling program and find out its positive effect on parent's critical thinking and contributes to quality assurance nursing.

  11. Development of the parental needs scale for rare diseases: a tool for measuring the supportive care needs of parents caring for a child with a rare disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelentsov LJ

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Lemuel J Pelentsov,1 Andrea L Fielder,2,3 Thomas A Laws,4 Adrian J Esterman1,2,5 1School of Nursing and Midwifery, 2Sansom Institute for Health Research, 3School of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA, Australia; 4School of Nursing and Midwifery, Faculty of Health, Keele University, Staffordshire, UK; 5Australian Institute for Health and Tropical Medicine, James Cook University, Cairns, QLD, Australia Background: Children and families affected by rare diseases have received scant consideration from the medical, scientific, and political communities, with parents’ needs especially having received little attention. Affected parents often have limited access to information and support and appropriate health care services. While scales to measure the needs of parents of children with chronic illnesses have been developed, there have been no previous attempts to develop a scale to assess the needs of parents of children with rare diseases. Objective: To develop a scale for measuring the supportive care needs of parents of children with rare diseases. Method: A total of 301 responses to our Parental Needs Survey were randomly divided into two halves, one for exploratory factor analysis and the other for confirmatory factor analysis (CFA. After removing unsuitable items, exploratory factor analysis was undertaken to determine the factor structure of the data. CFA using structural equation modeling was then undertaken to confirm the factor structure. Results: Seventy-two items were entered into the CFA, with a scree plot showing a likely four-factor solution. The results provided four independent subscales of parental needs: Understanding the disease (four items; Working with health professionals (four items; Emotional issues (three items; and Financial needs (three items. The structural equation modeling confirmed the suitability of the four-factor solution and demonstrated that the four subscales could be added

  12. Social support, flexible resources, and health care navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage-Bouchard, Elizabeth A

    2017-10-01

    Recent research has focused attention on the role of patients' and clinicians' cultural skills and values in generating inequalities in health care experiences. Yet, examination of how social structural factors shape people's abilities to build, refine, and leverage strategies for navigating the health care system have received less attention. In this paper I place focus on one such social structural factor, social support, and examine how social support operates as a flexible resource that helps people navigate the health care system. Using the case of families navigating pediatric cancer care this study combines in-depth interviews with parents of pediatric cancer patients (N = 80), direct observation of clinical interactions between families and physicians (N = 73), and in-depth interviews with pediatric oncologists (N = 8). Findings show that physicians assess parental visibility in the hospital, medical vigilance, and adherence to their child's treatment and use these judgments to shape clinical decision-making. Parents who had help from their personal networks had more agility in balancing competing demands, and this allowed parents to more effectively meet institutional expectations for appropriate parental involvement in the child's health care. In this way, social support served as a flexible resource for some families that allowed parents to more quickly adapt to the demands of caring for a child with cancer, foster productive interpersonal relationships with health care providers, and play a more active role in their child's health care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. International policies toward parental leave and child care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldfogel, J

    2001-01-01

    The pleasures and pressures of parenting a newborn are universal, but the supports surrounding parents vary widely from country to country. In many nations, decades of attention to benefits and services for new parents offer lessons worthy of attention in this country. This article describes policies regarding parental leave, child care, and early childhood benefits here and in 10 industrial nations in North America and Europe. The sharpest contrast separates the United States from the other countries, although differences among the others also are instructive: The right to parental leave is new to American workers; it covers one-half of the private-sector workforce and is relatively short and unpaid. By contrast, other nations offer universal, paid leaves of 10 months or more. Child care assistance in Europe is usually provided through publicly funded programs, whereas the United States relies more on subsidies and tax credits to reimburse parents for part of their child care expenses. Nations vary in the emphasis they place on parental leave versus child care supports for families with children under age three. Each approach creates incentives that influence parents' decisions about employment and child care. Several European nations, seeking flexible solutions for parents, are testing "early childhood benefits" that can be used to supplement income or pay for private child care. Based on this review, the author urges that the United States adopt universal, paid parental leave of at least 10 months; help parents cover more child care costs; and improve the quality of child care. She finds policy packages that support different parental choices promising, because the right mix of leave and care will vary from family to family, and child to child.

  14. Health Care Industry Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    press conference with President Toledo of Peru on March 23, 2002, President Bush proclaimed, “education, jobs, and health care are the greatest...allow patients with chronic illnesses such as diabetes and high blood pressure to “visit” their doctors “on-line” while in the comfort and privacy of...to maintain a healthy lifestyle. As a result, non-communicable disease such as 10 heart disease, stroke, diabetes , and cancer are prevalent throughout

  15. Empowerment of parents in the neonatal intensive care unit by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Parents of infants who are admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) need to be empowered to improve bonding, attachment and care-giving skills. Neonatal nurses play a critical role in the empowerment of such parents, but often find it difficult due to a lack of clarity on how it has to be done. A qualitative contextual ...

  16. Breaking down barriers: enabling care-by-parent in neonatal intensive care units in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Ying; Lee, Shoo; Yu, Hua-Feng; Ye, Xiang Y; Warre, Ruth; Liu, Xiang-Hong; Liu, Jian-Hong

    2017-04-01

    Denying parents access to their infant in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) is a standard practice in most hospitals across China. Visitation is not usually permitted or may be strictly limited, and NICU care for most neonates is provided by health-care professionals with little participation of the parents. An exception to this rule is the level 2 "Room-In" ward in Qilu Children's Hospital, Shandong University, where parents have 24-hour access to their infants and participate in providing care. This retrospective cohort study compared the outcomes of infants who were admitted to the NICU and remained there throughout their stay (NICU-NICU group, n=428), admitted to the NICU and then transferred to the Room-In ward (NICU-RIn group, n=1018), or admitted straight to the Room-In ward (RIn only group, n=629). There were no significant differences in the rates of nosocomial infection, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, intraventricular hemorrhage, and retinopathy of prematurity between the NICU-NICU and NICU-RIn groups. The rate of necrotizing enterocolitis was significantly lower in the NICU-RIn group (P=0.04), while weight gain and duration of hospital stay were significantly higher (both Pneonatal care in China.

  17. Parental discussion of G6PD deficiency and child health: implications for clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yue; Roter, Debra L; Huang, Aichu; Erby, Lori A H; Chien, Yin-Hsiu; Hwu, Wuh-Liang

    2014-03-01

    Parents are encouraged to discuss self-care with children affected by G6PD deficiency; however, little is known about the extent or impact of these discussions on the physical and psychosocial health of these children. The purpose of this study was to examine the nature of parental-child discussions of G6PD deficiency self-care and their relationship to child health. A quantitative cross-sectional survey of 178 Taiwanese parents of children with G6PD deficiency was conducted. The extent of parental-child self-care discussions was assessed in regards to coverage of nine key topics. Parent's G6PD deficiency status, knowledge of haemolytic anaemia symptoms and reported G6PD deficiency education from providers were examined as correlates of parental discussion. Child health was assessed with the child health questionnaire-parent form (Chinese version) and a 13-item haemolytic anaemia symptom list. Self-care discussions were positively correlated with parental G6PD deficiency status (β=2.08, p=0.03), accurate identification of haemolytic anaemia symptoms (β=0.18, p=0.01), the thoroughness and clarity of patient education (β=0.14, pchild age (β=1.04, pchild health (β=1.18, pchild G6PD deficiency self-care discussions are associated with better child health, and parental involvement in these discussions is facilitated by the thoroughness and clarity of patient education received from providers.

  18. Oral health knowledge attitudes and behaviors of migrant preschooler parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukes, Sherri M

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to establish baseline data about oral health knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of migrant and seasonal farm workers (MSFW). The study focused on MSFWs that are parents of preschool-aged children, and who utilized services at 3 migrant dental clinics. An oral health knowledge attitudes and behaviors survey was developed and pilot tested in 2006. The resulting 34 item survey was administered by trained promotores de salud (community health workers) to 45 parents of preschoolers (15 at each clinic site) served by 3 migrant dental clinics. Parents answered questions as they pertained to their oldest preschooler (up to age 5). Dental visits in the last 12 months were reported for 26 (58%) of the children. Fifteen parents (33%) had a dental visit in the last year. Thirty-five parents (77/8%) reported their child's oral health to be good, and 21 (46.7%) reported their own to be good. Half of the children were enrolled in Head Start (HS). Of those, 18 (79%) had a dental visit in the last year, whereas 8 (36%) of those not enrolled in HS had a visit. Discrepancies existed for the age parents believed children should stop using a bottle and the age they actually did stop using a bottle. There were discrepancies in knowledge about decay causing drinks and consumption of drinks by preschool-aged children. MSFWs remain an underserved population with poor access to oral health care and multiple factors affecting oral health knowledge, attitudes and behaviors. A better understanding of influences on oral health knowledge, attitudes and behaviors within the population can assist in implementing appropriate interventions for the maintenance of good oral health in MSFW families. HS can have a positive impact on oral health for MSFW children.

  19. COMMUNITY MEDICINE & PRIMARY HEALTH CARE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Client Satisfaction with Antenatal Care Services in Primary Health Care. Centres in Sabon ... important information about how well clinicians and the population of women within child bearing. 8 ..... model. Health and Quality of Life outcomes.

  20. Choices and control: parental experiences in pediatric terminal home care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, J L; Carlisle, C

    2000-01-01

    During the past decade, palliative care at home has become an alternative option to hospital care for terminally ill children. This study describes the experience of caring for a dying child at home from a parent's perspective. A qualitative research design was used to conduct and analyze data. Nonstandardized, focused interviews were conducted with 10 families. Thematic content analysis assisted in deriving themes from the transcripts of the interviews. "Choice and control" was the major theme that linked all the other concepts, and it appeared to be fundamental to parental coping strategies. Most parents were willing to take responsibility for the nursing care of their child, including administration of intravenous medication. The patient's home was the overwhelming choice of parents for delivery of terminal care, with most parents perceiving it as their child's choice also.

  1. Wanting better: a qualitative study of low-income parents about their children's oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Charlotte W; Linsenmayer, Kristi A; Williams, Alexis

    2010-01-01

    Using qualitative methods, the purpose of this study was to understand low-income parents' experiences and how these influenced their oral health-related behavior toward their children. Twenty-eight parents were recruited from 7 sites that serve low-income families. Interviews, which were audiotaped and transcribed, were comprised of mostly open-ended questions. Transcripts were analyzed for common themes. Parents' experiences influenced their oral health-related beliefs, intentions, and behaviors. Finding dentists who accept Medicaid was the greatest barrier to realizing intended preventive dental care. Physicians appeared to have relatively little impact on these families' oral health care, even though parents believed that oral health is part of overall health care. WIC (the Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children) played an important role in facilitating oral health knowledge and access to dental care. Most low-income parents had received little attention to their own oral health, yet wanted better for their children. This motivated the high value placed on their children's preventive oral health. Parents faced challenges finding dental care for their children. Difficulty finding a regular source of dental care for low-income adults, however, was nearly universal. The authors identified strategies, which emerged from their interviews, to improve the oral health knowledge and dental care access for these low-income families.

  2. Development of an eHealth Program for Parents of Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittemore, Robin; Zincavage, Rebekah M; Jaser, Sarah S; Grey, Margaret; Coleman, Julia L; Collett, David; Delvy, Roberta; Basile Ibrahim, Bridget; Marceau, Lisa D

    2018-02-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to understand the experience of parenting an adolescent with type 1 diabetes (T1DM), to develop a prototype of an eHealth program for parents of adolescents with T1DM, and to evaluate the prototype content and acceptability from the perspective of parents and health care providers. Methods A multiphase method was used generating both qualitative and quantitative data at multiple time points. There were 27 parents of adolescents aged 12 to 18 years with T1DM and 16 health care providers who participated in semistructured interviews to identify parental challenges; 53 parents and 27 providers evaluated the prototype. Thematic content analysis was used to analyze interview transcripts, and descriptive statistics were used to summarize survey data. Results Challenges experienced by parents of adolescents with T1DM included understanding the developmental and hormonal changes of adolescence that affect diabetes care, feeling tension between adolescent independence and parent control, communicating without nagging or conflict, transferring diabetes care responsibility safely, dealing with feelings of stress and distress, and perceiving a lack of resources for T1DM care and insufficient personal time for self-care. In the prototype evaluation, both parents and providers found content to be relevant and provided feedback to guide the development of the full program. Conclusions Parents of adolescents with T1DM and providers expressed a need for parents to have more support in transitioning diabetes care from parent to adolescent. eHealth programs offer an ideal way to address these needs and ultimately can be linked to electronic medical records improving quality and efficiency of health care in this population.

  3. Hmong American Parents' Views on Promoting Adolescent Sexual Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meschke, Laurie L.; Peter, Christina R.

    2014-01-01

    Parents play an important role in the promotion of adolescent sexual health, but little is known about parents' attitudes and beliefs in immigrant families. We examine Hmong American parents' attitudes about adolescent sexual health using survey data from 202 parents of adolescents with attention to parental gender differences. Breaking from…

  4. Evolution of parental care driven by mutual reinforcement of parental food provisioning and sibling competition

    OpenAIRE

    Gardner, Andy; Smiseth, Per T.

    2010-01-01

    In mammals, altricial birds and some invertebrates, parents care for their offspring by providing them with food and protection until independence. Although parental food provisioning is often essential for offspring survival and growth, very little is known about the conditions favouring the evolutionary innovation of this key component of care. Here, we develop a mathematical model for the evolution of parental food provisioning. We find that this evolutionary innovation is favoured when th...

  5. Improving glycaemic control and life skills in adolescents with type 1 diabetes: A randomised, controlled intervention study using the Guided Self-Determination-Young method in triads of adolescents, parents and health care providers integrated into routine paediatric outpatient clinics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esbensen Bente

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescents with type 1 diabetes face demanding challenges due to conflicting priorities between psychosocial needs and diabetes management. This conflict often results in poor glycaemic control and discord between adolescents and parents. Adolescent-parent conflicts are thus a barrier for health care providers (HCPs to overcome in their attempts to involve both adolescents and parents in improvement of glycaemic control. Evidence-based interventions that involve all three parties (i.e., adolescents, parents and HCPs and are integrated into routine outpatient clinic visits are lacking. The Guided Self-Determination method is proven effective in adult care and has been adapted to adolescents and parents (Guided Self-Determination-Young (GSD-Y for use in paediatric diabetes outpatient clinics. Our objective is to test whether GSD-Y used in routine paediatric outpatient clinic visits will reduce haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c concentrations and improve adolescents' life skills compared with a control group. Methods/Design Using a mixed methods design comprising a randomised controlled trial and a nested qualitative evaluation, we will recruit 68 adolescents age 13 - 18 years with type 1 diabetes (HbA1c > 8.0% and their parents from 2 Danish hospitals and randomise into GSD-Y or control groups. During an 8-12 month period, the GSD-Y group will complete 8 outpatient GSD-Y visits, and the control group will completes an equal number of standard visits. The primary outcome is HbA1c. Secondary outcomes include the following: number of self-monitored blood glucose values and levels of autonomous motivation, involvement and autonomy support from parents, autonomy support from HCPs, perceived competence in managing diabetes, well-being, and diabetes-related problems. Primary and secondary outcomes will be evaluated within and between groups by comparing data from baseline, after completion of the visits, and again after a 6-month follow-up. To

  6. Parents-CARE: a suicide prevention program for parents of at-risk youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooven, Carole

    2013-02-01

    Families play an important role in youth suicide prevention, as both a source of protection and a source of risk, and thus are an important target for adolescent suicide prevention programs. This article describes in detail Parents-CARE, a brief youth suicide prevention program for parents, for which effectiveness has been demonstrated. Engaging parents in preventive intervention can be challenging; therefore, the feasibility, acceptability, and relevance of the program to parents are examined. A total of 289 households participated in Parents-CARE. Parent attendance data and parent and interventionist process data are utilized to demonstrate the positive response by parents to the program. The Parents-CARE program was highly attended, and ratings demonstrate that parents were engaged in the program. Ratings show parents found the program both acceptable and relevant. Hence, the program described is promising for clinicians working with at-risk youth as they seek brief, accessible, and effective interventions that include parents in order to amplify the effects of an individual intervention approach. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Children With Special Health Care Needs: Child Health and Functioning Outcomes and Health Care Service Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caicedo, Carmen

    This study describes health, functioning, and health care service use by medically complex technology-dependent children according to condition severity (moderately disabled, severely disabled, and vegetative state). Data were collected monthly for 5 months using the Pediatric Quality of Life Generic Core Module 4.0 Parent-Proxy Report. Health care service use measured the number of routine and acute care office visits (including primary and specialty physicians), emergency department visits, hospitalizations, nursing health care services, special therapies, medications, medical technology devices (MTDs), and assistive devices. Child physical health was different across the condition severity groups. The average age of the children was 10.1 years (SD, 6.2); the average number of medications used was 5.5 (SD, 3.7); the average number of MTDs used was 4.2 (SD, 2.9); and the average number of assistive devices used was 4.3 (SD, 2.7). Severely disabled and vegetative children were similar in age (older) and had a similar number of medications, MTDs, and assistive devices (greater) than moderately disabled children. The advanced practice nurse care coordinator role is necessary for the health and functioning of medically complex, technology-dependent children. Copyright © 2016 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Factors influencing the type of health problems presented by women in general practice: differences between women's health care and regular health care.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink-Muinen, A. van den; Bensing, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    Objective: Differences between health problems presented by women (aged 20-45) to female "women's health care" doctors and both female and male regular health care doctors were investigated. This article explores the relationship of patients' roles (worker, partner, or parent) and the type of health

  9. The retailing of health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, T; Wong, J

    1984-01-01

    A number of striking parallels between recent developments in health care marketing and changes in the retailing industry exist. The authors have compared retailing paradigms to the area on health care marketing so strategists in hospitals and other health care institutions can gain insight from these parallels. Many of the same economic, demographic, technological and lifestyle forces may be at work in both the health care and retail markets. While the services or products offered in health care are radically different from those of conventional retail markets, the manner in which the products and services are positioned, priced or distributed is surprisingly similar.

  10. Health care engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Frize, Monique

    2013-01-01

    Part II of Health Care Engineering begins with statistics on the occurrence of medical errors and adverse events, and includes some technological solutions. A chapter on electronic medical records follows. The knowledge management process divided into four steps is described; this includes a discussion on data acquisition, storage, and retrieval. The next two chapters discuss the other three steps of the knowledge management process (knowledge discovery, knowledge translation, knowledge integration and sharing). The last chapter briefly discusses usability studies and clinical trials.This two-

  11. Older parents enjoy better filial piety and care from daughters than sons in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Yi; George, Linda; Sereny, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether older parents in China would benefit more from daughters' care than from sons' emotional care. METHOD: Analysis of the unique data sets of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey conducted in 2002, 2005, and 2008-2009 in 22 provinces. RESULTS: As compared......' health outcome could help promote gender equality and reduce traditional son preference, especially in rural China....

  12. Self-reported health and sickness benefits among parents of children with a disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendelborg, Christian; Tøssebro, Jan

    2016-07-02

    This article investigates the possible consequences in self-reported health and receipt of sickness benefits when parenting a child with a disability This study uses data from the population health study, The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT 2), and the historical event database, FD-Trygd, which contains Social Security and national insurance data for the Norwegian population. In the analysis, we compare 1587 parents of a child with a disability to other parents. Results indicate that parenting a disabled child impacts on self-reported health, particularly among mothers; however, being a parent to a disabled child has a much stronger effect in explaining the variance in received sickness benefits, and also length of time and frequency of having received sickness benefits. Parents with disabled children report just slightly lower self-reported health but are on sickness benefits more often than other parents which may be attributed to their extended care responsibilities.

  13. Impact of caring for a child with cancer on single parents compared with parents from two-parent families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, Anne F; Dix, David; Papsdorf, Michael; Klaassen, Robert J; Yanofsky, Rochelle; Sung, Lillian

    2012-01-01

    It is currently unknown how the intensive and often prolonged treatment of childhood cancer impacts on the lives of single parents. Our aims were to determine whether single parents differ from parents from two-parent families in terms of caregiver demand (the time and effort involved in caregiving), and health-related quality of life (HRQL). Forty single parents and 275 parents from two-parent families were recruited between November 2004 and February 2007 from five pediatric oncology centers in Canada. Parents were asked to complete a questionnaire booklet composed of items and scales to measure caregiver demand and HRQL (SF-36). The booklet also measured the following constructs: background and context factors, child factors, caregiving strain, intrapsychic factors, and coping factors. Single parents did not differ from parents from two-parent families in caregiving demand and physical and psychosocial HRQL. Compared with Canadian population norms for the SF-36, both groups reported clinically important differences (i.e., worse health) in psychosocial HRQL (effect size ≥ -2.00), while scores for physical HRQL were within one standard deviation of population norms. Our findings suggest that the impact of caregiving on single parents, in terms of caregiving demand and HRQL is similar to that of parents from two-parent families. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Operations management in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, M D

    1995-01-01

    Health care operations encompass the totality of those health care functions that allow those who practice health care delivery to do so. As the health care industry undergoes dramatic reform, so will the jobs of those who manage health care delivery systems. Although health care operations managers play one of the most vital and substantial roles in the new delivery system, the criteria for their success (or failure) are being defined now. Yet, the new and vital role of the operations manager has been stunted in its development, which is primarily because of old and outdated antipathy between hospital administrators and physicians. This article defines the skills and characteristics of today's health care operations managers.

  15. Firm handling; the information exchange interaction by parents in paediatric care – An observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Berterö

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Information exchange is fundamental in the paediatric care encounter. Health care professionals need further background knowledge to encounter the parents/guardians from their perspective in their minors’ paediatric care. The parents’/guardians’ ability to manage the situation is dependent on their receiving optimal information, which is why it is important to study how information is exchanged.Aim: The aim of this study was to identify, describe and conceptualize how parents/guardians resolved their main concern ininformation exchange with health care professionals in paediatric care situations involving their minors.Methodology: Glaser’s grounded theory method was used and all data were analysed using constant comparative analysis. The observational study took place at three paediatric outpatient units at a university hospital and 24 parents/guardians participated. Data sources were field notes from 37 observations of paediatric care situations and five adherent excerpts from the minors’ medical records. Grounded theory is a method of conceptualising behaviour, which is why an observational study of parents’/guardians’ information exchange and social interaction in the context of nursing care is relevant as research design.Results: Firm handling was revealed as the way the parents/guardians resolved their main concerns when they were exchanging information about their minors’ paediatric care. Firm handling is built on five inter-related categories: representative advocating, collaborating, aim sharing, supportive resourcing and minor bypassing.Conclusions: This knowledge suggests possible ways for health care professionals to design paediatric care that supports, facilitates, strengthens and improves the parents’/guardians’ firm handling. The key issue is to find ways to support parents/guardians and minors so they can participate in health care encounters according to their preferences. Firm handling gives an

  16. Patients' and parents' views regarding supportive care in childhood cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenniglo, L J A; Loeffen, E A H; Kremer, L C M; Font-Gonzalez, A; Mulder, R L; Postma, A; Naafs-Wilstra, M C; Grootenhuis, M A; van de Wetering, M D; Tissing, W J E

    2017-10-01

    Intensive therapies in pediatric malignancies increased survival rates but also occurrence of treatment-related morbidities. Therefore, supportive care fulfills an increasingly important role. In planning development of guidelines with incorporation of shared decision making, we noticed that little is known about the needs and preferences of patients and their parents. Our goals were therefore to investigate (1) which supportive care topics patients and parents regard as most important and (2) the preferred role they wish to fulfill in decision making. This qualitative study consisted of three focus groups (two traditional, one online) with patients and parents of two Dutch pediatric oncology centers. Data were transcribed as simple verbatim and analyzed using thematic analysis. Eleven adolescent patients and 18 parents shared detailed views on various aspects of supportive care. Themes of major importance were communication between patient and physician (commitment, accessibility, proactive attitude of physicians), well-timed provision of information, and the suitability and accessibility of psychosocial care. In contrast to prioritized supportive care topics by medical professionals, somatic issues (e.g., febrile neutropenia) were infrequently addressed. Patients and parents preferred to be actively involved in decision making in selected topics, such as choice of analgesics and anti-emetics, but not in, e.g., choice of antibiotics. Children with cancer and parents were provided a valuable insight into their views regarding supportive care and shared decision making. These results have important implications towards improving supportive care, both in selecting topics for guideline development and incorporating preferences of patients and parents herein.

  17. Breaking down barriers: enabling care-by-parent in neonatal intensive care units in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Ying Li; Shoo Lee; Hua-Feng Yu; Xiang Y Ye; Ruth Warre; Xiang-Hong Liu; Jian-Hong Liu

    2017-01-01

    Background:Denying parents access to their infant in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) is a standard practice in most hospitals across China.Visitation is not usually permitted or may be strictly limited,and NICU care for most neonates is provided by health-care professionals with little participation of the parents.An exception to this rule is the level 2 "Room-In" ward in Qilu Children's Hospital,Shandong University,where parents have 24-hour access to their infants and participate in providing care.Methods:This retrospective cohort study compared the outcomes of infants who were admitted to the NICU and remained there throughout their stay (NICU-NICU group,n=428),admitted to the NICU and then transferred to the Room-In ward (NICU-RIn group,n=1018),or admitted straight to the Room-In ward (RIn only group,n=629).Results:There were no significant differences in the rates of nosocomial infection,bronchopulmonary dysplasia,intraventricular hemorrhage,and retinopathy of prematurity between the NICU-NICU and NICURIn groups.The rate of necrotizing enterocolitis was significantly lower in the NICU-RIn group (P=0.04),while weight gain and duration of hospital stay were significantly higher (both P<0.001).Rates of adverse outcomes were lower in RIn-only infants due to their low severity of illness on admission.Conclusions:Allowing parents access to their infant in the NICU is feasible and safe in China,and may result in improvements in infant outcomes.Further studies are required to generate stronger evidence that can inform changes to neonatal care in China.

  18. COMMUNITY HEALTH & PRIMARY HEALTH CARE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a public health challenge in developed countries and an emerging public health problem in developing ... and public health challenges in their immigrant countries. More so ..... The nutrition transition in Brazil. 46.

  19. COMMUNITY HEALTH & PRIMARY HEALTH CARE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    vaccine access, this will also make PCV widely available to parents who are already ... in Nigeria includes but not limited to the following; 1, immunization schedule of ... vaccines but also on the knowledge and attitude of immunization units in ...

  20. Racial differences in parental satisfaction with neonatal intensive care unit nursing care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, A E; D'Agostino, J A; Passarella, M; Lorch, S A

    2016-11-01

    Nurses provide parental support and education in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), but it is unknown if satisfaction and expectations about nursing care differ between racial groups. A prospective cohort was constructed of families with a premature infant presenting to primary care between 1 January 2010 and 1 January 2013 (N=249, 52% white, 42% black). Responses to questions about satisfaction with the NICU were analyzed in ATLAS.ti using the standard qualitative methodology. One hundred and twenty (48%) parents commented on nursing. Fifty-seven percent of the comments were positive, with black parents more negative (58%) compared with white parents (33%). Black parents were most dissatisfied with how nurses supported them, wanting compassionate and respectful communication. White parents were most dissatisfied with inconsistent nursing care and lack of education about their child. Racial differences were found in satisfaction and expectations with neonatal nursing care. Accounting for these differences will improve parental engagement during the NICU stay.

  1. Parental handling of fear in children with cancer; caring in the best interests of the child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderzén-Carlsson, Agneta; Kihlgren, Mona; Svantesson, Mia; Sorlie, Venke

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of how parents of children with cancer handle the fear in their children. Fifteen parents of 11 children participated in focus-group interviews. Data were analyzed by a phenomenological hermeneutical method. The results suggest that the parents' handling was equivalent with caring in the best interests of the child. This included striving for the security and well-being of the child up to a certain point where the parents instead used their authority to maintain the child's physical health rather than trying to prevent or relieve the child's fear. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Parental care influences leukocyte telomere length with gender specificity in parents and offsprings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enokido, Masanori; Suzuki, Akihito; Sadahiro, Ryoichi; Matsumoto, Yoshihiko; Kuwahata, Fumikazu; Takahashi, Nana; Goto, Kaoru; Otani, Koichi

    2014-10-03

    There have been several reports suggesting that adverse childhood experiences such as physical maltreatment and long institutionalization influence telomere length. However, there has been no study examining the relationship of telomere length with variations in parental rearing. In the present study, we examined the relationship of leukocyte telomere length with parental rearing in healthy subjects. The subjects were 581 unrelated healthy Japanese subjects. Perceived parental rearing was assessed by the Parental Bonding Instrument consisting of the care and protection factors. Leukocyte relative telomere length was determined by a quantitative real-time PCR method for a ratio of telomere/single copy gene. In the multiple regression analyses, shorter telomere length in males was related to lower scores of paternal care (β = 0.139, p care (β = 0.195, p parental care and telomere length which covers both lower and higher ends of parental care, and that the effects of parental care on telomere length are gender-specific in parents and offsprings.

  3. Parental care compromises feeding in the pumpkinseed ( Lepomis gibbosus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zięba, G.; Dukowska, M.; Przybylski, M.; Fox, M. G.; Smith, C.

    2018-04-01

    Providing parental care is potentially costly. Costs can arise through elevated energy expenditure or from an increased risk of mortality. A cost of parental care can also occur because a parent is compromised in their ability to forage. We used pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus, a fish with an alternative male mating strategy, to test whether parental males differed in their feeding in comparison with females and cuckolder males. To address this question, we examined the stomach contents of female, cuckolder male, and parental male pumpkinseed during the breeding season over an entire diel cycle. We showed that parental males had a lower total weight of food in their stomachs in comparison with females, while cuckolder males did not. Parental males also had a lower weight and number of chironomids in their stomachs. The temporal pattern of feeding of parental males diverged from that of females, and they had a lower probability of pupal chironomids in their stomachs, which implies spatial segregation in foraging. Parental males had a greater probability of conspecific eggs in their stomachs than females, while the probability of egg cannibalism did not differ between cuckolder males and females. Overall, these finding meet predictions in accordance with an assumption that parental care and territoriality can compromise feeding.

  4. Seeking a balance between employment and the care of an ageing parent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldh, Ann Catrine; Carlsson, Eva

    2011-06-01

    A growing number of middle-aged people are engaged in informal care of their parents while employed. To provide support as employers, co-workers or staff, health care professionals need insight into the experiences of people managing these responsibilities. To elucidate the experience of providing informal care to an ageing parent while managing the responsibilities of a working life. Narrative interviews were performed with 11 persons with experience of the phenomenon. Transcribed interviews were analysed with phenomenological hermeneutics. Informed consent was given prior to the interviews. The study was approved by a research ethics committee. Providing informal care to an ageing parent while also pursuing a working life implies seeking balance: a balance between providing support to the parent's needs and one's responsibilities at work. Being employed supports this balance as it provides both fulfilment and refuge. Being capable of managing both roles grants a sense of satisfaction, supporting one's sense of balance in life. The balance can be supported by sharing the responsibility of caring for the ageing parent with others. Despite perceived saturation and an effort to provide for the possibility to consider internal consistency, the findings should be considered as a contribution to the understanding of the phenomenon, as experienced by individuals in their life world. It is essential to recognise the impact that providing care for an ageing parent may have on the lives of a growing number of people, particularly if they have employment responsibilities. Acknowledgement by others supports one's ability to attain balance; as co-workers and managers, we can acknowledge the efforts of an informal caregiver and as health care staff recognise the valuable contribution made by people in mid-life who provide informal care for their ageing parents. © 2010 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences © 2010 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  5. Multimedia based health information to parents in a pediatric acute ward: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botngård, Anja; Skranes, Lars P; Skranes, Jon; Døllner, Henrik

    2013-12-01

    To determine whether multimedia based health information presented to parents of children with breathing difficulties in a pediatric acute ward, is more effective than verbal information, to reduce parental anxiety and increase satisfaction. This randomized controlled trial was conducted in a pediatric acute ward in Norway, from January to March 2011. Parents were randomly assigned to a multimedia intervention (n=53), or verbal health information (n=48). Primary outcome measure was parental anxiety, and secondary outcome measures were parental satisfaction with nursing care and health information. Parental anxiety decreased from arrival to discharge within both groups. At discharge the anxiety levels in the intervention group were no lower than in the control group. There was no difference in satisfaction with nursing care between the groups, but parents in the intervention group reported higher satisfaction with the health information given in the acute ward (p=.005). Multimedia based health information did not reduce anxiety more than verbal information, among parents to children with breathing difficulties. However, after discharge the parents were more satisfied with the multimedia approach. More research is needed to recommend the use of multimedia based information as a routine to parents in pediatric emergency care. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison of relative and non-relative adoptive parent health status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foli, Karen J; Lim, Eunjung; Sands, Laura P

    2015-03-01

    Across the United States, kinship parents, extended family members and close friends, render care to the 2.7 million children who have been removed from their birth parents' care. However, differences between relative and non-relative parents reported health statuses have not been explored. The National Survey of Adoptive Parents data were used to investigate the health status of relative (n = 469) and non-relative (n = 1,599) adoptive parents. Perceived happiness in the parent-child relationship and the parents' ability to cope appear to affect parental health status. Only non-related mothers of children younger than 6 years reported better emotional health than those mothers who were related to their children. With this exception, and despite caring for children who have a greater likelihood of abuse, neglect, and exposure to drugs and alcohol prior to birth, the reported health statuses of relative parents did not differ from non-relative parents. © The Author(s) 2013.

  7. Reforming the health care system: implications for health care marketers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrochuk, M A; Javalgi, R G

    1996-01-01

    Health care reform has become the dominant domestic policy issue in the United States. President Clinton, and the Democratic leaders in the House and Senate have all proposed legislation to reform the system. Regardless of the plan which is ultimately enacted, health care delivery will be radically changed. Health care marketers, given their perspective, have a unique opportunity to ensure their own institutions' success. Organizational, managerial, and marketing strategies can be employed to deal with the changes which will occur. Marketers can utilize personal strategies to remain proactive and successful during an era of health care reform. As outlined in this article, responding to the health care reform changes requires strategic urgency and action. However, the strategies proposed are practical regardless of the version of health care reform legislation which is ultimately enacted.

  8. Differential Susceptibility to Parenting and Quality Child Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluess, Michael; Belsky, Jay

    2010-01-01

    Research on differential susceptibility to rearing suggests that infants with difficult temperaments are disproportionately affected by parenting and child care quality, but a major U.S. child care study raises questions as to whether quality of care influences social adjustment. One thousand three hundred sixty-four American children from…

  9. Parents and the High Cost of Child Care: 2013 Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Stephen; Kendall, Rosemary

    2013-01-01

    Every week in the United States, nearly 11 million children younger than age 5 are in some type of child care arrangement. On average, these children spend 36 hours a week in child care. While parents are children's first and most important teachers, child care programs provide early learning for millions of young children daily, having a profound…

  10. COMMUNITY HEALTH & PRIMARY HEALTH CARE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dearth of information on patient satisfaction with HIV/AIDS care. This study sought ... with the doctor. Satisfaction rates were: 94.9% technical quality, ... of the delivery of care into several dimensions of contributed by studies carried out in Western. 14 ... efficiency of services as an index of patient needs of its clients. Secondly ...

  11. Engaging men in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcher, Greg

    2009-03-01

    Engaging men in health care involves a multifaceted approach that has as its main principle the recognition that men consume health care differently to women. This article identifies barriers to engaging men in health care and offers potential and existing solutions to overcome these barriers in a range of health care settings. The concept of multiple masculinities recognises that not all men can be engaged via a particular technique or strategy. The perception that men are disinterested in their health is challenged and a range of approaches discussed, both in the community and in health care facilities. In the general practice setting opportunities exist for the engagement of men at the reception desk and waiting room, as well as during the consultation. Use of the workplace in engaging men is discussed. Future activities to build the capacity of health care providers to better engage men are identified and the role of policy and program development is addressed.

  12. Stress and coping of parents caring for a child with mitochondrial disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senger, Brenda A; Ward, Linda D; Barbosa-Leiker, Celestina; Bindler, Ruth C

    2016-02-01

    Mitochondrial disease comprises a group of rare, genetic, life-limiting, neurodegenerative disorders known to affect children. Little is known about disease-related challenges, parental stress, and coping when caring for a child with a mitochondrial disease. This study explored disease-related characteristics and parental stressors and coping behaviors related to caring for a child with mitochondrial disease. Internet surveys were posted on known mitochondrial disease websites for parent completion. Surveys included demographic items and two questionnaires: Coping Inventory for Parents (CHIP) and Pediatric Inventory for Parents (PIP). Descriptive data were collected and correlations used to determine relationships between parenting stress, coping, and demographic variables. The majority of participants (n=231) were mothers (95%) of children with mitochondrial disease around the age of 10 years (M=9.85). On average, children had 6 organs involved (M=6.02) and saw 7 different specialists (M=7.49); 61% were hospitalized in the past year. Significant correlations (pstress and parent age, parent income, parent education, child age, child age at diagnosis, presence of developmental delays, number of hospitalizations, number of medical visits, number of organs involved, and number of specialists seen. Significant correlations were also found between parenting stress and coping behaviors such as family integration, social support and understanding health care. The ability to identify disease-related challenges, stressors, and coping strategies in parents of children with mitochondrial disease is novel and can assist nurses to provide disease-sensitive, family-focused care and improve child health outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Plasticity of parental care under the risk of predation: how much should parents reduce care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Thomas E.

    2013-01-01

    Predation can be an important agent of natural selection shaping parental care behaviours, and can also favour behavioural plasticity. Parent birds often decrease the rate that they visit the nest to provision offspring when perceived risk is high. Yet, the plasticity of such responses may differ among species as a function of either their relative risk of predation, or the mean rate of provisioning. Here, we report parental provisioning responses to experimental increases in the perceived risk of predation. We tested responses of 10 species of bird in north temperate Arizona and subtropical Argentina that differed in their ambient risk of predation. All species decreased provisioning rates in response to the nest predator but not to a control. However, provisioning rates decreased more in species that had greater ambient risk of predation on natural nests. These results support theoretical predictions that the extent of plasticity of a trait that is sensitive to nest predation risk should vary among species in accordance with predation risk.

  14. Parents' Voices Supporting Music Therapy within Pediatric Palliative Care

    OpenAIRE

    Kathryn Lindenfelser

    2005-01-01

    It has been my experience that parents are willing and open to express their voices to promote and advocate for music therapy services for their terminally ill children. By listening to parents' voices when providing care for terminally ill children, much can be done to ease the suffering of children and families at the end of life (Widger & Wilkins, 2004). My music therapy masters research at the University of Melbourne with Dr. Katrina McFerran will investigate bereaved parents' experie...

  15. Parental care buffers against inbreeding depression in burying beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilakouta, Natalie; Jamieson, Seonaidh; Moorad, Jacob A; Smiseth, Per T

    2015-06-30

    When relatives mate, their inbred offspring often suffer a reduction in fitness-related traits known as "inbreeding depression." There is mounting evidence that inbreeding depression can be exacerbated by environmental stresses such as starvation, predation, parasitism, and competition. Parental care may play an important role as a buffer against inbreeding depression in the offspring by alleviating these environmental stresses. Here, we examine the effect of parental care on the fitness costs of inbreeding in the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides, an insect with facultative parental care. We used a 2 × 2 factorial design with the following factors: (i) the presence or absence of a caring female parent during larval development and (ii) inbred or outbred offspring. We examined the joint influence of maternal care and inbreeding status on fitness-related offspring traits to test the hypothesis that maternal care improves the performance of inbred offspring more than that of outbred offspring. Indeed, the female's presence led to a higher increase in larval survival in inbred than in outbred broods. Receiving care at the larval stage also increased the lifespan of inbred but not outbred adults, suggesting that the beneficial buffering effects of maternal care can persist long after the offspring have become independent. Our results show that parental care has the potential to moderate the severity of inbreeding depression, which in turn may favor inbreeding tolerance and influence the evolution of mating systems and other inbreeding-avoidance mechanisms.

  16. The importance of parents in the neonatal intensive care units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hercília Guimarães

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The premature birth and the hospitalization in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU are potential risk factors for the development and behavior of the newborn, as has been shown in recent studies. Premature birth of an infant is a distressing event for the family. Several feelings are experienced by parents during hospitalization of their baby in the NICU. Feelings of guilt, rejection, stress and anxiety are common. Also the attachment processes have the potential to be disrupted or delayed as a result of the initial separation of the premature newborn and the mother after the admission to the NICU. Added to these difficulties, there is the distortion of infant’s “ideal image”, created by the family, in contrast with the real image of the preterm. This relationship-based family-centered approach, the Neonatal Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program (NIDCAP, promotes the idea that infants and their families are collaborators in developing an individualized program to maximize physical, mental, and emotional growth and health and to improve long-term outcomes for the high risk newborns. The presence of parents in NICUs and their involvement caring their babies, in a family centered care philosophy, is vital to improve the outcome of their infants and the relationships within each family. Proceedings of the 11th International Workshop on Neonatology and Satellite Meetings · Cagliari (Italy · October 26th-31st, 2015 · From the womb to the adultGuest Editors: Vassilios Fanos (Cagliari, Italy, Michele Mussap (Genoa, Italy, Antonio Del Vecchio (Bari, Italy, Bo Sun (Shanghai, China, Dorret I. Boomsma (Amsterdam, the Netherlands, Gavino Faa (Cagliari, Italy, Antonio Giordano (Philadelphia, USA

  17. Roots of Empathy: responsive parenting, caring societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Mary

    2003-12-01

    What is common in aggression and in abusive/neglectful parenting is low levels of empathy. Fostering empathy--the ability to identify with another person's feelings--can serve as an antidote to aggression and is crucial to good parenting. Poor parenting and aggression cut across all socioeconomic levels of the community and, as such, empathy needs to be fostered in all children. During the period of rapid brain development, adversity has a devastating impact on the baby's developing brain. Repeated experiences of stress are hardwired into the brain, creating damaging pathways. Risk factors such as domestic violence, child abuse and neglect, maternal depression, maternal addictions, and poverty are not just additive to the vulnerable developing brain; they are multiplicative in their impact. The parent is the baby's lifeline, mitigating stress for them and helping them to learn to regulate their emotions. The impact of poor parenting on a child's life is profound, resulting in insecure attachments which lead to a spectrum of inadequate coping mechanisms, poor emotional regulation, diminished learning potential and low competence. Responsive and nurturing parenting is the key to optimal early childhood development; it allows the young brain to develop in a way that is less aggressive and more emotionally stable, social and empathic. Good early childhood development leads to good human development. We must match our investment where the opportunity is most ripe--building parenting capacity. The 'Roots of Empathy' program offers real hope in breaking the intergenerational transference of poor parenting and violence.

  18. Accountability in Health Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrangbæk, Karsten; Byrkjeflot, Haldor

    2016-01-01

    The debate on accountability within the public sector has been lively in the past decade. Significant progress has been made in developing conceptual frameworks and typologies for characterizing different features and functions of accountability. However, there is a lack of sector specific...... adjustment of such frameworks. In this article we present a framework for analyzing accountability within health care. The paper makes use of the concept of "accountability regime" to signify the combination of different accountability forms, directions and functions at any given point in time. We show...... that reforms can introduce new forms of accountability, change existing accountability relations or change the relative importance of different accountability forms. They may also change the dominant direction and shift the balance between different functions of accountability. We further suggest...

  19. Federalism and Health Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Alan Tarr

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available President Barack Obama proposed a major overhaul of the American healthsystem, and in 2010 the U.S. Congress enacted his proposal, the PatientProtection and Affordable Care Act. Opponents of the Act challenged itsconstitutionality in federal court, claiming that it exceeds the powers grantedto the federal government under the Commerce Clause and the NecessaryProper Clause of the federal Constitution. Some courts have upheldthe law, but others have agreed with the critics, in particular ruling thatthe provision requiring citizens to buy health insurance is unconstitutional.Eventually the U.S. Supreme Court will rule on the issue. This article tracesthe controversy, surveys the interpretation of pertinent constitutional provisionsin past cases, analyzes the constitutional arguments presented byproponents and opponents of the Act, and concludes that the Act is constitutional.

  20. Occupational Health for Health Care Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health care workers are exposed to many job hazards. These can include Infections Needle injuries Back injuries ... prevention practices. They can reduce your risk of health problems. Use protective equipment, follow infection control guidelines, ...

  1. Parental perception of neonatal intensive care in public sector ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Little is known about parental experience and decision making with regard to premature infants requiring intensive care in developing countries. We undertook this study to characterise parents' experience of physician counselling and their role in making life-support decisions for very low-birth-weight (VLBW) ...

  2. COMMUNITY HEALTH & PRIMARY HEALTH CARE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2Department of Community Health, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria. ... Mental morbidity is a public health problem that can lead to a great burden of disability in the community. ..... community study in Sao Paulo, Brazil where.

  3. Health of Aging Parents and Childless Individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kendig, Hal; Dykstra, Pearl A.; Gaalen, Ruben I. van; Melkas, Tuula

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews and presents research findings on the relationships between parenthood and health over the life span. Existing research shows lacunae. The links between reproductive behavior and longevity generally focus on family size rather than contrasting parents and nonparents. Studies of

  4. [The theory of dependent-care--a conceptual framework for assessing, supporting, and promoting parental competencies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holoch, Elisabeth

    2010-02-01

    Parental competencies have influence on the professional health care needs of a child and its caregivers. One reason for this is the influence of parental competencies on the healthy development of the child. This applies especially to infants and young children. In order to develop their inborn abilities to regulate themselves and their behaviour, infants and young children are dependent on the perception of and appropriate response to their behaviour by the persons they are most closely attached to. The differentiation of self-regulating abilities is a precondition for a healthy development. The current rise of sleeping and feeding disorders, as well as interaction problems among infants and young children, indicates that parents are increasingly dependent on support in the perception and development of their parental competencies. Paediatric nurses can make an important contribution to this, where a concept of parental competencies, defined by nursing professionals, is available. The Theory of Dependent-Care and especially the concept of Dependent-Care Agency will be presented in this paper. It will be examined how they can provide a theoretical framework for the systematic assessment, support, and promotion of parental competencies by paediatric nurses. To conclude, issues for further investigation of parental Dependent-Care Agency and the necessity for a more detailed conceptualisation of the Theory of Dependent-Care will be demonstrated.

  5. Professionals’ opinions on support for people with chronic illness in their roles as parents in mental or in general health care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ende, P.C.; Korevaar, E.L.; van Busschbach, J.T.; van Weeghel, J.

    2017-01-01

    Chronic illness affects a person’s wellbeing and affects the ability to perform the social roles of spouse or parent. When working with people with long-lasting mental or somatic illnesses, social workers and nurses are confronted with needs for support, especially for parents. Although programs are

  6. Professionals’ opinions on support for people with chronic illness in their roles as parents in mental or in general health care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Ende, P.C.; Korevaar, L.; Van Busschbach, J.T.; Van Weeghel, J.

    Chronic illness affects a person’s wellbeing and affects the ability to perform the social roles of spouse or parent. When working with people with long-lasting mental or somatic illnesses, social workers and nurses are confronted with needs for support, especially for parents. Although programs are

  7. "I Am the Only Child of my Parents:" Perspectives on Future Elder Care for Parents among Chinese only-Children Living overseas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Tianhan; Koropeckyj-Cox, Tanya

    2016-09-01

    The 1979 One-Child Policy in China created a generation of only children, leading to increased elder care dilemmas for this generation and its aging parents, particularly for young adults studying or working abroad. The current study used in-depth, semi-structured interviews with Chinese young adults who were currently studying or working in Montreal, Canada (N = 20), whose parents still lived in China. The interviews focused on the following topics: elder care patterns of respondents' grandparents; family values and expectations; perceptions of professional long-term care institutions (in China and Canada); and future plans for taking care of aging parents. Respondents described their grandparents' care as following traditional elder care patterns with multiple familial caregivers, which they appreciated as a positive model that defined their own obligations towards parents. Respondents reported being very close to their parents. Some planned to settle down in Canada and bring their parents, others planned to go back to China. Citing the tradition of filial piety, they expected to take care of their parents in the future, but they also considered the dilemmas involved in caring for aging parents without siblings to share the task, potentially requiring them to find compromises between their personal lives and caring for older parents. Those who planned to settle in Canada raised additional concerns about the challenges of bringing over their parents, including acculturation and access to and communication with health and long-term care providers. The results are discussed in the context of contemporary demographic, economic, and policy concerns about aging, family care, and immigration.

  8. Health Care Provider Value Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Kawczynski , Lukasz; Taisch , Marco

    2009-01-01

    International audience; In every society there is a need for an efficient health care system. This paper aims to propose a value definition and a value chain model within the health care. In order to define value patients and experts were surveyed. The proposed definition offers a complex way of looking at the value within the health care sector. The proposal of the value chain model is anticipated with a value stream mapping activities and experts interviews. Proposed model offers consistent...

  9. Parent & Child Perceptions of Child Health after Sibling Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Rosa M; Brooten, Dorothy; Youngblut, JoAnne M

    Understanding children's health after a sibling's death and what factors may affect it is important for treatment and clinical care. This study compared children's and their parents' perceptions of children's health and identified relationships of children's age, gender, race/ethnicity, anxiety, and depression and sibling's cause of death to these perceptions at 2 and 4 months after sibling death. 64 children and 48 parents rated the child's health "now" and "now vs before" the sibling's death in an ICU or ER or at home shortly after withdrawal of life-prolonging technology. Children completed the Child Depression Inventory and Spence Children's Anxiety Scale. Sibling cause of death was collected from hospital records. At 2 and 4 months, 45% to 54% of mothers' and 53% to 84% of fathers' ratings of their child's health "now" were higher than their children's ratings. Child health ratings were lower for: children with greater depression; fathers whose children reported greater anxiety; mothers whose child died of a chronic condition. Children's ratings of their health "now vs before" their sibling's death did not differ significantly from mothers' or fathers' ratings at 2 or 4 months. Black fathers were more likely to rate the child's health better "now vs before" the death; there were no significant differences by child gender and cause of death in child's health "now vs before" the death. Children's responses to a sibling's death may not be visually apparent or become known by asking parents. Parents often perceive their children as healthier than children perceive themselves at 2 and 4 months after sibling death, so talking with children separately is important. Children's perceptions of their health may be influenced by depression, fathers' perceptions by children's anxiety, and mother's perceptions by the cause of sibling death.

  10. Health and Disability: Partnerships in Health Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Jane; McDonald, Rachael

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite awareness of the health inequalities experienced by people with intellectual disability, their health status remains poor. Inequalities in health outcomes are manifest in higher morbidity and rates of premature death. Contributing factors include the barriers encountered in accessing and receiving high-quality health care.…

  11. National Health-Care Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-24

    and pre/ post partum care during delivery. America should select measures that reflect the health-care goals of the nation. As an example, the Healthy...accidents (8) More than 50% of patients with diabetes, hypertension, tobacco addiction, hyperlipidemia, congestive heart failure, asthma, depression ...reflect the cumulative efforts of different types of individual care. For example, infant mortality is a reflection of pre-natal care, post - natal care

  12. Optimizing Health Care Environmental Hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carling, Philip C

    2016-09-01

    This article presents a review and perspectives on aspects of optimizing health care environmental hygiene. The topics covered include the epidemiology of environmental surface contamination, a discussion of cleaning health care patient area surfaces, an overview of disinfecting health care surfaces, an overview of challenges in monitoring cleaning versus cleanliness, a description of an integrated approach to environmental hygiene and hand hygiene as interrelated disciplines, and an overview of the research opportunities and challenges related to health care environmental hygiene. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. On ethical (in)decisions experienced by parents of infants in neonatal intensive care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Manen, Michael A

    2014-02-01

    This study was a phenomenological investigation of ethical decisions experienced by parents of newborns in neonatal intensive care. I explore the lived meanings of thematic events that speak to the variable ways that ethical situations may be experienced: a decision that was never a choice; a decision as looking for a way out; a decision as thinking and feeling oneself through the consequences; a decision as indecision; and a decision as something that one falls into. The concluding recommendations spell out the need for understanding the experiences of parents whose children require medical care and underscore the tactful sensitivities required of the health care team during moral-ethical decision making.

  14. Taxonomic chauvinism revisited: insight from parental care research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary R Stahlschmidt

    Full Text Available Parental care (any non-genetic contribution by a parent that appears likely to increase the fitness of its offspring is a widespread trait exhibited by a broad range of animal taxa. In addition to influencing the fitness of parent(s and offspring, parental care may be inextricably involved in other evolutionary processes, such as sexual selection and the evolution of endothermy. Yet, recent work has demonstrated that bias related to taxonomy is prevalent across many biological disciplines, and research in parental care may be similarly burdened. Thus, I used parental care articles published in six leading journals of fundamental behavioral sciences (Animal Behaviour, Behavioral Ecology, Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, Ethology, Hormones and Behavior, and Physiology & Behavior from 2001-2010 (n = 712 to examine the year-to-year dynamics of two types of bias related to taxonomy across animals: (1 taxonomic bias, which exists when research output is not proportional to the frequency of organisms in nature, and (2 taxonomic citation bias, which is a proxy for the breadth of a given article-specifically, the proportion of articles cited that refer solely to the studied taxon. I demonstrate that research on birds likely represents a disproportionate amount of parental care research and, thus, exhibits taxonomic bias. Parental care research on birds and mammals also refers to a relatively narrow range of taxonomic groups when discussing its context and, thus, exhibits taxonomic citation bias. Further, the levels of taxonomic bias and taxonomic citation bias have not declined over the past decade despite cautionary messages about similar bias in related disciplines--in fact, taxonomic bias may have increased. As in Bonnet et al. (2002, my results should not be interpreted as evidence of an 'ornithological Mafia' conspiring to suppress other taxonomic groups. Rather, I generate several rational hypotheses to determine why bias persists and to

  15. Taxonomic chauvinism revisited: insight from parental care research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahlschmidt, Zachary R

    2011-01-01

    Parental care (any non-genetic contribution by a parent that appears likely to increase the fitness of its offspring) is a widespread trait exhibited by a broad range of animal taxa. In addition to influencing the fitness of parent(s) and offspring, parental care may be inextricably involved in other evolutionary processes, such as sexual selection and the evolution of endothermy. Yet, recent work has demonstrated that bias related to taxonomy is prevalent across many biological disciplines, and research in parental care may be similarly burdened. Thus, I used parental care articles published in six leading journals of fundamental behavioral sciences (Animal Behaviour, Behavioral Ecology, Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, Ethology, Hormones and Behavior, and Physiology & Behavior) from 2001-2010 (n = 712) to examine the year-to-year dynamics of two types of bias related to taxonomy across animals: (1) taxonomic bias, which exists when research output is not proportional to the frequency of organisms in nature, and (2) taxonomic citation bias, which is a proxy for the breadth of a given article-specifically, the proportion of articles cited that refer solely to the studied taxon. I demonstrate that research on birds likely represents a disproportionate amount of parental care research and, thus, exhibits taxonomic bias. Parental care research on birds and mammals also refers to a relatively narrow range of taxonomic groups when discussing its context and, thus, exhibits taxonomic citation bias. Further, the levels of taxonomic bias and taxonomic citation bias have not declined over the past decade despite cautionary messages about similar bias in related disciplines--in fact, taxonomic bias may have increased. As in Bonnet et al. (2002), my results should not be interpreted as evidence of an 'ornithological Mafia' conspiring to suppress other taxonomic groups. Rather, I generate several rational hypotheses to determine why bias persists and to guide future

  16. Communicating with parents in neonatal intensive care units: The impact on parental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enke, Christian; Oliva Y Hausmann, Andrés; Miedaner, Felix; Roth, Bernhard; Woopen, Christiane

    2017-04-01

    To analyse stress in parents whose infants with very low birth weight have just concluded high-level care in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). More specifically, we aimed 1) to identify groups of parents in the NICU who are particularly at risk of experiencing stress, and 2) to explore the effects of clinical staffś communication on parental stress. Our multi-center-study evaluated views from 1277 parents about care for 923 infants in 66 German NICUs. Answers were linked with separately evaluated medical outcomes of the infants. Separate generalised mixed models estimated the influence of personal, medical and communication-related characteristics on specific parental stress. Parents of a younger age and those of infants with severe prognoses were more likely to experience stress. While empathetic communication as one aspect of staffś communication was shown as appropriate in reducing parental stress, an initial introduction and the quantity of information were only slightly associated with lower levels of stress. Results provide evidence for the need to involve parents empathetically from the beginning of their child's stay in the NICU. Staff in the NICU should communicate empathetically and help to reduce stress in parents particularly at risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The influence of parental encouragement and caring about healthy eating on children's diet quality and body weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faught, Erin; Vander Ploeg, Kerry; Chu, Yen Li; Storey, Kate; Veugelers, Paul J

    2016-04-01

    In order to mitigate childhood obesity, evidence on what influences children's health behaviours is needed to inform new health promotion strategies. The present study investigated the association between parental practices and their child's diet and body weight status. Grade 5 students and their parents completed health surveys. Parents were asked how much they 'encourage their child to eat healthy foods' and how much they 'personally care about healthy eating'. Children's diet quality and vegetable and fruit intake were assessed using an FFQ. Children's heights and weights were measured to determine body weight status. Mixed-effects regression models were used to determine the influence of parental responses on the outcomes of interest. Elementary schools across the province of Alberta, Canada. Grade 5 students (aged 10 and 11 years; n 8388) and their parent(s). Most parents reported caring about healthy eating and encouraging their child to eat healthy foods at least quite a lot. Children whose parents who cared or encouraged 'very much' compared with 'quite a lot' were more likely have better diet quality and were less likely to be overweight. Children whose parents both cared and encouraged 'very much' compared with 'quite a lot' scored an average of 2·06 points higher on the diet quality index (β=2·06; 95 % CI 1·45, 2·66). Health promotion strategies that aim for a high level of parental interest and encouragement of their children to eat healthy foods may improve diet quality and prevent overweight among children.

  18. State Medicaid Expansions for Parents Led to Increased Coverage and Prenatal Care Utilization among Pregnant Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wherry, Laura R

    2017-12-28

    To evaluate impacts of state Medicaid expansions for low-income parents on the health insurance coverage, pregnancy intention, and use of prenatal care among mothers who became pregnant. Person-level data for women with a live birth from the 1997-2012 Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System. The sample was restricted to women who were already parents using information on previous live births and combined with information on state Medicaid policies for low-income parents. I used a measure of expanded generosity of state Medicaid eligibility for low-income parents to estimate changes in health insurance, pregnancy intention, and prenatal care for pregnant mothers associated with Medicaid expansion. I found an increase in prepregnancy health insurance coverage and coverage during pregnancy among pregnant mothers, as well as earlier initiation of prenatal care, associated with the expansions. Among pregnant mothers with less education, I found an increase in the adequacy of prenatal care utilization. Expanded Medicaid coverage for low-income adults has the potential to increase a woman's health insurance coverage prior to pregnancy, as well as her insurance coverage and medical care receipt during pregnancy. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  19. Improving nutrition and physical activity in child care: what parents recommend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Sara E; Haines, Jess; Ball, Sarah C; Ward, Dianne S

    2008-11-01

    A large percentage of children in the United States spend part of their day in out-of-home child care. As rates of obesity continue to rise, especially among young children, child care has become a focus for nutrition and physical activity intervention. Parental involvement is an important component of these efforts. During summer 2006, parents of children in child care were surveyed to better understand their perceived quality of meals, snacks, and physical activity at the child-care center, and their recommendations for improvement. Parents of children who attended 94 licensed child-care centers in North Carolina were invited to complete a brief survey of perceived quality of meals, snacks, and physical activity at their centers using close-ended questions. Open-ended questions were used to identify suggestions for improvement. Five hundred eight parents from 91 child-care centers completed the questionnaire. The majority of parents reported quality of meals and snacks at the center as either excellent (30% meals, 27% snacks) or good (42% meals, 46% snacks). The main recommendations for improving meals and snacks were to increase fruits and vegetables and provide a variety of healthful foods. The majority of parents categorized the quality of physical activity at the center as excellent (36%) or good (46%), and suggested more structured, outdoor activities for children. Findings from this study provide insight into key areas of concern for parents regarding the nutrition and activity environment of child-care centers. This information may be used to create or modify interventions or policies and to help motivate parents to become advocates for change in child care.

  20. Sleep deprivation in parents caring for children with complex needs at home: a mixed methods systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Damhnat; Bull, Rosalind; Winzenberg, Tania

    2015-02-01

    A significant number of children with a range of complex conditions and health care needs are being cared for by parents in the home environment. This mixed methods systematic review aimed to determine the amount of sleep obtained by these parents and the extent to which the child-related overnight health or care needs affected parental sleep experience and daily functioning. Summary statistics were not able to be determined due to the heterogeneity of included studies, but the common themes that emerged are that parents of children with complex needs experience sleep deprivation that can be both relentless and draining and affects the parents themselves and their relationships. The degree of sleep deprivation varies by diagnosis, but a key contributing factor is the need for parents to be vigilant at night. Of particular importance to health care professionals is the inadequate overnight support provided to parents of children with complex needs, potentially placing these parents at risk of poorer health outcomes associated with sleep deprivation and disturbance. This needs to be addressed to enable parents to remain well and continue to provide the care that their child and family require. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Health care needs of children with Tourette syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitsko, Rebecca H; Danielson, Melissa; King, Michael; Visser, Susanna N; Scahill, Lawrence; Perou, Ruth

    2013-12-01

    To document the impact of Tourette syndrome on the health care needs of children and access to health care among youth with Tourette syndrome, parent-reported data from the 2007-2008 National Survey of Children's Health were analyzed. Children with Tourette syndrome had more co-occurring mental disorders than children with asthma or children without Tourette syndrome or asthma and had health care needs that were equal to or greater than children with asthma (no Tourette syndrome) or children with neither asthma nor Tourette syndrome. Health care needs were greatest among children with Tourette syndrome and co-occurring mental disorders, and these children were least likely to receive effective care coordination. Addressing co-occurring conditions may improve the health and well-being of children with Tourette syndrome. Strategies such as integration of behavioral health and primary care may be needed to improve care coordination.

  2. Multipurpose Health Care Telemedicine System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kyriacou, E

    2001-01-01

    .... Ambulances, Rural Health Centers (RHC) or other remote health location, Ships navigating in wide seas and Airplanes in flight are common examples of possible emergency sites, while critical care telemetry, and telemedicine home follow-ups...

  3. Parental perspectives regarding primary-care weight-management strategies for school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turer, Christy Boling; Mehta, Megha; Durante, Richard; Wazni, Fatima; Flores, Glenn

    2016-04-01

    To identify parental perspectives regarding weight-management strategies for school-age children, focus groups were conducted of parents of overweight and obese (body mass index ≥ 85th percentile) 6-12-year-old children recruited from primary-care clinics. Questions focused on the role of the primary-care provider, effective components of weight-management strategies and feasibility of specific dietary strategies. Focus groups were recorded, transcribed and analysed using margin coding and grounded theory. Six focus groups were held. The mean age (in years) for parents was 32, and for children, eight; 44% of participants were Latino, 33%, African-American and 23%, white. Parents' recommendations on the primary-care provider's role in weight management included monitoring weight, providing guidance regarding health risks and lifestyle changes, consistent follow-up and using discretion during weight discussions. Weight-management components identified as key included emphasising healthy lifestyles and enjoyment, small changes to routines and parental role modelling. Parents prefer guidance regarding healthy dietary practices rather than specific weight-loss diets, but identified principles that could enhance the acceptability of these diets. For dietary guidance to be feasible, parents recommended easy-to-follow instructions and emphasising servings over counting calories. Effective weight-management strategies identified by parents include primary-care provider engagement in weight management, simple instructions regarding healthy lifestyle changes, parental involvement and deemphasising specific weight-loss diets. These findings may prove useful in developing primary-care weight-management strategies for children that maximise parental acceptance. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Recollections of parental behaviour, adult attachment and mental health: mediating and moderating effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittleman, M G; Klein, M H; Smider, N A; Essex, M J

    1998-11-01

    Attachment theory posits links between early experiences with parents, adult relationships and adult mental health, but does not specify whether these are independent, mediating, or moderating effects. Associations of parent's behaviour on the Parental Bonding Instrument, adult attachment styles and three dimensions of mental health were investigated in a large sample of women and men. Men and women with secure styles recalled higher levels of care from both parents than those with fearful styles. Maternal and paternal control were more consistent predictors of increased distress for men than for women. Fearful and preoccupied adult styles were associated with higher levels of distress in both men and women. While adult styles had few mediating effects on the association of parental behaviour and mental health, interactions between the fearful style and parental variables suggested that this form of insecurity sometimes accentuated the impact of high parental care or low paternal control on mental health in both men and women; among women, however, the secure style seemed to buffer somewhat the negative effect of high parental control. Although the amount of variance explained by either parental behaviour or adult styles was modest, patterns of moderating effects of adult styles on associations between parental behaviour and mental health suggested that both continuity and discontinuity principles can be applied to understanding these links.

  5. Adult care transitioning for adolescents with special health care needs: a pivotal role for family centered care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Naomi N; Scal, Peter B

    2011-01-01

    To examine the relationship between having a usual source of care, family centered care, and transition counseling for adolescents with special health care needs. Data are from 18,198 parents/guardians, of youth aged 12-17 years, who participated in the 2005-2006 National Survey of Children With Special Health Care Needs. Linear and logistic regression models were used to define relationships between parent report of identification of a usual place and provider of medical care for their child and counseling on four transition issues: transfer to adult providers, review of future health needs, maintaining health insurance in adulthood, and youth taking responsibility for care. The direct mediating effect of family centered care was evaluated. Youth having a usual source of care (vs. not) were more likely to receive counseling on future health needs (47.4 vs. 33.6%, P needs (56.3 vs. 39.6%, P needs and 94.9% of the effect of a usual source of care on encouragement to take responsibility for care. Study findings support the development of health care delivery models focusing on family centered care to the same degree as other health care access issues.

  6. Care for children with special health care needs in a managed care system: a patient satisfaction survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, J M; Bravo, C J; Reyes, O

    2001-09-01

    In 1994 the government of Puerto Rico adopted a capitated managed health care system for the medically indigent. The new law has been implemented in most municipalities. A survey of children with special health care needs treated at a tertiary pediatric center under the capitated managed care system and the prior non-capitated system was analyzed using the Consumer Assessments of Health Plan Survey (CHAPS) instrument. One third of the patients who were under the new capitated managed care system were not satisfied with the medial care they were receiving. The parents of children with multidisciplinary conditions found it much more difficult to access care at the tertiary center. It took parents two years to learn to navigate within the capitated managed care system. Studies to measure outcome and health quality of children with special health care needs in capitated managed health care programs must be developed to learn how the potential benefits of managed care can be maximized and the potential harms minimized. The purpose of this study was to analyze the accessibility and satisfaction of caretakers of children with special health care needs under a capitated managed health care system.

  7. Testing the Feasibility of Skype and FaceTime Updates With Parents in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Elizabeth Gingell; Sherman, Jessica; Blackman, Amy; Sinkin, Robert A

    2015-07-01

    Effective provider-parent relationships are essential during critical illness when treatment decisions are complex, the environment is crowded and unfamiliar, and outcomes are uncertain. To evaluate the feasibility of daily Skype or FaceTime updates with parents of patients in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and to assess the intervention's potential for improving parent-provider relationships. A pre/post mixed-methods approach was used. NICU parent participants received daily Skype or FaceTime updates for 5 days and completed demographic and feasibility surveys. Parents also completed Penticuff's Parents' Understanding survey before and after the intervention. Nurses and physicians completed feasibility surveys after each update. Twenty-six parents were enrolled and 15 completed the study. More than 90% of providers and parents perceived the intervention to be reliable and easy to use, and about 80% of parents and providers rated video and audio quality as either excellent or good. Frozen screens and missed updates due to scheduling problems were challenges. Two of the 4 subscores on the Parents' Understanding survey improved significantly. Qualitative data favor the intervention as meaningful for parents. Real-time videoconferencing via Skype or FaceTime is feasible for providing updates for parents when they cannot be present in the NICU and can be used to include parents in bedside rounds. Videoconferencing updates may improve relationships between parents and the health care team. ©2015 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  8. Parental perspectives of screening for adverse childhood experiences in pediatric primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Anne-Marie; Szilagyi, Moira A; Jee, Sandra H; Manly, Jody T; Briggs, Rahil; Szilagyi, Peter G

    2018-03-01

    Pediatricians recognize a need to mitigate the negative impact that adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) can have on health and development. However, ACEs screening and interventions in primary care pediatrics may be inhibited by concerns about parental perceptions. We assessed parent perspectives of screening for ACEs in the pediatric primary care setting, to understand their views on the potential impact of their ACEs on their parenting and to identify opportunities for pediatric anticipatory guidance. We used purposive sampling to recruit parents of children <6 years receiving care at an urban, pediatric clinic. Semistructured questions guided 1:1 interviews that were later coded by multiple researchers to verify reliability. A thematic framework approach guided analysis and identified main themes and subthemes. We reached thematic saturation after 15 parent interviews, which consistently revealed 3 interrelated themes. First, parents strongly supported ACEs screening as a bridge to needed services, and they recommended using a trauma-sensitive, person-centered approach in pediatric practices. Second, parents understood the intergenerational impact of ACEs and expressed a desire to break the cycle of adversity. Finally, parents saw their child's pediatrician as a potential change-agent who could provide support to meet their parenting goals. Parents want to discuss their ACEs and receive help and guidance from pediatricians. Furthermore, they perceive their child's pediatrician as having an important role to play in meeting their parenting goals. It is important to ensure that pediatricians have the training, skills and familiarity with available resources to meet parental expectations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Paediatric home care in Tower Hamlets: a working partnership with parents.

    OpenAIRE

    Tatman, M A; Woodroffe, C; Kelly, P J; Harris, R J

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To describe the first two years of a paediatric home care service. DESIGN--Observational cross sectional study, 1989-91. SETTING--One inner London health district. PATIENTS--611 children referred to the service; 50 children selected from those referred during the first year, whose parents were interviewed and whose general practitioners were invited to complete a questionnaire. MAIN MEASURES--Description and costs of service; views of parents and general practitioners of selected ...

  10. Children referred for specialty care: Parental perspectives and preferences on referral, follow-up and primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Gary L; Turbitt, Erin; Kunin, Marina; Gafforini, Sarah; Sanci, Lena; Spike, Neil

    2017-01-01

    Over the last decade, there has been a dramatic increase in the number of referrals for paediatric subspecialty care and in overall appointments (new and review) to these doctors. We sought to determine the perspective of parents regarding their role in the initiation of referrals, their preferences for follow-up and the role of general practitioners (GPs) in care co-ordination. Self-completed survey in outpatient paediatric clinics (general paediatrics and four subspecialties) at two children's hospitals in Victoria. Recruitment targets were 100 parents in each of the general paediatrics clinics and 50 parents in each subspecialty clinic, equally divided between new and review visits (total n = 600). A total of 606 parents provided responses, with a decline rate of 9%. Many (52%) new patients were referred by a GP with the remainder from a variety of other sources. With specific regard to providing general care to their child, only 45% were completely confident in a GP. Most (76%) agreed with the statement that a GP would give their child a referral to see a paediatrician whenever they ask. Approximately, a third of parents reported that a GP rarely or never co-ordinates the care of their child with other doctors. Parents play an important role in both the initiation of paediatric specialty referrals and the patterns of follow-up care provided. Parent perspectives, preferences and motivations on both the referral process and the patterns for ongoing care are essential to develop policies that provide the best and most efficient care for children. © 2016 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  11. Using Primary Care Parenting Interventions to Improve Outcomes in Children with Developmental Disabilities: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra L. Tellegen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Parenting is central to the health and well-being of children. Children with developmental disabilities have been shown to be at increased risk of developing emotional and behavioral problems. Parent training programs are effective interventions for improving child behavior and family functioning. This paper describes the outcomes of a brief 4-session parenting intervention (Primary Care Stepping Stones Triple P targeting compliance and cooperative play skills in an 8-year-old girl with Asperger’s disorder and ADHD combined type. The intervention was associated with decreases in child behavior problems, increases in parenting confidence, and decreases in dysfunctional parenting styles. This paper demonstrates that low-intensity parenting interventions can lead to significant improvements in child behavior and family functioning. Such brief interventions are cost effective, can be widely disseminated, and have been designed to be delivered within primary health care settings. Pediatricians can play a key role in identifying parents in need of assistance and in helping them access evidence-based parenting interventions.

  12. Surrogate pregnancy: a guide for Canadian prenatal health care providers

    OpenAIRE

    Reilly, Dan R.

    2007-01-01

    Providing health care for a woman with a surrogate pregnancy involves unique challenges. Although the ethical debate surrounding surrogacy continues, Canada has banned commercial, but not altruistic, surrogacy. In the event of a custody dispute between a surrogate mother and the individual(s) intending to parent the child, it is unclear how Canadian courts would rule. The prenatal health care provider must take extra care to protect the autonomy and privacy rights of the surrogate. There is l...

  13. Health care economy II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beer, G.; Slovak, K.

    2008-01-01

    In Slovakia a strange approach to the purchase of health care equipment has not been limited to ophthalmology. Suspicious procurements are symptomatic. This applies also to specialisation where the correct spending of money can make the difference between life and death and can greatly effect the quality of life. More than a year ago, the Ministry of Health started the procurement of linear accelerators for oncology units in three hospitals. This plan placed on the market a potential order worth more than 11 million EUR without VAT. Three companies produce this complex equipment. The US company, Varian, the German company, Siemens, and the Swedish company, Elekta. Three suppliers, three hospitals. What a coincidence that each hospital - in Presov, Banska Bystrica and Bratislava - received only one envelope with an offer. Each from a different supplier. If anyone wanted to prove that the suppliers did not agree on a common approach, he would soon get into trouble. Each tender was organized by Pro-Tender, Kosice. The tender for the purchase of linear accelerators observed all the legal regulations. For each hospital there was only one offer and so it won. No-one complained, because each company got an order. Amedis Piestany will deliver a Varian product to Bystrica. In Narodny onkologicky ustav in Bratislava the winner was Transkontakt with Elekta products. And in Presov it was Ad Rem from Dunajska Streda that succeeded. The small company owned by a local vet joined up with Siemens and is now opening the doors of state-owned and regional hospitals to the company. (authors)

  14. COMMUNITY HEALTH & PRIMARY HEALTH CARE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Epidemiology and Community Health, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria .... exercise. All pupils in the selected school later done under the light ..... increased the likelihood of intestinal parasitic of Ilechukwu et al in which a ...

  15. COMMUNITY HEALTH & PRIMARY HEALTH CARE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subject and Methods: ... To the best of the authors' knowledge, ... increase in percentage of women visiting health categories were decided on because ..... leadership resulted in an empowering work Significant differences in the proportions of.

  16. COMMUNITY HEALTH & PRIMARY HEALTH CARE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Immunization is a proven cost-effective ... immunization programme and control of Vaccine was conducted to assess the ..... HFs where emphasis is on profit maximization revealed that the widespread ... World Health Organization (WHO).

  17. Child perceptions of parental care and overprotection in children with cancer and healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillery, Rachel; Long, Alanna; Phipps, Sean

    2014-06-01

    The primary aims of this study were to: (a) examine child perceptions of overprotection; and (b) explore how these perceptions relate to child health and adjustment. Children with a prior diagnosis of cancer (n = 205) and children without a history of serious illness (n = 76) reported on parental overprotective and caring behaviors. Children with cancer were recruited from one of four strata based on the elapsed time since their cancer diagnosis (1-6 months; 6-24 months; 2-5 years; >5 years) Children also reported on symptoms of depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress. Children with cancer did not differ from healthy children in their perceptions of parental care or overprotection. Child distress was more strongly related to perceptions of care and overprotection than child's health status. Children with cancer do not report their parents approach to care and protection differently than children without a cancer history. These findings mirror prior research examining parental perceptions of overprotection and suggest that, despite the challenges of parenting a child with serious illness, parental protection is not significantly altered.

  18. Child Poverty and the Health Care System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racine, Andrew D

    2016-04-01

    The persistence of child poverty in the United States and the pervasive health consequences it engenders present unique challenges to the health care system. Human capital theory and empirical observation suggest that the increased disease burden experienced by poor children originates from social conditions that provide suboptimal educational, nutritional, environmental, and parental inputs to good health. Faced with the resultant excess rates of pediatric morbidity, the US health care system has developed a variety of compensatory strategies. In the first instance, Medicaid, the federal-state governmental finance system designed to assure health insurance coverage for poor children, has increased its eligibility thresholds and expanded its benefits to allow greater access to health services for this vulnerable population. A second arm of response involves a gradual reengineering of health care delivery at the practice level, including the dissemination of patient-centered medical homes, the use of team-based approaches to care, and the expansion of care management beyond the practice to reach deep into the community. Third is a series of recent experiments involving the federal government and state Medicaid programs that includes payment reforms of various kinds, enhanced reporting, concentration on high-risk populations, and intensive case management. Fourth, pediatric practices have begun to make use of specific tools that permit the identification and referral of children facing social stresses arising from poverty. Finally, constituencies within the health care system participate in enhanced advocacy efforts to raise awareness of poverty as a distinct threat to child health and to press for public policy responses such as minimum wage increases, expansion of tax credits, paid family leave, universal preschool education, and other priorities focused on child poverty. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  19. Participation in paediatric perioperative care: 'what it means for parents'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöberg, Carina; Svedberg, Petra; Nygren, Jens M; Carlsson, Ing-Marie

    2017-12-01

    To explore what it means for parents to participate in their children's paediatric perioperative care. Allowing parents to participate in paediatric perioperative care can make a major difference for children in terms of their well-being, a decreased need for painkillers, fewer sleeping disorders and a more positive experience for both parties. The nurse anaesthetist should have a holistic view and develop a shared vision for the child, the parents and for themselves to perform successful paediatric perioperative care. Descriptive qualitative study. The study was conducted in 2014. Data were collected in 20 narrative interviews with 15 mothers and five fathers who had experience of participating in their child's paediatric perioperative day surgery. The analysis was carried out with qualitative content analysis to describe the variations, differences and similarities in the experiences. The analysis revealed a main category that describes that parental participation in the context of paediatric perioperative care in day surgery meant 'having strength to participate despite an increased vulnerability'. Three generic categories with additional subcategories explained what was essential for the parents to be able to preserve this strength and participate in their child's care despite their increased vulnerability. The generic categories were named, 'gaining information about what will happen', 'being seen as a resource' and 'gaining access to the environment'. Efforts should be made to improve parents' roles and opportunities to participate in paediatric perioperative care. Nurse anaesthetists have a crucial role in enabling parents' participation and need knowledge to develop strategies and nursing interventions that meet parents' needs. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Health care's service fanatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlino, James I; Raman, Ananth

    2013-05-01

    The Cleveland Clinic has long had a reputation for medical excellence. But in 2009 the CEO acknowledged that patients did not think much of their experience there and decided to act. Since then the Clinic has leaped to the top tier of patient-satisfaction surveys, and it now draws hospital executives from around the world who want to study its practices. The Clinic's journey also holds Lessons for organizations outside health care that must suddenly compete by creating a superior customer experience. The authors, one of whom was critical to steering the hospital's transformation, detail the processes that allowed the Clinic to excel at patient satisfaction without jeopardizing its traditional strengths. Hospital leaders: Publicized the problem internally. Seeing the hospital's dismal service scores shocked employees into recognizing that serious flaws existed. Worked to understand patients' needs. Management commissioned studies to get at the root causes of dissatisfaction. Made everyone a caregiver. An enterprisewide program trained everyone, from physicians to janitors, to put the patient first. Increased employee engagement. The Clinic instituted a "caregiver celebration" program and redoubled other motivational efforts. Established new processes. For example, any patient, for any reason, can now make a same-day appointment with a single call. Set patients' expectations. Printed and online materials educate patients about their stays--before they're admitted. Operating a truly patient-centered organization, the authors conclude, isn't a program; it's a way of life.

  1. Older adults' influence in family care: how do daughters and aging parents navigate differences in care goals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heid, Allison R; Zarit, Steven H; Van Haitsma, Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    This study seeks to address how older adults influence their daily care when their preferences conflict with those of their adult daughter caregivers. Using a sample of 10 dyads (N = 20) of an older adult and adult daughter, we utilize content analysis strategies to analyze in-depth, semi-structured interview data with QSR NVIVO to investigate how older adults influence their care, how daughters respond to such efforts of influence, and how dyads navigate differences in care goals. When there is agreement in goals, dyads report tasks going well and both individuals' requests are honored. When there are differences in care goals, daughters most frequently reason with their older parents, while parents walk away or 'let go' of their requests. Daughters report making decisions for their parents for health or safety-related needs. However, all dyads discuss differences in care goals, whereby parents are perceived as insisting, resisting, or persisting in care. Findings illustrate complex patterns of responses by families when navigating differences in daily care goals that carry important implications for research and the development of dyadic-based family interventions.

  2. Parents' knowledge of and opinions about healthcare laws and technology in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Lindsay A; Black, Erik W; Saliba, Heidi; Schentrup, Anzeela M

    2012-01-01

    Historically, parents have demonstrated poor understanding of adolescent healthcare laws. This study assessed US parents' current knowledge and opinions about technology facilitated physician-adolescent communication and applicable laws to enhance transition to adult health care. A brief survey in two low-income academic paediatric clinics asked parents about their knowledge of health care and laws, and their opinions about technology facilitated contact between physicians and adolescents. Almost all parents (96.7%) have internet access at home, work or via a mobile device. Only 44.1% approved of having a physician directly contact their child about annual examinations, immunisations or to discuss issues of sexuality. Half (55.4%) were aware that adolescents could receive confidential sexuality information and treatment without parents' permission. Only one-third (32.2%) approved of a specific technology for direct communication. Parents are divided about direct physician-adolescent contact. Future plans to engage adolescents to understand their health will require parental education and involvement on the value of physician-adolescent communication.

  3. Diaspora, disease, and health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wick, Jeannette Y; Zanni, Guido R

    2007-03-01

    When groups of people relocate from their homelands to other nations, especially if the movement is involuntary, minority populations are created in the countries that receive them. The issues related to these diaspora and diasporic communities--any groups that have been dispersed outside their traditional homelands--are financial, social, historical, political, or religious. In health care, issues include heritable diseases, cultural barriers, patients' health care beliefs, and unique disease presentations. In long-term care, many residents and health care providers have relocated to the United States from other countries.

  4. The Quiet Health Care Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzlinger, Regina

    1994-01-01

    Discusses how entrepreneurs have helped reduce costs in health care and examines the major changes in the health care system that are simultaneously lowering costs and increasing quality. The author then explains how current reform proposals might affect these entrepreneurial innovations. (GLR)

  5. Natural Parenting — Back to Basics in Infant Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regine A. Schön

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This review examines an age-old approach to parenting recently rediscovered in Western industrialized societies and known by names such as natural parenting, attachment parenting, and instinctive parenting. Its leading principle is utmost sensitivity to the child's innate emotional and physical needs, resulting in extended breastfeeding on demand, extensive infant carrying on the caregiver's body, and cosleeping of infant and parents. The described practices prevailed during the evolutionary history of the human species and reflect the natural, innate rearing style of the human species to which the human infant has biologically adapted over the course of evolution. An overview of research from diverse areas regarding psychological as well as physiological aspects of early care provides evidence for the beneficial effects of natural parenting. Cross-cultural and historical data is cited to reveal the widespread use of the investigated parenting style. It is concluded that the described approach to parenting provides the human infant with an ideal environment for optimal growth both psychologically and physiologically. It is yet to be determined how much departure from this prototype of optimal human parenting is possible without compromising infant and parental wellbeing. The review also invites a critical reevaluation of current Western childrearing practices.

  6. Mental Health Problems in Parents of Children with Congenital Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolaitis, Gerasimos A; Meentken, Maya G; Utens, Elisabeth M W J

    2017-01-01

    This review will provide a concise description of mental health problems in parents of children with a (non-syndromic) congenital heart disease (CHD) during different stressful periods. Predictors of these problems and also implications for clinical practice will be mentioned. Having a child with CHD can be very stressful for parents, who have to face overwhelming emotions and also extra physical, financial, and other practical challenges. Parental distress has been reported in 30-80% of parents and appears not to be related to severity of CHD. Parental mental health, parenting, the parent-child relationship, and parental quality of life can all be affected. Parents, and especially mothers, are at risk of psychological distress, anxiety, depression, somatization, hopelessness, and posttraumatic stress symptoms, which in turn may influence mother's responsiveness. In the long term, the majority of parents adapt successfully to living with a child with CHD, but approximately 40% report a need for psychosocial care. These families may be helped by early psychosocial interventions to alleviate stress and reduce children's emotional and behavioral problems. A holistic approach to early psychosocial interventions should aim at improving coping and enhance parenting. During routine medical checkups, medical professionals should ask about parental stress, family functioning, and psychosocial functioning of the child and, when needed, adequate psychosocial care should be provided.

  7. Differential susceptibility to parenting and quality child care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluess, Michael; Belsky, Jay

    2010-03-01

    Research on differential susceptibility to rearing suggests that infants with difficult temperaments are disproportionately affected by parenting and child care quality, but a major U.S. child care study raises questions as to whether quality of care influences social adjustment. One thousand three hundred sixty-four American children from reasonably diverse backgrounds were followed from 1 month to 11 years with repeated observational assessments of parenting and child care quality, as well as teacher report and standardized assessments of children's cognitive-academic and social functioning, to determine whether those with histories of difficult temperament proved more susceptible to early rearing effects at ages 10 and 11. Evidence for such differential susceptibility emerges in the case of both parenting and child care quality and with respect to both cognitive-academic and social functioning. Differential susceptibility to parenting and child care quality extends to late middle childhood. J. Belsky, D. L. Vandell, et al.'s (2007) failure to consider such temperament-moderated rearing effects in their evaluation of long-term child care effects misestimates effects of child care quality on social adjustment.

  8. Parents' experiences with neonatal home care following initial care in the neonatal intensive care unit: a phenomenological hermeneutical interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellenmark-Blom, Michaela; Wigert, Helena

    2014-03-01

    A descriptive study of parents' experiences with neonatal home care following initial care in the neonatal intensive care unit. As survival rates improve among premature and critically ill infants with an increased risk of morbidity, parents' responsibilities for neonatal care grow in scope and degree under the banner of family-centred care. Concurrent with medical advances, new questions arise about the role of parents and the experience of being provided neonatal care at home. An interview study with a phenomenological hermeneutic approach. Parents from a Swedish neonatal (n = 22) home care setting were extensively interviewed within one year of discharge. Data were collected during 2011-2012. The main theme of the findings is that parents experience neonatal home care as an inner emotional journey, from having a child to being a parent. This finding derives from three themes: the parents' experience of leaving the hospital milieu in favour of establishing independent parenthood, maturing as a parent and processing experiences during the period of neonatal intensive care. This study suggests that neonatal home care is experienced as a care structure adjusted to incorporate parents' needs following discharge from a neonatal intensive care unit. Neonatal home care appears to bridge the gap between hospital and home, supporting the family's adaptation to life in the home setting. Parents become empowered to be primary caregivers, having nurse consultants serving the needs of the whole family. Neonatal home care may therefore be understood as the implementation of family-centred care during the transition from NICU to home. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Parental health shocks and schooling: The impact of mutual health insurance in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woode, Maame Esi

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this study was to look at the educational spill-over effects of health insurance on schooling with a focus on the Rwandan Community Based Health Insurance Programme, the Mutual Health Insurance scheme. Using a two-person general equilibrium overlapping generations model, this paper theoretically analyses the possible effect of health insurance on the relationship between parental health shocks and child schooling. Individuals choose whether or not they want to incur a medical cost by seeking care in order to reduce the effect of health shocks on their labour market availability and productivity. The theoretical results show that, health shocks negatively affect schooling irrespective of insurance status. However, if the health shock is severe (incapacitating) or sudden in nature, there is a discernible mitigating effect of health insurance on the negative impact of parental ill health on child schooling. The results are tested empirically using secondary data from the third Integrated Household Living Conditions Survey (EICV) for Rwanda, collected in 2011. A total of 2401 children between the ages of 13 and 18 are used for the analysis. This age group is selected due to the age of compulsory education in Rwanda. Based on average treatment effect on treated we find a statistically significant difference in attendance between children with MHI affiliated parents and those with uninsured parents of about 0.044. The negative effect of a father being severely ill is significant only for uninsured household. For the case of the mother, this effect is felt by female children with uninsured parents only when the illness is sudden. The observed effects are more pronounced for older children. While the father's ill health (sever or sudden) significantly and negatively affects their working hours, health insurance plays appears to increase their working hours. The effects of health insurance extend beyond health outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  10. Relationship Between Parental and Adolescent eHealth Literacy and Online Health Information Seeking in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Fong-Ching; Chiu, Chiung-Hui; Chen, Ping-Hung; Miao, Nae-Fang; Lee, Ching-Mei; Chiang, Jeng-Tung; Pan, Ying-Chun

    2015-10-01

    This study examined the relationship between parental and adolescent eHealth literacy and its impact on online health information seeking. Data were obtained from 1,869 junior high school students and 1,365 parents in Taiwan in 2013. Multivariate analysis results showed that higher levels of parental Internet skill and eHealth literacy were associated with an increase in parental online health information seeking. Parental eHealth literacy, parental active use Internet mediation, adolescent Internet literacy, and health information literacy were all related to adolescent eHealth literacy. Similarly, adolescent Internet/health information literacy, eHealth literacy, and parental active use Internet mediation, and parental online health information seeking were associated with an increase in adolescent online health information seeking. The incorporation of eHealth literacy courses into parenting programs and school education curricula is crucial to promote the eHealth literacy of parents and adolescents.

  11. Organizing emotions in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Annabelle

    2005-01-01

    To introduce the articles in this special issue, discussing emotion in the in health-care organisations. Discusses such topics as what makes health care different, editorial perspectives, how health care has explored emotion so far, and the impact of emotion on patients and the consequences for staff. Health care provides a setting that juxtaposes emotion and rationality, the individual and the body corporate, the formal and the deeply personal, the public and the private, all of which must be understood better if changes in expectations and delivery are to remain coherent. The papers indicate a shared international desire to understand meaning in emotion that is now spreading across organizational process and into all professional roles within health care.

  12. Immigrant parents role in mental health promotion of their primary school children.

    OpenAIRE

    Adhikari, Shobha

    2012-01-01

    KEMI TORNIO UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SCIENCES Health Care and Social Services Degree Programme in Nursing SHOBHA ADHIKARI IMMIGRANT PARENTS ROLE IN MENTAL HEALTH PROMOTION OF THEIR PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN Bachelor’s Thesis 46 pages Advisors: Arja Meinilä and Hannele Pietiläinen ________________________________________ Key words: immigrant parents, children, mental health, promotion, school, cooperation This thesis deals with the immigrant parents’ role in mental healt...

  13. The experience of sons caring for a parent with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, Eilis; Ryan, Assumpta A

    2014-11-01

    This study explored the experiences of sons caring for a parent with dementia. Individual, semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposeful sample of sons (n = 13) in a rural part of Ireland. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim and analysed for common themes. The key themes that emerged were 'the parental bond', 'a binding role', 'coordinating care and support' and a 'getting on with it' approach to care. The study highlighted the commitment of sons to their caregiving role and the strong sense of duty that motivated them to provide care. The findings suggested that while many aspects of the caregiving experience such as lack of information and support are gender neutral, there are differences in the caregiving experiences of men and women in how they view their relationship with their parent and in the management of their caregiving role that merit further investigation. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  14. COMMUNITY HEALTH & PRIMARY HEALTH CARE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    adedamla

    compared the perceived availability of essential drugs and patronage of health facilities in a BI and non-BI Local government areas (LGA) of ... 2Medical Directorate, Hospitals Management Board, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State ... majority of the population in Malaysia had access to .... Ethical clearance for this study was obtained.

  15. COMMUNITY HEALTH & PRIMARY HEALTH CARE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A nation's disease control effort is often as good as the surveillance and notification system put in place, .... Department. Community Health. 11. 4.9. Dentistry. 28. 12.5. Family Medicine. 14 .... formal training and a posting in the Infection control.

  16. COMMUNITY HEALTH & PRIMARY HEALTH CARE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    adedamla

    Latin America and Southeast Asia. Cervical ... screening method based on visual Inspection with. 10-13 .... 56(49.6%) had poor knowledge while relating to practice of ... articulated road map and policy frame work to address ... European formal of Public ... Knowledge attitude and Practice ... Tertiary Health Institution. Int J.

  17. COMMUNITY HEALTH & PRIMARY HEALTH CARE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the mobile phones of health workers and their role as a source of hospital acquired infection. The study utilised ..... grew organisms which is much lower than may not be as effective as regular hand. 7 .... Akinyemi KO, Atapu AD, Adetona. 2011 ...

  18. Transition from neonatal intensive care unit to special care nurseries: Experiences of parents and nurses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. A.L. van Staa; O.K. Helder; J.C.M. Verweij

    2011-01-01

    To explore parents' and nurses' experiences with the transition of infants from the neonatal intensive care unit to a special care nursery. Qualitative explorative study in two phases. Level IIID neonatal intensive care unit in a university hospital and special care nurseries (level II) in five

  19. Parental care improves offspring survival and growth in burying beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggert; Reinking; MULLER

    1998-01-01

    Burying beetles (genus Nicrophorus) provide elaborate parental care to their offspring. Parental beetles defend a small vertebrate carcass, which constitutes the sole food source for the larvae. They also manipulate the carcass in various ways and directly regurgitate pre-digested carrion to the young. The benefits of carcass manipulation and regurgitation have been the subject of a few small-scale studies that have yielded conflicting results. In this study, we investigated the benefits of these behaviours and tested for possible beneficial effects on larval survival rates and final body mass in N. vespilloides. In this species: (1) larval survival and mass were significantly higher in broods receiving parental care throughout larval development on the carcass than in broods developing in the absence of adults; (2) parental presence immediately subsequent to larval hatching greatly improved larval survival rates; (3) continued parental presence for several days further improved larval growth, leading to a greater final mass of individual larvae; (4) larval survival and growth were improved by parental preparation of carcasses and by an excision made in the integument of the carcass surface by the parents that allows the larvae ready access to their food; (5) positive effects of parental feeding on larval survival and growth were not mediated by the transfer of symbionts. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  20. Parental lack of care and overprotection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overbeek, G.J.; Have, M.L. ten; Vollebergh, W.A.M.; Graaf, R. de

    2007-01-01

    This study served to replicate and extend the findings from the National Comorbidity Survey [Enns MW, Cox BJ, Clara I (2002) Psychol Med 32:997-1008], in examining associations between recalled parental bonding and the prevalence and incidence of mental disorders in adulthood. Data were used from

  1. Parental care improves immunity in the seahorse (Hippocampus erectus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tingting; Zhang, Dong; Liu, Xin; Xiao, Dongxue

    2016-11-01

    In the present study, the sexual dimorphism in immune response in the seahorse Hippocampus erectus in which males compete for mates and invest heavily in parental care was assessed. Variability in immunocompetence in virginal seahorses with differing levels of sexual maturity (i.e., immaturity, early maturity and maturity) and with different mating statuses (i.e., virginal, experienced mating failure and experienced mating success) were analyzed by evaluating immune parameters in the plasma. Additionally, ultrastructural characteristics of the inner epithelium of the brood pouch were compared between males that had experienced mating failure and those that had succeeded. Generally, immunity in sexually mature virgin males was greater than in females, and mating competition significantly reduced males' immunity. However, parental care gave males stronger immune and metabolic abilities and resulted in their immunity significantly rebounding after a successful mating. The present study quantitatively clarifies, for the first time, how parental care and mating competition jointly affect immunity. Moreover, previous findings that females display more efficient immune defenses than males in conventional species (i.e., males are as competitor and females as care giver) and that males' immunity is higher than females' in the pipefish (i.e., females are as competitor and males as care giver) in combination with the present results indicate that parental care is a key factor for sexual dimorphism in immunity. The care-giving sex has strong immunity regardless of the sex in charge of mating competition or not. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Health care of hunting dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Spasojević-Kosić, Ljubica; Savić, Sara

    2013-01-01

    There are two basic aspects of hunting dog’s health care: infectious diseases of hunting dogs and dog’s hunting performance. Concerning infectious diseases of hunting dogs, special attention is paid to public health, preventing possible dangers that could possibly arise. On the other hand, hunting performance of dogs depends on their nutrition. A complete analysis of hunting dogs’ health care in our country requires an assessment of awareness level in hunte...

  3. When children with profound multiple disabilities are hospitalized: A cross-sectional survey of parental burden of care, quality of life of parents and their hospitalized children, and satisfaction with family-centered care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seliner, Brigitte; Latal, Bea; Spirig, Rebecca

    2016-07-01

    We aimed to assess parental burden of care, satisfaction with family-centered care, and quality of life (HRQoL) of parents and their hospitalized children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD), and determine the relationship among these factors. A cross-sectional study using printed questionnaires and qualitative questions was undertaken at a Swiss University Children's Hospital. The 117 parents (98 mothers, 19 fathers) studied indicated a substantial impact on burden of care and parental health-related quality of life. Significant correlations with the hospitalized children's well-being were rs = .408 for burden of care and rs -.368 for quality of life. Qualitative results showed parents struggling to safeguard their children and worrying most about the children's well-being. Health professionals need to be aware of parental burden and that the perception of the children's well-being and the parents' efforts determine their support needs. Easing parents' burden and fostering confidence in the hospitalized children's well-being requires coordination of care provided by advanced nurse specialists, with an institutional framework that clarifies parental collaboration. © 2016, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. When parents face the death of their child: a nationwide cross-sectional survey of parental perspectives on their child's end-of life care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Karin; Bergstraesser, Eva; Engberg, Sandra; Ramelet, Anne-Sylvie; Marfurt-Russenberger, Katrin; Von der Weid, Nicolas; Grandjean, Chantal; Fahrni-Nater, Patricia; Cignacco, Eva

    2016-03-09

    Parents facing the death of their child have a strong need for compassionate professional support. Care services should be based on empirical evidence, be sensitive to the needs of the families concerned, take into account the heterogeneity within the medical field of paediatrics, and fit into the local health care system. We need to better understand the perspectives of parents facing the death of their child in order to guide further development and evaluation of specialised paediatric palliative and end-of-life (EOL) care services. Questionnaire survey to assess the EOL care perspectives of a Swiss population-based sample of bereaved parents who had lost a child due to a cardiac, neurological or oncological condition, or during the neonatal period in the years 2011 or 2012. The parental perspective was assessed with a newly developed and tested instrument that was structured according to six evidence-based quality domains. Responses regarding parental experiences and perceived satisfaction are described. Differences between the four diagnostic groups are analysed using a generalized estimation equation to account for the dyadic data structure. Of 307 eligible families, 267 could be contacted and 135 (51%) consented to participate in this questionnaire survey. Our findings show positive parental experiences of their child's EOL care and high perceived satisfaction with the care their child received. Parents of a child with cancer rated their experiences highest in most of the six quality domains and reported the highest satisfaction with care. The lowest scores were mainly reported by parents from the neurology group, with the exception of the shared decision making domain, where parents of neonates reported significantly less positive experiences. Although positive in general, our study results suggest some areas for improvement. The integration of specialised paediatric palliative care has the potential to minimise lost opportunities to support and assist

  5. Gender disparities in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Jennifer A; Patel, Vinisha; Varela, Natalie A

    2012-01-01

    The existence of disparities in delivery of health care has been the subject of increased empirical study in recent years. Some studies have suggested that disparities between men and women exist in the diagnoses and treatment of health conditions, and as a result measures have been taken to identify these differences. This article uses several examples to illustrate health care gender bias in medicine. These examples include surgery, peripheral artery disease, cardiovascular disease, critical care, and cardiovascular risk factors. Additionally, we discuss reasons why these issues still occur, trends in health care that may address these issues, and the need for acknowledgement of the current system's inequities in order to provide unbiased care for women in the future. © 2012 Mount Sinai School of Medicine.

  6. Health promotion in pediatric primary care: importance of health literacy and communication practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Deborah Winders; Jones, V Faye; Logsdon, M Cynthia; Ryan, Lesa; Wilkerson-McMahon, Mandie

    2013-12-01

    Health literacy has been shown to predict health behaviors and outcomes above the effects of education or socioeconomic status. Much remains unknown about the health literacy of parents and the role it plays in children's health outcomes or in health disparities. The current study explored the health communication needs and health literacy indicators in a diverse sample of parents (n = 75) to identify potential areas for future interventions. The sample consisted of parents of children 18 to 36 months old who were visiting 3 different pediatric medical offices, 2 of which served low-income families and 1 located in an affluent suburb. When comparisons were made between 2 educational attainment groups, there were variations in indicators of health literacy and health communication needs. These data can be used to guide the development of interventions by primary care providers to improve parent education.

  7. Hope for health and health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stempsey, William E

    2015-02-01

    Virtually all activities of health care are motivated at some level by hope. Patients hope for a cure; for relief from pain; for a return home. Physicians hope to prevent illness in their patients; to make the correct diagnosis when illness presents itself; that their prescribed treatments will be effective. Researchers hope to learn more about the causes of illness; to discover new and more effective treatments; to understand how treatments work. Ultimately, all who work in health care hope to offer their patients hope. In this paper, I offer a brief analysis of hope, considering the definitions of Hobbes, Locke, Hume and Thomas Aquinas. I then differentiate shallow and deep hope and show how hope in health care can remain shallow. Next, I explore what a philosophy of deep hope in health care might look like, drawing important points from Ernst Bloch and Gabriel Marcel. Finally, I suggest some implications of this philosophy of hope for patients, physicians, and researchers.

  8. Parent involvement when developing health education programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Hassel

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: The problem of obesity in children and adults has been widely recognised and described in the literature [1]. There are several challenges leading to an augmentation of the problem. Firstly, the aetiology of overweight and obesity is not clear. Secondly, the long term effectiveness of prevention programmes is low. Only in some groups and for a short period of time an effect may be visible [2]. Thirdly, little is known about what children should learn when [3]. A proper concept of educating children in regard to healthy eating or physical activity does not exist. As far as we know an essential pre-requisite for health education programmes is that they are lifestyleoriented and easily transferable into daily family life [4]. For this, working together with the parents would be essential. The main goal of this article will be 1 to get a better understanding of what parents and nurses/ teachers want 2 to strengthen the point that this method is one way to involve the target groups and thus it is likely to increase the acceptance of health education programmes 3 to describe that focus group discussions are a useful tool to identify the opinions of the target group.

    Methods: In the frame of three projects, focus groups with nurses/ teachers and parents have been carried out.

    Results and Conclusions: Results from different focus group discussions with pedagogues and parents will be discussed and conclusions for health education programmes relevant to all key players involved will be identified.

  9. Swedish child health care in a changing society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallberg, Ann-Christine; Lindbladh, Eva; Petersson, Kerstin; Råstam, Lennart; Håkansson, Anders

    2005-09-01

    Staff in Swedish child health care today feel a gap between policy and practice. By revealing the main lines in the development of child health care, we hoped to achieve a better understanding of the current trends and problems in today's Swedish child health care. A selection of official documents about the development of child health care during the period 1930-2000 was studied with the aid of discourse analysis. Four discourses were identified, which serve as a foundation for a periodization of the development of child health care. In the first period the main task of child health care, alongside checking on the development of the child, was to inform and educate the mothers. During the second period health supervision became the crucial task, to identify risks and discover abnormalities and disabilities. The third period focused on the discussion concerning the identification of health-related and social 'risk groups', and the work of child health care was increasingly geared to supervision of the parents' care of their children. Parents were to be given support so that they could cope with their difficulties by themselves. During the current period child health care is increasingly expected to direct its work towards the child's surroundings and the family as a whole and is now explicitly defined as an institution that should strengthen parents' self-esteem and competence. The level of responsibility for the child's health changed gradually during the different periods, from public responsibility to parental responsibility. The focus of efforts in child health care was changed from being general in the first and second periods to general and selective in period three, and then gradually becoming selective again in period four. While control of the child's physical health was central during the first two periods, psychosocial health came into focus in the last two, along with the importance of supporting the parents to enable them to handle their difficulties

  10. A cross-sectional survey of parental care-seeking behavior for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Infections are a common cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Proper management of these conditions in appropriate health facilities provides the best opportunity for survival and reducing disability. Aims: To evaluate the care-seeking behavior by parents of under-five children ...

  11. Supporting Parents to Provide Nurturing Care for Young Children: The Fundamental Ingredients for a Better World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Linda M.

    2018-01-01

    The global community is recognizing how "nurturing care" is critical for the developing child. The term encompasses health and nutrition, safety and security, responsive caregiving, and opportunities for inclusive early learning, all of which are afforded by loving parents and families and supportive communities. Public policies and…

  12. Effectiveness of the ‘Home-but not Alone’ mobile health application educational programme on parental outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shorey, Shefaly; Peng Mei, Yvonne; Danbjørg, Dorthe Boe

    2017-01-01

    -time parents and parents already with kids on the day of their discharge from a public hospital. Eligible parents will be randomly allocated to either a control group (receiving routine care) or an intervention group (routine care plus access to the 'Home-but not Alone' mobile health application. Outcome...... measures comprise of parenting self-efficacy, social support, parenting satisfaction and postnatal depression. Data will be collected at the baseline (on the day of discharge) and at four weeks postpartum. DISCUSSION: This will be an empirical study that evaluates a theory-based educational programme...... delivered via an innovative mobile health application on parental outcomes. Results from this study will enhance parenting self-efficacy, social support and parenting satisfaction, which may then reduce parental risks of postnatal depression....

  13. [A Maternal Health Care System Based on Mobile Health Care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xin; Zeng, Weijie; Li, Chengwei; Xue, Junwei; Wu, Xiuyong; Liu, Yinjia; Wan, Yuxin; Zhang, Yiru; Ji, Yurong; Wu, Lei; Yang, Yongzhe; Zhang, Yue; Zhu, Bin; Huang, Yueshan; Wu, Kai

    2016-02-01

    Wearable devices are used in the new design of the maternal health care system to detect electrocardiogram and oxygen saturation signal while smart terminals are used to achieve assessments and input maternal clinical information. All the results combined with biochemical analysis from hospital are uploaded to cloud server by mobile Internet. Machine learning algorithms are used for data mining of all information of subjects. This system can achieve the assessment and care of maternal physical health as well as mental health. Moreover, the system can send the results and health guidance to smart terminals.

  14. Parental perceptions of forgoing artificial nutrition and hydration during end-of-life care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapoport, Adam; Shaheed, Jenny; Newman, Christine; Rugg, Maria; Steele, Rose

    2013-05-01

    Forgoing artificial nutrition and hydration (FANH) in children at the end of life (EOL) is a medically, legally, and ethically acceptable practice under specific circumstances. However, most of the evidence on FANH involves dying adults. There is a paucity of pediatric evidence to guide health care providers' and parents' decision-making around this practice. Objectives were (1) to explore the experiences of bereaved parents when a decision had been made to FANH during EOL care for their child and (2) to describe the perceived quality of death in these children, as reported by their parents. This was a qualitative study using in-depth interviews with parents whose children died after a decision to FANH. Parental perceptions about the experience and their child's quality of death were explored. Interviews were audiotaped and transcribed, then data were analyzed by using interpretive description methodology. All parents were satisfied with their decision to FANH and believed that their child's death was generally peaceful and comfortable. The child's perceived poor quality of life was central to the decision to FANH, with feeding intolerance often contributing to this perception. Despite overall satisfaction, all parents had doubts and questions about the decision and benefited from ongoing assurances from the clinical team. FANH in children at the EOL is an acceptable form of palliation for some parents and may contribute to a death that is perceived to be peaceful and comfortable. In situations in which FANH may be a reasonable possibility, physicians should be prepared to introduce the option.

  15. What parents of mentally ill children need and want from mental health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharer, Kathleen

    2002-09-01

    Child psychiatric hospitalization is a time of crisis for the parents of a child with a mental disorder. Prior to hospitalization, the child's problematic behavior has escalated. Parents have various types of contact with mental health professionals prior to, during, and after the hospitalization, which influence their ability to care for their child. This paper reports a qualitative descriptive study of what parents need and want from mental health professionals during this time frame. During the study, parents spontaneously talked about what they needed and wanted from mental health professionals, including nursing personnel. The perspectives of 38 parents of 29 hospitalized children were obtained through interviews. Parents identified needing informational, emotional, and instrumental support most often in the interviews. Specific examples from the data are included in this report.

  16. Home Health Care Agencies

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of all Home Health Agencies that have been registered with Medicare. The list includes addresses, phone numbers, and quality measure ratings for each agency.

  17. Conscientious objection in health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuře Josef

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with conscientious objection in health care, addressing the problems of scope, verification and limitation of such refusal, paying attention to ideological agendas hidden behind the right of conscience where the claimed refusal can cause harm or where such a claim is an attempt to impose certain moral values on society or an excuse for not providing health care. The nature of conscientious objection will be investigated and an ethical analysis of conscientious objection will be conducted. Finally some suggestions for health care policy will be proposed.

  18. Feelings experienced by parents when their premature children are hospitalized. A contribution to the humanized care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Acosta Romo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To understand the meaning of the experiences felt by parents of premature children who are hospitalized in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of a hospital in the city of Pasto, Nariño, taking into account the phenomenological theory of Edmund Husserl. Materials and methods: In order to understand these experiences, a qualitative phenomenological study was carried out with eight parents in a range of age between 17 and 35. Results: The investigative process identified five categories, which emerged from the process of codification or nomothetic analysis of the speeches convergences. Two of these categories were considered for this article: Feelings and affective bond as an expression of parental love and process of interaction with the health staff. Conclusion: The parents of children in hospital were not prepared for the birth of a premature baby, so they experienced feelings of sadness, anxiety, self-criticism and fear, altering the affective bond between parents and children.

  19. THE CONTEMPORARY PARENTING PRACTICE AND EARLY CHILDHOOD CARE NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalia Teixeira Caldas Campana

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The possibility for women to engage in professional career and the fact that men are more involved in caring for their children raise awareness to the need for research on contemporary parental practice. The aim of this study was to check for changes in the form parents take care of their children, the key challenges they face and how pediatricians and school workers participate in this process. The methodology used is qualitative and based on semi-structured interviews with five middle-class heterosexual couples who have children up to three years old and their respective pediatricians and school supervisors. Results show that parenthood is transitioning from the traditional model to a more egalitarian practice. Pediatricians act as advisors and parents share with school workers the direct care for children. It is suggested that naturalistic perspectives and time for paternity leave must be questioned in order to promote an egalitarian parenthood.

  20. Sexual Dimorphism of Parental Care: From Genes to Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilkha, Noga; Scott, Niv; Kimchi, Tali

    2017-07-25

    Parental care is found in species across the animal kingdom, from small insects to large mammals, with a conserved purpose of increasing offspring survival. Yet enormous variability exists between different species and between the sexes in the pattern and level of parental investment. Here, we review the literature on the neurobiological mechanisms underlying maternal and paternal care, especially in rodents, and discuss the relationship between sex differences in behavior and sexual dimorphism in the brain. We argue that although several brain regions and circuits regulating parental care are shared by both sexes, some of the fundamental components comprising the maternal brain are innate and sex specific. Moreover, we suggest that a more comprehensive understanding of the underlying mechanisms can be achieved by expanding the methodological toolbox, applying ethologically relevant approaches such as nontraditional wild-derived animal models and complex seminatural experimental set-ups.

  1. School Outcomes of Children With Special Health Care Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevans, Katherine B.; Riley, Anne W.; Crespo, Richard; Louis, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations between having a special health care need and school outcomes measured as attendance, student engagement, behavioral threats to achievement, and academic achievement. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: A total of 1457 children in the fourth through sixth grades from 34 schools in 3 school districts and their parents provided survey data; parents completed the Children With Special Health Care Needs Screener. School records were abstracted for attendance, grades, and standardized achievement test scores. RESULTS: Across 34 schools, 33% of children screened positive for special health care needs. After adjusting for sociodemographic and school effects, children with special health care needs had lower motivation to do well in school, more disruptive behaviors, and more frequent experiences as a bully victim. They experienced significantly lower academic achievement, as measured by grades, standardized testing, and parental-assessed academic performance. These findings were observed for children who qualified as having a special health care need because they had functional limitations attributed to a chronic illness or a behavioral health problem but not for those who qualified only because they took prescription medications. CONCLUSIONS: Specific subgroups of children with special health care needs are at increased risk for poor school outcomes. Health and school professionals will need to collaborate to identify these children early, intervene with appropriate medical and educational services, and monitor long-term outcomes. PMID:21788226

  2. School outcomes of children with special health care needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Christopher B; Bevans, Katherine B; Riley, Anne W; Crespo, Richard; Louis, Thomas A

    2011-08-01

    To examine the associations between having a special health care need and school outcomes measured as attendance, student engagement, behavioral threats to achievement, and academic achievement. A total of 1457 children in the fourth through sixth grades from 34 schools in 3 school districts and their parents provided survey data; parents completed the Children With Special Health Care Needs Screener. School records were abstracted for attendance, grades, and standardized achievement test scores. Across 34 schools, 33% of children screened positive for special health care needs. After adjusting for sociodemographic and school effects, children with special health care needs had lower motivation to do well in school, more disruptive behaviors, and more frequent experiences as a bully victim. They experienced significantly lower academic achievement, as measured by grades, standardized testing, and parental-assessed academic performance. These findings were observed for children who qualified as having a special health care need because they had functional limitations attributed to a chronic illness or a behavioral health problem but not for those who qualified only because they took prescription medications. Specific subgroups of children with special health care needs are at increased risk for poor school outcomes. Health and school professionals will need to collaborate to identify these children early, intervene with appropriate medical and educational services, and monitor long-term outcomes.

  3. Meaning of caring in pediatric intensive care unit from the perspective of parents: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsson, Janet Yvonne; Arman, Maria; Castren, Maaret; Forsner, Maria

    2014-12-01

    When children are critically ill, parents still strive to be present and participate in the care of their child. Pediatric intensive care differs from other realms of pediatric care as the nature of care is technically advanced and rather obstructing than encouraging parental involvement or closeness, either physically or emotionally, with the critically ill child. The aim of this study was to elucidate the meaning of caring in the pediatric intensive care unit from the perspective of parents. The design of this study followed Benner's interpretive phenomenological method. Eleven parents of seven children participated in observations and interviews. The following aspects of caring were illustrated in the themes arising from the findings: being a bridge to the child on the edge, building a sheltered atmosphere, meeting the child's needs, and adapting the environment for family life. The overall impression is that the phenomenon of caring is experienced exclusively when it is directed toward the exposed child. The conclusion drawn is that caring is present when providing expert physical care combined with fulfilling emotional needs and supporting continuing daily parental care for the child in an inviting environment. © The Author(s) 2013.

  4. Adherence and health care costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuga AO

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Aurel O Iuga,1,2 Maura J McGuire3,4 1Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 2Johns Hopkins University, 3Johns Hopkins Community Physicians, 4Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA Abstract: Medication nonadherence is an important public health consideration, affecting health outcomes and overall health care costs. This review considers the most recent developments in adherence research with a focus on the impact of medication adherence on health care costs in the US health system. We describe the magnitude of the nonadherence problem and related costs, with an extensive discussion of the mechanisms underlying the impact of nonadherence on costs. Specifically, we summarize the impact of nonadherence on health care costs in several chronic diseases, such as diabetes and asthma. A brief analysis of existing research study designs, along with suggestions for future research focus, is provided. Finally, given the ongoing changes in the US health care system, we also address some of the most relevant and current trends in health care, including pharmacist-led medication therapy management and electronic (e-prescribing. Keywords: patient, medication, adherence, compliance, nonadherence, noncompliance, cost

  5. Tewa Children Who Have Epilepsy: A Health Care Dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBruyn, Lemyra M.

    1990-01-01

    Examines attitudes and responses toward epilepsy among families of 31 epileptic Tewa children, utilization of modern health care services, and parent reluctance to discuss traditional beliefs and healing practices. Discusses models of chronic illness behavior and the inadequacies of Indian Health Service treatment of epileptic children. Contains…

  6. Parental satisfaction with paediatric care, triage and waiting times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Nicholas; Breen, Daniel T; Taylor, James; Paul, Eldho; Grosvenor, Robert; Heggie, Katrina; Mahar, Patrick D

    2014-04-01

    The present study aims to determine parental and guardian's perceptions of paediatric emergency care and satisfaction with care, waiting times and triage category in a community ED. A structured questionnaire was provided to parents or guardians of paediatric patients presenting to emergency. The survey evaluated parent perceptions of waiting time, environment/facilities, professionalism and communication skills of staff and overall satisfaction of care. One hundred and thirty-three completed questionnaires were received from parents of paediatric patients. Responses were overall positive with respect to the multiple domains assessed. Parents generally considered waiting times to be appropriate and consistent with triage categories. Overall satisfaction was not significantly different for varying treatment or waiting times. Patients triaged as semi-urgent were of the opinion that waiting times were less appropriate than urgent, less-urgent or non-urgent patients. On the basis of the present study, patient perceptions and overall satisfaction of care does not appear to be primarily influenced by time spent waiting or receiving treatment. Attempts made at the triage process to ensure that semi-urgent patients have reasonable expectations of waiting times might provide an opportunity to improve these patients' expectations and perceptions. © 2014 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  7. How Can Adult Children Influence Parents' Long-Term Care Insurance Purchase Decisions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperber, Nina R; Voils, Corrine I; Coe, Norma B; Konetzka, R Tamara; Boles, Jillian; Van Houtven, Courtney Harold

    2017-04-01

    Long-term care (LTC) poses a significant strain on public health insurance financing. In response, there is policy interest in bolstering the private long-term care insurance (LTCI) market. Although families are central to LTC provision, their role in LTCI demand remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to obtain in-depth information concerning: (a) How do older parents evaluate the need for LTCI, (b) what role do adult children play? and (c) How do families communicate about parents' LTC preferences and plans, including LTCI purchase? We conducted focus groups with older parents and adult children in diverse markets. Two groups were conducted with older parents who had purchased LTCI and two with parents who had not purchased LTCI. Four groups were conducted with adult children, mixed as to whether their parents had purchased LTCI. Probes were informed by published reasons for purchasing or not purchasing LTCI. We analyzed transcriptions using directed content analysis and constant comparative method. Older parents valued autonomy for themselves and their children. Older parent purchasers regarded LTCI as supporting this value while nonpurchasers perceived limitations. Adult children described unstated expectations that they would care for their parents. Though discussions between parents and children about LTCI were rare, successful influence occurred when children appealed to shared values, specifically avoiding burden and remaining home. Messages that emphasize autonomy over LTC decisions and interventions that start the LTC conversation among families, with attention to shared values, could increase private LTCI uptake. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Care Coordination with Schools: The Role of Family-Centered Care for Children with Special Health Care Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard-Brak, Lucy; Stevens, Tara; Carpenter, Julianna

    2017-05-01

    Objectives Family-centered care has been associated with positive outcomes for children with special health care needs. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship of family-centered care as associated with care coordination with schools and school absences (e.g., missed days) as reported by parents of children with special health care needs. Methods The current study utilized data from the National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs 2009-201 (N = 40,242) to achieve this purpose. The National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs may be considered a nationally-representative and community-based sample of parent responses for children with special health care needs across the United States. Results Results from the current study indicate that family-centered care is associated with fewer absences and improved care coordination with schools when applicable. The variables of functional difficulties, poverty level, and the number of conditions were statistically controlled. Conclusions We suggest that the positive influence of family-centered care when practiced extends beyond the family and interacts with educational outcomes. We also suggest that the role of schools appears to be under-studied given the role that schools can play in family-centered care.

  9. Towards Sustainable Health Care Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro ROMANELLI

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Health care organizations have to develop a sustainable path for creating public value by seeking legitimacy for building and maintaining public trust with patients as social and economic institutions creating value and sustaining both health and wealth for people and communities within society. Health care organizations having at disposal decreasing resources and meeting increasing demands of citizens are following an unsustainable path. Designing sustainable health care systems and organizations is emerging as a strategic goal for developing the wealth of people and communities over time. Building sustainable organizations relies on valuing human resources, designing efficient and effective processes, using technology for better managing the relationships within and outside organizations. Sustainable health care organizations tend to rediscover the importance of human resource management and policies for effectively improving communication with patients and building trust-based relationships. While processes of accreditation contribute to legitimizing effectiveness and quality of health care services and efficient processes, introducing and using new information and communication technologies (ICTs and informatics helps communication leading to restore trust-based relationships between health care institutions and patients for value creation within society.

  10. Instrument Psychometrics: Parental Satisfaction and Quality Indicators of Perinatal Palliative Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wool, Charlotte

    2015-10-01

    Despite a life-limiting fetal diagnosis, prenatal attachment often occurs in varying degrees resulting in role identification by an individual as a parent. Parents recognize quality care and report their satisfaction when interfacing with health care providers. The aim was to test an instrument measuring parental satisfaction and quality indicators with parents electing to continue a pregnancy after learning of a life-limiting fetal diagnosis. A cross sectional survey design gathered data using a computer-mediated platform. Subjects were parents (n=405) who opted to continue a pregnancy affected by a life-limiting diagnosis. Factor analysis using principal component analysis with Varimax rotation was used to validate the instrument, evaluate components, and summarize the explained variance achieved among quality indicator items. The Prenatal Scale was reduced to 37 items with a three-component solution explaining 66.19% of the variance and internal consistency reliability of 0.98. The Intrapartum Scale included 37 items with a four-component solution explaining 66.93% of the variance and a Cronbach α of 0.977. The Postnatal Scale was reduced to 44 items with a six-component solution explaining 67.48% of the variance. Internal consistency reliability was 0.975. The Parental Satisfaction and Quality Indicators of Perinatal Palliative Care Instrument is a valid and reliable measure for parent-reported quality care and satisfaction. Use of this instrument will enable clinicians and researchers to measure quality indicators and parental satisfaction. The instrument is useful for assessing, analyzing, and reporting data on quality for care delivered during the prenatal, intrapartum, and postnatal periods.

  11. Parental Decision-Making Preferences in Neonatal Intensive Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Elliott Mark; Barg, Frances K; Cook, Noah; Black, Emily; Joffe, Steven

    2016-12-01

    To explore how characteristics of medical decisions influence parents' preferences for control over decisions for their seriously ill infants. In qualitative interviews, parents of infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) were asked to consider all medical decisions they could recall, and were prompted with decisions commonly encountered in the NICU. For each decision, parents were asked detailed questions about who made each decision, whom they would have preferred to make the decision, and why. Using standard qualitative methods, responses were coded and organized such that decision-level characteristics could be analyzed according to preferred decision-making role. Parents identified 2 factors that were associated with a preference to delegate decisions to the medical team (high degree of urgency, high level of required medical expertise) and 4 factors associated with a preference to retain parental control (high perceived risk, high personal experience with the decision, involvement of foreign bodily fluids, and similarity to decisions that they perceived as part of the normal parental role). Characteristics of decisions influence preferences for control over medical decisions among parents of patients in the NICU. These insights may guide improvements in physician-parent communication and consent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Experiences of deafblind people about health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Valderas, Carmen; Macías-Seda, Juana; Gil-García, Eugenia

    Deafblindness is a disability resulting from the combination of visual and auditory sensory impairments, which can manifest in different levels causing special communication problems. Deafblind people have special needs that derive from difficulties in sensing, understanding, attention and a lack of the skills required to function effectively in society. Deafblindness requires specialized services, personnel specifically trained in its care and special methods for communication. The main objective of this study is to explore the experiences of deafblind people in relation to health care throughout their lives. This study was developed at the St. Angela de la Cruz Centre, belonging to the Association of Parents of Deafblind People in Spain. Phenomenological qualitative study, through semi-structured interviews with deafblind people at the St. Ángela de la Cruz Centre, Salteras (Seville), carried out in 2015, with the help of interpreters in Spanish sign language. Topics covered in the interviews refer to facilities, human resources, time waiting and health care. Coinciding statements were obtained, where the participants point out architectural and educational barriers in health care and stand out better if the professionals know sign language. It can be highlighted that healthcare professionals lack knowledge of all aspects of deafblindness, sign language in particular, and there is a shortage of signs and information for the deafblind. Moreover, alternatives are required to reduce waiting times and improve direct communication with health professionals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Parents as Teachers Health Literacy Demonstration project: integrating an empowerment model of health literacy promotion into home-based parent education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Lauren N; Smith, Sandra A; Thomson, Nicole R

    2015-03-01

    The Parents as Teachers (PAT) Health Literacy Demonstration project assessed the impact of integrating data-driven reflective practices into the PAT home visitation model to promote maternal health literacy. PAT is a federally approved Maternal, Infant, Early Childhood Home Visiting program with the goal of promoting school readiness and healthy child development. This 2-year demonstration project used an open-cohort longitudinal design to promote parents' interactive and reflective skills, enhance health education, and provide direct assistance to personalize and act on information by integrating an empowerment paradigm into PAT's parent education model. Eight parent educators used the Life Skills Progression instrument to tailor the intervention to each of 103 parent-child dyads. Repeated-measures analysis of variance, paired t tests, and logistic regression combined with qualitative data demonstrated that mothers achieved overall significant improvements in health literacy, and that home visitors are important catalysts for these improvements. These findings support the use of an empowerment model of health education, skill building, and direct information support to enable parents to better manage personal and child health and health care. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.

  14. Understanding your health care costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000878.htm Understanding your health care costs To use the sharing features on this page, ... on out-of-pocket costs. Out-of-Pocket Costs The good news is there is a limit ...

  15. COMMUNITY MEDICINE & PRIMARY HEALTH CARE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Community Medicine and Primary Health Care. ... Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, PMB 4400, Osogbo, Osun State. ... weak management and poor adherence to the basic infrastructure e.g. primary, secondary and tertiary.

  16. COMMUNITY MEDICINE & PRIMARY HEALTH CARE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajiboro

    3Department of Community and Primary Health Care, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Idiaraba, ... Some of the participants (45.3%) carry out physical exercises such as walking ..... hypertension, continuous effective management of.

  17. COMMUNITY MEDICINE & PRIMARY HEALTH CARE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the_monk

    %) was the least common. On bivariate analysis ... the power to determine what their wives do or fail to ... pregnancy care while joint decision-making ... Other maternal health services rendered This data collection was done by a team of trained.

  18. Parents' Perspectives of School Mental Health Promotion Initiatives Are Related to Parents' Self-Assessed Parenting Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askell-Williams, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Achieving broad-scale parent engagement with school initiatives has proven elusive. This article reports survey data from 287 Maltese parents about their perceptions of the quality of their child's school's initiatives for promoting students' wellbeing and mental health. Findings indicate that, on average, parents rated school initiatives highly.…

  19. Parent health literacy and adherence-related outcomes in children with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschal, Angelia M; Mitchell, Qshequilla P; Wilroy, Jereme D; Hawley, Suzanne R; Mitchell, Jermaine B

    2016-03-01

    The relationship between parent health literacy and adherence to treatment in children with epilepsy has not been fully explored. The purpose of this study was to determine whether parent health literacy and other variables predicted factors associated with adherence, such as missed medication doses, missed medical appointments, and seizure frequency, in children with epilepsy between 1 and 12 years old. It was hypothesized that parents with adequate parent health literacy would report fewer missed doses, missed appointments, and seizure occurrences. Using a nonexperimental, cross-sectional study design, interviews were conducted with 146 parents and guardians of children with epilepsy who resided in rural communities. Univariate analyses, including ANOVA, and multiple linear regressions were conducted. Results indicated that parent health literacy was the strongest predictor of two of the adherence-related factors. Higher health literacy scores were associated with fewer missed medication doses and seizure occurrences. However, health literacy was not associated with missed medical appointments. Among other study variables, higher household income was also predictive of fewer missed doses. The study findings suggest that inadequate health literacy among parents may serve as an independent risk factor for adherence-related outcomes among children with epilepsy. Further research, as well as effective, targeted parent health literacy strategies used to improve epilepsy management and care in children, is recommended. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Czechoslovakia's changing health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffel, M W; Raffel, N K

    1992-01-01

    Before World War II, Czechoslovakia was among the most developed European countries with an excellent health care system. After the Communist coup d'etat in 1948, the country was forced to adapt its existing health care system to the Soviet model. It was planned and managed by the government, financed by general tax money, operated in a highly centralized, bureaucratic fashion, and provided service at no direct charge at the time of service. In recent years, the health care system had been deteriorating as the health of the people had also been declining. Life expectancy, infant mortality rates, and diseases of the circulatory system are higher than in Western European countries. In 1989, political changes occurred in Czechoslovakia that made health care reform possible. Now health services are being decentralized, and the ownership of hospitals is expected to be transferred to communities, municipalities, churches, charitable groups, or private entities. Almost all health leaders, including hospital directors and hospital department heads, have been replaced. Physicians will be paid according to the type and amount of work performed. Perhaps the most important reform is the establishment of an independent General Health Care Insurance Office financed directly by compulsory contributions from workers, employers, and government that will be able to negotiate with hospitals and physicians to determine payment for services.

  1. Survey of Knowledge, Beliefs, and Behaviors of Migrant Vietnamese Parents Regarding Young Children's Oral Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Uyen N; Rowe, Dorothy J; Barker, Judith C

    2017-04-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the oral health knowledge, beliefs, and behaviors of migrant Vietnamese parents of 1-5 year-olds in San Jose, California. Method: A verbally-administered survey was conducted with a convenience sample of 45 Vietnamese parents recruited at San Jose public libraries. Following preliminary screening, written informed consent was obtained from eligible individuals. A pre-tested, structured 94-item questionnaire was used to collect information regarding parent demographics, and the parent's knowledge, beliefs, and behaviors about children's oral health. Simple descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. Results: Vietnamese parents acknowledged a number of basic concepts regarding early childhood caries (ECC), such as influences of sugar consumption, oral hygiene, and bottle use. Unlike other groups, they reported some familiarity with the role of bacteria in caries etiology. Oral health knowledge and beliefs, however, were not reflected in parental oral health behaviors such as supervision of children's brushing. Knowledge about the preventive role of fluoride was limited and varied among the population. Parental knowledge and behaviors did not vary by education level or length of residence in US. Conclusion: Vietnamese parents demonstrated reasonably good oral health knowledge, but poor behavioral guidance of their children's oral health, indicating the need for continued parental education emphasizing age-appropriate oral care and the preventative role of fluoride. Copyright © 2017 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.

  2. [Corruption and health care system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marasović Šušnjara, Ivana

    2014-06-01

    Corruption is a global problem that takes special place in health care system. A large number of participants in the health care system and numerous interactions among them provide an opportunity for various forms of corruption, be it bribery, theft, bureaucratic corruption or incorrect information. Even though it is difficult to measure the amount of corruption in medicine, there are tools that allow forming of the frames for possible interventions.

  3. [Analysis of parental knowledge and care in childhood fever].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Conesa, Maria-Cristina; Sánchez Pina, Inés; Ridao Manonellas, Saida; Tormo Esparza, Antoni; García Hernando, Verónica; López Fernández, Marta

    2017-10-01

    To describe the parental knowledge and care of fever in children under 2years. Relate this data with socio-demographic with characteristics. Cross-sectional and correlation multicenter study. Five teams of Primary Care in Barcelona. Parents of children under 2years attended to administer a vaccine included in the pediatric systematic calendar. A total of 311 subjects participated. The main variables are 9 items of knowledge and 8 of care or management of fever obtained with the adaptation of the questionnaire by Chiappini et al. (2012). 69.8% had a correct care/management of fever. 3.9% matched all items of knowledge. The knowledge score is lower in people with no education (p=0.03); higher in Europe and South America and lowest in Asia and Africa (P<.001). 100% of patients that had chronic problems answered correctly all items of fever care (P=.03). It is important to note that the correlation between the scores of knowledge and management is positive (rho=0.15, P=.008). A correct care of fever is observed despite the low knowledge. A good strategy to promote a correct care of febrile child is to do sanitary education with update information and adapted it to parents, focusing on the differences between ethnic groups because they seem to have inaccurate beliefs about fever. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Knowledge and Oral Health Attitudes among Parents of Children with Congenital Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suvarna, Reshma; Rai, Kavita; Hegde, Amitha M

    2011-01-01

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) is a devastating complex of diseases resulting from defects of development. It affects more than 1 of every 100 live births. Early preventive dental care should be adjusted to the special needs of these children in their first years of life. Knowledge of parental attitudes and experiences of dental care are therefore important. Aim : This study was done to assess the knowledge and attitudes among parents of children with congenital heart disease towards oral health and dental care. Materials and methods : Parents (n = 105) of children with congenital heart disease of an age ranging from 0 to 16 years were included in the study. A questionnaire was used to assess the knowledge and oral health attitudes. Results : The parents' knowledge was fair but the oral health attitudes were not very satisfactory. The parents in this study also recognized the importance of oral health for the well-being of rest of the body. Conclusion : The results of this study indicate that parents' and children's attitudes toward oral health and dental care need to be improved.

  5. Youth Psychotherapy Change Trajectories and Outcomes in Usual Care: Community Mental Health versus Managed Care Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Jared S.; Nelson, Philip L.; Mondragon, Sasha A.; Baldwin, Scott A.; Burlingame, Gary M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors compared symptom change trajectories and treatment outcome categories in children and adolescents receiving routine outpatient mental health services in a public community mental health system and a private managed care organization. Method: Archival longitudinal outcome data from parents completing the Youth Outcome…

  6. Psychiatric and somatic health in relation to expereince of parental divorce in childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Ängarne-Lindberg, Teresia; Wadsby, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Background: The outcome of studies about experience of parental divorce and effects on mental and physical health differs in result possibly caused by the use of different questionnaires and instruments, varying length of time since the divorce and divergent drop-off of participants. Aims: To study the presence of psychiatric records and number of diagnosed somatic and mental health care visits in a group of young adults with childhood experience of parental divorce in comparison to a group ...

  7. Mental health of adolescents with currently and formerly incarcerated parents

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Laurel; Shlafer, Rebecca J.

    2016-01-01

    Reliable information about children of incarcerated people is difficult to obtain, and major gaps exist in our understanding of their well-being. This study aims to determine whether adolescents with incarcerated parents report higher levels of mental health problems than those without an incarcerated parent, and whether the relationship between parental incarceration and adolescent mental health is moderated by parent-child relationships. Using a statewide survey from one US state, we compar...

  8. Health care entrepreneurship: financing innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazier, Kyle L; Metzler, Bridget

    2006-01-01

    Entrepreneurship is often described as the ability to create new ventures from new or existing concepts, ideas and visions. There has been significant entrepreneurial response to the changes in the scientific and social underpinnings of health care services delivery. However, a growing portion of the economic development driving health care industry expansion is threatened further by longstanding use of financing models that are suboptimal for health care ventures. The delayed pace of entrepreneurial activity in this industry is in part a response to the general economy and markets, but also due to the lack of capital for new health care ventures. The recent dearth of entrepreneurial activities in the health services sector may also due to failure to consider new approaches to partnerships and strategic ventures, despite their mutually beneficial organizational and financing potential. As capital becomes more scarce for innovators, it is imperative that those with new and creative ideas for health and health care improvement consider techniques for capital acquisition that have been successful in other industries and at similar stages of development. The capital and added expertise can allow entrepreneurs to leverage resources, dampen business fluctuations, and strengthen long term prospects.

  9. The health consequences of child mental health problems and parenting styles: unintentional injuries among European schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Katherine M; Susser, Ezra; Pilowsky, Daniel J; Hamilton, Ava; Bitfoi, Adina; Goelitz, Dietmar; Kuijpers, Rowella C W M; Lesinskiene, Sigita; Mihova, Zlatka; Otten, Roy; Kovess, Viviane

    2014-10-01

    Unintentional injury is the leading cause of death for schoolchildren. We assessed the association between externalizing psychopathology, parenting style, and unintentional injury in European children in the community. Data were drawn from the School Children Mental Health in Europe project and included 4517 schoolchildren across seven diverse European regions. Past-year injuries serious enough to seek medical attention were reported by mothers. Child mental health problems were assessed using validated measures and reported by the mothers, teachers, and children. Parenting styles were based on The Parenting Scale and the Parent Behaviors and Attitudes Questionnaire. Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity symptoms and oppositional defiant symptoms had a higher risk of injury compared to other children whether based on parent report (OR=1.47, 95% C.I. 1.2-1.9), teacher report (OR=1.36, 95% C.I. 1.1-1.7), or parent and teacher report combined (OR=1.53, 95% C.I. 1.1-2.1). Children who self-reported oppositional symptoms also had higher risk of injury (OR=1.6, 95% C.I. 1.1-2.4). Low-caring behavior of parents increased the risk of injury (OR=1.4, 95% C.I. 1.1-1.9). Unintentional injury is a potential adverse health consequence of child externalizing problems. Interventions to improve parent-child relationships and prevention as well as focused treatment for externalizing problems may reduce the burden of injury. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Parental self-feeding effects on parental care levels and time allocation in Palestine sunbirds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shai Markman

    Full Text Available The trade-off between parents feeding themselves and their young is an important life history problem that can be considered in terms of optimal behavioral strategies. Recent studies on birds have tested how parents allocate the food between themselves and their young. Until now the effect of food consumption by parent birds on their food delivery to their young as well as other parental activities has rarely been studied. I have previously shown that parent Palestine sunbirds (Nectarinia osea will consume nectar and liquidized arthropods from artificial feeders. However, they will only feed their young with whole arthropods. This provided a unique opportunity to experimentally manipulate the food eaten by parents independent of that fed to their offspring. Here, I hypothesized that parents invest in their current young according to the quality of food that they themselves consume. Breeding pairs with two or three nestlings were provided with feeders containing water (control, sucrose solution (0.75 mol or liquidized mealworms mixed with sucrose solution (0.75 mol. As food quality in feeders increased (from water up to liquidized mealworms mixed with sucrose solution: 1 Parents (especially females increased their food delivery of whole arthropod prey to their young. 2 Only males increased their nest guarding effort. Nestling food intake and growth rate increased with increasing food quality of parents and decreasing brood size. These results imply that increasing the nutrient content of foods consumed by parent sunbirds allow them to increase the rate at which other foods are delivered to their young and to increase the time spent on other parental care activities.

  11. Barriers to health education in adolescents: health care providers' perspectives compared to high school adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedian, Kobra; Shahhosseini, Zohreh

    2015-11-01

    Although adolescence is marked by profound and dynamic changes, it is virtually neglected by health care providers, by society, and even by most parents, teachers, and health professionals. The aim of this study was to investigate barriers to health education in adolescents from health care providers' views compared to teens. The study population consisted of 72 health care providers and 402 high school female students in Northern Iran in 2012. They completed a self-administered questionnaire about their views on barriers to adolescents' health education. It is revealed that the major barrier to adolescents' health education from a health care providers' perspective is "Lack of private room for adolescents' health education", while "Lack of adolescents' interest to content of educational programs" is a significantly greater barrier to health education among adolescents. The results suggest that for adolescent health education, specific strategies should be used in adolescent health promotion programs.

  12. Perceptions of oral health, preventive care, and care-seeking behaviors among rural adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Virginia J; Logan, Henrietta; Brown, Cameron D; Calderon, Angela; Catalanotto, Frank

    2014-12-01

    An asymmetrical oral disease burden is endured by certain population subgroups, particularly children and adolescents. Reducing oral health disparities requires understanding multiple oral health perspectives, including those of adolescents. This qualitative study explores oral health perceptions and dental care behaviors among rural adolescents. Semistructured individual interviews with 100 rural, minority, low socioeconomic status adolescents revealed their current perceptions of oral health and dental care access. Respondents age ranged from 12 to 18 years. The sample was 80% black and 52% male. Perceived threat from dental disease was low. Adolescents perceived regular brushing and flossing as superseding the need for preventive care. Esthetic reasons were most often cited as reasons to seek dental care. Difficulties accessing dental care include finances, transportation, fear, issues with Medicaid coverage and parental responsibility. In general, adolescents and their parents are in need of information regarding the importance of preventive dental care. Findings illuminate barriers to dental care faced by low-income rural adolescents and counter public perceptions of government-sponsored dental care programs as being "free" or without cost. The importance of improved oral health knowledge, better access to care, and school-based dental care is discussed. © 2014, American School Health Association.

  13. Parental Perceptions of Family Centered Care in Medical Homes of Children with Neurodevelopmental Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajicek-Farber, Michaela L; Lotrecchiano, Gaetano R; Long, Toby M; Farber, Jon Matthew

    2015-08-01

    Life course theory sets the framework for strong inclusion of family centered care (FCC) in quality medical homes of children with neurodevelopmental disabilities (CNDD). The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions of families with their experiences of FCC in medical homes for CNDD. Using a structured questionnaire, the Family-Centered Care Self-Assessment Tool developed by Family Voices, this study surveyed 122 parents of CNDD in a large urban area during 2010-2012. Data collected information on FCC in the provision of primary health care services for CNDD and focused on family-provider partnerships, care setting practices and policies, and community services. Frequency analysis classified participants' responses as strengths in the "most of the time" range, and weaknesses in the "never" range. Only 31 % of parents were satisfied with the primary health care their CNDD received. Based on an accepted definition of medical home services, 16 % of parents reported their CNDD had most aspects of a medical home, 64 % had some, and 20 % had none. Strengths in FCC were primarily evident in the family-provider partnership and care settings when focused on meeting the medical care needs of the child. Weaknesses in FCC were noted in meeting the needs of families, coordination, follow-up, and support with community resources. Improvements in key pediatric health care strategies for CNDD are recommended. CNDD and their families have multifaceted needs that require strong partnerships among parents, providers, and communities. Quality medical homes must include FCC and valued partnerships with diverse families and community-based providers.

  14. Health Care Wide Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Glossary | References | Site Map | Credits Freedom of Information Act | Privacy & Security Statement | Disclaimers | Important Web Site Notices | International | Contact Us U.S. Department of Labor | Occupational Safety & Health Administration | 200 Constitution Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20210 ...

  15. Parental attitudes to the care of the carious primary dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tickle, M; Milsom, K M; Humphris, G M; Blinkhorn, A S

    2003-10-25

    To examine parents' attitudes to the dental care of their children, taking into account the family's socio-economic background, dentally-related behaviour including the child's level of dental anxiety and dental treatment history. A cross sectional study of all 5-year-old children living in Ellesmere Port and Chester. All children were clinically examined; dmft and its components were recorded. A postal questionnaire was sent to the children's parents to measure their preferences for dental care with reference to two scenarios, (1) if their child had a carious but asymptomatic primary tooth, or (2) if their child had a carious primary tooth which was causing toothache. Parents were also asked to provide information on the dental attendance pattern of their child and an assessment of their child's dental anxiety. Family socio-economic status was recorded using the Townsend material deprivation index of the electoral ward in which they resided. Questionnaires were distributed to the home addresses of the 1,745 children who were clinically examined, and 1,437 were returned, giving a response rate of 82%. In both scenarios the majority of parents were happy to leave the decision on treatment to the dentist. In the asymptomatic tooth scenario, approximately one third of parents wanted the tooth to remain untreated but periodically monitored, only 6% expressed a desire to have their child's tooth restored. Multivariate analysis showed that parents of children who had a filling (OR 4.32 95%CI 2.21-8.43) or extraction (OR 2.24 95%CI 1.11-4.53) in the past were significantly more likely to want restorative care for their children. In the scenario where the child had toothache, multivariate analysis confirmed that parents had a preference for an intervention (extraction or filling) if they lived in a deprived area (Townsend score OR 1.10, 95% CI 1.04, 1.16) or if their child had had an extraction (OR 4.35, 95% CI 1.59, 11.88) or filling (OR 2.39, 95% CI 1.05, 5.45) in the

  16. Could gender equality in parental leave harm off-springs' mental health? a registry study of the Swedish parental/child cohort of 1988/89

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norström Lisa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Mental ill-health among children and young adults is a growing public health problem and research into causes involves consideration of family life and gender practice. This study aimed at exploring the association between parents' degree of gender equality in childcare and children's mental ill-health. Methods The population consisted of Swedish parents and their firstborn child in 1988-1989 (N = 118 595 family units and the statistical method was multiple logistic regression. Gender equality of childcare was indicated by the division of parental leave (1988-1990, and child mental ill-health was indicated by outpatient mental care (2001-2006 and drug prescription (2005-2008, for anxiety and depression. Results The overall finding was that boys with gender traditional parents (mother dominance in childcare have lower risk of depression measured by outpatient mental care than boys with gender-equal parents, while girls with gender traditional and gender untraditional parents (father dominance in childcare have lower risk of anxiety measured by drug prescription than girls with gender-equal parents. Conclusions This study suggests that unequal parenting regarding early childcare, whether traditional or untraditional, is more beneficial for offspring's mental health than equal parenting. However, further research is required to confirm our findings and to explore the pathways through which increased gender equality may influence child health.

  17. Could gender equality in parental leave harm off-springs' mental health? a registry study of the Swedish parental/child cohort of 1988/89

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Mental ill-health among children and young adults is a growing public health problem and research into causes involves consideration of family life and gender practice. This study aimed at exploring the association between parents' degree of gender equality in childcare and children's mental ill-health. Methods The population consisted of Swedish parents and their firstborn child in 1988-1989 (N = 118 595 family units) and the statistical method was multiple logistic regression. Gender equality of childcare was indicated by the division of parental leave (1988-1990), and child mental ill-health was indicated by outpatient mental care (2001-2006) and drug prescription (2005-2008), for anxiety and depression. Results The overall finding was that boys with gender traditional parents (mother dominance in childcare) have lower risk of depression measured by outpatient mental care than boys with gender-equal parents, while girls with gender traditional and gender untraditional parents (father dominance in childcare) have lower risk of anxiety measured by drug prescription than girls with gender-equal parents. Conclusions This study suggests that unequal parenting regarding early childcare, whether traditional or untraditional, is more beneficial for offspring's mental health than equal parenting. However, further research is required to confirm our findings and to explore the pathways through which increased gender equality may influence child health. PMID:22463683

  18. Recruiting bereaved parents for research after infant death in the neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Erin R; Roche, Cathy; Christian, Becky J; Bakitas, Marie; Meneses, Karen

    2016-11-01

    Understanding parental experiences following infant death in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) is a high research priority and a necessary first step to improving health services. However, recruiting bereaved parents to discuss their experiences on such an extremely sensitive topic can be challenging and research procedures must be planned carefully in order to get an adequate sample. There is little published in the literature detailing specific strategies for recruiting bereaved parents for grief research, especially strategies for contacting parents and identifying factors that might affect participation. The purpose of this paper is to describe the process of recruiting bereaved parents into a qualitative research study exploring parental NICU experiences and grief responses following infant death. We describe a successful recruitment plan that led to the enrollment of difficult to recruit participants such as fathers, and individuals representing minorities and those from lower socioeconomic (SES) groups. Bereaved parents of infants after an NICU hospitalization should continue to be recruited for research studies for their unique perspectives and valuable insights about the devastating experience of infant death. Participants in this study reported more benefits than harm and the results addressed a critical gap in the literature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Primary health care in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deodhar, N S

    1982-03-01

    Concurrently with the development of the general health services infrastructure in India, serveral special health programs were instituted at the national level to provide a massive and concentrated assault on the major public health problems of malaria, smallpox, cholera, trachoma, tuberculosis, leprosy, filariasis, and the rapid population growth. These vertical programs were expected to reduce the heavy morbidity and mortality within the shortest possible time to where they were no longer major public health problems. The impact was variable. Major steps toward providing integrated health care were taken during the first 5-year plan. Emphasis was on the provision of a packet of inttegrated health, family planning, and nutrition services to the vulnerable groups, i.e., children, pregnant women, and nursing mothers. To rectify past shortcomings ssuch as the failures of the national health programs, ineffective coordination in the nutrition programs, and slow rate of development as a result of interdependence of different sectors, it was necessary to improve the health infrastructure and to launch a frontal attack on poverty. The Multipurpose Health Workers Scheme was planned to rationalize the organization and use of available manpower to reduce the area and population covered by each of the field staff in order to reduce travel time and to make services more effective and more satisfactory. Each multipurpose health worker was entrusted with the task of providing comprehensive health care to about 5000 people. Communicable diseases were the main public health problems, and many specific control/eradication programs were launched. the immunization programs against common childhood diseases have not taken deep roots and coverage continues to be poor. The adoption of the Western model of medical services has resulted in emphasis on "cure" rather than on "care". Another problem is maldistribution of the facilities. Overemphasis on medical education has resulted in the

  20. Private sector in public health care systems

    OpenAIRE

    Matějusová, Lenka

    2008-01-01

    This master thesis is trying to describe the situation of private sector in public health care systems. As a private sector we understand patients, private health insurance companies and private health care providers. The focus is placed on private health care providers, especially in ambulatory treatment. At first there is a definition of health as a main determinant of a health care systems, definition of public and private sectors in health care systems and the difficulties at the market o...

  1. Developing services to support parents caring for a technology-dependent child at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, S; Glendinning, C

    2004-05-01

    A group of children with complex health care needs have emerged as a result of medical advances and government policies emphasizing the community as the arena for care. Some of these children remain dependent on the medical technology that enabled them to survive and require care of a complex and intensive nature to be carried out by their parents at home. To explore the experiences of families caring at home for a technology-dependent child; to examine their needs for practical and other support; and to examine how far services are currently meeting these needs. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with the parents of 24 technology-dependent children and with 44 health, social care and other professionals. Services in the community were not sufficiently developed to support this group of families. Major problems were identified in the purchasing and provision of both short-term care/home support services and specialist equipment/therapies in the community. Service provision could be poorly planned and co-ordinated at an operational level and few families had a designated key worker. Parents felt that professionals did not always recognize either the emotional costs entailed in providing care of this nature or their expertise in caregiving. Information-giving to parents was often described as poor and participants reported that hospital professionals failed to negotiate the transfer of caregiving responsibility to parents. Services need to work in partnership with families and with each other at both strategic and operational levels, to develop integrated and co-ordinated services that can meet the needs of this group of families.

  2. Impact of Caregiving for a Child With Cancer on Parental Health Behaviors, Relationship Quality, and Spiritual Faith: Do Lone Parents Fare Worse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, Lori; Viola, Adrienne; Kearney, Julia; Mullins, Larry L; Sherman-Bien, Sandra; Zadeh, Sima; Farkas-Patenaude, Andrea; Pao, Maryland

    2016-09-01

    Caregiving stress has been associated with changes in the psychological and physical health of parents of children with cancer, including both partnered and single parents. While parents who indicate "single" on a demographic checklist are typically designated as single parents, a parent can be legally single and still have considerable support caring for an ill child. Correspondingly, an individual can be married/partnered and feel alone when caring for a child with serious illness. In the current study, we report the results from our exploratory analyses of parent self-reports of behavior changes during their child's treatment. Parents (N = 263) of children diagnosed with cancer were enrolled at 10 cancer centers. Parents reported significant worsening of all their own health behaviors surveyed, including poorer diet and nutrition, decreased physical activity, and less time spent engaged in enjoyable activities 6 to 18 months following their child's diagnosis. More partnered parents found support from friends increased or stayed the same since their child's diagnosis, whereas a higher proportion of lone parents reported relationships with friends getting worse. More lone parents reported that the quality of their relationship with the ill child's siblings had gotten worse since their child's diagnosis. Spiritual faith increased for all parents. © 2015 by Association of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology Nurses.

  3. Help Yourself to Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Sarah

    A booklet on health care for limited English speakers provides information on choosing the right doctor, buying medicine, paying the bill, and the individual's role in maintaining his or her health. Cartoons, questions and puzzles concerning the message in cartoons and narrative passages, checklists about an individual's personal habits related to…

  4. Health care marketing: Basic features

    OpenAIRE

    Gajić-Stevanović Milena

    2006-01-01

    Paper discuss an introduction to importance's as well as challenges facing health care sector in many countries. Particular attention is devoted to the preconditions and/or basic requirements have to be developed in order to make health sector to functioned. Focusing to end users as well as employing marketing tools ought to be right orientation.

  5. Babesiosis for Health Care Providers

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-25

    This podcast will educate health care providers on diagnosing babesiosis and providing patients at risk with tick bite prevention messages.  Created: 4/25/2012 by Center for Global Health, Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria.   Date Released: 4/25/2012.

  6. COMMUNITY MEDICINE & PRIMARY HEALTH CARE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajiboro

    ... Experience in a primary health care facility in Rivers State, South-South Nigeria. ... health center increased by 3.09% (p-value > 0.05); the patients that had their babies in the facility were ... 100, 000 live births, based on historical studies and.

  7. Health care in rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, L M

    1994-02-01

    In India, although the health care system infrastructure is extensive, the people often regard government facilities as family planning (FP) centers instead of primary health care centers. This problem has been compounded by the separation of health care and FP at all stages, even down to the storage of the same medication in two different locations depending upon whether it is to be used for "health" or for "FP." In rural areas where the government centers are particularly desolate, the community has chosen to erect its own health care system of private practitioners of all sorts and qualifications. Even in rural areas where a comprehensive health service is provided, with each household visited regularly by health workers, and where this service has resulted in a lowering of the crude death rate from 14.6 to 7 and the maternal mortality rate from 4.7 to 0.5/1000, people depend upon practitioners of various types. Upon analysis, it was discovered that the reason for using this multiplicity of practitioners had nothing to do with the level of satisfaction with the government service or with the accessibility of the services. Rather, when ill, the people make a diagnosis and then go to the proper place for treatment. If, for instance, they believe their malady was caused by the evil eye, they consult a magico-religious practitioner. These various types of practitioners flourish in areas with the best primary health care because they fulfill a need not met by the primary health care staff. If government agencies work with the local practitioners and afford them the proper respect, their skills can be upgraded in selected areas and the whole community will benefit.

  8. Which Children Benefit from Non-Parental Care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Chikako; Leigh, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between non-parental care and toddlers' behavioral outcomes using data from Australia. In particular, we explore heterogeneity in the relationship using the unique data on quality attributes: carer/child ratio, share of qualified staff, and expert ratings. The results suggest that full-time non-parental…

  9. Parental care in Hemisus (Anura: Hemisotidae) | van Dijk | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Accounts of parental care in Anura frequently include mention of the South African frog genus Hemisus and derive their infonnation from what was written by the late Vincent Wager, An analysis is given of what exactly is known and what has been written, either from original observations or derived from other publications.

  10. [Parental care and post partum depression: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceti, Franca; Carluccio, Giuseppe Mattia; Meuti, Valentina; Piperno, Francesca; Sogos, Carla; Straniero Sergio, Bianca; Nicolis, Sara

    2012-01-01

    The post partum depression (PPD) is a severe risk factor for the emotional and cognitive development of offspring. The Authors describe the relationship between mother with PPD and her two-year old child. The mother repeats patterns of parental care experienced during her own childhood.

  11. Parental perspectives on the awareness and delivery of preconception care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poels, M; Koster, M P H; Franx, A; van Stel, H F

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The attention for Preconception Care (PCC) has grown substantially in recent years, yet the implementation of PCC appears challenging as uptake rates remain low. The objective of this study was to assess parental perspectives on how PCC should be provided. METHODS: Recruitment of

  12. Challenges in care of the child with special health care needs in a resource limited environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Ehi Eseigbe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To identify challenges encountered in the care of children with special health care needs in a resource limited environment a 10 year-old child with a diagnosis of Tuberous Sclerosis was studied. Challenges identified were in: making a definitive diagnosis, provision of adequate care, cost of care, meeting parental expectations and accessing community support for the child and family. Available specialist health care and related services, including community rehabilitation, were provided for the child and family. The study highlights the need for improved community awareness, development in the provision of specialist health care services and institution of governmental policies that identify, support and protect children with special health care needs.

  13. EVALUATION OF HEALTH CARE QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatko Fras

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. It is possible to evaluate quality characteristics of different aspects of health care by many different measures. For these purposes, in various countries all over the world authorised institutions and/or agencies developed number of methodological accessories, criteria and tools for selection of more or less appropriately and optimally defined criteria and indicators of quality clinical performance.Conclusions. Recently we have started with activities for gradual introduction of systematic monitoring, assessment and improvement of quality of health care in Slovenia as well. One of the key prerequisites for selection of valid, practicable, efficient and reliable quality indicators is the establishment of continuous and methodologically appropriate system of development and implementation of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines. We started this process within the framework of national Health Sector Management Project, where all potential key stakeholders from health care sector participated. Also the project on Quality in Health Care in Slovenia, started, leaded and performed by the Medical Chamber of Slovenia, represents one of the important parallel starting steps towards assurance of reliable data on development/establishment of appropriate set of quality indicators and standards of health care in our country.

  14. Association Between Parental Barriers to Accessing a Usual Source of Care and Children's Receipt of Preventive Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellettiere, John; Chuang, Emmeline; Hughes, Suzanne C; Quintanilla, Isaac; Hofstetter, C Richard; Hovell, Melbourne F

    Preventive health services are important for child development, and parents play a key role in facilitating access to services. This study examined how parents' reasons for not having a usual source of care were associated with their children's receipt of preventive services. We used pooled data from the 2011-2014 National Health Interview Survey (n = 34 843 participants). Parents' reasons for not having a usual source of care were framed within the Penchansky and Thomas model of access and measured through 3 dichotomous indicators: financial barriers (affordability), attitudes and beliefs about health care (acceptability), and all other nonfinancial barriers (accessibility, accommodation, and availability). We used multivariable logistic regression models to test associations between parental barriers and children's receipt of past-year well-child care visits and influenza vaccinations, controlling for other child, family, and contextual factors. In 2014, 14.3% (weighted percentage) of children had at least 1 parent without a usual source of care. Children of parents without a usual source of care because they "don't need a doctor and/or haven't had any problems" or they "don't like, trust, or believe in doctors" had 35% lower odds of receiving well-child care (adjusted odds ratio = 0.65; 95% CI, 0.56-0.74) and 23% lower odds of receiving influenza vaccination (adjusted odds ratio = 0.77; 95% CI, 0.69-0.86) than children of parents without those attitudes and beliefs about health care. Financial and other nonfinancial parental barriers were not associated with children's receipt of preventive services. Results were independent of several factors relevant to children's access to preventive health care, including whether the child had a usual source of care. Parents' attitudes and beliefs about having a usual source of care were strongly associated with their children's receipt of recommended preventive health services. Rates of receipt of child preventive

  15. Caring from Afar: Asian H1B Migrant Workers and Aging Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeon-Shim; Chaudhuri, Anoshua; Yoo, Grace J

    2015-09-01

    With the growth in engineering/technology industries, the United States has seen an increase in the arrival of highly skilled temporary migrant workers on H1B visas from various Asian countries. Limited research exists on how these groups maintain family ties from afar including caring for aging parents. This study explores the experiences and challenges that Asian H1B workers face when providing care from a distance. A total of 21 Chinese/Taiwanese, Korean, and Indian H1B workers participated in in-depth qualitative interviews. Key findings indicate that despite distance, caring relationships still continue through regular communications, financial remittances, and return visits, at the same time creating emotional, psychological, and financial challenges for the workers. Findings highlight the need for further research in understanding how the decline of aging parent's health impacts the migrants' adjustment and health in the United States.

  16. Rural migration and health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Jensen, Marit Vatn

    This literature study focuses on possible links between access to health services and migration in rural areas. Why do people move to or from rural areas or why do they stay? What determines where people settle? And, in this context, do local health care services play an important or minor role......, or no role at all? First, the paper reports on key findings from rural migration studies, in order to shed light on two migration trends: urbanization and counter-urbanization. Then we take a closer look on settlement preferences in rural areas, including the impact of health care facilities. Finally, we end...... up with a more deepgoing review of the relatively small number of studies, which explicitly deal with settlement preferences related to access to health care....

  17. The Supportive Care Needs of Parents With a Child With a Rare Disease: A Qualitative Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelentsov, Lemuel J; Fielder, Andrea L; Esterman, Adrian J

    2016-01-01

    There are few studies that exist which focus specifically on parents with a child with a rare disease. The purpose of this study was to better understand the lived experiences and supportive care needs (SCN) of parents caring for a child across a spectrum of rare diseases. A qualitative descriptive approach was used to guide the research, and four semi-structured focus group interviews were conducted with 23 parents (17 mothers and 6 fathers). Participants described 'feeling boxed-in outside the box' due to a number of limitations unique to their child's disease, daily practical challenges in providing care and the various relational impacts of caring for a child with a rare disease were discussed. The results from this study help to give clearer direction for health professionals on where to focus future efforts in better meeting the supportive care needs of parents and their child with a rare disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Selfish mothers? An empirical test of parent-offspring conflict over extended parental care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Manabi; Sen Majumder, Sreejani; Bhadra, Anindita

    2014-03-01

    Parent-offspring conflict (POC) theory is an interesting conceptual framework for understanding the dynamics of parental care. However, this theory is not easy to test empirically, as exact measures of parental investment in an experimental set-up are difficult to obtain. We have used free-ranging dogs Canis familiaris in India, to study POC in the context of extended parental care. We observed females and their pups in their natural habitat for the mother's tendency to share food given by humans with her pups in the weaning and post-weaning stages. Since these dogs are scavengers, and depend largely on human provided food for their sustenance, voluntary sharing of food by the mother with her pups is a good surrogate for extended parental care. Our behavioural observations convincingly demonstrate an increase of conflict and decrease of cooperation by the mother with her offspring over given food within a span of 4-6 weeks. We also demonstrate that the competition among the pups in a litter scales with litter size, an indicator of sib-sib competition. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Marketing occupational health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, M J; Harris, J C

    1981-01-01

    A very basic part of marketing success is determining areas of your business in which you have a competitive advantage. In drafting a marketing plan for the Denver Clinic, the competitive advantages group practices have in the area of occupational health were quickly realized. This competitive edge is presented along with the Denver Clinic's marketing strategies and plans to capitalize on occupational healthcare advantages.

  20. Influence of awareness and availability of medical alternatives on parents seeking paediatric emergency care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellbrant, Julia A; Åkeson, S Jonas; Karlsland Åkeson, Pia M

    2018-06-01

    Direct seeking of care at paediatric emergency departments may result from an inadequate awareness or a short supply of medical alternatives. We therefore evaluated the care-seeking patterns, availability of medical options and initial medical assessments - with overall reference to socioeconomic status - of parents at an urban paediatric emergency department in a Scandinavian country providing free paediatric healthcare. The parents of children assessed by paediatric emergency department physicians at a Swedish university hospital over a 25-day winter period completed a questionnaire on recent medical contacts and their reasons for attendance. Additional information was obtained from ledgers, patient records and population demographics. In total, 657 of 713 eligible patients (92%) were included. Seventy-nine per cent of their parents either failed to or managed to establish medical contact before the emergency department visit, whereas 21% sought care with no attempt at recent medical contact. Visits with a failed telephone or primary care contact (18%) were more common outside office hours ( p=0.014) and were scored as less urgent ( p=0.014). A perceived emergency was the main reason for no attempt at medical contact before the visit. Direct emergency department care-seeking was more common from the city district with the lowest socioeconomic status ( p=0.027). Although most parents in this Swedish study tried to seek medical advice before attending a paediatric emergency department, perceived emergency, a short supply of telephone health line or primary care facilities and lower socioeconomic status contributed to direct care-seeking by almost 40% of parents. Pre-hospital awareness and the availability of medical alternatives with an emphasis on major differences in socioeconomic status should therefore be considered to further optimize care-seeking in paediatric emergency departments.

  1. Adolescent Sexual Health Education: Parents Benefit Too!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinaj-Koci, Veronica; Deveaux, Lynette; Wang, Bo; Lunn, Sonya; Marshall, Sharon; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita

    2015-01-01

    The inclusion of parents in adolescent-targeted interventions is intended to benefit the adolescent. Limited research has explored whether parents participating in these programs also benefit directly. We examined the impact of Caribbean Informed Parents and Children Together, the parenting portion of an adolescent-targeted HIV prevention…

  2. Access to Health Care

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is based on the November, 2010 CDC Vital Signs report which indicates that more than one in four adults 18-64 years old (about 50 million) report being uninsured for at least part of the past 12 months, and focuses on the growing number of middle-income adults and those with a chronic illness or disability who have no health insurance.

  3. Parents' mental health and psychiatric expertise in child welfare family rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riihimäki, Kirsi

    2015-02-01

    Parents' mental health disorders are not well known within child welfare services. First, to assess the mental health disorders and treatment needs of parents participating in the child welfare-centred family rehabilitation; Second, to evaluate the work of psychiatric nurses and the effectiveness of consultations by psychiatrists in such cases. During 2010, a total of 141 parents participated in child welfare-centred family rehabilitation. The primary psychiatric disorders of parents not currently receiving psychiatric care were assessed, as was the appropriate treatment for them. The majority of parents in child welfare-centred family rehabilitation suffered from severe mental health disorders, often unrecognized and untreated. As much as 93% of parents were referred to mental health or substance abuse treatment, almost half of them to secondary care. The work of psychiatric nurses and consultations by psychiatrists were found to be useful. Most parents suffered from severe unrecognized and untreated mental health disorders. There is a high demand for adult-psychiatric expertise in child welfare.

  4. Parenting the Poorly Attached Teenager. Fostering Families. A Specialized Training Program Designed for Foster Care Workers & Foster Care Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatz, Mona Struhsaker; Faust, Timothy Philip

    This module is part of a training program for foster parents and foster care workers offered at Colorado State University. The module explores the attachment process and the long-term effects of attachment difficulties in the first years of a child's life. The module's learning objectives address: (1) ways of identifying the basic concepts…

  5. Needs and preferences of parents of adolescents with multiple and complex needs in residential care

    OpenAIRE

    Steene, Van den, Helena; West, Van, Dirk; Glazemakers, Inge

    2018-01-01

    Abstract: The perspective of parents whose children are in residential care, has received only minor attention in the literature, despite evidence pointing out the value of parental involvement in care delivery for their child. Drawing upon in‐depth interviews with 12 parents of adolescent girls with multiple and complex needs in residential child welfare, this exploratory study describes parents' own needs and preferences with regard to care delivery. Parents wish: (a) to have a true partner...

  6. Parental background, social disadvantage, public "care," and psychological problems in adolescence and adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, A; Ten Brinke, J; Flouri, E

    2000-11-01

    To assess whether the structure of the parental background (birth, restructured, widowed, single) or the context (severe social disadvantage or care) in childhood is associated with psychological problems in adolescence and adulthood. Data on 8,441 cohort members of the National Child Development Study were used to explore the impact of parental background on maladjustment at age 16, as assessed by the Rutter A Health and Behaviour Checklist, and psychological distress at age 33, as assessed by the Malaise Inventory. Restructured parenting (without disadvantage or care) was not a risk factor for maladjustment at age 16. Rather, a childhood experience of care or social disadvantage was significantly related to psychosocial problems at age 16. Psychological distress at age 33 was associated with maladjustment at age 16. A childhood experience of care was associated with a tendency to adult psychological distress in men, as was growing up with a single parent. It is not the structure of the family background but the context that is more strongly associated with maladjustment in adolescence. A childhood experience of single parenthood and an experience of care predicted adult psychological distress in men but not in women.

  7. Empowering Parents of Australian Infants and Children in Hospital: Translation, Cultural Adaptation, and Validation of the EMpowerment of PArents in The Intensive Care-30-AUS Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Fenella J; Wilson, Sally; Aydon, Laurene; Leslie, Gavin D; Latour, Jos M

    2017-11-01

    To translate, culturally adapt, and psychometrically test the EMpowerment of PArents in The Intensive Care-30 questionnaire in Australian pediatric critical care, neonatal, and pediatric ward settings. Cross-sectional, descriptive, multicenter study conducted in two phases; 1) translation and cultural adaptation and 2) validation of the EMpowerment of PArents in The Intensive Care-30 questionnaire. Two Western Australian sites, the PICU and two pediatric wards of a children's hospital and the neonatal unit of a women's and newborn hospital. Parents whose baby or child was admitted to the participating wards or units with a length of hospital stay greater than 24 hours. None. Phase 1: A structured 10-step translation process adhered to international principles of good practice for translation and cultural adaptation of patient-reported outcomes. Thirty parents participated in cognitive debriefing. Phase 2: A total of 328 parents responded to the EMpowerment of PArents in The Intensive Care-30-AUS questionnaire. Reliability was sufficient (Cronbach α at domain level 0.70 -0.82, for each clinical area 0.56-0.86). Congruent validity was adequate between the domains and three general satisfaction items (rs 0.38-0.69). Nondifferential validity showed no significant effect size between three patient or parent demographic characteristics and the domains (Cohen's d PArents in The Intensive Care-30-AUS is a reliable and valid questionnaire to measure parent-reported outcomes in pediatric critical care, pediatric ward, and neonatal hospital settings. Using this questionnaire can provide a framework for a standardized quality improvement approach and identification of best practices across specialties, hospital services and for benchmarking similar health services worldwide.

  8. Parenting Style, Individuation, and Mental Health of Egyptian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwairy, Marwan; Menshar, Kariman E.

    2006-01-01

    Three questionnaires that measure parenting style, adolescent-family connectedness, and mental health were administered to 351 Egyptian adolescents. Results show that in rural communities the authoritarian style is more predominant in the parenting of male adolescents, while the authoritative style is more predominant in the parenting of female…

  9. Health Communication Practices among Parents and Sexual Minority Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, India D.; Friedman, Daniela B.; Annang, Lucy; Spencer, S. Melinda; Lindley, Lisa L.

    2014-01-01

    Positive perceptions of parent-child communication can influence behavioral outcomes such as sexual behavior and substance use among young people. Parent-child communication has been effective in modifying adverse health outcomes among heterosexual youth; however, limited research has examined the perceptions of parent-child communication among…

  10. Family-centred care: a qualitative study of Chinese and South Asian immigrant parents' experiences of care in paediatric oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, L; Dix, D; Gulati, S; Sung, L; Klaassen, R J; Shaw, N T; Klassen, A F

    2013-03-01

    Over the past two decades, there is increasing emphasis being placed upon providing family-centred care (FCC) in paediatric oncology settings. However, there is a lack of knowledge of FCC in paediatric oncology from the perspectives of immigrant parents. The purpose of this paper is to describe Chinese and South Asian immigrant parents' experiences of FCC in paediatric oncology settings in Canada. This study adopted a constructivist grounded theory approach. Fifty first generation Chinese and South Asian parents of children with cancer who were at least 6 months post-diagnosis were recruited from six Canadian paediatric oncology centres. Interviews were conducted in English, Cantonese, Mandarin, Urdu, Punjabi or Hindi, and transcribed into English. Analysis involved line-by-line, focused and theoretical coding, and the use of the constant comparison method. Findings indicated that overall parents were highly satisfied with the care and services they received, and their experiences were reflective of the key elements of FCC. However, there were some areas of concern identified by participants: parents not perceiving themselves as a member of the medical team; inconsistency in the quality and co-ordination of services among healthcare providers; disrespectful and mechanical manner of a few healthcare providers; and parents' discomfort with healthcare providers communicating sensitive health-related information directly with their child. In order to successfully provide family-centred services to immigrant parents of children with cancer, better communication of the elements of FCC between healthcare staff and families is needed to negotiate a clear role for the parents as partners of the healthcare team. Moreover, a better understanding of how family relationships are structured in immigrant families will assist healthcare providers to balance the best interests of the child with that of the family as a unit. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Corticosterone predicts foraging behavior and parental care in macaroni penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossin, Glenn T; Trathan, Phil N; Phillips, Richard A; Gorman, Kristen B; Dawson, Alistair; Sakamoto, Kentaro Q; Williams, Tony D

    2012-07-01

    Corticosterone has received considerable attention as the principal hormonal mediator of allostasis or physiological stress in wild animals. More recently, it has also been implicated in the regulation of parental care in breeding birds, particularly with respect to individual variation in foraging behavior and provisioning effort. There is also evidence that prolactin can work either inversely or additively with corticosterone to achieve this. Here we test the hypothesis that endogenous corticosterone plays a key physiological role in the control of foraging behavior and parental care, using a combination of exogenous corticosterone treatment, time-depth telemetry, and physiological sampling of female macaroni penguins (Eudyptes chrysolophus) during the brood-guard period of chick rearing, while simultaneously monitoring patterns of prolactin secretion. Plasma corticosterone levels were significantly higher in females given exogenous implants relative to those receiving sham implants. Increased corticosterone levels were associated with significantly higher levels of foraging and diving activity and greater mass gain in implanted females. Elevated plasma corticosterone was also associated with an apparent fitness benefit in the form of increased chick mass. Plasma prolactin levels did not correlate with corticosterone levels at any time, nor was prolactin correlated with any measure of foraging behavior or parental care. Our results provide support for the corticosterone-adaptation hypothesis, which predicts that higher corticosterone levels support increased foraging activity and parental effort.

  12. Parental influence on children's oral health-related behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poutanen, Raija; Lahti, Satu; Tolvanen, Mimmi; Hausen, Hannu

    2006-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether there are differences between oral health-related knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and behaviors of children and their parents, and to identify the family-related factors associated with children's poor or good oral health-related behavior. The data were gathered by means of questionnaires from 11-12-year-old schoolchildren and their parents who replied without having knowledge of the answers of the others. Differences between subgroups of children were analyzed by cross-tabulation, and the factors related to children's good or poor oral health-related behavior by logistic regression analyses. Parents of children who reported good oral health-related behavior had better knowledge and more favorable behaviors than those of other parents. Predictors for a child's poor oral health-related behavior were the child's poor knowledge, male gender, the parent's frequent consumption of sweets, and the parent's infrequent use of xylitol gum. When a less strict threshold for the child's poor oral health-related behavior was used, more predictors entered the model: the parent's unfavorable use of fluoride toothpaste; among girls, the parent's lack of knowledge; and among children whose mother's occupation level was high, the parent's infrequent use of xylitol gum. The parents of children whose oral health behavior was favorable were more likely to have a high level occupation and favorable oral health-related behaviors. Oral health-related knowledge of children and their parents seems to be associated with children's oral health-related behavior. Parents' behaviors, but not attitudes, were associated with children's oral health behavior.

  13. Infant oral health: Knowledge, attitude and practices of parents in Udaipur, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajappa, Ramesh; Kakatkar, Gauri; Sharda, Archana J; Asawa, Kailash; Ramesh, Gayathri; Sandesh, Nagarajappa

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the infant oral health (IOH) related knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of parents in Udaipur, India. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted among 470 parents visiting the Department of Pediatrics, Rabindranath Tagore Medical College and Hospital. A 32-item questionnaire covering socio-demographic characteristics and questions pertaining to KAP regarding IOH care was used to collect the data. Descriptive statistics, Student's t-test, one-way analysis of variance, and Scheffe's test were used for the statistical analysis (P ≤ 0.05). Majority of the parents had good knowledge regarding tooth eruption, but had a poor knowledge of cleaning (58.7%) and development of caries (48.5%). Parents in the age group of 25-30 years showed significantly higher mean knowledge (25.90 ± 3.93), attitude (15.71 ± 2.23), and practice (20.09 ± 2.50) scores. Female parents showed a significantly higher mean knowledge (21.45 ± 4.27) and attitude scores (14.97 ± 2.15) than the male parents. Parent's knowledge on IOH care was inadequate. Health professionals, who are the first to come into contact with expectant and new mothers, need to disseminate appropriate and accurate information about oral health-care for infants.

  14. Testosterone, oxytocin, and the development of human parental care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Ilanit; Pratt, Maayan; Bergunde, Katharina; Zagoory-Sharon, Orna; Feldman, Ruth

    2017-07-01

    The steroid testosterone (T) and neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) have each been implicated in the development of parental care in humans and animals, yet very little research addressed the interaction between these hormones at the transition to parenthood in mothers and fathers. One hundred and sixty mothers and fathers (80 couples) were visited 1 and 6months after the birth of their first child, plasma OT and T were assayed at each time-point, and interactions between each parent and the infant were observed and micro-coded for two key parental behaviors; affectionate touch and parent-infant synchrony. T showed gender-specific effects. While paternal T was individually stable across the first six months of parenting and predicted lower father-infant synchrony, maternal T was neither stable nor predictive of maternal behavior. An interaction of OT and T showed that T has complex modulatory effects on the relations of OT and parenting. Slope analysis revealed that among fathers, only when T was high (+1SD), negative associations emerged between OT and father affectionate touch. In contrast, among mothers, the context of high T was related to a positive association between OT and maternal touch. Our findings, the first to test the interaction of OT and T in relation to observed maternal behavior, underscore the need for much further research on the complex bidirectional effects of steroid and neuropeptide systems on human mothering and fathering. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Shared decision-making, stigma, and child mental health functioning among families referred for primary care-located mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Ashley M

    2014-03-01

    There is growing emphasis on shared decision making (SDM) to promote family participation in care and improve the quality of child mental health care. Yet, little is known about the relationship of SDM with parental perceptions of child mental health treatment or child mental health functioning. The objectives of this preliminary study were to examine (a) the frequency of perceived SDM with providers among minority parents of children referred to colocated mental health care in a primary care clinic, (b) associations between parent-reported SDM and mental health treatment stigma and child mental health impairment, and (c) differences in SDM among parents of children with various levels of mental health problem severity. Participants were 36 Latino and African American parents of children (ages 2-7 years) who were referred to colocated mental health care for externalizing mental health problems (disruptive, hyperactive, and aggressive behaviors). Parents completed questions assessing their perceptions of SDM with providers, child mental health treatment stigma, child mental health severity, and level of child mental health impairment. Descriptive statistics demonstrated the majority of the sample reported frequent SDM with providers. Correlation coefficients indicated higher SDM was associated with lower stigma regarding mental health treatment and lower parent-perceived child mental health impairment. Analysis of variance showed no significant difference in SDM among parents of children with different parent-reported levels of child mental health severity. Future research should examine the potential of SDM for addressing child mental health treatment stigma and impairment among minority families.

  16. Nanotechnology in health care

    CERN Document Server

    Sahoo, Sanjeeb K

    2012-01-01

    Nanomedicine: Emerging Field of Nanotechnology to Human HealthNanomedicines: Impacts in Ocular Delivery and TargetingImmuno-Nanosystems to CNS Pathologies: State of the Art PEGylated Zinc Protoporphyrin: A Micelle-Forming Polymeric Drug for Cancer TherapyORMOSIL Nanoparticles: Nanomedicine Approach for Drug/Gene Delivery to the BrainMagnetic Nanoparticles: A Versatile System for Therapeutic and Imaging SystemNanobiotechnology: A New Generation of Biomedicine Application of Nanotechnology-Based Drug Delivery and Targeting to LungsAptamers and Nanomedicine in C

  17. Access to Health <