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Sample records for parental wheat gene

  1. Transferring alien genes to wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knott, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    In broad terms an alien gene can be considered to be any gene transferred to wheat from a related species. As described above by Maan (section 7D) the genus Triticum contains a broad range of species, some of which cross readily with the cultivated tetraploid (T. Turgidum L.) or hexaploid (T. aestivum L.) wheats, and others only with great difficulty. In addition, wheat will also cross with species in a number of other genera including Agropyron, Elymus, Elytrigia (=Agropyron), Haynaldia, Hordeum, and Secale (Riley and Kimber, 1966; Knobloch, 1968; Feldman and Sears, 1981). In discussing the Triticum and Aegilops spp., the classification by Kimber and Sears, section SA-I, above, will be followed. For the Agropyron and related species the classification described by Dewey (1983) will be used. To avoid confusion, in referring to the literature the designations used by the authors will be given, followed by the new designation. The wild relatives of wheat are adapted to a broad range of environments and carry a large reservoir of useful genes (Zohary et al., 1969; Kerber and Dyck, 1973; Brezhnev, 1977; Feldman and Sears, 1981; Limin and Fowler, 1981; Sharma et aI., 1981; McGuire and Dvorak, 1981). Initially they were considered to be primarily sources of disease resistance, but more recently they have been recognized as potential sources of genes for high protein, cold tolerance, salt tolerance, drought tolerance, lodging resistance, early maturity, and even yield. Extensive screening of the wild relatives of wheat needs to be done before their useful genes can be fully utilized

  2. Transferring alien genes to wheat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knott, D. R.

    1987-07-01

    In broad terms an alien gene can be considered to be any gene transferred to wheat from a related species. As described above by Maan (section 7D) the genus Triticum contains a broad range of species, some of which cross readily with the cultivated tetraploid (T. Turgidum L.) or hexaploid (T. aestivum L.) wheats, and others only with great difficulty. In addition, wheat will also cross with species in a number of other genera including Agropyron, Elymus, Elytrigia (=Agropyron), Haynaldia, Hordeum, and Secale (Riley and Kimber, 1966; Knobloch, 1968; Feldman and Sears, 1981). In discussing the Triticum and Aegilops spp., the classification by Kimber and Sears, section SA-I, above, will be followed. For the Agropyron and related species the classification described by Dewey (1983) will be used. To avoid confusion, in referring to the literature the designations used by the authors will be given, followed by the new designation. The wild relatives of wheat are adapted to a broad range of environments and carry a large reservoir of useful genes (Zohary et al., 1969; Kerber and Dyck, 1973; Brezhnev, 1977; Feldman and Sears, 1981; Limin and Fowler, 1981; Sharma et aI., 1981; McGuire and Dvorak, 1981). Initially they were considered to be primarily sources of disease resistance, but more recently they have been recognized as potential sources of genes for high protein, cold tolerance, salt tolerance, drought tolerance, lodging resistance, early maturity, and even yield. Extensive screening of the wild relatives of wheat needs to be done before their useful genes can be fully utilized.

  3. Immunotoxicological evaluation of wheat genetically modified with TaDREB4 gene on BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chun Lai; Zhang, Xiao Peng; Song, Yan; Jia, Xu Dong

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate the immunotoxicological effects of genetically modified wheat with TaDREB4 gene in female BALB/c mice. Female mice weighing 18-22 g were divided into five groups (10 mice/group), which were set as negative control group, common wheat group, parental wheat group, genetically modified wheat group and cyclophosphamide positive control group, respectively. Mice in negative control group and positive control group were fed with AIN93G diet, mice in common wheat group, non-genetically modified parental wheat group and genetically modified wheat group were fed with feedstuffs added corresponding wheat (the proportion is 76%) for 30 days, then body weight, absolute and relative weight of spleen and thymus, white blood cell count, histological examination of immune organ, peripheral blood lymphocytes phenotyping, serum cytokine, serum immunoglobulin, antibody plaque-forming cell, serum half hemolysis value, mitogen-induced splenocyte proliferation, delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction and phagocytic activities of phagocytes were detected. No immunotoxicological effects related to the consumption of the genetically modified wheat were observed in BALB/c mice when compared with parental wheat group, common wheat group and negative control group. From the immunotoxicological point of view, results from this study demonstrate that genetically modified wheat with TaDREB4 gene is as safe as the parental wheat. Copyright © 2013 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  4. Aneuploids of wheat and chromosomal localization of genes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aneuploids of wheat and chromosomal localization of genes. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... cytogenetic methods for the chromosomal localization of major genes in wheat including Chinese spring (CS) monosomics (Triticum aestivum, ...

  5. Global transgenerational gene expression dynamics in two newly synthesized allohexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Bao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alteration in gene expression resulting from allopolyploidization is a prominent feature in plants, but its spectrum and extent are not fully known. Common wheat (Triticum aestivum was formed via allohexaploidization about 10,000 years ago, and became the most important crop plant. To gain further insights into the genome-wide transcriptional dynamics associated with the onset of common wheat formation, we conducted microarray-based genome-wide gene expression analysis on two newly synthesized allohexaploid wheat lines with chromosomal stability and a genome constitution analogous to that of the present-day common wheat. Results Multi-color GISH (genomic in situ hybridization was used to identify individual plants from two nascent allohexaploid wheat lines between Triticum turgidum (2n = 4x = 28; genome BBAA and Aegilops tauschii (2n = 2x = 14; genome DD, which had a stable chromosomal constitution analogous to that of common wheat (2n = 6x = 42; genome BBAADD. Genome-wide analysis of gene expression was performed for these allohexaploid lines along with their parental plants from T. turgidum and Ae. tauschii, using the Affymetrix Gene Chip Wheat Genome-Array. Comparison with the parental plants coupled with inclusion of empirical mid-parent values (MPVs revealed that whereas the great majority of genes showed the expected parental additivity, two major patterns of alteration in gene expression in the allohexaploid lines were identified: parental dominance expression and non-additive expression. Genes involved in each of the two altered expression patterns could be classified into three distinct groups, stochastic, heritable and persistent, based on their transgenerational heritability and inter-line conservation. Strikingly, whereas both altered patterns of gene expression showed a propensity of inheritance, identity of the involved genes was highly stochastic, consistent with the involvement of diverse Gene Ontology (GO

  6. Expression of Pinellia pedatisecta Lectin Gene in Transgenic Wheat Enhances Resistance to Wheat Aphids

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoliang Duan; Qiling Hou; Guoyu Liu; Xiaomeng Pang; Zhenli Niu; Xiao Wang; Yufeng Zhang; Baoyun Li; Rongqi Liang

    2018-01-01

    Wheat aphids are major pests during the seed filling stage of wheat. Plant lectins are toxic to sap-sucking pests such as wheat aphids. In this study, Pinellia pedatisecta agglutinin (ppa), a gene encoding mannose binding lectin, was cloned, and it shared 92.69% nucleotide similarity and 94% amino acid similarity with Pinellia ternata agglutinin (pta). The ppa gene, driven by the constitutive and phloem-specific ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase small subunit gene (rbcs) promoter in pBAC-rbcs...

  7. Stem rust seedling resistance genes in Ethiopian wheat cultivars ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirty durum wheat (19 commercial cultivars and 11 breeding lines) and 30 bread wheat (20 commercial cultivars and 10 breeding lines) were tested for gene postulation. Stem rust infection types produced on wheat cultivars and breeding lines by ten Pgt races was compared with infection types produced on 40 near ...

  8. Inverse gene-for-gene interactions contribute additively to tan spot susceptibility in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhaohui; Zurn, Jason D; Kariyawasam, Gayan; Faris, Justin D; Shi, Gongjun; Hansen, Jana; Rasmussen, Jack B; Acevedo, Maricelis

    2017-06-01

    Tan spot susceptibility is conferred by multiple interactions of necrotrophic effector and host sensitivity genes. Tan spot of wheat, caused by Pyrenophora tritici-repentis, is an important disease in almost all wheat-growing areas of the world. The disease system is known to involve at least three fungal-produced necrotrophic effectors (NEs) that interact with the corresponding host sensitivity (S) genes in an inverse gene-for-gene manner to induce disease. However, it is unknown if the effects of these NE-S gene interactions contribute additively to the development of tan spot. In this work, we conducted disease evaluations using different races and quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis in a wheat recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from a cross between two susceptible genotypes, LMPG-6 and PI 626573. The two parental lines each harbored a single known NE sensitivity gene with LMPG-6 having the Ptr ToxC sensitivity gene Tsc1 and PI 626573 having the Ptr ToxA sensitivity gene Tsn1. Transgressive segregation was observed in the population for all races. QTL mapping revealed that both loci (Tsn1 and Tsc1) were significantly associated with susceptibility to race 1 isolates, which produce both Ptr ToxA and Ptr ToxC, and the two genes contributed additively to tan spot susceptibility. For isolates of races 2 and 3, which produce only Ptr ToxA and Ptr ToxC, only Tsn1 and Tsc1 were associated with tan spot susceptibility, respectively. This work clearly demonstrates that tan spot susceptibility in this population is due primarily to two NE-S interactions. Breeders should remove both sensitivity genes from wheat lines to obtain high levels of tan spot resistance.

  9. An endogenous reference gene of common and durum wheat for detection of genetically modified wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Shinjiro; Tanaka, Keiko; Nishitsuji, Yasuyuki; Kikuchi, Yosuke; Matsuoka, Yasuyuki; Arami, Shin-Ichiro; Sato, Megumi; Haraguchi, Hiroyuki; Kurimoto, Youichi; Mano, Junichi; Furui, Satoshi; Kitta, Kazumi

    2012-01-01

    To develop a method for detecting GM wheat that may be marketed in the near future, we evaluated the proline-rich protein (PRP) gene as an endogenous reference gene of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and durum wheat (Triticum durum L.). Real-time PCR analysis showed that only DNA of wheat was amplified and no amplification product was observed for phylogenetically related cereals, indicating that the PRP detection system is specific to wheat. The intensities of the amplification products and Ct values among all wheat samples used in this study were very similar, with no nonspecific or additional amplification, indicating that the PRP detection system has high sequence stability. The limit of detection was estimated at 5 haploid genome copies. The PRP region was demonstrated to be present as a single or double copy in the common wheat haploid genome. Furthermore, the PRP detection system showed a highly linear relationship between Ct values and the amount of plasmid DNA, indicating that an appropriate calibration curve could be constructed for quantitative detection of GM wheat. All these results indicate that the PRP gene is a suitable endogenous reference gene for PCR-based detection of GM wheat.

  10. Rapid and targeted introgression of genes into popular wheat cultivars using marker-assisted background selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harpinder S Randhawa

    Full Text Available A marker-assisted background selection (MABS-based gene introgression approach in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. was optimized, where 97% or more of a recurrent parent genome (RPG can be recovered in just two backcross (BC generations. A four-step MABS method was developed based on 'Plabsim' computer simulations and wheat genome structure information. During empirical optimization of this method, double recombinants around the target gene were selected in a step-wise fashion during the two BC cycles followed by selection for recurrent parent genotype on non-carrier chromosomes. The average spacing between carrier chromosome markers was <4 cM. For non-carrier chromosome markers that flanked each of the 48 wheat gene-rich regions, this distance was approximately 12 cM. Employed to introgress seedling stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici resistance gene Yr15 into the spring wheat cultivar 'Zak', marker analysis of 2,187 backcross-derived progeny resulted in the recovery of a BC(2F(2ratio3 plant with 97% of the recurrent parent genome. In contrast, only 82% of the recurrent parent genome was recovered in phenotypically selected BC(4F(7 plants developed without MABS. Field evaluation results from 17 locations indicated that the MABS-derived line was either equal or superior to the recurrent parent for the tested agronomic characteristics. Based on these results, MABS is recommended as a strategy for rapidly introgressing a targeted gene into a wheat genotype in just two backcross generations while recovering 97% or more of the recurrent parent genotype.

  11. Gene flow in genetically modified wheat.

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    Silvan Rieben

    Full Text Available Understanding gene flow in genetically modified (GM crops is critical to answering questions regarding risk-assessment and the coexistence of GM and non-GM crops. In two field experiments, we tested whether rates of cross-pollination differed between GM and non-GM lines of the predominantly self-pollinating wheat Triticum aestivum. In the first experiment, outcrossing was studied within the field by planting "phytometers" of one line into stands of another line. In the second experiment, outcrossing was studied over distances of 0.5-2.5 m from a central patch of pollen donors to adjacent patches of pollen recipients. Cross-pollination and outcrossing was detected when offspring of a pollen recipient without a particular transgene contained this transgene in heterozygous condition. The GM lines had been produced from the varieties Bobwhite or Frisal and contained Pm3b or chitinase/glucanase transgenes, respectively, in homozygous condition. These transgenes increase plant resistance against pathogenic fungi. Although the overall outcrossing rate in the first experiment was only 3.4%, Bobwhite GM lines containing the Pm3b transgene were six times more likely than non-GM control lines to produce outcrossed offspring. There was additional variation in outcrossing rate among the four GM-lines, presumably due to the different transgene insertion events. Among the pollen donors, the Frisal GM line expressing a chitinase transgene caused more outcrossing than the GM line expressing both a chitinase and a glucanase transgene. In the second experiment, outcrossing after cross-pollination declined from 0.7-0.03% over the test distances of 0.5-2.5 m. Our results suggest that pollen-mediated gene flow between GM and non-GM wheat might only be a concern if it occurs within fields, e.g. due to seed contamination. Methodologically our study demonstrates that outcrossing rates between transgenic and other lines within crops can be assessed using a phytometer

  12. Gene flow in genetically modified wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieben, Silvan; Kalinina, Olena; Schmid, Bernhard; Zeller, Simon L

    2011-01-01

    Understanding gene flow in genetically modified (GM) crops is critical to answering questions regarding risk-assessment and the coexistence of GM and non-GM crops. In two field experiments, we tested whether rates of cross-pollination differed between GM and non-GM lines of the predominantly self-pollinating wheat Triticum aestivum. In the first experiment, outcrossing was studied within the field by planting "phytometers" of one line into stands of another line. In the second experiment, outcrossing was studied over distances of 0.5-2.5 m from a central patch of pollen donors to adjacent patches of pollen recipients. Cross-pollination and outcrossing was detected when offspring of a pollen recipient without a particular transgene contained this transgene in heterozygous condition. The GM lines had been produced from the varieties Bobwhite or Frisal and contained Pm3b or chitinase/glucanase transgenes, respectively, in homozygous condition. These transgenes increase plant resistance against pathogenic fungi. Although the overall outcrossing rate in the first experiment was only 3.4%, Bobwhite GM lines containing the Pm3b transgene were six times more likely than non-GM control lines to produce outcrossed offspring. There was additional variation in outcrossing rate among the four GM-lines, presumably due to the different transgene insertion events. Among the pollen donors, the Frisal GM line expressing a chitinase transgene caused more outcrossing than the GM line expressing both a chitinase and a glucanase transgene. In the second experiment, outcrossing after cross-pollination declined from 0.7-0.03% over the test distances of 0.5-2.5 m. Our results suggest that pollen-mediated gene flow between GM and non-GM wheat might only be a concern if it occurs within fields, e.g. due to seed contamination. Methodologically our study demonstrates that outcrossing rates between transgenic and other lines within crops can be assessed using a phytometer approach and that gene

  13. Determination of rust resistance genes in pakistani bread wheats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qamar, M.; Ahmad, S.D.; Rabbani, M.A.; Shinwari, Z.K.

    2014-01-01

    Stripe and leaf rusts are the major constraints to bread wheat production in Pakistan. Molecular markers were used to investigate the presence of leaf rust and stripe rust resistance gene cluster Lr34/Yr18 and stem rust resistance gene Sr2 in 52 Pakistani bread wheat cultivars/lines. PCR amplification of DNA fragments using DNA marker csLV-34 showed that 13 of the studied cultivars/lines, namely 03FJ26, NR 337, NR 339, NR 347, NR 350, Manthar, Margalla 99, Iqbal 2000, Saleem 2000, Wafaq 2001, Marwat 2001, Pirsabak 2004 and Fareed 2006 carry leaf rust and stripe rust resistance genes Lr34/Yr18. Stem rust resistance gene Sr2 was observed in 36 Pakistani spring wheat cultivars/lines using stm560.3tgag marker. The slow rusting gene Sr2 needs to be combined with additional stem rust resistance genes to establish durable resistance against Ug99 in modern wheat cultivars. Low frequency of Lr34/Yr18 was found in Pakistani wheats. This gene cluster needs to be incorporated into Pakistani wheats for durable rust resistance. (author)

  14. Identification of vernalization responsive genes in the winter wheat ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2National Engineering Research Centre for Wheat, 3Collaborative Innovation Center of ... among the specific genes were selected for validation by quantitative reverse transcription ... expression of TaSnRK2.8 enhanced the tolerance to low.

  15. Induced resistance and gene expression in wheat against leaf rust ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    uvp

    2013-05-15

    May 15, 2013 ... 2Department of Soil, Crop and Climate Sciences, University of the Free State, P.O Box ... Key words: Wheat leaf rust, induced resistance, priming, gene ..... transformation: susceptibility of transgenic Nicotiana sylvestris plants.

  16. Expression of Pinellia pedatisecta Lectin Gene in Transgenic Wheat Enhances Resistance to Wheat Aphids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoliang Duan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Wheat aphids are major pests during the seed filling stage of wheat. Plant lectins are toxic to sap-sucking pests such as wheat aphids. In this study, Pinellia pedatisecta agglutinin (ppa, a gene encoding mannose binding lectin, was cloned, and it shared 92.69% nucleotide similarity and 94% amino acid similarity with Pinellia ternata agglutinin (pta. The ppa gene, driven by the constitutive and phloem-specific ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase small subunit gene (rbcs promoter in pBAC-rbcs-ppa expression vector, was transferred into the wheat cultivar Baofeng104 (BF104 by particle bombardment transformation. Fifty-four T0 transgenic plants were generated. The inheritance and expression of the ppa gene were confirmed by PCR and RT-PCR analysis respectively, and seven homozygous transgenic lines were obtained. An aphid bioassay on detached leaf segments revealed that seven ppa transgenic wheat lines had lower aphid growth rates and higher inhibition rates than BF104. Furthermore, two-year aphid bioassays in isolated fields showed that aphid numbers per tiller of transgenic lines were significantly decreased, compared with wild type BF104. Therefore, ppa could be a strong biotechnological candidate to produce aphid-resistant wheat.

  17. Split-gene system for hybrid wheat seed production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempe, Katja; Rubtsova, Myroslava; Gils, Mario

    2014-06-24

    Hybrid wheat plants are superior in yield and growth characteristics compared with their homozygous parents. The commercial production of wheat hybrids is difficult because of the inbreeding nature of wheat and the lack of a practical fertility control that enforces outcrossing. We describe a hybrid wheat system that relies on the expression of a phytotoxic barnase and provides for male sterility. The barnase coding information is divided and distributed at two loci that are located on allelic positions of the host chromosome and are therefore "linked in repulsion." Functional complementation of the loci is achieved through coexpression of the barnase fragments and intein-mediated ligation of the barnase protein fragments. This system allows for growth and maintenance of male-sterile female crossing partners, whereas the hybrids are fertile. The technology does not require fertility restorers and is based solely on the genetic modification of the female crossing partner.

  18. Specific patterns of gene space organisation revealed in wheat by using the combination of barley and wheat genomic resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waugh Robbie

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because of its size, allohexaploid nature and high repeat content, the wheat genome has always been perceived as too complex for efficient molecular studies. We recently constructed the first physical map of a wheat chromosome (3B. However gene mapping is still laborious in wheat because of high redundancy between the three homoeologous genomes. In contrast, in the closely related diploid species, barley, numerous gene-based markers have been developed. This study aims at combining the unique genomic resources developed in wheat and barley to decipher the organisation of gene space on wheat chromosome 3B. Results Three dimensional pools of the minimal tiling path of wheat chromosome 3B physical map were hybridised to a barley Agilent 15K expression microarray. This led to the fine mapping of 738 barley orthologous genes on wheat chromosome 3B. In addition, comparative analyses revealed that 68% of the genes identified were syntenic between the wheat chromosome 3B and barley chromosome 3 H and 59% between wheat chromosome 3B and rice chromosome 1, together with some wheat-specific rearrangements. Finally, it indicated an increasing gradient of gene density from the centromere to the telomeres positively correlated with the number of genes clustered in islands on wheat chromosome 3B. Conclusion Our study shows that novel structural genomics resources now available in wheat and barley can be combined efficiently to overcome specific problems of genetic anchoring of physical contigs in wheat and to perform high-resolution comparative analyses with rice for deciphering the organisation of the wheat gene space.

  19. Triticale powdery mildew: population characterization and wheat gene efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouguennec, Annaig; Trottet, Maxime; du Cheyron, Philippe; Lonnet, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Powdery mildew has emerged on triticale in the early 2000s in many locations, probably due to a host range expansion of the wheat formae speciales, Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici. Many triticale cultivars are highly susceptible to powdery mildew, mainly in seedling stage, revealing a probably narrow genetic basis for powdery mildew resistance genes (Pm). Moreover, as Blumeria graminis is an obligate biotrophic fungus, it is very time consuming and difficult to maintain powdery mildew isolates for a non-specialized laboratory and populations can evolve. In order to identify wheat Pm genes efficient against natural populations of powdery mildew, wheat differential hosts and triticale seedlings were inoculated below susceptible triticale crop naturally contaminated by mildew, in several locations and several years. Symptoms on seedlings were measured after approximately two weeks of incubation in favorable fungus growth conditions. According to these data, we classified the Pm genes presents in our wheat differential hosts set in 3 classes: Pm already overcame by triticale powdery mildew, Pm having variable effects and Pm still efficient against triticale mildew. Data on triticale seedlings allowed us to identify some few triticale cultivars resistant to Blumeria graminis in seedling stage. We will try to identify Pm genes present in those cultivars next year by testing them with the characterized isolates of powdery mildew from Gent University. Nevertheless, interspecific crossing of wheat, resistant to powdery mildew in seedling stage, and rye have been initiated to introduce potentially interesting genes for resistance in triticale.

  20. Aneuploids of wheat and chromosomal localization of genes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-06-22

    Jun 22, 2011 ... chromosome location of such genes is critical for effective utilization and subsequent manipulation. Further, chromosomal localization will lead to the identification of ... Various cytogenetic stocks and techniques have been previously reported useful in localizing genes on wheat chromosomes. The objective ...

  1. Induced mutations of rust resistance genes in wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntosh, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    Induced mutations are being used as a tool to study genes for resistance in wheat. It was found that Pm1 can be separated from Lr20 and Sr15, but these two react like a single pleiotropic gene. Mutants were further examined in crosses and backmutations have been attempted. (author)

  2. FUNCTIONAL SPECIALIZATION OF DUPLICATED FLAVONOID BIOSYNTHESIS GENES IN WHEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khlestkina E.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Gene duplication followed by subfunctionalization and neofunctionalization is of a great evolutionary importance. In plant genomes, duplicated genes may result from either polyploidization (homoeologous genes or segmental chromosome duplications (paralogous genes. In allohexaploid wheat Triticum aestivum L. (2n=6x=42, genome BBAADD, both homoeologous and paralogous copies were found for the regulatory gene Myc encoding MYC-like transcriptional factor in the biosynthesis of flavonoid pigments, anthocyanins, and for the structural gene F3h encoding one of the key enzymes of flavonoid biosynthesis, flavanone 3-hydroxylase. From the 5 copies (3 homoeologous and 2 paralogous of the Myc gene found in T. aestivum, only one plays a regulatory role in anthocyanin biosynthesis, interacting complementary with another transcriptional factor (MYB-like to confer purple pigmentation of grain pericarp in wheat. The role and functionality of the other 4 copies of the Myc gene remain unknown. From the 4 functional copies of the F3h gene in T. aestivum, three homoeologues have similar function. They are expressed in wheat organs colored with anthocyanins or in the endosperm, participating there in biosynthesis of uncolored flavonoid substances. The fourth copy (the B-genomic paralogue is transcribed neither in wheat organs colored with anthocyanins nor in seeds, however, it’s expression has been noticed in roots of aluminium-stressed plants, where the three homoeologous copies are not active. Functional diversification of the duplicated flavonoid biosynthesis genes in wheat may be a reason for maintenance of the duplicated copies and preventing them from pseudogenization.The study was supported by RFBR (11-04-92707. We also thank Ms. Galina Generalova for technical assistance.

  3. Cytogenetic analysis and mapping of leaf rust resistance in Aegilops speltoides Tausch derived bread wheat line Selection2427 carrying putative gametocidal gene(s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niranjana, M; Vinod; Sharma, J B; Mallick, Niharika; Tomar, S M S; Jha, S K

    2017-12-01

    Leaf rust (Puccinia triticina) is a major biotic stress affecting wheat yields worldwide. Host-plant resistance is the best method for controlling leaf rust. Aegilops speltoides is a good source of resistance against wheat rusts. To date, five Lr genes, Lr28, Lr35, Lr36, Lr47, and Lr51, have been transferred from Ae. speltoides to bread wheat. In Selection2427, a bread wheat introgresed line with Ae. speltoides as the donor parent, a dominant gene for leaf rust resistance was mapped to the long arm of chromosome 3B (LrS2427). None of the Lr genes introgressed from Ae. speltoides have been mapped to chromosome 3B. Since none of the designated seedling leaf rust resistance genes have been located on chromosome 3B, LrS2427 seems to be a novel gene. Selection2427 showed a unique property typical of gametocidal genes, that when crossed to other bread wheat cultivars, the F 1 showed partial pollen sterility and poor seed setting, whilst Selection2427 showed reasonable male and female fertility. Accidental co-transfer of gametocidal genes with LrS2427 may have occurred in Selection2427. Though LrS2427 did not show any segregation distortion and assorted independently of putative gametocidal gene(s), its utilization will be difficult due to the selfish behavior of gametocidal genes.

  4. Transfer of genes for stem rust resistance from Agropyron elongatum and imperial rye to durum wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabhakara Rao, M.V.

    1977-01-01

    The Agropyron elongatum gene for stem rust resistance on chromosome 6A of Knott's Thatcher translocation line was transferred to a susceptible local durum wheat variety, Jaya, through a series of back-crosses. Plants heterozygous for the Agropyron translocation always show at least one open bivalent. Homozygotes have not been obtained, probably because of the absence of male transmission in durum background. Monotelosomic addition of the short arm of Imperial rye chromosome 3R (formerly ''G'' of Sears), which carries a gene(s) for resistance to wheat stem rust, was obtained in the local durum variety. Rust-resistant plants from parents having the added rye telocentric were irradiated with gamma rays just before meiosis, and the pollen obtained from the irradiated spikes was used to pollinate euploid plants. In addition, seeds harvested from 2n+1 resistant plants were irradiated with thermal neutrons and the resistant M 1 plants were selfed to raise M 2 families. Two durum-rye translocation lines were obtained following irradiation. DRT-1 was transmitted normally through the female gametes but showed no male transmission. As a result of this, homozygotes have not been obtained. Gametic transmission rates of DRT-2 are being tested. Alien translocations, which show normal gametic and zygotic transmissions in the hexaploid wheat, may behave differently in a tetraploid background. The results indicate that alien genetic transfers may be more difficult to obtain in durum wheat, probably owing to the reduced buffering effect of the tetraploid genome. (author)

  5. [Phenotypic effects of puroindoline gene alleles of bread wheat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebotar, S V; Kurakina, K O; Khokhlov, O M; Chebotar, H O; Syvolap, Iu M

    2012-01-01

    85 winter bread wheat varieties and lines that have been developed mostly in Ukraine were analyzed with NIR for parameters of hardness and protein content. The hardness data were compared with the data of puroindoline gene alleles analysis done earlier and the published data. Significant variation of parameters of hardness was revealed when there was low polymorphism of puroindoline genes indicating the presence of additional genes that influence the hardness parameters.

  6. Genome-wide association study of pre-harvest sprouting resistance in Chinese wheat founder parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Lin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS is a major abiotic factor affecting grain weight and quality, and is caused by an early break in seed dormancy. Association mapping (AM is used to detect correlations between phenotypes and genotypes based on linkage disequilibrium (LD in wheat breeding programs. We evaluated seed dormancy in 80 Chinese wheat founder parents in five environments and performed a genome-wide association study using 6,057 markers, including 93 simple sequence repeat (SSR, 1,472 diversity array technology (DArT, and 4,492 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers. The general linear model (GLM and the mixed linear model (MLM were used in this study, and two significant markers (tPt-7980 and wPt-6457 were identified. Both markers were located on Chromosome 1B, with wPt-6457 having been identified in a previously reported chromosomal position. The significantly associated loci contain essential information for cloning genes related to resistance to PHS and can be used in wheat breeding programs.

  7. Gene Therapy and Children (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Gene Therapy and Children KidsHealth / For Parents / Gene Therapy ... that don't respond to conventional therapies. About Genes Our genes help make us unique. Inherited from ...

  8. Simultaneous Transfer of Leaf Rust and Powdery Mildew Resistance Genes from Hexaploid Triticale Cultivar Sorento into Bread Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Li, Yinghui; Cao, Lirong; Liu, Peiyuan; Geng, Miaomiao; Zhang, Qiang; Qiu, Lina; Sun, Qixin; Xie, Chaojie

    2018-01-01

    Wheat powdery mildew, caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici , and wheat leaf rust, caused by Puccinia triticina Eriks, are two important diseases that severely threaten wheat production. Sorento, a hexaploid triticale cultivar from Poland, shows high resistance to the wheat powdery mildew isolate E09 and the leaf rust isolate PHT in Beijing, China. To introduce resistance genes into common wheat, Sorento was crossed with wheat line Xuezao, which is susceptible to both diseases, and the F 1 hybrids were then backcrossed with Xuezao as the recurrent male parent. By marker analysis, we demonstrate that the long arm of the 2R (2RL) chromosome confers resistance to both the leaf rust and powdery mildew isolates at adult-plant and seedling stages, while the long arm of 4R (4RL) confers resistance only to powdery mildew at both stages. The chromosomal composition of BC 2 F 3 plants containing 2R or 2RL and 4R or 4RL in the form of substitution and translocation were confirmed by GISH (genomic in situ hybridization) and FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization). Monosomic and disomic substitutions of a wheat chromosome with chromosome 2R or 4R, as well as one 4RS-4DL/4DS-4RL reciprocal translocation homozigote and one 2RL-1DL translocation hemizigote, were recovered. Such germplasms are of great value in wheat improvement.

  9. Divergence in homoeolog expression of the grain length-associated gene GASR7 during wheat allohexaploidization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongdong Zhang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Hexaploid wheat has triplicated homoeologs for most of the genes that are located in subgenomes A, B, and D. GASR7, a member of the Snakin/GASA gene family, has been associated with grain length development in wheat. However, little is known about divergence of its homoeolog expression in wheat polyploids. We studied the expression patterns of the GASR7 homoeologs in immature seeds in a synthetic hexaploid wheat line whose kernels are slender like those of its maternal parent (Triticum turgidum, AABB, PI 94655 in contrast to the round seed shape of its paternal progenitor (Aegilops tauschii, DD, AS2404. We found that the B homoeolog of GASR7 was the main contributor to the total expression level of this gene in both the maternal tetraploid progenitor and the hexaploid progeny, whereas the expression levels of the A and D homoeologs were much lower. To understand possible mechanisms regulating different GASR7 homoeologs, we firstly analyzed the promoter sequences of three homoeologous genes and found that all of them contained gibberellic acid (GA response elements, with the TaGASR7B promoter (pTaGASR7B uniquely characterized by an additional predicted transcriptional enhancer. This was confirmed by the GA treatment of spikes where all three homoeologs were induced, with a much stronger response for TaGASR7B. McrBC enzyme assays showed that the methylation status at pTaGASR7D was increased during allohexaploidization, consistent with the repressed expression of TaGASR7D. For pTaGASR7A, the distribution of repetitive sequence-derived 24-nucleotide (nt small interfering RNAs (siRNAs were found which suggests possible epigenetic regulation because 24-nt siRNAs are known to mediate RNA-dependent DNA methylation. Our results thus indicate that both genetic and epigenetic mechanisms may be involved in the divergence of GASR7 homoeolog expression in polyploid wheat.

  10. A modern Green Revolution gene for reduced height in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Würschum, Tobias; Langer, Simon M; Longin, C Friedrich H; Tucker, Matthew R; Leiser, Willmar L

    2017-12-01

    Increases in the yield of wheat during the Green Revolution of the late 20 th century were achieved through the introduction of Reduced height (Rht) dwarfing genes. The Rht-B1 and Rht-D1 loci ensured short stature by limiting the response to the growth-promoting hormone gibberellin, and are now widespread through international breeding programs. Despite this advantage, interference with the plant's response to gibberellin also triggers adverse effects for a range of important agronomic traits, and consequently modern Green Revolution genes are urgently required. In this study, we revisited the genetic control of wheat height using an association mapping approach and a large panel of 1110 worldwide winter wheat cultivars. This led to the identification of a major Rht locus on chromosome 6A, Rht24, which substantially reduces plant height alone as well as in combination with Rht-1b alleles. Remarkably, behind Rht-D1, Rht24 was the second most important locus for reduced height, explaining 15.0% of the genotypic variance and exerting an allele substitution effect of -8.8 cm. Unlike the two Rht-1b alleles, plants carrying Rht24 remain sensitive to gibberellic acid treatment. Rht24 appears in breeding programs from all countries of origin investigated, with increased frequency over the last decades, indicating that wheat breeders have actively selected for this locus. Taken together, this study reveals Rht24 as an important Rht gene of commercial relevance in worldwide wheat breeding. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Impact of transgene genome location on gene migration from herbicide-resistant wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica Host).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Maqsood; Hansen, Jennifer L; Mallory-Smith, Carol A; Zemetra, Robert S

    2017-08-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum) (ABD) and jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica) (CD) can cross and produce hybrids that can backcross to either parent. Such backcrosses can result in progeny with chromosomes and/or chromosome segments retained from wheat. Thus, a herbicide resistance gene could migrate from wheat to jointed goatgrass. In theory, the risk of gene migration from herbicide-resistant wheat to jointed goatgrass is more likely if the gene is located on the D genome and less likely if the gene is located on the A or B genome of wheat. BC 1 populations (jointed goatgrass as a recurrent parent) were analyzed for chromosome numbers and transgene transmission rates under sprayed and non-sprayed conditions. Transgene retention in the non-sprayed BC 1 generation for the A, B and D genomes was 84, 60 and 64% respectively. In the sprayed populations, the retention was 81, 59 and 74% respectively. The gene transmission rates were higher than the expected 50% or less under sprayed and non-sprayed conditions, possibly owing to meiotic chromosome restitution and/or chromosome non-disjunction. Such high transmission rates in the BC 1 generation negates the benefits of gene placement for reducing the potential of gene migration from wheat to jointed goatgrass. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Drought tolerance and proteomics studies of transgenic wheat containing the maize C4 phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Na; Xu, Weigang; Hu, Lin; Li, Yan; Wang, Huiwei; Qi, Xueli; Fang, Yuhui; Hua, Xia

    2016-11-01

    Enhancing drought tolerance of crops has been a great challenge in crop improvement. Here, we report the maize phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) gene was able to confer drought tolerance and increase grain yield in transgenic wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants. The improved of drought tolerance was associated with higher levels of proline, soluble sugar, soluble protein, and higher water use efficiency. The transgenic wheat plants had also a more extensive root system as well as increased photosynthetic capacity during stress treatments. The increased grain yield of the transgenic wheat was contributed by improved biomass, larger spike and grain numbers, and heavier 1000-grain weight under drought-stress conditions. Under non-stressed conditions, there were no significant increases in these of the measured traits except for photosynthetic rate when compared with parental wheat. Proteomic research showed that the expression levels of some proteins, including chlorophyll A-B binding protein and pyruvate, phosphate dikinase, which are related to photosynthesis, PAP fibrillin, which is involved in cytoskeleton synthesis, S-adenosylmethionine synthetase, which catalyzes methionine synthesis, were induced in the transgenic wheat under drought stress. Additionally, the expression of glutamine synthetase, which is involved in ammonia assimilation, was induced by drought stress in the wheat. Our study shows that PEPC can improve both stress tolerance and grain yield in wheat, demonstrating the efficacy of PEPC in crop improvement.

  13. Gene effects and combining ability in some bread wheat genotypes to yellow rust disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, A R; Taeb, M; Afshari, F; Khavari, S; Abbaspoor, M

    2009-01-15

    Ten wheat lines were studied to determine gene effects and combining ability in some bread wheat genotypes to yellow rust disease. Ten parental lines and F1 were evaluated in a randomized complete block design with three replications in Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center, Mashhad, Iran. Two races (134E134A+ and 4E0A+) were used for this study. Latent Period (LP) and Infection Type (IT) were measured in the field and greenhouse. Results showed significant differences between races in their pathogenicity and between genotypes in their resistance to the pathogen. Diallel cross carried out between the parents and progenies and thereafter were analyzed by the method of Griffing and Haymans. The General Combining Ability (GCA) and Special Combining Ability (SCA) for all traits were significant and showed additive variance was more important. Test for validity of diallel hypothesis proved epistasis effect for all traits. P1, P2 and F1 showed significant difference between all traits in generations mean analysis. Average degree of dominance ranged from partial to over dominance for resistance or susceptibility. Dominance, additive and epistatic types of gene action were responsible for the genetic control of the traits. However, except for additive-additive component, non-additive effect of genes could not be fixed by self-fertilization.

  14. Identification of superior parents and hybrids from diallel crosses of bread wheat (triticum aestivum l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baloch, M.J.; Rajper, T.A.; Jatoi, W.A.

    2013-01-01

    Five parents of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) viz. TD-1, SKD-1, Marvi, Moomal and Mehran were crossed in a half diallel design; hence 10 F 1 hybrids were developed. Parents alongwith hybrids were evaluated for combining ability and heterosis for tillers/plant, spike length, spike density, grains/spike, grain yield/plant and seed index. The experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with four replications at Botanical Garden, Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Sindh Agriculture University,Tandojam, during 2010. The analysis of variance due to genotypes, parents, hybrids and parents vs. hybrids was significant for all the characters which revealed presence of significant amount of genetic variability in the material. The results also indicated significant differences among the parents for their general combining ability (GCA) and hybrids for specific combining ability (SCA) suggesting the importance of both additive and non-additive genes in the expression of traits studied. The greater magnitude of SCA variances over GCA were recorded for tillers/plant, grains/spike and grain yield/plant which indicated the importance of additive gene action while the involvement of non-additive genes was evident in the inheritance of spike length, spike density and seed index. Among the parents, generally TD-I, Mehran, Moomal and Marvi were the best general combiners for tillers/plant, spike length, spike density, grains/spike, grain yield/plant and seed index. Whereas, the hybrids like SKD-1 x Mehran, Marvi x Mehran, Marvix Moomal and TD-I x SKD-I were the best specific combiners for majority of yield traits. Positive heterosis was expressed by the hybrid SKD-1 x Moomal for tillers per plant; TD-I x Moomal for spike length; TD-1 x SKD-I for grains per spike; Marvi x Mehran for spike density and Marvi x Moomal for seed index. The best parents and hybrids could be effectively utilized in hybridization and selection programmes and also for hybrid crop

  15. Patterns of homoeologous gene expression shown by RNA sequencing in hexaploid bread wheat.

    KAUST Repository

    Leach, Lindsey J; Belfield, Eric J; Jiang, Caifu; Brown, Carly; Mithani, Aziz; Harberd, Nicholas P

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) has a large, complex and hexaploid genome consisting of A, B and D homoeologous chromosome sets. Therefore each wheat gene potentially exists as a trio of A, B and D homoeoloci, each of which may contribute differentially to wheat phenotypes. We describe a novel approach combining wheat cytogenetic resources (chromosome substitution 'nullisomic-tetrasomic' lines) with next generation deep sequencing of gene transcripts (RNA-Seq), to directly and accurately identify homoeologue-specific single nucleotide variants and quantify the relative contribution of individual homoeoloci to gene expression. RESULTS: We discover, based on a sample comprising ~5-10% of the total wheat gene content, that at least 45% of wheat genes are expressed from all three distinct homoeoloci. Most of these genes show strikingly biased expression patterns in which expression is dominated by a single homoeolocus. The remaining ~55% of wheat genes are expressed from either one or two homoeoloci only, through a combination of extensive transcriptional silencing and homoeolocus loss. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that wheat is tending towards functional diploidy, through a variety of mechanisms causing single homoeoloci to become the predominant source of gene transcripts. This discovery has profound consequences for wheat breeding and our understanding of wheat evolution.

  16. Patterns of homoeologous gene expression shown by RNA sequencing in hexaploid bread wheat.

    KAUST Repository

    Leach, Lindsey J

    2014-04-11

    BACKGROUND: Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) has a large, complex and hexaploid genome consisting of A, B and D homoeologous chromosome sets. Therefore each wheat gene potentially exists as a trio of A, B and D homoeoloci, each of which may contribute differentially to wheat phenotypes. We describe a novel approach combining wheat cytogenetic resources (chromosome substitution \\'nullisomic-tetrasomic\\' lines) with next generation deep sequencing of gene transcripts (RNA-Seq), to directly and accurately identify homoeologue-specific single nucleotide variants and quantify the relative contribution of individual homoeoloci to gene expression. RESULTS: We discover, based on a sample comprising ~5-10% of the total wheat gene content, that at least 45% of wheat genes are expressed from all three distinct homoeoloci. Most of these genes show strikingly biased expression patterns in which expression is dominated by a single homoeolocus. The remaining ~55% of wheat genes are expressed from either one or two homoeoloci only, through a combination of extensive transcriptional silencing and homoeolocus loss. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that wheat is tending towards functional diploidy, through a variety of mechanisms causing single homoeoloci to become the predominant source of gene transcripts. This discovery has profound consequences for wheat breeding and our understanding of wheat evolution.

  17. Transcriptome reprogramming due to the introduction of a barley telosome into bread wheat affects more barley genes than wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Elodie; Abrouk, Michael; Keeble-Gagnère, Gabriel; Karafiátová, Miroslava; Vrána, Jan; Balzergue, Sandrine; Soubigou-Taconnat, Ludivine; Brunaud, Véronique; Martin-Magniette, Marie-Laure; Endo, Takashi R; Bartoš, Jan; Appels, Rudi; Doležel, Jaroslav

    2018-03-06

    Despite a long history, the production of useful alien introgression lines in wheat remains difficult mainly due to linkage drag and incomplete genetic compensation. In addition, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying the impact of foreign chromatin on plant phenotype. Here, a comparison of the transcriptomes of barley, wheat and a wheat-barley 7HL addition line allowed the transcriptional impact both on 7HL genes of a non-native genetic background and on the wheat gene complement as a result of the presence of 7HL to be assessed. Some 42% (389/923) of the 7HL genes assayed were differentially transcribed, which was the case for only 3% (960/35 301) of the wheat gene complement. The absence of any transcript in the addition line of a suite of chromosome 7A genes implied the presence of a 36 Mbp deletion at the distal end of the 7AL arm; this deletion was found to be in common across the full set of Chinese Spring/Betzes barley addition lines. The remaining differentially transcribed wheat genes were distributed across the whole genome. The up-regulated barley genes were mostly located in the proximal part of the 7HL arm, while the down-regulated ones were concentrated in the distal part; as a result, genes encoding basal cellular functions tended to be transcribed, while those encoding specific functions were suppressed. An insight has been gained into gene transcription in an alien introgression line, thereby providing a basis for understanding the interactions between wheat and exotic genes in introgression materials. © 2018 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Development of transgenic wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) expressing avidin gene conferring resistance to stored product insects

    OpenAIRE

    Abouseadaa, Heba H; Osman, Gamal H; Ramadan, Ahmed M; Hassanein, Sameh E; Abdelsattar, Mohamed T; Morsy, Yasser B; Alameldin, Hussien F; El-Ghareeb, Doaa K; Nour-Eldin, Hanan A; Salem, Reda; Gad, Adel A; Elkhodary, Soheir E; Shehata, Maher M; Mahfouz, Hala M; Eissa, Hala F

    2015-01-01

    Background Wheat is considered the most important cereal crop all over the world. The wheat weevil Sitophilus granarius is a serious insect pests in much of the wheat growing area worldwide and is responsible for significant loss of yield. Avidin proteins has been proposed to function as plant defense agents against insect pests. Results A synthetic avidin gene was introduced into spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cv. Giza 168 using a biolistic bombardment protocol. The presence and express...

  19. Mapping and characterization of the new adult plant leaf rust resistance gene Lr77 derived from Santa Fe winter wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolmer, James A; Su, Zhenqi; Bernardo, Amy; Bai, Guihua; Chao, Shiaoman

    2018-04-25

    A new gene for adult plant leaf rust resistance in wheat was mapped to chromosome 3BL. This gene was designated as Lr77. 'Santa Fe' is a hard red winter cultivar that has had long-lasting resistance to the leaf rust fungus, Puccinia triticina. The objective of this study was to determine the chromosome location of the adult plant leaf rust resistance in Santa Fe wheat. A partial backcross line of 'Thatcher' (Tc) wheat with adult plant leaf rust resistance derived from Santa Fe was crossed with Thatcher to develop a Thatcher//Tc*2/Santa Fe F 6 recombinant inbred line (RIL) population. The RIL population and parental lines were evaluated for segregation of leaf rust resistance in three field plot tests and in an adult plant greenhouse test. A genetic map of the RIL population was constructed using 90,000 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers with the Illumina Infinium iSelect 90K wheat bead array. A significant quantitative trait locus for reduction of leaf rust severity in all four tests was found on chromosome 3BL that segregated as a single adult plant resistance gene. The RILs with the allele from the resistant parent for SNP marker IWB10344 had lower leaf rust severity and a moderately resistant to moderately susceptible response compared to the susceptible RILs and Thatcher. The gene derived from Santa Fe on chromosome 3BL was designated as Lr77. Kompetitive allele-specific polymerase chain reaction assay markers linked to Lr77 on 3BL should be useful for selection of wheat germplasm with this gene.

  20. Genomic Prediction of Gene Bank Wheat Landraces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Crossa

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examines genomic prediction within 8416 Mexican landrace accessions and 2403 Iranian landrace accessions stored in gene banks. The Mexican and Iranian collections were evaluated in separate field trials, including an optimum environment for several traits, and in two separate environments (drought, D and heat, H for the highly heritable traits, days to heading (DTH, and days to maturity (DTM. Analyses accounting and not accounting for population structure were performed. Genomic prediction models include genotype × environment interaction (G × E. Two alternative prediction strategies were studied: (1 random cross-validation of the data in 20% training (TRN and 80% testing (TST (TRN20-TST80 sets, and (2 two types of core sets, “diversity” and “prediction”, including 10% and 20%, respectively, of the total collections. Accounting for population structure decreased prediction accuracy by 15–20% as compared to prediction accuracy obtained when not accounting for population structure. Accounting for population structure gave prediction accuracies for traits evaluated in one environment for TRN20-TST80 that ranged from 0.407 to 0.677 for Mexican landraces, and from 0.166 to 0.662 for Iranian landraces. Prediction accuracy of the 20% diversity core set was similar to accuracies obtained for TRN20-TST80, ranging from 0.412 to 0.654 for Mexican landraces, and from 0.182 to 0.647 for Iranian landraces. The predictive core set gave similar prediction accuracy as the diversity core set for Mexican collections, but slightly lower for Iranian collections. Prediction accuracy when incorporating G × E for DTH and DTM for Mexican landraces for TRN20-TST80 was around 0.60, which is greater than without the G × E term. For Iranian landraces, accuracies were 0.55 for the G × E model with TRN20-TST80. Results show promising prediction accuracies for potential use in germplasm enhancement and rapid introgression of exotic germplasm

  1. Identification of leaf rust resistant gene Lr10 in Pakistani wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leaf (brown) rust is the major disease of wheat in Pakistan and other countries. The disease is more effectively controlled when several rust resistance genes are pyramided into a single line. Molecular survey was conducted to screen 25 Pakistan wheat germplasm for the presence of leaf rust resistance gene Lr10 using ...

  2. Report of the 2016 Uniform Regional Scab Nursery for spring wheat parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Uniform Regional Scab Nursery for Spring Wheat Parents (URSN) was grown for the 21st year in 2016. Five locations (Brookings, SD, St. Paul and Crookston, MN, Prosper, ND, and Morden, Canada) reported results. A total of 33 entries was included in the 2016 URSN, in addition to the resistant chec...

  3. Gene action in some yield attributes of bread wheat under two water regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabbani, A.; Mahmood, A.; Naeem-ud-Din; Shabbir, G.

    2011-01-01

    Breeders are always interested in the task of developing new varieties for changing environments. Thus, they have to deal with new crosses to select desired combinations. Grain yield is a complex character that is influenced by the fluctuating behavior of the environment. To overcome this situation, it is necessary to breed wheat varieties which perform better than existing ones under diverse conditions. A complete diallel cross was prepared from eight parental wheat accessions with a range of tolerance to drought. F1 hybrids and parents were grown at Barani Agricultural Research Institute, Chakwal. At maturity peduncle length, number of spike lets per spike, number of grains per spike, dry weight per plant at maturity and harvest index were recorded. Over-dominance genetic effects were important for the expression of number of spike lets per spike, number of grains per spike, dry weight per plant at maturity and harvest index under irrigated and rain fed conditions while additive type of gene action were important for the expression of peduncle length under irrigated and rain fed conditions. Average degree of dominance for peduncle length is 0.683 and 0.829 under irrigated and rain fed conditions respectively. Average degree of dominance for peduncle length was less than unity showing partial dominance and greater than unity showing over dominance in all characters under both irrigated and rain fed conditions. (author)

  4. Genetic and epigenetic alteration among three homoeologous genes of a class E MADS box gene in hexaploid wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shitsukawa, Naoki; Tahira, Chikako; Kassai, Ken-Ichiro; Hirabayashi, Chizuru; Shimizu, Tomoaki; Takumi, Shigeo; Mochida, Keiichi; Kawaura, Kanako; Ogihara, Yasunari; Murai, Koji

    2007-06-01

    Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) is a hexaploid species with A, B, and D ancestral genomes. Most bread wheat genes are present in the genome as triplicated homoeologous genes (homoeologs) derived from the ancestral species. Here, we report that both genetic and epigenetic alterations have occurred in the homoeologs of a wheat class E MADS box gene. Two class E genes are identified in wheat, wheat SEPALLATA (WSEP) and wheat LEAFY HULL STERILE1 (WLHS1), which are homologs of Os MADS45 and Os MADS1 in rice (Oryza sativa), respectively. The three wheat homoeologs of WSEP showed similar genomic structures and expression profiles. By contrast, the three homoeologs of WLHS1 showed genetic and epigenetic alterations. The A genome WLHS1 homoeolog (WLHS1-A) had a structural alteration that contained a large novel sequence in place of the K domain sequence. A yeast two-hybrid analysis and a transgenic experiment indicated that the WLHS1-A protein had no apparent function. The B and D genome homoeologs, WLHS1-B and WLHS1-D, respectively, had an intact MADS box gene structure, but WLHS1-B was predominantly silenced by cytosine methylation. Consequently, of the three WLHS1 homoeologs, only WLHS1-D functions in hexaploid wheat. This is a situation where three homoeologs are differentially regulated by genetic and epigenetic mechanisms.

  5. The carotenoid biosynthetic and catabolic genes in wheat and their association with yellow pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colasuonno, Pasqualina; Lozito, Maria Luisa; Marcotuli, Ilaria; Nigro, Domenica; Giancaspro, Angelica; Mangini, Giacomo; De Vita, Pasquale; Mastrangelo, Anna Maria; Pecchioni, Nicola; Houston, Kelly; Simeone, Rosanna; Gadaleta, Agata; Blanco, Antonio

    2017-01-31

    In plants carotenoids play an important role in the photosynthetic process and photo-oxidative protection, and are the substrate for the synthesis of abscisic acid and strigolactones. In addition to their protective role as antioxidants and precursors of vitamin A, in wheat carotenoids are important as they influence the colour (whiteness vs. yellowness) of the grain. Understanding the genetic basis of grain yellow pigments, and identifying associated markers provide the basis for improving wheat quality by molecular breeding. Twenty-four candidate genes involved in the biosynthesis and catabolism of carotenoid compounds have been identified in wheat by comparative genomics. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) found in the coding sequences of 19 candidate genes allowed their chromosomal location and accurate map position on two reference consensus maps to be determined. The genome-wide association study based on genotyping a tetraploid wheat collection with 81,587 gene-associated SNPs validated quantitative trait loci (QTLs) previously detected in biparental populations and discovered new QTLs for grain colour-related traits. Ten carotenoid genes mapped in chromosome regions underlying pigment content QTLs indicating possible functional relationships between candidate genes and the trait. The availability of linked, candidate gene-based markers can facilitate breeding wheat cultivars with desirable levels of carotenoids. Identifying QTLs linked to carotenoid pigmentation can contribute to understanding genes underlying carotenoid accumulation in the wheat kernels. Together these outputs can be combined to exploit the genetic variability of colour-related traits for the nutritional and commercial improvement of wheat products.

  6. A Gene-for-Gene Relationship Between Wheat and Mycosphaerella graminicola, the Septoria Tritici Blotch Pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brading, Penny A; Verstappen, Els C P; Kema, Gert H J; Brown, James K M

    2002-04-01

    ABSTRACT Specific resistances to isolates of the ascomycete fungus Mycosphaerella graminicola, which causes Septoria tritici blotch of wheat, have been detected in many cultivars. Cvs. Flame and Hereward, which have specific resistance to the isolate IPO323, were crossed with the susceptible cv. Longbow. The results of tests on F1 and F2 progeny indicated that a single semidominant gene controls resistance to IPO323 in each of the resistant cultivars. This was confirmed in F3 families of Flame x Longbow, which were either homozygous resistant, homozygous susceptible, or segregating in tests with IPO323 but were uniformly susceptible to another isolate, IPO94269. None of 100 F2 progeny of Flame x Hereward were susceptible to IPO323, indicating that the resistance genes in these two cultivars are the same, closely linked, or allelic. The resistance gene in cv. Flame was mapped to the short arm of chromosome 3A using microsatellite markers and was named Stb6. Fifty-nine progeny of a cross between IPO323 and IPO94269 were used in complementary genetic analysis of the pathogen to test a gene-for-gene relationship between Stb6 and the avirulence gene in IPO323. Avirulence to cvs. Flame, Hereward, Shafir, Bezostaya 1, and Vivant and the breeding line NSL92-5719 cosegregated, and the ratio of virulent to avirulent was close to 1:1, suggesting that these wheat lines may all recognize the same avirulence gene and may all have Stb6. Together, these data provide the first demonstration that isolate-specific resistance of wheat to Septoria tritici blotch follows a gene-for-gene relationship.

  7. Toward the molecular cloning of the Septoria nodorum blotch susceptibility gene Snn2 in wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Septoria nodorum blotch is a disease of wheat caused by the necrotrophic fungus Parastagonospora nodorum. In the wheat-P. nodorum pathosystem, recognition of pathogen-produced necrotrophic effectors (NEs) by dominant host genes leads to host cell death, which allows the pathogen to gain nutrients an...

  8. Characterization of stem rust resistance gene Sr2 in Indian wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SONY

    2013-05-01

    May 1, 2013 ... accelerating wheat production in the last forty years and ensured food security of the Nation. In the present investigation, Sr2 specific molecular markers were used to assess their efficacy for assessing the deployment of Sr2 gene in Indian wheat cultivars of highly productive north-west plains and stem rust ...

  9. The clone of wheat dehydrin-like gene wzy2 and its functional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We used winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) Zhengyin No.1 as the material, the complete cDNA sequence of dehydrin wzy2 was cloned and the code sequence of wzy2 was transformed into yeast (Pichia pastoris) for eukaryotic expression. We also analyzed the relationship between wheat dehydrin wzy2 gene and drought ...

  10. Durable field resistance to wheat yellow mosaic virus in transgenic wheat containing the antisense virus polymerase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming; Sun, Liying; Wu, Hongya; Chen, Jiong; Ma, Youzhi; Zhang, Xiaoxiang; Du, Lipu; Cheng, Shunhe; Zhang, Boqiao; Ye, Xingguo; Pang, Junlan; Zhang, Xinmei; Li, Liancheng; Andika, Ida B; Chen, Jianping; Xu, Huijun

    2014-05-01

    Wheat yellow mosaic virus (WYMV) has spread rapidly and causes serious yield losses in the major wheat-growing areas in China. Because it is vectored by the fungus-like organism Polymyxa graminis that survives for long periods in soil, it is difficult to eliminate by conventional crop management or fungicides. There is also only limited resistance in commercial cultivars. In this research, fourteen independent transgenic events were obtained by co-transformation with the antisense NIb8 gene (the NIb replicase of WYMV) and a selectable gene bar. Four original transgenic lines (N12, N13, N14 and N15) and an offspring line (N12-1) showed high and durable resistance to WYMV in the field. Four resistant lines were shown to have segregated and only contain NIb8 (without bar) by PCR and herbicide resistance testing in the later generations. Line N12-1 showed broad-spectrum resistance to WYMV isolates from different sites in China. After growing in the infested soil, WYMV could not be detected by tissue printing and Western blot assays of transgenic wheat. The grain yield of transgenic wheat was about 10% greater than the wild-type susceptible control. Northern blot and small RNA deep sequencing analyses showed that there was no accumulation of small interfering RNAs targeting the NIb8 gene in transgenic wheat plants, suggesting that transgene RNA silencing, a common mechanism of virus-derived disease resistance, is not involved in the process of WYMV resistance. This durable and broad-spectrum resistance to WYMV in transgenic wheat will be useful for alleviating the damage caused by WYMV. © 2013 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Development of transgenic wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) expressing avidin gene conferring resistance to stored product insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouseadaa, Heba H; Osman, Gamal H; Ramadan, Ahmed M; Hassanein, Sameh E; Abdelsattar, Mohamed T; Morsy, Yasser B; Alameldin, Hussien F; El-Ghareeb, Doaa K; Nour-Eldin, Hanan A; Salem, Reda; Gad, Adel A; Elkhodary, Soheir E; Shehata, Maher M; Mahfouz, Hala M; Eissa, Hala F; Bahieldin, Ahmed

    2015-07-22

    Wheat is considered the most important cereal crop all over the world. The wheat weevil Sitophilus granarius is a serious insect pests in much of the wheat growing area worldwide and is responsible for significant loss of yield. Avidin proteins has been proposed to function as plant defense agents against insect pests. A synthetic avidin gene was introduced into spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cv. Giza 168 using a biolistic bombardment protocol. The presence and expression of the transgene in six selected T0 transgenic wheat lines were confirmed at the molecular level. Accumulation of avidin protein was detected in transgenic plants compared to non-transgenic plants. Avidin transgene was stably integrated, transcribed and translated as indicated by Southern blot, ELISA, and dot blot analyses, with a high level of expression in transgenic wheat seeds. However, no expression was detected in untransformed wheat seeds. Functional integrity of avidin was confirmed by insect bioassay. The results of bioassay using transgenic wheat plants challenged with wheat weevil revealed 100 % mortality of the insects reared on transgenic plants after 21 days. Transgenic wheat plants had improved resistance to Sitophilus granarius.

  12. Breeding bread wheat cultivars for high protein content by transfer of protein genes from Triticum dicoccoides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grama, A.; Gerechter-Amitai, Z.K.; Blum, A.; Rubenthaler, G.L.

    1984-01-01

    Triticum dicoccoides sel. G-25, a selection of wild emmer with a protein content of 20.5% and a kernel weight of 31.5 mg, was used as the donor of protein genes. Since this selection is highly resistant to stripe rust, the object of the crossing programme was to transfer this resistance, together with the high protein potential, to durum and bread wheat cultivars susceptible to the disease. In the tetraploid lines obtained from the T. dicoccoides/T. durum cross, the protein values ranged from 17 to 22%. These lines had resistance to stripe rust from the wild emmer and to stem rust from the durum. After two further crosses between these tetraploid lines and T. aestivum cultivars, several lines were selected which combined good yield, high protein level and resistance to rust diseases. These lines attained protein levels of 14 to 19% in the whole grain and 14 to 17% in the flour, combined with yields of 4.5 to 6.0 t/ha. They had also inherited resistance to stem rust, and in some instances also to leaf rust, from the cultivated wheat parental lines. (author)

  13. Overexpression of wheat lipid transfer protein gene TaLTP5 increases resistances to Cochliobolus sativus and Fusarium graminearum in transgenic wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiuliang; Li, Zhao; Xu, Huijun; Zhou, Miaoping; Du, Lipu; Zhang, Zengyan

    2012-08-01

    The fungus Cochliobolus sativus is the main pathogen of common root rot, a serious soil-borne disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The fungus Fusarium graminearum is the primary pathogen of Fusarium head blight, a devastating disease of wheat worldwide. In this study, the wheat lipid transfer protein gene, TaLTP5, was cloned and evaluated for its ability to suppress disease development in transgenic wheat. TaLTP5 expression was induced after C. sativus infection. The TaLTP5 expression vector, pA25-TaLTP5, was constructed and bombarded into Chinese wheat variety Yangmai 18. Six TaLTP5 transgenic wheat lines were established and characterized. PCR and Southern blot analyses indicated that the introduced TaLTP5 gene was integrated into the genomes of six transgenic wheat lines by distinct patterns, and heritable. RT-PCR and real-time quantitative RT-PCR revealed that the TaLTP5 gene was over-expressed in the transgenic wheat lines compared to segregants lacking the transgene and wild-type wheat plants. Following challenge with C. sativus or F. graminearum, all six transgenic lines overexpressing TaLTP5 exhibited significantly enhanced resistance to both common root rot and Fusarium head blight compared to the untransformed wheat Yangmai 18.

  14. The Lr34 adult plant rust resistance gene provides seedling resistance in durum wheat without senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldo, Amy; Gilbert, Brian; Boni, Rainer; Krattinger, Simon G; Singh, Davinder; Park, Robert F; Lagudah, Evans; Ayliffe, Michael

    2017-07-01

    The hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum) adult plant resistance gene, Lr34/Yr18/Sr57/Pm38/Ltn1, provides broad-spectrum resistance to wheat leaf rust (Lr34), stripe rust (Yr18), stem rust (Sr57) and powdery mildew (Pm38) pathogens, and has remained effective in wheat crops for many decades. The partial resistance provided by this gene is only apparent in adult plants and not effective in field-grown seedlings. Lr34 also causes leaf tip necrosis (Ltn1) in mature adult plant leaves when grown under field conditions. This D genome-encoded bread wheat gene was transferred to tetraploid durum wheat (T. turgidum) cultivar Stewart by transformation. Transgenic durum lines were produced with elevated gene expression levels when compared with the endogenous hexaploid gene. Unlike nontransgenic hexaploid and durum control lines, these transgenic plants showed robust seedling resistance to pathogens causing wheat leaf rust, stripe rust and powdery mildew disease. The effectiveness of seedling resistance against each pathogen correlated with the level of transgene expression. No evidence of accelerated leaf necrosis or up-regulation of senescence gene markers was apparent in these seedlings, suggesting senescence is not required for Lr34 resistance, although leaf tip necrosis occurred in mature plant flag leaves. Several abiotic stress-response genes were up-regulated in these seedlings in the absence of rust infection as previously observed in adult plant flag leaves of hexaploid wheat. Increasing day length significantly increased Lr34 seedling resistance. These data demonstrate that expression of a highly durable, broad-spectrum adult plant resistance gene can be modified to provide seedling resistance in durum wheat. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Large-scale analysis of antisense transcription in wheat using the Affymetrix GeneChip Wheat Genome Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Settles Matthew L

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Natural antisense transcripts (NATs are transcripts of the opposite DNA strand to the sense-strand either at the same locus (cis-encoded or a different locus (trans-encoded. They can affect gene expression at multiple stages including transcription, RNA processing and transport, and translation. NATs give rise to sense-antisense transcript pairs and the number of these identified has escalated greatly with the availability of DNA sequencing resources and public databases. Traditionally, NATs were identified by the alignment of full-length cDNAs or expressed sequence tags to genome sequences, but an alternative method for large-scale detection of sense-antisense transcript pairs involves the use of microarrays. In this study we developed a novel protocol to assay sense- and antisense-strand transcription on the 55 K Affymetrix GeneChip Wheat Genome Array, which is a 3' in vitro transcription (3'IVT expression array. We selected five different tissue types for assay to enable maximum discovery, and used the 'Chinese Spring' wheat genotype because most of the wheat GeneChip probe sequences were based on its genomic sequence. This study is the first report of using a 3'IVT expression array to discover the expression of natural sense-antisense transcript pairs, and may be considered as proof-of-concept. Results By using alternative target preparation schemes, both the sense- and antisense-strand derived transcripts were labeled and hybridized to the Wheat GeneChip. Quality assurance verified that successful hybridization did occur in the antisense-strand assay. A stringent threshold for positive hybridization was applied, which resulted in the identification of 110 sense-antisense transcript pairs, as well as 80 potentially antisense-specific transcripts. Strand-specific RT-PCR validated the microarray observations, and showed that antisense transcription is likely to be tissue specific. For the annotated sense

  16. The NB-LRR gene Pm60 confers powdery mildew resistance in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Shenghao; Wang, Huan; Li, Yiwen; Kong, Zhaosheng; Tang, Dingzhong

    2018-04-01

    Powdery mildew is one of the most devastating diseases of wheat. To date, few powdery mildew resistance genes have been cloned from wheat due to the size and complexity of the wheat genome. Triticum urartu is the progenitor of the A genome of wheat and is an important source for powdery mildew resistance genes. Using molecular markers designed from scaffolds of the sequenced T. urartu accession and standard map-based cloning, a powdery mildew resistance locus was mapped to a 356-kb region, which contains two nucleotide-binding and leucine-rich repeat domain (NB-LRR) protein-encoding genes. Virus-induced gene silencing, single-cell transient expression, and stable transformation assays demonstrated that one of these two genes, designated Pm60, confers resistance to powdery mildew. Overexpression of full-length Pm60 and two allelic variants in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves induced hypersensitive cell death response, but expression of the coiled-coil domain alone was insufficient to induce hypersensitive response. Yeast two-hybrid, bimolecular fluorescence complementation and luciferase complementation imaging assays showed that Pm60 protein interacts with its neighboring NB-containing protein, suggesting that they might be functionally related. The identification and cloning of this novel wheat powdery mildew resistance gene will facilitate breeding for disease resistance in wheat. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  17. Dataset of the HOX1 gene sequences of the wheat polyploids and their diploid relatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey B. Shcherban

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The TaHOX-1 gene of common wheat Triticum aestivum L. (BAD-genome encodes transcription factor (HD-Zip I which is characterized by the presence of a DNA-binding homeodomain (HD with an adjacent Leucine zipper (LZ motif. This gene can play a role in adapting plant to a variety of abiotic stresses, such as drought, cold, salinity etc., which strongly affect wheat production. However, it's both functional role in stress resistance and divergence during wheat evolution has not yet been elucidated. This data in brief article is associated with the research paper “Structural and functional divergence of homoeologous copies of the TaHOX-1 gene in polyploid wheats and their diploid ancestors”. The data set represents a recent survey of the primary HOX-1 gene sequences isolated from the first wheat allotetraploids (BA-genome and their corresponding Triticum and Aegilops diploid relatives. Specifically, we provide detailed information about the HOX-1 nucleotide sequences of the promoter region and both nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the gene. The sequencing data used here is available at DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession numbers MG000630-MG000698. Keywords: Wheat, Polyploid, HOX-1 gene, Homeodomain, Transcription factor, Promoter, Triticum, Aegilops

  18. Transcriptome analysis reveals key differentially expressed genes involved in wheat grain development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonglong Yu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Wheat seed development is an important physiological process of seed maturation and directly affects wheat yield and quality. In this study, we performed dynamic transcriptome microarray analysis of an elite Chinese bread wheat cultivar (Jimai 20 during grain development using the GeneChip Wheat Genome Array. Grain morphology and scanning electron microscope observations showed that the period of 11–15 days post-anthesis (DPA was a key stage for the synthesis and accumulation of seed starch. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling and significance analysis of microarrays revealed that the period from 11 to 15 DPA was more important than the 15–20 DPA stage for the synthesis and accumulation of nutritive reserves. Series test of cluster analysis of differential genes revealed five statistically significant gene expression profiles. Gene ontology annotation and enrichment analysis gave further information about differentially expressed genes, and MapMan analysis revealed expression changes within functional groups during seed development. Metabolic pathway network analysis showed that major and minor metabolic pathways regulate one another to ensure regular seed development and nutritive reserve accumulation. We performed gene co-expression network analysis to identify genes that play vital roles in seed development and identified several key genes involved in important metabolic pathways. The transcriptional expression of eight key genes involved in starch and protein synthesis and stress defense was further validated by qRT-PCR. Our results provide new insight into the molecular mechanisms of wheat seed development and the determinants of yield and quality.

  19. Remapping of the stripe rust resistance gene Yr10 in common wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Cuiling; Wu, Jingzheng; Yan, Baiqiang; Hao, Qunqun; Zhang, Chaozhong; Lyu, Bo; Ni, Fei; Caplan, Allan; Wu, Jiajie; Fu, Daolin

    2018-02-23

    Yr10 is an important gene to control wheat stripe rust, and the search for Yr10 needs to be continued. Wheat stripe rust or yellow rust is a devastating fungal disease caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst). Host disease resistance offers a primary source for controlling wheat stripe rust. The stripe rust resistance gene Yr10 confers the race-specific resistance to most tested Pst races in China including CYR29. Early studies proposed that Yr10 was a nucleotide-binding site, leucine-rich repeat gene archived as GenBank accession AF149112 (hereafter designated the Yr10 candidate gene or Yr10 CG ). In this study, we revealed that 15 Chinese wheat cultivars positive for Yr10 CG are susceptible to CYR29. We then expressed the Yr10 CG cDNA in the common wheat 'Bobwhite'. The Yr10 CG -cDNA positive transgenic plants were also susceptible to CYR29. Thus, it is highly unlikely that Yr10 CG corresponds to the Yr10 resistance gene. Using the Yr10 donor 'Moro' and the Pst-susceptible wheat 'Huixianhong', we generated two F 3 populations that displayed a single Mendelian segregation on the Yr10 gene, and used them to remap the Yr10 gene. Six markers were placed in the Yr10 region, with the Yr10 CG gene now mapping about 1.2-cM proximal to the Yr10 locus and the Xsdauw79 marker is completely linked to the Yr10 locus. Apparently, the Yr10 gene has not yet been identified. Fine mapping and positional cloning of Yr10 is important for gene pyramiding for stripe rust resistance in wheat.

  20. stem rust seedling resistance genes in ethiopian wheat cultivars

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    Stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici is one of the major biotic limiting factors for wheat production in Ethiopia. Host plant resistance is the best option to manage stem rust from its economic and environmental points of view. Wheat cultivars are released for production without carrying race specific tests against ...

  1. Allelic state at the microsatellite locus Xgwm261 marking the dwarfing gene Rht8 in Egyptian bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. genotypes released from 1947 to 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salem Khaled F.M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rht8 is widely used in dry environments such as Mediterranean regions where it increases plant adaptability. Variation at the Gatersleben wheat microsatellite Xgwm261 locus, whose 192-bp allele closely linked to the dwarfing gene Rht8, on chromosome 2D within 0.6 cM, was used to screen thirty Egyptian bread wheat genotypes released from (1947-2004 to assess the variation at this locus. There were three microsatellite allelic variants based on size. Screening of this wheat collection showed that the three alleles Xgwm261-165, Xgwm261-174 and Xgwm261-192 bp were the most frequent. The highest allele frequency was observed for a Xgwm261-165 bp fragment (65.52% followed by a Xgwm261-174 bp fragment (24.14%. However, the allele frequency of a Xgwm261-192 bp fragment among these wheat genotypes was 10.34%. The percentage distribution of dwarfing alleles for the microsatellite locus Xgwm261 in the Egyptian wheat breeding programs was 30, 20, 20 and 30% for the wheat breeding program Giza, Sakha, Gemmiza and Sids, respectively. PIC for Xgwm261 was 0.527. Genetic heritage of Egyptian genotypes at the microsatellite locus Xgwm261 is consequence of new parental components usage, carriers short plant and early maturity attributes and consequent selection progeny with these traits in breeding programs. The present study will be helpful in characterization Egyptian wheat genotypes, as well as in accurate selection of parents for wheat breeding program in Egypt.

  2. TaEDS1 genes positively regulate resistance to powdery mildew in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guiping; Wei, Bo; Li, Guoliang; Gong, Caiyan; Fan, Renchun; Zhang, Xiangqi

    2018-04-01

    Three EDS1 genes were cloned from common wheat and were demonstrated to positively regulate resistance to powdery mildew in wheat. The EDS1 proteins play important roles in plant basal resistance and TIR-NB-LRR protein-triggered resistance in dicots. Until now, there have been very few studies on EDS1 in monocots, and none in wheat. Here, we report on three common wheat orthologous genes of EDS1 family (TaEDS1-5A, 5B and 5D) and their function in powdery mildew resistance. Comparisons of these genes with their orthologs in diploid ancestors revealed that EDS1 is a conserved gene family in Triticeae. The cDNA sequence similarity among the three TaEDS1 genes was greater than 96.5%, and they shared sequence similarities of more than 99.6% with the respective orthologs from diploid ancestors. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that the EDS1 family originated prior to the differentiation of monocots and dicots, and EDS1 members have since undergone clear structural differentiation. The transcriptional levels of TaEDS1 genes in the leaves were obviously higher than those of the other organs, and they were induced by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt) infection and salicylic acid (SA) treatment. The BSMV-VIGS experiments indicated that knock-down the transcriptional levels of the TaEDS1 genes in a powdery mildew-resistant variety of common wheat compromised resistance. Contrarily, transient overexpression of TaEDS1 genes in a susceptible common wheat variety significantly reduced the haustorium index and attenuated the growth of Bgt. Furthermore, the expression of TaEDS1 genes in the Arabidopsis mutant eds1-1 complemented its susceptible phenotype to powdery mildew. The above evidences strongly suggest that TaEDS1 acts as a positive regulator and confers resistance against powdery mildew in common wheat.

  3. A LTR copia retrotransposon and Mutator transposons interrupt Pgip genes in cultivated and wild wheats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giovanni, Michela; Cenci, Alberto; Janni, Michela; D'Ovidio, Renato

    2008-04-01

    Polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) are leucine-rich repeat (LRR) proteins involved in plant defence. Wheat pgip genes have been isolated from the B (Tapgip1) and D (Tapgip2) genomes, and now we report the identification of pgip genes from the A genomes of wild and cultivated wheats. By Southern blots and sequence analysis of BAC clones we demonstrated that wheat contains a single copy pgip gene per genome and the one from the A genome, pgip3, is inactivated by the insertion of a long terminal repeat copia retrotranspon within the fourth LRR. We demonstrated also that this retrotransposon insertion is present in Triticum urartu and all the polyploidy wheats assayed, but is absent in T. monococcum (Tmpgip3), suggesting that this insertion took place after the divergence between T. monococcum and T. urartu, but before the formation of the polyploid wheats. We identified also two independent insertion events of new Class II transposable elements, Vacuna, belonging to the Mutator superfamily, that interrupted the Tdipgip1 gene of T. turgidum ssp. dicoccoides. The occurrence of these transposons within the coding region of Tdipgip1 facilitated the mapping of the Pgip locus in the pericentric region of the short arm of chromosome group 7. We speculate that the inactivation of pgip genes are tolerated because of redundancy of PGIP activities in the wheat genome.

  4. Virus-induced gene silencing of WRKY53 and an inducible phenylalanine ammonia-lyase in wheat reduces aphid resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although several wheat genes differentially expressed during the Russian wheat aphid resistance response have recently been identified, their requirement for and specific role in resistance remain unclear. Progress in wheat-aphid interaction research is hampered by inadequate collections of mutant g...

  5. Mapping and characterization of wheat stem rust resistance genes SrTm5 and Sr60 from Triticum monococcum

    Science.gov (United States)

    The emergence and spread of new virulent races of the wheat stem rust pathogen (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici; Pgt), including the TTKSK (Ug99) race group, is a serious threat to global wheat production. In this study, we mapped and characterized two stem rust resistance genes from diploid wheat ...

  6. Comparison of agrobacterium mediated wheat and barley transformation with nucleoside diphosphate kinase 2 (NDPK2) gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waheed, U.; Shah, M.M.; Smedley, M.; Harwood, W.

    2016-01-01

    An efficient and reliable transformation system is imperative for improvement of important crop species like barley and wheat. Wheat transformation is complex due to larger genome size and polyploidy while barley has a limitation of genotypic dependency. The objective of current study was to compare the relative transformation efficiency of wheat and barley using specific expression vector pBRACT 214-NDPK2 constructed through gateway cloning carrying Nucleoside Diphosphate Kinase 2 (NDPK2) gene. The vector was used to compare the transformation response in both crops using immature embryos through Agrobacterium mediated transformation. Both wheat and barley showed different responses towards callus induction and regeneration. Immature embryos of 1.5 to 2 mm in diameter was found optimum for wheat callus induction while 1 to 1.5 mm for barley. Both embryogenic and non-embryogenic calli were found in wheat with significantly greater tendency for embryogenecity in barley. The overall regeneration response was found different for all transformed wheat and barley cultivars. Wheat cultivars showed good response initially that drastically slowed down in later stages with the exception of Fielder that reached to the green shoots with good roots. The barley transformed lines showed good regeneration response as compared to wheat. PCR analysis of putative transformants using genomic DNA showed a maximum of 27% transformation efficiency in barely. No true transformation response was obtained in all cultivars of wheat used in this study. The protocol developed for wheat and barley transformation will greatly be helpful in crop improvement programme through genetic engineering especially in diploid relatives of cereals. (author)

  7. Molecular mapping of Yr53, a new gene for stripe rust resistance in durum wheat accession PI 480148 and its transfer to common wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), is one of the most damaging diseases of wheat worldwide. It is essential to identify new genes for effective resistance against the disease. Durum wheat PI 480148, originally from Ethiopia, was resistant in all seedling tests with s...

  8. Silencing of copine genes confers common wheat enhanced resistance to powdery mildew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Baohong; Ding, Yuan; Liu, He; Hua, Jian

    2018-06-01

    Powdery mildew, caused by the biotrophic fungal pathogen Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt), is a major threat to the production of wheat (Triticum aestivum). It is of great importance to identify new resistance genes for the generation of Bgt-resistant or Bgt-tolerant wheat varieties. Here, we show that the wheat copine genes TaBON1 and TaBON3 negatively regulate wheat disease resistance to Bgt. Two copies of TaBON1 and three copies of TaBON3, located on chromosomes 6AS, 6BL, 1AL, 1BL and 1DL, respectively, were identified from the current common wheat genome sequences. The expression of TaBON1 and TaBON3 is responsive to both pathogen infection and temperature changes. Knocking down of TaBON1 or TaBON3 by virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) induces the up-regulation of defence responses in wheat. These TaBON1- or TaBON3-silenced plants exhibit enhanced wheat disease resistance to Bgt, accompanied by greater accumulation of hydrogen peroxide and heightened cell death. In addition, high temperature has little effect on the up-regulation of defence response genes conferred by the silencing of TaBON1 or TaBON3. Our study shows a conserved function of plant copine genes in plant immunity and provides new genetic resources for the improvement of resistance to powdery mildew in wheat. © 2017 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  9. The einkorn wheat (Triticum monococcum) mutant, maintained vegetative phase, is caused by a deletion in the VRN1 gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shitsukawa, N.; Ikari, C.; Shimada, S.; Kitagawa, S.; Sakamoto, K.; Saito, H.; Ryuto, H.; Fukunishi, N.; Abe, T.; Takumi, S.; Nasuda, S.; Murai, K.

    2007-01-01

    The einkorn wheat (Triticum monococcum) mutant, maintained vegetative phase (mvp), was induced by nitrogen ion-beam treatment and was identified by its inability to transit from the vegetative to reproductive phase. In our previous study, we showed that WAP1 (wheat APETALA1) is a key gene in the regulatory pathway that controls phase transition from vegetative to reproductive growth in common wheat. WAP1 is an ortholog of the VRN1 gene that is responsible for vernalization insensitivity in einkorn wheat. The mvp mutation resulted from deletion of the VRN1 coding and promoter regions, demonstrating that WAP1/VRN1 is an indispensable gene for phase transition in wheat. Expression analysis of flowering-related genes in mvp plants indicated that wheat GIGANTIA (GI), CONSTANS (CO) and SUPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS 1 (SOC1) genes either act upstream of or in a different pathway to WAP1/VRN1

  10. Genetic analysis of rust resistance genes in global wheat cultivars: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aktar-Uz-Zaman, Md; Tuhina-Khatun, Mst; Hanafi, Mohamed Musa; Sahebi, Mahbod

    2017-01-01

    Rust is the most devastating fungal disease in wheat. Three rust diseases, namely, leaf or brown rust caused by Puccinia triticina Eriks, stem or black rust caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici West, and stripe or yellow rust caused by Puccinia striiformis f. Tritici Eriks, are the most economically significant and common diseases among global wheat cultivars. Growing cultivars resistant to rust is the most sustainable, cost-effective and environmentally friendly approach for controlling rust diseases. To date, more than 187 rust resistance genes (80 leaf rust, 58 stem rust and 49 stripe rust) have been derived from diverse wheat or durum wheat cultivars and the related wild species using different molecular methods. This review provides a detailed discussion of the different aspects of rust resistance genes, their primitive sources, their distribution in global wheat cultivars and the importance of durable resistant varieties for controlling rust diseases. This information will serve as a foundation for plant breeders and geneticists to develop durable rust-resistant wheat varieties through marker-assisted breeding or gene pyramiding

  11. Gametocidal genes of Aegilops: segregation distorters in wheat-Aegilops wide hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niranjana, M

    2017-08-01

    Aegilops is a genus belonging to the family Poaceace, which have played an indispensible role in the evolution of bread wheat and continues to do so by transferring genes by wide hybridization. Being the secondary gene pool of wheat, gene transfer from Aegilops poses difficulties and segregation distortion is common. Gametocidal genes are the most well characterized class of segregation distorters reported in interspecific crosses of wheat with Aegilops. These "selfish" genetic elements ensure their preferential transmission to progeny at the cost of gametes lacking them without providing any phenotypic benefits to the plant, thereby causing a proportional reduction in fertility. Gametocidal genes (Gc) have been reported in different species of Aegilops belonging to the sections Aegilops (Ae. geniculata and Ae. triuncialis), Cylindropyrum (Ae. caudata and Ae. cylindrica), and Sitopsis (Ae. longissima, Ae. sharonensis, and Ae. speltoides). Gametocidal activity is mostly confined to 2, 3, and 4 homeologous groups of C, S, S 1 , S sh , and M g genomes. Removal of such genes is necessary for successful alien gene introgression and can be achieved by mutagenesis or allosyndetic pairing. However, there are some instances where Gc genes are constructively utilized for development of deletion stocks in wheat, improving genetic variability and chromosome engineering.

  12. Chromosome engineering for alien gene introgression in wheat: Progress and prospective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chromosome engineering is a useful strategy for introgression of desirable genes from wild relatives into cultivated wheat. However, it has been a challenge to transfer a small amount of alien chromatin containing the gene of interest from one genome to another non-homologous genome through classic...

  13. Single-copy genes define a conserved order between rice and wheat for understanding differences caused by duplication, deletion, and transposition of genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nagendra K; Dalal, Vivek; Batra, Kamlesh; Singh, Binay K; Chitra, G; Singh, Archana; Ghazi, Irfan A; Yadav, Mahavir; Pandit, Awadhesh; Dixit, Rekha; Singh, Pradeep K; Singh, Harvinder; Koundal, Kirpa R; Gaikwad, Kishor; Mohapatra, Trilochan; Sharma, Tilak R

    2007-01-01

    The high-quality rice genome sequence is serving as a reference for comparative genome analysis in crop plants, especially cereals. However, early comparisons with bread wheat showed complex patterns of conserved synteny (gene content) and colinearity (gene order). Here, we show the presence of ancient duplicated segments in the progenitor of wheat, which were first identified in the rice genome. We also show that single-copy (SC) rice genes, those representing unique matches with wheat expressed sequence tag (EST) unigene contigs in the whole rice genome, show more than twice the proportion of genes mapping to syntenic wheat chromosome as compared to the multicopy (MC) or duplicated rice genes. While 58.7% of the 1,244 mapped SC rice genes were located in single syntenic wheat chromosome groups, the remaining 41.3% were distributed randomly to the other six non-syntenic wheat groups. This could only be explained by a background dispersal of genes in the genome through transposition or other unknown mechanism. The breakdown of rice-wheat synteny due to such transpositions was much greater near the wheat centromeres. Furthermore, the SC rice genes revealed a conserved primordial gene order that gives clues to the origin of rice and wheat chromosomes from a common ancestor through polyploidy, aneuploidy, centromeric fusions, and translocations. Apart from the bin-mapped wheat EST contigs, we also compared 56,298 predicted rice genes with 39,813 wheat EST contigs assembled from 409,765 EST sequences and identified 7,241 SC rice gene homologs of wheat. Based on the conserved colinearity of 1,063 mapped SC rice genes across the bins of individual wheat chromosomes, we predicted the wheat bin location of 6,178 unmapped SC rice gene homologs and validated the location of 213 of these in the telomeric bins of 21 wheat chromosomes with 35.4% initial success. This opens up the possibility of directed mapping of a large number of conserved SC rice gene homologs in wheat

  14. Fine Mapping of Two Wheat Powdery Mildew Resistance Genes Located at the Pm1 Cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junchao Liang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Powdery mildew caused by (DC. f. sp. ( is a globally devastating foliar disease of wheat ( L.. More than a dozen genes against this disease, identified from wheat germplasms of different ploidy levels, have been mapped to the region surrounding the locus on the long arm of chromosome 7A, which forms a resistance (-gene cluster. and from einkorn wheat ( L. were two of the genes belonging to this cluster. This study was initiated to fine map these two genes toward map-based cloning. Comparative genomics study showed that macrocolinearity exists between L. chromosome 1 (Bd1 and the – region, which allowed us to develop markers based on the wheat sequences orthologous to genes contained in the Bd1 region. With these and other newly developed and published markers, high-resolution maps were constructed for both and using large F populations. Moreover, a physical map of was constructed through chromosome walking with bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC clones and comparative mapping. Eventually, and were restricted to a 0.12- and 0.86-cM interval, respectively. Based on the closely linked common markers, , , and (another powdery mildew resistance gene in the cluster were not allelic to one another. Severe recombination suppression and disruption of synteny were noted in the region encompassing . These results provided useful information for map-based cloning of the genes in the cluster and interpretation of their evolution.

  15. Comparative mapping of powdery mildew resistance gene Pm21 and functional characterization of resistance-related genes in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Huagang; Zhu, Shanying; Jiang, Zhengning; Ji, Yaoyong; Wang, Feng; Zhao, Renhui; Bie, Tongde

    2016-04-01

    The powdery mildew resistance gene Pm21 was physically and comparatively mapped by newly developed markers. Seven candidate genes were verified to be required for Pm21 -mediated resistance to wheat powdery mildew. Pm21, a gene derived from wheat wild relative Dasypyrum villosum, has been transferred into common wheat and widely utilized in wheat resistance breeding for powdery mildew. Previously, Pm21 has been located to the bin FL0.45-0.58 of 6VS by using deletion stocks. However, its fine mapping is still a hard work. In the present study, 30 gene-derived 6VS-specific markers were obtained based on the collinearity among genomes of Brachypodium distachyon, Oryza and Triticeae, and then physically and comparatively mapped in the bin FL0.45-0.58 and its nearby chromosome region. According to the maps, the bin FL0.45-0.58 carrying Pm21 was closely flanked by the markers 6VS-03 and 6VS-23, which further narrowed the orthologous regions to 1.06 Mb in Brachypodium and 1.38 Mb in rice, respectively. Among the conserved genes shared by Brachypodium and rice, four serine/threonine protein kinase genes (DvMPK1, DvMLPK, DvUPK and DvPSYR1), one protein phosphatase gene (DvPP2C) and two transcription factor genes (DvGATA and DvWHY) were confirmed to be required for Pm21-mediated resistance to wheat powdery mildew by barley stripe mosaic virus-induced gene silencing (BSMV-VIGS) and transcriptional pattern analyses. In summary, this study gives new insights into the genetic basis of the Pm21 locus and the disease resistance pathways mediated by Pm21.

  16. Biosynthesis of Essential Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Wheat Triggered by Expression of Artificial Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Mihálik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The artificial gene D6D encoding the enzyme ∆6desaturase was designed and synthesized using the sequence of the same gene from the fungus Thamnidium elegans. The original start codon was replaced by the signal sequence derived from the wheat gene for high-molecular-weight glutenin subunit and the codon usage was completely changed for optimal expression in wheat. Synthesized artificial D6D gene was delivered into plants of the spring wheat line CY-45 and the gene itself, as well as transcribed D6D mRNA were confirmed in plants of T0 and T1 generations. The desired product of the wheat genetic modification by artificial D6D gene was the γ-linolenic acid. Its presence was confirmed in mature grains of transgenic wheat plants in the amount 0.04%–0.32% (v/v of the total amount of fatty acids. Both newly synthesized γ-linolenic acid and stearidonic acid have been detected also in leaves, stems, roots, awns, paleas, rachillas, and immature grains of the T1 generation as well as in immature and mature grains of the T2 generation. Contents of γ-linolenic acid and stearidonic acid varied in range 0%–1.40% (v/v and 0%–1.53% (v/v from the total amount of fatty acids, respectively. This approach has opened the pathway of desaturation of fatty acids and production of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids in wheat.

  17. Yr10 gene polymorphism in bread wheat varieties | Temel | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yellow rust resistance locus Yr10 located on chromosome 1B in Moro and originated from the Turkish line PI178383 was investigated in terms of polymorphism in seven winter type bread wheat cvs. (Triticum aestivum ssp. Aestivum) Altay2000, zgi2001, Sönmez2001 (yellow rust resistant), Aytýn98, ES14, Harmankaya99 ...

  18. Tagging genes for drought resistance by DNA markers in wheat (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, T.A.; Rahman, S.; Zafar, Y.

    2005-01-01

    Wheat families (F/sub 3) raised from the seed of drought resistant and susceptible F/sub 2/ plants developed from the cross of drought resistant and susceptible parents were grown under greenhouse conditions in polyethylene tubes filled with soil and sand mixture. Drought stress was imposed and monitored at the seedling stage. The relative water content and net photosynthesis was recorded with increasing drought stress until a significant part of the seedling population had zero or negative net photosynthesis. The seedling with zero or negative net photosynthesis were named as drought susceptible and the seedlings at the same drought stress showing net photosynthesis were named as drought resistance. Twenty each of the most susceptible and resistant seedlings were selected for DNA extraction. Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique using bulked segregant analysis was used to identify DNA markers linked to drought resistance. The primers OPJ-05, OPJ-14, OPI-20 and OPA-19 produced polymorphic DNA fragments between the contrasting bulks. The polymorphic DNA fragment of 1.55kb produced by the primer OPA-19 was found linked to drought resistance. This DNA marker can be used in markers-assisted selection for drought resistance or to clone drought resistance gene. (author)

  19. Transcriptome analysis of genes related to resistance against powdery mildew in wheat-Thinopyrum alien addition disomic line germplasm SN6306.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Quanquan; Niu, Zubiao; Bao, Yinguang; Tian, Qiuju; Wang, Honggang; Kong, Lingrang; Feng, Deshun

    2016-09-15

    Wheat powdery mildew, which is mainly caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt), seriously damages wheat production. The wheat-Thinopyrum intermedium alien addition disomic line germplasm SN6306, being one of the important sources of genes for wheat resistance, is highly resistant to Bgt E09 and to many other powdery mildew physiological races. However, knowledge on the resistance mechanism of SN6306 remains limited. Our study employed high-throughput RNA sequencing based on next-generation sequencing technology (Illumina) to obtain an overview of the transcriptome characteristics of SN6306 and its parent wheat Yannong 15 (YN15) during Bgt infection. The sequencing generated 104,773 unigenes, 9909 of which showed varied expression levels. Among the 9909 unigenes, 1678 unigenes showed 0 reads in YN15. The expression levels in Bgt-inoculated SN6306 and YN15 of exactly 39 unigenes that showed 0 or considerably low reads in YN15 were validated to identify the genes involved in Bgt resistance. Among the 39 unigenes, 12 unigenes were upregulated in SN6306 by 3-45 times. These unigenes mainly encoded kinase, synthase, proteases, and signal transduction proteins, which may play an important role in the resistance against Bgt. To confirm whether the unigenes that showed 0 reads in YN15 are really unique to SN6306, 8 unigenes were cloned and sequenced. Results showed that the selected unigenes are more similar to SN6306 and Th. intermedium than to the wheat cultivar YN15. The sequencing results further confirmed that the unigenes showing 0 reads in YN15 are unique to SN6306 and are most likely derived from Th. intermedium (Host) Nevski. Thus, the genes from Th. intermedium most probably conferred the resistance of SN6306 to Bgt. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Harnessing Genetic Diversity of Wild Gene Pools to Enhance Wheat Crop Production and Sustainability: Challenges and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Ceoloni

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Wild species are extremely rich resources of useful genes not available in the cultivated gene pool. For species providing staple food to mankind, such as the cultivated Triticum species, including hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum, 6x and tetraploid durum wheat (T. durum, 4x, widening the genetic base is a priority and primary target to cope with the many challenges that the crop has to face. These include recent climate changes, as well as actual and projected demographic growth, contrasting with reduction of arable land and water reserves. All of these environmental and societal modifications pose major constraints to the required production increase in the wheat crop. A sustainable approach to address this task implies resorting to non-conventional breeding strategies, such as “chromosome engineering”. This is based on cytogenetic methodologies, which ultimately allow for the incorporation into wheat chromosomes of targeted, and ideally small, chromosomal segments from the genome of wild relatives, containing the gene(s of interest. Chromosome engineering has been successfully applied to introduce into wheat genes/QTL for resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses, quality attributes, and even yield-related traits. In recent years, a substantial upsurge in effective alien gene exploitation for wheat improvement has come from modern technologies, including use of molecular markers, molecular cytogenetic techniques, and sequencing, which have greatly expanded our knowledge and ability to finely manipulate wheat and alien genomes. Examples will be provided of various types of stable introgressions, including pyramiding of different alien genes/QTL, into the background of bread and durum wheat genotypes, representing valuable materials for both species to respond to the needed novelty in current and future breeding programs. Challenging contexts, such as that inherent to the 4x nature of durum wheat when compared to 6x bread wheat, or

  1. Drought response in wheat: key genes and regulatory mechanisms controlling root system architecture and transpiration efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Manoj; Soolanayakanahally, Raju; Ogawa, Satoshi; Uga, Yusaku; Selvaraj, Michael G.; Kagale, Sateesh

    2017-12-01

    Abiotic stresses such as drought, heat, salinity and flooding threaten global food security. Crop genetic improvement with increased resilience to abiotic stresses is a critical component of crop breeding strategies. Wheat is an important cereal crop and a staple food source globally. Enhanced drought tolerance in wheat is critical for sustainable food production and global food security. Recent advances in drought tolerance research have uncovered many key genes and transcription regulators governing morpho-physiological traits. Genes controlling root architecture and stomatal development play an important role in soil moisture extraction and its retention, and therefore have been targets of molecular breeding strategies for improving drought tolerance. In this systematic review, we have summarized evidence of beneficial contributions of root and stomatal traits to plant adaptation to drought stress. Specifically, we discuss a few key genes such as DRO1 in rice and ERECTA in Arabidopsis and rice that were identified to be the enhancers of drought tolerance via regulation of root traits and transpiration efficiency. Additionally, we highlight several transcription factor families, such as ERF (ethylene response factors), DREB (dehydration responsive element binding), ZFP (zinc finger proteins), WRKY and MYB that were identified to be both positive and negative regulators of drought responses in wheat, rice, maize and/or Arabidopsis. The overall aim of this review was to provide an overview of candidate genes that have been tested as regulators of drought response in plants. The lack of a reference genome sequence for wheat and nontransgenic approaches for manipulation of gene functions in the past had impeded high-resolution interrogation of functional elements, including genes and QTLs, and their application in cultivar improvement. The recent developments in wheat genomics and reverse genetics, including the availability of a gold-standard reference genome

  2. Molecular characterization of lipoxygenase genes on chromosome 4BS in Chinese bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fuyan; Chen, Feng; Wu, Peipei; Zhang, Ning; Cui, Dangqun

    2015-08-01

    This study cloned two novel TaLox genes on chromosome of 4BS and developed a co-dominant marker, Lox-B23, in bread wheat that showed highly significant association with lipoxygenase activity. Lipoxygenase (Lox), a critical enzyme in the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway, significantly influences the color and processing quality of wheat-based products. Two novel Lox genes, designated TaLox-B2 and TaLox-B3, were cloned on chromosome 4BS of Chinese bread wheat. The deduced amino acid sequence showed that both TaLox-B2 and TaLox-B3 genes encoded an 861-aa protein and possessed a lipoxygenase superfamily domain at the 170-838 interval. Two different TaLox-B2 alleles, designated TaLox-B2a and TaLox-B2b, were subsequently discovered. A co-dominant marker, Lox-B23, was developed based on sequences of TaLox-B2a, TaLox-B2b, and TaLox-B3 genes to precisely distinguish these three alleles in Chinese bread cultivars. Among five allelic combinations of Lox genes at Lox-B1, Lox-B2, and Lox-B3 loci, wheat cultivars with TaLox-B1a/TaLox-B2a/TaLox-B3a combination exhibited the highest Lox activity, whereas those with TaLox-B1a/TaLox-B2b/TaLox-B3b combination significantly showed the lowest Lox activity. A RIL population was used to evaluate the influence of TaLox-B3a gene on Lox activity. Results showed that TaLox-B3a gene could significantly increase the Lox activity in bread wheat. Physical mapping indicated that both TaLox-B2 and TaLox-B3 genes were located on chromosome 4BS in bread wheat. This study provides useful information to further understand the molecular and genetic bases of Lox activity in bread wheat.

  3. Non-Additive Expression of Homoeologous Genes is Established Upon Polyploidization in Hexaploid Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traditional views on the potential genetic effects of polyploidy in allohexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) have primarily emphasized aspects of greater coding sequence variation and the enhanced potential to acquire new gene functions through mutation of redundant loci. The extent and significa...

  4. Molecular and cytogenetic characterization of wheat introgression lines carrying the stem rust resistance gene Sr39.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis Pers.:Pers. f.sp. tritici Eriks. and Henn., poses a serious threat to global wheat production because of the emergence of Pgt-TTKSK (Ug99). The TTKSK resistant gene Sr39 was derived from Aegilops speltoides through chromosome translocation. In this study, we ch...

  5. Differential gene expression of wheat progeny with contrasting levels of transpiration efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Gang-Ping; McIntyre, C Lynne; Chapman, Scott; Bower, Neil I; Way, Heather; Reverter, Antonio; Clarke, Bryan; Shorter, Ray

    2006-08-01

    High water use efficiency or transpiration efficiency (TE) in wheat is a desirable physiological trait for increasing grain yield under water-limited environments. The identification of genes associated with this trait would facilitate the selection for genotypes with higher TE using molecular markers. We performed an expression profiling (microarray) analysis of approximately 16,000 unique wheat ESTs to identify genes that were differentially expressed between wheat progeny lines with contrasting TE levels from a cross between Quarrion (high TE) and Genaro 81 (low TE). We also conducted a second microarray analysis to identify genes responsive to drought stress in wheat leaves. Ninety-three genes that were differentially expressed between high and low TE progeny lines were identified. One fifth of these genes were markedly responsive to drought stress. Several potential growth-related regulatory genes, which were down-regulated by drought, were expressed at a higher level in the high TE lines than the low TE lines and are potentially associated with a biomass production component of the Quarrion-derived high TE trait. Eighteen of the TE differentially expressed genes were further analysed using quantitative RT-PCR on a separate set of plant samples from those used for microarray analysis. The expression levels of 11 of the 18 genes were positively correlated with the high TE trait, measured as carbon isotope discrimination (Delta(13)C). These data indicate that some of these TE differentially expressed genes are candidates for investigating processes that underlie the high TE trait or for use as expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) for TE.

  6. Identification and validation of reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR normalization in wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porceddu Enrico

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Usually the reference genes used in gene expression analysis have been chosen for their known or suspected housekeeping roles, however the variation observed in most of them hinders their effective use. The assessed lack of validated reference genes emphasizes the importance of a systematic study for their identification. For selecting candidate reference genes we have developed a simple in silico method based on the data publicly available in the wheat databases Unigene and TIGR. Results The expression stability of 32 genes was assessed by qRT-PCR using a set of cDNAs from 24 different plant samples, which included different tissues, developmental stages and temperature stresses. The selected sequences included 12 well-known HKGs representing different functional classes and 20 genes novel with reference to the normalization issue. The expression stability of the 32 candidate genes was tested by the computer programs geNorm and NormFinder using five different data-sets. Some discrepancies were detected in the ranking of the candidate reference genes, but there was substantial agreement between the groups of genes with the most and least stable expression. Three new identified reference genes appear more effective than the well-known and frequently used HKGs to normalize gene expression in wheat. Finally, the expression study of a gene encoding a PDI-like protein showed that its correct evaluation relies on the adoption of suitable normalization genes and can be negatively affected by the use of traditional HKGs with unstable expression, such as actin and α-tubulin. Conclusion The present research represents the first wide screening aimed to the identification of reference genes and of the corresponding primer pairs specifically designed for gene expression studies in wheat, in particular for qRT-PCR analyses. Several of the new identified reference genes outperformed the traditional HKGs in terms of expression stability

  7. Genome-wide identification of the SWEET gene family in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yue; Wang, Zi Yuan; Kumar, Vikranth; Xu, Xiao Feng; Yuan, De Peng; Zhu, Xiao Feng; Li, Tian Ya; Jia, Baolei; Xuan, Yuan Hu

    2018-02-05

    The SWEET (sugars will eventually be exported transporter) family is a newly characterized group of sugar transporters. In plants, the key roles of SWEETs in phloem transport, nectar secretion, pollen nutrition, stress tolerance, and plant-pathogen interactions have been identified. SWEET family genes have been characterized in many plant species, but a comprehensive analysis of SWEET members has not yet been performed in wheat. Here, 59 wheat SWEETs (hereafter TaSWEETs) were identified through homology searches. Analyses of phylogenetic relationships, numbers of transmembrane helices (TMHs), gene structures, and motifs showed that TaSWEETs carrying 3-7 TMHs could be classified into four clades with 10 different types of motifs. Examination of the expression patterns of 18 SWEET genes revealed that a few are tissue-specific while most are ubiquitously expressed. In addition, the stem rust-mediated expression patterns of SWEET genes were monitored using a stem rust-susceptible cultivar, 'Little Club' (LC). The resulting data showed that the expression of five out of the 18 SWEETs tested was induced following inoculation. In conclusion, we provide the first comprehensive analysis of the wheat SWEET gene family. Information regarding the phylogenetic relationships, gene structures, and expression profiles of SWEET genes in different tissues and following stem rust disease inoculation will be useful in identifying the potential roles of SWEETs in specific developmental and pathogenic processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Molecular implications from ssr markers for stripe rust (puccinia striiformis F.Sp. tritici) resistance gene in bread wheat line N95175

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.; Ji, W.G.; Hu, Y.G; Zhong, H.; Wang, C.Y.; Baloch, G.M.

    2010-01-01

    Stripe rust caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici is one of the most devastating diseases of wheat in China as well as in Pakistan. In the present studies F2 population was established by crossing N95175 resistant to stripe rust race CYR32 with two susceptible lines Huixianhong and Abbondanza to molecularly tag resistance gene existing in wheat line N95175. The segregation of phenotype was accorded with an expected 3:1 ratio in both combinations studied and fit the model of a single dominant gene controlling stripe rust resistance in N95175. Thirty five SSR primer pairs were screened on the parents and bulks and also on individuals since resistance gene to be located in chromosome 1B. The result indicated that most of resistant plants amplified same band as resistant parent while susceptible plants amplified same as susceptible parents studied and considered that markers co-segregated with resistant loci in N95175. This yellow rust resistance gene was considered to be Yr26 originally thought to be also located in chromosome arm 1BS linked to marker loci Xgwm273 and Xgwm11 with genetic distances ranging from 1.075cM to 2.74cM in both combinations studied. However, the closest loci were observed 2.67cM for Xgwm273 and 1.075cM for Xgwm11 in Huixianhong XN95175 and Abbondanza XN95175 crosses respectively. Hence, it has been concluded that the PCR-based micro satellite markers Xgwm273 and Xgwm11 located in chromosome 1B were shown to be very effective for the detection of Yr26 gene in segregating population and can be applied in future wheat breeding strategies. (author)

  9. Identification of Changes in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Seeds Proteome in Response to Anti–trx s Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hongxiang; Zhang, Huizhen; Li, Yongchun; Ren, Jiangping; Wang, Xiang; Niu, Hongbin; Yin, Jun

    2011-01-01

    Background Thioredoxin h (trx h) is closely related to germination of cereal seeds. The cDNA sequences of the thioredoxin s (trx s) gene from Phalaris coerulescens and the thioredoxin h (trx h) gene from wheat are highly homologous, and their expression products have similar biological functions. Transgenic wheat had been formed after the antisense trx s was transferred into wheat, and it had been certified that the expression of trx h decreased in transgenic wheat, and transgenic wheat has high resistance to pre-harvest sprouting. Methodology/Principal Findings Through analyzing the differential proteome of wheat seeds between transgenic wheat and wild type wheat, the mechanism of transgenic wheat seeds having high resistance to pre-harvest sprouting was studied in the present work. There were 36 differential proteins which had been identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). All these differential proteins are involved in regulation of carbohydrates, esters, nucleic acid, proteins and energy metabolism, and biological stress. The quantitative real time PCR results of some differential proteins, such as trx h, heat shock protein 70, α-amylase, β-amylase, glucose-6-phosphate isomerase, 14-3-3 protein, S3-RNase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and WRKY transcription factor 6, represented good correlation between transcripts and proteins. The biological functions of many differential proteins are consistent with the proposed role of trx h in wheat seeds. Conclusions/Significance A possible model for the role of trx h in wheat seeds germination was proposed in this paper. These results will not only play an important role in clarifying the mechanism that transgenic wheat has high resistance to pre-harvest sprouting, but also provide further evidence for the role of trx h in germination of wheat seeds. PMID:21811579

  10. Identification of changes in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seeds proteome in response to anti-trx s gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hongxiang; Zhang, Huizhen; Li, Yongchun; Ren, Jiangping; Wang, Xiang; Niu, Hongbin; Yin, Jun

    2011-01-01

    Thioredoxin h (trx h) is closely related to germination of cereal seeds. The cDNA sequences of the thioredoxin s (trx s) gene from Phalaris coerulescens and the thioredoxin h (trx h) gene from wheat are highly homologous, and their expression products have similar biological functions. Transgenic wheat had been formed after the antisense trx s was transferred into wheat, and it had been certified that the expression of trx h decreased in transgenic wheat, and transgenic wheat has high resistance to pre-harvest sprouting. Through analyzing the differential proteome of wheat seeds between transgenic wheat and wild type wheat, the mechanism of transgenic wheat seeds having high resistance to pre-harvest sprouting was studied in the present work. There were 36 differential proteins which had been identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). All these differential proteins are involved in regulation of carbohydrates, esters, nucleic acid, proteins and energy metabolism, and biological stress. The quantitative real time PCR results of some differential proteins, such as trx h, heat shock protein 70, α-amylase, β-amylase, glucose-6-phosphate isomerase, 14-3-3 protein, S3-RNase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and WRKY transcription factor 6, represented good correlation between transcripts and proteins. The biological functions of many differential proteins are consistent with the proposed role of trx h in wheat seeds. A possible model for the role of trx h in wheat seeds germination was proposed in this paper. These results will not only play an important role in clarifying the mechanism that transgenic wheat has high resistance to pre-harvest sprouting, but also provide further evidence for the role of trx h in germination of wheat seeds.

  11. Identification of changes in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. seeds proteome in response to anti-trx s gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxiang Guo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Thioredoxin h (trx h is closely related to germination of cereal seeds. The cDNA sequences of the thioredoxin s (trx s gene from Phalaris coerulescens and the thioredoxin h (trx h gene from wheat are highly homologous, and their expression products have similar biological functions. Transgenic wheat had been formed after the antisense trx s was transferred into wheat, and it had been certified that the expression of trx h decreased in transgenic wheat, and transgenic wheat has high resistance to pre-harvest sprouting. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Through analyzing the differential proteome of wheat seeds between transgenic wheat and wild type wheat, the mechanism of transgenic wheat seeds having high resistance to pre-harvest sprouting was studied in the present work. There were 36 differential proteins which had been identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS. All these differential proteins are involved in regulation of carbohydrates, esters, nucleic acid, proteins and energy metabolism, and biological stress. The quantitative real time PCR results of some differential proteins, such as trx h, heat shock protein 70, α-amylase, β-amylase, glucose-6-phosphate isomerase, 14-3-3 protein, S3-RNase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and WRKY transcription factor 6, represented good correlation between transcripts and proteins. The biological functions of many differential proteins are consistent with the proposed role of trx h in wheat seeds. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A possible model for the role of trx h in wheat seeds germination was proposed in this paper. These results will not only play an important role in clarifying the mechanism that transgenic wheat has high resistance to pre-harvest sprouting, but also provide further evidence for the role of trx h in germination of wheat seeds.

  12. Identification and molecular characterization of the nicotianamine synthase gene family in bread wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonneau, Julien; Baumann, Ute; Beasley, Jesse; Li, Yuan; Johnson, Alexander A T

    2016-12-01

    Nicotianamine (NA) is a non-protein amino acid involved in fundamental aspects of metal uptake, transport and homeostasis in all plants and constitutes the biosynthetic precursor of mugineic acid family phytosiderophores (MAs) in graminaceous plant species. Nicotianamine synthase (NAS) genes, which encode enzymes that synthesize NA from S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM), are differentially regulated by iron (Fe) status in most plant species and plant genomes have been found to contain anywhere from 1 to 9 NAS genes. This study describes the identification of 21 NAS genes in the hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genome and their phylogenetic classification into two distinct clades. The TaNAS genes are highly expressed during germination, seedling growth and reproductive development. Fourteen of the clade I NAS genes were up-regulated in root tissues under conditions of Fe deficiency. Protein sequence analyses revealed the presence of endocytosis motifs in all of the wheat NAS proteins as well as chloroplast, mitochondrial and secretory transit peptide signals in four proteins. These results greatly expand our knowledge of NAS gene families in graminaceous plant species as well as the genetics underlying Fe nutrition in bread wheat. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Characterization of FLOWERING LOCUS T1 (FT1 gene in Brachypodium and wheat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Lv

    Full Text Available The phase transition from vegetative to reproductive growth is a critical event in the life cycle of flowering plants. FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT plays a central role in the regulation of this transition by integrating signals from multiple flowering pathways in the leaves and transmitting them to the shoot apical meristem. In this study, we characterized FT homologs in the temperate grasses Brachypodium distachyon and polyploid wheat using transgenic and mutant approaches. Downregulation of FT1 by RNAi was associated with a significant downregulation of the FT-like genes FT2 and FT4 in Brachypodium and FT2 and FT5 in wheat. In a transgenic wheat line carrying a highly-expressed FT1 allele, FT2 and FT3 were upregulated under both long and short days. Overexpression of FT1 caused extremely early flowering during shoot regeneration in both Brachypodium and hexaploid wheat, and resulted in insufficient vegetative tissue to support the production of viable seeds. Downregulation of FT1 transcripts by RNA interference (RNAi resulted in non-flowering Brachypodium plants and late flowering plants (2-4 weeks delay in wheat. A similar delay in heading time was observed in tetraploid wheat plants carrying mutations for both FT-A1 and FT-B1. Plants homozygous only for mutations in FT-B1 flowered later than plants homozygous only for mutations in FT-A1, which corresponded with higher transcript levels of FT-B1 relative to FT-A1 in the early stages of development. Taken together, our data indicate that FT1 plays a critical role in the regulation of flowering in Brachypodium and wheat, and that this role is associated with the simultaneous regulation of other FT-like genes. The differential effects of mutations in FT-A1 and FT-B1 on wheat heading time suggest that different allelic combinations of FT1 homoeologs could be used to adjust wheat heading time to improve adaptation to changing environments.

  14. Using RNA-sequencing and in silico subtraction to identify resistance gene analog markers for Lr16 in wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf rust, caused by Puccinia triticina Eriks., is one of the most widespread diseases of wheat worldwide and breeding for resistance is one of the most effective methods of control. Lr16 is a wheat leaf rust resistance gene that provides resistance at both the seedling and adult stages. Simple s...

  15. Evaluation of four endogenous reference genes and their real-time PCR assays for common wheat quantification in GMOs detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huali; Cheng, Fang; Wang, Ruoan; Zhang, Dabing; Yang, Litao

    2013-01-01

    Proper selection of endogenous reference genes and their real-time PCR assays is quite important in genetically modified organisms (GMOs) detection. To find a suitable endogenous reference gene and its real-time PCR assay for common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) DNA content or copy number quantification, four previously reported wheat endogenous reference genes and their real-time PCR assays were comprehensively evaluated for the target gene sequence variation and their real-time PCR performance among 37 common wheat lines. Three SNPs were observed in the PKABA1 and ALMT1 genes, and these SNPs significantly decreased the efficiency of real-time PCR amplification. GeNorm analysis of the real-time PCR performance of each gene among common wheat lines showed that the Waxy-D1 assay had the lowest M values with the best stability among all tested lines. All results indicated that the Waxy-D1 gene and its real-time PCR assay were most suitable to be used as an endogenous reference gene for common wheat DNA content quantification. The validated Waxy-D1 gene assay will be useful in establishing accurate and creditable qualitative and quantitative PCR analysis of GM wheat.

  16. Evaluation of four endogenous reference genes and their real-time PCR assays for common wheat quantification in GMOs detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huali Huang

    Full Text Available Proper selection of endogenous reference genes and their real-time PCR assays is quite important in genetically modified organisms (GMOs detection. To find a suitable endogenous reference gene and its real-time PCR assay for common wheat (Triticum aestivum L. DNA content or copy number quantification, four previously reported wheat endogenous reference genes and their real-time PCR assays were comprehensively evaluated for the target gene sequence variation and their real-time PCR performance among 37 common wheat lines. Three SNPs were observed in the PKABA1 and ALMT1 genes, and these SNPs significantly decreased the efficiency of real-time PCR amplification. GeNorm analysis of the real-time PCR performance of each gene among common wheat lines showed that the Waxy-D1 assay had the lowest M values with the best stability among all tested lines. All results indicated that the Waxy-D1 gene and its real-time PCR assay were most suitable to be used as an endogenous reference gene for common wheat DNA content quantification. The validated Waxy-D1 gene assay will be useful in establishing accurate and creditable qualitative and quantitative PCR analysis of GM wheat.

  17. Evaluation of Four Endogenous Reference Genes and Their Real-Time PCR Assays for Common Wheat Quantification in GMOs Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huali; Cheng, Fang; Wang, Ruoan; Zhang, Dabing; Yang, Litao

    2013-01-01

    Proper selection of endogenous reference genes and their real-time PCR assays is quite important in genetically modified organisms (GMOs) detection. To find a suitable endogenous reference gene and its real-time PCR assay for common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) DNA content or copy number quantification, four previously reported wheat endogenous reference genes and their real-time PCR assays were comprehensively evaluated for the target gene sequence variation and their real-time PCR performance among 37 common wheat lines. Three SNPs were observed in the PKABA1 and ALMT1 genes, and these SNPs significantly decreased the efficiency of real-time PCR amplification. GeNorm analysis of the real-time PCR performance of each gene among common wheat lines showed that the Waxy-D1 assay had the lowest M values with the best stability among all tested lines. All results indicated that the Waxy-D1 gene and its real-time PCR assay were most suitable to be used as an endogenous reference gene for common wheat DNA content quantification. The validated Waxy-D1 gene assay will be useful in establishing accurate and creditable qualitative and quantitative PCR analysis of GM wheat. PMID:24098735

  18. Identification and characterization of Sr13, a tetraploid wheat gene that confers resistance to the Ug99 stem rust race group

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt) Ug99 race group is virulent to most stem rust resistance genes currently deployed in wheat and poses a serious threat to global wheat production. The durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) gene Sr13 confers resistance to Ug99 in addition to virulent rac...

  19. Identification and comprehensive analyses of the CBL and CIPK gene families in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tao; Wang, Yan; Wang, Meng; Li, Tingting; Zhou, Yi; Wang, Xiatian; Wei, Shuya; He, Guangyuan; Yang, Guangxiao

    2015-11-04

    Calcineurin B-like (CBL) proteins belong to a unique group of calcium sensors in plant that decode the Ca(2+) signature by interacting with CBL-interacting protein kinases (CIPKs). Although CBL-CIPK complexes have been shown to play important roles in the responses to various stresses in plants, little is known about their functions in wheat. A total of seven TaCBL and 20 TaCIPK genes were amplified from bread wheat, Triticum aestivum cv. Chinese Spring. Reverse-transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and in silico expression analyses showed that TaCBL and TaCIPK genes were expressed at different levels in different tissues, or maintained at nearly constant expression levels during the whole life cycle of the wheat plant. Some TaCBL and TaCIPK genes showed up- or down-regulated expressions during seed germination. Preferential interactions between TaCBLs and TaCIPKs were observed in yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation experiments. Analyses of a deletion series of TaCIPK proteins with amino acid variations at the C-terminus provided new insights into the specificity of the interactions between TaCIPKs and TaCBLs, and indicated that the TaCBL-TaCIPK signaling pathway is very complex in wheat because of its hexaploid genome. The expressions of many TaCBLs and TaCIPKs were responsive to abiotic stresses (salt, cold, and simulated drought) and abscisic acid treatment. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing TaCIPK24 exhibited improved salt tolerance through increased Na(+) efflux and an enhanced reactive oxygen species scavenging capacity. These results contribute to our understanding of the functions of CBL-CIPK complexes and provide the basis for selecting appropriate genes for in-depth functional studies of CBL-CIPK in wheat.

  20. Increasing the amylose content of durum wheat through silencing of the SBEIIa genes

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    Masci Stefania

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High amylose starch has attracted particular interest because of its correlation with the amount of Resistant Starch (RS in food. RS plays a role similar to fibre with beneficial effects for human health, providing protection from several diseases such as colon cancer, diabetes, obesity, osteoporosis and cardiovascular diseases. Amylose content can be modified by a targeted manipulation of the starch biosynthetic pathway. In particular, the inactivation of the enzymes involved in amylopectin synthesis can lead to the increase of amylose content. In this work, genes encoding starch branching enzymes of class II (SBEIIa were silenced using the RNA interference (RNAi technique in two cultivars of durum wheat, using two different methods of transformation (biolistic and Agrobacterium. Expression of RNAi transcripts was targeted to the seed endosperm using a tissue-specific promoter. Results Amylose content was markedly increased in the durum wheat transgenic lines exhibiting SBEIIa gene silencing. Moreover the starch granules in these lines were deformed, possessing an irregular and deflated shape and being smaller than those present in the untransformed controls. Two novel granule bound proteins, identified by SDS-PAGE in SBEIIa RNAi lines, were investigated by mass spectrometry and shown to have strong homologies to the waxy proteins. RVA analysis showed new pasting properties associated with high amylose lines in comparison with untransformed controls. Finally, pleiotropic effects on other starch genes were found by semi-quantitative and Real-Time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Conclusion We have found that the silencing of SBEIIa genes in durum wheat causes obvious alterations in granule morphology and starch composition, leading to high amylose wheat. Results obtained with two different methods of transformation and in two durum wheat cultivars were comparable.

  1. Discovery, evaluation and distribution of haplotypes of the wheat Ppd-D1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhiai; Song, Yanxia; Zhou, Ronghua; Ren, Zhenglong; Jia, Jizeng

    2010-02-01

    Ppd-D1 is one of the most potent genes affecting the photoperiod response of wheat (Triticum aestivum). Only two alleles, insensitive Ppd-D1a and sensitive Ppd-D1b, were known previously, and these did not adequately explain the broad adaptation of wheat to photoperiod variation. In this study, five diagnostic molecular markers were employed to identify Ppd-D1 haplotypes in 492 wheat varieties from diverse geographic locations and 55 accessions of Aegilops tauschii, the D genome donor species of wheat. Six Ppd-D1 haplotypes, designated I-VI, were identified. Types II, V and VI were considered to be more ancient and types I, III and IV were considered to be derived from type II. The transcript abundances of the Ppd-D1 haplotypes showed continuous variation, being highest for haplotype I, lowest for haplotype III, and correlating negatively with varietal differences in heading time. These haplotypes also significantly affected other agronomic traits. The distribution frequency of Ppd-D1 haplotypes showed partial correlations with both latitudes and altitudes of wheat cultivation regions. The evolution, expression and distribution of Ppd-D1 haplotypes were consistent evidentially with each other. What was regarded as a pair of alleles in the past can now be considered a series of alleles leading to continuous variation.

  2. Drought Response in Wheat: Key Genes and Regulatory Mechanisms Controlling Root System Architecture and Transpiration Efficiency

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    Manoj Kulkarni

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abiotic stresses such as, drought, heat, salinity, and flooding threaten global food security. Crop genetic improvement with increased resilience to abiotic stresses is a critical component of crop breeding strategies. Wheat is an important cereal crop and a staple food source globally. Enhanced drought tolerance in wheat is critical for sustainable food production and global food security. Recent advances in drought tolerance research have uncovered many key genes and transcription regulators governing morpho-physiological traits. Genes controlling root architecture and stomatal development play an important role in soil moisture extraction and its retention, and therefore have been targets of molecular breeding strategies for improving drought tolerance. In this systematic review, we have summarized evidence of beneficial contributions of root and stomatal traits to plant adaptation to drought stress. Specifically, we discuss a few key genes such as, DRO1 in rice and ERECTA in Arabidopsis and rice that were identified to be the enhancers of drought tolerance via regulation of root traits and transpiration efficiency. Additionally, we highlight several transcription factor families, such as, ERF (ethylene response factors, DREB (dehydration responsive element binding, ZFP (zinc finger proteins, WRKY, and MYB that were identified to be both positive and negative regulators of drought responses in wheat, rice, maize, and/or Arabidopsis. The overall aim of this review is to provide an overview of candidate genes that have been identified as regulators of drought response in plants. The lack of a reference genome sequence for wheat and non-transgenic approaches for manipulation of gene functions in wheat in the past had impeded high-resolution interrogation of functional elements, including genes and QTLs, and their application in cultivar improvement. The recent developments in wheat genomics and reverse genetics, including the availability of a

  3. Global Analysis of Differentially Expressed Genes and Proteins in the Wheat Callus Infected by Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaohong; Wang, Ke; Lv, Dongwen; Wu, Chengjun; Li, Jiarui; Zhao, Pei; Lin, Zhishan; Du, Lipu; Yan, Yueming; Ye, Xingguo

    2013-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation is an extremely complex and evolved process involving genetic determinants of both the bacteria and the host plant cells. However, the mechanism of the determinants remains obscure, especially in some cereal crops such as wheat, which is recalcitrant for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. In this study, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were analyzed in wheat callus cells co-cultured with Agrobacterium by using RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) in conjunction with mass spectrometry (MS). A set of 4,889 DEGs and 90 DEPs were identified, respectively. Most of them are related to metabolism, chromatin assembly or disassembly and immune defense. After comparative analysis, 24 of the 90 DEPs were detected in RNA-seq and proteomics datasets simultaneously. In addition, real-time RT-PCR experiments were performed to check the differential expression of the 24 genes, and the results were consistent with the RNA-seq data. According to gene ontology (GO) analysis, we found that a big part of these differentially expressed genes were related to the process of stress or immunity response. Several putative determinants and candidate effectors responsive to Agrobacterium mediated transformation of wheat cells were discussed. We speculate that some of these genes are possibly related to Agrobacterium infection. Our results will help to understand the interaction between Agrobacterium and host cells, and may facilitate developing efficient transformation strategies in cereal crops. PMID:24278131

  4. Global analysis of differentially expressed genes and proteins in the wheat callus infected by Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Zhou

    Full Text Available Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation is an extremely complex and evolved process involving genetic determinants of both the bacteria and the host plant cells. However, the mechanism of the determinants remains obscure, especially in some cereal crops such as wheat, which is recalcitrant for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. In this study, differentially expressed genes (DEGs and differentially expressed proteins (DEPs were analyzed in wheat callus cells co-cultured with Agrobacterium by using RNA sequencing (RNA-seq and two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE in conjunction with mass spectrometry (MS. A set of 4,889 DEGs and 90 DEPs were identified, respectively. Most of them are related to metabolism, chromatin assembly or disassembly and immune defense. After comparative analysis, 24 of the 90 DEPs were detected in RNA-seq and proteomics datasets simultaneously. In addition, real-time RT-PCR experiments were performed to check the differential expression of the 24 genes, and the results were consistent with the RNA-seq data. According to gene ontology (GO analysis, we found that a big part of these differentially expressed genes were related to the process of stress or immunity response. Several putative determinants and candidate effectors responsive to Agrobacterium mediated transformation of wheat cells were discussed. We speculate that some of these genes are possibly related to Agrobacterium infection. Our results will help to understand the interaction between Agrobacterium and host cells, and may facilitate developing efficient transformation strategies in cereal crops.

  5. Characterization and mapping of complementary lesion-mimic genes lm1 and lm2 in common wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Qin; Zhou, Ronghua; Fu, Tihua; Wu, Weiren; Zhu, Zhendong; Li, Aili; Jia, Jizeng

    2009-10-01

    A lesion-mimic phenotype appeared in a segregating population of common wheat cross Yanzhan 1/Zaosui 30. The parents had non-lesion normal phenotypes. Shading treatment and histochemical analyses showed that the lesions were caused by light-dependent cell death and were not associated with pathogens. Studies over two cropping seasons showed that some lines with more highly expressed lesion-mimic phenotypes exhibited significantly lower grain yields than those with the normal phenotype, but there were no significant effects in the lines with weakly expressed lesion-mimic phenotypes. Among yield traits, one-thousand grain weight was the most affected by lesion-mimic phenotypes. Genetic analysis indicated that this was a novel type of lesion mimic, which was caused by interaction of recessive genes derived from each parent. The lm1 (lesion mimic 1) locus from Zaosui 30 was flanked by microsatellite markers Xwmc674 and Xbarc133/Xbarc147 on chromosome 3BS, at genetic distances of 1.2 and 3.8 cM, respectively, whereas lm2 from Yanzhan 1 was mapped between microsatellite markers Xgwm513 and Xksum154 on chromosome 4BL, at genetic distances of 1.5 and 3 cM, respectively. The linked microsatellite makers identified in this study might be useful for evaluating whether potential parents with normal phenotype are carriers of lesion-mimic alleles.

  6. Identification of the TaBTF3 gene in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and the effect of its silencing on wheat chloroplast, mitochondria and mesophyll cell development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hong-Zhen; Liu, Guo-Qin; Li, Cheng-Wei; Kang, Guo-Zhang; Guo, Tian-Cai

    2012-10-05

    The full-length cDNA (882bp) and DNA (1742bp) sequences encoding a basic transcription factor 3, designated as TaBTF3, were first isolated from common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Subcellular localization studies revealed that the TaBTF3 protein was mainly located in the cytoplasm and nucleus. In TaBTF3-silenced transgenic wheat seedlings obtained using the Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) method, the chlorophyll pigment content was markedly reduced. However, the malonaldehyde (MDA) and H(2)O(2) contents were enhanced, and the structure of the wheat mesophyll cell was seriously damaged. Furthermore, transcripts of the chloroplast- and mitochondrial-encoded genes were significantly reduced in TaBTF3-silenced transgenic wheat plants. These results suggest that the TaBTF3 gene might function in the development of the wheat chloroplast, mitochondria and mesophyll cell. This paper is the first report to describe the involvement of TaBTF3 in maintaining the normal plant mesophyll cell structure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Targeted introgression of a wheat stem rust resistance gene by DNA marker-assisted chromosome engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Zhixia; Klindworth, Daryl L; Friesen, Timothy L; Chao, Shiaoman; Jin, Yue; Cai, Xiwen; Xu, Steven S

    2011-04-01

    Chromosome engineering is a useful strategy for transfer of alien genes from wild relatives into modern crops. However, this strategy has not been extensively used for alien gene introgression in most crops due to low efficiency of conventional cytogenetic techniques. Here, we report an improved scheme of chromosome engineering for efficient elimination of a large amount of goatgrass (Aegilops speltoides) chromatin surrounding Sr39, a gene that provides resistance to multiple stem rust races, including Ug99 (TTKSK) in wheat. The wheat ph1b mutation, which promotes meiotic pairing between homoeologous chromosomes, was employed to induce recombination between wheat chromosome 2B and goatgrass 2S chromatin using a backcross scheme favorable for inducing and detecting the homoeologous recombinants with small goatgrass chromosome segments. Forty recombinants with Sr39 with reduced surrounding goatgrass chromatin were quickly identified from 1048 backcross progenies through disease screening and molecular marker analysis. Four of the recombinants carrying Sr39 with a minimal amount of goatgrass chromatin (2.87-9.15% of the translocated chromosomes) were verified using genomic in situ hybridization. Approximately 97% of the goatgrass chromatin was eliminated in one of the recombinants, in which a tiny goatgrass chromosome segment containing Sr39 was retained in the wheat genome. Localization of the goatgrass chromatin in the recombinants led to rapid development of three molecular markers tightly linked to Sr39. The new wheat lines and markers provide useful resources for the ongoing global effort to combat Ug99. This study has demonstrated great potential of chromosome engineering in genome manipulation for plant improvement.

  8. Experimental estimation of mutation rates in a wheat population with a gene genealogy approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raquin, Anne-Laure; Depaulis, Frantz; Lambert, Amaury; Galic, Nathalie; Brabant, Philippe; Goldringer, Isabelle

    2008-08-01

    Microsatellite markers are extensively used to evaluate genetic diversity in natural or experimental evolving populations. Their high degree of polymorphism reflects their high mutation rates. Estimates of the mutation rates are therefore necessary when characterizing diversity in populations. As a complement to the classical experimental designs, we propose to use experimental populations, where the initial state is entirely known and some intermediate states have been thoroughly surveyed, thus providing a short timescale estimation together with a large number of cumulated meioses. In this article, we derived four original gene genealogy-based methods to assess mutation rates with limited bias due to relevant model assumptions incorporating the initial state, the number of new alleles, and the genetic effective population size. We studied the evolution of genetic diversity at 21 microsatellite markers, after 15 generations in an experimental wheat population. Compared to the parents, 23 new alleles were found in generation 15 at 9 of the 21 loci studied. We provide evidence that they arose by mutation. Corresponding estimates of the mutation rates ranged from 0 to 4.97 x 10(-3) per generation (i.e., year). Sequences of several alleles revealed that length polymorphism was only due to variation in the core of the microsatellite. Among different microsatellite characteristics, both the motif repeat number and an independent estimation of the Nei diversity were correlated with the novel diversity. Despite a reduced genetic effective size, global diversity at microsatellite markers increased in this population, suggesting that microsatellite diversity should be used with caution as an indicator in biodiversity conservation issues.

  9. Spontaneous wheat-Aegilops biuncialis, Ae. geniculata and Ae. triuncialis amphiploid production, a potential way of gene transference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loureiro, I.; Escorial, C.; Garcia-Baudin, J. M.; Chueca, M. C.

    2009-07-01

    Some F1 hybrid plants between three species of the Aegilops genus and different hexaploid wheat Triticum aestivum cultivars show certain self-fertility, with averages of F{sub 1} hybrids bearing F{sub 2} seeds of 8.17%, 5.12% and 48.14% for Aegilops biuncialis, Aegilops geniculata and Aegilops triuncialis respectively. In the Ae. triuncialis-wheat combination with Astral wheat cultivar, the fertility was higher than that found in the other combinations. All the F2 seeds studied were spontaneous amphiploids (2n=10x=70). The present study evidences the possibility of spontaneous formation of amphiploids between these three Aegilops species and hexaploid wheat and discusses their relevance for gene transference. Future risk assessment of transgenic wheat cultivars needs to evaluate the importance of amphiploids as a bridge for transgene introgression and for gene escape to the wild. (Author)

  10. A Wheat SIMILAR TO RCD-ONE Gene Enhances Seedling Growth and Abiotic Stress Resistance by Modulating Redox Homeostasis and Maintaining Genomic Integrity[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuantao; Liu, Shuwei; Wang, Mei; Wei, Tiandi; Meng, Chen; Wang, Meng; Xia, Guangmin

    2014-01-01

    Plant growth inhibition is a common response to salinity. Under saline conditions, Shanrong No. 3 (SR3), a bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) introgression line, performs better than its parent wheat variety Jinan 177 (JN177) with respect to both seedling growth and abiotic stress tolerance. Furthermore, the endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) was also elevated in SR3 relative to JN177. The SR3 allele of sro1, a gene encoding a poly(ADP ribose) polymerase (PARP) domain protein, was identified to be crucial for both aspects of its superior performance. Unlike RADICAL-INDUCED CELL DEATH1 and other Arabidopsis thaliana SIMILAR TO RCD-ONE (SRO) proteins, sro1 has PARP activity. Both the overexpression of Ta-sro1 in wheat and its heterologous expression in Arabidopsis promote the accumulation of ROS, mainly by enhancing the activity of NADPH oxidase and the expression of NAD(P)H dehydrogenase, in conjunction with the suppression of alternative oxidase expression. Moreover, it promotes the activity of ascorbate-GSH cycle enzymes and GSH peroxidase cycle enzymes, which regulate ROS content and cellular redox homeostasis. sro1 is also found to be involved in the maintenance of genomic integrity. We show here that the wheat SRO has PARP activity; such activity could be manipulated to improve the growth of seedlings exposed to salinity stress by modulating redox homeostasis and maintaining genomic stability. PMID:24443520

  11. The wheat resistance gene Lr34 results in the constitutive induction of multiple defense pathways in transgenic barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Harsh; Boni, Rainer; Bucher, Rahel; Kuhn, Benjamin; Buchmann, Gabriele; Sucher, Justine; Selter, Liselotte L; Hensel, Goetz; Kumlehn, Jochen; Bigler, Laurent; Glauser, Gaëtan; Wicker, Thomas; Krattinger, Simon G; Keller, Beat

    2015-10-01

    The wheat gene Lr34 encodes an ABCG-type transporter which provides durable resistance against multiple pathogens. Lr34 is functional as a transgene in barley, but its mode of action has remained largely unknown both in wheat and barley. Here we studied gene expression in uninfected barley lines transgenic for Lr34. Genes from multiple defense pathways contributing to basal and inducible disease resistance were constitutively active in seedlings and mature leaves. In addition, the hormones jasmonic acid and salicylic acid were induced to high levels, and increased levels of lignin as well as hordatines were observed. These results demonstrate a strong, constitutive re-programming of metabolism by Lr34. The resistant Lr34 allele (Lr34res) encodes a protein that differs by two amino acid polymorphisms from the susceptible Lr34sus allele. The deletion of a single phenylalanine residue in Lr34sus was sufficient to induce the characteristic Lr34-based responses. Combination of Lr34res and Lr34sus in the same plant resulted in a reduction of Lr34res expression by 8- to 20-fold when the low-expressing Lr34res line BG8 was used as a parent. Crosses with the high-expressing Lr34res line BG9 resulted in an increase of Lr34sus expression by 13- to 16-fold in progenies that inherited both alleles. These results indicate an interaction of the two Lr34 alleles on the transcriptional level. Reduction of Lr34res expression in BG8 crosses reduced the negative pleiotropic effects of Lr34res on barley growth and vigor without compromising disease resistance, suggesting that transgenic combination of Lr34res and Lr34sus can result in agronomically useful resistance. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Study on transferring improved green fluorescent protein gene into wheat via low energy Ar+ implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Lifang; Li Hong; Song Daojun

    2000-01-01

    An improved GFP gene (mGFP4) was introduced into mature embryo cells of wheat cultivars Wan 9210 and Wanmai 32 via low energy ion beam-mediated delivery technique. Resistant calli were selected on medium containing paromomycin (100-140 mg/L). Five green plants were regenerated from resistant calli of Wan 9210 derived from 387 implated mature embryos. 32 green plants were obtained from 776 irradiated mature embryos in Wanmai 32. No green plant was regenerated from calli of 200 non-transformed embryos. PCR assays of 37 green plants showed that they all obtained the expected size of amplified DNA fragment (600 bp). Southern blot of 4 well-developed green plants confirmed stable integration of GFP gene into wheat genome. The average transformation frequencies of Wan 9210 and Wanmai 32 were 1.3% and 4.1%, respectively, according to the results of PCR assays

  13. IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THE SUCROSE SYNTHASE 2 GENE (Sus2 IN DURUM WHEAT

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    Mariateresa eVolpicella

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sucrose transport is the central system for the allocation of carbon resources in vascular plants. Sucrose synthase, which reversibly catalyzes sucrose synthesis and cleavage, represents a key enzyme in the control of the flow of carbon into starch biosynthesis. In the present study the genomic identification and characterization of the Sus2-2A and Sus2-2B genes coding for sucrose synthase in durum wheat (cultivars Ciccio and Svevo is reported. The genes were analyzed for their expression in different tissues and at different seed maturation stages, in four tetraploid wheat genotypes (Svevo, Ciccio, Primadur and 5-BIL42. The activity of the encoded proteins was evaluated by specific activity assays on endosperm extracts and their structure established by modelling approaches. The combined results of SUS2 expression and activity levels were then considered in the light of their possible involvement in starch yield.

  14. Study of the repeatability of histone genes in the ploidy series of wheat and Aegilops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vakhitov, V.A.; Kulikov, A.M.

    1986-01-01

    The hDNA content and number of histone genes in the genomes of different wheat and Aegilops species have been determined by molecular hybridization of DNA with 125 I-histone DNA of Drosophila (L-repeat) on nitrocellulose filters. It has been demonstrated that the proportion of hDNA in the total DNA of diploid and polyploid wheat species is (1.3-7.7) x 10 -3 % (57-850 genes), and in the ploidy series of Aegilops species (2.0-8.0) x 10 -3 % (89-780 genes). The repeatability of the histone genes generally increases at each ploidy level in the species with higher DNA content. At the same time, it has been demonstrated that the DNA content is not the only factor determining repeatability of the histone genes, as some diploid and allopolyploid species have similar number of these genes. It has been concluded that genetic mechanisms are involved in the regulation of the number of histone genes

  15. Effects of starch synthase IIa gene dosage on grain, protein and starch in endosperm of wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konik-Rose, Christine; Thistleton, Jenny; Chanvrier, Helene; Tan, Ihwa; Halley, Peter; Gidley, Michael; Kosar-Hashemi, Behjat; Wang, Hong; Larroque, Oscar; Ikea, Joseph; McMaugh, Steve; Regina, Ahmed; Rahman, Sadequr; Morell, Matthew; Li, Zhongyi

    2007-11-01

    Starch synthases (SS) are responsible for elongating the alpha-1,4 glucan chains of starch. A doubled haploid population was generated by crossing a line of wheat, which lacks functional ssIIa genes on each genome (abd), and an Australian wheat cultivar, Sunco, with wild type ssIIa alleles on each genome (ABD). Evidence has been presented previously indicating that the SGP-1 (starch granule protein-1) proteins present in the starch granule in wheat are products of the ssIIa genes. Analysis of 100 progeny lines demonstrated co-segregation of the ssIIa alleles from the three genomes with the SGP-1 proteins, providing further evidence that the SGP-1 proteins are the products of the ssIIa genes. From the progeny lines, 40 doubled haploid lines representing the eight possible genotypes for SSIIa (ABD, aBD, AbD, ABd, abD, aBd, Abd, abd) were characterized for their grain weight, protein content, total starch content and starch properties. For some properties (chain length distribution, pasting properties, swelling power, and gelatinization properties), a progressive change was observed across the four classes of genotypes (wild type, single nulls, double nulls and triple nulls). However, for other grain properties (seed weight and protein content) and starch properties (total starch content, granule morphology and crystallinity, granule size distribution, amylose content, amylose-lipid dissociation properties), a statistically significant change only occurred for the triple nulls, indicating that all three genes had to be missing or inactive for a change to occur. These results illustrate the importance of SSIIa in controlling grain and starch properties and the importance of amylopectin fine structure in controlling starch granule properties in wheat.

  16. Wheat-specific gene, ribosomal protein l21, used as the endogenous reference gene for qualitative and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction detection of transgenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi-Ke; Li, He-Ping; Huang, Tao; Cheng, Wei; Gao, Chun-Sheng; Zuo, Dong-Yun; Zhao, Zheng-Xi; Liao, Yu-Cai

    2014-10-29

    Wheat-specific ribosomal protein L21 (RPL21) is an endogenous reference gene suitable for genetically modified (GM) wheat identification. This taxon-specific RPL21 sequence displayed high homogeneity in different wheat varieties. Southern blots revealed 1 or 3 copies, and sequence analyses showed one amplicon in common wheat. Combined analyses with sequences from common wheat (AABBDD) and three diploid ancestral species, Triticum urartu (AA), Aegilops speltoides (BB), and Aegilops tauschii (DD), demonstrated the presence of this amplicon in the AA genome. Using conventional qualitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the limit of detection was 2 copies of wheat haploid genome per reaction. In the quantitative real-time PCR assay, limits of detection and quantification were about 2 and 8 haploid genome copies, respectively, the latter of which is 2.5-4-fold lower than other reported wheat endogenous reference genes. Construct-specific PCR assays were developed using RPL21 as an endogenous reference gene, and as little as 0.5% of GM wheat contents containing Arabidopsis NPR1 were properly quantified.

  17. Genetic Fingerprinting of Wheat and Its Progenitors by Mitochondrial Gene orf256

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona M. Elseehy

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available orf256 is a wheat mitochondrial gene associated with cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS that has different organization in various species. This study exploited the orf256 gene as a mitochondrial DNA marker to study the genetic fingerprint of Triticum and Aegilops species. PCR followed by sequencing of common parts of the orf256 gene were employed to determine the fingerprint and molecular evolution of Triticum and Aegilops species. Although many primer pairs were used, two pairs of orf256 specific primers (5:-94/C: 482, 5:253/C: 482, amplified DNA fragments of 576 bp and 230 bp respectively in all species were tested. A common 500 bp of nine species of Triticum and Aegilops were aligned and showed consistent results with that obtained from other similar chloroplast or nuclear genes. Base alignment showed that there were various numbers of base substitutions in all species compared to S. cereal (Sc (the outgroup species. Phylogenetic relationship revealed similar locations and proximity on phylogenetic trees established using plastid and nuclear genes. The results of this study open a good route to use unknown function genes of mitochondria in studying the molecular relationships and evolution of wheat and complex plant genomes.

  18. Identification and Phylogenetic Analysis of a CC-NBS-LRR Encoding Gene Assigned on Chromosome 7B of Wheat

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    Xiangqi Zhang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Hexaploid wheat displays limited genetic variation. As a direct A and B genome donor of hexaploid wheat, tetraploid wheat represents an important gene pool for cultivated bread wheat. Many disease resistant genes express conserved domains of the nucleotide-binding site and leucine-rich repeats (NBS-LRR. In this study, we isolated a CC-NBS-LRR gene locating on chromosome 7B from durum wheat variety Italy 363, and designated it TdRGA-7Ba. Its open reading frame was 4014 bp, encoding a 1337 amino acid protein with a complete NBS domain and 18 LRR repeats, sharing 44.7% identity with the PM3B protein. TdRGA-7Ba expression was continuously seen at low levels and was highest in leaves. TdRGA-7Ba has another allele TdRGA-7Bb with a 4 bp deletion at position +1892 in other cultivars of tetraploid wheat. In Ae. speltoides, as a B genome progenitor, both TdRGA-7Ba and TdRGA-7Bb were detected. In all six species of hexaploid wheats (AABBDD, only TdRGA-7Bb existed. Phylogenic analysis showed that all TdRGA-7Bb type genes were grouped in one sub-branch. We speculate that TdRGA-7Bb was derived from a TdRGA-7Ba mutation, and it happened in Ae. speltoides. Both types of TdRGA-7B participated in tetraploid wheat formation. However, only the TdRGA-7Bb was retained in hexaploid wheat.

  19. Molecular Mapping of Reduced Plant Height Gene Rht24 in Bread Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiuling; Wen, Weie; Xie, Li; Fu, Luping; Xu, Dengan; Fu, Chao; Wang, Desen; Chen, Xinmin; Xia, Xianchun; Chen, Quanjia; He, Zhonghu; Cao, Shuanghe

    2017-01-01

    Height is an important trait related to plant architecture and yield potential in bread wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.). We previously identified a major quantitative trait locus QPH.caas-6A flanked by simple sequence repeat markers Xbarc103 and Xwmc256 that reduced height by 8.0-10.4%. Here QPH.caas-6A , designated as Rht24 , was confirmed using recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a Jingdong 8/Aikang 58 cross. The target sequences of Xbarc103 and Xwmc256 were used as queries to BLAST against International Wheat Genome Sequence Consortium database and hit a super scaffold of approximately 208 Mb. Based on gene annotation of the scaffold, three gene-specific markers were developed to genotype the RILs, and Rht24 was narrowed to a 1.85 cM interval between TaAP2 and TaFAR . In addition, three single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers linked to Rht24 were identified from SNP chip-based screening in combination with bulked segregant analysis. The allelic efficacy of Rht24 was validated in 242 elite wheat varieties using TaAP2 and TaFAR markers. These showed a significant association between genotypes and plant height. Rht24 reduced plant height by an average of 6.0-7.9 cm across environments and were significantly associated with an increased TGW of 2.0-3.4 g. The findings indicate that Rht24 is a common dwarfing gene in wheat breeding, and TaAP2 and TaFAR can be used for marker-assisted selection.

  20. Mapping genes for resistance to stripe rust in spring wheat landrace PI 480035.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinita Sthapit Kandel

    Full Text Available Stripe rust caused by Puccinia striiformis Westend. f. sp. tritici Erikks. is an economically important disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. Hexaploid spring wheat landrace PI 480035 was highly resistant to stripe rust in the field in Washington during 2011 and 2012. The objective of this research was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL for stripe rust resistance in PI 480035. A spring wheat, "Avocet Susceptible" (AvS, was crossed with PI 480035 to develop a biparental population of 110 recombinant inbred lines (RIL. The population was evaluated in the field in 2013 and 2014 and seedling reactions were examined against three races (PSTv-14, PSTv-37, and PSTv-40 of the pathogen under controlled conditions. The population was genotyped with genotyping-by-sequencing and microsatellite markers across the whole wheat genome. A major QTL, QYr.wrsggl1-1BS was identified on chromosome 1B. The closest flanking markers were Xgwm273, Xgwm11, and Xbarc187 1.01 cM distal to QYr.wrsggl1-1BS, Xcfd59 0.59 cM proximal and XA365 3.19 cM proximal to QYr.wrsggl1-1BS. Another QTL, QYr.wrsggl1-3B, was identified on 3B, which was significant only for PSTv-40 and was not significant in the field, indicating it confers a race-specific resistance. Comparison with markers associated with previously reported Yr genes on 1B (Yr64, Yr65, and YrH52 indicated that QYr.wrsggl1-1BS is potentially a novel stripe rust resistance gene that can be incorporated into modern breeding materials, along with other all-stage and adult-plant resistance genes to develop cultivars that can provide durable resistance.

  1. Low crop plant population densities promote pollen-mediated gene flow in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willenborg, Christian J; Brûlé-Babel, Anita L; Van Acker, Rene C

    2009-12-01

    Transgenic wheat is currently being field tested with the intent of eventual commercialization. The development of wheat genotypes with novel traits has raised concerns regarding the presence of volunteer wheat populations and the role they may play in facilitating transgene movement. Here, we report the results of a field experiment that investigated the potential of spring wheat plant population density and crop height to minimize gene flow from a herbicide-resistant (HR) volunteer population to a non-HR crop. Pollen-mediated gene flow (PMGF) between the HR volunteer wheat population and four conventional spring wheat genotypes varying in height was assessed over a range of plant population densities. Natural hybridization events between the two cultivars were detected by phenotypically scoring plants in F(1) populations followed by verification with Mendelian segregation ratios in the F(1:2) families. PMGF was strongly associated with crop yield components, but showed no association with flowering synchrony. Maximum observed PMGF was always less than 0.6%, regardless of crop height and density. The frequency of PMGF in spring wheat decreased exponentially with increasing plant population density, but showed no dependence on either crop genotype or height. However, increasing plant densities beyond the recommended planting rate of 300 cropped wheat plants m(-2) provided no obvious benefit to reducing PMGF. Nevertheless, our results demonstrate a critical plant density of 175-200 cropped wheat plants m(-2) below which PMGF frequencies rise exponentially with decreasing plant density. These results will be useful in the development of mechanistic models and best management practices that collectively facilitate the coexistence of transgenic and nontransgenic wheat crops.

  2. Comparisons of Copy Number, Genomic Structure, and Conserved Motifs for α-Amylase Genes from Barley, Rice, and Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qisen Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Barley is an important crop for the production of malt and beer. However, crops such as rice and wheat are rarely used for malting. α-amylase is the key enzyme that degrades starch during malting. In this study, we compared the genomic properties, gene copies, and conserved promoter motifs of α-amylase genes in barley, rice, and wheat. In all three crops, α-amylase consists of four subfamilies designated amy1, amy2, amy3, and amy4. In wheat and barley, members of amy1 and amy2 genes are localized on chromosomes 6 and 7, respectively. In rice, members of amy1 genes are found on chromosomes 1 and 2, and amy2 genes on chromosome 6. The barley genome has six amy1 members and three amy2 members. The wheat B genome contains four amy1 members and three amy2 members, while the rice genome has three amy1 members and one amy2 member. The B genome has mostly amy1 and amy2 members among the three wheat genomes. Amy1 promoters from all three crop genomes contain a GA-responsive complex consisting of a GA-responsive element (CAATAAA, pyrimidine box (CCTTTT and TATCCAT/C box. This study has shown that amy1 and amy2 from both wheat and barley have similar genomic properties, including exon/intron structures and GA-responsive elements on promoters, but these differ in rice. Like barley, wheat should have sufficient amy activity to degrade starch completely during malting. Other factors, such as high protein with haze issues and the lack of husk causing Lauting difficulty, may limit the use of wheat for brewing.

  3. The characterization and geographical distribution of the genes responsible for vernalization requirement in Chinese bread wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qing-Ming; Zhou, Rong-Hua; Gao, Li-Feng; Zhao, Guang-Yao; Jia, Ji-Zeng

    2009-04-01

    The frequency and distribution of the major vernalization requirement genes and their effects on growth habits were studied. Of the 551 bread wheat genotypes tested, seven allelic combinations of the three Vrn-1 genes were found to be responsible for the spring habit, three for the facultative habit and one for the winter habit. The three Vrn-1 genes behaved additively with the dominant allele of Vrn-A1 exerting the strongest effect. The allele combinations of the facultative genotypes and the discovery of spring genotypes with "winter" allele of Vrn-1 implied the presence of as yet unidentified alleles/genes for vernalization response. The dominant alleles of the three Vrn-1 genes were found in all ten ecological regions where wheat is cultivated in China, with Vrn-D1 as the most common allele in nine and Vrn-A1 in one. The combination of vrn-A1vrn-B1Vrn-D1 was the predominant genotype in seven of the regions. Compared with landraces, improved varieties contain a higher proportion of the spring type. This was attributed by a higher frequency of the dominant Vrn-A1 and Vrn-B1 alleles in the latter. Correlations between Vrn-1 allelic constitutions and heading date, spike length, plant type as well as cold tolerance were established.

  4. Characterization of Pm59, a novel powdery mildew resistance gene in Afghanistan wheat landrace PI 181356.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chengcheng; Li, Genqiao; Cowger, Christina; Carver, Brett F; Xu, Xiangyang

    2018-05-01

    A new powdery mildew resistance gene, designated Pm59, was identified in Afghanistan wheat landrace PI 181356, and mapped in the terminal region of the long arm of chromosome 7A. Powdery mildew, caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt), is an important foliar disease of wheat worldwide. In the Great Plains of the USA, Bgt isolates virulent to widely used powdery mildew resistance genes, such as Pm3a, were previously identified. The objectives of this study were to characterize the powdery mildew resistance gene in Afghanistan landrace PI 181356, which exhibited high resistance to Bgt isolates collected in southern Great Plains, and identify molecular markers for marker-assisted selection. An F 2 population and F 2:3 lines derived from a cross between PI 181356 and OK1059060-126135-3 were used in this study. Genetic analysis indicated that PI 181356 carries a single dominant gene, designated Pm59, in the terminal region of the long arm of chromosome 7A. Pm59 was mapped to an interval between sequence tag site (STS) markers Xmag1759 and Xmag1714 with genetic distances of 0.4 cM distal to Xmag1759 and 5.7 cM proximal to Xmag1714. Physical mapping suggested that Pm59 is in the distal bin 7AL 0.99-1.00. Pm59 is a novel powdery mildew resistance gene, and confers resistance to Bgt isolates collected from the Great Plains and the state of Montana. Therefore, Pm59 can be used to breed powdery mildew-resistant cultivars in these regions. Xmag1759 is ideal for marker-assisted selection of Pm59 in wheat breeding.

  5. Seedling Resistance to Stem Rust and Molecular Marker Analysis of Resistance Genes in Wheat Cultivars of Yunnan, China.

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    Tian Ya Li

    Full Text Available Stem rust is one of the most potentially harmful wheat diseases, but has been effectively controlled in China since 1970s. However, the interest in breeding wheat with durable resistance to stem rust has been renewed with the emergence of Ug99 (TTKSK virulent to the widely used resistance gene Sr31, and by which the wheat stem rust was controlled for 40 years in wheat production area worldwide. Yunnan Province, located on the Southwest border of China, is one of the main wheat growing regions, playing a pivotal role in the wheat stem rust epidemic in China. This study investigated the levels of resistance in key wheat cultivars (lines of Yunnan Province. In addition, the existence of Sr25, Sr26, Sr28, Sr31, Sr32, and Sr38 genes in 119 wheat cultivars was assessed using specific DNA markers. The results indicated that 77 (64.7% tested wheat varieties showed different levels of resistance to all the tested races of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici. Using molecular markers, we identified the resistance gene Sr31 in 43 samples; Sr38 in 10 samples; Sr28 in 12 samples, and one sample which was resistant against Ug99 (avirulent to Sr32. No Sr25 or Sr26 (effective against Ug99 was identified in any cultivars tested. Furthermore, 5 out of 119 cultivars tested carried both Sr31 and Sr38 and eight contained both Sr31 and Sr28. The results enable the development of appropriate strategies to breed varieties resistant to stem rust.

  6. Genes controlling seed dormancy and pre-harvest sprouting in a rice-wheat-barley comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Chengdao; Ni, Peixiang; Francki, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Pre-harvest sprouting results in significant economic loss for the grain industry around the world. Lack of adequate seed dormancy is the major reason for pre-harvest sprouting in the field under wet weather conditions. Although this trait is governed by multiple genes it is also highly heritable....... A major QTL controlling both pre-harvest sprouting and seed dormancy has been identified on the long arm of barley chromosome 5H, and it explains over 70% of the phenotypic variation. Comparative genomics approaches among barley, wheat and rice were used to identify candidate gene(s) controlling seed...... dormancy and hence one aspect of pre-harvest sprouting. The barley seed dormancy/pre-harvest sprouting QTL was located in a region that showed good synteny with the terminal end of the long arm of rice chromosome 3. The rice DNA sequences were annotated and a gene encoding GA20-oxidase was identified...

  7. The wheat Lr34 multipathogen resistance gene confers resistance to anthracnose and rust in sorghum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnippenkoetter, Wendelin; Lo, Clive; Liu, Guoquan; Dibley, Katherine; Chan, Wai Lung; White, Jodie; Milne, Ricky; Zwart, Alexander; Kwong, Eunjung; Keller, Beat; Godwin, Ian; Krattinger, Simon G; Lagudah, Evans

    2017-11-01

    The ability of the wheat Lr34 multipathogen resistance gene (Lr34res) to function across a wide taxonomic boundary was investigated in transgenic Sorghum bicolor. Increased resistance to sorghum rust and anthracnose disease symptoms following infection with the biotrophic pathogen Puccinia purpurea and the hemibiotroph Colletotrichum sublineolum, respectively, occurred in transgenic plants expressing the Lr34res ABC transporter. Transgenic sorghum lines that highly expressed the wheat Lr34res gene exhibited immunity to sorghum rust compared to the low-expressing single copy Lr34res genotype that conferred partial resistance. Pathogen-induced pigmentation mediated by flavonoid phytoalexins was evident on transgenic sorghum leaves following P. purpurea infection within 24-72 h, which paralleled Lr34res gene expression. Elevated expression of flavone synthase II, flavanone 4-reductase and dihydroflavonol reductase genes which control the biosynthesis of flavonoid phytoalexins characterized the highly expressing Lr34res transgenic lines 24-h post-inoculation with P. purpurea. Metabolite analysis of mesocotyls infected with C. sublineolum showed increased levels of 3-deoxyanthocyanidin metabolites were associated with Lr34res expression, concomitant with reduced symptoms of anthracnose. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Association Mapping and Nucleotide Sequence Variation in Five Drought Tolerance Candidate Genes in Spring Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erena A. Edae

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Functional markers are needed for key genes involved in drought tolerance to improve selection for crop yield under moisture stress conditions. The objectives of this study were to (i characterize five drought tolerance candidate genes, namely dehydration responsive element binding 1A (, enhanced response to abscisic acid ( and , and fructan 1-exohydrolase ( and , in wheat ( L. for nucleotide and haplotype diversity, Tajima’s D value, and linkage disequilibrium (LD and (ii associate within-gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs with phenotypic traits in a spring wheat association mapping panel ( = 126. Field trials were grown under contrasting moisture regimes in Greeley, CO, and Melkassa, Ethiopia, in 2010 and 2011. Genome-specific amplification and DNA sequence analysis of the genes identified SNPs and revealed differences in nucleotide and haplotype diversity, Tajima’s D, and patterns of LD. showed associations (false discovery rate adjusted probability value = 0.1 with normalized difference vegetation index, heading date, biomass, and spikelet number. Both and were associated with harvest index, flag leaf width, and leaf senescence. was associated with grain yield, and was associated with thousand kernel weight and test weight. If validated in relevant genetic backgrounds, the identified marker–trait associations may be applied to functional marker-assisted selection.

  9. Genes, Parenting, Self-Control, and Criminal Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Stephen J; McNulty, Thomas L

    2016-03-01

    Self-control has been found to predict a wide variety of criminal behaviors. In addition, studies have consistently shown that parenting is an important influence on both self-control and offending. However, few studies have examined the role that biological factors may play in moderating the relationship between parenting, self-control, and offending. Using a sample of adolescent males drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 3,610), we explore whether variants of the monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA) and the dopamine transporter (DAT1) gene interact with parenting to affect self-control and offending. Results reveal that parenting interacts with these genes to influence self-control and offending, and that the parenting-by-gene interaction effect on offending is mediated by self-control. The effects of parenting on self-control and offending are most pronounced for those who carry plasticity alleles for both MAOA and DAT1. Thus, MAOA and DAT1 may be implicated in offending because they increase the negative effects of parenting on self-control. Implications for theory are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Inheritance and bulked segregant analysis of leaf rust and stem rust resistance genes in eight durum wheat genotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf rust, caused by Puccinia triticina (Pt) and stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt) are important diseases of durum wheat. This study determined the inheritance and genomic locations of leaf rust resistance (Lr) genes to Pt-race BBBQJ and stem rust resistance (Sr) genes to Pg...

  11. Enhanced resistance to stripe rust disease in transgenic wheat expressing the rice chitinase gene RC24.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xuan; Wang, Jian; Du, Zhen; Zhang, Chen; Li, Lan; Xu, Ziqin

    2013-10-01

    Stripe rust is a devastating fungal disease of wheat worldwide which is primarily caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp tritici. Transgenic wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) expressing rice class chitinase gene RC24 were developed by particle bombardment of immature embryos and tested for resistance to Puccinia striiformis f.sp tritici. under greenhouse and field conditions. Putative transformants were selected on kanamycin-containing media. Polymease chain reaction indicated that RC24 was transferred into 17 transformants obtained from bombardment of 1,684 immature embryos. Integration of RC24 was confirmed by Southern blot with a RC24-labeled probe and expression of RC24 was verified by RT-PCR. Nine transgenic T1 lines exhibited enhanced resistance to stripe rust infection with lines XN8 and BF4 showing the highest level of resistance. Southern blot hybridization confirmed the stable inheritance of RC24 in transgenic T1 plants. Resistance to stripe rust in transgenic T2 and T3 XN8 and BF4 plants was confirmed over two consecutive years in the field. Increased yield (27-36 %) was recorded for transgenic T2 and T3 XN8 and BF4 plants compared to controls. These results suggest that rice class I chitinase RC24 can be used to engineer stripe rust resistance in wheat.

  12. Identification of Alleles of Puroindoline Genes and Their Effect on Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Grain Texture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klára Štiasna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Grain hardness is one of the most important quality characteristics of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. It is a significant property of wheat grains and relates to milling quality and end product quality. Grain hardness is caused by the presence of puroindoline genes (Pina and Pinb. A collection of 25 genotypes of wheat with unusual grain colour (blue aleurone, purple and white pericarp, yellow endosperm was studied by polymerase chain reaction (PCR for the diversity within Pina and Pinb (alleles: Pina-D1a, Pina-D1b, Pinb-D1a, Pinb- -D1b, Pinb-D1c and Pinb-D1d. The endosperm structure was determined by a non-destructive method using light transfl ectance meter and grain hardness by a texture analyser. Genotype Novosibirskaya 67 and isogenic ANK lines revealed hitherto unknown alleles at the locus for the annealing of primers of Pinb-D1. Allele Pinb-D1c was found to be absent from each genotype. The mealy endosperm ranged from 0 to 100 % and grain hardness from 15.10 to 26.87 N per sample.

  13. Subgenomic Diversity Patterns Caused by Directional Selection in Bread Wheat Gene Pools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Voss-Fels

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity represents the fundamental key to breeding success, providing the basis for breeders to select varieties with constantly improving yield performance. On the other hand, strong selection during domestication and breeding have eliminated considerable genetic diversity in the breeding pools of major crops, causing erosion of genetic potential for adaptation to emerging challenges like climate change. High-throughput genomic technologies can address this dilemma by providing detailed knowledge to characterize and replenish genetic diversity in breeding programs. In hexaploid bread wheat ( L., the staple food for 35% of the world’s population, bottlenecks during allopolyploidisation followed by strong artificial selection have considerably narrowed diversity to the extent that yields in many regions appear to be unexpectedly stagnating. In this study, we used a 90,000 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP wheat genotyping array to assay high-frequency, polymorphic SNP markers in 460 accessions representing different phenological diversity groups from Asian, Australian, European, and North American bread wheat breeding materials. Detailed analysis of subgroup diversity at the chromosome and subgenome scale revealed highly distinct patterns of conserved linkage disequilibrium between different gene pools. The data enable identification of genome regions in most need of rejuvenation with novel diversity and provide a high-resolution molecular basis for genomic-assisted introgression of new variation into chromosome segments surrounding directionally selected metaloci conferring important adaptation and quality traits.

  14. A wheat calreticulin gene (TaCRT1) contributes to drought tolerance in transgenic arabidopsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang, V.; Du, C.; Jia, H.; Song, M.; Wang, Y.; Ma, Z.

    2018-01-01

    The TaCRT1 gene is a member of calreticulin (CRT) family in wheat. In our previous study, we showed that transgenic tobacco lines over expressing wheat TaCRT1 showed enhanced tolerance to salt stress. This study aimed to determine whether TaCRT1 over expression would increase drought tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis. Over expression of TaCRT1 in Arabidopsis plants enhances tolerance to drought stress. However, the transgenic line was found to retard the growth. Moreover, the transgenic line showed decreased water loss but higher sensitivity to exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) compared with the wild type (Col-0). Meanwhile, the transgenic line had the elevated endogenous ABA level. The semi-quantitative RT-PCR (sqRT-PCR) analysis showed that transcription levels of ABA-biosynthesizing gene (NCED3) and ABA-responsive gene (ABF3) were higher in the transgenic line than that in the Col-0 under normal condition. The above results implied that the TaCRT1 might be able to used as a potential target to improve the drought tolerance in crops. (author)

  15. Rapid gene isolation in barley and wheat by mutant chromosome sequencing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sanchez-Martin, J.; Steuernagel, B.; Ghosh, S.; Herren, G.; Hurni, S.; Adamski, N.; Vrána, Jan; Kubaláková, Marie; Krattinger, S.G.; Wicker, T.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Keller, B.; Wulff, B. B. H.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 17, OCT 31 (2016), č. článku 221. ISSN 1465-6906 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP501/12/G090; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : induced mutations * mitotic chromosomes * confers resistance * exome capture * genome * identification * evolution * pathogens * hordeum * MutChromSeq * Gene cloning * Mutational genomics * Chromosome flow sorting * Triticeae * Wheat * Barley Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 11.313, year: 2015

  16. The powdery mildew resistance gene Pm8 derived from rye is suppressed by its wheat ortholog Pm3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurni, Severine; Brunner, Susanne; Stirnweis, Daniel; Herren, Gerhard; Peditto, David; McIntosh, Robert A; Keller, Beat

    2014-09-01

    The powdery mildew resistance gene Pm8 derived from rye is located on a 1BL.1RS chromosome translocation in wheat. However, some wheat lines with this translocation do not show resistance to isolates of the wheat powdery mildew pathogen avirulent to Pm8 due to an unknown genetically dominant suppression mechanism. Here we show that lines with suppressed Pm8 activity contain an intact and expressed Pm8 gene. Therefore, the absence of Pm8 function in certain 1BL.1RS-containing wheat lines is not the result of gene loss or mutation but is based on suppression. The wheat gene Pm3, an ortholog of rye Pm8, suppressed Pm8-mediated powdery mildew resistance in lines containing Pm8 in a transient single-cell expression assay. This result was further confirmed in transgenic lines with combined Pm8 and Pm3 transgenes. Expression analysis revealed that suppression is not the result of gene silencing, either in wheat 1BL.1RS translocation lines carrying Pm8 or in transgenic genotypes with both Pm8 and Pm3 alleles. In addition, a similar abundance of the PM8 and PM3 proteins in single or double homozygous transgenic lines suggested that a post-translational mechanism is involved in suppression of Pm8. Co-expression of Pm8 and Pm3 genes in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves followed by co-immunoprecipitation analysis showed that the two proteins interact. Therefore, the formation of a heteromeric protein complex might result in inefficient or absent signal transmission for the defense reaction. These data provide a molecular explanation for the suppression of resistance genes in certain genetic backgrounds and suggest ways to circumvent it in future plant breeding. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Mapping of powdery mildew resistance gene Pm53 introgressed from Aegilops speltoides into soft red winter wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Stine; Lyerly, Jeanette H; Worthington, Margaret L; Parks, Wesley R; Cowger, Christina; Marshall, David S; Brown-Guedira, Gina; Murphy, J Paul

    2015-02-01

    A powdery mildew resistance gene was introgressed from Aegilops speltoides into winter wheat and mapped to chromosome 5BL. Closely linked markers will permit marker-assisted selection for the resistance gene. Powdery mildew of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a major fungal disease in many areas of the world, caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt). Host plant resistance is the preferred form of disease prevention because it is both economical and environmentally sound. Identification of new resistance sources and closely linked markers enable breeders to utilize these new sources in marker-assisted selection as well as in gene pyramiding. Aegilops speltoides (2n = 2x = 14, genome SS), has been a valuable disease resistance donor. The powdery mildew resistant wheat germplasm line NC09BGTS16 (NC-S16) was developed by backcrossing an Ae. speltoides accession, TAU829, to the susceptible soft red winter wheat cultivar 'Saluda'. NC-S16 was crossed to the susceptible cultivar 'Coker 68-15' to develop F2:3 families for gene mapping. Greenhouse and field evaluations of these F2:3 families indicated that a single gene, designated Pm53, conferred resistance to powdery mildew. Bulked segregant analysis showed that multiple simple sequence repeat (SSR) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers specific to chromosome 5BL segregated with the resistance gene. The gene was flanked by markers Xgwm499, Xwmc759, IWA6024 (0.7 cM proximal) and IWA2454 (1.8 cM distal). Pm36, derived from a different wild wheat relative (T. turgidum var. dicoccoides), had previously been mapped to chromosome 5BL in a durum wheat line. Detached leaf tests revealed that NC-S16 and a genotype carrying Pm36 differed in their responses to each of three Bgt isolates. Pm53 therefore appears to be a new source of powdery mildew resistance.

  18. Cloning of resistance gene analogs located on the alien chromosome in an addition line of wheat-Thinopyrum intermedium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shu-Mei; Hu, Jun; Yin, Wei-Bo; Chen, Yu-Hong; Wang, Richard R-C; Hu, Zan-Min

    2005-09-01

    Homology-based gene/gene-analog cloning method has been extensively applied in isolation of RGAs (resistance gene analogs) in various plant species. However, serious interference of sequences on homoeologous chromosomes in polyploidy species usually occurred when cloning RGAs in a specific chromosome. In this research, the techniques of chromosome microdissection combined with homology-based cloning were used to clone RGAs from a specific chromosome of Wheat-Thinopyrum alien addition line TAi-27, which was derived from common wheat and Thinopyrum intermedium with a pair of chromosomes from Th. intermedium. The alien chromosomes carry genes for resistance to BYDV. The alien chromosome in TAi-27 was isolated by a glass needle and digested with proteinase K. The DNA of the alien chromosome was amplified by two rounds of Sau3A linker adaptor-mediated PCR. RGAs were amplified by PCR with the degenerated primers designed based on conserved domains of published resistance genes (R genes) by using the alien chromosome DNA, genomic DNA and cDNA of Th. intermedium, TAi-27 and 3B-2 (a parent of TAi-27) as templates. A total of seven RGAs were obtained and sequenced. Of which, a constitutively expressed single-copy NBS-LRR type RGA ACR 3 was amplified from the dissected alien chromosome of TAi-27, TcDR 2 and TcDR 3 were from cDNA of Th. intermedium, AcDR 3 was from cDNA of TAi-27, FcDR 2 was from cDNA of 3B-2, AR 2 was from genomic DNA of TAi-27 and TR 2 was from genomic DNA of Th. intermedium. Sequence homology analyses showed that the above RGAs were highly homologous with known resistance genes or resistance gene analogs and belonged to NBS-LRR type of R genes. ACR 3 was recovered by PCR from genomic DNA and cDNA of Th. intermedium and TAi-27, but not from 3B-2. Southern hybridization using the digested genomic DNA of Th. intermedium, TAi-27 and 3B-2 as the template and ACR 3 as the probe showed that there is only one copy of ACR 3 in the genome of Th. intermedium and TAi

  19. Profiling dehydrin gene sequence and physiological parameters in drought tolerant and susceptible spring wheat cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baloch, M.J.; Jatoi, W.A.

    2012-01-01

    Physiological and yield traits such as stomatal conductance (mmol m-/sup 2/s/sup -1/), Leaf relative water content (RWC %) and grain yield per plant were studied in a separate experiment. Results revealed that five out of sixteen cultivars viz. Anmol, Moomal, Sarsabz, Bhitai and Pavan, appeared to be relatively more drought tolerant. Based on morphophysiological results, studies were continued to look at these cultivars for drought tolerance at molecular level. Initially, four well recognized primers for dehydrin genes (DHNs) responsible for drought induction in T. durum L., T. aestivum L. and O. sativa L. were used for profiling gene sequence of sixteen wheat cultivars. The primers amplified the DHN genes variably like Primer WDHN13 (T. aestivum L.) amplified the DHN gene in only seven cultivars whereas primer TdDHN15 ( T. durum L.) amplified all the sixteen cultivars with even different DNA banding patterns some showing second weaker DNA bands. Third primer TdDHN16 (T. durum L.) has shown entirely different PCR amplification prototype, specially showing two strong DNA bands while fourth primer RAB16C (O. sativa L.) failed to amplify DHN gene in any of the cultivars. Examination of DNA sequences revealed several interesting features. First, it identified the two exon/one intron structure of this gene (complete sequences were not shown), a feature not previously described in the two database cDNA sequences available from T. aestivum L. (gi|21850). Secondly, the analysis identified several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), positions in gene sequence. Although complete gene sequence was not obtained for all the cultivars, yet there were a total of 38 variable positions in exonic (coding region) sequence, from a total gene length of 453 nucleotides. Matrix of SNP shows these 37 positions with individual sequence at positions given for each of the 14 cultivars (sequence of two cultivars was not obtained) included in this analysis. It demonstrated a considerab le

  20. A new 2DS·2RL Robertsonian translocation transfers stem rust resistance gene Sr59 into wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmatov, Mahbubjon; Rouse, Matthew N; Nirmala, Jayaveeramuthu; Danilova, Tatiana; Friebe, Bernd; Steffenson, Brian J; Johansson, Eva

    2016-07-01

    A new stem rust resistance gene Sr59 from Secale cereale was introgressed into wheat as a 2DS·2RL Robertsonian translocation. Emerging new races of the wheat stem rust pathogen (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici), from Africa threaten global wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production. To broaden the resistance spectrum of wheat to these widely virulent African races, additional resistance genes must be identified from all possible gene pools. From the screening of a collection of wheat-rye (Secale cereale L.) chromosome substitution lines developed at the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, we described the line 'SLU238' 2R (2D) as possessing resistance to many races of P. graminis f. sp. tritici, including the widely virulent race TTKSK (isolate synonym Ug99) from Africa. The breakage-fusion mechanism of univalent chromosomes was used to produce a new Robertsonian translocation: T2DS·2RL. Molecular marker analysis and stem rust seedling assays at multiple generations confirmed that the stem rust resistance from 'SLU238' is present on the rye chromosome arm 2RL. Line TA5094 (#101) was derived from 'SLU238' and was found to be homozygous for the T2DS·2RL translocation. The stem rust resistance gene on chromosome 2RL arm was designated as Sr59. Although introgressions of rye chromosome arms into wheat have most often been facilitated by irradiation, this study highlights the utility of the breakage-fusion mechanism for rye chromatin introgression. Sr59 provides an additional asset for wheat improvement to mitigate yield losses caused by stem rust.

  1. Cereal cyst nematode resistance conferred by the Cre7 gene from Aegilops triuncialis and its relationship with Cre genes from Australian wheat cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Montes, Maria Jesus; Andrés, María Fe; Sin, E.; Lopez Braña, Isidoro; Martín-Sánchez, J.A.; Romero, M.D.; Delibes Castro, Angeles

    2008-01-01

    Cereal cyst nematode (CCN; Heterodera avenae Woll.) is a root pathogen of cereal crops that can cause severe yield losses in wheat (Triticum aestivum). Differential host–nematode interactions occur in wheat cultivars carrying different CCN resistance (Cre) genes. The objective of this study was to determine the CCN resistance conferred by the Cre7 gene from Aegilops triuncialis in a 42-chromosome introgression line and to assess the effects of the Cre1, Cre3, Cre4, and Cre8 genes present in A...

  2. Molecular cloning and characterization of two novel genes from hexaploid wheat that encode double PR-1 domains coupled with a receptor-like protein kinase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) contains at least 23 TaPr-1 genes encoding the group 1 pathogenesis-related (PR-1) proteins as identified in our previous work. Here we report the cloning and characterization of TaPr-1-rk1 and TaPr-1-rk2, two novel genes closely related to the wheat PR-1 famil...

  3. Major Gene for Field Stem Rust Resistance Co-Locates with Resistance Gene Sr12 in 'Thatcher' Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiebert, Colin W; Kolmer, James A; McCartney, Curt A; Briggs, Jordan; Fetch, Tom; Bariana, Harbans; Choulet, Frederic; Rouse, Matthew N; Spielmeyer, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis (Pgt), is a damaging disease of wheat that can be controlled by utilizing effective stem rust resistance genes. 'Thatcher' wheat carries complex resistance to stem rust that is enhanced in the presence of the resistance gene Lr34. The purpose of this study was to examine APR in 'Thatcher' and look for genetic interactions with Lr34. A RIL population was tested for stem rust resistance in field nurseries in Canada, USA, and Kenya. BSA was used to find SNP markers associated with reduced stem rust severity. A major QTL was identified on chromosome 3BL near the centromere in all environments. Seedling testing showed that Sr12 mapped to the same region as the QTL for APR. The SNP markers were physically mapped and the region carrying the resistance was searched for sequences with homology to members of the NB-LRR resistance gene family. SNP marker from one NB-LRR-like sequence, NB-LRR3 co-segregated with Sr12. Two additional populations, including one that lacked Lr34, were tested in field nurseries. NB-LRR3 mapped near the maximum LOD for reduction in stem rust severity in both populations. Lines from a population that segregated for Sr12 and Lr34 were tested for seedling Pgt biomass and infection type, as well as APR to field stem rust which showed an interaction between the genes. We concluded that Sr12, or a gene closely linked to Sr12, was responsible for 'Thatcher'-derived APR in several environments and this resistance was enhanced in the presence of Lr34.

  4. Major Gene for Field Stem Rust Resistance Co-Locates with Resistance Gene Sr12 in ‘Thatcher’ Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiebert, Colin W.; Kolmer, James A.; McCartney, Curt A.; Briggs, Jordan; Fetch, Tom; Bariana, Harbans; Choulet, Frederic; Rouse, Matthew N.; Spielmeyer, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis (Pgt), is a damaging disease of wheat that can be controlled by utilizing effective stem rust resistance genes. ‘Thatcher’ wheat carries complex resistance to stem rust that is enhanced in the presence of the resistance gene Lr34. The purpose of this study was to examine APR in ‘Thatcher’ and look for genetic interactions with Lr34. A RIL population was tested for stem rust resistance in field nurseries in Canada, USA, and Kenya. BSA was used to find SNP markers associated with reduced stem rust severity. A major QTL was identified on chromosome 3BL near the centromere in all environments. Seedling testing showed that Sr12 mapped to the same region as the QTL for APR. The SNP markers were physically mapped and the region carrying the resistance was searched for sequences with homology to members of the NB-LRR resistance gene family. SNP marker from one NB-LRR-like sequence, NB-LRR3 co-segregated with Sr12. Two additional populations, including one that lacked Lr34, were tested in field nurseries. NB-LRR3 mapped near the maximum LOD for reduction in stem rust severity in both populations. Lines from a population that segregated for Sr12 and Lr34 were tested for seedling Pgt biomass and infection type, as well as APR to field stem rust which showed an interaction between the genes. We concluded that Sr12, or a gene closely linked to Sr12, was responsible for ‘Thatcher’-derived APR in several environments and this resistance was enhanced in the presence of Lr34. PMID:27309724

  5. A massive expansion of effector genes underlies gall-formation in the wheat pest Mayetiola destructor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Chaoyang; Escalante, Lucio Navarro; Chen, Hang

    2015-01-01

    Gall-forming arthropods are highly specialized herbivores that, in combination with their hosts, produce extended phenotypes with unique morphologies [1]. Many are economically important, and others have improved our understanding of ecology and adaptive radiation [2]. However, the mechanisms...... in plants and E3-ligase-mimicking effectors in plant pathogenic bacteria. SSGP-71 proteins and wheat Skp proteins interact in vivo. Mutations in different SSGP-71 genes avoid the effector-triggered immunity that is directed by the wheat resistance genes H6 and H9. Results point to effectors as the agents...

  6. Molecular mapping of stripe rust resistance gene YrSE5756 in synthetic hexaploid wheat and its transfer to common wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.J.; Wang, C.Y.; Zhang, H.

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic hexaploid wheat is an important germplasm resource for transfer of beneficial genes from alien species to common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Synthetic hexaploid wheat SE5756 confers a high level of resistance against a wide range of races of Puccinia striiformis West. f. sp. tritici Eriks. et Henn.(Pst). The objectives of this study were to determine the inheritance pattern, adjacent molecular markers, and chromosomal location of the stripe rust resistance gene in SE5756 and to develop new germplasm. We constructed a segregating population of 116 F2 plants and corresponding F2:3 families from a cross between SE5756 and Xinong979 with Pst races CYR32. Genetic analysis revealed that a single dominant gene, tentatively designated as YrSE5756, was responsible for seedling stage stripe rust resistance in SE5756. A genetic map, encompassing Xwmc626, Xwmc269, Xgwm11, Xbarx137, Xwmc419, Xwmc85, Xgpw5237, Xwmc134, WE173, Xwmc631, and YrSE5756, spanned 70.1 cM on chromosome 1BS. Xwmc419 and Xwmc85 were flanking markers tightly linked to YrSE5756 at genetic distances of 2.3 and 1.8 cM. Typical adult plant responses of the SE5756, varieties of the carrier Yr10 and Yr15, Chuanmai 42 (Yr24/Yr26), Yuanfeng 175 (Yr24/Yr26) and Huixianhong resistant to mixture Pst races (CYR32, CYR33 and V26) were experimented. The results showed that YrSE5756 was likely a new resistance stripe rust gene different from Yr24/Yr26, Yr10 and Yr15. From cross and backcross populations of SE5756/Xinong 979, we developed four new wheat lines with large seeds, stripe rust resistance, and improved agronomic traits: N07178-1, N07178-2, N08256-1, and N08256-2. These new germplasm lines could serve as sources of resistance to stripe rust in wheat breeding. SE5756 has the very vital significance in the development of breeding and expand our resistance germplasm resource gene pool. (author)

  7. Phytochemical Compositions of Immature Wheat Bran, and Its Antioxidant Capacity, Cell Growth Inhibition, and Apoptosis Induction through Tumor Suppressor Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Jeong Kim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the phytochemical compositions and antioxidant capacity, cell growth inhibition, and apoptosis induction in extracts of immature wheat bran. Immature wheat bran (IWB was obtained from immature wheat harvested 10 days earlier than mature wheat. The phytochemical compositions of bran extract samples were analyzed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography. The total ferulic acid (3.09 mg/g and p-coumaric acid (75 µg/g in IWB were significantly higher than in mature wheat bran (MWB, ferulic acid: 1.79 mg/g; p-coumaric acid: 55 µg/g. The oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC: 327 µM Trolox equivalents (TE/g and cellular antioxidant activity (CAA: 4.59 µM Quercetin equivalents (QE/g of the IWB were higher than those of the MWB (ORAC: 281 µM TE/g; CAA: 0.63 µM QE/g. When assessing cell proliferation, the IWB extracts resulted in the lowest EC50 values against HT-29 (18.9 mg/mL, Caco-2 (7.74 mg/mL, and HeLa cells (8.17 mg/mL among bran extract samples. Additionally, the IWB extracts increased the gene expression of p53 and PTEN (tumor suppressor genes in HT-29 cells, indicating inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis through tumor suppressor genes.

  8. Genomic Analysis of the Snn1 Locus on Wheat Chromosome Arm 1BS and the Identification of Candidate Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leela Reddy

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The pathogen produces multiple host-selective toxins (HSTs that induce cell death and necrosis in sensitive wheat ( sp. genotypes. One such HST is SnTox1, which interacts with the host gene on wheat chromosome arm 1BS to cause necrosis leading to disease susceptibility. Toward the positional cloning of , we developed saturated and high-resolution maps of the locus and evaluated colinearity of the region with rice ( L.. An F population of 120 individuals derived from ‘Chinese Spring’ (CS and the CS– chromosome 1B disomic substitution line was used to map 54 markers consisting of restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs, simple sequence repeats, and bin mapped expressed sequence tags (ESTs. Colinearity between wheat 1BS and rice was determined by aligning EST and RFLP probe sequences to the rice genome. Overall, colinearity was poorly conserved due to numerous complex chromosomal rearrangements, and of 48 wheat EST-RFLP sequences mapped, 30 had significant similarity to sequences on nine different rice chromosomes. However, 12 of the wheat sequences had similarity to sequences on rice chromosome 5 and were in a colinear arrangement with only a few exceptions, including an inversion of the markers flanking . High-resolution mapping of the locus in 8510 gametes delineated the gene to a 0.46-cM interval. Two EST-derived markers that cosegregated with were found to share homology to nucleotide binding site–leucine rich repeat–like genes and are considered potential candidates for

  9. Physiological characteristics and metabolomics of transgenic wheat containing the maize C4 phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) gene under high temperature stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xueli; Xu, Weigang; Zhang, Jianzhou; Guo, Rui; Zhao, Mingzhong; Hu, Lin; Wang, Huiwei; Dong, Haibin; Li, Yan

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, two transgenic wheat lines, PC27 and PC51, containing the maize PEPC gene and its wild-type (WT) were used as experimental material to study the effects of high temperature on their photosynthetic physiological characteristics and metabolome. The results showed that transgenic wheat lines had higher photosynthetic rate (P n ) than WT under non-stress treatment (NT) and high temperature stress treatment (HT), and more significantly under HT. The change trends of F v /F m , Ф PSII , and q P were similar to P n , whereas that of non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) was the opposite. Compared with WT, no differences in chlorophyll content between the transgenic wheat and WT were observed under NT, but two transgenic lines had relatively higher contents than WT under HT. The change trends of Chlorophyll a/b radio, the decreased values of F m , W k , and V j , and the activity of the antioxidant enzyme were consistent with the chlorophyll content. Compared with WT, transgenic wheat lines exhibited lower rate of superoxide anion production, H 2 O 2 and malondialdehyde content under HT, and no significant differences were observed under NT. The expression pattern of the ZmPEPC gene and wheat endogenous photosynthesis-related genes were in agreement with that of P n . Compared with WT, about 13 different metabolites including one organic acid, six amino acids, four sugars, and two polyols were identified under NT; 25 different metabolites including six organic acids, 12 amino acids, four sugars, and three polyols were identified under HT. Collectively, our results indicate that ZmPEPC gene can enhance photochemical and antioxidant enzyme activity, upregulate the expression of photosynthesis-related genes, delay degradation of chlorophyll, change contents of proline and other metabolites in wheat, and ultimately improves its heat tolerance.

  10. Global gene expression profiling related to temperature-sensitive growth abnormalities in interspecific crosses between tetraploid wheat and Aegilops tauschii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryusuke Matsuda

    Full Text Available Triploid wheat hybrids between tetraploid wheat and Aegilops tauschii sometimes show abnormal growth phenotypes, and the growth abnormalities inhibit generation of wheat synthetic hexaploids. In type II necrosis, one of the growth abnormalities, necrotic cell death accompanied by marked growth repression occurs only under low temperature conditions. At normal temperature, the type II necrosis lines show grass-clump dwarfism with no necrotic symptoms, excess tillers, severe dwarfism and delayed flowering. Here, we report comparative expression analyses to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of the temperature-dependent phenotypic plasticity in the triploid wheat hybrids. We compared gene and small RNA expression profiles in crown tissues to characterize the temperature-dependent phenotypic plasticity. No up-regulation of defense-related genes was observed under the normal temperature, and down-regulation of wheat APETALA1-like MADS-box genes, considered to act as flowering promoters, was found in the grass-clump dwarf lines. Some microRNAs, including miR156, were up-regulated, whereas the levels of transcripts of the miR156 target genes SPLs, known to inhibit tiller and branch number, were reduced in crown tissues of the grass-clump dwarf lines at the normal temperature. Unusual expression of the miR156/SPLs module could explain the grass-clump dwarf phenotype. Dramatic alteration of gene expression profiles, including miRNA levels, in crown tissues is associated with the temperature-dependent phenotypic plasticity in type II necrosis/grass-clump dwarf wheat hybrids.

  11. Genetic basis of qualitative and quantitative resistance to powdery mildew in wheat: from consensus regions to candidate genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marone, Daniela; Russo, Maria A; Laidò, Giovanni; De Vita, Pasquale; Papa, Roberto; Blanco, Antonio; Gadaleta, Agata; Rubiales, Diego; Mastrangelo, Anna M

    2013-08-19

    Powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici) is one of the most damaging diseases of wheat. The objective of this study was to identify the wheat genomic regions that are involved in the control of powdery mildew resistance through a quantitative trait loci (QTL) meta-analysis approach. This meta-analysis allows the use of collected QTL data from different published studies to obtain consensus QTL across different genetic backgrounds, thus providing a better definition of the regions responsible for the trait, and the possibility to obtain molecular markers that will be suitable for marker-assisted selection. Five QTL for resistance to powdery mildew were identified under field conditions in the durum-wheat segregating population Creso × Pedroso. An integrated map was developed for the projection of resistance genes/ alleles and the QTL from the present study and the literature, and to investigate their distribution in the wheat genome. Molecular markers that correspond to candidate genes for plant responses to pathogens were also projected onto the map, particularly considering NBS-LRR and receptor-like protein kinases. More than 80 independent QTL and 51 resistance genes from 62 different mapping populations were projected onto the consensus map using the Biomercator statistical software. Twenty-four MQTL that comprised 2-6 initial QTL that had widely varying confidence intervals were found on 15 chromosomes. The co-location of the resistance QTL and genes was investigated. Moreover, from analysis of the sequences of DArT markers, 28 DArT clones mapped on wheat chromosomes have been shown to be associated with the NBS-LRR genes and positioned in the same regions as the MQTL for powdery mildew resistance. The results from the present study provide a detailed analysis of the genetic basis of resistance to powdery mildew in wheat. The study of the Creso × Pedroso durum-wheat population has revealed some QTL that had not been previously identified. Furthermore

  12. Prediction and analysis of three gene families related to leaf rust (Puccinia triticina) resistance in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Fred Y; Yang, Rong-Cai

    2017-06-20

    The resistance to leaf rust (Lr) caused by Puccinia triticina in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) has been well studied over the past decades with over 70 Lr genes being mapped on different chromosomes and numerous QTLs (quantitative trait loci) being detected or mapped using DNA markers. Such resistance is often divided into race-specific and race-nonspecific resistance. The race-nonspecific resistance can be further divided into resistance to most or all races of the same pathogen and resistance to multiple pathogens. At the molecular level, these three types of resistance may cover across the whole spectrum of pathogen specificities that are controlled by genes encoding different protein families in wheat. The objective of this study is to predict and analyze genes in three such families: NBS-LRR (nucleotide-binding sites and leucine-rich repeats or NLR), START (Steroidogenic Acute Regulatory protein [STaR] related lipid-transfer) and ABC (ATP-Binding Cassette) transporter. The focus of the analysis is on the patterns of relationships between these protein-coding genes within the gene families and QTLs detected for leaf rust resistance. We predicted 526 ABC, 1117 NLR and 144 START genes in the hexaploid wheat genome through a domain analysis of wheat proteome. Of the 1809 SNPs from leaf rust resistance QTLs in seedling and adult stages of wheat, 126 SNPs were found within coding regions of these genes or their neighborhood (5 Kb upstream from transcription start site [TSS] or downstream from transcription termination site [TTS] of the genes). Forty-three of these SNPs for adult resistance and 18 SNPs for seedling resistance reside within coding or neighboring regions of the ABC genes whereas 14 SNPs for adult resistance and 29 SNPs for seedling resistance reside within coding or neighboring regions of the NLR gene. Moreover, we found 17 nonsynonymous SNPs for adult resistance and five SNPs for seedling resistance in the ABC genes, and five nonsynonymous SNPs for

  13. Alleles of Ppd-D1 gene in the collection of Aegilops tauschii accessions and bread wheat varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babenko D. O.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Light period significantly influences on the growth and development of plants. One of the major genes of photoperiod sensitivity is Ppd-D1, located on the chromosome 2D. The aim of the work was to determine the alleles and molecular structure of Ppd-D1 gene in samples from the collection of Ae. tauschii accessions, which have different flowering periods, and in 29 Ukrainian wheat varieties. Methods. We used methods of allele-specific PCR with primers to the Ppd-D1 gene, sequencing and Blast-analysis. Results. The collection of Ae. tauschii accessions and several varieties of winter and spring wheat was studied. The molecular structure of the allelic variants (414, 429 and 453 b. p. of Ppd-D1b gene was determined in the collection of Aegilops. tauschii accessions. Conclusions. The Ppd-D1a allele was present in all studied varieties of winter wheat. 60 % of spring wheat is characterized by Ppd-D1b allele (size of amplification products 414 b. p.. Blast-analysis of the sequence data banks on the basis of the reference sequence of sample k-1322 from the collection of Ae. tauschii accessions has shown a high homology (80 to 100 % between the nucleotide sequences of PRR genes, that characterize the A and D genomes of representatives of the genera Triticum and Aegilops.

  14. Functional Analysis and Marker Development of TaCRT-D Gene in Common Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiping Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Calreticulin (CRT, an endoplasmic reticulum (ER-localized Ca2+-binding/buffering protein, is highly conserved and extensively expressed in animal and plant cells. To understand the function of CRTs in wheat (Triticum aestivum L., particularly their roles in stress tolerance, we cloned the full-length genomic sequence of the TaCRT-D isoform from D genome of common hexaploid wheat, and characterized its function by transgenic Arabidopsis system. TaCRT-D exhibited different expression patterns in wheat seedling under different abiotic stresses. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing ORF of TaCRT-D displayed more tolerance to drought, cold, salt, mannitol, and other abiotic stresses at both seed germination and seedling stages, compared with the wild-type controls. Furthermore, DNA polymorphism analysis and gene mapping were employed to develop the functional markers of this gene for marker-assistant selection in wheat breeding program. One SNP, S440 (T→C was detected at the TaCRT-D locus by genotyping a wheat recombinant inbred line (RIL population (114 lines developed from Opata 85 × W7984. The TaCRT-D was then fine mapped between markers Xgwm645 and Xgwm664 on chromosome 3DL, corresponding to genetic distances of 3.5 and 4.4 cM, respectively, using the RIL population and Chinese Spring nulli-tetrasomic lines. Finally, the genome-specific and allele-specific markers were developed for the TaCRT-D gene. These findings indicate that TaCRT-D function importantly in plant stress responses, providing a gene target for genetic engineering to increase plant stress tolerance and the functional markers of TaCRT-D for marker-assistant selection in wheat breeding.

  15. Functional Analysis and Marker Development of TaCRT-D Gene in Common Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiping; Li, Runzhi; Mao, Xinguo; Jing, Ruilian

    2017-01-01

    Calreticulin (CRT), an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized Ca 2+ -binding/buffering protein, is highly conserved and extensively expressed in animal and plant cells. To understand the function of CRTs in wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.), particularly their roles in stress tolerance, we cloned the full-length genomic sequence of the TaCRT-D isoform from D genome of common hexaploid wheat, and characterized its function by transgenic Arabidopsis system. TaCRT-D exhibited different expression patterns in wheat seedling under different abiotic stresses. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing ORF of TaCRT-D displayed more tolerance to drought, cold, salt, mannitol, and other abiotic stresses at both seed germination and seedling stages, compared with the wild-type controls. Furthermore, DNA polymorphism analysis and gene mapping were employed to develop the functional markers of this gene for marker-assistant selection in wheat breeding program. One SNP, S440 (T→C) was detected at the TaCRT-D locus by genotyping a wheat recombinant inbred line (RIL) population (114 lines) developed from Opata 85 × W7984. The TaCRT-D was then fine mapped between markers Xgwm645 and Xgwm664 on chromosome 3DL, corresponding to genetic distances of 3.5 and 4.4 cM, respectively, using the RIL population and Chinese Spring nulli-tetrasomic lines. Finally, the genome-specific and allele-specific markers were developed for the TaCRT-D gene. These findings indicate that TaCRT-D function importantly in plant stress responses, providing a gene target for genetic engineering to increase plant stress tolerance and the functional markers of TaCRT-D for marker-assistant selection in wheat breeding.

  16. Mapping of Powdery Mildew Resistance Gene pmCH89 in a Putative Wheat-Thinopyrum intermedium Introgression Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Liyuan; Zhang, Xiaojun; Li, Xin; Jia, Juqing; Yang, Huizhen; Zhan, Haixian; Qiao, Linyi; Guo, Huijuan; Chang, Zhijian

    2015-07-28

    Powdery mildew, caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt), is a globally serious disease adversely affecting wheat production. The Bgt-resistant wheat breeding line CH09W89 was derived after backcrossing a Bgt resistant wheat-Thinopyrum intermedium partial amphiploid TAI7045 with susceptible wheat cultivars. At the seedling stage, CH09W89 exhibited immunity or high resistance to Bgt pathotypes E09, E20, E21, E23, E26, Bg1, and Bg2, similar to its donor line TAI7045 and Th. intermedium. No Th. intermedium chromatin was detected based on genomic in situ hybridization of mitotic chromosomes. To determine the mode of inheritance of the Bgt resistance and the chromosomal location of the resistance gene, CH09W89 was crossed with two susceptible wheat cultivars. The results of the genetic analysis showed that the adult resistance to Bgt E09 in CH09W89 was controlled by a single recessive gene, which was tentatively designated as pmCH89. Two polymorphic SSR markers, Xwmc310 and Xwmc125, were linked to the resistance gene with genetic distances 3.1 and 2.7 cM, respectively. Using the Chinese Spring aneuploid and deletion lines, the resistance gene and its linked markers were assigned to chromosome arm 4BL in the bin 0.68-0.78. Due to its unique position on chromosome 4BL, pmCH89 appears to be a new locus for resistance to powdery mildew. These results will be of benefit for improving powdery mildew resistance in wheat breeding programs.

  17. Mapping of Powdery Mildew Resistance Gene pmCH89 in a Putative Wheat-Thinopyrum intermedium Introgression Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyuan Hou

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Powdery mildew, caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt, is a globally serious disease adversely affecting wheat production. The Bgt-resistant wheat breeding line CH09W89 was derived after backcrossing a Bgt resistant wheat-Thinopyrum intermedium partial amphiploid TAI7045 with susceptible wheat cultivars. At the seedling stage, CH09W89 exhibited immunity or high resistance to Bgt pathotypes E09, E20, E21, E23, E26, Bg1, and Bg2, similar to its donor line TAI7045 and Th. intermedium. No Th. intermedium chromatin was detected based on genomic in situ hybridization of mitotic chromosomes. To determine the mode of inheritance of the Bgt resistance and the chromosomal location of the resistance gene, CH09W89 was crossed with two susceptible wheat cultivars. The results of the genetic analysis showed that the adult resistance to Bgt E09 in CH09W89 was controlled by a single recessive gene, which was tentatively designated as pmCH89. Two polymorphic SSR markers, Xwmc310 and Xwmc125, were linked to the resistance gene with genetic distances 3.1 and 2.7 cM, respectively. Using the Chinese Spring aneuploid and deletion lines, the resistance gene and its linked markers were assigned to chromosome arm 4BL in the bin 0.68–0.78. Due to its unique position on chromosome 4BL, pmCH89 appears to be a new locus for resistance to powdery mildew. These results will be of benefit for improving powdery mildew resistance in wheat breeding programs.

  18. Identification of Candidate Genes Responsible for Stem Pith Production Using Expression Analysis in Solid-Stemmed Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oiestad, A J; Martin, J M; Cook, J; Varella, A C; Giroux, M J

    2017-07-01

    The wheat stem sawfly (WSS) is an economically important pest of wheat in the Northern Great Plains. The primary means of WSS control is resistance associated with the single quantitative trait locus (QTL) , which controls most stem solidness variation. The goal of this study was to identify stem solidness candidate genes via RNA-seq. This study made use of 28 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) makers derived from expressed sequence tags (ESTs) linked to contained within a 5.13 cM region. Allele specific expression of EST markers was examined in stem tissue for solid and hollow-stemmed pairs of two spring wheat near isogenic lines (NILs) differing for the QTL. Of the 28 ESTs, 13 were located within annotated genes and 10 had detectable stem expression. Annotated genes corresponding to four of the ESTs were differentially expressed between solid and hollow-stemmed NILs and represent possible stem solidness gene candidates. Further examination of the 5.13 cM region containing the 28 EST markers identified 260 annotated genes. Twenty of the 260 linked genes were up-regulated in hollow NIL stems, while only seven genes were up-regulated in solid NIL stems. An -methyltransferase within the region of interest was identified as a candidate based on differential expression between solid and hollow-stemmed NILs and putative function. Further study of these candidate genes may lead to the identification of the gene(s) controlling stem solidness and an increased ability to select for wheat stem solidness and manage WSS. Copyright © 2017 Crop Science Society of America.

  19. Pollen-mediated gene flow in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in a semiarid field environment in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loureiro, Iñigo; Escorial, María-Concepción; González, Águeda; Chueca, María-Cristina

    2012-12-01

    Transgenic wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties are being developed and field-tested in various countries. Concerns regarding gene flow from genetically modified (GM) crops to non-GM crops have stimulated research to estimate outcrossing in wheat prior to the release and commercialization of any transgenic cultivars. The aim is to ensure that coexistence of all types of wheat with GM wheat is feasible in accordance with current regulations. The present study describes the result of a field experiment under the semi-arid climate conditions of Madrid, Spain, at two locations ("La Canaleja" and "El Encin" experimental stations) in Madrid over a 3-year period, from 2005 to 2007. The experimental design consisted of a 50 × 50 m wheat pollen source sown with wheat cultivars resistant to the herbicide chlortoluron ('Deganit' and 'Castan' respectively) and three susceptible receptor cultivars ('Abental', 'Altria' and 'Recital') sown in replicated 1 × 1 m plots at different distances (0, 1, 3, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80 and 100 m) and four directions. Outcrossing rates were measured as a percentage of herbicide-resistant hybrids using an herbicide-screening assay. Outcrossing was greatest near the pollen source, averaging 0.029% at 0 m distance at "La Canaleja" and 0.337% at "El Encin", both below the 0.9% European Union regulated threshold, although a maximum outcrossing rate of 3.5% was detected in one recipient plot. These percentages declined rapidly as the distance increased, but hybrids were detected at different rates at distances of up to 100 m, the maximum distance of the experiment. Environmental conditions, as drought in 2004-2005 and 2005-2006, may have influenced the extent of outcrossing. These assays carried out in wheat under semi-arid conditions in Europe provide a more complete assessment of pollen-mediated gene flow in this crop.

  20. Alpha-gliadin genes from the A, B, and D genomes of wheat contain different sets of celiac disease epitopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Veelen Peter A

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum is an important staple food. However, wheat gluten proteins cause celiac disease (CD in 0.5 to 1% of the general population. Among these proteins, the α-gliadins contain several peptides that are associated to the disease. Results We obtained 230 distinct α-gliadin gene sequences from severaldiploid wheat species representing the ancestral A, B, and D genomes of the hexaploid bread wheat. The large majority of these sequences (87% contained an internal stop codon. All α-gliadin sequences could be distinguished according to the genome of origin on the basis of sequence similarity, of the average length of the polyglutamine repeats, and of the differences in the presence of four peptides that have been identified as T cell stimulatory epitopes in CD patients through binding to HLA-DQ2/8. By sequence similarity, α-gliadins from the public database of hexaploid T. aestivum could be assigned directly to chromosome 6A, 6B, or 6D. T. monococcum (A genome sequences, as well as those from chromosome 6A of bread wheat, almost invariably contained epitope glia-α9 and glia-α20, but never the intact epitopes glia-α and glia-α2. A number of sequences from T. speltoides, as well as a number of sequences fromchromosome 6B of bread wheat, did not contain any of the four T cell epitopes screened for. The sequences from T. tauschii (D genome, as well as those from chromosome 6D of bread wheat, were found to contain all of these T cell epitopes in variable combinations per gene. The differences in epitope composition resulted mainly from point mutations. These substitutions appeared to be genome specific. Conclusion Our analysis shows that α-gliadin sequences from the three genomes of bread wheat form distinct groups. The four known T cell stimulatory epitopes are distributed non-randomly across the sequences, indicating that the three genomes contribute differently to epitope content. A systematic

  1. Identification of Candidate Genes and Biosynthesis Pathways Related to Fertility Conversion by Wheat KTM3315A Transcriptome Profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingli Zhang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The Aegilops kotschyi thermo-sensitive cytoplasmic male sterility (K-TCMS system may facilitate hybrid wheat (Triticum aestivum L. seed multiplication and production. The K-TCMS line is completely male sterile during the normal wheat-growing season, whereas its fertility can be restored in a high-temperature environment. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms responsible for male sterility/fertility conversion and candidate genes involved with pollen development in K-TCMS, we employed RNA-seq to sequence the transcriptomes of anthers from K-TCMS line KTM3315A during development under sterile and fertile conditions. We identified 16840 differentially expressed genes (DEGs in different stages including15157 known genes (15135 nuclear genes and 22 plasmagenes and 1683 novel genes. Bioinformatics analysis identified possible metabolic pathways involved with fertility based on KEGG pathway enrichment of the DEGs expressed in fertile and sterile plants. We found that most of the genes encoding key enzyme in the phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and jasmonate biosynthesis pathways were significant upregulated in uninucleate, binuclate or trinucleate stage, which both interact with MYB transcription factors, and that link between all play essential roles in fertility conversion. The relevant DEGs were verified by quantitative RT-PCR. Thus, we suggested that phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and jasmonate biosynthesis pathways were involved in fertility conversion of K-TCMS wheat. This will provide a new perspective and an effective foundation for the research of molecular mechanisms of fertility conversion of CMS wheat. Fertility conversion mechanism in thermo-sensitive cytoplasmic male sterile/fertile wheat involves the phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway, jasmonate biosynthesis pathway, and MYB transcription factors.

  2. [Clarification of Rht8 and Ppd-D1 gene linkage on the 2D chromosome of winter bread wheat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebotar, H O; Chebotar, S V; Motsnyĭ, I I; Syvolap, Iu M

    2013-01-01

    In the south part of Ukraine the haplotype of Rht8c and Ppd-D1a genes is highly distributed among modern bread wheat varieties. During the time of breeding program it has been selected as one of the most important adaptive complex for plants of this region. Genetic distance between Rht8c and Ppd-D1a was clarified.

  3. Molecular cytogenetic characterization of alien introgressions with gene Fhb3 for resistance to Fusarium head blight disease of wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance was identified in the alien species Leymus racemosus, and wheat-Leymus introgression lines with FHB resistance were reported previously. Detailed molecular cytogenetic analysis of alien introgressions T01, T09, and T14 and the mapping of Fhb3, a new gene for FHB...

  4. Identification of an attenuated barley stripe mosaic virus for the virus-induced gene silencing of pathogenesis-related wheat genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhrow, Leann M; Clark, Shawn M; Loewen, Michele C

    2016-01-01

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) has become an emerging technology for the rapid, efficient functional genomic screening of monocot and dicot species. The barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) has been described as an effective VIGS vehicle for the evaluation of genes involved in wheat and barley phytopathogenesis; however, these studies have been obscured by BSMV-induced phenotypes and defense responses. The utility of BSMV VIGS may be improved using a BSMV genetic background which is more tolerable to the host plant especially upon secondary infection of highly aggressive, necrotrophic pathogens such as Fusarium graminearum. BSMV-induced VIGS in Triticum aestivum (bread wheat) cv. 'Fielder' was assessed for the study of wheat genes putatively related to Fusarium Head Blight (FHB), the necrotrophism of wheat and other cereals by F. graminearum. Due to the lack of 'Fielder' spike viability and increased accumulation of Fusarium-derived deoxynivalenol contamination upon co-infection of BSMV and FHB, an attenuated BSMV construct was generated by the addition of a glycine-rich, C-terminal peptide to the BSMV γ b protein. This attenuated BSMV effectively silenced target wheat genes while limiting disease severity, deoxynivalenol contamination, and yield loss upon Fusarium co-infection compared to the original BSMV construct. The attenuated BSMV-infected tissue exhibited reduced abscisic, jasmonic, and salicylic acid defense phytohormone accumulation upon secondary Fusarium infection. Finally, the attenuated BSMV was used to investigate the role of the salicylic acid-responsive pathogenesis-related 1 in response to FHB. The use of an attenuated BSMV may be advantageous in characterizing wheat genes involved in phytopathogenesis, including Fusarium necrotrophism, where minimal viral background effects on defense are required. Additionally, the attenuated BSMV elicits reduced defense hormone accumulation, suggesting that this genotype may have applications for the

  5. Integrated physical map of bread wheat chromosome arm 7DS to facilitate gene cloning and comparative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulpová, Zuzana; Luo, Ming-Cheng; Toegelová, Helena; Visendi, Paul; Hayashi, Satomi; Vojta, Petr; Paux, Etienne; Kilian, Andrzej; Abrouk, Michaël; Bartoš, Jan; Hajdúch, Marián; Batley, Jacqueline; Edwards, David; Doležel, Jaroslav; Šimková, Hana

    2018-03-08

    Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a staple food for a significant part of the world's population. The growing demand on its production can be satisfied by improving yield and resistance to biotic and abiotic stress. Knowledge of the genome sequence would aid in discovering genes and QTLs underlying these traits and provide a basis for genomics-assisted breeding. Physical maps and BAC clones associated with them have been valuable resources from which to generate a reference genome of bread wheat and to assist map-based gene cloning. As a part of a joint effort coordinated by the International Wheat Genome Sequencing Consortium, we have constructed a BAC-based physical map of bread wheat chromosome arm 7DS consisting of 895 contigs and covering 94% of its estimated length. By anchoring BAC contigs to one radiation hybrid map and three high resolution genetic maps, we assigned 73% of the assembly to a distinct genomic position. This map integration, interconnecting a total of 1713 markers with ordered and sequenced BAC clones from a minimal tiling path, provides a tool to speed up gene cloning in wheat. The process of physical map assembly included the integration of the 7DS physical map with a whole-genome physical map of Aegilops tauschii and a 7DS Bionano genome map, which together enabled efficient scaffolding of physical-map contigs, even in the non-recombining region of the genetic centromere. Moreover, this approach facilitated a comparison of bread wheat and its ancestor at BAC-contig level and revealed a reconstructed region in the 7DS pericentromere. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Investigating Pollen and Gene Flow of WYMV-Resistant Transgenic Wheat N12-1 Using a Dwarf Male-Sterile Line as the Pollen Receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shanshan; Liu, Yan; Yu, Cigang; Zhang, Zhenhua; Chen, Ming; Wang, Changyong

    2016-01-01

    Pollen-mediated gene flow (PMGF) is the main mode of transgene flow in flowering plants. The study of pollen and gene flow of transgenic wheat can help to establish the corresponding strategy for preventing transgene escape and contamination between compatible genotypes in wheat. To investigate the pollen dispersal and gene flow frequency in various directions and distances around the pollen source and detect the association between frequency of transgene flow and pollen density from transgenic wheat, a concentric circle design was adopted to conduct a field experiment using transgenic wheat with resistance to wheat yellow mosaic virus (WYMV) as the pollen donor and dwarf male-sterile wheat as the pollen receptor. The results showed that the pollen and gene flow of transgenic wheat varied significantly among the different compass sectors. A higher pollen density and gene flow frequency was observed in the downwind SW and W sectors, with average frequencies of transgene flow of 26.37 and 23.69% respectively. The pollen and gene flow of transgenic wheat declined dramatically with increasing distance from its source. Most of the pollen grains concentrated within 5 m and only a few pollen grains were detected beyond 30 m. The percentage of transgene flow was the highest where adjacent to the pollen source, with an average of 48.24% for all eight compass directions at 0 m distance. Transgene flow was reduced to 50% and 95% between 1.61 to 3.15 m, and 10.71 to 20.93 m, respectively. Our results suggest that climate conditions, especially wind direction, may significantly affect pollen dispersal and gene flow of wheat. The isolation-by-distance model is one of the most effective methods for achieving stringent transgene confinement in wheat. The frequency of transgene flow is directly correlated with the relative density of GM pollen grains in air currents, and pollen competition may be a major factor influencing transgene flow.

  7. Investigating Pollen and Gene Flow of WYMV-Resistant Transgenic Wheat N12-1 Using a Dwarf Male-Sterile Line as the Pollen Receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanshan Dong

    Full Text Available Pollen-mediated gene flow (PMGF is the main mode of transgene flow in flowering plants. The study of pollen and gene flow of transgenic wheat can help to establish the corresponding strategy for preventing transgene escape and contamination between compatible genotypes in wheat. To investigate the pollen dispersal and gene flow frequency in various directions and distances around the pollen source and detect the association between frequency of transgene flow and pollen density from transgenic wheat, a concentric circle design was adopted to conduct a field experiment using transgenic wheat with resistance to wheat yellow mosaic virus (WYMV as the pollen donor and dwarf male-sterile wheat as the pollen receptor. The results showed that the pollen and gene flow of transgenic wheat varied significantly among the different compass sectors. A higher pollen density and gene flow frequency was observed in the downwind SW and W sectors, with average frequencies of transgene flow of 26.37 and 23.69% respectively. The pollen and gene flow of transgenic wheat declined dramatically with increasing distance from its source. Most of the pollen grains concentrated within 5 m and only a few pollen grains were detected beyond 30 m. The percentage of transgene flow was the highest where adjacent to the pollen source, with an average of 48.24% for all eight compass directions at 0 m distance. Transgene flow was reduced to 50% and 95% between 1.61 to 3.15 m, and 10.71 to 20.93 m, respectively. Our results suggest that climate conditions, especially wind direction, may significantly affect pollen dispersal and gene flow of wheat. The isolation-by-distance model is one of the most effective methods for achieving stringent transgene confinement in wheat. The frequency of transgene flow is directly correlated with the relative density of GM pollen grains in air currents, and pollen competition may be a major factor influencing transgene flow.

  8. Endogenous Reference Genes and Their Quantitative Real-Time PCR Assays for Genetically Modified Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Litao; Quan, Sheng; Zhang, Dabing

    2017-01-01

    Endogenous reference genes (ERG) and their derivate analytical methods are standard requirements for analysis of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Development and validation of suitable ERGs is the primary step for establishing assays that monitoring the genetically modified (GM) contents in food/feed samples. Herein, we give a review of the ERGs currently used for GM wheat analysis, such as ACC1, PKABA1, ALMT1, and Waxy-D1, as well as their performances in GM wheat analysis. Also, we discussed one model for developing and validating one ideal RG for one plant species based on our previous research work.

  9. Characterization of stem rust resistance gene Sr2 in Indian wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stem rust or black rust is one of the most important diseases of wheat worldwide. In India, central, peninsular and southern hill zones are particularly prone to stem rust where favourable environmental conditions exist. The recent emergence of wheat stem rust race Ug99 (TTKSK) and related strains threatens global wheat ...

  10. ABI-like transcription factor gene TaABL1 from wheat improves multiple abiotic stress tolerances in transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dong-Bei; Gao, Shi-Qing; Ma, You-Zhi; Xu, Zhao-Shi; Zhao, Chang-Ping; Tang, Yi-Miao; Li, Xue-Yin; Li, Lian-Cheng; Chen, Yao-Feng; Chen, Ming

    2014-12-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays crucial roles in adaptive responses of plants to abiotic stresses. ABA-responsive element binding proteins (AREBs) are basic leucine zipper transcription factors that regulate the expression of downstream genes containing ABA-responsive elements (ABREs) in promoter regions. A novel ABI-like (ABA-insensitive) transcription factor gene, named TaABL1, containing a conserved basic leucine zipper (bZIP) domain was cloned from wheat. Southern blotting showed that three copies were present in the wheat genome. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that TaABL1 belonged to the AREB subfamily of the bZIP transcription factor family and was most closely related to ZmABI5 in maize and OsAREB2 in rice. Expression of TaABL1 was highly induced in wheat roots, stems, and leaves by ABA, drought, high salt, and low temperature stresses. TaABL1 was localized inside the nuclei of transformed wheat mesophyll protoplast. Overexpression of TaABL1 enhanced responses of transgenic plants to ABA and hastened stomatal closure under stress, thereby improving tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses. Furthermore, overexpression of TaABL1 upregulated or downregulated the expression of some stress-related genes controlling stomatal closure in transgenic plants under ABA and drought stress conditions, suggesting that TaABL1 might be a valuable genetic resource for transgenic molecular breeding.

  11. Novel Structural and Functional Motifs in cellulose synthase (CesA Genes of Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum, L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simerjeet Kaur

    Full Text Available Cellulose is the primary determinant of mechanical strength in plant tissues. Late-season lodging is inversely related to the amount of cellulose in a unit length of the stem. Wheat is the most widely grown of all the crops globally, yet information on its CesA gene family is limited. We have identified 22 CesA genes from bread wheat, which include homoeologs from each of the three genomes, and named them as TaCesAXA, TaCesAXB or TaCesAXD, where X denotes the gene number and the last suffix stands for the respective genome. Sequence analyses of the CESA proteins from wheat and their orthologs from barley, maize, rice, and several dicot species (Arabidopsis, beet, cotton, poplar, potato, rose gum and soybean revealed motifs unique to monocots (Poales or dicots. Novel structural motifs CQIC and SVICEXWFA were identified, which distinguished the CESAs involved in the formation of primary and secondary cell wall (PCW and SCW in all the species. We also identified several new motifs specific to monocots or dicots. The conserved motifs identified in this study possibly play functional roles specific to PCW or SCW formation. The new insights from this study advance our knowledge about the structure, function and evolution of the CesA family in plants in general and wheat in particular. This information will be useful in improving culm strength to reduce lodging or alter wall composition to improve biofuel production.

  12. Gene-Environment Correlation Underlying the Association between Parental Negativity and Adolescent Externalizing Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marceau, Kristine; Horwitz, Briana N.; Narusyte, Jurgita; Ganiban, Jody M.; Spotts, Erica L.; Reiss, David; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of adolescent or parent-based twins suggest that gene-environment correlation (rGE) is an important mechanism underlying parent-adolescent relationships. However, information on how parents' and children's genes and environments influence correlated parent "and" child behaviors is needed to distinguish types of rGE. The present…

  13. Genes controlling plant growth habit in Leymus (Triticeae): maize barren stalk1 (ba1), rice lax panicle, and wheat tiller inhibition (tin3) genes as possible candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parminder Kaur; Steven R. Larson; B. Shaun Bushman; Richard R.-C. Wang; Ivan W. Mott; David Hole; Jyothi Thimmapuram; George Gong; Lei Liu

    2008-01-01

    Leymus cinereus and L. triticoides are large caespitose and rhizomatous perennial grasses, respectively. Previous studies detected quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling rhizome spreading near the viviparous1 (vp1) gene markers on linkage groups LG3a and LG3b in two families, TTC1 and TTC2, derived from Leymus triticoides x Leymus cinereus hybrids. The wheat tiller...

  14. An efficient and reproducible protocol for the production of salt tolerant transgenic wheat plants expressing the Arabidopsis AtNHX1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaieb, Reda E A; Sharaf, Ahmed N; Soliman, Mohamed H; El-Arabi, Nagwa I; Momtaz, Osama A

    2014-01-01

    We present an efficient method for the production of transgenic salt tolerant hexaploid wheat plants expressing the Arabidopsis AtNHX1 gene. Wheat mature zygotic embryos were isolated from two hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) cultivars (namely: Gemmeiza 9 and Gemmeiza 10) and were transformed with the A. tumefaciens LBA4404 harboring the pBI-121 vector containing the AtNHX1 gene. Transgenic wheat lines that express the gus intron was obtained and used as control. The results confirmed that npt-II gene could be transmitted and expressed in the T2 following 3:1 Mendelian segregation while the control plant couldn't. The data indicate that, the AtNHX1 gene was integrated in a stable manner into the wheat genome and the corresponding transcripts were expressed. The transformation efficiency was 5.7 and 7.5% for cultivars Gemmeiza 10 and Gemmeiza 9, respectively. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of AtNHX1 gene in wheat salt tolerance. The transgenic wheat lines could maintain high growth rate under salt stress condition (350 mM NaCl) while the control plant couldn't. The results confirmed that Na(+)/H(+) antiporter gene AtNHX1 increased salt tolerance by increasing Na(+) accumulation and keeping K+/Na(+) balance. Thus, transgenic plants showed high tolerance to salt stress and can be considered as a new genetic resource in breeding programs.

  15. Delineating the structural, functional and evolutionary relationships of sucrose phosphate synthase gene family II in wheat and related grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil Zaynali

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS is an important component of the plant sucrose biosynthesis pathway. In the monocotyledonous Poaceae, five SPS genes have been identified. Here we present a detailed analysis of the wheat SPSII family in wheat. A set of homoeologue-specific primers was developed in order to permit both the detection of sequence variation, and the dissection of the individual contribution of each homoeologue to the global expression of SPSII. Results The expression in bread wheat over the course of development of various sucrose biosynthesis genes monitored on an Affymetrix array showed that the SPS genes were regulated over time and space. SPSII homoeologue-specific assays were used to show that the three homoeologues contributed differentially to the global expression of SPSII. Genetic mapping placed the set of homoeoloci on the short arms of the homoeologous group 3 chromosomes. A resequencing of the A and B genome copies allowed the detection of four haplotypes at each locus. The 3B copy includes an unspliced intron. A comparison of the sequences of the wheat SPSII orthologues present in the diploid progenitors einkorn, goatgrass and Triticum speltoides, as well as in the more distantly related species barley, rice, sorghum and purple false brome demonstrated that intronic sequence was less well conserved than exonic. Comparative sequence and phylogenetic analysis of SPSII gene showed that false purple brome was more similar to Triticeae than to rice. Wheat - rice synteny was found to be perturbed at the SPS region. Conclusion The homoeologue-specific assays will be suitable to derive associations between SPS functionality and key phenotypic traits. The amplicon sequences derived from the homoeologue-specific primers are informative regarding the evolution of SPSII in a polyploid context.

  16. Collinearity Analysis and High-Density Genetic Mapping of the Wheat Powdery Mildew Resistance Gene Pm40 in PI 672538

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Syeda Akash; Yang, Jiezhi; Chen, Wanquan; Liu, Taiguo; Hu, Yuting; Li, Qing; Guo, Jingwei; Zhang, Min; Lei, Li; Li, Xin; Tang, Shengwen; Luo, Peigao

    2016-01-01

    The wheat powdery mildew resistance gene Pm40, which is located on chromosomal arm 7BS, is effective against nearly all prevalent races of Blumeria graminis f. sp tritici (Bgt) in China and is carried by the common wheat germplasm PI 672538. A set of the F1, F2 and F2:3 populations from the cross of the resistant PI 672538 with the susceptible line L1034 were used to conduct genetic analysis of powdery mildew resistance and construct a high-density linkage map of the Pm40 gene. We constructed a high-density linkage genetic map with a total length of 6.18 cM and average spacing between markers of 0.48 cM.Pm40 is flanked by Xwmc335 and BF291338 at genetic distances of 0.58 cM and 0.26 cM, respectively, in deletion bin C-7BS-1-0.27. Comparative genomic analysis based on EST-STS markers established a high level of collinearity of the Pm40 genomic region with a 1.09-Mbp genomic region on Brachypodium chromosome 3, a 1.16-Mbp genomic region on rice chromosome 8, and a 1.62-Mbp genomic region on sorghum chromosome 7. We further anchored the Pm40 target intervals to the wheat genome sequence. A putative linear index of 85 wheat contigs containing 97 genes on 7BS was constructed. In total, 9 genes could be considered as candidates for the resistances to powdery mildew in the target genomic regions, which encoded proteins that were involved in the plant defense and response to pathogen attack. These results will facilitate the development of new markers for map-based cloning and marker-assisted selection of Pm40 in wheat breeding programs. PMID:27755575

  17. Co-ordinate regulation of cytokinin gene family members during flag leaf and reproductive development in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jiancheng; Jiang, Lijun; Jameson, Paula Elizabeth

    2012-06-06

    As the global population continues to expand, increasing yield in bread wheat is of critical importance as 20% of the world's food supply is sourced from this cereal. Several recent studies of the molecular basis of grain yield indicate that the cytokinins are a key factor in determining grain yield. In this study, cytokinin gene family members in bread wheat were isolated from four multigene families which regulate cytokinin synthesis and metabolism, the isopentenyl transferases (IPT), cytokinin oxidases (CKX), zeatin O-glucosyltransferases (ZOG), and β-glucosidases (GLU). As bread wheat is hexaploid, each gene family is also likely to be represented on the A, B and D genomes. By using a novel strategy of qRT-PCR with locus-specific primers shared among the three homoeologues of each family member, detailed expression profiles are provided of family members of these multigene families expressed during leaf, spike and seed development. The expression patterns of individual members of the IPT, CKX, ZOG, and GLU multigene families in wheat are shown to be tissue- and developmentally-specific. For instance, TaIPT2 and TaCKX1 were the most highly expressed family members during early seed development, with relative expression levels of up to 90- and 900-fold higher, respectively, than those in the lowest expressed samples. The expression of two cis-ZOG genes was sharply increased in older leaves, while an extremely high mRNA level of TaGLU1-1 was detected in young leaves. Key genes with tissue- and developmentally-specific expression have been identified which would be prime targets for genetic manipulation towards yield improvement in bread wheat breeding programmes, utilising TILLING and MAS strategies.

  18. Genome-Wide Association Study Reveals Novel Genes Associated with Culm Cellulose Content in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum, L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simerjeet Kaur

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Plant cell wall formation is a complex, coordinated and developmentally regulated process. Cellulose is the most dominant constituent of plant cell walls. Because of its paracrystalline structure, cellulose is the main determinant of mechanical strength of plant tissues. As the most abundant polysaccharide on earth, it is also the focus of cellulosic biofuel industry. To reduce culm lodging in wheat and for improved ethanol production, delineation of the variation for stem cellulose content could prove useful. We present results on the analysis of the stem cellulose content of 288 diverse wheat accessions and its genome-wide association study (GWAS. Cellulose concentration ranged from 35 to 52% (w/w. Cellulose content was normally distributed in the accessions around a mean and median of 45% (w/w. Genome-wide marker-trait association study using 21,073 SNPs helped identify nine SNPs that were associated (p < 1E-05 with cellulose content. Four strongly associated (p < 8.17E-05 SNP markers were linked to wheat unigenes, which included β-tubulin, Auxin-induced protein 5NG4, and a putative transmembrane protein of unknown function. These genes may be directly or indirectly involved in the formation of cellulose in wheat culms. GWAS results from this study have the potential for genetic manipulation of cellulose content in bread wheat and other small grain cereals to enhance culm strength and improve biofuel production.

  19. Enrichment of provitamin A content in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) by introduction of the bacterial carotenoid biosynthetic genes CrtB and CrtI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Zeng, Jian; Li, Yin; Hu, Wei; Chen, Ling; Miao, Yingjie; Deng, Pengyi; Yuan, Cuihong; Ma, Cheng; Chen, Xi; Zang, Mingli; Wang, Qiong; Li, Kexiu; Chang, Junli; Wang, Yuesheng; Yang, Guangxiao; He, Guangyuan

    2014-06-01

    Carotenoid content is a primary determinant of wheat nutritional value and affects its end-use quality. Wheat grains contain very low carotenoid levels and trace amounts of provitamin A content. In order to enrich the carotenoid content in wheat grains, the bacterial phytoene synthase gene (CrtB) and carotene desaturase gene (CrtI) were transformed into the common wheat cultivar Bobwhite. Expression of CrtB or CrtI alone slightly increased the carotenoid content in the grains of transgenic wheat, while co-expression of both genes resulted in a darker red/yellow grain phenotype, accompanied by a total carotenoid content increase of approximately 8-fold achieving 4.76 μg g(-1) of seed dry weight, a β-carotene increase of 65-fold to 3.21 μg g(-1) of seed dry weight, and a provitamin A content (sum of α-carotene, β-carotene, and β-cryptoxanthin) increase of 76-fold to 3.82 μg g(-1) of seed dry weight. The high provitamin A content in the transgenic wheat was stably inherited over four generations. Quantitative PCR analysis revealed that enhancement of provitamin A content in transgenic wheat was also a result of the highly coordinated regulation of endogenous carotenoid biosynthetic genes, suggesting a metabolic feedback regulation in the wheat carotenoid biosynthetic pathway. These transgenic wheat lines are not only valuable for breeding wheat varieties with nutritional benefits for human health but also for understanding the mechanism regulating carotenoid biosynthesis in wheat endosperm. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  20. Wheat TaSP gene improves salt tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaoli; Cui, Weina; Liang, Wenji; Huang, Zhanjing

    2015-12-01

    A novel salt-induced gene with unknown functions was cloned through analysis of gene expression profile of a salt-tolerant wheat mutant RH8706-49 under salt stress. The gene was named Triticum aestivum salt-related protein (TaSP) and deposited in GenBank (Accession No. KF307326). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) results showed that TaSP expression was induced under salt, abscisic acid (ABA), and polyethylene glycol (PEG) stresses. Subcellular localization revealed that TaSP was mainly localized in cell membrane. Overexpression of TaSP in Arabidopsis could improve salt tolerance of 35S::TaSP transgenic Arabidopsis. 35S::TaSP transgenic Arabidopsis lines after salt stress presented better physiological indexes than the control group. In the non-invasive micro-test (NMT), an evident Na(+) excretion was observed at the root tip of salt-stressed 35S::TaSP transgenic Arabidopsis. TaSP promoter was cloned, and its beta-glucuronidase (GUS) activities before and after ABA, salt, cold, heat, and salicylic acid (SA) stresses were determined. Full-length TaSP promoter contained ABA and salt response elements. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Heritable heading time variation in wheat lines with the same number of Ppd-B1 gene copies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivaničová, Zuzana; Valárik, Miroslav; Pánková, Kateřina; Trávníčková, Martina; Doležel, Jaroslav; Šafář, Jan; Milec, Zbyněk

    2017-01-01

    The ability of plants to identify an optimal flowering time is critical for ensuring the production of viable seeds. The main environmental factors that influence the flowering time include the ambient temperature and day length. In wheat, the ability to assess the day length is controlled by photoperiod (Ppd) genes. Due to its allohexaploid nature, bread wheat carries the following three Ppd-1 genes: Ppd-A1, Ppd-B1 and Ppd-D1. While photoperiod (in)sensitivity controlled by Ppd-A1 and Ppd-D1 is mainly determined by sequence changes in the promoter region, the impact of the Ppd-B1 alleles on the heading time has been linked to changes in the copy numbers (and possibly their methylation status) and sequence changes in the promoter region. Here, we report that plants with the same number of Ppd-B1 copies may have different heading times. Differences were observed among F7 lines derived from crossing two spring hexaploid wheat varieties. Several lines carrying three copies of Ppd-B1 headed 16 days later than other plants in the population with the same number of gene copies. This effect was associated with changes in the gene expression level and methylation of the Ppd-B1 gene.

  2. Heritable heading time variation in wheat lines with the same number of Ppd-B1 gene copies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Ivaničová

    Full Text Available The ability of plants to identify an optimal flowering time is critical for ensuring the production of viable seeds. The main environmental factors that influence the flowering time include the ambient temperature and day length. In wheat, the ability to assess the day length is controlled by photoperiod (Ppd genes. Due to its allohexaploid nature, bread wheat carries the following three Ppd-1 genes: Ppd-A1, Ppd-B1 and Ppd-D1. While photoperiod (insensitivity controlled by Ppd-A1 and Ppd-D1 is mainly determined by sequence changes in the promoter region, the impact of the Ppd-B1 alleles on the heading time has been linked to changes in the copy numbers (and possibly their methylation status and sequence changes in the promoter region. Here, we report that plants with the same number of Ppd-B1 copies may have different heading times. Differences were observed among F7 lines derived from crossing two spring hexaploid wheat varieties. Several lines carrying three copies of Ppd-B1 headed 16 days later than other plants in the population with the same number of gene copies. This effect was associated with changes in the gene expression level and methylation of the Ppd-B1 gene.

  3. Genome-wide analysis of the cellulose synthase-like (Csl) gene family in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Simerjeet; Dhugga, Kanwarpal S; Beech, Robin; Singh, Jaswinder

    2017-11-03

    Hemicelluloses are a diverse group of complex, non-cellulosic polysaccharides, which constitute approximately one-third of the plant cell wall and find use as dietary fibres, food additives and raw materials for biofuels. Genes involved in hemicellulose synthesis have not been extensively studied in small grain cereals. In efforts to isolate the sequences for the cellulose synthase-like (Csl) gene family from wheat, we identified 108 genes (hereafter referred to as TaCsl). Each gene was represented by two to three homeoalleles, which are named as TaCslXY_ZA, TaCslXY_ZB, or TaCslXY_ZD, where X denotes the Csl subfamily, Y the gene number and Z the wheat chromosome where it is located. A quarter of these genes were predicted to have 2 to 3 splice variants, resulting in a total of 137 putative translated products. Approximately 45% of TaCsl genes were located on chromosomes 2 and 3. Sequences from the subfamilies C and D were interspersed between the dicots and grasses but those from subfamily A clustered within each group of plants. Proximity of the dicot-specific subfamilies B and G, to the grass-specific subfamilies H and J, respectively, points to their common origin. In silico expression analysis in different tissues revealed that most of the genes were expressed ubiquitously and some were tissue-specific. More than half of the genes had introns in phase 0, one-third in phase 2, and a few in phase 1. Detailed characterization of the wheat Csl genes has enhanced the understanding of their structural, functional, and evolutionary features. This information will be helpful in designing experiments for genetic manipulation of hemicellulose synthesis with the goal of developing improved cultivars for biofuel production and increased tolerance against various stresses.

  4. Identification of an attenuated barley stripe mosaic virus for the virus-induced gene silencing of pathogenesis-related wheat genes

    OpenAIRE

    Buhrow, Leann M.; Clark, Shawn M.; Loewen, Michele C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) has become an emerging technology for the rapid, efficient functional genomic screening of monocot and dicot species. The barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) has been described as an effective VIGS vehicle for the evaluation of genes involved in wheat and barley phytopathogenesis; however, these studies have been obscured by BSMV-induced phenotypes and defense responses. The utility of BSMV VIGS may be improved using a BSMV genetic background which...

  5. Pseudogenes regulate parental gene expression via ceRNA network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Yang; Furber, Kendra L; Ji, Shaoping

    2017-01-01

    The concept of competitive endogenous RNA (ceRNA) was first proposed by Salmena and colleagues. Evidence suggests that pseudogene RNAs can act as a 'sponge' through competitive binding of common miRNA, releasing or attenuating repression through sequestering miRNAs away from parental mRNA. In theory, ceRNAs refer to all transcripts such as mRNA, tRNA, rRNA, long non-coding RNA, pseudogene RNA and circular RNA, because all of them may become the targets of miRNA depending on spatiotemporal situation. As binding of miRNA to the target RNA is not 100% complementary, it is possible that one miRNA can bind to multiple target RNAs and vice versa. All RNAs crosstalk through competitively binding to miRNAvia miRNA response elements (MREs) contained within the RNA sequences, thus forming a complex regulatory network. The ratio of a subset of miRNAs to the corresponding number of MREs determines repression strength on a given mRNA translation or stability. An increase in pseudogene RNA level can sequester miRNA and release repression on the parental gene, leading to an increase in parental gene expression. A massive number of transcripts constitute a complicated network that regulates each other through this proposed mechanism, though some regulatory significance may be mild or even undetectable. It is possible that the regulation of gene and pseudogene expression occurring in this manor involves all RNAs bearing common MREs. In this review, we will primarily discuss how pseudogene transcripts regulate expression of parental genes via ceRNA network and biological significance of regulation. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  6. High resolution melting analysis for the detection of EMS induced mutations in wheat SbeIIa genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botticella Ermelinda

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Manipulation of the amylose-amylopectin ratio in cereal starch has been identified as a major target for the production of starches with novel functional properties. In wheat, silencing of starch branching enzyme genes by a transgenic approach reportedly caused an increase of amylose content up to 70% of total starch, exhibiting novel and interesting nutritional characteristics. In this work, the functionality of starch branching enzyme IIa (SBEIIa has been targeted in bread wheat by TILLING. An EMS-mutagenised wheat population has been screened using High Resolution Melting of PCR products to identify functional SNPs in the three homoeologous genes encoding the target enzyme in the hexaploid genome. Results This analysis resulted in the identification of 56, 14 and 53 new allelic variants respectively for SBEIIa-A, SBEIIa-B and SBEIIa-D. The effects of the mutations on protein structure and functionality were evaluated by a bioinformatic approach. Two putative null alleles containing non-sense or splice site mutations were identified for each of the three homoeologous SBEIIa genes; qRT-PCR analysis showed a significant decrease of their gene expression and resulted in increased amylose content. Pyramiding of different single null homoeologous allowed to isolate double null mutants showing an increase of amylose content up to 21% compared to the control. Conclusion TILLING has successfully been used to generate novel alleles for SBEIIa genes known to control amylose content in wheat. Single and double null SBEIIa genotypes have been found to show a significant increase in amylose content.

  7. Cloning and characterization of novel γ-gliadin genes from Aegilops markgrafii in relation to evolution and wheat breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Li

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Gliadins are the major components of storage proteins in wheat and play an important role in determining the extensibility properties of dough. In the present work, six novel full-length γ-gliadin genes were cloned from the C genome of Aegilops markgrafii using a PCR-based strategy. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences showed that the cloned genes had primary structures that were similar, but not identical, to published γ-gliadins from other wheat-related species. The lengths of the open reading frames (ORFs ranged from 909 to 963 bp, and the repetitive and glutamine-rich domains were mainly responsible for the size of the proteins. An extra cysteine residue was present in the repetitive domain of sequence JX566513. All amino acid sequences of γ-gliadin genes from Ae. markgrafii were searched for the five peptides identified as T cell stimulatory epitopes in celiac disease (CD patients. Peptide Gliγ-3 was present in sequences JX566513 and JX566514. Peptide Gliγ-5 was present only in JX566513. The other γ-gliadins contained no toxic epitopes. These results provide information to better understand the use of Ae. markgrafii in wheat breeding and the evolutionary relationship of the γ-gliadin genes in Ae. markgrafii and other Triticeae species.

  8. Fine Physical Bin Mapping of the Powdery Mildew Resistance Gene Pm21 Based on Chromosomal Structural Variations in Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanying Zhu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Pm21, derived from wheat wild relative Dasypyrum villosum, is one of the most effective powdery mildew resistance genes and has been widely applied in wheat breeding in China. Mapping and cloning Pm21 are of importance for understanding its resistance mechanism. In the present study, physical mapping was performed using different genetic stocks involving in structural variations of chromosome 6VS carrying Pm21. The data showed that 6VS could be divided into eight distinguishable chromosomal bins, and Pm21 was mapped to the bin FLb4–b5/b6 closely flanked by the markers 6VS-08.6 and 6VS-10.2. Comparative genomic mapping indicated that the orthologous regions of FLb4–b5/b6 carrying Pm21 were narrowed to a 117.7 kb genomic region harboring 19 genes in Brachypodium and a 37.7 kb region harboring 5 genes in rice, respectively. The result was consistent with that given by recent genetic mapping in diploid D. villosum. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that physical mapping based on chromosomal structural variations is an efficient method for locating alien genes in wheat background.

  9. Use of irradiated pollen for differential gene transfer in wheat (Triticum aestivum)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snape, J.W.; Parker, B.B.; Simpson, E.; Ainsworth, C.C.; Payne, P.I.; Law, C.N.

    1983-01-01

    The use of irradiated pollen to bring about limited gene transfer in wheat has been investigated. Doses of X-rays of 2Kr, 3Kr and 5Kr were used to generate M/sub 1/ progeny between maternal and paternal genotypes differing in quantitative and major gene characters. Cytological studies of M/sub 1/ plants revealed hybrids with widespread aneuploidy and structural rearrangements in the paternal genome. These effects resulted in phenotypic variation between M/sub 1/ progeny and complex multivalent formation at meiosis. All M/sub 1/ plants at the 5Kr and 3Kr doses were sterile and all but 2 plants at the 2Kr dose. Studies of the two M/sub 2/ families from these plants revealed disturbances in genotype frequencies for some of the marker loci with an excess of maternal homozygotes and a deficit of paternal homozygotes. This was also reflected in a more maternal appearance for quantitative characters. These results are interpreted as showing that irradiation damage to the paternal genome in M/sub 1/ plants results in the differential transmission of maternal alleles.

  10. The use of irradiated pollen for differential gene transfer in wheat (Triticum aestivum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snape, J.W.; Parker, B.B.; Simpson, E.; Ainsworth, C.C.; Payne, P.I.; Law, C.N.

    1983-01-01

    The use of irradiated pollen to bring about limited gene transfer in wheat has been investigated. Doses of X-rays of 2Kr, 3Kr and 5Kr were used to generate M 1 progeny between maternal and paternal genotypes differing in quantitative and major gene characters. Cytological studies of M 1 plants revealed hybrids with widespread aneuploidy and structural rearrangements in the paternal genome. These effects resulted in phenotypic variation between M 1 progeny and complex multivalent formation at meiosis. All M 1 plants at the 5Kr and 3Kr doses were sterile and all but 2 plants at the 2Kr dose. Studies of the two M 2 families from these plants revealed disturbances in genotype frequencies for some of the marker loci with an excess of maternal homozygotes and a deficit of paternal homozygotes. This was also reflected in a more maternal appearance for quantitative characters. These results are interpreted as showing that irradiation damage to the paternal genome in M 1 plants results in the differential transmission of maternal alleles. (orig.)

  11. [Immunotoxicologic assessment of genetically modified drought-resistant wheat T349 with GmDREB1].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chun-lai; Li, Yong-ning; Zhang, Xiao-peng; Song, Yan; Wang, Wei; Fang, Jin; Cui, Wen-ming; Jia, Xu-dong

    2012-06-01

    To assess the immunotoxicologic effects of genetically modified drought resistant wheat T349 with GmDREB1 gene. A total of 250 female BALB/c mice (6-8 week-old, weight 18-22 g) were divided into five large groups (50 mice for each large group) by body weight randomly. In each large group, the mice were divided into five groups (10 mice for each group) by body weight randomly, which were set as negative control group, common wheat group, parental wheat group, genetically modified wheat group and cyclophosphamide positive control group, respectively. Mice in negative control and positive control group were fed with feedstuff AIN-93G, mice in common wheat group, non-genetically modified parental wheat group and genetically modified wheat group were fed with feedstuffs added corresponding wheat (proportion up to 76%) for 30 days, then body weight, organ coefficient of spleen and thymus, peripheral blood lymphocytes phenotyping, serum cytokine, serum immunoglobulin, antibody plaque-forming cell (PFC), serum 50% hemolytic value (HC50), mitogen-induced splenocyte proliferation, delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction and phagocytic activities of phagocytes were detected respectively. After 30 days raise, among negative control group, common wheat group, non-genetically modified parental wheat group, genetically modified wheat group and cyclophosphamide positive control group, mice body weight were (21.0±0.3), (20.4±0.7), (21.1±1.0), (21.1±1.0), (19.4±1.0) g, respectively (F=7.47, Pgenetically modified drought-resistant wheat T349 was substantially equivalent to parental wheat in the effects on immune organs and immunologic functions of mice, and it didn't show immunotoxicity.

  12. Quantitative trait loci for resistance to stripe rust of wheat revealed using global field nurseries and opportunities for stacking resistance genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokore, Firdissa E; Cuthbert, Richard D; Knox, Ron E; Randhawa, Harpinder S; Hiebert, Colin W; DePauw, Ron M; Singh, Asheesh K; Singh, Arti; Sharpe, Andrew G; N'Diaye, Amidou; Pozniak, Curtis J; McCartney, Curt; Ruan, Yuefeng; Berraies, Samia; Meyer, Brad; Munro, Catherine; Hay, Andy; Ammar, Karim; Huerta-Espino, Julio; Bhavani, Sridhar

    2017-12-01

    Quantitative trait loci controlling stripe rust resistance were identified in adapted Canadian spring wheat cultivars providing opportunity for breeders to stack loci using marker-assisted breeding. Stripe rust or yellow rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis Westend. f. sp. tritici Erikss., is a devastating disease of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in many regions of the world. The objectives of this research were to identify and map quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with stripe rust resistance in adapted Canadian spring wheat cultivars that are effective globally, and investigate opportunities for stacking resistance. Doubled haploid (DH) populations from the crosses Vesper/Lillian, Vesper/Stettler, Carberry/Vesper, Stettler/Red Fife and Carberry/AC Cadillac were phenotyped for stripe rust severity and infection response in field nurseries in Canada (Lethbridge and Swift Current), New Zealand (Lincoln), Mexico (Toluca) and Kenya (Njoro), and genotyped with SNP markers. Six QTL for stripe rust resistance in the population of Vesper/Lillian, five in Vesper/Stettler, seven in Stettler/Red Fife, four in Carberry/Vesper and nine in Carberry/AC Cadillac were identified. Lillian contributed stripe rust resistance QTL on chromosomes 4B, 5A, 6B and 7D, AC Cadillac on 2A, 2B, 3B and 5B, Carberry on 1A, 1B, 4A, 4B, 7A and 7D, Stettler on 1A, 2A, 3D, 4A, 5B and 6A, Red Fife on 2D, 3B and 4B, and Vesper on 1B, 2B and 7A. QTL on 1A, 1B, 2A, 2B, 3B, 4A, 4B, 5B, 7A and 7D were observed in multiple parents. The populations are compelling sources of recombination of many stripe rust resistance QTL for stacking disease resistance. Gene pyramiding should be possible with little chance of linkage drag of detrimental genes as the source parents were mostly adapted cultivars widely grown in Canada.

  13. Gene expression, cellular localisation and function of glutamine synthetase isozymes in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernard, Stéphanie M.; Møller, Anders Laurell Blom; Dionisio, Giuseppe

    2008-01-01

    ). Phylogenetic analysis showed that the wheat GS sub-families together with the GS genes from other monocotyledonous species form four distinct clades. Immunolocalisation studies in leaves, stems and rachis in plants at flowering showed GS protein to be present in parenchyma, phloem companion and perifascicular......We present the first cloning and study of glutamine synthetase (GS) genes in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Based on sequence analysis, phylogenetic studies and mapping data, ten GS sequences were classified into four sub-families: GS2 (a, b and c), GS1 (a, b and c), GSr (1 and 2) and GSe (1 and 2...... sheath cells. In situ localisation confirmed that GS1 transcripts were present in the perifascicular sheath cells whilst those for GSr were confined to the vascular cells. Studies of the expression and protein profiles showed that all GS sub-families were differentially expressed in the leaves, peduncle...

  14. A comparative gene analysis with rice identified orthologous group II HKT genes and their association with Na(+) concentration in bread wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyarathna, H A Chandima K; Oldach, Klaus H; Francki, Michael G

    2016-01-19

    Although the HKT transporter genes ascertain some of the key determinants of crop salt tolerance mechanisms, the diversity and functional role of group II HKT genes are not clearly understood in bread wheat. The advanced knowledge on rice HKT and whole genome sequence was, therefore, used in comparative gene analysis to identify orthologous wheat group II HKT genes and their role in trait variation under different saline environments. The four group II HKTs in rice identified two orthologous gene families from bread wheat, including the known TaHKT2;1 gene family and a new distinctly different gene family designated as TaHKT2;2. A single copy of TaHKT2;2 was found on each homeologous chromosome arm 7AL, 7BL and 7DL and each gene was expressed in leaf blade, sheath and root tissues under non-stressed and at 200 mM salt stressed conditions. The proteins encoded by genes of the TaHKT2;2 family revealed more than 93% amino acid sequence identity but ≤52% amino acid identity compared to the proteins encoded by TaHKT2;1 family. Specifically, variations in known critical domains predicted functional differences between the two protein families. Similar to orthologous rice genes on chromosome 6L, TaHKT2;1 and TaHKT2;2 genes were located approximately 3 kb apart on wheat chromosomes 7AL, 7BL and 7DL, forming a static syntenic block in the two species. The chromosomal region on 7AL containing TaHKT2;1 7AL-1 co-located with QTL for shoot Na(+) concentration and yield in some saline environments. The differences in copy number, genes sequences and encoded proteins between TaHKT2;2 homeologous genes and other group II HKT gene families within and across species likely reflect functional diversity for ion selectivity and transport in plants. Evidence indicated that neither TaHKT2;2 nor TaHKT2;1 were associated with primary root Na(+) uptake but TaHKT2;1 may be associated with trait variation for Na(+) exclusion and yield in some but not all saline environments.

  15. PCR-based isolation and identification of full-length low-molecular-weight glutenin subunit genes in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaofei; Liu, Dongcheng; Jiang, Wei; Guo, Xiaoli; Yang, Wenlong; Sun, Jiazhu; Ling, Hongqing; Zhang, Aimin

    2011-12-01

    Low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GSs) are encoded by a multi-gene family and are essential for determining the quality of wheat flour products, such as bread and noodles. However, the exact role or contribution of individual LMW-GS genes to wheat quality remains unclear. This is, at least in part, due to the difficulty in characterizing complete sequences of all LMW-GS gene family members in bread wheat. To identify full-length LMW-GS genes, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method was established, consisting of newly designed conserved primers and the previously developed LMW-GS gene molecular marker system. Using the PCR-based method, 17 LMW-GS genes were identified and characterized in Xiaoyan 54, of which 12 contained full-length sequences. Sequence alignments showed that 13 LMW-GS genes were identical to those found in Xiaoyan 54 using the genomic DNA library screening, and the other four full-length LMW-GS genes were first isolated from Xiaoyan 54. In Chinese Spring, 16 unique LMW-GS genes were isolated, and 13 of them contained full-length coding sequences. Additionally, 16 and 17 LMW-GS genes in Dongnong 101 and Lvhan 328 (chosen from the micro-core collections of Chinese germplasm), respectively, were also identified. Sequence alignments revealed that at least 15 LMW-GS genes were common in the four wheat varieties, and allelic variants of each gene shared high sequence identities (>95%) but exhibited length polymorphism in repetitive regions. This study provides a PCR-based method for efficiently identifying LMW-GS genes in bread wheat, which will improve the characterization of complex members of the LMW-GS gene family and facilitate the understanding of their contributions to wheat quality.

  16. QTLs and potential candidate genes for heat stress tolerance identified from the mapping populations specifically segregating for Fv/Fm in wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Dew Kumari; Torp, Anna Maria; Rosenqvist, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Despite the fact that F-v/F-m (maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II) is the most widely used parameter for a rapid non-destructive measure of stress detection in plants, there are barely any studies on the genetic understanding of this trait under heat stress. Our aim was to identify...... quantitative trait locus (QTL) and the potential candidate genes linked to F-v/F-m for improved photosynthesis under heat stress in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Three bi-parental F-2 mapping populations were generated by crossing three heat tolerant male parents (origin: Afghanistan and Pakistan) selected...... for high F-v/F-m with a common heat susceptible female parent (origin: Germany) selected for lowest F-v/F-m out of a pool of 1274 wheat cultivars of diverse geographic origin. Parents together with 140 F-2 individuals in each population were phenotyped by F-v/F-m under heat stress (40 degrees C for 3 days...

  17. Genome-wide identification and characterization of NB-ARC resistant genes in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and their expression during leaf rust infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Saket; Kazmi, Andaleeb Z; Ahmed, Zainab; Roychowdhury, Gargi; Kumari, Veena; Kumar, Manish; Mukhopadhyay, Kunal

    2017-07-01

    NB-ARC domain-containing resistance genes from the wheat genome were identified, characterized and localized on chromosome arms that displayed differential yet positive response during incompatible and compatible leaf rust interactions. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is an important cereal crop; however, its production is affected severely by numerous diseases including rusts. An efficient, cost-effective and ecologically viable approach to control pathogens is through host resistance. In wheat, high numbers of resistance loci are present but only few have been identified and cloned. A comprehensive analysis of the NB-ARC-containing genes in complete wheat genome was accomplished in this study. Complete NB-ARC encoding genes were mined from the Ensembl Plants database to predict 604 NB-ARC containing sequences using the HMM approach. Genome-wide analysis of orthologous clusters in the NB-ARC-containing sequences of wheat and other members of the Poaceae family revealed maximum homology with Oryza sativa indica and Brachypodium distachyon. The identification of overlap between orthologous clusters enabled the elucidation of the function and evolution of resistance proteins. The distributions of the NB-ARC domain-containing sequences were found to be balanced among the three wheat sub-genomes. Wheat chromosome arms 4AL and 7BL had the most NB-ARC domain-containing contigs. The spatio-temporal expression profiling studies exemplified the positive role of these genes in resistant and susceptible wheat plants during incompatible and compatible interaction in response to the leaf rust pathogen Puccinia triticina. Two NB-ARC domain-containing sequences were modelled in silico, cloned and sequenced to analyze their fine structures. The data obtained in this study will augment isolation, characterization and application NB-ARC resistance genes in marker-assisted selection based breeding programs for improving rust resistance in wheat.

  18. Accumulation of Phenolic Compounds and Expression Profiles of Phenolic Acid Biosynthesis-Related Genes in Developing Grains of White, Purple, and Red Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dongyun; Li, Yaoguang; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Chenyang; Qin, Haixia; Ding, Huina; Xie, Yingxin; Guo, Tiancai

    2016-01-01

    Polyphenols in whole grain wheat have potential health benefits, but little is known about the expression patterns of phenolic acid biosynthesis genes and the accumulation of phenolic acid compounds in different-colored wheat grains. We found that purple wheat varieties had the highest total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity. Among phenolic acid compounds, bound ferulic acid, vanillic, and caffeic acid levels were significantly higher in purple wheat than in white and red wheat, while total soluble phenolic acid, soluble ferulic acid, and vanillic acid levels were significantly higher in purple and red wheat than in white wheat. Ferulic acid and syringic acid levels peaked at 14 days after anthesis (DAA), whereas p-coumaric acid and caffeic acid levels peaked at 7 DAA, and vanillic acid levels gradually increased during grain filling and peaked near ripeness (35 DAA). Nine phenolic acid biosynthesis pathway genes (TaPAL1, TaPAL2, TaC3H1, TaC3H2, TaC4H, Ta4CL1, Ta4CL2, TaCOMT1, and TaCOMT2) exhibited three distinct expression patterns during grain filling, which may be related to the different phenolic acids levels. White wheat had higher phenolic acid contents and relatively high gene expression at the early stage, while purple wheat had the highest phenolic acid contents and gene expression levels at later stages. These results suggest that the expression of phenolic acid biosynthesis genes may be closely related to phenolic acids accumulation.

  19. Identification and positional distribution analysis of transcription factor binding sites for genes from the wheat fl-cDNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhen-Yong; Guo, Xiao-Jiang; Chen, Zhong-Xu; Chen, Wei-Ying; Wang, Ji-Rui

    2017-06-01

    The binding sites of transcription factors (TFs) in upstream DNA regions are called transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs). TFBSs are important elements for regulating gene expression. To date, there have been few studies on the profiles of TFBSs in plants. In total, 4,873 sequences with 5' upstream regions from 8530 wheat fl-cDNA sequences were used to predict TFBSs. We found 4572 TFBSs for the MADS TF family, which was twice as many as for bHLH (1951), B3 (1951), HB superfamily (1914), ERF (1820), and AP2/ERF (1725) TFs, and was approximately four times higher than the remaining TFBS types. The percentage of TFBSs and TF members showed a distinct distribution in different tissues. Overall, the distribution of TFBSs in the upstream regions of wheat fl-cDNA sequences had significant difference. Meanwhile, high frequencies of some types of TFBSs were found in specific regions in the upstream sequences. Both TFs and fl-cDNA with TFBSs predicted in the same tissues exhibited specific distribution preferences for regulating gene expression. The tissue-specific analysis of TFs and fl-cDNA with TFBSs provides useful information for functional research, and can be used to identify relationships between tissue-specific TFs and fl-cDNA with TFBSs. Moreover, the positional distribution of TFBSs indicates that some types of wheat TFBS have different positional distribution preferences in the upstream regions of genes.

  20. Functional studies of heading date-related gene TaPRR73, a paralog of Ppd1 in common wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenping eZhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Photoperiod response-related genes play a crucial role in duration of the plant growth. In this study, we focused on TaPRR73, a paralog of Green Revolution gene Ppd1 (TaPRR37. We found that overexpression of the truncated TaPRR73 form lacking part of the N-terminal PR domain in transgenic rice promoted heading under long day conditions. Association analysis in common wheat verified that TaPRR73 was an important agronomic photoperiod response gene that significantly affected heading date and plant height; expression analysis proved that specific alleles of TaPRR73-A1 had highly expressed levels in earlier heading lines; the distribution of haplotypes indicated that one of these alleles had been selected in breeding programs. Our results demonstrated that TaPRR73 contributed to regulation of heading date in wheat and could be useful in wheat breeding and in broadening adaptation of the crop to new regions.

  1. Sina and Sinb genes in triticale do not determine grain hardness contrary to their orthologs Pina and Pinb in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparis, Sebastian; Orczyk, Waclaw; Nadolska-Orczyk, Anna

    2013-11-26

    Secaloindoline a (Sina) and secaloindoline b (Sinb) genes of hexaploid triticale (x Triticosecale Wittmack) are orthologs of puroindoline a (Pina) and puroindoline b (Pinb) in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). It has already been proven that RNA interference (RNAi)-based silencing of Pina and Pinb genes significantly decreased the puroindoline a and puroindoline b proteins in wheat and essentially increased grain hardness (J Exp Bot 62:4025-4036, 2011). The function of Sina and Sinb in triticale was tested by means of RNAi silencing and compared to wheat. Novel Sina and Sinb alleles in wild-type plants of cv. Wanad were identified and their expression profiles characterized. Alignment with wheat Pina-D1a and Pinb-D1a alleles showed 95% and 93.3% homology with Sina and Sinb coding sequences. Twenty transgenic lines transformed with two hpRNA silencing cassettes directed to silence Sina or Sinb were obtained by the Agrobacterium-mediated method. A significant decrease of expression of both Sin genes in segregating progeny of tested T1 lines was observed independent of the silencing cassette used. The silencing was transmitted to the T4 kernel generation. The relative transcript level was reduced by up to 99% in T3 progeny with the mean for the sublines being around 90%. Silencing of the Sin genes resulted in a substantial decrease of secaloindoline a and secaloindoline b content. The identity of SIN peptides was confirmed by mass spectrometry. The hardness index, measured by the SKCS (Single Kernel Characterization System) method, ranged from 22 to 56 in silent lines and from 37 to 49 in the control, and the mean values were insignificantly lower in the silent ones, proving increased softness. Additionally, the mean total seed protein content of silenced lines was about 6% lower compared with control lines. Correlation coefficients between hardness and transcript level were weakly positive. We documented that RNAi-based silencing of Sin genes resulted in

  2. BAC Libraries from Wheat Chromosome 7D: Efficient Tool for Positional Cloning of Aphid Resistance Genes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimková, Hana; Šafář, Jan; Kubaláková, Marie; Suchánková, Pavla; Čihalíková, Jarmila; Robert-Quatre, Heda; Azhaguvel, P.; Weng, Y. Q.; Peng, J.; Lapitan, N. L. V.; Ma, Y. Q.; You, F. M.; Luo, M. C.; Bartoš, Jan; Doležel, Jaroslav

    -, č. 302543 (2011), s. 1-11 ISSN 1110-7243 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA521/07/1573; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06004 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : TRITICUM-AESTIVUM L. * HEXAPLOID WHEAT * BREAD WHEAT Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.436, year: 2011

  3. Dynamic evolution of alpha-gliadin prolamin gene family in homeologous genomes of hexaploid wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bread wheat is an allohexaploid species containing the three closely related A, B, and D subgenomes. Homeologous Gli-2 loci located on chromosomes 6A, 6B and 6D encode complex groups of alpha-gliadin seed storage proteins that contribute to the functional properties of wheat flour, but also trigger ...

  4. Meiotic homoeologous recombination-based alien gene introgression in the genomics era of wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat (Triticum spp.) has a narrow genetic basis due to its allopolyploid origin. However, wheat has numerous wild relatives usable for expanding genetic variability of its genome through meiotic homoeologous recombination. Traditionally, laborious cytological analyses have been employed to detect h...

  5. IDENTIFICATION OF TECHNOLOGICALLY IMPORTANT GENES AND THEIR PRODUCTS IN THE COLLECTION OF BREAD WHEAT GENOTYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Chňapek

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Wheat is the second most cultivated crop on the world and is very important plant for feed not only mankind but also animals. Because of this is necessary to develop new varieties with better properties. Bread making quality of wheat grain is one of the most important paramaters for quality evaluation. Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE of wheat storage proteins and allelic specific polymerase chain reaction (AS-PCR are analysis suitable for identification, differentiation and characterization of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. There were analysed 16 genotypes of new varieties of bread wheat in our work by SDS-PAGE and obtained results were verified by AS-PCR. Analysed genotypes of bread wheat genotypes were homogenous and single line with very good bread making quality. Our results confirmed hypothesis, that cultivated bread wheat genotypes are uniformed with high production and quality but there is a risk of sensitivity to environmental conditions. SDS-PAGE analyses of wheat grain proteins are fast and not very expensive technique, which provide us information of bread making quality of grains. However, there is possibility of environmental influence on protein synthesis and because of this is necessary to couple these analysis with analysis of DNA.

  6. Mapping genes for resistance to stripe rust in spring wheat landrace PI 480035

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stripe rust caused by Puccinia striiformis Westend. f. sp. tritici Erikks. is an economically important disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Hexaploid spring wheat landrace PI 480035 was highly resistant to stripe rust in the field in Washington during 2011 and 2012. The objective of this resear...

  7. Wheat Landraces Are Better Qualified as Potential Gene Pools at Ultraspaced rather than Densely Grown Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elissavet G. Ninou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The negative relationship between the yield potential of a genotype and its competitive ability may constitute an obstacle to recognize outstanding genotypes within heterogeneous populations. This issue was investigated by growing six heterogeneous wheat landraces along with a pure-line commercial cultivar under both dense and widely spaced conditions. The performance of two landraces showed a perfect match to the above relationship. Although they lagged behind the cultivar by 64 and 38% at the dense stand, the reverse was true with spaced plants where they succeeded in out-yielding the cultivar by 58 and 73%, respectively. It was concluded that dense stand might undervalue a landrace as potential gene pool in order to apply single-plant selection targeting pure-line cultivars, attributable to inability of plants representing high yielding genotypes to exhibit their capacity due to competitive disadvantage. On the other side, the yield expression of individuals is optimized when density is low enough to preclude interplant competition. Therefore, the latter condition appears ideal to identify the most promising landrace for breeding and subsequently recognize the individuals representing the most outstanding genotypes.

  8. Overexpression of the wheat aquaporin gene, TaAQP7, enhances drought tolerance in transgenic tobacco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiyi Zhou

    Full Text Available Aquaporin (AQP proteins have been shown to transport water and other small molecules through biological membranes, which is crucial for plants to combat stress caused by drought. However, the precise role of AQPs in drought stress response is not completely understood in plants. In this study, a PIP2 subgroup gene AQP, designated as TaAQP7, was cloned and characterized from wheat. Expression of TaAQP7-GFP fusion protein revealed its localization in the plasma membrane. TaAQP7 exhibited high water channel activity in Xenopus laevis oocytes and TaAQP7 transcript was induced by dehydration, and treatments with polyethylene glycol (PEG, abscisic acid (ABA and H(2O(2. Further, TaAQP7 was upregulated after PEG treatment and was blocked by inhibitors of ABA biosynthesis, implying that ABA signaling was involved in the upregulation of TaAQP7 after PEG treatment. Overexpression of TaAQP7 increased drought tolerance in tobacco. The transgenic tobacco lines had lower levels of malondialdehyde (MDA and H(2O(2, and less ion leakage (IL, but higher relative water content (RWC and superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT activities when compared with the wild type (WT under drought stress. Taken together, our results show that TaAQP7 confers drought stress tolerance in transgenic tobacco by increasing the ability to retain water, reduce ROS accumulation and membrane damage, and enhance the activities of antioxidants.

  9. Mapping of stripe rust resistance gene in an Aegilops caudate introgression line in wheat and its genetic association with leaf rust resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toor, Puneet Inder; Kaur, Satinder; Bansal, Mitaly; Yadav, Bharat; Chhuneja, Parveen

    2016-12-01

    A pair of stripe rust and leaf rust resistance genes was introgressed from Aegilops caudata, a nonprogenitor diploid species with the CC genome, to cultivated wheat. Inheritance and genetic mapping of stripe rust resistance gene in backcrossrecombinant inbred line (BC-RIL) population derived from the cross of a wheat-Ae. caudata introgression line (IL) T291- 2(pau16060) with wheat cv. PBW343 is reported here. Segregation of BC-RILs for stripe rust resistance depicted a single major gene conditioning adult plant resistance (APR) with stripe rust reaction varying from TR-20MS in resistant RILs signifying the presence of some minor genes as well. Genetic association with leaf rust resistance revealed that two genes are located at a recombination distance of 13%. IL T291-2 had earlier been reported to carry introgressions on wheat chromosomes 2D, 3D, 4D, 5D, 6D and 7D. Genetic mapping indicated the introgression of stripe rust resistance gene on wheat chromosome 5DS in the region carrying leaf rust resistance gene LrAc, but as an independent introgression. Simple sequence repeat (SSR) and sequence-tagged site (STS) markers designed from the survey sequence data of 5DS enriched the target region harbouring stripe and leaf rust resistance genes. Stripe rust resistance locus, temporarily designated as YrAc, mapped at the distal most end of 5DS linked with a group of four colocated SSRs and two resistance gene analogue (RGA)-STS markers at a distance of 5.3 cM. LrAc mapped at a distance of 9.0 cM from the YrAc and at 2.8 cM from RGA-STS marker Ta5DS_2737450, YrAc and LrAc appear to be the candidate genes for marker-assisted enrichment of the wheat gene pool for rust resistance.

  10. Wheat biotechnology: A minireview

    OpenAIRE

    Patnaik, Debasis; Khurana, Paramjit

    2001-01-01

    Due to the inherent difficulties associated with gene delivery into regenerable explants and recovery of plantlets with the introduced transgene, wheat was the last among cereals to be genetically transformed. This review attempts to summarize different efforts in the direction of achieving genetic transformation of wheat by various methods. Particle bombardment is the most widely employed procedure for the introduction of marker genes and also for the generation of transformed wheat with int...

  11. Genetic analysis of a novel broad-spectrum powdery mildew resistance gene from the wheat-Agropyron cristatum introgression line Pubing 74.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yuqing; Yao, Miaomiao; Zhang, Jinpeng; Song, Liqiang; Liu, Weihua; Yang, Xinming; Li, Xiuquan; Li, Lihui

    2016-09-01

    A novel broad-spectrum powdery mildew resistance gene PmPB74 was identified in wheat- Agropyron cristatum introgression line Pubing 74. Development of wheat cultivars with broad-spectrum, durable resistance to powdery mildew has been restricted by lack of superior genetic resources. In this study, a wheat-A. cristatum introgression line Pubing 74, originally selected from a wide cross between the common wheat cultivar Fukuhokomugi (Fukuho) and Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn (2n = 4x = 28; genome PPPP), displayed resistance to powdery mildew at both the seedling and adult stages. The putative alien chromosomal fragment in Pubing 74 was below the detection limit of genomic in situ hybridization (GISH), but evidence for other non-GISH-detectable introgressions was provided by the presence of three STS markers specific to A. cristatum. Genetic analysis indicated that Pubing 74 carried a single dominant gene for powdery mildew resistance, temporarily designated PmPB74. Molecular mapping showed that PmPB74 was located on wheat chromosome arm 5DS, and flanked by markers Xcfd81 and HRM02 at genetic distances of 2.5 and 1.7 cM, respectively. Compared with other lines with powdery mildew resistance gene(s) on wheat chromosome arm 5DS, Pubing 74 was resistant to all 28 Blumeria graminis f. sp tritici (Bgt) isolates from different wheat-producing regions of northern China. Allelism tests indicated that PmPB74 was not allelic to PmPB3558 or Pm2. Our work showed that PmPB74 is a novel gene with broad resistance to powdery mildew, and hence will be helpful in broadening the genetic basis of powdery mildew resistance in wheat.

  12. Cloning and Functional Analysis of MADS-box Genes, TaAG-A and TaAG-B, from a Wheat K-type Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenlong Yang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. is a major crop worldwide. The utilization of heterosis is a promising approach to improve the yield and quality of wheat. Although there have been many studies on wheat cytoplasmic male sterility, its mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we identified two MADS-box genes from a wheat K-type cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS line using homology-based cloning. These genes were localized on wheat chromosomes 3A and 3B and named TaAG-A and TaAG-B, respectively. Analysis of TaAG-A and TaAG-B expression patterns in leaves, spikes, roots, and stems of Chinese Spring wheat determined using quantitative RT-PCR revealed different expression levels in different tissues. TaAG-A had relatively high expression levels in leaves and spikes, but low levels in roots, while TaAG-B had relatively high expression levels in spikes and lower expression in roots, stems, and leaves. Both genes showed downregulation during the mononucleate to trinucleate stages of pollen development in the maintainer line. In contrast, upregulation of TaAG-B was observed in the CMS line. The transcript levels of the two genes were clearly higher in the CMS line compared to the maintainer line at the trinucleate stage. Overexpression of TaAG-A and TaAG-B in Arabidopsis resulted in phenotypes with earlier reproductive development, premature mortality, and abnormal buds, stamens, and stigmas. Overexpression of TaAG-A and TaAG-B gives rise to mutants with many deformities. Silencing TaAG-A and TaAG-B in a fertile wheat line using the virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS method resulted in plants with green and yellow striped leaves, emaciated spikes, and decreased selfing seed set rates. These results demonstrate that TaAG-A and TaAG-B may play a role in male sterility in the wheat CMS line.

  13. Molecular mapping of the novel powdery mildew resistance gene Pm36 introgressed from Triticum turgidum var. dicoccoides in durum wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Antonio; Gadaleta, A; Cenci, A; Carluccio, A V; Abdelbacki, A M M; Simeone, R

    2008-06-01

    Powdery mildew, caused by Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici, is one of the most important wheat diseases in many regions of the world. Triticum turgidum var. dicoccoides (2n=4x=AABB), the progenitor of cultivated wheats, shows particular promises as a donor of useful genetic variation for several traits, including disease resistances. The wild emmer accession MG29896, resistant to powdery mildew, was backcrossed to the susceptible durum wheat cultivar Latino, and a set of backcross inbred lines (BC(5)F(5)) was produced. Genetic analysis of F(3) populations from two resistant introgression lines (5BIL-29 x Latino and 5BIL-42 x Latino) indicated that the powdery mildew resistance is controlled by a single dominant gene. Molecular markers and the bulked segregant analysis were used to characterize and map the powdery mildew resistance. Five AFLP markers (XP43M32((250)), XP46M31((410)), XP41M37((100)), XP41M39((250)), XP39M32((120))), three genomic SSR markers (Xcfd07, Xwmc75, Xgwm408) and one EST-derived SSR marker (BJ261635) were found to be linked to the resistance gene in 5BIL-29 and only the BJ261635 marker in 5BIL-42. By means of Chinese Spring nullisomic-tetrasomic, ditelosomic and deletion lines, the polymorphic markers and the resistance gene were assigned to chromosome bin 5BL6-0.29-0.76. These results indicated that the two lines had the same resistance gene and that the introgressed dicoccoides chromosome segment was longer (35.5 cM) in 5BIL-29 than that introgressed in 5BIL-42 (less than 1.5 cM). As no powdery mildew resistance gene has been reported on chromosome arm 5BL, the novel resistance gene derived from var. dicoccoides was designated Pm36. The 244 bp allele of BJ261635 in 5BIL-42 can be used for marker-assisted selection during the wheat resistance breeding process for facilitating gene pyramiding.

  14. Genome-wide identification and analysis of biotic and abiotic stress regulation of small heat shock protein (HSP20) family genes in bread wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthusamy, Senthilkumar K; Dalal, Monika; Chinnusamy, Viswanathan; Bansal, Kailash C

    2017-04-01

    Small Heat Shock Proteins (sHSPs)/HSP20 are molecular chaperones that protect plants by preventing protein aggregation during abiotic stress conditions, especially heat stress. Due to global climate change, high temperature is emerging as a major threat to wheat productivity. Thus, the identification of HSP20 and analysis of HSP transcriptional regulation under different abiotic stresses in wheat would help in understanding the role of these proteins in abiotic stress tolerance. We used sequences of known rice and Arabidopsis HSP20 HMM profiles as queries against publicly available wheat genome and wheat full length cDNA databases (TriFLDB) to identify the respective orthologues from wheat. 163 TaHSP20 (including 109 sHSP and 54 ACD) genes were identified and classified according to the sub-cellular localization and phylogenetic relationship with sequenced grass genomes (Oryza sativa, Sorghum bicolor, Zea mays, Brachypodium distachyon and Setaria italica). Spatio-temporal, biotic and abiotic stress-specific expression patterns in normalized RNA seq and wheat array datasets revealed constitutive as well as inductive responses of HSP20 in different tissues and developmental stages of wheat. Promoter analysis of TaHSP20 genes showed the presence of tissue-specific, biotic, abiotic, light-responsive, circadian and cell cycle-responsive cis-regulatory elements. 14 TaHSP20 family genes were under the regulation of 8 TamiRNA genes. The expression levels of twelve HSP20 genes were studied under abiotic stress conditions in the drought- and heat-tolerant wheat genotype C306. Of the 13 TaHSP20 genes, TaHSP16.9H-CI showed high constitutive expression with upregulation only under salt stress. Both heat and salt stresses upregulated the expression of TaHSP17.4-CI, TaHSP17.7A-CI, TaHSP19.1-CIII, TaACD20.0B-CII and TaACD20.6C-CIV, while TaHSP23.7-MTI was specifically induced only under heat stress. Our results showed that the identified TaHSP20 genes play an important role under

  15. Genomic Imprinting Was Evolutionarily Conserved during Wheat Polyploidization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guanghui; Liu, Zhenshan; Gao, Lulu; Yu, Kuohai; Feng, Man; Yao, Yingyin; Peng, Huiru; Hu, Zhaorong; Sun, Qixin; Ni, Zhongfu; Xin, Mingming

    2018-01-01

    Genomic imprinting is an epigenetic phenomenon that causes genes to be differentially expressed depending on their parent of origin. To evaluate the evolutionary conservation of genomic imprinting and the effects of ploidy on this process, we investigated parent-of-origin-specific gene expression patterns in the endosperm of diploid ( Aegilops spp), tetraploid, and hexaploid wheat ( Triticum spp) at various stages of development via high-throughput transcriptome sequencing. We identified 91, 135, and 146 maternally or paternally expressed genes (MEGs or PEGs, respectively) in diploid, tetraploid, and hexaploid wheat, respectively, 52.7% of which exhibited dynamic expression patterns at different developmental stages. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis suggested that MEGs and PEGs were involved in metabolic processes and DNA-dependent transcription, respectively. Nearly half of the imprinted genes exhibited conserved expression patterns during wheat hexaploidization. In addition, 40% of the homoeolog pairs originating from whole-genome duplication were consistently maternally or paternally biased in the different subgenomes of hexaploid wheat. Furthermore, imprinted expression was found for 41.2% and 50.0% of homolog pairs that evolved by tandem duplication after genome duplication in tetraploid and hexaploid wheat, respectively. These results suggest that genomic imprinting was evolutionarily conserved between closely related Triticum and Aegilops species and in the face of polyploid hybridization between species in these genera. © 2018 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  16. Molecular mapping of a stripe rust resistance gene in wheat line C51

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-08-18

    Aug 18, 2014 ... This disease causes significant economic losses in terms of .... Development of STS markers. Primers of ..... reference manual, 3rd edition. Whitehead ... Proceedings of the 11th International Wheat Genetic Symposium, pp.

  17. Integrated Metabolo-Transcriptomics Reveals Fusarium Head Blight Candidate Resistance Genes in Wheat QTL-Fhb2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhananjay Dhokane

    Full Text Available Fusarium head blight (FHB caused by Fusarium graminearum not only causes severe losses in yield, but also reduces quality of wheat grain by accumulating mycotoxins. Breeding for host plant resistance is considered as the best strategy to manage FHB. Resistance in wheat to FHB is quantitative in nature, involving cumulative effects of many genes governing resistance. The poor understanding of genetics and lack of precise phenotyping has hindered the development of FHB resistant cultivars. Though more than 100 QTLs imparting FHB resistance have been reported, none discovered the specific genes localized within the QTL region, nor the underlying mechanisms of resistance.In our study recombinant inbred lines (RILs carrying resistant (R-RIL and susceptible (S-RIL alleles of QTL-Fhb2 were subjected to metabolome and transcriptome profiling to discover the candidate genes. Metabolome profiling detected a higher abundance of metabolites belonging to phenylpropanoid, lignin, glycerophospholipid, flavonoid, fatty acid, and terpenoid biosynthetic pathways in R-RIL than in S-RIL. Transcriptome analysis revealed up-regulation of several receptor kinases, transcription factors, signaling, mycotoxin detoxification and resistance related genes. The dissection of QTL-Fhb2 using flanking marker sequences, integrating metabolomic and transcriptomic datasets, identified 4-Coumarate: CoA ligase (4CL, callose synthase (CS, basic Helix Loop Helix (bHLH041 transcription factor, glutathione S-transferase (GST, ABC transporter-4 (ABC4 and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD as putative resistance genes localized within the QTL-Fhb2 region.Some of the identified genes within the QTL region are associated with structural resistance through cell wall reinforcement, reducing the spread of pathogen through rachis within a spike and few other genes that detoxify DON, the virulence factor, thus eventually reducing disease severity. In conclusion, we report that the wheat

  18. Localization of introduced genes on the chromosomes of transgenic barley, wheat and triticale by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, C.; Zimny, J.; Becker, D.

    1997-01-01

    Using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) we localized introduced genes on metaphase chromosomes of barley, wheat, and triticale transformed by microprojectile bombardment of microspores and scutellar tissue with the pDB1 plasmid containing the uidA and bar genes. Thirteen integration sites...... of single-copy integrations. There was a slight tendency towards the localization of transgenes in distal chromosome regions. Using the GAA-satellite sequence for chromosome banding, the chromosomes containing the inserted genes were identified in most cases. Two barley lines derived from the same...... transformant showed a totally different integration pattern. Southern analysis confirmed that the inserted genes were segregating independently, resulting in different integration patterns among the progeny lines. The application of the FISH technique for the analysis of transgenic plants is discussed....

  19. Temporal Gene Expression Profiling of the Wheat Leaf Rust Pathosystem Using cDNA Microarray Reveals Differences in Compatible and Incompatible Defence Pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Fofana, Bourlaye; Banks, Travis W.; McCallum, Brent; Strelkov, Stephen E.; Cloutier, Sylvie

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we detail the construction of a custom cDNA spotted microarray containing 7728 wheat ESTs and the use of the array to identify host genes that are differentially expressed upon challenges with leaf rust fungal pathogens. Wheat cultivar RL6003 (Thatcher Lr1) was inoculated with Puccinia triticina virulence phenotypes BBB (incompatible) or TJB (7-2) (compatible) and sampled at four different time points (3, 6, 12, and 24 hours) after inoculation. Transcript expression levels rela...

  20. The wheat NB-LRR gene TaRCR1 is required for host defence response to the necrotrophic fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia cerealis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiuliang; Lu, Chungui; Du, Lipu; Ye, Xingguo; Liu, Xin; Coules, Anne; Zhang, Zengyan

    2017-06-01

    The necrotrophic fungus Rhizoctonia cerealis is the major pathogen causing sharp eyespot disease in wheat (Triticum aestivum). Nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NB-LRR) proteins often mediate plant disease resistance to biotrophic pathogens. Little is known about the role of NB-LRR genes involved in wheat response to R. cerealis. In this study, a wheat NB-LRR gene, named TaRCR1, was identified in response to R. cerealis infection using Artificial Neural Network analysis based on comparative transcriptomics and its defence role was characterized. The transcriptional level of TaRCR1 was enhanced after R. cerealis inoculation and associated with the resistance level of wheat. TaRCR1 was located on wheat chromosome 3BS and encoded an NB-LRR protein that was consisting of a coiled-coil domain, an NB-ARC domain and 13 imperfect leucine-rich repeats. TaRCR1 was localized in both the cytoplasm and the nucleus. Silencing of TaRCR1 impaired wheat resistance to R. cerealis, whereas TaRCR1 overexpression significantly increased the resistance in transgenic wheat. TaRCR1 regulated certain reactive oxygen species (ROS)-scavenging and production, and defence-related genes, and peroxidase activity. Furthermore, H 2 O 2 pretreatment for 12-h elevated expression levels of TaRCR1 and the above defence-related genes, whereas treatment with a peroxidase inhibitor for 12 h reduced the resistance of TaRCR1-overexpressing transgenic plants and expression levels of these defence-related genes. Taken together, TaRCR1 positively contributes to defence response to R. cerealis through maintaining ROS homoeostasis and regulating the expression of defence-related genes. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Over-expression of a tobacco nitrate reductase gene in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. increases seed protein content and weight without augmenting nitrogen supplying.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Qiang Zhao

    Full Text Available Heavy nitrogen (N application to gain higher yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. resulted in increased production cost and environment pollution. How to diminish the N supply without losing yield and/or quality remains a challenge. To meet the challenge, we integrated and expressed a tobacco nitrate reductase gene (NR in transgenic wheat. The 35S-NR gene was transferred into two winter cultivars, "Nongda146" and "Jimai6358", by Agrobacterium-mediation. Over-expression of the transgene remarkably enhanced T1 foliar NR activity and significantly augmented T2 seed protein content and 1000-grain weight in 63.8% and 68.1% of T1 offspring (total 67 individuals analyzed, respectively. Our results suggest that constitutive expression of foreign nitrate reductase gene(s in wheat might improve nitrogen use efficiency and thus make it possible to increase seed protein content and weight without augmenting N supplying.

  2. Over-expression of a tobacco nitrate reductase gene in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) increases seed protein content and weight without augmenting nitrogen supplying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiao-Qiang; Nie, Xuan-Li; Xiao, Xing-Guo

    2013-01-01

    Heavy nitrogen (N) application to gain higher yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) resulted in increased production cost and environment pollution. How to diminish the N supply without losing yield and/or quality remains a challenge. To meet the challenge, we integrated and expressed a tobacco nitrate reductase gene (NR) in transgenic wheat. The 35S-NR gene was transferred into two winter cultivars, "Nongda146" and "Jimai6358", by Agrobacterium-mediation. Over-expression of the transgene remarkably enhanced T1 foliar NR activity and significantly augmented T2 seed protein content and 1000-grain weight in 63.8% and 68.1% of T1 offspring (total 67 individuals analyzed), respectively. Our results suggest that constitutive expression of foreign nitrate reductase gene(s) in wheat might improve nitrogen use efficiency and thus make it possible to increase seed protein content and weight without augmenting N supplying.

  3. Identification of Proteins Using iTRAQ and Virus-Induced Gene Silencing Reveals Three Bread Wheat Proteins Involved in the Response to Combined Osmotic-Cold Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; Zhang, Lingran; Shi, Chaonan; Zhao, Lei; Cui, Dangqun; Chen, Feng

    2018-05-25

    Crops are often subjected to a combination of stresses in the field. To date, studies on the physiological and molecular responses of common wheat to a combination of osmotic and cold stresses, however, remain unknown. In this study, wheat seedlings exposed to osmotic-cold stress for 24 h showed inhibited growth, as well as increased lipid peroxidation, relative electrolyte leakage, and soluble sugar contents. iTRAQ-based quantitative proteome method was employed to determine the proteomic profiles of the roots and leaves of wheat seedlings exposed to osmotic-cold stress conditions. A total of 250 and 258 proteins with significantly altered abundance in the roots and leaves were identified, respectively, and the majority of these proteins displayed differential abundance, thereby revealing organ-specific differences in adaptation to osmotic-cold stress. Yeast two hybrid assay examined five pairs of stress/defense-related protein-protein interactions in the predicted protein interaction network. Furthermore, quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that abiotic stresses increased the expression of three candidate protein genes, i.e., TaGRP2, CDCP, and Wcor410c in wheat leaves. Virus-induced gene silencing indicated that three genes TaGRP2, CDCP, and Wcor410c were involved in modulating osmotic-cold stress in common wheat. Our study provides useful information for the elucidation of molecular and genetics bases of osmotic-cold combined stress in bread wheat.

  4. Comparison of the genetic organization of the early salt-stress-response gene system in salt-tolerant Lophopyrum elongatum and salt-sensitive wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Dubcovsky, J; Galvez, AF; Dvořák, J

    1994-01-01

    Lophopyrum elongatum is a facultative halophyte related to wheat. Eleven unique clones corresponding to genes showing enhanced mRNA accumulation in the early stages of salt stress were previously isolated from a L. elongatum salt-stressed-root cDNA library. The chromosomal distribution of genes complementary to these clones in several genomes of the tribe Triticeae and their copy number in the L. elongatum and wheat genomes are reported. Genes complementary to clones pESI4, pESI14, pESI15, pE...

  5. TaGS5-3A, a grain size gene selected during wheat improvement for larger kernel and yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lin; Li, Tian; Hao, Chenyang; Wang, Yuquan; Chen, Xinhong; Zhang, Xueyong

    2016-05-01

    Grain size is a dominant component of grain weight in cereals. Earlier studies have shown that OsGS5 plays a major role in regulating both grain size and weight in rice via promotion of cell division. In this study, we isolated TaGS5 homoeologues in wheat and mapped them on chromosomes 3A, 3B and 3D. Temporal and spatial expression analysis showed that TaGS5 homoeologues were preferentially expressed in young spikes and developing grains. Two alleles of TaGS5-3A, TaGS5-3A-T and TaGS5-3A-G were identified in wheat accessions, and a functional marker was developed to discriminate them. Association analysis revealed that TaGS5-3A-T was significantly correlated with larger grain size and higher thousand kernel weight. Biochemical assays showed that TaGS5-3A-T possesses a higher enzymatic activity than TaGS5-3A-G. Transgenic rice lines overexpressing TaGS5-3A-T also exhibited larger grain size and higher thousand kernel weight than TaGS5-3A-G lines, and the transcript levels of cell cycle-related genes in TaGS5-3A-T lines were higher than those in TaGS5-3A-G lines. Furthermore, systematic evolution analysis in diploid, tetraploid and hexaploid wheat showed that TaGS5-3A underwent strong artificial selection during wheat polyploidization events and the frequency changes of two alleles demonstrated that TaGS5-3A-T was favoured in global modern wheat cultivars. These results suggest that TaGS5-3A is a positive regulator of grain size and its favoured allele TaGS5-3A-T exhibits a larger potential application in wheat high-yield breeding. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Wheat Ammonium Transporter (AMT) Gene Family: Diversity and Possible Role in Host-Pathogen Interaction with Stem Rust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianya; Liao, Kai; Xu, Xiaofeng; Gao, Yue; Wang, Ziyuan; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Jia, Baolei; Xuan, Yuanhu

    2017-01-01

    Ammonium transporter (AMT) proteins have been reported in many plants, but no comprehensive analysis was performed in wheat. In this study, we identified 23 AMT members (hereafter TaAMTs) using a protein homology search in wheat genome. Tissue-specific expression analysis showed that TaAMT1;1a, TaAMT1;1b , and TaAMT1;3a were relatively more highly expressed in comparison with other TaAMTs . TaAMT1;1a, TaAMT1;1b, and TaAMT1;3a-GFP were localized in the plasma membrane in tobacco leaves, and TaAMT1;1a, TaAMT1;1b , and TaAMT1;3a successfully complemented a yeast 31019b strain in which ammonium uptake was deficient. In addition, the expression of TaAMT1;1b in an Arabidopsis AMT quadruple mutant ( qko ) successfully restored [Formula: see text] uptake ability. Resupply of [Formula: see text] rapidly increased cellular [Formula: see text] contents and suppressed expression of TaAMT1;3a , but not of TaAMT;1;1a and TaAMT1;1b expressions. Expression of TaAMT1;1a, TaAMT1;1b , and TaAMT1;3a was not changed in leaves after [Formula: see text] resupply. In contrast, nitrogen (N) deprivation induced TaAMT1;1a, TaAMT1;1b , and TaAMT1;3a gene expressions in the roots and leaves. Expression analysis in the leaves of the stem rust-susceptible wheat line "Little Club" and the rust-tolerant strain "Mini 2761" revealed that TaAMT1;1a, TaAMT1;1b , and TaAMT1;3a were specifically induced in the former but not in the latter. Rust-susceptible wheat plants grown under N-free conditions exhibited a lower disease index than plants grown with [Formula: see text] as the sole N source in the medium after infection with Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici , suggesting that [Formula: see text] and its transport may facilitate the infection of wheat stem rust disease. Our findings may be important for understanding the potential function TaAMTs in wheat plants.

  7. Genome-wide association study for Identification and validation of novel SNP markers for Sr6 stem rust resistance gene in bread wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stem rust (caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici Erikss. & E. Henn.), is a major disease in wheat (Triticum aestivium L.). However, in recent years it occurs rarely in Nebraska due to weather and the effective selection and gene pyramiding of resistance genes. To understand the genetic basis of...

  8. Comparison of Fusarium graminearum transcriptomes on living or dead wheat differentiates substrate-responsive and defense-responsive genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Boedi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium graminearum is an opportunistic pathogen of cereals where it causes severe yield losses and concomitant mycotoxin contamination of the grains. The pathogen has mixed biotrophic and necrotrophic (saprophytic growth phases during infection and the regulatory networks associated with these phases have so far always been analyzed together. In this study we compared the transcriptomes of fungal cells infecting a living, actively defending plant representing the mixed live style (pathogenic growth on living flowering wheat heads to the response of the fungus infecting identical, but dead plant tissues (cold-killed flowering wheat heads representing strictly saprophytic conditions. We found that the living plant actively suppressed fungal growth and promoted much higher toxin production in comparison to the identical plant tissue without metabolism suggesting that molecules signaling secondary metabolite induction are not pre-existing or not stable in the plant in sufficient amounts before infection. Differential gene expression analysis was used to define gene sets responding to the active or the passive plant as main impact factor and driver for gene expression. We correlated our results to the published F. graminearum transcriptomes, proteomes and secretomes and found that only a limited number of in planta- expressed genes require the living plant for induction but the majority uses simply the plant tissue as signal. Many secondary metabolite (SM gene clusters show a heterogeneous expression pattern within the cluster indicating that different genetic or epigenetic signals govern the expression of individual genes within a physically linked cluster. Our bioinformatic approach also identified fungal genes which were actively repressed by signals derived from the active plant and may thus represent direct targets of the plant defense against the invading pathogen.

  9. Transposable elements generate population-specific insertional patterns and allelic variation in genes of wild emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domb, Katherine; Keidar, Danielle; Yaakov, Beery; Khasdan, Vadim; Kashkush, Khalil

    2017-10-27

    Natural populations of the tetraploid wild emmer wheat (genome AABB) were previously shown to demonstrate eco-geographically structured genetic and epigenetic diversity. Transposable elements (TEs) might make up a significant part of the genetic and epigenetic variation between individuals and populations because they comprise over 80% of the wild emmer wheat genome. In this study, we performed detailed analyses to assess the dynamics of transposable elements in 50 accessions of wild emmer wheat collected from 5 geographically isolated sites. The analyses included: the copy number variation of TEs among accessions in the five populations, population-unique insertional patterns, and the impact of population-unique/specific TE insertions on structure and expression of genes. We assessed the copy numbers of 12 TE families using real-time quantitative PCR, and found significant copy number variation (CNV) in the 50 wild emmer wheat accessions, in a population-specific manner. In some cases, the CNV difference reached up to 6-fold. However, the CNV was TE-specific, namely some TE families showed higher copy numbers in one or more populations, and other TE families showed lower copy numbers in the same population(s). Furthermore, we assessed the insertional patterns of 6 TE families using transposon display (TD), and observed significant population-specific insertional patterns. The polymorphism levels of TE-insertional patterns reached 92% among all wild emmer wheat accessions, in some cases. In addition, we observed population-specific/unique TE insertions, some of which were located within or close to protein-coding genes, creating allelic variations in a population-specific manner. We also showed that those genes are differentially expressed in wild emmer wheat. For the first time, this study shows that TEs proliferate in wild emmer wheat in a population-specific manner, creating new alleles of genes, which contribute to the divergent evolution of homeologous genes

  10. Identification and molecular characterization of a trans-acting small interfering RNA producing locus regulating leaf rust responsive gene expression in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Summi; Kumar, Dhananjay; Jha, Shailendra; Prabhu, Kumble Vinod; Kumar, Manish; Mukhopadhyay, Kunal

    2017-11-01

    A novel leaf rust responsive ta-siRNA-producing locus was identified in wheat showing similarity to 28S rRNA and generated four differentially expressing ta-siRNAs by phasing which targeted stress responsive genes. Trans-acting-small interfering RNAs (Ta-siRNAs) are plant specific molecules generally involved in development and are also stress responsive. Ta-siRNAs identified in wheat till date are all responsive to abiotic stress only. Wheat cultivation is severely affected by rusts and leaf rust particularly affects grain filling. This study reports a novel ta-siRNA producing locus (TAS) in wheat which is a segment of 28S ribosomal RNA but shows differential expression during leaf rust infestation. Four small RNA libraries prepared from wheat Near Isogenic Lines were treated with leaf rust pathogen and compared with untreated controls. A TAS with the ability to generate four ta-siRNAs by phasing events was identified along with the microRNA TamiR16 as the phase initiator. The targets of the ta-siRNAs included α-gliadin, leucine rich repeat, trans-membrane proteins, glutathione-S-transferase, and fatty acid desaturase among others, which are either stress responsive genes or are essential for normal growth and development of plants. Expression of the TAS, its generated ta-siRNAs, and their target genes were profiled at five different time points after pathogen inoculation of susceptible and resistant wheat isolines and compared with mock-inoculated controls. Comparative analysis of expression unveiled differential and reciprocal relationship as well as discrete patterns between susceptible and resistant isolines. The expression profiles of the target genes of the identified ta-siRNAs advocate more towards effector triggered susceptibility favouring pathogenesis. The study helps in discerning the functions of wheat genes regulated by ta-siRNAs in response to leaf rust.

  11. Development of a new marker system for identifying the complex members of the low-molecular-weight glutenin subunit gene family in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaofei; Liu, Dongcheng; Yang, Wenlong; Liu, Kunfan; Sun, Jiazhu; Guo, Xiaoli; Li, Yiwen; Wang, Daowen; Ling, Hongqing; Zhang, Aimin

    2011-05-01

    Low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GSs) play an important role in determining the bread-making quality of bread wheat. However, LMW-GSs display high polymorphic protein complexes encoded by multiple genes, and elucidating the complex LMW-GS gene family in bread wheat remains challenging. In the present study, using conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with conserved primers and high-resolution capillary electrophoresis, we developed a new molecular marker system for identifying LMW-GS gene family members. Based on sequence alignment of 13 LMW-GS genes previously identified in the Chinese bread wheat variety Xiaoyan 54 and other genes available in GenBank, PCR primers were developed and assigned to conserved sequences spanning the length polymorphism regions of LMW-GS genes. After PCR amplification, 17 DNA fragments in Xiaoyan 54 were detected using capillary electrophoresis. In total, 13 fragments were identical to previously identified LMW-GS genes, and the other 4 were derived from unique LMW-GS genes by sequencing. This marker system was also used to identify LMW-GS genes in Chinese Spring and its group 1 nulli-tetrasomic lines. Among the 17 detected DNA fragments, 4 were located on chromosome 1A, 5 on 1B, and 8 on 1D. The results suggest that this marker system is useful for large-scale identification of LMW-GS genes in bread wheat varieties, and for the selection of desirable LMW-GS genes to improve the bread-making quality in wheat molecular breeding programmes.

  12. Dual RNA-seq transcriptional analysis of wheat roots colonized by Azospirillum brasilense reveals up-regulation of nutrient acquisition and cell cycle genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilios-Neto, Doumit; Bonato, Paloma; Wassem, Roseli; Tadra-Sfeir, Michelle Z; Brusamarello-Santos, Liziane C C; Valdameri, Glaucio; Donatti, Lucélia; Faoro, Helisson; Weiss, Vinicius A; Chubatsu, Leda S; Pedrosa, Fábio O; Souza, Emanuel M

    2014-05-16

    The rapid growth of the world's population demands an increase in food production that no longer can be reached by increasing amounts of nitrogenous fertilizers. Plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) might be an alternative to increase nitrogenous use efficiency (NUE) in important crops such wheat. Azospirillum brasilense is one of the most promising PGPB and wheat roots colonized by A. brasilense is a good model to investigate the molecular basis of plant-PGPB interaction including improvement in plant-NUE promoted by PGPB. We performed a dual RNA-Seq transcriptional profiling of wheat roots colonized by A. brasilense strain FP2. cDNA libraries from biological replicates of colonized and non-inoculated wheat roots were sequenced and mapped to wheat and A. brasilense reference sequences. The unmapped reads were assembled de novo. Overall, we identified 23,215 wheat expressed ESTs and 702 A. brasilense expressed transcripts. Bacterial colonization caused changes in the expression of 776 wheat ESTs belonging to various functional categories, ranging from transport activity to biological regulation as well as defense mechanism, production of phytohormones and phytochemicals. In addition, genes encoding proteins related to bacterial chemotaxi, biofilm formation and nitrogen fixation were highly expressed in the sub-set of A. brasilense expressed genes. PGPB colonization enhanced the expression of plant genes related to nutrient up-take, nitrogen assimilation, DNA replication and regulation of cell division, which is consistent with a higher proportion of colonized root cells in the S-phase. Our data support the use of PGPB as an alternative to improve nutrient acquisition in important crops such as wheat, enhancing plant productivity and sustainability.

  13. Genome-Wide Identification of Cyclic Nucleotide-Gated Ion Channel Gene Family in Wheat and Functional Analyses of TaCNGC14 and TaCNGC16

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    Jia Guo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclic nucleotide gated channels (CNGCs play multifaceted roles in plants, particularly with respect to signaling processes associated with abiotic stress signaling and during host-pathogen interactions. Despite key roles during plant survival and response to environment, little is known about the activity and function of CNGC family in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L., a key stable food around the globe. In this study, we performed a genome-wide identification of CNGC family in wheat and identified a total 47 TaCNGCs in wheat, classifying these genes into four major groups (I–IV with two sub-groups (IVa and IVb. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of several conserved motifs, including a phosphate binding cassette (PBC and a “hinge” region, both of which have been hypothesized to be critical for the function of wheat CNGCs. During wheat infection with Pst, the transcript levels of TaCNGC14 and TaCNGC16, both members of group IVb, showed significant induction during a compatible interaction, while a reduction in gene expression was observed in incompatible interactions. In addition, TaCNGC14 and TaCNGC16 mRNA accumulation was significantly influenced by exogenously applied hormones, including abscisic acid (ABA, methyl jasmonate (MeJA, and salicylic acid (SA, suggesting a role in hormone signaling and/or perception. Silencing of TaCNGC14 and TaCNGC16 limited Pst growth and increased wheat resistance against Pst. The results presented herein contribute to our understanding of the wheat CNGC gene family and the mechanism of TaCNGCs signaling during wheat-Pst interaction.

  14. Effect of ovary induction on bread wheat anther culture: ovary genotype and developmental stage, and candidate gene association.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Castillo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ovary pre-conditioned medium and ovary co-culture increased the efficiency of green doubled haploid plant production in bread wheat anther culture. The positive effect of this medium led to a 6- and 11-fold increase in the numbers of embryos and green plants, respectively, having a greater effect on a medium-low responding cultivar. Ovary genotype and developmental stage significantly affected microspore embryogenesis. By he use of Caramba ovaries it was possible to reach a 2-fold increase in the number of embryos and green plants, and to decrease the rate of albinism. Mature ovaries from flowers containing microspores at a late binucleate stage raised the number of embryos and green plants by 25% and 46% as compared to immature ovaries (excised from flowers with microspores at a mid-late uninucleate stage. The highest numbers of embryos and green plants were produced when using mature Caramba ovaries. Ovaries from Galeón, Tigre and Kilopondio cultivars successfully induced microspore embryogenesis at the same rate as Caramba ovaries. Moreover, Tigre ovaries raised the percentage of spontaneous chromosome doubling up to 71%. Attempts were made to identify molecular mechanisms associated to the inductive effect of the ovaries on microspore embryogenesis. The genes TAA1b, FLA26 and WALI6 associated to wheat microspore embryogenesis, the CGL1 gene involved in glycan biosynthesis or degradation, and the FER gene involved in the ovary signalling process were expressed and/or induced at different rates during ovary culture. The expression pattern of FLA26 and FER could be related to the differences between genotypes and developmental stages in the inductive effect of the ovary. Our results open opportunities for new approaches to increase bread wheat doubled haploid production by anther culture, and to identify the functional components of the ovary inductive effect on microspore embryogenesis.

  15. Quantitative Proteomics of the Root of Transgenic Wheat Expressing TaBWPR-1.2 Genes in Response to Waterlogging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emdadul Haque

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Once candidate genes are available, the application of genetic transformation plays a major part to study their function in plants for adaptation to respective environmental stresses, including waterlogging (WL. The introduction of stress-inducible genes into wheat remains difficult because of low transformation and plant regeneration efficiencies and expression variability and instability. Earlier, we found two cDNAs encoding WL stress-responsive wheat pathogenesis-related proteins 1.2 (TaBWPR-1.2, TaBWPR-1.2#2 and TaBWPR-1.2#13. Using microprojectile bombardment, both cDNAs were introduced into “Bobwhite”. Despite low transformation efficiency, four independent T2 homozygous lines for each gene were isolated, where transgenes were ubiquitously and variously expressed. The highest transgene expression was obtained in Ubi:TaBWPR-1.2#2 L#11a and Ubi:TaBWPR-1.2#13 L#4a. Using quantitative proteomics, the root proteins of L#11a were analyzed to explore possible physiological pathways regulated by TaBWPR-1.2 under normal and waterlogged conditions. In L#11a, the abundance of proteasome subunit alpha type-3 decreased under normal conditions, whereas that of ferredoxin precursor and elongation factor-2 increased under waterlogged conditions in comparison with normal plants. Proteomic results suggest that L#11a is one of the engineered wheat plants where TaBWPR-1.2#2 is most probably involved in proteolysis, protein synthesis and alteration in the energy pathway in root tissues via the above proteins in order to gain metabolic adjustment to WL.

  16. Genetic analysis of kernel texture (grain hardness) in a hard red spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) bi-parental population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grain hardness is a very important trait in determining wheat market class and also influences milling and baking traits. At the grain Hardness (Ha) locus on chromosome 5DS, there are two primary mutations responsible for conveying a harder kernel texture among U.S. hard red spring wheats: (1) the P...

  17. Constitutive overexpression of the TaNF-YB4 gene in transgenic wheat significantly improves grain yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Dinesh; Shavrukov, Yuri; Bazanova, Natalia; Chirkova, Larissa; Borisjuk, Nikolai; Kovalchuk, Nataliya; Ismagul, Ainur; Parent, Boris; Langridge, Peter; Hrmova, Maria; Lopato, Sergiy

    2015-11-01

    Heterotrimeric nuclear factors Y (NF-Ys) are involved in regulation of various vital functions in all eukaryotic organisms. Although a number of NF-Y subunits have been characterized in model plants, only a few have been functionally evaluated in crops. In this work, a number of genes encoding NF-YB and NF-YC subunits were isolated from drought-tolerant wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. RAC875), and the impact of the overexpression of TaNF-YB4 in the Australian wheat cultivar Gladius was investigated. TaNF-YB4 was isolated as a result of two consecutive yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) screens, where ZmNF-YB2a was used as a starting bait. A new NF-YC subunit, designated TaNF-YC15, was isolated in the first Y2H screen and used as bait in a second screen, which identified two wheat NF-YB subunits, TaNF-YB2 and TaNF-YB4. Three-dimensional modelling of a TaNF-YB2/TaNF-YC15 dimer revealed structural determinants that may underlie interaction selectivity. The TaNF-YB4 gene was placed under the control of the strong constitutive polyubiquitin promoter from maize and introduced into wheat by biolistic bombardment. The growth and yield components of several independent transgenic lines with up-regulated levels of TaNF-YB4 were evaluated under well-watered conditions (T1-T3 generations) and under mild drought (T2 generation). Analysis of T2 plants was performed in large deep containers in conditions close to field trials. Under optimal watering conditions, transgenic wheat plants produced significantly more spikes but other yield components did not change. This resulted in a 20-30% increased grain yield compared with untransformed control plants. Under water-limited conditions transgenic lines maintained parity in yield performance. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  18. Gene expression plasticity resulting from parental leaf damage in Mimulus guttatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colicchio, Jack M; Monnahan, Patrick J; Kelly, John K; Hileman, Lena C

    2015-01-01

    Leaf trichome density in Mimulus guttatus can be altered by the parental environment. In this study, we compared global gene expression patterns in progeny of damaged and control plants. Significant differences in gene expression probably explain the observed trichome response, and identify additional responsive pathways. Using whole transcriptome RNA sequencing, we estimated differential gene expression between isogenic seedlings whose parents had, or had not, been subject to leaf damage. We identified over 900 genes that were differentially expressed in response to parental wounding. These genes clustered into groups involved in cell wall and cell membrane development, stress response pathways, and secondary metabolism. Gene expression is modified as a consequence of the parental environment in a targeted way that probably alters multiple developmental pathways, and may increase progeny fitness if they experience environments similar to that of their parents. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  19. Analysis of aneuploid lines of bread wheat to map chromosomal locations of genes controlling root hair length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Miao; Rathjen, Tina; Weligama, Kumara; Forrest, Kerrie; Hayden, Matthew; Delhaize, Emmanuel

    2017-06-01

    Long root hairs enable the efficient uptake of poorly mobile nutrients such as phosphorus. Mapping the chromosomal locations of genes that control root hair length can help exploit the natural variation within crops to develop improved cultivars. Genetic stocks of the wheat cultivar 'Chinese Spring' were used to map genes that control root hair length. Aneuploid stocks of 'Chinese Spring' were screened using a rapid method based on rhizosheath size and then selected lines were assayed for root hair length to identify chromosomes harbouring genes controlling root hair length. A series of lines with various fractional deletions of candidate chromosomes were then screened to map the root hair loci more accurately. A line with a deletion in chromosome 5A was analysed with a 90 000 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array. The phosphorus acquisition efficiency (PAE) of one deletion line was compared with that of euploid 'Chinese Spring' by growing the seedlings in pots at low and luxury phosphorus supplies. Chromosomes 1A, 1D and 5A were found to harbour genes controlling root hair length. The 90 000 SNP array identified two candidate genes controlling root hair length located on chromosome 5A. The line with a deletion in chromosome 5A had root hairs that were approx. 20 % shorter than euploid 'Chinese Spring', but this was insufficient to reduce its PAE. A rapid screen for rhizosheath size enabled chromosomal regions controlling root hair length to be mapped in the wheat cultivar 'Chinese Spring' and subsequent analysis with an SNP array identified candidate genes controlling root hair length. The difference in root hair length between euploid 'Chinese Spring' and a deletion line identified in the rapid screen was still apparent, albeit attenuated, when the seedlings were grown on a fully fertilized soil. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  20. Transcriptome analysis of an mvp mutant reveals important changes in global gene expression and a role for methyl jasmonate in vernalization and flowering in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diallo, Amadou Oury; Agharbaoui, Zahra; Badawi, Mohamed A; Ali-Benali, Mohamed Ali; Moheb, Amira; Houde, Mario; Sarhan, Fathey

    2014-06-01

    The einkorn wheat mutant mvp-1 (maintained vegetative phase 1) has a non-flowering phenotype caused by deletions including, but not limited to, the genes CYS, PHYC, and VRN1. However, the impact of these deletions on global gene expression is still unknown. Transcriptome analysis showed that these deletions caused the upregulation of several pathogenesis-related (PR) and jasmonate-responsive genes. These results suggest that jasmonates may be involved in flowering and vernalization in wheat. To test this hypothesis, jasmonic acid (JA) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) content in mvp and wild-type plants was measured. The content of JA was comparable in all plants, whereas the content of MeJA was higher by more than 6-fold in mvp plants. The accumulation of MeJA was also observed in vernalization-sensitive hexaploid winter wheat during cold exposure. This accumulation declined rapidly once plants were deacclimated under floral-inductive growth conditions. This suggests that MeJA may have a role in floral transition. To confirm this result, we treated vernalization-insensitive spring wheat with MeJA. The treatment delayed flowering with significant downregulation of both TaVRN1 and TaFT1 genes. These data suggest a role for MeJA in modulating vernalization and flowering time in wheat. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  1. Real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for endogenous reference gene for specific detection and quantification of common wheat-derived DNA (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vautrin, Sonia; Zhang, David

    2007-01-01

    A species-specific endogenous reference gene system was developed for polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based analysis in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) by targeting the ALMT1 gene, an aluminium-activated malate transporter. The primers and probe were elaborated for real-time PCR-based qualitative and quantitative assay. The size of amplified product is 95 base pairs. The specificity was assessed on 17 monocot and dicot plant species. The established real-time PCR assay amplified only T. aestivum-derived DNA; no amplification occurred on other phylogenetically related species, including durum wheat (T. durum). The robustness of the system was tested on the DNA of 15 common wheat cultivars using 20 000 genomic copies per PCR the mean cycle threshold (Ct) values of 24.02 +/- 0.251 were obtained. The absolute limits of detection and quantification of the real-time PCR assay were estimated to 2 and 20 haploid genome copies of common wheat, respectively. The linearity was experimentally validated on 2-fold serial dilutions of DNA from 650 to 20 000 haploid genome copies. All these results show that the real-time PCR assay developed on the ALMT1 gene is suitable to be used as an endogenous reference gene for PCR-based specific detection and quantification of T. aestivum-derived DNA in various applications, in particular for the detection and quantification of genetically modified materials in common wheat.

  2. Birth and Adoptive Parent Antisocial Behavior and Parenting: A Study of Evocative Gene-Environment Correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klahr, Ashlea M; Burt, S Alexandra; Leve, Leslie D; Shaw, Daniel S; Ganiban, Jody M; Reiss, David; Neiderhiser, Jenae M

    2017-03-01

    Negative parenting is shaped by the genetically influenced characteristics of children (via evocative rGE) and by parental antisocial behavior; however, it is unclear how these factors jointly impact parenting. This study examined the effects of birth parent and adoptive parent antisocial behavior on negative parenting. Participants included 546 families within a prospective adoption study. Adoptive parent antisocial behavior emerged as a small but significant predictor of negative parenting at 18 months and of change in parenting from 18 to 27 months. Birth parent antisocial behavior predicted change in adoptive father's (but not mother's) parenting over time. These findings highlight the role of parent characteristics and suggest that evocative rGE effects on parenting may be small in magnitude in early childhood. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  3. Expression of phytoene synthase1 and carotene desaturase crtI genes result in an increase in the total carotenoids content in transgenic elite wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Ling; Wang, Cheng; Chen, Ling; Liu, Huijuan; Yang, Guangxiao; He, Guangyuan

    2009-09-23

    Dietary micronutrient deficiencies, such as the lack of vitamin A, are a major source of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Carotenoids in food can function as provitamin A in humans, while grains of Chinese elite wheat cultivars generally have low carotenoid contents. To increase the carotenoid contents in common wheat endosperm, transgenic wheat has been generated by expressing the maize y1 gene encoding phytoene synthase driven by a endosperm-specific 1Dx5 promoter in the elite wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) variety EM12, together with the bacterial phytoene desaturase crtI gene from Erwinia uredovora under the constitutive CaMV 35S promoter control. A clear increase of the carotenoid content was detected in the endosperms of transgenic wheat that visually showed a light yellow color. The total carotenoids content was increased up to 10.8-fold as compared with the nontransgenic EM12 cultivar. To test whether the variability of total carotenoid content in different transgenic lines was due to differences in the transgene copy number or expression pattern, Southern hybridization and semiquantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analyses were curried out. The results showed that transgene copy numbers and transcript levels did not associate well with carotenoid contents. The expression patterns of endogenous carotenoid genes, such as the phytoene synthases and carotene desaturases, were also investigated in wild-type and transgenic wheat lines. No significant changes in expression levels of these genes were detected in the transgenic endosperms, indicating that the increase in carotenoid transgenic wheat endosperms resulted from the expression of transgenes.

  4. Transcriptome analysis of H2O2-treated wheat seedlings reveals a H2O2-responsive fatty acid desaturase gene participating in powdery mildew resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aili Li

    Full Text Available Hydrogen peroxide (H(2O(2 plays important roles in plant biotic and abiotic stress responses. However, the effect of H(2O(2 stress on the bread wheat transcriptome is still lacking. To investigate the cellular and metabolic responses triggered by H(2O(2, we performed an mRNA tag analysis of wheat seedlings under 10 mM H(2O(2 treatment for 6 hour in one powdery mildew (PM resistant (PmA and two susceptible (Cha and Han lines. In total, 6,156, 6,875 and 3,276 transcripts were found to be differentially expressed in PmA, Han and Cha respectively. Among them, 260 genes exhibited consistent expression patterns in all three wheat lines and may represent a subset of basal H(2O(2 responsive genes that were associated with cell defense, signal transduction, photosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, lipid metabolism, redox homeostasis, and transport. Among genes specific to PmA, 'transport' activity was significantly enriched in Gene Ontology analysis. MapMan classification showed that, while both up- and down- regulations were observed for auxin, abscisic acid, and brassinolides signaling genes, the jasmonic acid and ethylene signaling pathway genes were all up-regulated, suggesting H(2O(2-enhanced JA/Et functions in PmA. To further study whether any of these genes were involved in wheat PM response, 19 H(2O(2-responsive putative defense related genes were assayed in wheat seedlings infected with Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt. Eight of these genes were found to be co-regulated by H(2O(2 and Bgt, among which a fatty acid desaturase gene TaFAD was then confirmed by virus induced gene silencing (VIGS to be required for the PM resistance. Together, our data presents the first global picture of the wheat transcriptome under H(2O(2 stress and uncovers potential links between H(2O(2 and Bgt responses, hence providing important candidate genes for the PM resistance in wheat.

  5. PLEIOTROPIC EFFECT OF Rht3 DWARFING GENE ON SOME TRAITS OF WHEAT (Tr. aestivum L. em Thell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jošt

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available True-isogenic lines, differing only in the semi-dominant Rht3 dwarfing gene, were developed from the cross 'Tom Thumb x Bankuty 1201' during 17 years of continuous selection on heterozygous semi-dwarf plant. The effect of double (Rht3 Rht3 = full-dwarf, single (Rht3 rht3 =semi-dwarf, or no dwarfing gene (rht3 rht3 = tall dosage on some plant, seed, and flour quality traits were observed in the isogenic lines during two years field experiment, planted by 'honey-comb design' at Kri`evci, Croatia. Significant main effect of Rht3 gene was in shortening of plant height by 54% and 28% in double and single gene dosage respectively. Full-dwarf genotype (Rht3 Rht3 had by 12% more heads/plant, but the other yield components as number of grains/head, and grain weight/head were lower by 25 and 28% respectively, resulting in significantly lower grain yield/plant (-27%. However, this also could be a secondary side effect of prolonged vegetation influenced by doubled Rht3 gene. There was no significant effect on flour protein content. Double gene effect was strong and significant for maximum dough viscosity measured by amylograph in BU (101%. In our environment full dwarf (Rht3 Rht3 has no agronomic value, but single gene dosage could be of commercial interest in hybrid wheat breeding.

  6. The Dopamine D2 Receptor Gene, Perceived Parental Support, and Adolescent Loneliness: Longitudinal Evidence for Gene-Environment Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Roekel, Eeske; Goossens, Luc; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Verhagen, Maaike

    2011-01-01

    Background: Loneliness is a common problem in adolescence. Earlier research focused on genes within the serotonin and oxytocin systems, but no studies have examined the role of dopamine-related genes in loneliness. In the present study, we focused on the dopamine D2 receptor gene (DRD2). Methods: Associations among the DRD2, sex, parental support,…

  7. Secretome Characterization and Correlation Analysis Reveal Putative Pathogenicity Mechanisms and Identify Candidate Avirulence Genes in the Wheat Stripe Rust Fungus Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Chongjing; Wang, Meinan; Cornejo, Omar E; Jiwan, Derick A; See, Deven R; Chen, Xianming

    2017-01-01

    Stripe (yellow) rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici ( Pst ), is one of the most destructive diseases of wheat worldwide. Planting resistant cultivars is an effective way to control this disease, but race-specific resistance can be overcome quickly due to the rapid evolving Pst population. Studying the pathogenicity mechanisms is critical for understanding how Pst virulence changes and how to develop wheat cultivars with durable resistance to stripe rust. We re-sequenced 7 Pst isolates and included additional 7 previously sequenced isolates to represent balanced virulence/avirulence profiles for several avirulence loci in seretome analyses. We observed an uneven distribution of heterozygosity among the isolates. Secretome comparison of Pst with other rust fungi identified a large portion of species-specific secreted proteins, suggesting that they may have specific roles when interacting with the wheat host. Thirty-two effectors of Pst were identified from its secretome. We identified candidates for Avr genes corresponding to six Yr genes by correlating polymorphisms for effector genes to the virulence/avirulence profiles of the 14 Pst isolates. The putative AvYr76 was present in the avirulent isolates, but absent in the virulent isolates, suggesting that deleting the coding region of the candidate avirulence gene has produced races virulent to resistance gene Yr76 . We conclude that incorporating avirulence/virulence phenotypes into correlation analysis with variations in genomic structure and secretome, particularly presence/absence polymorphisms of effectors, is an efficient way to identify candidate Avr genes in Pst . The candidate effector genes provide a rich resource for further studies to determine the evolutionary history of Pst populations and the co-evolutionary arms race between Pst and wheat. The Avr candidates identified in this study will lead to cloning avirulence genes in Pst , which will enable us to understand molecular mechanisms

  8. Functional mitochondrial ATP synthase proteolipid gene produced by recombination of parental genes in a petunia somatic hybrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothenberg, M.; Hanson, M.R.

    1988-01-01

    A novel ATP synthase subunit 9 gene (atp9) was identified in the mitochondrial genome of a Petunia somatic hybrid line (13-133) which was produced from a fusion between Petunia lines 3688 and 3704. The novel gene was generated by intergenomic recombination between atp9 genes from the two parental plant lines. The entire atp9 coding region is represented on the recombinant gene. Comparison of gene sequences using electrophoresis and autoradiography, indicate that the 5' transcribed region is contributed by an atp9 gene from 3704 and the 3' transcribed region is contributed by an atp9 gene from 3688. The recombinant atp9 gene is transcriptionally active. The location of the 5' and 3' transcript termini are conserved with respect to the parental genes, resulting in the production of hybrid transcripts

  9. Genome-wide characterization of pectin methyl esterase genes reveals members differentially expressed in tolerant and susceptible wheats in response to Fusarium graminearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zega, Alessandra; D'Ovidio, Renato

    2016-11-01

    Pectin methyl esterase (PME) genes code for enzymes that are involved in structural modifications of the plant cell wall during plant growth and development. They are also involved in plant-pathogen interaction. PME genes belong to a multigene family and in this study we report the first comprehensive analysis of the PME gene family in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Like in other species, the members of the TaPME family are dispersed throughout the genome and their encoded products retain the typical structural features of PMEs. qRT-PCR analysis showed variation in the expression pattern of TaPME genes in different tissues and revealed that these genes are mainly expressed in flowering spikes. In our attempt to identify putative TaPME genes involved in wheat defense, we revealed a strong variation in the expression of the TaPME following Fusarium graminearum infection, the causal agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB). Particularly interesting was the finding that the expression profile of some PME genes was markedly different between the FHB-resistant wheat cultivar Sumai3 and the FHB-susceptible cultivar Bobwhite, suggesting a possible involvement of these PME genes in FHB resistance. Moreover, the expression analysis of the TaPME genes during F. graminearum progression within the spike revealed those genes that responded more promptly to pathogen invasion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Chromosomal genomics facilitates fine mapping of a Russian wheat aphid resistance gene

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Staňková, Helena; Valárik, Miroslav; Lapitan, N.L.V.; Berkman, P.J.; Batley, J.; Edwards, D.; Luo, M.C.; Tulpová, Zuzana; Kubaláková, Marie; Stein, N.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Šimková, Hana

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 128, č. 7 (2015), s. 1373-1383 ISSN 0040-5752 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP501/12/2554; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : TRITICUM-AESTIVUM L. * BREAD WHEAT * AEGILOPS-TAUSCHII Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.900, year: 2015

  11. The physical map of wheat chromosome 5DS revealed gene duplications and small rearrangements

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Akpinar, B.A.; Magni, F.; Yuce, M.; Lucas, S. J.; Šimková, Hana; Šafář, Jan; Vautrin, S.; Berges, H.; Cattonaro, F.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Budak, H.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 16, JUN 13 (2015) ISSN 1471-2164 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP501/12/G090; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Triticum aestivum * 5DS * Hexaploid wheat Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.867, year: 2015

  12. A novel nitrogen-dependent gene associates with the lesion mimic trait in wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesion mimic (LM) refers to hypersensitive reaction-like (HRL) symptoms that appears on leaf tissue in the absence of plant pathogens. In a wheat line P7001, LM showed up on the leaves under the 0 g nitrogen (N) treatment, but disappeared when sufficient N was supplied, suggesting that LM is N-respo...

  13. An Na+/H+ antiporter gene from wheat plays an important role

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    might play an important role in salt and osmotic stress tolerance in plant cells. [Yu J N, Huang J, ..... of TaNHX2 might be related to salt tolerance in wheat. TaNHX2 might also ... This work was supported by National Basic Research Project.

  14. A disulphide isomerase gene (PDI-V) from Haynaldia villosa contributes to powdery mildew resistance in common wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faheem, Muhammad; Li, Yingbo; Arshad, Muhammad; Jiangyue, Cheng; Jia, Zhao; Wang, Zongkuan; Xiao, Jin; Wang, Haiyan; Cao, Aizhong; Xing, Liping; Yu, Feifei; Zhang, Ruiqi; Xie, Qi; Wang, Xiue

    2016-04-13

    In this study, we report the contribution of a PDI-like gene from wheat wild relative Haynaldia villosa in combating powdery mildew. PDI-V protein contains two conserved thioredoxin (TRX) active domains (a and a') and an inactive domain (b). PDI-V interacted with E3 ligase CMPG1-V protein, which is a positive regulator of powdery mildew response. PDI-V was mono-ubiquitinated by CMPG1-V without degradation being detected. PDI-V was located on H. villosa chromosome 5V and encoded for a protein located in the endoplasmic reticulum. Bgt infection in leaves of H. villosa induced PDI-V expression. Virus induced gene silencing of PDIs in a T. durum-H. villosa amphiploid compromised the resistance. Single cell transient over-expression of PDI-V or a truncated version containing the active TXR domain a decreased the haustorial index in moderately susceptible wheat cultivar Yangmai 158. Stable transgenic lines over-expressing PDI-V in Yangmai 158 displayed improved powdery mildew resistance at both the seedling and adult stages. By contrast over-expression of point-mutated PDI-V(C57A) did not increase the level of resistance in Yangmai 158. The above results indicate a pivotal role of PDI-V in powdery mildew resistance and showed that conserved TRX domain a is critical for its function.

  15. Overexpression of three TaEXPA1 homoeologous genes with distinct expression divergence in hexaploid wheat exhibit functional retention in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaorong Hu

    Full Text Available Common wheat is a hexaploid species with most of the genes present as triplicate homoeologs. Expression divergences of homoeologs are frequently observed in wheat as well as in other polyploid plants. However, little is known about functional variances among homologous genes arising from polyploidy. Expansins play diverse roles in plant developmental processes related to the action of cell wall loosening. Expression of the three TaEXPA1 homoeologs varied dynamically at different stages and organs, and epigenetic modifications contribute to the expression divergence of three TaEXPA1 homoeologs during wheat development. Nevertheless, their functions remain to be clarified. We found that over expression of TaEXPA1-A, -B and -D produced similar morphological changes in transgenic Arabidopsis plants, including increased germination and growth rate during seedling and adult stages, indicating that the proteins encoded by these three wheat TaEXPA1 homoeologs have similar (or conserved functions in Arabidopsis. Collectively, our present study provided an example of a set of homoeologous genes expression divergence in different developmental stages and organs in hexaploid wheat but functional retention in transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

  16. Host-induced silencing of essential genes in Puccinia triticina through transgenic expression of RNAi sequences reduces severity of leaf rust infection in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panwar, Vinay; Jordan, Mark; McCallum, Brent; Bakkeren, Guus

    2018-05-01

    Leaf rust, caused by the pathogenic fungus Puccinia triticina (Pt), is one of the most serious biotic threats to sustainable wheat production worldwide. This obligate biotrophic pathogen is prevalent worldwide and is known for rapid adaptive evolution to overcome resistant wheat varieties. Novel disease control approaches are therefore required to minimize the yield losses caused by Pt. Having shown previously the potential of host-delivered RNA interference (HD-RNAi) in functional screening of Pt genes involved in pathogenesis, we here evaluated the use of this technology in transgenic wheat plants as a method to achieve protection against wheat leaf rust (WLR) infection. Stable expression of hairpin RNAi constructs with sequence homology to Pt MAP-kinase (PtMAPK1) or a cyclophilin (PtCYC1) encoding gene in susceptible wheat plants showed efficient silencing of the corresponding genes in the interacting fungus resulting in disease resistance throughout the T 2 generation. Inhibition of Pt proliferation in transgenic lines by in planta-induced RNAi was associated with significant reduction in target fungal transcript abundance and reduced fungal biomass accumulation in highly resistant plants. Disease protection was correlated with the presence of siRNA molecules specific to targeted fungal genes in the transgenic lines harbouring the complementary HD-RNAi construct. This work demonstrates that generating transgenic wheat plants expressing RNAi-inducing transgenes to silence essential genes in rust fungi can provide effective disease resistance, thus opening an alternative way for developing rust-resistant crops. © 2017 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. RNAseq analysis reveals pathways and candidate genes associated with salinity tolerance in a spaceflight-induced wheat mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Hongchun; Guo, Huijun; Xie, Yongdun; Zhao, Linshu; Gu, Jiayu; Zhao, Shirong; Li, Junhui; Liu, Luxiang

    2017-06-02

    Salinity stress has become an increasing threat to food security worldwide and elucidation of the mechanism for salinity tolerance is of great significance. Induced mutation, especially spaceflight mutagenesis, is one important method for crop breeding. In this study, we show that a spaceflight-induced wheat mutant, named salinity tolerance 1 (st1), is a salinity-tolerant line. We report the characteristics of transcriptomic sequence variation induced by spaceflight, and show that mutations in genes associated with sodium ion transport may directly contribute to salinity tolerance in st1. Furthermore, GO and KEGG enrichment analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between salinity-treated st1 and wild type suggested that the homeostasis of oxidation-reduction process is important for salt tolerance in st1. Through KEGG pathway analysis, "Butanoate metabolism" was identified as a new pathway for salinity responses. Additionally, key genes for salinity tolerance, such as genes encoding arginine decarboxylase, polyamine oxidase, hormones-related, were not only salt-induced in st1 but also showed higher expression in salt-treated st1 compared with salt-treated WT, indicating that these genes may play important roles in salinity tolerance in st1. This study presents valuable genetic resources for studies on transcriptome variation caused by induced mutation and the identification of salt tolerance genes in crops.

  18. Identification of genes and pathways associated with aluminum stress and tolerance using transcriptome profiling of wheat near-isogenic lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houde, Mario; Diallo, Amadou Oury

    2008-08-27

    Aluminum is considered the most limiting factor for plant productivity in acidic soils, which cover large areas of the world's potential arable lands. The inhibition of root growth is recognized as the primary effect of Al toxicity. To identify genes associated with Al stress and tolerance, transcriptome analyses of four different wheat lines (2 Al-tolerant and 2 Al sensitive) that differ in their response to Al were performed. Microarray expression profiling revealed that 83 candidate genes are associated with Al stress and 25 are associated with tolerance. The stress-associated genes include important enzymes such as pyruvate dehydrogenase, alternative oxidase, and galactonolactone oxidase, ABC transporter and ascorbate oxido-reducatase. The Al tolerance-associated genes include the ALMT-1 malate transporter, glutathione S-transferase, germin/oxalate oxidase, fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase, cysteine-rich proteins, cytochrome P450 monooxygenase, cellulose synthase, zinc finger transcription factor, disease resistance response protein and F-box containing domain protein. In this survey, we identified stress- and tolerance-associated genes that may be involved in the detoxification of Al and reactive oxygen species. Alternative pathways could help maintain the supply of important metabolites (H2O2, ascorbate, NADH, and phosphate) needed for Al tolerance and root growth. The Al tolerance-associated genes may be key factors that regulate these pathways.

  19. Identification of genes and pathways associated with aluminum stress and tolerance using transcriptome profiling of wheat near-isogenic lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diallo Amadou

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aluminum is considered the most limiting factor for plant productivity in acidic soils, which cover large areas of the world's potential arable lands. The inhibition of root growth is recognized as the primary effect of Al toxicity. To identify genes associated with Al stress and tolerance, transcriptome analyses of four different wheat lines (2 Al-tolerant and 2 Al sensitive that differ in their response to Al were performed. Results Microarray expression profiling revealed that 83 candidate genes are associated with Al stress and 25 are associated with tolerance. The stress-associated genes include important enzymes such as pyruvate dehydrogenase, alternative oxidase, and galactonolactone oxidase, ABC transporter and ascorbate oxido-reducatase. The Al tolerance-associated genes include the ALMT-1 malate transporter, glutathione S-transferase, germin/oxalate oxidase, fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase, cysteine-rich proteins, cytochrome P450 monooxygenase, cellulose synthase, zinc finger transcription factor, disease resistance response protein and F-box containing domain protein. Conclusion In this survey, we identified stress- and tolerance-associated genes that may be involved in the detoxification of Al and reactive oxygen species. Alternative pathways could help maintain the supply of important metabolites (H2O2, ascorbate, NADH, and phosphate needed for Al tolerance and root growth. The Al tolerance-associated genes may be key factors that regulate these pathways.

  20. Diversity, distribution of Puroindoline genes and their effect on kernel hardness in a diverse panel of Chinese wheat germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaoling; Sajjad, Muhammad; Wang, Jing; Yang, Wenlong; Sun, Jiazhu; Li, Xin; Zhang, Aimin; Liu, Dongcheng

    2017-09-20

    Kernel hardness, which has great influence on the end-use properties of common wheat, is mainly controlled by Puroindoline genes, Pina and Pinb. Using EcoTILLING platform, we herein investigated the allelic variations of Pina and Pinb genes and their association with the Single Kernel Characterization System (SKCS) hardness index in a diverse panel of wheat germplasm. The kernel hardness varied from 1.4 to 102.7, displaying a wide range of hardness index. In total, six Pina and nine Pinb alleles resulting in 15 genotypes were detected in 1787 accessions. The most common alleles are the wild type Pina-D1a (90.4%) and Pina-D1b (7.4%) for Pina, and Pinb-D1b (43.6%), Pinb-D1a (41.1%) and Pinb-D1p (12.8%) for Pinb. All the genotypes have hard type kernel hardness of SKCS index (>60.0), except the wild types of Pina and Pinb combination (Pina-D1a/Pinb-D1a). The most frequent genotypes in Chinese and foreign cultivars was Pina-D1a/Pinb-D1b (46.3 and 39.0%, respectively) and in Chinese landraces was Pina-D1a/Pinb-D1a (54.2%). The frequencies of hard type accessions are increasing from 35.5% in the region IV, to 40.6 and 61.4% in the regions III and II, and then to 77.0% in the region I, while those of soft type are accordingly decreasing along with the increase of latitude. Varieties released after 2000 in Beijing, Hebei, Shandong and Henan have higher average kernel hardness index than that released before 2000. The kernel hardness in a diverse panel of Chinese wheat germplasm revealed an increasing of kernel hardness generally along with the latitude across China. The wild type Pina-D1a and Pinb-D1a, and one Pinb mutant (Pinb-D1b) are the most common alleles of six Pina and nine Pinb alleles, and a new double null genotype (Pina-D1x/Pinb-D1ah) possessed relatively high SKCS hardness index. More hard type varieties were released in recent years with different prevalence of Pin-D1 combinations in different regions. This work would benefit the understanding of the selection

  1. Intron retention regulates the expression of pectin methyl esterase inhibitor (Pmei) genes during wheat growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocchi, V; Janni, M; Bellincampi, D; Giardina, T; D'Ovidio, R

    2012-03-01

    Pectin is an important component of the plant cell wall and its remodelling occurs during normal plant growth or following stress responses. Pectin is secreted into the cell wall in a highly methyl-esterified form and subsequently de-methyl-esterified by pectin methyl esterase (PME), whose activity is controlled by the pectin methyl esterase inhibitor protein (PMEI). Cereal cell wall contains a low amount of pectin; nonetheless the level and pattern of pectin methyl esterification play a primary role during development or pathogen infection. Since few data are available on the role of PMEI in plant development and defence of cereal species, we isolated and characterised three Pmei genes (Tdpmei2.1, Tdpmei2.2 and Tdpmei3) and their encoded products in wheat. Sequence comparisons showed a low level of intra- and inter-specific sequence conservation of PMEIs. Tdpmei2.1 and Tdpmei2.2 share 94% identity at protein level, but only 20% identity with the product of Tdpmei3. All three Tdpmei genes code for functional inhibitors of plant PMEs and do not inhibit microbial PMEs or a plant invertase. RT-PCR analyses demonstrated, for the first time to our knowledge, that Pmei genes are regulated by intron retention. Processed and unprocessed transcripts of Tdpmei2.1 and Tdpmei2.2 accumulated in several organs, but anthers contained only mature transcripts. Tdpmei3 lacks introns and its transcript accumulated mainly in stem internodes. These findings suggest that products encoded by these Tdpmei genes control organ- or tissue-specific activity of specific PME isoforms in wheat. © 2011 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  2. Diversifying Selection in the Wheat Stem Rust Fungus Acts Predominantly on Pathogen-Associated Gene Families and Reveals Candidate Effectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana eSperschneider

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant pathogens cause severe losses to crop plants and threaten global food production. One striking example is the wheat stem rust fungus, Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, which can rapidly evolve new virulent pathotypes in response to resistant host lines. Like several other filamentous fungal and oomycete plant pathogens, its genome features expanded gene families that have been implicated in host-pathogen interactions, possibly encoding effector proteins that interact directly with target host defence proteins. Previous efforts to understand virulence largely relied on the prediction of secreted, small and cysteine-rich proteins as candidate effectors and thus delivered an overwhelming number of candidates. Here, we implement an alternative analysis strategy that uses the signal of adaptive evolution as a line of evidence for effector function, combined with comparative information and expression data. We demonstrate that in planta up-regulated genes that are rapidly evolving are found almost exclusively in pathogen-associated gene families, affirming the impact of host-pathogen co-evolution on genome structure and the adaptive diversification of specialised gene families. In particular, we predict 42 effector candidates that are conserved only across pathogens, induced during infection and rapidly evolving. One of our top candidates has recently been shown to induce genotype-specific hypersensitive cell death in wheat. This shows that comparative genomics incorporating the evolutionary signal of adaptation is powerful for predicting effector candidates for laboratory verification. Our system can be applied to a wide range of pathogens and will give insight into host-pathogen dynamics, ultimately leading to progress in strategies for disease control.

  3. Genome-wide analysis of short interspersed nuclear elements SINES revealed high sequence conservation, gene association and retrotranspositional activity in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-David, Smadar; Yaakov, Beery; Kashkush, Khalil

    2013-10-01

    Short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) are non-autonomous non-LTR retroelements that are present in most eukaryotic species. While SINEs have been intensively investigated in humans and other animal systems, they are poorly studied in plants, especially in wheat (Triticum aestivum). We used quantitative PCR of various wheat species to determine the copy number of a wheat SINE family, termed Au SINE, combined with computer-assisted analyses of the publicly available 454 pyrosequencing database of T. aestivum. In addition, we utilized site-specific PCR on 57 Au SINE insertions, transposon methylation display and transposon display on newly formed wheat polyploids to assess retrotranspositional activity, epigenetic status and genetic rearrangements in Au SINE, respectively. We retrieved 3706 different insertions of Au SINE from the 454 pyrosequencing database of T. aestivum, and found that most of the elements are inserted in A/T-rich regions, while approximately 38% of the insertions are associated with transcribed regions, including known wheat genes. We observed typical retrotransposition of Au SINE in the second generation of a newly formed wheat allohexaploid, and massive hypermethylation in CCGG sites surrounding Au SINE in the third generation. Finally, we observed huge differences in the copy numbers in diploid Triticum and Aegilops species, and a significant increase in the copy numbers in natural wheat polyploids, but no significant increase in the copy number of Au SINE in the first four generations for two of three newly formed allopolyploid species used in this study. Our data indicate that SINEs may play a prominent role in the genomic evolution of wheat through stress-induced activation. © 2013 Ben-Gurion University The Plant Journal © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Mapping of Leaf Rust Resistance Genes and Molecular Characterization of the 2NS/2AS Translocation in the Wheat Cultivar Jagger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Shulin; Kolmer, James A; Wang, Shuwen; Yan, Liuling

    2018-04-19

    Winter wheat cultivar 'Jagger' was recently found to have an alien chromosomal segment 2NS that has Lr37 , a gene conferring resistance against leaf rust caused by Puccinia triticina The objective of this study was to map and characterize the gene(s) for seedling leaf rust resistance in Jagger. The recombinant inbred line (RIL) population of Jagger × '2174' was inoculated with leaf rust pathogen THBJG and BBBDB, and evaluated for infection type (IT) response. A major quantitative trait locus (QTL) for THBJG and BBBDB was coincidently mapped to chromosome arm 2AS, and the QTL accounted for 56.6% - 66.2% of total phenotypic variation in infection type (IT) response to THBJG, and 72.1% - 86.9% to BBBDB. The causal gene for resistance to these rust races was mapped to the 2NS segment in Jagger. The 2NS segment was located in a region of approximately 27.8 Mb starting from the telomere of chromosome arm 2AS, based on the sequences of the A genome in tetraploid wheat. The Lr17a gene on chromosome arm 2AS was delimited to 3.1 Mb in the genomic region, which was orthologous to the 2NS segment. Therefore, the Lr37 gene in the 2NS segment can be pyramided with other effective resistance genes, rather than Lr17a in wheat, to improve resistance to rust diseases. Copyright © 2018, G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics.

  5. Nitrogen use efficiency in bread wheat (#T. aestivum L.#): breeding and gene discovery

    OpenAIRE

    Cormier, Fabien

    2015-01-01

    In a context of fertiliser reduction, breeding for enhanced nitrogen use efficiency in bread wheat is necessary. This PhD thesis resulting from private-public collaboration between the French National Institute for Agricultural Research and Biogemma aimed providing necessary tools. Analyses were conducted using a dataset of 225 commercial varieties genotyped with 24K SNP and tested in eight combinations of year, location, and nitrogen regimes. We showed that even if past selection increased n...

  6. A novel Robertsonian translocation event leads to transfer of a stem rust resistance gene (Sr52) effective against race Ug99 from Dasypyrum villosum into bread wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, L L; Pumphrey, M O; Friebe, Bernd; Zhang, P; Qian, C; Bowden, R L; Rouse, M N; Jin, Y; Gill, B S

    2011-06-01

    Stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici Eriks. & E. Henn.) (the causal agent of wheat stem rust) race Ug99 (also designated TTKSK) and its derivatives have defeated several important stem rust resistance genes widely used in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production, rendering much of the worldwide wheat acreage susceptible. In order to identify new resistance sources, a large collection of wheat relatives and genetic stocks maintained at the Wheat Genetic and Genomic Resources Center was screened. The results revealed that most accessions of the diploid relative Dasypyrum villosum (L.) Candargy were highly resistant. The screening of a set of wheat-D. villosum chromosome addition lines revealed that the wheat-D. villosum disomic addition line DA6V#3 was moderately resistant to race Ug99. The objective of the present study was to produce and characterize compensating wheat-D. villosum whole arm Robertsonian translocations (RobTs) involving chromosomes 6D of wheat and 6V#3 of D. villosum through the mechanism of centric breakage-fusion. Seven 6V#3-specific EST-STS markers were developed for screening F(2) progeny derived from plants double-monosomic for chromosomes 6D and 6V#3. Surprisingly, although 6D was the target chromosome, all recovered RobTs involved chromosome 6A implying a novel mechanism for the origin of RobTs. Homozygous translocations (T6AS·6V#3L and T6AL·6V#3S) with good plant vigor and full fertility were selected from F(3) families. A stem rust resistance gene was mapped to the long arm 6V#3L in T6AS·6V#3L and was designated as Sr52. Sr52 is temperature-sensitive and is most effective at 16°C, partially effective at 24°C, and ineffective at 28°C. The T6AS·6V#3L stock is a new source of resistance to Ug99, is cytogenetically stable, and may be useful in wheat improvement.

  7. Heterologous expression of wheat VERNALIZATION 2 (TaVRN2 gene in Arabidopsis delays flowering and enhances freezing tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amadou Diallo

    Full Text Available The vernalization gene 2 (VRN2, is a major flowering repressor in temperate cereals that is regulated by low temperature and photoperiod. Here we show that the gene from Triticum aestivum (TaVRN2 is also regulated by salt, heat shock, dehydration, wounding and abscissic acid. Promoter analysis indicates that TaVRN2 regulatory region possesses all the specific responsive elements to these stresses. This suggests pleiotropic effects of TaVRN2 in wheat development and adaptability to the environment. To test if TaVRN2 can act as a flowering repressor in species different from the temperate cereals, the gene was ectopically expressed in the model plant Arabidopsis. Transgenic plants showed no alteration in morphology, but their flowering time was significantly delayed compared to controls plants, indicating that TaVRN2, although having no ortholog in Brassicaceae, can act as a flowering repressor in these species. To identify the possible mechanism by which TaVRN2 gene delays flowering in Arabidopsis, the expression level of several genes involved in flowering time regulation was determined. The analysis indicates that the late flowering of the 35S::TaVRN2 plants was associated with a complex pattern of expression of the major flowering control genes, FCA, FLC, FT, FVE and SOC1. This suggests that heterologous expression of TaVRN2 in Arabidopsis can delay flowering by modulating several floral inductive pathways. Furthermore, transgenic plants showed higher freezing tolerance, likely due to the accumulation of CBF2, CBF3 and the COR genes. Overall, our data suggests that TaVRN2 gene could modulate a common regulator of the two interacting pathways that regulate flowering time and the induction of cold tolerance. The results also demonstrate that TaVRN2 could be used to manipulate flowering time and improve cold tolerance in other species.

  8. Overexpression of the Wheat Expansin Gene TaEXPA2 Improved Seed Production and Drought Tolerance in Transgenic Tobacco Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanhui; Han, Yangyang; Zhang, Meng; Zhou, Shan; Kong, Xiangzhu; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Expansins are cell wall proteins that are grouped into two main families, α-expansins and β-expansins, and they are implicated in the control of cell extension via the disruption of hydrogen bonds between cellulose and matrix glucans. TaEXPA2 is an α-expansin gene identified in wheat. Based on putative cis-regulatory elements in the TaEXPA2 promoter sequence and the expression pattern induced when polyethylene glycol (PEG) is used to mimic water stress, we hypothesized that TaEXPA2 is involved in plant drought tolerance and plant development. Through transient expression of 35S::TaEXPA2-GFP in onion epidermal cells, TaEXPA2 was localized to the cell wall. Constitutive expression of TaEXPA2 in tobacco improved seed production by increasing capsule number, not seed size, without having any effect on plant growth patterns. The transgenic tobacco exhibited a significantly greater tolerance to water-deficiency stress than did wild-type (WT) plants. We found that under drought stress, the transgenic plants maintained a better water status. The accumulated content of osmotic adjustment substances, such as proline, in TaEXPA2 transgenic plants was greater than that in WT plants. Transgenic plants also displayed greater antioxidative competence as indicated by their lower malondialdehyde (MDA) content, relative electrical conductivity, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation than did WT plants. This result suggests that the transgenic plants suffer less damage from ROS under drought conditions. The activities of some antioxidant enzymes as well as expression levels of several genes encoding key antioxidant enzymes were higher in the transgenic plants than in the WT plants under drought stress. Collectively, our results suggest that ectopic expression of the wheat expansin gene TaEXPA2 improves seed production and drought tolerance in transgenic tobacco plants.

  9. Definition of the low molecular weight glutenin subunit gene family members in a set of standard bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS) are a class of seed storage proteins that play a major role in the determination of the viscoelastic properties of wheat dough. Most of the LMW-GSs are encoded by a multi-gene family located on the short arms of the homoeologous group 1 chromosomes, at...

  10. Abiotic conditions leading to FUM gene expression and fumonisin accumulation by Fusarium proliferatum strains grown on a wheat-based substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cendoya, Eugenia; Pinson-Gadais, Laetitia; Farnochi, María C; Ramirez, María L; Chéreau, Sylvain; Marcheguay, Giselè; Ducos, Christine; Barreau, Christian; Richard-Forget, Florence

    2017-07-17

    Fusarium proliferatum produces fumonisins B not only on maize but also on diverse crops including wheat. Using a wheat-based medium, the effects of abiotic factors, temperature and water activity (a W ), on growth, fumonisin biosynthesis, and expression of FUM genes were compared for three F. proliferatum strains isolated from durum wheat in Argentina. Although all isolates showed similar profiles of growth, the fumonisin production profiles were slightly different. Regarding FUM gene transcriptional control, both FUM8 and FUM19 expression showed similar behavior in all tested conditions. For both genes, expression at 25°C correlated with fumonisin production, regardless of the a w conditions. However, at 15°C, these two genes were as highly expressed as at 25°C although the amounts of toxin were very weak, suggesting that the kinetics of fumonisin production was slowed at 15°C. This study provides useful baseline data on conditions representing a low or a high risk for contamination of wheat kernels with fumonisins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A Molecular-Cytogenetic Method for Locating Genes to Pericentromeric Regions Facilitates a Genome-Wide Comparison of Syntency Between the Centrometric Regions of Wheat and Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centromeres, because of their repeat structure and lack of sequence conservation, are difficult to assemble and compare across organisms. It was recently discovered that rice centromeres often contain genes. This suggested a method for studying centromere homologies between wheat and rice chromosome...

  12. Microsatellites in wheat and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephenson, P.; Bryan, G.J.; Kirby, J.; Gale, M.D.

    1998-01-01

    The development of large panels of simply analyzable genetic markers for diversity studies and tagging, agronomically important genes in hexaploid bread wheat is an important goal in applied cereal genetic research. We have isolated and sequenced over two-hundred clones containing microsatellites from the wheat genome, and have tested 150 primer pairs for genetic polymorphism using a panel of ten wheat varieties, including the parents of our main mapping cross. A total of 125 loci were detected by 82 primer pairs, of which 105 loci from 63 primer pairs can be unequivocally allocated to one of the wheat chromosomes. A relatively low frequency of the loci detected are from the D-genome (24%). Generally, the microsatellites show high levels of genetic polymorphism and an average 3.5 alleles per locus with an average polymorphism information content (PIC) value of 0.5. The observed levels of polymorphism are positively correlated with the length of the microsatellite repeats. A high proportion, approximately one half, of primer pairs designed to detect simple sequence repeat (SSR) variation in wheat do not generate the expected amplification products and, more significantly, often generate unresolvable Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) products. In general our results agree closely with those obtained from other recent studies using microsatellites in plants. (author)

  13. Genome-Wide Association Study for Identification and Validation of Novel SNP Markers for Sr6 Stem Rust Resistance Gene in Bread Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourad, Amira M I; Sallam, Ahmed; Belamkar, Vikas; Wegulo, Stephen; Bowden, Robert; Jin, Yue; Mahdy, Ezzat; Bakheit, Bahy; El-Wafaa, Atif A; Poland, Jesse; Baenziger, Peter S

    2018-01-01

    Stem rust (caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici Erikss. & E. Henn.), is a major disease in wheat ( Triticum aestivium L.). However, in recent years it occurs rarely in Nebraska due to weather and the effective selection and gene pyramiding of resistance genes. To understand the genetic basis of stem rust resistance in Nebraska winter wheat, we applied genome-wide association study (GWAS) on a set of 270 winter wheat genotypes (A-set). Genotyping was carried out using genotyping-by-sequencing and ∼35,000 high-quality SNPs were identified. The tested genotypes were evaluated for their resistance to the common stem rust race in Nebraska (QFCSC) in two replications. Marker-trait association identified 32 SNP markers, which were significantly (Bonferroni corrected P < 0.05) associated with the resistance on chromosome 2D. The chromosomal location of the significant SNPs (chromosome 2D) matched the location of Sr6 gene which was expected in these genotypes based on pedigree information. A highly significant linkage disequilibrium (LD, r 2 ) was found between the significant SNPs and the specific SSR marker for the Sr6 gene ( Xcfd43 ). This suggests the significant SNP markers are tagging Sr6 gene. Out of the 32 significant SNPs, eight SNPs were in six genes that are annotated as being linked to disease resistance in the IWGSC RefSeq v1.0. The 32 significant SNP markers were located in nine haplotype blocks. All the 32 significant SNPs were validated in a set of 60 different genotypes (V-set) using single marker analysis. SNP markers identified in this study can be used in marker-assisted selection, genomic selection, and to develop KASP (Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR) marker for the Sr6 gene. Novel SNPs for Sr6 gene, an important stem rust resistant gene, were identified and validated in this study. These SNPs can be used to improve stem rust resistance in wheat.

  14. cDNA-AFLP analysis reveals differential gene expression in compatible interaction of wheat challenged with Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Lili

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici is a fungal pathogen causing stripe rust, one of the most important wheat diseases worldwide. The fungus is strictly biotrophic and thus, completely dependent on living host cells for its reproduction, which makes it difficult to study genes of the pathogen. In spite of its economic importance, little is known about the molecular basis of compatible interaction between the pathogen and wheat host. In this study, we identified wheat and P. striiformis genes associated with the infection process by conducting a large-scale transcriptomic analysis using cDNA-AFLP. Results Of the total 54,912 transcript derived fragments (TDFs obtained using cDNA-AFLP with 64 primer pairs, 2,306 (4.2% displayed altered expression patterns after inoculation, of which 966 showed up-regulated and 1,340 down-regulated. 186 TDFs produced reliable sequences after sequencing of 208 TDFs selected, of which 74 (40% had known functions through BLAST searching the GenBank database. Majority of the latter group had predicted gene products involved in energy (13%, signal transduction (5.4%, disease/defence (5.9% and metabolism (5% of the sequenced TDFs. BLAST searching of the wheat stem rust fungus genome database identified 18 TDFs possibly from the stripe rust pathogen, of which 9 were validated of the pathogen origin using PCR-based assays followed by sequencing confirmation. Of the 186 reliable TDFs, 29 homologous to genes known to play a role in disease/defense, signal transduction or uncharacterized genes were further selected for validation of cDNA-AFLP expression patterns using qRT-PCR analyses. Results confirmed the altered expression patterns of 28 (96.5% genes revealed by the cDNA-AFLP technique. Conclusion The results show that cDNA-AFLP is a reliable technique for studying expression patterns of genes involved in the wheat-stripe rust interactions. Genes involved in compatible interactions between wheat and the

  15. Homoeologous recombination-based transfer and molecular cytogenetic mapping of powdery mildew-resistant gene Pm57 from Aegilops searsii into wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenxuan; Koo, Dal-Hoe; Xia, Qing; Li, Chunxin; Bai, Fuqiang; Song, Yuli; Friebe, Bernd; Gill, Bikram S

    2017-04-01

    Pm57, a novel resistant gene against powdery mildew, was transferred into common wheat from Ae. searsi and further mapped to 2S s #1L at an interval of FL0.75 to FL0.87. Powdery mildew, caused by the fungus Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, is one of the most severe foliar diseases of wheat causing reduction in grain yield and quality. Host plant resistance is the most effective and environmentally safe approach to control this disease. Tests of a set of Chinese Spring-Ae. searsii (S s S s , 2n = 2x = 14) Feldman & Kislev ex K. Hammer disomic addition lines with a mixed isolate of the powdery mildew fungus identified a novel resistance gene(s), designed as Pm57, which was located on chromosome 2S s #1. Here, we report the development of ten wheat-Ae. searsii recombinants. The wheat chromosomes involved in five of these recombinants were identified by FISH and SSR marker analysis and three of them were resistant to powdery mildew. Pm57 was further mapped to the long arm of chromosome 2S s #1 at a fraction length interval of FL 0.75 to FL 0.87. The recombinant stocks T2BS.2BL-2S s #1L 89-346 (TA5108) with distal 2S s #1L segments of 28% and 89(5)69 (TA5109) with 33% may be useful in wheat improvement. The PCR marker X2L4g9p4/HaeIII was validated to specifically identify the Ae. searsii 2S s #1L segment harboring Pm57 in T2BS.2BL-2S s #1L against 16 wheat varieties and advanced breeding lines, and the development of more user-friendly KASP markers is underway.

  16. Genetics and molecular mapping of genes for race-specific all-stage resistance and non-race-specific high-temperature adult-plant resistance to stripe rust in spring wheat cultivar Alpowa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, F; Chen, X M

    2007-05-01

    Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, is one of the most widespread and destructive wheat diseases worldwide. Growing resistant cultivars is the preferred control of the disease. The spring wheat cultivar 'Alpowa' has both race-specific, all-stage resistance and non-race-specific, high-temperature adult-plant (HTAP) resistances to stripe rust. To identify genes for the stripe rust resistances, Alpowa was crossed with 'Avocet Susceptible' (AVS). Seedlings of the parents, and F(1), F(2) and F(3) progeny were tested with races PST-1 and PST-21 of P. striiformis f. sp. tritici under controlled greenhouse conditions. Alpowa has a single partially dominant gene, designated as YrAlp, conferring all-stage resistance. Resistance gene analog polymorphism (RGAP) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) techniques were used to identify molecular markers linked to YrAlp. A linkage group of five RGAP markers and two SSR markers was constructed for YrAlp using 136 F(3) lines. Amplification of a set of nulli-tetrasomic Chinese Spring lines with RGAP markers Xwgp47 and Xwgp48 and the two SSR markers indicated that YrAlp is located on the short arm of chromosome 1B. To map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for the non-race-specific HTAP resistance, the parents and 136 F(3) lines were tested at two sites near Pullman and one site near Mount Vernon, Washington, under naturally infected conditions. A major HTAP QTL was consistently detected across environments and was located on chromosome 7BL. Because of its chromosomal location and the non-race-specific nature of the HTAP resistance, this gene is different from previously described genes for adult-plant resistance, and is therefore designated Yr39. The gene contributed to 64.2% of the total variation of relative area under disease progress curve (AUDPC) data and 59.1% of the total variation of infection type data recorded at the heading-flowering stages. Two RGAP markers, Xwgp36 and Xwgp45 with the highest R (2) values

  17. Candidate Genes for Aggressiveness in a Natural Fusarium culmorum Population Greatly Differ between Wheat and Rye Head Blight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valheria Castiblanco

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium culmorum is one of the species causing Fusarium head blight (FHB in cereals in Europe. We aimed to investigate the association between the nucleotide diversity of ten F. culmorum candidate genes and field ratings of aggressiveness in winter rye. A total of 100 F. culmorum isolates collected from natural infections were phenotyped for FHB at two locations and two years. Variance components for aggressiveness showed significant isolate and isolate-by-environment variance, as expected for quantitative host-pathogen interactions. Further analysis of the isolate-by-environment interaction revealed the dominant role of the isolate-by-year over isolate-by-location interaction. One single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP in the cutinase (CUT gene was found to be significantly (p < 0.001 associated with aggressiveness and explained 16.05% of the genotypic variance of this trait in rye. The SNP was located 60 base pairs before the start codon, which suggests a role in transcriptional regulation. Compared to a previous study in winter wheat with the same nucleotide sequences, a larger variation of pathogen aggressiveness on rye was found and a different candidate gene was associated with pathogen aggressiveness. This is the first report on the association of field aggressiveness and a host-specific candidate gene codifying for a protein that belongs to the secretome in F. culmorum.

  18. TaCPK2-A, a calcium-dependent protein kinase gene that is required for wheat powdery mildew resistance enhances bacterial blight resistance in transgenic rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Shuaifeng; Li, Aili; Tang, Lichuan; Yin, Lingjie; Wu, Liang; Lei, Cailin; Guo, Xiuping; Zhang, Xin; Jiang, Guanghuai; Zhai, Wenxue; Wei, Yuming; Zheng, Youliang; Lan, Xiujin; Mao, Long

    2013-08-01

    Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CPKs) are important Ca2+ signalling components involved in complex immune and stress signalling networks; but the knowledge of CPK gene functions in the hexaploid wheat is limited. Previously, TaCPK2 was shown to be inducible by powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis tritici, Bgt) infection in wheat. Here, its functions in disease resistance are characterized further. This study shows the presence of defence-response and cold-response cis-elements on the promoters of the A subgenome homoeologue (TaCPK2-A) and D subgenome homoeologue (TaCPK2-D), respectively. Their expression patterns were then confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) using genome-specific primers, where TaCPK2-A was induced by Bgt treatment while TaCPK2-D mainly responded to cold treatment. Downregulation of TaCPK2-A by virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) causes loss of resistance to Bgt in resistant wheat lines, indicating that TaCPK2-A is required for powdery mildew resistance. Furthermore, overexpression of TaCPK2-A in rice enhanced bacterial blight (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, Xoo) resistance. qRT-PCR analysis showed that overexpression of TaCPK2-A in rice promoted the expression of OsWRKY45-1, a transcription factor involved in both fungal and bacterial resistance by regulating jasmonic acid and salicylic acid signalling genes. The opposite effect was found in wheat TaCPK2-A VIGS plants, where the homologue of OsWRKY45-1 was significantly repressed. These data suggest that modulation of WRKY45-1 and associated defence-response genes by CPK2 genes may be the common mechanism for multiple disease resistance in grass species, which may have undergone subfunctionalization in promoters before the formation of hexaploid wheat.

  19. Study on characteristic differences of wheat 1Ax1 and 1Ax2* NILS obtained by transgenic HMW-GS 1Dx5 + 1Dy10 gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Yan; Zhang Hongji; Liu Dongjun; Qi Qianqian; Yang Shuping; Guo Yipan; Ma Shumei; Liu Wenlin; Wang Guangjin; Zhao Wei

    2012-01-01

    Use wheat 1Ax1 and 1Ax2* NILS obtained by transgenic HMW-GS 1Dx5 + 1Dy10 gene, characteristics differences have been studied. The two-year results showed that the statistical differences in seed quality parameters, farinogram parameters, extensigram parameters, botany characters and main agricultural characters between 1Ax1 and 1Ax2* were not significant. We considered that 08K860 and 08K871 are similar in hereditary background, 1Ax1 and 1Ax2* have identical contribute on quality. Breeder should attach to 1Ax1 and 1Ax2* identically on wheat breeding. (authors)

  20. Study on characteristic differences of wheat 1Ax1 and 1Ax2* NILS obtained by transgenic HMW-GS 1Dx5+1Dy10 gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Yan; Zhang Hongji; Liu Dongjun; Qi Qianqian; Yang Shuping; Guo Yifan; Ma Shumei; Liu Wenlin; Wang Guangjin; Zhao Wei

    2011-01-01

    Use wheat 1Ax1 and 1Ax2 * NILS obtained by transgenic HMW-GS 1Dx5+1Dy10 gene, characteristics differences have been studied. The two-year results showed that the statistical differences in seed quality parameters, farinogram parameters, extensigram parameters, botany characters and main agricultural characters between 1Ax1 and 1Ax2 * were not significant. We considered that 08K860 and 08K871 are similar in hereditary background, 1Ax1 and 1Ax2 * have identical contribute on quality. Breeder should atlach to 1Ax1 and 1Ax2 * identically on wheat breeding. (authors)

  1. TaCIPK29, a CBL-interacting protein kinase gene from wheat, confers salt stress tolerance in transgenic tobacco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomin Deng

    Full Text Available Calcineurin B-like protein-interacting protein kinases (CIPKs have been found to be responsive to abiotic stress. However, their precise functions and the related molecular mechanisms in abiotic stress tolerance are not completely understood, especially in wheat. In the present study, TaCIPK29 was identified as a new member of CIPK gene family in wheat. TaCIPK29 transcript increased after NaCl, cold, methyl viologen (MV, abscisic acid (ABA and ethylene treatments. Over-expression of TaCIPK29 in tobacco resulted in increased salt tolerance, which was demonstrated by higher germination rates, longer root lengths and better growth status of transgenic tobacco plants compared to controls when both were treated with salt stress. Physiological measurements indicated that transgenic tobacco seedlings retained high K(+/Na(+ ratios and Ca(2+ content by up-regulating some transporter genes expression and also possessed lower H2O2 levels and reduced membrane injury by increasing the expression and activities of catalase (CAT and peroxidase (POD under salt stress. Moreover, transgenic lines conferred tolerance to oxidative stress by increasing the activity and expression of CAT. Finally, TaCIPK29 was located throughout cells and it preferentially interacted with TaCBL2, TaCBL3, NtCBL2, NtCBL3 and NtCAT1. Taken together, our results showed that TaCIPK29 functions as a positive factor under salt stress and is involved in regulating cations and reactive oxygen species (ROS homeostasis.

  2. Gene-environment correlations in the cross-generational transmission of parenting: Grandparenting moderates the effect of child 5-HTTLPR genotype on mothers' parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopala-Sibley, Daniel C; Hayden, Elizabeth P; Singh, Shiva M; Sheikh, Haroon I; Kryski, Katie R; Klein, Daniel N

    2017-11-01

    Evidence suggests that parenting is associated cross-generationally and that children's genes may elicit specific parenting styles (evocative gene-environment correlation). This study examined whether the effect of children's genotype, specifically 5-HTTLPR, on mothers' parenting behaviors was moderated by her own parenting experiences from her mother. Two independent samples of three-year-olds (N = 476 and 405) were genotyped for the serotonin transporter gene, and observational measures of parenting were collected. Mothers completed measures of the parenting they received as children. The child having a short allele on 5-HTTLPR was associated with more maternal hostility (sample 1 and 2) and with less maternal support (sample 1), but only if the mother reported lower quality grandmothers' parenting (abuse and indifference in Sample 1 and lower levels of grandmother care in Sample 2). Results support the possibility of a moderated evocative gene-environment correlation.

  3. Gene-environment correlations in the cross-generational transmission of parenting: Grandparenting moderates the effect of child 5-HTTLPR genotype on mothers’ parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopala-Sibley, Daniel C.; Hayden, Elizabeth P.; Singh, Shiva M.; Sheikh, Haroon I.; Kryski, Katie R.; Klein, Daniel N.

    2017-01-01

    Evidence suggests that parenting is associated cross-generationally and that children’s genes may elicit specific parenting styles (evocative gene-environment correlation). This study examined whether the effect of children’s genotype, specifically 5-HTTLPR, on mothers’ parenting behaviors was moderated by her own parenting experiences from her mother. Two independent samples of three-year-olds (N = 476 and 405) were genotyped for the serotonin transporter gene, and observational measures of parenting were collected. Mothers completed measures of the parenting they received as children. The child having a short allele on 5-HTTLPR was associated with more maternal hostility (sample 1 and 2) and with less maternal support (sample 1), but only if the mother reported lower quality grandmothers’ parenting (abuse and indifference in Sample 1 and lower levels of grandmother care in Sample 2). Results support the possibility of a moderated evocative gene-environment correlation. PMID:29628626

  4. KP4 to control Ustilago tritici in wheat: Enhanced greenhouse resistance to loose smut and changes in transcript abundance of pathogen related genes in infected KP4 plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quijano, Carolina Diaz; Wichmann, Fabienne; Schlaich, Thomas; Fammartino, Alessandro; Huckauf, Jana; Schmidt, Kerstin; Unger, Christoph; Broer, Inge; Sautter, Christof

    2016-09-01

    Ustilago tritici causes loose smut, which is a seed-borne fungal disease of wheat, and responsible for yield losses up to 40%. Loose smut is a threat to seed production in developing countries where small scale farmers use their own harvest as seed material. The killer protein 4 (KP4) is a virally encoded toxin from Ustilago maydis and inhibits growth of susceptible races of fungi from the Ustilaginales. Enhanced resistance in KP4 wheat to stinking smut, which is caused by Tilletia caries, had been reported earlier. We show that KP4 in genetically engineered wheat increased resistance to loose smut up to 60% compared to the non-KP4 control under greenhouse conditions. This enhanced resistance is dose and race dependent. The overexpression of the transgene kp4 and its effect on fungal growth have indirect effects on the expression of endogenous pathogen defense genes.

  5. KP4 to control Ustilago tritici in wheat: Enhanced greenhouse resistance to loose smut and changes in transcript abundance of pathogen related genes in infected KP4 plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Diaz Quijano

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ustilago tritici causes loose smut, which is a seed-borne fungal disease of wheat, and responsible for yield losses up to 40%. Loose smut is a threat to seed production in developing countries where small scale farmers use their own harvest as seed material. The killer protein 4 (KP4 is a virally encoded toxin from Ustilago maydis and inhibits growth of susceptible races of fungi from the Ustilaginales. Enhanced resistance in KP4 wheat to stinking smut, which is caused by Tilletia caries, had been reported earlier. We show that KP4 in genetically engineered wheat increased resistance to loose smut up to 60% compared to the non-KP4 control under greenhouse conditions. This enhanced resistance is dose and race dependent. The overexpression of the transgene kp4 and its effect on fungal growth have indirect effects on the expression of endogenous pathogen defense genes.

  6. Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... parents, people are always ready to offer advice. Parenting tips, parents' survival guides, dos, don'ts, shoulds ... right" way to be a good parent. Good parenting includes Keeping your child safe Showing affection and ...

  7. After-ripening induced transcriptional changes of hormonal genes in wheat seeds: the cases of brassinosteroids, ethylene, cytokinin and salicylic acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijaya R Chitnis

    Full Text Available Maintenance and release of seed dormancy is regulated by plant hormones; their levels and seed sensitivity being the critical factors. This study reports transcriptional regulation of brassinosteroids (BR, ethylene (ET, cytokinin (CK and salicylic acid (SA related wheat genes by after-ripening, a period of dry storage that decays dormancy. Changes in the expression of hormonal genes due to seed after-ripening did not occur in the anhydrobiotic state but rather in the hydrated state. After-ripening induced dormancy decay appears to be associated with imbibition mediated increase in the synthesis and signalling of BR, via transcriptional activation of de-etiolated2, dwarf4 and brassinosteroid signaling kinase, and repression of brassinosteroid insensitive 2. Our analysis is also suggestive of the significance of increased ET production, as reflected by enhanced transcription of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase in after-ripened seeds, and tight regulation of seed response to ET in regulating dormancy decay. Differential transcriptions of lonely guy, zeatin O-glucosyltransferases and cytokinin oxidases, and pseudo-response regulator between dormant and after-ripened seeds implicate CK in the regulation of seed dormancy in wheat. Our analysis also reflects the association of dormancy decay in wheat with seed SA level and NPR independent SA signaling that appear to be regulated transcriptionally by phenylalanine ammonia lyase, and whirly and suppressor of npr1 inducible1 genes, respectively. Co-expression clustering of the hormonal genes implies the significance of synergistic and antagonistic interaction between the different plant hormones in regulating wheat seed dormancy. These results contribute to further our understanding of the molecular features controlling seed dormancy in wheat.

  8. Gene discovery in EST sequences from the wheat leaf rust fungus Puccinia triticina sexual spores, asexual spores and haustoria, compared to other rust and corn smut fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Rust fungi are biotrophic basidiomycete plant pathogens that cause major diseases on plants and trees world-wide, affecting agriculture and forestry. Their biotrophic nature precludes many established molecular genetic manipulations and lines of research. The generation of genomic resources for these microbes is leading to novel insights into biology such as interactions with the hosts and guiding directions for breakthrough research in plant pathology. Results To support gene discovery and gene model verification in the genome of the wheat leaf rust fungus, Puccinia triticina (Pt), we have generated Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) by sampling several life cycle stages. We focused on several spore stages and isolated haustorial structures from infected wheat, generating 17,684 ESTs. We produced sequences from both the sexual (pycniospores, aeciospores and teliospores) and asexual (germinated urediniospores) stages of the life cycle. From pycniospores and aeciospores, produced by infecting the alternate host, meadow rue (Thalictrum speciosissimum), 4,869 and 1,292 reads were generated, respectively. We generated 3,703 ESTs from teliospores produced on the senescent primary wheat host. Finally, we generated 6,817 reads from haustoria isolated from infected wheat as well as 1,003 sequences from germinated urediniospores. Along with 25,558 previously generated ESTs, we compiled a database of 13,328 non-redundant sequences (4,506 singlets and 8,822 contigs). Fungal genes were predicted using the EST version of the self-training GeneMarkS algorithm. To refine the EST database, we compared EST sequences by BLASTN to a set of 454 pyrosequencing-generated contigs and Sanger BAC-end sequences derived both from the Pt genome, and to ESTs and genome reads from wheat. A collection of 6,308 fungal genes was identified and compared to sequences of the cereal rusts, Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt) and stripe rust, P. striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), and poplar

  9. Gene discovery in EST sequences from the wheat leaf rust fungus Puccinia triticina sexual spores, asexual spores and haustoria, compared to other rust and corn smut fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wynhoven Brian

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rust fungi are biotrophic basidiomycete plant pathogens that cause major diseases on plants and trees world-wide, affecting agriculture and forestry. Their biotrophic nature precludes many established molecular genetic manipulations and lines of research. The generation of genomic resources for these microbes is leading to novel insights into biology such as interactions with the hosts and guiding directions for breakthrough research in plant pathology. Results To support gene discovery and gene model verification in the genome of the wheat leaf rust fungus, Puccinia triticina (Pt, we have generated Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs by sampling several life cycle stages. We focused on several spore stages and isolated haustorial structures from infected wheat, generating 17,684 ESTs. We produced sequences from both the sexual (pycniospores, aeciospores and teliospores and asexual (germinated urediniospores stages of the life cycle. From pycniospores and aeciospores, produced by infecting the alternate host, meadow rue (Thalictrum speciosissimum, 4,869 and 1,292 reads were generated, respectively. We generated 3,703 ESTs from teliospores produced on the senescent primary wheat host. Finally, we generated 6,817 reads from haustoria isolated from infected wheat as well as 1,003 sequences from germinated urediniospores. Along with 25,558 previously generated ESTs, we compiled a database of 13,328 non-redundant sequences (4,506 singlets and 8,822 contigs. Fungal genes were predicted using the EST version of the self-training GeneMarkS algorithm. To refine the EST database, we compared EST sequences by BLASTN to a set of 454 pyrosequencing-generated contigs and Sanger BAC-end sequences derived both from the Pt genome, and to ESTs and genome reads from wheat. A collection of 6,308 fungal genes was identified and compared to sequences of the cereal rusts, Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt and stripe rust, P. striiformis f. sp

  10. Application of DNA RFLP procedures in interspecific gene transfer: The Lr19 translocation of wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prins, R.; Marais, G.F.; Marais, A.S.; Pretorius, Z.A.; Janse, B.J.H.

    1998-01-01

    Twenty-nine lines with deletions in the Lr19 ('Indis') translocated chromosome segment were used to physically map Thinopyrum Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) loci as well as the Sr25 and Sdl loci. The relative distances between marker loci on the translocation were then calculated. The information was then used as an aid to characterize several recombined forms of the translocation. The data confirmed the reported homoeology between the Lr19 segment and chromosome arm 7DL of wheat. Also, it seems that the Lr19 translocation in 'Indis' is very similar to the Lr19 segment in the T4 source and that the former may not derive from Thinopyrum distichum. Near-isogenic lines of the recombined segments were derived and used to study their expression of leaf rust resistance. It became evident that only one potentially useful recombinant was obtained in an earlier attempt to induce allosyndetic pairing between the Lr19 translocation and 7DL of wheat. (author)

  11. Evolution and dispersal of emmer wheat (Triticum sp.) from novel haplotypes of Ppd-1 (photoperiod response) genes and their surrounding DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenaka, Shotaro; Kawahara, Taihachi

    2012-09-01

    The sequence data from 5' UTR, intronic, coding and 3' UTR regions of Ppd-A1 and Ppd-B1 were investigated for a total of 158 accessions of emmer wheat landraces comprising 19 of wild emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccoides), 45 of hulled emmer wheat (T. dicoccum) and 94 of free-threshing (FT) emmer wheat (T. durum etc.). We detected some novel types of deletions in the coding regions from 22 hulled emmer accessions and 20 FT emmer accessions. Emmer wheat accessions with these deletions could produce predicted proteins likely to lack function. We also observed some novel mutations in Ppd-B1. Sixty-seven and forty-one haplotypes were found in Ppd-A1 and Ppd-B1, respectively. Some mutations found in this study have not been known, so they have potential for useful genetic resources for wheat breeding. On the basis of sequence data from the 5' UTR region, both Ppd-A1 and Ppd-B1 haplotypes were divided into two groups (Type AI/AII and Type BI/BII). Types AI and AII of Ppd-A1 suggested gene flow between wild and hulled emmer. On the other hand, Types BI and BII of Ppd-B1 suggested gene flow between wild and FT emmer. More than half of hulled emmer accessions were Type AII/BI but few FT emmer accessions were of this type. Therefore, over half of the hulled emmer did not contribute to evolution of FT emmer.

  12. The wheat homolog of putative nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeat resistance gene TaRGA contributes to resistance against powdery mildew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Defu; Wang, Xiaobing; Mei, Yu; Dong, Hansong

    2016-03-01

    Powdery mildew, one of the most destructive wheat diseases worldwide, is caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt), a fungal species with a consistently high mutation rate that makes individual resistance (R) genes ineffective. Therefore, effective resistance-related gene cloning is vital for breeding and studying the resistance mechanisms of the disease. In this study, a putative nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) R gene (TaRGA) was cloned using a homology-based cloning strategy and analyzed for its effect on powdery mildew disease and wheat defense responses. Real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) analyses revealed that a Bgt isolate 15 and salicylic acid stimulation significantly induced TaRGA in the resistant variety. Furthermore, the silencing of TaRGA in powdery mildew-resistant plants increased susceptibility to Bgt15 and prompted conidia propagation at the infection site. However, the expression of TaRGA in leaf segments after single-cell transient expression assay highly increased the defense responses to Bgt15 by enhancing callose deposition and phenolic autofluorogen accumulation at the pathogen invading sites. Meanwhile, the expression of pathogenesis-related genes decreased in the TaRGA-silenced plants and increased in the TaRGA-transient-overexpressing leaf segments. These results implied that the TaRGA gene positively regulates the defense response to powdery mildew disease in wheat.

  13. A Metabolic Gene Cluster in the Wheat W1 and the Barley Cer-cqu Loci Determines β-Diketone Biosynthesis and Glaucousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hen-Avivi, Shelly; Savin, Orna; Racovita, Radu C; Lee, Wing-Sham; Adamski, Nikolai M; Malitsky, Sergey; Almekias-Siegl, Efrat; Levy, Matan; Vautrin, Sonia; Bergès, Hélène; Friedlander, Gilgi; Kartvelishvily, Elena; Ben-Zvi, Gil; Alkan, Noam; Uauy, Cristobal; Kanyuka, Kostya; Jetter, Reinhard; Distelfeld, Assaf; Aharoni, Asaph

    2016-06-01

    The glaucous appearance of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare) plants, that is the light bluish-gray look of flag leaf, stem, and spike surfaces, results from deposition of cuticular β-diketone wax on their surfaces; this phenotype is associated with high yield, especially under drought conditions. Despite extensive genetic and biochemical characterization, the molecular genetic basis underlying the biosynthesis of β-diketones remains unclear. Here, we discovered that the wheat W1 locus contains a metabolic gene cluster mediating β-diketone biosynthesis. The cluster comprises genes encoding proteins of several families including type-III polyketide synthases, hydrolases, and cytochrome P450s related to known fatty acid hydroxylases. The cluster region was identified in both genetic and physical maps of glaucous and glossy tetraploid wheat, demonstrating entirely different haplotypes in these accessions. Complementary evidence obtained through gene silencing in planta and heterologous expression in bacteria supports a model for a β-diketone biosynthesis pathway involving members of these three protein families. Mutations in homologous genes were identified in the barley eceriferum mutants defective in β-diketone biosynthesis, demonstrating a gene cluster also in the β-diketone biosynthesis Cer-cqu locus in barley. Hence, our findings open new opportunities to breed major cereal crops for surface features that impact yield and stress response. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  14. Wheat ferritins: Improving the iron content of the wheat grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Søren; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Tauris, Birgitte

    2012-01-01

    The characterization of the full complement of wheat ferritins show that the modern hexaploid wheat genome contains two ferritin genes, TaFer1 and TaFer2, each represented by three homeoalleles and placed on chromosome 5 and 4, respectively. The two genes are differentially regulated and expresse...

  15. Genome-wide transcriptome study in wheat identified candidate genes related to processing quality, majority of them showing interaction (quality x development) and having temporal and spatial distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anuradha; Mantri, Shrikant; Sharma, Monica; Chaudhury, Ashok; Tuli, Rakesh; Roy, Joy

    2014-01-16

    The cultivated bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) possesses unique flour quality, which can be processed into many end-use food products such as bread, pasta, chapatti (unleavened flat bread), biscuit, etc. The present wheat varieties require improvement in processing quality to meet the increasing demand of better quality food products. However, processing quality is very complex and controlled by many genes, which have not been completely explored. To identify the candidate genes whose expressions changed due to variation in processing quality and interaction (quality x development), genome-wide transcriptome studies were performed in two sets of diverse Indian wheat varieties differing for chapatti quality. It is also important to understand the temporal and spatial distributions of their expressions for designing tissue and growth specific functional genomics experiments. Gene-specific two-way ANOVA analysis of expression of about 55 K transcripts in two diverse sets of Indian wheat varieties for chapatti quality at three seed developmental stages identified 236 differentially expressed probe sets (10-fold). Out of 236, 110 probe sets were identified for chapatti quality. Many processing quality related key genes such as glutenin and gliadins, puroindolines, grain softness protein, alpha and beta amylases, proteases, were identified, and many other candidate genes related to cellular and molecular functions were also identified. The ANOVA analysis revealed that the expression of 56 of 110 probe sets was involved in interaction (quality x development). Majority of the probe sets showed differential expression at early stage of seed development i.e. temporal expression. Meta-analysis revealed that the majority of the genes expressed in one or a few growth stages indicating spatial distribution of their expressions. The differential expressions of a few candidate genes such as pre-alpha/beta-gliadin and gamma gliadin were validated by RT-PCR. Therefore, this study

  16. Genome-wide transcriptome study in wheat identified candidate genes related to processing quality, majority of them showing interaction (quality x development) and having temporal and spatial distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The cultivated bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) possesses unique flour quality, which can be processed into many end-use food products such as bread, pasta, chapatti (unleavened flat bread), biscuit, etc. The present wheat varieties require improvement in processing quality to meet the increasing demand of better quality food products. However, processing quality is very complex and controlled by many genes, which have not been completely explored. To identify the candidate genes whose expressions changed due to variation in processing quality and interaction (quality x development), genome-wide transcriptome studies were performed in two sets of diverse Indian wheat varieties differing for chapatti quality. It is also important to understand the temporal and spatial distributions of their expressions for designing tissue and growth specific functional genomics experiments. Results Gene-specific two-way ANOVA analysis of expression of about 55 K transcripts in two diverse sets of Indian wheat varieties for chapatti quality at three seed developmental stages identified 236 differentially expressed probe sets (10-fold). Out of 236, 110 probe sets were identified for chapatti quality. Many processing quality related key genes such as glutenin and gliadins, puroindolines, grain softness protein, alpha and beta amylases, proteases, were identified, and many other candidate genes related to cellular and molecular functions were also identified. The ANOVA analysis revealed that the expression of 56 of 110 probe sets was involved in interaction (quality x development). Majority of the probe sets showed differential expression at early stage of seed development i.e. temporal expression. Meta-analysis revealed that the majority of the genes expressed in one or a few growth stages indicating spatial distribution of their expressions. The differential expressions of a few candidate genes such as pre-alpha/beta-gliadin and gamma gliadin were validated by RT

  17. Expression of TaWRKY44, a wheat WRKY gene, in transgenic tobacco confers multiple abiotic stress tolerances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiatian eWang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The WRKY transcription factors have been reported to be involved in various plant physiological and biochemical processes. In this study, we successfully assembled ten unigenes from expressed sequence tags (ESTs of wheat and designated them as TaWRKY44–TaWRKY53, respectively. Among these genes, a subgroup I gene, TaWRKY44, was found to be upregulated by treatments with PEG6000, NaCl, 4°C, abscisic acid (ABA, H2O2 and gibberellin (GA. The TaWRKY44-GFP fusion protein was localized to the nucleus of onion epidermal cells, and TaWRKY44 was able to bind to the core DNA sequences of TTGACC and TTAACC in yeast. The N-terminal of TaWRKY44 showed transcriptional activation activity. Expression of TaWRKY44 in tobacco plants conferred drought and salt tolerance and transgenic tobacco exhibited a higher survival rate, relative water content (RWC, soluble sugar, proline and superoxide dismutase (SOD content, as well as higher activities of catalase (CAT and peroxidase (POD, but less ion leakage (IL, lower contents of malondialdehyde (MDA, and H2O2. In addition, expression of TaWRKY44 also increased the seed germination rate in the transgenic lines under osmotic stress conditions while exhibiting a lower H2O2 content and higher SOD, CAT and POD activities. Expression of TaWRKY44 upregulated the expression of some reactive oxygen species (ROS-related genes and stress-responsive genes in tobacco under osmotic stresses. These data demonstrate that TaWRKY44 may act as a positive regulator in drought/salt/osmotic stress responses by either efficient ROS elimination through direct or indirect activation of the cellular antioxidant systems or activation of stress-associated gene expression.

  18. Cloning, characterisation and comparative analysis of a starch synthase IV gene in wheat: functional and evolutionary implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Broglie Karen E

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Starch is of great importance to humans as a food and biomaterial, and the amount and structure of starch made in plants is determined in part by starch synthase (SS activity. Five SS isoforms, SSI, II, III, IV and Granule Bound SSI, have been identified, each with a unique catalytic role in starch synthesis. The basic mode of action of SSs is known; however our knowledge of several aspects of SS enzymology at the structural and mechanistic level is incomplete. To gain a better understanding of the differences in SS sequences that underscore their specificity, the previously uncharacterised SSIVb from wheat was cloned and extensive bioinformatics analyses of this and other SSs sequences were done. Results The wheat SSIV cDNA is most similar to rice SSIVb with which it shows synteny and shares a similar exon-intron arrangement. The wheat SSIVb gene was preferentially expressed in leaf and was not regulated by a circadian clock. Phylogenetic analysis showed that in plants, SSIV is closely related to SSIII, while SSI, SSII and Granule Bound SSI clustered together and distinctions between the two groups can be made at the genetic level and included chromosomal location and intron conservation. Further, identified differences at the amino acid level in their glycosyltransferase domains, predicted secondary structures, global conformations and conserved residues might be indicative of intragroup functional associations. Conclusion Based on bioinformatics analysis of the catalytic region of 36 SSs and 3 glycogen synthases (GSs, it is suggested that the valine residue in the highly conserved K-X-G-G-L motif in SSIII and SSIV may be a determining feature of primer specificity of these SSs as compared to GBSSI, SSI and SSII. In GBSSI, the Ile485 residue may partially explain that enzyme's unique catalytic features. The flexible 380s Loop in the starch catalytic domain may be important in defining the specificity of action for each

  19. E3 ubiquitin ligase gene CMPG1-V from Haynaldia villosa L. contributes to powdery mildew resistance in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yanfei; Li, Yingbo; Fei, Fei; Wang, Zongkuan; Wang, Wei; Cao, Aizhong; Liu, Yuan; Han, Shuang; Xing, Liping; Wang, Haiyan; Chen, Wei; Tang, Sanyuan; Huang, Xiahe; Shen, Qianhua; Xie, Qi; Wang, Xiue

    2015-10-01

    Powdery mildew is one of the most devastating wheat fungal diseases. A diploid wheat relative, Haynaldia villosa L., is highly resistant to powdery mildew, and its genetic resource of resistances, such as the Pm21 locus, is now widely used in wheat breeding. Here we report the cloning of a resistance gene from H. villosa, designated CMPG1-V, that encodes a U-box E3 ubiquitin ligase. Expression of the CMPG1-V gene was induced in the leaf and stem of H. villosa upon inoculation with Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt) fungus, and the presence of Pm21 is essential for its rapid induction of expression. CMPG1-V has conserved key residues for E3 ligase, and possesses E3 ligase activity in vitro and in vivo. CMPG1-V is localized in the nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, plasma membrane and partially in trans-Golgi network/early endosome vesicles. Transgenic wheat over-expressing CMPG1-V showed improved broad-spectrum powdery mildew resistance at seedling and adult stages, associated with an increase in expression of salicylic acid-responsive genes, H2 O2 accumulation, and cell-wall protein cross-linking at the Bgt infection sites, and the expression of CMPG1-V in H. villosa was increased when treated with salicylic acid, abscisic acid and H2 O2 . These results indicate the involvement of E3 ligase in defense responses to Bgt fungus in wheat, particularly in broad-spectrum disease resistance, and suggest association of reactive oxidative species and the phytohormone pathway with CMPG1-V-mediated powdery mildew resistance. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Wheat F-Box Protein Gene TaFBA1 Is Involved in Plant Tolerance to Heat Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinxue Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Adverse environmental conditions, including high temperature, often affect the growth and production of crops worldwide. F-box protein, a core component of the Skp1-Cullin-F-box (SCF E3 ligase complex, plays an important role in abiotic stress responses. A previously cloned gene from wheat, TaFBA1, encodes a homologous F-box protein. A Yeast two-Hybrid (Y2H assay showed that TaFBA1 interacted with other SCF proteins. We found that the expression of TaFBA1 could be induced by heat stress (45°C. Overexpression of TaFBA1 enhanced heat stress tolerance in transgenic tobacco, because growth inhibition was reduced and photosynthesis increased as compared with those in the wild type (WT plants. Furthermore, the accumulation of H2O2, O2-, and carbonyl protein decreased and cell damage was alleviated in transgenic plants under heat stress, which resulted in less oxidative damage. However, the transgenic plants contained more enzymatic antioxidants after heat stress, which might be related to the regulation of some antioxidant gene expressions. The qRT-PCR analysis showed that the overexpression of TaFBA1 upregulated the expression of genes involved in reactive oxygen species (ROS scavenging, proline biosynthesis, and abiotic stress responses. We identified the interaction of TaFBA1 with Triticum aestivum stress responsive protein 1 (TaASRP1 by Y2H assay and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC assay. The results suggested that TaFBA1 may improve enzymatic antioxidant levels and regulate gene expression by interacting with other proteins, such as TaASRP1, which leads to the enhanced heat stress tolerance seen in the transgenic plants.

  1. Dynamics of floret initiation/death determining spike fertility in wheat as affected by Ppd genes under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Paula; Ochagavía, Helga; Savin, Roxana; Griffiths, Simon; Slafer, Gustavo A

    2018-04-27

    As wheat yield is linearly related to grain number, understanding the physiological determinants of the number of fertile florets based on floret development dynamics due to the role of the particular genes is relevant. The effects of photoperiod genes on dynamics of floret development are largely ignored. Field experiments were carried out to (i) characterize the dynamics of floret primordia initiation and degeneration and (ii) to determine which are the most critical traits of such dynamics in establishing genotypic differences in the number of fertile florets at anthesis in near isogenic lines (NILs) carrying photoperiod-insensitive alleles. Results varied in magnitude between the two growing seasons, but in general introgression of Ppd-1a alleles reduced the number of fertile florets. The actual effect was affected not only by the genome and the doses but also by the source of the alleles. Differences in the number of fertile florets were mainly explained by differences in the floret generation/degeneration dynamics, and in most cases associated with floret survival. Manipulating photoperiod insensitivity, unquestionably useful for changing flowering time, may reduce spike fertility but much less than proportionally to the change in duration of development, as the insensitivity alleles did increase the rate of floret development.

  2. The role of the F-box gene TaFBA1 from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in drought tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shumei; Sun, Xiudong; Yin, Suhong; Kong, Xiangzhu; Zhou, Shan; Xu, Ying; Luo, Yin; Wang, Wei

    2014-11-01

    Drought is one of the most important factors limiting plant growth and development. We identified a gene in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under drought stress named TaFBA1. TaFBA1 encodes a putative 325-amino-acid F-box protein with a conserved N-terminal F-box domain and a C-terminal AMN1 domain. Real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that TaFBA1 transcript accumulation was upregulated by high-salinity, water stress, and abscisic acid (ABA) treatment. To evaluate the functions of TaFBA1 in the regulation of drought stress responses, we produced transgenic tobacco lines overexpressing TaFBA1. Under water stress conditions, the transgenic tobacco plants had a higher germination rate, higher relative water content, net photosynthesis rate (Pn), less chlorophyll loss, and less growth inhibition than WT. These results demonstrate the high tolerance of the transgenic plants to drought stress compared to the WT. The enhanced oxidative stress tolerance of these plants, which may be involved in their drought tolerance, was indicated by their lower levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, MDA content, and cell membrane damage under drought stress compared to WT. The antioxidant enzyme activities were higher in the transgenic plants than in WT, which may be related to the upregulated expression of some antioxidant genes via overexpression of TaFBA1. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Systemic and local regulation of phosphate and nitrogen transporter genes by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in roots of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jianfeng; Tian, Hui; Drijber, Rhae A; Gao, Yajun

    2015-11-01

    Previous studies have reported that the expression of phosphate (Pi) or nitrogen (N) transporter genes in roots of plants could be regulated by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, but little is known whether the regulation is systemic or not. The present study investigated the systemic and local regulation of multiple phosphate and nitrogen transporter genes by four AM fungal species belonging to four genera in the roots of winter wheat. A split-root culture system with AM inoculated (MR) and non-inoculated root compartments (NR) was used to investigate the systemic or local responses of phosphate and nitrogen transporter genes to colonization by four AM fungi in the roots of wheat. The expression of four Pi transporter, five nitrate transporter, and three ammonium transporter genes was quantified using real-time PCR. Of the four AM fungi tested, all locally increased expression of the AM-inducible Pi transporter genes, and most locally decreased expression of a Pi-starvation inducible Pi transporter gene. The addition of N in soil increased the expression of either Pi starvation inducible Pi transporters or AM inducible Pi transporters. Inoculation with AM fungi either had no effect, or could locally or systemically down-regulate expression of nitrogen transporter genes depending on gene type and AM fungal species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Sexual Dimorphism of Parental Care: From Genes to Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilkha, Noga; Scott, Niv; Kimchi, Tali

    2017-07-25

    Parental care is found in species across the animal kingdom, from small insects to large mammals, with a conserved purpose of increasing offspring survival. Yet enormous variability exists between different species and between the sexes in the pattern and level of parental investment. Here, we review the literature on the neurobiological mechanisms underlying maternal and paternal care, especially in rodents, and discuss the relationship between sex differences in behavior and sexual dimorphism in the brain. We argue that although several brain regions and circuits regulating parental care are shared by both sexes, some of the fundamental components comprising the maternal brain are innate and sex specific. Moreover, we suggest that a more comprehensive understanding of the underlying mechanisms can be achieved by expanding the methodological toolbox, applying ethologically relevant approaches such as nontraditional wild-derived animal models and complex seminatural experimental set-ups.

  5. Involvement of Disperse Repetitive Sequences in Wheat/Rye Genome Adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Silva

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The union of different genomes in the same nucleus frequently results in hybrid genotypes with improved genome plasticity related to both genome remodeling events and changes in gene expression. Most modern cereal crops are polyploid species. Triticale, synthesized by the cross between wheat and rye, constitutes an excellent model to study polyploidization functional implications. We intend to attain a deeper knowledge of dispersed repetitive sequence involvement in parental genome reshuffle in triticale and in wheat-rye addition lines that have the entire wheat genome plus each rye chromosome pair. Through Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD analysis with OPH20 10-mer primer we unraveled clear alterations corresponding to the loss of specific bands from both parental genomes. Moreover, the sequential nature of those events was revealed by the increased absence of rye-origin bands in wheat-rye addition lines in comparison with triticale. Remodeled band sequencing revealed that both repetitive and coding genome domains are affected in wheat-rye hybrid genotypes. Additionally, the amplification and sequencing of pSc20H internal segments showed that the disappearance of parental bands may result from restricted sequence alterations and unraveled the involvement of wheat/rye related repetitive sequences in genome adjustment needed for hybrid plant stabilization.

  6. Pm55, a developmental-stage and tissue-specific powdery mildew resistance gene introgressed from Dasypyrum villosum into common wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruiqi; Sun, Bingxiao; Chen, Juan; Cao, Aizhong; Xing, Liping; Feng, Yigao; Lan, Caixia; Chen, Peidu

    2016-10-01

    Powdery mildew resistance gene Pm55 was physically mapped to chromosome arm 5VS FL 0.60-0.80 of Dasypyrum villosum . Pm55 is present in T5VS·5AL and T5VS·5DL translocations, which should be valuable resources for wheat improvement. Powdery mildew caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici is a major wheat disease worldwide. Exploiting novel genes effective against powdery mildew from wild relatives of wheat is a promising strategy for controlling this disease. To identify novel resistance genes for powdery mildew from Dasypyrum villosum, a wild wheat relative, we evaluated a set of Chinese Spring-D. villosum disomic addition and whole-arm translocation lines for reactions to powdery mildew. Based on the evaluation data, we concluded that the D. villosum chromosome 5V controls post-seedling resistance to powdery mildew. Subsequently, three introgression lines were developed and confirmed by molecular and cytogenetic analysis following ionizing radiation of the pollen of a Chinese Spring-D. villosum 5V disomic addition line. A homozygous T5VS·5AL translocation line (NAU421) with good plant vigor and full fertility was further characterized using sequential genomic in situ hybridization, C-banding, and EST-STS marker analysis. A dominant gene permanently named Pm55 was located in chromosome bin 5VS 0.60-0.80 based on the responses to powdery mildew of all wheat-D. villosum 5V introgression lines evaluated at both seeding and adult stages. This study demonstrated that Pm55 conferred growth-stage and tissue-specific dependent resistance; therefore, it provides a novel resistance type for powdery mildew. The T5VS·5AL translocation line with additional softness loci Dina/Dinb of D. villosum provides a possibility of extending the range of grain textures to a super-soft category. Accordingly, this stock is a new source of resistance to powdery mildew and may be useful in both resistance mechanism studies and soft wheat improvement.

  7. The physical map of wheat chromosome 1BS provides insights into its gene space organization and evolution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Raats, D.; Frenkel, Z.; Krugman, T.; Šimková, Hana; Paux, E.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Feuillet, C.; Korol, A.; Fahima, T.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 12 (2013) ISSN 1465-6906 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : TRITICUM-AESTIVUM L. * HEXAPLOID WHEAT * BREAD WHEAT Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 10.465, year: 2013

  8. Alpha-gliadin genes from the A, B, and D genomes of wheat contain different sets of celiac disease epitopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herpen, van T.W.J.M.; Goryunova-Svetlana, V.; Schoot, van der J.; Mitreva, M.; Salentijn, E.M.J.; Vorst, O.F.J.; Schenk, M.F.; Veelen, van P.; Koning, de F.; Soest, van L.J.M.; Vosman, B.J.; Bosch, H.J.; Gilissen, L.J.W.J.; Smulders, M.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Background - Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) is an important staple food. However, wheat gluten proteins cause celiac disease (CD) in 0.5 to 1% of the general population. Among these proteins, the a-gliadins contain several peptides that are associated to the disease. Results - We obtained 230

  9. Beyond main effects of gene-sets: harsh parenting moderates the association between a dopamine gene-set and child externalizing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windhorst, Dafna A; Mileva-Seitz, Viara R; Rippe, Ralph C A; Tiemeier, Henning; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Verhulst, Frank C; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J

    2016-08-01

    In a longitudinal cohort study, we investigated the interplay of harsh parenting and genetic variation across a set of functionally related dopamine genes, in association with children's externalizing behavior. This is one of the first studies to employ gene-based and gene-set approaches in tests of Gene by Environment (G × E) effects on complex behavior. This approach can offer an important alternative or complement to candidate gene and genome-wide environmental interaction (GWEI) studies in the search for genetic variation underlying individual differences in behavior. Genetic variants in 12 autosomal dopaminergic genes were available in an ethnically homogenous part of a population-based cohort. Harsh parenting was assessed with maternal (n = 1881) and paternal (n = 1710) reports at age 3. Externalizing behavior was assessed with the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) at age 5 (71 ± 3.7 months). We conducted gene-set analyses of the association between variation in dopaminergic genes and externalizing behavior, stratified for harsh parenting. The association was statistically significant or approached significance for children without harsh parenting experiences, but was absent in the group with harsh parenting. Similarly, significant associations between single genes and externalizing behavior were only found in the group without harsh parenting. Effect sizes in the groups with and without harsh parenting did not differ significantly. Gene-environment interaction tests were conducted for individual genetic variants, resulting in two significant interaction effects (rs1497023 and rs4922132) after correction for multiple testing. Our findings are suggestive of G × E interplay, with associations between dopamine genes and externalizing behavior present in children without harsh parenting, but not in children with harsh parenting experiences. Harsh parenting may overrule the role of genetic factors in externalizing behavior. Gene-based and gene

  10. Mapping and characterization of wheat stem rust resistance genes SrTm5 and Sr60 from Triticum monococcum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shisheng; Guo, Yan; Briggs, Jordan; Dubach, Felix; Chao, Shiaoman; Zhang, Wenjun; Rouse, Matthew N; Dubcovsky, Jorge

    2018-03-01

    The new stem rust resistance gene Sr60 was fine-mapped to the distal region of chromosome arm 5A m S, and the TTKSK-effective gene SrTm5 could be a new allele of Sr22. The emergence and spread of new virulent races of the wheat stem rust pathogen (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici; Pgt), including the Ug99 race group, is a serious threat to global wheat production. In this study, we mapped and characterized two stem rust resistance genes from diploid wheat Triticum monococcum accession PI 306540. We mapped SrTm5, a previously postulated gene effective to Ug99, on chromosome arm 7A m L, completely linked to Sr22. SrTm5 displayed a different race specificity compared to Sr22 indicating that they are distinct. Sequencing of the Sr22 homolog in PI 306540 revealed a novel haplotype. Characterization of the segregating populations with Pgt race QFCSC revealed an additional resistance gene on chromosome arm 5A m S that was assigned the official name Sr60. This gene was also effective against races QTHJC and SCCSC but not against TTKSK (a Ug99 group race). Using two large mapping populations (4046 gametes), we mapped Sr60 within a 0.44 cM interval flanked by sequenced-based markers GH724575 and CJ942731. These two markers delimit a 54.6-kb region in Brachypodium distachyon chromosome 4 and a 430-kb region in the Chinese Spring reference genome. Both regions include a leucine-rich repeat protein kinase (LRRK123.1) that represents a potential candidate gene. Three CC-NBS-LRR genes were found in the colinear Brachypodium region but not in the wheat genome. We are currently developing a Bacterial Artificial Chromosome library of PI 306540 to determine which of these candidate genes are present in the T. monococcum genome and to complete the cloning of Sr60.

  11. NS Pudarka: A new winter wheat cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristov Nikola

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The high-yielding, medium late winter wheat cultivar NS Pudarka was developed by crossing genetic divergent parents: line NMNH-07 and cv. NS 40S and Simonida. In cultivar NS Pudarka genes responsible for high yield potential, very good technological quality, resistance to lodging, low temperature and diseases, were successfully combined. It was registered by Ministry of agriculture, forestry and water management of Serbia Republic in 2013. This cultivar has wide adaptability and stability of yield that enable growing in different environments with optimal agricultural practice. On the base of technological quality this cultivar belongs to the second quality class, A2 farinograph subgroup and second technological group.

  12. Genetic Imaging of the Association of Oxytocin Receptor Gene (OXTR Polymorphisms with Positive Maternal Parenting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalina J. Michalska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Well-validated models of maternal behavior in small-brain mammals posit a central role of oxytocin in parenting, by reducing stress and enhancing the reward value of social interactions with offspring. In contrast, human studies are only beginning to gain insights into how oxytocin modulates maternal behavior and affiliation. Methods: To explore associations between oxytocin receptor genes and maternal parenting behavior in humans, we conducted a genetic imaging study of women selected to exhibit a wide range of observed parenting when their children were 4-6 years old. Results: In response to child stimuli during functional magnetic resonance imaging, hemodynamic responses in brain regions that mediate affect, reward, and social behavior were significantly correlated with observed positive parenting. Furthermore, single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs53576 and rs1042778 in the gene encoding the oxytocin receptor were significantly associated with both positive parenting and hemodynamic responses to child stimuli in orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex and hippocampus. Conclusions: These findings contribute to the emerging literature on the role of oxytocin in human social behavior and support the feasibility of tracing biological pathways from genes to neural regions to positive maternal parenting behaviors in humans using genetic imaging methods.

  13. Drought controls on H2O2 accumulation, catalase (CAT) activity and CAT gene expression in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Celina M; Pastori, Gabriela M; Driscoll, Simon; Groten, Karin; Bernard, Stephanie; Foyer, Christine H

    2005-01-01

    Plants co-ordinate information derived from many diverse external and internal signals to ensure appropriate control of gene expression under optimal and stress conditions. In this work, the relationships between catalase (CAT) and H2O2 during drought in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) are studied. Drought-induced H2O2 accumulation correlated with decreases in soil water content and CO2 assimilation. Leaf H2O2 content increased even though total CAT activity doubled under severe drought conditions. Diurnal regulation of CAT1 and CAT2 mRNA abundance was apparent in all conditions and day/night CAT1 and CAT2 expression patterns were modified by mild and severe drought. The abundance of CAT1 transcripts was regulated by circadian controls that persisted in continuous darkness, while CAT2 was modulated by light. Drought decreased abundance, and modified the pattern, of CAT1 and CAT2 mRNAs. It was concluded that the complex regulation of CAT mRNA, particularly at the level of translation, allows precise control of leaf H2O2 accumulation.

  14. Nanocarrier-mediated foliar zinc fertilization influences expression of metal homeostasis related genes in flag leaves and enhances gluten content in durum wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Paresh; Dapkekar, Ashwin; Oak, Manoj; Paknikar, Kishore; Rajwade, Jyutika

    2018-01-01

    Wheat is the staple food for most of the world's population; however, it is a poor source of zinc. Foliar fertilization of zinc via zinc loaded chitosan nanocarriers (Zn-CNP) post-anthesis has proved to be a promising approach for grain zinc enhancement in durum wheat as evidenced in our earlier study. However, the molecular mechanism of uptake of zinc via Zn-CNP remains unclear. Foliar application of Zn-CNP was performed at post anthesis stages in two durum wheat cultivars (MACS 3125 and UC1114, containing the Gpc-B1 gene), and expression levels of several metal-related genes were analyzed during early senescence. Zn-CNP application indeed caused changes in gene expression as revealed by qPCR data on representative genes involved in metal homeostasis, phloem transporters, and leaf senescence. Furthermore, zinc-regulated transporters and iron (Fe)-regulated transporter-like protein (ZIP) family [ZIP1, ZIP7, ZIP15], CA (carbonic anhydrase), and DMAS (2'-deoxymugineic acid synthase) in flag leaves exhibited significant correlation with zinc content in the seeds. The analysis of grain endosperm proteins showed enhancement of gamma gliadins while other gluten subunits decreased. Gene expression within ZIP family members varied with the type of cultivar mostly attributed to the Gpc-B1, concentration of external zinc ions as well as the type of tissue analyzed. Correlation analysis revealed the involvement of the selected genes in zinc enhancement. At the molecular level, uptake of zinc via Zn-CNP nanocarrier was comparable to the uptake of zinc via common zinc fertilizers i.e. ZnSO4.

  15. Nanocarrier-mediated foliar zinc fertilization influences expression of metal homeostasis related genes in flag leaves and enhances gluten content in durum wheat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paresh Deshpande

    Full Text Available Wheat is the staple food for most of the world's population; however, it is a poor source of zinc. Foliar fertilization of zinc via zinc loaded chitosan nanocarriers (Zn-CNP post-anthesis has proved to be a promising approach for grain zinc enhancement in durum wheat as evidenced in our earlier study. However, the molecular mechanism of uptake of zinc via Zn-CNP remains unclear.Foliar application of Zn-CNP was performed at post anthesis stages in two durum wheat cultivars (MACS 3125 and UC1114, containing the Gpc-B1 gene, and expression levels of several metal-related genes were analyzed during early senescence. Zn-CNP application indeed caused changes in gene expression as revealed by qPCR data on representative genes involved in metal homeostasis, phloem transporters, and leaf senescence. Furthermore, zinc-regulated transporters and iron (Fe-regulated transporter-like protein (ZIP family [ZIP1, ZIP7, ZIP15], CA (carbonic anhydrase, and DMAS (2'-deoxymugineic acid synthase in flag leaves exhibited significant correlation with zinc content in the seeds. The analysis of grain endosperm proteins showed enhancement of gamma gliadins while other gluten subunits decreased. Gene expression within ZIP family members varied with the type of cultivar mostly attributed to the Gpc-B1, concentration of external zinc ions as well as the type of tissue analyzed. Correlation analysis revealed the involvement of the selected genes in zinc enhancement.At the molecular level, uptake of zinc via Zn-CNP nanocarrier was comparable to the uptake of zinc via common zinc fertilizers i.e. ZnSO4.

  16. Pyramiding expression of maize genes encoding phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) and pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase (PPDK) synergistically improve the photosynthetic characteristics of transgenic wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, HuiFang; Xu, WeiGang; Wang, HuiWei; Hu, Lin; Li, Yan; Qi, XueLi; Zhang, Lei; Li, ChunXin; Hua, Xia

    2014-09-01

    Using particle bombardment transformation, we introduced maize pepc cDNA encoding phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) and ppdk cDNA encoding pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase (PPDK) into the C3 crop wheat to generate transgenic wheat lines carrying cDNA of pepc (PC lines), ppdk (PK lines) or both (PKC lines). The integration, transcription, and expression of the foreign genes were confirmed by Southern blot, Real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (Q-RT-PCR), and Western blot analysis. Q-RT-PCR results indicated that the average relative expression levels of pepc and ppdk in the PKC lines reached 10 and 4.6, respectively, compared to their expressions in untransformed plants (set to 1). The enzyme activities of PEPC and PPDK in the PKC lines were 4.3- and 2.1-fold higher, respectively, than in the untransformed control. The maximum daily net photosynthetic rates of the PKC, PC, and PK lines were enhanced by 26.4, 13.3, and 4.5%, respectively, whereas the diurnal accumulations of photosynthesis were 21.3, 13.9, and 6.9%, respectively, higher than in the control. The Fv/Fm of the transgenic plants decreased less than in the control under high temperature and high light conditions (2 weeks after anthesis), suggesting that the transgenic wheat transports more absorbed light energy into a photochemical reaction. The exogenous maize C4-specific pepc gene was more effective than ppdk at improving the photosynthetic performance and yield characteristics of transgenic wheat, while the two genes showed a synergistic effect when they were transformed into the same genetic background, because the PKC lines exhibited improved photosynthetic and physiological traits.

  17. Genetic control of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zine El Abidine Fellahi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Nine bread wheat genotypes were crossed under a partial diallel scheme, in which group 1 counted five lines and group 2 four lines. The 20 F1 ’s and their parents were evaluated in randomized complete block design with three replications at the Field Crop Institute-Agricultural Experimental Station of Setif (Algeria during the 2011/2012 cropping season. The results showed that the components associated with additive effects were more relevant than those associated with the dominance effects for these traits. Based on the KD /KR ratio, the dominant alleles are present in greater frequency in the first group of parents, while the opposite is true for the second group. Values of the gene proportion with positive and negative effects in the parents revealed an unequal distribution of dominant genes in the parents for almost all the traits except for number of grain per spike in the second group which showed an equal distribution.

  18. Glycoside hydrolase gene transcription by Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius during growth on wheat arabinoxylan and monosaccharides: a proposed xylan hydrolysis mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Brady D.; Apel, William A.; Sheridan, Peter P.; DeVeaux, Linda C.

    2018-04-16

    Background Metabolism of carbon bound in wheat arabinoxylan (WAX) polysaccharides by bacteria requires a number of glycoside hydrolases active toward different bonds between sugars and other molecules. Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius is a Gram-positive thermoacidophilic bacterium capable of growth on a variety of mono-, di-, oligo-, and polysaccharides. Nineteen proposed glycoside hydrolases have been annotated in the A. acidocaldarius Type Strain ATCC27009/DSM 446 genome. Results Molecular analysis using high-density oligonucleotide microarrays was performed on A. acidocaldarius strain ATCC27009 when growing on WAX. When a culture growing exponentially at the expense of arabinoxylan saccharides was challenged with glucose or xylose, most glycoside hydrolases were down-regulated. Interestingly, regulation was more intense when xylose was added to the culture than when glucose was added, a clear departure from classical carbon catabolite repression demonstrated by many Gram-positive bacteria. In silico analyses of the regulated glycoside hydrolases, along with the results from the microarray analyses, yielded a potential mechanism for arabinoxylan metabolism by A. acidocaldarius. Glycoside hydrolases expressed by this strain may have broad substrate specificity, and initial hydrolysis is catalyzed by an extracellular xylanase, while subsequent steps are likely performed inside the growing cell. Conclusions Glycoside hydrolases, for the most part, appear to be found in clusters, throughout the A. acidocaldarius genome. Not all of the glycoside hydrolase genes found at loci within these clusters were regulated during the experiment, indicating that a specific subset of the 19 glycoside hydrolase genes found in A. acidocaldarius were used during metabolism of WAX. While specific functions of the glycoside hydrolases was not tested as part of the research discussed, many of the glycoside hydrolases found in the A. acidocaldarius Type Strain appear to have a broader

  19. Overexpression of wheat ferritin gene TaFER-5B enhances tolerance to heat stress and other abiotic stresses associated with the ROS scavenging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Xinshan; Geng, Xiaoli; Wang, Fei; Liu, Zhenshan; Zhang, Liyuan; Zhao, Yue; Tian, Xuejun; Ni, Zhongfu; Yao, Yingyin; Xin, Mingming; Hu, Zhaorong; Sun, Qixin; Peng, Huiru

    2017-01-14

    The yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), an important crop, is adversely affected by heat stress in many regions of the world. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying thermotolerance are largely unknown. A novel ferritin gene, TaFER, was identified from our previous heat stress-responsive transcriptome analysis of a heat-tolerant wheat cultivar (TAM107). TaFER was mapped to chromosome 5B and named TaFER-5B. Expression pattern analysis revealed that TaFER-5B was induced by heat, polyethylene glycol (PEG), H 2 O 2 and Fe-ethylenediaminedi(o-hydroxyphenylacetic) acid (Fe-EDDHA). To confirm the function of TaFER-5B in wheat, TaFER-5B was transformed into the wheat cultivar Jimai5265 (JM5265), and the transgenic plants exhibited enhanced thermotolerance. To examine whether the function of ferritin from mono- and dico-species is conserved, TaFER-5B was transformed into Arabidopsis, and overexpression of TaFER-5B functionally complemented the heat stress-sensitive phenotype of a ferritin-lacking mutant of Arabidopsis. Moreover, TaFER-5B is essential for protecting cells against heat stress associated with protecting cells against ROS. In addition, TaFER-5B overexpression also enhanced drought, oxidative and excess iron stress tolerance associated with the ROS scavenging. Finally, TaFER-5B transgenic Arabidopsis and wheat plants exhibited improved leaf iron content. Our results suggest that TaFER-5B plays an important role in enhancing tolerance to heat stress and other abiotic stresses associated with the ROS scavenging.

  20. Effect of Ppd-1 on the expression of flowering-time genes in vegetative and reproductive growth stages of wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, Satoshi; Shimada, Sanae; Murai, Koji

    2012-01-01

    The photoperiod sensitivity gene Ppd-1 influences the timing of flowering in temperate cereals such as wheat and barley. The effect of Ppd-1 on the expression of flowering-time genes was assessed by examining the expression levels of the vernalization genes VRN1 and VRN3/WFT and of two CONSTANS-like genes, WCO1 and TaHd1, during vegetative and reproductive growth stages. Two near-isogenic lines (NILs) were used: the first carried a photoperiod-insensitive allele of Ppd-1 (Ppd-1a-NIL), the other, a photoperiod-sensitive allele (Ppd-1b-NIL). We found that the expression pattern of VRN1 was similar in Ppd-1a-NIL and Ppd-1b-NIL plants, suggesting that VRN1 is not regulated by Ppd-1. Under long day conditions, VRN3/WFT showed similar expression patterns in Ppd-1a-NIL and Ppd-1b-NIL plants. However, expression differed greatly under short day conditions: VRN3/WFT expression was detected in Ppd-1a-NIL plants at the 5-leaf stage when they transited from vegetative to reproductive growth; very low expression was present in Ppd-1b-NIL throughout all growth stages. Thus, the Ppd-1b allele acts to down-regulate VRN3/WFT under short day conditions. WCO1 showed high levels of expression at the vegetative stage, which decreased during the phase transition and reproductive growth stages in both Ppd-1a-NIL and Ppd-1b-NIL plants under short day conditions. By contrast to WCO1, TaHd1 was up-regulated during the reproductive stage. The level of TaHd1 expression was much higher in Ppd-1a-NIL than the Ppd-1b-NIL plants, suggesting that the Ppd-1b allele down-regulates TaHd1 under short day conditions. The present study indicates that down-regulation of VRN3/WFT together with TaHd1 is the cause of late flowering in the Ppd-1b-NIL plants under short day conditions.

  1. Wheat Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of reactions. Learn more here. Milk Egg Peanut Tree Nuts Soy Wheat Fish Shellfish Sesame Other Food ... federal law. Download our resource on how to identify wheat on food labels. Avoid foods that contain ...

  2. Ameliorating effect of wheat bran, Beta-carotene and Curcumin on K-ras gene mutations and expression of ntioxidant enzymes in rat colon cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarek Elmaghraby, T.; Korraa, S.S.; Maher, M.M.; Hassan, N.H.A.

    2010-01-01

    In Egypt, colon cancer has unique characterises differ than other countries, more than third cases happen in people under 40 years, with advanced stage, high grade tumors that carry more mutations . This may be return to increase pollution in food and water. The aim of the present study, is the investigation of the role of some natural products approaches for colorectal carcinoma including curcumin, wheat bran and β-Carotene. Accordingly, animals were injected with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine hydrochloride (DMH) and/or dually exposed to ionizing radiation to induce colorectal cancer. The frequency of mutation of K-ras gene, the level activity of SOD, GpX antioxidant enzymes and expression of SOD1, SOD2 and GpX1 in tissue of 120 colon rats from 10 different treated groups were studied. Curcumin, wheat bran and D-carotene have inhibition effect on formation of colon cancer and decrease the mutations in K-ras gene. Moreover, they have ameliorating effect on antioxidants enzymes activities and expressions. The present study revealed that wheat bran and D-carotene have better effect than curcumin.

  3. Haplotype analysis of the genes encoding glutamine synthetase plastic isoforms and their association with nitrogen-use- and yield-related traits in bread wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin-Peng; Zhao, Xue-Qiang; He, Xue; Zhao, Guang-Yao; Li, Bin; Liu, Dong-Cheng; Zhang, Ai-Min; Zhang, Xue-Yong; Tong, Yi-Ping; Li, Zhen-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Glutamine synthetase (GS) plays a key role in the growth, nitrogen (N) use and yield potential of cereal crops. Investigating the haplotype variation of GS genes and its association with agronomic traits may provide useful information for improving wheat N-use efficiency and yield. We isolated the promoter and coding region sequences of the plastic glutamine synthetase isoform (GS2) genes located on chromosomes 2A, 2B and 2D in bread wheat. By analyzing nucleotide sequence variations of the coding region, two, six and two haplotypes were distinguished for TaGS2-A1 (a and b), TaGS2-B1 (a-f) and TaGS2-D1 (a and b), respectively. By analyzing the frequency data of different haplotypes and their association with N use and agronomic traits, four major and favorable TaGS2 haplotypes (A1b, B1a, B1b, D1a) were revealed. These favorable haplotypes may confer better seedling growth, better agronomic performance, and improved N uptake during vegetative growth or grain N concentration. Our data suggest that certain TaGS2 haplotypes may be valuable in breeding wheat varieties with improved agronomic performance and N-use efficiency. © The Authors (2010). Journal compilation © New Phytologist Trust (2010).

  4. Zinc finger nuclease-mediated precision genome editing of an endogenous gene in hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) using a DNA repair template.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Yidong; Patron, Nicola; Kay, Pippa; Wong, Debbie; Buchanan, Margaret; Cao, Ying-Ying; Sawbridge, Tim; Davies, John P; Mason, John; Webb, Steven R; Spangenberg, German; Ainley, William M; Walsh, Terence A; Hayden, Matthew J

    2018-05-07

    Sequence-specific nucleases have been used to engineer targeted genome modifications in various plants. While targeted gene knockouts resulting in loss of function have been reported with relatively high rates of success, targeted gene editing using an exogenously supplied DNA repair template and site-specific transgene integration has been more challenging. Here, we report the first application of zinc finger nuclease (ZFN)-mediated, nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ)-directed editing of a native gene in allohexaploid bread wheat to introduce, via a supplied DNA repair template, a specific single amino acid change into the coding sequence of acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) to confer resistance to imidazolinone herbicides. We recovered edited wheat plants having the targeted amino acid modification in one or more AHAS homoalleles via direct selection for resistance to imazamox, an AHAS-inhibiting imidazolinone herbicide. Using a cotransformation strategy based on chemical selection for an exogenous marker, we achieved a 1.2% recovery rate of edited plants having the desired amino acid change and a 2.9% recovery of plants with targeted mutations at the AHAS locus resulting in a loss-of-function gene knockout. The latter results demonstrate a broadly applicable approach to introduce targeted modifications into native genes for nonselectable traits. All ZFN-mediated changes were faithfully transmitted to the next generation. © 2018 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Spontaneous wheat-Aegilops biuncialis, Ae. geniculata and Ae. triuncialis amphiploid production, a potential way of gene transference

    OpenAIRE

    Loureiro, I.; Escorial, C.; García-Baudin, J.M.; Chueca, C.

    2009-01-01

    Some F1 hybrid plants between three species of the Aegilops genus and different hexaploid wheat Triticum aestivum cultivars show certain self-fertility, with averages of F1 hybrids bearing F2 seeds of 8.17%, 5.12% and 48.14% for Aegilops biuncialis, Aegilops geniculata and Aegilops triuncialis respectively. In the Ae. triuncialis-wheat combination with ";Astral" wheat cultivar, the fertility was higher than that found in the other combinations. All the F2 seeds studied were spontaneous amphip...

  6. Effect of the down-regulation of the high Grain Protein Content (GPC) genes on the wheat transcriptome during monocarpic senescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cantu, Dario; Pearce, Stephen P; Distelfeld, Assaf

    2011-01-01

    Background: Increasing the nutrient concentration of wheat grains is important to ameliorate nutritional deficiencies in many parts of the world. Proteins and nutrients in the wheat grain are largely derived from the remobilization of degraded leaf molecules during monocarpic senescence. The down....... At this early stage of senescence GPC transcript levels are significantly lower in transgenic GPC-RNAi plants than in the wild type, but there are still no visible phenotypic differences between genotypes. Results: We generated 1.4 million 454 reads from early senescing flag leaves (average ~350 nt......) and assembled 1.2 million into 30,497 contigs that were used as a reference to map 145 million Illumina reads from three wild type and four GPC-RNAi plants. Following normalization and statistical testing, we identified a set of 691 genes differentially regulated by GPC (431 ≥ 2-fold change). Transcript level...

  7. Wheat TILLING mutants show that the vernalization gene VRN1 down-regulates the flowering repressor VRN2 in leaves but is not essential for flowering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Chen

    Full Text Available Most of the natural variation in wheat vernalization response is determined by allelic differences in the MADS-box transcription factor VERNALIZATION1 (VRN1. Extended exposures to low temperatures during the winter (vernalization induce VRN1 expression and promote the transition of the apical meristem to the reproductive phase. In contrast to its Arabidopsis homolog (APETALA1, which is mainly expressed in the apical meristem, VRN1 is also expressed at high levels in the leaves, but its function in this tissue is not well understood. Using tetraploid wheat lines with truncation mutations in the two homoeologous copies of VRN1 (henceforth vrn1-null mutants, we demonstrate that a central role of VRN1 in the leaves is to maintain low transcript levels of the VRN2 flowering repressor after vernalization. Transcript levels of VRN2 were gradually down-regulated during vernalization in both mutant and wild-type genotypes, but were up-regulated after vernalization only in the vrn1-null mutants. The up-regulation of VRN2 delayed flowering by repressing the transcription of FT, a flowering-integrator gene that encodes a mobile protein that is transported from the leaves to the apical meristem to induce flowering. The role of VRN2 in the delayed flowering of the vrn1-null mutant was confirmed using double vrn1-vrn2-null mutants, which flowered two months earlier than the vrn1-null mutants. Both mutants produced normal flowers and seeds demonstrating that VRN1 is not essential for wheat flowering, which contradicts current flowering models. This result does not diminish the importance of VRN1 in the seasonal regulation of wheat flowering. The up-regulation of VRN1 during winter is required to maintain low transcript levels of VRN2, accelerate the induction of FT in the leaves, and regulate a timely flowering in the spring. Our results also demonstrate the existence of redundant wheat flowering genes that may provide new targets for engineering wheat

  8. Soft durum wheat - a paradigm shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two traits define most aspects of wheat quality and utilization: kernel texture (hardness) and gluten. The former is far simpler genetically and is controlled by two genes, Puroindoline a and Puroindoline b. Durum wheat lacks puroindolines and has very hard kernels. As such, durum wheat when milled ...

  9. (Neovossia indica ) resistance in wheat

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Screening and multiplication of different wheat varieties under laboratory conditions using in vitro culture techniques may speed up the resistance breeding programmes. Hence, the present investigations were planned to study the nature and magnitude of gene effects of inhibition zone formed by the wheat embryos, callus-.

  10. Analysis of transgenic wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) harboring a maize (Zea mays L.) gene for plastid EF-Tu: segregation pattern, expression and effects of the transgene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jianming; Ristic, Zoran

    2010-06-01

    We previously reported that transgenic wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) carrying a maize (Zea mays L.) gene (Zmeftu1) for chloroplast protein synthesis elongation factor, EF-Tu, displays reduced thermal aggregation of leaf proteins, reduced injury to photosynthetic membranes (thylakoids), and enhanced rate of CO(2) fixation following exposure to heat stress (18 h at 45 degrees C) [Fu et al. in Plant Mol Biol 68:277-288, 2008]. In the current study, we investigated the segregation pattern and expression of the transgene Zmeftu1 and determined the grain yield of transgenic plants after exposure to a brief heat stress (18 h at 45 degrees C). We also assessed thermal aggregation of soluble leaf proteins in transgenic plants, testing the hypothesis that increased levels of EF-Tu will lead to a non-specific protection of leaf proteins against thermal aggregation. The transgenic wheat displayed a single-gene pattern of segregation of Zmeftu1. Zmeftu1 was expressed, and the transgenic plants synthesized and accumulated three anti-EF-Tu cross-reacting polypeptides of similar molecular mass but different pI, suggesting the possibility of posttranslational modification of this protein. The transgenic plants also showed better grain yield after exposure to heat stress compared with their non-transgenic counterparts. Soluble leaf proteins of various molecular masses displayed lower thermal aggregation in transgenic than in non-transgenic wheat. The results suggest that overexpression of chloroplast EF-Tu can be beneficial to wheat tolerance to heat stress. Moreover, the results also support the hypothesis that EF-Tu contributes to heat tolerance by acting as a molecular chaperone and protecting heat-labile proteins from thermal aggregation in a non-specific manner.

  11. Putative interchromosomal rearrangements in the hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotype 'Chinese Spring' revealed by gene locations on homoeologous chromosomes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ma, J.; Stiller, J.; Zheng, Z.; Wei, Y.M.; Zheng, Y.L.; Yan, G.J.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Liu, C.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 15, MAR 11 2015 (2015) ISSN 1471-2148 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Interchromosomal rearrangements * Wheat genome * Translocation Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.406, year: 2015

  12. Dopamine Transporter Gene Moderates Response to Behavioral Parent Training in Children With ADHD : A Pilot Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hoofdakker, Barbara J.; Dijck-Brouwer, D. A. Janneke; Nauta, Maaike H.; van der Veen-Mulders, Lianne; Sytema, Sjoerd; Emmelkamp, Paul M. G.; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.

    There is great variability in the degree to which children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) improve through behavioral treatments. This study investigates the influence of the dopamine transporter gene (SCL6A3/DAT1) on outcome of behavioral parent training (BPT). Study subjects

  13. Dopamine transporter gene moderates response to behavioral parent training in children with ADHD: A pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hoofdakker, B.J.; Nauta, M.H.; Dijck-Brouwer, D.A.J.; van der Veen-Mulders, L.; Sytema, S.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; Minderaa, R.B.; Hoekstra, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    There is great variability in the degree to which children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) improve through behavioral treatments. This study investigates the influence of the dopamine transporter gene (SCL6A3/DAT1) on outcome of behavioral parent training (BPT). Study subjects

  14. Genetic variation at loci controlling quality traits in spring wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, N.; Iqbal, M.; Asif, M.

    2013-01-01

    Selection for quality traits in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) during early breeding generations requires quick analytical methods that need small grain samples. Marker assisted selection can be useful for the improvement of quality traits in wheat. The present study was conducted to screen 117 Pakistani adapted spring wheat varieties with DNA markers linked with genes controlling composition of low and high molecular weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS and HMW-GS, respectively), starch viscosity, Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity and grain hardness. DNA fragments associated with the presence/absence of quality related genes were amplified using Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and detected using agarose gel electrophoresis. Positive allele of beta-secalin, which indicates presence of 1B.1R translocation, was found in 77 (66%) varieties. The marker PPO05 was found in 30 (26%) varieties, indicating lower PPO activity. Grain hardness controlled by Pinb-D1b allele was present in 49 (42%) varieties. Allele Wx-B1b which confers superior noodle quality was found in 48 (41%) varieties. HMW-GS encoded by Glu-D1d allele that exerts a positive effect on dough strength was present in 115 (98%) varieties. LMW-GS alleles Glu-A3d and Glu-B3 were observed in 21 (18%) and 76 (65%) varieties, respectively. Results of the present study may help wheat breeders in selecting parents for improving desirable quality attributes of future wheat varieties. The varieties, identified having desirable quality genes, in this study can be used in the wheat breeding programs aiming to improve quality traits. Early generation marker assisted selection can help to efficiently utilize resources of a breeding program. (author)

  15. Comparative Analysis of Phenolic Compound Characterization and Their Biosynthesis Genes between Two Diverse Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum) Varieties Differing for Chapatti (Unleavened Flat Bread) Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Monica; Sandhir, Rajat; Singh, Anuradha; Kumar, Pankaj; Mishra, Ankita; Jachak, Sanjay; Singh, Sukhvinder P; Singh, Jagdeep; Roy, Joy

    2016-01-01

    Phenolic compounds (PCs) affect the bread quality and can also affect the other types of end-use food products such as chapatti (unleavened flat bread), now globally recognized wheat-based food product. The detailed analysis of PCs and their biosynthesis genes in diverse bread wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) varieties differing for chapatti quality have not been studied. In this study, the identification and quantification of PCs using UPLC-QTOF-MS and/or MS/MS and functional genomics techniques such as microarrays and qRT-PCR of their biosynthesis genes have been studied in a good chapatti variety, "C 306" and a poor chapatti variety, "Sonalika." About 80% (69/87) of plant phenolic compounds were tentatively identified in these varieties. Nine PCs (hinokinin, coutaric acid, fertaric acid, p-coumaroylqunic acid, kaempferide, isorhamnetin, epigallocatechin gallate, methyl isoorientin-2'-O-rhamnoside, and cyanidin-3-rutinoside) were identified only in the good chapatti variety and four PCs (tricin, apigenindin, quercetin-3-O-glucuronide, and myricetin-3-glucoside) in the poor chapatti variety. Therefore, about 20% of the identified PCs are unique to each other and may be "variety or genotype" specific PCs. Fourteen PCs used for quantification showed high variation between the varieties. The microarray data of 44 phenolic compound biosynthesis genes and 17 of them on qRT-PCR showed variation in expression level during seed development and majority of them showed low expression in the good chapatti variety. The expression pattern in the good chapatti variety was largely in agreement with that of phenolic compounds. The level of variation of 12 genes was high between the good and poor chapatti quality varieties and has potential in development of markers. The information generated in this study can be extended onto a larger germplasm set for development of molecular markers using QTL and/or association mapping approaches for their application in wheat breeding.

  16. Comparative Analysis of Phenolic Compound Characterization and Their Biosynthesis Genes between Two Diverse Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum) Varieties Differing for Chapatti (Unleavened Flat Bread) Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Monica; Sandhir, Rajat; Singh, Anuradha; Kumar, Pankaj; Mishra, Ankita; Jachak, Sanjay; Singh, Sukhvinder P.; Singh, Jagdeep; Roy, Joy

    2016-01-01

    Phenolic compounds (PCs) affect the bread quality and can also affect the other types of end-use food products such as chapatti (unleavened flat bread), now globally recognized wheat-based food product. The detailed analysis of PCs and their biosynthesis genes in diverse bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) varieties differing for chapatti quality have not been studied. In this study, the identification and quantification of PCs using UPLC-QTOF-MS and/or MS/MS and functional genomics techniques such as microarrays and qRT-PCR of their biosynthesis genes have been studied in a good chapatti variety, “C 306” and a poor chapatti variety, “Sonalika.” About 80% (69/87) of plant phenolic compounds were tentatively identified in these varieties. Nine PCs (hinokinin, coutaric acid, fertaric acid, p-coumaroylqunic acid, kaempferide, isorhamnetin, epigallocatechin gallate, methyl isoorientin-2′-O-rhamnoside, and cyanidin-3-rutinoside) were identified only in the good chapatti variety and four PCs (tricin, apigenindin, quercetin-3-O-glucuronide, and myricetin-3-glucoside) in the poor chapatti variety. Therefore, about 20% of the identified PCs are unique to each other and may be “variety or genotype” specific PCs. Fourteen PCs used for quantification showed high variation between the varieties. The microarray data of 44 phenolic compound biosynthesis genes and 17 of them on qRT-PCR showed variation in expression level during seed development and majority of them showed low expression in the good chapatti variety. The expression pattern in the good chapatti variety was largely in agreement with that of phenolic compounds. The level of variation of 12 genes was high between the good and poor chapatti quality varieties and has potential in development of markers. The information generated in this study can be extended onto a larger germplasm set for development of molecular markers using QTL and/or association mapping approaches for their application in wheat breeding

  17. A Novel Wheat C-bZIP Gene, TabZIP14-B, Participates in Salt and Freezing Tolerance in Transgenic Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The group C-bZIP transcription factors (TFs are involved in diverse biological processes, such as the regulation of seed storage protein (SSP production and the responses to pathogen challenge and abiotic stress. However, our knowledge of the abiotic functions of group C-bZIP genes in wheat remains limited. Here, we present the function of a novel TabZIP14-B gene in wheat. This gene belongs to the group C-bZIP TFs and contains six exons and five introns; three haplotypes were identified among accessions of tetraploid and hexaploid wheat. A subcellular localization analysis indicated that TabZIP14-B was targeted to the nucleus of tobacco epidermal cells. A transactivation assay demonstrated that TabZIP14-B showed transcriptional activation ability and was capable of binding the abscisic acid (ABA responsive element (ABRE in yeast. RT-qPCR revealed that TabZIP14-B was expressed in the roots, stems, leaves, and young spikes and was up-regulated by exogenous ABA, salt, low-temperature, and polyethylene glycol (PEG stress treatments. Furthermore, Arabidopsis plants overexpressing TabZIP14-B exhibited enhanced tolerance to salt, freezing stresses and ABA sensitivity. Overexpression of TabZIP14-B resulted in increased expression of the AtRD29A, AtCOR47, AtRD20, AtGSTF6, and AtRAB18 genes and changes in several physiological characteristics. These results suggest that TabZIP14-B could function as a positive regulator in mediating the abiotic stress response.

  18. Isolation and Molecular Characterization of High Molecular Weight Glutenin Subunit Genes 1Bx13 and 1By16 from Hexaploid Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin-Shuang Pang; Xue-Yong Zhang

    2008-01-01

    The high molecular weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) pair 1Bx13+1Byt6 are recognized to positively correlate with bread-making quality; however, their molecular data remain unknown. In order to reveal the mechanism by which 1By16 and 1Bx13 creates high quality, their open reading frames (ORFs) were amplified from common wheat Atlas66 and Jimai 20 using primers that were designed based on published sequences of HMW glutenin genes. The ORF of 1By16 was 2220bp, deduced into 738 amino acid residues with seven cysteines including 59 hexapeptides and 22 nanopeptides motifs. The ORF of 1Bx13 was 2385bp, deduced into 795 amino acid residues with four cysteines including 68 hexapeptides, 25 nanopeptides and six tripeptides motifs. We found that 1By16 was the largest y-type HMW glutenin gene described to date in common wheat. The 1By16 had 36 amino acid residues inserted in the central repetitive domain compared with 1By15. Expression in bacteria and western-blot tests confirmed that the sequence cloned was the ORF of HMW-GS 1By16, and that 1Bx13 was one of the largest 1Bx genes that have been described so far in common wheat, exhibiting a hexapeptide (PGQGQQ) insertion in the end of central repetitive domain compared with 1Bx7. A phylogenetic tree based on the deduced full-length amino acid sequence alignment of the published HMW-GS genes showed that the 1By16 was clustered with Glu-IB-2, and that the 1Bx13 was clustered with Glu-1B-1 alleles.

  19. Heterologous expression of the wheat aquaporin gene TaTIP2;2 compromises the abiotic stress tolerance of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhui Xu

    Full Text Available Aquaporins are channel proteins which transport water across cell membranes. We show that the bread wheat aquaporin gene TaTIP2;2 maps to the long arm of chromosome 7b and that its product localizes to the endomembrane system. The gene is expressed constitutively in both the root and the leaf, and is down-regulated by salinity and drought stress. Salinity stress induced an increased level of C-methylation within the CNG trinucleotides in the TaTIP2;2 promoter region. The heterologous expression of TaTIP2;2 in Arabidopsis thaliana compromised its drought and salinity tolerance, suggesting that TaTIP2;2 may be a negative regulator of abiotic stress. The proline content of transgenic A. thaliana plants fell, consistent with the down-regulation of P5CS1, while the expression of SOS1, SOS2, SOS3, CBF3 and DREB2A, which are all stress tolerance-related genes acting in an ABA-independent fashion, was also down-regulated. The supply of exogenous ABA had little effect either on TaTIP2;2 expression in wheat or on the phenotype of transgenic A. thaliana. The expression level of the ABA signalling genes ABI1, ABI2 and ABF3 remained unaltered in the transgenic A. thaliana plants. Thus TaTIP2;2 probably regulates the response to stress via an ABA-independent pathway(s.

  20. Indications for potential parent-of-origin effects within the FTO gene.

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    Xuanshi Liu

    Full Text Available Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS were successfully applied to discover associations with obesity. However, the GWAS design is usually based on unrelated individuals and inheritance information on the parental origin of the alleles is missing. Taking into account parent-of-origin may provide further insights into the genetic mechanisms contributing to obesity. We hypothesized that there may be variants within the robustly replicated fat mass and obesity associated (FTO gene that may confer different risk for obesity depending on transmission from mother or father. Genome-wide genotypes and pedigree information from the Sorbs population were used. Phased genotypes among 525 individuals were generated by AlphaImpute. Subsequently, 22 SNPs within FTO introns 1 to 3 were selected and parent-of-origin specific association analyses were performed using PLINK. Interestingly, we identified several SNPs conferring different genetic effects (P≤0.05 depending on parental origin--among them, rs1861868, rs1121980 and rs9939973 (all in intron 1. To confirm our findings, we investigated the selected variants in 705 German trios comprising an (extremely obese child or adolescent and both parents. Again, we observed evidence for POE effects in intron 2 and 3 (P≤0.05 as indicated by the parental asymmetry test. Our results suggest that the obesity risk transmitted by several FTO variants may depend on the parental origin of the allele. Larger family-based studies are warranted to replicate our findings.

  1. Identification of imprinted genes subject to parent-of-origin specific expression in Arabidopsis thaliana seeds

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McKeown, Peter C

    2011-08-12

    Abstract Background Epigenetic regulation of gene dosage by genomic imprinting of some autosomal genes facilitates normal reproductive development in both mammals and flowering plants. While many imprinted genes have been identified and intensively studied in mammals, smaller numbers have been characterized in flowering plants, mostly in Arabidopsis thaliana. Identification of additional imprinted loci in flowering plants by genome-wide screening for parent-of-origin specific uniparental expression in seed tissues will facilitate our understanding of the origins and functions of imprinted genes in flowering plants. Results cDNA-AFLP can detect allele-specific expression that is parent-of-origin dependent for expressed genes in which restriction site polymorphisms exist in the transcripts derived from each allele. Using a genome-wide cDNA-AFLP screen surveying allele-specific expression of 4500 transcript-derived fragments, we report the identification of 52 maternally expressed genes (MEGs) displaying parent-of-origin dependent expression patterns in Arabidopsis siliques containing F1 hybrid seeds (3, 4 and 5 days after pollination). We identified these MEGs by developing a bioinformatics tool (GenFrag) which can directly determine the identities of transcript-derived fragments from (i) their size and (ii) which selective nucleotides were added to the primers used to generate them. Hence, GenFrag facilitates increased throughput for genome-wide cDNA-AFLP fragment analyses. The 52 MEGs we identified were further filtered for high expression levels in the endosperm relative to the seed coat to identify the candidate genes most likely representing novel imprinted genes expressed in the endosperm of Arabidopsis thaliana. Expression in seed tissues of the three top-ranked candidate genes, ATCDC48, PDE120 and MS5-like, was confirmed by Laser-Capture Microdissection and qRT-PCR analysis. Maternal-specific expression of these genes in Arabidopsis thaliana F1 seeds was

  2. Identification of imprinted genes subject to parent-of-origin specific expression in Arabidopsis thaliana seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wennblom Trevor J

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epigenetic regulation of gene dosage by genomic imprinting of some autosomal genes facilitates normal reproductive development in both mammals and flowering plants. While many imprinted genes have been identified and intensively studied in mammals, smaller numbers have been characterized in flowering plants, mostly in Arabidopsis thaliana. Identification of additional imprinted loci in flowering plants by genome-wide screening for parent-of-origin specific uniparental expression in seed tissues will facilitate our understanding of the origins and functions of imprinted genes in flowering plants. Results cDNA-AFLP can detect allele-specific expression that is parent-of-origin dependent for expressed genes in which restriction site polymorphisms exist in the transcripts derived from each allele. Using a genome-wide cDNA-AFLP screen surveying allele-specific expression of 4500 transcript-derived fragments, we report the identification of 52 maternally expressed genes (MEGs displaying parent-of-origin dependent expression patterns in Arabidopsis siliques containing F1 hybrid seeds (3, 4 and 5 days after pollination. We identified these MEGs by developing a bioinformatics tool (GenFrag which can directly determine the identities of transcript-derived fragments from (i their size and (ii which selective nucleotides were added to the primers used to generate them. Hence, GenFrag facilitates increased throughput for genome-wide cDNA-AFLP fragment analyses. The 52 MEGs we identified were further filtered for high expression levels in the endosperm relative to the seed coat to identify the candidate genes most likely representing novel imprinted genes expressed in the endosperm of Arabidopsis thaliana. Expression in seed tissues of the three top-ranked candidate genes, ATCDC48, PDE120 and MS5-like, was confirmed by Laser-Capture Microdissection and qRT-PCR analysis. Maternal-specific expression of these genes in Arabidopsis thaliana F1

  3. Breeding value of primary synthetic wheat genotypes for grain yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    To introduce new genetic diversity into the bread wheat gene pool from its progenitor, Aegilops tauschii (Coss.) Schmalh, 33 primary synthetic hexaploid wheat genotypes (SYN) were crossed to 20 spring bread wheat (BW) cultivars at the International Wheat and Maize Improvement Center. Modified single...

  4. Drought-responsive WRKY transcription factor genes TaWRKY1 and TaWRKY33 from wheat confer drought and/or heat resistance in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Guan-Hua; Xu, Ji-Yuan; Wang, Yan-Xia; Liu, Jia-Ming; Li, Pan-Song; Chen, Ming; Ma, You-Zhi; Xu, Zhao-Shi

    2016-05-23

    Drought stress is one of the major causes of crop loss. WRKY transcription factors, as one of the largest transcription factor families, play important roles in regulation of many plant processes, including drought stress response. However, far less information is available on drought-responsive WRKY genes in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), one of the three staple food crops. Forty eight putative drought-induced WRKY genes were identified from a comparison between de novo transcriptome sequencing data of wheat without or with drought treatment. TaWRKY1 and TaWRKY33 from WRKY Groups III and II, respectively, were selected for further investigation. Subcellular localization assays revealed that TaWRKY1 and TaWRKY33 were localized in the nuclei in wheat mesophyll protoplasts. Various abiotic stress-related cis-acting elements were observed in the promoters of TaWRKY1 and TaWRKY33. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that TaWRKY1 was slightly up-regulated by high-temperature and abscisic acid (ABA), and down-regulated by low-temperature. TaWRKY33 was involved in high responses to high-temperature, low-temperature, ABA and jasmonic acid methylester (MeJA). Overexpression of TaWRKY1 and TaWRKY33 activated several stress-related downstream genes, increased germination rates, and promoted root growth in Arabidopsis under various stresses. TaWRKY33 transgenic Arabidopsis lines showed lower rates of water loss than TaWRKY1 transgenic Arabidopsis lines and wild type plants during dehydration. Most importantly, TaWRKY33 transgenic lines exhibited enhanced tolerance to heat stress. The functional roles highlight the importance of WRKYs in stress response.

  5. Expressed sequence tags of differential genes in the radioresistant mice and their parental mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qin; Yue Jingyin; Li Jin; Song Li; Liu Qiang; Mu Chuanjie; Wu Hongying

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore radioresistance correlative genes in IRM-2 inbred mouse. Methods: The total RNA was extracted from spleen cells of IRM-2 and their parent 615 and ICR/JCL mouse. The mRNA differential display technique was used to analyze gene expression differences. Each differential bands were amplified by PCR, cloned and sequenced. Results: There were 75 differential expression bands appearing in IRM-2 mouse but not in 615 and ICR/JCL mouse. Fifty-two pieces of cDNA sequences were got by sequencing. Twenty-one expressed sequence tags (EST) that were not the same as known mice genes were found and registered by comparing with GenBank database. Conclusion: Twenty-one EST denote that radioresistance correlative genes may be in IRM-2 mouse, which have laid a foundation for isolating and identifying radioresistance correlative genes in further study. (authors)

  6. Genetic mapping reveals a dominant awn-inhibiting gene related to differentiation of the variety anathera in the wild diploid wheat Aegilops tauschii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishijima, Ryo; Ikeda, Tatsuya M; Takumi, Shigeo

    2018-02-01

    Aegilops tauschii, a wild wheat relative, is the D-genome donor of common wheat. Subspecies and varieties of Ae. tauschii are traditionally classified based on differences in their inflorescence architecture. However, the genetic information for their diversification has been quite limited in the wild wheat relatives. The variety anathera has no awn on the lemma, but the genetic basis for this diagnostic character is unknown. Wide variations in awn length traits at the top and middle spikes were found in the Ae. tauschii core collection, and the awn length at the middle spike was significantly smaller in the eastward-dispersed sublineage than in those in other sublineages. To clarify loci controlling the awnless phenotype of var. anathera, we measured awn length of an intervariety F 2 mapping population, and found that the F 2 individuals could be divided into two groups mainly based on the awn length at the middle of spike, namely short and long awn groups, significantly fitting a 3:1 segregation ratio, which indicated that a single locus controls the awnless phenotype. The awnless locus, Anathera (Antr), was assigned to the distal region of the short arm of chromosome 5D. Quantitative trait locus analysis using the awn length data of each F 2 individual showed that only one major locus was at the same chromosomal position as Antr. These results suggest that a single dominant allele determines the awnless diagnostic character in the variety anathera. The Antr dominant allele is a novel gene inhibiting awn elongation in wheat and its relatives.

  7. Establishing the A. E. Watkins landrace cultivar collection as a resource for systematic gene discovery in bread wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingen, Luzie U; Orford, Simon; Goram, Richard; Leverington-Waite, Michelle; Bilham, Lorelei; Patsiou, Theofania S; Ambrose, Mike; Dicks, Jo; Griffiths, Simon

    2014-08-01

    A high level of genetic diversity was found in the A. E. Watkins bread wheat landrace collection. Genotypic information was used to determine the population structure and to develop germplasm resources. In the 1930s A. E. Watkins acquired landrace cultivars of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) from official channels of the board of Trade in London, many of which originated from local markets in 32 countries. The geographic distribution of the 826 landrace cultivars of the current collection, here called the Watkins collection, covers many Asian and European countries and some from Africa. The cultivars were genotyped with 41 microsatellite markers in order to investigate the genetic diversity and population structure of the collection. A high level of genetic diversity was found, higher than in a collection of modern European winter bread wheat varieties from 1945 to 2000. Furthermore, although weak, the population structure of the Watkins collection reveals nine ancestral geographical groupings. An exchange of genetic material between ancestral groups before commercial wheat-breeding started would be a possible explanation for this. The increased knowledge regarding the diversity of the Watkins collection was used to develop resources for wheat research and breeding, one of them a core set, which captures the majority of the genetic diversity detected. The understanding of genetic diversity and population structure together with the availability of breeding resources should help to accelerate the detection of new alleles in the Watkins collection.

  8. Mining centuries old in-situ conserved Turkish wheat landraces for grain yield and stripe rust resistance genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepmala Sehgal

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Wheat landraces in Turkey are an important genetic resource for wheat improvement. An exhaustive five-year (2009-2014 effort made by the International Winter Wheat Improvement Programme (IWWIP a cooperative program between the Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock of Turkey, the International Center for Maize and Wheat Improvement (CIMMYT and the International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA, led to the collection and documentation of around 2,000 landrace populations from 55 provinces throughout Turkey. This study reports the genetic characterization of a subset of bread wheat landraces collected in 2010 from 11 diverse provinces using genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS technology. The potential of this collection to identify loci determining grain yield and stripe rust resistance via genome-wide association (GWA analysis was explored. A high genetic diversity (diversity index = 0.260 and a moderate population structure based on highly inherited spike traits was revealed in the panel. The linkage disequilibrium decayed at 10 cM across the whole genome and was slower as compared to other landrace collections. In addition to previously reported QTL, GWA analysis also identified new candidate genomic regions for stripe rust resistance, grain yield and spike productivity components. New candidate genomic regions reflect the potential of this landrace collection to further increase genetic diversity in elite germplasm.

  9. Childhood problem behavior and parental divorce: evidence for gene-environment interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbers, Sylvana; van Oort, Floor; Huizink, Anja; Verhulst, Frank; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina; Boomsma, Dorret; Bartels, Meike

    2012-10-01

    The importance of genetic and environmental influences on children's behavioral and emotional problems may vary as a function of environmental exposure. We previously reported that 12-year-olds with divorced parents showed more internalizing and externalizing problems than children with married parents, and that externalizing problems in girls precede and predict later parental divorce. The aim of the current study was to investigate as to whether genetic and environmental influences on internalizing and externalizing problems were different for children from divorced versus non-divorced families. Maternal ratings on internalizing and externalizing problems were collected with the Child Behavior Checklist in 4,592 twin pairs at ages 3 and 12 years, of whom 367 pairs had experienced a parental divorce between these ages. Variance in internalizing and externalizing problems at ages 3 and 12 was analyzed with biometric models in which additive genetic and environmental effects were allowed to depend on parental divorce and sex. A difference in the contribution of genetic and environmental influences between divorced and non-divorced groups would constitute evidence for gene-environment interaction. For both pre- and post-divorce internalizing and externalizing problems, the total variances were larger for children from divorced families, which was mainly due to higher environmental variances. As a consequence, heritabilities were lower for children from divorced families, and the relative contributions of environmental influences were higher. Environmental influences become more important in explaining variation in children's problem behaviors in the context of parental divorce.

  10. Insight into durum wheat Lpx-B1: a small gene family coding for the lipoxygenase responsible for carotenoid bleaching in mature grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlotta, Angelo; De Simone, Vanessa; Mastrangelo, Anna M; Cattivelli, Luigi; Papa, Roberto; Trono, Daniela

    2010-11-26

    The yellow colour of pasta products is one of the main criteria used by consumers to assess pasta quality. This character is due to the presence of carotenoid pigments in semolina. During pasta processing, oxidative degradation of carotenoid pigments occurs mainly due to lipoxygenase (LOX). In durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.), two Lpx-1 genes have been identified on chromosome 4B, Lpx-B1.1 and Lpx-B1.2, and evidences have been reported that the deletion of Lpx-B1.1 is associated with a strong reduction in LOX activity in semolina. In the present study, we characterised the Lpx-B1 gene family identified in a durum wheat germplasm collection and related the distribution and expression of the Lpx-B1 genes and alleles to variations in LOX activity in the mature grains. In addition to the already known Lpx-B1.1 and Lpx-B1.2 genes, a new gene was identified, Lpx-B1.3, along with three different Lpx-B1.1 alleles, Lpx-B1.1a, Lpx-B1.1b and the partially deleted Lpx-B1.1c. Screening of the germplasm collection showed that all of the genotypes have one of the three Lpx-B1.1 alleles, associated with either Lpx-B1.2 or Lpx-B1.3, thus showing that in this collection the two genes are alternatives. Therefore, based on Lpx-B1 distribution, three different haplotypes were distinguished: haplotype I, carrying Lpx-B1.3 and the Lpx-B1.1b allele; haplotype II carrying Lpx-B1.2 and the Lpx-B1.1a allele; and haplotype III carrying Lpx-B1.2 and the Lpx-B1.1c allele. Determination of Lpx-B1 transcript abundance and total LOX activity in mature grains revealed differences among these three haplotypes: haplotypes I, II and III showed high, intermediate and low levels, respectively, of functional Lpx-B1 transcripts and enzymatic activity. In this germplasm collection, the Lpx-B1 gene family accounts for most of the total LOX activity in the mature grains. Information on these Lpx-B1 haplotypes provides significant improvement for prediction of LOX-1 activity levels in mature grains, and

  11. A R2R3-MYB transcription factor gene in common wheat (namely TaMYBsm1) involved in enhancement of drought tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng-Jun; Qiao, Yu; Li, Ya-Qing; Shi, Zhan-Liang; Zhang, Nan; Bi, Cai-Li; Guo, Jin-Kao

    2016-11-01

    We isolated the TaMYBsm1 genes, encoding R2R3-type MYB proteins in common wheat, aimed to uncover the possible molecular mechanisms related to drought response. The TaMYBsm1 genes, TaMYBsm1-A, TaMYBsm1-B and TaMYBsm1-D, were isolated and analyzed from the common wheat cultivar Shimai 15. Their expression patterns under PEG 6000 and mannitol were monitored by semi-quantitative RT-PCR and β-glucuronidase (Gus) assay. The function of TaMYBsm1-D under drought stress in transgenic Arabidopsis plants was investigated, and the germination rate, water loss rate, as well as the proline and malondialdehyde (MDA) content were compared with that in wild type (WT) plants. The expression of three downstream genes (DREB2A, P5CS1 and RD29A) in TaMYBsm1-D transgenic plants was analyzed. The R2R3-MYB domains of the MYBsm1 proteins were highly conserved in plants. In addition, the TaMYBsm1 proteins were targeted to the nucleus and contained transcriptional activation domains (TADs). Gus assay and semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that the TaMYBsm1 genes were up-regulated when the wheat was treated by PEG and mannitol. Compared with WT plants, the germination rates were much higher, but the water loss rates were much lower in TaMYBsm1-D overexpression plants. TaMYBsm1-D transgenic plants showed distinct higher proline contents but a lower MDA content than the WT plants. The three downstream genes were highly expressed in TaMYBsm1-D transgenic plants. We concluded from these results that TaMYBsm1 genes play an important role in plant drought stress tolerance through up-regulation of DREB2A, P5CS1 and RD29A. The increase of proline content and decrease of MDA content may also be involved in the drought response.

  12. Expression Level of the DREB2-Type Gene, Identified with Amplifluor SNP Markers, Correlates with Performance, and Tolerance to Dehydration in Bread Wheat Cultivars from Northern Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavrukov, Yuri; Zhumalin, Aibek; Serikbay, Dauren; Botayeva, Makpal; Otemisova, Ainur; Absattarova, Aiman; Sereda, Grigoriy; Sereda, Sergey; Shvidchenko, Vladimir; Turbekova, Arysgul; Jatayev, Satyvaldy; Lopato, Sergiy; Soole, Kathleen; Langridge, Peter

    2016-01-01

    A panel of 89 local commercial cultivars of bread wheat was tested in field trials in the dry conditions of Northern Kazakhstan. Two distinct groups of cultivars (six cultivars in each group), which had the highest and the lowest grain yield under drought were selected for further experiments. A dehydration test conducted on detached leaves indicated a strong association between rates of water loss in plants from the first group with highest grain yield production in the dry environment relative to the second group. Modern high-throughput Amplifluor Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) technology was applied to study allelic variations in a series of drought-responsive genes using 19 SNP markers. Genotyping of an SNP in the TaDREB5 (DREB2-type) gene using the Amplifluor SNP marker KATU48 revealed clear allele distribution across the entire panel of wheat accessions, and distinguished between the two groups of cultivars with high and low yield under drought. Significant differences in expression levels of TaDREB5 were revealed by qRT-PCR. Most wheat plants from the first group of cultivars with high grain yield showed slight up-regulation in the TaDREB5 transcript in dehydrated leaves. In contrast, expression of TaDREB5 in plants from the second group of cultivars with low grain yield was significantly down-regulated. It was found that SNPs did not alter the amino acid sequence of TaDREB5 protein. Thus, a possible explanation is that alternative splicing and up-stream regulation of TaDREB5 may be affected by SNP, but these hypotheses require additional analysis (and will be the focus of future studies). PMID:27917186

  13. Expression level of the DREB2-type gene, identified with Amplifluor SNP markers, correlates with performance and tolerance to dehydration in bread wheat cultivars from Northern Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Shavrukov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A panel of 89 local commercial cultivars of bread wheat was tested in field trials in the dry conditions of Northern Kazakhstan. Two distinct groups of cultivars (six cultivars in each group, which had the highest and the lowest grain yield under drought were selected for further experiments. A dehydration test conducted on detached leaves indicated a strong association between rates of water loss in plants from the first group with highest grain yield production in the dry environment relative to the second group. Modern high-throughput Amplifluor SNP technology was applied to study allelic variations in a series of drought-responsive genes using 19 SNP markers. Genotyping of an SNP in the TaDREB5 (DREB2-type gene using the Amplifluor SNP marker KATU48 revealed clear allele distribution across the entire panel of wheat accessions, and distinguished between the two groups of cultivars with high and low yield under drought. Significant differences in expression levels of TaDREB5 were revealed by qRT-PCR. Most wheat plants from the first group of cultivars with high grain yield showed strong up-regulation of TaDREB5 transcript in dehydrated leaves. In contrast, expression of TaDREB5 in plants from the second group of cultivars with low grain yield was significantly down-regulated. It was found that SNPs did not alter the amino acid sequence of TaDREB5 protein. Thus, a possible explanation is that alternative splicing and up-stream regulation of TaDREB5 may be affected by SNP, but these hypotheses require additional analysis (and will be the focus of future studies.

  14. Discovery of quantitative trait loci for crossability from a synthetic wheat genotype

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhang; Jin Wang; Ronghua Zhou; Jizeng Jia

    2011-01-01

    Crossability between wheat and rye is an important trait for wheat improvement.No quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were detected from wheat ancestors previously.The objectives of this study were to dissect the QTLs for crossability using 111 introgression lines (ILs) derived from synthetic hexaploid wheat.A total of 1275 SSR markers were screened for polymorphism between the two parents,and 552 markers of them displayed polymorphism,of which 64 were selected for genotyping the 111 BC5F6 ILs.Field trials were performed in a Latinized α-lattice design in Luoyang and Jiaozuo of Henan Province of China in 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 cropping seasons.One-way ANOVA and interval mapping (IM) analysis were used to detect QTL for crossability between wheat and rye.A total of 13 putative QTLs were detected.Five of them,QCa.caas.1A,QCa.caas.2D,QCa.caas.4B,QCa.caas.5B and QCa.caas.6A,were detected in both trials and three of them,QCa.caas.2D,QCa.caas.4B and QCa.caas.6A,were novel.The positive effect allele of the four QTLs came from the donor parent Am3 except QCa.caas.6A that came from the recurrent parent Laizhou953.ILs with both higher positive effect alleles and favorable agronomic traits developed in present study are elite germplasm for wide crossing in wheat.Results from the current study suggest that wheat ancestors can be rich in new sources of crossability genes.

  15. Divergent and convergent modes of interaction between wheat and Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici isolates revealed by the comparative gene co-expression network and genome analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutter, William B; Salcedo, Andres; Akhunova, Alina; He, Fei; Wang, Shichen; Liang, Hanquan; Bowden, Robert L; Akhunov, Eduard

    2017-04-12

    Two opposing evolutionary constraints exert pressure on plant pathogens: one to diversify virulence factors in order to evade plant defenses, and the other to retain virulence factors critical for maintaining a compatible interaction with the plant host. To better understand how the diversified arsenals of fungal genes promote interaction with the same compatible wheat line, we performed a comparative genomic analysis of two North American isolates of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt). The patterns of inter-isolate divergence in the secreted candidate effector genes were compared with the levels of conservation and divergence of plant-pathogen gene co-expression networks (GCN) developed for each isolate. Comprative genomic analyses revealed substantial level of interisolate divergence in effector gene complement and sequence divergence. Gene Ontology (GO) analyses of the conserved and unique parts of the isolate-specific GCNs identified a number of conserved host pathways targeted by both isolates. Interestingly, the degree of inter-isolate sub-network conservation varied widely for the different host pathways and was positively associated with the proportion of conserved effector candidates associated with each sub-network. While different Pgt isolates tended to exploit similar wheat pathways for infection, the mode of plant-pathogen interaction varied for different pathways with some pathways being associated with the conserved set of effectors and others being linked with the diverged or isolate-specific effectors. Our data suggest that at the intra-species level pathogen populations likely maintain divergent sets of effectors capable of targeting the same plant host pathways. This functional redundancy may play an important role in the dynamic of the "arms-race" between host and pathogen serving as the basis for diverse virulence strategies and creating conditions where mutations in certain effector groups will not have a major effect on the pathogen

  16. Gene-based interaction analysis shows GABAergic genes interacting with parenting in adolescent depressive symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Assche, Evelien; Moons, Tim; Cinar, Ozan; Viechtbauer, Wolfgang; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Van Leeuwen, Karla; Verschueren, Karine; Colpin, Hilde; Lambrechts, Diether; Van den Noortgate, Wim; Goossens, Luc; Claes, Stephan; van Winkel, Ruud

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Most gene-environment interaction studies (G × E) have focused on single candidate genes. This approach is criticized for its expectations of large effect sizes and occurrence of spurious results. We describe an approach that accounts for the polygenic nature of most psychiatric

  17. Differential susceptibility effects of oxytocin gene (OXT) polymorphisms and perceived parenting on social anxiety among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olofsdotter, Susanne; Åslund, Cecilia; Furmark, Tomas; Comasco, Erika; Nilsson, Kent W

    2018-05-01

    Social anxiety is one of the most commonly reported mental health problems among adolescents, and it has been suggested that parenting style influences an adolescent's level of anxiety. A context-dependent effect of oxytocin on human social behavior has been proposed; however, research on the oxytocin gene (OXT) has mostly been reported without considering contextual factors. This study investigated the interactions between parenting style and polymorphic variations in the OXT gene in association with social anxiety symptoms in a community sample of adolescents (n = 1,359). Two single nucleotide polymorphisms linked to OXT, rs4813625 and rs2770378, were genotyped. Social anxiety and perceived parenting style were assessed by behavioral questionnaires. In interaction models adjusted for sex, significant interaction effects with parenting style were observed for both variants in relation to social anxiety. The nature of the interactions was in line with the differential susceptibility framework for rs4813625, whereas for rs2770378 the results indicated a diathesis-stress type of interaction. The findings may be interpreted from the perspective of the social salience hypothesis of oxytocin, with rs4813625 affecting social anxiety levels along a perceived unsafe-safe social context dimension.

  18. Physical Mapping Integrated with Syntenic Analysis to Characterize the Gene Space of the Long Arm of Wheat Chromosome 1A

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lucas, S.; Akpinar, B.A.; Kantar, M.; Weinstein, Z.; Šafář, Jan; Šimková, Hana; Frenkel, Z.; Berges, H.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Budak, H.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 4 (2013) E-ISSN 1932-6203 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ED0007/01/01 Program:ED Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : BREAD WHEAT * COMPLEX GENOMES * MAP Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.534, year: 2013

  19. Characterization of a new synthetic wheat – Aegilops biuncialis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the experiments was to identify the synthetic wheat – Aegilops biuncialis germplasm Line 15-3-2 with 42 chromosomes. Morphologically, the spike of line 15-3-2 is intermediate to those of its wheat and Aegilops parents. Line 15-3-2 displays stable fertility and immunity to wheat powdery mildew and stripe rust.

  20. Genetic analysis for grain quality traits in pakistani wheat varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minhas, N.M.; Ajmal, S.U.; Iqbal, Z.; Munir, M.

    2014-01-01

    A set of eight parental diallel involving seven commercial wheat cultivars and one breeding line was made to investigate the nature of gene action determining inheritance pattern of grain quality characters. Highly significant differences were observed among the genotypes for 1000 grain weight, protein content, wet gluten and lysine content. Adequacy tests were employed to estimate the fitness of data sets to additive dominance model. Both the tests i.e. analysis of uniformity of Wr, Vr and joint regression analysis validated the data of these traits for genetic analysis. Gene actions for grain quality traits were ascertained following Hayman's analysis of variance. Results of the genetic analysis revealed that both additive and dominance genetic components were involved in the manifestation of characters under study. However, additive gene effects were more pronounced in the genetic control of these traits. Non significance of b1, b2 and b3 values revealed the absence of directional dominance, symmetrical distribution of genes among the parental lines and absence of specific genes action respectively in all the traits. Maternal effects were also noted in 1000 grain weight, protein content and wet gluten percentage. It is concluded that additive effects are crucial in the expression of grain quality characters of wheat in germplasm under study and single plant selection may be recommended in segregating generations for effective improvement in these characters. (author)

  1. Cargill: Biotechnology and Value Creation in Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Boland, Michael A.

    2003-01-01

    About 40 percent of the world's food supply came from rice and wheat-based foods. The genome of wheat (a genome is a set of chromosomes) was much larger than those of other crops such as rice. Deciphering the wheat genome was a much more complex process. Wheat had six DNA strands (e.g., humans have only a double-helix DNA strand) and almost twice as many genes as humans. GM wheat would be available for production by 2004. The objective of this case is to describe: segregation and identity-pre...

  2. Eat Wheat!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idaho Wheat Commission, Boise.

    This pamphlet contains puzzles, games, and a recipe designed to teach elementary school pupils about wheat. It includes word games based on the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Guide Pyramid and on foods made from wheat. The Food Guide Pyramid can be cut out of the pamphlet and assembled as a three-dimensional information source and food guide.…

  3. Expression of the nuclear gene TaF(A)d is under mitochondrial retrograde regulation in anthers of male sterile wheat plants with timopheevii cytoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Pei; Yang, Yuwen; Zhang, Zhengzhi; Chen, Weihua; Zhang, Caiqin; Zhang, Lixia; Zou, Sixiang; Ma, Zhengqiang

    2008-01-01

    Alterations of mitochondrial-encoded subunits of the F(o)F(1)-ATP synthase are frequently associated with cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in plants; however, little is known about the relationship of the nuclear encoded subunits of this enzyme with CMS. In the present study, the full cDNA of the gene TaF(A)d that encodes the putative F(A)d subunit of the F(o)F(1)-ATP synthase was isolated from the wheat (Triticum aestivum) fertility restorer '2114' for timopheevii cytoplasm-based CMS. The deduced 238 amino acid polypeptide is highly similar to its counterparts in dicots and other monocots but has low homology to its mammalian equivalents. TaF(A)d is a single copy gene in wheat and maps to the short arm of the group 6 chromosomes. Transient expression of the TaF(A)d-GFP fusion in onion epidermal cells demonstrated TaF(A)d's mitochondrial location. TaF(A)d was expressed abundantly in stem, leaf, anther, and ovary tissues of 2114. Nevertheless, its expression was repressed in anthers of CMS plants with timopheevii cytoplasm. Genic male sterility did not affect its expression in anthers. The expression of the nuclear gene encoding the 20 kDa subunit of F(o) was down-regulated in a manner similar to TaF(A)d in the T-CMS anthers while that of genes encoding the 6 kDa subunit of F(o) and the gamma subunit of F(1) was unaffected. These observations implied that TaF(A)d is under mitochondrial retrograde regulation in the anthers of CMS plants with timopheevii cytoplasm.

  4. Interactions between Serotonin Transporter Gene Haplotypes and Quality of Mothers' Parenting Predict the Development of Children's Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulik, Michael J.; Eisenberg, Nancy; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Silva, Kassondra M.; Eggum, Natalie D.; Betkowski, Jennifer A.; Kupfer, Anne; Smith, Cynthia L.; Gaertner, Bridget; Stover, Daryn A.; Verrelli, Brian C.

    2012-01-01

    The LPR and STin2 polymorphisms of the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) were combined into haplotypes that, together with quality of maternal parenting, were used to predict initial levels and linear change in children's (N = 138) noncompliance and aggression from age 18-54 months. Quality of mothers' parenting behavior was observed when…

  5. Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Hunter, Ed.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    This document contains the fifth volume of "Today's Delinquent," an annual publication of the National Center for Juvenile Justice. This volume deals with the issue of the family and delinquency, examining the impact of parental behavior on the production of delinquent behavior. "Parents: Neglectful and Neglected" (Laurence D. Steinberg) posits…

  6. Characterization of Novel Gene Yr79 and Four Additional Quantitative Trait Loci for All-Stage and High-Temperature Adult-Plant Resistance to Stripe Rust in Spring Wheat PI 182103.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Junyan; Wang, Meinan; See, Deven R; Chao, Shiaoman; Zheng, Youliang; Chen, Xianming

    2018-06-01

    Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, is an important disease of wheat worldwide. Exploring new resistance genes is essential for breeding resistant wheat cultivars. PI 182103, a spring wheat landrace originally from Pakistan, has shown a high level of resistance to stripe rust in fields for many years, but genes for resistance to stripe rust in the variety have not been studied. To map the resistance gene(s) in PI 182103, 185 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) were developed from a cross with Avocet Susceptible (AvS). The RIL population was genotyped with simple sequence repeat (SSR) and single nucleotide polymorphism markers and tested with races PST-100 and PST-114 at the seedling stage under controlled greenhouse conditions and at the adult-plant stage in fields at Pullman and Mt. Vernon, Washington under natural infection by the stripe rust pathogen in 2011, 2012, and 2013. A total of five quantitative trait loci (QTL) were detected. QyrPI182103.wgp-2AS and QyrPI182103.wgp-3AL were detected at the seedling stage, QyrPI182103.wgp-4DL was detected only in Mt. Vernon field tests, and QyrPI182103.wgp-5BS was detected in both seedling and field tests. QyrPI182103.wgp-7BL was identified as a high-temperature adult-plant resistance gene and detected in all field tests. Interactions among the QTL were mostly additive, but some negative interactions were detected. The 7BL QTL was mapped in chromosomal bin 7BL 0.40 to 0.45 and identified as a new gene, permanently designated as Yr79. SSR markers Xbarc72 and Xwmc335 flanking the Yr79 locus were highly polymorphic in various wheat genotypes, indicating that the molecular markers are useful for incorporating the new gene for potentially durable stripe rust resistance into new wheat cultivars.

  7. Interplay of ribosomal DNA loci in nucleolar dominance: dominant NORs are up-regulated by chromatin dynamics in the wheat-rye system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Silva

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chromatin organizational and topological plasticity, and its functions in gene expression regulation, have been strongly revealed by the analysis of nucleolar dominance in hybrids and polyploids where one parental set of ribosomal RNA (rDNA genes that are clustered in nucleolar organizing regions (NORs, is rendered silent by epigenetic pathways and heterochromatization. However, information on the behaviour of dominant NORs is very sparse and needed for an integrative knowledge of differential gene transcription levels and chromatin specific domain interactions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using molecular and cytological approaches in a wheat-rye addition line (wheat genome plus the rye nucleolar chromosome pair 1R, we investigated transcriptional activity and chromatin topology of the wheat dominant NORs in a nucleolar dominance situation. Herein we report dominant NORs up-regulation in the addition line through quantitative real-time PCR and silver-staining technique. Accompanying this modification in wheat rDNA trascription level, we also disclose that perinucleolar knobs of ribosomal chromatin are almost transcriptionally silent due to the residual detection of BrUTP incorporation in these domains, contrary to the marked labelling of intranucleolar condensed rDNA. Further, by comparative confocal analysis of nuclei probed to wheat and rye NORs, we found that in the wheat-rye addition line there is a significant decrease in the number of wheat-origin perinucleolar rDNA knobs, corresponding to a diminution of the rDNA heterochromatic fraction of the dominant (wheat NORs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We demonstrate that inter-specific interactions leading to wheat-origin NOR dominance results not only on the silencing of rye origin NOR loci, but dominant NORs are also modified in their transcriptional activity and interphase organization. The results show a cross-talk between wheat and rye NORs, mediated by ribosomal chromatin

  8. Postulation of rust resistance genes in Nordic spring wheat genotypes and identification of widely effective sources of resistance against the Australian rust flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randhawa, Mandeep; Bansal, Urmil; Lillemo, Morten; Miah, Hanif; Bariana, Harbans

    2016-11-01

    Wild relatives, landraces and cultivars from different geographical regions have been demonstrated as the sources of genetic variation for resistance to rust diseases. This study involved assessment of diversity for resistance to three rust diseases among a set of Nordic spring wheat cultivars. These cultivars were tested at the seedling stage against several pathotypes of three rust pathogens in the greenhouse. All stage stem rust resistance genes Sr7b, Sr8a, Sr12, Sr15, Sr17, Sr23 and Sr30, and leaf rust resistance genes Lr1, Lr3a, Lr13, Lr14a, Lr16 and Lr20 were postulated either singly or in different combinations among these cultivars. A high proportion of cultivars were identified to carry linked rust resistance genes Sr15 and Lr20. Although 51 cultivars showed variation against Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst) pathotypes used in this study, results were not clearly contrasting to enable postulation of stripe rust resistance genes in these genotypes. Stripe rust resistance gene Yr27 was postulated in four cultivars and Yr1 was present in cultivar Zebra. Cultivar Tjalve produced low stripe rust response against all Pst pathotypes indicating the presence either of a widely effective resistance gene or combination of genes with compensating pathogenic specificities. Several cultivars carried moderate to high level of APR to leaf rust and stripe rust. Seedling stem rust susceptible cultivar Aston exhibited moderately resistant to moderately susceptible response, whereas other cultivars belonging to this class were rated moderately susceptible or higher. Molecular markers linked with APR genes Yr48, Lr34/Yr18/Sr57, Lr68 and Sr2 detected the presence of these genes in some genotypes.

  9. Influence of nutrient signals and carbon allocation on the expression of phosphate and nitrogen transporter genes in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) roots colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hui; Yuan, Xiaolei; Duan, Jianfeng; Li, Wenhu; Zhai, Bingnian; Gao, Yajun

    2017-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) colonization of plant roots causes the down-regulation of expression of phosphate (Pi) or nitrogen (N) transporter genes involved in direct nutrient uptake pathways. The mechanism of this effect remains unknown. In the present study, we sought to determine whether the expression of Pi or N transporter genes in roots of winter wheat colonized by AM fungus responded to (1) Pi or N nutrient signals transferred from the AM extra-radical hyphae, or (2) carbon allocation changes in the AM association. A three-compartment culture system, comprising a root compartment (RC), a root and AM hyphae compartment (RHC), and an AM hyphae compartment (HC), was used to test whether the expression of Pi or N transporter genes responded to nutrients (Pi, NH4+ and NO3-) added only to the HC. Different AM inoculation density treatments (roots were inoculated with 0, 20, 50 and 200 g AM inoculum) and light regime treatments (6 hours light and 18 hours light) were established to test the effects of carbon allocation on the expression of Pi or N transporter genes in wheat roots. The expression of two Pi transporter genes (TaPT4 and TaPHT1.2), five nitrate transporter genes (TaNRT1.1, TaNRT1.2, TaNRT2.1, TaNRT2.2, and TaNRT2.3), and an ammonium transporter gene (TaAMT1.2) was quantified using real-time polymerase chain reaction. The expression of TaPT4, TaNRT2.2, and TaAMT1.2 was down-regulated by AM colonization only when roots of host plants received Pi or N nutrient signals. However, the expression of TaPHT1.2, TaNRT2.1, and TaNRT2.3 was down-regulated by AM colonization, regardless of whether there was nutrient transfer from AM hyphae. The expression of TaNRT1.2 was also down-regulated by AM colonization even when there was no nutrient transfer from AM hyphae. The present study showed that an increase in carbon consumption by the AM fungi did not necessarily result in greater down-regulation of expression of Pi or N transporter genes.

  10. Gene-environment interaction between the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene and parenting behaviour on children's theory of mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Mark; Hoffmann, Thomas J; Jenkins, Jennifer M

    2015-12-01

    Theory of mind (ToM) is the ability to interpret and understand human behaviour by representing the mental states of others. Like many human capacities, ToM is thought to develop through both complex biological and socialization mechanisms. However, no study has examined the joint effect of genetic and environmental influences on ToM. This study examined how variability in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) and parenting behavior--two widely studied factors in ToM development-interacted to predict ToM in pre-school-aged children. Participants were 301 children who were part of an ongoing longitudinal birth cohort study. ToM was assessed at age 4.5 using a previously validated scale. Parenting was assessed through observations of mothers' cognitively sensitive behaviours. Using a family-based association design, it was suggestive that a particular variant (rs11131149) interacted with maternal cognitive sensitivity on children's ToM (P = 0.019). More copies of the major allele were associated with higher ToM as a function of increasing cognitive sensitivity. A sizeable 26% of the variability in ToM was accounted for by this interaction. This study provides the first empirical evidence of gene-environment interactions on ToM, supporting the notion that genetic factors may be modulated by potent environmental influences early in development. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Characterization of novel heat-responsive transcription factor (TaHSFA6e) gene involved in regulation of heat shock proteins (HSPs) - A key member of heat stress-tolerance network of wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ranjeet R; Goswami, Suneha; Singh, Khushboo; Dubey, Kavita; Rai, Gyanendra K; Singh, Bhupinder; Singh, Shivdhar; Grover, Monendra; Mishra, Dwijesh; Kumar, Sanjeev; Bakshi, Suman; Rai, Anil; Pathak, Himanshu; Chinnusamy, Viswanathan; Praveen, Shelly

    2018-08-10

    Heat stress has an adverse effect on the quality and quantity of agriculturally important crops, especially wheat. The tolerance mechanism has not been explored much in wheat and very few genes/ TFs responsive to heat stress is available on public domain. Here, we identified, cloned and characterized a putative TaHSFA6e TF gene of 1.3 kb from wheat cv. HD2985. We observed an ORF of 368 aa with Hsf DNA binding signature domain in the amino acid sequence. Single copy number of TaHSFA6e was observed integrated in the genome of wheat. Expression analysis of TaHSFA6e under differential HS showed maximum transcripts in wheat cv. Halna (thermotolerant) in response to 38 °C for 2 h during pollination and grain-filling stages, as compared to PBW343, HD2329 and HD2985. Putative target genes of TaHSFA6e (HSP17, HSP70 and HSP90) showed upregulation in response to differential HS (30 & 38 °C, 2 h) during pollination and grain-filling stages. Small HSP17 was observed most triggered in Halna under HS. We observed increase in the catalase, guaiacol peroxidase, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and decrease in the lipid peroxidation in thermotolerant cvs. (Halna, HD2985), as compared to thermosusceptible (PBW343, HD2329) under differential HS. Multiple stresses (heat - 38 °C, 2 h, and drought - 100 mL of 20% polyethylene Glycol 6000) during seedling stage of wheat showed positive correlation between the expression of TaHSFA6e, putative targets (HSP70, HSP90, HSP17) and TAC. Halna (thermotolerant) performed better, as compared to other contrasting cvs. TaHSFA6e TF can be used as promising candidate gene for manipulating the heat stress-tolerance network. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Introgression of a leaf rust resistance gene from Aegilops caudata to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tance genes (Lr) and 48 stripe rust resistance genes (Yr) have .... Leaf rust reaction of the parents, wheat – Ae. caudata introgression lines and representative F2 plants developed from the cross: .... segregation ratio, which is otherwise a serious problem with ... Financial assistance was provided by the USDA-ARS under the.

  13. TaGW2-6A allelic variation contributes to grain size possibly by regulating the expression of cytokinins and starch-related genes in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Juan; Li, Liqun; Lv, Qian; Zhao, Yi; Liu, Yan; Zhang, Li; Li, Xuejun

    2017-12-01

    Functional allelic variants of TaGW2 - 6A produce large grains, possibly via changes in endosperm cells and dry matter by regulating the expression of cytokinins and starch-related genes via the ubiquitin-proteasome system. In wheat, TaGW2-6A coding region allelic variants are closely related to the grain width and weight, but how this region affects grain development has not been fully elucidated; thus, we explored its influence on grain development based mainly on histological and grain filling analyses. We found that the insertion type (NIL31) TaGW2-6A allelic variants exhibited increases in cell numbers and cell size, thereby resulting in a larger (wider) grain size with an accelerated grain milk filling rate, and increases in grain width and weight. We also found that cytokinin (CK) synthesis genes and key starch biosynthesis enzyme AGPase genes were significantly upregulated in the TaGW2-6A allelic variants, while CK degradation genes and starch biosynthesis-negative regulators were downregulated in the TaGW2-6A allelic variants, which was consistent with the changes in cells and grain filling. Thus, we speculate that TaGW2-6A allelic variants are linked with CK signaling, but they also influence the accumulation of starch by regulating the expression of related genes via the ubiquitin-proteasome system to control the grain size and grain weight.

  14. Sequencing wheat chromosome arm 7BS delimits the 7BS/4AL translocation and reveals homoeologous gene conservation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Berkman, P.J.; Skarshewski, A.; Manoli, S.; Lorenc, M. T.; Stiller, J.; Smits, L.; Lai, K.; Cambell, E.; Kubaláková, Marie; Šimková, Hana; Batley, J.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Hernandez, P.; Edwards, D.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 124, č. 3 (2012), s. 423-432 ISSN 0040-5752 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06004 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ED0007/01/01 Program:ED Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : POLYPLOID WHEAT * BIN MAP * BRACHYPODIUM-DISTACHYON Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.658, year: 2012

  15. Resistance to stem rust Ug99 in six bread wheat cultivars maps to chromosome 6DS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Vera, Eric E; Nelson, Sarah; Singh, Ravi P; Basnet, Bhoja R; Haley, Scott D; Bhavani, Sridhar; Huerta-Espino, Julio; Xoconostle-Cazares, Beatriz G; Ruiz-Medrano, Roberto; Rouse, Matthew N; Singh, Sukhwinder

    2014-01-01

    Identified SSR markers ( Xcfd49 and Xbarc183 ) linked with stem rust resistance for efficient use in marker-assisted selection and stacking of resistance genes in wheat breeding programs. More than 80 % of the worldwide wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) area is currently sown with varieties susceptible to the Ug99 race group of stem rust fungus. However, wheat lines Niini, Tinkio, Coni, Pfunye, Blouk, and Ripper have demonstrated Ug99 resistance at the seedling and adult plant stages. We mapped stem rust resistance in populations derived from crosses of a susceptible parent with each of the resistant lines. The segregation of resistance in each population indicated the presence of a single gene. The resistance gene in Niini mapped to short arm of chromosome 6D and was flanked by SSR markers Xcfd49 at distances of 3.9 cM proximal and Xbarc183 8.4 cM distal, respectively. The chromosome location of this resistance was validated in three other populations: PBW343/Coni, PBW343/Tinkio, and Cacuke/Pfunye. Resistance initially postulated to be conferred by the SrTmp gene in Blouk and Ripper was also linked to Xcfd49 and Xbarc183 on 6DS, but it was mapped proximal to Xbarc183 at a similar position to previously mapped genes Sr42 and SrCad. Based on the variation in diagnostic marker alleles, it is possible that Niini and Pfunye may carry different resistance genes/alleles. Further studies are needed to determine the allelic relationships between various genes located on chromosome arm 6DS. Our results provide valuable molecular marker and genetic information for developing Ug99 resistant wheat varieties in diverse germplasm and using these markers to tag the resistance genes in wheat breeding.

  16. Comparative Analysis of Syntenic Genes in Grass Genomes Reveals Accelerated Rates of Gene Structure and Coding Sequence Evolution in Polyploid Wheat

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Akhunov, E. D.; Sehgal, S.; Liang, H. Q.; Wang, S. C.; Akhunova, A. R.; Kaur, G.; Li, W. L.; Forrest, K. L.; See, D.; Šimková, Hana; Ma, Y. Q.; Hayden, M. J.; Luo, M. C.; Faris, J. D.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Gill, B. S.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 161, č. 1 (2013), s. 252-265 ISSN 0032-0889 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ED0007/01/01 Program:ED Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : MESSENGER-RNA DECAY * HEXAPLOID WHEAT * NUCLEOTIDE SUBSTITUTION Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 7.394, year: 2013

  17. Beyond main effects of gene-sets: harsh parenting moderates the association between a dopamine gene-set and child externalizing behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Windhorst (Judith); V. Mileva-Seitz (Viara); R.C.A. Rippe (Ralph C.A.); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); M.H. van IJzendoorn (Rien); M.J. Bakermans-Kranenburg (Marian)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: In a longitudinal cohort study, we investigated the interplay of harsh parenting and genetic variation across a set of functionally related dopamine genes, in association with children's externalizing behavior. This is one of the first studies to employ gene-based and

  18. Ectopic expression of TaOEP16-2-5B, a wheat plastid outer envelope protein gene, enhances heat and drought stress tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Xinshan; Geng, Xiaoli; Liu, Kelu; Wang, Fei; Liu, Zhenshan; Zhang, Liyuan; Zhao, Yue; Tian, Xuejun; Hu, Zhaorong; Yao, Yingyin; Ni, Zhongfu; Xin, Mingming; Sun, Qixin; Peng, Huiru

    2017-05-01

    Abiotic stresses, such as heat and drought, are major environmental factors restricting crop productivity and quality worldwide. A plastid outer envelope protein gene, TaOEP16-2, was identified from our previous transcriptome analysis [1,2]. In this study, the isolation and functional characterization of the TaOEP16-2 gene was reported. Three homoeologous sequences of TaOEP16-2 were isolated from hexaploid wheat, which were localized on the chromosomes 5A, 5B and 5D, respectively. These three homoeologues exhibited different expression patterns under heat stress conditions, TaOEP16-2-5B was the dominant one, and TaOEP16-2-5B was selected for further analysis. Compared with wild type (WT) plants, transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing the TaOEP16-2-5B gene exhibited enhanced tolerance to heat stress, which was supported by improved survival rate, strengthened cell membrane stability and increased sucrose content. It was also found that TaOEP16-2 was induced by drought stress and involved in drought stress tolerance. TaOEP16-2-5B has the same function in ABA-controlled seed germination as AtOEP16-2. Our results suggest that TaOEP16-2-5B plays an important role in heat and drought stress tolerance, and could be utilized in transgenic breeding of wheat and other crop plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Isolation and characterization of the TaSnRK2.10 gene and its association with agronomic traits in wheat (Triticum aestivum L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao-Gui Zhang

    Full Text Available Sucrose non-fermenting 1-related protein kinases (SnRKs comprise a major family of signaling genes in plants and are associated with metabolic regulation, nutrient utilization and stress responses. This gene family has been proposed to be involved in sucrose signaling. In the present study, we cloned three copies of the TaSnRK2.10 gene from bread wheat on chromosomes 4A, 4B and 4D. The coding sequence (CDS is 1086 bp in length and encodes a protein of 361 amino acids that exhibits functional domains shared with SnRK2s. Based on the haplotypes of TaSnRK2.10-4A (Hap-4A-H and Hap-4A-L, a cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS marker designated TaSnRK2.10-4A-CAPS was developed and mapped between the markers D-1092101 and D-100014232 using a set of recombinant inbred lines (RILs. The TaSnRK2.10-4B alleles (Hap-4B-G and Hap-4B-A were transformed into allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR markers TaSnRK2.10-4B-AS1 and TaSnRK2.10-4B-AS2, which were located between the markers D-1281577 and S-1862758. No diversity was found for TaSnRK2.10-4D. An association analysis using a natural population consisting of 128 winter wheat varieties in multiple environments showed that the thousand grain weight (TGW and spike length (SL of Hap-4A-H were significantly higher than those of Hap-4A-L, but pant height (PH was significantly lower.

  20. The barley MATE gene, HvAACT1, increases citrate efflux and Al3+ tolerance when expressed in wheat and barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Gaofeng; Delhaize, Emmanuel; Zhou, Meixue; Ryan, Peter R.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Aluminium is toxic in acid soils because the soluble Al3+ inhibits root growth. A mechanism of Al3+ tolerance discovered in many plant species involves the release of organic anions from root apices. The Al3+-activated release of citrate from the root apices of Al3+-tolerant genotypes of barley is controlled by a MATE gene named HvAACT1 that encodes a citrate transport protein located on the plasma membrane. The aim of this study was to investigate whether expressing HvAACT1 with a constitutive promoter in barley and wheat can increase citrate efflux and Al3+ tolerance of these important cereal species. Methods HvAACT1 was over-expressed in wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare) using the maize ubiquitin promoter. Root apices of transgenic and control lines were analysed for HvAACT1 expression and organic acid efflux. The Al3+ tolerance of transgenic and control lines was assessed in both hydroponic solution and acid soil. Key Results and Conclusions Increased HvAACT1 expression in both cereal species was associated with increased citrate efflux from root apices and enhanced Al3+ tolerance, thus demonstrating that biotechnology can complement traditional breeding practices to increase the Al3+ tolerance of important crop plants. PMID:23798600

  1. Characterization of a wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) expansin gene, TaEXPB23, involved in the abiotic stress response and phytohormone regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yang yang; Li, Ai xiu; Li, Feng; Zhao, Mei rong; Wang, Wei

    2012-05-01

    Expansins are proteins that are generally accepted to be key regulators of cell wall extension and plant growth. We examined the expression pattern of TaEXPB23, a wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) expansin gene, under exogenous phytohormone and abiotic stress treatments. In addition, we evaluated its function in the tolerance to salt stress and high temperature (HT) by overexpressing it in transgenic tobacco plants. In subcellular localization assays, TaEXPB23 localized to the cell wall. Expression analysis demonstrated that the transcription pattern of TaEXPB23 corresponded to wheat coleoptile growth. Real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that TaEXPB23 transcript expression was upregulated by exogenous methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and salt stress, but downregulated by exogenous gibberellins (GA₃), ethylene (ET), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and α-naphthlcetic acid (NAA). Overexpression of TaEXPB23 in tobacco (tabacum) conferred tolerance to salt stress by enhancing water retention ability (WRA) and decreasing osmotic potential (OP). However, transgenic plants overexpressing TaEXPB23 did not show any improvement in the tolerance to HT stress. These results suggested that TaEXPB23 is regulated by phytohormones and is involved in the regulation of salt stress tolerance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Haplotypes of the TaGS5-A1 gene are associated with thousand-kernel weight in Chinese bread wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Sha Sha

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In previous work, we cloned TaGS5 gene and found the association of TaGS5-A1 alleles with agronomic traits. In this study, the promoter sequence of the TaGS5-A1 gene was isolated from bread wheat. Sequencing results revealed that a G insertion was found in position -1925 bp of the TaGS5-A1 gene (Reference to ATG, which occurred in the Sp1 domain of the promoter sequence. Combined with previous single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP in the TaGS5-A1 exon sequence, four genotypes were formed at the TaGS5-A1 locus and were designated as TaGS5-A1a-a, TaGS5-A1a-b, TaGS5-A1b-a, and TaGS5-A1b-b, respectively. Analysis of the association of TaGS5-A1 alleles with agronomic traits indicated that cultivars with the TaGS5-A1a-b allele possessed significantly higher thousand-kernel weight (TKW and lower plant height than cultivars with the TaGS5-A1a-a allele, and cultivars with the TaGS5-A1b-b allele showed higher TKW than cultivars with the TaGS5-A1b-a allele. The differences of these traits between the TaGS5-A1a-a and TaGS5-A1a-b alleles were larger than those of the TaGS5-A1b-a and TaGS5-A1b-b alleles, suggesting that the -1925G insertion plays the more important role in TaGS5-A1a genotypes than in TaGS5-A1b genotypes. qRT-PCR indicated that TaGS5-A1b-b possessed the significantly highest expression level among four TaGS5-A1 haplotypes in mature seeds and further showed a significantly higher expression level than TaGS5-A1b-a at five different developmental stages of the seeds, suggesting that high expression of TaGS5-A1 was positively associated with high TKW in bread wheat. This study could provide a relatively superior genotype in view of TKW in wheat breeding programs and could also provide important information for dissection of the regulatory mechanism of the yield-related traits.

  3. Delimitation of the Earliness per se D1 (Eps-D1) flowering gene to a subtelomeric chromosomal deletion in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zikhali, Meluleki; Wingen, Luzie U.; Griffiths, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Earliness per se (Eps) genes account for the variation in flowering time when vernalization and photoperiod requirements are satisfied. Genomics and bioinformatics approaches were used to describe allelic variation for 40 Triticum aestivum genes predicted, by synteny with Brachypodium distachyon, to be in the 1DL Eps region. Re-sequencing 1DL genes revealed that varieties carrying early heading alleles at this locus, Spark and Cadenza, carry a subtelomeric deletion including several genes. The equivalent region in Rialto and Avalon is intact. A bimodal distribution in the segregating Spark X Rialto single seed descent (SSD) populations enabled the 1DL QTL to be defined as a discrete Mendelian factor, which we named Eps-D1. Near isogenic lines (NILs) and NIL derived key recombinants between markers flanking Eps-D1 suggest that the 1DL deletion contains the gene(s) underlying Eps-D1. The deletion spans the equivalent of the Triticum monoccocum Eps-A m 1 locus, and hence includes MODIFIER OF TRANSCRIPTION 1 (MOT1) and FTSH PROTEASE 4 (FTSH4), the candidates for Eps-A m 1. The deletion also contains T. aestivum EARLY FLOWERING 3-D1 (TaELF3-D1) a homologue of the Arabidopsis thaliana circadian clock gene EARLY FLOWERING 3. Eps-D1 is possibly a homologue of Eps-B1 on chromosome 1BL. NILs carrying the Eps-D1 deletion have significantly reduced total TaELF3 expression and altered TaGIGANTEA (TaGI) expression compared with wild type. Altered TaGI expression is consistent with an ELF3 mutant, hence we propose TaELF3-D1 as the more likely candidate for Eps-D1. This is the first direct fine mapping of Eps effect in bread wheat. PMID:26476691

  4. Delimitation of the Earliness per se D1 (Eps-D1) flowering gene to a subtelomeric chromosomal deletion in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zikhali, Meluleki; Wingen, Luzie U; Griffiths, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Earliness per se (Eps) genes account for the variation in flowering time when vernalization and photoperiod requirements are satisfied. Genomics and bioinformatics approaches were used to describe allelic variation for 40 Triticum aestivum genes predicted, by synteny with Brachypodium distachyon, to be in the 1DL Eps region. Re-sequencing 1DL genes revealed that varieties carrying early heading alleles at this locus, Spark and Cadenza, carry a subtelomeric deletion including several genes. The equivalent region in Rialto and Avalon is intact. A bimodal distribution in the segregating Spark X Rialto single seed descent (SSD) populations enabled the 1DL QTL to be defined as a discrete Mendelian factor, which we named Eps-D1. Near isogenic lines (NILs) and NIL derived key recombinants between markers flanking Eps-D1 suggest that the 1DL deletion contains the gene(s) underlying Eps-D1. The deletion spans the equivalent of the Triticum monoccocum Eps-A (m) 1 locus, and hence includes MODIFIER OF TRANSCRIPTION 1 (MOT1) and FTSH PROTEASE 4 (FTSH4), the candidates for Eps-A (m) 1. The deletion also contains T. aestivum EARLY FLOWERING 3-D1 (TaELF3-D1) a homologue of the Arabidopsis thaliana circadian clock gene EARLY FLOWERING 3. Eps-D1 is possibly a homologue of Eps-B1 on chromosome 1BL. NILs carrying the Eps-D1 deletion have significantly reduced total TaELF3 expression and altered TaGIGANTEA (TaGI) expression compared with wild type. Altered TaGI expression is consistent with an ELF3 mutant, hence we propose TaELF3-D1 as the more likely candidate for Eps-D1. This is the first direct fine mapping of Eps effect in bread wheat. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  5. Molecular characterization and expression analysis of three homoeologous Ta14S genes encoding 14-3-3 proteins in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.

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    Xinguo Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to characterize Ta14S homoeologs and assess their functions in wheat seed development. The genomic and cDNA sequences of three Ta14S homoeologous genes encoding 14-3-3 proteins were isolated. Sequence analysis revealed that the three homoeologs consisted of five exons and four introns and were very highly conserved in the coding regions and in exon/intron structure, whereas the cDNA sequences were variable in the 5′ and 3′-UTR. The three genes, designated as Ta14S-2A, Ta14S-2B and Ta14S-2D, were located in homoeologous group 2 chromosomes. The polypeptide chains of the three Ta14S genes were highly similar. These genes were most homologous to Hv14A from barley. Real-time quantitative PCR indicated that the three Ta14S genes were differentially expressed in different organs at different developmental stages and all exhibited greater expression in primary roots of 1-day-old germlings than in other tissues. Comparison of the expression patterns of the three homoeologous genes at different times after pollination also revealed that their expression was developmentally regulated. The transcription of Ta14S-2B was clearly higher during seed germination, whereas expressions of Ta14S-2A and Ta14S-2D were up-regulated at the beginning of seed imbibition (0–12 h, but declined thereafter. The results suggested that the three Ta14S homoeologous genes have regulatory roles in seed development and germination.

  6. Genetic characterization of Moroccan and the exotic bread wheat cultivars using functional and random DNA markers linked to the agronomic traits for genomics-assisted improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkrar, Fatima; El-Haddoury, Jamal; Ouabbou, Hassan; Bendaou, Najib; Udupa, Sripada M

    2016-06-01

    Genetic characterization, diversity analysis and estimate of the genetic relationship among varieties using functional and random DNA markers linked to agronomic traits can provide relevant guidelines in selecting parents and designing new breeding strategies for marker-assisted wheat cultivar improvement. Here, we characterize 20 Moroccan and 19 exotic bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars using 47 functional and 7 linked random DNA markers associated with 21 loci of the most important traits for wheat breeding. The functional marker analysis revealed that 35, 45, and 10 % of the Moroccan cultivars, respectively have the rust resistance genes (Lr34/Yr18/Pm38), dwarfing genes (Rht1b or Rht2b alleles) and the leaf rust resistance gene (Lr68). The marker alleles for genes Lr37/Yr17/Sr38, Sr24 and Yr36 were present only in the exotic cultivars and absent in Moroccan cultivars. 25 % of cultivars had 1BL.1RS translocation. 70 % of the wheat cultivars had Ppo-D1a and Ppo-A1b associated with low polyphenol oxidase activity. 10 % of cultivars showed presence of a random DNA marker allele (175 bp) linked to Hessian fly resistance gene H22. The majority of the Moroccan cultivars were carrying alleles that impart good bread making quality. Neighbor joining (NJ) and principal coordinate analysis based on the marker data revealed a clear differentiation between elite Moroccan and exotic wheat cultivars. The results of this study are useful for selecting suitable parents for making targeted crosses in marker-assisted wheat breeding and enhancing genetic diversity in the wheat cultivars.

  7. Interaction between dopamine D2 receptor genotype and parental rule-setting in adolescent alcohol use: evidence for a gene-parenting interaction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaluw, C.S. van der; Engels, R.C.E.M.; Vermulst, A.A.; Franke, B.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Verkes, R.J.; Scholte, R.H.

    2010-01-01

    Association studies investigating the link between the dopamine D2 receptor gene (DRD2) and alcohol (mis)use have shown inconsistent results. This may be due to lack of attention for environmental factors. High levels of parental rule-setting are associated with lower levels of adolescent alcohol

  8. Protein modeling of yellow rust disease in wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, S.E.; Bano, R.; Zayed, M.E.; Elshikh, M.S.; Khan, M.H.; Chaudhry, Z.

    2017-01-01

    Wheat production in Pakistan is affected by yellow rust disease caused by a fungus Puccinia striiformis. There is a need to broaden the genetic basis of wheat by identifying new resistance genes. The present study was aimed to identify an alternate resistance gene for yellow rust disease in wheat caused by Puccinia striiformis. Genome sequence was compared with databases and similar gene was identified for disease resistance in rye plant. Structural analysis of RGA1 gene (resistance gene in wheat) was carried out using different bioinformatics tools and an alternative gene having same structure was identified on the basis of structural and sequence homology. Rye plant is the proposed plant for the alternate new resistance gene. The result of pairwise alignment of RGA1 gene in wheat and gene of rye plant is 94.2% with accession DQ494535 .The secondary structures of both the genes was compared and found similar to each other. These comparisons between the wheat resistance gene and gene from rye plant depict structural similarities between the two genes. Results of RGA1 gene's structural analysis in wheat is as follow: Helices: 59, Extended sheets: 30, Turns: 12, Coils: 13 and for alternate resistance genes in Rye is as follow: Helices: 52, Extended sheets: 30, Turns: 14, Coils: 17. As structures are similar, the alternate identified gene could be used for resistance in wheat. (author)

  9. Cloning and characterization of the promoter regions from the parent and paralogous creatine transporter genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndika, Joseph D T; Lusink, Vera; Beaubrun, Claudine; Kanhai, Warsha; Martinez-Munoz, Cristina; Jakobs, Cornelis; Salomons, Gajja S

    2014-01-10

    Interconversion between phosphocreatine and creatine, catalyzed by creatine kinase is crucial in the supply of ATP to tissues with high energy demand. Creatine's importance has been established by its use as an ergogenic aid in sport, as well as the development of intellectual disability in patients with congenital creatine deficiency. Creatine biosynthesis is complemented by dietary creatine uptake. Intracellular transport of creatine is carried out by a creatine transporter protein (CT1/CRT/CRTR) encoded by the SLC6A8 gene. Most tissues express this gene, with highest levels detected in skeletal muscle and kidney. There are lower levels of the gene detected in colon, brain, heart, testis and prostate. The mechanism(s) by which this regulation occurs is still poorly understood. A duplicated unprocessed pseudogene of SLC6A8-SLC6A10P has been mapped to chromosome 16p11.2 (contains the entire SLC6A8 gene, plus 2293 bp of 5'flanking sequence and its entire 3'UTR). Expression of SLC6A10P has so far only been shown in human testis and brain. It is still unclear as to what is the function of SLC6A10P. In a patient with autism, a chromosomal breakpoint that intersects the 5'flanking region of SLC6A10P was identified; suggesting that SLC6A10P is a non-coding RNA involved in autism. Our aim was to investigate the presence of cis-acting factor(s) that regulate expression of the creatine transporter, as well as to determine if these factors are functionally conserved upstream of the creatine transporter pseudogene. Via gene-specific PCR, cloning and functional luciferase assays we identified a 1104 bp sequence proximal to the mRNA start site of the SLC6A8 gene with promoter activity in five cell types. The corresponding 5'flanking sequence (1050 bp) on the pseudogene also had promoter activity in all 5 cell lines. Surprisingly the pseudogene promoter was stronger than that of its parent gene in 4 of the cell lines tested. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first

  10. The effect of high concentrations of glufosinate ammonium on the yield components of transgenic spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) constitutively expressing the bar gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Áy, Zoltán; Mihály, Róbert; Cserháti, Mátyás; Kótai, Éva; Pauk, János

    2012-01-01

    We present an experiment done on a bar(+) wheat line treated with 14 different concentrations of glufosinate ammonium-an effective component of nonselective herbicides-during seed germination in a closed experimental system. Yield components as number of spikes per plant, number of grains per spike, thousand kernel weight, and yield per plant were thoroughly analysed and statistically evaluated after harvesting. We found that a concentration of glufosinate ammonium 5000 times the lethal dose was not enough to inhibit the germination of transgenic plants expressing the bar gene. Extremely high concentrations of glufosinate ammonium caused a bushy phenotype, significantly lower numbers of grains per spike, and thousand kernel weights. Concerning the productivity, we observed that concentrations of glufosinate ammonium 64 times the lethal dose did not lead to yield depression. Our results draw attention to the possibilities implied in the transgenic approaches.

  11. The Effect of High Concentrations of Glufosinate Ammonium on the Yield Components of Transgenic Spring Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Constitutively Expressing the bar Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltán Áy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an experiment done on a bar+ wheat line treated with 14 different concentrations of glufosinate ammonium—an effective component of nonselective herbicides—during seed germination in a closed experimental system. Yield components as number of spikes per plant, number of grains per spike, thousand kernel weight, and yield per plant were thoroughly analysed and statistically evaluated after harvesting. We found that a concentration of glufosinate ammonium 5000 times the lethal dose was not enough to inhibit the germination of transgenic plants expressing the bar gene. Extremely high concentrations of glufosinate ammonium caused a bushy phenotype, significantly lower numbers of grains per spike, and thousand kernel weights. Concerning the productivity, we observed that concentrations of glufosinate ammonium 64 times the lethal dose did not lead to yield depression. Our results draw attention to the possibilities implied in the transgenic approaches.

  12. Induced mutations for rust resistance in bread wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawhney, R.N.

    1989-01-01

    Full text: Seeds of variety ''Lalbahadur'' were treated with 0.04% NMH. M 2 plants were inoculated with a mixture of pathotypes of each of the 3 Puccinia species (P. graminis, P. recondita, P. striiformis). Plants with simultaneous resistance to all 3 rusts were selected. Repeated testing in subsequent generations confirmed the resistance. The mutant lines are morphologically similar to the parent cultivar and therefore could be used as components of a multiline variety. Comparison of variety pattern against the Indian pathotypes of rusts suggests that the mutant genes are different from the ones known already in bread wheat. (author)

  13. Wheat: The Whole Story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

    This publication presents information on wheat. Wheat was originally a wild grass and not native to the United States. Wheat was not planted there until 1777 (and then only as a hobby crop). Wheat is grown on more acres than any other grain in this country. Soft wheats are grown east of the Mississippi River, and hard wheats are grown west of the…

  14. Ectopic expression of wheat expansin gene TaEXPA2 improved the salt tolerance of transgenic tobacco by regulating Na+ /K+ and antioxidant competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanhui; Han, Yangyang; Kong, Xiangzhu; Kang, Hanhan; Ren, Yuanqing; Wang, Wei

    2017-02-01

    High salinity is one of the most serious environmental stresses that limit crop growth. Expansins are cell wall proteins that regulate plant development and abiotic stress tolerance by mediating cell wall expansion. We studied the function of a wheat expansin gene, TaEXPA2, in salt stress tolerance by overexpressing it in tobacco. Overexpression of TaEXPA2 enhanced the salt stress tolerance of transgenic tobacco plants as indicated by the presence of higher germination rates, longer root length, more lateral roots, higher survival rates and more green leaves under salt stress than in the wild type (WT). Further, when leaf disks of WT plants were incubated in cell wall protein extracts from the transgenic tobacco plants, their chlorophyll content was higher under salt stress, and this improvement from TaEXPA2 overexpression in transgenic tobacco was inhibited by TaEXPA2 protein antibody. The water status of transgenic tobacco plants was improved, perhaps by the accumulation of osmolytes such as proline and soluble sugar. TaEXPA2-overexpressing tobacco lines exhibited lower Na + but higher K + accumulation than WT plants. Antioxidant competence increased in the transgenic plants because of the increased activity of antioxidant enzymes. TaEXPA2 protein abundance in wheat was induced by NaCl, and ABA signaling was involved. Gene expression regulation was involved in the enhanced salt stress tolerance of the TaEXPA2 transgenic plants. Our results suggest that TaEXPA2 overexpression confers salt stress tolerance on the transgenic plants, and this is associated with improved water status, Na + /K + homeostasis, and antioxidant competence. ABA signaling participates in TaEXPA2-regulated salt stress tolerance. © 2016 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  15. The Hv-SGT1 gene from Haynaldia villosa contributes to resistances towards both biotrophic and hemi-biotrophic pathogens in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Xing

    Full Text Available The SGT1 protein is essential for R protein-mediated and PAMPs-triggered resistance in many plant species. Here we reported the isolation and characterization of the Hv-SGT1 gene from Haynaldiavillosa (2n = 14, VV. Analysis of the subcellular location of Hv-SGT1 by transient expression of a fusion to GFP indicated its presence in the cytoplasm and nucleus. Levels of Hv-SGT1 transcripts were increased by inoculation with either the biotrophic pathogen Blumeriagraminis DC. f. Sp. tritici (Bgt or the hemi-biotrophic pathogen Fusariumgraminearum (Fg. Levels of Hv-SGT1 showed substantial increase following treatment with H2O2 and methyl jasmonate (MeJA, only slightly induced following exposure to ethephon or abscisic acid, but not changed following exposure to salicylic acid. The demonstration that silencing of Hv-SGT1 substantially reduced resistance to Bgt indicated that Hv-SGT1 was an essential component of disease resistance in H. villosa. The over-expression of Hv-SGT1 in Yangmai 158 enhanced resistance to powdery mildew, and this correlated with increased levels of whole-cell reactive oxygen intermediates at the sites of penetration by the pathogens. Compared with wild-type plants, the expression levels of genes related to the H2O2 and JA signaling pathways were lower in the Hv-SGT1 silenced plants and higher in the Hv-SGT1 over-expressing plants. Therefore, the involvement of Hv-SGT1 in H2O2 production correlates with the hypersensitive response and jasmonic acid signaling. Our novel demonstration that wheat with over-expressed Hv-SGT1 showed enhanced resistance to both powdery mildew and FHB suggests that it could served as a transgenic genetic resource in wheat breeding for multiple disease resistance.

  16. TaCHP: a wheat zinc finger protein gene down-regulated by abscisic acid and salinity stress plays a positive role in stress tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cuiling; Lv, Jian; Zhao, Xin; Ai, Xinghui; Zhu, Xinlei; Wang, Mengcheng; Zhao, Shuangyi; Xia, Guangmin

    2010-09-01

    The plant response to abiotic stresses involves both abscisic acid (ABA)-dependent and ABA-independent signaling pathways. Here we describe TaCHP, a CHP-rich (for cysteine, histidine, and proline rich) zinc finger protein family gene extracted from bread wheat (Triticum aestivum), is differentially expressed during abiotic stress between the salinity-sensitive cultivar Jinan 177 and its tolerant somatic hybrid introgression cultivar Shanrong No.3. TaCHP expressed in the roots of seedlings at the three-leaf stage, and the transcript localized within the cells of the root tip cortex and meristem. TaCHP transcript abundance was higher in Shanrong No.3 than in Jinan 177, but was reduced by the imposition of salinity or drought stress, as well as by the exogenous supply of ABA. When JN17, a salinity hypersensitive wheat cultivar, was engineered to overexpress TaCHP, its performance in the face of salinity stress was improved, and the ectopic expression of TaCHP in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) also improved the ability of salt tolerance. The expression level of a number of stress reporter genes (AtCBF3, AtDREB2A, AtABI2, and AtABI1) was raised in the transgenic lines in the presence of salinity stress, while that of AtMYB15, AtABA2, and AtAAO3 was reduced in its absence. The presence in the upstream region of the TaCHP open reading frame of the cis-elements ABRE, MYBRS, and MYCRS suggests that it is a component of the ABA-dependent and -independent signaling pathways involved in the plant response to abiotic stress. We suggest that TaCHP enhances stress tolerance via the promotion of CBF3 and DREB2A expression.

  17. Wheat in the Mediterranean revisited--tetraploid wheat landraces assessed with elite bread wheat Single Nucleotide Polymorphism markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Hugo R; Hagenblad, Jenny; Leino, Matti W; Leigh, Fiona J; Lister, Diane L; Penã-Chocarro, Leonor; Jones, Martin K

    2014-05-08

    Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) panels recently developed for the assessment of genetic diversity in wheat are primarily based on elite varieties, mostly those of bread wheat. The usefulness of such SNP panels for studying wheat evolution and domestication has not yet been fully explored and ascertainment bias issues can potentially affect their applicability when studying landraces and tetraploid ancestors of bread wheat. We here evaluate whether population structure and evolutionary history can be assessed in tetraploid landrace wheats using SNP markers previously developed for the analysis of elite cultivars of hexaploid wheat. We genotyped more than 100 tetraploid wheat landraces and wild emmer wheat accessions, some of which had previously been screened with SSR markers, for an existing SNP panel and obtained publically available genotypes for the same SNPs for hexaploid wheat varieties and landraces. Results showed that quantification of genetic diversity can be affected by ascertainment bias but that the effects of ascertainment bias can at least partly be alleviated by merging SNPs to haplotypes. Analyses of population structure and genetic differentiation show strong subdivision between the tetraploid wheat subspecies, except for durum and rivet that are not separable. A more detailed population structure of durum landraces could be obtained than with SSR markers. The results also suggest an emmer, rather than durum, ancestry of bread wheat and with gene flow from wild emmer. SNP markers developed for elite cultivars show great potential for inferring population structure and can address evolutionary questions in landrace wheat. Issues of marker genome specificity and mapping need, however, to be addressed. Ascertainment bias does not seem to interfere with the ability of a SNP marker system developed for elite bread wheat accessions to detect population structure in other types of wheat.

  18. Cloning and Sequence Analysis of the Amylase Gene from the Rice Pest Walker and its Inhibitor from Wheat (Variety MP Sehore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonam Sharma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Scirpophaga incertulas Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralideae, commonly known as yellow stem borer, is a predominant monophagous pest of rice, which causes 5% to 30% loss of the rice crop. We report for the first time, the cloning and sequence analysis of the amylase gene of this pest. The cloned gene translates into a protein of 487 amino acids having a predicted molecular weight of 54,955 daltons and a theoretical pI of 5.9. The 3D structure of the amylase is predicted from its amino acid sequence by homology modeling using the structure of the amylase from Tenebrio molitor L (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae. We also report the purification of a dimeric α-amylase inhibitor from a local variety of wheat MP Sehore that is specific for the amylase of this pest and does not inhibit human salivary amylase or porcine pancreatic amylase. The gene encoding this inhibitor has been cloned and its sequence has been analysed to find a possible explanation for this specificity.

  19. Effects of oxytetracycline on archaeal community, and tetracycline resistance genes in anaerobic co-digestion of pig manure and wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojuan; Pan, Hongjia; Gu, Jie; Qian, Xun; Gao, Hua; Qin, Qingjun

    2016-12-01

    In this study, the effects of different concentrations of oxytetracycline (OTC) on biogas production, archaeal community structure, and the levels of tetracycline resistance genes (TRGs) were investigated in the anaerobic co-digestion products of pig manure and wheat straw. PCR denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) (PCR) were used to detect the archaeal community structure and the levels of four TRGs: tet(M), tet(Q), tet(W), and tet(C). The results showed that anaerobic co-digestion with OTC at concentrations of 60, 100, and 140 mg/kg (dry weight of pig manure) reduced the cumulative biogas production levels by 9.9%, 10.4%, and 14.1%, respectively, compared with that produced by the control, which lacked the antibiotic. The addition of OTC substantially modified the structure of the archaeal community. Two orders were identified by phylogenetic analysis, that is, Pseudomonadales and Methanomicrobiales, and the methanogen present during anaerobic co-digestion with OTC may have been resistant to OTC. The abundances of tet(Q) and tet(W) genes increased as the OTC concentration increased, whereas the abundances of tet(M) and tet(C) genes decreased as the OTC concentration increased.

  20. Predicting the use of corporal punishment: Child aggression, parent religiosity, and the BDNF gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avinun, Reut; Davidov, Maayan; Mankuta, David; Knafo-Noam, Ariel

    2018-03-01

    Corporal punishment (CP) has been associated with deleterious child outcomes, highlighting the importance of understanding its underpinnings. Although several factors have been linked with parents' CP use, genetic influences on CP have rarely been studied, and an integrative view examining the interplay between different predictors of CP is missing. We focused on the separate and joint effects of religiosity, child aggression, parent's gender, and a valine (Val) to methionine (Met) substitution in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene. Data came from a twin sample (51% male, aged 6.5 years). We used mothers' and fathers' self-reports of CP and religiosity, and the other parent's report on child aggression. Complete data were available for 244 mothers and their 466 children, and for 217 fathers and their 409 children. The random split method was employed to examine replicability. For mothers, only the effect of religiosity appeared to replicate. For fathers, several effects predicting CP use replicated in both samples: child aggression, child sex, religiosity, and a three-way (GxExE) interaction implicating fathers' BDNF genotype, child aggression and religiosity. Religious fathers who carried the Met allele and had an aggressive child used CP more frequently; in contrast, secular fathers' CP use was not affected by their BDNF genotype or child aggression. Results were also repeated longitudinally in a subsample with age 8-9 data. Findings highlight the utility of a bio-ecological approach for studying CP use by shedding light on pertinent gene-environment interaction processes. Possible implications for intervention and public policy are discussed. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Determination of the number of copies of genes coding for 5s-rRNA and tRNA in the genomes of 43 species of wheat and Aegilops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vakhitov, V.A.; Gimalov, F.R.; Nikonorov, Yu.M.

    1986-01-01

    The number of 5s-rRNA and tRNA genes has been studied in 43 species of wheat and Aegilops differing in ploidy level, genomic composition and origin. It has been demonstrated that the repeatability of the 5s-rRNA and tRNA genes increases in wheat with increasing ploidy level, but not in proportion to the genome size. In Aegilops, in distinction from wheat, the relative as well as absolute number of 5s-RNA genes increases with increasing ploidy level. The proportion of the sequences coding for tRNA in the dipoloid and polyploid Aegilops species is practically similar, while the number of tRNA genes increases almost 2-3 times with increasing ploidy level. Large variability has been recorded between the species with similar genomic composition and ploidy level in respect of the number of the 5s-rRNA and tRNA genes. It has been demonstrated that integration of the initial genomes of the amphidiploids is accompanied by elimination of a particular part of these genomes. It has been concluded that the mechanisms of establishment and evolution of genomes in the intra- and intergeneric allopolyploids are not identical

  2. Development of RAPD based markers for wheat rust resistance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rust diseases are the major cause of low yield of wheat in Pakistan. Wheat breeders all over the world as well as in Pakistan are deriving rust resistance genes from alien species like Triticum ventricosum and introducing them in common wheat (Triticum aestivum). One such example is the introgression of rust resistance ...

  3. Youth temperament, harsh parenting, and variation in the oxytocin receptor gene forecast allostatic load during emerging adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Gene H; Yu, Tianyi; Barton, Allen W; Miller, Gregory E; Chen, Edith

    2017-08-01

    An association has been found between receipt of harsh parenting in childhood and adult health problems. However, this research has been principally retrospective, has treated children as passive recipients of parental behavior, and has overlooked individual differences in youth responsivity to harsh parenting. In a 10-year multiple-wave prospective study of African American families, we addressed these issues by focusing on the influence of polymorphisms in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR), variants of which appear to buffer or amplify responses to environmental stress. The participants were 303 youths, with a mean age of 11.2 at the first assessment, and their parents, all of whom were genotyped for variations in the rs53576 (A/G) polymorphism. Teachers rated preadolescent (ages 11 to 13) emotionally intense and distractible temperaments, and adolescents (ages 15 and 16) reported receipt of harsh parenting. Allostatic load was assessed during young adulthood (ages 20 and 21). Difficult preadolescent temperament forecast elevated receipt of harsh parenting in adolescence, and adolescents who experienced harsh parenting evinced high allostatic load during young adulthood. However, these associations emerged only among children and parents who carried A alleles of the OXTR genotype. The results suggest the oxytocin system operates along with temperament and parenting to forecast young adults' allostatic load.

  4. Heterosis for yield and its components in bread wheat crosses among powdery mildew resistant and susceptible genotypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilker, E.; Tonk, F.A.; Tosun, M.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this research was to investigate heterotic effects between five powdery mildew resistant wheat lines derived from CIMMYT and three susceptible commercial wheat varieties growing in Turkey and to determine mode of gene actions of the parents for yield characters in F1 generation. All 15 F1 crosses and their parents were planted in randomized complete block design in three replications. Measurements were done for plant height, pike length, spike let and kernel number per spike, grain weight per spike and 1000-kernel weight. Promising findings of the crosses 72 x Golia, 70 x Golia, 70 x Basribey, 48 x Basribey, 48 x Atilla-12 and 72 x Atilla12 were obtained to breed new varieties or pure lines having shorter plant height and taller spike length, more number of spike let and kernel per spike, besides higher grain yield than their mid or better parents to improve powdery mildew resistant varieties. (author)

  5. Dissection of the multigenic wheat stem rust resistance present in the Montenegrin spring wheat accession PI 362698

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research to identify and characterize stem rust resistance genes in common wheat, Triticum aestivum, has been stimulated by the emergence of Ug99-lineage races of the wheat stem rust pathogen, Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt), in Eastern Africa. The Montenegrin spring wheat landrace PI 362698 ...

  6. Pushing Wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Paul Richard

    This paper documents the evolution of variables central to understanding the creation of an Atlantic Economy in wheat between the US and the UK in the nineteenth century. The cointegrated VAR model is then applied to the period 1838-1913 in order to find long-run relationships between these varia......This paper documents the evolution of variables central to understanding the creation of an Atlantic Economy in wheat between the US and the UK in the nineteenth century. The cointegrated VAR model is then applied to the period 1838-1913 in order to find long-run relationships between...

  7. Systems responses to progressive water stress in durum wheat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimah Z Habash

    Full Text Available Durum wheat is susceptible to terminal drought which can greatly decrease grain yield. Breeding to improve crop yield is hampered by inadequate knowledge of how the physiological and metabolic changes caused by drought are related to gene expression. To gain better insight into mechanisms defining resistance to water stress we studied the physiological and transcriptome responses of three durum breeding lines varying for yield stability under drought. Parents of a mapping population (Lahn x Cham1 and a recombinant inbred line (RIL2219 showed lowered flag leaf relative water content, water potential and photosynthesis when subjected to controlled water stress time transient experiments over a six-day period. RIL2219 lost less water and showed constitutively higher stomatal conductance, photosynthesis, transpiration, abscisic acid content and enhanced osmotic adjustment at equivalent leaf water compared to parents, thus defining a physiological strategy for high yield stability under water stress. Parallel analysis of the flag leaf transcriptome under stress uncovered global trends of early changes in regulatory pathways, reconfiguration of primary and secondary metabolism and lowered expression of transcripts in photosynthesis in all three lines. Differences in the number of genes, magnitude and profile of their expression response were also established amongst the lines with a high number belonging to regulatory pathways. In addition, we documented a large number of genes showing constitutive differences in leaf transcript expression between the genotypes at control non-stress conditions. Principal Coordinates Analysis uncovered a high level of structure in the transcriptome response to water stress in each wheat line suggesting genome-wide co-ordination of transcription. Utilising a systems-based approach of analysing the integrated wheat's response to water stress, in terms of biological robustness theory, the findings suggest that each durum

  8. Global Expression Patterns of Three Festuca Species Exposed to Different Doses of Glyphosate Using the Affymetrix GeneChip Wheat Genome Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozge Cebeci

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Glyphosate has been shown to act as an inhibitor of an aromatic amino acid biosynthetic pathway, while other pathways that may be affected by glyphosate are not known. Cross species hybridizations can provide a tool for elucidating biological pathways conserved among organisms. Comparative genome analyses have indicated a high level of colinearity among grass species and Festuca, on which we focus here, and showed rearrangements common to the Pooideae family. Based on sequence conservation among grass species, we selected the Affymetrix GeneChip Wheat Genome Array as a tool for the analysis of expression profiles of three Festuca (fescue species with distinctly different tolerances to varying levels of glyphosate. Differences in transcript expression were recorded upon foliar glyphosate application at 1.58 mM and 6.32 mM, representing 5% and 20%, respectively, of the recommended rate. Differences highlighted categories of general metabolic processes, such as photosynthesis, protein synthesis, stress responses, and a larger number of transcripts responded to 20% glyphosate application. Differential expression of genes encoding proteins involved in the shikimic acid pathway could not be identified by cross hybridization. Microarray data were confirmed by RT-PCR and qRT-PCR analyses. This is the first report to analyze the potential of cross species hybridization in Fescue species and the data and analyses will help extend our knowledge on the cellular processes affected by glyphosate.

  9. Profiling of wheat class III peroxidase genes derived from powdery mildew-attacked epidermis reveals distinct sequence-associated expression patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guosheng; Sheng, Xiaoyan; Greenshields, David L; Ogieglo, Adam; Kaminskyj, Susan; Selvaraj, Gopalan; Wei, Yangdou

    2005-07-01

    A cDNA library was constructed from leaf epidermis of diploid wheat (Triticum monococcum) infected with the powdery mildew fungus (Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici) and was screened for genes encoding peroxidases. From 2,500 expressed sequence tags (ESTs), 36 cDNAs representing 10 peroxidase genes (designated TmPRX1 to TmPRX10) were isolated and further characterized. Alignment of the deduced amino acid sequences and phylogenetic clustering with peroxidases from other plant species demonstrated that these peroxidases fall into four distinct groups. Differential expression and tissue-specific localization among the members were observed during the B. graminis f. sp. tritici attack using Northern blots and reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analyses. Consistent with its abundance in the EST collection, TmPRX1 expression showed the highest induction during pathogen attack and fluctuated in response to the fungal parasitic stages. TmPRX1 to TmPRX6 were expressed predominantly in mesophyll cells, whereas TmPRX7 to TmPRX10, which feature a putative C-terminal propeptide, were detectable mainly in epidermal cells. Using TmPRX8 as a representative, we demonstrated that its C-terminal propeptide was sufficient to target a green fluorescent protein fusion protein to the vacuoles in onion cells. Finally, differential expression profiles of the TmPRXs after abiotic stresses and signal molecule treatments were used to dissect the potential role of these peroxidases in multiple stress and defense pathways.

  10. Isolation and Sequence Analysis of HMW Glutenin Subunit 1Dy10.1 Ecoding Gene from Xinjiang Wheat (Triticum petropavlovskyi Udacz.et Migusch)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Qian-tao; WEI Yu-ming; WANG Ji-rui; YAN Ze-hong; ZHENG You-liang

    2006-01-01

    A novel HMW glutenin subunit gene 1Dy10.1 was isolated and characterized from Xinjiang wheat (Triticum petropavlovskyi. Udacz. et Migusch) accession Daomai 2. The complete open reading frame (ORF) of 1Dy10.1 was 1965 bp, encoding 655 amino acids. The numbers and distribution of cysteines in 1Dy10.1 were similar to those of 1Dy10 and other y-type subunits. In the N-terminal of 1Dy10.1, an amino acid was changed from L (leucine) to P (proline) at position 55. The repetitive domain of 1Dy10.1 differed from those of known HMW subunits by substitutions, insertions or/and deletions involving single or more amino acid residues. In the repetitive domain of subunit 1Dy10.1, the deletion of tripeptide GQQ in the consensus unit PGQGQQ resulted in the appearance of the motif PGQ that have not been observed in other known y-type HMW subunits. In comparison with the subunit 1Dy12, a deletion of dipeptide GQ, which occurred in subunit 1Dy10, was also observed in subunit 1Dy10.1. The cloned 1Dyl0.1 gene had been successfully expressed in Escherichia coli, and the expressed protein had the identical mobility with the endogenous subunit 1Dyl0.1 from seed.

  11. Potential of Start Codon Targeted (SCoT) markers for DNA fingerprinting of newly synthesized tritordeums and their respective parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabo, Sandra; Ferreira, Luciana; Carvalho, Ana; Martins-Lopes, Paula; Martín, António; Lima-Brito, José Eduardo

    2014-08-01

    Hexaploid tritordeum (H(ch)H(ch)AABB; 2n = 42) results from the cross between Hordeum chilense (H(ch)H(ch); 2n = 14) and cultivated durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum (AABB; 2n = 28). Morphologically, tritordeum resembles the wheat parent, showing promise for agriculture and wheat breeding. Start Codon Targeted (SCoT) polymorphism is a recently developed technique that generates gene-targeted markers. Thus, we considered it interesting to evaluate its potential for the DNA fingerprinting of newly synthesized hexaploid tritordeums and their respective parents. In this study, 60 SCoT primers were tested, and 18 and 19 of them revealed SCoT polymorphisms in the newly synthesized tritordeum lines HT27 and HT22, respectively, and their parents. An analysis of the presence/absence of bands among tritordeums and their parents revealed three types of polymorphic markers: (i) shared by tritordeums and one of their parents, (ii) exclusively amplified in tritordeums, and (iii) exclusively amplified in the parents. No polymorphism was detected among individuals of each parental species. Three SCoT markers were exclusively amplified in tritordeums of lines HT22 and HT27, being considered as polyploidization-induced rearrangements. About 70% of the SCoT markers of H. chilense origin were not transmitted to the allopolyploids of both lines, and most of the SCoTs scored in the newly synthesized allopolyploids originated from wheat, reinforcing the potential use of tritordeum as an alternative crop.

  12. Anatomy and Cytogenetic Identification of a Wheat-Psathyrostachys huashanica Keng Line with Early Maturation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangming Wang

    Full Text Available In previous studies, our research team successfully transferred the Ns genome from Psathyrostachys huashanica Keng into Triticum aestivum (common wheat cv. 7182 using embryo culture. In the present study, one of these lines, i.e., hybrid progeny 25-10-3, which matured about 10-14 days earlier than its wheat parent, was assessed using sequenced characterized amplified region (SCAR analysis, EST-SSR and EST-STS molecular markers, and genomic in situ hybridization (GISH. We found that this was a stable wheat-P. huashanica disomic addition line (2n = 44 = 22 II and the results demonstrated that it was a 6Ns disomic chromosome addition line, but it exhibited many different features compared with previously characterized lines, i.e., a longer awn, early maturation, and no twin spikelets. It was considered to be an early-maturing variety based on the early stage of inflorescence initiation in field experiments and binocular microscope observations over three consecutive years. This characteristic was distinct, especially from the single ridge stage and double ridge stage until the glume stage. In addition, it had a higher photosynthesis rate and economic values than common wheat cv. 7182, i.e., more spikelets per spike, more florets per spikelet, more kernels per spike, and a higher thousand-grain weight. These results suggest that this material may comprise a genetic pool of beneficial genes or chromosome segments, which are suitable for introgression to improve the quality of common wheat.

  13. Parental divorce and disordered eating: an investigation of a gene-environment interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suisman, Jessica L; Burt, S Alexandra; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G; Klump, Kelly L

    2011-03-01

    We investigated gene-environment interactions (GxE) for associations between parental divorce and disordered eating (DE). Participants were 1,810 female twins from the Michigan State University Twin Registry and the Minnesota Twin Family Study. The Minnesota Eating Behaviors Survey was used to assess DE. We tested for GxE by comparing the heritability of DE in twins from divorced versus intact families. It was hypothesized that divorce would moderate the heritability of DE, in that heritability would be higher in twins from divorced than twins from intact families. As expected, the heritability of body dissatisfaction was significantly higher in twins from divorced than intact families. However, genetic influences were equal in twins from divorced and intact families for all other forms of DE. Although divorce did not moderate heritability of most DE symptoms, future research should replicate GxEs for body dissatisfaction and identify factors underlying this unique relationship. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Gene-Environment Interplay between Parent-Child Relationship Problems and Externalizing Disorders in Adolescence and Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samek, Diana R.; Hicks, Brian M.; Keyes, Margaret A.; Bailey, Jennifer; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that genetic risk for externalizing (EXT) disorders is greater in the context of adverse family environments during adolescence, but it is unclear whether these effects are long-lasting. The current study evaluated developmental changes in gene-environment interplay in the concurrent and prospective associations between parent-child relationship problems and EXT at ages 18 and 25. Method The sample included 1,382 twin pairs (48% male) from the Minnesota Twin Family Study, participating in assessments at ages 18 (M = 17.8 years, SD = 0.69) and 25 (M = 25.0 years, SD = 0.90). Perceptions of parent-child relationship problems were assessed using questionnaires. Structured interviews were used to assess symptoms of adult antisocial behavior and nicotine, alcohol, and illicit drug dependence. Results We detected a gene-environment interaction at age 18, such that the genetic influence on EXT was greater in the context of more parent-child relationship problems. This moderation effect was not present at age 25, nor did parent-relationship problems at age 18 moderate genetic influence on EXT at age 25. Rather, common genetic influences accounted for this longitudinal association. Conclusions Gene-environment interaction evident in the relationship between adolescent parent-child relationship problems and EXT is both proximal and developmentally limited. Common genetic influence, rather than a gene-environment interaction, accounts for the long-term association between parent-child relationship problems at age 18 and EXT at age 25. These results are consistent with a relatively pervasive importance of gene-environmental correlation in the transition from late adolescence to young adulthood. PMID:25066478

  15. Resistance to Wheat Curl Mite in Arthropod-Resistant Rye-Wheat Translocation Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Maria Aguirre-Rojas

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The wheat curl mite, Aceria toschiella (Keifer, and a complex of viruses vectored by A. toschiella substantially reduce wheat yields in every wheat-producing continent in the world. The development of A. toschiella-resistant wheat cultivars is a proven economically and ecologically viable method of controlling this pest. This study assessed A. toschiella resistance in wheat genotypes containing the H13, H21, H25, H26, H18 and Hdic genes for resistance to the Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor (Say and in 94M370 wheat, which contains the Dn7 gene for resistance to the Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov. A. toschiella populations produced on plants containing Dn7 and H21 were significantly lower than those on plants of the susceptible control and no different than those on the resistant control. Dn7 resistance to D. noxia and H21 resistance to M. destructor resulted from translocations of chromatin from rye into wheat (H21—2BS/2RL, Dn7—1BL/1RS. These results provide new wheat pest management information, indicating that Dn7 and H21 constitute resources that can be used to reduce yield losses caused by A. toschiella, M. destructor, D. noxia, and wheat streak mosaic virus infection by transferring multi-pest resistance to single sources of germplasm.

  16. Orofacial clefts, parental cigarette smoking, and transforming growth factor-alpha gene variants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, G.M.; Wasserman, C.R.; O`Malley, C.D. [California Birth Defects Monitoring Program, Emeryville, CA (United States)] [and others

    1996-03-01

    Results of studies determine whether women who smoke during early pregnancy are at increased risk of delivering infants with orofacial clefts have been mixed, and recently a gene-environment interaction between maternal smoking, transforming growth factor-alpha (TGFa), and clefting has been reported. Using a large population-based case-control study, we investigated whether parental periconceptional cigarette smoking was associated with an increased risk for having offspring with orofacial clefts. We also investigated the influence of genetic variation of the TGFa locus on the relation between smoking and clefting. Parental smoking information was obtained from telephone interviews with mothers of 731 (84.7% of eligible) orofacial cleft case infants and with mothers of 734 (78.2%) nonmalformed control infants. DNA was obtained from newborn screening blood spots and genotyped for the allelic variants of TGFa. We found that risks associated with maternal smoking were most elevated for isolated cleft lip with or without cleft palate, (odds ratio 2.1 [95% confidence interval 1.3-3.6]) and for isolated cleft palate (odds ratio 2.2 [1.1-4.5]) when mothers smoked {ge} 20 cigarrettes/d. These risks for white infants ranged from 3-fold to 11-fold across phenotypic groups. Paternal smoking was not associated with clefting among the offspring of nonsmoking mothers, and passive smoke exposures were associated with at most slightly increased risks. This study offers evidence that the risk for orofacial clefting in infants may be influenced by maternal smoke exposures alone as well as in combination (gene-environment interaction) with the presence of the uncommon TGFa allele. 56 refs., 5 tabs.

  17. New insights into the wheat chromosome 4D structure and virtual gene order, revealed by survey pyrosequencing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Helguera, M.; Rivarola, M.; Clavijo, B.; Martis, M.M.; Vanzetti, L.S.; Gonzalez, S.; Garbus, I.; LeRoy, P.; Šimková, Hana; Valárik, Miroslav; Caccamo, M.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Mayer, K. F. X.; Feuillet, C.; Tranquilli, G.; Paniego, N.; Echenique, V.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 233, APR 2015 (2015), s. 200-212 ISSN 0168-9452 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP501/12/G090; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Chromosome 4D survey sequence * Gene annotation * Gene content Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.362, year: 2015

  18. The effect of the Tom Thumb dwarfing gene on grain size and grain number of wheat (Triticum aestivum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gale, M.D.; Flintham, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    The Tom Thumb dwarfing gene, Rht3, like the related genes Rht1 and Rht2 from Norin 10, has pleiotropic effects on individual ear yields, and grain protein concentrations. An experiment was conducted in which tiller number per plant and grain number per spike were restricted to ascertain whether reduced grain size and protein content are primary or secondary competitive effects in near-isogenic lines. The potential for grain growth was shown to be identical in Rht3 and rht genotypes when grain set was restricted, indicating that the primary effect of the gene is to increase spikelet fertility. Nitrogen accumulation within the grain was also affected by inter-grain competition but decreased nitrogen yields per plant indicated that reduced protein levels are, in part, a primary effect of the gene. Analysis of individual grain yields within Rht3 and rht spikes showed that the gene affected developmental 'dominance' relationships within the spike. (author)

  19. A change in temperature modulates defence to yellow (stripe) rust in wheat line UC1041 independently of resistance gene Yr36.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Ruth R M; McGrann, Graham R D; Mitchell, Alice R; Schoonbeek, Henk-Jan; Boyd, Lesley A; Uauy, Cristobal; Dorling, Steve; Ridout, Christopher J

    2014-01-08

    Rust diseases are of major importance in wheat production worldwide. With the constant evolution of new rust strains and their adaptation to higher temperatures, consistent and durable disease resistance is a key challenge. Environmental conditions affect resistance gene performance, but the basis for this is poorly understood. Here we show that a change in day temperature affects wheat resistance to Puccinia striiformis f. sp tritici (Pst), the causal agent of yellow (or stripe) rust. Using adult plants of near-isogenic lines UC1041 +/- Yr36, there was no significant difference between Pst percentage uredia coverage in plants grown at day temperatures of 18°C or 25°C in adult UC1041 + Yr36 plants. However, when plants were transferred to the lower day temperature at the time of Pst inoculation, infection increased up to two fold. Interestingly, this response was independent of Yr36, which has previously been reported as a temperature-responsive resistance gene as Pst development in adult UC1041 -Yr36 plants was similarly affected by the plants experiencing a temperature reduction. In addition, UC1041 -Yr36 plants grown at the lower temperature then transferred to the higher temperature were effectively resistant and a temperature change in either direction was shown to affect Pst development up to 8 days prior to inoculation. Results for seedlings were similar, but more variable compared to adult plants. Enhanced resistance to Pst was observed in seedlings of UC1041 and the cultivar Shamrock when transferred to the higher temperature. Resistance was not affected in seedlings of cultivar Solstice by a temperature change in either direction. Yr36 is effective at 18°C, refining the lower range of temperature at which resistance against Pst is conferred compared to previous studies. Results reveal previously uncharacterised defence temperature sensitivity in the UC1041 background which is caused by a change in temperature and independently of Yr36. This novel

  20. Cytogenetics and stripe rust resistance of wheat-Thinopyrum elongatum hybrid derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Daiyan; Long, Dan; Li, Tinghui; Wu, Yanli; Wang, Yi; Zeng, Jian; Xu, Lili; Fan, Xing; Sha, Lina; Zhang, Haiqin; Zhou, Yonghong; Kang, Houyang

    2018-01-01

    Amphidiploids generated by distant hybridization are commonly used as genetic bridge to transfer desirable genes from wild wheat species into cultivated wheat. This method is typically used to enhance the resistance of wheat to biotic or abiotic stresses, and to increase crop yield and quality. Tetraploid Thinopyrum elongatum exhibits strong adaptability, resistance to stripe rust and Fusarium head blight, and tolerance to salt, drought, and cold. In the present study, we produced hybrid derivatives by crossing and backcrossing the Triticum durum-Th. elongatum partial amphidiploid ( Trititrigia 8801, 2 n  = 6 ×  = 42, AABBEE) with wheat cultivars common to the Sichuan Basin. By means of cytogenetic and disease resistance analyses, we identified progeny harboring alien chromosomes and measured their resistance to stripe rust. Hybrid progenies possessed chromosome numbers ranging from 40 to 47 (mean = 42.72), with 40.0% possessing 42 chromosomes. Genomic in situ hybridization revealed that the number of alien chromosomes ranged from 1 to 11. Out of the 50 of analyzed lines, five represented chromosome addition (2 n  = 44 = 42 W + 2E) and other five were chromosome substitution lines (2 n  = 42 = 40 W + 2E). Importantly, a single chromosome derived from wheat- Th. elongatum intergenomic Robertsonian translocations chromosome was occurred in 12 lines. Compared with the wheat parental cultivars ('CN16' and 'SM482'), the majority (70%) of the derivative lines were highly resistant to strains of stripe rust pathogen known to be prevalent in China. The findings suggest that these hybrid-derivative lines with stripe rust resistance could potentially be used as germplasm sources for further wheat improvement.

  1. Wheat Brassinosteroid-Insensitive1 (TaBRI1 Interacts with Members of TaSERK Gene Family and Cause Early Flowering and Seed Yield Enhancement in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akanksha Singh

    Full Text Available Brassinosteroids (BRs hormones are important for plant growth, development and immune responses. They are sensed by the transmembrane receptor kinase Brassinosteroid-Insensitive 1 (BRI1 when they bind to its extracellular Leu-rich repeat (LRR domain. We cloned and characterized the TaBRI1 from T. aestivum and raised overexpression transgenics in Arabidopsis to decipher its functional role. TaBRI1 protein consists of a putative signal peptide followed by 25 leucine rich repeats (LRR, a transmembrane domain and a C-terminal kinase domain. The analysis determined the interaction of TaBRI1 with five members of the wheat Somatic Embryogenesis Receptor Kinase (TaSERKs gene family (TaSERK1, TaSERK2, TaSERK3, TaSERK4 and TaSERK5, at the plasma membrane. Furthermore, overexpression of TaBRI1 in Arabidopsis leads to the early flowering, increased silique size and seed yield. Root growth analysis of TaBRI1 overexpressing transgenic plants showed hypersensitivity to epi-brassinolide (epi-BL hormone in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, transgenic Arabidopsis plants show thermotolerance phenotype at the seedling stages as revealed by chlorophyll content, photosystem II activity and membrane stability. The transcriptome profiling on the basis of microarray analysis indicates up-regulation of several genes related to brassinosteroid signaling pathway, abiotic stress response, defense response and transcription factors. These studies predict the possible role of TaBRI1 gene in plant growth and development imparting tolerance to thermal stress.

  2. Parent-of-origin dependent gene-specific knock down in mouse embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, Khursheed; Kues, Wilfried A.; Niemann, Heiner

    2007-01-01

    In mice hemizygous for the Oct4-GFP transgene, the F1 embryos show parent-of-origin dependent expression of the marker gene. F1 embryos with a maternally derived OG2 allele (OG2 mat /-) express GFP in the oocyte and during preimplantation development until the blastocyst stage indicating a maternal and embryonic expression pattern. F1-embryos with a paternally inherited OG2 allele (OG2 pat /-) express GFP from the 4- to 8-cell stage onwards showing only embryonic expression. This allows to study allele specific knock down of GFP expression. RNA interference (RNAi) was highly efficient in embryos with the paternally inherited GFP allele, whereas embryos with the maternally inherited GFP allele showed a delayed and less stringent suppression, indicating that the initial levels of the target transcript and the half life of the protein affect RNAi efficacy. RT-PCR analysis revealed only minimum of GFP mRNA. These results have implications for studies of gene silencing in mammalian embryos

  3. Dynamical behavior of psb gene transcripts in greening wheat seedlings. I. Time course of accumulation of the pshA through psbN gene transcripts during light-induced greening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, H; Fukuda, I; Shiina, T; Toyoshima, Y

    1992-11-01

    The time course of the accumulation of the transcripts from 13 psb genes encoding a major part of the proteins composing photosystem II during light-induced greening of dark-grown wheat seedlings was examined focusing on early stages of plastid development (0.5 h through 72 h). The 13 genes can be divided into three groups. (1) The psbA gene is transcribed as a single transcript of 1.3 kb in the dark-grown seedlings, but its level increases 5- to 7-fold in response to light due to selective increase in RNA stability as well as in transcription activity. (2) The psbE-F-L-J operon, psbM and psbN genes are transcribed as a single transcript of 1.1 kb, two transcripts of 0.5 and 0.7 kb and a single transcript of 0.3 kb, respectively, in the dark-grown seedlings. The levels of accumulation of every transcript remain unchanged or rather decrease during plastid development under illumination. (3) The psbK-I-D-C gene cluster and psbB-H operon exhibit fairly complicated northern hybridization patterns during the greening process. When a psbC or psbD gene probe was used for northern hybridization, five transcripts differing in length were detected in the etioplasts from 5-day old dark-grown seedlings. After 2 h illumination, two new transcripts of different length appeared. Light induction of new transcripts was also observed in the psbB-H operon.

  4. Mutations in durum wheat SBEII genes conferring increased amylose and resistant starch affect grain yield components, semolina and pasta quality and fermentation responses in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased amylose in wheat (Triticum spp.) starch is associated with increased resistant starch, a fermentable dietary fiber. Fermentation of resistant starch in the large intestine produces short-chain fatty acids that provide human health benefits. Since wheat foods are an important component of t...

  5. TaHsfA6f is a transcriptional activator that regulates a suite of heat stress protection genes in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) including previously unknown Hsf targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Gang-Ping; Drenth, Janneke; McIntyre, C Lynne

    2015-02-01

    Heat stress is a significant environmental factor adversely affecting crop yield. Crop adaptation to high-temperature environments requires transcriptional reprogramming of a suite of genes involved in heat stress protection. This study investigated the role of TaHsfA6f, a member of the A6 subclass of heat shock transcription factors, in the regulation of heat stress protection genes in Triticum aestivum (bread wheat), a poorly understood phenomenon in this crop species. Expression analysis showed that TaHsfA6f was expressed constitutively in green organs but was markedly up-regulated during heat stress. Overexpression of TaHsfA6f in transgenic wheat using a drought-inducible promoter resulted in up-regulation of heat shock proteins (HSPs) and a number of other heat stress protection genes that included some previously unknown Hsf target genes such as Golgi anti-apoptotic protein (GAAP) and the large isoform of Rubisco activase. Transgenic wheat plants overexpressing TaHsfA6f showed improved thermotolerance. Transactivation assays showed that TaHsfA6f activated the expression of reporter genes driven by the promoters of several HSP genes (TaHSP16.8, TaHSP17, TaHSP17.3, and TaHSP90.1-A1) as well as TaGAAP and TaRof1 (a co-chaperone) under non-stress conditions. DNA binding analysis revealed the presence of high-affinity TaHsfA6f-binding heat shock element-like motifs in the promoters of these six genes. Promoter truncation and mutagenesis analyses identified TaHsfA6f-binding elements that were responsible for transactivation of TaHSP90.1-A1 and TaGAAP by TaHsfA6f. These data suggest that TaHsfA6f is a transcriptional activator that directly regulates TaHSP, TaGAAP, and TaRof1 genes in wheat and its gene regulatory network has a positive impact on thermotolerance. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  6. Attractive Women Want it All: Good Genes, Economic Investment, Parenting Proclivities, and Emotional Commitment1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Buss

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The current research tests the hypothesis that women have an evolved mate value calibration adaptation that functions to raise or lower their standards in a long-term mate according to their own mate value. A woman's physical attractiveness is a cardinal component of women's mate value. We correlated observer-assessed physical attractiveness (face, body, and overall with expressed preferences for four clusters of mate characteristics (N = 214: (1 hypothesized good-gene indicators (e.g., masculinity, sexiness; (2 hypothesized good investment indicators (e.g., potential income; (3 good parenting indicators (e.g., desire for home and children, and (4 good partner indicators (e.g., being a loving partner. Results supported the hypothesis that high mate value women, as indexed by observer-judged physical attractiveness, expressed elevated standards for all four clusters of mate characteristics. Discussion focuses on potential design features of the hypothesized mate-value calibration adaptation, and suggests an important modification of the trade-off model of women's mating. A minority of women—notably those low in mate value who are able to escape male mate guarding and the manifold costs of an exposed infidelity—will pursue a mixed mating strategy, obtaining investment from one man and good genes from an extra-pair copulation partner (as the trade-off model predicts. Since the vast majority of women secure genes and direct benefits from the same man, however, most women will attempt to secure the best combination of all desired qualities from the same man.

  7. Functional characterization of a wheat NHX antiporter gene TaNHX2 that encodes a K(+/H(+ exchanger.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Xu

    Full Text Available The subcellular localization of a wheat NHX antiporter, TaNHX2, was studied in Arabidopsis protoplasts, and its function was evaluated using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a heterologous expression system. Fluorescence patterns of TaNHX2-GFP fusion protein in Arabidopsis cells indicated that TaNHX2 localized at endomembranes. TaNHX2 has significant sequence homology to NHX sodium exchangers from Arabidopsis, is abundant in roots and leaves and is induced by salt or dehydration treatments. Western blot analysis showed that TaNHX2 could be expressed in transgenic yeast cells. Expressed TaNHX2 protein suppressed the salt sensitivity of a yeast mutant strain by increasing its K(+ content when exposed to salt stress. TaNHX2 also increased the tolerance of the strain to potassium stress. However, the expression of TaNHX2 did not affect the sodium concentration in transgenic cells. Western blot analysis for tonoplast proteins indicated that the TaNHX2 protein localized at the tonoplast of transgenic yeast cells. The tonoplast vesicles from transgenic yeast cells displayed enhanced K(+/H(+ exchange activity but very little Na(+/H(+ exchange compared with controls transformed with the empty vector; Na(+/H(+ exchange was not detected with concentrations of less than 37.5 mM Na(+ in the reaction medium. Our data suggest that TaNHX2 is a endomembrane-bound protein and may primarily function as a K(+/H(+ antiporter, which is involved in cellular pH regulation and potassium nutrition under normal conditions. Under saline conditions, the protein mediates resistance to salt stress through the intracellular compartmentalization of potassium to regulate cellular pH and K(+ homeostasis.

  8. Effects of Azospirillum brasilense with genetically modified auxin biosynthesis gene ipdC upon the diversity of the indigenous microbiota of the wheat rhizosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudoin, Ezékiel; Lerner, Anat; Mirza, M Sajjad; El Zemrany, Hamdy; Prigent-Combaret, Claire; Jurkevich, Edouard; Spaepen, Stijn; Vanderleyden, Jos; Nazaret, Sylvie; Okon, Yaacov; Moënne-Loccoz, Yvan

    2010-04-01

    The phytostimulatory properties of Azospirillum inoculants, which entail production of the phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), can be enhanced by genetic means. However, it is not known whether this could affect their interactions with indigenous soil microbes. Here, wheat seeds were inoculated with the wild-type strain Azospirillum brasilense Sp245 or one of three genetically modified (GM) derivatives and grown for one month. The GM derivatives contained a plasmid vector harboring the indole-3-pyruvate/phenylpyruvate decarboxylase gene ipdC (IAA production) controlled either by the constitutive promoter PnptII or the root exudate-responsive promoter PsbpA, or by an empty vector (GM control). All inoculants displayed equal rhizosphere population densities. Only inoculation with either ipdC construct increased shoot biomass compared with the non-inoculated control. At one month after inoculation, automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) revealed that the effect of the PsbpA construct on bacterial community structure differed from that of the GM control, which was confirmed by 16S rDNA-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The fungal community was sensitive to inoculation with the PsbpA construct and especially the GM control, based on ARISA data. Overall, fungal and bacterial communities displayed distinct responses to inoculation of GM A. brasilense phytostimulators, whose effects could differ from those of the wild-type.

  9. Effects of different swine manure to wheat straw ratios on antibiotic resistance genes and the microbial community structure during anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wen; Wang, Xiaojuan; Gu, Jie; Zhang, Sheqi; Yin, Yanan; Li, Yang; Qian, Xun; Sun, Wei

    2017-05-01

    This study explored the effects of different mass ratios of swine manure relative to wheat straw (3:7, 5:5, and 7:3, i.e., control reactors C1, C2, and C3, respectively) on variations in antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and the microbial community during anaerobic digestion (AD). The cumulative biogas production volumes were 1711, 3857, and 3226mL in C1, C2, and C3, respectively. After AD, the total relative abundance of ARGs decreased by 4.23 logs in C3, whereas the reductions were only 1.03 and 1.37 logs in C1 and C2, respectively. Network analysis showed that the genera Solibacillus, Enterococcus, Facklamia, Corynebacterium_1, and Acinetobacter were potential hosts of ermB, sul1, and dfrA7. Redundancy analysis showed that the bacterial communities and environmental factors played important roles in the variation in ARGs. Thus, reductions in ARGs should be considered before reusing animal manure treated by AD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Sodium azide mutagenesis in wheat: Mutants with golden glumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqui, K.A.; Jafri, K.A.; Arain, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    In bread wheat, Triticum aestivum L. (2n=6x=42, AABBDD), detection of induced mutations is hampered by the presence of duplicate and triplicate genes. Induced changes in spike characteristics are known, but mutants with changed glume colour do not seem to have been reported. Physical mutagens such as gamma rays, thermal neutrons and fast neutrons, and chemical mutagens like EMS, El, dES and NEH have been extensively used for induction of mutations in bread wheat but it seems as if these mutagens did not induce mutants with changed glume colour. We used sodium azide for inducing mutations in the widely adapted cultivar 'Sonalika', which is characterized by brown glume colour. Presoaked seeds were treated with 0.2M sodium azide for 3 hours. Three spikes were harvested from each M 1 plant. M 2 generation was space-planted as spike progeny. We were successful in identifying 3 mutants with golden glumes. The mutants resemble 'Sonalika' in other spike characteristics. The mutants glume colour was confirmed in M 3 . The mutants were also evaluated for agronomically important characteristics. Some characters were significantly different from the parent. Glume colours may be useful as genetic markers since such characters are less influenced by the environment. Our investigation confirms that also agronomically useful genetic variation may be readily induced in bread wheat through sodium azide

  11. Identification of circular RNAs from the parental genes involved in multiple aspects of cellular metabolism in barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shirvanehdeh, Behrooz Darbani; Noeparvar, Shahin; Borg, Søren

    2016-01-01

    circular RNAs as novel interactors in the regulation of gene expression in plants and imply the comprehensiveness of this regulatory pathway by identifying circular RNAs for a diverse set of genes. These genes are involved in several aspects of cellular metabolism as hormonal signaling, intracellular...... protein sorting, carbohydrate metabolism and cell-wall biogenesis, respiration, amino acid biosynthesis, transcription and translation, and protein ubiquitination. Additionally, these parental loci of circular RNAs, from both nuclear and mitochondrial genomes, encode for different transcript classes...... and elucidate their cellular-level alterations across tissues and in response to micronutrients iron and zinc. In further support of circular RNAs’ functional roles in plants, we report several cases where fluctuations of circRNAs do not correlate with the levels of their parental-loci encoded linear...

  12. Differential gene expression in an elite hybrid rice cultivar (Oryza sativa, L and its parental lines based on SAGE data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chen

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It was proposed that differentially-expressed genes, aside from genetic variations affecting protein processing and functioning, between hybrid and its parents provide essential candidates for studying heterosis or hybrid vigor. Based our serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE data from an elite Chinese super-hybrid rice (LYP9 and its parental cultivars (93-11 and PA64s in three major tissue types (leaves, roots and panicles at different developmental stages, we analyzed the transcriptome and looked for candidate genes related to rice heterosis. Results By using an improved strategy of tag-to-gene mapping and two recently annotated genome assemblies (93-11 and PA64s, we identified 10,268 additional high-quality tags, reaching a grand total of 20,595 together with our previous result. We further detected 8.5% and 5.9% physically-mapped genes that are differentially-expressed among the triad (in at least one of the three stages with P-values less than 0.05 and 0.01, respectively. These genes distributed in 12 major gene expression patterns; among them, 406 up-regulated and 469 down-regulated genes (P Conclusion We improved tag-to-gene mapping strategy by combining information from transcript sequences and rice genome annotation, and obtained a more comprehensive view on genes that related to rice heterosis. The candidates for heterosis-related genes among different genotypes provided new avenue for exploring the molecular mechanism underlying heterosis.

  13. Gene architecture and expression analyses provide insights into the role of glutathione peroxidases (GPXs) in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Shivi; Himani; Sembi, Jaspreet K; Upadhyay, Santosh Kumar

    2018-04-01

    Glutathione peroxidases (GPXs) are redox sensor proteins that maintain a steady-state of H 2 O 2 in plant cells. They exhibit distinct sub-cellular localization and have diverse functionality in response to different stimuli. In this study, a total of 14 TaGPX genes and three splice variants were identified in the genome of Triticum aestivum and evaluated for various physicochemical properties. The TaGPX genes were scattered on the various chromosomes of the A, B, and D sub-genomes and clustered into five homeologous groups based on high sequence homology. The majority of genes were derived from the B sub-genome and localized on chromosome 2. The intron-exon organization, motif and domain architecture, and phylogenetic analyses revealed the conserved nature of TaGPXs. The occurrence of both development-related and stress-responsive cis-acting elements in the promoter region, the differential expression of these genes during various developmental stages, and the modulation of expression in the presence of biotic and abiotic stresses suggested their diverse role in T. aestivum. The majority of TaGPX genes showed higher expression in various leaf developmental stages. However, TaGPX1-A1 was upregulated in the presence of each abiotic stress treatment. A co-expression analysis revealed the interaction of TaGPXs with numerous development and stress-related genes, which indicated their vital role in numerous biological processes. Our study revealed the opportunities for further characterization of individual TaGPX proteins, which might be useful in designing future crop improvement strategies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Copy Number Variation of Cytokinin Oxidase Gene Tackx4 Associated with Grain Weight and Chlorophyll Content of Flag Leaf in Common Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Cheng; Lu, Jie; Zhang, Hai-Ping; Ma, Chuan-Xi; Sun, Genlou

    2015-01-01

    As the main pigment in photosynthesis, chlorophyll significantly affects grain filling and grain weight of crop. Cytokinin (CTK) can effectively increase chlorophyll content and chloroplast stability, but it is irreversibly inactivated by cytokinin oxidase (CKX). In this study, therefore, twenty-four pairs of primers were designed to identify variations of wheat CKX (Tackx) genes associated with flag leaf chlorophyll content after anthesis, as well as grain weight in 169 recombinant inbred lines (RIL) derived from Triticum aestivum Jing 411 × Hongmangchun 21. Results indicated variation of Tackx4, identified by primer pair T19-20, was proven to significantly associate with chlorophyll content and grain weight in the RIL population. Here, two Tackx4 patterns were identified: one with two co-segregated fragments (Tackx4-1/Tackx4-2) containing 618 bp and 620 bp in size (as in Jing 411), and another with no PCR product. The two genotypes were designated as genotype-A and genotype-B, respectively. Grain weight and leaf chlorophyll content at 5~15 days after anthesis (DAA) were significantly higher in genotype-A lines than those in genotype-B lines. Mapping analysis indicated Tackx4 was closely linked to Xwmc169 on chromosome 3AL, as well as co-segregated with a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) for both grain weight and chlorophyll content of flag leaf at 5~15 DAA. This QTL explained 8.9~22.3% phenotypic variations of the two traits across four cropping seasons. Among 102 wheat varieties, a third genotype of Tackx4 was found and designated as genotype-C, also having two co-segregated fragments, Tackx4-2 and Tackx4-3 (615bp). The sequences of three fragments, Tackx4-1, Tackx4-2, and Tackx4-3, showed high identity (>98%). Therefore, these fragments could be considered as different copies at Tackx4 locus on chromosome 3AL. The effect of copy number variation (CNV) of Tackx4 was further validated. In general, genotype-A contains both significantly higher grain weight

  15. Short communication: Emergence of a new race of leaf rust with combined virulence to Lr14a and Lr72 genes on durum wheat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soleiman, N.H; Solis, I.; Soliman, M.H.; Sillero, J.C.; Villegas, D.; Alvaro, F.; Royo, C.; Serra, J.; Ammar, K.; Martínez-Moreno, F.

    2016-11-01

    Leaf rust is a foliar disease caused by the fungus Puccinia triticina that may severely reduce durum wheat yield. Resistance to this pathogen is common in modern durum germplasm but is frequently based on Lr72 and Lr14a. After accounts of races with virulence to Lr14a gene in France in 2000, the present study reports the detection in 2013 for the first time of a new race with virulence to Lr14a and Lr72. The aim of this work was to characterize the virulence pattern of four Spanish isolates with virulence to Lr14a, and to discuss the consequences of this presence. Rusted leaves from cultivars ‘Don Jaime’ (Lr14a) and ‘Gallareta’ (Lr72) were collected in 2013 in the field at two Spanish sites, one in the south (near Cadiz) and another in the north (near Girona). Spores from single pustule for each cultivar and site were multiplied on susceptible cultivar ‘Don Rafael’. Then, the four isolates were inoculated on a set of 19 isogenic lines Thatcher to characterize their virulence spectrum. All isolates presented the same virulence pattern. They were virulent on both Lr14a and Lr72 and the race was named DBB/BS. This race was very similar to those reported in 2009-11, but with added virulence to Lr14a. The resistance based on Lr14a has therefore been overcome in Spain, by a new race that has likely emerged via stepwise mutation from the local predominating races. This information is important to guide breeders in their breeding programmes and gene deployment strategies. (Author)

  16. Two wheat glutathione peroxidase genes whose products are located in chloroplasts improve salt and H2O2 tolerances in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Zeng Zhai

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress caused by accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS is capable of damaging effects on numerous cellular components. Glutathione peroxidases (GPXs, EC 1.11.1.9 are key enzymes of the antioxidant network in plants. In this study, W69 and W106, two putative GPX genes, were obtained by de novo transcriptome sequencing of salt-treated wheat (Triticum aestivum seedlings. The purified His-tag fusion proteins of W69 and W106 reduced H2O2 and t-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP using glutathione (GSH or thioredoxin (Trx as an electron donor in vitro, showing their peroxidase activity toward H2O2 and toxic organic hydroperoxide. GFP fluorescence assays revealed that W69 and W106 are localized in chloroplasts. Quantitative real-time PCR (Q-RT-PCR analysis showed that two GPXs were differentially responsive to salt, drought, H2O2, or ABA. Isolation of the W69 and W106 promoters revealed some cis-acting elements responding to abiotic stresses. Overexpression of W69 and W106 conferred strong tolerance to salt, H2O2, and ABA treatment in Arabidopsis. Moreover, the expression levels of key regulator genes (SOS1, RbohD and ABI1/ABI2 involved in salt, H2O2 and ABA signaling were altered in the transgenic plants. These findings suggest that W69 and W106 not only act as scavengers of H2O2 in controlling abiotic stress responses, but also play important roles in salt and ABA signaling.

  17. The pangenome of hexaploid bread wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro, Juan D; Golicz, Agnieszka A; Bayer, Philipp E; Hurgobin, Bhavna; Lee, HueyTyng; Chan, Chon-Kit Kenneth; Visendi, Paul; Lai, Kaitao; Doležel, Jaroslav; Batley, Jacqueline; Edwards, David

    2017-06-01

    There is an increasing understanding that variation in gene presence-absence plays an important role in the heritability of agronomic traits; however, there have been relatively few studies on variation in gene presence-absence in crop species. Hexaploid wheat is one of the most important food crops in the world and intensive breeding has reduced the genetic diversity of elite cultivars. Major efforts have produced draft genome assemblies for the cultivar Chinese Spring, but it is unknown how well this represents the genome diversity found in current modern elite cultivars. In this study we build an improved reference for Chinese Spring and explore gene diversity across 18 wheat cultivars. We predict a pangenome size of 140 500 ± 102 genes, a core genome of 81 070 ± 1631 genes and an average of 128 656 genes in each cultivar. Functional annotation of the variable gene set suggests that it is enriched for genes that may be associated with important agronomic traits. In addition to variation in gene presence, more than 36 million intervarietal single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified across the pangenome. This study of the wheat pangenome provides insight into genome diversity in elite wheat as a basis for genomics-based improvement of this important crop. A wheat pangenome, GBrowse, is available at http://appliedbioinformatics.com.au/cgi-bin/gb2/gbrowse/WheatPan/, and data are available to download from http://wheatgenome.info/wheat_genome_databases.php. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Modulation of repetitive genes in the parent forms of heterozygous corn hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilyazetdinov, S.Ya.; Zimnitskii, A.N.; Yakhin, I.A.; Bikbaeva, E.S.

    1987-01-01

    The number of copies of the genes of high-molecular-weight rRNA, 5 S r RNA, and certain other families of repetitive sequences of DNA in the genome of different forms of corn is not coordinated but is stably inherited in the same strains. The authors present the results of their investigations into the repetition of the genes of tRNA, 5 S rRNA, histones, and the controlling element Ds of corn for the highly heterozygous hybrid Slava (VIR 44 x VIR 38), the medium-heterozygous hybrid Svetoch (VIR 40 x VIR 43), the low heterozygous hybrid Iskra (VIR 26 x VIR 27), and their parent strains. The relative content of these sequences was studied by the molecular hybridization of DNA immobilized on nitrocellulose filters with [ 125 I]tRNA labeled in vitro, 5 S rRNA, histone DNA of Drosophila, and the Ds-element of corn. The DNA preparations were isolated from the zones of the meristem (1.5-2mm), elongation (4-5mm), differentiation of the roots (3 cm), of 3-4 day seedlings, and from isolated embryos of 4 h and 24 h seedlings. The DNA of the embryos immobilized on the filters was preliminarily incubated with unlabeled high-molecular-weight rRNA in the experiments with tRNA and 5 S rRNA, while when histone DNA and the Ds element of corn were used in the hybridization reaction, it was preliminary incubated with plasmid DNA

  19. Interaction of soft wheat Triticum aestivum L. gene ph1b with the Aegilops speltoides Tausch. genotype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapochkina, I.F. [Agricultural Research Institute of Central Non-Chernozem Region, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-04-01

    It is demonstrated that genotypes of Aegilops speltoides and the phi1b mutant have an additive effect on the level of homeologous chromosome pairing in their F{sub 1} hybrids (2n = 28, ABDS). The contribution of gene ph1b to the total pairing level is 16% and that of the Ae. speltoides genotype is 42%. 9 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  20. Heritable heading time variation in wheat lines with the same number of Ppd-B1 gene copies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ivaničová, Zuzana; Valárik, Miroslav; Pánková, K.; Trávníčková, M.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Šafář, Jan; Milec, Zbyněk

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 8 (2017), č. článku e0183745. E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204; GA ČR GBP501/12/G090 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : triticum-aestivum l. * dna methylation * copy number * flowering time * human genome * se gene * vernalization * earliness * barley * region Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 2.806, year: 2016

  1. Comparing two approaches for introgression of germplasm from Aegilops tauschii into common wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas S. Cox

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Allelic diversity in the wild grass Aegilops tauschii is vastly greater than that in the D genome of common wheat (Triticum aestivum, of which Ae. tauschii is the source. Since the 1980s, there have been numerous efforts to harness a much larger share of Ae. tauschii's extensive and highly variable gene pool for wheat improvement. Those efforts have followed two distinct approaches: production of amphiploids, known as “synthetic hexaploids,” between T. turgidum and Ae. tauschii, and direct hybridization between T. aestivum and Ae. tauschii; both approaches then involve backcrossing to T. aestivum. Both synthetic hexaploid production and direct hybridization have led to the transfer of numerous new genes into common wheat that confer improvements in many traits. This work has led to release of improved cultivars in China, the United States, and many other countries. Each approach to D-genome improvement has advantages and disadvantages. For example, production of synthetic hexaploids can incorporate useful germplasm from both T. turgidum and Ae. tauschii, thereby enhancing the A, B, and D genomes; on the other hand, direct hybridization rapidly restores the recurrent parent's A and B genomes and avoids incorporation of genes with adverse effects on threshability, hybrid necrosis, vernalization response, milling and baking quality, and other traits, which are often transferred when T. turgidum is used as a parent. Choice of method will depend in part on the type of wheat being developed and the target environment. However, more extensive use of the so-far underexploited direct hybridization approach is especially warranted.

  2. Preliminary genetic imaging study of the association between estrogen receptor-α gene polymorphisms and harsh human maternal parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahey, Benjamin B; Michalska, Kalina J; Liu, Chunyu; Chen, Qi; Hipwell, Alison E; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Waldman, Irwin D; Decety, Jean

    2012-09-06

    A failure of neural changes initiated by the estrogen surge in late pregnancy to reverse the valence of infant stimuli from aversive to rewarding is associated with dysfunctional maternal behavior in nonhuman mammals. Estrogen receptor-α plays the crucial role in mediating these neural effects of estrogen priming. This preliminary study examines associations between estrogen receptor-α gene polymorphisms and human maternal behavior. Two polymorphisms were associated with human negative maternal parenting. Furthermore, hemodynamic responses in functional magnetic resonance imaging to child stimuli in neural regions associated with social cognition fully mediated the association between genetic variation and negative parenting. This suggests testable hypotheses regarding a biological pathway between genetic variants and dysfunctional human maternal parenting. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Exogenous GA3 application can compensate the morphogenetic effects of the GA-responsive dwarfing gene Rht12 in bread wheat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Chen

    Full Text Available The most common dwarfing genes in wheat, Rht-B1b and Rht-D1b, classified as gibberellin-insensitive (GAI dwarfing genes due to their reduced response to exogenous GA, have been verified as encoding negative regulators of gibberellin signaling. In contrast, the response of gibberellin-responsive (GAR dwarfing genes, such as Rht12, to exogenous GA is still unclear and the role of them, if any, in GA biosynthesis or signaling is unknown. The responses of Rht12 to exogenous GA3 were investigated on seedling vigour, spike phenological development, plant height and other agronomic traits, using F2 ∶ 3 and F3 ∶ 4 lines derived from a cross between Ningchun45 and Karcagi-12 in three experiments. The application of exogenous GA3 significantly increased coleoptile length and seedling leaf 1 length and area. While there was no significant difference between the dwarf and the tall lines at the seedling stage in the responsiveness to GA3, plant height was significantly increased, by 41 cm (53% averaged across the three experiments, in the GA3-treated Rht12 dwarf lines. Plant height of the tall lines was not affected significantly by GA3 treatment (<10 cm increased. Plant biomass and seed size of the GA3-treated dwarf lines was significantly increased compared with untreated dwarf plants while there was no such difference in the tall lines. GA3-treated Rht12 dwarf plants with the dominant Vrn-B1 developed faster than untreated plants and reached double ridge stage 57 days, 11 days and 50 days earlier and finally flowered earlier by almost 7 days while the GA3-treated tall lines flowering only 1-2 days earlier than the untreated tall lines. Thus, it is clear that exogenous GA3 can break the masking effect of Rht12 on Vrn-B1 and also restore other characters of Rht12 to normal. It suggested that Rht12 mutants may be deficient in GA biosynthesis rather than in GA signal transduction like the GA-insensitive dwarfs.

  4. Improved wheat for baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faridi, H; Finley, J W

    1989-01-01

    To bakers, wheat quality means the performance characteristics of the flour milled from the wheat when used in specific wheat products. The tremendous increase in the number of wheat cultivars grown in the U.S. in recent years, along with the unusual climate, new advances in milling technology, and increased automation of baking lines, have resulted in bakery production problems partly attributed to wheat flour quality. In this review various factors affecting wheat quality are explained. Concerns of bread and cookie/cracker manufacturers on deterioration of the wheat quality are discussed, and, finally, some solutions are proposed.

  5. Transmission of stress-induced learning impairment and associated brain gene expression from parents to offspring in chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Lindqvist

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Stress influences many aspects of animal behaviour and is a major factor driving populations to adapt to changing living conditions, such as during domestication. Stress can affect offspring through non-genetic mechanisms, but recent research indicates that inherited epigenetic modifications of the genome could possibly also be involved. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Red junglefowl (RJF, ancestors of modern chickens and domesticated White Leghorn (WL chickens were raised in a stressful environment (unpredictable light-dark rhythm and control animals in similar pens, but on a 12/12 h light-dark rhythm. WL in both treatments had poorer spatial learning ability than RJF, and in both populations, stress caused a reduced ability to solve a spatial learning task. Offspring of stressed WL, but not RJF, raised without parental contact, had a reduced spatial learning ability compared to offspring of non-stressed animals in a similar test as that used for their parents. Offspring of stressed WL were also more competitive and grew faster than offspring of non-stressed parents. Using a whole-genome cDNA microarray, we found that in WL, the same changes in hypothalamic gene expression profile caused by stress in the parents were also found in the offspring. In offspring of stressed WL, at least 31 genes were up- or down-regulated in the hypothalamus and pituitary compared to offspring of non-stressed parents. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that, in WL the gene expression response to stress, as well as some behavioural stress responses, were transmitted across generations. The ability to transmit epigenetic information and behaviour modifications between generations may therefore have been favoured by domestication. The mechanisms involved remain to be investigated; epigenetic modifications could either have been inherited or acquired de novo in the specific egg environment. In both cases, this would offer a novel explanation to

  6. Insect parents improve the anti-parasitic and anti-bacterial defence of their offspring by priming the expression of immune-relevant genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trauer-Kizilelma, Ute; Hilker, Monika

    2015-09-01

    Insect parents that experienced an immune challenge are known to prepare (prime) the immune activity of their offspring for improved defence. This phenomenon has intensively been studied by analysing especially immunity-related proteins. However, it is unknown how transgenerational immune priming affects transcript levels of immune-relevant genes of the offspring upon an actual threat. Here, we investigated how an immune challenge of Manduca sexta parents affects the expression of immune-related genes in their eggs that are attacked by parasitoids. Furthermore, we addressed the question whether the transgenerational immune priming of expression of genes in the eggs is still traceable in adult offspring. Our study revealed that a parental immune challenge did not affect the expression of immune-related genes in unparasitised eggs. However, immune-related genes in parasitised eggs of immune-challenged parents were upregulated to a higher level than those in parasitised eggs of unchallenged parents. Hence, this transgenerational immune priming of the eggs was detected only "on demand", i.e. upon parasitoid attack. The priming effects were also traceable in adult female progeny of immune-challenged parents which showed higher transcript levels of several immune-related genes in their ovaries than non-primed progeny. Some of the primed genes showed enhanced expression even when the progeny was left unchallenged, whereas other genes were upregulated to a greater extent in primed female progeny than non-primed ones only when the progeny itself was immune-challenged. Thus, the detection of transgenerational immune priming strongly depends on the analysed genes and the presence or absence of an actual threat for the offspring. We suggest that M. sexta eggs laid by immune-challenged parents "afford" to upregulate the transcription of immunity-related genes only upon attack, because they have the chance to be endowed by parentally directly transferred protective proteins

  7. Transgenic Pm3 multilines of wheat show increased powdery mildew resistance in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Susanne; Stirnweis, Daniel; Diaz Quijano, Carolina; Buesing, Gabriele; Herren, Gerhard; Parlange, Francis; Barret, Pierre; Tassy, Caroline; Sautter, Christof; Winzeler, Michael; Keller, Beat

    2012-05-01

    Resistance (R) genes protect plants very effectively from disease, but many of them are rapidly overcome when present in widely grown cultivars. To overcome this lack of durability, strategies that increase host resistance diversity have been proposed. Among them is the use of multilines composed of near-isogenic lines (NILs) containing different disease resistance genes. In contrast to classical R-gene introgression by recurrent backcrossing, a transgenic approach allows the development of lines with identical genetic background, differing only in a single R gene. We have used alleles of the resistance locus Pm3 in wheat, conferring race-specific resistance to wheat powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici), to develop transgenic wheat lines overexpressing Pm3a, Pm3c, Pm3d, Pm3f or Pm3g. In field experiments, all tested transgenic lines were significantly more resistant than their respective nontransformed sister lines. The resistance level of the transgenic Pm3 lines was determined mainly by the frequency of virulence to the particular Pm3 allele in the powdery mildew population, Pm3 expression levels and most likely also allele-specific properties. We created six two-way multilines by mixing seeds of the parental line Bobwhite and transgenic Pm3a, Pm3b and Pm3d lines. The Pm3 multilines were more resistant than their components when tested in the field. This demonstrates that the difference in a single R gene is sufficient to cause host-diversity effects and that multilines of transgenic Pm3 wheat lines represent a promising strategy for an effective and sustainable use of Pm3 alleles. © 2011 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2011 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. The study of the patient and his parents' gene with thyroid hormone resistance syndrome with review of literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Chenwei; Zhang Xi

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the genoty of a family of the thyroid hormone receptor β (TRβ) gene and the clinical representation in a patient with thyroid hormone resistance syndrome (THRS). Methods : The peripheral blood samples of the patient and her parents were collected, then DNA was isolated. PCR and direct sequencing techniques were performed to determine if there were mutations in their THRβ gene. Results: There was a point mutation in exon 3d TRβ of the patient and her father, there was a base inserting in the third exon of the third chromosome. Her mother was normal. Conclusion: THRS is a disease related to thyroid hormone receptor gene mutation. The final diagnosis of this disease depends on gene analysis. (authors)

  9. Transgenic barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) expressing the wheat aluminium resistance gene (TaALMT1) shows enhanced phosphorus nutrition and grain production when grown on an acid soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delhaize, Emmanuel; Taylor, Phillip; Hocking, Peter J; Simpson, Richard J; Ryan, Peter R; Richardson, Alan E

    2009-06-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), genetically modified with the Al(3+) resistance gene of wheat (TaALMT1), was compared with a non-transforme