WorldWideScience

Sample records for parasitology

  1. Teaching veterinary parasitology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verster, A

    1994-08-01

    The history of parasitology and the teaching of veterinary parasitology in South Africa are reviewed briefly. Courses in veterinary parasitology are presented at the faculties of veterinary science at the University of Pretoria and the Medical University of South Africa as well as at the Pretoria Technicon. At the University of Pretoria, the three disciplines of veterinary parasitology, entomology, helminthology and protozoology, are covered in 330 core lectures; from 13 to 40% of the contact time is devoted to practical classes. Teaching veterinary parasitology is both labour intensive and costly, viz. R1700 (US$570) per student per annum. Such costs are justified by the R148.8 million (US$49.6 million) spent every year in South Africa on anthelmintics, ectoparasiticides and vaccines to control parasites. Veterinary parasitology is a dynamic subject and the curriculum must be revised regularly to incorporate new information. Because the parasite faunas are so diverse no single textbook can satisfy the requirements of the various institutions worldwide which teach the subject, with the result that extensive use is made of notes. In Australia and in Europe, ticks and tick-borne diseases are less important than they are in Africa; consequently insufficient space is devoted to them in textbooks to satisfy the requirements of the subject in African countries. Parasite control under extensive and intensive conditions is dealt with adequately at the University of Pretoria, but increasing emphasis will be given to small-scale farming systems, particularly if alternative food animals are to be kept.

  2. Nigerian Journal of Parasitology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Journal is devoted primarily to pure and applied research and provides a medium for the publication of investigations in all aspects of Parasitology. The Journal will publish original research and technical studies carried out in the country, as well as works and documents from foreigners which are of interest to Nigeria.

  3. Nigerian Journal of Parasitology: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Keywords, Text (Introduction, Material and Methods, Results and Discussion), Acknowledgements and ... Figures (line graphs, charts, etc.) ... All works accepted for publication become the property of the Nigerian Journal of Parasitology.

  4. Parasitología (Farmacia)

    OpenAIRE

    Simón Martín, Fernando; Morchón García, Rodrigo

    2008-01-01

    Materiales de clase: 1.Conceptos generales en parasitología: Concepto de organismo parásito y de parasitismo. Concepto de parasitología. Propagación parasitaria: ciclos biológicos, metamorfosis y reproducción parasitarias. Clases de parásitos y de hospedadores. Especificidad parasitaria. Epidemiología parasitaria. Respuesta del hospedador: inmunidad. Mecanismos de evasión/supervivencia desarrollados por los parásitos.; 2. Protozoos parásitos: Morfología general de protozoos parásitos. Clasifi...

  5. Nigerian Journal of Parasitology: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Nigerian Journal of Parasitology publishes original research works on ... drug test, diagnostics parasitology, control, socio medicine and international health). ... Department of Biological Sciences University of Agriculture Makurdi, Nigeria

  6. Current bioethical issues in parasitology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boury D.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic diseases constitute the most common infections among the poorest billion people, entailing high mortality rates and leading to long-term infirmities and poverty. Although the setting-up of public health programs implies many ethical consequences, the range of specific questions in parasitology that can be attributed to bioethics remains, to a large extent, unexplored. From the present analysis, it emerged three main issues which characterize ethical stakes in parasitology: accounting the complexity of the field of intervention, putting the principle of justice into practice and managing the changing context of research. From the research angle, medical parasitology-mycology, as other biological disciplines, is undergoing tensions derived from biological reductionism. Thanks to its links with the history and philosophy of the sciences, bioethics can help to clarify them and to explain the growing hold that technologies have over scientific thinking. On the whole, researchers as well as clinicians are called on to assume a specific responsibility, proportional to their competence and their place in the making of scientific, health, economic and social decisions.

  7. Comparison Of Clinical, Parasitological And Serological Diagnostic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison Of Clinical, Parasitological And Serological Diagnostic Methods For The Definitive ... Consideringthe relative significance of these methods in the diagnosis of onchocerciasis, we ... http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ari.v1i3.40835.

  8. [Scientific standards in parasitology in historical perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonc, Elzbieta; Płonka-Syroka, Bozena

    2005-01-01

    An analysis of scientific standards in parasitology was carried out from the perspective of anthropology of knowledge - a new discipline that emerged from non-classical history science in the 1990s. The history of parasitology, its development and limitations, are presented in a broad socio-cultural context, as the answers of scientists to different social needs in historical periods. In parasitological history there are some periods characteristic for all newly emerging disciplines of natural science. The first systematic account of natural phenomena and their interpretations was initiated in the 16th century and continued till the mid 18th century. It was a period when the phenomena could not be explained in a proper way by the existing and accepted theories. The epidemic diseases were one of these phenomena which were interpreted based on ancient ideas, mostly humoral pathology. In the 16th century a new contagium concept of material factors (pathogenes) that could be spread by contact among humans or close association was formed. This hypothesis, however, was not widely accepted because it contradicted the well-established normative concepts in the European academic naturalism. The development of parasitology was stopped because of theoretical barriers and interpretation difficulties (non-materialistic standard of naturalism, humoral pathology and spontaneous theory). In the second half of the 18th century, the theoretical crisis in natural sciences gave a new impulse for many disciplines; among others, parasitology entered in its second stage of development. The collected observations were classified in a new way and in the context of new interpretations. The progress in parasitology was prompted by the intensified urbanization, rapid increase of European population as well as by wars connected with infections and epidemics. It resulted in two competitive research programs (the French and the German). On the basis of the same observations, they advanced

  9. Assessment of a novel method for teaching veterinary parasitology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Mary Mauldin; Yvorchuk-St Jean, Kathleen E; Wallace, Charles E; Krecek, Rosina C

    2014-01-01

    A student-centered innovative method of teaching veterinary parasitology was launched and evaluated at the Ross University School of Veterinary Medicine (RUSVM) in St. Kitts, where Parasitology is a required course for second-semester veterinary students. A novel method, named Iron Parasitology, compared lecturer-centered teaching with student-centered teaching and assessed the retention of parasitology knowledge of students in their second semester and again when they reached their seventh semester. Members of five consecutive classes chose to participate in Iron Parasitology with the opportunity to earn an additional 10 points toward their final grade by demonstrating their knowledge, communication skills, clarity of message, and creativity in the Iron Parasitology exercise. The participants and nonparticipants were assessed using seven parameters. The initial short-term study parameters used to evaluate lecturer- versus student-centered teaching were age, gender, final Parasitology course grade without Iron Parasitology, RUSVM overall grade point average (GPA), RUSVM second-semester GPA, overall GPA before RUSVM, and prerequisite GPA before RUSVM. The long-term reassessment study assessed retention of parasitology knowledge in members of the seventh-semester class who had Iron Parasitology as a tool in their second semester. These students were invited to complete a parasitology final examination during their seventh semester. There were no statistically significant differences for the parameters measured in the initial study. In addition, Iron Parasitology did not have an effect on the retention scores in the reassessment study.

  10. Preferential sampling in veterinary parasitological surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Cecconi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In parasitological surveillance of livestock, prevalence surveys are conducted on a sample of farms using several sampling designs. For example, opportunistic surveys or informative sampling designs are very common. Preferential sampling refers to any situation in which the spatial process and the sampling locations are not independent. Most examples of preferential sampling in the spatial statistics literature are in environmental statistics with focus on pollutant monitors, and it has been shown that, if preferential sampling is present and is not accounted for in the statistical modelling and data analysis, statistical inference can be misleading. In this paper, working in the context of veterinary parasitology, we propose and use geostatistical models to predict the continuous and spatially-varying risk of a parasite infection. Specifically, breaking with the common practice in veterinary parasitological surveillance to ignore preferential sampling even though informative or opportunistic samples are very common, we specify a two-stage hierarchical Bayesian model that adjusts for preferential sampling and we apply it to data on Fasciola hepatica infection in sheep farms in Campania region (Southern Italy in the years 2013-2014.

  11. Nuclear and related techniques in parasitology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayunga, E.G.; Stek, M. Jr.

    1986-05-01

    The course, entitled ''Atomic Energy Applications in Parasitology'', was offered by the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, USA, during the summer of 1983. The course began with an exhaustive introduction to radiation physics, then encompassed a variety of practical applications including irradiation attenuation, radioisotope labeling, tracer techniques and radioimmunoassays. This laboratory manual was written by the faculty in an attempt to document the learning experience of the training course and to provide a detailed description of state-of-the-art technology, methods and procedures with up-to-date-references. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 25 chapters in this manual

  12. An Important Milestone in Parasitology: Celebrating a Hundred Volumes of Advances in Parasitology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stothard, J Russell; Rollinson, David

    2018-01-01

    Beginning in 1963, the founding rationale of Advances in Parasitology was to provide authentic, well-documented reviews by leading experts, about the progress being made in their area of specialism to inform the wider cadre of parasitologists, disseminating this information across allied disciplines and all users. Some 55 years later, the Series has accumulated over 667 published articles, with just over 650 authors contributing either alone or in collaboration, and has successfully served the parasitological needs of medical, veterinary and wildlife scientific communities with equity, notwithstanding treatises on vectors or intermediate hosts, as well as 'honorary parasites' such as viruses, bacteria and fungi. The first production of Advances in Parasitology united the publishing offices of Academic Press in the USA (New York) and the UK (London), maintaining Webster or Oxford writing styles, but unlike its production, all seven editors, beginning with Professor Ben Dawes, have been UK-based. While Advances in Parasitology is now published by Elsevier from their London Office, it still follows the tradition of hard backed book production, in either eclectic or thematic volume formats. But now, following academic imperatives, the Series supports online posting, allowing chapter(s) to be downloaded ahead of final production of the hard back volume. With the 100th volume of Advances in Parasitology, in eclectic format like the very first, there is good reason to celebrate and reflect on the academic impact and enduring legacy of this Series. Seen not only as a yardstick of publishing success but also as a testament, in part, to our fascination with parasites, these cursorily simple yet wonderfully complex organisms that often cause undue harm and much suffering, is still as vibrant, expanding and relevant as ever before. © 2018 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.

  13. Isotope and radiation in parasitology IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    New developments in the application of nuclear techniques in animal parasitology and in the interactions between parasites, host genotype and the environment are reported. Nuclear techniques, used in conjunction with other standard techniques, represent important research tools for obtaining information particularly on host-parasite relationships. Nineteen papers were presented, most of which reviewed a relatively broad field. In 16 papers radioisotopes were reported as being or beginning to be employed. These have been analyzed individually for INIS. Three papers (''Influence of environmental factors on the epidemiology of helminth infections in ruminants'' by R.J. Thomas, UK; ''Factors affecting resistance to ecto- and endoparasites of cattle in tropical areas and implications for selection'' by J.E. Frisch, Australia; and ''Evaluation and potential of trypanotolerant livestock in Africa'' by J.C.M. Trail, Kenya) were fully documented reviews in which, however, no mention was made of nuclear techniques

  14. Invasion ecology meets parasitology: Advances and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Poulin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Biological invasions threaten the diversity and functioning of native ecosystems, and the rate at which species are being introduced to new areas shows no sign of slowing down. Parasites play roles in biological invasions, for instance when native parasites interact with exotic hosts, or when parasites themselves are introduced to new areas. However, publication trends show clearly that research on parasitism in the context of biological invasions is lagging far behind research on biological invasions in general. The different articles in this special issue of International Journal for Parasitology–Parasites and Wildlife on ‘Invasions’ address various aspects of the interface between parasitology and invasion biology, including how invasive free-living species lose or gain parasites on the invasion front as they move away from their site of introduction, how these invasive species affect the dynamics of native parasites, and how exotic parasites become established and impact native hosts. Together, they highlight the challenges facing researchers in this area, and set the agenda for the next few years of research. Keywords: alien species, Biological invasions, Enemy release, Non-natives, Parasites

  15. Parasitología (Biología)

    OpenAIRE

    Simón Martín, Fernando; Morchón García, Rodrigo

    2008-01-01

    1.Conceptos generales en parasitología: Concepto de organismo parásito y de parasitismo. Concepto de parasitología. Origen y evolución de los parásitos. Influencia de la vida parasitaria en los organismos correspondientes. Propagación parasitaria: ciclos biológicos, metamorfosis y reproducción parasitaria. Clases de parásitos y de hospedadores. Especificidad parasitaria. Epidemiología parasitaria. Mecanismos patogénicos de los parásitos. Respuesta del hospedador: inmunidad. Mecanismos de evas...

  16. Practical parasitology courses and infection with intestinal parasites in students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallahi, Sh; Rostami, A; Mohammadi, M; Ebrahimzadeh, F; Pournia, Y

    2016-01-01

    Students who are working in research or educational laboratories of parasitology, as well as health care workers providing care for patients, are at the risk of becoming infected with parasites through accidental exposure. The main purpose of this study was to identify potential positive cases of intestinal parasitic infections among students who took practical parasitology courses compared with students who did not take any practical parasitology courses in Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran, in 2013-2014. A total of 310 subjects from various majors were invited to voluntarily participate in the study. Various demographic data were collected using questionnaires. Three stool samples were collected from each individual on alternate days. Saline wet mounts (SWM), formalin-ether sedimentation test (FEST), Sheather floatation test (SHFT) and trichrome and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining methods were used to diagnose the presence of intestinal parasites. The prevalence rate of intestinal parasites (IPs) among the students was 11.93%. There was a significant difference between majors in the infection with IPs (Pparasites in the educational course of practical parasitology could occur and must be taken into careful consideration. Copyright © 2015 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Parasitological profile of perstans filariasis among blood donors in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted at Ile – Ife, in Osun State Southwest Nigeria between March and September, 2009 with a view to determine the prevalence of blood filariasis among blood donors. The blood samples of 250 blood donors were parasitologically examined directly with wet preparation, while the thick and thin films ...

  18. Can New Digital Technologies Support Parasitology Teaching and Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbar, Abdul; Gasser, Robin B; Lodge, Jason

    2016-07-01

    Traditionally, parasitology courses have mostly been taught face-to-face on campus, but now digital technologies offer opportunities for teaching and learning. Here, we give a perspective on how new technologies might be used through student-centred teaching approaches. First, a snapshot of recent trends in the higher education is provided; then, a brief account is given of how digital technologies [e.g., massive open online courses (MOOCs), flipped classroom (FC), games, quizzes, dedicated Facebook, and digital badges] might promote parasitology teaching and learning in digital learning environments. In our opinion, some of these digital technologies might be useful for competency-based, self-regulated, learner-centred teaching and learning in an online or blended teaching environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. WAAVP/Pfizer award for excellence in teaching veterinary parasitology: teaching of veterinary parasitology--quo vadis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, J

    2000-02-29

    Some thoughts on training and recruitment of academic teachers and future trends in teaching veterinary parasitology are presented with emphasis on the European situation. It is underlined that research is an indispensable basis for academic teaching. Besides a broad scientific background of the teacher, motivation and teaching methods are also important. Many academic teachers do not receive formal training in teaching methods. In order to improve future education, training of staff members in teaching methods should be promoted. Quality control of teaching and research, already established in many schools, should generally be introduced. Teaching is mostly underestimated in relation to research. Therefore, more weight should be placed on the former both in selecting scientists for the career as academic teachers and in evaluating and ranking departments for their academic activities. In the future veterinary medicine will have to cope with profound changes in the society and the veterinary profession, and the progressing European unification will enhance trends for internationalizing teaching curricula. Therefore, veterinary medicine has to reconsider the teaching subjects and methods and to lay more emphasis on flexibility, skills of problem-solving and self-learning and on training for life-long learning. At present there is an ongoing discussion on the question how to teach veterinary medicine, including veterinary parasitology. There are various options, and some of them are discussed, namely, the disciplinary and the problem-based/organ-focussed approaches. It is concluded that for teaching of veterinary parasitology and related disciplines a combined disciplinary and problem-based approach offers the best chances for fulfilling the requirements of teaching for the future. In the curriculum of undergraduate teaching of veterinary medicine at least 70-90 h should be dedicated to veterinary parasitology using a disciplinary and taxonomic approach. Additional

  20. Unsticking from time to create a parasitologic amalgamation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Dwight D

    2018-03-15

    Parasitology is a relevant and integral part of veterinary medicine, and the WAAVP membership has skills ranging from morphological diagnostics and routine parasite control recommendations through the cutting edges of many disciplines, e.g., pharmacology, immunology, molecular biology and genomics. We regularly face a majority of students who want only the practical information useful the moment they enter the clinics. However, we are preparing them for careers lasting 30-50 years. Thus, we also must help them prepare for their futures. There is a constant squeeze on parasitology in the curricular footprint accompanying a mandatory need to cover the licensure basics. The basic material has stood the test of time, and until the agents are eradicated or the hosts extinct, they have value. But, a critical need is the interweaving of the marvels of modern science into the parasitology regularly presented. Often this has been done with boxes, highlights, or examples within classes or texts, but asides are mentally treated as such. Also, many of those teaching parasitology are unfamiliar with many of the concepts and details of this material, but these same folks remain a grand part of the profession. Also, it is hard to sneak this apparently unwarranted material past the clinically oriented veterinary student. Somehow, WAAVP needs to work with its membership to develop and assist faculty in the presentation of a curriculum that can meld the old and the avant guard into a fusion of tastes and flavours palatable to today's veterinary student and tomorrow's practitioner. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. [Application of mind map in teaching of medical parasitology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hong-Chang; Shao, Sheng-Wen; Xu, Bo-Ying

    2012-12-30

    To improve the teaching quality of medical parasitology, mind map, a simple and effective learning method, was introduced. The mind map of each chapter was drawn by teacher and distributed to students before the class. It was helpful for teacher to straighten out the teaching idea, and for students to grasp the important learning points, perfect the class notes and improve learning efficiency. The divergent characteristics of mind map can also help to develop the students' innovation ability.

  2. Raphaël Blanchard, parasitology, and the positioning of medical entomology in Paris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, M A

    2008-12-01

    The histories of medical entomology and parasitology are entwined. Raphaël Blanchard (1857-1919), Chair of Medical Natural History and Parasitology at the Faculty of Medicine in Paris, organized the teaching of medical entomology and civilian colonial medicine. He also founded and edited the journal Archives de Parasitologie and started the Institute de Médecine Coloniale where he mentored many foreign students and researchers. Additionally, Blanchard is important for his scientific internationalism and medical historical work on the cultural location of parasitology and for training the future professors of parasitology Jules Guiart, Emile Brumpt, and Charles Joyeux.

  3. Parasitology of five primates in Mahale Mountains National Park, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooriyama, Takanori; Hasegawa, Hideo; Shimozuru, Michito; Tsubota, Toshio; Nishida, Toshisada; Iwaki, Takashi

    2012-10-01

    Parasitological surveillance in primates has been performed using coprological observation and identification of specimens from chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in Mahale Mountains National Park, Tanzania (Mahale). In this study, we conducted coprological surveillance to identify the fauna of parasite infection in five primate species in Mahale: red colobus (Procolobus badius tephrosceles), red-tailed monkeys (Cercopithecus ascanius schmidti), vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops pygerythrus), yellow baboons (Papio cynocephalus), and chimpanzees. Fecal samples were examined microscopically, and parasite identification was based on the morphology of cysts, eggs, larvae, and adult worms. Three nematodes (Oesophagostomum spp., Strongyloides sp., and Trichuris sp.), Entamoeba coli, and Entamoeba spp. were found in all five primate species. The following infections were identified: Bertiella studeri was found in chimpanzees and yellow baboons; Balantidium coli was found in yellow baboons; three nematodes (Streptopharagus, Primasubulura, an undetermined genus of Spirurina) and Dicrocoeliidae gen. sp. were found in red-tailed monkeys, vervet monkeys, and yellow baboons; Chitwoodspirura sp. was newly identified in red colobus and red-tailed monkeys; Probstmayria gombensis and Troglocorys cava were newly identified in chimpanzees, together with Troglodytella abrassarti; and Enterobius sp. was newly identified in red colobus. The parasitological data reported for red colobus, vervet monkeys, and yellow baboons in Mahale are the first reports for these species.

  4. Parasitological Society of Southern Africa 36th Annual Congress of the Parasitological Society of Southern Africa (PARSA, 18-20 September 2007 : conference abstracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    The Editorial

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The following are abstracts of papers and posters presented at the 36th Annual Congress of the Parasitological Society of Southern Africa (PARSA, 18-20 September 2007, Pestana Kruger Lodge, Malelane, South Africa

  5. A Preliminary Parasitological Survey of Hepatozoon Spp. Infection in Dogs in Mashhad, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Amoli, AA Rahmani; Khoshnegah, J; Razmi, GhR

    2012-01-01

    Background: We attempted to determine the prevalence of Hepatozoon spp. infection in Mashhad, northeast of Iran, via blood smear parasitology.Methods: The prevalence was investigated by examination of blood smear parasitology, using blood samples collected from 254 dogs (51 strays and 203 privately owned-dogs).Results: Two stray dogs (2/51; 3.92%) and two privately-owned dogs (2/203; 0.98%) were infected with Hepatozoon spp. Therefore, as per blood smear parasitology, the prevalence of Hepato...

  6. Parasitological Society of Southern Africa - 34th Annual Congress : conference abstracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Office

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The following are abstracts of papers and posters presented at the 34th Annual Congress of the Parasitological Society of Southern Africa (PARSA, 25–28 September 2005, Magoebaskloof Hotel, Magoebaskloof.

  7. Parasitological Society of Southern Africa - 33rd Annual Congress : conference abstracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Office

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The following are abstracts of papers and posters presented at the 33rd Annual Congress of the Parasitological Society of Southern Africa (PARSA, 12–15 September 2004, Manyane, Pilansberg National Park.

  8. Nuclear and related techniques in parasitology: A laboratory manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayunga, E.G.; Stek, M. Jr. (eds.)

    1986-01-01

    The course, entitled ''Atomic Energy Applications in Parasitology'', was offered by the Division of Tropical Public Health, Department of Preventive Medicine, and Biometrics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland. It was an intensive 3-week endeavor during which students attended lectures and acquired practical hands-on experience with the most recent laboratory tools. The course began with an exhaustive introduction to radiation physics, then encompassed a variety of practical applications including irradiation attenuation, radioisotope labeling, tracer techniques and radioimmunoassays. This laboratory manual was written by the faculty in an attempt to document the learning experience of the training course and to provide a detailed description of state-of-the-art technology with up-to-date references. Clearly, the manual has value as a historical document. However, the chapters were written with the explicit intention that they be useful to future investigators who wish to apply these methods to their particular research problem.

  9. Dog and cat respiratory capilariasis - clinical, parasitological and epidemiological significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Tamara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory capillariasis is a disease of domestic and wild carnivores as well as of people, caused by nematode Eucoleus aerophilus syn. Capillaria aerophila, which lives as a parasite in mucosa of trachea, bronchi and bronchioles, rarely in nasal and frontal sinuses of the host. This parasite has either direct or indirect development cycle which includes optional transition hosts - earthworms. Clinical picture is manifested in the form of a very severe respiratory disease, which is accompanied by an increased bronchovesicular sound, sneezing, gasping and chronic dry cough. Despite the fact that this nematode is widespread in all the parts of the world, that it causes a disease followed by a severe clinical picture and has a zoonotic potential as well, it has been insufficiently investigated and moreover from clinical and parasitological aspect it has not been given enough attention so far. The reason for this is the fact that C. aerophila had been considered to be a strain of very low level of pathogenicity causing only sporadic respiratory infections in dogs and cats. The interest of scientific community for this parasitosis increased the moment when its causative agent spread outside the endemic areas. From the standpoint of monitoring and health protection of both carnivores and peorle, knowledge of basic epizootiological and epidemiological characteristics of these nematodes is of crucial importance, having in mind that its prevalence has significantly increased in dogs and cats in the last ten years, both in Europe and worldwide.

  10. Parasitological Aspects of Pollution Levels in Some Equine Digestive Helminthosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavian Negrea

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Research conducted on the parasitological pollution in some digestive helminthosis in horses, (parascaridiosis,strongillidosis and oxyuriasis, made in January 2011 in the village of Crasna, Salaj county on a herd of 72 horsesfrom households (40 adults and 32 young horses, using diagnostic methods ovohelmintoscopics with enrichment offaeces taken (method Willis and the scaling technique of curettage in anal pit area, revealed a different incidence ofthe main digestive helmintoze studied in correlation with age category and area of origin of the samples. Thus, meanparascaridiosis values are of 12.5% in adults and of 34.0% in young horses and riding in strongillidosis to an averageof 82.5% in adult horses and, respectively, to 34.5% in young horses. In exchange for pinworm infection extensivityof parasitism in adult horses is 18.0% and respectively, 15.0% in young horses. Linked to the intensity of parasitismin helmintosis taken in study, the data obtained reveals different levels of pollution coproparasitologic Eggtester, incorrelation with the area of origin and age. Thus, adult and youth horse parascaridiosis, dominates the low andmedium infestations (100% and in adult horses strongilidosis dominate the medium infestations (84.0% and lowinfestations (75% in young horses.

  11. Diagnostic clinical parasitology: IV. Identification of the blood parasites?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, L S; Voge, M

    1981-01-01

    This is the fourth article in a series of articles entitled "Diagnostic Clinical Parasitology" and contains information on the recovery and identification of human blood parasites. The organisms covered include those that cause the diseases malaria, babesiosis, leishmaniasis, and trypanosomiasis. Some of the filarial worms, which can be considered "blood parasites," have been discussed in the third article in the series, "Identification of the Helminths." Although some of these organisms may rarely be encountered in the laboratory in clinical specimens, they will probably have to be identified in proficiency testing specimens, some of which may not always be representative of patient clinical material. The differences between potential organism recovery from patients coming from endemic areas and from those individuals who become infected with no prior exposure to the organism will also be emphasized. Often, for a number of different reasons, organism recovery and subsequent identification may be more difficult than the textbook imply. It is very important for the technologist to recognize this fact, particularly when dealing with a possibly fatal infection, ie, Plasmodium falciparum.

  12. Veterinary parasitology teaching in China in the 21st century - Challenges, opportunities and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guo-Hua; Zhang, Long-Xian; Zou, Feng-Cai; Yuan, Zi-Guo; Zhao, Guang-Hui; Hu, Min; Suo, Xun; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2018-03-15

    China has made significant achievements in social-economic development in the last three decades, and the numbers of livestock and companion animals are rapidly increasing. Some advances have been made in the control and prevention of animal parasitic diseases, but there are still some significant challenges, particularly in relation to foodborne parasitic zoonoses and vector-borne diseases. In addition, new molecular (e.g., genomic and transcriptomic) technologies have been developed and are gradually being introduced into the veterinary parasitology field. Therefore, teaching of veterinary parasitology in Chinese universities has undergone significant changes over the years, in terms of topics, depth and breadth, and also in the ways in which courses are delivered. In this article, we describe the current status of veterinary parasitology teaching at the undergraduate and postgraduate levels in Chinese universities, summarise changes and improvement in veterinary parasitology teaching, and discuss the challenges and opportunities for veterinary parasitology teaching in the 21st century, including the use of new teaching technologies and the integration of the "One Health" concept into veterinary parasitology courses. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A preliminary parasitological survey of hepatozoon spp. Infection in dogs in mashhad, iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoli, Aa Rahmani; Khoshnegah, J; Razmi, Ghr

    2012-01-01

    We attempted to determine the prevalence of Hepatozoon spp. infection in Mashhad, northeast of Iran, via blood smear parasitology. The prevalence was investigated by examination of blood smear parasitology, using blood samples collected from 254 dogs (51 strays and 203 privately owned-dogs). Two stray dogs (2/51; 3.92%) and two privately-owned dogs (2/203; 0.98%) were infected with Hepatozoon spp. Therefore, as per blood smear parasitology, the prevalence of Hepatozoon spp. infection was 1.57% (4/254). Sixteen out of 254 dogs (6.29%) were infested with ticks; all of which were Rhipicephalus sanguineus. One of the dogs infected with Hepatozoon spp. exhibited ticks at the time of examination. Concurrent infection with Ehrlichia canis and Leishmania infantum was not detected in the four Hepatozoon spp. infected dogs. This is the first epidemiological study on the prevalence of Hepatozoon spp. infection in dogs in Iran.

  14. Laboratory training manual on the use of nuclear techniques in animal parasitology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The Manual is designed for specialist training in the use of nuclear techniques in animal parasitology. The theoretical part contains a general introduction to experimental work in this field. Laboratory exercises are divided into Basic Exercises (17) and Applied Exercises (25) oriented to research in the immunology and pathogenesis of host-parasite interactions using radioisotopic methods and to disease management through the use of radiation-attenuated vaccines. The closing part contains a number of practical guidelines and data for work with radioisotopes in general and for the use of radioisotopic methods in animal parasitology

  15. Pitfalls and opportunities of teaching veterinary parasitology within an integrated curriculum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorn, D.C.K.

    2018-01-01

    The Faculty of Veterinary Medicine at Utrecht University has seen three major curriculum changes, in 1995, 2001 and 2007. The last change was made because of the European change to a Bachelor-Master system. Almost each time teaching hours tagged for veterinary parasitology have been reduced to

  16. World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP): the 50th anniversary in 2013--history, achievements, and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, J

    2013-08-01

    In 2013 the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP) can celebrate its 50th anniversary. At this occasion in this article selected historical data are updated, and the achievements and future perspectives of the WAAVP are discussed. Although the WAAVP is a small association with only a few hundred members, it has been able to develop remarkable activities. Between 1963 and 2011 the WAAVP has organized 23 international scientific congresses, and the 24th conference will take place in Perth, Western Australia, in 2013. These conferences have achieved a high degree of international recognition as indicated by relatively large numbers of participants (up to ~800). Furthermore, the WAAVP has promoted veterinary parasitology in various ways, such as publishing international guidelines (efficacy evaluation of antiparasitic drugs, parasitological methods, standardized nomenclature of animal parasitic diseases "SNOAPAD"), stimulating international discussions on teaching and continued education ("colleges of veterinary parasitology") and by supporting the high quality journal "Veterinary Parasitology" which is the official organ of the WAAVP. In retrospect, the development of the WAAVP can be classified as very successful. New challenges associated with global changes (growth of the world population, urbanization, climate change, new developments in animal and plant production, etc.) will require new efforts in research in various fields, including veterinary parasitology. Future activities of WAAVP may include inter alia: (a) support of international parasitological networks; (b) stimulation of coordinated research aimed at the solution of defined problems; (c) increasing the exposure of WAAVP to parasitology from hitherto neglected regions of the world; (d) strengthening of official links to international organizations (FAO, WHO, etc.); (e) continuation of guideline preparation; and (d) preparation and international distribution of high

  17. The Mobile Team of Parasitology-Mycology, a medical entity for educational purposes to serve sick patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desoubeaux, G; Simon, E G; Perrotin, D; Chandenier, J

    2014-06-01

    The Mobile Team of Parasitology-Mycology is a movable entity of the Parasitology-Mycology laboratory of Tours University Hospital, France. In contrast to the usual prerogatives of biomedical laboratories, the Mobile Team of Parasitology-Mycology is requested to intervene directly at bedside in various clinical departments, or even outside the hospital facility. Although its actions are of course primarily devoted to specialized diagnostic and therapeutic purposes, the Mobile Team also plays an important educational role in the medical training of undergraduate or graduate students. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. The Czech External Quality Control system in medical microbiology and parasitology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slosárek, M; Kríz, B

    2000-11-01

    The External Quality Control (EQC) system in activities of laboratories engaged in medical microbiology and parasitology was established in the Czech Republic in 1993 when to the first laboratories which applied coded serum samples were sent for diagnosis of viral hepatitis and bacterial strains for identification. In the course of years the number of control areas increased and in 2000 there were 31 and the number of those interested in participation in EQC increased from 79 in 1993 to 434 in 2000. This year a total of 13,239 samples will be sent to laboratories. Gradually thus almost all microbiological and parasitological laboratories concerned with examination of clinical material became involved. Seven-year experience with EQC in the Czech Republic revealed that gradually the results of various examinations became more accurate, that methods became standardized and the most suitable examination sets are used.

  19. [External quality control system in medical microbiology and parasitology in the Czech Republic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slosárek, M; Petrás, P; Kríz, B

    2004-11-01

    The External Quality Control System (EQAS) of laboratory activities in medical microbiology and parasitology was implemented in the Czech Republic in 1993 with coded sera samples for diagnosis of viral hepatitis and bacterial strains for identification distributed to first participating laboratories. The number of sample types reached 31 in 2003 and the number of participating laboratories rised from 79 in 1993 to 421 in 2003. As many as 15.130 samples were distributed to the participating laboratories in 2003. Currently, almost all microbiology and parasitology laboratories in the Czech Republic involved in examination of clinical material participate in the EQAS. Based on the 11-year experience gained with the EQAS in the Czech Republic, the following benefits were observed: higher accuracy of results in different tests, standardisation of methods and the use of most suitable test kits.

  20. New insights into the application of geographical information systems and remote sensing in veterinary parasitology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Rinaldi

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 10-15 years, significant advances have been made in the development and application of geographical information systems (GIS and remote sensing (RS. In veterinary sciences, particularly in veterinary parasitology, GIS and RS offer powerful means for disease mapping, ecological analysis and epidemiological surveillance and have become indispensable tools for processing, analysing and visualising spatial data. They can also significantly assist with the assessment of the distribution of health-relevant environmental factors via interpolation and modelling. In this review, we first summarize general aspects of GIS and RS, and emphasize the most important applications of these tools in veterinary parasitology, including recent advances in territorial sampling. Disease mapping, spatial statistics, including Bayesian inference, ecological analyses and epidemiological surveillance are summarized in the next section and illustrated with a set of figures. Finally, a set of conclusions is put forward.

  1. Parasitological diagnosis of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania b. braziliensis in Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laure Dimier-David

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available Parasitological diagnosis, using staned smears, culture and pathological examination of biopsy, was studied in 146 patients infected with mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, in Bolivia and Peru. The most efficient parasite detecting technique appeared to be the smear examination in cutaneous lesions (33 % positive and the pathology in case of mucous lesions (28 % positive. In both, cutaneous and mucous lesions, the parasites were found most frequently in old lesions.

  2. Aerobic Biological treatment of municipal wastewaters and pig slurry and the associated bacteriological and parasitological risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venglovsky, J.; Sasokova, N.; Juris, P.; Papajova, I.; Vargova, M.; Ondrasovicova, O.; Ondrasovic, M.

    2009-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the bacteriological and parasitological risk associated with the products of aerobic treatment of pig slurry and municipal sewage. We focused on the quality of effluents and on sewage sludge and pig slurry solids from two wastewater treatment plants (pig slurry WWTP.1; municipal wastewater WWTP-2 with regard to place counts of selected groups of bacteria (mesophilic, coliform, faecal coliform) and the efficiency of their removal. (Author)

  3. Balancing knowledge and basic principles in veterinary parasitology - Competencies for future Danish veterinary graduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Johansen, Maria Vang; Nejsum, Peter; Williams, Andrew R; Mejer, Helena

    2018-03-15

    Veterinary parasitology has always been considered to be relevant and interesting by the Danish veterinary students. Students have to acquaint themselves with many new, small creatures with complicated and varied life cycles and with intricate Latin names that are difficult to pronounce, as only a few parasites have Danish names. In our veterinary curriculum, zoology has disappeared as a discipline, and parasitology has gradually moved from the third year to the beginning of the second year, which implies that, for example, pathology and pharmacology are "unknown fields". The number of contact hours in veterinary parasitology has been gradually cut to 24 lectures (35 min each) and practical exercises (24 h), including 9 h on coprology. The course is taught and examined jointly with bacteriology and virology in a 8-week course. As a comprehensive course, it has become increasingly difficult to get students to acquire enough active knowledge of the most common parasites and an understanding of the basic principles in relation to, for example, transmission and control. Even though information is readily accessible through books and on-line resources, we still believe that a competent clinician should know a range of parasites by heart as an active resource for their work. The dilemma has been tackled (partly) by introducing a veterinary paraclinical refresher course of 18 h (half practicals and half lectures) in the fourth study year. The focus here is on host(herd)-oriented clinical and diagnostic parasitology. The students can also now select a One Health track for six months in which zoonotic parasites are obviously a relevant topic. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Aerobic Biological treatment of municipal wastewaters and pig slurry and the associated bacteriological and parasitological risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venglovsky, J.; Sasokova, N.; Juris, P.; Papajova, I.; Vargova, M.; Ondrasovicova, O.; Ondrasovic, M.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the bacteriological and parasitological risk associated with the products of aerobic treatment of pig slurry and municipal sewage. We focused on the quality of effluents and on sewage sludge and pig slurry solids from two wastewater treatment plants (pig slurry WWTP.1; municipal wastewater WWTP-2 with regard to place counts of selected groups of bacteria (mesophilic, coliform, faecal coliform) and the efficiency of their removal. (Author)

  5. Some parasitological, pathological and immunohistochemical examinations in sheep naturally infected by Trichuris Ovis

    OpenAIRE

    P. T. Iliev; A. Ivanov; Z. Kirkova; K. Hristov; K. Dinkova; J. Ananiev

    2017-01-01

    A case of Trichuris ovis infection in a lamb is presented. In June 2012 a herd of 12 infected with T. ovis lambs in Brestnik (Southern Bulgaria) were discovered. A diarrhea and loss in body weight in 2 lambs have been observed. Despite antibiotic treatment one of the animals died. Parasitological examination was done. During necropsy of the gastro-intestinal tract, adult worms in the caecum were found. Standart staining and immunohistochemistry were performed to detect the cell population in ...

  6. A Preliminary Parasitological Survey of Hepatozoon Spp. Infection in Dogs in Mashhad, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Khoshnegah

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: We attempted to determine the prevalence of Hepatozoon spp. infection in Mashhad, northeast of Iran, via blood smear parasitology.Methods: The prevalence was investigated by examination of blood smear parasitology, using blood samples collected from 254 dogs (51 strays and 203 privately owned-dogs.Results: Two stray dogs (2/51; 3.92% and two privately-owned dogs (2/203; 0.98% were infected with Hepatozoon spp. Therefore, as per blood smear parasitology, the prevalence of Hepatozoon spp. infection was 1.57% (4/254. Sixteen out of 254 dogs (6.29% were infested with ticks; all of which were Rhipicephalus sanguineus. One of the dogs infected with Hepatozoon spp. exhibited ticks at the time of examination. Concurrent infection with Ehrlichia canis and Leishmania infantum was not detected in the four Hepatozoon spp. infected dogs.Conclusion: This is the first epidemiological study on the prevalence of Hepatozoon spp. infection in dogs in Iran.

  7. Clinical, serological, and parasitological analysis of snakes naturally infected with Cryptosporidium serpentis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Philipp Ricardo S O; Grego, Kathleen F; Lima, Valéria M F; Nakamura, Alex A; da Silva, Deuvânia C; Meireles, Marcelo V

    2013-11-15

    Infection by Cryptosporidium serpentis is one of the most important diseases in reptiles and is characterized by chronic clinical or subclinical infection and the presence of hypertrophic gastritis, food regurgitation, progressive weight loss, mortality, and intermittent or continuous shedding of oocysts in the feces. The objectives of this study were to standardize an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect antibodies against C. serpentis and to evaluate the clinical, parasitological, and humoral immune response in snakes naturally infected with C. serpentis. Twenty-one snakes naturally infected with C. serpentis and housed at the Butantan Institute, São Paulo, Brazil, underwent clinical and parasitological analyses for C. serpentis infection through daily records of clinical signs and a monthly survey of fecal shedding of oocysts using the Kinyoun's acid-fast staining. The serological evaluation was performed monthly by indirect ELISA using crude total antigen from oocysts of C. serpentis to detect anti-C. serpentis antibodies. Clinical symptoms consisted of food regurgitation, inappetence, and progressive weight loss. The parasitological analysis revealed intermittent fecal shedding of a variable number of oocysts in all snakes, with positivity in 85.32% (157/184) of the samples. The indirect ELISA was positive in 68.25% (86/126) of the samples. A humoral immune response was observed in most animals; however, fluctuating antibodies levels, leading to alternating positive and negative results, were observed in most snakes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Veterinary parasitology teaching - Ten years of experience with the Vetsuisse curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnyder, Manuela; Hertzberg, Hubertus; Mathis, Alexander; Schönmann, Marietta; Hehl, Adrian; Deplazes, Peter

    2018-03-15

    Pursuant to the Joint Declaration by 29 European education ministers in June 1999 in the city of Bologna, Italy, the so-called 'Bologna Process' was officially introduced at the Vetsuisse Faculty (Universities of Zurich and Berne) in Switzerland in 2007. The long-term goal of restructuring the study programmes was to create a common European Higher Education Area (EHEA), with uniform and clearly defined standards for degrees ("diplomas"). Accordingly, the Vetsuisse curriculum was organised as a 3-year Bachelor and a 2-year Master study program. For the final Federal examination in veterinary medicine, both programs and a master thesis have to be completed. Parasitology, as a subject, is introduced with selected examples in the ecology course during the first academic year. The second and third years of the Bachelor program comprise non-organ-centred (NOC) and integrated organ-centred (OC) course modules, respectively. In the NOC modules, parasitology is taught in consecutive courses, focussing on topics including occurrence, biology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnostics and the strategic principles of therapeutic and prophylactic interventions against major veterinary and zoonotic parasites. This syllabus is complemented with live demonstrations as well as practical laboratory exercises. Lecture notes, with defined learning objectives, are based on the textbook "Parasitology in Veterinary Medicine" which is available free of charge to students as an on-line edition in German. Furthermore, students review relevant parasitoses in the diagnostic context of OC case presentations. In another module, immunological aspects of parasitic diseases are elaborated on group sessions, supported through the use of specialist literature. The two-year Master program is divided into a core syllabus for all students, and elective subjects are chosen from six areas of specialisation (three each with clinical or non-clinical focus). Within the clinically focused

  9. Evaluation of different parasitological techniques in the diagnosis of canine helminthiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelle Temporim Novaes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Novaes M.T. & Martins I.V.F. [Evaluation of different parasitological techniques in the diagnosis of canine helminthiasis.] Avaliação de diferentes técnicas parasitológicas no diagnóstico de helmintoses caninas. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(Supl.1:71-76, 2015. Laboratório de Parasitologia, Hospital Veterinário, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Rua Alto Universitário, s/n, Guararema, Alegre, ES 29500-000, Brasil. E-mail: marcelle_temporim@hotmail.com Were collected 100 fecal samples from dogs from August 2014 to April 2015 from the Zoonosis Control Center (CCZ of Cachoeiro de Itapemirim-ES. These were sent to the laboratory of Parasitology of the Veterinary Hospital of UFES, and analyzed in duplicate by the techniques of Kato-Katz, Hoffman, TF-Test Modified/Dog and Willis in order to evaluate the technique that present higher sensitivity, convenience and lower expenses with materials for parasitological diagnosis. Statistical analysis was performed using Fisher’s exact test and kappa the 5% significance level. Together they showed up 68 positive samples, 31, 34, 26 and 62 for technical Kato-Katz, Hoffman, TF-Test and Willis respectively. The results showed that the use of Willis technique should be adopted as the standard for egg Ancylostoma spp., since the techniques Kato-Katz, Hoffman and TF-Test showed a low sensitivity for diagnosis of this parasite, and technic of Hoffman should be used as standard for Toxocara spp. In relation to convenience and lower expenses, Willis technique, should be preferred, because the runtime and the microscope slide reading is fast, requiring only the use of a supersaturated solution.

  10. Some parasitological, pathological and immunohistochemical examinations in sheep naturally infected by Trichuris Ovis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. T. Iliev

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A case of Trichuris ovis infection in a lamb is presented. In June 2012 a herd of 12 infected with T. ovis lambs in Brestnik (Southern Bulgaria were discovered. A diarrhea and loss in body weight in 2 lambs have been observed. Despite antibiotic treatment one of the animals died. Parasitological examination was done. During necropsy of the gastro-intestinal tract, adult worms in the caecum were found. Standart staining and immunohistochemistry were performed to detect the cell population in the affected areas of the caecum

  11. Balancing knowledge and basic principles in veterinary parasitology - Competencies for future Danish veterinary graduates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Johansen, Maria Vang; Nejsum, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Veterinary parasitology has always been considered to be relevant and interesting by the Danish veterinary students. Students have to acquaint themselves with many new, small creatures with complicated and varied life cycles and with intricate Latin names that are difficult to pronounce, as only...... clinician should know a range of parasites by heart as an active resource for their work. The dilemma has been tackled (partly) by introducing a veterinary paraclinical refresher course of 18 h (half practicals and half lectures) in the fourth study year. The focus here is on host(herd)-oriented clinical...

  12. AAVP Recommendations for Core Competency Standards Relating to Parasitological Knowledge and Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, Karen F; Krecek, Rosina C; Bowman, Dwight D

    As part of the accreditation process, the American Veterinary Medical Association Council on Education has defined nine broad areas of core competencies that must be met by graduating students earning a Doctor of Veterinary Medicine degree. To define competencies in veterinary parasitology, the American Association of Veterinary Parasitologists (AAVP) has developed a detailed list of knowledge and skills that are recommended for inclusion in professional curricula. These recommendations were developed by instructors from colleges/schools of veterinary medicine in the US, Canada, and the Caribbean, and were reviewed and endorsed following AAVP guidelines.

  13. "Not a very nice subject." Changing views of parasites and parasitology in the twentieth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickerman, Keith

    2009-10-01

    The man in-the-street who frequently asks the question "Why am I here?" finds even more difficulty with the question "Why are parasites here?" The public's distaste for parasites (and by implication, for parasitologists!) is therefore understandable, as maybe was the feeling of early 20th century biologists that parasites were a puzzle because they did not conform to the then widely held association between evolution and progress, let alone the reason why a benevolent Creator should have created them. In mid-century, the writer, contemplating a career in parasitology was taken aback when he found that extolled contemporary biologists disdained parasites or thought little of parasitology as an intellectual subject. These attitudes reflected a lack of appreciation of the important role of parasites in generating evolutionary novelty and speciation, also unawareness of the value of parasite life-cycle studies for formulating questions of wider significance in biology, deficiencies which were gratifyingly beginning to be remedied in the latter half of the century.

  14. Parasite responses to pollution: what we know and where we go in 'Environmental Parasitology'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sures, Bernd; Nachev, Milen; Selbach, Christian; Marcogliese, David J

    2017-02-06

    Environmental parasitology deals with the interactions between parasites and pollutants in the environment. Their sensitivity to pollutants and environmental disturbances makes many parasite taxa useful indicators of environmental health and anthropogenic impact. Over the last 20 years, three main research directions have been shown to be highly promising and relevant, namely parasites as accumulation indicators for selected pollutants, parasites as effect indicators, and the role of parasites interacting with established bioindicators. The current paper focuses on the potential use of parasites as indicators of environmental pollution and the interactions with their hosts. By reviewing some of the most recent findings in the field of environmental parasitology, we summarize the current state of the art and try to identify promising ideas for future research directions. In detail, we address the suitability of parasites as accumulation indicators and their possible application to demonstrate biological availability of pollutants; the role of parasites as pollutant sinks; the interaction between parasites and biomarkers focusing on combined effects of parasitism and pollution on the health of their hosts; and the use of parasites as indicators of contaminants and ecosystem health. Therefore, this review highlights the application of parasites as indicators at different biological scales, from the organismal to the ecosystem.

  15. [Historical context of parasitological studies in tropical area, malaria as an example].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonc, Elzbieta; Płonka-Syroka, Bozena

    2007-01-01

    Review paper deals with the historical analysis of intellectual activity of some famous parasitologists working in tropics on malaria in the XIX/XX century: A. Laveran (1845-1922), R. Ross (1857-1932), P. Manson (1844-1922), B. Grassi (1854-1925), and other Nobelprize researchers: P. H. Müller (1899-1965) and J. W. von Jauregg (1857-1940). Those chief investigations are interpreted from the point of view of the so-called anthropology of knowledge based on L. Fleck's (1896-1961) philosophy and sociology of science. Parasitological investigations, especially in the field of malaria, were undertaken in the developed economically countries in answer to the social demands. It was connected with development of colonies and the needs of stabilization of epidemiological situation in tropics. To mid of the eigthies of 19th century the lack of positive effects resulted from the theoretical barriers and conservative thinking style of the European academic society. It caused that great parasitological discoveries of the etiological agents of parasitic diseases (like plasmodia, life cycle in malaria) took place behind university circles. They were done by the physicians - general practitioners--in the colony areas. Doctors A. Laveran, P. Manson and R. Ross were not restricted by traditional standards and the obliging normative concepts in the academic naturalism. Those medical men worked out a new impulse for parasitology and supported an idea based on the rule that each disease should be assigned with the materialistic biological factor (pathogen). In the years 1800-1900 the old and a new concepts were competed in the natural sciences and medicine. Near year 1900 a new way in the context of modern interpretations was brought into general use. It was proved experimentally that etiological theory of parasitic disease was more practically usuful. It resulted in the formation of the effective prophylactic theory as well as the development of research in the field of chemotherapy

  16. Evaluation of nifurtimox treatment of chronic Chagas disease by means of several parasitological methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Catalina; Zulantay, Inés; Apt, Werner; Ortiz, Sylvia; Schijman, Alejandro G; Bisio, Margarita; Ferrada, Valentina; Herrera, Cinthya; Martínez, Gabriela; Solari, Aldo

    2013-09-01

    Currently, evaluation of drug efficacy for Chagas disease remains a controversial issue with no consensus. In this work, we evaluated the parasitological efficacy of Nifurtimox treatment in 21 women with chronic Chagas disease from an area of endemicity in Chile who were treated according to current protocols. Under pre- and posttherapy conditions, blood (B) samples and xenodiagnosis (XD) samples from these patients were subjected to analysis by real-time PCR targeting the nuclear satellite DNA of Trypanosoma cruzi (Sat DNA PCR-B, Sat DNA PCR-XD) and by PCR targeting the minicircle of kinetoplast DNA of T. cruzi (kDNA PCR-B, kDNA PCR-XD) and by T. cruzi genotyping using hybridization minicircle tests in blood and fecal samples of Triatoma infestans feed by XD. In pretherapy, kDNA PCR-B and kDNA PCR-XD detected T. cruzi in 12 (57%) and 18 (86%) cases, respectively, whereas Sat DNA quantitative PCR-B (qPCR-B) and Sat DNA qPCR-XD were positive in 18 cases (86%) each. Regarding T. cruzi genotype analysis, it was possible to observe in pretherapy the combination of TcI, TcII, and TcV lineages, including mixtures of T. cruzi strains in most of the cases. At 13 months posttherapy, T. cruzi DNA was detectable in 6 cases (29.6%) and 4 cases (19.1%) by means of Sat DNA PCR-XD and kDNA PCR-XD, respectively, indicating treatment failure with recovery of live parasites refractory to chemotherapy. In 3 cases, it was possible to identify persistence of the baseline genotypes. The remaining 15 baseline PCR-positive cases gave negative results by all molecular and parasitological methods at 13 months posttreatment, suggesting parasite response. Within this follow-up period, kDNA PCR-XD and Sat DNA qPCR-XD proved to be more sensitive tools for the parasitological evaluation of the efficacy of Nifurtimox treatment than the corresponding PCR methods performed directly from blood samples.

  17. "Anisakis Simplex" Infection in Mackerel: A Reliable Laboratory Exercise to Demonstrate Important Principles in Parasitology to Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, I.; Tatner, M.; Paterson, V.

    2013-01-01

    Practical laboratory work in parasitology can be very limited, due to the difficulty in maintaining multi-host parasite life cycles, especially for a large, once-yearly undergraduate laboratory class for life science students. The use of mackerel, "Scomber scombrus," bought from a local fishmonger, is an ideal model to investigate important…

  18. Parasitological surveillance in a rat (Rattus norvegicus) colony in São Paulo Zoo animal house

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas, Carolina Romeiro Fernandes; Gonzalez, Irys Hany Lima; Favoretto, Samantha Mesquita; Ramos, Patrícia Locosque

    Rattus norvegicus (Mammalia: Rodentia) is a widespread and synanthropic rodent, broadly used in medical experiments. It can also be used for feeding captive animals in zoos. Parasitological surveys are important to guarantee the health of both the animals and the staff responsible for their management. The aim of this study was to identify intestinal parasites of Rattus norvegicus offered as food to captive animals from São Paulo Zoo, and demonstrate the importance of sanitary hurdling, disease control and biosecurity. The identified protozoan parasites were Eimeria sp., Entamoeba sp., Spironucleus sp., Giardia sp., Tritrichomonas sp., Chilomastix sp., unidentified cysts and non-sporulated coccidians oocysts (Isospora/Eimeria). The following helminths were found: Syphacia muris, Rodentolepis nana and Aspiculuris tetraptera.

  19. Lizards, ticks and contributions to Australian parasitology: C. Michael Bull (1947-2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Stephanie S; Gardner, Michael G

    2017-12-01

    Professor C. Michael Bull was a great scientist and mentor, and an Associate Editor of this journal. While his research career spanned the fields of behavioural ecology, conservation biology and herpetology, in this article, we pay tribute to his major contribution to Australian parasitology. Mike authored more than eighty articles on host-parasite ecology, and revealed major insights into the biology and ecology of ticks from his long term study of the parapatric boundary of two tick species ( Amblyomma limbatum and Bothriocroton hydrosauri ) on the sleepy lizard ( Tiliqua rugosa ). In this article, we provide an overview of how this research journey developed to become one of the longest-running studies of lizards and their ticks, totalling 35 years of continuous surveys of ticks on lizards, and the insights and knowledge that he generated along that journey.

  20. [Analysis on theses of the Chinese Journal of Parasitology and Parasitic Diseases in 2009-2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Feng-Yun; Qu, Lin-Ping; Yan, He; Sheng, Hui-Feng

    2013-12-01

    The published articles at the Chinese Journal of Parasitology and Parasitic Diseases in 2009-2012 were statistically analyzed. Among 547 papers published in the four years, original articles occupied 45.3% (248/547). The number of authors was 2712, with an average cooperation degree of 5.0, and the co-authorship accounted for 95.4% of the papers. Authors were mainly from colleges/universities (51.9%, 284/547), institutions for disease control (34.4%, 188/547) and hospitals health centers (13.7%, 75/547). The average publishing delay was 212, 141, 191 and 207 d in 2009-2012. Statistical analysis reflected the characteristics and academic level for improving the quality of the journal, and revealed the latest development and trends.

  1. Results of complex annual parasitological monitoring in the coastal area of Kola Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuklin, V. V.; Kuklina, M. M.; Kisova, N. E.; Maslich, M. A.

    2009-12-01

    The results of annual parasitological monitoring in the coastal area near the Abram-mys (Kola Bay, Barents Sea) are presented. The studies were performed in 2006-2007 and included complex examination of the intermediate hosts (mollusks and crustaceans) and definitive hosts (marine fish and birds) of the helminths. The biodiversity of the parasite fauna, seasonal dynamics, and functioning patterns of the parasite systems were investigated. The basic regularities in parasite circulation were assessed in relation to their life cycle strategies and the ecological features of the intermediate and definitive hosts. The factors affecting the success of parasite circulation in the coastal ecosystems were revealed through analysis of parasite biodiversity and abundance dynamics.

  2. First parasitological study of the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis, Amphibia in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristóbal Castillo

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduced species can arrive into new territories with parasites; however, these species are expected to face lower parasite richness than in their original regions. Both introduced hosts and parasites can affect native fauna. Since their release into the wild in Chile following laboratory use, Xenopus laevis Daudin, 1802 has widely spread throughout central Chile. The only pathogen described on the host is the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis Longcore, Pessier, Nichols, 1999; thus, this is the first parasitological study of this species in Chile. In 10 localities in central Chile, 179 specimens of X. laevis were captured and examined for parasites in the gastrointestinal tube, cavities, lungs, liver, and skin. Only nine specimens of the genus Contracaecum Railliet, Henry, 1912 were found in six specimens of X. laevis from a private dam in La Patagua. It is likely that these parasites originated from species of native birds. This is the first record of Contracaecum sp. in Chilean amphibians.

  3. Clinical determinants of early parasitological response to ACTs in African patients with uncomplicated falciparum malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdulla, S.; Adam, I.; Adjei, G. O.

    2015-01-01

    values for clearance in patients from Sub-Saharan African countries with uncomplicated malaria treated with artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs). Methods: A literature review in PubMed was conducted in March 2013 to identify all prospective clinical trials (uncontrolled trials, controlled...... trials and randomized controlled trials), including ACTs conducted in Sub-Saharan Africa, between 1960 and 2012. Individual patient data from these studies were shared with the WorldWide Antimalarial Resistance Network (WWARN) and pooled using an a priori statistical analytical plan. Factors affecting...... early parasitological response were investigated using logistic regression with study sites fitted as a random effect. The risk of bias in included studies was evaluated based on study design, methodology and missing data. Results: In total, 29,493 patients from 84 clinical trials were included...

  4. Established and novel approaches for teaching and learning of veterinary parasitology in Berlin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, Peter-Henning; Stelzer, Sandra; Nijhof, Ard; Krücken, Jürgen; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg

    2018-03-15

    The teaching of veterinary parasitology to the large number of students at the Freie Universität Berlin is mainly limited to conventional face-to-face lectures, supplemented by practical classes. Extensive parasite descriptions and diagnostic techniques are at the core of the practical classes, which are also intended to emphasise key biological and veterinary aspects covered in lectures. Further in-depth and specific learning is achieved within a detailed framework of elective courses, with defined learning outcomes for small groups of students, focusing on themes such as 'diagnosis and treatment of ectoparasites in companion animals' or 'zoonotic parasites'. Additionally, structured excursions are designed to offer experience through collaborative international investigations. Organ-based approaches are also an integral part of our veterinary parasitology teaching, done in collaboration with the clinical and para-clinical departments, either via face-to-face interactions or online. Wide-ranging themes, such as 'causes of colic in horses' or 'atopic dermatitis in dogs' are covered. Recently, diverse blended learning elements were introduced into the curriculum (e.g., QuerVet), which makes teaching and learning more flexible, in terms of time and space, and fosters self-directed learning and participation among the students. A new platform to provide online lectures for students, termed VET Talks, was launched in 2015 by the International Veterinary Student's Association (IVSA), and is as a publicly available educational support system for students. Provided free to veterinary students throughout the world, this platform offers students the opportunity to access lectures on interesting topics by outstanding speakers who are nominated by their students. Finally, continuing education (CE) opportunities are provided through specific Masters courses (Master of Equine Medicine, Master of Small Animal Sciences), classical seminars and recent webinars. Copyright © 2018

  5. Histopathological and parasitological study of the gastrointestinal tract of dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum

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    Pinto Aldair JW

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to provide a systematic pathological and parasitological overview of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT, including the stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, caecum and colon, of dogs naturally infected with Leishmania. Methods Twenty mongrel dogs naturally infected with Leishmania (Leishmania infantum and obtained from the Control Zoonosis Center of the Municipality of Ribeirão das Neves, Belo Horizonte Metropolitan area, Minas Gerais (MG state, Brazil, were analyzed. The dogs were divided into two groups: Group 1 comprised nine clinically normal dogs and group 2 comprised 11 clinically affected dogs. After necropsy, one sample was collected from each GIT segment, namely the stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, caecum and colon. Furthermore, paraffin-embedded samples were used for histological and parasitological (immunohistochemistry evaluation and a morphometrical study were carried out to determine the parasite load (immunolabeled amastigote forms of Leishmania. The Friedman and the Mann Whitney tests were used for statistical analysis. The Friedman test was used to analyze each segment of the GIT within each group of dogs and the Mann Whitney test was used to compare the GIT segments between clinically unaffected and affected dogs. Results The infected dogs had an increased number of macrophages, plasma cells and lymphocytes, but lesions were generally mild. Parasite distribution in the GIT was evident in all intestinal segments and layers of the intestinal wall (mucosal, muscular and submucosal irrespective of the clinical status of the dogs. However, the parasite load was statistically higher in the caecum and colon than in other segments of the GIT. Conclusion The high parasite burden evident throughout the GIT mucosa with only mild pathological alterations led us to consider whether Leishmania gains an advantage from the intestinal immunoregulatory response (immunological tolerance.

  6. Implementation of a Clinical Decision Support Tool for Stool Cultures and Parasitological Studies in Hospitalized Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolic, D; Richter, S S; Asamoto, K; Wyllie, R; Tuttle, R; Procop, G W

    2017-12-01

    There is substantial evidence that stool culture and parasitological examinations are of minimal to no value after 3 days of hospitalization. We implemented and studied the impact of a clinical decision support tool (CDST) to decrease the number of unnecessary stool cultures (STCUL), ova/parasite (O&P) examinations, and Giardia / Cryptosporidium enzyme immunoassay screens (GC-EIA) performed for patients hospitalized >3 days. We studied the frequency of stool studies ordered before or on day 3 and after day 3 of hospitalization (i.e., categorical orders/total number of orders) before and after this intervention and denoted the numbers and types of microorganisms detected within those time frames. This intervention, which corresponded to a custom-programmed hard-stop alert tool in the Epic hospital information system, allowed providers to override the intervention by calling the laboratory, if testing was deemed medically necessary. Comparative statistics were employed to determine significance, and cost savings were estimated based on our internal costs. Before the intervention, 129/670 (19.25%) O&P examinations, 47/204 (23.04%) GC-EIA, and 249/1,229 (20.26%) STCUL were ordered after 3 days of hospitalization. After the intervention, 46/521 (8.83%) O&P examinations, 27/157 (17.20%) GC-EIA, and 106/1,028 (10.31%) STCUL were ordered after 3 days of hospitalization. The proportions of reductions in the number of tests performed after 3 days and the associated P values were 54.1% for O&P examinations ( P < 0.0001), 22.58% for GC-EIA ( P = 0.2807), and 49.1% for STCUL ( P < 0.0001). This was estimated to have resulted in $8,108.84 of cost savings. The electronic CDST resulted in a substantial reduction in the number of evaluations of stool cultures and the number of parasitological examinations for patients hospitalized for more than 3 days and in a cost savings while retaining the ability of the clinician to obtain these tests if clinically indicated. Copyright © 2017

  7. Analyze chemistry, microbiological and parasitological of the drinking water in UNESP and wastewater from Jaboticabal – SP, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Scandolera, Antonio João; Centro de Pesquisas em Sanidade Animal; Palhares, Julio César; Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária; Lucas Junior, Jorge; Universidade Estadual Paulista; Amaral, Luiz Augusto do; Universidade Estadual Paulista; Mendonça, Rafael Paranhos de; de Pesquisas em Sanidade Animal; Oliveira, Gilson Pereira de; de Pesquisas em Sanidade Animal

    2001-01-01

    The quality conditions of the water that supplies the UNESP University campus in Jaboticabal city and its wastewater from the Jaboticabal Stream were evaluated by chemical analysis bacteriological and parasitological. Samples were collected weekly from 09/24/98 through 01/28/99, water supply provided by the Municipal Government from an artesian well source and wastewater was took from the Jaboticabal Stream at a point downstream from the town. The parameters analyzed were: water pH, DO, nitra...

  8. Comparison of clinical and parasitological data from controlled human malaria infection trials.

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    Meta Roestenberg

    Full Text Available Exposing healthy human volunteers to Plasmodium falciparum-infected mosquitoes is an accepted tool to evaluate preliminary efficacy of malaria vaccines. To accommodate the demand of the malaria vaccine pipeline, controlled infections are carried out in an increasing number of centers worldwide. We assessed their safety and reproducibility.We reviewed safety and parasitological data from 128 malaria-naïve subjects participating in controlled malaria infection trials conducted at the University of Oxford, UK, and the Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, The Netherlands. Results were compared to a report from the US Military Malaria Vaccine Program.We show that controlled human malaria infection trials are safe and demonstrate a consistent safety profile with minor differences in the frequencies of arthralgia, fatigue, chills and fever between institutions. But prepatent periods show significant variation. Detailed analysis of Q-PCR data reveals highly synchronous blood stage parasite growth and multiplication rates.Procedural differences can lead to some variation in safety profile and parasite kinetics between institutions. Further harmonization and standardization of protocols will be useful for wider adoption of these cost-effective small-scale efficacy trials. Nevertheless, parasite growth rates are highly reproducible, illustrating the robustness of controlled infections as a valid tool for malaria vaccine development.

  9. [Current panorama of the teaching of microbiology and parasitology in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantón, Rafael; Sánchez-Romero, María Isabel; Gómez-Mampaso, Enrique

    2010-10-01

    The training program of residents in microbiology and parasitology in Spain includes clinical skills, ranging from the diagnostic approach to the patient and adequate sample collection for diagnosis of infectious diseases to antimicrobial therapy and infection control measures. Training also includes new challenges in clinical microbiology that ensure residents' participation in infection control programs of health-care associated infections, training in the resolution of public health problems, and application of new molecular microbiology methods. Specialization in clinical microbiology may be undertaken by graduates in Medicine, Biology, Biochemistry and Chemistry. The training is performed in accredited microbiology laboratories at different hospitals (n = 61) across the country through 4-year residency programs. In the last few years, there has been a major imbalance between the number of intended residents (0.17 per 100,000 inhabitants) and those graduating as specialists in clinical microbiology (0.13 per 100,000 inhabitants), with wide variations across the country. The current tendency in Europe is to strengthen the role of clinical microbiologists as key figures in the diagnosis of infectious diseases and in public health microbiology. Training programs have been hampered by the practice of sending samples for microbiological tests to external, centralized multipurpose laboratories with few clinical microbiologists and without a core curriculum. Essential elements in the training of specialists in clinical microbiology are a close relationship between the laboratory and the clinical center and collaboration with other specialists. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España S.L. All rights reserved.

  10. MICROBIOLOGICAL AND PARASITOLOGICAL QUALITY OF “PANGA FISH" (PANGASIUS SPP.

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    E. E. V. Resplandes

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The goals of the study were to verify the presence of coliforms in frozen Basa fish fillets market in different cities in Mato Grosso State, Brazil and identify if they complied with the standards established by the Brazilian Food Legislation. Twenty-five samples were collected at supermarkets in eight cities in Mato Grosso State. The microbiological analyses were performed using the coagulase-positive Staphylococci count; screening for Salmonella sp., enumeration of total coliforms, thermotolerant and Escherichia coli. In addition, it proceeded to parasitological analysis by parasitic morphological structures identification. Coagulase-positive Staphylococci strains were isolated in two samples (8% with 3,8 x 10 4 and 1,4 x 10 5 CFU/g. In one sample (4%, the values obtained were 23 MPN/ g for total coliforms count, 4 MPN/ g for thermotolerant coliforms and 4 MPN/ g for E. coli. Salmonella spp. strains were not isolated. Parasitic structures were not observed. Frozen Panga fish fillets demonstrated low levels of coliform contamination; indicating that it is safe for human consumption considering that 23 (92% of the analyzed samples were within the standards established by the current Brazilian Food Legislation.

  11. Departing from PowerPoint default mode: Applying Mayer's multimedia principles for enhanced learning of parasitology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagmoti, Jyoti Mahantesh

    2017-01-01

    PowerPoint (PPT™) presentation has become an integral part of day-to-day teaching in medicine. Most often, PPT™ is used in its default mode which in fact, is known to cause boredom and ineffective learning. Research has shown improved short-term memory by applying multimedia principles for designing and delivering lectures. However, such evidence in medical education is scarce. Therefore, we attempted to evaluate the effect of multimedia principles on enhanced learning of parasitology. Second-year medical students received a series of lectures, half of the lectures used traditionally designed PPT™ and the rest used slides designed by Mayer's multimedia principles. Students answered pre and post-tests at the end of each lecture (test-I) and an essay test after six months (test-II) which assessed their short and long term knowledge retention respectively. Students' feedback on quality and content of lectures were collected. Statistically significant difference was found between post test scores of traditional and modified lectures (P = 0.019) indicating, improved short-term memory after modified lectures. Similarly, students scored better in test II on the contents learnt through modified lectures indicating, enhanced comprehension and improved long-term memory (P learning through multimedia designed PPT™ and suggested for their continued use. It is time to depart from default PPT™ and adopt multimedia principles to enhance comprehension and improve short and long term knowledge retention. Further, medical educators may be trained and encouraged to apply multimedia principles for designing and delivering effective lectures.

  12. Correlations between hematological, parasitological patterns and animal performance of sheep supplemented with protected fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Alves Costa Afonso

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of populations of gastrointestinal parasites resistant to antihelmintics has led to seeks new alternatives its control. Stimulation of natural immunity by means of animal nutrition has shown promising results in controlling nematodes in sheep. The addition of protected fat sources, containing essential fatty acids, may be an alternative due to many effects, among them, regulation of immunity expression and regulation of the inflammatory response by immune effectors. The aim of this study was to estimate correlations between haematological and parasitological patterns, animal performance through weight and body condition, under the influence of protected fat in ewes. Fifty Santa Ines sheep, in the final third of pregnancy or postpartum, in paddocks of Panicum maximum, received, individually, 200 g per day of concentrate, isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets, with or without the addition of protected fat. In general, except for total leukocytes and eosinophils, almost all of Pearson correlation coefficients of other variables were significant. However, the protected fat, in the amount offered, had no antihelmintic effect.

  13. Microbiological and parasitological investigation among food handlers in hotels in the Dead Sea area, Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Dayem, Muna; Al Zou'bi, Renad; Hani, Rehan Bani; Amr, Zuhair Sami

    2014-10-01

    Intestinal parasitic and bacterial infections constitute a major health issue in developing countries. The present study investigates and assesses infection rates among food handlers with intestinal parasites and microbial agents in luxurious hotels in the Dead Sea area of Jordan. A total of 901 stool samples were collected from food handlers (35 females and 866 males) employed in four main hotels in the Dead Sea area. Fecal samples were examined microscopically for intestinal parasites. Standard culture and biochemical techniques were used for the isolation and identification of Salmonella and Shigella spp. in stool samples. Five species of protozoan (Blastocystis hominis, Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica, and Endolimax nana), one helminth (Hymenolepis nana), and one cylindrical worm (Enterobius vermicularis) were recovered with an overall infection rate of 3.7%. G. intestinalis was the most prevalent parasitic infection with infection rate of 2.44%. All samples were negative for both Salmonella and Shigella. Findings highlight the important role of food handlers in the transmission of intestinal parasites to high-class clients accommodated in luxury hotels, and stress the urgent need for regular health and parasitologic examination of food handlers. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Intestinal and hepatic parasites determined in a university hospital parasitology laboratory

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    Zeynep Taş Cengiz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study is to present the prevalence of intestinal and hepatic parasites determined in Yüzüncü Yıl University Medical Faculty Parasitology Laboratory. Methods: The study was performed in 2008, and a total of 5985 stool samples were examined. Stool samples were examined with native-Lugol, sedimentation, flotation, trichrome staining and modified acid-fast staining methods. The stool samples of patient suspected to have Entamoeba histolytica/E.dispar infection were stained by trichrome staining method and evaluated by ELISA method for the antigen. ELISA method was used to confirm the results of Fasciola hepatica positive patients in stool examination. Results: In this study intestinal parasites were identified in 29.6% out of the 5985 people. In the study Giardia intestinalis (9.4%, plenty Blastocystis hominis (5.5%, Hymenolepis nana (1.7%, Ascaris lumbricoides (1.2%, Enterobius vermicularis (0.2%; in the stool examination, F.hepatica (0.1%, Cyclospora cayetanensis (0.1%, E.histolytica/E.dispar (0.06%, Taenia saginata (0.05%, Dicrocoelium dendriticum (0.05%, Trichuris trichiura (0.03% and Cryptosporidium spp. (0.02%, pathogenic parasites, were detected. Conclusion: In the study it is also understood that pathogenic intestinal parasites have still been reported at high rates and the problem of parasitosis continues in Van Province.

  15. Parasitological analyses of the male chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) at Ngogo, Kibale National Park, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehlenbein, Michael P

    2005-02-01

    Numerous intestinal parasites identified in populations of wild nonhuman primates can be pathogenic to humans. Furthermore, nonhuman primates are susceptible to a variety of human pathogens. Because of increasing human encroachment into previously nonimpacted forests, and the potential for disease transmission between human and nonhuman primate populations, further detailed investigations of primate ecological parasitology are warranted. For meaningful comparisons to be made, it is important for methods to be standardized across study sites. One aspect of methodological standardization is providing reliable estimates of parasite prevalence and knowing how many samples are needed to adequately estimate an individual's parasite prevalence. In this study the parasitic fauna of 37 adult, adolescent, and juvenile male chimpanzees from the Ngogo group, Kibale National Park, Uganda, were assessed from 121 fecal samples collected over a 3-month period. Twelve taxa of intestinal species (five helminth and seven protozoan) were recovered from the samples. The four most prevalent species were Troglodytella abrassarti (97.3%), Oesophagostomum sp. (81.1%), Strongyloides sp. (83.8%), and Entamoeba chattoni (70.3%). No one species was found in all samples from any one animal, and Troglodytella abrassarti, the most common intestinal organism, was found in all of the serial samples of only 69.4% of the chimpanzees. The cumulative species richness for individuals significantly increased for every sequential sample (up to three to four samples) taken per animal during this study. The results indicate that to accurately diagnose total intestinal infection and evaluate group prevalence, three to four sequential samples from each individual must be collected on nonconsecutive days. This conclusion applies only to short study periods in which possible seasonal effects are not taken into consideration. Validation of these results at different study sites in different regions with

  16. Knowledge and interests of Romanian medical students in parasitology, tropical and travel medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neghina, Raul; Calma, Crenguta Livia; Neghina, Adriana Maria

    2011-01-01

    As travel has become easier and faster, the rate of tropical infections across the world is expected to increase; more students working abroad are going to encounter these diseases more often. Disorders of parasitic etiology play an important role in travel and tropical medicine. The aim of our study was to assess the preclinical students' knowledge regarding parasitic diseases, tropical and travel medicine in the broad context of their professional background. A total of 346 Romanian medical students completed a 13-item questionnaire on the above-mentioned topics. In order to allow for complex evaluation, the questionnaire also included items related to their extracurricular training as well as their future perspectives. The majority of the students (97.7%) declared they had prior knowledge (before studying parasitology) of malaria. Most of the responders (90.2%) knew that a journey in (sub)tropical regions requires adequate prophylactic measures. About a quarter of those interviewed (26.4%) would agree to practice tropical medicine after graduation. They were mainly interested in helping people from underdeveloped countries regardless of remuneration (52.7%). The majority of students (59.8%) wished to practice clinical medicine. It has been observed that fewer than 5% of the questioned students had ever read a scientific paper or book in the field of tropical medicine. English was the most commonly spoken foreign language (92.8%), and 99.1% of students had at least intermediate computer skills. Finally, 71.6% of students would choose to practice the specialty of travel medicine if it were available in Romania. The implementation of appropriate measures towards the globalization of medical teaching in Romanian universities should represent an important issue in this new millennium, in which borders between various nations are starting to fade; otherwise the next generations of physicians will lose the chance to gain wider experiences and share the international

  17. Frontiers of parasitology research in the People's Republic of China: infection, diagnosis, protection and surveillance

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    Chen Jun-Hu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Control and eventual elimination of human parasitic diseases in the People's Republic of China (P.R. China requires novel approaches, particularly in the areas of diagnostics, mathematical modelling, monitoring, evaluation, surveillance and public health response. A comprehensive effort, involving the collaboration of 188 scientists (>85% from P.R. China from 48 different institutions and universities (80% from P.R. China, covers this collection of 29 articles published in Parasites & Vectors. The research mainly stems from a research project entitled “Surveillance and diagnostic tools for major parasitic diseases in P.R. China” (grant no. 2008ZX10004-011 and highlights the frontiers of research in parasitology. The majority of articles in this thematic series deals with the most important parasitic diseases in P.R. China, emphasizing Schistosoma japonicum, Plasmodium vivax and Clonorchis sinensis plus some parasites of emerging importance such as Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Significant achievements have been made through the collaborative research programme in the following three fields: (i development of strategies for the national control programme; (ii updating the surveillance data of parasitic infections both in human and animals; and (iii improvement of existing, and development of novel, diagnostic tools to detect parasitic infections. The progress is considerable and warrants broad validation efforts. Combined with the development of improved tools for diagnosis and surveillance, integrated and multi-pronged control strategies should now pave the way for elimination of parasitic diseases in P.R. China. Experiences and lessons learned can stimulate control and elimination efforts of parasitic diseases in other parts of the world.

  18. Evaluation of modified Dennis parasitological technique for diagnosis of bovine fascioliasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Stefanya; Martínez, Yudy Liceth; López, Jessika Lissethe; Velásquez, Luz Elena

    2016-02-23

    Bovine fascioliasis causes important economic losses, estimated at COP$ 12,483 billion per year; its prevalence is 25% in dairy cattle. Parasitological techniques are required for it diagnosis. The Dennis technique, modified in 2002, is the one used in Colombia, but its sensitivity, specificity and validity are not known.  To evaluate the validity and performance of the modified Dennis technique for diagnosis of bovine fascioliasis using as reference test the observation of parasites in the liver.  We conducted a diagnostic evaluation study. We selected a convenience sample of discarded bovines sacrificed between March and June, 2013, in Frigocolanta for the study. We collected 25 g of feces from each animal and their liver and bile ducts were examined for Fasciola hepatica. The sensitivity, specificity, predictive positive value, predictive negative value, and validity index were calculated with 95% confidence intervals. The post-mortem evaluation was used as the gold standard.  We analyzed 180 bovines. The sensitivity and specificity of the modified Dennis technique were 73.2% (95% CI=58.4% - 87.9%) and 84.2% (95% CI= 77.7% - 90.6%), respectively. The positive predictive value was 57.7% (95% CI= 43.3% - 72.1%) and the negative one 91.4% (95% CI= 86.2% - 96.6%). The prevalence of bovine fascioliasis was 22.8% (95% CI= 16.4% - 29.2%).  The validity and the performance of the modified Dennis technique were higher than those of the traditional one, which makes it a good screening test for diagnosing fascioliasis for population and prevalence studies and during animal health campaigns.

  19. Comparison between splenic and lymph node aspirations as sampling methods for the parasitological detection of Leishmania chagasi infection in dogs

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    Stella Maria Barrouin-Melo

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivities of spleen and lymph node cultures for the diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis were compared in 64 anti-Leishmania antibody positive dogs from an endemic area in Brazil. The sensitivity of spleen cultures for Leishmania detection was 97.9%; in lymph node cultures it was 25%. Positive spleen culture was more frequent (p = 0.048, Fisher's exact probability test in symptomatic (28 out of 33 animals than in asymptomatic animals (19 out of 31 animals. These results support the use of spleen instead of lymph node aspiration as the choice method for the parasitological diagnosis of the infection.

  20. Comparison of Nested Polymerase Chain Reaction and Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction with Parasitological Methods for Detection of Strongyloides stercoralis in Human Fecal Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifdini, Meysam; Mirhendi, Hossein; Ashrafi, Keyhan; Hosseini, Mostafa; Mohebali, Mehdi; Khodadadi, Hossein; Kia, Eshrat Beigom

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR methods for detection of Strongyloides stercoralis in fecal samples compared with parasitological methods. A total of 466 stool samples were examined by conventional parasitological methods (formalin ether concentration [FEC] and agar plate culture [APC]). DNA was extracted using an in-house method, and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and 18S ribosomal genes were amplified by nested PCR and real-time PCR, respectively. Among 466 samples, 12.7% and 18.2% were found infected with S. stercoralis by FEC and APC, respectively. DNA of S. stercoralis was detected in 18.9% and 25.1% of samples by real-time PCR and nested PCR, respectively. Considering parasitological methods as the diagnostic gold standard, the sensitivity and specificity of nested PCR were 100% and 91.6%, respectively, and that of real-time PCR were 84.7% and 95.8%, respectively. However, considering sequence analyzes of the selected nested PCR products, the specificity of nested PCR is increased. In general, molecular methods were superior to parasitological methods. They were more sensitive and more reliable in detection of S. stercoralis in comparison with parasitological methods. Between the two molecular methods, the sensitivity of nested PCR was higher than real-time PCR. PMID:26350449

  1. Bovine fasciolosis at increasing altitudes: Parasitological and malacological sampling on the slopes of Mount Elgon, Uganda

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    Howell Alison

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To clarify the extent and putative transmission zone of bovine fasciolosis on the slopes of Mount Elgon, Uganda, conjoint parasitological and malacological surveys, inclusive of inspection of animals at slaughter, were undertaken at increasing altitudes. Results A total of 239 cattle were sampled across eight locations ranging in elevation from 1112-2072 m. Faecal material was examined for presence of Fasciola eggs and sera were tested by ELISA for antibodies against Fasciola antigens. Bolstering this, 38 cattle at slaughter from 2 abattoir sites at 1150 m and 1947 m were inspected; in addition, wild buffalo stool (n = 10 opportunistically picked within Mount Elgon National Park (MENP at 3640 m was examined. By faecal egg detection, prevalence of Fasciola gigantica at low (1500 m altitude sites was 43.7% (95% CI 35.4-52.2 and 1.1% (95% CI 0.0-6.0, respectively, while by ELISA was much higher, low altitude - 77.9% (95% CI 69.7-85.4 and high altitude - 64.5% (95% CI 51.3-76.3. The decline in prevalence with increasing altitude was corroborated by abattoir sampling. Thirty seven aquatic habitats, ranging from 1139-3937 m in altitude were inspected for freshwater snails, 12 of which were within MENP. At lower altitudes, Lymnaea (Radix natalensis was common, and often abundant, but at higher altitudes became much rarer ceasing to be found above 1800 m. On the other hand, Lymnaea (Galba truncatula was found only at altitudes above 3000 m and within MENP alone. The snail identifications were confirmed by DNA analysis of the ribosomal 18S gene. Conclusions Active infections of F. gigantica in cattle are common in lower altitude settings but appear to diminish with increasing elevation. This is likely due to a growing paucity of intermediate hosts, specifically populations of L. natalensis for which a natural boundary of 1800 m appeared. Although F. hepatica was not encountered, the presence of several

  2. A COMPARATIVE EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDY OF SPECIFIC ANTIBODIES (IgM AND IgA AND PARASITOLOGICAL FINDINGS IN AN ENDEMIC AREA OF LOW TRANSMISSION OF Schistosoma mansoni

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    KANAMURA Herminia Yohko

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The diagnostic potential of circulating IgM and IgA antibodies against Schistosoma mansoni gut-associated antigens detected by the immunofluorescence test (IFT on adult worm paraffin sections was evaluated comparatively to the fecal parasitological method, for epidemiological purposes in low endemic areas for schistosomiasis. Blood samples were collected on filter paper from two groups of schoolchildren living in two different localities of the municipality of Itariri (São Paulo, Brazil with different histories and prevalences of schistosomiasis. The parasitological and serological data were compared to those obtained for another group of schoolchildren from a non-endemic area for schistosomiasis. The results showed poor sensitivity of the parasitological method in detecting individuals with low worm burden and indicate the potential of the serological method as an important tool to be incorporated into schistosomiasis control and vigilance programs for determining the real situation of schistosomiasis in low endemic areas.

  3. A parasitological, molecular and serological survey of Hepatozoon canis infection in dogs around the Aegean coast of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagenc, Tulin Ilhan; Pasa, Serdar; Kirli, Gulcan; Hosgor, Murat; Bilgic, Huseyin Bilgin; Ozon, Yavuz Hakan; Atasoy, Abidin; Eren, Hasan

    2006-01-30

    Canine hepatozoonosis is caused by the tick-borne protozoon Hepatozoon spp. The prevalence of the infection in the Aegean coast of Turkey was investigated by examination of blood smear parasitology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using blood samples from 349 dogs collected from Central Aydin, Kusadasi, Selcuk, Central Manisa, Bodrum and Marmaris within the Aegean coast of Turkey. The indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) for the detection of Hepatozoon canis antibodies was also used to detect the exposure rate to H. canis. PCR amplifying a 666bp fragment of 18S rRNA gene of Hepatozoon spp. was used in the epidemiological survey. The prevalence of Hepatozoon spp. infection was 10.6% by blood smear parasitology and 25.8% by PCR. IFAT revealed that 36.8% of serum samples were positive for antibodies reactive with Hepatozoon spp. The PCR products of 18S rRNA gene of Hepatozoon spp. isolated from six infected dogs, one isolate originating from each of the six different locations, were sequenced. The results of sequence analysis indicate that they are closely related to Indian and Japanese isolates of H. canis. This is the first epidemiological study on the prevalence of H. canis infection in the dog, in Turkey.

  4. [An analysis on funded theses in the Chinese Journal of Parasitology and Parasitic Diseases in 2009-2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Feng-yun; Zhang, Zheng-yan; Sheng, Hui-feng

    2014-12-01

    The published articles of the Chinese Journal of Parasitology and Parasitic Diseases in 2009-2012 (including original articles, experimental researches, field researches and clinical researches) were statistically analyzed. Together 258 research papers were published in the 4 years, and funded papers occupied 82.2% (212/258). The number of papers funded by 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 foundations projects was 116, 58, 29, 7 and 2, respectively. 61.8% (131/212) of the foundations projects were at the national level; 28.3% (60/212) were at provincial and ministerial level. The papers supported by academy and international agencies accounted for 7.1% (15/212), 2.8% (6/212), respectively. The funded thesis mainly referred to schistosomiasis (35, 16.5%), cystic echinococcosis (29, 13.7%), malaria (24, 11.3%), toxoplasmosis (22, 10.4%), and cysticercosis (9, 4.2%). Five fields covered in these papers were as follows: epidemiology (29, 13.7%), immunology and diagnosis (53, 25%), molecular biology (75, 35.4%), etiology (28,13.2%), and pharmacology (24, 11.3%). The ratio of founded paper was 0.70, 0.67, 0.74, and 0.65 during 2009-2012, respectively. The high ratio of founded paper indicated that this journal is with domestic and abroad importance in the field of parasitology.

  5. [Parasitological, immunohistochemical and histopathological study for Leishmania chagasi detection in splenic tissues of dogs with visceral leishmaniasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasca, Karen Ingrid; Buzetti, Wilma Aparecida Starke; Tenorio, Michely da Silva; Paulan, Silvana de Cássia; Lima, Flávia Luna; de Queiroz, Nina Mari Gual Pimenta; Machado, Rosângela Zacarias; Oliveira, Tricia Maria Ferreira de Souza; Neves, Maria Francisca; de Noronha, Antonio Carlos Faconti; de Assis, Juliana

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this work was a Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis--CVL study by parasitological direct examination of Leishmania (L.) chagasi (imprinting and histological), immunohistochemical test and histopathological analysis using spleen tissues from 34 dogs euthanized by the Zoonotic Disease Control Centre from Ilha Solteira, SP, Brazil. According to the clinical signs, the dogs were divided in three groups: asymptomatics (8 dogs), oligosymptomatics (17 dogs) and symptomatics (9 dogs). After the accomplishment of all diagnostic tests, 22 dogs were considered positives (64.7%) and 12 (35.3%) were negatives to CVL. From these positive dogs, 1/22 (4.5%) was asymptomatic, 12/22(54.5%) were oligosymptomatics and 8/22 (40.1%) were symptomatics. The histopathological study in spleen tissues from positive, especially symptomatic dogs, showed a diffuse chronic inflammation with thickness of capsular and trabecular regions and there was extensive morphologic alteration of the red and white pulp by the presence of abundant macrophages full with amastigotes, the granulomatous inflammatory reaction and haemorrhagic areas. The data of this work from histopathologic examination and direct microscopic visualization of L. (L.) chagasi showed that the spleen was an useful organ to collect sample tissues for CVL diagnosis. The immunostaining detected the highest number of positive dogs and were considered an important and conclusive method to be used in addition to parasitological methods for CVL, particularly in asymptomatic or oligosymptomatic dogs.

  6. Monitoring of a tsetse and trypanosomosis control programme in plateau and Bauchi State, Nigeria, using antigen ELISA and parasitological techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ajayi, S A; Ogedengbe, J D; Dogo, G I [National Veterinary Research Inst., Vom, Plateau State (Nigeria). Parasitology Div.; Frame, I A [London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Med. Parasitol

    1997-02-01

    Between July 1994 and January 1995 a total of 1153 samples were collected from cattle in Plateau and Bauchi State, Nigeria, and analyzed for the presence of trypanosome infections using parasitological (Buffy Coat Technique [BCT] and blood film smears) and serological techniques (Ag-ELISA). A simple random sampling technique was employed. Tsetse flies and other insects were trapped during the same period using NITSE and biconical traps. Twenty two tsetse flies (6 Glossina p. palpalis, 3 G. longipalpis and 13 G. tachinoides) were caught, identified and dissected to check for trypanosomal infections. The results obtained using parasitological techniques showed an average prevalence rate in the two states surveyed of 3.4%. The antigen-capture ELISA technique (Ag-ELISA) was used to analyze 280 serum samples which were negative for trypanosomes when checked by BCT. Of these samples none were positive for T. congolense and 4 (1.4%) were detected positive for T. brucei. A subset of 120 samples was analyzed for the presence of T. vivax and 3 (2.5%) were found to be positive. The relative specificity of the Ag-ELISA for T. brucei, T. congolense and T. vivax was 98.5% 100% and 97.5%, respectively. (author). 8 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  7. Parasitological, serological and clinical evidence for high prevalence of podoconiosis (non-filarial elephantiasis) in Midakegn district, central Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geshere Oli, Geleta; Tekola Ayele, Fasil; Petros, Beyene

    2012-06-01

    To determine whether the elephantiasis in Midakegn district, central Ethiopia, is filarial or non-filarial (podoconiosis) using serological, parasitological and clinical examinations, and to estimate its prevalence. At house-to-house visits in 330 randomly selected households, all household members who had elephantiasis were interviewed and clinically examined at the nearby health centre to confirm the presence of elephantiasis, check the presence of scrotal swelling and rule out the other causes of lymphoedema. A midnight blood sample was obtained from each participant with elephantiasis for microscopic examination of Wuchereria bancrofti microfilaria. A daytime blood sample was obtained from half of the participants for serological confirmation using the immuno-chromatographic test card. Consistent with the features of podoconiosis, none of the elephantiasis cases had consistently worn shoes since childhood; 94.3% had bilateral swelling limited below the level of the knees; no individual had thigh or scrotal elephantiasis; parasitological test for microfilariae and serological tests for W. bancrofti antigen were negative in all samples. The prevalence of the disease was 7.4% and it peaked in the third decade of life, the most economically active age. Midakegn District has a high prevalence of podoconiosis and no filarial elephantiasis. Prevention, treatment and control of podoconiosis must be among the top priorities of public health programmes. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Detection of Trypanosoma cruzi in untreated chronic chagasic patients is improved by using three parasitological methods simultaneously.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulantay, Inés; Apt, Werner; Valencia, Claudio; Torres, Alberto; Saavedra, Miguel; Rodríguez, Jorge; Sandoval, Lea; Martínez, Gabriela; Thieme, Patricio; Sepúlveda, Eduardo

    2011-10-01

    This study compared three parasitological methods applied simultaneously in individuals with untreated chronic Chagas' disease in order to determine their individual and combined performances. From a total of 100 chronic chagasic patients from endemic areas of Chile, with informed consent, we extracted 2 mL of peripheral venous blood for PCR (PCR-B) and applied two xenodiagnosis (XD) boxes with seven uninfected Triatoma infestans nymphs each for microscopic examination and PCR of faecal samples of the triatomines fed on each patient (PCR-XD). The PCR-B and PCR-XD reactions were performed with oligonucleotides 121 and 122, which anneal to the four constant regions of the minicircles of Trypanosoma cruzi kinetoplasts. The 330 bp PCR product was analysed by electrophoresis in a 2% agarose gel and visualized by staining with ethidium bromide. PCR-B detected T. cruzi in 58% of the cases, while PCR-XD proved to be more sensitive than XD (67% versus 14%, respectively) (P = 0.0001). There was no difference between the detection power of PCR-B and PCR-XD (P = 0.222). The percentage detected as positive was much greater when the three tests were considered (84%) (P = 0.00001). The simultaneous application of more than one technique for the parasitological diagnosis of Chagas' disease in untreated individuals increases the possibility of detection of T. cruzi.

  9. Monitoring of a tsetse and trypanosomosis control programme in plateau and Bauchi State, Nigeria, using antigen ELISA and parasitological techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajayi, S.A.; Ogedengbe, J.D.; Dogo, G.I.; Frame, I.A.

    1997-01-01

    Between July 1994 and January 1995 a total of 1153 samples were collected from cattle in Plateau and Bauchi State, Nigeria, and analyzed for the presence of trypanosome infections using parasitological (Buffy Coat Technique [BCT] and blood film smears) and serological techniques (Ag-ELISA). A simple random sampling technique was employed. Tsetse flies and other insects were trapped during the same period using NITSE and biconical traps. Twenty two tsetse flies (6 Glossina p. palpalis, 3 G. longipalpis and 13 G. tachinoides) were caught, identified and dissected to check for trypanosomal infections. The results obtained using parasitological techniques showed an average prevalence rate in the two states surveyed of 3.4%. The antigen-capture ELISA technique (Ag-ELISA) was used to analyze 280 serum samples which were negative for trypanosomes when checked by BCT. Of these samples none were positive for T. congolense and 4 (1.4%) were detected positive for T. brucei. A subset of 120 samples was analyzed for the presence of T. vivax and 3 (2.5%) were found to be positive. The relative specificity of the Ag-ELISA for T. brucei, T. congolense and T. vivax was 98.5% 100% and 97.5%, respectively. (author). 8 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs

  10. Malaria prevalence pattern observed in the highland fringe of Butajira, Southern Ethiopia: a longitudinal study from parasitological and entomological survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesfaye, Solomon; Belyhun, Yeshambel; Teklu, Takele; Mengesha, Tesfaye; Petros, Beyene

    2011-06-07

    In Ethiopia, information regarding highland malaria transmission is scarce, and no report has been presented from Butajira highland so far whether the appearance of malaria in the area was due to endemicity or due to highland malaria transmission. Thus this study aimed to determine the presence and magnitude of malaria transmission in Butajira. For parasitological survey, longitudinal study was conducted from October to December 2006. The entomological surveys were done from October to December 2006 and continued from April to May 2007. Both parasitological and entomological surveys were done using standard procedures. The parasitological result in all the survey months (October-December) showed an overall detection rate of 4.4% (48/1082) (CI 95%; 3.2-5.7%) malaria parasite. Among infected individuals, 32 (3.0%) of the infection was due to Plasmodium vivax and the rest 16 (1.5%) were due to Plasmodium falciparum. The highest prevalence 39(3.6%) of the parasite was observed in age groups of above 15 years old. Among the total tested, 25(2.3%) of males and 23(2.1%) of females had malaria infection. Among tested individuals, 38(5.3%) and 10 (2.7%) of infection was occurred in Misrak-Meskan (2100 m a.s.l) and Mirab-Meskan (2280 m a.s.l), respectively which was statistically significant (X2=3.72, P0.05). The entomological survey showed a collection of 602 larvae and 80 adult Anopheles. Anopheles christyi was the dominant species both in the first (45.3%) and in the second (35.4%) surveys; where as, Anopheles gambiae sensu lato comprised 4.7% and 14.6%, in the first and second surveys, respectively. Anopheles gambiae s.l comprises 55% of the adult collection, and both species were collected more from outdoors (57.5%). The number of An. christyi was higher in Mirab-Meskan (58. 3%) than Misrak-Meskan (41.7%) (Prisk of malaria and its control programme in the area must be given adequate attention to minimize potential epidemics. In addition, the current study should be

  11. [Thirty years of the electron microscope investigation in zoology and parasitology in the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatrov, A B

    2003-01-01

    The history of the electron microscope investigations in zoology and parasitology in the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences and progress in scanning and transmission electron microscope investigations in this field of biology to the moment are briefly accounted.

  12. Origin and history to date of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP) African Foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krecek, R C; Penzhorn, B L; de Waal, D T; Peter, R J; Prichard, R; Sumption, D

    2011-03-01

    The origin of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP) African Foundation is described. The 16th WAAVP Conference held in South Africa in 1997 generated a surplus of ZAR 430 460 (US$ 70 116). This was invested and a foundation established to manage the fund with the intention of using it to the mutual advantage of the WAAVP and African veterinary parasitologists. To date, more than 110 scholarship applications have been screened, and 51 full and partial scholarships awarded to young African veterinary parasitologists to attend subsequent biennial WAAVP Conferences. This investment has grown into a very successful endowment currently valued at US$ 206 553. This article is written in response to many queries across the globe about the origin of this fund and how it has been invested, managed, sustained and utilised.

  13. [Human trypanosomiasis focus of Vavoua (Ivory Coast). A clinical, parasitological and sero-immunological survey (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvallet, G; Stanghellini, A; Saccharin, C; Vivant, J F

    1979-01-01

    Vavoua human trypanosomiasis focus, located 60 km north of Daloa (Ivory Coast Republic) is facing a period of hyperactivity. A medical survey has been conducted in 9 villages of this focus: 7.424 persons have been examined and 128 new cases diagnosed in the field after clinical and parasitological examinations. Indirect Fluorescence Antibody Test applied to dried blood blots, in the laboratory, revealed 266 immunological suspects to be reexamined. 185 suspects were reexamined, 104 of whom were diagnosed after tyrpanosomes had been found in blood or/and in gland juice. The microhaematocrit centrifuge technique gave good results. Most of the 232 new cases were in the classical first period (unaltered CSF). Authors are insisting on the importance of survey prospections allowing an early diagnosis of sleeping sickness and on the interest of an immunodiagnostic test in addition to classical techniques to diagnose asymptomatical forms.

  14. Origin and history to date of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP African Foundation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Krecek

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The origin of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP African Foundation is described. The 16th WAAVP Conference held in South Africa in 1997 generated a surplus of ZAR 430 460 (US$ 70 116. This was invested and a foundation established to manage the fund with the intention of using it to the mutual advantage of the WAAVP and African veterinary parasitologists. To date, more than 110 scholarship applications have been screened, and 51 full and partial scholarships awarded to young African veterinary parasitologists to attend subsequent biennial WAAVP Conferences. This investment has grown into a very successful endowment currently valued at US$ 206 553. This article is written in response to many queries across the globe about the origin of this fund and how it has been invested, managed, sustained and utilised.

  15. Bibliometric analysis of the Korean Journal of Parasitology: measured from SCI, PubMed, Scopus, and Synapse databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Choon Shil

    2009-10-01

    The Korean Journal of Parasitology (KJP) is the official journal of the Korean Society for Parasitology which is celebrating its 50th anniversary in 2009. To assess the contributions and achievements of the KJP, bibliometric analysis was conducted based on the citation data retrieved from 4 major databases; SCI, PubMed, Synapse, and Scopus. It was found that the KJP articles were constantly cited by the articles published in major international journals represented in these databases. More than 60% of 1,370 articles published in the KJP from 1963 to June 2009 were cited at least once by SCI articles. The overall average times cited by SCI articles are 2.6. The rate is almost 3 times higher for the articles published in the last 10 years compared to 1.0 for the articles of the 1960s. The SCI journal impact factor for 2008 is calculated as 0.871. It is increasing and it is expected to increase further with the introduction of the KJP in the database in 2008. The more realistic h-indices were measured from the study data set covering all the citations to the KJP; 17 for SCI, 6 for PubMed, 19 for Synapse, and 17 for Scopus. Synapse extensively picked up the citations to the earlier papers not retrievable from the other 3 databases. It identified many papers published in the 1960s and in the 1980s which have been cited heavily, proving the central role of the KJP in the dissemination of the important research findings over the last 5 decades.

  16. Parasitological Confirmation and Analysis of Leishmania Diversity in Asymptomatic and Subclinical Infection following Resolution of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales-Chilama, Mariana; Gongora, Rafael E; Valderrama, Liliana; Jojoa, Jimena; Alexander, Neal; Rubiano, Luisa C; Cossio, Alexandra; Adams, Emily R; Saravia, Nancy G; Gomez, María Adelaida

    2015-12-01

    The contribution of individuals with subclinical infection to the transmission and endemicity of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is unknown. Immunological evidence of exposure to Leishmania in residents of endemic areas has been the basis for defining the human population with asymptomatic infection. However, parasitological confirmation of subclinical infection is lacking. We investigated the presence and viability of Leishmania in blood and non-invasive mucosal tissue samples from individuals with immunological evidence of subclinical infection in endemic areas for CL caused by Leishmania (Viannia) in Colombia. Detection of Leishmania kDNA was conducted by PCR-Southern Blot, and parasite viability was confirmed by amplification of parasite 7SLRNA gene transcripts. A molecular tool for genetic diversity analysis of parasite populations causing persistent subclinical infection based on PCR amplification and sequence analysis of an 82bp region between kDNA conserved blocks 1 and 2 was developed. Persistent Leishmania infection was demonstrated in 40% (46 of 114) of leishmanin skin test (LST) positive individuals without active disease; parasite viability was established in 59% of these (27 of 46; 24% of total). Parasite burden quantified from circulating blood monocytes, nasal, conjunctival or tonsil mucosal swab samples was comparable, and ranged between 0.2 to 22 parasites per reaction. kDNA sequences were obtained from samples from 2 individuals with asymptomatic infection and from 26 with history of CL, allowing genetic distance analysis that revealed diversity among sequences and clustering within the L. (Viannia) subgenus. Our results provide parasitological confirmation of persistent infection among residents of endemic areas of L. (Viannia) transmission who have experienced asymptomatic infection or recovered from CL, revealing a reservoir of infection that potentially contributes to the endemicity and transmission of disease. kDNA genotyping establishes proof

  17. [The teaching of microbiology and parasitology in undergraduate medical education and its adaptation to the European Higher Education Area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Vicente Ausina; Otero, Beatriz Mirelis; Pastor, Guillem Prats

    2010-10-01

    The creation of the European Higher Education Area provides a series of opportunities for far-reaching reform of medical education and changes in the way both students and teachers work. The Bologna process must be implemented before 2010 in signatory countries, which include Spain, and must allow education and academic titles to be homologated. Medical degrees must consist of 360 European Credit Transfer System (ECTS) credits, divided into six academic years (60 credits per academic year). The Faculty of Medicine of the Autonomous University of Barcelona has already put the finishing touches to a proposal for the distribution of subjects in the new curriculum. This proposal strengthens and reassesses the teaching of microbiology and parasitology compared with current curricula, giving these subjects appropriate weight in undergraduate medical education. The teaching of medical microbiology and parasitology is included as a core subject worth 8 ECTS in the third year and two free-choice modules of 2.5 and 3 ECTS to be taken in the first semesters of the fifth and sixth years as part of the minor in "Clinical and Experimental Laboratory"(30 ECTS). The teaching of microbiology will also play an important role in the Integrated Learning in Medicine (INTEL-M) course in the third, fourth and fifth years. INTEL-M is an innovation in the syllabus based on the joint planning, organization and evaluation of a series of subjects (24.5 ECTS) that are developed in small groups of students and in the form of problem-based learning. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España S.L. All rights reserved.

  18. Parasitological Confirmation and Analysis of Leishmania Diversity in Asymptomatic and Subclinical Infection following Resolution of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Rosales-Chilama

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of individuals with subclinical infection to the transmission and endemicity of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is unknown. Immunological evidence of exposure to Leishmania in residents of endemic areas has been the basis for defining the human population with asymptomatic infection. However, parasitological confirmation of subclinical infection is lacking.We investigated the presence and viability of Leishmania in blood and non-invasive mucosal tissue samples from individuals with immunological evidence of subclinical infection in endemic areas for CL caused by Leishmania (Viannia in Colombia. Detection of Leishmania kDNA was conducted by PCR-Southern Blot, and parasite viability was confirmed by amplification of parasite 7SLRNA gene transcripts. A molecular tool for genetic diversity analysis of parasite populations causing persistent subclinical infection based on PCR amplification and sequence analysis of an 82bp region between kDNA conserved blocks 1 and 2 was developed.Persistent Leishmania infection was demonstrated in 40% (46 of 114 of leishmanin skin test (LST positive individuals without active disease; parasite viability was established in 59% of these (27 of 46; 24% of total. Parasite burden quantified from circulating blood monocytes, nasal, conjunctival or tonsil mucosal swab samples was comparable, and ranged between 0.2 to 22 parasites per reaction. kDNA sequences were obtained from samples from 2 individuals with asymptomatic infection and from 26 with history of CL, allowing genetic distance analysis that revealed diversity among sequences and clustering within the L. (Viannia subgenus.Our results provide parasitological confirmation of persistent infection among residents of endemic areas of L. (Viannia transmission who have experienced asymptomatic infection or recovered from CL, revealing a reservoir of infection that potentially contributes to the endemicity and transmission of disease. kDNA genotyping

  19. Parasitology and urban livestock farming in Nigeria : prevalence of ova in faecal and soil samples and animal ectoparasites in Makurdi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Omudu

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Domestic environmental pollution resulting from urban livestock farming was investigated in Makurdi using parasitological techniques. The test tube flotation technique was used for the parasitological analysis of animal faecal matter and soil samples collected from residential premises. Ectoparasitic fauna of dogs, goats, sheep and cattle cohabiting with humans within the same residential compound were also collected and identified. The hand-picking and body brushing methods were employed to search for ticks, fleas, lice and mites. Of the 150 soil samples examined, 55 (36.7 % were positive for 1 or more eggs of helminth parasites. There was no significant difference in the distribution of eggs in the soil samples from the 3 areas sampled (c2=0.046, df=2, P>0.05. Ascaris species were the dominant parasite eggs found. Of the 180 faecal samples examined, 107 (59.4 % were positive for 1 or more eggs of helminth parasites. Chi-square analysis showed no significant difference in the level of infection of different animal faeces sampled (c2=5.74, df=4, P>0.05. Ascaris species were again the dominating helminth parasite eggs found. There was also no significant difference in the prevalence of helminth eggs in the animal faecal samples from the 3 areas sampled (c2=5.99, df=4, P>0.05. A total of 1908 ectoparasites was recovered (ticks: 32.80 %; lice: 22.43 %; fleas: 22.06% and mite: 22.69 %. There was no significant difference in infestation animals between sexes (c2=0.10, df=4, P>0.05. The predominant genus encountered for ticks were Amblyomma, while Linognathus (43.90%, Ctenocephalides (97.38% and Sarcoptes (58.89 % were most predominant for lice, fleas and mites respectively. The public health implications of the findings, especially as these relate to the increasing incidence and prevalence of zoonotic infections, are discussed.

  20. Malaria prevalence pattern observed in the highland fringe of Butajira, Southern Ethiopia: A longitudinal study from parasitological and entomological survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengesha Tesfaye

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Ethiopia, information regarding highland malaria transmission is scarce, and no report has been presented from Butajira highland so far whether the appearance of malaria in the area was due to endemicity or due to highland malaria transmission. Thus this study aimed to determine the presence and magnitude of malaria transmission in Butajira. Methods For parasitological survey, longitudinal study was conducted from October to December 2006. The entomological surveys were done from October to December 2006 and continued from April to May 2007. Both parasitological and entomological surveys were done using standard procedures. Results The parasitological result in all the survey months (October-December showed an overall detection rate of 4.4% (48/1082 (CI 95%; 3.2-5.7% malaria parasite. Among infected individuals, 32 (3.0% of the infection was due to Plasmodium vivax and the rest 16 (1.5% were due to Plasmodium falciparum. The highest prevalence 39(3.6% of the parasite was observed in age groups of above 15 years old. Among the total tested, 25(2.3% of males and 23(2.1% of females had malaria infection. Among tested individuals, 38(5.3% and 10 (2.7% of infection was occurred in Misrak-Meskan (2100 m a.s.l and Mirab-Meskan (2280 m a.s.l, respectively which was statistically significant (X2 = 3.72, P Plasmodium species declined from October to December, the trend was non-significant (X2 for trend = 0.49, P > 0.05. The entomological survey showed a collection of 602 larvae and 80 adult Anopheles. Anopheles christyi was the dominant species both in the first (45.3% and in the second (35.4% surveys; where as, Anopheles gambiae sensu lato comprised 4.7% and 14.6%, in the first and second surveys, respectively. Anopheles gambiae s.l comprises 55% of the adult collection, and both species were collected more from outdoors (57.5%. The number of An. christyi was higher in Mirab-Meskan (58. 3% than Misrak-Meskan (41.7% (P Conclusion

  1. Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis in Wild Canines (Fox, Jackal, and Wolf in Northeastern Iran Using Parasitological, Serological, and Molecular Methods

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    Mehdi Mohebali

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although many studies had been conducted on various aspects of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL in domestic dogs in the endemic areas of Iran, investigations on CVL in wild canines are rare.Methods: This is a cross-sectional study was conducted from December 2012 to 2013 in northeast of Iran where human VL is endemic. Wild canines were trapped around the areas where human VL cases had been previously identified. Wild canines were collected and examined both clinically and serologically using direct agglutination test (DAT. Microscopically examinations were performed in all the seropositive wild canines for the presence of the amastigote form of Leishmania spp. Some Leishmania sp. which had been isolated from the spleens of wild canines, were examined analyzed by conventional PCR and sequencing techniques using α-tubulin and GAPDH genes.Results: Altogether, 84 wild canines including foxes (Vulpes vulpes, n=21, Jackals (Canis aureus, n=60 and wolves (Canis lupus, n=3 were collected. Four foxes and seven jackals showed anti-Leishmania infantum antibodies with titers of 1:320–1:20480 in DAT. Furthermore, one fox and one jackal were parasitologically (microscopy and culture positive and L. infantum was confirmed by sequence analysis.Conclusion: The present study showed that sylvatic cycle of L. infantum had been established in the studied endemic areas of VL in northeastern Iran.

  2. A molecular and parasitological survey on cutaneous leishmaniasis patients from historical city of Kashan in Isfahan province, center of Iran

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    Mohammad Reza Shiee

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL for identifying the dominant Leishmania species on CL patients referred to medical health centers of historical Kashan city and suburbs located in Isfahan province in central part of Iran during 2010 to 2011. Methods: From 137 CL cases, were microscopically positive, the skin lesion serosity materials of 103 cases were cultured in monophasic culture media (RPMI 1 640. We used the PCR-RFLP method for characterization the Leishmania isolates, by using specific internal transcribed spacer (ITS1 primers and HAEШ as the restriction fast enzyme. DNA was extracted from 63 samples. Results: L. tropica is main species in 58 (92.1% cases and L. major is identified in 5 (7.9% cases. Indeed randomly two isolates were the species characterized as L. major produced ulcer at the base tail of BALB/c mice after 3 weeks but from three L. tropica isolates none of them produced any lesion during 6 months post inoculation. Conclusions: The parasitological, epidemiological aspect and molecular methods of this study showed that, Kashan and suburb are anthroponetic CL area despite this city located in Isfahan province as an ancient focus of zoonotic CL in Iran.

  3. Assessing transmission of lymphatic filariasis using parasitologic, serologic, and entomologic tools after mass drug administration in American Samoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mladonicky, Janice M; King, Jonathan D; Liang, Jennifer L; Chambers, Eric; Pa'au, Molisamoa; Schmaedick, Mark A; Burkot, Thomas R; Bradley, Mark; Lammie, Patrick J

    2009-05-01

    Assessing the interruption of lymphatic filariasis transmission after annual mass drug administration (MDA) requires a better understanding of how to interpret results obtained with the available diagnostic tools. We conducted parasitologic, serologic, and entomologic surveys in three villages in American Samoa after sentinel site surveys suggested filarial antigen prevalence was < 1% after five annual MDAs with diethylcarbamazine and albendazole. Antigen and antifilarial antibody prevalence ranged from 3.7% to 4.6% and from 12.5% to 14.9%, respectively, by village. Only one person was microfilaria positive. Although no children less than 10 years of age were antigen positive, antifilarial antibody prevalence in this age group was 5.1% and antibody-positive children were detected in all three villages. Wuchereria bancrofti-infected mosquitoes were also detected in all three villages. Thus, monitoring of infections in mosquitoes and antifilarial antibody levels in children may serve as indicators of local transmission and be useful for making decisions about program endpoints.

  4. Experience with a pilot plant for the irradiation of sewage sludge: Bacteriological and parasitological studies after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wizigmann, I.; Wuersching, F.

    1975-01-01

    Comparative bacteriological studies of sewage sludge in a sewage plant have demonstrated that mechanical-biological sewage treatment reduced the total bacterial count and those of Enterococces by 2 log and the Enterobacteriaceae by 3-4 log. Frequently Salmonella could be isolated from sewage sludge. A further reduction of viable micro-organisms could be achieved by irradiation of sewage sludge ( 60 Co, gamma-radiation, 260 krad, 210 min). This reduction amounted to an average of 2 log with Enterococces and total bacterial count, and to 5 log with Enterobacteriaceae. Out of 40 samples investigated after irradiation, two contained Salmonella. The hygienic effects of the irradiation unit were demonstrated by means of a model experiment with bacterial pure cultures. Micro-organisms of different species as well as strains of the same species differ in their sensitivity to irradiation. Parasitological experiments with eggs of Ascaris suum were carried out to test the inhibitory or killing ability of the gamma rays on the developing stages of parasites

  5. Thick Smear is a Good Substitute for the Thin Smear in Parasitological Confirmation of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mello, Cintia Xavier; Figueiredo, Fabiano Borges; Mendes Júnior, Artur Augusto Velho; Miranda, Luciana de Freitas Campos; de Oliveira, Raquel de Vasconcellos Carvalhaes; Madeira, Maria de Fátima

    2016-07-06

    Although direct examination methods are important for diagnosing leishmaniasis, such methods are often neglected because of their low sensitivity relative to other techniques. Our study aimed to evaluate the performance of bone marrow (BM) thick smears and cytocentrifugation tests as alternatives to direct examination for diagnosing canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL). Ninety-two dogs exhibiting leishmaniasis seroreactivity were evaluated. The animals were euthanized; and healthy skin, spleen, popliteal lymph node, and BM puncture samples were cultured. BM cultures were used as the reference standard. Of the 92 dogs studied, 85.9% exhibited positive cultures, and Leishmania infantum (synonym Leishmania chagasi) was confirmed in all positive culture cases. The sensitivity rates for cytocentrifugation as well as thin and thick smears were 47.1%, 52.8%, and 77%, respectively. However, no association between the dogs' clinical status and culture or direct examination results was found. To our knowledge, this was the first study to use thick smears and cytocentrifugation for diagnosing CVL. Our results indicate that BM thick smears have a good sensitivity and their use reduces the time required to read slides. Therefore, thick smears can provide a rapid and safe alternative to parasitological confirmation of seroreactive dogs. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  6. Pathological and parasitological characterization of Prosthenorchis elegans in a free-ranging marmoset Callithrix geofroyi from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayisa R. de Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Prosthenorchis elegans is an acanthocephalan intestinal parasite reported in neotropical primates. Despite parasitism by P. elegans having already been described in wild marmosets in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, there are no reports of this infection in wild Geoffroy’s marmoset (Callithrix geofroyi. The aim of this study is to report one case of P. elegans parasitism in a free-ranging C. geoffroyi from Brazilian Atlantic Forest in Espírito Santo state, and characterize the pathological and parasitological findings of this infection. One Geoffroy’s marmoset necropsied at the Vila Velha University’s Veterinary Pathology Laboratory presented intense chronic transmural ulcerative enteritis associated with twenty cylindrical helminths present in the jejunum and ileum. We can conclude that parasitism by P. elegans occurs in free-ranging groups of Geoffroy’s marmosets. Its infection produced severe intestinal lesions even in free-ranging marmoset and therefore is a threat to this animal’s survival in wildlife and can have some impact on primate conservation in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

  7. Experience with a pilot plant for the irradiation of sewage sludge; bacteriological and parasitological studies after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wizigmann, I.

    1976-01-01

    Reduction of viable micro-organisms could be achieved by irradiation of sewage sludge in a pilot plant ( 60 Co gamma-radiation 300 krad, 300 min.). The reduction amounted to an average of 2 log with Enterococces and total bacterial count and to 5 log with Enterobacteriaceae. Out of 23 sludge batches from digestor II, 21 were free of Salmonella after irradiation. Of 7 sludge batches from digester I with higher level of Enterobacteriaceae and Salmonellae 5 batches still contained Salmonella after treatment. By making some alterations in the pipe system and reloading futher Cobalt 60-sources the duration of irradiation could be reduced to 65 min. while maintaining the dose level of 300 krad. Employing this altered procedure 16 batches from digestor II and 4 from digestor I were irradiated to date. Only in one of 60 samples was Salmonella detectable. The hygenic effects of the irradiation unit were confirmed by means of a model experiment with bacterial pure cultures. Microorganisms of different species as well as strains of the same species differ in their radiation-sensitivity. Parasitological experiments were conducted with Ascaris suum ova. No embryonation was noted after radiation treatment at a dose of 300 krad. (author)

  8. Parasitological and serological studies on Amoebiasis and other intestinal parasitic infections in Recife and its suburban area, northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsu Okazaki

    1988-08-01

    Full Text Available Parasitological examinations were carried out during April to August, 1987, with 187 out-patients of the IMIP hospital, located in the center of Recife City, and 464 inhabitants of several villages around Cabo City, 50 Km southeast of Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. Approximately 71% of the IMIP patients and 92% of the Cabo inhabitants were infected with at least one species of intestinal parasite. There was minimum difference in the prevalence rate of Trichuris trichiura between two areas, whereas the prevalence rates of Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworms, Strongyloides stercoralis, Schistosoma mansoni and Entamoeba histolytica were higher in the inhabitants of the Cabo City area. Only Giardia lamblia was more prevalent in the out-patients of IMIP hospital. Test tube cultivation revealed that the prevalence rate of Necator americanus in both areas was much higher than that of Ancylostoma duodenale , and also that the prevalence rate of S. stercoralis of the IMIP patients and Cabo inhabitants were 4.5% and 9.6%, respectively. Six hundred and fifteen sera were serologically examined for amoebiasis by the gel diffusion precipitation test (GDP and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA using the antigen prepared from axenically cultured trophozoite of E. histolytica (strain HM-ITMSS. No positive reaction was observed in all of the sera as examined by GDP, while 32 out of 615 sera were positive on ELISA.

  9. Parasitological and molecular detection of Babesia canis vogeli in dogs of Recife, Pernambuco and evaluation of risk factors associated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Carla Lima da Silva

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to detect the presence of Babesia canis vogeli in dogs from Recife, Pernambuco via molecular and parasitological detection methods, and to assess the risk factors associated with this parasite. A total of 146 dogs (male and female of varying breeds and ages that presented clinical symptoms of babesiosis were assessed at a clinical care center in the Veterinary School Hospital. Blood was obtained via venopuncture for hemoparasite detection and polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Using a commercial kit, DNA was extracted from blood samples. For the PCR reaction, an approximately 590 base pair long genetic sequence was used to detect the presence of B. canis vogeli. The forward primer, denoted as BAB1 (5’-GTG AAC CTT ATC ACT TAA AGG-3’, was specific for a conserved region on the 18S rRNA gene of Babesia spp., and the antisense primer was denoted as BAB4 (5’-CAA CTC CTC CAC GCA ATC G-3’. PCR results suggested that the percentage of Babesia canis vogeli infection was 4.8%. Through descriptive statistical analysis of the data, we observed that there was higher frequency of parasite infection associated with male dogs above two years of age, with a defined breed, from the countryside, are domiciled, and also suffer from tick infestation. We conclude that regardless of the type of risk factor, babesiosis can be found throughout Recife, Pernambuco, and its prevalence does not vary in most regions of Brazil. Our results indicate that PCR is a sensitive test for the detection of blood parasites, and should be performed as a clinical routine.

  10. [Parasitological study of 78 cases of human cystic echinococcosis collected between 2005 to 2012 in Mustapha hospital center of Algiers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zait, H; Boulahbel, M; Normand, A C; Zait, F; Achir, I; Guerchani, M K; Chaouche, H; Ladjadj, Y; Hamrioui, B

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this work is to know the fertility rate of the metacestodes resulting from patients suffering from hydatidosis, the one of protoscoleces's viability and by comparing the results obtained with those found elsewhere. It reports, also, the epidemiological, clinical and diagnostically aspects of the studied patients. This study has carried on 78 hydatics samples resulting from 78 patients collected between 2005 and 2012 at the laboratory of parasitology of the Mustapha hospital center of Algiers. A questionnaire on the epidemiological context (contact with an animal-host of the cycle, place of residence, presence of family cases reached of hydatidosis and knowledge on the hydatic disease) concerned 69 patients. For each sample, a direct microscopic examination is made with or without vital staining. The presence of protoscoleces made qualified the fertile cyst. Those visualized moving or resistant to eosin at 0.2% are considered viables. Indirect diagnosis is based on the techniques: passive hemagglutination, electrophoresis, Elisa IgG Echinococcus granulosus and immunoblotting IgG "Echinococcus". Molecular analysis is based on PCR and sequencing the partials fragments of two mitochondrial genes with the primers COX1 and ND1. The results obtained show that the surgical frequency of hydatidosis is significant at the young adult and at the child. The epidemiological context associated at the disease is the conjointly presence of a dog and herbivores. The fertility rate of human hydatid cysts is 88.4% and the ones of viability of the protoscoleces is 74.5%. In this series, the serology shows global positivity at 70%. The molecular characterization of five samples identify the species: E. granulosus ss. Finally, the viability and fertility rates found here are raised. Sometimes viables protoscoleses are found after use of scolicidal solution. In front of these results, the parasitical treatment is more than necessary in order to minimize the risk of occurred of

  11. [The scientific conference: Konstanty Janicki (1876-1932): Professor of Warsaw University, eminent zoologist and protistologist, creator of the Polish parasitological school].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskwa, Bozena; Siński, Edward; Kazubski, Stanisław L

    2005-01-01

    The conference was organized for celebrating the memory of professor Konstanty Janicki, one of the most important Polish zoologist, protistologist and parasitologist. Professors Joanna Pijanowska, Edward Siński and Maria Doligalska were the hosts of the meeting at the Warsaw University. Four lectures were given during the conference. Professor Leszek Kuźnicki presented professor Janicki's life and followers who continued his research. Professor Stanisław Kazubski reminded the main topics of the parasitological studies conducted by professor Janicki. That lecture was illustrated by coloured diagrams taken from original papers published by Janicki. In the next lecture, professor Teresa Pojmańska reminded "the theory of the cercomer". She viewed some polemics and discussions made by the opponents of the theory. Professor Alicja Guttowa presented a paper on the history of the exploration of the D. latum life cycle and the main scientific researches carried out on each life stages of the broad tapeworm. Afterwards the lectures, professor Kazubski showed several pictures taken inside and outside of the Main School of the Warsaw University at the time when professor Janicki had been working there. The professor's students were also seen in these pictures. Next, associate professor Bozena Moskwa, the President of the Polish Parasitological Society presented the Konstanty Janicki Medal, awarded for outstanding activities for the benefit of parasitology. Up to data, 17 scientists and one school: the Warsaw Uniwersity was honored with this Medal. After the conference, participants visited the Powazki Cementary, where the renovated sepulchral monument of professor Konstanty Janicki was uncovered.

  12. Simple, but not easy - Opportunities and challenges from teachers' and students' perspectives in the 21st century of veterinary parasitology teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strube, Christina; Raue, Katharina; Janecek, Elisabeth

    2018-03-15

    One of the main goals in academia is, and has been, high quality education of students to provide theoretical and practical knowledge essential for professional life. Achieving this goal is highly dependent on teaching procedures and, consequently, on a constant adaptation of teaching styles to align to technical advances and cutting-edge topics. Technical advances can strongly influence teaching and learning in the complex subject area of veterinary parasitology. Today's students are provided with extensive, digital lecture notes, and e-learning offers including virtual microscope technology to independently obtain intensified theoretical knowledge and understanding. As veterinary parasitology is also highly reliant on proficient practical skills, lectures with integrated diagnostic exercises are mandatory. Nowadays, such practical skills, such as carrying out faecal examination procedures, can be strengthened by having access to clinical skills labs. Advances such as digital lecture notes, e-learning and virtual microscopes do not only provide new, innovative opportunities, but can also comprise challenges. In this context, provision of sufficient relevant studying material may discourage students to take on responsibilities for autonomous gathering of information. Besides technical advances, 'Zeitgeist' changes are shaping teaching contents, which are progressively expanding as zoonoses are increasingly being focused on. With the aim of adopting the one-health concept, students today are expected not only to bear responsibilities for animals, but also for their owners and public health. This article will cast light on some key challenges and opportunities in modern veterinary parasitology teaching from the teachers´ and the students´ perspectives. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Ecological aspects of parasitology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kennedy, Clive Russell

    1976-01-01

    ... of these habitats that enable them to cope with and overcome these difficulties. The third section is concerned with population ecology, and emphasises that although individual parasites have to face and overcome particular problems, parasitism is essentially a dynamic relationship between two species populations.

  14. Journal of Parasitology

    OpenAIRE

    Cheadle, M. A.; Lindsay, D. S.; Greiner, E. C.

    2006-01-01

    Serum was collected from laboratory-reared Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana) to determine whether experimentally infected opossums shedding Sarcocystis neurona sporocysts develop serum antibodies to S. neurona merozoite antigens. Three opossums were fed muscles from nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus), and 5 were fed muscles from striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis). Serum was also collected from 26 automobile-killed opossums to determine whether antibodies to S. neurona were p...

  15. Journal of Parasitology

    OpenAIRE

    Dubey, J. P.; Lindsay, D. S.; Kwok, O. C. H.; Shen, S. K.

    2001-01-01

    The dose-related infectivity of Sarcocystis neurona sporocysts and merozoites. of 2 recent isolates of S. neurona was compared in gamma interferon knockout (KO) mice. Tenfold dilutions of sporocysts or merozoites were bioassayed in mice, cell culture, or both. All 8 mice, fed 1,000 sporocysts, developed neurological signs with demonstrable S. neurona in their tissues. Of 24 mice fed low numbers of sporocysts. (100, 10, 1), 18 became ill by 4 wk postinoculation, and S. neurona was demonstrated...

  16. Ecological aspects of parasitology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kennedy, Clive Russell

    1976-01-01

    .... The second section is concerned with the specific problems and difficulties posed by the major organs and tissues occupied by parasites, and the tactical solutions adopted by parasites in each...

  17. Course of Chronic Trypanosoma cruzi Infection after Treatment Based on Parasitological and Serological Tests: A Systematic Review of Follow-Up Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanina Sguassero

    Full Text Available Chagas disease is caused by the flagellate protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi. It is endemic in Latin American countries outside the Caribbean. The current criterion for cure in the chronic phase of the disease is the negativization of at least two serological tests such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, indirect immunofluorescence assay (IIF and indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA. The serological evolution of treated subjects with chronic T. cruzi infection is variable. Treatment failure is indicated by a positive parasitological and/or molecular test (persistence of parasitemia.To summarize the pattern of response to treatment of parasitological, molecular and serological tests performed during the follow-up of subjects with chronic T. cruzi infection.Electronic searches in relevant databases and screening of citations of potentially eligible articles were accomplished. Organizations focusing on neglected infectious diseases were asked for help in identifying relevant studies. Included studies were randomized controlled trials (RCTs, quasi-RCTs, and cohort studies involving adults and children with chronic infection who received trypanocidal treatment (benznidazole or nifurtimox and were followed over time. The assessment of risk of bias was performed separately for each study design. The Cochrane Collaboration's tool and the guidelines developed by Hayden et al. were used. Two reviewers extracted all data independently. A third review author was consulted in case of discordant opinion. Additional analyses were defined in ad-hoc basis. Scatter plots for percentage of positive parasitological and molecular tests and for negative serological tests were developed by using the lowess curve technique. Heterogeneity was measured by I2. The protocol was registered in PROSPERO, an international prospective register of systematic review protocols (Registration Number CRD42012002162.Out of 2,136 citations screened, 54 studies (six RCTs

  18. Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: clinical, parasitological, therapeutical and epidemiological findings (1977-1983

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro C. A. Marzochi

    1985-09-01

    Full Text Available Forty dogs from the periphery of the city of Rio de Janeiro were studied. All dogs where diagnosed as positive for leishmaniasis either parasitologically and/or serologically. Among them, 19 came from areas where only Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL occurs (Realengo, Bangu, Senador Camará. Clinical signs of the disease were seen in 36.8% of the cases, including emaciation - 100%, lymphadenopathy and depilation - 85.7%. The other 21 dogs came from an area (Campo Grande where both diseases (VL, and American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis - ACL occur. Clinical signs of the disease, mainly cutaneous or mucocutaneous ulcers were seen in 76.2% of the cases. Leishmania parasites were found in 39 cases: 22% in viscera, 42.5% in viscera and normal skin and 35% in cutaneous or mucocutaneous ulcers. All the Leishmania stocks isolated from dogs which came from Realengo, Bangu, Senador Camará (VL area, and from Campo Grande (VL + ACL area were characterized as L. donovani (except in one case according to their schizodeme, zymodeme and serodeme. The only stock characterized as L. b. braziliensis, was isolated from the lymph node of a dog from Campo Grande with visceral disease and without skin lesions. Antimony therapy attempted in eight Leishmania donovani positive dogs was unsuccessful.Durante inquéritos caninos realizados na periferia da cidade do Rio de Janeiro, foram estudados clínica e laboratorialmente 40 cães. Todos apresentavam diagnóstico parasitológico e/ou sorológico de leishmaniose. Dentre esses, 19 procediam de áreas de ocorrência de leishmaniose visceral (LV - Realengo, Bangu e Senador Camará. Sinais clínicos sugestivos da infecção foram observados em 36,8% deles (incluindo emagrecimento - 100%, linfadenopatia e depilação - 85,7%. Outros 21 cães procediam da área de Campo Grande onde tanto a LV como a leishmaniose tegumentar americana (LTA ocorrem. Sinais clínicos da infecção por Leishmania, principalmente ulcerações cutâneas e

  19. Blastocystis Isolates from Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome and from Asymptomatic Carriers Exhibit Similar Parasitological Loads, but Significantly Different Generation Times and Genetic Variability across Multiple Subtypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gie-Bele Vargas-Sanchez

    Full Text Available Blastocystis spp is a common intestinal parasite of humans and animals that has been associated to the etiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS; however, some studies have not found this association. Furthermore, many biological features of Blastocystis are little known. The objective of present study was to assess the generation times of Blastocystis cultures, from IBS patients and from asymptomatic carriers. A total of 100 isolates were obtained from 50 IBS patients and from 50 asymptomatic carriers. Up to 50 mg of feces from each participant were cultured in Barret's and in Pavlova's media during 48 h. Initial and final parasitological load were measured by microscopy and by quantitative PCR. Amplicons were purified, sequenced and submitted to GenBank; sequences were analysed for genetic diversity and a Bayesian inference allowed identifying genetic subtypes (ST. Generation times for Blastocystis isolates in both media, based on microscopic measures and molecular assays, were calculated. The clinical symptoms of IBS patients and distribution of Blastocystis ST 1, 2 and 3 in both groups was comparable to previous reports. Interestingly, the group of cases showed scarce mean nucleotide diversity (π as compared to the control group (0.011±0.016 and 0.118±0.177, respectively, whilst high gene flow and small genetic differentiation indexes between different ST were found. Besides, Tajima's D test showed negative values for ST1-ST3. No statistical differences regarding parasitological load between cases and controls in both media, as searched by microscopy and by qPCR, were detected except that parasites grew faster in Barret's than in Pavlova's medium. Interestingly, slow growth of isolates recovered from cases in comparison to those of controls was observed (p<0.05. We propose that generation times of Blastocystis might be easily affected by intestinal environmental changes due to IBS probably because virulent strains with slow growth may be

  20. Parasitological and immunological effects induced by immunization of Mandrillus sphinx against the human filarial Loa loa using infective stage larvae irradiated at 40 krad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akue J.P

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Six mandrills were immunized with 150 Loa loa infective stage larvae (L3 irradiated with 40 Krad, and challenged with 100 L3, 60 days after initial vaccination. The parasitological outcome of this immunization was compared to results from six mandrills infected with normal L3. No clear association was seen between vaccination and microfilaremia until day 245 when a significant drop in the level of microfilaria occured in vaccinated compared to infected animals (5 vs 10 mf/ml; p = 0.012. A one-year follow-up of the humoral immune response showed a strong adult, microfilariae (Mf and L3 specific IgG response, with distinct profiles for each extract. In immunized animal a significant decrease in antibody level was systematically observed between days 90-145 for the anti-L3 and anti-adult IgG. However, in the same group anti-Mf antibody levels that peaked around 160-175 days post-challenge, were inversely correlated with the decrease in Mf density between day 200 and day 386. These results suggest that immunization with irradiated L3 using these specific conditions may affect the appearance of Mf.

  1. A serological, parasitological and clinical evaluation of untreated Chagas disease patients and those treated with benznidazole before and thirteen years after intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado-de-Assis, Girley Francisco; Diniz, Glaucia Alessio; Montoya, Roberto Araújo; Dias, João Carlos Pinto; Coura, José Rodrigues; Machado-Coelho, George Luiz Lins; Albajar-Viñas, Pedro; Torres, Rosália Morais; de Lana, Marta

    2013-01-01

    The etiological treatment of Chagas disease is recommended for all patients with acute or recent chronic infection, but controversies remain regarding the benefit of chemotherapy and interpretations of the parasitological cure after etiological treatment. This study compares the laboratory and clinical evaluations of Chagas disease patients who were diagnosed 13 years earlier. Fifty-eight Chagas disease patients (29 treated with benznidazole and 29 untreated) were matched at the time of treatment based on several variables. Conventional serology revealed the absence of seroconversion in all patients. However, lower serological titres were verified in the treated group, primarily among patients who had the indeterminate form of the disease. Haemoculture performed 13 years after the intervention was positive for 6.9% and 27.6% of the treated and untreated patients, respectively. Polymerase chain reaction tests were positive for 44.8% and 13.8% of the treated and untreated patients, respectively. Patients who presented with the indeterminate form of the disease at the beginning of the study exhibited less clinical progression (17.4%) compared with the untreated group (56.5%). Therefore, this global analysis revealed that etiological treatment with benznidazole may benefit patients with respect to the clinical progression of Chagas disease and the prognosis, particularly when administered to patients with the indeterminate form of the disease. PMID:24037109

  2. First parasitological, histopathological and molecular characterization of Echinococcus vogeli Rausch and Bernstein, 1972 from Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766 in the Cerrado biome (Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt-Oliveira, Fernanda; Teixeira, Paulo; Alencar, Alba; Menezes, Rodrigo; Corrêa, Christiane; Neves, Leandro; Almeida, Fernanda; Daipert-Garcia, Daniel; Machado-Silva, José Roberto; Rodrigues-Silva, Rosângela

    2018-01-30

    Polycystic echinococcosis (PE) is caused by Echinococcus vogeli metacestodes (larval stage) in Neotropical countries. E. vogeli is trophically-transmitted between predators bush dogs (Speothos venaticus) and prey pacas (Cuniculus paca). In Brazil, reported PE cases are restricted to the Amazon biome. In this study, metacestodes from a paca hunted in Mato Grosso do Sul state (Cerrado biome) were identified morphological and histopathological techniques and further confirmed by molecular testing (sequencing of cytochrome C oxidase subunit I (cox1) gene) for the first time. Images of the whole liver showed superficial bubble-like hepatic masses. The parasitological analysis revealed large hooks (41.3 ± 1.2 μm length/12.8 ± 0.8 μm width) and small hooks (33.0 ± 1.5 μm length/11.1 ± 1.2 μm width), consistent with E. vogeli. Microscopically, the liver showed protoscoleces, a thick laminated layer, fibrosis, and inflammatory infiltrate in the adventitial layer. The DNA sequencing confirmed E. vogeli with 99% homology with sequences deposited in the GenBank. In addition, this finding greatly extends the geographic range of animal polycystic echinococcosis into the Cerrado. It is likely to occur in new biomes, where bush dogs and pacas share a given area in a trophic relationship. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Scratch that itch: revisiting links between self-directed behaviour and parasitological, social and environmental factors in a free-ranging primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duboscq, Julie; Romano, Valéria; Sueur, Cédric; MacIntosh, Andrew J J

    2016-11-01

    Different hypotheses explain variation in the occurrence of self-directed behaviour such as scratching and self-grooming: a parasite hypothesis linked with ectoparasite load, an environmental hypothesis linked with seasonal conditions and a social hypothesis linked with social factors. These hypotheses are not mutually exclusive but are often considered separately. Here, we revisited these hypotheses together in female Japanese macaques ( Macaca fuscata fuscata ) of Kōjima islet, Japan. We input occurrences of scratching and self-grooming during focal observations in models combining parasitological (lice load), social (dominance rank, social grooming, aggression received and proximity), and environmental (rainfall, temperature and season) variables. Using an information-theory approach, we simultaneously compared the explanatory value of models against each other using variation in Akaike's information criterion and Akaike's weights. We found that evidence for models with lice load, with or without environmental-social parameters, was stronger than that for other models. In these models, scratching was positively associated with lice load and social grooming whereas self-grooming was negatively associated with lice load and positively associated with social grooming, dominance rank and number of female neighbours. This study indicates that the study animals scratch primarily because of an immune/stimulus itch, possibly triggered by ectoparasite bites/movements. It also confirms that self-grooming could act as a displacement activity in the case of social uncertainty. We advocate that biological hypotheses be more broadly considered even when investigating social processes, as one does not exclude the other.

  4. [A new parasitological index for the estimation of peculiarities of the relationships between parasite and its host, and biotope of the host].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanov, I I; Chachina, S B; Korallo, N P; Dmitriev, V V

    2006-01-01

    A new parasitological index (hostal-topical index) for the estimation of the degree of ectoparasite's relationship with its host and biotope of the host is proposed: [formula: see text], where [formula: see text]--hostal-topical index; n--amount of ectoparasites of the given species on the given host species in the biotope; N--amount of ectoparasites of all species from the given taxonomic group on the given host species in the biotope; n1--amount of hosts of the given species in the biotope; N1--amount of hosts of all species from the given taxonomic group in the biotope; n2--amount of ectoparasites of the given species in the biotope; N2--amount of ectoparasites of all species from the given taxonomic group in the biotope. Values [formula: see text] 0.5 indicate a significant relationship with the host. By means of this index we have analyzed peculiarity of several parasitic species of fleas and gamasid mites to their hosts, biotopes, and biotope through the host. As it was found on the materials from different native zones and subzones of the Omsk Region (Western Siberia, Russia), values of the hostal-topical index for polyhostal parasitic species are lesser than those for oligohostal species. Values of this index can be different for the same species in the different native zones and subzones as well as in the different biotopes of the same native zone (subzone).

  5. Twelve-month longitudinal parasitological assessment of lymphatic filariasis-positive individuals: impact of a biannual treatment with ivermectin and albendazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamitie, John N; Ahorlu, Collins S; Otchere, Joseph; Aboagye-Antwi, Fred; Kwansa-Bentum, Bethel; Boakye, Daniel A; Biritwum, Nana-Kwadwo; Wilson, Michael D; de Souza, Dziedzom K

    2017-11-01

    Mass drug administration (MDA) for the control of lymphatic filariasis (LF), in Ghana, started in the year 2000. While this had great success in many implementation units, there remain areas with persistent transmission, after more than 10 years of treatment. A closer examination of the parasite populations could help understand the reasons for persistent infections and formulate appropriate strategies to control LF in these areas of persistent transmission. In a longitudinal study, we assessed the prevalence of microfilaraemia (mf) in two communities with 12 years of MDA in Ghana. In baseline surveys 6 months after the National MDA in 2014, 370 consenting individuals were tested for antigenaemia using immunochromatographic test (ICT) cards and had their mf count determined through night blood surveys. 48 ICT positives, of whom, 17 were positive for mf, were treated with 400 μg/kg ivermectin + 400 mg albendazole and subsequently followed for parasitological assessment at 3-month intervals for 1 year. This overlapped with the National MDA in 2015. There was a 68% parasite clearance 3 months after treatment. The pre-treatment mf count differed significantly from the post-treatment mf counts at 3 months (P = 0.0023), 6 months (P = 0.0051), 9 months (P = 0.0113) and 12 months (P = 0.0008). In these settings with persistent LF transmission, twice-yearly treatment may help accelerate LF elimination. Further large-scale evaluations are required to ascertain these findings. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Accuracy of parasitological and immunological tests for the screening of human schistosomiasis in immigrants and refugees from African countries: An approach with Latent Class Analysis.

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    Anna Beltrame

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is a neglected infection affecting millions of people, mostly living in sub-Saharan Africa. Morbidity and mortality due to chronic infection are relevant, although schistosomiasis is often clinically silent. Different diagnostic tests have been implemented in order to improve screening and diagnosis, that traditionally rely on parasitological tests with low sensitivity. Aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of different tests for the screening of schistosomiasis in African migrants, in a non endemic setting.A retrospective study was conducted on 373 patients screened at the Centre for Tropical Diseases (CTD in Negrar, Verona, Italy. Biological samples were tested with: stool/urine microscopy, Circulating Cathodic Antigen (CCA dipstick test, ELISA, Western blot, immune-chromatographic test (ICT. Test accuracy and predictive values of the immunological tests were assessed primarily on the basis of the results of microscopy (primary reference standard: ICT and WB resulted the test with highest sensitivity (94% and 92%, respectively, with a high NPV (98%. CCA showed the highest specificity (93%, but low sensitivity (48%. The analysis was conducted also using a composite reference standard, CRS (patients classified as infected in case of positive microscopy and/or at least 2 concordant positive immunological tests and Latent Class Analysis (LCA. The latter two models demonstrated excellent agreement (Cohen's kappa: 0.92 for the classification of the results. In fact, they both confirmed ICT as the test with the highest sensitivity (96% and NPV (97%, moreover PPV was reasonably good (78% and 72% according to CRS and LCA, respectively. ELISA resulted the most specific immunological test (over 99%. The ICT appears to be a suitable screening test, even when used alone.The rapid test ICT was the most sensitive test, with the potential of being used as a single screening test for African migrants.

  7. Comparison of parasitological and productive traits of Criollo lambs native to the central Mexican Plateau and Suffolk lambs experimentally infected with Haemonchus contortus.

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    Alba-Hurtado, F; Romero-Escobedo, E; Muñoz-Guzmán, M A; Torres-Hernández, G; Becerril-Pérez, C M

    2010-09-20

    The study compares the parasitological and productive traits of Criollo lambs native to the central Mexican Plateau (CNCMP) and Suffolk (SU) lambs experimentally infected with Haemonchus contortus. CNCMP lambs (n=20) and SU lambs (n=15) were infected with L3 of H. contortus while five lambs of each genotype were kept as controls. Fecal egg count (FEC), packed cell volume (PCV), blood eosinophil number (BEN), ocular mucous membrane color (as measured by the FAMACHA index), changes in body condition score (BCS) and cumulative live weight gain (CLWG) were measured weekly during a 20-week period. On week 20, all animals were euthanized and the number of adult worms (AW) in the abomasum was counted. Infected SU lambs had higher (p<0.05) FEC and AW mean values compared to CNCMP lambs, which had a higher mean BEN count (p<0.05). Infected lambs had lower PCV values than controls, regardless of genotype, and had a negative correlation (r=-0.84, p<0.05) with the FAMACHA index. BCS tended to decline for infected SU lambs and increased slightly for infected CNCMP lambs. CLWG differed in all groups (p<0.05); infected SU lambs gained 12.1+/-1.9kg, infected CNCMP lambs gained 18.8+/-0.7kg, control SU lambs gained 34.6+/-1.6kg, and control CNCMP lambs gained 26.9+/-0.8kg. In conclusion, CNCMP lambs had a smaller worm burden, a better ability to maintain their productive traits, and were less affected by infection with Haemonchus contortus.

  8. Detection of Leishmania spp. using parasitological, serological and molecular assays in asymptomatic and sick cats from an endemic area of visceral leishmaniosis in Brazil

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    Maria Fernanda Alves-Martin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the prevalence of feline leishmaniosis in 55 asymptomatic cats or assess clinical disease in a visceral leishmaniasis-endemic area using parasitological, serological and molecular techniques. Methods: Fifty-five adult domestic and non-purebred cats held at an animal shelter in a rural area of the municipality of Ilha Solteira, São Paulo, Brazil, a region endemic for canine visceral leishmaniosis, were evaluated. A total of 5 mL of blood was collected from each animal, for blood culture, serological (indirect fluorescent antibody test, soluble extract ELISA, ELISA recombinant K39 antigen and molecular tests (PCR. At the time of blood collection, the cats underwent clinical evaluation for the presence of clinical signs. Results: Flagellate protozoa were found in nine blood cultures (16.4%. Seropositivity by indirect fluorescent antibody test was observed in 32 serum samples (62.7%. ELISA-SE showed seropositivity in 37 cats (72.5%, while ELISA-rK39 revealed positive results in 11 cats (21.6%. Leishmania spp. was detected by PCR in whole blood samples from five cats (9.1%. Based on clinical evaluation, it was possible to detect the presence of clinical signs (alopecia, emaciation, pinna lesions, nose lesions, skin lesions in 30 animals (54.5%. Conclusions: To the knowledge of the authors, this is the first report of Leishmania spp. in domestic cats in the epidemiological cycle of leishmaniosis in the studied area, requiring more attention in the establishment of preventive steps to control this disease.

  9. A study of onchocerciasis with severe skin and eye lesions in a hyperendemic zone in the forest of southwestern Cameroon: clinical, parasitologic, and entomologic findings.

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    Somo, R M; Enyong, P A; Fobi, G; Dinga, J S; Lafleur, C; Agnamey, P; Ngosso, A; Ngolle, E M

    1993-01-01

    Prior to the initiation of an onchocerciasis control program based on the mass administration of ivermectin in the rain forest of southwestern Cameroon, a preliminary baseline study of the area was conducted. The results of this study showed that onchocerciasis was hyperendemic in the area. Skin symptoms and signs were observed including pruritus (67.4% of the population examined), onchocerca nodules (51.6%), skin depigmentation (18.5%), and hanging groins (5.7%). Except for pruritus, the prevalence of these symptoms increased with age. Of the eyes examined, 44.9% had microfilariae in the anterior chamber, 33.5% had choroidoretinitis, 28.0% had punctate keratitis, 8.3% had papillary abnormalities, and 3.6% had sclerosing keratitis. Vision in 10.5% of the eyes examined was classified as blind or very poor (visual acuity = 0-0.10), in 15.7% as poor (visual acuity = 0.11-0.39), and in 73.8% as good (visual acuity = 0.4-1.00). Unlike previous reports that have linked serious ocular damage mainly to savanna onchocerciasis, the present study showed that forest onchocerciasis also caused significant ocular pathology, including blindness. Parasitologically, positive skin snips were recorded for 92.7% of the persons examined, with both sexes being equally infected. The parasite load, expressed as the geometric mean number of microfilariae per skin snip, was 53.6, and was much higher in males than in females. The flv vector, Simulium squamosum, had a high infection rate of 7.5% infective females in Bakumba and 6.8% infective females in Ngbandi, the two fly-catching points. The transmission potential was 266 infective larvae per person per month in Bakumba and 189 in Ngbandi.

  10. Performance and Parasitology of Semi-intensively Managed West African Dwarf Sheep Exposed to Gastrointestinal Helminth Infect-ed Paddocks and Varied Protein-energy Feeds

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    Adekayode Olarinwaju SONIBARE

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The performance and parasitology of semi-intensively managed West African dwarf (WAD lambs were evaluated following exposure to gastrointestinal helminth infected paddock and varied protein-energy feeds.Methods: Twenty four lambs obtained from the Department of Animal Breeding and Genetics and brought to Directorate of University farm (DUFARM of Federal University of Agriculture Abeokuta, Ogun state, Nigeria, where the research was carried out in 2014, were grouped into four each containing six animals based on different energy-protein feed combination thus; group 1(G1 low energy low protein, group 2 (G2 low energy high protein, group 3 (G3 high energy low protein and group 4 (G4 high energy high protein. Experimental animals were supplemented with concentrate feed after grazing on daily in a nematode infected paddock. Clinical signs of infection were monitored. Live weight, faecal egg count (FEC, worm counts, packed cell volume (PCV, haemoglobin concentration (Hb and red blood cell count (RBC were determined using standard methods.Results: Anorexia and intermittent diarrhea were the observed signs. Worm counts did not differ significantly (P=0.309 among the groups. The weight and FEC differed significantly (P˂0.05 across the days and among the groups, while haematological parameters increased significantly (P˂0.05 across the days and among the groups.Conclusion: Lambs in G2 followed by G4 showed improved parameters and superior performance when compared to the other groups. It is therefore recommended that feed high in protein content is capable of mitigating deleterious effect of gastrointestinal helminth parasitism.

  11. Cooperia punctata trickle infections: parasitological parameters and evaluation of a Cooperia recombinant 14.2 kDa protein ELISA for estimating cumulative exposure of calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatsuda, A P; Kooyman, F N J; Ploeger, H W; Vieira-Bressan, M C R; de Vries, E; Eysker, M

    2002-04-30

    Three groups of four calves each were trickle infected with three different levels of Cooperia punctata: 310 (group A), 1250 (group B) and 5000 (group C) third stage infective larvae (L3) twice a week over a 17-week period. Group D was the non-infected control group. Parasitological parameters as faecal egg counts (epg), worm burdens, size of worms and number of eggs per female were collected and the differences between the groups compared. Serological analyses were also conducted to investigate the efficiency of a recombinant C. oncophora CoES 14.2kDa protein in an ELISA to detect C. punctata antibodies. Group C had higher faecal egg counts until week 9 when the values decreased to those in group B. Mean faecal egg counts in group A were always lower than in the two other infected groups. The worm burdens were highest in group C, and lowest in group A, although the number of worms as a percentage of total larval intake was higher for the lower group. The mean length of the worms was shorter and the number of eggs per female lower for group C than for both other groups. ELISA using the CoES 14.2kDa proved to be efficient in measuring C. punctata antibodies. For group C it took 4 weeks to get increased levels of antibodies and this was one and 2 months more for groups B and A, respectively. Overall, there was a congruent relation between C. punctata antibodies and the cumulative exposure to the three different levels of trickle infections.

  12. The use of bivariate spatial modeling of questionnaire and parasitology data to predict the distribution of Schistosoma haematobium in Coastal Kenya.

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    Hugh J W Sturrock

    Full Text Available Questionnaires of reported blood in urine (BIU distributed through the existing school system provide a rapid and reliable method to classify schools according to the prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium, thereby helping in the targeting of schistosomiasis control. However, not all schools return questionnaires and it is unclear whether treatment is warranted in such schools. This study investigates the use of bivariate spatial modelling of available and multiple data sources to predict the prevalence of S. haematobium at every school along the Kenyan coast.Data from a questionnaire survey conducted by the Kenya Ministry of Education in Coast Province in 2009 were combined with available parasitological and environmental data in a Bayesian bivariate spatial model. This modeled the relationship between BIU data and environmental covariates, as well as the relationship between BIU and S. haematobium infection prevalence, to predict S. haematobium infection prevalence at all schools in the study region. Validation procedures were implemented to assess the predictive accuracy of endemicity classification.The prevalence of BIU was negatively correlated with distance to nearest river and there was considerable residual spatial correlation at small (~15 km spatial scales. There was a predictable relationship between the prevalence of reported BIU and S. haematobium infection. The final model exhibited excellent sensitivity (0.94 but moderate specificity (0.69 in identifying low (<10% prevalence schools, and had poor performance in differentiating between moderate and high prevalence schools (sensitivity 0.5, specificity 1.Schistosomiasis is highly focal and there is a need to target treatment on a school-by-school basis. The use of bivariate spatial modelling can supplement questionnaire data to identify schools requiring mass treatment, but is unable to distinguish between moderate and high prevalence schools.

  13. Biochemical and Parasitological Studies on the Effect of hUCB-Selected CD34+ Progenitor/Stem Cells in Mice Infected with Schistosoma mansoni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Zied, Akram M.; Soliman, Rasha H.; Hefila, Shorouk M.; Imam, Samir A.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Placenta and blood that remained in the umbilical cord is routinely available as a discarded tissue after deliveries and it is free of any legal, moral, ethical or religious objections, providing a high number of multipotent CD34+ progenitor and stem cells. Using ex vivo isolated CD34+ cells from human umbilical cord blood (hUCB) have emerged as promising candidates to treat various diseases, including exogenous pathogenic infections. We have expanded to build a rational approach to study the effect of CD34+ cells after damaged liver tissues by the devastating human parasitic flatworm Schistosoma mansoni. Methods and Results: Experimental studies were conducted in the Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science and Departments of Parasitology and Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, SCU, Egypt. We have studied the impact of ex vivo preparation of CD34+ cells from hUCB on S. mansoni-induced liver fibrosis de novo, and treated for shorter and longer periods in vivo. Ova count, ALT and albumin were measured at specific time interval and histopathological examination of liver was conducted to confirm the biochemical results. The data obtained were statistically analyzed by ANOVA between groups. It was found that the administration of CD34+ cells have modestly reduced liver damage; reduced the S. mansoni infection associated elevation in serum levels of ALT; significantly improved serum levels of albumin and reduced egg granuloma diameter in the livers. Conclusions: We demonstrated that CD34+ cells can markedly ameliorated liver fibrosis in vivo and may be beneficial for therapy to recover organ structure and/or function of S. mansoni-infected mice. PMID:25473447

  14. Parasitological and histological analysis of a new species of the genus Thalohanellus and description of a myxozoan parasite (Myxosporea: Bivalvulida from cultured ornamental goldfish, Carassius auratus L.

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    Mandira Saha

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available An ornamental fish parasitological survey of West Bengal, India during the year 2014–16 revealed that goldfish, Carassius auratus, was the most susceptible species for myxozoan infestation. This communication revealed the presence of two myxosporean species belonging to the genera Myxobolus and Thelohanellus. Although myxozoan infestation has been determined by isolating small to large, spherical to ellipsoidal plasmodia up to 0.5–2.5 mm were filled with disporic pansporoblasts and mature spores. M. ichkeulensis and one new species T. dipaki n. sp. have been isolated infecting the ornamental goldfish (Carassius auratus for the first time in India. In the present study, new host, and new locality for M. ichkeulensis have been reported. The description of M. ichkeulensis is being considered as a first report from India. Spore of T. dipaki n. sp. measures uniquely 13.99 ± 0.60 × 9.82 ± 0.60 μm in size, having a one globular pyriform polar capsule measuring 7.45 ± 0.62 × 5.91 ± 0.39 μm. The severity of newly isolated myxozoan infestation has also been assessed by the histopathological changes of fins of the hostfish. A combination of light and scanning electron microscopic observation along with its severity of infestation, comparison of same and closely related species has been incorporated to identify the new species. The paper deals with the diversity, distribution and taxonomic descriptions of new and known myxozoan species along with new host, locality records and incidence of infestation.

  15. [Ways of improving the education of specialists from the health care organizations, agencies, and institutions of the Russian Inspectorate for the Protection of Consumer Rights and Human Welfare, in the area of parasitology].

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    Astanina, S Iu; Dovgalev, A S; Avdiukhina, T I

    2014-01-01

    The intensive modern Russian reforms in professional education require that stafftraining in medicine should be also improved. The main directions and ways of improving education in the specialty of Parasitology are as follows:--to update professional education, by applying a competence approach, in terms of which the main focus is on mastering the activity and obtaining the experience in make this activity in different situations;--to apply the modular principle in the design of educational programs and a teaching process;--to improve the fundamental training of staff in the area ofparasitology;--to enhance the integration of special, related, and basic disciplines in stafftraining.

  16. [The distribution of intestinal parasites in people admitted to the Yüzüncü Yıl University Parasitology Laboratory of Health Research and Training Hospital, in 2009].

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    Yılmaz, Hasan; Taş-Cengiz, Zeynep; Ceylan, Abdulkadir; Ekici, Abdurrahman

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to present the distribution of intestinal parasites in parients admitted to the Parasitology Laboratory of the Health Research and Training Hospital of Yüzüncü Yıl University in 2009. A total of 6267 patients (3037 female, 3230 male; 3798 of 13 years and under, 2469 of 14 years and over) were included. The stool samples were examined by native-Lugol, flotation and sedimentation methods in the Parasitology Laboratory of the hospital. Trichrome and modified acid-fast staining methods were also applied to suspicious stools. One or more than one parasite species were found in 28.5% of 6267 examined stool samples. Parasitosis was determined in 28% of female and 29% of male. Distribution of the parasites determined in the patients was as follows: 15.4% Blastocystis hominis, 6.6% Giardia intestinalis, 4.9% Entamoeba coli, 3.2% plenty B. hominis, 1.7% Chilomastix mesnili, 1.3% Hymenolepis nana, 0.7% Iodamoeba butschlii, 0.5% Ascaris lumbricoides, 0.1% Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar, 0.1% Endolimax nana, 0.1% Enteromonas hominis, 0.1% Trichomonas hominis, 0.1% Cyclospora cayetanensis, 0.1% Enterobius vermicularis, 0.03% Entamoeba hartmanni, 0.03% Dicrocoelium dendriticum,0.03% Taenia saginata and 0.02% Trichuris trichiura. This research shows that the intestinal parasitosis problem still continues in the province.

  17. Parasitological and nutritional status of school-age and preschool-age children in four villages in Southern Leyte, Philippines: Lessons for monitoring the outcome of Community-Led Total Sanitation.

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    Belizario, Vicente Y; Liwanag, Harvy Joy C; Naig, June Rose A; Chua, Paul Lester C; Madamba, Manuel I; Dahildahil, Roy O

    2015-01-01

    While preventive chemotherapy remains to be a major strategy for the prevention and control of soil-transmitted helminthiases (STH), improvements in water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) comprise the long-term strategy to achieve sustained control of STH. This study examined the parasitological and nutritional status of school-age and preschool-age children in four villages in Southern Leyte, Philippines where two of the villages attained Open-Defecation-Free (ODF) status after introduction of Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS). A total of 341 children (89.0% of the total eligible population) submitted stool samples which were examined using the Kato-Katz technique. Results showed that 27.9% of the total stool samples examined had at least one type of STH (cumulative prevalence), while 7.9% had moderate-heavy intensity infections. Between the two villages where CLTS was introduced, Buenavista had a significantly higher cumulative prevalence of STH at 67.4% (pnutritional parameters, as well as the presence of CLTS in the village, suggesting the need to monitor the ODF status of villages on a regular basis even after the end of CLTS activities to ensure the sustainability of the CLTS approach. In order to achieve effective control of STH, deeper collaboration between the WASH and STH sectors are recommended where partners can work together in the area of monitoring and evaluation that may include improved parasitological and nutritional status in high-risk groups, as well as sustainable behavior change as outcome indicators. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. [Intestinal parasitosis among non-permanent resident students in Tunisia: a review of 23 years of monitoring in the department of Parasitology-Mycology at the Rabta Hospital of Tunisia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dridi, Kalthoum; Fakhfakh, Najla; Belhadj, Sleh; Kaouech, Emira; Kallel, Kalthoum; Chaker, Emna

    2015-07-01

    In order to fight digestive parasitism in Tunisia, a national program of surveillance of non-permanent resident students in Tunisia has been found to detect these parasitosis in this target population. To determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis among non-permanent resident students in Tunisia, to identify the different parasitic species founded and to show the interest of this screening. During a period of 23 years (1990-2012), 7386 parasitological examinations of stools has been made among students essentially from or had visited tropical Africa, Maghreb and Middle-East, at the laboratory of Parasitology-Mycology at the Rabta Hospital of Tunis. The prevalence of intestinal parasitism found was 34.45% (i.e. 2545 infested students). Among the protozoa that have been isolated in the majority of cases (78.75%), amoebae were most frequently found (86.4%) represented mainly by Entamoeba coli and Endolimax nanus in respectively, 25.62 and 23.33% of parasites isolated; while Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, only pathogenic Amoeba was found in 8.05% of the total of parasites isolated. Regarding helminths, found in 21.25% of parasites isolated, Ankylostome was predominant (34.5%) represented by the species of Necator americanus. A single case of Ancylostom duodenale has been isolated. Among the identified parasite species, 38.7% were known parasitic pathogens for humans. These results note the interest of the control of the non-permanent resident students in Tunisia. The precocious tracking and treatment of affected subjects permits to avoid the introduction and the dissemination of parasites already rare and virulent strains in our country.

  19. Princípios de biossegurança aplicados aos laboratórios de ensino universitário de microbiologia e parasitologia Principles of biosafety applied to microbiology and parasitology laboratories in universities

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    Luis Antônio Sangioni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Os laboratórios de ensino de microbiologia e parasitologia nas universidades brasileiras são ambientes em que as atividades integradas, envolvendo ensino, pesquisa e extensão, demandam a convivência de pessoas, agentes e amostras biológicas, equipamentos, reagentes e resíduos num mesmo espaço, sendo inevitável a exposição das pessoas aos diferentes riscos. As atividades realizadas nesses laboratórios necessitam empregar as normas de segurança; pois, uma vez que o fator humano é susceptível aos acidentes, os programas de educação em biossegurança são imprescindíveis. Entretanto, para que esses programas sejam efetivos, é necessário que os usuários estejam devidamente informados acerca dos princípios de biossegurança, bem como aptos a colocá-los em prática de maneira correta, a fim de garantir a segurança dos profissionais, acadêmicos e do meio ambiente. Esta revisão compila os principais aspectos da biossegurança relacionados aos princípios e à classificação dos riscos, dos agentes biológicos e dos níveis de contenção laboratorial, bem como aborda as boas práticas laboratoriais nos laboratórios de ensino, pesquisa e extensão em microbiologia e parasitologia.The teaching laboratories of microbiology and parasitology in Brazilian universities are places where the integrated activities of teaching, research and extension are performed and require the coexistence in the same space, persons, biological agents and samples, equipment, reagents and waste, and where is inevitable the exposure of people to the different risks. The laboratorial activities practiced in Brazilian universities require the need for safety standards, since the human factor is likely the causes of accidents in laboratories, educational programs in biosafety become indispensable to the prevention of risks. However, for an education program become effective is necessary that the users are fully informed about the biosafety principles, as

  20. Prognostic value of clinical and parasitological signs for severe malaria in patients from Colombia Utilidad pronóstica para malaria grave de signos clínicos y parasitológicos en pacientes de Colombia

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    Silvia Blair-Trujillo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Early recognition of danger signs in patients with malaria can reduce complications and deaths, but little is known about its prognostic value for severe malaria, especially in areas of low transmission and unstable malaria.
    Objective. Assess the prognostic value for gravity that has different clinical and parasitological signs in patients with malaria.
    Materials and methods. A prospective cohort of patients from five municipalities in Colombia with diagnosis of malaria by Plasmodium falciparum or P. vivax, in whom was studied the association between clinical and parasitological signs with complicated malaria. Results. Was obtained a predictive model with a 47,4% sensitivity, 92,8% specificity, 63,2% positive predictive value and 87,1% negative predictive value, that includes jaundice, dark urine, hyperpyrexia and signs of dehydration.
    Conclusions. To impact the complicated cases caused by malaria it is proposed a strategy for the early recognition of danger signs by non-medical personnel, which could be accompanied by other elements of the healthcare, such as providing an adequate and appropriate antimalarial treatment. Also are proposed diagnostic criteria for moderate complications.
    Introducción. El reconocimiento temprano de signos de peligro en los pacientes con malaria puede reducir las complicaciones y muertes, sin embargo se conoce poco acerca de su valor pronóstico para malaria complicada, especialmente en zonas de transmisión baja e inestable de malaria.
    Objetivo. Estimar el valor pronóstico de gravedad que tienen diversos signos clínicos y parasitológicos en pacientes con malaria.
    Materiales y métodos. Cohorte prospectiva con pacientes de cinco municipios de Colombia con diagnóstico de malaria por Plasmodium falciparum y P. vivax, en quienes se estudió la asociación entre signos clínicos y parasitológicos con malaria complicada.
    Resultados. Se obtuvo un modelo predictivo con

  1. Aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e parasitológicos da doença de Chagas em Mato Grosso do Sul Epidemiological, clinical and parasitological aspects of Chagas' disease in Mato Grosso do Sul State

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    Maurício Antonio Pompilio

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e parasitológicos da doença de Chagas crônica, em pacientes do Hospital Universitário da Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, realizamos um estudo seccional envolvendo 120 chagásicos e 120 controles não-chagásicos, de ambos os sexos, com idades de 16 a 82 anos. Os aspectos epidemiológicos foram avaliados por questionário, a cardiopatia por exame clínico, eletrocardiograma convencional, radiologia e ecodopplercardiograma e a presença de Trypanosoma cruzi no sangue por xenodiagnóstico e teste da reação em cadeia da polimerase. Os resultados mostraram predominância de alóctones com baixa escolaridade e referência de contato prévio com triatomíneos entre os chagásicos. Abortamento espontâneo foi mais freqüente nas mulheres chagásicas. A cardiopatia devido ao componente chagásico foi estimada em 20,2%. Apresentou-se com 7,5% de cardiomegalia, 6,2% de aneurisma de ventrículo esquerdo e com predominância de dispnéia, palpitações e hipertensão arterial. O xenodiagnóstico foi positivo em 26,1% dos chagásicos enquanto a PCR foi positiva em 53,7%. A análise dos resultados indicou que a doença de Chagas no grupo estudado apresenta características clínicas e parasitológicas que revelam peculiaridades regionais.With the objective of evaluating epidemiologic, clinical and parasitologic aspects of chronic Chagas' disease in patients from the University Hospital of the Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul, a cross-sectional study was performed with groups of 120 chagasic and non-chagasic patients aged from 16 to 82 years. Epidemiologic aspects were evaluated by means of a questionnaire, cardiopathy by clinical examination, conventional electrocardiogram, radiology and Doppler echocardiograms (only in chagasic patients and the presence of Trypanosoma cruzi in the blood stream by way of xenodiagnosis and polymerase chain reaction test. The results

  2. Qualidade física, microbiológica e parasitológica de alfaces (Lactuca sativa de diferentes sistemas de cultivo Physical, microbiological and parasitological quality of lettuce (Lactuca sativa from different growing processes

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    Ligia Regina R. de Santana

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A alface (Lactuca sativa é a hortaliça folhosa mais comercializada no Brasil. Seu baixo valor calórico a qualifica para diversas dietas, o que favorece o seu consumo sob a forma crua, possibilitando a ocorrência de enfermidades intestinais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar uma avaliação física, microbiológica e parasitológica de amostras de alfaces, variedade crespa, provenientes dos sistemas de cultivo orgânico, tradicional e hidropônico, comercializadas nos principais supermercados da cidade de Salvador (BA, no período de setembro de 2003 a junho de 2004. As amostras do cultivo hidropônico apresentaram o menor peso total e da parte bio-comestível, diferindo significativamente (pThe lettuce (Lactuca sativa has economic importance to the people in Brazil. The aim of this study was to carry out a physical, microbiological and parasitological evaluations in the lettuce samples - crisp variety, according to organic, traditional and hydroponics growing processes, commercialized at the supermarkets of the City of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, collected from September/2003 until June/2004. The hydroponics lettuce samples showed the lowest total and edible part weight; they were inserted into Extra rate quality standard, according to the current legislation, whereas the organic and traditional lettuce samples were inserted into First and Second rate quality standard, respectively. The lettuce samples, independently of the growing process, showed low hygienic conditions, indicated by the presence of parasites of animal or human origin, and high concentration of fecal coliforms; the organic lettuce samples showed the highest frequencies of enteroparasities and fecal coliforms concentration, followed by the traditional and hydroponics lettuce samples. Considering the obtained results, the importance of this kind of food in the transmission of enteroparasities is stressed, as well as the need of actions which improve the sanitary conditions

  3. Enseñanza de la parasitología veterinaria a partir del uso de organismos vivos y tecnologías de la información y de la comunicación (TIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efraín Benavides Ortiz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Los parásitos son organismos que viven en otros organismos vivos o sobre ellos para obtener nutrientes sin brindar compensación a cambio. En las ciencias médicas y veterinarias, generalmente, se acepta como “parásito” solamente a eucariotas y metazoarios; es decir, protozoarios, helmintos y artrópodos. Algunos incluyen bacterias transmitidas por artrópodos, las rickettsias. La enseñanza de esta disciplina ha hecho hincapié en componentes taxonómicos de los organismos y ha descuidado aspectos del entendimiento de la relación huéspedparásito, la comprensión de interacciones ecológicas y ciclos silvestres, la coevolución en los nichos, que sustenta la posible selección de animales resistentes a los parásitos y los argumentos de genética de poblaciones, que permiten comprender la problemática del desarrollo de resistencia a los antiparasitarios. En este artículo se presentan experiencias docentes de la cátedra de Parasitología Veterinaria en la cual, aunque se continúan utilizando especímenes fijados en alcohol y formol para demostrar estructuras parasitarias, cada vez usa más organismos vivos como base del proceso didáctico, junto con tecnologías de la información y la comunicación (TIC para facilitar la comprensión sobre los procesos parasitarios en condiciones naturales del trópico.

  4. Inquérito parasitológico na CECAP, distrito-sede de Botucatu, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Parasitological survey at CECAP, Botucatu County, S. Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ednir Salata

    1972-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudo da prevalência de parasitas intestinais realizado em 370 indivíduos residentes na CECAP, distrito-sede de Botucatu, Estado de São Paulo, permitiu verificar que 41,62% encontravam-se infestados por uma ou mais espécies de parasitas intestinais. Foram encontrados os seguintes parasitas: Entamoeba histolytica 0,54%, E. coli 6,21%, I. butschlii 0,27%, Giardia lamblia 9,72%, Ancylostomidae 5,94%, Strongyloides stercoralis 6,75%, Trichuris trichiura 17,29%, Ascaris lumbricoides 7,56%, Enterobius vermicularis 3,78%, Hymenolepis nana 5,40% e Taenia sp. 1,62%. Apresentam-se dados sobre a distribuição dos parasitas em relação à idade e ao sexo dos indivíduos. O atributo cor não permite maiores considerações por serem os não brancos significantemente pouco numerosos. Dos indivíduos examinados, 25,67% apresentavam apenas uma espécie de parasita e entre as associações parasitárias mais freqüentes encontramos as de Ascaris lumbricoides - Trichuris trichiura e Trichuris trichiura - Giardia lamblia.A parasitological survey among 370 persons was carried out at CECAP, Botucatu County, S. Paulo State, Brazil. It was found that 41.62% of the examinated persons were infected with one or more species of intestinal parasites. The parasite's prevalence was: Entamoeba hystolytica 0.54%, E. coli 6.21%, I. butschlii 0.27%, Giardia lamblia 9.72%, Ancylostomidae 5.94%, Strongyloide stercoralis 6.75%, Trichuris trichiura 17.29%, Ascaris lumbricoides 7.56%, Enterobius vermicularis 3.78%, Hymenolepis nana 5.40% e Taenia sp. 1.62%. Tables are presented showing the distribution of the parasites according to age and sex. Race was not considered because the number of "not white" was significantly low. Of the examinated persons, 25.67% were infected with only one species of parasite and the parasitic associations most frequently found were Ascaris lumbricoides - Trichuris tricriura and Trichuris trichiura - Giardia lamblia.

  5. 42 CFR 493.917 - Parasitology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... vermicularis Entamoeba histolytica Entamoeba coli Giardia lamblia Endolimax nana Dientamoeba fragilis Iodamoeba... Diphyllobothrium latum Cryptosporidium sp. Plasmodium falciparum (3) For laboratories specified in paragraph (a)(1...

  6. Trypanosoma evansi: A clinical, parasitological and immunological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ibrahim Eldaghayes

    2012-08-13

    Aug 13, 2012 ... serum proteins in g/dl using a refractometer, haematocrit ... evansi IgG titer by indirect ELISA immunoassay, from both infected ... disease can be observed and the three characteristic stages, ... trypanosomosis caused by T. evansi have used horses .... The parasitemia as estimated by DME and MHCT for.

  7. Invasion ecology meets parasitology: Advances and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Poulin

    2017-01-01

    Biological invasions threaten the diversity and functioning of native ecosystems, and the rate at which species are being introduced to new areas shows no sign of slowing down. Parasites play roles in biological invasions, for instance when native parasites interact with exotic hosts, or when parasites themselves are introduced to new areas. However, publication trends show clearly that research on parasitism in the context of biological invasions is lagging far behind research on biological ...

  8. Parasitological Contamination of Wastewater Irrigated and Raw ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tadesse

    Occurrence of infective stages of intestinal parasites on wastewater- irrigated vegetables ..... reported the health hazards of agricultural reuse of untreated wastewater through detection of .... State of knowledge in land treatment of wastewater.

  9. Keeping parasitology under the One Health umbrella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Lucy J; Utaaker, Kjersti Selstad; Goyal, Kapil; Sehgal, Rakesh

    2014-08-01

    The One Health concept is no longer new, but remains an accepted concept in modern disease control - where the interactions between animal health, human health, and the environment in which we live are recognised as being of importance. However, emerging infectious diseases often garner the greatest attention and resources. Parasitic infections, many of which are zoonotic but cannot truly be considered as emerging, must ensure that they retain their place under the One Health umbrella. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Infection by Trypanosoma cruzi in mammals in Yucatan, Mexico: a serological and parasitological study Infecção pelo Trypanosoma cruzi em mamíferos em Yucatan, México: estudo sorológico e parasitológico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Zavala-Velázquez

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine Trypanosoma cruzi infection among mammals in Yucatan, Mexico, 372 animals, both wild and synanthropic including carnivores, marsupials and rodents were studied. Serological studies by indirect haemagglutination (IHA were carried out to detect antibodies to T. cruzi and a parasitological study was also performed (blood smear and histopathology. Of all the animals tested 18.54% were serologically positive, with a significantly higher frequency among the wild ones (33.33% compared to the synanthropic ones (17.79%. To determine T. cruzi in positive animals, blood was inoculated into a white mouse (webster type to prove myocardium colonization. The serological and parasitological positivity of these animals, as well as their behavior in the environment, taken together with the socioeconomic and cultural characteristics of the population, suggest that in Yucatan, Mexico, Canis familiaris, Didelphis marsupialis and Rattus rattus act as a link with the wild cycle.Para determinar a infecção pelo Trypanosoma cruzi em mamíferos em Yucatan, México, foram estudados 372 animais selvagens e sinantrópicos incluindo carnívoros, marsupiais e roedores. Estudos sorológicos pela hemaglutinação indireta (IHA foram realizados para detectar anticorpos contra o T. cruzi e estudos parasitológicos (esfregaços de sangue e histopatologia. De todos os animais testados 18,54% foram sorologicamente positivos com freqüência significativamente maior entre os silvestres (33,3% em comparação com os sinantrópicos (11,79%. Para determinação do T. cruzi nos animais positivos, o sangue foi inoculado em camundongos brancos (tipo Webster para provar a colonização miocárdica. Através da sua positividade sorológica e parasitológica, bem como seu comportamento no meio ambiente acompanhado pelas características sociais, econômicas e culturais da população, deduz-se que em Yucatan, México, Canis familiaris, Didelphis marsupialis e Rattus

  11. Parasitological and immunological diagnoses of strongyloidiasis in immunocompromised and non-immunocompromised children at Uberlândia, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil Diagnóstico parasitológico e imunológico da estrongiloidíase em crianças imunodeprimidas e imunocompetentes na cidade de Uberlândia, MG, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Martins de PAULA

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Parasitological and immunological diagnoses were part of a study conducted among 151 children, 83 immunocompromised (IC and 68 non-immunocompromised (non-IC aged from zero to 12, seen at the University Hospital, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, from February, 1996, to June, 1998. Three fecal samples from each child were analyzed for the parasitological diagnosis by Baermann-Moraes and Lutz methods. The immunological diagnosis to detect IgG and IgM antibodies was carried out by the indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT with cryo-microtome sections of Strongyloides stercoralis and Strongyloides ratti larvae as antigens and by the ELISA test with an alkaline extract of S. ratti as the antigens. Of the 151 children 5 (3.31% were infected with larvae of S. stercoralis (2 cases IC, 2.41%, and 3 cases non-IC, 4.41%. The IFAT-IgG detected 7 (8.43% serum samples positive among IC, and 2 (2.94% cases among non-IC. The ELISA-IgG test detected 10 (12.05% serum samples positive among IC, and 1 (1.47% case among non-IC. The IFAT-IgM detected 6 (7.22% positive cases among IC, and 3 (4.41% cases among non-IC. ELISA-IgM test detected 10 (12.05% positive cases among IC, and 3 (4.41% cases among non-IC. It was concluded that the immunological tests can help in the diagnosis of strongyloidiasis in immunocompromised children.O diagnóstico parasitológico e imunológico da estrongiloidíase foi realizado em 151 crianças (83 imunodeprimidas -ID e 68 imunocompetentes -IC de zero a 12 anos de idade internadas no Hospital de Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brasil, no período de fevereiro de 1996 a junho de 1998. Para o diagnóstico parasitológico três amostras de fezes de cada indivíduo foram processadas pelos métodos de Baermann-Moraes e de Lutz. O diagnóstico imunológico para a detecção de anticorpos IgG e IgM foi realizado através das reações de imunofluorescência indireta

  12. Aspectos clínicos, parasitológicos e produtivos de ovinos mantidos em pastagem de capim-aruana irrigado e adubado com diferentes doses de nitrogênio = Clinical, parasitological and productive evaluation of lambs under pasture of Aruana grass irrigated and fertilized with different doses of nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Maia Nogueira

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Esse trabalho objetivou avaliar os aspectos clínicos, parasitológicos e produtivos de cordeiros mestiços mantidos em pastejo rotativo de Panicum maximum cv. Aruana adubado com quatro doses de nitrogênio (75, 275, 475 e 675 kg ha-1 ano-1. Foram utilizados 18 cordeiros portratamento, perfazendo um total de 72 animais. Foram avaliados os seguintes parâmetros: ganho médio diário (GMD, ganho de peso total (GPT, taxa de lotação (TxL, produção total de carne, contagem do número de ovos por grama de fezes (OPG e coprocultura. A vermifugação dos animais foi realizada de acordo com a coloração da mucosa ocular comparada por meio do cartão Famacha©. Foi verificado que tanto o GMD quanto o GPT foram maiores (p This work aimed to evaluate clinical, parasitological and productive parameters of crossbred lambs under a rotational grazing system of Panicum maximum cv. Aruana grass fertilized with four doses of nitrogen (75, 275, 475 and 675 kg ha-1 year-1. Eighteen lambs were used per treatment, totaling 72 animals. The following parameters were evaluated: daily weight gain (DWG, total weight gain (TWG, stocking rate (SR, meat production, number of fecal eggs per gram (EPG and coproculture. Deworming was accomplished according to conjunctiva color compared using the Famacha© card. DWG and TWG were greater (p < 0.05 in the animals under pasture fertilized with 75 kg ha-1 year-1. However, SR and EPG were greater (p < 0.05 in the animals kept in pastures with 675 kg ha-1 year-1. There were no significant differences among nitrogen levels for the different colors of ocular mucosa or the number of animals dewormed. A prevalence of 80.0 to 93.0% of Trichostrongylus sp. was found. The deworming based on the evaluation of conjunctiva color did not reduce EPG into desirable levels for any of fertilized doses of nitrogen. The nitrogen dose of 475 kg ha-1 year-1 in Aruana grass allowed greater productive performance per hectare.

  13. Análise da contaminação parasitária em compostos orgânicos produzidos com biossólidos de esgoto doméstico e resíduos agropecuários Analysis of parasitological contamination in organic composts with sewage sludge and agricultural residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Robson Duarte

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avaliou a contaminação por ovos de helmintos, cistos e oocistos de protozoários em compostos orgânicos utilizando lodo de esgoto doméstico e resíduos agropecuários. Foram realizadas análises parasitológicas em amostras de 25 diferentes compostos orgânicos, antes e após tratamento térmico a 60°C durante 12 horas. Os resultados demonstraram elevada contaminação parasitária em todos os compostos analisados antes do tratamento e a não redução dessa contaminação após o tratamento térmico. A identificação das larvas obtidas em coproculturas antes e após o tratamento térmico dos compostos indicou que os gêneros mais freqüentemente observados foram Cooperia e Trichostrongylus, que são nematóides gastrintestinais de ruminantes. Estes resultados demonstram que ovos de helmintos podem permanecer viáveis mesmo após o processo de compostagem e o tratamento térmico. Os compostos produzidos com lodo de esgoto doméstico e resíduo agropecuários, utilizando esses processos de tratamentos, podem constituir riscos de contaminação para humanos e animais.This research aimed at evaluating the cysts, oocysts and eggs contamination before and after thermal treatment of 60°C for 12 hours, in 25 different organic composts produced with biosolids from domestic waste-water treatment and animal and agricultural residues. The results showed high parasitological contamination for all organic composts before the treatment and these contaminations were not reduced after thermic treatment. The larva identification in coprocultures before and after thermic treatment showed Cooperia spp. and Trichostrongylus spp. were the most prevalent nematodes. These results demonstrated that helmintus’ eggs can remain viable even after the composing and thermic treatment. The obtained composition with sewage sludge and agricultural residues through these treatment processes can establish contamination risks for humans and animals.

  14. Quality control of parasitology stool examination in Tabriz clinical laboratories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    shahram Khademvatan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of quality control program was to make doctors and laboratory personnel trust in laboratory results and consequently increasing confidence in laboratory achievements. The quality assurance means raising the level of quality in all tests that lead to raising the level of work efficiency and laboratories including minimum expense for society and minimum time for lab personnel. This study aimed to assess and determine the accuracy and precision of results in Tabriz medical diagnostic laboratories. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, 790 stool samples were selected randomly and tested by standard methods.Student t- test, SPSS software and sensitivity and accuracy formulas were used for data analysis. Results: The sensitivity was 62%, 22% and 8% with 95% confidence intervals for worm's eggs, protozoan cysts and trophozoite detection respectively. Conclusion: To elevate quality assurance in clinical diagnostic laboratory, monitoring and check of the laboratories by standard methods continually should be done.

  15. Nigerian Journal of Parasitology - Vol 32, No 2 (2011)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Role of Cockroaches (Blatta Orientalis and Periplaneta Americana) in Mechanical Transmission of Parasites in Households in Owerri, South East Nigeria · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. CMU Ajero, CN Ukaga, C Ebirim ...

  16. Clinical and Parasitological Effects of Aspilia africana (Pers.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Pharmacy, Makerere University

    extract possessed in vitro antiplasmodial activity (IC50 30µg/ml) but no remarkable cytotoxicity. The A. africana preparation shows potential ... procedure employed by the traditional healers. For this purpose 5-10 tablespoonfuls of .... alkaloids, tannins and traces of essential oils. 1 - cpm in treated in untreated cultures x 100 ...

  17. Genome mining offers a new starting point for parasitology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Zhiyue; Wu, Zhongdao; Zhang, Limei; Ji, Pengyu; Cai, Yifeng; Luo, Shiqi; Wang, Hongxi; Li, Hao

    2015-02-01

    Parasites including helminthes, protozoa, and medical arthropod vectors are a major cause of global infectious diseases, affecting one-sixth of the world's population, which are responsible for enormous levels of morbidity and mortality important and remain impediments to economic development especially in tropical countries. Prevalent drug resistance, lack of highly effective and practical vaccines, as well as specific and sensitive diagnostic markers are proving to be challenging problems in parasitic disease control in most parts of the world. The impressive progress recently made in genome-wide analysis of parasites of medical importance, including trematodes of Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis viverrini, Schistosoma haematobium, S. japonicum, and S. mansoni; nematodes of Brugia malayi, Loa loa, Necator americanus, Trichinella spiralis, and Trichuris suis; cestodes of Echinococcus granulosus, E. multilocularis, and Taenia solium; protozoa of Babesia bovis, B. microti, Cryptosporidium hominis, Eimeria falciformis, E. histolytica, Giardia intestinalis, Leishmania braziliensis, L. donovani, L. major, Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, Trichomonas vaginalis, Trypanosoma brucei and T. cruzi; and medical arthropod vectors of Aedes aegypti, Anopheles darlingi, A. sinensis, and Culex quinquefasciatus, have been systematically covered in this review for a comprehensive understanding of the genetic information contained in nuclear, mitochondrial, kinetoplast, plastid, or endosymbiotic bacterial genomes of parasites, further valuable insight into parasite-host interactions and development of promising novel drug and vaccine candidates and preferable diagnostic tools, thereby underpinning the prevention and control of parasitic diseases.

  18. Nigerian Journal of Parasitology - Vol 36, No 1 (2015)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of Moringa oleifera as anti-plasmodial agents in the control of malaria · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. S S Ogundapo, L U S Ezeanyika, P N Uzoegwu, O T Soniran, D O Okoro, I Okoronkwo, J A Okoro, P C Okochi, O O Chukwunwike, 22-27 ...

  19. MICROBIOLOGICAL AND PARASITOLOGICAL QUALITY CONTROL OF RECREATION AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Sotero-Martins

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The recreation areas are composed of environmental matrices primary contact with the population (water and sand and therefore need to be periodically monitored, because pathogenic microorganisms can be found that offer risks to human and animal health. This study aimed to develop critical topics in environmental sanitation as use of water and sand in recreation places, biomarkers associated with health risks, diseases caused by exposure to contaminated environmental matrices and indicate the importance of bioindicators in laws that underpin the supervisory board, to secure the most complete monitoring and give support the actions of environmental control and health agencies. The literature review was used as instrumental to the research. In Brazil, the acceptable limits standards are described in Resolution by National Environmental Council for coliforms present in bathing water, but not exist to sand matrix. Only isolated initiatives of municipal environmental agencies have established limits for the classification of sand matrix, based on only bacteriological parameters. Concluded that scientific studies may support others biomarkers of sanitary conditions are being conducted in Brazil, proposing fungi and parasites in evaluating the sanitary quality of recreation areas.

  20. Parasitology: Parasite survives predation on its host

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponton, Fleur; Lebarbenchon, Camille; Lefèvre, Thierry

    2006-01-01

    As prisoners in their living habitat, parasites should be vulnerable to destruction by the predators of their hosts. But we show here that the parasitic gordian worm Paragordius tricuspidatus is able to escape not only from its insect host after ingestion by a fish or frog but also from...

  1. Nigerian Journal of Parasitology - Vol 33, No 2 (2012)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors Associated with the Use of Insecticide-Treated Nets Amongst Pregnant Women in Olorunda Local Government Area, Osun State, Nigeria · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. DO Akinboye, TF Asekun-Olarinmoye, Y Olaore, TI Akintunde ...

  2. Pathophysiological and parasitological studies on Cooperia oncophora infections in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, J; Bairden, K; Holmes, P H; Parkins, J J; Ploeger, H; Salman, S K; McWilliam, P N

    1987-05-01

    Calves which had received daily infections of Cooperia oncophora over a six week period showed inappetence, weight loss, impaired nitrogen retention and a loss of plasma proteins into the gut. During this period the infections occurred in the duodenum, jejunum and ileum and many larval stages were present in the mucosa of the small intestine. At necropsy, on weeks 3, 6 and 10 after the first infection, stunting and thickening of the villi were noted with excessive mucus production. Prior administration of a morantel slow release bolus prevented these changes. By week 12 most of the worms had been expelled yet a loss of plasma proteins to the gut was still occurring.

  3. Nigerian Journal of Parasitology - Vol 39, No 1 (2018)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trichomoniasis among pregnant women in Ifako Ijaiye, Shomolu and Agege Local Government Areas of Lagos State, Nigeria · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. S.I. Alexander, E.T. Idowu, O.A. Otubanjo, M.B. Ajayi, 91-95 ...

  4. Parasitological measures to characterize different livestock production systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thamsborg, Stig M.; Mejer, H.; Enemark, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    OF practices include outdoor production with associated higher risks of parasites. In dairy cattle production, changes are less dramatic and mostly related to self-sufficiency with feedstuffs and increased use of grazing. But in all cases, there is a reduced reliance on external input, including restrictions...... work done on diets, bioactive plants, selective breeding and pasture management. For this purpose we need better tools to overall characterize farms with regard to parasites, to determine the need for interventions, and to evaluate the effectiveness of a range of alternative approaches on-farm....

  5. Effects of frequent announced parasitology quizzes on the academic achievement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasem Zamini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of frequent examinations on the students' learning has had inconsistent results. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of frequent announced quizzes on the learning of a representative sample of Iranian medical students.This experimental study was conducted among 37 fifth semester medical students who had taken the course in Protozoology and Helminthology, in which the same basic information were provided about different types of protozoa and worms. Initially, in the teaching of helminthology, ten routine sessions were handled with lectures and interactive questions and answers. Then at the beginning of the protozoology topic in the beginning of all of the next 9 sessions, the students were informed that they will have a quiz at the end of each session. At the end of the semester, the total scores of quizzes were compared with the mean final scores of protozoology and helminthology using paired t and repeated measure tests.The mean final scores of the protozoology lesson were not significantly different from that of the helminthology (10.45 ± 2.75 vs.11.25 ± 2.56 on the scale of 20, respectively, P=0.13. There was no significant difference in the mean score of the five quizzes compared with the mean final term score of protozoology. The overall mean scores in the helminthology lesson (11.25±2.56, protozoology lesson (10.45±2.75, and the quizzes (9.16 ± 3.55 were significantly different (P <0.0001.Frequent announced quizzes were not effective on increasing the medical students' motivation and learning.

  6. Parasitological Profile of Raw Wastewater and the Efficacy of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL HORSFALL

    960 L of wastewater was examined and a significant level of parasite eggs, cysts and oocysts were .... crop irrigation is less than one (≤ 1) Helminth Ova. (HO) per Litre .... due to wastewater reuse for agriculture in the suburbs of Asmara City ...

  7. The scientific research programmes of Lakatos and applications in parasitology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabaret J.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The methodology of scientific research programme (MSRP proposed by Lakatos was in the line of the proposals made by Popper. MSRP were intended for constructing and evaluating research programme, which is unique among philosophers of science. Surprisingly, scientists dedicated to research in mathematics, physic or biology have not used much MRSP. This could be due to the fact that scientists are not aware of the existence of MSRP, or they find it difficult to apply to their own investigations. That is why we present firstly the main characteristics of this methodology (hard core – the group of hypothesis that are admitted by experts in the field, auxiliary hypotheses – which are intended to protect and refine the hypotheses of the hard-core, and heuristics for mending and evaluating the MSRP and, secondly, propose an example in helminthology. We think that the methodology of Lakatos, is a useful tool, but it cannot encompass the large flexibility of investigations pathways.

  8. Qualidade parasitológica e condições higiênico-sanitárias de hortaliças comercializadas na cidade de Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil Parasitological quality and hygienic-sanitary conditions of vegetables sold in the city of Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolivar Soares

    2005-12-01

    submitted to the spontaneous sedimentation method for a period of 24 hours. Concomitantly to the laboratory research, the conditions of cultivation and manipulation of the producers of the vegetables sold in Florianópolis were evaluated. The parasitologic analysis confirmed the presence of intestinal parasites in most of the vegetables analyzed (40% to 76%. Among the factors involved in the contamination of vegetables, the origin of the water used for irrigation, storage and transportation of vegetables and the degree of manipulation during the sampling process can be included. From the results, it can be concluded that vegetables sold in the investigated region play an important role in the transmission of intestinal diseases, and, therefore, specific measures should to be taken in order to avoid the contamination of these vegetables.

  9. Análise parasitológica e microbiológica de hortaliças comercializadas no município de Santo Antônio de Jesus, Bahia (Brasil | Parasitological and microbiological analysis of vegetables sold in Santo Antônio de Jesus, Bahia (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella de Matos Mendes da Silva

    2016-08-01

    microorganisms/g of vegetable. In parasitological analysis 10 lettuce samples and 08 coriander samples had one or more structures such as parasitic protozoan cysts, larvae and/or helminth eggs, mites and insects. The positivity of lettuce and coriander was given more in samples submitted to the use of sodium hypochlorite as a sanitizing solution. The microbiological results showed 13 samples inappropriate for human consumption. It can be concluded that there is need to adapt the environments surveyed to promote and carry out quality control measures in natural consumer product that making them safer.

  10. EFEITO DA SUPLEMENTAÇÃO PROTÉICA SOBRE OS PARÂMETROS CLÍNICOS E PARASITOLÓGICOS DE OVINOS MANTIDOS EM PASTAGEM DE TIFTON 85 EFFECT OF PROTEIN SUPPLEMENTATION ON THE CLINICAL AND PARASITOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF LAMBS UNDER PASTURE OF TIFTON 85

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    Daniel Maia Nogueira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    A suplementação proteica pode ser uma importante ferramenta para os sistemas de produção de ovinos em pastagens tropicais. Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar os parâmetros clínicos e parasitológicos de ovinos mantidos em pastagem de Tifton 85 (Cynodon dactylon irrigada, recebendo suplementos com diferentes fontes proteicas. Foram utilizados 28 ovinos castrados e mestiços, distribuídos homogeneamente em quatro tratamentos. Além do controle não suplementado, os tratamentos avaliados foram: farelo de soja, ureia e torta de algodão. Realizou-se a vermifugação dos animais de acordo com o método Famacha©. Não houve diferença significativa (P>0,05 entre os tratamentos para o consumo de matéria seca total, ganho médio diário e ganho de peso total. Foi observado maior consumo de forragem (P<0,05 para os animais mantidos exclusivamente em pastagem. Estes animais também apresentaram maior contagem de ovos por grama de fezes (OPG (P<0,05 em comparação aos suplementados com ureia ou com torta de algodão. Não houve diferença significativa (P>0,05 para os diferentes tons de coloração da conjuntiva nem para o número de animais vermifugados. Observou-se uma prevalência de 72,0% a 83,0% de larvas de Trichostrongylus sp. As diferentes suplementações proteicas não influenciaram as características clínicas nem produtivas dos animais.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Cynodon dactylon, endoparasitas, Famacha©, farelo de soja, torta de algodão, ureia.
    The protein supplementation may be an important tool for sheep production systems in tropical grazing. This work aimed to evaluate parasitological and clinical aspects of lambs under irrigated pasture of Tifton 85 (Cynodon dactylon and receiving supplementation from different protein sources. Twenty-eight, castrated and crossbreed lambs, were used as animal testers and allocated into four treatments. Besides the control with exclusively use of pasture

  11. Criterios de ensayo, interpretación e informe de las pruebas de sensibilidad a los antibióticos en los bacilos gram negativos no fermentadores de importancia clínica: recomendaciones de la Subcomisión de Antimicrobianos de la Sociedad Argentina de Bacteriología, Micología y Parasitología Clínicas, Asociación Argentina de Microbiología Antimicrobial susceptibility testing in clinically relevant non-fermenting gram-negative bacilli: recommendations from the Antimicrobial Agents Subcommittee of the Sociedad Argentina de Bacteriología, Micología y Parasitología Clínicas, Asociación Argentina de Microbiología

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    Marcela Radice

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available En este documento se dan a conocer una serie de recomendaciones para el ensayo, la lectura, la interpretación y el informe de las pruebas de sensibilidad a los antimicrobianos para los bacilos gram negativos no fermentadores (BGNNF que se aíslan en humanos. Se adoptaron como base las recomendaciones internacionales, las de la Subcomisión de Antimicrobianos de la Sociedad Argentina de Bacteriología, Micología y Parasitología Clínicas y las de un grupo de expertos invitados. Se incluye, además, la nomenclatura actualizada de los BGNNF y la descripción de algunas de sus características individuales, de sus resistencias naturales o habituales a los antimicrobianos de uso clínico y de los mecanismos responsables de tales resistencias. También se indican los agentes antimicrobianos que se deberían ensayar frente a las distintas especies, con la especificación de cuáles deberían ser informados, y su ubicación estratégica en las placas de cultivo para poder detectar los mecanismos de resistencia más frecuentes y relevantes. Por último, se detallan los métodos de detección y de confirmación fenotípica de la presencia de b-lactamasas emergentes en Argentina, como las carbapenemasas clases A y B.This document contains the recommendations for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of the clinically relevant non-fermenting gram-negative bacilli (NFGNB, adopted after conforming those from international committees to the experience of the Antimicrobial Agents Subcommittee members and invited experts. This document includes an update on NFGNB classification and description, as well as some specific descriptions regarding natural or frequent antimicrobial resistance and a brief account of associated resistance mechanisms. These recommendations not only suggest the antimicrobial drugs to be evaluated in each case, but also provide an optimization of the disk diffusion layout and a selection of results to be reported. Finally, this document

  12. Frequency of Blastocystis hominis and other intestinal parasites in stool samples examined at the Parasitology Laboratory of the School of Pharmaceutical Sciences at the São Paulo State University, Araraquara Freqüência de Blastocystis hominis e outros enteroparasitas em amostras de fezes examinadas no Laboratório de Parasitologia da Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas da Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara

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    Júlio César Miné

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Blastocystis homins is a protozoan that causes an intestinal infection known as human blastocystosis. This infection is diagnosed by means of parasitological examination of stools and by permanent staining techniques. The present study was developed to evaluate the frequency of Blastocystis hominis infection among inhabitants of the Araraquara region, State of São Paulo, and to compare different methods for investigating this protozoan in feces samples. Evaluations on 503 stool samples were performed by means of direct fresh examination and using the techniques of Faust et al., Lutz and Rugai et al. In addition, the iron hematoxylin, trichrome and modified Kinyoun staining techniques were used. Out of the 503 samples examined, 174 (34.6% were found to be positive for the presence of intestinal parasites. The most frequent protozoa and helminths were Entamoeba coli (14.6% and Strongyloides stercoralis (6.7%, respectively. Blastocystis hominis was present in 23 (4.6% fecal samples, with a predominately pasty consistency and without characterizing a condition of diarrhea. Despite the low frequency of Blastocystis hominis found in the Araraquara region, compared with other regions of Brazil, it is important to perform laboratory diagnostic tests for this protozoan. Its finding in fecal material is indicative of food and drinking water contamination. Since the transmission route for this parasite is accepted to be oral-fecal, this implies that the population needs guidance regarding hygiene and basic sanitation measures as a means for controlling health problems caused by enteroparasites.Blastocystis hominis é um protozoário, causador de infecção intestinal denominada blastocistose humana, cujo diagnóstico é realizado pelo exame coproparasitológico e por meio de técnicas de coloração permanente. Este estudo foi desenvolvido para avaliar a freqüência da infecção por Blastocystis hominis em habitantes da região de Araraquara/SP, bem

  13. Aspectos clínicos, parasitológicos e produtivos de ovinos mantidos em pastagem de capim-aruana irrigado e adubado com diferentes doses de nitrogênio - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v33i2.9406 Clinical, parasitological and productive evaluation of lambs under pasture of Aruana grass irrigated and fertilized with different doses of nitrogen - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v33i2.9406

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    Gherman Garcia Leal de Araújo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Esse trabalho objetivou avaliar os aspectos clínicos, parasitológicos e produtivos de cordeiros mestiços mantidos em pastejo rotativo de Panicum maximum cv. Aruana adubado com quatro doses de nitrogênio (75, 275, 475 e 675 kg ha-1 ano-1. Foram utilizados 18 cordeiros por tratamento, perfazendo um total de 72 animais. Foram avaliados os seguintes parâmetros: ganho médio diário (GMD, ganho de peso total (GPT, taxa de lotação (TxL, produção total de carne, contagem do número de ovos por grama de fezes (OPG e coprocultura. A vermifugação dos animais foi realizada de acordo com a coloração da mucosa ocular comparada por meio do cartão Famacha© Foi verificado que tanto o GMD quanto o GPT foram maiores (p -1 ano-1. Todavia, a TxL e o OPG foram maior (p -1 ano-1. Não houve diferença significativa entre as doses de adubação para os diferentes tons de coloração da mucosa ocular nem para o número de animais vermifugados. Observou-se uma prevalência de 80,0 a 93,0% de larvas de Trichostrongylus sp. A vermifugação baseada na avaliação da mucosa ocular não permitiu a redução do OPG para nenhuma das doses de adubação adotadas. A dose de nitrogênio de 475 kg ha-1 ano-1 promoveu melhor desempenho produtivo por hectare.This work aimed to evaluate clinical, parasitological and productive parameters of crossbred lambs under a rotational grazing system of Panicum maximum cv. Aruana grass fertilized with four doses of nitrogen (75, 275, 475 and 675 kg ha-1 year-1. Eighteen lambs were used per treatment, totaling 72 animals. The following parameters were evaluated: daily weight gain (DWG, total weight gain (TWG, stocking rate (SR, meat production, number of fecal eggs per gram (EPG and coproculture. Deworming was accomplished according to conjunctiva color compared using the Famacha© card. DWG and TWG were greater (p -1 year-1. However, SR and EPG were greater (p -1 year-1. There were no significant differences among nitrogen

  14. Analyze chemistry, microbiological and parasitological of the drinking water in UNESP and wastewater from Jaboticabal – SP, Brazil/ Avaliação de parâmetros químicos, microbiológicos e parasitológicos de águas de abastecimento da UNESP e residuária, no município de Jaboticabal, Estado de São Paulo

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    Gilson Pereira de Oliveira

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available The quality conditions of the water that supplies the UNESP University campus in Jaboticabal city and its wastewater from the Jaboticabal Stream were evaluated by chemical analysis bacteriological and parasitological. Samples were collected weekly from 09/24/98 through 01/28/99, water supply provided by the Municipal Government from an artesian well source and wastewater was took from the Jaboticabal Stream at a point downstream from the town. The parameters analyzed were: water pH, DO, nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, COD and BOD, coliform bacillus and helminths eggs only in wastewater. The results showed with high DO concentrations (6,2 to 8,9 mg/L in the water supply. BOD was void for all samples, with low COD (0,0 to 18 mg/L. Nitrogen forms showed acceptable values. Wastewater was anoxic in the majority of the samples, but COD and BOD concentrations were reduced in this kind of water (32 to 201 mg/L COD and 18 to 113 mg/L BOD. Nitrate prevailed over nitrite, and ammonia concentrations were too high (0,0 to 13,4 mg/L. As for the bacteriological parameters to 35,3% of the samples of the water of the Campus presented inappropriate for the human consumption. The water from the Cerradinho Stream showed high bacteriological and helminths eggs concentration. It can be concluded that the wastewater must receive treatment to be used by animals or agricola irrigation because of the potential pathogenic organism, ammonia, COD and BOD high concentrations.Objetivou-se avaliar as condições da qualidade da água de abastecimento do Campus Universitário da UNESP de Jaboticabal e residuária na micro-bacia do Córrego do Jaboticabal, por meio de análises químicas, bacteriológicas e parasitológicas. Amostras foram colhidas semanalmente no período de 24/09/98 a 28/01/99 definindo-se água de abastecimento como aquela fornecida pelo poder público, proveniente de poço artesiano e água residuária, oriunda de um ponto de colheita localizado no C

  15. [Epizootiological and parasitological status of the flocks at a poultry combine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolev, V; Markarian, M; Genchev, G; Donev, A; Tsvetkov, S

    1976-01-01

    A comprehensive epizootiologic study has been carried out at one of the large poultry dressing combines in this country. Results have shown that the part played by infections as against the remaining diseases established in the various technologic categories is as follows: 9 to 23.8 per cent in growing parents; 16.0 to 24.6 per cent in adult parents; and 4.8 to 13.4 per cent in broilers. So far as parasitic diseases are concerned the respective figures are 3.2 to 9.9 per cent, 3.0 to 3.3. per cent, and 2.9 to 3.0 to per cent. The import of birds from France and England intended for satisfying the needs of the poultry dressing combine in Roussé has contributed to the introduction of infections which have later on assumed an epizootic course, such as infections encephalomyelitis, infectious bronchitis, and Marek' disease. The epizootic status has been aggravated with the development of a number of diseases already existing in this country--fowl pox, lymphoid leukosis, chronic respiratory disease, salmonellosis, and above all infections caused by the so-called occasionally pathogenic agents--coli organisms, staphylococci, and Pseudomonas. Of the parasitic diseases only coccidiosis has developed, being caused by a variety of species: Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria necatrix, Eimeria maxima, Eimeria muvati and Eimeria tenella. The absence of helminth infections is due to the routinely adopted technological practice of raising birds in confinement and the strict veterinary control and guard. On the basis of the results obtained and the conclusions drawn some more effective prophylactic measures are suggested correcting and supplementing the existing prophylactic programme.

  16. Intestinal Parasitological infection of employee in food manufacture anddistribution centers of Ilam University of Medical Sciences

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    R Nasrifar

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Backgrand and Aims: Food centers' employee may be carrier of bacteria (eg. Salmonella, E coil,taphylococcus aureus and intestinal parasitical infection. With regard the importance of the roleof manufacturer and distribnter of food materials in enviromental health, the status and assessmentof these infections is necessary.Method:182 employee of food manufacture and distribntion centers' of Ilam University ofMedical Sciences were examined. 3 feaces sample were obtained from each porson in 3 days andby five different laboratory method (i.e. scoth-tape, direct thechuics, Ether formaline, Telmen'Flotation were examined. Date analysis was dane by SPSS Version, and chi square test.Results: 49.2 percent of employee had positive parasitical infection, which 45.1 percent hadprotoza and 9.7 percent had intestinal helminth. The most infections of protoza were due toEntamoeba coli, Endolimax nane, giardia Lamblia, blastocystis hominis, Chilomastix mesniliand Iodamoeba buetschlii. The most infection of intestinal heliminth were Oxyuris VermicularisHymenolepis nana, Ascaris Lumbericoides, Tricocephal, Tricosterongylus.Conclusion: The high occurance of intestinal protoza may be due to Low level of public healthand, not favouring of hygine basis in food manufacture and distribution rlaces.

  17. Effect of Peganum harmala (wild rue extract on experimental ovine malignant theileriosis : pathological and parasitological findings

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    A. Derakhshanfar

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Malignant theileriosis of sheep is a highly fatal, acute or subacute disease is caused by the tick-borne protozoan parasite, Theileria hirci. In this investigation ten healthy male lambs aged 5-6 months were randomly divided into two groups, A and B and were kept in isolated tick-proof pens. They were treated for internal and external parasite before commencement of the experiment. The lambs were experimentally infected with T. hirci by placing ticks Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum infected with T. hirci on them. The ticks used in this survey had originally been isolated from sheep and colonies of them were established in an insectarium. Before and after infection rectal temperatures and clinical signs of the lambs were recorded, blood and prescapular lymph node smears were prepared and examined to determine the extent of the parasitaemia, and blood samples were analyzed to evaluate their haemoglobin (Hb and packed cell volume (PCV rates. Three days after the commencement of a febrile reaction and appearance of the schizonts in the lymph node smears, treatment of the lambs in Group A with an extract containing the alkaloids of Peganum harmala (wild rue was commenced. Group B lambs were kept untreated controls. Before treatment there were no significant differences in the rectal temperature, parasitaemia rate, and the Hb and PCV values between animals in the two groups but after treatment significant differences in these values was detected (P < 0.05. After treatment, the clinical signs and parasites in the lymph node smears of the animals in Group A disappeared and they all animals recovered. These parameters in the animals of Group B progressed until their death. Pathological studies showed the characteristic lesions of theileriosis in lambs in Group B, but not in Group A. The results indicate a therapeutic effect of the alkaloids of P. harmala for treatment of ovine malignant theileriosis.

  18. A molecular and parasitological survey of Hepatozoon canis in domestic dogs in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas, Munir; Özübek, Sezayi; Altay, Kürşat; Balkaya, İbrahim; Utuk, Armagan Erdem; Kırbas, Akın; Şimsek, Sami; Dumanlı, Nazir

    2015-04-30

    In this study, asymptomatic dogs in nine provinces of Turkey were surveyed to investigate the prevalence and intensity of Hepatozoon canis infection. DNA obtained from blood samples collected from 694 domestic dogs (243 stray, 288 shelter, and 163 pets) of both genders and varying ages were evaluated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In addition, 285 thin blood smears prepared from these blood samples were also evaluated for microscopic examination. Direct microscopy revealed Hepatozoon gamonts in the peripheral blood of three of 285 (1.0%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.21-3.04) tested. Using PCR, 155 of the 694 (22.3%; 95% CI: 19.28-25.61) were found to be positive for the presence of H. canis DNA. The prevalence of infection was higher in adult dogs (26.2%; 95% CI: 22.1-30.7) than young animals (16.4%; 95% CI: 12.2-21.3). Although the prevalence determined by PCR was higher in male dogs (24.5%; 95% CI: 19.6-29.9) than in female dogs (20.8%; 95% CI: 16.9-25.1), gender differences were not significant. Pet dogs had a lower prevalence of infection (10.4%; 95% CI: 6.2-16.2) compared to stray (26.3%; 95% CI: 20.9-32.3) and shelter dogs (25.7%; 95% CI: 20.7-31.1), but no significant association between stray and shelter dogs was found for the presence of the parasite. Partial sequences of the 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene shared 99-100% similarity with the corresponding H. canis isolates. This epidemiological survey revealed a high prevalence of H. canis in dogs from several provinces in Turkey, and it suggests that the age and origin are associated with the parasite. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A PARASITOLOGIC AND MOLECULAR SURVEY OF HEPATOZOON CANIS INFECTION IN STRAY DOGS IN NORTHEAST OF IRAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barati, Ali; Razmi, Gholamreza

    2018-05-15

    Canine hepatozoonosis, caused by H. canis, is a tick-borne disease in domestic and wild dogs that is transmitted by ingestion of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks. The aim of the study was to detect H. canis in stray dogs in Iran using blood smear examination and molecular techniques. From October 2014 to September 2015, 150 EDTA blood samples were collected from stray dogs in the northeast region of Iran. Blood smears were microscopically examined for the presence of Hepatozoon gamonts; whole blood was evaluated by PCR, with subsequent sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Hepatozoon spp. Gamonts were observed in the neutrophils of 5/150 (3.3%) blood smears, whereas Hepatozoon spp. 18S rDNA was detected in 12/150 (8.0%) blood samples from stray dogs. There was a good agreement between microscopy and PCR methods. (Kappa= 0.756). The highest rate of infection was seasonally detected in the summer (pHepatozoon spp infection was not significant by gender and age factors (p>0.05). The alignment analysis of the sequenced samples showed ≥99% similarity with other nucleotide sequences of Hepatozoon spp. in GenBank. The phylogenetic tree also revealed that the nucleotide sequences in this study were clustered in the H. canis clade and different from the H. felis and H. americanum clades. According to the results, it is concluded that H. canis infection is present among dogs in northeastern region of Iran.

  20. Parasitological detection and molecular evidence of Hepatozoon canis from canines in Manila, Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Baticados, Waren; Baticados,Waren; Carlos,; Villarba,; Subiaga,; Carlos Sr.,Enrique; Baticados,Abigail

    2011-01-01

    Abigail M Baticados1, Waren N Baticados1, Enrique T Carlos2, Sixto MEAS Carlos2, Lorelie A Villarba1, Sherlyn G Subiaga1, Jomarte M Magcalas11Department of Veterinary Paraclinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of the Philippines Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines; 2Makati Dog and Cat Hospital (MDCH), Makati City, PhilippinesAbstract: Hepatozoon canis infection in canines is allegedly an underreported disease in the Philippines. In over the past four decades, ther...

  1. Clinical and parasitological evaluation of pour-on fluazuron and ivermectin for treating canine demodicosis

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    Clarissa P. Souza

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of pour-on formulations of fluazuron and ivermectin in different therapeutic protocols for treatment of demodicosis by means of quantifying mites with skin scraping, histological and clinical evaluation in dogs. Eighteen dogs with skin scrapings positive for Demodex canis were evaluated, divided into three groups. All the animals were treated every 14 days, completing 6 treatments for each animal (days 0, 14, 28, 42, 56 and 70. In group 1, pour-on 2.5% fluazuron was used at the dose of 20mg/kg; in the group 2 pour-on 2.5% fluazuron at a dose of 20 mg/kg in association with pour-on 0.5% ivermectin at the dose of 0.6mg/kg; and in group 3, pour-on 0.5% ivermectin alone was used, at the dose of 0.6mg/kg. The treatment was evaluated and monitored through skin scrapings and clinical follow-up of the lesions every 14 days for 84 days, and through histopathological examination at the end of each treatment protocol. The success rate was defined as the percentage of dogs in each group that had negative skin scrapings after the treatment: this was 16.67% for group 1, and 50% for groups 2 and 3. The reduction in mite counts reached effectiveness of 67.66%, 88.99% and 84.29% for groups 1, 2 and 3 respectively. The Wilcoxon test showed that there was a significant difference between the number of mites before and after treatment in groups 2 and 3. The histopathological examination revealed that only group 1 showed no significant difference in the intensity of infestation between days 0 and 84. Clinically, there was no significant difference between the evaluation before and after treatment in the three groups. pour-on 2.5% fluazuron and pour-on 0.5% ivermectin were not effective for treating canine demodicosis, either in association or as single therapy, when applied every 14 days for a period of 70 days. Quantification of mites using skin scrapings and histological evaluation proved to be ineffective, either one as sole therapeutic evaluation parameters, for canine demodicosis.

  2. Zombie tapeworms in late capitalism: accelerating clinical and reproductive labour in Mira Grant's Parasitology Trilogy.

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    Attebery, Stina

    2016-12-01

    Biomedicine is increasingly shaped by the speculative economical values of neoliberal capitalism. A key feature of this new bioeconomical regime is the patenting and circulation of organisms and tissue samples, allowing rapid commercialisation of bacterial, animal and human biomedical materials. When thinking about this trend towards commercialisation, we must consider the ways by which biomedicine has been shaped by economics to better address these exploitative relationships between medical researchers and subjects. These fraught questions of agency and exploitation can be addressed through the concept of clinical labour, a term Melinda Cooper and Catherine Waldby coined to discuss embodied forms of labour, including surrogacy, clinical trials and tissue economies, that dominate the post-Fordist biomedical economy. As a genre that extrapolates from contemporary technoscientific practices, science fiction is uniquely positioned to explore the ethics of biomedical research in this neoliberal speculative economy. Science fiction can give human-like agency and affect to microbial, animal and alien life, allowing modified organisms to speak and interact with their creators. Creating these dialogues between commercialised organisms and biomedical researchers makes clear the connections between contemporary clinical practice and exploitative labour relations, illuminating the more troubling aspects of the new bioeconomy and imagining alternatives to this system. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  3. Bacteriological and parasitological assessment of currencies obtained in selected markets of Metro Manila

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    Glenn Lo Sia Su

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the bacterial and parasitic contamination of coins and paper bills obtained in selected public markets of Metro Manila. Methods: Money collected from the markets was assessed through culture, microscopy, and biochemical tests. Results: Results showed that the prevalence of bacterial contamination (70.00% was higher than that of parasitic contamination (11.67%. Paper bills were more contaminated with bacteria and parasites compared with coins examined. Money with low denominations had more bacterial and parasitic contamination. Conclusions: Findings indicated that money could be a potential vehicle for the transmission of diseases. There is a need to safeguard oneself from the possible sources of infection that one can get even from money circulating in the market systems.

  4. Schistosoma mansoni: parasitology and immunology of baboons vaccinated with irradiated cryopreserved schistosomula

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    Damian, R.T.; Powell, M.R.; Roberts, M.L. (Georgia Univ., Athens (USA). Dept. of Zoology); Clark, J.D. (Georgia Univ., Athens (USA). Lab. Animal Medicine); Stirewalt, M.A.; Lewis, F.A. (Biomedical Research Inst., Rockville, MD (USA))

    1985-06-01

    Young baboons (Papio cynocephalus) were vaccinated with ..gamma..-irradiated (500 Gy) cryopreserved Puerto Rican strain schistosomula of S. mansoni. Protection against heterologous, normal Kenyan Strain S. mansoni challenge infection was erratic and partial; and two putative correlates of immunity, reduced worm fecundity and change in worm location (anterior shift) were not observed. However, immunization of baboons with this vaccine resulted in a stimulated immune system. Both cellular and humoral anamnesis were demonstrable in vaccinated-challenged baboons. Schistosome infection-associated IgM hypergammaglobulinemia was also greatly reduced in vaccinated-challenged baboons. However IgG antibodies to adult, egg, and cercarial antigens were increased after challenge infection in preimmunized baboons. Vaccination appears to have resulted in a redirection of the immune system into anti-parasite channels, but this more specific immune response was insufficient to confer good protection against challenge infection in this experiment. The dampening effect of the vaccine on the hypergammaglobulinemia of schistosomiasis is another candidate for a possible ''anti-pathogenesis'' effect of irradiated schistosome larval vaccines.

  5. Parasitological and immunological diagnoses from feces of captive-bred snakes at Vital Brazil Institute

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    Janaína Lima de Souza

    Full Text Available Fecal samples from 56 snakes at the Vital Brazil Institute, in the city of Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, were tested using the sedimentation and flotation techniques to investigate the evolutionary forms of parasites such as helminths and protozoa, and using enzyme immunoassay techniques to detect antigens of Cryptosporidium sp. and Giardiasp. Among the animals tested, 80.3% were positive for parasites. Out of these, there were 16 Bothrops jararaca, 16 B. jararacussu and 13 Crotalus durissus. The prevalence of parasitic nematodes was 41.1%, and nematodes were found in all three snake species. Among these, the most frequent finding was eggs of Kalicephalus sp., which were diagnosed in 25% of the snakes. The positivity for protozoa detected using parasite concentration techniques was 75%, including oocysts of Caryospora sp. in 75%, cysts with morphology similar to Giardia sp. 3.6%, amoeboid cysts in 41.1% and unsporulated coccidia oocysts in 8.9%. Immunoassays for Cryptosporidium sp. antigens produced positive findings in 60.7%. Pseudoparasites were detected in 64.3%. These results show that there is a need to improve the sanitary handling of captive-bred snakes, and also for the animal house that supplies rodents to feed them. The results also highlight that diagnostic tests should be performed periodically on stool specimens from captive-bred snakes.

  6. From the roots of parasitology: Hippocrates' first scientific observations in helminthology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trompoukis, Constantinos; German, Vasilios; Falagas, Matthew E

    2007-08-01

    Although knowledge of intestinal parasites predates Hippocrates, the Hippocratic Corpus provides the first scientific observations about the clinical perception and treatment of helminthic diseases. These observations follow the scientific principles of Hippocrates, the father of modern medicine, who relied on knowledge and observation. This article is based on a systematic study of the Hippocratic texts, and presents observations on diseases caused by intestinal parasites with respect to regularity of appearance, patient age, symptoms, and treatment. Three types of helminths are described: "helmins strongyle" (roundworm), "helmins plateia" (flatworm), and "ascaris" (which corresponds to Enterobius vermicularis). Helminthic diseases primarily appear during childhood, well after teething. The described systemic symptoms include weakness, sickness, discomfort, tiredness, anorexia, and emotional instability; gastrointestinal symptoms include change in bowel movements, vomiting, and colic pain in the epigastrium. We identified several accounts of cases of helminthic diseases in the Hippocratic texts. Of particular interest are the descriptions of a helminth emerging from a fistula in the navel region and the surgical treatment of helminthic diseases, reinforced by being described on a dedicatory inscription at the Asclepion in Epidaurus. We finally encountered the use of powerful purgatives as antihelminthics, which have been widely used, even into the 21st century.

  7. El examen de pregunta abierta: experiencia en el curso de parasitología.

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    Ligia Inés Moncada Álvarez

    2007-07-01

    Resultados. Respondieron 53 de 103 estudiantes, 58,5 por ciento del género masculino, la mayor frecuencia etárea está fue 19 años. El 71,15 por ciento prefieren las preguntas en las que ellos mismos generen la respuesta y 9,61 las pruebas de selección múltiple. La pregunta de escogencia múltiple se concibe como una forma mas fácil de contestar un examen, además que proporcionaba pistas de las respuestas e influía mucho el azar, mientras que la pregunta abierta como instrumento de evaluación sobresalen las respuestas en las que este tipo de pregunta se percibe como una metodología que les induce a estudiar mejor ya que aumenta la calidad del estudio, mejora la competencia de escritor y elimina el azar. Discusión. La utilización de las pruebas con pregunta abierta es muy importante ya que en este trabajo se encontró que cuando el estudiante sabe que este es el instrumento a utilizar aborda de una manera mas profunda su estudio, además que con la utilización de la retroalimentación se convierte en un método de aprendizaje, que mejora su competencia escritural.

  8. Pathological and parasitological aspects of the peacock (Pavo cristatus infection by Tanaisia(Paratanaisiabragai

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    Rafael C. Costa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:Trematodes belonging to the family Eucotylidae, including Tanaisia(ParatanaisiabragaiSantos, 1934are parasites of the kidney and ureter that affect several species of domestic and wild birds. Tanaisia bragaiis considered a low pathogenic parasite, but high worm burdens may determine clinical complications, including signs of apathy, weight loss, diarrhea and death. This paper describes the first report of infection by T. bragai in peacocks (Pavo cristatus, which constitutes a new host record and offers data on the lesions associated to this parasitism, although the degree of pathogenicity and parasite load may be considered mild. These birds did not exhibit clinical signs of parasitism. The macroscopic exam revealed discreet yellow spots on the liver. In the histological sections of the kidney, specimens of T. bragai were found in the collecting ducts, which were markedly dilated, with a thickened wall. Other findings included a mild inflammatory reaction in the wall of the ducts (but sometimes absent, flattening of lining epithelial cells and small, multifocal points of calcification around the collecting ducts. The microscopic examination of the parasites revealed trematodes with an elongated body, well-developed sub terminal oral sucker, pharynx present, short esophagus, cecum somewhat undulating or not, with blind end, testes symmetrical, equatorial, irregular in shape or slightly lobed, vitelline fields extending in both pre-ovarian and post ovarian fields, uterus very long, intercecal or sometimes overlapping the cecum and containing large quantities of eggs. The present findings suggest the need for further diagnostic studies on the prevalence of this trematode in peacocks as well as pathologic studies for the determination of the potential pathogenicity of this parasite in this species of bird. Moreover, infected peacocks could serve as carriers of T. bragai to be transferred to other bird species, thereby contributing to the dispersion of the parasite.

  9. Parasitological and biochemical studies on cutaneous leishmaniasis in Shara'b District, Taiz, Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmaa, Qhtan; Al-Shamerii, Salwa; Al-Tag, Mohammed; Al-Shamerii, Adam; Li, Yiping; Osman, Bashir H

    2017-07-04

    The leishmaniasis is a group of diseases caused by intracellular haemoflagellate protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania. Leishmaniasis has diverse clinical manifestations; cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is the most common form of leishmaniasis which is responsible for 60% of disability-adjusted life years. CL is endemic in Yemen. In Shara'b there is no reference study available to identify the prevalence of endemic diseases and no investigation has been conducted for diagnosing the diseases. This study was conducted in villages for CL which collected randomly. The study aimed at investigating the epidemiological factors of CL in Shara'b by using questioner. Symptoms of lesions in patients suffering from CL, confirmed by laboratory tests, gave a new evidence of biochemical diagnosis in 525 villagers aged between 1 and 60 years old. Venous bloods were collected from 99 patients as well as from 51 control after an overnight fast. The percentage prevalence of CL was found 18.8%. The prevalence rate of infection among males (19.3%) was higher than females (18.40%). Younger age group (1-15) had a higher prevalence rate (20.3%) than the other age groups. Furthermore, the population with no formal education had the higher rate of infection (61% of the total). A significant increase of serum malondialdehyde (P < 0.001) in CL patients was obtained. The highest level of MDA may be due to over production of ROS and RNS results in oxidative stress and the acceleration of lipid peroxidation in CL patients. There were high prevalence rates of CL in Shara'b. The patient who had CL has been found with many changes in some biochemical levels. This study provides a clear indication on the role of MDA as an early biochemical marker of peroxidation damage occurring during CL. Increased uric acid, and catalase activity was provided of free radical.

  10. ECOLOGY AND PARASITOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF HORSE FLIES (DIPTERA: TABANIDAE IN ANTIOQUIA, COLOMBIA

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    PARRA-HENAO GABRIEL

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available During the months of June to September 2006, collections of tabanids (Diptera:Tabanidae and ticks were conducted in the Caucasia municipality, Antioquia,Colombia. Tabanids were caught on horses during daylight using hand nets and pots atthe ecotone zone between secondary forests and paddock habitats. Ticks were collecteddirectly from cattle by hand. The purpose of the study was to identify possible vectorsof bovine trypanosomosis, and register the diversity and abundance of tabanids inthe zone. The arthropods were brought to the laboratory for taxonomic determinationand protozooans searching in proboscis, midgut, and salivary glands of flies. Inthe case of ticks, protozoans were searched in hemolymph. One hundred and fortytabanids belonging to four genera and nine species were caught. Among the species,Lepiselaga crassipes was the most abundant (43.6%, with the highest abundancein July and a biting peak at 14:00 h. The highest diversity of tabanids was observedduring September. Three tabanids were found infected with flagellates morphologicallycompatible with Trypanosoma vivax. 315 ticks belonging to Boophilus microplusspecies were collected, all of them negative to flagellates. These results suggest T.vivax transmission by tabanids in the study area. However, the specific status ofthe parasites should be determined by molecular techniques and the transmissionmechanism should be established too by controlled studies

  11. REVIEW OF RESEARCH IN VETERINARY PARASITOLOGY IN THE RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR VETERINARY SCIENCE (RIVS SINCE 1983

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    Partoutomo S.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies on gastrointestinal parasites and the epidemiology and pathogenesis of blood protozoa in ruminants have been undertaken during the last few years. An abattoir survey for a period of one year showed that most large ruminants slaughtered in the Bogor abattoir were infected with nematodes, about half with trematodes and few with blood parasites. Worm infections were also common in small ruminants but none were infected with blood protozoa. Some field studies on Fasciola infection in large ruminants showed that these animals were susceptible to the disease. The seasonal prevalence of fascioliasis is not yet fully determined; management systems and the local geography play an important role. Most anthelmintics were effective against worm infection in large and small ruminants. A new flukicide (triclabendazole is highly effective against both immature and mature liver flukes. Studies on the epidemiology and pathogenesis of trypanosomiasis in cattle and buffalo have been conducted since 1982. The results indicate that T. evansi is prevalent in five regions in Java; the prevalence rates are higher in Sahiwal and Belmont Red than Ongole cattle or buffalo. ELISA values increase with increasing age of the animals. Buffaloes are more susceptible than cattle. Naganol is the drug of choice for control of trypanosomiasis in Indonesia.

  12. Pathophysiological and parasitological studies on a concurrent infection of Ostertagia ostertagi and Cooperia oncophora in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkins, J J; Taylor, L M; Holmes, P H; Bairden, K; Salman, S K; Armour, J

    1990-03-01

    Calves which had received daily concurrent infections of 2000 Ostertagia ostertagi and 10,000 Cooperia oncophora infective larvae over a 42-day period displayed a range of clinical signs typical of acute parasitic gastroenteritis including inappetence, weight loss, hypoalbuminaemia and diarrhoea. There were consistent and significant depressions in both digestive efficiency and nitrogen retention. Radioisotopic studies revealed marked disturbances in protein metabolism which were associated with high losses of plasma proteins into the gastrointestinal tract. On post mortem examination larval establishment of O ostertagi was seen to be high. The adverse changes were prevented by the prior administration of a morantel bolus.

  13. Experiments on the parasitological efficiency of the radiation treatment of sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banki, Gy.; Varga, Gy.; Gleria, M. di

    1979-01-01

    In model experiments suspensions made of average samples taken from the decomposed sludge of the south-Pest sewage treatment plant and seeded with one cell stage eggs and larvae of Ascaris lumbricoides var. suum and cysts of a pathogenic strain of Entamoeba hystolitica have been investigated. The irradiation doses applied were 0 (as control), 200 and 400 krad. As regards Entamoeba hystolitica, both 200 and 400 krad proved to be lethal, as it was shown by the uniform results of three parallel cultivation. The effect on the one cell stage eggs was determined by the incubation method. It was found that the embryonal development curve is protracted and soon deflected. In samples treated with 200 krad one percent of eggs reached the larval stage but in those treated with 400 krad the development ceased at lower stage of differentiation followed soon in both group by degenerative phenomena. The radiation effect on the eggs could be measured in animal tests. The invasiveness is completely supressed by 400 krad irradiation. Though treatment with 200 krad does not have full effect, the number and pathogeneity of larvae still alive are negligible as compared to the control. On the basis of experimental data, an irradiation dose of 200 krad proved to be suitable for eliminating the pathogeneity of the investigated parasite forms. (author)

  14. Parasitological and immunological diagnoses from feces of captive-bred snakes at Vital Brazil Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Janaína Lima de; Barbosa, Alynne da Silva; Vazon, Adriana Prado; Uchôa, Claudia Maria Antunes; Nunes, Beatriz Coronato; Cortez, Myrian Bandeira Vianna; Silva, Valmir Laurentino da; Más, Leonora Brazil; Melgarejo, Aníbal Rafael; Bastos, Otilio Machado Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Fecal samples from 56 snakes at the Vital Brazil Institute, in the city of Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, were tested using the sedimentation and flotation techniques to investigate the evolutionary forms of parasites such as helminths and protozoa, and using enzyme immunoassay techniques to detect antigens of Cryptosporidium sp. and Giardia sp. Among the animals tested, 80.3% were positive for parasites. Out of these, there were 16 Bothrops jararaca, 16 B. jararacussu and 13 Crotalus durissus. The prevalence of parasitic nematodes was 41.1%, and nematodes were found in all three snake species. Among these, the most frequent finding was eggs of Kalicephalus sp., which were diagnosed in 25% of the snakes. The positivity for protozoa detected using parasite concentration techniques was 75%, including oocysts of Caryospora sp. in 75%, cysts with morphology similar to Giardia sp. 3.6%, amoeboid cysts in 41.1% and unsporulated coccidia oocysts in 8.9%. Immunoassays for Cryptosporidium sp. antigens produced positive findings in 60.7%. Pseudoparasites were detected in 64.3%. These results show that there is a need to improve the sanitary handling of captive-bred snakes, and also for the animal house that supplies rodents to feed them. The results also highlight that diagnostic tests should be performed periodically on stool specimens from captive-bred snakes.

  15. "HUMAN AURICULAR MYIASIS CAUSED BY LUCILIA SERICATA: CLINICAL AND PARASITOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS"

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    R. Yaghoobi

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis is the invasion of body tissues of humans and animals by the larvae of the Diptera or two-winged flies. There are only sporadic reports in the literature concerning human ear myiasis. A 62-year-old bedridden woman in an intensive care unit was examined because of her intense swollen and erythematous right ear. Physical examination revealed 80 live larvae (maggots in the posterior part of right outer ear and external auditory canal. Entomological studies of the third instar larvae revealed it’s identity as Lucilia sericata. The entomological aspects, clinical and epidemiological characteristics are evaluated. In particular, we underline the rarity of myiasis because of both etiological agent and the anatomical site.

  16. Contribuciones al estudio de la Parasitología en Colombia

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    Uribe-Piedrahita César

    1947-12-01

    Full Text Available 1- Myxobolidae parasito de la vesícula biliar de una Rana de los Llanos Orientales (Resumen: Se observó un Myxobolidae, Myxobolus pfeitteri, parásito de la vesícula biliar de Rana palmipes, habitante de los Llanos orientales de Colombia. Se destaca su papel patógeno.  Creemos que es el primer Myxobolidae descrito en Colombia. / 2- Observaciones sobre un Trichomonas sp. (Resumen: Aechmea bromeliaefolia / Greigia Danielii / Guzmania costaricensis / Guzmania diffusa / Guzmania glomerata / Guzmania minor Mez var / Flammea / Pitcairnia Bakeri / Pitcairnia Barrigae / Pitcairnia costata / Pitcairnia diffusa / Pitcairnia excerta / Pitcairnia lepidopetalon / Pitcairnia squarrosa / Pitcairnia squarrosa var. Colorata / Tillandsia hospitalis / Tillandsia pulchella / Vriesia Hodgei.

  17. Plasma disposition, milk excretion and parasitological efficacy of mebendazole in donkeys naturally infected by Cyathostominae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokbulut, Cengiz; Aksit, Dilek; Santoro, Mario; Roncoroni, Cristina; Mariani, Ugo; Buono, Francesco; Rufrano, Domenico; Fagiolo, Antonio; Veneziano, Vincenzo

    2016-02-15

    Mebendazole (MBZ) has been licensed for use in horses and donkeys, however there are no data available in the literature regarding its pharmacokinetic disposition and efficacy in donkeys. This study was designed to determine the plasma disposition, milk excretion and anthelmintic efficacy of MBZ in donkeys naturally infected by Cyathostominae. The animals were allocated to three groups, each of six donkeys. One group was untreated control (C-group) and the others were treated using a paste formulation of MBZ administered per os at the manufacturer's recommended horse dosage of 10 mg/kg body weight (MBZ 1) and at the double horse dosage 20 mg/kg body weight (MBZ 2). Blood and milk samples were collected at various times between 1h and 120 h post treatment and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector. Individual FECs (Faecal Egg Counts) were performed on each animal before the treatment (day-3) and weekly from day 7 until day 56 post treatment using a modified McMaster technique. The plasma concentrations and systemic exposure of MBZ in donkeys were relatively lower compared with the other methylcarbamate benzimidazoles. Dose-dependent plasma dispositions of MBZ were observed at the increased dosage (10 mg/kg vs 20 mg/kg) in donkeys. MBZ was not detected in any milk samples at a dosage of 10 mg/kg. However, the parent drug reached 0.01 μg/ml peak milk concentration at 10.66 h and AUCmilk/AUCplasma value was 0.18 ± 0.02 at a dosage of 20 mg/kg bodyweight. This study indicated that per os administration of MBZ has a minimal disposition rate into the milk and may be used in lactating donkeys with zero milk-withdrawal period. The results of FECRT for both MBZ dosages were efficient (>95% efficacy) until day 28. This trial demonstrates that MBZ oral paste at horse dosage (10 mg/kg B.W.) was effective and safety for the treatment of Cyathostominae in donkeys. Therefore, similar dosage regimens of MBZ could be used for horses and donkeys. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Hematology, Parasitology, and Serology of Free-Ranging Coyotes (Canis latrans) from South Carolina.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Debra, Lee; Schrecengost, Joshua; Merrill, Anita; Kilgo, John; Ray, H., Scott; Karl V. Miller, Karl, V.; Baldwin, Charles, A.

    2009-07-01

    ABSTRACT: Blood and feces were collected from 34 adult (19 males, 15 females) and seven juvenile (three males, one female, three not reported) free-ranging coyotes (Canis latrans) on the US Department of Energy’s Savannah River Site (South Carolina, USA). Significant (P,0.05) hematologic differences by sex were noted for red blood cell counts, hemoglobin, and hematocrit. Biochemical differences by sex occurred only for albumen (P,0.05). Twentyone adults were antibody positive for at least one of four viruses: canine adenovirus type 1 (CAV-1; 68%), West Nile virus (WNV; 60%), Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV; 38%), and Canine distemper virus (CDV; 15%). Of the seven Leptospira serovars tested for, seven (25%) of 28 adults were positive for one or more of five serovars: Pomona, Grippotyphosa, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Bratislava, and Autumnalis. Three (43%) of seven juveniles had seropositivity for a virus, one each for CDV, CAV-1, and WNV. No juveniles were seropositive for EEEV or any of the seven Leptospira serovars. Blood smears of 12 adults were positive for Dirofilaria immitis microfilaria, but blood smears from all juveniles were negative. Parvovirus was identified by electron microscopy from the feces of one adult. Ancylostoma spp., Trichuris spp., and Isospora spp. were observed in fecal samples. These data may aid in understanding the role of coyotes in disease ecology.

  19. PARASITOLOGICAL RESEARCH IN URINE FROM MARINE MANATEES (TRICHECHUS MANATUS MANATUS MAINTAINED IN CAPTIVITY IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M.L. Pires

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The marine manatee (Trichechus manatus is one of the most endangered marine mammals in Brazil, and is currently classified as vulnerable to extinction. The main risks to the conservation of the species are from natural causes, such as the slow birth rate, human actions and infectious diseases. Among the main objectives of the National Centre for Research and Conservation of Aquatic Mammals, the Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity Conservation (CMA/ICMBio is to promote scientific research and management actions for the conservation and recovery of endangered species of marine mammals, and develop and promote rehabilitation in captivity and release natural environment of the marine manatee. The passage of these individuals for captive is of utmost importance for the conservation of the species. The rehabilitation of captive cubs marine manatees and allow recovery and can return the animal to the natural environment, enables a greater knowledge of the species, referring to biological, behavioral and clinical. Studies on the parasitism of manatee in Brazil are few elucidated, more research related to the topic, it is necessary to better understand the disease and health aspects of the species. This work aims to realize the isolation of the parasite in urine samples of marine manatee kept in the rehabilitation process. All animals included in the study are from the rehabilitation center for wild animals CRAS/CMA/ICMbio , located in Itamaracá, State of Pernambuco. This deal is the first description of parasites in urine manatee in Brazil and can support management actions to be taken to ensure the health of animals in rehabilitation.

  20. Schistosoma mansoni: parasitology and immunology of baboons vaccinated with irradiated cryopreserved schistosomula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damian, R T; Powell, M R; Roberts, M L [Georgia Univ., Athens (USA). Dept. of Zoology; Clark, J D [Georgia Univ., Athens (USA). Lab. Animal Medicine; Stirewalt, M A; Lewis, F A [Biomedical Research Inst., Rockville, MD (USA)

    1985-06-01

    Young baboons (Papio cynocephalus) were vaccinated with ..gamma..-irradiated (500 Gy) cryopreserved Puerto Rican strain schistosomula of S. mansoni. Protection against heterologous, normal Kenyan Strain S. mansoni challenge infection was erratic and partial; and two putative correlates of immunity, reduced worm fecundity and change in worm location (anterior shift) were not observed. However, immunization of baboons with this vaccine resulted in a stimulated immune system. Both cellular and humoral anamnesis were demonstrable in vaccinated-challenged baboons. Schistosome infection-associated IgM hypergammaglobulinemia was also greatly reduced in vaccinated-challenged baboons. However IgG antibodies to adult, egg, and cercarial antigens were increased after challenge infection in preimmunized baboons. Vaccination appears to have resulted in a redirection of the immune system into anti-parasite channels, but this more specific immune response was insufficient to confer good protection against challenge infection in this experiment. The dampening effect of the vaccine on the hypergammaglobulinemia of schistosomiasis is another candidate for a possible ''anti-pathogenesis'' effect of irradiated schistosome larval vaccines.

  1. Schistosoma mansoni: parasitology and immunology of baboons vaccinated with irradiated cryopreserved schistosomula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damian, R.T.; Powell, M.R.; Roberts, M.L.

    1985-01-01

    Young baboons (Papio cynocephalus) were vaccinated with γ-irradiated (500 Gy) cryopreserved Puerto Rican strain schistosomula of S. mansoni. Protection against heterologous, normal Kenyan Strain S. mansoni challenge infection was erratic and partial; and two putative correlates of immunity, reduced worm fecundity and change in worm location (anterior shift) were not observed. However, immunization of baboons with this vaccine resulted in a stimulated immune system. Both cellular and humoral anamnesis were demonstrable in vaccinated-challenged baboons. Schistosome infection-associated IgM hypergammaglobulinemia was also greatly reduced in vaccinated-challenged baboons. However IgG antibodies to adult, egg, and cercarial antigens were increased after challenge infection in preimmunized baboons. Vaccination appears to have resulted in a redirection of the immune system into anti-parasite channels, but this more specific immune response was insufficient to confer good protection against challenge infection in this experiment. The dampening effect of the vaccine on the hypergammaglobulinemia of schistosomiasis is another candidate for a possible ''anti-pathogenesis'' effect of irradiated schistosome larval vaccines. (author)

  2. Parasitological indicators of onchocerciasis relevant to ivermectin control programmes in the Amazonian focus of Southern Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivas-Martínez, S; Basáñez, M G; Botto, C; Villegas, L; García, M; Curtis, C F

    2000-11-01

    In the previous paper it was concluded that those aged > or = 15 years of both sexes could comprise the indicator group for rapid epidemiological assessment (REA) of onchocerciasis in the Amazonian focus. This paper explores relationships between community microfilarial (mf) prevalence, intensity, and nodule prevalence in 20 Yanomami communities, that would allow identification of REA methods in the region. The mean nodule ratio (prevalence of nodules/prevalence of mf) was 0.54 when onchocercomata in the indicator group were considered. The Spearman correlation coefficient between mf and nodule prevalence was 0.686 (P = 0.001). Palpation of nodules had 92 % specificity and 32 % sensitivity when compared to skin-snipping for the diagnosis of onchocerciasis. The predictive value positive increased from 75 % to 81 % when the indicator group was used. A microfilarial prevalence > 75 % in this group would be indicative of hyperendemic status in the village, between 30 and 75 % of mesoendemicity, and 10 % would suggest a community mf prevalence > 20 % with a sensitivity of 85 % and a specificity of 71 %. A multiple linear regression model of the arc-sine transformed mf prevalence in the village (all ages) on nodule prevalence in those aged > or = 15 years and altitude of the village explained 72 % of the variance. The model combining nodule and altitudinal information had a sensitivity of 92 % and a specificity of 71 % in comparison to an estimated mf prevalence of 21 % or more. It is suggested that the usefulness of the REA methods proposed be assessed in other areas of the Amazonian onchocerciasis focus.

  3. Amazonian onchocerciasis: parasitological profiles by host-age, sex, and endemicity in southern Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivas-Martínez, S; Basáñez, M G; Botto, C; Rojas, S; García, M; Pacheco, M; Curtis, C F

    2000-11-01

    This paper describes, for the human onchocerciasis focus of southern Venezuela, the age profiles of Onchocerca volvulus microfilarial (mf) and nodule prevalence, mf intensity, and mf aggregation for the whole examined population (836 Yanomami people) living in 20 villages, and for these communities classified according to endemicity levels (hypoendemic: < or = 20 %; mesoendemic: 21-59 %; hyperendemic: < or = 60 % infected). Mf prevalence and intensity increased with age, particularly in the hyperendemic areas, and there were no marked differences between the sexes. The prevalence of nodules followed the same age pattern. Fifty percent mf prevalence was reached in the 15-19 year age-class when the population was taken as a whole; nearly in the 10 to 14-year-olds for the hyperendemic level, in those aged 20-29 years in mesoendemic areas, and not reached at all in hypoendemic villages. The degree of mf aggregation was measured by the k value of the negative binomial distribution and by the variance to mean ratio (VMR). The relationship between the standard deviation (S.D.) of mf counts and the mean mf density was also explored. These 3 indices (k, VMR, and S.D.) showed a tendency to increase with both mean mf load and host age. Since infection intensity and host age were themselves positively related, it was not possible to draw definite conclusions about age-specific changes of parasite aggregation. There was not a significant decrease of mf intensity after an earlier peak neither was there a shift towards younger ages of the maximum no. of mf/mg reached as the endemicity level increased. These results are discussed in relation to detection of density dependence in the human host, selection of an indicator age-group for rapid epidemiological assessment (REA) methods, and strategies of ivermectin distribution in the Amazonian focus. It is recommended that, for the Amazonian onchocerciasis focus, the indicator group for REA consists of all those aged 15 years and over.

  4. Strongyloidiasis in Po valley: serological and parasitological screening in blood donors of Cremona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Mangoni

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Backgroud. Strongyloides stercoralis is a ubiquitous nematode that is present also in Italy in a hypoendemic form, especially in the Po Valley. It is responsable for strongyloidiasis, an intestinal parasitosis usually asymptomatic or paucy-symptomatic that occasionally can cause a hyperinfestation syndrome and disseminated disease. Objectives. To determine the presence of S. stercoralis in asympomatic people afferent to the Cremona hospital by serological screening and direct microscopic search. Study Design. In the period from December 1, 2010 to June 30, 2011 we screened 154 donors with absolute eosinophilia >500/μL and percentage of eosinophils 9%. The research of anti-S. stercoralis antibodies was performed through an ELISA method (S.ratti Bordier Products. Donors positive to the screening test were tested for direct parasite search through with phormol-ethyl acetate stool concentration (FEA and culture on S. stercoralis Agar (Biolife, Milan. Results. 13 donors were positive to the screening test (8.4%. 10 of these 13 donors performed coproparassitologic examination. S. stercoralis was identified in the stools of 3/10 tested patients through culture and in 2/10 through FEA. Conclusions. The study results are in line with the data reported in the literature for similar geographic areas. Among the risk factors are to be counted the type of job (agriculture, and the domicile in the rural environment. The culture in S. stercoralis Agar has proved much more sensitive than FEA. The serological diagnosis represent a valuable contribution to traditional coproparassitologic examination, particularlywhen screening asymptomatic individuals at risk.

  5. Visceral leishmaniasis – malaria co-infections : Epidemiological, immunological and parasitological aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bogaart, E.

    2017-01-01

    Concomitant infections by multiple pathogen species represent a serious threat to human health. Affecting over a billion people worldwide, co-infections are an important cause of human morbidity and mortality, and a powerful driver of pathogen evolution. Their clinical and pathological spectrum

  6. Efficacy of parasitological diagnosis methods in wild animals kept in captivity

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Aline Feola; Barnabe, Anderson Sena; Federsoni, Igor Popovic; Ferraz, Renato Ribeiro Nogueira; Marco, Rogerio Milton De; Garcia, Isabel Priscilla

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Parasitic diseases are common in wild animals kept in captivity, and the research of these parasites is a tool used in wildlife management actions. Once the method most used in the practice of veterinary laboratories is the direct examination, it was considered appropriate to report the parasitism in captivity wildlife comparing this technique with modified methods of Hoffman, Pons and Janer (HPJ) and Willis. Fresh feces were surveyed in eleven precincts with specimens of the class ...

  7. Literature Reference for Entamoeba histolytica (Journal of Parasitology. 1972. 58(2): 306–310)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procedures are described for analysis of clinical samples and may be adapted for assessment of solid, particulate, liquid and water samples contaminated with Entamoeba histolytica using a culture method.

  8. In-vivo parasitological response to SP in pregnant women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Malaria in pregnancy is a significant cause of maternal and infant ... intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxinepyrimethamine (SP) for the control ... Women were screened for malaria and anaemia at the first antenatal visit.

  9. A case of probable mixed-infection with Clonorchis sinensis and Fasciola sp.: CT and parasitological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Yun; Lee, Yun-Sik; Yun, Ji Hye; Kim, Jeong Ju; Choi, Won Hyung; Oh, In Hwan; Song, Hyun Ouk; Chu, Jong Phil

    2010-06-01

    We report here a human case probably mixed-infected with Clonorchis sinensis and Fasciola sp. who was diagnosed by computed tomography (CT) scan, serological findings, and/or fecal examination. The patient was a 43-year-old Korean female and was admitted to Kyung Hee University Hospital with the complaints of fever and abdominal pain. On admission, marked eosinophilia was noted in her peripheral blood. CT scan showed specific lesions for clonorchiasis and fascioliasis in the liver, along with lesions suggestive of amebic abscess. Micro-ELISA revealed positive results for the 2 helminthic infections. Eggs of C. sinensis and trophozoites of Entamoeba histolytica were observed in the stool. Treatment with praziquantel followed by metronidazole and tinidazole reduced abnormalities in the liver and eosinophilia. This is the first case report of a possible co-infection with 2 kinds of liver flukes in the Republic of Korea.

  10. Clinical and parasitological profiles of patients with non-complicated Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax malaria in northwestern Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Knudson-Ospina, Angélica; Sánchez-Pedraza, Ricardo; Pérez-Mazorra, Manuel Alberto; Cortés-Cortés, Liliana Jazmín; Guerra-Vega, Ángela Patricia; Nicholls-Orejuela, Rubén Santiago

    2015-01-01

    Antecedentes. En Colombia existen pocos estudios que buscan encontrar diferencias clínicas y parasitológicas en la malaria causada por Plasmodium falciparum y Plasmodium vivax. Objetivo. Describir el perfil clínico y parasitológico de las malarias por Plasmodium falciparum y Plasmodium vivax no complicadas en Tierralta, Córdoba, Colombia. Materiales y métodos. Se evaluaron pacientes con paludismo no complicado por Plasmodium falciparum y Plasmodium vivax según los protocolos estandarizados po...

  11. Introducing Undergraduates to Global Health Epidemiology, Emerging Infectious Diseases, and Parasitology: A Small Book with a Big Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dara L. Wegman-Geedey

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Forgotten People, Forgotten Diseases: The Neglected Tropical Diseases and their Impact on Global Health and Development, 2nd Edition; Peter J. Hotez; (2013. ASM Press, Washington, DC. 255 pages.

  12. Molecular and parasitological survey of Hepatozoon canis (Apicomplexa: Hepatozoidae) in dogs from rural area of Sao Paulo state, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubini, Adriano Stefani; dos Santos Paduan, Karina; Von Ah Lopes, Viviane; O'Dwyer, Lucia Helena

    2008-04-01

    Hepatozoon canis is a protozoan that infects dogs and is transmitted by the ingestion of the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Two distinct species of Hepatozoon genus can infect dogs, H. canis and H. americanum. Routine tests to detect the disease are based on direct examination of gametocytes on Giemsa-stained blood smears. The objectives of this study were the investigation of infection prevalence in rural area dogs, the comparison of diagnostics by blood smear examination and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the association of infection with tick infestation. Blood smears, collected by puncture of the cephalic vein and ear margin capillary bed from 150 dogs, were examined. This technique detected 17 positive animals (11.3%), with 14 (9.3%) in peripheral blood and seven (4.7%) in cephalic vein blood. PCR tests detected 80 (53.3%) positive animals. R. sanguineus and Amblyomma spp. were found in 36 of the dogs (24%), in equal proportions. The identified species for Amblyomma genus were A. cajennense and A. ovale. Data analysis showed that PCR was much more sensitive when compared to blood smear examination. Hepatozoon species was previously identified as closely related to H. canis.

  13. Failure of imidocarb dipropionate to eliminate Hepatozoon canis in naturally infected dogs based on parasitological and molecular evaluation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasanelli, Mariateresa; Paradies, Paola; Greco, Beatrice; Eyal, Osnat; Zaza, Valeria; Baneth, Gad

    2010-08-04

    The efficacy of imidocarb dipropionate for the treatment of Hepatozoon canis infection was studied in three naturally infected asymptomatic dogs followed longitudinally over 8 months. Response to treatment was followed by monitoring blood counts, parasitemia levels in blood, parasite in concentrated buffy-coat smears and by PCR. The dogs were initially treated with a low dose of 3 mg/kg imidocarb dipropionate twice a month and when parasitemia persisted after five treatments, with the regular dose of 6 mg/kg. In one dog, H. canis gamonts were no longer detectable by blood and buffy-coat microscopy after 2 months of therapy with 6 mg/kg while in the two other dogs gamonts were intermittently found in blood but persistently detectable in buffy-coat smears during the whole study period. Furthermore, combined therapy with doxycycline monohydrate administered at 10 mg/kg/day PO for 4 weeks also failed to eliminate H. canis. PCR revealed that parasite DNA was present in the blood of all dogs at all sampling dates regardless of treatment refuting the effectiveness of treatment suggested by negative blood microscopy. Detection of H. canis in buffy coat was found to be twice as sensitive than by blood smear and detection by PCR was even more sensitive revealing infection in eight samples (16% of total samples) negative by blood and buffy-coat microscopy. In conclusion, imidocarb dipropionate was not effective in eliminating H. canis from dogs treated repeatedly over 8 months. Microscopical detection is not sufficient for the evaluation of treatment response in H. canis infection and follow up by molecular techniques is recommended. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Parasitological survey of mangrove oyster, Crassostrea rhizophorae, in the Pacoti River Estuary, Ceará State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabry, Rachel Costa; Gesteira, Tereza Cristina Vasconcelos; Magalhães, Aimê Rachel Magenta; Barracco, Margherita Anna; Guertler, Cristhiane; Ferreira, Liana Pinho; Vianna, Rogério Tubino; da Silva, Patrícia Mirella

    2013-01-01

    The mangrove oyster, Crassostrea rhizophorae (Bivalvia, Ostreidae) is commonly collected by fisherwomen in the estuaries of the Ceará State (CE), Northeastern Brazil. Despite the socioeconomic importance of this natural resource, there are few studies on the health of the oysters in this region. This study aimed to survey pathological changes in the mangrove oyster C. rhizophorae in the estuary of the Pacoti River, CE. Adult oysters were collected in August 2008 (N=450) and December 2009 (N=450) at three sites of the Pacoti estuary and in 2010 (N=600) samplings were done quarterly at one site which has showed the higher prevalence de Perkinsus. Macroscopical and histological analyses were used to evaluate pathological changes, Ray's Fluid Thioglycollate Medium (RFTM) to detect Perkinsus spp. and polymerase chain reactions (PCR) and DNA sequencing to identify Perkinsus species. In 2009, RFTM assay detected Perkinsus sp. infecting the tissues of C. rhizophorae with low prevalences of 1.3%, 6.7% e 7.3% in sites 1, 2 and 3, respectively, and in 2010, in site 3, prevalence was 2% (12 of 600 oysters). PCR did not confirm any positive case in 2009 and only 5 in 2010. The phylogenetic analyses strongly indicate that the Perkinsus species infecting oysters C. rhizophorae of this study belongs to Perkinsus beihaiensis. The histology confirmed 11 cases of Perkinsus sp. infecting the C. rhizophorae in 2009, and only two cases in 2010. Nematopsis sp. was the protozoan observed with greater prevalence (up 96.7%). Other found protozoa were: Trichodina, Sphenophrya, Ancistrocoma - like and an unknown ovarian parasite. The metazoa found were the polychaete Polydora with high prevalences, a turbellarian, possibly of the genus Urastoma, an unidentified digenean metacercariae and larvae of cestode Tylocephalum. A continuous monitoring of diseases in bivalves from this natural population is recommended, since the phylogenetic analyses indicate the occurrence of P. beihaiensis infecting oysters C. rhizophorae whose pathogenic potential is unknown. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Impact of LbSapSal Vaccine in Canine Immunological and Parasitological Features before and after Leishmania chagasi-Challenge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucilene Aparecida Resende

    Full Text Available Dogs represent the most important domestic reservoir of L. chagasi (syn. L. infantum. A vaccine against canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL would be an important tool for decreasing the anxiety related to possible L. chagasi infection and for controlling human visceral leishmaniasis (VL. Because the sand fly salivary proteins are potent immunogens obligatorily co-deposited during transmission of Leishmania parasites, their inclusion in an anti-Leishmania vaccine has been investigated in past decades. We investigated the immunogenicity of the "LbSapSal" vaccine (L. braziliensis antigens, saponin as adjuvant, and Lutzomyia longipalpis salivary gland extract in dogs at baseline (T0, during the post-vaccination protocol (T3rd and after early (T90 and late (T885 times following L. chagasi-challenge. Our major data indicated that immunization with "LbSapSal" is able to induce biomarkers characterized by enhanced amounts of type I (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, interleukin [IL]-12, interferon [IFN]-γ cytokines and reduction in type II cytokines (IL-4 and TGF-β, even after experimental challenge. The establishment of a prominent pro-inflammatory immune response after "LbSapSal" immunization supported the increased levels of nitric oxide production, favoring a reduction in spleen parasitism (78.9% and indicating long-lasting protection against L. chagasi infection. In conclusion, these results confirmed the hypothesis that the "LbSapSal" vaccination is a potential tool to control the Leishmania chagasi infection.

  16. A simplified model for predicting malaria entomologic inoculation rates based on entomologic and parasitologic parameters relevant to control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killeen, G F; McKenzie, F E; Foy, B D; Schieffelin, C; Billingsley, P F; Beier, J C

    2000-05-01

    Malaria transmission intensity is modeled from the starting perspective of individual vector mosquitoes and is expressed directly as the entomologic inoculation rate (EIR). The potential of individual mosquitoes to transmit malaria during their lifetime is presented graphically as a function of their feeding cycle length and survival, human biting preferences, and the parasite sporogonic incubation period. The EIR is then calculated as the product of 1) the potential of individual vectors to transmit malaria during their lifetime, 2) vector emergence rate relative to human population size, and 3) the infectiousness of the human population to vectors. Thus, impacts on more than one of these parameters will amplify each other's effects. The EIRs transmitted by the dominant vector species at four malaria-endemic sites from Papua New Guinea, Tanzania, and Nigeria were predicted using field measurements of these characteristics together with human biting rate and human reservoir infectiousness. This model predicted EIRs (+/- SD) that are 1.13 +/- 0.37 (range = 0.84-1.59) times those measured in the field. For these four sites, mosquito emergence rate and lifetime transmission potential were more important determinants of the EIR than human reservoir infectiousness. This model and the input parameters from the four sites allow the potential impacts of various control measures on malaria transmission intensity to be tested under a range of endemic conditions. The model has potential applications for the development and implementation of transmission control measures and for public health education.

  17. A SIMPLIFIED MODEL FOR PREDICTING MALARIA ENTOMOLOGIC INOCULATION RATES BASED ON ENTOMOLOGIC AND PARASITOLOGIC PARAMETERS RELEVANT TO CONTROL

    OpenAIRE

    KILLEEN, GERRY F.; McKENZIE, F. ELLIS; FOY, BRIAN D.; SCHIEFFELIN, CATHERINE; BILLINGSLEY, PETER F.; BEIER, JOHN C.

    2000-01-01

    Malaria transmission intensity is modeled from the starting perspective of individual vector mosquitoes and is expressed directly as the entomologic inoculation rate (EIR). The potential of individual mosquitoes to transmit malaria during their lifetime is presented graphically as a function of their feeding cycle length and survival, human biting preferences, and the parasite sporogonic incubation period. The EIR is then calculated as the product of 1) the potential of individual vectors to ...

  18. Immune responses and parasitological observations induced during probiotic treatment with medicinal Trichuris suis ova in a healthy volunteer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Andrew R; Dige, Anders; Rasmussen, Tue Kruse

    2017-01-01

    Ingestion of eggs (ova) of the porcine nematode parasite Trichuris suis (TSO) may reduce the severity of autoimmune disorders, however the development of TSO treatment as a useful therapy for autoimmune diseases is hampered by a lack of knowledge on the development of the parasite and the nature...... was also reflected to some extent in the peripheral circulation. These results, together with the first definitive observations that T. suis can mature to adult size and reproduce in humans, shed new light on the interaction between the human immune system and probiotic helminth treatment, which should...

  19. Malaria in pregnancy; facts from the parasitology laboratory: a ten-year study in Abuja, North Central Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibecheozor, N.K.O

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Malaria, which is transmitted by female Anopheles mosquitoes, is the major cause of mortality among the pregnant women in the sub-Saharan Africa. A ten year study of malaria in pregnancy was carried out in Abuja, North Central Nigeria. Thick and thin blood films were stained with the Giemsa methodology. Of the 16760 pregnant women blood samples, 4571 (27.3% were positive for malaria parasites caused by Plasmodium falciparum. Of the 4571 positive cases, 75 (1.7% had parasite density of >5000 parasites/µl of blood; 148 (3.2% had between 500-5000 parasites/µl of blood; 520 (11.4% had between 50 - 500 parasites/µl of blood; while 3828 (83.7% had between 5-50 parasites/µl of blood. With the current estimate of over 4500 deaths of pregnant women in Nigeria due to malaria annually, we must make deliberate efforts to stop these unacceptable and painful losses. The continued use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (M-RDTs methodologies should be discontinued because of its negative implications. Therefore, the microscopic laboratory diagnostic component should be included in ANC at all level of health care facility.

  20. Serum antibody responses in pigs trickle-infected with Ascaris and Trichuris: Heritabilities and associations with parasitological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kringel, Helene; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Petersen, Heidi Huus; Göring, Harald Heinz Herbert; Skallerup, Per; Nejsum, Peter

    2015-07-30

    A humoral immune response following helminth infection in pigs is well documented. However, it has been difficult to confirm the existence of antibody mediated resistance against the large roundworm, Ascaris suum, and whipworm, Trichuris suis, in experimental settings by correlating worm burdens or egg excretion with specific antibody levels. We set out to investigate the association between worm load and T. suis and A. suum specific serum antibody levels (IgG1, IgG2 and IgA) against excretory-secretory products of adults and third stage larvae, respectively, measured at 0, 7 and 14 weeks p.i. in a trickle-infected F1-resource-population of crossbred pigs (n=195). Furthermore, we wanted to determine the heritability of these antibody isotypes during the course of infection. Most pigs remained infected with A. suum throughout the experiment while they expelled T. suis between 7 and 14 weeks post infection (p.i.). Parasite specific IgG1 and IgA were significantly (P<0.001) elevated after 7 and 14 weeks of infection, whereas parasite specific IgG2 levels only changed slightly at 14 weeks p.i.. However, the observed association between specific antibody isotype levels and faecal egg counts and macroscopic worm load was weak. The relative heritabilities of the different parasite specific isotypes were assessed and resulted in significant heritability estimates for parasite specific IgG1 and IgA. The highest heritabilities were found for A. suum specific IgG1 (h(2)=0.41 and 0.46 at 7 and 14 weeks p.i., respectively). Thus, the present study demonstrates that host genetic factors influence the IgG1 and IgA antibody isotype responses specific to two of the most common gastrointestinal nematodes of swine whereas specific antibody levels were poorly associated with egg excretion and the presence of macroscopic worms. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Overcoming language and cultural barriers: a graphical communication tool to perform a parasitological screening in two vulnerable populations from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyayisqui, María Pía; Bordoni, Noemí; Garbossa, Graciela

    2013-01-01

    This is an exploratory study of the application of a support tool for the detection of asymptomatic subjects carrying enteric parasites in two vulnerable populations in Argentina: a shantytown in the city of Buenos Aires and a rural Wichí indigenous community in the province of Chaco. The ethnic and cultural diversity, high illiteracy rate, and language barriers called for the development of an auxiliary resource to explain stool sample collection procedures. In individual interviews with each family, the authors used two instructional guidance leaflets in comic strip format depicting the procedures. They evaluated the acceptance of the graphical communication tool on the basis of the number of retrieved samples. Percentages of respondent families were 72.2% and 66.7%, respectively. Definitive validation of these instruments would allow their use in community studies, community service learning experiences, and research on aboriginal communities that would otherwise be excluded from studies on health status.

  2. Mapping the geographical distribution of podoconiosis in Cameroon using parasitological, serological, and clinical evidence to exclude other causes of lymphedema.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kebede Deribe

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Podoconiosis is a non-filarial elephantiasis, which causes massive swelling of the lower legs. It was identified as a neglected tropical disease by WHO in 2011. Understanding of the geographical distribution of the disease is incomplete. As part of a global mapping of podoconiosis, this study was conducted in Cameroon to map the distribution of the disease. This mapping work will help to generate data on the geographical distribution of podoconiosis in Cameroon and contribute to the global atlas of podoconiosis.We used a multi-stage sampling design with stratification of the country by environmental risk of podoconiosis. We sampled 76 villages from 40 health districts from the ten Regions of Cameroon. All individuals of 15-years old or older in the village were surveyed house-to-house and screened for lymphedema. A clinical algorithm was used to reliably diagnose podoconiosis, excluding filarial-associated lymphedema. Individuals with lymphoedema were tested for circulating Wuchereria bancrofti antigen and specific IgG4 using the Alere Filariasis Test Strips (FTS test and the Standard Diagnostics (SD BIOLINE lymphatic filariasis IgG4 test (Wb123 respectively, in addition to thick blood films. Presence of DNA specific to W. bancrofti was checked on night blood using a qPCR technique.Overall, 10,178 individuals from 4,603 households participated in the study. In total, 83 individuals with lymphedema were identified. Of the 83 individuals with lymphedema, two were found to be FTS positive and all were negative using the Wb123 test. No microfilaria of W. bancrofti were found in the night blood of any individual with clinical lymphedema. None were found to be positive for W. bancrofti using qPCR. Of the two FTS positive cases, one was positive for Mansonella perstans DNA, while the other harbored Loa loa microfilaria. Overall, 52 people with podoconiosis were identified after applying the clinical algorithm. The overall prevalence of podoconiosis was found to be 0.5% (95% [confidence interval] CI; 0.4-0.7. At least one case of podoconiosis was found in every region of Cameroon except the two surveyed villages in Adamawa. Of the 40 health districts surveyed, 17 districts had no cases of podoconiosis; in 15 districts, mean prevalence was between 0.2% and 1.0%; and in the remaining eight, mean prevalence was between 1.2% and 2.7%.Our investigation has demonstrated low prevalence but almost nationwide distribution of podoconiosis in Cameroon. Designing a podoconiosis control program is a vital next step. A health system response to the burden of podoconiosis is important, through case surveillance and morbidity management services.

  3. Treatment of Chagas' disease with itraconazole: electrocardiographic and parasitological conditions after 20 years of follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apt, Werner; Arribada, Arturo; Zulantay, Inés; Rodríguez, Jorge; Saavedra, Miguel; Muñoz, Andrea

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate cases of chronic Chagas' disease for the long-term effects of treatment with itraconazole on Trypanosoma cruzi infections and the regression or development of ECG abnormalities. In March 1992, we treated 46 patients with chronic Chagas' disease with 6 mg/kg/day of itraconazole for 120 days in a blind evaluation. The patients came from an area of Chile where the disease was endemic and were checked for ECG abnormalities and with xenodiagnosis (XD) or real-time XD-quantitative PCR (XD-qPCR) for Trypanosoma cruzi infection before treatment and once a year for 20 years. Twenty-one patients proved to be uninfected after 20 years and 15 of the patients had a normal ECG. Of the latter cases, 32.6% could be considered cured, although all of them had positive serology. Itraconazole prevents the development of ECG abnormalities, because after 20 years of treatment only 10.86% of patients developed ECG abnormalities (Z = 1.70, P = 0.046). XD-qPCR performed on 16 patients demonstrated 10 cases with XD; these cases correspond to therapy failure, since re-infection was ruled out. In one case, XD-qPCR did not present amplification. Itraconazole is useful in the treatment of chronic Chagas' disease as it prevented the development of ECG abnormalities and cured 32.6% of patients.

  4. Comparison of polyvinyl alcohol- and formalin-preserved fecal specimens in the formalin-ether sedimentation technique for parasitological examination.

    OpenAIRE

    Carroll, M J; Cook, J; Turner, J A

    1983-01-01

    A total of 965 paired fecal specimens preserved in polyvinyl alcohol fixative and Formalin were processed by the Formalin-ether sedimentation technique. The effectiveness of the concentration procedures with material from each preservative was determined by comparing both diagnostic efficiency (percent identified) and quantitative egg and semiquantitative cyst counts. Of the 319 infections, 69.5% were detected in concentrates from both preservatives, 6.9% from polyvinyl alcohol only, and 23.5...

  5. Parasitological and Pathological Investigations on Linguatula serrata nymphs in Mesenteric Lymph Nodes in Sheep In Konya Region in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Selçuk Aldemir

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study was aimed to investigate spread and pathological findings of Linguatula serrata nymphs in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs in sheep. A total of 1000 MLNs from 140 sheep (125 male and 15 female were collected from a commercial (Konet abattoir. Fourteen of 140 sheep (10% were infested with nymph stages of L. serrata.Infested lymph nodes were swollen, firm, edematous, many yellowish-white pinpoint and with congestion. In histopathological examinations, these nodules were consist of one or more nymphal stages of L. serrata and these were surrounded by infiltration mononuclear cells and neutrophyl leucocyte. Lymphoid follicules were hyperplastic and sinus catarrh was also observed in medulla.

  6. SEROLOGICAL, PARASITOLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR ASSESSMENT OF Babesia bovis AND Babesia bigemina IN CATTLE FROM STATE OF MARANHÃO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRANCISCO BORGES COSTA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina in dairy cattle from São Luis Island in the state of Maranhão, Brazil. A total of 281 blood samples were collected. In total, 275 (97.9% animals were B. bovis-reactive and B. bigemina reactive in the Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. The microscopy examination detected 22 (7.8% animals that were positive for Babesia sp. and the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR analysis showed that 91 animals (32.38% and 23 animals (8.18% were positive for B. bovis and B. bigemina, respectively, while 17 animals (6.04% were co-infected. There is a high level of transmission of these protozoa in Maranhão, and the animals were naturally exposed. Therefore, it is possible to characterize the island as enzootic stability for babesiosis, indicat-ing a risk of financial losses when susceptible animals are introduced from areas of enzootic instability or free regions of B. bovis and B. bigemina.

  7. Clinical and parasitological protection in a Leishmania infantum-macaque model vaccinated with adenovirus and the recombinant A2 antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, Gabriel; Teva, Antonio; Porrozzi, Renato; Pinto, Marcelo A; Marchevsky, Renato S; Rocha, Maria Gabrielle L; Dutra, Miriam S; Bruña-Romero, Oscar; Fernandes, Ana-Paula; Gazzinelli, Ricardo T

    2014-06-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a severe vector-born disease of humans and dogs caused by Leishmania donovani complex parasites. Approximately 0.2 to 0.4 million new human VL cases occur annually worldwide. In the new world, these alarming numbers are primarily due to the impracticality of current control methods based on vector reduction and dog euthanasia. Thus, a prophylactic vaccine appears to be essential for VL control. The current efforts to develop an efficacious vaccine include the use of animal models that are as close to human VL. We have previously reported a L. infantum-macaque infection model that is reliable to determine which vaccine candidates are most worthy for further development. Among the few amastigote antigens tested so far, one of specific interest is the recombinant A2 (rA2) protein that protects against experimental L. infantum infections in mice and dogs. Primates were vaccinated using three rA2-based prime-boost immunization regimes: three doses of rA2 plus recombinant human interleukin-12 (rhIL-12) adsorbed in alum (rA2/rhIL-12/alum); two doses of non-replicative adenovirus recombinant vector encoding A2 (Ad5-A2) followed by two boosts with rA2/rhIL-12/alum (Ad5-A2+rA2/rhIL12/alum); and plasmid DNA encoding A2 gene (DNA-A2) boosted with two doses of Ad5-A2 (DNA-A2+Ad5-A2). Primates received a subsequent infectious challenge with L. infantum. Vaccines, apart from being safe, were immunogenic as animals responded with increased pre-challenge production of anti-A2-specific IgG antibodies, though with some variability in the response, depending on the vaccine formulation/protocol. The relative parasite load in the liver was significantly lower in immunized macaques as compared to controls. Protection correlated with hepatic granuloma resolution, and reduction of clinical symptoms, particularly when primates were vaccinated with the Ad5-A2+rA2/rhIL12/alum protocol. The remarkable clinical protection induced by A2 in an animal model that is evolutionary close to humans qualifies this antigen as a suitable vaccine candidate against human VL.

  8. Clinical and parasitological protection in a Leishmania infantum-macaque model vaccinated with adenovirus and the recombinant A2 antigen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Grimaldi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is a severe vector-born disease of humans and dogs caused by Leishmania donovani complex parasites. Approximately 0.2 to 0.4 million new human VL cases occur annually worldwide. In the new world, these alarming numbers are primarily due to the impracticality of current control methods based on vector reduction and dog euthanasia. Thus, a prophylactic vaccine appears to be essential for VL control. The current efforts to develop an efficacious vaccine include the use of animal models that are as close to human VL. We have previously reported a L. infantum-macaque infection model that is reliable to determine which vaccine candidates are most worthy for further development. Among the few amastigote antigens tested so far, one of specific interest is the recombinant A2 (rA2 protein that protects against experimental L. infantum infections in mice and dogs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Primates were vaccinated using three rA2-based prime-boost immunization regimes: three doses of rA2 plus recombinant human interleukin-12 (rhIL-12 adsorbed in alum (rA2/rhIL-12/alum; two doses of non-replicative adenovirus recombinant vector encoding A2 (Ad5-A2 followed by two boosts with rA2/rhIL-12/alum (Ad5-A2+rA2/rhIL12/alum; and plasmid DNA encoding A2 gene (DNA-A2 boosted with two doses of Ad5-A2 (DNA-A2+Ad5-A2. Primates received a subsequent infectious challenge with L. infantum. Vaccines, apart from being safe, were immunogenic as animals responded with increased pre-challenge production of anti-A2-specific IgG antibodies, though with some variability in the response, depending on the vaccine formulation/protocol. The relative parasite load in the liver was significantly lower in immunized macaques as compared to controls. Protection correlated with hepatic granuloma resolution, and reduction of clinical symptoms, particularly when primates were vaccinated with the Ad5-A2+rA2/rhIL12/alum protocol. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The remarkable clinical protection induced by A2 in an animal model that is evolutionary close to humans qualifies this antigen as a suitable vaccine candidate against human VL.

  9. Histopathological and parasitological investigations of ear healthy skin of dogs naturally and experimentally infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Maria Marta; Moura, Eliane Perlatto; Costa, Miriam Maria; Ribeiro, Vitor Marcio; Michalick, Marilene Suzan; Tafuri, Washington Luiz; Tafuri, Wagner Luiz

    2010-07-01

    Although 90% of clinical cases of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) occur in the northeastern region of Brazil, the incidence of cases in recent years has increased in southeastern states such as Minas Gerais (MG), where the disease has been reported in several cities, including Belo Horizonte, the state capital. Some studies have shown a strong correlation between the incidence of AVL and canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in Belo Horizonte. A study of 108 dogs with parasite Leishmania chagasi detected by immuno-histochemistry in healthy ear skin was obtained from two distinct geographical areas: 55 from a metropolitan area of the municipality (Santa Luzia, MG) and 53 dogs from a central area of Belo Horizonte. In parallel, a group of 10 beagles were experimentally infected with L. chagasi. Considering the clinical aspects of all naturally infected dogs, symptomatic dogs were more frequent than asymptomatic ones, especially animals from the metropolitan area compared with the central area (79.6% and 20.3%, respectively). A chronic exudate was observed in the ear of 51 out of 55 dogs naturally infected from the metropolitan area (92.7%) and 45 out of 53 dogs naturally infected from the central area (84.9%). Importantly, asymptomatic dogs from the central area harbor more parasites in the skin than the asymptomatic ones from the metropolitan area. In addition, a profound difference was noted in the intensity of the inflammatory reaction and parasite load in the skin of experimental infected dogs.

  10. Distribution of Parasites Detected in Stool Samples of Patients Admitted to Our Parasitology Laboratory during a Three-Year Period between 2012 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selek, Mehmet Burak; Bektöre, Bayhan; Karagöz, Ergenekon; Baylan, Orhan; Özyurt, Mustafa

    2016-09-01

    Parasitic diseases are among the major public health issues worldwide. A number of tests are available for diagnosis, but the sentivity and specifity of these tests are assumed to be insufficient. Nevertheless, the most common diagnostic method is microscopic examination. In this study, we aimed to introduce the distribution of parasites detected in stool samples of patients admitted to our laboratory on the basis of parameters such as, age, and gender during a 3-year period between 2012 and 2014. In total, 6757 stool samples were included in the study. After macroscopic examination, wet mounts of all samples were examined under a light microscope using ×100 and ×400 magnification lenses. Wet mounts were prepared with physiological saline and Lugol's iodine. Parasites were detected in 3.7% (252) of the samples, while no parasites were detected in 96.3% (6505) of the samples. The distribution of intestinal parasites was as follows: Blastocystis hominis (63.5%), Giardia intestinalis (26.2%), Taenia sp. (4.8%), Enterobius vermicularis (2.4%), Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (1.6%), and Hymenolepis nana (1.6%). When the burden of intestinal parasites on public health is considered, they are still a major health issue in Turkey. The frequency of parasitic diseases can be reduced by the education of individuals and implementation of effective diagnostic methods, treatments, and preventive measures.

  11. Molecular and Parasitological Survey of Bovine Piroplasms in the Black Sea Region, Including the First Report of Babesiosis Associated with Babesia divergens in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas, M; Ozubek, S

    2015-11-01

    Clinical cases of babesiosis were evaluated, and the frequency of bovine Babesia and Theileria parasites was determined in cattle. Blood samples and thin blood smears were collected from 23 cattle exhibiting clinical signs of babesiosis. In addition, tick and blood samples were collected from 100 apparently healthy cattle cograzing from the same area. Egg masses obtained from fully engorged female ticks were included. DNA isolated from blood and tick samples was screened for Babesia and Theileria by reverse line blot assay. Piroplasms compatible with Babesia spp. were observed microscopically for symptomatic cattle as circular, oval, elongated, or pear-shaped bodies. Parasitemia ranged from 0.08 to 0.9% for Babesia bovis, 2.5 to 15.4% for Babesia bigemina, and 7.4% for Babesia divergens. Reverse line blot showed positivity in 13 (13%) of the sampled clinically normal cattle and revealed the presence of three Babesia species. Babesia bovis was the most prevalent (9/100, 9%), followed by Babesia occultans (3/100, 3%) and B. bigemina (1/100, 1%). One animal infected with B. bigemina was also infected with B. bovis. The single animal infected with B. divergens showed symptoms of babesiosis. Ticks were identified as Rhipicephalus annulatus, Rhipicephalus turanicus, and Ixodes ricinus. One female R. annulatus and its egg mass were infected with B. bigemina. Neither Theileria annulata nor Theileria buffeli/orientalis infections were observed in cattle or ticks. This is the first report of clinical babesiosis caused by B. divergens in cattle from Turkey. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Associations among immunological, parasitological and clinical parameters in canine visceral leishmaniasis: Emaciation, spleen parasitism, specific antibodies and leishmanin skin test reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos-Santos, W L C; Jesus, E E; Paranhos-Silva, M; Pereira, A M; Santos, J C; Baleeiro, C O; Nascimento, E G; Moreira, E D; Oliveira, G G S; Pontes-de-Carvalho, L C

    2008-06-15

    Associations among parameters commonly used as markers of infection by Leishmania sp., or of susceptibility to visceral leishmaniasis, were investigated in 325 stray dogs from an area where this disease is endemic. Evidence of infection (presence of Leishmania in splenic cultures, positive leishmanin skin test (LST) or detection of anti-Leishmania antibody activity in the serum) was found in 57% of the animals. Both evidence of weight loss (chi(2)-test, P=0.0005) and presence of specific antibody activity in the serum (chi(2)-test, Ptest results and emaciation (chi(2), P=0.0089). Furthermore, animals with positive splenic cultures and negative leishmanin skin test results had higher levels of total serum IgG (Kruskal-Wallis test, P=0.001) and IgG2 (Kruskal-Wallis test, P=0.05) than animals with negative splenic cultures, and were more emaciated than animals with negative LST results and positive splenic cultures. The data presented herein suggest that associating these common parameters may improve their performance in predicting susceptibility to canine visceral leishmaniasis.

  13. Transmission of Leishmania infantum in the Canine Leishmaniasis Focus of Mont-Rolland, Senegal: Ecological, Parasitological and Molecular Evidence for a Possible Role of Sergentomyia Sand Flies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massila Wagué Senghor

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania (L. infantum is the causative agent in an endemic focus of canine leishmaniasis in the Mont-Rolland district (Thiès, Senegal. In this area, the transmission cycle is well established and more than 30% of dogs and 20% of humans are seropositive for L. infantum. However, the sand fly species involved in L. infantum transmission cycle are still unknown. Between 2007 and 2010, 3654 sand flies were collected from different environments (indoor, peridomestic, farming and sylvatic areas to identify the main L. infantum vector(s. Nine sand fly species were identified. The Phlebotomus genus (n = 54 specimens; Phlebotomus (Ph duboscqi and Phlebotomus (Ph. rodhaini was markedly under-represented in comparison to the Sergentomyia genus (n = 3600 specimens; Sergentomyia (Se adleri, Se. clydei, Se. antennata, Se. buxtoni, Se. dubia, Se. schwetzi and Se. magna. Se. dubia and Se. schwetzi were the dominant species indoor and in peridomestic environments, near humans and dogs. Blood-meal analysis indicated their anthropophilic behavior. Some Se. schwetzi specimens fed also on dogs. The dissection of females in the field allowed isolating L. infantum from sand flies of the Sergentomyia genus (0.4% of Se. dubia and 0.79% of Se. schwetzi females. It is worth noting that one Se. dubia female not engorged and not gravid revealed highly motile metacyclic of L. infantum in the anterior part of the midgut. PCR-based diagnosis and sequencing targeting Leishmania kinetoplast DNA (kDNA highlighted a high rate of L. infantum-positive females (5.38% of Se. dubia, 4.19% of Se. schwetzi and 3.64% of Se. magna. More than 2% of these positive females were unfed, suggesting the parasite survival after blood-meal digestion or egg laying. L. infantum prevalence in Se. schwetzi was associated with its seroprevalence in dogs and humans and L. infantum prevalence in Se. dubia was associated with its seroprevalence in humans. These evidences altogether strongly suggest that species of the Sergentomyia genus are probably the vectors of canine leishmaniasis in the Mont-Rolland area and challenge one more time the dogma that in the Old World, leishmaniasis is exclusively transmitted by species of the Phlebotomus genus.

  14. Clinical determinants of early parasitological response to ACTs in African patients with uncomplicated falciparum malaria: a literature review and meta-analysis of individual patient data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdulla, Salim; Adam, Ishag; Adjei, George O.; Adjuik, Martin A.; Alemayehu, Bereket; Allan, Richard; Arinaitwe, Emmanuel; Ashley, Elizabeth A.; Ba, Mamadou S.; Barennes, Hubert; Barnes, Karen I.; Bassat, Quique; Baudin, Elisabeth; Berens-Riha, Nicole; Bjoerkman, Anders; Bompart, Francois; Bonnet, Maryline; Borrmann, Steffen; Bousema, Teun; Brasseur, Philippe; Bukirwa, Hasifa; Checchi, Francesco; Dahal, Prabin; d'Alessandro, Umberto; Desai, Meghna; Dicko, Alassane; Djimde, Abdoulaye A.; Dorsey, Grant; Doumbo, Ogobara K.; Drakeley, Chris J.; Duparc, Stephan; Eshetu, Teferi; Espie, Emmanuelle; Etard, Jean-Francois; Faiz, Abul M.; Falade, Catherine O.; Fanello, Caterina I.; Faucher, Jean-Francois; Faye, Babacar; Faye, Oumar; Filler, Scott; Flegg, Jennifer A.; Fofana, Bakary; Fogg, Carole; Gadalla, Nahla B.; Gaye, Oumar; Genton, Blaise; Gething, Peter W.; Gil, Jose P.; Gonzalez, Raquel; Grandesso, Francesco; Greenhouse, Bryan; Greenwood, Brian; Grivoyannis, Anastasia; Guerin, Philippe J.; Guthmann, Jean-Paul; Hamed, Kamal; Hamour, Sally; Hay, Simon I.; Hodel, Eva Maria; Humphreys, Georgina S.; Hwang, Jimee; Ibrahim, Maman L.; Jima, Daddi; Jones, Joel J.; Jullien, Vincent; Juma, Elizabeth; Kachur, Patrick S.; Kager, Piet A.; Kamugisha, Erasmus; Kamya, Moses R.; Karema, Corine; Kayentao, Kassoum; Kiechel, Jean-Rene; Kironde, Fred; Kofoed, Poul-Erik; Kremsner, Peter G.; Krishna, Sanjeev; Lameyre, Valerie; Lell, Bertrand; Lima, Angeles; Makanga, Michael; Malik, Elfatih M.; Marsh, Kevin; Martensson, Andreas; Massougbodji, Achille; Menan, Herve; Menard, Didier; Menendez, Clara; Mens, Petra F.; Meremikwu, Martin; Moreira, Clarissa; Nabasumba, Carolyn; Nambozi, Michael; Ndiaye, Jean-Louis; Ngasala, Billy E.; Nikiema, Frederic; Nsanzabana, Christian; Ntoumi, Francine; Oguike, Mary; Ogutu, Bernhards R.; Olliaro, Piero; Omar, Sabah A.; Ouedraogo, Jean-Bosco; Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Penali, Louis K.; Pene, Mbaye; Peshu, Judy; Piola, Patrice; Plowe, Christopher V.; Premji, Zul; Price, Ric N.; Randrianarivelojosia, Milijaona; Rombo, Lars; Roper, Cally; Rosenthal, Philip J.; Sagara, Issaka; Same-Ekobo, Albert; Sawa, Patrick; Schallig, Henk D. F. H.; Schramm, Birgit; Seck, Amadou; Shekalaghe, Seif A.; Sibley, Carol H.; Sinou, Vronique; Sirima, Sodiomon B.; Som, Fabrice A.; Sow, Doudou; Staedke, Sarah G.; Stepniewska, Kasia; Sutherland, Colin J.; Swarthout, Todd D.; Sylla, Khadime; Talisuna, Ambrose O.; Taylor, Walter R. J.; Temu, Emmanuel A.; Thwing, Julie I.; Tine, Roger C. K.; Tinto, Halidou; Tommasini, Silva; Toure, Offianan A.; Ursing, Johan; Vaillant, Michel T.; Valentini, Giovanni; van den Broek, Ingrid; van Vugt, Michele; Ward, Stephen A.; Winstanley, Peter A.; Yavo, William; Yeka, Adoke; Zolia, Yah M.; Zongo, Issaka

    2015-01-01

    Background: Artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum has emerged in the Greater Mekong sub-region and poses a major global public health threat. Slow parasite clearance is a key clinical manifestation of reduced susceptibility to artemisinin. This study was designed to establish the baseline

  15. Poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae) infestation: a broad impact parasitological disease that still remains a significant challenge for the egg-laying industry in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigognault Flochlay, Annie; Thomas, Emmanuel; Sparagano, Olivier

    2017-08-01

    The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, has been described for decades as a threat to the egg production industry, posing serious animal health and welfare concerns, adversely affecting productivity, and impacting public health. Research activities dedicated to controlling this parasite have increased significantly. Their veterinary and human medical impact, more particularly their role as a disease vector, is better understood. Nevertheless, red mite infestation remains a serious concern, particularly in Europe, where the prevalence of red mites is expected to increase, as a result of recent hen husbandry legislation changes, increased acaricide resistance, climate warming, and the lack of a sustainable approach to control infestations. The main objective of the current work was to review the factors contributing to this growing threat and to discuss their recent development in Europe. We conclude that effective and sustainable treatment approach to control poultry red mite infestation is urgently required, included integrated pest management.

  16. Immunological and pathophysiological studies on the infection of animals with liver specific trichocephalid Capillaris hepatica. Part a coordinated programme on isotopes and radiation in animal parasitology and immunology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahner, H.

    1976-07-01

    The effect of X-ray radiation on the infection of animal liver with Capillaria hepatica was investigated. A dose of 70 Krd could not prevent an invasion of the liver with the parasite, and no differences in the number of lesions was found to occur between normal and irradiated parasite eggs. With regard to the fertility of the eggs, reproductivity was found to decrease after X-ray irradiation. Studies on cross- and histopathology were performed after infections with normal and irradiated (2 Krd and 5 Krd) eggs. Alterations of serum-enzyme activities were followed and the development of antibodies was demonstrated using an extract of non-embryonated C. hepatica eggs. Immunization experiments ascertained the immunizing capacity of a vaccine (as irradiated embryonated eggs) in comparison to normal infections and to intraperitoneal injections of nonembryonated eggs. The effect was determined with regard to the egg production of sublethal challenge infections and to the mortality after normally lethal challenge infections

  17. A novel alternative method for 3D visualisation in Parasitology: the construction of a 3D model of a parasite from 2D illustrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, B G; Sarinder, K K S; Lim, L H S

    2010-08-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) models of the marginal hooks, dorsal and ventral anchors, bars and haptoral reservoirs of a parasite, Sundatrema langkawiense Lim & Gibson, 2009 (Monogenea) were developed using the polygonal modelling method in Autodesk 3ds Max (Version 9) based on two-dimensional (2D) illustrations. Maxscripts were written to rotate the modelled 3D structures. Appropriately orientated 3D haptoral hard-parts were then selected and positioned within the transparent 3D outline of the haptor and grouped together to form a complete 3D haptoral entity. This technique is an inexpensive tool for constructing 3D models from 2D illustrations for 3D visualisation of the spatial relationships between the different structural parts within organisms.

  18. World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP): Guideline for the evaluation of drug efficacy against non-coccidial gastrointestinal protozoa in livestock and companion animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurden, T; Olson, M E; O'Handley, R M; Schetters, T; Bowman, D; Vercruysse, J

    2014-08-29

    The current guideline was written to aid in the design, implementation and interpretation of studies for the assessment of drug efficacy against non-coccidial gastrointestinal protozoan parasites, with Giardia spp. as the leading example. The information provided in this guideline deals with aspects of how to conduct controlled studies using experimental infection models (dose determination and dose confirmation) and efficacy studies in commercial facilities (field effectiveness studies). Furthermore, the selection of suitable animals, housing, infection procedure, choice of diagnostic technique and data analysis are discussed. This guideline is intended to assist investigators in conducting specific studies, to provide specific information for registration authorities involved in the decision-making process, to assist in the approval and registration of new drugs and to facilitate the worldwide adoption of uniform procedures. The primary parameter for drug efficacy is the reduction in either parasite excretion or parasite counts and a minimum efficacy of 90% is required against non-coccidial gastrointestinal protozoa. A supporting efficacy parameter is a significant difference in the proportion of infected animals between treated and non-treated groups. Persistent efficacy is considered as an additional claim to therapeutic efficacy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. World association for the advancement of veterinary parasitology (WAAVP): Second edition of guidelines for evaluating the efficacy of anthelmintics in swine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hennessy, D.R.; Bauer, C.; Boray, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    Guidelines are provided for evaluating the efficacy of anthelmintics in swine which, in conjunction with other sets of guidance such as those of the International Cooperation on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Veterinary Medicinal Products (VICH GL7 and VICH GL16), sho...

  20. Invasion biology meets parasitology: a case study of parasite spill-back with Egyptian Fasciola gigantica in the invasive snail Pseudosuccinea columella.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel S Grabner

    Full Text Available The liver fluke Fasciola gigantica is a trematode parasite of ruminants and humans that occurs naturally in Africa and Asia. Cases of human fascioliasis, attributable at least in part to F. gigantica, are significantly increasing in the last decades. The introduced snail species Galba truncatula was already identified to be an important intermediate host for this parasite and the efficient invader Pseudosuccinea columella is another suspect in this case. Therefore, we investigated snails collected in irrigation canals in Fayoum governorate in Egypt for prevalence of trematodes with focus on P. columella and its role for the transmission of F. gigantica. Species were identified morphologically and by partial sequencing of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene (COI. Among all 689 snails found at the 21 sampling sites, P. columella was the most abundant snail with 296 individuals (42.96% and it was also the most dominant species at 10 sites. It was not found at 8 sites. Molecular detection by PCR and sequencing of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA revealed infections with F. gigantica (3.38%, Echinostoma caproni (2.36% and another echinostome (7.09% that could not be identified further according to its sequence. No dependency of snail size and trematode infection was found. Both high abundance of P. columella in the Fayoum irrigation system and common infection with F. gigantica might be a case of parasite spill-back (increased prevalence in local final hosts due to highly susceptible introduced intermediate host species from the introduced P. columella to the human population, explaining at least partly the observed increase of reported fascioliasis-cases in Egypt. Eichhornia crassipes, the invasive water hyacinth, which covers huge areas of the irrigation canals, offers safe refuges for the amphibious P. columella during molluscicide application. As a consequence, this snail dominates snail communities and efficiently transmits F. gigantica.

  1. Studies on metabolic antigen of F. Hepatica. Part of a coordinated programme on isotopes and radiation in animal parasitology and immunology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuperlovic, K.

    1977-06-01

    The final report submitted by Dr. Cuperlovic covers research findings on the immunological mechanisms and responses involved in liver fluke (Fasciola hepatica) infections in rabbits and sheep. Series of experiments were carried out to test the immunogenecity of labelled fluke tissue-fractions in rabbits. Hyperimmunization with secretory-excretory antigens gave conflicting results and it was concluded that only a very limited immunity is being conferred. Trials with anti-liver antibodies suggest that even autoimmune processes are involved

  2. Organismal effects of pesticide exposure on meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) living in golf course ecosystems: developmental instability, clinical hematology, body condition, and blood parasitology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopper, Loren D; Mineau, Pierre

    2004-06-01

    This is the second of two articles reporting the results of a nonlethal biomonitoring study that quantified the effects of pesticide exposure on meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) living in golf course ecosystems of the Ottawa/Gatineau region (ON and PQ, Canada, respectively). In the present article, we describe results of measurements regarding developmental instability (e.g., fluctuating asymmetry), congenital birth defects (e.g., skeletal terata), clinical hematology (e.g., differential counts), general body condition (e.g., body mass-length relationships), and blood parasite load (Trypanosoma sp. and Bartonella spp.). Voles were captured during the year 2001 to 2003 at six golf courses and two reference sites. Once voles were fully sedated using isoflurane, blood was collected, radiographs taken, and morphometric measurements recorded. Three animals from each course were euthanized to determine body burdens of historically used organochlorine (OC) and metal-based pesticides. Exposure to in-use pesticides was determined from detailed golf course pesticide-use records. None of the endpoints measured was significantly related to body burdens of OC pesticides and metals historically used, nor did any endpoint significantly vary among capture sites in relation to total pesticide application to the capture site or to the number of days since the last application of pesticide. Based on these findings, it appears that voles from golf courses were no less healthy than their conspecifics from reference sites.

  3. Application of radioisotopes in the diagnosis of fascioliasis. Part of a coordinated programme on isotopes and radiation in animal parasitology and immunology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomanek, J.

    1977-02-01

    Fascioliasis is an important parasitic disease of grazing cattle and sheep. The experimental approach included the production of metacercariae of Fasciola hepatica from Lymnae tomentosa, infection of experimental animals, separation of fractions from whole Fasciola hepatica antigen by gel filtration on Sephadex G-100 and G-200, labelling of antigens with 125 I and examination of experimentally infected sheep and other animals for antibodies by modified radioactive single radial diffusion, indirect radioimmunodiffusion and radioactive antigen microprecipitin assay by means of direct radioimmunodiffusion and immunodiffusion using unlabelled antigen. Sufficient quantities of fluke for the production of antigen were obtained only from sheep. Infected rabbits, guinea pigs and rats yielded relatively few flukes. Labelling of the antigenic fraction can be regarded as fairly successful but the specific radioactivity of the fractions needs to be increased. Results from antibodies in infected animals by indirect radioimmunodiffusion and modified radioactive single diffusion proved not fully specific. Radioactive antigen microprecipitin assay would appear to differentiate between negative and positive sera

  4. Piscinoodinium pillulare (Schäperclaus, 1954 Lom, 1981 (Dinoflagellida infection in cultivated freshwater fish from the Northeast region of São Paulo State, Brazil: parasitological and pathological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. MARTINS

    Full Text Available The Aquaculture Center of Unesp, Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil, received fishes for diagnosis from fish farmers reporting fish crowding at pond edges and in water inlets. Fifty-three out of 194 cases showed round to oval, immobile whitish structures, measuring up to 162 mm diameter, identified as the dinoflagellate Piscinoodinium pillulare. In 34 diagnosed cases the parasites were present in the gills, in 2 on body surface, and 9 in both. Thirty-one out of 53 were tambacu hybrids hosts; 7, Piaractus mesopotamicus; 6, Colossoma macropomum; 5, Leporinus macrocephalus; 3, Oreochromis niloticus; and 1, Prochilodus lineatus. Fish showed increased mucous production on body surface and gills, while ecchymosis in the caudal peduncle and operculum was present. The gills also showed paleness, congestion, and petechiae. Histopathology presented a great number of trophonts situated between secondary lamellae, fixed to or detached from the epithelium. Primary lamellae presented interstitial hemorrhages, severe hyperplasia of the epithelium, goblet cells, and mononuclear infiltrates. The present work is the first report of P. pillulare in Brazil and emphasizes the importance of this dinoflagellate which caused significant economic losses from 1995 through 1997.

  5. A Retrospective Analysis of the Results of a Five-Year (2005-2009) Parasitological Examination for Common Intestinal Parasites from Bale-Robe Health Center, Robe Town, Southeastern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chala, Bayissa

    2013-01-01

    A cross-sectional retrospective survey using the past five years clinical records (2005-2009) was conducted. The study was aimed at assessing the status of common intestinal parasites from Bale-Robe Health Center, Southeastern Ethiopia, in 2009/2010. The survey involved collection of data recorded on intestinal parasite from the health center during 2005-2009. Precoded questionnaires and interviews were also supplemented for knowledge attitude practices survey (KAPs survey) to assess awareness level of treatment seekers. Analysis of the various associations and strength of significant variations among qualitative and quantitative variables were assessed. The results revealed that Entamoeba histolytica (36.1%) and Giardia lamblia (11.0%), both being protozoan parasites were found to be the most prevalent intestinal parasites encountered during 2005-2009. The least prevalent intestinal parasite recorded was Strongyloides stercoralis (1.1%). Most intestinal parasites were detected among age group of 15 years and above than 0-4 and 5-14 years as shown in Table 4. There was a significant correlation between intestinal parasites prevalence and the age of treatment seeking individuals (P parasites in the area.

  6. A Retrospective Analysis of the Results of a Five-Year (2005?2009) Parasitological Examination for Common Intestinal Parasites from Bale-Robe Health Center, Robe Town, Southeastern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Chala, Bayissa

    2013-01-01

    A cross-sectional retrospective survey using the past five years clinical records (2005?2009) was conducted. The study was aimed at assessing the status of common intestinal parasites from Bale-Robe Health Center, Southeastern Ethiopia, in 2009/2010. The survey involved collection of data recorded on intestinal parasite from the health center during 2005?2009. Precoded questionnaires and interviews were also supplemented for knowledge attitude practices survey (KAPs survey) to assess awarenes...

  7. Efectos del parasitismo sobre el tejido branquial en peces cultivados: estudio parasitologico e histopatologico Effect of the parasitism on the gill tissue of cultivated fishes: parasitological and histopathological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Laterça Martins

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred four out of 225 diagnosticated cases were myxosporidian, monogenean, Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Fouquet, 1876 and bacterial diseases in Piaractus mesopotamicus Holmberg, 1887 (pacu, Colossoma macropomum Cuvier, 1818 (tambaqui and tambacu, at Aquaculture Center, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP, Jaboticabal, São Paulo, Brazil, between 1992 and 1995. The gills were fixed in 10% buffered formalin solution to posterior histologic routine. It was observed Henneguya sp. cysts into the capillaries of the secondary lamellae, encapsulated by the respiratory epithelium cells. It provoked adherence of the adjacent lamellae, hyperplasia, congestion, oedema and epithelium displacement. Monogeneans infestations by Anacanthorus penilabiatus Boeger, Husak & Martins, 1995 and Ancyrocephalinae sub-family caused light inflammatory reaction and hyperplasia. In severe infestations was observed hyperplasia of primary lamellae, necrosis, oedema, respiratory epithelium displacement, ruptured pillar cells and telangiectasis. Response to I. multifiliis was limited to surrounding epithelial cells in young fishes and hyperplasia, necrosis, inflammatory infiltrate and oedema in old fishes. Such lesions iniciate hyperplasic and oedematous process that with inflammation of the parasitic sites, provoked alterations over gases and ions interchange surface and consequently fish metabolism.

  8. Attempts to adapt Theileria parva, the causative organism of East Coast fever of cattle to small laboratory animals. Part of a coordinated programme on isotopes and radiation in animal parasitology and immunology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irvin, A.D.

    1975-04-01

    Heterotransplantation experiments with T. parva-parasitized bovine lymphoid cells into athymic, irradiated mice resulted in growth of tumour-like cell masses of bovine origin, with a spreading tendency by the vascular system. Infection of erythrocytes with piroplasmatic stages was also observed. Culture-derived parasitized lymphoid cells could be passaged up to 136 days. Passaged cells inoculated to susceptible cattle, caused mild reactions and resistance to subsequent challenge. The results of the research undertaken opens possibilities for using athymic mice as a laboratory model for further research work on East Coast Fever

  9. [Hydatid fertility and protoscolex viability in humans: study of 78 hydatid samples collected between 2005 and 2012 and analyzed at the parasitology laboratory of the Mustapha University Hospital Center of Algiers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zait, H; Boulahbel, M; Zait, F; Achir, I; Guerchani, M T; Chaouche, H; Ladjadje, Y; Hamrioui, B

    2013-05-01

    An analysis at the Mustapha University Hospital Center of Algiers examined 78 hydatid samples collected between 2005 and 2012 to determine the fertility rate of metacestodes and the viability of protoscolices. The fertility rate of the hydatid cysts in humans was 88.4% and the protoscolex viability rate 74.5%. The fertility and viability rates found here are high, despite the use of scolicides.

  10. [Parasitologic significance of the alteration of the causative Anisakidae worm and of the Pseudoterranova decipiens female immature adult worm, casting off the cuticles, and excreted from human in Kanazawa City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikura, H; Kikuchi, K; Akao, N; Doutei, M; Yagi, K; Takahashi, S; Sato, N

    1995-09-01

    We have been studying Anisakidae larvae, their intermediate hosts and their final hosts in the northern Japan Sea area. These larvae cause anisakidosis. According to the investigation, the recent burst of pseudoterranovosis in this area can be attributed to the increased presence of sea lions, which proliferate in the Arctic region, then migrate to the northern Japan Sea and eat the intermediate host fish. In a stomach of a male sea lion that was captured in February 1995, we found more than 4,500 Pseudoterranova decipiens. Although there is no known circumstance in which a human would consume an adult worm of Anisakis nematode, an astonishing case of this was found in Kanazawa; a female young adult Pseudoterranova decipiens undergoing the final metamorphosis was emitted from a patient. This indicates that the Anisakis larva can mature into the adult worm in humans. It is postulated that the Pseudoterranova decipiens larva is in the process of adapting to use humans as the final host.

  11. Constrastación de un programa de investigación científica en parasitología: reconstrucción de un caso histórico

    OpenAIRE

    Dressino, Vicente; Denegri, Guillermo María

    1996-01-01

    A partir de la influyente obra de T. Kuhn "The Structure of Scientific Revolutions" (1962) el análisis del desarrollo científico se desplazó progresivamente del contexto justificación al contexto de descubrimiento. Las teorías científicas dejaban de ser, para el análisis, estructuras acabadas y estáticas -para ser estructuras dinámicas y en continua transformación. La historia de la ciencia logra entonces un lugar preponderante como criterio de contrastación de las teorías científicas y los n...

  12. Avaliação parasitológica em alfaces (Lactuca sativa L. comercializadas em Serra Talhada, Pernambuco, Brasil / Parasitological evaluation in lettuces (Lactuca sativa L. marketed in Serra Talhada, Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Gonçalves de Oliveira

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A prevalência de parasitoses intestinais cresce de forma expansiva no Brasil e em muitos países. A ocorrência de enteroparasitoses advém de várias maneiras, inclusive por con-sumo de vegetais contaminados, representando um grande problema em nível mundial. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a contaminação por parasitas intestinais em horta-liças comercializadas em Serra Talhada-PE. As amostras das hortaliças foram coletadas nas unidades de produção (hortas, na unidade de recepção do Programa de Aquisição de Alimentos (PAA e em diversos estabelecimentos comerciais localizadas no município. As amostras foram colocadas em sacos plásticos e mantidas em caixa isotérmica; em seguida, foram encaminhadas ao laboratório de Biologia da Unidade Acadêmica de Serra Talhada-UFRPE. Para a identificação dos parasitas foi utilizado o método de sedimenta-ção espontânea. Observou-se que das 80 amostras de alface analisadas 97,5% estavam positivas para formas parasitárias e outros organismos microscópicos, incluindo ovos e larvas de nematoides, cistos de protozoários, ovos de cestódeos e alguns artrópodes (insetos e ácaros. É de suma importância o conhecimento dos produtores e manipu-ladores em geral a respeito da contaminação, bem como o conhecimento das técnicas sanitizantes desenvolvidas para hortaliças, com intuito de diminuir a contaminação em todas as etapas ocorrentes desde o cultivo até ao consumo. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Prevalence of intestinal parasites growing in Brazil and in many countries so expansive. The intestinal parasites comes in several ways, including by consumption of contami-nated vegetables, which represents a significant worldwide problem. The objective of this study is to assess the contamination by intestinal parasites in vegetables commer-cialized in Serra Talhada, in Pernambuco state. Samples of vegetables were collected at the production units (vegetable gardens and the receiving unit of the Food Acquisition Program (FAP and several commercial establishments in the municipality. Samples were placed in plastic bags and kept in an isothermal box, then sent to the laboratory of Biology Academic Unit of Serra Talhada — UAST/UFRPE. For the identification of para-sites was performed the spontaneous sedimentation. It was observed that the lettuce samples analyzed 97.5% were positive for parasitic forms and other microscopic organis-ms, including eggs and larvae of nematodes, protozoan cysts, cestodes eggs and some arthropods (insects and mites. Is extremely important to know the producers and han-dlers in general with respect to contamination, as well as the knowledge of the techni-ques developed for sanitizing vegetables crops, aiming at diminishing the contamination occurred in all steps occurring from cultivation to consumption.

  13. 116 Damage Caused By the Bean Bruchid, Callosobruchus Maculatus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-07-21

    Jul 21, 2011 ... Onyido, A. E. - Department of Parasitology and Entomology, Nnamdi. Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria. Zeibe, C. C. - Department of Parasitology and Entomology, Nnamdi. Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria. Okonkwo, N. J. - Department of Parasitology and Entomology, ...

  14. Research and increase of expertise in arachno-entomology are urgently needed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehlhorn, Heinz; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy

    2012-01-01

    Considering the contents of international journals of parasitology dealing with broader topics inside this field show that rather a few papers appear with studies in the discipline of arachno-entomology. In the journals Journal of Parasitology, Parasitology Research and Trends in Parasitology, the relations of published papers on protozoology, helminthology and arachno-entomology showed that in all three journals, papers on protozoans were the most common, while those on helminths of any kind reached the second place being rather as common as the protozoan papers in Parasitology Research and in the Journal of Parasitology. In Trends of Parasitology, however, the papers on helminths reached only about 25% of the numbers published on protozoan topics. But in all three journals-and this is important-the papers on arachno-entomological themes were scarce reaching less than the half of the protozoan papers in Parasitology Research, and only about 15% in the Journal of Parasitology and in the Trends of Parasitology. These disproportions between the three great subdivisions of targets in the focus of parasitological research are dangerous, since this lack exists already for several decades and thus led to a backlog of unsolved increasing problems that are caused by ticks, mites, insects and/or parasitic crustaceans especially in times of intensive globalization and global warming. Studies on the biology, vectorship, invasion and spreading of wanted vectors and on the control of pests and parasites belonging to the field of arachno-entomology are urgently needed.

  15. Parasite systematics in the 21st century: opportunities and obstacles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooks Daniel R

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Thanks to the phylogenetic systematics revolution, systematic parasitology is poised to make significant contributions in tropical medicine and public health, biodiversity science, and evolutionary biology. At the same time, the taxonomic impediment is acute within parasitology. Both systematists and non-systematists must be interested in working towards common goals and establishing collaborative efforts in order to re-vitalize and re-populate systematic parasitology.

  16. 78 FR 40744 - Request for Nominations of Candidates To Serve on the Board of Scientific Counselors (BSC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-08

    ... epidemiology, microbiology, bacteriology, virology, parasitology, mycology, immunology, public health, entomology, clinical medicine, and veterinary medicine, as well as from the general public. Members may be...

  17. 76 FR 76416 - Request for Nominations of Candidates To Serve on the Board of Scientific Counselors (BSC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    ... epidemiology, microbiology, bacteriology, virology, parasitology, mycology, immunology, public health, entomology, clinical medicine, and veterinary medicine, as well as from the general public. Members may be...

  18. Esquistossomose mansônica. I - evolução do quadro patológico: análise parasitológica, hematológica e histopatológica Schistosomiasis mansoni. I - evolution of the pathologic picture: parasitologic, hematologic, and histopathologic analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajax Mercês Atta

    1981-02-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de acompanhar a evolução da infecção bissexual primária de camundongos por S. mansoni, foram infectados camundongos Swiss com 100 cercárias da linhagem mineira (BH de Schistosoma mansoni. A evolução da infecção foi acompanhada por um período de 8 semanas. Foi verificada uma relação entre o número de granulomas hepáticos e o número de vermes totais. O ganho de peso corporal, o peso do baço e a percentagem do peso do fígado em relação ao peso corporal foram diferentes quando comparados os animais infectados e controles. O quadro leucocitário dos camundongos infectados apresentou alterações no número de leucócitos totais, neutrófilos e linfócitos. Os exames histológicos do baço e do fígado revelaram alterações nestes órgãos de acordo com a fase da infecção.In order to accompany the evolution of primary bisexual inifection of mice by Schistosoma mansoni, Swiss mice were infected with 100 cercariae of the Belo Horizonte strain of Schistosoma mansoni, and the infection's evolution was followed for eight weeks. A relationship between the number of hepatic granulomas and the number of worms was verified. Body weight gain, spleen, and the percentage of the liver weight in relation to body weight were different when compared to infected and control animals. White blood cells in the infected mice presented alterations in the total number of leukocytes, neutrophils, and lymphocytes. The histologic analyses of the spleen and liver revealed alterations in these organs; these alterations varied according to the stage of infection.

  19. [Antimicrobial susceptibility testing in clinically relevant non-fermenting gram-negative bacilli: recommendations from the Antimicrobial Agents Subcommittee of the Sociedad Argentina de Bacteriología, Micología y Parasitología Clínicas, Asociación Argentina de Microbiología].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radice, Marcela; Marín, Marcelo; Giovanakis, Marta; Vay, Carlos; Almuzara, Marisa; Limansky, Adriana; Casellas, José M; Famiglietti, Angela; Quinteros, Mirta; Bantar, Carlos; Galas, Marcelo; Kovensky Pupko, Jaime; Nicola, Federico; Pasterán, Fernando; Soloaga, Rolando; Gutkind, Gabriel

    2011-01-01

    This document contains the recommendations for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of the clinically relevant non-fermenting gram-negative bacilli (NFGNB), adopted after conforming those from international committees to the experience of the Antimicrobial Agents Subcommittee members and invited experts. This document includes an update on NFGNB classification and description, as well as some specific descriptions regarding natural or frequent antimicrobial resistance and a brief account of associated resistance mechanisms. These recommendations not only suggest the antimicrobial drugs to be evaluated in each case, but also provide an optimization of the disk diffusion layout and a selection of results to be reported. Finally, this document also includes a summary of the different methodological approaches that may be used for detection and confirmation of emerging b-lactamases, such as class A and B carbapenemases.

  20. El rol de Cyrtograpsus angulatus (Crustacea; Brachyura en los ciclos de vida de Microphallus szidati (Digenea; Microphallidae y Falsifilicollis chasmagnathi (Acanthocephala; Filicollidae: algunos aspectos de su ecologia parasitaria The role of Cytograpsus angulatus (Crustacea; Brachyura in the life cycles of Microphallus szidati (Digenea; Microphallidae and Falsifilicollis chasmagnathi (Acanthocephala; Filicollidae: some aspects of their ecological parasitology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio R. Martorelli

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available Basándose en el estudio de los helmintos larvales parásitos del cangrejo Cyrtograpsus angulatus Dana, 1851 (Microphallus szidati Martorelli, 1986 (Digenea; Microphallidae y Falsifilicollis chasmagnathi Holcman-Spector et al., 1977 (Acathocephala; Fillicollidae conjuntamente con el análisis de sus ciclos biológicos y el estudio de la prevalencia, intensidad y de los índices de asociación (comparados entre los hospedadores intermediarios y definitivos se pudo concluir que: a C. angulatus parece ser un excelente hospedador intermediario en los ciclos de vida de los helmintos estudiados; b el tamaño de los cangrejos y la ocurrencia de amputaciones naturales en las hembras de mayor tamaño Spivak & Politis (en prensa aparecen correlacionadas con la prevalencia; c en los cangrejos estudiados la prevalencia para F. chasmagnathi fue mayor en los machos que en las hembras; d la intensidad no apareció correlacionada con el tamño y el sexo de los hospedadores intermediarios; e M. szidati y F. chasmagnathi estan fuertemente asociados en el hospedador intermediario; f C. angulatus e Himantopus melanurus Vieilot, 1817 (Aves; Recurvirostridae son citados como nuevos hospedadores, intermediario y denitivo respectivamente, para F. chasmagnathi; g Chasmagnathus granulata Dana, 1851 es citado como un nuevo hospedador intermediario para M. szidati.Based on a study of the larvae from two helminth species parasitizing the crab Cyrtograpsus angulatus Dana, 1851 (Microphallus szidati Martorelli, 1986 and Falsifilicollis chasmagnathi Holcman-Spector et al., 1977, from Mar chiquita lagoom (Argentina together with the analyses of their life cycles and rates of prevalence, intensity and association coefficient (compared in definitive and intermediate host the following conclusions have been reached: a C. angulatus suns to be an excelent intermediate host in the life-cycles of the studied helminths; b the size of the crabs and the occurence of natural amputations in the females (Spivak & Politis, in press appeared correlated with prevalence; c in the studied crabs the pervalence fo F. chasmagnathi is higher in males than in females; d the intensity did not appear correlated with size and sex of the intermediate host; e M. szidati and F. chasmagnathi are closely associated with the intermediate host; f C. angulatus and Himantopus melanurus Vieillot, 1817 (Aves; Recurvirostridae are reported as new intermediate and definitive hosts, respectively, for F. chasmagnathi; g Chasmagnathus granulata Dana, 1851 (Cruscea; Brachyura is reported as new intermediate host for M. szidati.

  1. 37(4) All.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    LYNNE, S. and GARCIA, M.S (1999). American Society for Microbiology. Practical Guide to Diagnostic. Parasitology: 102-104. pathogenesis and disease. Microbes. Infect. 4: 1047-1058. URQUHART, G.M., ARMOUR, J.,. DUNCAN, J.L., DUNN, A.M. and. JENNINGS, F.W. (1987). Veterinary. Parasitology. UK Longman Group.

  2. Microbiological Quality of some Expired Drugs in Sokoto Metropolis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences,. Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria. 3Department of Parasitology and Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. 4Department. of Parasitology and Animal Health, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences,. Usmanu Danfodiyo University ...

  3. 3. Multiple Antibiotic Resistance Index ofEscherichiaColi Isolates in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, AfeBabalola University, Ado-Ekiti ... hence, antimicrobial susceptibility testing is imperative in selecting ... infections and limit its transmission. Examples .... MATERIALS AND METHODS.

  4. a case of institutions of higher learning in Kigali

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Karangwa

    2008-12-12

    Dec 12, 2008 ... Introducing English is about being realistic. ... lack of practice. .... learner, exposure to L2 may be as little as 3 hours in a classroom in a week. .... to enjoy its lessons (such as parasitology, microbiology, molecular biology...).

  5. Prevalence and intensity of gill monogenean parasites of Tilapia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Biological Sciences, Laboratory of Hydrobiology, Faculty of Science and ... Standard methods of parasitological examination were used for identification of monogenean species. Eleven ... introduction of bio-security measures to.

  6. Review of "Echinococcus and Echinococcosis, Part A." edited by R. C. Andrew Thompson, Alan J. Lymbery and Peter Deplazes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Akira

    2017-09-04

    Thompson RCA, Deplazes P, Lymbery AJ, Editors. Echinococcus and Echinococcosis, Part A. Volume 95, Advances in Parasitology 95. Academic Press; 2017. 525 pages, ISBN 978-0-12-8114711 (hardcover); 9780128114728 (eBook).

  7. Parasitic diarrhoea in treatment-naïve HIV-positive patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-11-09

    Nov 9, 2016 ... (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0) which permits unrestricted use, ... 1Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, College of Health Sciences, Bowen .... in many regions of the world where HIV/AIDS.

  8. ORIGINAL ARTILE 133

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Boaz

    AFRICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY MAY 2018 ISBN 1595-689X VOL19 No.2. AJCEM/1819 .... them in clinical and environmental specimens and proper ..... laboratory Manual of Parasitological and.

  9. Further studies on South African plants: Acaricidal activity of organic plant extracts against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wellington, Kevin W

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available -1 Veterinary Parasitology, vol. 234: 10-12 Further studies on South African plants: Acaricidal activity of organic plant extracts against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) Wellington, KW Leboho, T Sakong, BM Adenubi, OT Eloff, JN...

  10. Outbreak of Peste Des Petits Ruminant in an Unvaccinated Sahel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rev Olaleye

    Animal Virus Research Laboratory, Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Parasitology,. University of ... are characterized by fever, erosive stomatitis, nasal and ocular ..... vaccine has proven to be efficacious and safe (Awa et al., 2002).

  11. Knowledge and practice on magnitude, diagnosis, treatment and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    unhcc

    8Department of Medical Microbiology Immunology and Parasitology, College of ... Cirrhosis followed by hepatotoxic indigenous drugs and viral hepatitis were ... screening ,lack of skill to differentially diagnose HCC ...... Curr Stem Cell Res Ther.

  12. Vom work Book Journal, 2011 1st Edition PDF

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Department of Veterinary Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Department of Veterinary ... Veterinary Parasitology and Entomology, Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary ... importance of this survey is that, the risk of.

  13. Women Fellows of NASI | Women in Science | Initiatives | Indian ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Near Nursing College, Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease & Nutrition Research, Dept. ... Residential Address: 418 Hawa Singh Block, Asian Games Village, New Delhi - ... Address: Chief Scientist, Division of Parasitology, Central Drug Research ...

  14. Reversible suppression of bone marrow response to erythropoietin in Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurtzhals, J A; Rodrigues, O; Addae, M

    1997-01-01

    To study the importance of bone marrow inhibition in the pathogenesis of malarial anaemia, haematological and parasitological parameters were followed in patients with acute malaria. Three patient categories were studied, severe malarial anaemia (SA), cerebral malaria (CM) and uncomplicated malar...

  15. Chatterjee, Prof. Mitali

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jadavpur), FNASc, FRCP (London). Date of birth: 2 November 1960. Specialization: Pharmacology, Immunology, Parasitology Address: Department of Pharmacology, Institute of PG Medical Education & Research, 244-B, Acharya JC Bose Road, ...

  16. 78 FR 12323 - Announcement of the Re-Approval of the Commission on Office Laboratory Accreditation (COLA) as an...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ... subspecialty areas under CLIA: Microbiology, including Bacteriology, Mycobacteriology, Mycology, Parasitology... CLIA for the following specialties and subspecialties: Microbiology, including Bacteriology... requirements. The COLA requires the laboratory director to review quality control results for waived tests...

  17. Malaria in Sokoto, North Western Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... 6Department of Parasitology, School of Medical Laboratory ... Malaria prevalence studies had been undertaken in many parts of Nigeria but there is probably no data ..... within the limits of the malaria prevalence rate reports in.

  18. Giardia: Illness & Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 683. Hill DR. Giardia lamblia . In: Gillespie SH, Pearson RD, eds. Principles and practice of clinical parasitology. ... 6348 Email CDC-INFO U.S. Department of Health & Human Services HHS/Open USA.gov Top

  19. ©Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research Vol. 2 (2) pp. 82-86 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    1Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, College of Health Sciences, Ladoke Akintola. University of Technology, Osogbo, Nigeria, .... Keeping in mind that this infection can be a cause of premature childbirth and indirectly a.

  20. 2119-IJBCS-Article-Ayodele Adeyemi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    Department of Medical Microbiology & Parasitology, University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital,. Ilorin. Nigeria. .... MATERIALS AND METHODS. The study area and ... lens of the microscope. Intensity of .... water logged soil and this provides contact.

  1. prevalence of geohelminthes in school children in some parts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    permits contact of faeces and its accompanying and microbial load ... MATERIALS AND METHODS. Study area ... x40 objective lens was used for identification of .... Division in. Delta. State.TheNigerian. Journal of. Parasitology, 23:100-107.

  2. 75 FR 48698 - Medicare, Medicaid and CLIA Programs; COLA (Formerly the Commission on Office Laboratory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ..., including Syphilis Serology, General Immunology. Chemistry, including Routine Chemistry, Urinalysis..., Mycology, Parasitology, Virology. Diagnostic Immunology, including Syphilis Serology, General Immunology. Chemistry, including Routine Chemistry, Urinalysis, Endocrinology, Toxicology. Hematology. Immunohematology...

  3. Molecular and pharmacological determinants of the therapeutic response to artemether-lumefantrine in multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Price, Ric N.; Uhlemann, Anne-Catrin; van Vugt, Michele; Brockman, Al; Hutagalung, Robert; Nair, Shalini; Nash, Denae; Singhasivanon, Pratap; Anderson, Tim J. C.; Krishna, Sanjeev; White, Nicholas J.; Nosten, François

    2006-01-01

    Our study examined the relative contributions of host, pharmacokinetic, and parasitological factors in determining the therapeutic response to artemether-lumefantrine (AL). On the northwest border of Thailand, patients with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria were enrolled in prospective

  4. Epidemiological study of small ruminant mange mites in three agro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Parasitology 2nd ed. Blackwell science Ltd. Osneymend, oxford, London, UK, Pp. 180-210. Wolaita Zone Finance and Economic Development Department, WZFEDD, 2003.Socio- economic profiles of Wolaita Zone. pp. 1- 97. Woldemeskel ...

  5. Introduction to symposium: Arthropods and wildlife conservation: synergy in complex biological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    The symposium will discuss the effects of arthropods and other stressors on wildlife conservation programs. Speakers with affiliations in wildlife biology, parasitology and entomology will be included in the program. Research of national and international interest will be presented....

  6. Comparative milk production and prevalence study of parasites and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: dairy cattle, feeding, season, mastitis, prevalence, parasites, milk .... Fecal samples for parasitological examination were collected from the rectum ... 1 considered negative, while those with CMT scores above of 1 were considered.

  7. Editorial

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    2008-03-28

    Mar 28, 2008 ... developed countries which offer more opportunities and greater ... schemes to promote research as a viable career option and by ... IA: A bibliometric analysis of research productivity in Parasitology by different world regions.

  8. Adoption of rapid diagnostic tests for the diagnosis of malaria, a preliminary analysis of the global fund program data, 2005 to 2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Zhao (Jinkou); M. Lama (Marcel); E.L. Korenromp (Eline); P. Aylward (Patrick); E. Shargie (Estifanos); S. Filler (Scott); R. Komatsu (Ryuichi); R. Atun (Rifat)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: The World Health Organization Guidelines for the Treatment of Malaria, in 2006 and 2010, recommend parasitological confirmation of malaria before commencing treatment. Although microscopy has been the mainstay of malaria diagnostics, the magnitude of diagnostic scale up

  9. Fellowship | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Date of birth: 13 May 1944 ... Date of birth: 4 December 1935 ... Date of birth: 23 June 1954 ... Specialization: Plant Protection, Nematology, Biological Control, Parasitology and ..... Advanced Instructional School In Stochastic Processes.

  10. Field investigation of anthelmintic efficacy and risk factors for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    selected their drug of choice by color from what was available in the local markets. The survey .... sheep and goat farms on Peninsular Malaysia. Veterinary Parasitology, 82 ... MAFF (Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food), 1977. Manual of ...

  11. Publication Productivity of Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    35.9% (631/1756) of the total publications followed by Pediatrics and Parasitology. The median number of ... for example, publications belonging to veterinary, dentistry, nursing, and pharmacy .... General surgery. 60. 3.4 ... Anesthesia. 33. 1.9.

  12. Situational Analysis of Leishmaniases Research in Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kemrilib

    leishmaniasis, as currently conducted in Kenya with sodium stibogluconate, is ... to intermittent drug exposure [80-83], the isolation of ... general, these vaccination protocols elicited ..... hybridization with non-radioactive probes. Parasitology ...

  13. Ascariasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... parasite - ascariasis; Roundworm - ascariasis Images Roundworm eggs - ascariasis Digestive system organs References Bogitsh BJ, Carter CE. Intestinal nematodes. In: Bogitsh BJ, Carter CE, Oeltmann TN, eds. Human Parasitology . 4th ed. Waltham, MA: Elsevier Academic Press; ...

  14. Strongyloidiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... strongyloidiasis Images Strongyloidiasis, creeping eruption on the back Digestive system organs References Bogitsh BJ, Carter CE, Oeltmann TN. Intestinal nematodes. In: Bogitsh BJ, Carter CE, Oeltmann TN, eds. Human Parasitology . 4th ed. Waltham, MA: Elsevier Academic Press; ...

  15. "Now I feel like a true parasitologist" -Concept-based training for early career scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Alexander G

    2018-03-15

    One of the allures of parasitology is its breadth of aspects spanning everything from molecules to ecosystems. Very few institutions have the capability to cover this breadth in educating parasitologists. As the national professional body, the Australian Society for Parasitology has developed a training course that aims to fill this gap. The course offers a comprehensive overview over the field, highlights the current research foci and introduces key methods. The program equips participants with an appreciation of parasites and with strategies to deal with the complexity of parasitological systems. The course provides an innovative model for training parasitological key concepts with a focus on professional development for early career researchers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Genetic Diversity of Plasmodium falciparum Merozoite Surface Protein-1 Block 2 in Sites of Contrasting Altitudes and Malaria Endemicities in the Mount Cameroon Region

    OpenAIRE

    Wanji, Samuel; Kengne-Ouafo, Arnaud J.; Joan Eyong, Ebanga E.; Kimbi, Helen K.; Tendongfor, Nicholas; Ndamukong-Nyanga, Judith L.; Nana-Djeunga, Hugues C.; Bourguinat, Catherine; Sofeu-Feugaing, David D.; Charvet, Claude L.

    2012-01-01

    The present study analyzed the relationship between the genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum and parasitologic/entomologic indices in the Mount Cameroon region by using merozoite surface protein 1 as a genetic marker. Blood samples were collected from asymptomatic children from three altitude zones (high, intermediate, and low). Parasitologic and entomologic indices were determined by microscopy and landing catch mosquito collection/circumsporozoite protein–enzyme-linked immunosorbent a...

  17. Gastrointestinal Parasites of Two Populations of Arctic Foxes (Vulpes lagopus) from Northeast Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, P.N.S.; Schmidt, Niels Martin; Kapel, Christian M. O.

    2017-01-01

    Parasitological examination of 275 faecal samples from Arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) collected at Zackenberg Valley and Karupelv Valley in north-east Greenland from 2006 to 2008 was conducted using sieving and microscopy. Overall, 125 (45.5%) samples contained parasite eggs of Taenia crassiceps......, Taenia serialis, Toxascaris leonina, Eucoleus boehmi, Physalopteridae and Ancylostomatidae, and Strongyloides-like larvae. As long-term ecological studies are conducted at both sampling locations, the present findings constitute a baseline data set for further parasitological monitoring....

  18. Immunodiagnosis of fascioliasis using sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Fasciola gigantica paramyosin antigen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Elhakam, Hany Mohamed Adel; Bauomy, Ibraheem Rabia; El Deeb, Somaya Osman; El Amir, Azza Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Background: Many immunological techniques have been developed over years using the different Fasciola antigens for diagnosis of parasitic infection and to replace the parasitological techniques, which are time consuming and usually lack sensitivity and reproducibility. Materials and Methods: In this study, Fasciola gigantica paramyosin (Pmy) antigen was early detected in cattle sera using sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), to evaluate the Pmy antigen performance in diagnosis. This work was conducted on 135 cattle blood samples, which were classified according to parasitological investigation into, healthy control (30), fascioliasis (75), and other parasites (30) groups. Results: The sensitivity of Sandwich ELISA was 97.33%, and the specificity was 95%, in comparison with parasitological examination, which recorded 66.66% sensitivity and 100% specificity, respectively. Conclusions: It was clear that the native F. gigantica Pmy is considered as a powerful antigen in early immunodiagnosis of fascioliasis, using a highly sensitive and specific sandwich ELISA technique. PMID:23961441

  19. [Outstanding Soviet zoologist and parasitologist E. N. Pavlovsky--the creator of the theory of natural foci of disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlovskyĭ, L N

    2011-01-01

    The article presents information on the outstanding Soviet Zoology and Parasitology, Academician of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR, Hero of Socialist Labour, Lieutenant-General of the Medical Service E. N. Pavlovsky, the author of more than 1500 scientific papers, the founder of scientific school, one of the few scholars the twentieth century, approaching the level of scientists and encyclopedists. Considered its contribution to the study of natural foci of diseases has promoted the development of environmental trends in parasitology.

  20. Journal of Medical Laboratory Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Journal of Medical Laboratory Science is a Quarterly Publication of the Association of Medical Laboratory Scientists of Nigeria. It Publishes Original Research and Review Articles in All Fields of Biomedical Sciences and Laboratory Medicine, Covering Medical Microbiology, Medical Parasitology, Clinical Chemistry, ...

  1. A revision of the genus Aphalloides (Digenea: Cryptogonimidae), parasites of European brackish water fishes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kvach, Yuriy; Bryjová, Anna; Sasal, P.; Winkler, H. M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 116, č. 7 (2017), s. 1973-1980 ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Aphalloides * Taxonomic revision * Zoogeography * Molecular study Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Parasitology Impact factor: 2.329, year: 2016

  2. Community awareness of intestinal parasites and the prevalence of infection among community members of rural Abaye Deneba area, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Liza Nyantekyi; Mengistu Legesse; Girmay Medhin; Abebe Animut; Konjit Tadesse; Chanda Macias; Abraham Degarege; Berhanu Erko

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the knowledge of Abaye Deneba community members regarding intestinal parasites and prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections. Methods: Knowledge about intestinal parasites was assessed by administering a questionnaire to 345 randomly selected household heads. Parasitological stool examination of 491 randomly selected individuals was done using the formol ether concentration technique. Results: Knowledge of the Abaye Deneba community about parasitic diseases such...

  3. Seasonal Variation in Trypanosomosis Rates in Small Ruminants at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rev Dr Olaleye

    blood. The blood samples were kept cool by placing them in cold boxes containing ice packs after collection. Parasitological examination was done in the Laboratory using the haematocrit centrifugation technique, HCT (Woo, 1971), buffy coat method (BCM) (Murry et. al; 1977) and. Giemsa stained thin films made after BCM.

  4. BRIEF COMMUNICATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    AFRICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY MAY 2017 ISBN 1595-689X VOL18 No. 2 ... 40 of the animals were screened by parasitological means (hematocrit, buffy coat methods and thin and thick blood ... Trypanosomiasis was observed in the herd examined and laboratory examination.

  5. Vom work Book Journal 2011, 2010 4th Edition PDF

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Department of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Parasitology Faculty of Veterinary Medicine,. 3. University of Maiduguri, Nigeria Dept of ... transported to the laboratory on ice. Preparation of camel anti-rabbit ... buffy coat examination technique as described by Murray et al. (1977) was used to ...

  6. xv ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Oboro VO

    Kaduna and Department of Medical Microbiology/Parasitology, College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe. University,. Awka. ABSTRACT. The prevalence of trypanosome ... haematocrit centrifugation technique and buffy coat methods were used to detect rypanosomes in the jugular blood of the animals. The packed cell ...

  7. Rhipicephulus sanguineus (Brown Dog Tick)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinaiy Medicine. ... bariierii, Ehrlichia coats, Rickerrsia conorii, .... (TAG) by an enzymatic method coupled with spectrophotometry using assay kit (Randox. Lab. Ltd., Co. Antrim, UK). Statistical analysis. Statistical analysis was performed with the use.

  8. 76 FR 29762 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for Office of Management and Budget Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-23

    ... parasites to one or more of the major classes of FDA approved antiparasitic drugs is a documented problem in... enhance the selection for multidrug resistant parasites, and (4) regulatory considerations regarding... Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology, American Association of Bovine Practitioners...

  9. The role of laboratory confirmations and molecular epidemiology in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-29

    Dec 29, 2009 ... Organization Regional Reference Polio Laboratory, World Health ... Statistics and Environmental Health, Faculty of Public Health, College of ... 5Molecular Biology Unit, National TB Lab, Nigerian Institute of Medical Research (NIMR), ... 7Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, University of ...

  10. Studies on vesical schistosomiasis in Abia state Nigeria: Rapid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of vesical schistosomiasis in 17 Local government areas of Abia State, South Eastern Nigeria was carried out between March 2001 and August 2002 to determine the disease prevalence both by standard parasitological method and rapid assessment using school children as tracers. A total of 10,180 school ...

  11. Gastrointestinal Parasites of Two Populations of Arctic Foxes (Vulpes lagopus) from Northeast Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, P.N.S.; Schmidt, Niels Martin; Kapel, Christian M. O.

    2017-01-01

    Parasitological examination of 275 faecal samples from Arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) collected at Zackenberg Valley and Karupelv Valley in north-east Greenland from 2006 to 2008 was conducted using sieving and microscopy. Overall, 125 (45.5%) samples contained parasite eggs of Taenia crassiceps...

  12. Do habituation, host traits and seasonality have an impact on protist and helminth infections of wild western lowland gorillas?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pafčo, B.; Benavides, J. A.; Pšenková-Profousová, I.; Modrý, D.; Červená, B.; Shutt, K. A.; Hasegawa, H.; Fuh, T.; Todd, A. F.; Petrželková, Klára Judita

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 116, č. 12 (2017), s. 3401-3410 ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-05180S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Western lowland gorilla * Parasite * Habituation * Human impact Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine OBOR OECD: Parasitology Impact factor: 2.329, year: 2016

  13. Methodological issues affecting the study of fish parasites. I. Duration of live fish storage prior to dissection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kvach, Yuriy; Ondračková, Markéta; Janáč, Michal; Jurajda, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 119, č. 2 (2016), s. 107-115 ISSN 0177-5103 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Parasite community * Temporal changes * Carassius gibelio * Fish holding * Methodology * Parasitological examination Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.549, year: 2016

  14. An endoparasitic trichodinid (Ciliophora: Peritrichia) from the urinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1988-09-07

    Sep 7, 1988 ... During parasitological surveys in Gazankulu, an infection of a trichodinid peritrich was found in the urinary bladder and ureters of the three-spot barb, Barbus trimaculatus Peters, 1852, collected from Hudson-. Ntsanwisi Dam in the Olifants River system. A taxonomic description of this new species, ...

  15. Dictionary for veterinary science and biosciences. German-English/English-German. With trilingual appendix: Latin terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, R.

    1988-01-01

    This dictionary has been compiled as a result of many years experience of translating German texts in the biological sciences, particularly veterinary medicine. The author's aim is to supplement the standard German-English general dictionaries with technical terms to in the fields of anatomy, microbiology, physiology, parasitology, pathology, pharmacology, toxicology and zootechny, with special reference to domestic animals and their diseases. (orig.) [de

  16. Dictionary for veterinary science and biosciences. German-English/English-German. With trilingual appendix: Latin terms. Woerterbuch fuer Veterinaermedizin und Biowissenschaften. Deutsch-Englisch/Englisch-Deutsch. Mit einem dreisprachigen Anhang: Lateinische Begriffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mack, R

    1988-01-01

    This dictionary has been compiled as a result of many years of experience of translating German texts in the biological sciences, particularly veterinary medicine. The author's aim is to supplement the standard German-English general dictionaries with technical terms in the fields of anatomy, microbiology, physiology, parasitology, pathology, pharmacology, toxicology and zootechnique, with special reference to domestic animals and their diseases.

  17. Standard methods for maintaining adult Apis mellifera in cages under in vitro laboratory conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, G.R.; Alaux, C.; Costa, C.; Csaki, C.; Steen, van der J.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Adult honey bees are maintained in vitro in laboratory cages for a variety of purposes. For example, researchers may wish to perform experiments on honey bees caged individually or in groups to study aspects of parasitology, toxicology, or physiology under highly controlled conditions, or they may

  18. Ectoparasites of Sheep and Goats in North-West Amhara Regional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Livestock are managed under extensive system in all of the three districts. Small ruminants in the areas are indigenous breeds. In Metema ..... Urquhart, G.M., Armour, J., Duncan, J.L., Dunn, A.M. and Jennings, F.M., 1996. Veterinary. Parasitology. 2nd Edition, Blackwell Science, London, PP.141-205. Walker, A.R., Bouattour ...

  19. Control of cattle trypanosomiasis in coastal savannah of Ghana Part ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field studies on the control of animal trypanosomiasis were undertaken in the Coastal Savanna of Ghana to det-ermine the importance of the disease in livestock production. The methodologies adopted were participatory ru-ral appraisal, geographical information systems, and entomological or parasitological evaluation.

  20. Antimony to Cure Visceral Leishmaniasis Unresponsive to Liposomal Amphotericin B.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Morizot

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on 4 patients (1 immunocompetent, 3 immunosuppressed in whom visceral leishmaniasis had become unresponsive to (or had relapsed after treatment with appropriate doses of liposomal amphotericin B. Under close follow-up, full courses of pentavalent antimony were administered without life-threatening adverse events and resulted in rapid and sustained clinical and parasitological cure.

  1. Prevalence of enteropathogens and their association with diarrhea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of enteropathogens (bacteria-parasite co-infections) was carried out among 370 children of food vendors in Uyo, Nigeria. Faecal samples (311 formed and 59 diarrhoeic stools) were screened for intestinal helminths using standard parasitological procedures. The prevalence of the parasites encountered was: ...

  2. Antibiogram of E. coli serotypes isolated from children aged under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibiogram of E. coli serotypes isolated from children aged under five with acute diarrhea in Bahir Dar town. Ayrikim Adugna1, Mulugeta Kibret1, Bayeh Abera2, Endalkachew Nibret1, Melaku Adal1. 1. Department of Biology, Science College, Bahir Dar University. 2. Department of Microbiology, Parasitology and ...

  3. [Parasite eggs identified in material from archaeological excavations in Ribe (the viking age) (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nansen, P; Jorgensen, R J

    1977-06-01

    Eggs of Fasciola hepatica, Ascaris sp., Taenia sp., and Trichuris sp. have been demonstrated in archaeological excavations from the early viking period (750--800 A.D.) in Ribe, the oldest urban society of Denmark. The origin of the faecal material is discussed. The parasitological examinations are continued and extended.

  4. Towards a new paradigm for species association dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parasite-host and insect-plant research have very divergent traditions despite the fact that many phytophagous insects live parasitically on their host plants. In parasitology it is a traditional assumption that parasites are typically highly specialized. Cospeciation between parasites and hosts is ...

  5. Fascioliasis: Prevalence, protein content and attitude of meat sellers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rotten smell was considered the only indicator for liver unfit for consumption. The enactment and enforcement of government policies in relation to condemnation of Fasciola infected liver is strongly recommended. Keywords: fascioliasis, liver, meat sellers, protein content, Abeokuta. Nigerian Journal of Parasitology Vol.

  6. Increased detection of schistosomiasis with Kato-Katz and SWAP-IgG-ELISA in a Northeastern Brazil low-intensity transmission area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teiliane Rodrigues Carneiro

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The laboratory diagnosis of schistosomiasis is based mainly on the detection of parasite eggs in stool samples through the Kato-Katz (KK technique, reading one slide by test. However, a widely known limitation of parasitological methods is reduced sensitivity, particularly in low endemic areas. METHODS: To increase sensitivity, we conducted further slide readings from the same stool sample using the parasitological method associated with a serological test. We used the KK method (three slides and the IgG anti-Schistosoma mansoni-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA technique to diagnose schistosomiasis in low endemic areas in the Brazilian State of Ceará. Fecal samples and sera from 250 individuals were analyzed. RESULTS: Sixteen percent and 47.2% of samples were positive in parasitological tests and serological tests, respectively. Parasitological methods showed that 32 (80% individuals tested positive on the first slide, 6 (15% on the second slide, and 2 (5% on the third. The performance of the ELISA test in the diagnosis, using the KK method as diagnostic reference, showed a negative predictive value of 100%, with specificity and positive predictive values of 62.8% and 33.9%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, the increase from one to three slides analyzed per sample using the KK technique was shown to be a useful procedure for increasing the diagnostic sensitivity of this technique.

  7. Prevalence of parasitic infections of stray cats in Jammu, India

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    Veterinary Record, 129:502-504. Pandit BA, Shahardar RA, Darzi MM, Jeyabal L & Mir. MS (2007). Prasitic Infestation in a fox(Vulpus vulpus). Journal of Veterinary. Parasitology, 21:97-98. Pilarczyk B., Balicka-Ramisz A., Ramisz A., Lachowska. S. (2005) The occurrence of intestinal parasites of roe deer and red deer in the.

  8. Parasitic helminth load in urban waste-water of Kenitra City, Morocco

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Waste-waters of Kenitra City are rejected without any preliminary treatment in the receiving medium (Sebou River, Fouarat Lake). A small fraction is used to irrigate crops in the peri-urban area of Kenitra City. The parasitological characterization revealed an average parasitic helminth egg concentration of 25.07 per liter ...

  9. Trypanosoma evansi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Parasitaemia in the untreated control and the treated rats were monitored using Haematocrit Centrifuge Technique. (HCT) twice weekly. Two rats from each group were sacrificed at 45 dpi; visceral ... Protozoology laboratory of the Department of. Veterinary Parasitology and Entomology, Ahmadu Bello. University, Zaria for ...

  10. evaluation of cattle rearer's knowledge, attitude and practices about

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    2Department of Microbiology and Parasitology , Faculty of Medicine, Bayero University, Kano. 3National ... preceding 12 months, (90.9%) practices preventive measures against tsetse flies, and only (9.1%) do not. ..... fly to save cost and hazard associated with the use of ... Preventive Veterinary Medicine: 80(1): 24 –. 33.

  11. Sharma, Prof. Shobhona

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sharma, Prof. Shobhona Ph.D. (Mumbai), FNA. Date of birth: 5 February 1953. Specialization: Molecular Parasitology, Parasite Immunology and Parasite Metabolism Address: Senior Professor & Chairperson, Department of Biological Sciences, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005, ...

  12. 54 ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Parasitology, Michael Okpara ... The studies show good prospects for further research in the same area to explore and .... F lo x a p e n. Enterococcus 1. R. R. S. S. R. S. R. S. R. R. Enterococcus 2.

  13. 88 ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    Department of Medical Microbiology & Parasitology, College of Medicine of the University of Lagos, Idi- .... been published previously31. ... principle involves the use of reagent made of ... INFO Statistical Package, version 6.0. .... management of infection with these organisms as ..... Hossain A, Bolbol AS, Chowdhury MN,.

  14. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urquhart GM, Armour J, Duncan JL, Dunn AM, and Jennings F.W., 1994. Veterinary. Parasitology. 1st edition.Singapore, Longmann. Urquhart, G.M., Murray M., Murray P. K., Jennings F.W. and Bate, E., 1973. Immunosuppressant in Trypanosoma brucei infections in rats and mice. Trans Roy. Soc. Trop. Med., 67, 528-535.

  15. Anaemia caused by asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum infection in semi-immune African schoolchildren

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurtzhals, J A; Addae, M M; Akanmori, B D

    1999-01-01

    A cohort of 250 Ghanaian schoolchildren aged 5-15 years was followed clinically and parasitologically for 4 months in 1997/98 in order to study the effect of asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum infections on haematological indices and bone-marrow responses. Of the 250 children 65 met the predefine...

  16. Seasonal Variation in Trypanosomosis Rates in Small Ruminants at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seasonal variation in trypanosome parasitological infection rates in small ruminants was studied at the Kaduna Central abattoir, North Central Nigeria. Blood samples were obtained at slaughter from 320 goats and 209 sheep during the dry and rainy seasons and examined using the Haematocrit Centrifugation Technique ...

  17. Chitnis, Dr Chetan Eknath

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Fellowship. Fellow Profile. Elected: 2009 Section: Medicine. Chitnis, Dr Chetan Eknath Ph.D. (UC, Berkeley), FNA. Date of birth: 3 April 1961. Specialization: Molecular Parasitology, Vaccine Development for Malaria and Molecular & Cell Biology Address: Head, Malaria Parasite Biology & Vaccine, Institut Pasteur, 28, ...

  18. Sudanese Journal of Dermatology: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experts: Prof El sheikh Mahgoub ( Mycology) Prof Mamoun Homeida (Internal medicine & therapeutics) Prof Suad Suleiman ( Parasitology ) Dr najeeb Suleiman ( Pathology) Prof Nabil H Bashir ( Toxicology). Dermatologists: Prof Amor Khachemoune ( USA) Dr. Bakri El Agraa (Sudan) Dr Khalid Al Aboud ( Saudi Arabia)

  19. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    En-Joy

    ARTICLE. Short Communication. Effects of Temperature and Relative Humidity on the Egg Laying. Pattern of Rhipicephalussanguineus (koch, 1844) Infesting. Goats in Maiduguri. 1. 2. 3. BIU, A. A. , ABDULKADIR, M. A. and AFI, S.H.. 1Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Parasitology.Faculty of Veterinary Medicine.

  20. Prevalence and morphometric studies on porcine cysticercosis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP USER

    Bourn D, Wint W, Blench R &Woolley E (1994). Nigerian Livestock Resources Survey, World. Animal Review, 78(1):49-58. Cox FEG (2002). History of human parasitology. Clinical Microbiology. Review. 15(4): 595-. 612. Garcia HH, Gonzalez AE, Evans CA &Gilman RH. (2003). Cysticercosis working group in Peru. Taenia.

  1. Incidence of urinary tract infection (UTI) among pregnant women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-12-01

    Dec 1, 2009 ... 3Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, University College Hospital (UCH), Ibadan, Nigeria. 4Department of Clinical .... teaching hospitals in Africa. However, the city is characterized by low level of environmental .... Table 4 shows the incidence of UTIs by occupational group. UTIs appear to ...

  2. Prevalence of Intestinal Helminthes of Dogs That Have Been ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Parasitological investigation of dogs disposed off in non-descript abattoirs was carried out in two communities (Basawa and Angwagodo) in Zaria. Intestines from seventy (70) adult dogs were collected, and standard procedures were followed to determine their parasite loads. A total of sixty-three dogs (90.00%) were ...

  3. Health status of school children during questionnaire survey in Ogun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    that school children in Ogun State do not perceive themselves to be healthy and suggest the use of school health questionnaire to assess and identify common health problems in school children. Keywords: School-age children, common health problems, questionnaire, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Parasitology Vol.

  4. Cryptosporidium Zoonosis in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    Cryptosporidium Zoonosis in Nigeria. Ayinmode, A. B. and Fagbemi B. O. Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Parasitology,. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. ABSTRACT: Cryptosporidium is a coocidian parasite that infects a wide range of vertebrate hosts including man.

  5. Patterns of parasite distribution in the hybrids of non-congeneric cyprinid fish species: is asymmetry in parasite infection the result of limited coadaptation?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krasnovyd, V.; Vetešník, Lukáš; Gettová, L.; Civáňová, K.; Šimková, A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 8 (2017), s. 471-483 ISSN 0020-7519 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/12/0375 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Interspecific hybrids * Cyprinid fish * Parasite communities * Host specificity * Maternal ancestry Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Parasitology Impact factor: 3.730, year: 2016

  6. IDENTIFICATION OF CANINE VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS IN A PREVIOUSLY UNAFFECTED AREA BY CONVENTIONAL DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES AND CELL-BLOCK FIXATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuanne Rotti ABRANTES

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available After the report of a second case of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL in São Bento da Lagoa, Itaipuaçu, in the municipality of Maricá, Rio de Janeiro State, an epidemiological survey was carried out, through active search, totaling 145 dogs. Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, and rapid chromatographic immunoassay based on dual-path platform (DPP(r were used to perform the serological examinations. The parasitological diagnosis of cutaneous fragments was performed by parasitological culture, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry. In the serological assessment, 21 dogs were seropositive by IFA, 17 by ELISA, and 11 by DPP(r, with sensitivity of 66.7%, 66.7% and 50%, and specificity of 87.2%, 90.2% and 94%, respectively for each technique. The immunohistochemistry of bone marrow using the cell-block technique presented the best results, with six positive dogs found, three of which tested negative by the other parasitological techniques. Leishmania sp. was isolated by parasitological culture in three dogs. The detection of autochthonous Leishmania infantum in Itaipuaçu, and the high prevalence of seropositive dogs confirm the circulation of this parasite in the study area and alert for the risk of expansion in the State of Rio de Janeiro.

  7. Changes in the serum profiles of lipids and cholesterol in sheep ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The samples were used for haematological and parasitological analyses and determination of serum concentrations of total cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-cholesterol) and low density lipoproteincholesterol (LDL-cholesterol). All animals in the infected group showed parasitaemia by day ...

  8. Variation spatiale et temporelle de la susceptibilité de Biomphalaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    31 janv. 2018 ... Schistosoma haematobium with observations on protein electrophoretic pattern of the snails. Veterinary. Parasitology, 161 : 207-212. Mostafa OM, El-Dafrawy SM, 2011. Susceptibility of. Biomphalaria spp. to infection with. Schistosoma mansoni in sympatric and allopatric combinations with observations on ...

  9. Vom work Book Journal 2010 4

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    which require serious attention by concerned bodies to minimize and control the effects of those parasites on the general ... After collection, samples were transported in ice box to Parasitology laboratory for investigation. ... horizontal pull to the body surface by hand and then preserved in properly labeled plastic containers ...

  10. Balaram, Prof. Hemalatha

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Fellowship. Fellow Profile. Elected: 2009 Section: General Biology. Balaram, Prof. Hemalatha Ph.D. (IISc). Date of birth: 27 October 1956. Specialization: Molecular Enzymology, Molecular Parasitology and Protein Engineering Address: Molecular Biology & Genetics Unit, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced ...

  11. Dutch House Martins Delichon urbicum gain blood parasite infections over their lifetime, but do not seem to suffer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piersma, Theunis; van der Velde, Marco; Bairlein, F.

    In a southern Spanish population of the colonial-breeding Afrotropical migrant House Martins Delichon urbicum, a high overall prevalence of (molecularly assayed) haemosporidian infections (in the non-parasitological literature usually denoted with the inclusive term 'malaria') was associated with

  12. Control of cattle trypanosomiasis in coastal savannah of Ghana Part I

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Triangulation design of mixed-mode research on control of trypanosomiasis involving Participatory Rural Appr-aisal (PRA), surveys, parasitological studies and satellite ... The research focussed on farmer's production objectives, use of Berenil® to control trypanosomiasis, and satellite mapping of areas at risk of diseases for ...

  13. Prevalence of Coccidiosis in West African Dwarf (WAD) goats at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Due to reports emanating from Veterinary Clinic Awka to the Department of Parasitology and Entomology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University concerning the emergence and re-emergence of coccidiosis in small ruminants at Mgbakwu, this study was initiated and carried out between April and July 2007 to ascertain the current ...

  14. IDRC in Côte d'Ivoire

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    communities, also contributed to the protection of biodiversity by carry- ing out an inventory of medicinal and edible plants that grow in. Côte d'Ivoire's forests. .... in parasitology at the University of Cocody-Abidjan, is comparing and testing the toxicity and effectiveness of local plants used as traditional anti-malarial medicines.

  15. [Studying at École de pharmacie de Lille with Alfred Giard in the XIXth century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerriaud, Mathieu

    2015-06-01

    This article describes a pharmacy student's notebook in Lille in the 1870s. The Medical Natural History course is taught by Alfred Mathieu Giard. Following a brief biography of the latter, excerpts of the manuscript are presented, they reveal the extent of scientific knowledge of the late nineteenth century, especially in the field of Parasitology.

  16. Acute Chagas disease in El Salvador 2000-2012 - Need for surveillance and control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emi Sasagawa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Several parasitological studies carried out in El Salvador between 2000-2012 showed a higher frequency of acute cases of Chagas disease than that in other Central American countries. There is an urgent need for improved Chagas disease surveillance and vector control programs in the provinces where acute Chagas disease occurs and throughout El Salvador as a whole.

  17. Genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum field isolates

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Bourdy M, Willcox L, Ginsburg H, Rasoanaivo. P, Graz B, and Deharo E. Ethnopharmacology and malaria: New hypothetical leads or old efficient antimalarials? International Journal for. Parasitology. 2008; 38: 33–41. 5. Basco LK, Tahar R, Escalante A. Molecular epidemiology of malaria in Cameroon. Xviii. Polymorphisms ...

  18. Gastrointestinal Parasites of Two Populations of Arctic Foxes (Vulpes lagopus) from Northeast Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, P.N.S.; Schmidt, Niels Martin; Kapel, Christian M. O.

    2017-01-01

    Parasitological examination of 275 faecal samples from Arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) collected at Zackenberg Valley and Karupelv Valley in north-east Greenland from 2006 to 2008 was conducted using sieving and microscopy. Overall, 125 (45.5%) samples contained parasite eggs of Taenia crassiceps...

  19. Research Note 2: Egg raft density and feeding preference of Culex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... useful for estimating the number of eggs in a culicine egg raft, making a decision on larvae food preference and using the easily available table sugar instead of the more expensive sucrose in adult rearing. Keywords:mosquito eggs, mosquito larvae, culicine mosquito, egg raft density. Nigerian Journal of Parasitology Vol.

  20. SEROPREVALENCE OF HBsAg AMONG PATIENTS WITH FEBRILE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2015-06-01

    Jun 1, 2015 ... Nigerian journal of parasitology. 29:38–41. Mazie, J.B., Barcus, T.T., Nicholas, J.W., Kantilaras,. J., Schwartz, I.K., Andrew, C. and Baird,. J.K. (2002). Hepatitis B infection and severe plasmodium falciparum malaria in. Vietnamese adults: American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene, 66(2), 140-. 142.

  1. Dhar, Prof. Suman Kumar

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fellow Profile. Elected: 2016 Section: General Biology. Dhar, Prof. Suman Kumar Ph.D. (JNU). Date of birth: 6 March 1968. Specialization: DNA Replication, Cell Cycle Control, Molecular Parasitology, Bacteriology Address: Special Centre for Molecular Medicine, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110 067, U.T.

  2. Habib, Dr Saman

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Date of birth: 16 August 1968. Specialization: Parasitology, Molecular & Cell Biology Address: Molecular & Structural Biology Division, Central Drug Research Institute, 10, Janakipuram Extn., Sitapur Road, Lucknow 226 031, U.P.. Contact: Office: (0522) 277 2477/4447. Residence: (0522) 220 4430. Mobile: 93352 48113

  3. CHAPTER 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    Urquhart G M, Armour J, Duncan J L, Dunn A M and. Jennings F W (1996): Veterinary Parasitology. 2nd ed. 307p. Black Well Science Limited, London. Yoseph S, Smith DG, Mengistu A, Teklu F, Firew T,. Betere Y (2005): Seasonal Variation in the Parasite Burden and Body Condition of Working Donkeys in East Shewa and.

  4. Case Report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Ahmed

    Taxonomy of African Ticks: An Identification Manual. ICIPE Science Press,. Nairobi. Schein, E., Rehbein, G., Voigt, W. P & Zweygarth, E. (1981). Babesia equi (Laveran 1901). 1: Development in horses and in lymphocytes culture. Tropenmed Parasitology, 32:223-227. Urquhart, G. M., Armour, J., Duncan, J. L., Dunn, A. M &.

  5. prevalence of fasciolosis in small ruminants slaughtered at yola

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Umar, A.G., Nwosu, C.O. and Philip, H.R. (2009). Seasonal Prevalence and economic importance of bovine Fasciolosis in Jalingo Abattoir, Taraba. State, Nigeria. Nigerian Veterinary Journal. 30(3): 44 – 50. Urquhart, G.M., Armour, J., Duncan, J.L., Dunn, A.M. and Jennings, F.W. (1996): Veterinary. Parasitology 2nd Edition.

  6. Current status of malaria parasite among blood donors in Port ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of malaria parasite among blood donors at the Police Clinic Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. The standard parasitological techniques using both thick and thin blood films from the donors for the detection of malaria parasite was followed. Venous blood was ...

  7. Sleeping sickness (ss) in the Abraka Belt: a preliminary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty six parasitologically confirmed SS cases by microscopic examination of blood, lymph node aspirate or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)) made up of 14 (53.8%) males and 12 (46.2%) females aged between 0 – 70years (mean 29.88 +18.89), were seen during the period of study. Peak incidence occurred at age 0 – 20 years ...

  8. Plasmodium parasitaemia among pregnant women attending ante ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Ante-Natal Clinic at Military Hospital Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria using the Standard parasitological technique. Venous blood was collected from 200 pregnant women, both thick and thin blood films were made on clean greese-free glass slide and stained with 10% Giemsa stains diluted with 7.2 buffered water for ...

  9. [A case of relapsing iridocyclitis in tropical malaria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravchinina, V V; Dushin, N V; Beliaev, V S; Barashkov, V I; Gonchar, P A; Frolov, M A

    1997-01-01

    An African student developed bilateral relapsing iridocyclitis with increased intraocular pressure. General examinations and parasitological studies revealed tropical malaria. Etiotropic and local therapy normalized intraocular pressure and improved vision acuity of both eyes. This case should be borne in mind by general practitioners as a possibility of transportation of various tropical diseases.

  10. Branchiuran parasites (Crustacea: Branchiura) from fishes in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fish parasitological surveys, conducted during different times of the year in the Okavango and Upper Zambezi River systems from 1997 to 2013, revealed the presence of five branchiuran species. Dolops ranarum from the Okavango system was found on the skin and in the branchial chambers of 12 fish species. Adults and ...

  11. Evaluation of Questionnaire, Reagent Strip and Egg Count as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A longitudinal study covering 55 months evaluated the three diagnostic tools used for confirmation of prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis among 1151 consented primary school pupils in 13 communities of Edo State, Nigeria. Questionnaire, reagent strip method and parasitological examination were employed.

  12. Innovative fluorescence detection technique for metals in cestode ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recent work in the field of parasitology has drawn attention to the application of parasites as pollution-accumulation indicators, particularly cestodes. A discrepancy in metal concentrations within cestode posterior and anterior tissue has led researchers to attribute this phenomenon to metals binding to the shells of their ...

  13. Platinum Jubilee 1934-2009

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2009-03-12

    Mar 12, 2009 ... ... parasitology, vaccine development, malaria, molecular and cell ... zoonotic disease diagnostics and vaccine development. ... has given rise to much work in the development of ..... lipases; synthesis of diacylglycerol, the anti besity oil; .... the preparation of new functional solids; chemistry in zeolites ...

  14. Marine Mammals Ashore: A Field Guide for Strandings. Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    fatal encephalitis due to Toxoplasma gondii’" and serological evidence of exposure to cetacean morbilliviruses2 ’. One virus, consistent with a bovine ...Journal for Parasitology 17:407-414. 71. Geraci, J.R., M.D. Dailey and D.J. St. Aubin. 1978. Parasitic mastitis in the Atlantic white-sided dolphin

  15. Bhattacharya, Prof. Alok

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Fellowship. Fellow Profile. Elected: 2015 Section: General Biology. Bhattacharya, Prof. Alok Ph.D. (JNU), FNA. Date of birth: 2 February 1951. Specialization: Molecular Parasitology, Computational Genomics, Rare Genetic Disorders Address: School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110 067, ...

  16. Methodological issues affecting the study of fish parasites. II. Sampling method affects ectoparasite studies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kvach, Yuriy; Ondračková, Markéta; Janáč, Michal; Jurajda, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 121, č. 1 (2016), s. 59-66 ISSN 0177-5103 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Parasite community * Fish sampling method * Methodology * Parasitological examination * Rutilus rutilus Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.549, year: 2016

  17. Larvicidal efficacy of stock Bacillus sphaericus on local species of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Time of exposure to larvicide also had insignificant influence (p>0.05) on rate of larval mortality. It was concluded that employed larvicide had limited activity against local breed of mosquito with risk of early resistance against this biological agent. Keywords: larvicide, Bacillus, mosquito. Nigerian Journal of Parasitology Vol.

  18. An Evolutionary Approach to the Biological Management of Invasive Brown Treesnakes (Boiga irregularis) on Guam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    only two snake species on the Guam, the other of which is a burrowing blind snake Ramphotyphlops braminus (possibly introduced as well), and none of...descriptions of three new species. Systematic Parasitology 1:127-140. Roberts, L. S. and J. J. Janovy. 2005. Gerald D. Schmidt and Larry S. Roberts

  19. Prevalence of cattle trypanosomiasis and babesiosis in the western ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , with 6.67, 10.87, 6.67 and 20.00% respectively for the white Fulani, red Fulani, gudali and crossbreeds. Infections with Babesia sp did not affect significantly blood parameters studied. Concerning babesiosis, parasitological search revealed ...

  20. Research concerning intestinal parasitosis in infant population discovered in two clinic laboratories from Oradea (Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel-Dumitru PORTELECHI

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Considering the research made and the data offered by the specialists in parasitology from Oradea’s no.1 Polyclinic and Children’s Hospital, we have established that children from 1 to 18 years old have been found infected with 7 species of human parasites. Giardia lamblia, Blastocystis hominis, Ascaris lumbricoides, Oxyurus vermicularis, Trichurus trichiura, Hymenolepis nana, Hymenolepis diminuta.

  1. JPRS Report, Science & Technology. Europe: Economic Competitiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-02-22

    de-France’s concentration exceeds Grenoble’s. In the Alps region, this concentration synergizes with the general industrial activity. The...the syncytial virus; treatment of sexually-transmissible diseases, such as prevention of recidivous vulvovaginal candidiases ; and parasitological

  2. Sleeping Sickness Surveillance In The Abraka Sleeping Sickness ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Confirmation of sleeping sickness (ss) was by the detection of trypanosomes in blood, body fluids and biopsy tissues. Thirteen (0.8%) seropositive subjects were parasitologically confirmed and treated with melasoprol at the Baptist Medical Centre (BMC) Eku. One (0.06%) patient died during the course of treatment.

  3. Langdurige diarree en vermagering na een fietstocht van Tibet naar Nepal: Cyclospora-infectie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, E.; Kager, P. A.

    2002-01-01

    A 39-year-old man, who had made a cycling tour from Tibet to Nepal, visited the outpatients' clinic one month later because of prolonged diarrhoea, abdominal complaints and serious weight loss. Parasitological examination of the stool revealed oocysts of Cyclospora cayetanensis and the patient was

  4. Chlorproguanil - Dapsone a new drug in the fight against malaria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This drug was developed at the time chloroquine was failing and a search for a cheap effective alternative was on. ... antifolates. This class of drugs works by ..... WHO/CDS/CSR/DRS/2001 , Geneva. 2001 . Winstanley PA. Chemotherapy for falciparum malaria: the armoury, the problems and the prospects. Parasitology.

  5. Annual and spatial variability in endo- and ectoparasite infections of North Sea cod (Gadus morhua Linnaeus, 1758) larvae, post-larvae and juveniles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehrdana, Foojan; Bahlool, Qusay Z. M.; Skovgaard, Alf

    2014-01-01

    A parasitological investigation was performed on a total of 5380 Atlantic cod larvae, post-larvae and small juveniles sampled from the North Sea during a period of five years. The copepod Caligus elongatus (Von Nordmann, 1832) and the nematode Hysterothylacium aduncum (Rudolphi, 1802) were found ...

  6. Decline of placental malaria in southern Ghana after the implementation of intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hommerich, Lena; von Oertzen, Christa; Bedu-Addo, George; Holmberg, Ville; Acquah, Patrick A.; Eggelte, Teunis A.; Bienzle, Ulrich; Mockenhaupt, Frank P.

    2007-01-01

    Intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP) has been adopted as policy by many countries in sub-Saharan Africa. However, data on the post-implementation effectiveness of this measure are scarce. Clinical and parasitological parameters were assessed among

  7. Preliminary assessment of bovine trypanosomiasis and its vectors in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study involving a questionnaire, parasitological examination of cattle and entomological prospection were conducted in the Mezam Division of Cameroon from December 2013 to May 2014 in two seasons for the first time. The objectives were to determine the prevalence of bovine trypanosomiais and its ...

  8. Inaugural recipients of the Hopper-Bhatia Canada Fund | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-01-31

    Jan 31, 2018 ... Elizabeth is affiliated with the applied entomology and parasitology laboratory at the University San Carlos de Guatemala. Her research focus is The relationship between cutaneous reactions to pharmaceuticals used to treat Chagas disease and the genotypes of molecules involved in immunological ...

  9. Enquêtes Entomologique et Parasitologique Sur Les ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cross-sectional entomological and parasitological surveys were conducted between mid-August and September 2011 on 180 cattle at the Agronomic Research Institute of Togo (ITRA) station of Avetonou located in the Prefecture of Agou in Togo. These surveys were intended to update epidemiological data on animal ...

  10. 2365-IJBCS-Article-Mamoudou Abdoul

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    Livestock diseases especially cattle trypanosomiasis remains a challenge and a call for concern. A. Cross sectional study was carried out on the entomological and parasitological prevalence of cattle trypanosomiasis, in the tsetse fly infested zone-Alme in Faro and Deo division, Adamaoua region Cameroon. The aim of this ...

  11. Active transmission of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense Dutton, 1902 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thereafter, palpation for enlarged cervical lymph gland (ECLG) was followed by parasitological examination of aspirate using wet film, haematocrit centrifugation technique (HCT) and mini-anion exchange centrifugation technique (mAECT). Only one confirmed case of sleeping sickness was diagnosed out of the 491 ...

  12. Effect of Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia density on hemoglobin concentrations among full-term, normal birth weight children in western Kenya, IV. The Asembo Bay Cohort Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McElroy, P. D.; ter Kuile, F. O.; Lal, A. A.; Bloland, P. B.; Hawley, W. A.; Oloo, A. J.; Monto, A. S.; Meshnick, S. R.; Nahlen, B. L.

    2000-01-01

    The relative importance of acute high-density versus persistent low-density Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia in contributing to the public health problem of malarial anemia remains unclear. The Asembo Bay Cohort Project in western Kenya collected monthly hemoglobin (Hb) and parasitologic

  13. Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense Tapeworm Larvae in Salmon from North America

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuchta, Roman; Oros, M.; Ferguson, J.; Scholz, Tomáš

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 2 (2017), s. 351-353 ISSN 1080-6040 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/12/1632 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Alaska * Diphyllobothrium * human * larva * nonhuman * Oncorhynchus * seashore Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine OBOR OECD: Parasitology Impact factor: 8.222, year: 2016

  14. European distribution for metacercariae of the North American digenean Posthodiplostomum cf. minimum centrarchi (Strigeiformes: Diplostomidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kvach, Yuriy; Jurajda, Pavel; Bryjová, Anna; Trichkova, T.; Ribeiro, F.; Přikrylová, I.; Ondračková, Markéta

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 5 (2017), s. 635-642 ISSN 1383-5769 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Lepomis gibbosus * Micropterus salmoides * White grub * Physid snails * Non-indigenous species Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Parasitology Impact factor: 1.744, year: 2016

  15. No measurable adverse effects of Lassa, Morogoro and Gairo arenaviruses on their rodent reservoir host in natural conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mariën, J.; Borremans, B.; Gryseels, S.; Soropogui, B.; De Bruyn, L.; Ngiala Bongo, G.; Becker-Ziaja, B.; Goüy de Bellocq, Joëlle; Günther, S.; Magassouba, N.; Leirs, H.; Fichet-Calvet, E.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 1 (2017), č. článku 210. ISSN 1756-3305 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Arenavirus * Lassa virus * Morogoro virus * Gairo virus * Mastomys natalensis * Rodent-borne disease * Host-pathogen interaction * Reservoir host Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Parasitology Impact factor: 3.080, year: 2016

  16. Affinity (tropism) of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus for brain cells

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-19

    Nov 19, 2008 ... Full Length Research Paper. Affinity (tropism) of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus for brain cells. Adebayo, I. A.1*, Awoniyi, T. A. M. 1 and Olaleye, O. D.2. 1Department of Animal Production and Health, Animal Parasitology and Microbiology Research Unit, Federal University of Technology, P M B 704, ...

  17. Factors affecting the transmission of human onchocerciasis by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The findings in this study, if corroborated with those of related studies based on parasitologic, ophthalmologic and socioeconomic monitoring will be useful for planning of effective treatments with ivermectin. Keywords: transmission, human onchocerciasis, savannah, Cross River State Mary Slessor Journal of Medicine Vol.

  18. The benefits of the PCR-its/filter paper in the diagnosis of parasites ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    which could be detected by one PCR reaction, this method could also distinguish Trypanosoma congolense savanna type from Trypanosoma congolense forest type. The gain of sensitivity and the easy conservation of samples in this method could be used for the detection of the chemoresistance in low parasitological ...

  19. EDITORIAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RESEARCH TOOL. The monotonic ... over 100-fold increase in notifications during the past three decades, from 364 ... parasitological failure rate on SP therapy (Medical Research. Council ... 11rmr;. effective first-line therapy that will rapidly eliminate P. ... vivo study conducted at clinic level in KZN in this issue of thl journal) ...

  20. 2018-05-03T14:48:06Z https://www.ajol.info/index.php/all/oai oai:ojs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Flore, Kamini G Melanie; Laboratory of Biochemical Toxicology and Nutrition Department of Biochemistry. Bilong Bilong, Charles F; Laboratory of parasitology University of Yaounde I Bruchhaus, Iris; University of Hamburg, Germany, Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine Medicinal plants; Codiaeum variegatum; ...

  1. Extraordinary Tales

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    are protozoa, plants, fungi and animals. Parasitology refers to the study of ... this parasite infect us if we are optional in its lifecycle? Of course, this aids in the ... unclean fruits and vegetables that might have been contaminated with cat faeces.

  2. Is there any change in the prevalence of intestinal and urinary parasitosis among "non-permanent resident" students in Tunisia ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabelsi, Sonia; Bouchakoua, Myiram; Aouinet, Amira; Sellami, Amira; Khaled, Samira

    2012-07-01

    Intestinal parasitosis are cosmopolitan affections, often related to the fecal peril. However urinary bilharziosis is a disease eliminated in Tunisia. As part of monitoring the emergence and re-emergence of intestinal parasitosis and urinary bilharziasis, foreign students benefit from parasitological systematic monitoring stool and urine during their enrollment to the University. To study the prevalence of various intestinal parasitosis and urinary bilharziasis among non permanent resident students in Tunisia. A retrospective survey was carried at the Laboratory of Parasitology- Mycology of Charles Nicolle Hospital of Tunis during the inscription period of 6 university years 2005-2010. 328 students profited from a parasitological examination of stool and urine. 144 students (43.9%) harbored intestinal parasites. More than one parasite was detected in 69 students (47.9%). Intestinal protozoa were the majority of identified parasites (96.9%). 9.7% of identified parasites were pathogenic. Three cases (0.91%) of urinary bilharziasis were diagnosed. The prevalence of intestinal and urinary parasitism among the "non-permanent residents" students in Tunisia has not changed. This justifies a systematic parasitologic monitoring for students coming from areas of high endemicity of parasitosis in order to avoid the introduction of these.

  3. Bhattacharya, Prof. Sudha

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Elected: 2001 Section: General Biology. Bhattacharya, Prof. Sudha Ph.D. (IARI, New Delhi), FNASc, FNA Council Service: 2016. Date of birth: 7 March 1952. Specialization: Molecular Biology, Molecular Parasitology and Genomics Address: Professor, School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New ...

  4. Surolia, Prof. Namita

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Fellowship. Fellow Profile. Elected: 2002 Section: Medicine. Surolia, Prof. Namita Ph.D. (Allahabad), FNASc. Date of birth: 2 April 1953. Specialization: Molecular Parasitology, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Address: Molecular Biology & Genetics Unit, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, ...

  5. The initial effectiveness of liposomal amphotericin B (AmBisome) and miltefosine combination for treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in HIV co-infected patients in Ethiopia: A retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abongomera, Charles; Diro, Ermias; de Lima Pereira, Alan; Buyze, Jozefien; Stille, Kolja; Ahmed, Fareed; van Griensven, Johan; Ritmeijer, Koert

    2018-05-01

    North-west Ethiopia faces the highest burden world-wide of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and HIV co-infection. VL-HIV co-infected patients have higher (initial) parasitological failure and relapse rates than HIV-negative VL patients. Whereas secondary prophylaxis reduces the relapse rate, parasitological failure rates remain high with the available antileishmanial drugs, especially when administered as monotherapy. We aimed to determine the initial effectiveness (parasitologically-confirmed cure) of a combination of liposomal amphotericin B (AmBisome) and miltefosine for treatment of VL in HIV co-infected patients. We conducted a retrospective cohort study at a Médecins Sans Frontières-supported health center in north-west Ethiopia. We included VL-HIV co-infected adults, treated for VL between January 2011 and August 2014, with AmBisome infusion (30 mg/kg total dose) and miltefosine orally for 28 days (100 mg/day). Proportions of initial treatment outcome categories were calculated. Predictors of initial parasitological failure and of death were determined using multivariable logistic regression. Of the 173 patients included, 170 (98.3%) were male and the median age was 32 years. The proportion of patients with primary VL (48.0%) and relapse VL (52.0%) were similar. The majority had advanced HIV disease (n = 111; 73.5%) and were on antiretroviral therapy prior to VL diagnosis (n = 106; 64.2%). Initial cure rate was 83.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 77.6-88.6); death rate 12.7% (95% CI, 8.5-18.5) and parasitological failure rate 3.5% (95% CI, 1.6-7.4). Tuberculosis co-infection at VL diagnosis was predictive of parasitological failure (adjusted odds ratio (aOR), 8.14; p = 0.02). Predictors of death were age >40 years (aOR, 5.10; p = 0.009), hemoglobin ≤6.5 g/dL (aOR, 5.20; p = 0.002) and primary VL (aOR, 8.33; p = 0.001). Initial parasitological failure rates were very low with AmBisome and miltefosine combination therapy. This regimen seems a suitable

  6. Counter-insurgents of the blue revolution? Parasites and diseases affecting aquaculture and science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaylock, Reginald B; Bullard, Stephen A

    2014-12-01

    Aquaculture is the fastest-growing segment of food production and is expected to supply a growing portion of animal protein for consumption by humans. Because industrial aquaculture developed only recently compared to industrial agriculture, its development occurred within the context of a growing environmental awareness and acknowledgment of environmental issues associated with industrial farming. As such, parasites and diseases have become central criticisms of commercial aquaculture. This focus on parasites and diseases, however, has created a nexus of opportunities for research that has facilitated considerable scientific advances in the fields of parasitology and aquaculture. This paper reviews Myxobolus cerebralis , Lepeophtheirus salmonis , white spot syndrome virus, and assorted flatworms as select marquee aquaculture pathogens, summarizes the status of the diseases caused by each and their impacts on aquaculture, and highlights some of the significant contributions these pathogens have made to the science of parasitology and aquaculture.

  7. Tratamento de candidiases muco-cutâneas rebeldes pelo Ketoconazol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Dagher

    1983-11-01

    Full Text Available Results with orally administered ketoconazole in patients with mucocutaneous candidosis are encouraging, considering the recalcitrant nature of the disease. Thirty-two patients with mucocutaneous candidosis were treated with a dayle dose of 200 to 400mg of ketoconazole administered with a meal. Evaluation was based on clinical and parasitological responses. Clinical and parasitological cure was obtained in 28 (87,50% patients and improvement in 2(6,25%. No undesirable and effects were observed in the treatment.Experimentação terapêutico-laboratorial com o Ketoconazol nas candidíases mucocutâneas rebeldes, obtendo-se os seguintes resultados: - CURADOS: - 28 (87,50% pacientes; melhorados: - 2 (6,25% pacientes; inalterados: - 2 (6,25% pacientes. Laboratorialmente, houve negativação dos exames micológicos em 100% dos casos.

  8. Quality of uncomplicated malaria case management in Ghana among insured and uninsured patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenny, Ama P; Hansen, Kristian S; Enemark, Ulrika

    2014-01-01

    of health insurance on the quality of case management for patients with uncomplicated malaria, ascertaining any significant differences in treatment between insured and non-insured patients. METHOD: A structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 523 respondents diagnosed with malaria....... This is especially the case for parasitological confirmation of all suspected malaria patients before treatment with an antimalarial as currently recommended for the effective management of malaria in the country. The results show that about 16 percent of total sample were parasitologically tested. Effective......INTRODUCTION: The National Health Insurance Act, 2003 (Act 650) established the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) in Ghana with the aim of increasing access to health care and improving the quality of basic health care services for all citizens. The main objective is to assess the effect...

  9. [Prolonged diarrhea and weight loss after a biking trip from Tibet to Nepal: infection with Cyclospora].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, E; Kager, P A

    2002-08-10

    A 39-year-old man, who had made a cycling tour from Tibet to Nepal, visited the outpatients' clinic one month later because of prolonged diarrhoea, abdominal complaints and serious weight loss. Parasitological examination of the stool revealed oocysts of Cyclospora cayetanensis and the patient was treated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (co-trimoxazole) with good result. C. cayetanensis has only recently been discovered as a protozoal cause of diarrhoea. Infections are primarily reported from areas with a low hygienic standard e.g. Central and South America, the Indian subcontinent (Nepal), Indonesia and South-East Asia. Clinical symptoms of infection are diarrhoea (usually watery), abdominal cramps and discomfort. The infection can have a prolonged course. Diagnosis is made by parasitological examination of the stool (one should be cautious not to confuse with cryptosporidia) and treatment with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole is effective.

  10. Annual Report 2009: Project to combat the tsetse and trypanosomiasis in Niayes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-03-01

    In 2008, a feasibility study (entomological, parasitological, genetic and socio-economic studies) to characterize the area was initiated and a database was set up. All these studies, except socio-economic and environmental, have been completed, and during the transitional phase (2009, before the implementation of a control strategy), a minimum monitoring, in particular entomological monitoring, has continued. Basic entomological and parasitological investigations are completed. (I) the vector (number of species, densities, distribution, seasonal fluctuation of populations, infestation rate, etc.); (ii) disease (prevalence, distribution, strains of trypanosomes, etc.) ) (Iii) the area (an isolated character which guarantees the perpetuation of vector elimination).The vector control phase (laying of traps and impregnated screens in the kayar zone) and the sterile male release tests (activation of the insectarium, control of pupae irradiated at the CIRDES, etc.) began .

  11. Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine versus artesunate-amodiaquine for treatment of malaria infection in pregnancy in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osarfo, Joseph; Tagbor, Harry; Cairns, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    parasitaemia were randomised to receive DHA-PPQ or ASAQ over 3 days. Women were followed up on days 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, 28 and 42 after treatment start and at delivery for parasitological, haematological, birth outcomes and at 6-week post-partum to ascertain the health status of the babies. Parasitological.......4)]. ITT analysis gave similar results. PCR to distinguish recrudescence and reinfection was unsuccessful. DHA-PPQ recipients had fewer adverse events of vomiting, dizziness, and general weakness compared to ASAQ. Both drugs were well-tolerated, and there was no excess of adverse birth outcomes. CONCLUSION......: DHA-PPQ was non-inferior to ASAQ for treatment of malaria infection during pregnancy. No safety concerns were identified. Our findings contribute to growing evidence that DHA-PPQ is useful for control of malaria in pregnancy....

  12. Taming Parasites by Tailoring Them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingjian Ren

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The next-generation gene editing based on CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats has been successfully implemented in a wide range of organisms including some protozoan parasites. However, application of such a versatile game-changing technology in molecular parasitology remains fairly underexplored. Here, we briefly introduce state-of-the-art in human and mouse research and usher new directions to drive the parasitology research in the years to come. In precise, we outline contemporary ways to embolden existing apicomplexan and kinetoplastid parasite models by commissioning front-line gene-tailoring methods, and illustrate how we can break the enduring gridlock of gene manipulation in non-model parasitic protists to tackle intriguing questions that remain long unresolved otherwise. We show how a judicious solicitation of the CRISPR technology can eventually balance out the two facets of pathogen-host interplay.

  13. Efficacy of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in Tanzania after two years as first-line drug for uncomplicated malaria: assessment protocol and implication for treatment policy strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felger Ingrid

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systematic surveillance for resistant malaria shows high level of resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP across eastern and southern parts of Africa. This study assessed in vivo SP efficacy after two years of use as an interim first-line drug in Tanzania, and determined the rates of treatment failures obtained after 14 and 28 days of follow-up. Methods The study was conducted in the Ipinda, Mlimba and Mkuranga health facilities in Tanzania. Children aged 6–59 months presenting with raised temperature associated exclusively with P. falciparum (1,000–100,000 parasites per μl were treated with standard dose of SP. Treatment responses were classified according to the World Health Organization (WHO definition as Adequate Clinical and Parasitological Response (ACPR, Early Treatment Failure (ETF, Late Clinical Failure (LCF and Late Parasitological Failure (LPF on day 14 and day 28. Results Overall 196 (85.2% of 230 patients had ACPR on day 14 but only 116 (50.9% on day 28 (57.7% after excluding new infections by parasite genotyping. Altogether 21 (9.1% and 13 (5.7% of the 230 patients assessed up to day 14 and 39 (17.1% and 55 (24.1% of the 228 followed up to day 28 had clinical and parasitological failure, respectively. Conclusion These findings indicate that SP has low therapeutic value in Tanzania. The recommendation of changing first line treatment to artemether + lumefantrine combination therapy from early next year is, therefore, highly justified. These findings further stress that, for long half-life drugs such as SP, establishment of cut-off points for policy change in high transmission areas should consider both clinical and parasitological responses beyond day 14.

  14. Distemper virus as a cause of central nervous disease and death in badgers (Meles meles) in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Anne Sofie; Dietz, H. H.; Andersen, T. H.

    2004-01-01

    During the summer of 2002 a distemper-like disease was observed in the free-ranging badger population in Denmark. It was characterised by grand seizures, abnormal behaviour and death; the badgers all had severe chronic pneumonia and some had non-suppurative encephalomyelitis. in this study, eight...... of the affected badgers were examined by gross pathological, histological, immunohistological, bacteriological, parasitological and virological methods, and were diagnosed with distemper; canine distemper virus was identified....

  15. Résultats de recherche | Page 4 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    L'une des premières évaluations officielles d'un programme de services de garde d'enfants pour les ménages à faible revenu en Inde pourrait fournir des données empiriques permettant d'améliorer l'égalité des sexes au pays et au-delà de ses frontières. En vedette. Health LEISHMANIASIS PARASITOLOGY Ecohealth ...

  16. Prevalence and Evaluation of Three Acaricides of Canine Sarcoptic Mange

    OpenAIRE

    Fayez Awadalla Salib

    2015-01-01

    Sarcoptes scabiei var canis infest different dog breeds and human. Three hundred ninety five dogs were clinically and parasitologically examined for the detection of Sarcoptes scabiei var canis. Twenty four infested dogs were classified into three groups (8 dogs per group), each group was treated separately with ivermectin oral tablets (Ivactin®) or selamectin pour on(Revolution®) or doramectin injection (Dectomax®). The prevalence of Sarcoptes scabiei var canis in totally examined dogs was 6...

  17. Application and evaluation of a molecular approach for detection of the schistosomicidal effect of Mirazid® (myrrh in the murine model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael M. Lotfy

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The conventional PCR technique was used for studying the schistosomicidal effect of Mirazid® in the murine model. Results of the molecular study were compared with the parasitological results (ova and worm count. The used PCR technique was more sensitive than the Kato-Katz thick smears. Mirazid® showed some schistosomicidal effects against murine Schistosoma mansoni. However, it was not efficient enough to cure any of the studied mice.

  18. 2240-IJBCS-Article-Dr Blahoua Kassi G

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    Parasitology meets ecology on its own terms. J. Parasitol., 83: 575-583. El Madhi Y, Belghyti D. 2006. Distribution de deux Monogènes dans les individus hôtes de Trachinotus ovatus de la côte de Mehdia. Biologie et Santé, 6(2): 65-. 76. Elias D, Negesse K, Solomon S, Kassaye B. 2014. Food and Feeding Habits of the.

  19. A tribute to Dr. Paul A. J. Janssen: entrepreneur extraordinaire, innovative scientist, and significant contributor to anesthesiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Theodore H; Egan, Talmage D; Van Aken, Hugo

    2008-02-01

    Dr. Paul Janssen was the founder of Janssen Pharmaceutica and the developer of over 80 pharmaceutical compounds that proved useful in human, botanical, and veterinary medicine. He and his coworkers synthesized the fentanyl family of drugs, many other potent analgesics, droperidol, etomidate, and numerous other important medicines that were extremely useful in psychiatry, parasitology, gastroenterology, cardiology, virology, and immunology. Anesthesiology and medicine as a whole have benefited a great deal from his resourcefulness, creativity, and entrepreneurial spirit.

  20. Potential disease agents in domestic goats and relevance to bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) management

    OpenAIRE

    Drew, Mark L.; Weiser, Glen C.

    2017-01-01

    Domestic goats are raised for meat, milk and hair production, in herds for rangeland weed control, and as pack animals. Domestic sheep, goats and wild bighorn sheep are all susceptible to a multifactorial pneumonia. We sampled 43 herd goats from 7 herds and 48 pack goats from 11 herds for viral and bacterial serology, parasitology, and Pasteurellaceae microbiology. The goats in this study were in generally good health, although most goats did harbor various pathogens and parasites including s...

  1. A Functional Transcriptomic Approach to Understanding the Sand Fly Vector Relationships to the Host and Leshmania Parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-07

    Carolina V. Barillas -Mury, M.D., Ph.D., Dissertation Committee Member Stephen J. Davies, BVSc., Ph.D., Dissertation Committee Member Ernest L. Maynard...mediated midgut attachment. Parasitology 2000, 121 ( Pt 1):25-33. 34. Kamhawi S, Ramalho-Ortigao M, Pham VM, Kumar S, Lawyer PG, Turco SJ, Barillas ...Lawyer PG, Turco SJ, Barillas -Mury C, Sacks DL, Valenzuela JG: A role for insect galectins in parasite survival. Cell 2004, 119(3):329-341. 2. Pal U

  2. [Vesical schistosomiasis, case report and Spanish literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donate Moreno, M J; Pastor Navarro, H; Giménez Bachs, J M; Carrión López, P; Segura Martín, M; Salinas Sánchez, A S; Virseda Rodríguez, J A

    2006-01-01

    Urinary schistosomiasis is an infection caused by parasite, Schistosoma haematobium. Squistosomiasis is an endemic disease in Africa and Middle East. We are presenting a case of a young immigrant male from Mali that came to our clinic with hematuria and miccional irritative syndrome during a year. Parasitological study reported Schimosoma's eggs and ecography showed a possible vesical newformation. After RTU, anatomopatological study confirms the presence of a vesical esquistosomiasis. Now pacient is asyntomatic after he was treated with Praziquantel.

  3. Interlaboratory Optimization and Evaluation of a Serological Assay for Diagnosis of Human Baylisascariasis

    OpenAIRE

    Rascoe, Lisa N.; Santamaria, Cynthia; Handali, Sukwan; Dangoudoubiyam, Sriveny; Kazacos, Kevin R.; Wilkins, Patricia P.; Ndao, Momar

    2013-01-01

    A Western blot assay using a recombinant protein, recombinant Baylisascaris procyonis RAG1 protein (rBpRAG1), was developed for the diagnosis of human baylisascariasis concurrently by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, and the National Reference Centre for Parasitology (NRCP) in Montreal, Canada. Assay performance was assessed by testing 275 specimens at the CDC and 405 specimens at the NRCP. Twenty specimens from 16 cases of baylisascariasis were evalua...

  4. Host specificity and basic ecology of Mammomonogamus (Nematoda, Syngamidae) from lowland gorillas and forest elephants in Central African Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Červená, B.; Vallo, Peter; Pafčo, B.; Jirků, K.; Jirků, M.; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Todd, A.; Turkalo, A. K.; Modrý, D.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 144, č. 8 (2017), s. 1016-1025 ISSN 0031-1820 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-05180S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : 18S rDNA * cox1 * Dzanga-Sangha Protected Areas * haplotype * interspecies transmission * Loxodonta cyclotis * Gorilla gorilla gorilla Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Parasitology Impact factor: 2.713, year: 2016

  5. Diseño y desarrollo de un juego educativo para ordenador sobre enfermedades tropicales y salud internacional: una herramienta docente más de apoyo al profesor universitario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consuelo Giménez Pardo

    2011-01-01

    "stand-alone" e "Internet". El juego está siendo ampliado para su uso en móviles. La adaptación futura a las diferentes áreas de conocimiento (parasitología, historia, química, física, etc sólo implica cambiar el interfaz de usuario y los criterios de selección de las preguntas.

  6. Experimental treatment with sodium stibogluconate of hamsters infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi and Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis Tratamento experimental com stibogluconato de sódio em hamsters infectados com Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi e Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth M. de Figueiredo; Jaime Costa e Silva; Reginaldo P. Brazil

    1999-01-01

    The present paper reports the experimental treatment of hamsters infected with Leishmania chagasi and Leishmania amazonensis with sodium stibogluconate (20mg/kg/day x 20 days). Only with L. chagasi did the treatment result in the complete elimination of parasites from the spleen. However, no parasitological cure was achieved in hamsters infected with L. amazonensis.O presente trabalho é um relato do tratamento experimental de hamsters infectado com Leishmania chagasi e Leishmania amazonensis ...

  7. Serum Levels of Zinc, Copper and Their Carrier Proteins in Cattle with theileriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Fartashvand

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 90 cattle with theileriosis and 90 healthy cattle were studied based on clinical and laboratory examination including parasitological and biochemical tests. Special biochemical kits were used for determination of zinc, copper, albumin, calcium, magnesium and ferrous levels in sera. Serum levels of transferin and ceruloplasmin were measured with ELISA and Sunderman & Nomoto method, respectively. The serum level of zinc was significantly decreased in cattle suffering from theileriosis (p

  8. Use of Proficiency Testing as a Tool to Improve Quality in Microbiology Laboratories

    OpenAIRE

    Stang, Heather L.; Anderson, Nancy L.

    2013-01-01

    Proficiency testing (PT) is a valuable tool for assessing laboratory performance and verifying the accuracy and reliability of test results. Participation is required by the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) of 1988 for each of the microbiology subspecialties (bacteriology, mycobacteriology, mycology, parasitology, and virology), and the regulations include specific PT requirements for each subspecialty. To determine the use and perceived value of PT beyond meeting CLIA requir...

  9. Quadriacanthus species (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) from catfishes (Teleostei: Siluriformes) in eastern Africa: new species, new records and first insights into interspecific genetic relationships

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Francová, K.; Seifertová, M.; Blažek, Radim; Gelnar, M.; Mahmoud, Z. N.; Řehulková, E.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 361 (2017), č. článku 361. ISSN 1756-3305 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Monogenea * Dactylogyridae * Quadriacanthus * Siluriformes * Catfishes * Africa * Lake Turkana * Nile River Basin * New species * DNA Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Parasitology Impact factor: 3.080, year: 2016

  10. haematological values of appararently healthy sheep and goats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    Uquhart, G.M., Armour, J., Duncan, J.L., Dunn, A.M. and Jenning, F.W. (1992). Veterinary Parasitology,. Chuchill Livingstone Inc. New York, U.S.A. pp 4-244. Wilkins, J.H. and Hodges, R.E.D.H. (1962):. Observations on normal goats blood. Royal Army Vet. Corp. J. 33:7. Received: July 1998. Revised version accepted: June ...

  11. [Larva migrans syndrome or ocular toxocariasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzi, D R; Maffrand, R A; De Lisa, I S; Pizzi, H L; Plaza Ontiveros, R G

    2001-01-01

    Thirteen cases of ocular toxocariasis attended in the Oftalmology Service of the Pediatric Hospital "Niño Jesús", from Córdoba; and in the Parasitology and Micology Cathedra of the Medicine Collegue of the University of Córdoba were studied from July 1993 till July 1995. The authors determine the needs of taking into account this parasitosis; above all in children and with the antecedent of contact with pets.

  12. Hygienic-sanitary conditions of vegetables and irrigation water from kitchen gardens in the municipality of Campinas, SP

    OpenAIRE

    Simões,Marise; Pisani,Beatriz; Marques,Eneida Gonçalves Lemes; Prandi,Maria Angela Garnica; Martini,Maria Helena; Chiarini,Paulo Flávio Teixeira; Antunes,José Leopoldo Ferreira; Nogueira,Ana Paula

    2001-01-01

    We examined samples of irrigation water and vegetables from kitchen gardens in Campinas, Brazil. The bacterial analysis condemned 22.3% of the vegetable samples, and the parasitological examination condemned 14.5%. The criteria established by the Brazilian legislation condemned 11.8% of the irrigation water samples. Parasites were significantly more frequent in vegetables in the rainy season, while excessive fecal coliforms were more frequent in the dry season. A proper monitoring of the irri...

  13. West Nile virus in overwintering mosquitoes, central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rudolf, Ivo; Betášová, Lenka; Blažejová, Hana; Venclíková, Kristýna; Straková, Petra; Šebesta, Oldřich; Mendel, Jan; Bakonyi, T.; Schaffner, F.; Nowotny, N.; Hubálek, Zdeněk

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 452 (2017), č. článku 452. ISSN 1756-3305 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-20054S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 261504 - EDENEXT Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : West Nile fever * West Nile virus * Flavivirus * Hibernation * Overwintering * Culex pipiens * Anopheles maculipennis * Culiseta annulata * Czech Republic Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Parasitology Impact factor: 3.080, year: 2016

  14. Research with radioisotopes in clinical and laboratory medicine: a bibliographic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metz, J.; Van der Walt, L.A.; Malan, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    This bibliography is restricted mainly to AEC-supported projects which are considered to amply reflect the widespread use of radioisotopes in clinical and laboratory medicine in South Africa and which describe research with radioisotopes of some direct relevance to diagnostic-clinical or laboratory medicine, or both, but excluding therapy with isotopes. General information is given in this review on oncology, endocrinology, metabolism and nutrition, haematology, neurology, angiocardiology, pulmonology, gastroenterology, gynaecology and obstetrics, nephrology, immunology and transplantation, microbiology and parasitology

  15. Effect of artemether on cytokine profile and egg induced pathology in murine schistosomiasis mansoni

    OpenAIRE

    Madbouly, Neveen A.; Shalash, Ibraheem R.; El Deeb, Somaya O.; El Amir, Azza M.

    2014-01-01

    Artemether (ART), the methylated derivative of artemisinin, is an efficacious antimalarial drug that also displays antischistosomal properties. This study was designed to evaluate the immunomodulatory action of a single intramuscular dose (50 mg/kg body weight) of ART in comparison with PZQ treatment (42 days PI). ART administration was 7, 14, 21 and 45 days PI. ART effect was studied parasitologically, histopathologically and immunologically. It was found that maximum effect was reached when...

  16. Assessment of vaccination with schistosomules attenuated by using different doses of γ-radiation on experimental schistosomiasis mansoni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, E.N.H.

    2009-01-01

    Current strategies for the control of schistosomiasis are based primarily on chemotherapy but successful vaccination against infection has been also demonstrated in several host parasite models.The present study was designed to asses the immunogenic effects of the vaccination with autogenic targets in the form of schistosomula attenuated by different doses of γ-radiation (15, 20, 25 kilo rad) in mice challenged with S. mansoni cercariae as regard parasitological, histological, biochemical and immunological aspects.

  17. Arylimidamide-Azole Combinations against Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Antileishmanial Activity of Compounds Derived from the Medicines for Malaria Venture Open Access Box Against Intracellular Leishmania major Amastigotes...Atovaquone and other antimalarial drugs against P. falciparum in vitro. Experimental Parasitology 80, 373-381, 1995. 4. Sharlow E, Leimgruber S...with in Vitro and in Vivo Anti-leishmanial Activity . ACS Chemical Biology, Dec 2013. 5. Caridha D, Parriot S, Hudson TH, Lang T, Ngundam F, Leed S

  18. Biotecnologia farmacèutica. Curs 2006-2007

    OpenAIRE

    Universitat de Barcelona. Facultat de Farmàcia

    2006-01-01

    Pla docent de l'assignatura Biotecnologia farmacèutica de l'Ensenyament de Farmàcia. Curs acadèmic 2006-2007. Departament de Bioquímica i Biologia Molecular/Biologia Cel·lular i Anatomia Patològica/Farmàcia i Tecnologia Farmacèutica/Fisicoquímica/Microbiologia i Parasitología Sanitàries/Productes Naturals, Biologia Vegetal i Edafologia.

  19. Polymorphisms in Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter and multidrug resistance 1 genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venkatesan, Meera; Gadalla, Nahla B; Stepniewska, Kasia

    2014-01-01

    Adequate clinical and parasitologic cure by artemisinin combination therapies relies on the artemisinin component and the partner drug. Polymorphisms in the Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (pfcrt) and P. falciparum multidrug resistance 1 (pfmdr1) genes are associated...... with decreased sensitivity to amodiaquine and lumefantrine, but effects of these polymorphisms on therapeutic responses to artesunate-amodiaquine (ASAQ) and artemether-lumefantrine (AL) have not been clearly defined. Individual patient data from 31 clinical trials were harmonized and pooled by using standardized...

  20. Promoting Science in Secondary School Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiovitti, Anthony; Duncan, Jacinta C; Jabbar, Abdul

    2017-06-01

    Engaging secondary school students with science education is crucial for a society that demands a high level of scientific literacy in order to deal with the economic and social challenges of the 21st century. Here we present how parasitology could be used to engage and promote science in secondary school students under the auspice of a 'Specialist Centre' model for science education. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Quality of Water used at pig farms in the Red River delta

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen Van Duy; Vu Dinh, Ton; Lai Thi, Cuc; Dang Vu, Binh

    2008-01-01

    A research was carried out to evaluate water quality using at 12 different pig farms in Bac Ninh, Hung Yen and Hai Duong provinces. Water samples were taken in two periods from October to December 2006 and from March to April 2007. Physical and chemical parameters were analysed at the laboratory of the Department of Veterinary Parasitology-Inspection and Hygiene - Hanoi University of Agriculture. The results showed that, all water sources using the pig farms came from underground and a half o...

  2. Alergia y parasitosis intestinal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Urueta

    1945-03-01

    Full Text Available Desde hace algún tiempo había deseado la oportunidad de ponerme en contacto contigo, para comunicarte un tema de tu afición a la parasitología humana y que se me ocurre a mí que se ha estudiado por aquí. Me refiero a las relaciones de la alergia con las parasitosis humanas, especialmente las intestinales.

  3. distributional trends of four species of freshwater snails in south ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rivers. Topographically it is divided into an interior plateau and a diversified tract of country. • Paper read at Symposium on Malacology and Parasitology, Copenhagen, Denmark, August 1965. Zoologica Africana 2 (1): 95-109. 95. R ep rod u ced b y Sa b in et G a tew a. y u n d er licen ce gra n ted b y th e P u b lish er (d a ted.

  4. The tapeworm Atractolytocestus tenuicollis (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea) - a sister species or ancestor of an invasive A. huronensis?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kraľová-Hromadová, I.; Štefka, Jan; Bazsalovicsová, E.; Bokorová, S.; Oros, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 112, č. 10 (2013), s. 3379-3388 ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Grant - others:Centre of Excellence for Parasitology(XE) 2622012011 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : carp Cyprinus carpio * farmed common carp * Cestoda Caryophyllidea * sequence alignment * parasites * fishes Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.327, year: 2013

  5. Efficacy of Doramectin and Fendendazole against naturally infected dairy animals with parasites at central zone of vidarbha region of Maharashtra State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S Gadre

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Comparative efficacy of doramectin and fenbendazole was studied against naturally infected dairy animals with helminth parasites showing clinical symptoms such as rough body coat, emaciation, diarrhoea and weakness etc. Based on the number of days taken for clinico-parasitological cure and the mean reduction EPG, doramectin was found to be superior to fenbendazole. [Veterinary World 2008; 1(4.000: 101-102

  6. Methodological issues affecting the study of fish parasites. III. Effect of fish preservation method

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kvach, Yuriy; Ondračková, Markéta; Janáč, Michal; Jurajda, Pavel

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 127, č. 3 (2018), s. 213-224 ISSN 0177-5103 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : flounder Paralichthys-olivaceus * Neoheterobothrium-hirame * community structure * infection levels * Baltic sea * Odontobutidae * ectoparasites * Perciformes * collection * ecology * Parasite community * Preservation methods * Perca fluviatilis * Rhodeus amarus * Methodology * Parasitological examination Subject RIV: GL - Fish ing OBOR OECD: Fish ery Impact factor: 1.549, year: 2016

  7. Long term study on the effect of mollusciciding with niclosamide in stream habitats on the transmission of schistosomiasis mansoni after community-based chemotherapy in Makueni District, Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kariuki, Henry C.; Madsen, Henry; Ouma, John H.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Schistosoma mansoni infection is a persistent public health problem in many Kenyan communities. Although praziquantel is available, re-infection after chemotherapy treatment is inevitable, especially among children. Chemotherapy followed by intermittent mollusciciding of habitats...... rainfall data were collected monthly, and annual parasitological surveys were undertaken in each village. The mollusciciding protocol was adapted to local conditions, and simplified to improve prospects for widespread application. RESULTS: After the initial reduction in prevalence attributable...

  8. Naturally Occurring Culturable Aerobic Gut Flora of Adult Phlebotomus papatasi, Vector of Leishmania major in the Old World

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    bioremediation [80,81] Lysinibacillus boronitolerans1 soil [82] Oceanobacillus sp.1 Chironomus sp. [83] fermented food [84] Terribacillus saccharophilus1 soil [85...traditional Korean fermented food. J Microbiol 48: 862–866. 85. An S-Y, Asahara M, Goto K, Kasai H, Yokota A (2007) Terribacillus saccharophilus gen. nov...wild strains of Psoroptes ovis infesting sheep. Parasitology 123: 441–446. 111. Cousin FJ, Mater DDG, Foligne B, Jan G (2011) Dairy Propionibacteria

  9. Alergia y parasitosis intestinal

    OpenAIRE

    Urueta, Carlos A.

    2011-01-01

    Desde hace algún tiempo había deseado la oportunidad de ponerme en contacto contigo, para comunicarte un tema de tu afición a la parasitología humana y que se me ocurre a mí que se ha estudiado por aquí. Me refiero a las relaciones de la alergia con las parasitosis humanas, especialmente las intestinales.

  10. Validation of a new technique to detect Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in bovine feces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inácio, Sandra Valéria; Gomes, Jancarlo Ferreira; Oliveira, Bruno César Miranda; Falcão, Alexandre Xavier; Suzuki, Celso Tetsuo Nagase; Dos Santos, Bianca Martins; de Aquino, Monally Conceição Costa; de Paula Ribeiro, Rafaela Silva; de Assunção, Danilla Mendes; Casemiro, Pamella Almeida Freire; Meireles, Marcelo Vasconcelos; Bresciani, Katia Denise Saraiva

    2016-11-01

    Due to its important zoonotic potential, cryptosporidiosis arouses strong interest in the scientific community, because, it was initially considered a rare and opportunistic disease. The parasitological diagnosis of the causative agent of this disease, the protozoan Cryptosporidium spp., requires the use of specific techniques of concentration and permanent staining, which are laborious and costly, and are difficult to use in routine laboratory tests. In view of the above, we conducted the feasibility, development, evaluation and intralaboratory validation of a new parasitological technique for analysis in optical microscopy of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts, called TF-Test Coccidia, using fecal samples from calves from the city of Araçatuba, São Paulo. To confirm the aforementioned parasite and prove the diagnostic efficiency of the new technique, we used two established methodologies in the scientific literature: parasite concentration by centrifugal sedimentation and negative staining with malachite green (CSN-Malachite) and Nested-PCR. We observed good effectiveness of the TF-Test Coccidia technique, being statistically equivalent to CSN-Malachite. Thus, we verified the effectiveness of the TF-Test Coccidia parasitological technique for the detection of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts and observed good concentration and morphology of the parasite, with a low amount of debris in the fecal smear. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A field trial in Thailand of the efficacy of oral fluralaner for the treatment of dogs with generalized demodicosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duangkaew, Lerpen; Larsuprom, Lawan; Anukkul, Pojnicha; Lekcharoensuk, Chalermpol; Chen, Charles

    2018-06-01

    Generalized demodicosis in dogs can be challenging to manage, especially in adult-onset cases. This study evaluated the efficacy of oral fluralaner at the dose of 25-50 mg/kg for the treatment of canine generalized demodicosis. Client-owned dogs from Bangkok, Thailand, diagnosed with generalized demodicosis according to published criteria. Deep skin scrapings were performed at three to five affected areas to evaluate numbers of mites. Repeat examinations were performed monthly until parasitological cure; dogs were then followed up for two to 12 months. Parasitological cure was defined as two negative skin scrapings achieved one month apart. One hundred and fifteen dogs were included in the study, 73 with adult-onset demodicosis and 42 with juvenile-onset demodicosis. Twenty one dogs were lost to follow-up and 27 had one negative skin scraping but did not return. Sixty seven dogs (21 with juvenile-onset and 46 with adult-onset disease) reached parasitological cure, which occurred after two, three and four months in 63%, 85% and 100% (respectively) of dogs with adult-onset demodicosis, cumulatively, and after two and three months in 81% and 100% of dogs with juvenile-onset demodicosis. Underlying causes associated with adult-onset demodicosis included atopic dermatitis, neoplasia, metabolic diseases and idiopathy. No adverse effects of fluralaner were observed in any of the dogs. Fluralaner given at the label dose for flea and tick prevention is effective for the treatment of canine generalized demodicosis. © 2018 ESVD and ACVD.

  12. Mefloquine treatment for uncomplicated falciparum malaria in young children 6-24 months of age in northern Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryauff, David J; Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Utz, Gregory; Baird, J Kevin; Koram, Kwadwo A; Binka, Fred; Nkrumah, Francis; Hoffman, Stephen L

    2007-02-01

    Mefloquine (MQ) single dose 20 mg/kg treatment of falciparum malaria was evaluated in 186 children of 6-24 months of age in northern Ghana. There were 15 RII/RIII-type parasitologic failures, all with Day 2 MQ blood levels significantly lower than children whose parasitemias cleared before Day 7 and remained clear through 28 days. Predictors of RII/RIII parasitologic response were vomiting after MQ dosing, Day 2 MQ levels < 500 ng/mL, and undetectable Day 2 levels of the carboxymefloquine metabolite. There were 50 cases of delayed RI parasitologic failure, but 71% of these cases had undetectable Day 28 blood levels of MQ and drug levels in the remaining 29% ranged below the 620 ng/mL level that suppresses MQ sensitive strains of P. falciparum. Drug levels among infants that tolerated MQ well were not associated with age, weight, hemoglobin, parasitemia, and pre-existing symptoms of vomiting or diarrhea. An observed recurrent parasitemia of 34,400 trophozoites/microL against a MQ blood concentration of 550 ng/mL was taken as indication of tolerance to suppressive levels of the drug at this location.

  13. 2013 Annual Report: Project to combat the Tsetse Fly and Trypanosomiasis in the Niayes Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-05-01

    The period 2009-2010 was a transition phase, used to analyze the basic data collected, in particular those relating to entomology and parasitology, in order to define a control strategy. An entomological and parasitological follow-up aimed at understanding the spatio-temporal dynamics of the system before the struggle has thus been put in place. Similarly, socio-economic studies have continued with the finalization of the survey and test reports produced by certain breeders. On the basis of the results of the feasibility study which confirmed the presence of Glossina palpalis gambiensis on the Dakar-Thies-Kayar triangle and the disease it transmits (trypanosomiasis) and Isolated from the area in relation to other tsetse infested areas, the fighting phase started in 2010 in block I (Kayar) and then in 2012 in block II (Sebikotane, Diacsaw Peulh, Pout) with the deployment of impregnated traps Deltamethrin and livestock ''on'' treatment. Entomological controls (monthly measurements of apparent densities) showed a significant decrease in tsetse populations in the target areas.The phase of elimination of tsetse flies began in 2011 in the Kayar area with weekly releases of sterile males to the soil. Operational air releases began in 2013 with cardboard boxes. They will continue in 2014 with an automatic machine specially designed by a Mexican company specializing in the release of fruit flies.On the parasitological level, sick animals are detected and treated, in order to reduce the prevalence of the disease. (Author)

  14. Malaria hotspots defined by clinical malaria, asymptomatic carriage, PCR and vector numbers in a low transmission area on the Kenyan Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangoye, David Tiga; Noor, Abdisalan; Midega, Janet; Mwongeli, Joyce; Mkabili, Dora; Mogeni, Polycarp; Kerubo, Christine; Akoo, Pauline; Mwangangi, Joseph; Drakeley, Chris; Marsh, Kevin; Bejon, Philip; Njuguna, Patricia

    2016-04-14

    Targeted malaria control interventions are expected to be cost-effective. Clinical, parasitological and serological markers of malaria transmission have been used to detect malaria transmission hotspots, but few studies have examined the relationship between the different potential markers in low transmission areas. The present study reports on the relationships between clinical, parasitological, serological and entomological markers of malaria transmission in an area of low transmission intensity in Coastal Kenya. Longitudinal data collected from 831 children aged 5-17 months, cross-sectional survey data from 800 older children and adults, and entomological survey data collected in Ganze on the Kenyan Coast were used in the present study. The spatial scan statistic test used to detect malaria transmission hotspots was based on incidence of clinical malaria episodes, prevalence of asymptomatic asexual parasites carriage detected by microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), seroprevalence of antibodies to two Plasmodium falciparum merozoite antigens (AMA1 and MSP1-19) and densities of Anopheles mosquitoes in CDC light-trap catches. There was considerable overlapping of hotspots by these different markers, but only weak to moderate correlation between parasitological and serological markers. PCR prevalence and seroprevalence of antibodies to AMA1 or MSP1-19 appeared to be more sensitive markers of hotspots at very low transmission intensity. These findings may support the choice of either serology or PCR as markers in the detection of malaria transmission hotspots for targeted interventions.

  15. UTILIDAD TERAPÉUTICA DEL ALBENDAZOL EN EL TRATAMIENTO DE NIÑOS INFECTADOS CON Giardia lamblia I THERAPEUTIC USEFULNESS OF ALBENDAZOLE IN THE TREATMENT OF INFECTED CHILDREN WITH Giardia lambli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAYRA RISCO

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted with 22 parasitized school children with Giardia lamblia to verify the therapeutic usefulness of albendazole (400 mg single dose for 5 days. After treating the children post-treatment controls were made at 7, 15 and 21 days by clinical examination and parasitological methods (direct examination, Kato and spontaneous sedimentation. The overall rate of parasitological cure was 44.4% (8/18 consisting of 8 children in whom the parasite was eradicated after treatment. This analysis excluded 4 of the treated children because they had missed one or more post-treatment controls. Of these 18 children, 72.2% (13 children had clinical manifestations suggestive of infection with G. lamblia before receiving the drug; after completion of treatment only two school children (11.1% had clinical manifestations. However, the difference was not statistically significant (X 2 = 0.5098 d.f. = 1. Two (11.1% of the children who received albendazole had adverse effects (bitter taste and abdominal pain. In conclusion, the study group and due to its low parasitological cure rate, albendazole does not seem to be a drug of choice and use should be reserved in proven cases of resistance to metronidazole or when there is intolerance to this drug.

  16. Environmental Factors and Ecosystems Associated with Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis in Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Andréa Pereira; Costa, Francisco Borges; Soares, Herbert Sousa; Ramirez, Diego Garcia; de Carvalho Araújo, Andreina; da Silva Ferreira, Juliana Isabel Giuli; Tonhosolo, Renata; Dias, Ricardo Augusto; Gennari, Solange Maria; Marcili, Arlei

    2015-12-01

    Environment influences the composition, distribution, and behavior of the vectors and mammalian hosts involved in the transmission of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), affecting the epidemiology of the disease. In Brazil, the urbanization process and canine cases of VL are indicators for local health authorities. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of the canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in Maranhão State, Brazil. Blood samples collected from 960 dogs from six municipalities and six different ecosystems (Baixada Maranhense, Mangue, Mata dos Cocais, Amazônia, Cerrado, and Restinga) to serological tests (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA], indirect fluorescence antibody test [IFAT], and chromatographic immunoassay methods [Dual Path Platform technology, DPP(®)]) and parasitological diagnosis. From serological tests, 11.14% (107) of the dogs were positive for CVL, with 59.16% (568), 14.5% (148), and 131% (126) positives to ELISA, DPP, and IFAT tests, respectively. Only seven animals (0.73%) were positive in a parasitological test. We also performed parasite isolation and phylogenetic characterization. All isolates of dogs obtained from Maranhão were grouped in a single branch with Leishmania infantum chagasi from Brazil. The ecosystem Amazonia presented the highest positivity rates to CVL in serological and parasitological tests. Brazilian biomes/ecosystems suffer large degradation and may favor, depending on climatic conditions, the installation of new diseases. In the case of VL, dogs are reservoirs of parasites and sentinels for human infection.

  17. Accuracy of molecular biology techniques for the diagnosis of Strongyloides stercoralis infection-A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonfrate, Dora; Requena-Mendez, Ana; Angheben, Andrea; Cinquini, Michela; Cruciani, Mario; Fittipaldo, Andrea; Giorli, Giovanni; Gobbi, Federico; Piubelli, Chiara; Bisoffi, Zeno

    2018-02-01

    Strongyloides stercoralis infection is a neglected tropical disease which can lead to severe symptoms and even death in immunosuppressed people. Unfortunately, its diagnosis is hampered by the lack of a gold standard, as the sensitivity of traditional parasitological tests (including microscopic examination of stool samples and coproculture) is low. Hence, alternative diagnostic methods, such as molecular biology techniques (mostly polymerase chain reaction, PCR) have been implemented. However, there are discrepancies in the reported accuracy of PCR. A systematic review with meta-analysis was conducted in order to evaluate the accuracy of PCR for the diagnosis of S. stercoralis infection. The protocol was registered with PROSPERO International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (record: CRD42016054298). Fourteen studies, 12 of which evaluating real-time PCR, were included in the analysis. The specificity of the techniques resulted high (ranging from 93 to 95%, according to the reference test(s) used). When all molecular techniques were compared to parasitological methods, the sensitivity of PCR was assessed at 71.8% (95% CI 52.2-85.5), that decreased to 61.8% (95% CI 42.0-78.4) when serology was added among the reference tests. Similarly, sensitivity of real-time PCR resulted 64.4% (95% CI 46.2-77.7) when compared to parasitological methods only, 56.5% (95% CI 39.2-72.4) including serology. PCR might not be suitable for screening purpose, whereas it might have a role as a confirmatory test.

  18. Control of Trypanosoma evansi in buffalo in Indonesia: Identification of infected animals by Ag- and Ab-ELISA tests and treatment with diminazene aceturate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luckins, A.G.

    2000-01-01

    In order to control effectively infections with Trypanosoma evansi it is necessary to identify all infected individuals, including not only animals with patent infections but also those with non-patent infections. In order to provide a reliable means of diagnosing infected individuals, a combination of Ab-ELISA, Ag-ELISA and parasitological tests were used to identify for treatment groups of buffalo from Central Java, Indonesia in an area in which trypanosomosis caused by T. evansi is endemic. The animals were divided into four groups, Group A comprised animals positive by both Ab- and Ag-ELISA and/or parasitological examination. Group B consisted of animals positive by Ag-ELISA and Group C by Ab-ELISA only. Group D was a control group of animals that were negative by both serological and parasitological tests. All of Group A were treated with diminazene aceturate and the prevalence and incidence of infection in the four groups determined over approximately 12 months. The prevalence of infection declined in Group A declined from 100% to <25% in four months and remained at this low level until the end of the study. In the other groups, the serological prevalence increased up to 50%, although in Group D, the initially uninfected group, the increase was lower. Although treatment was effective in reducing the prevalence of infection, the cumulative incidence in the four groups was found to be similar. (author)

  19. A double-'blind' placebo-controlled study of nitazoxanide in the treatment of cryptosporidial diarrhoea in AIDS patients in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossignol, J F; Hidalgo, H; Feregrino, M; Higuera, F; Gomez, W H; Romero, J L; Padierna, J; Geyne, A; Ayers, M S

    1998-01-01

    Sixty-six patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection and diarrhoea caused by Cryptosporidium parvum were enrolled in a double-'blind' placebo-controlled study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of nitazoxanide in the treatment of cryptosporidiosis related to the acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Patients were randomly assigned to one of 3 treatment groups and received either 500 mg twice daily of nitazoxanide, 1000 mg twice daily of nitazoxanide, or placebo orally for 14 d; the patients on nitazoxanide then crossed over to placebo while the placebo patients crossed over to nitazoxanide therapy at either the high or low dose depending on their randomization. Three post-treatment faecal examinations were conducted on days 15, 22 and 29 following initiation of treatment: patients were considered 'cured' if none revealed any C. parvum oocysts. Both doses of nitazoxanide produced parasitological cure rates superior to the placebo responses (12/19 [63%, P = 0.016] for patients receiving 1 g/d and 10/15 [67%, P = 0.013] for those receiving 2 g/d). Parasitological cure was correlated with the complete resolution of the diarrhoeal syndrome in 19 of the 22 treated patients who were considered parasitologically cured (86%). Both doses of nitazoxanide were well tolerated by the patients.

  20. Molecular diagnosis of strongyloidiasis in a population of an endemic area through nested-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifdini, Meysam; Keyhani, Amir; Eshraghian, Mohammad Reza; Beigom Kia, Eshrat

    2018-01-01

    This study is aimed to diagnose and analyze strongyloidiasis in a population of an endemic area of Iran using nested-PCR, coupled with parasitological methods. Screening of strongyloidiasis infected people using reliable diagnostic techniques are essential to decrease the mortality and morbidity associated with this infection. Molecular methods have been proved to be highly sensitive and specific for detection of Strongyloides stercoralis in stool samples. A total of 155 fresh single stool samples were randomly collected from residents of north and northwest of Khouzestan Province, Iran. All samples were examined by parasitological methods including formalin-ether concentration and nutrient agar plate culture, and molecular method of nested-PCR. Infections with S. stercoralis were analyzed according to demographic criteria. Based on the results of nested-PCR method 15 cases (9.7%) were strongyloidiasis positive. Nested-PCR was more sensitive than parasitological techniques on single stool sampling. Elderly was the most important population index for higher infectivity with S. stercoralis . In endemic areas of S. stercoralis , old age should be considered as one of the most important risk factors of infection, especially among the immunosuppressed individuals.

  1. One Health: parasites and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Damer P; Betson, Martha

    2017-01-01

    The field of parasitism is broad, encompassing relationships between organisms where one benefits at the expense of another. Traditionally the discipline focuses on eukaryotes, with the study of bacteria and viruses complementary but distinct. Nonetheless, parasites vary in size and complexity from single celled protozoa, to enormous plants like those in the genus Rafflesia. Lifecycles range from obligate intracellular to extensive exoparasitism. Examples of parasites include high-profile medical and zoonotic pathogens such as Plasmodium, veterinary pathogens of wild and captive animals and many of the agents which cause neglected tropical diseases, stretching to parasites which infect plants and other parasites (e.g. Kikuchi et al. 2011; Hotez et al. 2014; Blake et al. 2015; Hemingway, 2015; Meekums et al. 2015; Sandlund et al. 2015). The breadth of parasitology has been matched by the variety of ways in which parasites are studied, drawing upon biological, chemical, molecular, epidemiological and other expertise. Despite such breadth bridging between disciplines has commonly been problematic, regardless of extensive encouragement from government agencies, peer audiences and funding bodies promoting multidisciplinary research. Now, progress in understanding and collaboration can benefit from establishment of the One Health concept (Zinsstag et al. 2012; Stark et al. 2015). One Health draws upon biological, environmental, medical, veterinary and social science disciplines in order to improve human, animal and environmental health, although it remains tantalizingly difficult to engage many relevant parties. For infectious diseases traditional divides have been exacerbated as the importance of wildlife reservoirs, climate change, food production systems and socio-economic diversity have been recognized but often not addressed in a multidisciplinary manner. In response the 2015 Autumn Symposium organized by the British Society for Parasitology (BSP; https

  2. Therapeutic efficacy of Artemether/Lumefantrine (Coartem® against Plasmodium falciparum in Kersa, South West Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Animut Abebe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Artemether/Lumefantrine (Coartem® has been used as a first-line treatment for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum infection since 2004 in Ethiopia. In the present study the therapeutic efficacy of artemether/lumefantrine for the treatment of uncomplicated P. falciparum infection at Kersa, Jima zone, South-west Ethiopia, has been assessed. Methods A 28 day therapeutic efficacy study was conducted between November 2007 and January 2008, in accordance with the 2003 WHO guidelines. Outcomes were classified as early treatment failure (ETF, late clinical failure (LCF, late parasitological failure (LPF and adequate clinical and parasitological response (ACPR. Results 90 patients were enrolled and completed the 28 day follow-up period after treatment with artemether/lumefantrine. Cure rate was very high, 96.3%, with 95% CI of 0.897-0.992 (PCR uncorrected. Age-stratified data showed adequate clinical and parasitological response (ACPR to be 100% for children under 5 and 97.4% and 87.3% for children aged 5-14, and adults, respectively. There was no early treatment failure (ETF in all age groups. Fever was significantly cleared on day 3 (P 0.05. No major side effect was observed in the study except the occurrence of mouth ulcers in 7% of the patients. Conclusions The current study proved the excellent therapeutic efficacy of artemether/lumefantrine in the study area and the value of using it. However, the proper dispensing and absorption of the drug need to be emphasized in order to utilize the drug for a longer period of time. This study recommends further study on the toxicity of the drug with particular emphasis on the development of oral ulcers in children.

  3. Failure of combination therapy with imidocarb dipropionate and toltrazuril to clear Hepatozoon canis infection in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasa, Serdar; Voyvoda, Huseyin; Karagenc, Tulin; Atasoy, Abidin; Gazyagci, Serkal

    2011-09-01

    Current treatments with imidocarb dipropionate for infected dogs with Hepatozoon canis do not always provide parasitological cure. The objective of this study is to determine whether concomitant use of toltrazuril may potentiate the effect of imidocarb dipropionate in the management of H. canis infection (HCI). Twelve dogs were determined to have naturally HCI based on clinical signs, identification of the parasite in blood smears, and serologic assay. The animals were allocated randomly to one of two groups (n = 6 in each group). Dogs in Imi group were given imidocarb dipropionate at a dose of 6 mg/kg body weight subcutaneously in two injections 14 days apart. Imi plus Toltra group was given imidocarb dipropionate as dose mentioned above and toltrazuril at 10 mg/kg/day orally for the first five treatment days. Clinical findings, blood counts and parasitaemia levels in blood before and 14, 28 and 56 days after the initial treatment were performed to evaluate treatment response. The overall clinical efficacy of imidocarb dipropionate with and without toltrazuril was 83.3% and 66.7%, respectively; with a mean recovery time of 21.0 and 25.6 days, respectively. A substantial main effect of time on mean PCV, Hb, WBC, neutrophil and PLT and gradual reduction of parasitaemia were significantly observed in both groups (P < 0.05), whereas no significant difference was noticed between the studied protocols. The parasitologic cure rate at the end of eight weekly observation period was 16.6% and 33.3% in Imi and Imi plus Toltra groups, respectively. Similar clinicopathologic and parasitologic responses were observed in both treated groups; thus, it was concluded that toltrazuril does not reveal additional benefit to imidocarb therapy in dogs with HCI.

  4. Outcome of E1224-Benznidazole Combination Treatment for Infection with a Multidrug-Resistant Trypanosoma cruzi Strain in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Lívia de Figueiredo; Mazzeti, Ana Lia; Caldas, Ivo Santana; Ribeiro, Isabela; Bahia, Maria Terezinha

    2018-06-01

    Combination therapy has been proposed as an alternative therapeutic approach for the treatment of Chagas disease. In this study, we evaluated the effect of treatment with benznidazole combined with E1224 (ravuconazole prodrug) in an experimental murine model of acute infection. The first set of experiments assessed the range of E1224 doses required to induce parasitological cure using Trypanosoma cruzi strains with different susceptibilities to benznidazole (Y and Colombian). All E1224 doses were effective in suppressing the parasitemia and preventing death; however, parasitological cure was observed only in mice infected with Y strain. Considering these results, we evaluated the effect of combined treatment against Colombian, a multidrug-resistant T. cruzi strain. After exclusion of antagonistic effects using in vitro assays, infected mice were treated with E1224 and benznidazole in monotherapy or in combination at day 4 or 10 postinoculation. All treatments were well tolerated and effective in suppressing parasitemia; however, parasitological and PCR assays indicated no cure among mice treated with monotherapies. Intriguingly, the outcome of combination therapy was dependent on treatment onset. Early treatment using optimal doses of E1224-benznidazole induced a 100% cure rate, but this association could not eliminate a well-established infection. The beneficial effect of combination therapy was evidenced by further reductions of the patent parasitemia period in the group receiving combined therapy compared with monotherapies. Our results demonstrated a positive interaction between E1224 and benznidazole against murine T. cruzi infection using a multidrug-resistant strain and highlighted the importance of a stringent experimental model in the evaluation of new therapies. Copyright © 2018 Diniz et al.

  5. Intestinal parasites and poverty: the vulnerability of the poorest people in Argentina in a globalized World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamboa Maria Inés

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to show the parasitological profile of different populations settled in localities with dissimilar environmental features and socioeconomic contrasting realities. Three populations of La Plata county, Buenos Aires province, two suburban ones (LPS and LPN, and one from the urban downtown of the city (LPU; one from the Brandsen town, Buenos Aires province (BR, and one from Santa Rosa, La Pampa province (SR were studied parasitological and environmentally. Canine feces and ground and water samples were analyzed parasitologically. A number of 683 fecal total samples were analyzed from which 81.4% were positive in LPS, 77.5% in LPN, 67.2% in SR, 63.9% in BR, and 45.3% in LPU. Populations with better socio-environmental conditions (LPU were less parasitized by protozoa and helmints. The overcrowding, precarious housing and the use of latrines were the higher associated factors to parasitism, especially to the presence of geohelmints. Also, the SR dry weather associated to the geohelmint absence. Parasites in canine grounds were 42.1% in SR, 41.6% in LPN and 33.3% in LPS. Ground samples were positive for 91.3% LPU, 90.3% BR, 66.6% LPS and 53.5% LPN, and 60% of water samples in LPS and 100% in LPN presented cysts of commensal amoebas. Contributing data were transferred to the populations by means of workshops as a strategy that allowed to bring the situation near to the people and to discuss alternatives for its resolution.

  6. Adoption of rapid diagnostic tests for the diagnosis of malaria, a preliminary analysis of the Global Fund program data, 2005 to 2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinkou Zhao

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization Guidelines for the Treatment of Malaria, in 2006 and 2010, recommend parasitological confirmation of malaria before commencing treatment. Although microscopy has been the mainstay of malaria diagnostics, the magnitude of diagnostic scale up required to follow the Guidelines suggests that rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs will be a large component. This study analyzes the adoption of rapid diagnostic testing in malaria programs supported by the Global Fund to fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund, the leading international funder of malaria control globally.We analyzed, for the period 2005 to 2010, Global Fund programmatic data for 81 countries on the quantity of RDTs planned; actual quantities of RDTs and artemisinin-based combination treatments (ACTs procured in 2009 and 2010; RDT-related activities including RDTs distributed, RDTs used, total diagnostic tests including RDTs and microscopy performed, health facilities equipped with RDTs; personnel trained to perform rapid diagnostic malaria test; and grant budgets allocated to malaria diagnosis. In 2010, diagnosis accounted for 5.2% of malaria grant budget. From 2005 to 2010, the procurement plans include148 million RDTs through 96 malaria grants in 81 countries. Around 115 million parasitological tests, including RDTs, had reportedly been performed from 2005 to 2010. Over this period, 123,132 health facilities were equipped with RDTs and 137,140 health personnel had been trained to perform RDT examinations. In 2009 and 2010, 41 million RDTs and 136 million ACTs were purchased. The ratio of procured RDTs to ACTs was 0.26 in 2009 and 0.34 in 2010.Global Fund financing has enabled 81 malaria-endemic countries to adopt WHO guidelines by investing in RDTs for malaria diagnosis, thereby helping improve case management of acute febrile illness in children. However, roll-out of parasitological diagnosis lags behind the roll-out of ACT-based treatment, and will

  7. Malaria epidemics in Europe after the First World War: the early stages of an international approach to the control of the disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gachelin, Gabriel; Opinel, Annick

    2011-06-01

    The severity and endemicity of malaria declined gradually in Europe until WWI. During and after the war, the number of malaria cases increased substantially and peaked in 1922-1924. This prompted the Hygiene Commission of the League of Nations to establish a Malaria Commission in 1923 to define the most efficient anti-malaria procedures. Additionally, between 1924 and 1930 there were several international meetings and collaborations concerning malaria, which involved the main institutes of parasitology and the Rockefeller Foundation. The Commission reports, the guidelines for anti-malaria campaigns and the scientific programs which came out of these meetings and collaborations are analyzed in the present paper.

  8. Molecular Biology and Functions of Carrier Proteins. Annual Symposium (46th) of the Society of General Physiologists held in Woods Hole, Massachusetts on September 10-13, 1992. Volume 48

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-13

    resistance in the enteric protozoan Entamoeba histolytica has been found associated with the overexpression of at least three mdr-related mRNA species...mutants of " Entamoeba histolytica overexpress mRNAs for multidrug resistance. Molecular and Biochemi- cal Parasitology. 38:281-290. Schinkel, A. H., M. E...incubated in 100 Ri of a solution containing 50 l.M NaI25 ( sp act 100 mCi/mmol), 10 mM HEPES (pH 7.5), 1 mM MgCl2. and 2 mM KCI with either 101 mM NaCI

  9. Willingness-to-pay for a rapid malaria diagnostic test and artemisinin-based combination therapy from private drug shops in Mukono district, Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristian Schultz; Pedrazzoli, Debora; Mbonye, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    valuation survey among drug shop customers in Mukono District, Uganda. Exit interviews were undertaken with customers aged 15 years and above after leaving a drug shop having purchased an antimalarial and/or paracetamol. The bidding game technique was used to elicit the willingness-to-pay (WTP) for an RDT...... for an RDT and a course of ACT among drug shop customers is considerably lower than prevailing and estimated end-user prices for these commodities. Increasing the uptake of ACTs in drug shops and restricting the sale of ACTs to parasitologically confirmed malaria will therefore require additional measures....

  10. Occurrence of the Leech, Pontobdella muricata Linnaeus, on Elasmobranch Species in the Northern and Central Adriatic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolognini, Luca; Leoni, Simone; Polidori, Piero; Grati, Fabio; Scarcella, Giuseppe; Pellini, Giulio; Domenichetti, Filippo; Ferrà, Carmen; Fabi, Gianna

    2016-12-01

    This study provides a parasitological analysis of the elasmobranch species caught in the northern and central Adriatic Sea. Sixty-two marine leeches were recorded on 747 individuals of Raja clavata Linnaeus, 1758 (thornback ray), Myliobatis aquila Linnaeus, 1758 (common eagle ray), and Torpedo marmorata Risso, 1810 (marbled torpedo ray) caught in 56 hauls over a 5 yr period. All leeches were identified as Pontobdella muricata, which is a typical ectoparasite of benthic elasmobranchs. The prevalence of infection ranged from 7.11% on R. clavata to 12.00% on M. aquila. The intensity of infection, the preferential sites of attachment to the host, and the periodicity of infection were evaluated.

  11. Vairimorpha disparis n. comb. (Microsporidia: Burenellidae): a redescription and taxonomic revision of Thelohania disparis Timofejeva 1956, a microsporidian parasite of the gypsy moth Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vávra, Jiří; Hyliš, M.; Vossbrinck, C. R.; Pilarska, D. K.; Linde, A.; Weiser, Jaroslav; McManus, M. L.; Hoch, G.; Solter, L. F.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 4 (2006), s. 292-304 ISSN 1066-5234 Grant - others:Karlova Univerzita v Praze a USDA US Forest Service(CZ) 161/79-982111; USDA FS Cooperative Agreement(US) AG 01CA-11242343-107; Grant US Agricultural Experimental Station(US) ILLU-65-0344; Deutsche ForschungsGemeinschaft(BG) 436 BUL 17/8/04 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518; CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : microsporidia * parasitology * biological control Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.288, year: 2006

  12. Mitochondrial and nuclear sequence polymorphisms reveal geographic structuring in Amazonian populations of Echinococcus vogeli (Cestoda: Taeniidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Guilherme B; Soares, Manoel do C P; de F Brito, Elisabete M; Rodrigues, André L; Siqueira, Nilton G; Gomes-Gouvêa, Michele S; Alves, Max M; Carneiro, Liliane A; Malheiros, Andreza P; Póvoa, Marinete M; Zaha, Arnaldo; Haag, Karen L

    2012-12-01

    To date, nothing is known about the genetic diversity of the Echinococcus neotropical species, Echinococcus vogeli and Echinococcus oligarthrus. Here we used mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence polymorphisms to uncover the genetic structure, transmission and history of E. vogeli in the Brazilian Amazon, based on a sample of 38 isolates obtained from human and wild animal hosts. We confirm that the parasite is partially synanthropic and show that its populations are diverse. Furthermore, significant geographical structuring is found, with western and eastern populations being genetically divergent. Copyright © 2012 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Canine generalized demodicosis treated with varying doses of a 2.5% moxidectin+10% imidacloprid spot-on and oral ivermectin: parasiticidal effects and long-term treatment outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Tara E; Halliwell, Richard E; Fields, Paul J; Louw, Marta Lanza; Ball, Geoff; Louw, Jakobus; Pinckney, Rhonda

    2014-10-15

    Advocate(®) (2.5% moxidectin+10% imidacloprid) (Bayer HealthCare, Leverkusen, Germany) is a multiparasiticidal spot-on authorized for treating canine demodicosis in many countries. This blinded, randomized three-phase clinical trial compared its efficacy employing different dosing regimens with that of ivermectin. In the blinded first phase, 58 dogs suffering from generalized demodicosis were randomly assigned to one of four groups and treated with monthly, biweekly or weekly applications of Advocate(®), or with oral ivermectin (IVR) at 500 μg/kg daily. Dogs were evaluated clinically and multiple skin scrapings undertaken every 4 weeks until parasitological cure was achieved (defined as two consecutive series of deep skin scrapings at monthly intervals negative for all life forms). Forty dogs completed the 16-week initial blinded phase, with 5 cases achieving parasitological cure. Five dogs were deemed treatment failures and subsequently treated with ivermectin. The treatment protocol was then changed for the remaining 35 dogs and this cross-over phase (Phase 2) was maintained for a further 8 weeks with an additional 9 dogs achieving parasitological cure. Thereafter, all remaining animals were treated with IVR until cured (Phase 3). Overall, 26 dogs achieved parasitological cure during the clinical investigation. Of these, 23 remained disease-free for at least 12 months while two were lost to follow up and one died of unrelated causes. A total of 32 (55.2%) dogs were withdrawn at various stages of the investigation including the 5 dogs that were judged treatment failures. Other reasons for withdrawal included: non-compliance, lost to follow-up, ivermectin toxicity or reasons unrelated to the investigation. No adverse effects were attributable to the use of Advocate(®). Parasiticidal efficacy was assessed by changes in mite counts (live adult, juvenile and egg) and skin lesion extent & severity scores. Statistical significance was assessed using ANCOVA with

  14. The co phylogeny reconstruction problem is NP-complete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovadia, Y; Fielder, D; Conow, C; Libeskind-Hadas, R

    2011-01-01

    The co phylogeny reconstruction problem is that of finding minimum cost explanations of differences between historical associations. The problem arises in parasitology, molecular systematics, and biogeography. Existing software tools for this problem either have worst-case exponential time or use heuristics that do not guarantee optimal solutions. To date, no polynomial time optimal algorithms have been found for this problem. In this article, we prove that the problem is NP-complete, suggesting that future research on algorithms for this problem should seek better polynomial-time approximation algorithms and heuristics rather than optimal solutions.

  15. QC in RIA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, J.

    1989-01-01

    A Regional Health Authority expert from the service which performs radioimmunoassays (RIA) and immunoradiometric assays (IRMA) discusses the importance of quality control in these techniques. Originally developed as an aid to endocrinology, applications are now much more widely based and include virology, microbiology, drugs testing, immunology, parasitology, veterinary science and the food industry. The origins of errors in the practice of RIA are examined, with and between batches and the limitations placed on accuracy are explained. Measurement variability between laboratories is also mentioned. (U.K.)

  16. Diagnostic performance of Schistosoma real-time PCR in urine samples from Kenyan children infected with Schistosoma haematobium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinkeles Melchers, Natalie V. S.; van Dam, Govert J.; Shaproski, David

    2014-01-01

    treatment. METHODOLOGY: Previously collected urine samples (N = 390) from 114 preselected proven parasitological and/or clinical S. haematobium positive Kenyan schoolchildren were analyzed by a Schistosoma internal transcribed spacer-based real-time PCR after 14 years of storage. Pre-treatment day......, respectively. Based on the 'gold standard', PCR showed high sensitivity (>92%) as compared to >31% sensitivity for microscopy, both pre- and post-treatment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Detection and quantification of Schistosoma DNA in urine by real-time PCR was shown to be a powerful and specific diagnostic...

  17. FRITZ SCHAUDINN, SU ÉPOCA Y SU RELACIÓN CON AMIBIASIS, MALARIA Y SÍFILIS | FRITZ SCHAUDINN, YOUR TIME AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH AMOEBIASIS, MALARIA AND SYPHILIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo Traviezo Valles

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A brief history of Fritz Schaudinn, the time of his birth (1871 and his death (1906 is described, highlighting their achievements in Parasitology and Microbiology, such as the description first, Entamoeba histolytica 1903, the Spirochaeta pallida (Treponema pallidum 1905 , confirmation of the life cycle of hookworms, the penetration of larvae through the skin, (1895, designing a solution for fixing base mercuric chloride for protozoa and the introduction of terms such as schizogony, schizont, merozoite, macro and microgametocyte, sporogony, ookinete, sporozoite, oociste and would include in the cycle of Plasmodium of the malaria.

  18. Effect of ionizing radiation on Amphistome metacercariae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafeez, Md.; Rao, B.V.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation on amphistome metacercariae and the parasitological and cytological findings of the resultant flukes were studied in lambs and kids. The flukes recovered from the metacercariae irradiated at 2.0 Krad were less in percentage with stunted growth, degenerative changes of gonads, absence of eggs in uterus and hampered spermatogenesis. The metacercariae irradiated at 2.5 and 3.0 Krad could be developed into flukes and seen only 15 days post exposure but not 87/120 days. Fifteen days flukes were showing retarded development and without any reproductive organs. 39 refs., 3 tables. (author)

  19. Multiparasitism in a wild cat (Leopardus colocolo (Carnivora: Felidae in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Trevisan Gressler

    Full Text Available Abstract Parasitic diseases reflect the health and balance of ecosystems, affecting not only individuals but also entire populations or communities. The aim of this study was to report on the diversity of parasitic helminths detected in the feces of a wild feline in southern Brazil. Parasites were obtained from fecal samples, and four techniques were used for parasitological examination: direct examination, centrifugal flotation with zinc sulfate (Faust technique, simple sedimentation (Hoffman technique and Baermann-Moraes. The parasites were identified through micrometry and morphology, as follows: Ancylostoma sp., Toxocara sp., Trichuridae, Aelurostrongylus abstrusus, Alaria sp., and Spirometra sp. We recorded the genus Ancylostoma parasitizing L. colocolo for the first time.

  20. Dipylidium caninum infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello, Raúl Romero; Ruiz, Aurora Candil; Feregrino, Raul Romero; Romero, Leticia Calderón; Feregrino, Rodrigo Romero; Zavala, Jorge Tay

    2011-11-15

    Dipylidium caninum is a cestode that requires from the participation of an arthropod in its life cycle. This parasitosis occurs in dogs and cats, and occasionally in human beings. Human cases of D caninum infection have been reported in Europe, Philippines, China, Japan, Latin America and the United States; mostly children, one third of them being infants under 6 months old. The diagnosis of this disease is done by the parasitological study of the feces, observing the characteristics of the gravid proglottids. The treatment is performed by administering broad-spectrum anthelmintics. The authors report a case of a rare infection in a Mexican child.

  1. Endoparasitic infections in Indian peacocks (Pavo cristatus) of Veterinary College Campus, Mathura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Amit Kumar; Sudan, Vikrant; Shanker, Daya; Kumar, Pradeep

    2013-04-01

    A survey was made to determine the prevalence of endoparasites in free range blue peacocks living in and around the premises of College of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry, Mathura. Faecal samples of peacocks were collected randomly and brought to the divisional laboratory for faecal sample examination. During the coprological examination, eggs and oocysts of cestodes and coccidia belonging to Eimeria and Isospora species were identified, respectively based on the morphology and micrometry of these parasitic stages. The present study has generated an important data regarding the else while parasitologically neglected national bird of India.

  2. PREVALENCE OF COCCIDIOSIS IN BROILER CHICKENS IN FAISALABAD, PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Ayaz, M. Akhtar, C.S. Hayat, M.A. Hafeez and A. Haq1

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted during the period from October, 2000 to June, 2001 to record the prevalence of coccidiosis in broiler chickens in Faisalabad district. A total of 930 guts were collected and processed at Immunoparasitology Laboratory, Department of Veterinary Parasitology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad. Seven species of Eimeria (E viz. E. tenella (50%, E. maxima (40%, E. mitis (2%, E. praecox (0.8%, E. acervulina (4%; E. necatrix (2% and E. brunetti (1.2% were recorded. The overall prevalence of coccidiosis was found to be 37.95%.

  3. [Leishmaniasis in Ecuador. 4. Natural infestation of the dog by Leishmania panamensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dereure, J; Espinel, I; Barrera, C; Guerrini, F; Martini, A; Echeverria, R; Guderian, R H; Le Pont, F

    1994-03-01

    In two endemic leishmaniasis foci of the Pacific coast of Ecuador 34 dogs suspected of having the disease have been surveyed clinically, serologically and parasitologically; immunofluorescence and electrosyneresis tests, lymph node aspirates, biopsies and smears have been performed. From two dogs with ulcers only one had ulcers on the muzzle and the scrotum infected by Leishmania (L. guyanensis complex). The isolated strain was identified as Leishmania panamensis. The disease was strictly cutaneous. In the study area the dog seems to be more a victim-host than a reservoir.

  4. 2008 Annual Report: Project to combat the Tsetse Fly and Trypanosomiasis in the Niayes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-03-01

    The overall objective of this project is to contribute to the fight against poverty by promoting the development in the Niayes area of integrated livestock systems that can increase the incomes of local populations. This program is coordinated by the Directorate of Veterinary Services (DSV) in partnership with the Senegalese Institute for Agricultural Research (ISRA) for the research component and the Ecological Monitoring Center (CSE) for the Geographic Information System (GIS).The Center for International Cooperation in Agronomic Research for Development (CIRAD) provides scientific support to the project. Between 2007 and 2008, a feasibility study (entomological, parasitological, genetic and socio-economic studies) to characterize the area was carried out.

  5. [Analysis of the results of the SEIMC External Quality Control Program, 2007].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guna Serrano, María del Remedio; Orta Mira, Nieves; Ovies, María; Gimeno Cardona, Concepción; Pérez, José L

    2008-11-01

    The External Quality Control Program of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (SEIMC) includes controls for bacteriology, serology, mycology, parasitology, mycobacteria, virology and molecular microbiology. This article presents the most important conclusions and lessons drawn from the 2007 controls. As a whole, the results obtained in 2007 confirm the excellent skill and good technical standards found in previous years. However, erroneous results can be obtained in any laboratory and in clinically relevant determinations. A few deviations were observed in some controls, calling for critical reflection. Once again, the results of this program highlighted the need to complement internal with external controls, such as those offered by the SEIMC program.

  6. Toxoplasmosis congénita: aspectos clínicos y epidemiológicos de la infección durante el embarazo

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Rosso; Alejandro Agudelo; Ángela Isaza; José Gilberto Montoya

    2007-01-01

    Se presenta una revisión actualizada sobre la toxoplasmosis durante el embarazo y de su consecuencia la toxoplasmosis congénita. Se pretende ilustrar a los profesionales de la salud con los diferentes aspectos tanto epidemiológicos como clínicos concernientes a esta enfermedad. Se revisan conceptos actuales de la parasitología y de la epidemiología de la transmisión materno-fetal, así como la presentación clínica de la infección perinatal. Se discuten nuevos adelantos en el diagnóstico y su i...

  7. Efecto de medidas preventivas contra la toxoplasmosis en embarazadas

    OpenAIRE

    María Mercedes Santacruz; Reinaldo Heredia; Augusto Corredor Arjona

    1992-01-01

    La incidencia de la infección por Toxoplasma gondii, fue estudiada en el laboratorio de Parasitología del Instituto Nacional de Salud en los sueros de 1000 mujeres embarazadas, seleccionadas entre las que asistieron al control prenatal en la Caja de Previsión, durante los años de 1987 a 1990. En los sueros se midieron anticuerpos específicos IgG contra el Toxoplasma gondii, por la técnica de Inmunofluorescencia Indirecta. El 59% de las mujeres fueron positivas con títulos entre 1:16 y 1:4.096...

  8. Habilidades lingüísticas sobre nomenclatura microbiana en profesionales de la salud

    OpenAIRE

    Arpajón Peña, Yunier; Rodríguez Uramis, Mónica; Sosa Pérez, Ana Ludys

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: en los programas de estudios donde se aplican la Microbiología o Parasitología Médica aparece en todos los casos como objetivo nombrar a los microorganismos. Objetivo: analizar el estado de las habilidades lingüísticas sobre taxonomía microbiana en profesionales de la salud. Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo donde fueron revisados 270 trabajos científicos escritos, relacionados con estas dos especialidades médicas y se efectuaron 250 entrevistas a profesionales de las d...

  9. [Analysis of the results of the 2010 External Quality Control Program of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz de Gopegui Bordes, Enrique; Serrano, M del Remedio Guna; Orta Mira, Nieves; Ovies, María Rosario; Poveda, Marta; Cardona, Concepción Gimeno

    2011-12-01

    The External Quality Control Program of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology includes controls for bacteriology, serology, mycology, parasitology, mycobacteria, virology and molecular microbiology. This article presents the most important conclusions and lessons of the 2010 controls. As a whole, the results obtained in 2010 confirm the excellent skill and good technical standards found in previous years. However, erroneous results can be obtained in any laboratory and in clinically relevant determinations. The results of this program highlight the need to implement both internal and external controls to ensure maximal quality of microbiological tests(1). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España S.L. All rights reserved.

  10. Contribution to the studies on the mineral content of plant material through radioactivation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourcy, A.

    1968-03-01

    Radioactivation analysis is by its great sensibility or its rapidity quite helpful in plant biology and agronomy. Specific composition of plants and results to obtain in biological experimentation have needed a practical research on analytical methods for plant materials, using for radioactivation swimming-pool reactor neutrons and 14 MeV neutrons from a generator. Dosage process for 25 elements is exposed, taking account of the interest of the analysis for each element, the average amount occurring in plants and the result obtained. Many applications are developed, concerning nutrition physiology, genetics, parasitology, toxicology, control of manufactured agricultural and pharmaceutical products industrial and pesticides residues, ecology, radioecology and biochemistry. (author) [fr

  11. Variant-specific immunity to Plasmodium berghei in pregnant mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Megnekou, Rosette; Hviid, Lars; Staalsoe, Trine

    2009-01-01

    for recrudescence-type IEs are related to the protection of pregnant mice from maternal anemia, low birth weight, and decreased litter size. We conclude that the model replicates many of the key parasitological and immunological features of PAM, although the P. berghei genome does not encode proteins homologous...... to the P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 adhesins, which are of key importance in P. falciparum malaria. The study of P. berghei malaria in pregnant, immune mice can be used to gain significant new insights regarding malaria pathogenesis and immunity in general and regarding PAM in particular....

  12. Serological survey of African animal trypanosomosis in Ghana: The role of the antigen ELISA as a diagnostic tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doku, C K; Seidu, I B.M. [Central Veterinary Lab., Pong-Tamale (Ghana). Tsetse and Trypanosmosis Unit

    1997-02-01

    Preliminary results are presented of the analysis of 3000 serum samples collected from Zebu cattle in the Nabogu valley. Of the 3000 serum samples collected so far, 182 have been tested using the buffy coat technique (BCT) and the antigen ELISA test. A total of 56 samples have been found positive by both techniques. Using the parasitological technique (=BCT) 44 samples were diagnosed to be positive, while the Ag-ELISA detected 19 positive samples. The majority (75%) of cases detected positive by either technique was due to a single infection by Trypanosoma brucei. (author). 4 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  13. Prevalence of trypanosomosis in cattle in Burkina Faso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bengaly, Z M [Centre International de Recherche-Developpement sur l` Elevage en Zone Sub-humid (CIRDES), Bobo-Dioulasso (Burkina Faso)

    1997-02-01

    The specificity of the Antigen ELISA was determined by examining 320 bovine serum samples from a tsetse free area and found to be high for the three trypanosome species pathogenic to cattle. By using parasitological techniques in conjunction with the Ag-ELISA it was possible to greatly increase the number of animals found positive for trypanosomes in a tsetse endemic area. For example T. brucei was detected in a region where it had not been encountered previously. The Ag-ELISA will be used to monitor the efficacy of past on-going tsetse control programs. (author). 3 refs, 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  14. Nota sobre leishmaniose tegumentar no litoral sul do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Cutaneous leishmaniasis at the South Coastal region of the S. Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    1973-12-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se a existência de área endêmica de leishmaniose tegumentar na região Sul do litoral do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Descrevem-se 17 casos a maioria dos quais foram diagnosticados parasitologicamente. As características observadas permitem supor a possibilidade de transmissão intradomiciliar.An endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis, in the South Coastal region of S. Paulo State, Brazil, is reported. Seventeen cases were found and diagnostic was made mainly through parasitologic evidences. Probability of local intradomiciliary transmission is suspected.

  15. Uveitis associated to the infection by Leishmania chagasi in dog from the Olinda city, Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brito Fábio Luiz da Cunha

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the parasitic diseases, Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis (CVL is included in the systemic illnesses of chronic evolution that attack men and dogs, presenting varied clinical manifestations as cachexia, dermatologic lesions, peripheral lymphadenopathies, besides the ocular lesions. This work report the case of a dog clinically suspected of having CVL, presenting skin lesions, cachexia, gryphosis, and ocular signs of uveitis. The parasitological diagnosis was accomplished for Canine Leishmaniasis through the visualization of amastigote forms of Leishmania chagasi in smears of bone marrow fluid aspirate, of non-lesioned, and lesioned skin. Alterations in the ocular structures are characterized mainly by mononuclear-plasmocitic infiltrate.

  16. Serological survey of African animal trypanosomosis in Ghana: The role of the antigen ELISA as a diagnostic tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doku, C.K.; Seidu, I.B.M.

    1997-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented of the analysis of 3000 serum samples collected from Zebu cattle in the Nabogu valley. Of the 3000 serum samples collected so far, 182 have been tested using the buffy coat technique (BCT) and the antigen ELISA test. A total of 56 samples have been found positive by both techniques. Using the parasitological technique (=BCT) 44 samples were diagnosed to be positive, while the Ag-ELISA detected 19 positive samples. The majority (75%) of cases detected positive by either technique was due to a single infection by Trypanosoma brucei. (author). 4 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs

  17. Prevalence of trypanosomosis in cattle in Burkina Faso

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bengaly, Z.M.

    1997-01-01

    The specificity of the Antigen ELISA was determined by examining 320 bovine serum samples from a tsetse free area and found to be high for the three trypanosome species pathogenic to cattle. By using parasitological techniques in conjunction with the Ag-ELISA it was possible to greatly increase the number of animals found positive for trypanosomes in a tsetse endemic area. For example T. brucei was detected in a region where it had not been encountered previously. The Ag-ELISA will be used to monitor the efficacy of past on-going tsetse control programs. (author). 3 refs, 1 fig., 4 tabs

  18. Intravenous artesunate for severe malaria in travelers, Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoller, Thomas; Junghanss, Thomas; Kapaun, Annette

    2011-01-01

    Multicenter trials in Southeast Asia have shown better survival rates among patients with severe malaria, particularly those with high parasitemia levels, treated with intravenous (IV) artesunate than among those treated with quinine. In Europe, quinine is still the primary treatment for severe...... malaria. We conducted a retrospective analysis for 25 travelers with severe malaria who returned from malaria-endemic regions and were treated at 7 centers in Europe. All patients survived. Treatment with IV artesunate rapidly reduced parasitemia levels. In 6 patients at 5 treatment centers, a self...... of malaria patients in Europe. Patients should be monitored for signs of hemolysis, especially after parasitologic cure....

  19. Possible artemisinin-based combination therapy-resistant malaria in Nigeria: a report of three cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nnennaya Anthony Ajayi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Artemisinin-based combination therapy-resistant malaria is rare in Sub-Saharan Africa. The World Health Organization identifies monitoring and surveillance using day-3 parasitaemia post-treatment as the standard test for identifying suspected artemisinin resistance. We report three cases of early treatment failure due to possible artemisinin-based combination therapy-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria. All cases showed adequate clinical and parasitological responses to quinine. This study reveals a need to re-evaluate the quality and efficacy of artemisinin-based combination therapy agents in Nigeria and Sub-Saharan Africa.

  20. Parasites of freshwater fishes in North America: why so neglected?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Tomáš; Choudhury, Anindo

    2014-02-01

    Fish parasitology has a long tradition in North America and numerous parasitologists have contributed considerably to the current knowledge of the diversity and biology of protistan and metazoan parasites of freshwater fishes. The Journal of Parasitology has been essential in disseminating this knowledge and remains a significant contributor to our understanding of fish parasites in North America as well as more broadly at the international level. However, with a few exceptions, the importance of fish parasites has decreased during the last decades, which is reflected in the considerable decline of funding and corresponding decrease of attention paid to these parasites in Canada and the United States of America. After the 'golden age' in the second half of the 20th Century, fish parasitology in Canada and the United States went in a new direction, driven by technology and a shift in priorities. In contrast, fish parasitology in Mexico has undergone rapid development since the early 1990s, partly due to extensive international collaboration and governmental funding. A critical review of the current data on the parasites of freshwater fishes in North America has revealed considerable gaps in the knowledge of their species composition, host specificity, life cycles, evolution, phylogeography, and relationships with their fish hosts. As to the key question, "Why so neglected?" this is probably because: (1) fish parasites are not in the forefront due to their lesser economic importance; (2) there is little funding for this kind of research, especially if a practical application is not immediately apparent; and (3) of shifting interests and a shortage of key personalities to train a new generation (they switched to marine habitats or other fields). Some of the opportunities for future research are outlined, such as climate change and cryptic species diversity. A significant problem challenging future research seems to be the loss of trained and experienced fish