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Sample records for papp

  1. Interview with Peggy Papp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lynn

    2001-01-01

    Presents an interview with Peggy Papp, a faculty member at the Ackerman Institute for the Family, where she is director of the Depression in Context Project. The Interview focuses on Papp's journey to becoming a marriage and family therapist and her role as a leader in field of feminist therapy. (GCP)

  2. Staff - Kenneth R. Papp | Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surveys Home About Us Director's Office Alaska Statutes Annual Reports Employment Staff Directory and Facilities Staff Seismic and Well Data Data Reports Contact Us Frequently Asked Questions Ask a Facebook DGGS News Natural Resources Geological & Geophysical Surveys Staff - Kenneth R. Papp main

  3. Pregnancy associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) is not a marker of the vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Kasper; Teisner, Ane; Dalager, Soren

    2011-01-01

    To investigate if pregnancy associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) was present in the vulnerable plaque, and if not, to find alternative hypothesis for the release of PAPP-A.......To investigate if pregnancy associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) was present in the vulnerable plaque, and if not, to find alternative hypothesis for the release of PAPP-A....

  4. First trimester PAPP-A2, PAPP-A and hCGβ in small-for-gestational-age pregnancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Young Bae; Myrhøj, Vibeke; Jørgensen, Finn Stener

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A2 (PAPP-A2) is a recently discovered protease that cleaves a subset of insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBP). The molecular function suggests its involvement in the IGF system that is vital for fetal growth and development. Our...

  5. Expression of recombinant murine pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) and a novel variant (PAPP-Ai) with differential proteolytic activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søe, Rikke; Overgaard, Michael Toft; Thomsen, Anni R

    2002-01-01

    Murine pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) cDNA encoding a 1545 amino-acid protein has been cloned. We have also identified and cloned cDNA that encodes a novel variant of PAPP-A, PAPP-Ai, carrying a 29-residue highly basic insert. The point of insertion corresponds to a junction between...... with the proform of eosinophil major basic protein (proMBP). ProMBP functions as a proteinase inhibitor in the PAPP-A-proMBP complex, but whether any mechanistic parallel on regulation of proteolytic activity can be drawn between the insert of PAPP-Ai and the linkage to proMBP is not known. Importantly, these data...

  6. PAPP-A proteolytic activity enhances IGF bioactivity in ascites from women with ovarian carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Jacob; Hjortebjerg, Rikke; Espelund, Ulrick; Ørtoft, Gitte; Vestergaard, Poul; Magnusson, Nils E.; Conover, Cheryl A.; Tramm, Trine; Hager, Henrik; Høgdall, Claus; Høgdall, Estrid; Oxvig, Claus; Frystyk, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) stimulates insulin-like growth factor (IGF) action through proteolysis of IGF-binding protein (IGFBP)-4. In experimental animals, PAPP-A accelerates ovarian tumor growth by this mechanism. To investigate the effect of PAPP-A in humans, we compared serum and ascites from 22 women with ovarian carcinoma. We found that ascites contained 46-fold higher PAPP-A levels as compared to serum (P IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) in vitro (+31%, P IGF-I, and lower levels of IGF-II (P IGF-IR in all but one tumor, whereas all tumors expressed PAPP-A, IGFBP-4, IGF-I and IGF-II. Addition of recombinant PAPP-A to ascites increased the cleavage of IGFBP-4 and enhanced IGF-IR activation (P IGFs and these proteins are also present in ascites. We suggest that both soluble PAPP-A in ascites and tissue-associated PAPP-A serve to increase IGF bioactivity and, thereby, to stimulate IGF-IR-mediated tumor growth. PMID:26336825

  7. PAPP-A proteolytic activity enhances IGF bioactivity in ascites from women with ovarian carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jacob; Hjortebjerg, Rikke; Espelund, Ulrick

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) stimulates insulin-like growth factor (IGF) action through proteolysis of IGF-binding protein (IGFBP)-4. In experimental animals, PAPP-A accelerates ovarian tumor growth by this mechanism. To investigate the effect of PAPP-A in humans, we compared.......03). Ascites was more potent than serum in activating the IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) in vitro (+31%, P IGF-I, and lower levels of IGF-II (P ... of IGF-IR in all but one tumor, whereas all tumors expressed PAPP-A, IGFBP-4, IGF-I and IGF-II. Addition of recombinant PAPP-A to ascites increased the cleavage of IGFBP-4 and enhanced IGF-IR activation (P IGFs and these proteins...

  8. Mice deficient in PAPP-A show resistance to the development of diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mader, Jessica R; Resch, Zachary T; McLean, Gary R; Mikkelsen, Jakob H; Oxvig, Claus; Marler, Ronald J; Conover, Cheryl A

    2013-10-01

    We investigated pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) in diabetic nephropathy. Normal human kidney showed specific staining for PAPP-A in glomeruli, and this staining was markedly increased in diabetic kidney. To assess the possible contribution of PAPP-A in the development of diabetic nephropathy, we induced diabetes with streptozotocin in 14-month-old WT and Papp-A knockout (KO) mice. Renal histopathology was evaluated after 4 months of stable hyperglycemia. Kidneys from diabetic WT mice showed multiple abnormalities including thickening of Bowman's capsule (100% of mice), increased glomerular size (80% of mice), tubule dilation (80% of mice), and mononuclear cell infiltration (90% of mice). Kidneys of age-matched non-diabetic WT mice had similar evidence of tubule dilation and mononuclear cell infiltration to those of diabetic WT mice, indicating that these changes were predominantly age-related. However, thickened Bowman's capsule and increased glomerular size appeared specific for the experimental diabetes. Kidneys from diabetic Papp-A KO mice had significantly reduced or no evidence of changes in Bowman's capsule thickening and glomerular size. There was also a shift to larger mesangial area and increased macrophage staining in diabetic WT mice compared with Papp-A KO mice. In summary, elevated PAPP-A expression in glomeruli is associated with diabetic nephropathy in humans and absence of PAPP-A is associated with resistance to the development of indicators of diabetic nephropathy in mice. These data suggest PAPP-A as a potential therapeutic target for diabetic nephropathy.

  9. Effect of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) single-nucleotide polymorphisms on the level and activity of PAPP-A and the hormone profile in fluid from normal human small antral follicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtkjær, Jane Alrø; Borgbo, Tanni; Kløverpris, Søren

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To reveal a possible relationship between two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in PAPP-A—1224 (rs7020782) and 327 (rs12375498)—and the level and activity of PAPP-A in follicular fluid (FF) of human small antral follicles, and to analyze the intrafollicular hormone levels. Design:...

  10. Low PAPP-A in the first trimester is associated with reduced fetal growth rate prior to gestational week 20

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salvig, J D; Kirkegaard, I; Winding, Trine Nøhr

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the association between maternal pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) and fetal growth from the first to the second trimester.......To evaluate the association between maternal pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) and fetal growth from the first to the second trimester....

  11. Pregnancy associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) is not a marker of the vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Kasper; Teisner, Ane; Dalager, Soren

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate if pregnancy associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) was present in the vulnerable plaque, and if not, to find alternative hypothesis for the release of PAPP-A. DESIGN AND METHODS: Vulnerable plaques and control tissues were examined by immunohistochemistry. Volunteers...

  12. Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) modulates early developmental rate in zebrafish independent of its proteolytic activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær-Sørensen, Kasper; Engholm, Ditte Høyer; Kamei, Hiroyasu

    2013-01-01

    the developmental rate beginning during gastrulation without affecting the normal patterning of the embryo. This phenotype is different from those resulting from deficiency of Igf receptor or ligand in zebrafish, suggesting a function of Papp-a outside the Igf system. Biochemical analysis of recombinant zebrafish...... Papp-a demonstrates conservation of proteolytic activity, specificity, and intrinsic regulatory mechanism. However, in vitro transcribed mRNA, which encodes a proteolytically inactive Papp-a mutant, recues the papp-a knockdown phenotype as efficient as wild-type Papp-a. Thus, the developmental...

  13. Free leptin index and PAPP-A: a first trimester maternal serum screening test for pre-eclampsia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedley, Paula L; Placing, Sophie; Wøjdemann, Karen

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prophylaxis with low-dose aspirin may reduce the risk of pre-eclampsia (PE) if introduced in first trimester. The performance of first trimester maternal serum screening for PE using free leptin index (fLI) and PAPP-A, where fLI = leptin/leptin soluble receptor was studied. METHODS: F......: First trimester serum samples from 126 PE pregnancies and 289 control pregnancies were studied. fLI and PAPP-A were converted into gestational age and maternal weight independent log MoM values of PAPP-A and fLI. The screening performance of markers was studied by receiver......-operator-characteristics curves. The performance of population screening was estimated by Monte Carlo simulation. RESULTS: fLI was significantly (p controls [mean log MoM -0.0368 (SD: 0.3132)] and PAPP-A was significantly (p ....0133 (SD: 0.2661)] compared to controls [mean log MoM 0.0474 (SD: 0.2521)] in PE pregnancies. There was no correlation between fLI and PAPP-A in control or PE pregnancies. Combined fLI and PAPP-A screening for PE had estimated population detection rates of 22% and 35% for false positives rates of 6% and 12...

  14. [Association between IGF system and PAPP-A in coronary atherosclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierro-Macías, Alfonso Eduardo; Floriano-Sánchez, Esaú; Mena-Burciaga, Victoria Michelle; Gutiérrez-Leonard, Hugo; Lara-Padilla, Eleazar; Abarca-Rojano, Edgar; Fierro-Almanzán, Alfonso Edmundo

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a condition that involves multiple pathophysiological mechanisms and whose knowledge has not been fully elucidated. Often, scientific advances on the atherogenic pathophysiology generate that molecules not previously considered in the scene of this disease, were attributed actions on the onset or progression of it. A representative example is the study of a new mechanism involved in the atherogenic process, consisting of the association between the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A). Insulin-like growth factor system is a family of peptides that include 3 peptide hormones, 4 transmembrane receptors and 6 binding proteins. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is the main ligand of the IGF system involved in coronary atherosclerosis. IGF-1 exerts its effects via activation of the IGF-1R receptor on vascular smooth muscle cells or macrophages. In vascular smooth muscle cells promotes migration and prevents apoptosis which increases plaque stability while in macrophages reduces reverse cholesterol transport leading to the formation of foam cells. Regulation of IGF-1 endothelial bioavailability is carried out by IGFBP proteases, mainly by PAPP-A. In this review, we address the mechanisms between IGF system and PAPP-A in atherosclerosis with emphasis on molecular effects on vascular smooth muscle cells and macrophages. Copyright © 2016 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  15. First trimester serum PAPP-A levels and the prediction of small-for-gestational age infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilgün Güdücü

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to detect thepredictive value of PAPP-A in small-for-gestational age(SGA infants.Materials and methods: We retrospectively searchedthe patient charts of our hospital for first trimester Downsyndrome screening test results. PAPP-A levels less than5th percentile were considered as predictive of SGA infants.Results: Low PAPP-A levels were associated with SGAinfants, sensitivity was 3,5%, specificity 90%, positivepredictive value 1,6% and negative predictive value 95%.Conclusions: The low positive predictive value of PAPPAprevents it from being used as a screening test for thedetection of SGA infants. J Clin Exp Invest 2012; 3(2:185-188

  16. Optimisation of sandwich ELISA based on monoclonal antibodies for the specific measurement of pregnancy-associated plasma protein (PAPP-A) in acute coronary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossen, Marie; Iversen, Kasper; Teisner, Ane

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: PAPP-A has become the principal biochemical serum marker in first trimester screening for Down syndrome, the original data being based on results of a radioimmunoassay (RIA). Recent observations using sandwich ELISA technology have proposed PAPP-A as a potential marker in patients wit...

  17. A two-site immunoradiometric assay for human pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) using monoclonal antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mowles, E.A.; Pinto-Furtado, L.G.; Bolton, A.E.

    1986-01-01

    A rapid, sensitive immunoradiometric assay has been developed for human pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) using a purified mouse monoclonal antibody as the tracer and a rabbit polyclonal antibody to this protein in the solid-phase antibody preparation. The assay showed no measurable cross-reaction (< 0.1%) against a range of purified human placental proteins, and a good correlation with a previously described radioimmunoassay procedure when tested on samples taken throughout normal human pregnancies. No PAPP-A-like immunological activity could be detected in sera from non-pregnant women, confirming the absence of this protein from the circulation outside pregnancy. (Auth.)

  18. Evaluation of the appropriate time range for estimating the apparent permeability coefficient (P(app)) in a transcellular transport study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozeki, Kazuhisa; Kato, Motohiro; Sakurai, Yuuji; Ishigai, Masaki; Kudo, Toshiyuki; Ito, Kiyomi

    2015-11-30

    In a transcellular transport study, the apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) of a compound is evaluated using the range by which the amount of compound accumulated on the receiver side is assumed to be proportional to time. However, the time profile of the concentration of the compound in receiver (C3) often shows a lag time before reaching the linear range and later changes from linear to steady state. In this study, the linear range needed to calculate Papp in the C3-time profile was evaluated by a 3-compartment model. C3 was described by an equation with two steady states (C3=A3(1-e(-αt))+B3(1-e(-βt)), α>β), and by a simple approximate line (C3=A3-A3×αt) in the time range of 3/αtime, defined as the interception of the x axis, was described as 1/α. The rate constant α was affected by the membrane permeability clearance and intracellular unbound fraction, while β was affected only by the former. The linear range that was approximated in the present study was not uniformly defined within the time interval in which C3 remains at time range to evaluate Papp was 3/α

  19. Association of maternal serum PAPP-A levels, nuchal translucency and crown-rump length in first trimester with adverse pregnancy outcomes: retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilagi, Ashwini; Burke, Danielle L; Riley, Richard D; Mills, Ian; Kilby, Mark D; Katie Morris, R

    2017-07-01

    Are first trimester serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), nuchal translucency (NT) and crown-rump length (CRL) prognostic factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes? Retrospective cohort, women, singleton pregnancies (UK 2011-2015). Unadjusted and multivariable logistic regression. small for gestational age (SGA), pre-eclampsia (PE), preterm birth (PTB), miscarriage, stillbirth, perinatal mortality and neonatal death (NND). A total of 12 592 pregnancies: 852 (6.8%) PTB, 352 (2.8%) PE, 1824 (14.5%) SGA, 73 (0.6%) miscarriages, 37(0.3%) stillbirths, 73 perinatal deaths (0.6%) and 38 (0.30%) NND. Multivariable analysis: lower odds of SGA [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 0.88 (95% CI 0.85,0.91)], PTB [0.92 (95%CI 0.88,0.97)], PE [0.91 (95% CI 0.85,0.97)] and stillbirth [0.71 (95% CI 0.52,0.98)] as PAPP-A increases. Lower odds of SGA [aOR 0.79 (95% CI 0.70,0.89)] but higher odds of miscarriage [aOR 1.75 95% CI (1.12,2.72)] as NT increases, and lower odds of stillbirth as CRL increases [aOR 0.94 95% CI (0.89,0.99)]. Multivariable analysis of three factors together demonstrated strong associations: a) PAPP-A, NT, CRL and SGA, b) PAPP-A and PTB, c) PAPP-A, CRL and PE, d) NT and miscarriage. Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A, NT and CRL are independent prognostic factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes, particularly PAPP-A and SGA with lower PAPP-A associated with increased risk. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. CircRNA-0004904, CircRNA-0001855, and PAPP-A: Potential Novel Biomarkers for the Prediction of Preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Jiang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Circular RNAs (circRNAs are transcribed prevalently in the genome; however, their potential roles in multiple cardiovascular diseases, particularly preeclampsia (PE, are not yet well understood. This study investigated the expression profiles of circRNAs and explored circRNA-mediated pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A expression as a potential biomarker for PE before 20 weeks of pregnancy. Methods: A nested case-control two-phase screening/validation study was performed in pregnant women before 20 weeks of gestation (before clinical diagnosis at Guangzhou Women and Children’s Medical Center from 2012 to 2015. In the screening phase, circRNA expression profiles of blood cells were assessed using a human circRNA microarray, which was designed to detect simultaneously 5396 circRNAs, in 5 patients with PE and 5 age- and gestational week-matched controls. In the validation phase, 18 circRNAs in blood cells predicted by bioinformatics tools were validated by quantitative reverse transcription PCR in a cohort of 60 patients (PE and age-, gestational week-, and sample storage time-matched controls. Then, we examined the involvement of circRNAs in PE-related pathways via interactions with miRNAs by multiple bioinformatics approaches. Bioinformatics analysis predicted that hsa_circ_0004904 and hsa_circ_0001855 miRNA sponges directly target PAPP-A. PAPP-A was verified in the serum of the same cohort of patients using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Finally, we combined PAPP-A with circRNAs to create a novel preclinical diagnostic model for PE with logistic regression and evaluated the efficiency of this model with receiver operating curve analysis. Results: Volcano plot analysis using various parameters showed that circRNAs were differentially expressed among both groups (P < 0.01, fold change > 2. In the screening phase, we found that 2178 circRNAs were differentially expressed between the control and PE groups, in

  1. Design and synthesis of novel insecticides based on the serotonergic ligand 1-[(4-aminophenyl)ethyl]-4-[3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]piperazine (PAPP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Mingyi; Li, Zhong; Fan, Feng; Huang, Qingchun; Shao, Xusheng; Song, Gonghua

    2010-03-10

    1-[(4-Aminophenyl)ethyl]-4-[3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]piperazine (PAPP) is a 5-HT(1A) agonist and was reported to display high affinity for serotonin (5-HT) receptor from the parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus . The present investigation explored the possibility of using PAPP as a lead compound of new insecticides with novel mode of action. On the basis of the PAPP scaffold, a series of 1-arylmethyl-4-[(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-2-yl]piperazine derivatives were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for biological activities against the armyworm Pseudaletia separata (Walker). Bioassays showed that most of the target compounds displayed certain growth-inhibiting activities or larvicidal activities against armyworm. The quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) for growth-inhibiting activities was also analyzed and established.

  2. Prognostic relevance and performance characteristics of serum IGFBP-2 and PAPP-A in women with breast cancer: a long-term Danish cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espelund, Ulrick; Renehan, Andrew G; Cold, Søren

    2018-01-01

    -I, IGF-II, pro-IGF-II, IGF bioactivity, IGFBP-2, -3, and pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A), an IGFBP regulator, in baseline samples of 301 women with breast cancer treated on four protocols (Odense, Denmark: 1993-1998). We evaluated performance characteristics (expressed as area under...... noncancer individuals to assess multidimensional relationships (MDR), and evaluated additional prognostic models using survival artificial neural network (SANN) and survival support vector machines (SSVM), as these enhance capture of MDRs. For RFS, increasing concentrations of circulating IGFBP-2 and PAPP-A...... were independently prognostic [HRbiomarker doubling : 1.474 (95% CIs: 1.160, 1.875, P = 0.002) and 1.952 (95% CIs: 1.364, 2.792, P PAPP-A. Derived AUCRFS using SANN...

  3. Is there any relationship between low PAPP-A levels and measures of umbilical vein and placental thickness during first trimester of pregnancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Gulsum; Tutus, Sadan; Cagli, Fulya; Adiguzel, Cevdet

    2017-01-01

    Low pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) level is associated with adverse perinatal outcomes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate relationship between umbilical cord diameter (UCD), umbilical vein and artery diameters (UVD, UAD), placental thickness, and PAPP-A level at gestational age of between 11 and 14 weeks. UCD, UVD, UAD, and placental thickness of 246 women were assessed during ultrasound examination at between 11 and 14 weeks of gestation, as well as measurement of nuchal translucency (NT) and crown-rump length (CRL). Patients were divided into 2 groups according to PAPP-A percentile. Group 1 comprised 23 patients who had low PAPP-A (0.44 MoM, >10 th percentile. Calipers used for measurement were placed inner edge to inner edge of echogenic boundaries of the vessel. Largest sections of all vessels (UV and both arteries) were evaluated. Thickest part of the placenta was used for placental thickness measurement. Narrow UCD (<4.5±0.6 mm) was associated with low PAPP-A level (p=0.02). There was no significant difference in UVD, UAD, or placental thickness between groups. There was no significant difference in gestational age, CRL, or NT between groups. Fetal birth weight was significantly lower in Group 1 (p=0.03). Closer attention to women with low-risk, healthy pregnancies and low PAPP-A level in first trimester screening results is recommended. They should be routinely screened for background medical risk factors and umbilical cord morphology in first trimester scan.

  4. Autocorrelation and cross-correlation between hCGβ and PAPP-A in repeated sampling during first trimester of pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Pernille; Wright, Dave; Ball, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Theoretically, repeated sampling of free β-human chorionic gonadotropin (hCGβ) and pregnancy associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) in the first trimester of pregnancy might improve performance of risk assessment of trisomy 21 (T21). To assess the performance of a screening test involving repeated...... measures of biochemical markers, correlations between markers must be estimated. The aims of this study were to calculate the autocorrelation and cross-correlation between hCGβ and PAPP-A in the first trimester of pregnancy and to investigate the possible impact of gestational age at the first sample...

  5. Comparison of two immunoassay systems for hCGβ and PAPP-A in prenatal screening for trisomy 21, 18, and 13 in the first trimester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engell, Anna Elise; Carlsson, Elin Rebecka; Jørgensen, Finn Stener

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The biochemical serum markers free β-human chorionic gonadotropin (hCGβ) and pregnancy associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A), used in screening for trisomy 21 (T21), trisomy 18 (T18), and trisomy 13 (T13) during the first trimester, can be measured on different laboratory instruments e.......g. Kryptor (Brahms) and Cobas (Roche). We compared the performance of these two analytical instruments when used for first trimester combined testing. DESIGN AND METHODS: Serum samples from 944 singleton pregnant women attending for first trimester combined testing were routinely assayed for hCGβ and PAPP...

  6. First-trimester ADAM12 and PAPP-A as markers for intrauterine fetal growth restriction through their roles in the insulin-like growth factor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowans, Nicholas J; Spencer, Kevin

    2007-03-01

    PAPP-A is a marker used as part of the most effective method of screening for chromosomal anomalies in the first trimester. ADAM12 is a recently discovered pregnancy associated member of the ADAM (a multidomain glycoprotein metalloprotease) family. Recently, ADAM12 has been shown as a potential marker for early screening for chromosomal anomalies. Both PAPP-A and ADAM12 have been identified as proteases to insulin-like growth factor binding proteins. In this role, they may have a regulatory function in controlling the amount of free bioactive insulin-like growth factor (IGF). We therefore wish to examine if the levels of either of these proteases are related to various growth related adverse pregnancy outcomes. PAPP-A and ADAM12 were measured in a subset of samples collected at 11 to 14 weeks as part of an OSCAR clinic screening for chromosomal anomalies. Follow-up of pregnancies screened between September 1999 and August 2003 identified 1705 pregnancies with an outcome of intrauterine fetal demise on or after 24 weeks, preterm delivery at 24-34 weeks or 35-36 weeks, very low birthweight (4.5 kg), and birth weight below the 3rd or 5th or 10th centile for gestation. A series of 414 normal outcome pregnancies constituted the control group. Marker levels were adjusted for gestation and maternal weight and the log MoM of the markers were compared using t-test of unequal variance between the control group and the various adverse outcome groups. ADAM12 and PAPP-A concentrations were reduced in low for gestational age birth weights and in all births with weights below 2.5 kg. There was a linear relationship between the severity of the IUGR and the decrease in PAPP-A and ADAM12. In the larger babies, only ADAM12 was found to be significantly increased in babies above the 90th centile of weight for gestation. The results of our study are compatible with the proposed role of ADAM12 and PAPP-A in promoting growth and development by breaking down IGF binding proteins and

  7. Life beyond the limits of knowledge: crystalline life in the popular science of Desiderius Papp (1895-1993).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandstetter, Thomas

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this article is to show how, and in which context, astrobiological reasoning was employed before the establishment of astrobiology as a scientific discipline. By way of an example, I will discuss a popular science book published in 1931 by the Hungarian journalist Desiderius Papp. The author claims that this book represents an innovation in astrobiological reasoning, as it draws on contemporary biological research to conduct thought experiments, thereby coming up with concrete forms of possible extraterrestrial life. One of the most interesting of these forms was crystalline life. After a short overview on the history of this concept, this article will show how Papp drew on recent research by Otto Lehmann on liquid crystals to convey the idea that life may be based on other elements than carbon. The author concludes by arguing that popular science did not only make specialist knowledge accessible to a general public but also served to probe the limits of knowledge and point toward the situatedness of established categories and definitions.

  8. First trimester maternal serum PAPP-A, beta-hCG and ADAM12 in prediction of small-for-gestational-age fetuses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Kasper; Larsen, Torben; Krebs, Lone

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the ability of predicting fetuses being small-for-gestational-age (SGA) at delivery with the maternal serum markers pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A), beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin (beta-hCG) and A disintegrin and metalloprotease 12 (ADAM12) in first...... trimester. METHODS: In all,36 cases being SGA (birth weight gestational age...

  9. Association of serum PAPP-A levels in first trimester with small for gestational age and adverse pregnancy outcomes: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, R Katie; Bilagi, Ashwini; Devani, Pooja; Kilby, Mark D

    2017-03-01

    To determine association, and predictive ability, of first trimester maternal serum pregnancy associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Searches of Medline, Embase and CINAHL (inception September 2015) for studies including pregnant women with first trimester PAPP-A and assessment of pregnancy outcomes. Study characteristics, quality and results extracted. Meta-analysis of odds ratios (ORs), and likelihood ratios (LRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Thirty-two studies including 175 240 pregnancies. PAPP-A <5th centile had a moderate association with: birth weight <10th centile OR 2.08 (95% CI 1.89-2.29), <5th centile OR 2.83 (95% CI 2.52-3.18); pre-eclampsia OR 1.94 (95% CI 1.63-2.30), preterm birth <37 weeks OR 2.09 (95% CI 1.87-2.33), and composite adverse outcome OR 3.31 (95% CI 1.80-5.11). The predictive ability was poor: Birth weight <10th centile LR + ve 1.96 (95% CI 1.58-2.43), LR-ve 0.93 (95% CI 0.89-0.98); birth weight <5th centile LR + ve 2.65 (95% CI 2.35-2.99), LR-ve 0.85 (95% CI 0.74-0.98); PTB <37 weeks LR + ve 1.84 (95% CI 1.41-2.39), LR-ve 0.92 (95% CI 0.87-0.98). First trimester low maternal serum PAPP-A is associated with adverse pregnancy outcome, but predictive values are poor. Further work should address PAPP-A as a continuous variable in combination with other prognostic markers as a prediction model. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Cooperação e inovação: uma análise dos resultados do Programa de Apoio à Pesquisa em Empresas (Pappe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa dos Reis Azevedo Botelho

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho tem como objetivo principal analisar o Programa de Apoio à Pesquisa em Empresas (Pappe, a partir da caracterização das empresas participantes e dos resultados encontrados, por meio de variáveis de desempenho. Com base no arcabouço teórico neoschumpeteriano e no conceito de Sistema Nacional de Inovação, são analisadas as atividades inovativas das empresas e as relações de cooperação entre empresas e instituições de pesquisa, que são aspectos focalizados pelo Programa, por meio de dados primários obtidos com a aplicação de questionários às empresas. As informações coletadas possibilitam caracterizar as empresas contempladas com recursos do Pappe, assim como analisar a evolução das relações de cooperação, das atividades de inovação e de algumas variáveis de desempenho – geração de patentes, novos empregos, publicação de artigos e inserção em novos mercados. A partir desse estudo, busca-se avaliar a contribuição do Pappe no fomento à cooperação entre empresas e instituições de pesquisa e na geração de inovações.The main purpose of this paper is to analyze the Program to Support Research in Firms (Programa de Apoio à Pesquisa em Empresas – PAPPE from the characterization of the program’s participating firms and the results found via performance variables. Based on the neo-schumpeterian theoretical framework and on the concept of National Innovation System, the paper analyses the points focused by the program, namely the firms’ innovative activities and the cooperative relationships between them and research institutions. Primary data are obtained from an empirical research at the participating firms. This information yields a characterization of the firms benefited by PAPPE resources, as well as an analysis of the evolution of the cooperation relationships, of the innovation activities, and of some performance variables, such as patents, new jobs, published papers and access to new

  11. Comparison of two immunoassay systems for hCGβ and PAPP-A in prenatal screening for trisomy 21, 18, and 13 in the first trimester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Elise Engell

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The biochemical serum markers free β-human chorionic gonadotropin (hCGβ and pregnancy associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A, used in screening for trisomy 21 (T21, trisomy 18 (T18, and trisomy 13 (T13 during the first trimester, can be measured on different laboratory instruments e.g. Kryptor (Brahms and Cobas (Roche. We compared the performance of these two analytical instruments when used for first trimester combined testing. Design and methods: Serum samples from 944 singleton pregnant women attending for first trimester combined testing were routinely assayed for hCGβ and PAPP-A on Kryptor, and re-analyzed on Cobas. In addition, serum samples from 70 pregnant women carrying a fetus affected by T21, T18 or T13, were re-assayed on Cobas. Results: For the screening population, the hCGβ and PAPP-A results in multiples of the median (MoM from Kryptor and Cobas were significantly lower on Cobas when compared to Kryptor. The number of pregnant women with a risk above 1:300 for T21 was 48 for both Cobas and Kryptor, although a few patients only had a high risk with one of the methods. Overall, the screen positive rate was 5.1% for both instruments. In the trisomy groups the calculated risks for T21, T18, and T13 agreed well between Cobas and Kryptor. Conclusions: The screen positive rate for T21 (5.1% did not differ between the two analytical platforms in our screening population, although PAPP-A measurements form Cobas were significantly lower than those from Kryptor. The calculated risks for the pregnancies affected by trisomies using hCGβ MoM and PAPP-A MoM from Kryptor agreed well with those from Cobas. Keywords: Aneuploidy, Combined first trimester screening, First trimester risk assessment, Free β-human chorionic gonadotropin (hCGβ, Pregnancy associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A, Trisomy screening

  12. The role of maternal serumbeta-HCG and PAPP-A levels at gestational weeks 10 to 14 in the prediction of pre-eclampsia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdamar, Ozkan; Gun, Ismet; Keskin, Ugur; Kocak, Necmettin; Mungen, Ercument

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We aimed to detect whether maternal serum free β-hCG and PAPP-A levels and NT measurements vary between normal pregnancies and those that subsequently develop pre-eclampsia and to evaluate the role of these screening serum analytes in the prediction of pre-eclampsia. Methods: Using a case-control study design, we identified all women who had been screened by double test within 11+0 and 13+6 weeks of gestation and who had developed pre-eclampsia during the subsequent pregnancy course, over a 6-year period between January 2006 and December 2012 at two tertiary referral hospital. All women who had undergone a double test during that time, without a diagnosis of pre-eclampsia and who had not had any adverse obstetric outcomes, were also identified, and three women among them were randomly selected as controls for each case. Maternal and neonatal data were abstracted from the medical records and PAPP-A, β-hCG, NT and CRL MoM values were compared between the two groups. Results: Although β-hCG values show no statistically significant difference (p=0.882), PAPP-A levels were significantly reduced in the pre-eclampsia group compared to the control group (p<0.001). NT and CRL values showed no significant difference between the two groups (p=0.674 and p=0.558, respectively). Conclusion: Measuring PAPP-A in the first trimester may be useful in the prediction of pre-eclampsia. PMID:24948981

  13. Prospective evaluation of first trimester combined screening for trisomy 21 using a double set of the maternal serum markers PAPP-A and free β-hCG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekelund, Charlotte Kvist; Wright, Dave; Ball, Susan

    with an early blood sample taken prior to the NT scan, and another blood sample taken at the time of the NT scan. PAPP-A and free β-hCG were measured on both the early and the late samples, and Multiples of the Median (MoM) values were calculated in addition to the corresponding trisomy 21 risk. Using...... taken between gestational week 8+0 to 13+6, and the late samples were taken between week 11+3 and 14+6. The median interval between the samples was 17 days (range 1-40 days). The best performance of the combined screening was obtained using PAPP-A from the early sample and free β-hCG from the late...... sample, with a 95% DR for a 2.5 % FPR at a cut off 1:100. Conclusion: Using repeated biochemical sampling in the first trimester with early PAPP-A and late free β-hCG can optimize the screening performance of combined screening for trisomy 21....

  14. Plasma MIC-1 and PAPP-a levels are decreased among women presenting to an early pregnancy assessment unit, have fetal viability confirmed but later miscarry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tu'uhevaha J Kaitu'u-Lino

    Full Text Available We have recently shown first trimester Macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 (MIC-1 and Pregnancy Associated Plasma Protein-A (PAPP-A serum concentrations are depressed among asymptomatic women destined to miscarry. Here we examined whether plasma levels of MIC-1 and PAPP-A are depressed among women presenting to an Early Pregnancy Assessment Unit (EPAU, noted to have a confirmed viable fetus, but subsequently miscarry.We performed a prospective cohort study, recruiting 462 women in the first trimester presenting to EPAU and had fetal viability confirmed by ultrasound. We obtained plasma samples on the same day and measured MIC-1, PAPP-A and human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG, grouping the cohort according to whether they later miscarried or not. To correct for changes in analyte levels across gestation, we expressed the data as Multiples of the normal Median (MoMs.We recruited 462 participants presenting to EPAU at 5-12 weeks gestation. Most (80% presented with symptoms of threatened miscarriage (e.g. abdominal pain, vaginal bleeding. 34 (7.4% subsequently miscarried. Median plasma MIC-1 levels among those who miscarried were 50% of those with ongoing pregnancies (Miscarriage cohort MoM 0.50 (25(th-75(th centiles: 0.29-1.33 vs ongoing pregnancies MoM 1.00 (0.65-1.38; p=0.0025. Median plasma PAPP-A MoMs among those who miscarried was 0.57 (0.00-1.12, significantly lower than those with ongoing pregnancies (MoMs 1.00 (0.59-1.59; p=0.036. Plasma hCG levels were also significantly depressed among those who miscarried compared to those with ongoing pregnancies. However, the performance of MIC-1 as a diagnostic marker to predict miscarriage in this cohort was modest, and not improved with the addition of hCG.MIC-1 and PAPP-A levels are significantly depressed in women presenting to EPAU with ultrasound evidence of fetal viability, but later miscarry. While they are unlikely to be useful as predictive biomarkers in this clinical setting, they probably play

  15. Prognostic relevance and performance characteristics of serum IGFBP-2 and PAPP-A in women with breast cancer: a long-term Danish cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espelund, Ulrick; Renehan, Andrew G; Cold, Søren; Oxvig, Claus; Lancashire, Lee; Su, Zhenqiang; Flyvbjerg, Allan; Frystyk, Jan

    2018-05-03

    Measurement of circulating insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), in particular IGF-binding protein (IGFBP)-2, at the time of diagnosis, is independently prognostic in many cancers, but its clinical performance against other routinely determined prognosticators has not been examined. We measured IGF-I, IGF-II, pro-IGF-II, IGF bioactivity, IGFBP-2, -3, and pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A), an IGFBP regulator, in baseline samples of 301 women with breast cancer treated on four protocols (Odense, Denmark: 1993-1998). We evaluated performance characteristics (expressed as area under the curve, AUC) using Cox regression models to derive hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for 10-year recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS), and compared those against the clinically used Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI). We measured the same biomarkers in 531 noncancer individuals to assess multidimensional relationships (MDR), and evaluated additional prognostic models using survival artificial neural network (SANN) and survival support vector machines (SSVM), as these enhance capture of MDRs. For RFS, increasing concentrations of circulating IGFBP-2 and PAPP-A were independently prognostic [HR biomarker doubling : 1.474 (95% CIs: 1.160, 1.875, P = 0.002) and 1.952 (95% CIs: 1.364, 2.792, P < 0.001), respectively]. The AUC RFS for NPI was 0.626 (Cox model), improving to 0.694 (P = 0.012) with the addition of IGFBP-2 plus PAPP-A. Derived AUC RFS using SANN and SSVM did not perform superiorly. Similar patterns were observed for OS. These findings illustrate an important principle in biomarker qualification-measured circulating biomarkers may demonstrate independent prognostication, but this does not necessarily translate into substantial improvement in clinical performance. © 2018 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Longer time-to-pregnancy in spontaneously conceived pregnancies is associated with lower PAPP-A and free β-hCG in first trimester screening for Down syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, I; Uldbjerg, N; Tabor, A

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether subfertility, measured as longer time-to-pregnancy (TTP) in spontaneously conceived pregnancies, affects the first trimester levels of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) and free beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin (β-hCG) and......OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether subfertility, measured as longer time-to-pregnancy (TTP) in spontaneously conceived pregnancies, affects the first trimester levels of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) and free beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin (β...

  17. PAPP-A and IGFBP-4 fragment levels in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction treated with heparin and PCI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortebjerg, Rikke; Lindberg, Søren; Hoffmann, Søren

    2015-01-01

    -segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Prior to PCI, patients were injected with 10,000IU of unfractionated heparin (UFH). Blood samples were collected immediately before PCI, but after UFH-injection, immediately after PCI and on day 1 and day 2....... Plasma IGFBP-4, CT-IGFBP-4 and NT-IGFBP-4 levels were determined by specific, novel immunoassays, and PAPP-A and IGF-I by commercial immunoassays. RESULTS: Plasma PAPP-A was strongly elevated upon STEMI, UFH-administration and PCI with mean concentrations (95%-confidence interval) pre-PCI, post-PCI, day...... 1, and day 2 of 13.0 (11.2;15.2), 14.8 (13.1;16.8), 1.03 (0.90;1.18), and 1.08 (0.92;1.28) μg/L, respectively (pPCI concentrations of IGFBP-4, CT-IGFBP-4 and NT-IGFBP-4 were 154 (142;166), 53 (47;60) and 136 (122;150) μg/L, and levels were unaltered post-PCI. Concentrations increased...

  18. Equal footing / Bela Papp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Papp, Bela

    1995-01-01

    Kesk-Euroopa firmad on hakanud hoolikamalt valima välispartnereid. Tabel:Visegradi maade ettevõtete kohta, kus on tehtud välisinvesteeringuid. Tabelid Kesk-Euroopa kõige suuremate, tulusamate ja kahjumit toovamate ettevõtete kohta 1994. a.

  19. Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) and the proform of the eosinophil major basic protein (ProMBP) are associated with increased risk of death in heart failure patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dembic, Maja; Hedley, Paula L.; Torp-Pedersen, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Risk stratification and patient management in heart failure (HF) is difficult due to the unpredictable progression of the disease, necessitating the development of reliable diagnostic biomarkers to facilitate decision-making in clinical practice. Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP...

  20. A prospective study evaluating the performance of first trimester combined screening for trisomy 21 using repeated sampling of the maternal serum markers PAPP-A and free β-hCG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekelund, Charlotte Kvist; Wright, Dave; Ball, Susan

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To prospectively evaluate the performance of first-trimester combined screening for trisomy 21 using the biochemical markers pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) and free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (free β-hCG) obtained before and at the time of the nuchal translucency...

  1. Skp2B overexpression alters a prohibitin-p53 axis and the transcription of PAPP-A, the protease of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harish Chander

    Full Text Available We previously reported that the degradation of prohibitin by the SCF(Skp2B ubiquitin ligase results in a defect in the activity of p53. We also reported that MMTV-Skp2B transgenic mice develop mammary gland tumors that are characterized by an increased proteolytic cleavage of the insulin-like growth factor binding protein 4 (IGFBP-4, an inhibitor of IGF signaling. However, whether a link exists between a defect in p53 activity and proteolysis of IGFBP-4 was not established.We analyzed the levels of pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A, the protease of IGFBP-4, in MMTV-Skp2B transgenic mice and found that PAPP-A levels are elevated. Further, we found a p53 binding site in intron 1 of the PAPP-A gene and that both wild type and mutant p53 bind to this site. However, binding of wild type p53 results in the transcriptional repression of PAPP-A, while binding of mutant p53 results in the transcriptional activation of PAPP-A. Since MMTV-Skp2B mice express wild type p53 and yet show elevated levels of PAPP-A, at first, these observations appeared contradictory. However, further analysis revealed that the defect in p53 activity in Skp2B overexpressing cells does not only abolish the activity of wild type of p53 but actually mimics that of mutant p53. Our results suggest that in absence of prohibitin, the half-life of p53 is increased and like mutant p53, the conformation of p53 is denatured.These observations revealed a novel function of prohibitin as a chaperone of p53. Further, they suggest that binding of denatured p53 in intron 1 causes an enhancer effect and increases the transcription of PAPP-A. Therefore, these findings indicate that the defect in p53 function and the increased proteolysis of IGFBP-4, we had observed, represent two components of the same pathway, which contributes to the oncogenic function of Skp2B.

  2. Laryngeal and tracheal anomalies in an infant with oral-facial-digital syndrome type VI (Varadi-Papp): report of a transitional type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, Laura L.; Palasis, Susan; Simoneaux, Stephen F.; Niyazov, Dmitriy M.

    2008-01-01

    The oral-facial-digital syndromes (OFDS) comprise a group of disorders involving malformations of the mouth, face, and digits. There are 13 subtypes of the OFDS, and much overlap exists among OFDS patients. Distinct syndromes such as Joubert and Pallister-Hall display many of the same features. This report describes an infant with abnormalities including a hypoplastic/absent cerebellar vermis and forked third metacarpals, consistent with a diagnosis of OFDS type VI (Varadi-Papp). The girl's abnormalities also included malformations of the larynx and trachea, findings never before described in type VI but described in other OFDS subtypes and similar syndromes. Our patient represents a transitional OFDS type, further supporting evidence of a common molecular pathway among these disorders. This report highlights the importance of the radiologist's role in diagnosis. (orig.)

  3. Lower placental growth factor and higher free β-hCG and PAPP-A levels in the fetal circulation of near-term pregnancies complicated with severe preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, Verónica; Espinoza-Caicedo, Jasson A; Salazar-Pousada, Danny; Escobar, Gustavo S; Pérez-López, Faustino R; Chedraui, Peter

    2017-01-01

    An imbalance between anti- and angiogenic factors during early placentation is key for the development of preeclampsia. Nevertheless, the majority of studies addressing this issue relate to maternal blood and not the fetal circulation. To measure placental growth factor (PlGF), free beta human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG), and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) levels in the fetal circulation of near-term pregnancies complicated with severe preeclampsia (n = 20), and their controls matched for parity, and maternal and gestational age. Upon delivery, a blood sample was withdrawn from the umbilical artery and vein of each case and its control in order to measure the proposed analytes using direct fluoroimmunoassay. Preeclampsia cases showed significantly lower median PlGF levels in fetal circulation as compared to controls (25.2 versus 36.9 and 23.6 versus 33.9 pg/mL, artery and vein, respectively, p < 0.05). Contrarily, cases displayed higher concentrations of PAPP-A (1024.0 versus 720.9 [median] and 1027.0 ± 298.4 versus 690.3 ± 401.9 mIU/L, artery and vein, respectively, p < 0.05), and free β-hCG (mean: 33.9 ± 4.3 versus 17.2 ± 4.0 and 30.1 ± 5.2 versus 13.7 ± 3.3 ng/mL, artery, and vein respectively, p < 0.05). Lower PlGF and higher PAPP-A and free β-hCG levels were found in the fetal circulation of near-term severe preeclamptic pregnancies. There is a need for more research in this regard.

  4. Kerklike tradisie en kultuur as bydraende faktore in die diens aan die Koninkryk – die lewe en werk van dominee Kálmán Papp II (geb. 1924

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kálmán D. Papp

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Church tradition and culture as contributory factors in service to the Kingdom. This study describes how reverend Kálmán Papp (1924– was able to leave his land of origin behind under difficult, unasked-for and compelling circumstances and embrace a new future in a far-off and unknown country. This follows from his spontaneous responding and acting positively to the effects of cultural interaction and the common denominational factor of the Reformed Church ever present. The study argues in its methodology that it is an oversimplification and a mistake to seek truth by avoiding, underestimating or eliminating the necessary outcome of cultural interaction and church tradition in the choices we make (even theologically and experiences we have of life. This is the true life story of a church minister who finds his destiny and becomes himself a minister in the service of God’s Kingdom, through faith’s challenges and encounters with the theologies and cultures of his embracing worlds.

  5. Juhatuse liikme volituste lõppemine / Jana Shipova, Sven Papp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Shipova, Jana

    2007-01-01

    Juhatuse liikme ja äriühingu vahelise õigussuhte olemusest, esindusõiguse tekkimisest ja juhatuse liikme kohta tehtud äriregistri kande tähendusest. Sise- ja välissuhte lõppemisega seotud probleemidest ja nende lahendustest Eesti Riigikohtu seisukohtade põhjal

  6. Papp-prillid pähe : täna õhtul saab stereokino / Maris Meiessaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Meiessaar, Maris

    2008-01-01

    Animafilmide festivali "Animated Dreams" loenguprogrammis Keyframes esineb täna Von Krahli teatris hollandi stereofilmi guru Alexander Lentjes. Filmide osas näeb ka Andres Tenusaare uut stereofilmi "Miriami piknik"

  7. Naiste staatus meie meeles ja igapäevases keeles / Ülle-Marike Papp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Papp, Ülle-Marike

    2003-01-01

    Autor leiab, et inimõiguste sisu on viimase 50 aasta jooksul muutunud ja meie noorel ühiskonnal on raske aru saada, et eksisteerivad naiste inimõigused, mida järjekindlalt rikutakse patriarhaalse ühiskonnakorralduse, mitte konkreetsete meeste poolt

  8. Naised ja mehed poliitiliste otsuste tasandil = Men and women at the level of political decisions / Ülle-Marike Papp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Papp, Ülle-Marike

    2006-01-01

    Naiste ja meeste osatähtsus poliitiliste otsuste tasandil on demokraatia arengutaseme põhinäitajaid, mida hierarhilisem ja autoritaarsem on kultuur, seda raskem on naistel poliitikas kõrgele jõuda. Naiste osatähtsus seadusandliku ja täitevvõimu tasandil. Tabelid

  9. Nuchal translucency measurement, free β-hCG and PAPP-A concentrations in IVF/ICSI pregnancies: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavoretto, Paolo; Giorgione, Veronica; Cipriani, Sonia; Viganò, Paola; Candiani, Massimo; Inversetti, Annalisa; Ricci, Elena; Parazzini, Fabio

    2017-06-01

    So far, data on the effect of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) on the components of first trimester combined screening for Down syndrome are still controversial. A systematic search of the literature was performed in order to identify the effect of ART, particularly in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) with fresh embryo transfer, on the nuchal translucency, free beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A measurements. Moreover, a meta-analysis and a descriptive graphical representation of the ratios between ART and spontaneous pregnancies (controls) values of median of the multiple of median (m 0 MoM) were performed. Free beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin test showed slightly higher values in the ICSI group than controls (RR = 1.09, 95%CI: 1.03-1.16) but not in the IVF group (RR = 1.03, 95%CI: 0.94-1.12). Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A values for IVF/ICSI, IVF and ICSI showed lower values in comparison with controls (RR, 95%CI 0.85, 0.80-0.90; 0.82, 0.74-0.89 and 0.83, 0.79-0.86, respectively). The nuchal translucency measurement did not show any statistical differences between study groups (IVF and ICSI) and controls (RR = 1.00, 95%CI: 0.94-1.08 and RR = 1.01, 95%CI: 0.97-1.05, respectively). These results may be due to alterations in the placentation of ART pregnancies. Differentiating further subgroups of ART pregnancies may explain the differences in biomarker concentrations, in prenatal behavior and in obstetric outcomes between ART and spontaneous pregnancies. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Temporal course of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A in angioplasty-treated ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients and potential significance of concomitant heparin administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terkelsen, Christian J; Oxvig, Claus; Nørgaard, Bjarne L

    2009-01-01

    Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) is a putative plaque instability marker. In acute coronary syndromes, the disrupted culprit plaque contains abundant PAPP-A, and circulating PAPP-A levels predict clinical outcomes. Determinants of circulating PAPP-A levels, however, are not fully...

  11. Are the physical activity parenting practices reported by U.S. and Canadian parents captured in currently published instruments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to compare the physical activity parenting practices (PAPPs) parents report using with the PAPPs incorporated in the published literature. PAPPs in the literature were identified by reviewing the content of 74 published PAPPs measures obtained from current systematic re...

  12. Pregnancy-associated plasma protein A in human ovarian follicles and its association with intrafollicular hormone levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtkjær, Jane Alrø; Jeppesen, Janni Vikkelsø; Wissing, Marie Louise

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate follicular fluid (FF) levels of pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) in relation to levels of intrafollicular hormones. Furthermore, immunostaining of human follicles of varying diameters was studied for PAPP-A, antimüllerian hormone (AMH), and aromatase, and the biological...... activity of PAPP-A in FF was evaluated....

  13. Regulation of IGF binding protein proteolysis by pregnancy-associated plasma protein-ARegulation of IGF binding protein proteolysis by pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaidamauskas, Ervinas

    During his PhD studies, Ervinas Gaidamauskas researched the proteins pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) and its homologue PAPP-A2 in vitro. As suggested by its name, PAPP-A plays an important role in pregnancy and fetal development. Additionally, recent studies indicate a newly...

  14. Diagnosis and prediction of parental origin of triploidies by fetal nuchal translucency and maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A at 11-14 weeks of gestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barken, Sidsel Svennekjær; Skibsted, L.; Jensen, Lars Nimb

    2008-01-01

    consent, quantitative fluorescence polymerase chain reaction analysis was performed on the five cases where we received blood from both parents and tissue from fetuses. In four cases the origin of the triploidy was paternal and in one maternal, in accordance with previous findings in type I and type II...... triploidies. Finding triploidy is possible by risk assessment (ultrasound and double test), and thereby women may have the opportunity for early termination of pregnancy Udgivelsesdato: 2008...

  15. Placental protein-13 (PP13) in combination with PAPP-A and free leptin index (fLI) in first trimester maternal serum screening for severe and early preeclampsia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villiers, Carin P.De; Hedley, Paula L.; Placing, Sophie

    2017-01-01

    Placental protein-13 (PP13) is involved in placental invasion and has been suggested as a maternal serum marker of preeclampsia (PE) development. However, the discriminatory ability of PP13 in first trimester has not been completely clarified. PP13 was measured in first trimester (week 10...

  16. CLINICAL PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF ELECSYS® FREE-ΒHCG AND PAPP-A FOR FIRST TRIMESTER TRISOMY 21 RISK ASSESSMENT IN GESTATIONAL WEEKS 8+0 TO 14+0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørring, Niels; aulesa, C; Eiben, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    with the Brahms Kryptor®, PerkinElmer AutoDELFIA® and Siemens IMMULITE® assays. Furthermore a clinical validation including generation of assay specific medians from gestational age 8+0 to 14+0 weeks, and clinical test performance of risk assessment was performed. Results The imprecision of the Elecsys free βh...

  17. The proteolytic activity of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A is potentially regulated by stanniocalcin-1 and -2 during human ovarian follicle development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Malene R.; Kløverpris, Søren; Bøtkjær, Jane A.

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Is the proteolytic activity of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) regulated by the stanniocalcins (STC1 and STC2) during human follicle maturation? SUMMARY ANSWER: The STCs and PAPP-A show similar expression by immunohistochemistry in developing follicles, and regulation...... of PAPP-A proteolytic activity is suggested by the identification of inhibited protein complexes between PAPP-A and STC1 or STC2 in human follicular fluid (FF). WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-regulating proteinase PAPP-A is secreted by the granulosa cells of estrogen...

  18. Myocardial and Peripheral Ischemia Causes an Increase in Circulating Pregnancy-Associated Plasma Protein-A in Non-atherosclerotic, Non-heparinized Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffensen, Lasse Bach; Poulsen, Christian Bo; Shim, Jeong; Bek, Marie; Jacobsen, Kevin; Conover, Cheryl A; Bentzon, Jacob Fog; Oxvig, Claus

    2015-12-01

    The usefulness of circulating pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) as a biomarker for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is widely debated. We used the pig as a model to assess PAPP-A dynamics in the setting of myocardial ischemia. Induction of myocardial ischemia by ligation of the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery caused a systemic rise in PAPP-A. However, the ischemic myocardium was excluded as the source of PAPP-A. Interestingly, induction of ischemia in peripheral tissues by ligation of the left femoral artery caused a systemic rise in PAPP-A originating from the left hind limb. This is the first study to demonstrate PAPP-A elevations in the absence of atherosclerosis or heparin during myocardial ischemia. Our findings thus add to the current discussion of the usefulness of PAPP-A as a biomarker for ACS.

  19. Inducible knockdown of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A gene expression in adult female mice extends life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bale, Laurie K; West, Sally A; Conover, Cheryl A

    2017-08-01

    Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) knockout (KO) mice, generated through homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells, have a significantly increased lifespan compared to wild-type littermates. However, it is unknown whether this longevity advantage would pertain to PAPP-A gene deletion in adult animals. In the present study, we used tamoxifen (Tam)-inducible Cre recombinase-mediated excision of the floxed PAPP-A (fPAPP-A) gene in mice at 5 months of age. fPAPP-A mice, which were either positive (pos) or negative (neg) for Tam-Cre, received Tam treatment with quarterly boosters. Only female mice could be used with this experimental design. fPAPP-A/neg and fPAPP-A/pos mice had similar weights at the start of the experiment and showed equivalent weight gain. We found that fPAPP-A/pos mice had a significant extension of life span (P = 0.005). The median life span was increased by 21% for fPAPP-A/pos compared to fPAPP-A/neg mice. Analysis of mortality in life span quartiles indicated that the proportion of deaths of fPAPP-A/pos mice were lower than fPAPP-A/neg mice at young adult ages (P = 0.002 for 601-800 days) and higher than fPAPP-A/neg mice at older ages (P = 0.004 for >1000 days). Thus, survival curves and age-specific mortality indicate that female mice with knockdown of PAPP-A gene expression as adults have an extended healthy life span. © 2017 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Transgenic overexpression of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A in murine arterial smooth muscle accelerates atherosclerotic lesion development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conover, Cheryl A.; Mason, Megan A.; Bale, Laurie K.

    2010-01-01

    Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) increases local IGF-I bioavailability through cleavage of inhibitory IGF binding protein (IGFBP)-4 in a variety of systems, including the cardiovascular system. To test the hypothesis that expression of PAPP-A promotes the development of atherosclero......Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) increases local IGF-I bioavailability through cleavage of inhibitory IGF binding protein (IGFBP)-4 in a variety of systems, including the cardiovascular system. To test the hypothesis that expression of PAPP-A promotes the development...

  1. Release patterns of pregnancy-associated plasma protein A in patients with acute coronary syndromes assessed by an optimized monoclonal antibody assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoos, Mikkel; Iversen, Kasper; Teisner, Ane

    2008-01-01

    Objective. Pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) is expressed in eroded and ruptured atheromatous plaques, and circulating levels are elevated in acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Our objective was to investigate release patterns of PAPP-A in ACS and whether they differ among different typ...

  2. Pregnancy-associated plasma protein A in a large cohort of Type 1 diabetic patients with and without diabetic nephropathy-a prospective follow--up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, A S; Tarnow, L; Christiansen, M

    2007-01-01

    AIM: Pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) has been implicated in the aetiology of acute coronary syndromes and carotid and peripheral artherosclerosis. Diabetic nephropathy is characterized by increased cardiovascular risk. We investigated the prognostic value of PAPP-A in a large cohor...

  3. Pregnancy associated plasma protein-A as a marker for myocardial infarction and death in patients with stable coronary artery disease: A prognostic study within the CLARICOR Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Kasper K; Teisner, Børge; Winkel, Per

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Pregnancy associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) is a potential new marker for vulnerable plaques in the coronary arteries only examined in stable coronary disease (CAD) in patients undergoing coronary angiography. Here we address the prognostic value of serum PAPP-A in unselected stable...

  4. Pregnancy-associated plasma protein A in non-cardiac conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, K.K.; Teisner, A.S.; Teisner, B.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: PAPP-A is a promising new marker in coronary heart disease. It is important to investigate its specificity in order to establish its clinical utility as a marker of coronary heart disease. DESIGN AND METHODS: PAPP-A was measured within 24 h following hospital admission in 1448 consecut...

  5. Flow-mediated lipoprotein retention; Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A inhibition in atherosclerosis and its release during myocardial ischemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, Lasse Bach

    , which states that retention of lipoproteins is the key initiating event of atherosclerosis development. Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) regulates the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system by proteolytic cleavage of a subset of IGF-binding proteins. Studies in mice have established PAPP...

  6. Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A, a marker for outcome in patients suspected for acute coronary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Kasper K; Dalsgaard, Morten; Teisner, Ane S

    2010-01-01

    To examine if pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) in patients with chest pain, could identify patients at risk for death or myocardial infarction.......To examine if pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) in patients with chest pain, could identify patients at risk for death or myocardial infarction....

  7. Complete cDNA sequence of the preproform of human pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A. Evidence for expression in the brain and induction by cAMP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haaning, Jesper; Oxvig, Claus; Overgaard, Michael Toft

    1996-01-01

    A cDNA that encodes the prepropeptide of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (preproPAPP-A), a putative metalloproteinase, has been cloned and sequenced. PAPP-A is synthesized in the placenta as a 1627-residue precursor preproprotein with a putative 22-residue signal peptide and a highly basic...

  8. Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A and the vulnerable plaque

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Camilla H B; Vestergaard, Kirstine R; Schou, Morten

    2014-01-01

    For more than a decade, pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) has been examined for its relation to acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and the vulnerable plaque. This review summarizes the current knowledge of plasma PAPP-A in relation to nonpregnant individuals focusing on patients with ACS...

  9. Association of first-trimester pregnancy-associated plasma protein A levels and idiopathic preterm delivery: A population-based screening study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyathida Pummara

    2016-02-01

    Conclusion: A PAPP-A level of ≤10th percentile was significantly associated with an increased risk for idiopathic preterm birth. Therefore, pregnant women with low PAPP-A levels in the first trimester should be considered at a high risk of preterm delivery.

  10. Stanniocalcin-1 Potently Inhibits the Proteolytic Activity of the Metalloproteinase Pregnancy-associated Plasma Protein-A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kløverpris, Søren; Mikkelsen, Jakob Hauge; Pedersen, Josefine Hvidkjær

    2015-01-01

    regulation in these species. Several physiological functions of STC1 have been reported, although many molecular details are still lacking. We here demonstrate that STC1 is an inhibitor of the metzincin metalloproteinase, pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), which modulates insulin-like growth...... that the homologous STC2 inhibits PAPP-A proteolytic activity, and that this depends on the formation of a covalent complex between the inhibitor and the proteinase, mediated by Cys-120 of STC2. We find that STC1 is unable to bind covalently to PAPP-A, in agreement with the absence of a corresponding cysteine residue....... It rather binds to PAPP-A with high affinity (KD = 75 pm). We further demonstrate that both STC1 and STC2 show inhibitory activity toward PAPP-A2, but not selected serine proteinases and metalloproteinases. We therefore conclude that the STCs are proteinase inhibitors, probably restricted in specificity...

  11. Serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein A levels in the first, second and third trimester of pregnancy: relation to newborn anthropometric parameters and maternal tobacco smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chełchowska, Magdalena; Gajewska, Joanna; Mazur, Joanna; Ambroszkiewicz, Jadwiga; Maciejewski, Tomasz M; Leibschang, Jerzy

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the associations of the first, second and third trimester serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) concentrations with neonatal anthropometric parameters. The effect of tobacco smoking during pregnancy on PAPP-A level was also studied. One hundred and fifty healthy pregnant women were divided into smoking and tobacco-abstinent groups. Serum PAPP-A level was measured with the KRYPTOR rapid random-access immunoassay analyzer. The relationship between PAPP-A and newborn related outcome as well as markers of estimated intensity of cigarette smoking was evaluated by univariate and multivariate linear regression. Pregnancy-associated plasma protein A concentration was positively correlated with birth weight in the first (β = 31.6; p < 0.001), second (β = 10.6; p < 0.05), and third (β = 4.6; p < 0.001) trimester of gestation. A significant association between PAPP-A and birth body length and head circumference in the second (β = 0.02; p < 0.05) and third trimester (β = 0.01; p < 0.01) was also found. The serum PAPP-A levels were significantly lower in the smoking than in the tobacco-abstinent group in each trimester of pregnancy ( p < 0.001). The largest impact of the number of cigarettes smoked per day on PAPP-A level was found in the second (β = -1.2; p = 0.004) and third trimester (β = -2.6; p = 0.001). Maternal serum PAPP-A levels during gestation might be significant predictors for birth weight. Increased PAPP-A concentrations in the second and third trimester appeared to also be predictive for newborn body length and head circumference. Smoking alters maternal PAPP-A levels in all trimesters, with the greatest impact related to the number of cigarettes smoked per day.

  12. Climate accounting for waste management, Phase I and II. Summary: Phase 1: Glass Packaging, Metal packaging, paper, cardboard, plastic and wet organic waste. Phase 2: Wood waste and residual waste from households; Klimaregnskap for avfallshaandtering, Fase I og II. Sammendrag: Fase 1: Glassemballasje, metallemballasje, papir, papp, plastemballasje og vaatorganisk avfall. Fase 2: Treavfall og restavfall fra husholdninger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raadal, Hanne Lerche; Modahl, Ingunn Saur; Lyng, Kari-Anne

    2009-09-15

    Background. On the basis of an increased focus on emissions of greenhouse gases in general, Waste Norway wanted to prepare a climate accounting for waste management in Norway. Oestfoldforskning was engaged to undertake the project. The aim of the project has been to develop a model for the calculation of net greenhouse gas emissions from different waste types of waste glass containers, metal containers, paper, cardboard, plastic, wet organic waste, wood waste and residual waste. The model is based on life cycle methodology and is used to calculate the net greenhouse gas emissions per kg of waste for the various waste management options and waste types, as well as to calculate the net greenhouse gas emissions for waste management for including waste types and quantities of 2006. There is an emphasis on developing a model so that municipalities / waste companies or regions can develop their own climate accounting for waste management in their region, based on site-specific conditions associated with types and amounts of waste, transport distances, type of treatment, exploitation and use of waste generated energy etc. The model can also be used as the basis for the preparation of useful documentation as the basis for information about waste systems utility in general, and as a basis for strategic reviews for Waste Norway and the waste sector in particular. Conclusions: The main conclusions from the project can be summarized as follows: 1. The results of the study clearly shows that to consider only one environmental indicator is too narrow approach to form the basis for decision making for selection of waste management solutions. 2. Net greenhouse gas emissions for waste management varies greatly, both between the different types of waste and treatment methods which are reviewed. The main results of the ranking of management methods in relation to the net greenhouse effect associated with the waste types and treatment methods are as follows: Recycling of materials involves the lowest greenhouse gas load for the types of waste glass packaging, metal packaging and plastic packaging. Biological treatment (biogas production) provides the lowest GHG (greenhouse gas) impact for the treatment of wet organic waste. Energy recovery provides the lowest GHG impact for the treatment of paper, cardboard and wood waste. Disposal provides the greatest greenhouse gas load for all the analyzed types of waste, but plastic and glass containers. For waste composition has a major impact on greenhouse gas emissions for the landfill and the energy efficiency of the waste. The composition varies both with the types of waste disposed and with what kind of source separation schemes offered in the various municipalities. This in turn can vary depending on population density (urban areas / cities versus scattered buildings), and motivation of the individual citizen to source sorting. Energy recovery means the lowest greenhouse gas emissions for an 'average composite' residual waste in Norway. Analysis of residual waste should always be considered in context with the total amounts and handling of sorted out waste types, as well as total amounts and composition of residual waste. This is important to achieve a comprehensive assessment and avoid suboptimalization. Transport related greenhouse gas emissions are generally of relatively little importance in relation to the environmental benefits arising from the material and / or energy utilization. 3. The model is used to calculate the net greenhouse gas emissions resulting from disposal of a total of approximately 4.1 million tons of waste from households, industry, construction and service industries. 4. Analysis of a realistic optimal scenario for disposal of household waste show that this system can be virtually carbon-neutral. 5. The choice of which assumptions to be incorporated in this type of analysis depends on the purpose of analysis, in addition to local and geographical conditions. 6. Relevant international literature is reviewed to ensure the quality of the results in this study. This can be summarized as follows: in 2006 amounted to 851,000 tonnes of CO{sub 2} equivalents. This is equivalent to annual greenhouse gas emissions from about 243,000 passenger cars. The results of this study for calculating the greenhouse gas burden is very robust for the types of waste glass containers, metal containers, plastic containers, and wet organic waste. According to the reviewed literature, provides material recycling also the best results for most of the other assessed environmental impact categories for these 4 types of waste. For fiber types of waste as cardboard and paper are the results of the greenhouse gas burden in line with relevant international literature, which shows that the assumptions associated with consumption and the replacement of fossil energy in the systems that are compared (material recycling and energy recovery) is very important for the results.

  13. Determination of lamivudine and zidovudine permeability using a different ex vivo method in Franz cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezani, André Bersani; Pereira, Thaisa Marinho; Caffaro, Arthur Massabki; Reis, Juliana Mazza; Serra, Cristina Helena Dos Reis

    2013-01-01

    The major processes that control the absorption of orally administered drugs are dissolution and gastrointestinal permeation. These processes depend on two main properties: solubility and permeability. Based on these characteristics, the Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS) was proposed as a tool to assist in biowaiver and bioavailability prediction of drugs. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the permeability of lamivudine (3TC) and zidovudine (AZT) using a different ex vivo method in Franz cells. A segment of jejunum was inserted in a Franz cells apparatus, in order to assess drug permeability in the apical-basolateral (A-B) and basolateral-apical (B-A) directions. Each drug was added to the donor chamber, collected from the acceptor chamber and analyzed by HPLC. Fluorescein (FLU) and metoprolol (METO) were used as low and high permeability markers, respectively. The apparent permeability (Papp) results for the A-B direction were: Papp FLU A-B=0.54×10(-4)cm·s(-1), Papp METO A-B=7.99×10(-4)cm·s(-1), Papp 3TC A-B=4.58×10(-4)cm·s(-1) and Papp AZT A-B=5.34×10(-4)cm·s(-1). For the B-A direction, the Papp results were: Papp FLU B-A=0.56×10(-4)cm·s(-1), Papp METO B-A=0.25×10(-4)cm·s(-1), Papp 3TC B-A=0.24×10(-4)cm·s(-1) and Papp AZT B-A=0.19×10(-4)cm·s(-1). For the A-B direction, the Papp results of fluorescein and metoprolol show low and high permeability, respectively, indicating that the membranes were appropriate for permeability studies. For the A-B direction, the Papp results of 3TC and AZT suggest that these antiretroviral drugs have permeability values close to metoprolol. Nevertheless, for the B-A direction the Papp results do not suggest efflux mechanism for any of the drugs. Thereby, the different ex vivo methods using Franz cells can be successfully applied in drug permeability studies, in particular for drug biopharmaceutical classification. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Biological variation of free β chorionic gonadotropin and pregnancy-associated plasma protein A in first trimester pregnancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sennels, Henriette P; Jørgensen, Finn Stener; Sørensen, Steen

    2011-01-01

    protein A (PAPP-A). However, little knowledge exists regarding the biological variation of hCGβ and PAPP-A when the time interval between sampling increases. Methods: We estimated these variations from double mea-surements of hCGβ and PAPP-A in first trimester pregnancies in 167 women. Data were divided...... into three groups based on the number of days between sampling. The correlation coefficients and biological variation were estimated for each group. Results: The correlation coefficient between the first and second samples was 0.841 for hCGβ, and 0.706 for PAPP-A. The ranges for biological variation were 11.......9%-48.5% for hCGβ and 31.6%-63.3% for PAPP-A, increasing with time between sampling. The average overall biological variation for hCGβ was 29%, and 49.7% for PAPP-A. Conclusions: We found high biological variation for plasma concentrations of hCGβ and PAPP-A, increasing with longer time intervals between...

  15. Biological variation of free β chorionic gonadotropin and pregnancy-associated plasma protein A in first trimester pregnancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sennels, Henriette P; Jørgensen, Finn Stener; Sørensen, Steen

    2011-01-01

    protein A (PAPP-A). However, little knowledge exists regarding the biological variation of hCGß and PAPP-A when the time interval between sampling increases. Methods: We estimated these variations from double mea-surements of hCGß and PAPP-A in first trimester pregnancies in 167 women. Data were divided...... into three groups based on the number of days between sampling. The correlation coefficients and biological variation were estimated for each group. Results: The correlation coefficient between the first and second samples was 0.841 for hCGß, and 0.706 for PAPP-A. The ranges for biological variation were 11.......9%-48.5% for hCGß and 31.6%-63.3% for PAPP-A, increasing with time between sampling. The average overall biological variation for hCGß was 29%, and 49.7% for PAPP-A. Conclusions: We found high biological variation for plasma concentrations of hCGß and PAPP-A, increasing with longer time intervals between...

  16. Increase in serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A is correlated with increase in cardiovascular risk factors in adult patients with growth hormone deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linman; Ren, Wei; Li, Jinchao; Liu, Jingjing; Wang, Lingli; Zheng, Xiaoya; Liu, Dezhen; Li, Sufang; Souvenir, Rhonda; Tang, Jiping

    2012-10-01

    Adult Growth Hormone Deficiency (AGHD) is correlated to many adverse effects on metabolism and increased cardiovascular risk. Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) is a protease that promotes IGF-I availability in vascular tissues in recent study, and PAPP-A levels have been proposed as an early predictor of cardiac events. The aim of our study was to compare PAPP-A levels in AGHD patients with that of healthy adult subjects to determine if there is a relationship between serum PAPP-A and glucose and lipid metabolism. Twenty AGHD patients and 20 healthy, age-matched and weight-matched persons were chosen for the study. Their weight, height, blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage, waist and hip circumference, and waist-hips ratio were assessed. An oral glucose tolerance test was performed and venous blood was collected from the each patient's cubital vein for biochemical analysis. Serum PAPP-A level in AGHD patients was significantly higher than that of the control group [(7.62 ± 1.62 vs. 6.54 ± 1.31) p < 0.05], and PAPP-A was positively correlated to age, BMI, waist circumference and so on. After adjusting for the waist circumference, waist-hip ratio, 2 h postprandial blood glucose, triglycerides, the serum PAPP-A in AGHD patients was positively correlated to the BMI (r = 0.728, p < 0.05) and fasting insulin (r = 0.433, p < 0.05). In a multiple step-wise regression analysis, BMI, 2 h postprandial glucose, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR were independently associated with serum PAPP-A in AGHD patients. The increase in serum PAPP-A levels is associated with abnormal glucose metabolism and increased risk of atherosclerosis in AGHD patients.

  17. Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A modulates the anabolic effects of parathyroid hormone in mouse bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, Kari B; Conover, Cheryl A

    2015-12-01

    Intermittent parathyroid hormone (PTH) is a potent anabolic therapy for bone, and several studies have implicated local insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling in mediating this effect. The IGF system is complex and includes ligands and receptors, as well as IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs) and IGFBP proteases. Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) is a metalloprotease expressed by osteoblasts in vitro that has been shown to enhance local IGF action through cleavage of inhibitory IGFBP-4. This study was set up to test two specific hypotheses: 1) Intermittent PTH treatment increases the expression of IGF-I, IGFBP-4 and PAPP-A in bone in vivo, thereby increasing local IGF activity. 2) In the absence of PAPP-A, local IGF activity and the anabolic effects of PTH on bone are reduced. Wild-type (WT) and PAPP-A knock-out (KO) mice were treated with 80 μg/kg human PTH 1-34 or vehicle by subcutaneous injection five days per week for six weeks. IGF-I, IGFBP-4 and PAPP-A mRNA expression in bone were significantly increased in response to PTH treatment. PTH treatment of WT mice, but not PAPP-A KO mice, significantly increased expression of an IGF-responsive gene. Bone mineral density (BMD), as measured by DEXA, was significantly decreased in femurs of PAPP-A KO compared to WT mice with PTH treatment. Volumetric BMD, as measured by pQCT, was significantly decreased in femoral midshaft (primarily cortical bone), but not metaphysis (primarily trabecular bone), of PAPP-A KO compared to WT mice with PTH treatment. These data suggest that stimulation of PAPP-A expression by intermittent PTH treatment contributes to PTH bone anabolism in mice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Development of a radioimmunoassay for pregnancy-associated plasma protein A and establishment of normal levels in the first trimester of pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony, F; Masson, G M; Wood, P J [Southampton Univ. (UK)

    1983-01-01

    An accelerated double antibody method has been developed for the radioimmunoassay of pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) in serum. The workable range for the assay was 0.4-1.8 mg/l of serum. PAPP-A levels were determined in single serum samples from 110 women with prospective normal pregnancies of between 7 and 14 weeks' gestation. The level of pregnancy specific ..beta../sub 1/ glycoprotein (SP/sub 1/) was also measured in these samples and normal ranges for PAPP-P and SP/sub 1/ were constructed from the results obtained.

  19. Development of a radioimmunoassay for pregnancy-associated plasma protein A and establishment of normal levels in the first trimester of pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony, F; Masson, G M; Wood, P J [Southampton Univ. (UK)

    1983-01-01

    An accelerated double antibody method has been developed for the radioimmunoassay of pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) in serum. The workable range for the assay was 0.04-1.8 mg/l of serum. PAPP-A levels were determined in single serum samples from 110 women with prospective normal pregnancies of between 7 and 14 weeks' gestation. The level of pregnancy specific ..beta../sub 1/ glycoprotein (SP/sub 1/) was also measured in these samples and normal ranges for PAPP-A and SP/sub 1/ were constructed from the results obtained.

  20. TR146 cells grown on filters as a model of human buccal epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hanne Mørck; Verhoef, J C; Ponec, M

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to characterize the TR146 cell culture model as an in vitro model of human buccal epithelium with respect to the permeability of test substances with different molecular weights (M(w)). For this purpose, the apparent permeability (P(app)) values for mannitol...... and for fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labelled dextrans (FD) with various M(w) (4000-40000) were compared to the P(app) values obtained using porcine buccal mucosa as an in vitro model of the human buccal epithelium. The effect of 10 mM sodium glycocholate (GC) on the P(app) values was examined. To identify...

  1. Development of a radioimmunoassay for pregnancy-associated plasma protein A and establishment of normal levels in the first trimester of pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthony, F.; Masson, G.M.; Wood, P.J.

    1983-01-01

    An accelerated double antibody method has been developed for the radioimmunoassay of pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) in serum. The workable range for the assay was 0.4-1.8 mg/l of serum. PAPP-A levels were determined in single serum samples from 110 women with prospective normal pregnancies of between 7 and 14 weeks' gestation. The level of pregnancy specific #betta# 1 glycoprotein (SP 1 ) was also measured in these samples and normal ranges for PAPP-P and SP 1 were constructed from the results obtained. (author)

  2. Konkurentsiseadus reguleerib ettevõtlust / Kalle Mõtsnik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mõtsnik, Kalle

    1998-01-01

    1. okt. 1998. a. jõustunud konkurentsiseadusest. Lisatud: mida arvab uuest seadusest ettevõtja: vastavad Eesti Leivaliidu esimees, AS Vilma nõukogu esimees Arnold Kimber ja ASi Paloma Papp tegevdirektor Jüri Varik

  3. Effects of the Consortium of Pseudomonas, Bacillus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSN

    Microbiology Department, Anambra State University, Uli. Abstract. The effect ... physical parameters of crude oil (Atlas, 1981). It is known that ..... Ecology, ASTM, Philcidelphia, PA.pp. 196-204. ... Wang, X., X. Yu, and Bartha, R. (1990). Effect of.

  4. [Effect of three penetration enhancers on corneal permeability of mangiferin in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Liu, Zhidong; Shu, Lexin; Zhang, Chengui; Zhang, Boli

    2010-12-01

    To investigate the effects of labrasol, solutol HS 15 and transcutol P on the corneal permeability of mangiferin in vitro. The effects of three penetration enhancers on the corneal permeability of mangiferin were investigated in vitro by using isolated rabbit corneas. The apparent Papp enhancements were increased 1.80, 3.27, 3.41 and 4.76-folds with Lab at 1.0%, 1.5%, 2.0% and 3.0% (P < 0.01), respectively. The apparent Papp increased 1.98 and 3.07-folds with Sol at 0.2% and 0.4% (P < 0.01), respectively, but reduced with 0.010%-0.03% Trans. The Papp value of mangiferin is significantly enhanced by 1.0%-3.0% Lab, 0.2% and 0.4% Sol, however the Papp value of mangiferin is reduced by 0.01%-0.03% Trans.

  5. Obstetric Outcome in Pregnant Patients with Low Level of Pregnancy-Associated Plasma Protein A in First Trimester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Livrinova

    2018-06-01

    CONCLUSION: There is a significant difference in unfavourable outcome in the cases with PAPP-A under 0.4 Mom, particular in the group, with a PAPP-A value under 0.2 MoM. The patients delivered with SC with the main indications in utero hypoxia, growth restriction and elevated blood pressure had PAPP-A between 0.3-0.4 MoM. The patients with intrauterine fetal death and placental abruption in the most of the cases have PAPP-A value under 0.2 MoM. There is a need to be aware in these pregnancies to achieve the preventions of adverse outcome, to decrease perinatal morbidity and mortality.

  6. Pregnancy-Associated Plasma Protein A Levels in Late First Trimester Pregnancies with Small-for-Gestational Age Neonates: A Prospective Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Rachna; Kumari, Radhika; Mehndiratta, Mohit; Radhakrishnan, Gita; Faridi, M M A; Chandra, Nilesh

    2017-08-01

    We aimed to investigate the association of pregnancy associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) levels in late first trimester with small for gestational age (SGA) neonates and adverse pregnancy outcomes in a low-income setting. The inclusion criteria were late first trimester (11-13 + 6 weeks) women with singleton and non-anomalous pregnancy. Enrolled participants were sampled for PAPP-A and prospectively followed up for delivery outcome and antenatal complications. A multiple of median (MoM) was calculated and statistically compared between groups. Out of total 284 subjects, 14.54% delivered SGA babies and formed cases (Group A), 66.5% delivered appropriate for gestational age (AGA) neonates with uneventful antenatal period (controls, Group B), and 19.3% were AGA group with adverse pregnancy complications (Group C). The late first trimester median PAPP-A MoM was significantly lower (0.61) in Group A compared to Group B (1.47). Using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for PAPP-A MoM, optimal cutoff value was found at 0.45 MoM, with positive predictive value of 56.2%, specificity of 92.6% and sensitivity of 45%. The median interquartile range (IQR) of PAPP-A MoM value in Group C in comparison with Group B was significantly lower except for abruption. At PAPP-A MoM cutoff value <1, <0.8, <0.6 and <0.4, the odds ratio for adverse pregnancy outcome was 8.30, 7.29, 10.97 and 10.60, respectively, indicating an inverse relationship. With 0.45 MoM cutoff of PAPP-A, the detection rate, specificity and positive predictive value for SGA were 45, 92.6 and 56.2%, respectively. As PAPP-A MoM values decreased, the odds ratio of having adverse pregnancy outcomes increased.

  7. Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A in patients on Maintenance Hemodialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Messeih, Ph.L.

    2012-01-01

    A high level of serum pregnancy associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) has been observed in patients suffering from renal impairment. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the level of PAPP-A and to elucidate its relationship with renal osteodystrophy and renal functions in patients maintained on hemodialysis (HD). Intact parathyroid hormone (i-PTH), calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) levels and alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) were measured in the serum as markers of renal osteodystrophy while the level of blood urea and serum creatinine were evaluated as markers of renal functions. The results obtained showed that for patients maintained on HD, the levels of PAPP-A, i-PTH, P, urea and creatinine, were significantly higher than controls. Significant positive correlations were obtained between PAPP-A and each of i-PTH, ALP and creatinine in the same group. After dialysis session, the level of PAPP-A increased significantly, compared to its pre -dialysis level. According to the results obtained in the current study, it could be concluded that the increase in PAPP-A level in the serum of patients maintained on hemodialysis is probably the result of chronic inflammation and impairment of kidney functions rather than renal osteodystrophy

  8. Motor and memory testing of long-lived pregnancy-associated plasma protein--a knock-out mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Emily J; Grell, Jacquelyn A; West, Sally A; Conover, Cheryl A

    2014-12-01

    Mice deficient in pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), an IGF binding protein protease, have been shown to be resistant to experimentally induced atherosclerosis and diabetic nephropathy, and, in the laboratory environment, live 30-40% longer than wild-type littermates in association with delayed incidence and occurrence of age-related neoplasms and degenerative diseases. PAPP-A is highly expressed in the cerebellum and hippocampus of the mouse brain. Therefore, the studies presented here were aimed at determining motor behavior, learning and retention in PAPP-A knock-out (KO) mice compared to wild-type (WT) littermates with age. Balance and coordination were assessed using an accelerating rotarod; learning and memory were assessed in a Stone T-maze. Time on the rotarod decreased with age but there was no significant difference between PAPP-A KO and WT mice at any of the testing ages. Latency to reach the goal box and number of errors committed in the Stone T-maze did not change with age and there were no significant differences between PAPP-A KO and WT mice. Lack of PAPP-A in mice did not impact central regulation of coordination, learning or memory. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-a levels in individuals with and without coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, N.U.; Khan, F.A.; Khan, D.A.; Asim, N.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compare pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) levels in individuals with and without coronary artery disease (CAD). Study Design: Cross-sectional comparative study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Chemical Pathology and Endocrinology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP), Rawalpindi, in collaboration with Armed Forces Institute of Cardiology (AFIC), from September 2008 to March 2010. Methodology: One hundred and twenty five (125) individuals both male and female were included in the study. Blood for PAPP-A and lipid profile was collected, just before angiography. On the basis of angiography, the individuals were divided into those with and without CAD. PAPP-A was analyzed by using Diagnostic System Laboratories (DSL) Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) kit and reading was taken by ELISA reader. Lipid profile was determined on automated analyzers Selectra-2 and Vitros 5.1. Results: Amongst the 125 individuals, 41 individuals were without CAD whereas 84 individuals were having CAD. Mean PAPP-A levels were 0.74 +- 0.35 mIU/L in those without CAD whereas mean PAPP-A levels in those with CAD were 1.35 +- 0.57 mIU/L. The difference between the two groups was statistically significant (p < 0.001). A PAPP-A cut off level of 0.85 mIU/L had a sensitivity and specificity of 78% and 70% respectively for diagnosing atherosclerotic CAD. Conclusion: PAPP-A is a potentially relevant marker of the presence and extent of coronary atherosclerosis as its levels are elevated in CAD as compared to individuals without CAD. Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A. (author)

  10. How to calculate median Pregnancy-Associated Plasma Protein-A values to predict preeclampsia? Do We Need a Newer Formula?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burçin Karamustafaoğlu Balcı

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Preeclampsia is one of the major issues in maternal–fetal medicine. Early risk stratification may be beneficial, so is the aim of several researches. Our goal is to investigate whether PAPP-A MoM calculated for first trimester Down's syndrome screening or MoM calculated according to Ong’s formula can be used to predict the risk of preeclampsia or do we need another method to calculate PAPP-A MoM derived from non preeclamptic cases. Study Design: For this retrospective study, data of randomly selected 150 singleton pregnant women who did not develop preeclampsia are used to create a formula to calculate median value of PAPP-A. PAPP-A values of this subgroup are plotted against gestational age and curve fit analysis is done to determine best fitted regression line to get a formula to calculate median value of our cases. PAPP-A MoM values are calculated for each subject according to Ong’s formula and our formula. We already had MoM values derived from first trimester screening. ROC curve and Delong’s pairwise comparison analyses are used to investigate which MoM value is more predictive for preeclampsia. Results: Although the area under curve value of MoM values derived from this study was the highest, DeLong’s pairwise comparison analysis showed no statistically significant difference between the three curves. Conclusion: PAPP-A MoM calculation specific to preeclampsia does not seem to be necessary; PAPP-A MoM obtained from first trimester aneuploidy scan can be used to predict preeclampsia.

  11. Regional Morphology and Transport of PAMAM Dendrimers Across Isolated Rat Intestinal Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Dallin; Bond, Tanner; Ghandehari, Hamidreza

    2015-12-01

    Intestinal permeability of PAMAM dendrimers has been observed, giving rationale for their use in oral drug delivery as potential carriers of associated molecules. This study assessed the apparent permeability coefficients (Papp) of dendrimers across isolated rat intestinal regional mucosae, along with estimation of the maximum non-toxic concentration. Caco-2 monolayers were also used to assess the comparative Papp values between isolated mucosae and cell culture models. Concentrations from 0.1 to 10 mM of anionic and cationic dendrimers were tested in mucosae to assess their Papp, membrane TEER, [(14)C]-mannitol Papp, and histology. 0.1 mM concentrations of dendrimers were assessed over 120 min in Caco-2 cell monolayers as concentrations above that were cytotoxic. Jejunal transport of dendrimers was higher than transport in colonic epithelium. Monolayer Papp values of dendrimers were comparable to those of jejunal mucosae. Mucosae exposed to dendrimer concentrations of 10 mM for 120 min caused significant reduction in TEER and changes in tissue morphology; however, G3.5 was the only analogue that caused significant TEER reduction and morphological changes at 1 mM concentrations. Transport in jejunal mucosae appears to be the greatest indicating that the small intestinal will be the most likely region to target for oral drug delivery using PAMAM dendrimers. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. The Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability of Six Indole Alkaloids from Uncariae Ramulus Cum Uncis in the MDCK-pHaMDR Cell Monolayer Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Nan Zhang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Uncariae Ramulus Cum Uncis (URCU is a widely used traditional Chinese medicine, and is reported to have various central nervous system effects. Alkaloids have been demonstrated to be the predominant pharmacological active components of URCU. In order to evaluate the blood-brain barrier (BBB permeability and transport mechanism of six typical indole alkaloids from URCU, the MDCK-pHaMDR cell monolayer model was used as an in vitro surrogate model for BBB. The samples were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography, and the apparent permeability coefficients (Papp were calculated. Among the six alkaloids, isorhynchophylline (2, isocorynoxeine (4, hirsutine (5 and hirsuteine (6 showed high permeability, with Papp values at 10−5 cm/s level in bidirectional transport. For rhynchophylline (1 and corynoxeine (3, they showed moderate permeability, with Papp values from the apical (AP side to the basolateral (BL side at 10−6 cm/s level and efflux ratio (Papp BL→AP/Papp AP→BL above 2. The time- and concentration-dependency experiments indicated that the main mechanism for 2, 4, 5 and 6 through BBB was passive diffusion. The efflux mechanism involved in the transports of compounds 1 and 3 could be reduced significantly by verapamil, and molecular docking screening also showed that 1 and 3 had strong bindings to P-glycoprotein. This study provides useful information for predicting the BBB permeability for 1–6, as well as better understanding of their central nervous system pharmacological activities.

  13. Early Biochemical Screening for Fetal Aneuploidy in the First Trimester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørring, Niels

    2013-01-01

    Background Screening for fetal trisomy 21 in the first trimester includes analysis of the serological markers pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) and free beta human choriogonadotropin (free βhCG). With the recent launch of the PAPP-A free βhCG and assays on the Roche Cobas and Elecsys...... assays showed slopes of 0.94 and 0.95 and Pearson’s correlation of r = 0.981 and r = 0.987 respectively. Similar comparison to AutoDELFIA PerkinElmer Perkin gave slopes of 0,83 (free βhCG) and 1.20 (PAPP-A). With a cut off at 1:300 the overall sensitivity of the first trimester screening including nuchal...

  14. Engineering of dendrimer surfaces to enhance transepithelial transport and reduce cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jevprasesphant, Rachaneekorn; Penny, Jeffrey; Attwood, David; McKeown, Neil B; D'Emanuele, Antony

    2003-10-01

    To evaluate the cytotoxicity, permeation, and transport mechanisms of PAMAM dendrimers and surface-modified cationic PAMAM dendrimers using monolayers of the human colon adenocarcinoma cell line, Caco-2. Cytotoxicity was determined using the MTT assay. The effect of dendrimers on monolayer integrity was determined from measurements of transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and [14C]mannitol apparent permeability coefficient (Papp). The Papp of dendrimers through monolayers was measured in both the apical (A)-to-basolateral (B) and B --> A directions at 4 degrees C and 37 degrees C and also in the presence and absence of ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) and colchicine. The cytotoxicity and permeation of dendrimers increased with both concentration and generation. The cytotoxicity of cationic dendrimers (G2, G3, G4) was greater than that of anionic dendrimers (G2.5, G3.5) but was reduced by conjugation with lauroyl chloride: the least cytotoxic conjugates were those with six attached lauroyl chains. At 37 degrees C the Papp of cationic dendrimers was higher than that of anionic dendrimers and, in general, increased with the number of attached lipid chains. Cationic dendrimers decreased TEER and significantly increased the Papp of mannitol. Modified dendrimers also reduced TEER and caused a more marked increase in the Papp of mannitol. The Papp values of dendrimers and modified dendrimers were higher in the presence of EDTA, lower in the presence of colchicine, and lower at 4 degrees C than at 37 degrees C. The properties of dendrimers may be significantly modified by surface engineering. Conjugation of cationic PAMAM dendrimers with lauroyl chloride decreased their cytotoxicity and increased their permeation through Caco-2 cell monolayers. Both PAMAM dendrimers and lauroyl-PAMAM dendrimer conjugates can cross epithelial monolayers by paracellular and transcellular pathways.

  15. Levels of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A in patients with coronary heart diseases and clinic significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lingyan; Cai Gaojun; Zhang Wenwei; Wang Wenzhi; Sun Wenwei; Yan Weiqun

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationship between pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) and occurance, development of cardiovascular diseases, and lipids. Methods: 75 patients with coronary disease were divided into acute myocardial infarction (n=32), unstable angina pectoris (n=22) and stable angina pectoris (n=21) groups, and 60 subjects without coronary diseases were used as controls. The serum PAPP-A, IL-6, IL-10, lipids were measured in all patients and controls by different methods of enzymatically amplified two-step sandwith- type immunoassay, double antibody radio-immunoassay, ABC-HRP, auto biochemistic analytist. Results: (1) The level of PAPP-A in acute coronary syndrome (ACS, including acute myocardial infarction and unstable angina pectoris) patients was significantly higher than that in stable angina pectoris patients and controls (P<0.05). (2) There were significantly associations between PAPP-A and serum totle cholesterol, ApoA1/ApoB (r=0.348, 0.420, P<0.05). (3) The levels of IL-6 and IL-10 in coronary heart disease patients were significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.05), and the variations among acute myocardial infarction, unstable angina pectoris, stable angina pectoris patients were significantly (P<0.05). There were significantly associations between PAPP-A, IL-6 and IL-10 (Spearman r 0.446, 0.523, P<0.05). Conclusion: PAPP-A is significantly associated with occurance and development of coronary heart disease, probablely as a marker of unstable plaque in coronary heart disease. (authors)

  16. Intergenerational transmission of parenting styles of the Chinese living in Singapore

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, John; Kua, Ee Heok

    2017-01-01

    The study seeks to initiate a newly developed Personal and Parents’ Parenting Style Scale (PaPPS) to explore the mechanisms of intergenerational transmission between parental parenting style and personal parenting style in Asia. A total of 294 Chinese participants (67.4 ± 5.9 years old; 76% women; 7.0 ± 3.5 years of formal schooling) completed the PaPPS and a sociodemograhphic questionnaire. Findings suggest the distinct intergenerational transmission of parenting in an Asian population of im...

  17. Combined first- and second-trimester screening for Down syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Line; Wøjdemann, Karen R; Shalmi, Anne-Cathrine

    2003-01-01

    and their correlations, derived from our normal material and Down syndrome cases from the literature. RESULTS: Using a fixed screen-positive rate (SPR) of 5%, the first-trimester combined test [nuchal translucency (NT), PAPP-A and free beta-hCG] yielded a detection rate (DR) of 76%, and the integrated test (NT, PAPP......%. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that proMBP may be an important new marker in Down syndrome screening and, in particular, a good substitute for inhibin A....

  18. First trimester pregnancy-associated plasma protein A and human chorionic gonadotropin-beta in early and late pre-eclampsia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karahasanovic, Azra; Sørensen, Steen; Nilas, Lisbeth

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: The aim of this study was to compare pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) and the β-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCGβ) measured in maternal plasma at the first trimester screening, in women who later developed early or late pre-eclampsia (PE) to women...... with normal pregnancies. Methods: In the study were included 161 cases with PE and 88 controls with uncomplicated pregnancies. Plasma PAPP-A and hCGβ were measured between gestational age (GA) 8+2 and 14+0, and cases with early and late onset PE were compared with controls. Results: Median of hCGβ (Mo...

  19. Effect of passive smoking on the levels of pregnancy associated plasma protein-A in normal rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naveed, A.K.; Rahim, A.; Malik, M.S.

    2010-01-01

    To measure the levels of pregnancy associated plasma protein- A (PAPPA-A) in normal rats exposed to cigarette smoke. Sixty albino rats of Sprague- Dawley strain weighing 200-250 gm, divided into two groups. Both the groups were kept in identical chambers. One group of 30 rats was further exposed to passive cigarette smoke for 4 weeks. No increase was observed in the levels of serum PAPP-A of both the groups: Passive smokers and not exposed to passive smoking i.e. P > 0.05. Smoking does not increase the levels of PAPP-A. (author)

  20. First-trimester risk calculation for trisomy 13, 18, and 21: comparison of the screening efficiency between 2 locally developed programs and commercial software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Steen; Momsen, Günther; Sundberg, Karin

    2011-01-01

    Reliable individual risk calculation for trisomy (T) 13, 18, and 21 in first-trimester screening depends on good estimates of the medians for fetal nuchal translucency thickness (NT), free β-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCGβ), and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) in mate......Reliable individual risk calculation for trisomy (T) 13, 18, and 21 in first-trimester screening depends on good estimates of the medians for fetal nuchal translucency thickness (NT), free β-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCGβ), and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP...

  1. Etanercept Inhibits Pro-inflammatory Cytokines Expression in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research June 2015; 14 (6): 983-987 ... valuable as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of prosthetic loosening in humans. ... loosening and rheumatoid arthritis, we proposed ..... follow-up. Scand J Rheumatol 2013; 42: 437-444. 12. Papp KA, Tyring S, Lahfa M, Prinz J, Griffiths CE,.

  2. Rare and low-frequency coding variants alter human adult height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marouli, Eirini; Graff, Mariaelisa; Medina-Gomez, Carolina

    2017-01-01

    to 2 centimetres per allele (such as those in IHH, STC2, AR and CRISPLD2), greater than ten times the average effect of common variants. In functional follow-up studies, rare height-increasing alleles of STC2 (giving an increase of 1-2 centimetres per allele) compromised proteolytic inhibition of PAPP...

  3. First-trimester combined screening for Down syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Kasper; Sørensen, Tina Lindvig; Nørgaard Pedersen, Bent

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To establish the relationship between the first-trimester screening markers [pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A), free human chorionic gonadotrophin-beta (beta-hCG), nuchal translucency (NT)], the Down syndrome (DS) risk estimate, and the adverse outcomes such as low birth w...

  4. Intestinal Transport Characteristics and Metabolism of C-Glucosyl Dihydrochalcone, Aspalathin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Bowles

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Insight into the mechanisms of intestinal transport and metabolism of aspalathin will provide important information for dose optimisation, in particular for studies using mouse models. Aspalathin transportation across the intestinal barrier (Caco-2 monolayer tested at 1–150 µM had an apparent rate of permeability (Papp typical of poorly absorbed compounds (1.73 × 10−6 cm/s. Major glucose transporters, sodium glucose linked transporter 1 (SGLT1 and glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2, and efflux protein (P-glycoprotein, PgP (1.84 × 10−6 cm/s; efflux ratio: 1.1 were excluded as primary transporters, since the Papp of aspalathin was not affected by the presence of specific inhibitors. The Papp of aspalathin was also not affected by constituents of aspalathin-enriched rooibos extracts, but was affected by high glucose concentration (20.5 mM, which decreased the Papp value to 2.9 × 10−7 cm/s. Aspalathin metabolites (sulphated, glucuronidated and methylated were found in mouse urine, but not in blood, following an oral dose of 50 mg/kg body weight of the pure compound. Sulphates were the predominant metabolites. These findings suggest that aspalathin is absorbed and metabolised in mice to mostly sulphate conjugates detected in urine. Mechanistically, we showed that aspalathin is not actively transported by the glucose transporters, but presumably passes the monolayer paracellularly.

  5. Preparation and characterization of poly(AA co PVP)/PGS composite and its application for methylene blue adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cai-xia; Lei, Lei; Zhou, Peng-xin; Zhang, Zhe; Lei, Zi-qiang

    2015-04-01

    Poly (AA co PVP)/PGS (PAPP) composite adsorbent was prepared by radical polymerization from Acrylic acid (AA), Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and Palygorskite (PGS), using N,N-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) as cross-linker and potassium persulfate (KPS) as initiator. The PAPP was characterized with Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TG), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). PAPP was used as adsorbent for the removal of methylene blue from aqueous solutions. The influences of pH, adsorption temperature and adsorption time on the adsorption properties of the composite to the dye were also investigated. Meanwhile, the adsorption rate data and adsorption equilibrium date were analyzed based on the pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic model, Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models, respectively. The results indicating that the kinetic behavior better fit with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The maximum equilibrium adsorption capacity (q(m)) is 1815 mg/g at 289 K. The isotherm behavior can be explained by the Langmuir isotherm models. The activation energy was also evaluated for the removal of methylene blue onto PAPP. These results demonstrate that this composite material could be used as a good adsorbent for the removal of cationic dyes from wastewater. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Nuchal translucency measurements are highly correlated in both mono- and dichorionic twin pairs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wøjdemann, Karen R; Larsen, Severin Olesen; Shalmi, Anne-Cathrine

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To establish the distribution of serological and ultrasound first-trimester Down syndrome markers in twins and identify correlations of significance for risk calculation. METHODS: Nuchal translucency (NT), PAPP-A and betahCG data were extracted from 181 twin pregnancies (31 mono- and ...

  7. TIEN VAN DO

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Sadhana. TIEN VAN DO. Articles written in Sadhana. Volume 41 Issue 8 August 2016 pp 817-823. A closed-form solution for a two-server heterogeneous retrial queue with threshold policy · TIEN VAN DO DENES PAPP RAM CHAKKA JINTING WANG JANOS SZTRIK · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF.

  8. First trimester biochemistry in pregnancies conceived using assisted reproduction techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tabor, Ann; Ekelund, Charlotte; Nørgaard, Pernille

    Objective: To examine the effects of method of conception on first trimester PAPP-A and free beta-hCG and the dependency of gestational age at the time of sampling on these effects Methods: Data on more than 100 000 spontaneously conceived and on 6 859 pregnancies conceived by assisted reproducti...

  9. Pregnancy-associated plasma protein A gene polymorphism in pregnant women with preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultan Ozkan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia (PE and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR are still among the most commonly researched titles in perinatology. To shed light on their etiology, new prevention and treatment strategies are the major targets of studies. In this study, we aimed to investigate the relation between gene polymorphism of one of the products of trophoblasts, pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A and PE/IUGR.A total of 147 women (IUGR, n = 61; PE, n = 47; IUGR + PE, n = 37; eclampsia, n = 2 were compared with 103 controls with respect to the sequencing of exon 14 of the PAPP-A gene to detect (rs7020782 polymorphism. Genotypes “AA” and “CC” were given in the event of A or C allele homozygosity and “AC” in A and C allele heterozygosity. Our findings revealed that the rate of AA, CC homozygotes, and AC heterozygotes did not differ between groups. Moreover, there was no difference in the distribution of PAPP-A genotypes among the patients with IUGR, PE, IUGR + PE, or eclampsia. Finally, birth weight, rate of the presence of proteinuria, and total protein excretion on 24-hour urine were similar in the subgroups of AA, AC, and CC genotypes in the study group. Our study demonstrated no association between PAPP-A gene rs7020782 polymorphism and PE/IUGR.

  10. Impact of type 1 diabetes and glycemic control on fetal aneuploidy biochemical markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Helen Nordahl; Ekelund, Charlotte K; Tørring, Niels

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To determine the influence of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) on the first trimester serum markers of fetal aneuploidy; pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) and free beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (free β-hCG) and to evaluate the influence of glycemic control...... on these parameters in the pregnant diabetic women. Design. Retrospective study. Setting. Data were extracted from electronic obstetric and laboratory databases at two Danish University Hospitals. Population. Based on 36 415 pregnancies without T1DM (non-T1DM) and 331 pregnancies with T1DM; β-hCG and PAPP-A were...... across the T1DM and non-T1DM groups, respectively. Additionally, the relationship between PAPP-A MoM and HgbA1C was examined in 348 T1DM pregnancies by Spearman's rank correlation. Main outcome measures. Difference in biochemical marker levels between T1DM and non-T1DM. Results. PAPP-A was 0.86 MoM in T1...

  11. Impact of type 1 diabetes and glycemic control on fetal aneuploidy biochemical markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Helen Nordahl; Ekelund, Charlotte Kvist; Tørring, Niels

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the influence of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) on the first trimester serum markers of fetal aneuploidy; pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) and free beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (free β-hCG) and to evaluate the influence of glycemic control...... on these parameters in the pregnant diabetic women. Design: Retrospective study. Setting: Data were extracted from electronic obstetric and laboratory databases at two Danish University Hospitals. Population: Based on 36,415 pregnancies without T1DM (non-T1DM) and 331 pregnancies with T1DM; β-hCG and PAPP-A were...... across the T1DM and non-T1DM groups, respectively. Additionally, the relation between PAPP-A MoM and HgbA1C was examined in 348 T1DM pregnancies by Spearman’s rank correlation. Main outcome measure: Difference in biochemical marker levels between T1DM and non-T1DM. Results: PAPP-A was 0.86 MoM in T1DM...

  12. JPRS Report, Science & Technology Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-20

    Losonci, Istvan Mar- osi, Marta Meszaros, Katalin Mihalyi, Katalin Molnar, Judit Mori, Marta Muller, Imre Papp, Dora Kassai (Mrs Ruttner), Gabor...and chairman of the Applications Work Committee of the International Federation of Automatic Control, IFAC, by Szilard Szabo : "Control of the Future

  13. Detection of triploidy at 11-14 weeks of gestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelbrechtsen, Line; Brøndum-Nielsen, Karen; Ekelund, Charlotte Kvist

    2013-01-01

    included: Nuchal translucency (NT), maternal serum free β-human chorionic gonadotrophin (β-hCG) and pregnancy associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A). In all triploid fetuses FTS parameters were re-evaluated. Karyotypes were established by invasive testing (CVS or AC) or post abortem and obtained from...

  14. A substrate specificity-determining unit of three Lin12-Notch repeat modules is formed in trans within the pappalysin-1 dimer and requires a sequence stretch C-terminal to the third module

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weyer, Kathrin; Boldt, Henning B; Poulsen, Christine B

    2007-01-01

    -A cleaves IGFBP-4 and IGFBP-5, whereas PAPP-A2 cleaves only IGFBP-5. The pappalysins contain three Lin12-Notch repeat (LNR1-3) modules, previously considered unique to the Notch receptor family in which they function to regulate receptor cleavage. In contrast to the Notch receptor where three LNR modules...

  15. Pregnancy-associated plasma protein A gene polymorphism in pregnant women with preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Sultan; Sanhal, Cem Yasar; Yeniel, Ozgur; Arslan Ates, Esra; Ergenoglu, Mete; Bınbır, Birol; Onay, Huseyin; Ozkınay, Ferda; Sagol, Sermet

    2015-10-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) are still among the most commonly researched titles in perinatology. To shed light on their etiology, new prevention and treatment strategies are the major targets of studies. In this study, we aimed to investigate the relation between gene polymorphism of one of the products of trophoblasts, pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) and PE/IUGR.A total of 147 women (IUGR, n = 61; PE, n = 47; IUGR + PE, n = 37; eclampsia, n = 2) were compared with 103 controls with respect to the sequencing of exon 14 of the PAPP-A gene to detect (rs7020782) polymorphism. Genotypes "AA" and "CC" were given in the event of A or C allele homozygosity and "AC" in A and C allele heterozygosity. Our findings revealed that the rate of AA, CC homozygotes, and AC heterozygotes did not differ between groups. Moreover, there was no difference in the distribution of PAPP-A genotypes among the patients with IUGR, PE, IUGR + PE, or eclampsia. Finally, birth weight, rate of the presence of proteinuria, and total protein excretion on 24-hour urine were similar in the subgroups of AA, AC, and CC genotypes in the study group. Our study demonstrated no association between PAPP-A gene rs7020782 polymorphism and PE/IUGR. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  16. Temporal effects of maternal and pregnancy characteristics on serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A and free β-human chorionic gonadotropin at 7-14 weeks' gestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ball, S; Ekelund, C; Wright, D

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate gestational age-dependent effects of racial origin, smoking status and mode of conception on maternal serum levels of free β-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) at 7-14 weeks' gestation. METHODS...

  17. The effect of heparin on pregnancy associated plasma protein-A concentration in healthy, non-pregnant individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Camilla H B; Vestergaard, Kirstine R.; Schou, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine the differences in pregnancy associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) concentrations in heparin naive and heparin treated healthy men and non-pregnant women, to find a possible difference in different age groups, and to determine the response...

  18. Pregnancy associated plasma protein A, a novel, quick, and sensitive marker in ST-elevation myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, K.K.; Teisner, A.S.; Teisner, B.

    2008-01-01

    Traditional biomarkers in acute coronary syndromes reflect myocardial necrosis but not the underlying arteriosclerotic disease. Pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) is a new biomarker in acute coronary syndromes that detects vulnerable plaques in arteriosclerotic disease and identifies ...

  19. Longitudinal changes in C-reactive protein, proform of eosinophil major basic protein, and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A during weight changes in obese children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lausten-Thomsen, Ulrik; Gamborg, Michael; Bøjsøe, Christine

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity is associated with several complications, including cardiovascular comorbidity. Several biomarkers, such as high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), proform of eosinophil major basic protein (Pro-MBP) and pregnancy associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), have equally...

  20. Pregnancy associated plasma protein A, a potential marker for vulnerable plaque in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Kasper K; Teisner, Ane S; Teisner, Borge

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the presence and time-related pattern of circulating pregnancy associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) levels in patients with non ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS). DESIGN AND METHODS: Consecutively admitted patients (N=573) with clinical signs of NSTE-...

  1. Interaction of Stress and Anxiogenic Drugs on Behaviors of Rats and Antagonism with Indomethacin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-10-19

    also produces panic attacks. Hyperventilation produces respi ratory alkalosis and hypocapnea 22 (reduced CO2 tension in arterial blood) . and...minute stressor hyperventilated, a result would be hypocapnia and alkalosis (Guyton & Hall, 1996). Alkalosis is known to increase the binding of...neuroanatomical hypothesis for panic disorder. American Journal of Psychology, 146, 148-161 . Gorman, J.M., & Papp, LA (1990). Respiratory

  2. Relationship between first trimester aneuploidy screening test serum analytes and placenta accreta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büke, Barış; Akkaya, Hatice; Demir, Sibel; Sağol, Sermet; Şimşek, Deniz; Başol, Güneş; Barutçuoğlu, Burcu

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine whether there is a relationship between first trimester serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) and free beta human chorionic gonadotropin (fβhCG) MoM values and placenta accreta in women who had placenta previa. A total of 88 patients with placenta previa who had first trimester aneuploidy screening test results were enrolled in the study. Nineteen of these patients were also diagnosed with placenta accreta. As probable markers of excessive placental invasion, serum PAPP-A and fβhCG MoM values were compared in two groups with and without placenta accreta. Patients with placenta accreta had higher statistically significant serum PAPP-A (1.20 versus 0.865, respectively, p = 0.045) and fβhCG MoM (1.42 versus 0.93, respectively, p = 0.042) values than patients without accreta. Higher first trimester serum PAPP-A and fβhCG MoM values seem to be associated with placenta accreta in women with placenta previa. Further studies are needed to use these promising additional tools for early detection of placenta accreta.

  3. Improved prediction of gestational hypertension by inclusion of placental growth factor and pregnancy associated plasma protein-a in a sample of Ghanaian women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antwi, Edward; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin; Browne, Joyce L; Schielen, Peter C; Koram, Kwadwo A; Agyepong, Irene A; Grobbee, Diederick E

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We assessed whether adding the biomarkers Pregnancy Associated Plasma Protein-A (PAPP-A) and Placental Growth Factor (PlGF) to maternal clinical characteristics improved the prediction of a previously developed model for gestational hypertension in a cohort of Ghanaian pregnant women.

  4. First trimester screening for intra-uterine growth restriction and early-onset pre-eclampsia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandenberghe, G.; Mensink, I.; Twisk, J. W. R.; Blankenstein, M. A.; Heijboer, A. C.; van Vugt, J. M. G.

    2011-01-01

    To assess first trimester placental growth factor (PlGF) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) as screening markers for early-onset pre-eclampsia (PE) and intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR). PlGF concentration was retrospectively measured in first trimester serum specimens of 23

  5. First trimester screening for intra-uterine growth restriction and early-onset pre-eclampsia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandenberghe, G.; Mensink, I.; Twisk, J.W.; Blankenstein, M.A.; Heijboer, A.C.; van Vugt, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess first trimester placental growth factor (PlGF) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) as screening markers for early-onset pre-eclampsia (PE) and intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR). Methods: PlGF concentration was retrospectively measured in first trimester

  6. Improved first-trimester Down syndrome screening performance by lowering the false-positive rate: a prospective study of 9941 low-risk women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wøjdemann, K R; Shalmi, A C; Christiansen, M

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the performance of screening for Down syndrome (DS) and other major chromosomal abnormalities using nuchal translucency (NT), free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-hCG) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) in a prospective study of a non...

  7. Assessment of absorption of four lignan constituents of JingNing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To study small intestinal absorption of schisadrol A, schisandrol B, schizandrin A and schisandrin B in JingNing particles using in situ single-pass intestinal perfusion (SPIP). Methods: Absorption rate constant (Ka) and apparent permeability (Papp) of the drugs at different concentrations in various parts of rat small ...

  8. Double trisomy with 48, XXX+21 karyotype in a Down's syndrome ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    chromosomes in every well-spread G-banded metaphase plate. Some of these ... MacFaul R., Turner T. and Mason M. K. 1981 Down's/Turner's mo- saicism: double ... Papp Z., Osztovics M., Schular D., Mehes K., Czeizel E., Horvath. L. et al.

  9. Development of a μDissolution-Permeation model with in situ drug concentration monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelsen, Ragna; Byrialsen, Julie Pelle; Holm, René

    2016-01-01

    state biorelevant medium consisting of HBSS pH 6.5 supplemented with bile salts and lecithin was used as the apical dissolution media, while HBSS pH 7.4 was used as the basolateral medium. The apparent permeability (Papp) and dissolution-time profiles for albendazole, felodipine and fenofibrate were...

  10. The fitness of apps: a theory-based examination of mobile fitness app usage over 5 months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinsook

    2017-01-01

    Background There are thousands of fitness-related smartphone applications (“apps”) available for free and purchase, but there is uncertainty if these apps help individuals achieve and maintain personal fitness. Technology usage attrition is also a concern among research studies on health technologies. Methods Usage of three fitness apps was examined over 5 months to assess adherence and effectiveness. Initially, 64 participants downloaded three free apps available on Android and iOS and 47 remained in the study until posttest. With a one group pre-posttest design and checkpoints at months 1, 3, and 5, exercise and exercise with fitness apps were examined in the framework of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) using a validated survey. Apps were selected based on their function from the Functional Triad. Perceived fitness was also measured. T-tests, sign tests, Fisher’s exact tests, and linear and logistic regression were used to compare pre to posttests and users to non-users of the apps. Results Forty-seven participants completed both pre and posttests. Individual item scores indicated no significant change pre to posttest except for decreases observed in usefulness of using apps for exercise (attitude) (−0.78, Papps (subjective norm) (−1.02, Papps (perceived behavioral control) (−1.29, Papps over the next 2 weeks (behavioral intention) (Papps (−1.72, Papps (−2.56, Papp users (n=32) to non-users (n=15), there was only a significant difference in subscale total scores at posttest for attitude toward exercising using apps, which was significantly more favorable among users than non-users (32.3 vs. 27.6, PApp usage and effectiveness appears to have a connection to usefulness (attitude) and to perceived difficulties of exercising using apps (perceived behavioral control). Exercise and exercise using apps are not influenced by peer influence (subjective norm). Intention to exercise using these particular apps decreased (behavioral intention). Those who

  11. Paracellular transport of avidin saturated or not with biotinylated cobalamin through Caco-2 cell epithelium monolayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, M; Pons, L; Namour, F; de Nonancourt, M; Michalski, J C; Hatier, R; Guéant, J L

    2001-01-01

    The cationic charge of molecules may promote their uptake across epithelia, which are rich in brush border anionic sites. The transport of unsaturated avidin and avidin saturated with a biotinylated compound was investigated across Caco-2 adenocarcinoma cell with fetal enterocyte phenotype. The unsaturated avidin and avidin saturated with either biotin or a biotinyl-cobalamin conjugate (biotinyl-Cbl) were iodinated to follow their transport through the cell monolayer. Their apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) and transepithelial pathway were determined and compared to those for control radiolabeled markers [3H]-mannitol, [125I]-beta-lactoglobulin and [57Co]-cobalamin/intrinsic factor (Cbl/IF). The Papp of [125I]-avidin estimated at 2.8 x 10(-7) +/- 0.08 cm/s was close to that for mannitol that uses paracellular pathway. The binding of biotin or biotin conjugate to avidin enhanced its tetrameric conformation. The Papp for [125I]-avidin/biotin and [125I]- avidin/biotinyl-Cbl were respectively increased by 2-fold, compared to that for [125I]-avidin and 4-fold, compared to that for [125I]-beta-lactoglobulin and [54Co]-Cbl/IF. The protein was not accumulated in the cell and was found in intact form in the basolateral side, after its transport across the monolayer. Chloroquine (0.66 micromol/ml) did not significantly decrease the Papp for [125I]-avidin/biotinyl-Cbl. Conversely it decreased by 80% the Papp for Cbl/IF, that uses transepithelial pathway. Avidin (either saturated or not with biotin and biotinyl-Cbl) was able to cross the monolayer of Caco-2 cell line through a paracellular pathway. This study pointed out the interest for using this protein as a shuttle for increasing the transport rate of biotinylated compounds through fetal epithelial barriers. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

  12. Evaluation of Serum Levels of Pregnancy Associated Plasma Protein-A, Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha and Highly Sensitive C-Reactive Protein in Diabetic Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Messeih, PH.L.; El-safie, A.I.; Said, A.I.

    2011-01-01

    Recent evidence favours the primary role of cellular auto immunity and its humoral mediators in the pathogenesis and follow up of children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (type 1 DM). The present study is carried out to investigate serum levels of pregnancy associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha ) and highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in children with type 1 DM. Potential role of body mass index (BMI) was evaluated. Circulating levels of TNF-alpha, PAPP-A and hs-CRP are significantly increased in children with type 1 DM as compared with healthy subjects suggesting activation of inflammatory immune response system. A significant negative correlation was obtained between TNF-alpha and BMI in diabetic patients. This is highly suggestive of the availability of these non invasive indices to help further examining type 1 DM pathophysiology and monitoring pharmacological interventions to interfere with disease development and progression.

  13. First trimester serum placental growth factor and hyperglycosylated human chorionic gonadotropin are associated with pre-eclampsia: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keikkala, Elina; Koskinen, Sini; Vuorela, Piia; Laivuori, Hannele; Romppanen, Jarkko; Heinonen, Seppo; Stenman, Ulf-Håkan

    2016-11-25

    To study whether maternal serum hyperglycosylated human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG-h) improves first trimester prediction of pre-eclampsia when combined with placental growth factor (PlGF), pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) and maternal risk factors. Gestational-age-adjusted concentrations of hCG, hCG-h, PlGF and PAPP-A were analysed in serum samples by time-resolved immunofluorometric assays at 8-13 weeks of gestation. The case-control study included 98 women who developed pre-eclampsia, 25 who developed gestational hypertension, 41 normotensive women with small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants and 177 controls. Of 98 women with pre-eclampsia, 24 women developed preterm pre-eclampsia (diagnosis factors.

  14. Gender impact on first trimester markers in Down syndrome screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Severin Olesen; Wøjdemann, Karen R; Shalmi, Anne-Cathrine

    2002-01-01

    The influence of fetal gender on the level in the first trimester of the serological markers alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) and free beta human chorionic gonadotropin (betahCG) and on nuchal translucency is described for 2637 singleton pregnancies with nor......The influence of fetal gender on the level in the first trimester of the serological markers alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) and free beta human chorionic gonadotropin (betahCG) and on nuchal translucency is described for 2637 singleton pregnancies...... with normal outcome. Mean log MoM values for pregnancies with female and male fetuses were calculated using regression of log marker values on gestational age expressed as crown rump length and on maternal weight. A pronounced gender impact was found for free betahCG, being 16% higher for female than for male...

  15. Multivariate analysis identifies the estradiol level at ovulation triggering as an independent predictor of the first trimester pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A level in IVF/ICSI pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgetti, C; Vanden Meerschaut, F; De Roo, C; Saunier, O; Quarello, E; Hairion, D; Penaranda, G; Chabert-Orsini, V; De Sutter, P

    2013-10-01

    Can independent predictors of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) levels be identified in a group of women who conceived following IVF/ICSI? The significantly decreased PAPP-A level in IVF and ICSI pregnancies compared with non-IVF/ICSI pregnancies was correlated strongly with the serum estradiol (E2) level at ovulation triggering. The first trimester prenatal combined screening test for fetal aneuploidies in pregnancies conceived following assisted reproduction techniques (ART) is complicated by an alteration of the maternal biomarkers free β-hCG and PAPP-A, causing a higher false-positive rate compared with pregnancies which are conceived naturally. The use of controlled ovarian stimulation prior to IVF/ICSI is suggested to be the principle reason for these alterations of biomarkers in ART pregnancies. Between January 2010 and December 2011, 1474 women who conceived naturally and 374 women who conceived following IVF (n = 89), ICSI (n = 204) or intrauterine insemination (IUI, n = 81) were included in this retrospective study. Only singleton pregnancies were eligible for this study. For all women, serum analysis was performed in the same clinical laboratory. Measurement of nuchal translucency (NT) thickness was performed by four physicians belonging to the same infertility centre. First-trimester combined screening test of aneuploidy parameters (maternal age, PAPP-A and free β-hCG, NT thickness) were compared between non-ART and ART (IVF, ICSI and IUI) singleton pregnancies. Next, a minimal threshold E2 level at ovulation triggering was suggested for IVF/ICSI pregnancies above which the PAPP-A levels were significantly decreased compared with non-ART pregnancies. Finally, a multivariate analysis was performed to reveal independent predictors of PAPP-A level in IVF/ICSI pregnancies. We showed a decrease of the multiple of the median (MoM) PAPP-A level in IVF and ICSI singleton pregnancies compared with non-ART singleton pregnancies (P IVF and ICSI

  16. Amelioration of azoxymethane induced-carcinogenesis by reducing oxidative stress in rat colon by natural extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waly, Mostafa I; Al-Rawahi, Amani S; Al Riyami, Marwa; Al-Kindi, Mohamed A; Al-Issaei, Halima K; Farooq, Sardar A; Al-Alawi, Ahmed; Rahman, Mohammad S

    2014-02-18

    Azoxymethane (AOM) is a potent carcinogenic agent commonly used to induce colon cancer in rats; the cytotoxicity of AOM is considered to mediate oxidative stress. This study investigated the chemopreventive effect of three natural extracts [pomegranate peel extract (PomPE), papaya peel extract (PapPE) and seaweed extract (SE)] against AOM-induced oxidative stress and carcinogenesis in rat colon. Eighty Sprague-Dawley rats (aged 4 weeks) were randomly divided into 8 groups (10 rats/group). Control group was fed a basal diet; AOM-treated group was fed a basal diet and received AOM intraperitonial injections for two weeks at a dose of 15 mg/kg bodyweight, whereas the other six groups were received oral supplementation of PomPE, PapPE or SE, in the presence or absence of AOM injection. All animals were continuously fed ad-libitum until aged 16 weeks, then all rats were sacrificed and the colon tissues were examined microscopically for pathological changes and aberrant crypt foci (ACF) development, genotoxicity (induced micronuclei (MN) cells enumeration), and glutathione and lipid peroxidation. Our results showed that AOM-induced ACF development and pathological changes in the colonic mucosal tissues, increased bone marrow MN cells and oxidative stress (glutathione depletion, lipid peroxidation) in rat colonic cells. The concomitant treatment of AOM with PomPE, PapPE or SE significantly ameliorated the cytotoxic effects of AOM. The results of this study provide in-vivo evidence that PomPE, PapPE and SE reduced the AOM-induced colon cancer in rats, through their potent anti-oxidant activities.

  17. Normative weight-adjusted models for the median levels of first trimester serum biomarkers for trisomy 21 screening in a specific ethnicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ounjai Kor-Anantakul

    Full Text Available To establish normative weight-adjusted models for the median levels of first trimester serum biomarkers for trisomy 21 screening in southern Thai women, and to compare these reference levels with Caucasian-specific and northern Thai models.A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1,150 normal singleton pregnancy women to determine serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A and free β-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG concentrations in women from southern Thailand. The predicted median values were compared with published equations for Caucasians and northern Thai women.The best-fitting regression equations for the expected median serum levels of PAPP-A (mIU/L and free β- hCG (ng/mL according to maternal weight (Wt in kg and gestational age (GA in days were: [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] Both equations were selected with a statistically significant contribution (p< 0.05. Compared with the Caucasian model, the median values of PAPP-A were higher and the median values of free β-hCG were lower in the southern Thai women. And compared with the northern Thai models, the median values of both biomarkers were lower in southern Thai women.The study has successfully developed maternal-weight- and gestational-age-adjusted median normative models to convert the PAPP-A and free β-hCG levels into their Multiple of Median equivalents in southern Thai women. These models confirmed ethnic differences.

  18. The Insulin-Like Growth Factor System in the Long-Lived Naked Mole-Rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malene Brohus

    Full Text Available Naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber (NMRs are the longest living rodents known. They show negligible senescence, and are resistant to cancers and certain damaging effects associated with aging. The insulin-like growth factors (IGFs have pluripotent actions, influencing growth processes in virtually every system of the body. They are established contributors to the aging process, confirmed by the demonstration that decreased IGF signaling results in life-extending effects in a variety of species. The IGFs are likewise involved in progression of cancers by mediating survival signals in malignant cells. This report presents a full characterization of the IGF system in the NMR: ligands, receptors, IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs, and IGFBP proteases. A particular emphasis was placed on the IGFBP protease, pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A, shown to be an important lifespan modulator in mice. Comparisons of IGF-related genes in the NMR with human and murine sequences indicated no major differences in essential parts of the IGF system, including PAPP-A. The protease was shown to possess an intact active site despite the report of a contradictory genome sequence. Furthermore, PAPP-A was expressed and translated in NMRs cells and retained IGF-dependent proteolytic activity towards IGFBP-4 and IGF-independent activity towards IGFBP-5. However, experimental data suggest differential regulatory mechanisms for PAPP-A expression in NMRs than those described in humans and mice. This overall description of the IGF system in the NMR represents an initial step towards elucidating the complex molecular mechanisms underlying longevity, and how these animals have evolved to ensure a delayed and healthy aging process.

  19. Desconstruindo a política científica no Brasil: evolução da descentralização da política de apoio à pesquisa e inovação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Botelho

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa a trajetória e impacto institucional regional das duas principais políticas federais descentralizadas de apoio à ciência, tecnologia e inovação (CT&I: uma voltada para cooperação universidade-indústria (PAPPE e outra para o financiamento à inovação nas MPEs (PAPPE Subvenção. Ele explora a aprendizagem de política pública das unidades da federação e de instituições regionais parceiras, bem como a transformação de seus arranjos institucionais e estruturas de governança. A pesquisa conclui que a rápida ascensão da política de inovação e as exigências estruturais e de processo que se impuseram ao Estado brasileiro, alteraram radicalmente o escopo, a forma e a função da política federal de apoio à pesquisa, contribuindo para a desconstrução da política centralizadora de CT&I.This article analyses the trajectory and the regional institutional impact of the two main decentralized federal support policies for science, technology and innovation (ST&I: one aimed at university-industry cooperation (PAPPE and another towards the MSE innovation financing (PAPPE Subvenção. It explores the learning of public policy on federative units and their regional institutional partners, as well as its transformation in institutional arrangements and governance structures. The research concludes that the rapid growth of innovation policy in the ST&I agenda and the structural and process requirements it imposed upon the Brazilian State and its federative units radically altered the scope, the form and the function of the federal policy of researching support, contributing to the deconstruction of the centralizing ST&I policy.

  20. Pink-line syndrome

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ravindran J.; Raghukumar, C.; Manikandan, B.

    , a physiological crisis in the scleractinian coral Porites lutea. Marine biology 149: 347-356 7. Ravindran J, Raghukumar C (2006a) Histological observations on the scleractinian coral Porites lutea affected by pink-line syndrome. Current science... handbook: guidelines for assessment and monitoring. Currie Communications, Melbourne, Australia, 94p+App 10. Vargas-Angel B, Wheeler B (2009) Coral health and disease assessment in the US Pacific territories and affiliated states. Proc. 11th Coral Reef...

  1. Using redescription mining to relate clinical and biological characteristics of cognitively impaired and Alzheimer's disease patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Mihelčić

    Full Text Available Based on a set of subjects and a collection of attributes obtained from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative database, we used redescription mining to find interpretable rules revealing associations between those determinants that provide insights about the Alzheimer's disease (AD. We extended the CLUS-RM redescription mining algorithm to a constraint-based redescription mining (CBRM setting, which enables several modes of targeted exploration of specific, user-constrained associations. Redescription mining enabled finding specific constructs of clinical and biological attributes that describe many groups of subjects of different size, homogeneity and levels of cognitive impairment. We confirmed some previously known findings. However, in some instances, as with the attributes: testosterone, ciliary neurotrophic factor, brain natriuretic peptide, Fas ligand, the imaging attribute Spatial Pattern of Abnormalities for Recognition of Early AD, as well as the levels of leptin and angiopoietin-2 in plasma, we corroborated previously debatable findings or provided additional information about these variables and their association with AD pathogenesis. Moreover, applying redescription mining on ADNI data resulted with the discovery of one largely unknown attribute: the Pregnancy-Associated Protein-A (PAPP-A, which we found highly associated with cognitive impairment in AD. Statistically significant correlations (p ≤ 0.01 were found between PAPP-A and clinical tests: Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale, Clinical Dementia Rating Sum of Boxes, Mini Mental State Examination, etc. The high importance of this finding lies in the fact that PAPP-A is a metalloproteinase, known to cleave insulin-like growth factor binding proteins. Since it also shares similar substrates with A Disintegrin and the Metalloproteinase family of enzymes that act as α-secretase to physiologically cleave amyloid precursor protein (APP in the non-amyloidogenic pathway

  2. Permeability of surface modified polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers across Caco-2 cell monolayers

    OpenAIRE

    Yellepeddi, Venkata K.; Pisal, Dipak S.; Kumar, Ajay; Kaushik, Radhey S.; Hildreth, Michael B.; Guan, Xiangming; Palakurthi, Srinath

    2007-01-01

    Aim of this study was to prepare polyamine-conjugated PAMAM dendrimers and study their permeability across Caco-2 cell monolayers. Polyamines, namely, arginine and ornithine were conjugated to the amine terminals of the G4 PAMAM dendrimers by Fmoc synthesis. The apical-to-basolateral (AB) and basolateral-to-apical (BA) apparent permeability coefficients (Papp) for the PAMAM dendrimers increased by conjugating the dendrimers with both of the polyamines. The enhancement in permeability was depe...

  3. The Insulin-Like Growth Factor System in the Long-Lived Naked Mole-Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brohus, Malene; Gorbunova, Vera; Faulkes, Chris G; Overgaard, Michael T; Conover, Cheryl A

    2015-01-01

    Naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber) (NMRs) are the longest living rodents known. They show negligible senescence, and are resistant to cancers and certain damaging effects associated with aging. The insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) have pluripotent actions, influencing growth processes in virtually every system of the body. They are established contributors to the aging process, confirmed by the demonstration that decreased IGF signaling results in life-extending effects in a variety of species. The IGFs are likewise involved in progression of cancers by mediating survival signals in malignant cells. This report presents a full characterization of the IGF system in the NMR: ligands, receptors, IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs), and IGFBP proteases. A particular emphasis was placed on the IGFBP protease, pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), shown to be an important lifespan modulator in mice. Comparisons of IGF-related genes in the NMR with human and murine sequences indicated no major differences in essential parts of the IGF system, including PAPP-A. The protease was shown to possess an intact active site despite the report of a contradictory genome sequence. Furthermore, PAPP-A was expressed and translated in NMRs cells and retained IGF-dependent proteolytic activity towards IGFBP-4 and IGF-independent activity towards IGFBP-5. However, experimental data suggest differential regulatory mechanisms for PAPP-A expression in NMRs than those described in humans and mice. This overall description of the IGF system in the NMR represents an initial step towards elucidating the complex molecular mechanisms underlying longevity, and how these animals have evolved to ensure a delayed and healthy aging process.

  4. Using redescription mining to relate clinical and biological characteristics of cognitively impaired and Alzheimer’s disease patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihelčić, Matej; Šimić, Goran; Babić Leko, Mirjana; Lavrač, Nada; Džeroski, Sašo; Šmuc, Tomislav

    2017-01-01

    Based on a set of subjects and a collection of attributes obtained from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative database, we used redescription mining to find interpretable rules revealing associations between those determinants that provide insights about the Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We extended the CLUS-RM redescription mining algorithm to a constraint-based redescription mining (CBRM) setting, which enables several modes of targeted exploration of specific, user-constrained associations. Redescription mining enabled finding specific constructs of clinical and biological attributes that describe many groups of subjects of different size, homogeneity and levels of cognitive impairment. We confirmed some previously known findings. However, in some instances, as with the attributes: testosterone, ciliary neurotrophic factor, brain natriuretic peptide, Fas ligand, the imaging attribute Spatial Pattern of Abnormalities for Recognition of Early AD, as well as the levels of leptin and angiopoietin-2 in plasma, we corroborated previously debatable findings or provided additional information about these variables and their association with AD pathogenesis. Moreover, applying redescription mining on ADNI data resulted with the discovery of one largely unknown attribute: the Pregnancy-Associated Protein-A (PAPP-A), which we found highly associated with cognitive impairment in AD. Statistically significant correlations (p ≤ 0.01) were found between PAPP-A and clinical tests: Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale, Clinical Dementia Rating Sum of Boxes, Mini Mental State Examination, etc. The high importance of this finding lies in the fact that PAPP-A is a metalloproteinase, known to cleave insulin-like growth factor binding proteins. Since it also shares similar substrates with A Disintegrin and the Metalloproteinase family of enzymes that act as α-secretase to physiologically cleave amyloid precursor protein (APP) in the non-amyloidogenic pathway, it could

  5. Using redescription mining to relate clinical and biological characteristics of cognitively impaired and Alzheimer's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihelčić, Matej; Šimić, Goran; Babić Leko, Mirjana; Lavrač, Nada; Džeroski, Sašo; Šmuc, Tomislav

    2017-01-01

    Based on a set of subjects and a collection of attributes obtained from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative database, we used redescription mining to find interpretable rules revealing associations between those determinants that provide insights about the Alzheimer's disease (AD). We extended the CLUS-RM redescription mining algorithm to a constraint-based redescription mining (CBRM) setting, which enables several modes of targeted exploration of specific, user-constrained associations. Redescription mining enabled finding specific constructs of clinical and biological attributes that describe many groups of subjects of different size, homogeneity and levels of cognitive impairment. We confirmed some previously known findings. However, in some instances, as with the attributes: testosterone, ciliary neurotrophic factor, brain natriuretic peptide, Fas ligand, the imaging attribute Spatial Pattern of Abnormalities for Recognition of Early AD, as well as the levels of leptin and angiopoietin-2 in plasma, we corroborated previously debatable findings or provided additional information about these variables and their association with AD pathogenesis. Moreover, applying redescription mining on ADNI data resulted with the discovery of one largely unknown attribute: the Pregnancy-Associated Protein-A (PAPP-A), which we found highly associated with cognitive impairment in AD. Statistically significant correlations (p ≤ 0.01) were found between PAPP-A and clinical tests: Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale, Clinical Dementia Rating Sum of Boxes, Mini Mental State Examination, etc. The high importance of this finding lies in the fact that PAPP-A is a metalloproteinase, known to cleave insulin-like growth factor binding proteins. Since it also shares similar substrates with A Disintegrin and the Metalloproteinase family of enzymes that act as α-secretase to physiologically cleave amyloid precursor protein (APP) in the non-amyloidogenic pathway, it could be

  6. Ideed, mis muudavad maailma

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2012-01-01

    Noorte ettevõtluskonkursi Ajujaht finalistidest: Richard Murutar (Dolphin), Andrus Purde (Achoo), Kalev Külaase, Ülane Vilumets, Rait Kapp (Kohalik Giid), Mart Raus, Vahur Mäe (Grillcube), Dmitri Kuznetsov, Anna Agronova, Julia Abolina, Anatoly Loginov (Healthiest.mobi), Karin Juhe, Karin Aruots (Korsid), Raino Sinisalu, Märt Pikkani, Arkadi Tammik, Varje Papp (Raybike), Egle Loit, Kair Käsper (Pille toidukott)

  7. The Framework for an Information Technology Strategic Roadmap for the United States Marine Corps: How Current Acquisitions Align to the Current Strategic Direction of the Department of Defense, Department of the Navy, and United States Marine Corps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK xv ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We would like to thank Mr. Clint Swett (Director, Technology Services Organization, DFAS- KC ) and...Major Jeffrey Thiry (Deputy Director, Technology Services Organization, DFAS- KC ) for their help and support. Their guidance proved invaluable in... Teo (1996) define alignment as the “coordination between the business and IS planning functions and activities”. Luftman, Papp and Brier (1999

  8. Testing the absorption of the extracts of Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt. in the intestinal canal in rats using an Ussing chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Aierken, Guzhalinuer; Li, Xinxia; Li, Linlin; Mao, Xinmin

    2016-06-20

    Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt mainly distributed in Hetian region of Xinjiang at an altitude of 3000m, which is used as Uyghur traditional medicine because of its clearing heat, promoting circulation and removing toxicity and antihypertension, ect. effect. This research was to study the four ingredients in the extracts of Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt. that are absorbed in different intestinal segments in rats to lay the foundation for further study on the effective constituents, tissue distribution, metabolism, and spectrum-effect relationships of these extracts. High, medium, and low concentrations were prepared according to their pharmacological effects. Quantitative analysis multi-components by single marker was used to test the cumulative absorption volume Q, absorption rate constant Ka, and apparent permeability coefficient Papp of the four main ingredients in C. tinctoria Nutt. extract in different intestinal segments in rats using a Ussing chamber model and high-performance liquid chromatography. The Papp of chlorogenic acid and flavanomarein in the duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and colon were 1.0×10(-6) to 10×10(-6)cms(-1). Papp of marein in the duodenum and jejunum was <1.0×10(-6), and was 1.0×10(-6) to 10×10(-6)cms(-1) in the ileum and colon. Papp of 3,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid in the duodenum was <1.0×10(-6)cms(-1), while it was 1.0×(1)0(-6) to 10×10(-6)cms(-1) in the jejunum, ileum, and colon. All four chemical components of the plant extract can be absorbed by the intestinal canal of rats, which conforms to zero-order absorption; the ileum presented the best absorption. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. In Vitro Bioavailability Study of an Antiviral Compound Enisamium Iodide

    OpenAIRE

    Eleonore Haltner-Ukomadu; Svitlana Gureyeva; Oleksii Burmaka; Andriy Goy; Lutz Mueller; Grygorii Kostyuk; Victor Margitich

    2018-01-01

    An investigation into the biopharmaceutics classification and a study of the in vitro bioavailability (permeability and solubility) of the antiviral compound enisamium iodide (4-(benzylcarbamoyl)-1-methylpyridinium iodide) were carried out. The solubility of enisamium iodide was determined in four different buffers. Apparent intestinal permeability (Papp) of enisamium iodide was assessed using human colon carcinoma (Caco-2) cells at three concentrations. The solubility of enisamium iodide in ...

  10. Changes in the Arctic: Background and Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-12

    Representative for the Arctic,” Press Statement, John Kerry, Secretary of State, Washington, DC , July 16, 2014, accessed July 17, 2014, at http...Shared Opportunities, Challenges, and Responsibilities,” accessed September 29, 2015, at http://www.state.gov/e/oes/ocns/opa/ arc /uschair/index.htm...25, 2015, at http://www.state.gov/e/oes/ocns/opa/ arc /uschair/248957.htm. —Statement of Admiral Robert J. Papp, Jr., Special Representative for the

  11. Bioaccessibility, Intestinal Permeability and Plasma Stability of Isorhamnetin Glycosides from Opuntia ficus-indica (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes-Ricardo, Marilena; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, César; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A; Cepeda-Cañedo, Eduardo; Serna-Saldívar, Sergio O

    2017-08-22

    Isorhamnetin glycosides are representative compounds of Opuntia ficus-indica that possess different biological activities. There is slight information about the changes in bioaccessibility induced by the glycosylation pattern of flavonoids, particularly for isorhamnetin. In this study, the bioaccessibility and permeability of isorhamnetin glycosides extracted from O. ficus-indica were contrasted with an isorhamnetin standard. Also, the plasma stability of these isorhamnetin glycosides after intravenous administration in rats was evaluated. Recoveries of isorhamnetin after oral and gastric digestion were lower than that observed for its glycosides. After intestinal digestion, isorhamnetin glycosides recoveries were reduced to less than 81.0%. The apparent permeability coefficient from apical (AP) to basolateral (BL) direction (Papp (AP-BL) ) of isorhamnetin was 2.6 to 4.6-fold higher than those obtained for its glycosides. Isorhamnetin diglycosides showed higher Papp (AP-BL) values than triglycosides. Sugar substituents affected the Papp (AP-BL) of the triglycosides. Isorhamnetin glycosides were better retained in the circulatory system than the aglycone. After intravenous dose of the isorhamnetin standard, the elimination half-life was 0.64 h but increased to 1.08 h when the O. ficus-indica extract was administered. These results suggest that isorhamnetin glycosides naturally found in O. ficus-indica could be a controlled delivery system to maintain a constant plasmatic concentration of this important flavonoid to exert its biological effects in vivo.

  12. Acamprosate permeability across Caco-2 cell monolayer is predominantly paracellular

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonescu, Irina-Elena; Steffansen, Bente

    support area, thickness, and porosity). Results. The mean (± SD) Papp, exp of acamprosate and [14C]-mannitol across Caco-2 cell monolayers was measured as 0.19 ± 0.07 x 10-6 cm/s (n = 2, N = 3) and 0.35 ± 0.17 x 10-6 cm/s (n = 3, N = 4), respectively. Acamprosate PUBL and Pf were estimated as 200 - 3150 x...... role in acamprosate permeability, as only a very low fraction of acamprosate is in the neutral form at pH 7.4. The estimated acamprosate Ppara accounts for nearly 100% of the mathematically determined acamprosate Papp, calc (0.20 ± 0.10 x 10-6 cm/s), which matches well with the experimentally...... to the overall acamprosate apparent permeability. Methods. Acamprosate apparent permeability (Papp, exp) was determined across Caco-2 monolayers in the apical-to-basolateral transport direction using a buffer pH of 7.4 and several cell passages (N). Acamprosate concentrations were quantified by LC...

  13. High permeation rates in liposome systems explain rapid glyphosate biodegradation associated with strong isotope fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrl, Benno; Mogusu, Emmanuel O; Kim, Kyoungtea; Hofstetter, Heike; Pedersen, Joel A; Elsner, Martin

    2018-05-23

    Bacterial uptake of charged organic pollutants such as the widely used herbicide glyphosate is typically attributed to active transporters, whereas passive membrane permeation as an uptake pathway is usually neglected. For 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) liposomes, pH-dependent membrane permeation coefficients (Papp) of glyphosate, determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, varied from Papp(pH 7.0) = 3.7 (+/-0.3) × 10-7 m∙s-1 to Papp(pH 4.1) = 4.2 (+/-0.1) × 10-6 m∙s-1. This surprisingly rapid membrane permeation depended on glyphosate speciation and was, at physiological pH, in the range of polar, non-charged molecules suggesting that passive membrane permeation is a potential uptake pathway during glyphosate biodegradation. To test this hypothesis, a Gram-negative glyphosate degrader, Ochrobactrum sp. FrEM, was isolated from glyphosate-treated soil and glyphosate permeation rates inferred from the liposome model were compared to bacterial degradation rates. Estimated maximum permeation rates were, indeed, two orders of magnitudes higher than glyphosate degradation rates. Moreover, biodegradation of millimolar glyphosate concentrations gave rise to pronounced carbon isotope fractionation with an apparent kinetic isotope effect of AKIEcarbon= 1.014 ± 0.003. This value is consistent with unmasked enzymatic isotope fractionation demonstrating that glyphosate biodegradation was little mass transfer-limited and glyphosate exchange across the cell membrane was rapid relative to enzymatic turnover.

  14. Evaluation of Some Inflammatory and Biochemical Markers in Acute Coronary Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Messeih, PH.L.; Nossier, N.M.; Mansour, H.H.

    2012-01-01

    The term acute coronary syndrome (ACS) encompasses a range of thrombotic coronary artery diseases, including unstable angina (UA) and both ST-segment elevation (STEMI) and non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). Bio markers play an important role in the diagnosis of non-ST-elevation ACS (NSTE-ACS) including unstable angina and non-STEMI. Among these, cardiac troponin and creatine phosphokinase myocardial band appeared to be the most sensitive and specific markers of myocardial injury. The important role of inflammatory processes in the development and progression of atherosclerosis has been clearly established. Different circulating inflammatory bio markers indicating the instability of atherosclerotic plaque have been identified and serve as diagnostic tools for the identification of patients with unstable angina or acute myocardial infarction and to identify risk patients. The present study was carried out on twenty patients with (NSTE-ACS). The level of serum troponin I (cTnI), creatine phosphokinase-total (CPK-T), myocardial band of creatine phosphokinase (CPK-MB), pregnancy associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) and highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were determined. The results showed increase in the level of cardiac bio markers (cTnI, CPK-MB, CPK-T) and inflammatory markers (PAPP-A, hsCRP). It could be concluded that the increase in inflammatory markers correlate especially PAPP-A in NSTE-ACS with the increase of cardiac bio markers

  15. Long term influence of regular intake of high dose n-3 fatty acids on CD40-ligand, pregnancy-associated plasma protein A and matrix metalloproteinase-9 following acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarsetøy, Hildegunn; Brügger-Andersen, Trygve; Hetland, Øyvind; Grundt, Heidi; Nilsen, Dennis W T

    2006-02-01

    Pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), both zinc-binding endopeptidases, are abundantly expressed in ruptured and eroded plaques in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). The adhesion molecule CD-40 ligand (CD40L), expressed on activated platelets and T-lymphocytes, can activate metalloproteinases and thereby promote plaque-rupture. N-3 fatty acids, through their anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombotic properties, might reduce the levels of these proatherosclerotic markers and thereby the development of ACS. 300 patients were randomized on day 4 to 6 following an acute myocardial infarction (MI) to receive either 4 g of n-3 fatty acids or a similar daily dose of corn oil for at least one year. We compared levels of PAPP-A, MMP-9 and sCD-40 L at baseline and 12 months in each group, and also looked for inter-group changes. In the omega-3 group, the median level of PAPP-A rose from 0.47 mU/l to 0.56 mU/l (p < 0.001). In the same group, sCD-40 L decreased from a mean baseline value of 5.19 ng/ml to 2.45 ng/ml (p < 0.001) and MMP-9 decreased nonsignificantly from 360.50 ng/ml to 308.00 ng/ml. Corresponding values for the corn oil group were 0.54 mU/l to 0.59 mU/l for PAPP-A (p = 0.007), 5.27 ng/ml to 2.84 ng/ml for sCD-40 L (p < 0.001) and 430.00 ng/ml to 324.00 ng/ml for MMP-9 (p = ns), respectively. In conclusion; both interventions resulted in a significant rise in PAPP-A, a significant decrease in sCD40L and a non-significant decrease in MMP-9 after 12 months of treatment in MI survivors. No inter-group differences were noted.

  16. Study of Absorption Characteristics of the Total Saponins from Radix Ilicis Pubescentis in an In Situ Single-Pass Intestinal Perfusion (SPIP Rat Model by Using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guojun Kuang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to the extensively reported therapeutic activities, far less attention has been paid to the intestinal absorption of the total saponins from Radix Ilicis Pubescentis (in Chinese Mao-Dong-Qing, MDQ. This study aimed to investigate the intestinal absorption characteristics of ilexgenin A (C1, ilexsaponin A1 (C2, ilexsaponin B1 (C3, ilexsaponin B2 (C4, ilexsaponin B3 (DC1, and ilexoside O (DC2 when administrated with the total saponins from MDQ (MDQ-TS. An UPLC method for simultaneous determination of C1, C2, C3, C4, DC1, and DC2 in intestinal outflow perfusate was developed and validated. The absorption characteristics of MDQ-TS were investigated by evaluating the effects of intestinal segments, drug concentration, P-glycoprotein (P-gp inhibitor (verapomil, endocytosis inhibitor (amantadine and ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA, tight junction modulator on the intestinal transportation of MDQ-TS by using a single-pass intestinal perfusion (SPIP rat model, and the influence of co-existing components on the intestinal transport of the six saponins was discussed. The results showed that effective apparent permeability (Papp of C1, C2, C3, C4, and DC2 administrated in MDQ-TS form had no segment-dependent changes at low and middle dosage levels. C1, C2, C3, D4, DC1, and DC2 administrated in MDQ-TS form all exhibited excellent transmembrane permeability with Papp > 0.12 × 10−2 cm·min−1. Meanwhile, Papp and effective absorption rate constant (Ka values for the most saponins showed concentration dependence and saturation characteristics. After combining with P-gp inhibitor of verapamil, Papp of C2, C3, and DC1 in MDQ-TS group was significantly increased up to about 2.3-fold, 1.4-fold, and 3.4-fold, respectively in comparison to that of non-verapamil added group. Verapamil was found to improve the absorption of C2, C3, and DC1, indicating the involvement of an active transport mechanism in the absorption process. Compared with the

  17. Development and validation of a LC-MS/MS method for assessment of an anti-inflammatory indolinone derivative by in vitro blood-brain barrier models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jähne, Evelyn A; Eigenmann, Daniela E; Culot, Maxime; Cecchelli, Roméo; Walter, Fruzsina R; Deli, Mária A; Tremmel, Robin; Fricker, Gert; Smiesko, Martin; Hamburger, Matthias; Oufir, Mouhssin

    2014-09-01

    The compound (E,Z)-3-(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzylidene)indolin-2-one (indolinone) was identified from lipophilic woad extracts (Isatis tinctoria L., Brassicaceae) as a compound possessing potent histamine release inhibitory and anti-inflammatory properties [1]. To further evaluate the potential of indolinone in terms of crossing the blood-brain barrier (BBB), we screened the compound in several in vitro cell-based human and animal BBB models. Therefore, we developed a quantitative LC-MS/MS method for the compound in modified Ringer HEPES buffer (RHB) and validated it according to FDA and EMA guidelines [2,3]. The calibration curve of indolinone in the range between 30.0 and 3000ng/ml was quadratic, and the limit of quantification was 30.0ng/ml. Dilution of samples up to 100-fold did not affect precision and accuracy. The carry-over was within acceptance criteria. Indolinone proved to be stable in RHB for 3h at room temperature (RT), and for three successive freeze/thaw cycles. The processed samples could be stored in the autosampler at 10°C for at least 28h. Moreover, indolinone was stable for at least 16 days in RHB when stored below -65°C. This validation study demonstrates that our method is specific, selective, precise, accurate, and capable to produce reliable results. In the immortalized human BBB mono-culture model, the apparent permeability coefficient from apical to basolateral (PappA→B), and the Papp from basolateral to apical (PappB→A) were 19.2±0.485×10(-6)cm/s and 21.7±0.326×10(-6)cm/s, respectively. For the primary rat/bovine BBB co-culture model a PappA→B of 27.1±1.67×10(-6)cm/s was determined. In the primary rat BBB triple co-culture model, the PappA→B and the PappB→A were 56.2±3.63×10(-6)cm/s and 34.6±1.41×10(-6)cm/s, respectively. The data obtained with the different models showed good correlation and were indicative of a high BBB permeation potential of indolinone confirmed by in silico prediction calculations. P

  18. Pulmonary artery pulse pressure and wave reflection in chronic pulmonary thromboembolism and primary pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelain, V; Hervé, P; Lecarpentier, Y; Duroux, P; Simonneau, G; Chemla, D

    2001-03-15

    The purpose of this time-domain study was to compare pulmonary artery (PA) pulse pressure and wave reflection in chronic pulmonary thromboembolism (CPTE) and primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH). Pulmonary artery pressure waveform analysis provides a simple and accurate estimation of right ventricular afterload in the time-domain. Chronic pulmonary thromboembolism and PPH are both responsible for severe pulmonary hypertension. Chronic pulmonary thromboembolism and PPH predominantly involve proximal and distal arteries, respectively, and may lead to differences in PA pressure waveform. High-fidelity PA pressure was recorded in 14 patients (7 men/7 women, 46 +/- 14 years) with CPTE (n = 7) and PPH (n = 7). We measured thermodilution cardiac output, mean PA pressure (MPAP), PA pulse pressure (PAPP = systolic - diastolic PAP) and normalized PAPP (nPAPP = PPAP/MPAP). Wave reflection was quantified by measuring Ti, that is, the time between pressure upstroke and the systolic inflection point (Pi), deltaP, that is, the systolic PAP minus Pi difference, and the augmentation index (deltaP/PPAP). At baseline, CPTE and PPH had similar cardiac index (2.4 +/- 0.4 vs. 2.5 +/- 0.5 l/min/m2), mean PAP (59 +/- 9 vs. 59 +/- 10 mm Hg), PPAP (57 +/- 13 vs. 53 +/- 13 mm Hg) and nPPAP (0.97 +/- 0.16 vs. 0.89 +/- 0.13). Chronic pulmonary thromboembolism had shorter Ti (90 +/- 17 vs. 126 +/- 16 ms, p PPAP (0.26 +/- 0.01 vs. 0.09 +/- 0.07, p < 0.01). Our study indicated that: 1) CPTE and PPH with severe pulmonary hypertension had similar PA pulse pressure, and 2) wave reflection is elevated in both groups, and CPTE had increased and anticipated wave reflection as compared with PPH, thus suggesting differences in the pulsatile component of right ventricular afterload.

  19. Users’ Adoption of Mental Health Apps: Examining the Impact of Information Cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsiao-Ying

    2017-01-01

    Background Numerous mental health apps have been developed and made available to users on the current app market. Users may find it difficult and overwhelming to select apps from the hundreds of choices that are available in the app marketplace. Clarifying what information cues may impact a user’s selection and adoption of mental health apps is now a critical and pressing issue. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of information cues on users’ adoption of anxiety apps using observational data from the Android app market. Methods A systematic search of anxiety apps was conducted on the Android app store by using keywords search. The title and metadata information of a total of 274 apps that met our criteria were collected and analyzed. Three trained researchers recorded the app rankings from the search results page on different dates and Web browsers. Results Our results show that ratings (r=.56, Papp prices have significant negative correlations with installs (r=−.36). The results also reveal that lower-priced apps have higher ratings (r=−.23, Papp permission requests (r=.18, P=.002) from the device. For app titles, we found that apps with titles related to symptoms have significantly lower installs than apps with titles that are not related to symptoms (Papps by analyzing observational data. As the first of its kind, we found impactful indicators for mental health app adoptions. We also discovered a labeling effect of app titles that could hinder mental health app adoptions and which may provide insight for future designs of mental health apps and their search mechanisms. PMID:28659256

  20. Redox-Magnetohydrodynamic Microfluidics Without Channels and Compatible with Electrochemical Detection Under Immunoassay Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Melissa C.; Nash, Christena K.; Fritsch, Ingrid

    2010-01-01

    A unique capability of redox-magnetohydrodynamics (redox-MHD) for handling liquids on a small scale was demonstrated. A 1.2-μL solution plug was pumped from an injection site to a detector without the need for a channel to direct the flow. The redox pumping species did not interfere with enzymatic activity in a solution compatible with enzyme-linked immunoassays. Alkaline phosphatase (AP), a common enzyme label, converted p-aminophenyl phosphate (PAPP) to p-aminophenol (PAPR) in the presence of 2.5 mM Ru(NH3)6Cl2 and 2.5 mM Ru(NH3)6 Cl3, in 0.1 M Tris buffer (pH=9). A solution plug containing PAPP (no AP) was pumped through the surrounding solution containing AP (no PAPP), and the enzymatically-generated PAPR was easily detected and distinguishable electrochemically from the pumping species with square wave voltammetry down to 0.1 mM concentrations. The test device consisted of a silicon chip containing individually-addressable microband electrodes, placed on a 0.5-T NdFeB permanent magnet with the field oriented perpendicular to the chip. A 8.0-mm wide × 15.5-mm long × 1.5-mm high volume of solution was contained by a poly(dimethylsiloxane) gasket and capped with a glass slide. A steady-state fluid velocity of ~30 μm/s was generated in a reinforcing flow configuration between oppositely polarized sets of pumping electrodes with ~2.1 μA. PMID:20681513

  1. CriticalSorb™ promotes permeation of flux markers across isolated rat intestinal mucosae and Caco-2 monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brayden, D J; Bzik, V A; Lewis, A L; Illum, L

    2012-09-01

    CriticalSorb™ is a novel absorption enhancer based on Solutol(®) HS15, one that has been found to enhance the nasal transport. It is in clinical trials for nasal delivery of human growth hormone. The hypothesis was that permeating enhancement effects of the Solutol(®)HS15 component would translate to the intestine. Rat colonic mucosae were mounted in Ussing chambers and Papp values of [(14)C]-mannitol, [(14)C]-antipyrine, FITC-dextran 4000 (FD-4), and TEER values were calculated in the presence of CriticalSorb™. Tissues were fixed for H & E staining. Caco-2 monolayers were grown on Transwells™ for similar experiments. CriticalSorb™(0.01% v/v) significantly increased the Papp of [(14)C]-mannitol, FD-4 [(14)C]-antipyrine across ileal and colonic mucosae, accompanied by a decrease in TEER. In Caco-2 monolayers, it also increased the Papp of [(14)C]-mannitol FD-4 and [(14)C]-antipyrine over 120 min. In both monolayers and tissues, it acted as a moderately effective P-glycoprotein inhibitor. There was no evidence of cytotoxicity in Caco-2 at concentrations of 0.01% for up to 24 h and histology of tissues showed intact epithelia at 120 min. Solutol(®) HS15 is the key component in CriticalSorb™ that enables non-cytotoxic in vitro intestinal permeation and its mechanism of action is a combination of increased paracellular and transcellular flux.

  2. First trimesters Pregnancy-Associated Plasma Protein-A levels value to Predict Gestational diabetes Mellitus: A systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Hadizadeh Talasaz

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Detecting pregnant women at risk of diabetes in first months can help them by early intervention for delaying or preventing onset of GDM. In this study, we aimed to assess the Predictive value of first trimester Pregnancy related plasma protein-A (PAPP-A levels for detecting Gestational diabetes Mellitus (GDM. This systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted through probing in databases. PubMed, Scopus, Medline and Google scholar citations were searched to find the published papers from 1974 to 2017. Studies were considered eligible if they were cohorts, case–control studies, reported GDM result, not other types, conducted on singleton pregnancy, measured Serum pregnancy associated plasma protein A in the first trimester and evaluated the relation of first trimester pregnancy associated plasma protein–A and GDM. Two reviewers independently assessed the quality with Newcastle–Ottawa and extracted data in the Pre-defined checklist. Analysis of the data was carried out by “Comprehensive Meta-analysis Version 2 (CAM” and Metadisc software. 17 articles have our inclusion criteria and were considered in our systematic review, 5 studies included in Meta-analysis. Meta-analysis of these articles showed that the predictive value of PAPP-A for GDM has 55% sensitivity (53–58, 90% (89–90 specificity, LR + 2.48 (0.83–7.36 and LR − 0.70 (0.45–1.09 with 95% confidence intervals. In our study PAPP-A has low predictive accuracy overall, but it may be useful when combined with other tests, and this is an active part for future research. One limitation of our study is significant heterogeneity because of different adjusted variables and varied diagnostic criteria. Keywords: Gestational diabetes Mellitus, Pregnancy-Associated Plasma Protein-A, First trimesters, Systematic review

  3. First trimesters Pregnancy-Associated Plasma Protein-A levels value to Predict Gestational diabetes Mellitus: A systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talasaz, Zahra Hadizadeh; Sadeghi, Ramin; Askari, Fariba; Dadgar, Salmeh; Vatanchi, Atiyeh

    2018-04-01

    Detecting pregnant women at risk of diabetes in first months can help them by early intervention for delaying or preventing onset of GDM. In this study, we aimed to assess the Predictive value of first trimester Pregnancy related plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) levels for detecting Gestational diabetes Mellitus (GDM). This systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted through probing in databases. PubMed, Scopus, Medline and Google scholar citations were searched to find the published papers from 1974 to 2017. Studies were considered eligible if they were cohorts, case-control studies, reported GDM result, not other types, conducted on singleton pregnancy, measured Serum pregnancy associated plasma protein A in the first trimester and evaluated the relation of first trimester pregnancy associated plasma protein-A and GDM. Two reviewers independently assessed the quality with Newcastle-Ottawa and extracted data in the Pre-defined checklist. Analysis of the data was carried out by "Comprehensive Meta-analysis Version 2 (CAM)" and Metadisc software. 17 articles have our inclusion criteria and were considered in our systematic review, 5 studies included in Meta-analysis. Meta-analysis of these articles showed that the predictive value of PAPP-A for GDM has 55% sensitivity (53-58), 90% (89-90) specificity, LR + 2.48 (0.83-7.36) and LR - 0.70 (0.45-1.09) with 95% confidence intervals. In our study PAPP-A has low predictive accuracy overall, but it may be useful when combined with other tests, and this is an active part for future research. One limitation of our study is significant heterogeneity because of different adjusted variables and varied diagnostic criteria. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Determination of permeability coefficients of ophthalmic drugs through different layers of porcine, rabbit and bovine eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loch, Christian; Zakelj, Simon; Kristl, Albin; Nagel, Stefan; Guthoff, Rudolf; Weitschies, Werner; Seidlitz, Anne

    2012-08-30

    To treat ophthalmic diseases like glaucoma or inflammatory disorders topically applied ophthalmic formulations such as eye drops are usually used. In addition, novel ophthalmic implants releasing drug substances locally into different parts of the eye are available today. In the work presented here, the permeability coefficients of selected drugs (ciprofloxacin hydrochloride, lidocaine hydrochloride, timolol maleate) for ophthalmic tissues were determined using side-by-side diffusion chambers (so-called Ussing chambers). Sclera, conjunctiva, cornea, choroidea-retina-complex and a complex of conjunctiva-sclera-choroidea-retina were excised from fresh porcine, rabbit and bovine eyes. In the porcine eye tissues the highest P(app) values were obtained for conjunctiva with the exception of lidocaine. Therefore, it can be estimated that a certain amount of drug diffuses or is transported through conjunctiva after application. The P(app) values for sclera were also higher than those for cornea and even more, the surface area of sclera which is available for drug absorption is much larger than that of cornea when applying an implant. The obtained permeability coefficients for sclera and conjunctiva indicate that the administration of periocular implants can be an alternative to topically applied formulations. The complexes of the tissues were a significantly (p<0.01) stronger barrier to the investigated substances than the separated tissues. Distinct differences in permeability coefficients between the investigated animal tissues were observed. Overall the highest P(app) values for all mounted tissues were obtained with the rabbit, followed by porcine and bovine eyes. Because of these distinct interspecies differences one must be very careful when selecting the proper animal model for the permeability experiments. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Biopharmaceutic Risk Assessment of Brand and Generic Lamotrigine Tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaithianathan, Soundarya; Raman, Siddarth; Jiang, Wenlei; Ting, Tricia Y; Kane, Maureen A; Polli, James E

    2015-07-06

    The therapeutic equivalence of generic and brand name antiepileptic drugs has been questioned by neurologists and the epilepsy community. A potential contributor to such concerns is pharmaceutical quality. The objective was to assess the biopharmaceutic risk of brand name Lamictal 100 mg tablets and generic lamotrigine 100 mg tablets from several manufacturers. Lamotrigine was characterized in terms of the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS), including aqueous solubility and Caco-2 permeability. A panel of pharmaceutical quality tests was also performed on three batches of Lamictal, three batches of Teva generic, and one batch of each of four other generics: appearance, identity, assay, impurity, uniformity of dosage units, disintegration, dissolution, friability, and loss on drying. These market surveillance results indicate that all brand name and generic lamotrigine 100 mg tablets passed all tests and showed acceptable pharmaceutical quality and low biopharmaceutic risk. Lamotrigine was classified as a BCS class IIb drug, exhibiting pH-dependent aqueous solubility and dissolution. At pH 1.2 and 4.5, lamotrigine exhibited high solubility, whereas lamotrigine exhibited low solubility at pH 6.8, including non-sink dissolution. Lamotrigine showed high Caco-2 permeability. The apparent permeability (Papp) of lamotrigine was (73.7 ± 8.7) × 10(-6) cm/s in the apical-to-basolateral (AP-BL) direction and (41.4 ± 1.6) × 10(-6) cm/s in the BL-AP direction, which were higher than metoprolol's AP-BL Papp of (21.2 ± 0.9) × 10(-6) cm/s and BL-AP Papp of (34.6 ± 4.6) × 10(-6) cm/s. Overall, lamotrigine's favorable biopharmaceutics from a drug substance perspective and favorable quality characteristics from a tablet formulation perspective suggest that multisource lamotrigine tablets exhibit a low biopharmaceutic risk.

  6. Optimized conditions for MDCK permeability and turbidimetric solubility studies using compounds representative of BCS classes I-IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taub, Mitchell E; Kristensen, Lisbeth; Frokjaer, Sven

    2002-05-01

    The solubility enhancing effects of various excipients, including their compatibility with in vitro permeability (P(app)) systems, was investigated using drugs representative of Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) classes I-IV. Turbidimetric solubility determination using nephelometry and transport experiments using MDCK Strain I cell monolayers were employed. The highest usable concentration of each excipient [dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), ethanol, hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPCD), and sodium taurocholate] was determined by monitoring apical (AP) to basolateral (BL) [14C]mannitol apparent permeability (P(app)) and the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) in transport experiments done at pH 6.0 and 7.4. The excipients were used in conjunction with compounds demonstrating relatively low aqueous solubility (amphotericin B, danazol, mefenamic acid, and phenytoin) in order to obtain a drug concentration >50 microM in the donor compartment. The addition of at least one of the selected excipients enhanced the solubility of the inherently poorly soluble compounds to >50 microM as determined via turbidimetric evaluation at pH 6.0 and 7.4. Ethanol and DMSO were found to be generally disruptive to the MDCK monolayer and were not nearly as useful as HPCD and sodium taurocholate. Sodium taurocholate (5 mM) was compatible with MDCK monolayers under all conditions investigated. Additionally, a novel in vitro system aimed at more accurately simulating in vivo conditions, i.e., a pH gradient (6.0 AP/7.4 BL), sodium taurocholate (5 mM, AP), and bovine serum albumin (0.25%, BL), was shown to generate more reliable P(app) values for compounds that are poorly soluble and/or highly protein bound.

  7. Only a minority of sex chromosome abnormalities are detected by a national prenatal screening program for Down syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viuff, Mette Hansen; Krag, Kirstine Stochholm; Uldbjerg, Niels

    2015-01-01

    significantly higher NT and lower PAPP-A compared with controls (all P legal abortion rate was high for all four syndromes (47,XXX: 24%; 47,XYY: 29%; Klinefelter syndrome: 48%, TS: 84%). For SCA fetuses carried to term, only TS fetuses had consistently lower birthweights...... and placenta weights than non-SCA controls (both P = 0.0001). A few SCA cases localized in DCCR could not be found in DFMD (n = 16). LIMITATIONS, REASON FOR CAUTION: Controls were matched on sex of the fetus of cases, meaning that all electively aborted fetuses (before week 12) were excluded, possibly reducing...

  8. Genomic association for sexual precocity in beef heifers using pre-selection of genes and haplotype reconstruction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Takada

    Full Text Available Reproductive traits are of the utmost importance for any livestock farming, but are difficult to measure and to interpret since they are influenced by various factors. The objective of this study was to detect associations between known polymorphisms in candidate genes related to sexual precocity in Nellore heifers, which could be used in breeding programs. Records of 1,689 precocious and non-precocious heifers from farms participating in the Conexão Delta G breeding program were analyzed. A subset of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP located in the region of the candidate genes at a distance of up to 5 kb from the boundaries of each gene, were selected from the panel of 777,000 SNPs of the High-Density Bovine SNP BeadChip. Linear mixed models were used for statistical analysis of early heifer pregnancy, relating the trait with isolated SNPs or with haplotype groups. The model included the contemporary group (year and month of birth as fixed effect and parent of the animal (sire effect as random effect. The fastPHASE® and GenomeStudio® were used for reconstruction of the haplotypes and for analysis of linkage disequilibrium based on r2 statistics. A total of 125 candidate genes and 2,024 SNPs forming haplotypes were analyzed. Statistical analysis after Bonferroni correction showed that nine haplotypes exerted a significant effect (p<0.05 on sexual precocity. Four of these haplotypes were located in the Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A2 gene (PAPP-A2, two in the Estrogen-related receptor gamma gene (ESRRG, and one each in the Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A gene (PAPP-A, Kell blood group complex subunit-related family (XKR4 and mannose-binding lectin genes (MBL-1 genes. Although the present results indicate that the PAPP-A2, PAPP-A, XKR4, MBL-1 and ESRRG genes influence sexual precocity in Nellore heifers, further studies are needed to evaluate their possible use in breeding programs.

  9. Factores alimentarios y dietéticos asociados a la obesidad infantil: recomendaciones para su prevención antes de los dos años de vida Food and diet factors associated to child obesity: recommendations for preventing it in children under two years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M Saavedra

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Son varios los factores identificados que llevan a la obesidad, cuyo origen se da desde etapas muy tempranas de la vida. Aunque existen contribuyentes genéticos y disparidades socioeconómicas y raciales en la frecuencia de sobrepeso y obesidad, el problema es universal. El estado ponderal de los niños se ha asociado con múltiples factores dietéticos específicos y estos, a su vez, están asociados con específicas “prácticas de alimentación por parte de los padres” (PAPP. Los padres o cuidadores determinan patrones que se establecen muy temprano en la vida, y el peso antes de los dos años de vida predice ya el sobrepeso u obesidad futura. La falta de lactancia materna y la baja calidad de los alimentos, los patrones de consumo y las preferencias por alimentos en los primeros dos años de vida, son altamente dependientes de las PAPP y, por tanto, son también modificables. En este artículo vamos a examinar los factores dietéticos y las prácticas relacionadas con la dieta que han sido asociadas con la obesidad infantil, y que son potencialmente modificables, de forma que sirvan como guía potencial para metas de intervención, en la prevención de la obesidad infantilSeveral factors leading to obesity have been identified, which start at very early stages of life. Although there are genetic contributors and socioeconomic and racial disparities in the prevalence of overweight and obesity, the problem is universal. Children’s weight has been associated to multiple specific diet factors and these, in turn, are associated to specific “parent feeding practices” (PAPP, Spanish abbreviation. Parents or caretakers determine patterns that are set at an early stage in life, and the weight before the first two years of age already predicts future overweight and obesity. Absence of breastfeeding and low food quality, consumption patterns and food preferences in the first two years of life are highly associated to PAPP and can, therefore

  10. Screening for aneuploidies by maternal age, fetal nuchal translucency and maternal serum biochemistry at 11-13+6 gestational weeks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karadžov-Orlić Nataša

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Aneuploidies are the major cause of perinatal death and early psychophysical disorders. Objective. In this study, we analyzed detection and false-positive rates of screening for aneuploidies in the first trimester by the combination of maternal age, fetal nuchal translucency (NT thickness and maternal serum free beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin (β-hCG, and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A at 11-13+6 weeks of gestation, using the appropriate software developed by the Fetal Medicine Foundation. Methods. Our screening study for aneuploidies analyzed 4172 singleton pregnancies from January 2006 to December 2010. The sensitivities and false-positive rates using the combined aneuploidies determination for the risk cut-off of 1:275 were evaluated. Results. In the trisomy 21 pregnancies, the fetal NT was higher than 95th centile, in 72.8%, serum free b-hCG concentration it was above the 95th centile in 55% and serum PAPP-A was below the 5th centile in 47% of the cases. In the trisomy 18 and 13, the fetal NT was above 95th centile in 66.6% and 44.4% of the cases, respectively. The serum free b-hCG concentration was above the 95th centile in 0 and 10%, but serum PAPP-A was below 5th centile in 80.9% and 88.8% of pregnancies. In the trisomy 21 pregnancies the median free beta-hCG was 2.3 MoM and the median PAPP-A was 0.45 MoM. Chromosomal abnormalities were detected in 169 fetuses: trisomy 21 (97, Turner syndrome (19, trisomy 18 (28, trisomy 13 (11 and others (14. Detection rate of combined screening for aneuploides were 86.0% with false positive rate of 5.3% (mean age 33±4.9 years, >35 years in 35% of pregnancies. Conclusion. Our study suggests that the strategy of first-trimester combined screening of biochemical values and ultrasonographic parameters at 12 gestational weeks identifies higher percentage of aneuploidies with a lower false-positive rate than a single parameter strategy.

  11. First trimester maternal serum pregnancy-specific beta-1-glycoprotein (SP1) as a marker of adverse pregnancy outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Kasper; Larsen, Torben; Laursen, Inga

    2009-01-01

    MBP and PAPP-A. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted in a primary hospital setting. The SP1 concentration was measured in first trimester maternal serum in pregnancies with small-for-gestational age fetuses (SGA) (n = 150), spontaneous preterm delivery (n = 88), preeclampsia (n = 40) and in controls (n...... = 500). Concentrations were converted to multiples of the median (MoM) in controls and groups were compared using Mann-Whitney U-test. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine significant factors for predicting adverse pregnancy outcome. Screening performance was assessed using receiver...

  12. History for coexistence, from historiografic domination to bridge-narration, the case of Palestine/Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Morocutti

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this summary we propose to underline the most fundamental and interesting aspects of our research, wich represents also the base for our future work. Precisely we are going to describe some core ideas we have been using as intelectual and cientific compass in our project: the transformation of history from a tool of domination to a instrument of coexistence, making particular reference in the concept of  “bridge-narration” forged by the historians Jamil Hillal and Ilan Pappe.

  13. Population-based Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis and Trichomonas vaginalis Prevalence Using Discarded, Deidentified Urine Specimens Previously Collected for Drug Testing (Open Access Publisher’s Version)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-24

    trichomonas vaginalis testing, Melinda Balansay-ames, chris Myers and gary Brice for Pcr- based sex determination testing, and Kimberly De Vera for...2017-053355 rEFErEnCEs 1 torrone e , Papp J, Weinstock H. centers for Disease control and Prevention (cDc). Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis genital...infection among persons aged 14-39 years-United States, 2007-2012. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2014;63:834–7. 2 rietmeijer ca, Hopkins e , geisler WM

  14. Formation of high-molecular-weight angiotensinogen during pregnancy is a result of competing redox reactions with the proform of eosinophil major basic protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kløverpris, Søren; Skov, Louise Lind; Glerup, Simon

    2013-01-01

    compared to monomeric AGT and the proMBP-AGT complex. Furthermore, we have used recombinant proteins to analyse the formation of the proMBP-PAPP-A and the proMBP-AGT complexes, and we demonstrate that they are competing reactions, depending on the same cysteine residue of proMBP, but differentially...... on the redox potential, potentially important for the relative amounts of the complexes in vivo. These findings may be important physiologically, since the biochemical properties of the proteins change as a consequence of complex formation....

  15. A re-assessment of biochemical marker distributions in T21 affected and unaffected twin pregnancies in the first trimester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Helen Nordahl; Ball, Susan; Wright, Dave

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the difference between levels of the two biochemical markers pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) and maternal serum free β-human chorionic gonadotropin (free β-hCG) in twin pregnancies relative to singleton pregnancies and establish an improved screening procedure...... of the biochemical markers were calculated. Detection rates and false-positive rates were estimated for screening tests incorporating nuchal translucency and maternal age, with and without biochemistry. RESULTS: Medians for the two biochemical markers for monochorionic and dichorionic twins in unaffected pregnancies......-trimester screening for chromosomal abnormalities in twins to a level comparable with that in singleton pregnancies....

  16.  The Assembly of Lean Production: An Analysis of Doing Production Improvements

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Gunnar

    2011-01-01

    This thesis is an analysis of the assembly of the zero-defects project at Glomma Papp AS, a company on manufacture of paper, corrugated board, solid board and display, in Sarpsborg Norway. The zero-defects project was a local production improvement project based on approaches, tools and methods known as Lean. The project is seen as an actor-network, which means that its reality, and the understandings and practices of it, are effects of the web of people, structures, technologies and others w...

  17. New Predictive Model at 11+0 to 13+6 Gestational Weeks for Early-Onset Preeclampsia With Fetal Growth Restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ying; Chen, Xu; Cui, Hong-Yan; Li, Xing; Xu, Ya-Ling

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine a predictive model for early-onset preeclampsia with fetal growth restriction (FGR) to be used at 11 +0 to 13 +6 gestational weeks, by combining the maternal serum level of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), placental growth factor (PLGF), placental protein 13 (PP13), soluble endoglin (sEng), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and uterine artery Doppler. This was a retrospective cohort study of 4453 pregnant women. Uterine artery Doppler examination was conducted in the first trimester. Maternal serum PAPP-A, PLGF, PP13, and sEng were measured. Mean arterial pressure was obtained. Women were classified as with/without early-onset preeclampsia, and women with preeclampsia were classified as with/without FGR. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed to determine the value of the model. There were 30 and 32 pregnant women with early-onset preeclampsia with and without FGR. The diagnosis rate of early-onset preeclampsia with FGR was 67.4% using the predictive model when the false positive rate was set at 5% and 73.2% when the false positive rate was 10%. The predictive model (MAP, uterine artery Doppler measurements, and serum biomarkers) had some predictive value for the early diagnosis (11 +0 to 13 +6 gestational weeks) of early-onset preeclampsia with FGR.

  18. Self-microemulsifying drug delivery system for improving the bioavailability of huperzine A by lymphatic uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Huperzine A (Hup-A is a poorly water-soluble drug with low oral bioavailability. A self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS was used to enhance the oral bioavailability and lymphatic uptake and transport of Hup-A. A single-pass intestinal perfusion (SPIP technique and a chylomicron flow-blocking approach were used to study its intestinal absorption, mesenteric lymph node distribution and intestinal lymphatic uptake. The value of the area under the plasma concentration–time curve (AUC of Hup-A SMEDDS was significantly higher than that of a Hup-A suspension (P<0.01. The absorption rate constant (Ka and the apparent permeability coefficient (Papp for Hup-A in different parts of the intestine suggested a passive transport mechanism, and the values of Ka and Papp of Hup-A SMEDDS in the ileum were much higher than those in other intestinal segments. The determination of Hup-A concentration in mesenteric lymph nodes can be used to explain the intestinal lymphatic absorption of Hup-A SMEDDS. For Hup-A SMEDDS, the values of AUC and maximum plasma concentration (Cmax of the blocking model were significantly lower than those of the control model (P<0.05. The proportion of lymphatic transport of Hup-A SMEDDS and Hup-A suspension were about 40% and 5%, respectively, suggesting that SMEDDS can significantly improve the intestinal lymphatic uptake and transport of Hup-A.

  19. Determination of the pK values of 5-aminosalicylic acid and N-acetylaminosalicylic acid and comparison of the pH dependent lipid-water partition coefficients of sulphasalazine and its metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allgayer, H; Sonnenbichler, J; Kruis, W; Paumgartner, G

    1985-01-01

    Sulphasalazine (SASP), used in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease, is split into sulphapyridine (SP) and 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) in the colon. Lower plasma levels of SASP and 5-ASA as compared to those of SP may be due to different absorption rates from the colon because of different pK values and pH dependent lipid-water partition coefficients. In this study we determined the pK values of 5-ASA and its major metabolite, N-acetyl amino-salicylic acid (AcASA), by 13C-NMR spectroscopy and compared the pH dependent apparent benzene-water partition coefficients (Papp) of SASP, SP and 5-ASA with respect to their different plasma levels. The COOH group of 5-ASA had a pK value of 3.0, the -NH3+ group had 6.0, the -OH group 13.9; the -COOH group of AcASA had 2.7 and the -OH group 12.9; The Papp of SASP (0.042 +/- 0.004) and 5-ASA (0.059 +/- 0.01) were significantly lower than that of SP (0.092 +/- 0.03) (at pH 5.5).

  20. Intestinal Transportations of Main Chemical Compositions of Polygoni Multiflori Radix in Caco-2 Cell Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context. Polygoni Multiflori Radix (PMR is originated from the root of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. and used in oriental countries for centuries. However, little researches pay close attention to the absorption of its major constituents. Objective. Transepithelial transport of TSG, RL, PL, and four anthraquinones is carried out. Materials and Methods. Caco-2 cell monolayer, which represented a well-established model for the study of intestinal transport of nutrients and xenobiotics, was used in this paper. Results. The apparent permeability coefficients (Papp in the Caco-2 cell monolayers were TSG (2.372 × 10−9 < EG (2.391 × 10−9 < EN (2.483 × 10−9 < PL (4.917 × 10−9 < RN (1.707 × 10−8 < RL (1.778 × 10−8 < AE (1.952 × 10−8. Thus, RN, RL, and AE were considered partly absorbed, while other constituents were hardly absorbed. Discussion and Conclusion. Glycosides showed poor permeabilities than aglycones. In the meantime, TSG and EN gave out poor recovery rates in this assay, which indicated that TSG and EN may accumulate or metabolise in the Caco-2 cells. In silico prediction indicated that Gibbs energy (r=0.751, p<0.05 and heat of form (r=0.701, p<0.05 were strongly positively correlated with Papp.

  1. Chitosan-based nanoparticles for rosmarinic acid ocular delivery--In vitro tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Sara Baptista; Ferreira, Domingos; Pintado, Manuela; Sarmento, Bruno

    2016-03-01

    In this study, chitosan nanoparticles were used to encapsulate antioxidant rosmarinic acid, Salvia officinalis (sage) and Satureja montana (savory) extracts as rosmarinic acid natural vehicles. The nanoparticles were prepared by ionic gelation using chitosan and sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) in a mass ratio of 7:1, at pH 5.8. Particle size distribution analysis and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) confirmed the size ranging from 200 to 300 nm, while surface charge of nanoparticles ranged from 20 to 30 mV. Nanoparticles demonstrate to be safe without relevant cytotoxicity against retina pigment epithelium (ARPE-19) and human cornea cell line (HCE-T). The permeability study in HCE monolayer cell line showed an apparent permeability coefficient Papp of 3.41±0.99×10(-5) and 3.24±0.79×10(-5) cm/s for rosmarinic acid loaded chitosan nanoparticles and free in solution, respectively. In ARPE-19 monolayer cell line the Papp was 3.39±0.18×10(-5) and 3.60±0.05×10(-5) cm/s for rosmarinic acid loaded chitosan nanoparticles and free in solution, respectively. Considering the mucin interaction method, nanoparticles indicate mucoadhesive proprieties suggesting an increased retention time over the ocular mucosa after instillation. These nanoparticles may be promising drug delivery systems for ocular application in oxidative eye conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Increased Levels of Oxidative Stress Markers, Soluble CD40 Ligand, and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness Reflect Acceleration of Atherosclerosis in Male Patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis in Active Phase and without the Classical Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Stanek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The primary aim of the study was to assess levels of oxidative stress markers, soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L, serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A, and placental growth factor (PlGF as well as carotid intima-media thickness (IMT in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS with active phase without concomitant classical cardiovascular risk factors. Material and methods. The observational study involved 96 male subjects: 48 AS patients and 48 healthy ones, who did not differ significantly regarding age, BMI, comorbid disorders, and distribution of classical cardiovascular risk factors. In both groups, we estimated levels of oxidative stress markers, lipid profile, and inflammation parameters as well as sCD40L, serum PAPP-A, and PlGF. In addition, we estimated carotid IMT in each subject. Results. The study showed that markers of oxidative stress, lipid profile, and inflammation, as well as sCD40L, PlGF, and IMT, were significantly higher in the AS group compared to the healthy group. Conclusion. Our results demonstrate that ankylosing spondylitis may be associated with increased risk for atherosclerosis.

  3. In vivo human buccal permeability of nicotine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adrian, Charlotte L; Olin, Helle B D; Dalhoff, Kim

    2006-01-01

    The aim was to examine the in vivo buccal pH-dependent permeability of nicotine in humans and furthermore compare the in vivo permeability of nicotine to previous in vitro permeability data. The buccal permeability of nicotine was examined in a three-way cross-over study in eight healthy non......-smokers using a buccal perfusion cell. The disappearance of nicotine from perfusion solutions with pH 6.0, 7.4, and 8.1 was studied for 3h. The apparent permeability of nicotine (P(app)) was determined at each pH value. Parotid saliva was collected in an attempt to assess systemic levels of nicotine....... The disappearance rate of nicotine increased significantly as the pH increased, which resulted in P(app) values of 0.57+/-0.55 x 10(-4), 2.10+/-0.23 x 10(-4), and 3.96+/-0.54 x 10(-4)cms(-1) (mean+/-S.D.) at pH 6.0, 7.4, and 8.1, respectively. A linear relationship (R(2)=0.993) was obtained between the P...

  4. Nicotine permeability across the buccal TR146 cell culture model and porcine buccal mucosa in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hanne Mørck; Rassing, Margrethe Rømer

    2002-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate and compare the effect of pH and drug concentration on nicotine permeability across the TR146 cell culture model and porcine buccal mucosa in vitro. As a further characterization of the TR146 cell culture model, it was explored whether the results were...... comparable for bi-directional and uni-directional transport in the presence of a transmembrane pH gradient. Nicotine concentrations between 10(-5) and 10(-2) M were applied to the apical side of the TR146 cell culture model or the mucosal side of porcine buccal mucosa. Buffers with pH values of 5.5, 7.......4 and 8.1 were used to obtain different fractions of non- and mono-ionized nicotine. The apparent permeability (P(app)) of nicotine across both models increased significantly with increasing pH, and the P(app) values obtained with the two models could be correlated in a linear manner. With increasing...

  5. IGFBP-4 Fragments as Markers of Cardiovascular Mortality in Type 1 Diabetes Patients With and Without Nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortebjerg, Rikke; Tarnow, Lise; Jorsal, Anders

    2015-01-01

    CONTEXT: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is characterized by an increased risk of macrovascular complications. Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) generated N- and C-terminal fragments of IGF binding protein-4 (NT-IGFBP-4 and CT-IGFBP-4) have been suggested as cardiac biomarkers. OBJECTIVE......: The objective of the study was to investigate the prognostic value of IGFBP-4 fragments in a cohort of T1D patients. DESIGN AND PATIENTS: We prospectively followed up 178 T1D patients with diabetic nephropathy and 152 T1D patients with normoalbuminuria for 12.6 (range 0.2-12.9) years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES...... of cardiovascular mortality with hazard ratios [95% confidence interval (CI)] of 5.81 (95% CI 2.62-12.86) (P 1.10-6.10) (P = .030), respectively. After adjustments, PAPP-A was not associated with overall or cardiovascular death. All IGF protein levels were higher in patients with diabetic...

  6. Effect of Salvia miltiorrhiza on cytokines in patients with unstable angina pectoris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Lian Chen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effect of Salvia miltiorrhiza (SM on cytokines in patients with unstable angina pectoris (UAP. Methods: A total of 50 cases of UAP patients from October 2014 to October 2015 as the research object, randomly divided into treatment group and control group, two groups were treated with conventional bed rest, oxygen inhalation, ECG, nitroglycerin intravenous infusion, beta blockers, aspirin, statins, antiplatelet drug therapy, the treatment group on the basis of salvianolate 200 mg+5% glucose 250 mL (neutralization amount of 0.9% sodium chloride was used in patients with diabetes or glucose insulin intravenous drip, 1 times/d, two groups were treated for 2 weeks; detected before and after treatment of plasma pregnancy associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A, soluble cell differentiation antigen ligand (sCD40L and the level of serum interleukin-1 (IL-1, interleukin-6 (IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α level. Results: after the end of treatment, the treatment of PAPP-A and sCD40L levels decreased than the control group, which had statistical significance; treatment group IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α level lower than control group, which had statistical significance. Conclusion: On the basis of conventional treatment combined with salvianolate in treatment of UAP, can inhibit platelet aggregation, control inflammatory reaction, stabilize atherosclerotic plaque, reduce risk of cardiovascular events in therapeutic effect, it is worth clinical promotion.

  7. Retrospective study evaluating the performance of a first-trimester combined screening for trisomy 21 in an Italian unselected population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, Francesco; Cignini, Pietro; Giannarelli, Diana; Brizzi, Cristiana; Coco, Claudio; D’Emidio, Laura; Giorgio, Elsa; Giorlandino, Maurizio; Mangiafico, Lucia; Mastrandrea, Marialuisa; Milite, Vincenzo; Mobili, Luisa; Nanni, Cinzia; Raffio, Raffaella; Taramanni, Cinzia; Vigna, Roberto; Mesoraca, Alvaro; Bizzoco, Domenico; Gabrielli, Ivan; Di Giacomo, Gianluca; Barone, Maria Antonietta; Cima, Antonella; Giorlandino, Francesca Romana; Emili, Sabrina; Cupellaro, Marina; Giorlandino, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Objectives to assess the performance of a combined first-trimester screening for trisomy 21 in an unselected Italian population referred to a specialized private center for prenatal medicine. Methods a retrospective validation of first-trimester screening algorithms [risk calculation based on maternal age and nuchal translucency (NT) alone, maternal age and serum parameters (free β-hCG and PAPP-A) alone and a combination of both] for fetal aneuploidies evaluated in an unselected Italian population at Artemisia Fetal-Maternal Medical Centre in Rome. All measurements were performed between 11+0 and 13+6 weeks of gestation, between April 2007 and December 2008. Results of 3,610 single fetuses included in the study, we had a complete follow-up on 2,984. Fourteen of 17 cases of trisomy 21 were detected when a cut-off of 1:300 was applied [detection rate (DR) 82.4%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 64.2–100; false-positive rate (FPR) 4.7%, 95% CI 3.9–5.4; false-negative rate (FNR) 17.6%, 95% CI 0–35.8%]. Conclusion in our study population the detection rate for trisomy 21, using the combined risk calculation based on maternal age, fetal NT, maternal PAPP-A and free β-hCG levels, was superior to the application of either parameter alone. The algorithm has been validated for first trimester screening in the Italian population. PMID:26266002

  8. Delivery of paclitaxel across cellular barriers using a dendrimer-based nanocarrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teow, Huey Minn; Zhou, Zhengyuan; Najlah, Mohammad; Yusof, Siti R; Abbott, N Joan; D'Emanuele, Antony

    2013-01-30

    The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of a third-generation (G3) polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer-based carrier to enhance the permeability of paclitaxel (pac) and to overcome cellular barriers. G3 dendrimers were surface modified with lauryl chains (L) and conjugated with paclitaxel (pac) via a glutaric anhydride (glu) linker, followed by labeling with FITC. Biological evaluation of the dendrimer and conjugates was conducted using the human colon adenocarcinoma cell line (Caco-2) and primary cultured porcine brain endothelial cells (PBECs). LDH assay was used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of the dendrimer and conjugates. Cytotoxicity studies showed that the conjugation of lauryl chains and paclitaxel on G3 dendrimer significantly (pdendrimer-drug conjugates demonstrated an increase in the apparent permeability coefficient (P(app)) in both apical to basolateral A→B and basolateral to apical B→A directions across both cell monolayers compared to unmodified G3 and free drug. The B→A P(app) of paclitaxel was significantly (ptransporter system in both cell models. L6-G3-glu-pac conjugate had approximately 12-fold greater permeability across both cell monolayers than that of paclitaxel alone. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Enhanced Intestinal Permeability of Bufalin by a Novel Bufalin-Peptide-Dendrimer Inclusion through Caco-2 Cell Monolayer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-on Chan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Bufalin (BFL has excellent physiological activities such as defending tumors, improving cardiac function, and so on. However, due to its poor water-solubility and bioavailability, the clinical application of BFL remains limited. In order to improve bioavailability of BFL, in our previous research, a novel peptide-dendrimer (PD was synthesized and applied to encapsulate BFL. In the present study, we investigate the absorption property and mechanism of BFL in free form and BFL-peptide-dendrimer inclusion (BPDI delivery system by using the Caco-2 cell monolayer model in vitro. The apparent permeability coefficient (Papp values of BFL in free or BPDI form were over 1.0 × 10−6 cm/s. Meanwhile, their almost equal bi-directional transport and linear transport percentage with time and concentration course indicated that BFL in both forms was absorbed mainly through passive diffusion. The most important result is that the Papp values of BFL increased about three-fold more BPDI than those of its free form, which indicated the intestinal permeability of BFL could be improved while BFL was encapsulated in BPDI form. Therefore, PD encapsulation may be a potential delivery system to increase the bioavailability of BFL.

  10. Identifying mild and severe preeclampsia in asymptomatic pregnant women by levels of cell-free fetal DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Tanja Roien; Clausen, Frederik Banch; Rode, Line

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The objective was to investigate whether women who develop preeclampsia can be identified in a routine analysis when determining fetal RHD status at 25 weeks' gestation in combination with PAPP-A levels at the first-trimester combined risk assessment for Trisomy 21. STUDY DESIGN......-A was measured at 11 to 14 weeks. Information about pregnancy outcome and complications was obtained from the National Fetal Medicine Database, medical charts, and discharge letters. RESULTS: The odds ratio (OR) of developing severe preeclampsia given a cffDNA level above the 90th percentile compared to cff......DNA below the 90th percentile was 8.1 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.6-25.5). The OR of developing mild preeclampsia given a cffDNA level below the 5th percentile compared to cffDNA levels above the 5th percentile was 3.6 (95% CI, 1.1-11.7). PAPP-A levels below the 5th percentile were associated with mild...

  11. Evaluation of the intestinal permeability of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L. extract polyphenols and terpenoids in Caco-2 cell monolayers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almudena Pérez-Sánchez

    Full Text Available Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis is grown throughout the world and is widely used as a medicinal herb and to season and preserve food. Rosemary polyphenols and terpenoids have attracted great interest due to their potential health benefits. However, complete information regarding their absorption and bioavailability in Caco-2 cell model is scarce. The permeation properties of the bioactive compounds (flavonoids, diterpenes, triterpenes and phenylpropanoids of a rosemary extract (RE, obtained by supercritical fluid extraction, was studied in Caco-2 cell monolayer model, both in a free form or liposomed. Compounds were identified and quantitated by liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry analysis (HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS, and the apparent permeability values (Papp were determined, for the first time in the extract, for 24 compounds in both directions across cell monolayer. For some compounds, such as triterpenoids and some flavonoids, Papp values found were reported for the first time in Caco-2 cells.Our results indicate that most compounds are scarcely absorbed, and passive diffusion is suggested to be the primary mechanism of absorption. The use of liposomes to vehiculize the extract resulted in reduced permeability for most compounds. Finally, the biopharmaceutical classification (BCS of all the compounds was achieved according to their permeability and solubility data for bioequivalence purposes. BCS study reveal that most of the RE compounds could be classified as classes III and IV (low permeability; therefore, RE itself should also be classified into this category.

  12. Evaluation of the intestinal permeability of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) extract polyphenols and terpenoids in Caco-2 cell monolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arráez-Román, David; González-Álvarez, Isabel; Ibáñez, Elena; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Bermejo, Marival; Micol, Vicente

    2017-01-01

    Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) is grown throughout the world and is widely used as a medicinal herb and to season and preserve food. Rosemary polyphenols and terpenoids have attracted great interest due to their potential health benefits. However, complete information regarding their absorption and bioavailability in Caco-2 cell model is scarce. The permeation properties of the bioactive compounds (flavonoids, diterpenes, triterpenes and phenylpropanoids) of a rosemary extract (RE), obtained by supercritical fluid extraction, was studied in Caco-2 cell monolayer model, both in a free form or liposomed. Compounds were identified and quantitated by liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry analysis (HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS), and the apparent permeability values (Papp) were determined, for the first time in the extract, for 24 compounds in both directions across cell monolayer. For some compounds, such as triterpenoids and some flavonoids, Papp values found were reported for the first time in Caco-2 cells.Our results indicate that most compounds are scarcely absorbed, and passive diffusion is suggested to be the primary mechanism of absorption. The use of liposomes to vehiculize the extract resulted in reduced permeability for most compounds. Finally, the biopharmaceutical classification (BCS) of all the compounds was achieved according to their permeability and solubility data for bioequivalence purposes. BCS study reveal that most of the RE compounds could be classified as classes III and IV (low permeability); therefore, RE itself should also be classified into this category. PMID:28234919

  13. Tacrolimus is a class II low-solubility high-permeability drug: the effect of P-glycoprotein efflux on regional permeability of tacrolimus in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Shigeki; Ohike, Atsuo; Ibuki, Rinta; Amidon, Gordon L; Yamashita, Shinji

    2002-03-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the role of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), a membrane efflux pump associated with multidrug resistance (MDR) and a known substrate for tacrolimus, in determining the regional intestinal permeability of tacrolimus in rats. Thus, isolated segments of rat jejunum, ileum, or colon were perfused with tacrolimus solutions containing polyethoxylated hydrogenated castor oil 60 surfactant, and with or without verapamil, a P-gp substrate used to reverse the MDR phenotype. The results indicated that the intrinsic permeability of tacrolimus in the jejunum, calculated on the basis of the concentration of non-micellized free tacrolimus, was quite high ( approximately 1.4 x 10(-4) cm/s). The apparent permeability (P(app)) in the jejunum was unaffected by the presence of verapamil; however, the P(app) in the ileum and the colon increased significantly in the presence of verapamil and were similar to the values observed in the jejunum. The results suggest that systemic absorption of tacrolimus from the gastrointestinal tract could be significantly affected by P-gp efflux mechanisms. It is also possible that differences in P-gp function at various intestinal sites in a subject or at a given intestinal site in various subjects could lead to large intra- and interindividual variability in bioavailability of tacrolimus following oral administration. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmaceutical Association .

  14. Role of Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3β in APP Hyperphosphorylation Induced by NMDA Stimulation in Cortical Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xanthi Antoniou

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The phosphorylation of Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP at Thr668 plays a key role in APP metabolism that is highly relevant to AD. The c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK, glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β and cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5 can all be responsible for this phosphorylation. These kinases are activated by excitotoxic stimuli fundamental hallmarks of AD. The exposure of cortical neurons to a high dose of NMDA (100 μM for 30’-45’ led to an increase of P-APP Thr668. During NMDA stimulation APP hyperphosphorylation has to be assigned to GSK-3β activity, since addition of L803-mts, a substrate competitive inhibitor of GSK-3β reduced APP phosphorylation induced by NMDA. On the contrary, inhibition of JNK and Cdk5 with D-JNKI1 and Roscovitine respectively did not prevent NMDA-induced P-APP increase. These data show a tight connection, in excitotoxic conditions, between APP metabolism and the GSK-3β signaling pathway.

  15. In vitro porcine blood-brain barrier model for permeability studies: pCEL-X software pKa(FLUX) method for aqueous boundary layer correction and detailed data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, Siti R; Avdeef, Alex; Abbott, N Joan

    2014-12-18

    In vitro blood-brain barrier (BBB) models from primary brain endothelial cells can closely resemble the in vivo BBB, offering valuable models to assay BBB functions and to screen potential central nervous system drugs. We have recently developed an in vitro BBB model using primary porcine brain endothelial cells. The model shows expression of tight junction proteins and high transendothelial electrical resistance, evidence for a restrictive paracellular pathway. Validation studies using small drug-like compounds demonstrated functional uptake and efflux transporters, showing the suitability of the model to assay drug permeability. However, one limitation of in vitro model permeability measurement is the presence of the aqueous boundary layer (ABL) resulting from inefficient stirring during the permeability assay. The ABL can be a rate-limiting step in permeation, particularly for lipophilic compounds, causing underestimation of the permeability. If the ABL effect is ignored, the permeability measured in vitro will not reflect the permeability in vivo. To address the issue, we explored the combination of in vitro permeability measurement using our porcine model with the pKa(FLUX) method in pCEL-X software to correct for the ABL effect and allow a detailed analysis of in vitro (transendothelial) permeability data, Papp. Published Papp using porcine models generated by our group and other groups are also analyzed. From the Papp, intrinsic transcellular permeability (P0) is derived by simultaneous refinement using a weighted nonlinear regression, taking into account permeability through the ABL, paracellular permeability and filter restrictions on permeation. The in vitro P0 derived for 22 compounds (35 measurements) showed good correlation with P0 derived from in situ brain perfusion data (r(2)=0.61). The analysis also gave evidence for carrier-mediated uptake of naloxone, propranolol and vinblastine. The combination of the in vitro porcine model and the software

  16. Enabling the intestinal absorption of highly polar antiviral agents: ion-pair facilitated membrane permeation of zanamivir heptyl ester and guanidino oseltamivir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jonathan M; Dahan, Arik; Gupta, Deepak; Varghese, Sheeba; Amidon, Gordon L

    2010-08-02

    Antiviral drugs often suffer from poor intestinal permeability, preventing their delivery via the oral route. The goal of this work was to enhance the intestinal absorption of the low-permeability antiviral agents zanamivir heptyl ester (ZHE) and guanidino oseltamivir (GO) utilizing an ion-pairing approach, as a critical step toward making them oral drugs. The counterion 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid (HNAP) was utilized to enhance the lipophilicity and permeability of the highly polar drugs. HNAP substantially increased the log P of the drugs by up to 3.7 log units. Binding constants (K(11(aq))) of 388 M(-1) for ZHE-HNAP and 2.91 M(-1) for GO-HNAP were obtained by applying a quasi-equilibrium transport model to double-reciprocal plots of apparent octanol-buffer distribution coefficients versus HNAP concentration. HNAP enhanced the apparent permeability (P(app)) of both compounds across Caco-2 cell monolayers in a concentration-dependent manner, as substantial P(app) (0.8-3.0 x 10(-6) cm/s) was observed in the presence of 6-24 mM HNAP, whereas no detectable transport was observed without counterion. Consistent with a quasi-equilibrium transport model, a linear relationship with slope near 1 was obtained from a log-log plot of Caco-2 P(app) versus HNAP concentration, supporting the ion-pair mechanism behind the permeability enhancement. In the rat jejunal perfusion assay, the addition of HNAP failed to increase the effective permeability (P(eff)) of GO. However, the rat jejunal permeability of ZHE was significantly enhanced by the addition of HNAP in a concentration-dependent manner, from essentially zero without HNAP to 4.0 x 10(-5) cm/s with 10 mM HNAP, matching the P(eff) of the high-permeability standard metoprolol. The success of ZHE-HNAP was explained by its >100-fold stronger K(11(aq)) versus GO-HNAP, making ZHE-HNAP less prone to dissociation and ion-exchange with competing endogenous anions and able to remain intact during membrane permeation. Overall, this

  17. Prospective validation of first-trimester combined screening for trisomy 21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, K O; Etchegaray, A; Zhou, Y; Wright, D; Nicolaides, K H

    2009-07-01

    To examine the performance of the new algorithm in screening for trisomy 21 by a combination of maternal age, fetal nuchal translucency (NT) and maternal serum free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-hCG) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A). This was a prospective screening study for trisomy 21 in singleton pregnancies at 11 + 0 to 13 + 6 weeks of gestation using an algorithm combining maternal age, fetal NT thickness based on the mixture model for the assessment of NT, and maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A based on a multiple regression model for the assessment of serum biochemistry. The NT measurements were performed by 60 operators who had obtained The Fetal Medicine Foundation certificate of competence in the 11-13-week scan. The study population consisted of 19 614 pregnancies with a normal karyotype or delivery of a phenotypically normal baby (euploid group) and 122 cases of trisomy 21. In the euploid fetuses the NT was above the previously defined 50(th), 95(th) and 99(th) centiles in 10 033 (51.2%), 618 (3.2%) and 123 (0.6%) cases and the respective values for trisomy 21 were 117 (95.9%), 94 (77.0%) and 57 (46.7%). The median fetal NT was within 0.1 mm of the expected in 47 (78.3%) of the 60 sonographers and within 0.2 mm in all. In the euploid fetuses the median free beta-hCG was 1.0 (range, 0.1-29.4) multiples of the median (MoM) and the median PAPP-A was 1.0 (range, 0.2-3.3) MoM. The median MoM values were 1.0 or close to 1.0 MoM for each subgroup of pregnancy characteristics, including gestations of 11, 12 and 13 weeks, maternal weight of 80 kg, different ethnic origins, cigarette smokers and non-smokers, natural conception and in vitro fertilization. For a false-positive rate of 3%, the detection rate of trisomy 21 in screening by maternal age and fetal NT was 81% (95% CI, 73-89%), by maternal age and maternal serum biochemistry it was 63% (95% CI, 56-72%) and by combined screening based on maternal age, fetal NT and maternal

  18. Absorbability, Mechanism and Structure-Property Relationship of Three Phenolic Acids from the Flowers of Trollius chinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Wen Wu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The absorption properties, mechanism of action, and structure-property relationship of three phenolic acids isolated from the flowers of Trollius chinensis Bunge, namely, proglobeflowery acid (PA, globeflowery acid (GA and trolloside (TS, were investigated using the human Caco-2 cell monolayer model. The results showed that these three phenolic acids were transported across the Caco-2 cell monolayer in a time and concentration dependent manner at the Papp level of 10−5 cm/s, and their extent of absorption correlated with their polarity and molecular weight. In conclusion, all three of these compounds were easily absorbed through passive diffusion, which implied their high bioavailability and significant contribution to the effectiveness of T. chinensis.

  19. The best energy recovery project in Norway?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melaasen, Erik

    2001-01-01

    Norway is one of the world's leading producers of ferro-alloys and silicon metals. The high temperature required in the production process is obtained by using electric energy. The temperature of the waste gases varies between 200 and 900 o C. To recover the energy of hot dust-holding gases from ferro-alloy plants the waste gases are cooled by means of steam production. The ferro-alloy plant Globe Norge AS Hafslund Metall and the energy supply company Birka Energi have signed an agreement to build Norway's largest energy recovery plant. The plant will recover 260 GWh per year. The oil consumption will be reduced by 26000 tonne per year and the annual emission of carbon dioxide by 80000 tonne. Steam from the plant will be supplied to the two companies Borregaard and Glomma Papp. The article describes the plant in some detail

  20. Tre lampor och ett ben : produktserie för Gotlands Lampfabrik

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Emma

    2010-01-01

    Gotlands Lampfabrik är en nystartad verksamhet (2009) som drivs av Jonas Kling och Jane Odell centralt på Gotland. De producerar stilrena lampskärmar i ett ljust polymermaterial med papp på båda sidorna. Produktionen är liten och görs för hand på plats i den egna fabriken i Väskinde. Sortimentet består av 33 lampskärmar och i nuläget producerar inte Gotlands Lampfabrik sina egna lampben eller upphängningar utan köper in dem från fristående parter vilket medför att sortimentet kan uppfattas so...

  1. Pregnancy Associated Plasma Protein-A in Type 2 Diabetic Patient with Peripheral Neuropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nosseir, N.M.

    2011-01-01

    Metabolic changes induced by hyperglycemia lead to dysregulation of cytokines control, subclinical inflammation together with oxidative stress associated with diabetes. The aim of this study is to correlate the role of type 2 diabetic neuropathy on serum pregnancy associated plasma protein-A,interleukin-6 and c-reactive protein .The results denoted that both pregnancy associated plasma protein-A and interleukin-6 were significantly increased in those patients with diabetic neuropathy compared with those without neuropathy but while c-reactive proteins showed significant differences between the three groups, the results lead to the conclusion that PAPP-A,IL-6 are useful tests in monitoring the neuropathic complications associated with type 2 diabetes

  2. S-protected thiolated chitosan for oral delivery of hydrophilic macromolecules: evaluation of permeation enhancing and efflux pump inhibitory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dünnhaupt, Sarah; Barthelmes, Jan; Rahmat, Deni; Leithner, Katharina; Thurner, Clemens C; Friedl, Heike; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2012-05-07

    The objective of this study was the investigation of permeation enhancing and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibition effects of a novel thiolated chitosan, the so-named S-protected thiolated chitosan. Mediated by a carbodiimide, increasing amounts of thioglycolic acid (TGA) were covalently bound to chitosan (CS) in the first step of modification. In the second step, these thiol groups of thiolated chitosan were protected by disulfide bond formation with the thiolated aromatic residue 6-mercaptonicotinamide (6-MNA). Mucoadhesive properties of all conjugates were evaluated in vitro on porcine intestinal mucosa based on tensile strength investigations. Permeation enhancing effects were evaluated ex vivo using rat intestinal mucosa and in vitro via Caco-2 cells using the hydrophilic macromolecule FD(4) as the model drug. Caco-2 cells were further used to show P-gp inhibition effects by using Rho-123 as P-gp substrate. Apparent permeability coefficients (P(app)) were calculated and compared to values obtained from each buffer control. Three different thiolated chitosans were generated in the first step of modification, which displayed increasing amounts of covalently attached free thiol groups on the polymer backbone. In the second modification step, more than 50% of these free thiol groups were covalently linked with 6-MNA. Within 3 h of permeation studies on excised rat intestine, P(app) values of all S-protected chitosans were at least 1.3-fold higher compared to those of corresponding thiomers and more than twice as high as that of unmodified chitosan. Additional permeation studies on Caco-2 cells confirmed these results. Because of the chemical modification and higher amount of reactive thiol groups, all S-protected thiolated chitosans exhibit at least 1.4-fold pronounced P-gp inhibition effects in contrast to their corresponding thiomers. These features approve S-protected thiolated chitosan as a promising excipient for various drug delivery systems providing improved

  3. Birth weight, breast cancer and the potential mediating hormonal environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek Bukowski

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that woman's risk of breast cancer in later life is associated with her infants birth weights. The objective of this study was to determine if this association is independent of breast cancer risk factors, mother's own birth weight and to evaluate association between infants birth weight and hormonal environment during pregnancy. Independent association would have implications for understanding the mechanism, but also for prediction and prevention of breast cancer.Risk of breast cancer in relation to a first infant's birth weight, mother's own birth weight and breast cancer risk factors were evaluated in a prospective cohort of 410 women in the Framingham Study. Serum concentrations of estriol (E3, anti-estrogen alpha-fetoprotein (AFP, and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A were measured in 23,824 pregnant women from a separate prospective cohort, the FASTER trial. During follow-up (median, 14 years 31 women (7.6% were diagnosed with breast cancer. Women with large birth weight infants (in the top quintile had a higher breast cancer risk compared to other women (hazard ratio (HR, 2.5; 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.2-5.2; P = 0.012. The finding was not affected by adjustment for birth weight of the mother and traditional breast cancer risk factors (adjusted HR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.2-5.6; P = 0.021. An infant's birth weight had a strong positive relationship with the mother's serum E3/AFP ratio and PAPP-A concentration during pregnancy. Adjustment for breast cancer risk factors did not have a material effect on these relationships.Giving birth to an infant with high birth weight was associated with increased breast cancer risk in later life, independently of mother's own birth weight and breast cancer risk factors and was also associated with a hormonal environment during pregnancy favoring future breast cancer development and progression.

  4. Emigration dynamics in the Arab region. IOM / UNFPA workshop, 7-8 October 1996, Geneva, Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleyard, R

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the four research monographs on emigration that were presented at the December 1995 Regional Workshop in the Arab Region. The workshop was an exchange of views and discussion of policy implications of emigration. Monographs were presented by Dr. Mayar Farrag on emigration in Egypt, Professor Nadji Safir on migration in the Maghreb, Dr. Setenay Shami on emigration dynamics in Jordan, and Dr. Lynn Evans on behalf of Dr. Ivy Papps on migration in Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries. Dr. Farrag identified three periods of migration. During the mid-1960s to the mid-1970s, migrants were officially encouraged by Egypt to fill education positions. During the 1970s, many migrants left for the oil-producing countries on a temporary basis. Since the mid-1980s, the influences on Egyptian migration have been the economic recession and oil prices in the Gulf states, the completion of infrastructure projects in most Gulf states, and the replacement of foreign labor with nationals. Dr. Farrag recommended improving the migrants' skills in English and technology in order to maintain a dominant flow of temporary migrants to the Gulf region. Professor Safir reported that persons from the Maghreb region (Tunisia, Algeria, and Morocco) migrated to France before independence and subsequently to West Germany and the Benelux countries. Algeria had the highest migration potential, and Morocco had the highest migration. Morocco had established networks in destination countries, high population growth rates, and high unemployment. Maghreb countries are receiving migrants from the south. Professor Safir recommended regional integration. Dr. Shami separated step migration from stepwise migration, which complicates push-pull theories. Dr. Papps argued that use of foreign labor may not be the best option for development, and that sending countries should be more aware of skill needs in GCC countries.

  5. Effect of deviation of nuchal translucency measurements on the performance of screening for trisomy 21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, K O; Wright, D; Etchegaray, A; Zhou, Y; Nicolaides, K H

    2009-06-01

    To examine the effect of deviations in median nuchal translucency thickness (NT) and the spread in measurements on the performance of screening for trisomy 21 by maternal age and fetal NT, and by maternal age, fetal NT and maternal serum biochemistry. We simulated the NT and multiples of the median values for pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) and free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-hCG) for 500 000 euploid and 500 000 trisomy 21 pregnancies at 12 weeks of gestation. Detection rates for trisomy 21 and false-positive rates were calculated without adjustments in NT and by adding or subtracting values ranging from 0.1 to 1.0 mm to each observed measurement. In addition, the effects of variation in the scatter of NT measurements were examined by applying a multiplicative factor ranging from 0.5 to 2 to the SD. The detection rate of trisomy 21 for a fixed false-positive rate of 3% in screening by maternal age and fetal NT was 72%, and in screening by maternal age, fetal NT and serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A it was 86%. A consistent underestimate or overestimate in the measured NT reduced the detection rate of trisomy 21 for a fixed-false positive rate. At a fixed screen-positive cut-off an underestimate in fetal NT reduced the detection rate whereas an overestimate in NT increased the false-positive rate. A widening in the scatter of measurements had only a small impact on the detection rate but it caused a major increase in the false-positive rate. High performance of screening necessitates appropriate measurement of fetal NT. This paper demonstrates the effect of deviations in the median and SD of NT from the expected on the performance of screening and can form the basis of audit of results of individual sonographers. (c) 2009 ISUOG.

  6. Clicking in shallow rivers: short-range echolocation of Irrawaddy and Ganges River dolphins in a shallow, acoustically complex habitat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frants H Jensen

    Full Text Available Toothed whales (Cetacea, odontoceti use biosonar to navigate their environment and to find and catch prey. All studied toothed whale species have evolved highly directional, high-amplitude ultrasonic clicks suited for long-range echolocation of prey in open water. Little is known about the biosonar signals of toothed whale species inhabiting freshwater habitats such as endangered river dolphins. To address the evolutionary pressures shaping the echolocation signal parameters of non-marine toothed whales, we investigated the biosonar source parameters of Ganges river dolphins (Platanista gangetica gangetica and Irrawaddy dolphins (Orcaella brevirostris within the river systems of the Sundarban mangrove forest. Both Ganges and Irrawaddy dolphins produced echolocation clicks with a high repetition rate and low source level compared to marine species. Irrawaddy dolphins, inhabiting coastal and riverine habitats, produced a mean source level of 195 dB (max 203 dB re 1 µPapp whereas Ganges river dolphins, living exclusively upriver, produced a mean source level of 184 dB (max 191 re 1 µPapp. These source levels are 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than those of similar sized marine delphinids and may reflect an adaptation to a shallow, acoustically complex freshwater habitat with high reverberation and acoustic clutter. The centroid frequency of Ganges river dolphin clicks are an octave lower than predicted from scaling, but with an estimated beamwidth comparable to that of porpoises. The unique bony maxillary crests found in the Platanista forehead may help achieve a higher directionality than expected using clicks nearly an octave lower than similar sized odontocetes.

  7. Reexamination of M2,3 atomic level widths and L1M2,3 transition energies of elements 69≤Z≤95

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennane, K.; Berset, M.; Dousse, J.-Cl.; Hoszowska, J.; Raboud, P.-A.; Campbell, J. L.

    2013-11-01

    We report on high-resolution measurements of the photoinduced L1M2 and L1M3 x-ray emission lines of 69Tm, 70Yb, 71Lu, 73Ta, 74W, 75Re, 77Ir, 81Tl, 83Bi, and 95Am. From the linewidths of the measured transitions an accurate set of M2 and M3 level widths is determined assuming for the L1 level widths the values reported by Raboud [P.-A. Raboud et al., Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.65.022512 65, 022512 (2002)]. Furthermore, the present experimental M2,3 data set is extended to 80Hg, 90Th, and 92U, using former L1M2,3 high-resolution x-ray emission spectroscopy measurements performed by our group. A detailed comparison of the M2 and M3 level widths determined in the present work with those recommended by Campbell and Papp [J. L. Campbell and T. Papp, At. Data Nucl. Data TablesADNDAT0092-640X10.1006/adnd.2000.0848 77, 1 (2001)] and other available experimental data as well as theoretical predictions is done. The observed abrupt changes of the M2,3 level widths versus atomic number Z can be explained satisfactorily by the cutoffs and onsets of the M2M4N1, respectively M3M4N3,4,5 and M3M5N2,3 Coster-Kronig transitions deduced from the semiempirical (Z+1) approximation. As a spin-off result of this study, precise L1M2 and L1M3 transition energies are obtained for the investigated elements. A very good agreement with transition energies calculated within the many-body perturbation theory is found.

  8. Effect of adjuvant low-molecular-weight heparin therapy on placental hypoxia and cell apoptosis in puerperae with severe preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Zhou1

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of adjuvant low-molecular-weight heparin therapy on placental hypoxia and cell apoptosis in puerperae with severe preeclampsia. Methods: A total of 94 puerperae with severe preeclampsia who received treatment and safely gave birth in our hospital between May 2014 and May 2016 were selected as the research subjects and randomly divided into the LMWH group who received low-molecular-weight heparin combined with conventional symptomatic treatment and the control group who received conventional symptomatic treatment. Before and after treatment, serum was collected respectively to determine the levels of placental hypoxia-related cytokines, and after delivery, the placentas were collected to detect oxidative stress indexes and cell apoptosis indexes. Results: After treatment, serum PLGF and PAPP-A levels of both groups were significantly higher than those before treatment while sFlt-1 and sEng levels were significantly lower than those before treatment, and after treatment, serum PLGF and PAPP-A levels of LMWH group were significantly higher than those of control group while sFlt-1 and sEng levels were significantly lower than those of control group; ROS and RNS levels as well as Fas, FasL, caspase-3 and caspase-8 protein expression in placenta tissue of LMWH group were significantly lower than those of control group while GPx-1, SOD-1 and Trx levels as well as Survivin, XIAP and Bcl-2 protein expression were significantly higher than those of control group. Conclusion: Adjuvant low-molecular-weight heparin therapy can relieve the placental hypoxia, improve oxidative stress reaction and inhibit cell apoptosis in puerperae with severe preeclampsia.

  9. Role of different biodegradable polymers on the permeability of ciprofloxacin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Kanti Chakraborti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since permeability across biological membranes is a key factor in the absorption and distribution of drugs, drug permeation characteristics of three oral suspensions of ciprofloxacin were designed and compared. The three suspensions of ciprofloxacin were prepared by taking biodegradable polymers such as carbopol 934, carbopol 940, and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC. The permeability study was performed by using a Franz diffusion cell through both synthetic cellulose acetate membrane and excised goat gastrointestinal membranes in acidic as well as alkaline pH. To know the permeability of drug from control/formulations through different membranes in acidic/alkaline pH, cumulative percentage drug permeation, apparent permeability (Papp, flux, and enhancement ratio (ER were calculated. Considering Papp and flux values of all formulations, it is evident that formulation containing HPMC was the most beneficial for improving permeation and diffusivity of ciprofloxacin even after 16 h. Hence, this preparation may be considered as the most suitable formulation to obtain prolonged release action of the drug. The ER values of all formulations, through excised goat intestinal mucosal membrane in alkaline pH, were higher than those formulations through goat stomach mucosal membrane in acidic pH. Enhancement ratio values of those formulations indicate that the permeability of the drug was more enhanced by the polymers in the intestinal part, leading to more bioavailability and prolonged action in that portion of the gastrointestinal tract. It may also be concluded from our results that HPMC containing formulation was the best suspension, which may show effective controlled release action. Even carbopol containing formulations might also produce controlled release action.

  10. Highly sensitive and label-free electrochemical detection of microRNAs based on triple signal amplification of multifunctional gold nanoparticles, enzymes and redox-cycling reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lin; Xia, Ning; Liu, Huiping; Kang, Xiaojing; Liu, Xiaoshuan; Xue, Chan; He, Xiaoling

    2014-03-15

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are believed to be important for cancer diagnosis and prognosis, serving as reliable molecular biomarkers. In this work, we presented a label-free and highly sensitive electrochemical genosensor for miRNAs detection with the triple signal amplification of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and p-aminophenol (p-AP) redox cycling. The label-free strategy is based on the difference in the structures of RNA and DNA. Specifically, miRNAs were first captured by the pre-immobilized DNA probes on a gold electrode. Next, the cis-diol group of ribose sugar at the end of the miRNAs chain allowed 3-aminophenylboronic acid (APBA)/biotin-modified multifunctional AuNPs (denoted as APBA-biotin-AuNPs) to be attached through the formation of a boronate ester covalent bond, which facilitated the capture of streptavidin-conjugated alkaline phosphatase (SA-ALP) via the biotin-streptavidin interaction. After the addition of the 4-aminophenylphosphate (p-APP) substrate, the enzymatic conversion from p-APP to p-AP occurred. The resulting p-AP could be cycled by a chemical reducing reagent after its electro-oxidization on the electrode (known as p-AP redox cycling), thus enabling an increase in the anodic current. As a result, the current increased linearly with the miRNAs concentration over a range of 10 fM-5 pM, and a detection limit of 3 fM was achieved. We believe that this work will be valuable for the design of new types of label-free and sensitive electrochemical biosensors. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Oral pharmacokinetics of baicalin, wogonoside, oroxylin A 7-O-β-d-glucuronide and their aglycones from an aqueous extract of Scutellariae Radix in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yu; Li, Sai; Li, Ting; Zhou, Ruina; Wai, Alfred Tai-Seng; Yan, Ru

    2016-07-15

    well as a poorer intestinal permeability of baicalein (Papp×10(-6)cm/s) should account for the lower systemic exposures of BG and baicalein. Faster microbial hydrolysis of WG, high intestinal permeability (Papp×10(-5)cm/s) and less hepatic glucuronidation of wogonin explain the relatively high systemic exposure of wogonin. Sole microbial deglycosylation of OG, high intestinal permeability (Papp×10(-5)cm/s) and extensive hepatic glucuronidation of oroxylin A supported the highest systemic exposure of OG. Taken together, the oral kinetics of six flavonoid glucuronides and aglycones in the SR extract were simultaneously obtained. Microbial conversion, intestinal epithelial permeability and hepatic glucuronidation are determinant factors for their systemic exposures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Transdermal delivery of curcumin via microemulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sintov, Amnon C

    2015-03-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the transdermal delivery potential of a new curcumin-containing microemulsion system. Three series of experiments were carried out to comprehend the system characteristics: (a) examining the influence of water content on curcumin permeation, (b) studying the effect of curcumin loading on its permeability, and (c) assessing the contribution of the vesicular nature of the microemulsion on permeability. The skin permeability of curcumin from microemulsions, which contained 5%, 10%, and 20% of water content (1% curcumin), was measured in vitro using excised rat skin. It has been shown that the permeability coefficient of CUR in a formulation containing 10% aqueous phase (ME-10) was twofold higher than the values obtained for formulations with 5% and 20% water (Papp=0.116 × 10(-3)± 0.052 × 10(-3)vs. 0.043 × 10(-3)± 0.022 × 10(-3) and 0.047 × 10(-3)± 0.025 × 10(-3)cm/h, respectively. A reasonable explanation for this phenomenon may be the reduction of both droplet size and droplets' concentration in the microemulsion as the aqueous phase decreased from 20% to 5%. It has also been shown that a linear correlation exists between the decrease in droplet size and the increase of curcumin loading in the microemulsion. In addition, it has been demonstrated that a micellar system, S/O-mix, and a plain solution of curcumin resulted in a significantly lower curcumin permeation relative to that presented by the microemulsion, Papp=0.018 × 10(-3)± 0.011 × 10(-3), 0.005 × 10(-3)± 0.002 × 10(-3), and 0.002 × 10(-3)± 0.000 × 10(-3)cm/h, respectively, vs. 0.110 × 10(-3)± 0.021 × 10(-3)cm/h for the microemulsion. The enhancement ratio (ER=Jss-ME/Jss-solution) of CUR permeated via 1% loaded microemulsion was 55. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A novel drug–phospholipid complex enriched with micelles: preparation and evaluation in vitro and in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia HJ

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Hai-jian Xia,1,2 Zhen-hai Zhang,1 Xin Jin,1 Qin Hu,1 Xiao-yun Chen,1 Xiao-bin Jia11Key Laboratory of New Drug Delivery System of Chinese Materia Medica, Jiangsu Provincial Academy of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, China; 2College of Pharmacy, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, ChinaAbstract: Mixed micelles are widely used to increase solubility and bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs. One promising antitumor drug candidate is 20(S-protopanaxadiol (PPD, although its clinical application is limited by low water solubility and poor bioavailability after oral administration. In this study, we developed mixed micelles consisting of PPD–phospholipid complexes and Labrasol® and evaluated their potential for oral PPD absorption. Micelles were prepared using a solvent-evaporation method, and their physicochemical properties, including particle size, zeta potential, morphology, crystal type, drug loading, drug entrapment efficiency, and solubility, were characterized. Furthermore, in vitro release was investigated using the dialysis method, and transport and bioavailability of the mixed micelles were investigated through a Caco-2 cell monolayer and in vivo absorption studies performed in rats. Compared with the solubility of free PPD (3 µg/mL, the solubility of PPD in the prepared mixed micelles was 192.41 ± 1.13 µg/mL in water at room temperature. The in vitro release profiles showed a significant difference between the more rapid release of free PPD and the slower and more sustained release of the mixed micelles. At the end of a 4-hour transport study using Caco-2 cells, the apical-to-basolateral apparent permeability coefficients (Papp increased from (1.12 ± 0.21 × 106 cm/s to (1.78 ± 0.16 × 106 cm/s, while the basolateral-to-apical Papp decreased from (2.42 ± 0.16 × 106 cm/s to (2.12 ± 0.32 × 106. In this pharmacokinetic study, compared with the bioavailability of free PPD (area under the curve [AUC]0–8, the

  14. Apps seeking theories: results of a study on the use of health behavior change theories in cancer survivorship mobile apps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer Dahlke, Deborah; Fair, Kayla; Hong, Y Alicia; Beaudoin, Christopher E; Pulczinski, Jairus; Ory, Marcia G

    2015-03-27

    Thousands of mobile health apps are now available for use on mobile phones for a variety of uses and conditions, including cancer survivorship. Many of these apps appear to deliver health behavior interventions but may fail to consider design considerations based in human computer interface and health behavior change theories. This study is designed to assess the presence of and manner in which health behavior change and health communication theories are applied in mobile phone cancer survivorship apps. The research team selected a set of criteria-based health apps for mobile phones and assessed each app using qualitative coding methods to assess the application of health behavior change and communication theories. Each app was assessed using a coding derived from the taxonomy of 26 health behavior change techniques by Abraham and Michie with a few important changes based on the characteristics of mHealth apps that are specific to information processing and human computer interaction such as control theory and feedback systems. A total of 68 mobile phone apps and games built on the iOS and Android platforms were coded, with 65 being unique. Using a Cohen's kappa analysis statistic, the inter-rater reliability for the iOS apps was 86.1 (Papps, 77.4 (Papps were consistently higher than those of the Android platform apps. For personalization and tailoring, 67% of the iOS apps (24/36) had these elements as compared to 38% of the Android apps (12/32). In the area of prompting for intention formation, 67% of the iOS apps (34/36) indicated these elements as compared to 16% (5/32) of the Android apps. Mobile apps are rapidly emerging as a way to deliver health behavior change interventions that can be tailored or personalized for individuals. As these apps and games continue to evolve and include interactive and adaptive sensors and other forms of dynamic feedback, their content and interventional elements need to be grounded in human computer interface design and health

  15. Performance of third-trimester ultrasound for prediction of small-for-gestational-age neonates and evaluation of contingency screening policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souka, A P; Papastefanou, I; Pilalis, A; Michalitsi, V; Kassanos, D

    2012-05-01

    To assess the performance of third-trimester fetal biometry and fetal Doppler studies for the prediction of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) neonates, and to explore contingency strategies using a first-trimester prediction model based on maternal and fetal parameters and third-trimester ultrasound. This was an observational cross-sectional study of uncomplicated singleton pregnancies. Risk assessment for chromosomal abnormality was carried out in 4702 pregnancies using a combination of ultrasound markers (fetal nuchal translucency thickness (NT) and nasal bone assessment) and biochemistry (free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A)) at 11 to 13 + 6 weeks. Maternal demographic characteristics and method of conception were recorded. Third-trimester (30-34 weeks) fetal biometry (biparietal diameter (BPD), head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC) and femur length (FL)) and umbilical artery (UA) and middle cerebral artery Doppler studies were performed routinely in a subgroup (n = 2310). Reference ranges for birth weight were constructed using the cohort of 4702 women, and neonates were classified as small (SGA, ≤ 5th centile) or appropriate (AGA) for gestational age. First-trimester, third-trimester and integrated first- and third-trimester prediction models for SGA were constructed using regression analysis and three different contingency strategies of rescanning in the third trimester were investigated. According to the areas under the receiver-operating characteristics curves (AUCs), AC (AUC = 0.85) and ultrasound-estimated fetal weight (EFW, AUC = 0.87) were equally good predictors of SGA. The model was marginally improved by the addition of UA Doppler, smoking status and first-trimester indices (free β-hCG and PAPP-A multiples of the median) (combined model, AUC = 0.88), but the difference was not statistically significant. A contingency strategy of rescanning 50% of the population in the

  16. Implications of failure to achieve a result from prenatal maternal serum cell-free DNA testing: a historical cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, N; Smet, M-E; Sandow, R; da Silva Costa, F; McLennan, A

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the pregnancy outcomes in a cohort of women who failed to obtain a result in non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT). Historical cohort study. A multicentre private practice in Sydney, Australia. Women who failed to obtain a result from NIPT (n = 131). The maternal characteristics, antenatal investigations and pregnancy outcomes for these women were compared with those who obtained a result at the same practice and to the general Australian obstetric population. Antenatal investigations: pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), free β-human chorionic gonadotrophin (β-hCG), placental growth factor (PlGF), uterine artery pulsatility index (PI), mean arterial pressure (MAP). Pregnancy outcomes: chromosomal abnormality, pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, small-for-gestational-age (SGA), preterm delivery. Only 1.1% of NIPT samples failed to return a result. This cohort was significantly older and had significantly increased weight compared with the general Australian obstetric population. Pregnancy outcomes were available for 94% of the cohort. There were significantly higher rates of chromosomal aneuploidies (6.5% versus 0.2%, P < 0.0001), pre-eclampsia (11% versus 1.5%, P < 0.0001) and gestational diabetes (23% versus 7.5%, P < 0.0001) compared with the general obstetric population. Rates of preterm delivery and SGA were elevated but did not reach significance. Antenatal investigations demonstrated decreased PAPP-A MoM (0.75 versus 1.14, P < 0.0001), decreased free β-hCG (0.71 versus 1.01, P < 0.0001) and increased uterine artery PI (1.79 versus 1.65, P = 0.02). Women who fail to obtain a result from NIPT are at increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, in particular chromosomal aneuploidy, gestational diabetes and pre-eclampsia. None received. Women who fail to obtain a result from cell-free DNA NIPT are at increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. © 2017 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  17. In vitro solubility, dissolution and permeability studies combined with semi-mechanistic modeling to investigate the intestinal absorption of desvenlafaxine from an immediate- and extended release formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franek, F; Jarlfors, A; Larsen, F; Holm, P; Steffansen, B

    2015-09-18

    Desvenlafaxine is a biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) class 1 (high solubility, high permeability) and biopharmaceutical drug disposition classification system (BDDCS) class 3, (high solubility, poor metabolism; implying low permeability) compound. Thus the rate-limiting step for desvenlafaxine absorption (i.e. intestinal dissolution or permeation) is not fully clarified. The aim of this study was to investigate whether dissolution and/or intestinal permeability rate-limit desvenlafaxine absorption from an immediate-release formulation (IRF) and Pristiq(®), an extended release formulation (ERF). Semi-mechanistic models of desvenlafaxine were built (using SimCyp(®)) by combining in vitro data on dissolution and permeation (mechanistic part of model) with clinical data (obtained from literature) on distribution and clearance (non-mechanistic part of model). The model predictions of desvenlafaxine pharmacokinetics after IRF and ERF administration were compared with published clinical data from 14 trials. Desvenlafaxine in vivo dissolution from the IRF and ERF was predicted from in vitro solubility studies and biorelevant dissolution studies (using the USP3 dissolution apparatus), respectively. Desvenlafaxine apparent permeability (Papp) at varying apical pH was investigated using the Caco-2 cell line and extrapolated to effective intestinal permeability (Peff) in human duodenum, jejunum, ileum and colon. Desvenlafaxine pKa-values and octanol-water partition coefficients (Do:w) were determined experimentally. Due to predicted rapid dissolution after IRF administration, desvenlafaxine was predicted to be available for permeation in the duodenum. Desvenlafaxine Do:w and Papp increased approximately 13-fold when increasing apical pH from 5.5 to 7.4. Desvenlafaxine Peff thus increased with pH down the small intestine. Consequently, desvenlafaxine absorption from an IRF appears rate-limited by low Peff in the upper small intestine, which "delays" the predicted

  18. Old and new aspects in the pathophysiology of pre-eclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Prefumo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Pre-eclampsia is a condition affecting the feto-placental unit and the mother. Three to five percent of pregnancies are complicated by pre-eclampsia, a multisystem disorder characterized by hypertension and proteinuria that occurs after 20 weeks of pregnancy. Pre-eclampsia is associated with substantial risks. For the fetus, these include intrauterine growth restriction, death, and prematurity with attendant complications, whereas the mother is at risk for complications of widespread alterations in endothelial function such as seizures (eclampsia, renal failure, pulmonary edema, stroke, and death. The establishment of pathological uterine perfusion raises the problem of stage two. The problem at stage three describes pre-eclampsia as a syndrome with the global maternal endothelial damage as the central pathophysiological feature.\tIt has been suggested that the pathophysiology of pre-eclampsia can be thought of as a ‘three-stage problem’, where each stage generates one, so far unsolved problem. An impaired trophoblast invasion is thought to be the central factor (first step regarding the etiology of pre-eclampsia. An increased uterine artery Doppler findings (PI, RI, lower maternal serum PAPP-A and free ßhCG levels, ischaemia modified albumin (IMA may be associated with pre-eclampsia.

  19. Protein profiling of preeclampsia placental tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Chang; Liu, Zitao; Cui, Lifeng; Wei, Chengguo; Wang, Shuwen; Tang, Jian Jenny; Cui, Miao; Lian, Guodong; Li, Wei; Liu, Xiufen; Xu, Hongmei; Jiang, Jing; Lee, Peng; Zhang, David Y; He, Jin; Ye, Fei

    2014-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a multi-system disorder involved in pregnancy without an effective treatment except delivery. The precise pathogenesis of this complicated disorder is still not completely understood. The objective of this study is to evaluate the alterations of protein expression and phosphorylations that are important in regulating placental cell function in preterm and term preeclampsia. Using the Protein Pathway Array, 38 proteins in placental tissues were found to be differentially expressed between preterm preeclampsia and gestational age matched control, while 25 proteins were found to be expressed differentially between term preeclampsia and matched controls. Among these proteins, 16 proteins and their associated signaling pathways overlapped between preterm and term preeclampsia, suggesting the common pathogenesis of two subsets of disease. On the other hand, many proteins are uniquely altered in either preterm or term preeclampsia and correlated with severity of clinical symptoms and outcomes, therefore, providing molecular basis for these two subsets of preeclampsia. Furthermore, the expression levels of some of these proteins correlated with neonatal small for gestational age (PAI-1 and PAPP-A) and adverse outcomes (Flt-1) in women with preterm preeclampsia. These proteins could potentially be used as candidate biomarkers for predicting outcomes of preeclampsia.

  20. Antioxidant profile of strawberry tree honey and its marker homogentisic acid in several models of oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Antonella; Tuberoso, Carlo Ignazio Giovanni; Atzeri, Angela; Melis, Maria Paola; Bifulco, Ersilia; Dessì, Maria Assunta

    2011-12-01

    The antioxidant activity of several honeys was evaluated considering the different contribution of entire samples. The strawberry tree honey emerged as the richest in total phenols and the most active honey in the DPPH and FRAP tests, and could protect cholesterol against oxidative degradation (140°C). Homogentisic acid (2,5-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, HGA), the main phenolic compound from strawberry tree honey, showed interesting antioxidant and antiradical activities, and protective effect against thermal-cholesterol degradation, comparable to those of well known antioxidants. Moreover, the pre-treatment with HGA significantly preserved liposomes and LDL from Cu(2+)-induced oxidative damage at 37°C for 2h, inhibiting the reduction of polyunsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol and the increase of their oxidative products. This phenol had no toxic effect in human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells within the concentration range tested (5-1000μM). HGA was able to pass through the Caco-2 monolayers, the apparent permeability coefficients (Papp) in the apical-to-basolateral and basolateral-to-apical direction were 3.48±1.22×10(-6) and 2.18±0.34×10(-6)cm/s, respectively, suggesting a passive diffusion pathway as the dominating process. The results of the work qualify HGA as natural antioxidant, able to exert a significant in vitro protective effect and to contribute to the strawberry tree honey antioxidant activity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Results of an RCT in Two Pediatric Emergency Departments to Evaluate the Efficacy of an m-Health Educational App on Car Seat Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gielen, Andrea C; Bishai, David M; Omaki, Elise; Shields, Wendy C; McDonald, Eileen M; Rizzutti, Nicholas C; Case, James; Stevens, Molly W; Aitken, Mary E

    2018-04-09

    The growing interest in incorporating prevention into emergency health care make it timely to examine the use of computer technology to efficiently deliver effective education in this setting. This RCT compared results from an intervention group (n=367) that received child passenger safety information, to an attention-matched control (n=375). A baseline survey and two follow-up surveys at 3 and 6 months were conducted. Data were collected from June 2014 to September 2016 from a sample of parents with children aged 4-7 years recruited from a pediatric emergency department in an East Coast urban area and one in a Midwest semi-rural area. A theory-based, stage-tailored educational program, Safety in Seconds v2.0 TM , delivered on a mobile app. Four car seat behaviors: (1) having the correct restraint for the child's age and weight; (2) having the child ride in the backseat all the time; (3) buckling up the child all the time; and (4) having the child's restraint inspected by a child passenger safety technician. At 3 months, adjusting for baseline behaviors and attrition, the odds of reporting the correct behavior by the intervention group relative to the control group was 2.07 (papps hold promise for reaching large populations with individually tailored child passenger safety education. Clinical Trial Registration # NCT02345941. Copyright © 2018 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Reexamination of $L_{3}$ and $M_{1}$ atomic-level widths of elements 54 $\\le$ Z $\\le$ 77

    CERN Document Server

    Mauron, O; Baechler, S; Berset, M; Maillard, Y P; Raboud, P A; Hoszowska, J

    2003-01-01

    High-resolution measurements of the photoinduced L/sub 3/-M/sub 1/ and L/sub 3/-M/sub 4,5/ X-ray emission lines were performed with a reflection-type bent-crystal spectrometer for a variety of elements ranging from xenon (Z=54) to iridium (Z=77). The measurements were performed at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility in Grenoble, France. From the observed linewidths of the L/sub 3/-M/sub 1/ x-ray transitions, the widths of the M/sub 1/ levels were determined using the L/sub 3/ level widths extracted from the measured L/sub 3/-M/sub 5/ transitions, and assuming for the M/sub 5/ levels the widths reported recently by Campbell and Papp ÝAt. Data Nucl. Data Tables 77, 1 (2001)¿. In the rare-earth region a Z-dependent broadening of the M/sub 1/ level was observed. (51 refs).

  3. Antiproton-Proton Glory Scattering

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This experiment measures @*p and K|-p backwards scattering between 8 and 16 GeV/c in the Omega spectrometer using the S1 beam, with sensitivities of several events per nanobarn. The mechanism responsible for backward scattering in channels not mediated by particle exchange is not understood, and could be almost energy-independent glory scattering, especially since relatively high cross sections of 190~(@*p) and 120~(K|-p)nb have been measured earlier at 5~GeV/c. @p|-p backwards scattering is measured for monitoring purposes. The trigger requires a forward particle of momentum close to the beam momentum. Absence of light in the two forward Cerenkov counters indicates that the particle is a proton. Combinations of an incident @p|- and an outgoing K|+, or an incident K|- or @* and an outgoing @p|+, cover the following byproducts: @*p~@A~@p|+@p|- which is an (allowed) baryon exchange reaction, and the exotic exchange reactions @p|-p~@A~K|+Y K|-p~@A~@p|+Y|-, where Y|- may be the @S|- or the Y*|-(1385).

  4. Acamprosate has no impact on the permeability of paracellular markers across Caco-2 cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonescu, Irina; Steffansen, Bente; Neuhoff, Sibylle

    of the paracellular markers, mannitol and Lucifer Yellow (LY), was investigated. Methods: Ppara of LY and [14C]-mannitol was investigated across filter grown human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco-2) cell monolayers. Changes in the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) across the monolayers were...... the [14C]-mannitol, Papp values of 0.71±0.2x10-6 and 0.51±0.17x10-6 cm/s were obtained. TEER values at the end of all experiments were in the range of 426-444 ohm*cm2. Summary/Conclusion: Acamprosate has no impact on the paracellular pathway across Caco-2 cell monolayers of LY and mannitol, or on the TEER......Backgrounds: The oral bioavailability of poorly permeable and non-metabolised acamprosate (BCS III) is 11%. It is controversial whether the intestinal effective permeability of the fully an-ionized acamprosate (pKa 1.83; MW 181.2 g/mol) is predominantly paracellular (Ppara) or transcellular...

  5. Intestinal Permeability and Cellular Antioxidant Activity of Phenolic Compounds from Mango (Mangifera indica cv. Ataulfo Peels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Pacheco-Ordaz

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Mango (Mangifera indica cv. Ataulfo peel contains bound phenolics that may be released by alkaline or acid hydrolysis and may be converted into less complex molecules. Free phenolics from mango cv. Ataulfo peel were obtained using a methanolic extraction, and their cellular antioxidant activity (CAA and permeability were compared to those obtained for bound phenolics released by alkaline or acid hydrolysis. Gallic acid was found as a simple phenolic acid after alkaline hydrolysis along with mangiferin isomers and quercetin as aglycone and glycosides. Only gallic acid, ethyl gallate, mangiferin, and quercetin were identified in the acid fraction. The acid and alkaline fractions showed the highest CAA (60.5% and 51.5% when tested at 125 µg/mL. The value of the apparent permeability coefficient (Papp across the Caco-2/HT-29 monolayer of gallic acid from the alkaline fraction was higher (2.61 × 10−6 cm/s than in the other fractions and similar to that obtained when tested pure (2.48 × 10−6 cm/s. In conclusion, mango peels contain bound phenolic compounds that, after their release, have permeability similar to pure compounds and exert an important CAA. This finding can be applied in the development of nutraceuticals using this important by-product from the mango processing industry.

  6. Regression of the inflammatory microenvironment of the peritoneal cavity in women with endometriosis by GnRHa treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirgianakis, K; Bersinger, N A; McKinnon, B; Kostov, P; Imboden, S; Mueller, M D

    2013-10-01

    To investigate the effect of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues (GnRHa) on the peritoneal fluid microenvironment in women with endometriosis. Peritoneal fluid was collected from 85 women with severe endometriosis (rAFS stage III and IV) during laparoscopic surgery during the proliferative phase. Prior to surgery clinical data were collected. The concentrations of specific markers for endometriosis in the peritoneal fluid were determined using an ELISA and a comparison between peritoneal fluid markers in women using GnRHa and no hormonal treatment was performed using a non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test. The study included peritoneal fluid from 39 patients who had been administered GnRHa (Zoladex(®)) in the three months prior to surgery and 46 from women with no hormonal treatment in this period. Concentrations of IL-8, PAPP-A, glycodelin-A and midkine were significantly reduced in the GnRHa treatment group compared to women receiving no hormonal treatment. RANTES, MCP-1, ENA-78, TNF-α, OPG, IP-10 and defensin showed no significant change between the two groups. GnRHa mediate a significant regression in the inflammatory nature of the peritoneal microenvironment in women with endometriosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Fluorescein transport properties across artificial lipid membranes, Caco-2 cell monolayers and rat jejunum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berginc, Katja; Zakelj, Simon; Levstik, Lea; Ursic, Darko; Kristl, Albin

    2007-05-01

    Membrane transport characteristics of a paracellular permeability marker fluorescein were evaluated using artificial membrane, Caco-2 cell monolayers and rat jejunum, all mounted in side-by-side diffusion cells. Modified Ringer buffers with varied pH values were applied as incubation salines on both sides of artificial membrane, cell culture monolayers or rat jejunum. Passive transport according to pH partition theory was determined using all three permeability models. In addition to that, active transport of fluorescein in the M-S (mucosal-to-serosal) direction through rat jejunum was observed. The highest M-S P(app) values regarding the active transport through the rat jejunum were observed in incubation saline with pH 6.5. Fluorescein transport through the rat jejunum was inhibited by DIDS (4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid) and alpha-CHC (alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid). Thus, we assume that two pH-dependent influx transporters could be involved in the fluorescein membrane transport through the intestinal (jejunal) epithelium. One is very likely an MCT (monocarboxylic acid cotransporter) isoform, inhibited by specific MCT inhibitor alpha-CHC, while the involvement of the second one with overlapping substrate/inhibitor specificities (most probably a member of the organic anion-transporting polypeptide family, inhibited at least partially by DIDS) could not be excluded.

  8. Guidelineness of the parameters using integrated test in down syndrome risk prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jin Won [Graduate School of Catholic University of Pusan, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Go, Sung Jin; Kang, Se Sik; Kim, Chang Soo [Dept. Radiological Science, College of Health Sciences, Catholic University of Pusan, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    This study was an evaluation of the significance of each parameter through aimed at pregnant women subjected to screening test(integrated test) in predicting risk of Down syndrome. We retrospectively analysed the correlation of risk of Down's syndrome with Nuchal Translucency(NT) images measured by ultrasound, Pregnancy Associated Plasma Protein A(PAPP-A), alpha-fetoprotein(AFP), unconjugated estriol(uE3), human chorionic gonadotrophin(hCG) and Inhibin A by maternal serum. As a result, a significant correlation with NT, uE3, hCG, Inhibin A is revealed with Down's syndrome risk(P<.001). In ROC analysis, AUC of Inhibin A is analysed as the biggest predictor of Down's syndrome(0.859). And the criterion for cut-off was inhibin A 1.4 MoM(sensitivity 81.8%, specificity 75.9%). In conclusion, Inhibin A was the most useful in parameters to predict Down's syndrome in the integrated test. If we make up for the weakness based on the cut-off value of parameters they will be able to be used as an independent indicator in the risk of Down's syndrome screening.

  9. Evaluation of the use of partition coefficients and molecular surface properties as predictors of drug absorption: a provisional biopharmaceutical classification of the list of national essential medi

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    NU Rahman

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and the purpose of the study: Partition coefficients (log D and log P and molecular surface area (PSA are potential predictors of the intestinal permeability of drugs. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate and compare these intestinal permeability indicators.   Methods: Aqueous solubility data were obtained from literature or calculated using ACD/Labs and ALOGPS. Permeability data were predicted based on log P, log D at pH 6.0 (log D6.0, and PSA.  Results: Metoprolol's log P, log D6.0 and a PSA of <65 Å correctly predicted 55.9%, 50.8% and 54.2% of permeability classes, respectively. Labetalol's log P, log D6.0, and PSA correctly predicted 54.2%, 64.4% and 61% of permeability classes, respectively. Log D6.0 correlated well (81% with Caco-2 permeability (Papp. Of the list of national essential medicines, 135 orally administered drugs were classified into biopharmaceutical classification system (BCS. Of these, 57 (42.2%, 28 (20.7%, 44 (32.6%, and 6 (4.4% were class I, II, III and IV respectively. Conclusion: Log D6.0 showed better prediction capability than log P. Metoprolol as permeability internal standard was more conservative than labetalol.

  10. Intestinal Permeability and Cellular Antioxidant Activity of Phenolic Compounds from Mango (Mangifera indica cv. Ataulfo) Peels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco-Ordaz, Ramón; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A.

    2018-01-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica cv. Ataulfo) peel contains bound phenolics that may be released by alkaline or acid hydrolysis and may be converted into less complex molecules. Free phenolics from mango cv. Ataulfo peel were obtained using a methanolic extraction, and their cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) and permeability were compared to those obtained for bound phenolics released by alkaline or acid hydrolysis. Gallic acid was found as a simple phenolic acid after alkaline hydrolysis along with mangiferin isomers and quercetin as aglycone and glycosides. Only gallic acid, ethyl gallate, mangiferin, and quercetin were identified in the acid fraction. The acid and alkaline fractions showed the highest CAA (60.5% and 51.5%) when tested at 125 µg/mL. The value of the apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) across the Caco-2/HT-29 monolayer of gallic acid from the alkaline fraction was higher (2.61 × 10−6 cm/s) than in the other fractions and similar to that obtained when tested pure (2.48 × 10−6 cm/s). In conclusion, mango peels contain bound phenolic compounds that, after their release, have permeability similar to pure compounds and exert an important CAA. This finding can be applied in the development of nutraceuticals using this important by-product from the mango processing industry. PMID:29419800

  11. Parasitoid diversity (Hymenoptera: Braconidae and Figitidae on frugivorous larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae and Lonchaeidae at Adolpho Ducke Forest Reserve, Central Amazon Region, Manaus, Brazil

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    SGM. Costa

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify parasitoid species of frugivorous larvae and to describe the tritrophic interactions involving wild fruits, frugivorous insects and their natural enemies at Adolpho Ducke Forest Reserve (RFAD (Manaus, AM, Brazil. Collections were performed in four 1 km² quadrants in the corners of the RFAD. The wild fruits were collected inside the forest in access trails leading to each collection area and in trails that surrounded the quadrants, up to five metres from the trail on each side. The fruits were placed in plastic containers covered with thin fabric, with a vermiculite layer on the base to allow the emergence of flies or parasitoids. Seven Braconidae species were collected, distributed among Opiinae: Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti, 1911, Utetes anastrephae (Viereck, 1913, and Opius sp., and Alysiinae: Asobara anastrephae (Muesebeck, 1958, Phaenocarpa pericarpa Wharton and Carrejo, 1999, Idiasta delicata Papp, 1969, and Asobara sp. Parasitism rates by braconids and figitids are presented. Doryctobracon areolatus was the most frequent, parasitizing the highest number of fly species, and showing the highest parasitism percentage in larvae feeding on Micropholis williamii fruits. The collected figitids belong to Aganaspis nordlanderi Wharton, 1998 and A. pelleranoi (Brethes, 1924. All 15 tritrophic associations are new records for the Brazilian Amazon region. The RFAD is an important natural reservoir of frugivorous larvae parasitoids.

  12. Whole-Body Cryotherapy Decreases the Levels of Inflammatory, Oxidative Stress, and Atherosclerosis Plaque Markers in Male Patients with Active-Phase Ankylosing Spondylitis in the Absence of Classical Cardiovascular Risk Factors

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    Agata Stanek

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of the study was to estimate the impact of whole-body cryotherapy (WBC on cardiovascular risk factors in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS. Material and Methods. We investigated the effect of WBC with subsequent kinesiotherapy on markers of inflammation, oxidative stress, lipid profile, and atherosclerosis plaque in male AS patients (WBC group. To assess the disease activity, the BASDAI and BASFI were also calculated. The results from the WBC group were compared with results from the kinesiotherapy (KT group. Results. The results showed that in the WBC group, the plasma hsCRP level decreased without change to the IL-6 level. The ICAM-1 level showed a decreasing tendency. The CER concentration, as well as the BASDAI and BASFI, decreased in both groups, but the index changes of disease activity were higher in the WBC than KT patients. Additionally, in the WBC group, we observed a decrease in oxidative stress markers, changes in the activity of some antioxidant enzymes and nonenzymatic antioxidant parameters. In both groups, the total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, sCD40L, PAPP-A, and PLGF levels decreased, but the parameter changes were higher in the WBC group. Conclusion. WBC appears to be a useful method of atherosclerosis prevention in AS patients.

  13. Extraction of Antioxidant Components from Bidens pilosa Flowers and Their Uptake by Human Intestinal Caco-2 Cells

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    Charng-Cherng Chyau

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bidens pilosa L. var. radiata (BPR, Asteraceae is a commonly used folk medicine for treating various disorders such as diabetes, inflammation and hypertension. Recent studies to determine its chemical composition have revealed three di-O-caffeoylquinic acids (DiCQAs and three polyacetylene glucosides (PGAs to be among the major bioactive markers. To obtain the major compounds of these two chemical classes, the ethyl acetate fraction (EM obtained using liquid-liquid partition from the methanol extract resulted in a fraction with the highest total phenolic and total flavonoid contents and antioxidant activities in radical scavenging and ferric reducing power assays. To assess the bioavailability of EM, we examined the in vitro uptake using the Caco-2 human colonic cell line. The apparent permeability coefficient (Papp for each of the compounds within PGAs measured in both apical (AP to basolateral (BL and BL to AP was found to preferentially appear BL to AP direction, indicated that a basolateral to apical efflux system was detected in the study. DiCQAs had a lower efflux ratio than those from PGAs (2.32–3.67 vs. 6.03–78.36. Thus, it strongly implies that most of the DiCQAs are better absorbed than the PGAs.

  14. Placental Dysfunction Underlies Increased Risk of Fetal Growth Restriction and Stillbirth in Advanced Maternal Age Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lean, Samantha C; Heazell, Alexander E P; Dilworth, Mark R; Mills, Tracey A; Jones, Rebecca L

    2017-08-29

    Pregnancies in women of advanced maternal age (AMA) are susceptible to fetal growth restriction (FGR) and stillbirth. We hypothesised that maternal ageing is associated with utero-placental dysfunction, predisposing to adverse fetal outcomes. Women of AMA (≥35 years) and young controls (20-30 years) with uncomplicated pregnancies were studied. Placentas from AMA women exhibited increased syncytial nuclear aggregates and decreased proliferation, and had increased amino acid transporter activity. Chorionic plate and myometrial artery relaxation was increased compared to controls. AMA was associated with lower maternal serum PAPP-A and sFlt and a higher PlGF:sFlt ratio. AMA mice (38-41 weeks) at E17.5 had fewer pups, more late fetal deaths, reduced fetal weight, increased placental weight and reduced fetal:placental weight ratio compared to 8-12 week controls. Maternofetal clearance of 14 C-MeAIB and 3 H-taurine was reduced and uterine arteries showed increased relaxation. These studies identify reduced placental efficiency and altered placental function with AMA in women, with evidence of placental adaptations in normal pregnancies. The AMA mouse model complements the human studies, demonstrating high rates of adverse fetal outcomes and commonalities in placental phenotype. These findings highlight placental dysfunction as a potential mechanism for susceptibility to FGR and stillbirth with AMA.

  15. Transport of surface engineered polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers across IPEC-J2 cell monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisal, Dipak S; Yellepeddi, Venkata K; Kumar, Ajay; Palakurthi, Srinath

    2008-11-01

    The aim of our study was to prepare arginine-and ornithine-conjugated Polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers and study their permeability across IPEC-J2 cell monolayers, a new intestinal cell line model for drug absorption studies. Arginine and ornithine were conjugated to the amine terminals of the PAMAM(G4) dendrimers by Fmoc synthesis. The apical-to-basolateral (AB) and basolateral-to-apical (BA) apparent permeability coefficients (P(app)) for the PAMAM dendrimers increased by conjugating the dendrimers with both of these polyamines. The enhancement in permeability was dependent on the dendrimer concentration and duration of incubation. Correlation between monolayer permeability and the decrease in transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) with the PAMAM dendrimers and the polyamine-conjugated dendrimers suggests that paracellular transport is one of the mechanisms of transport across the epithelial cells. Cytotoxicity of these surface-modified dendrimers was evaluated in IPEC-J2 cells by MTT (methylthiazoletetrazolium) assay. Arginine-conjugated dendrimers were insignificantly more toxic than PAMAM dendrimer as well as ornithine-conjugated dendrimers. Though investigations on the possible involvement of other transport mechanisms are in progress, results of the present study suggest the potential of dendrimer-polyamine conjugates as the carriers for antigen/drug delivery through the oral mucosa.

  16. Transepithelial transport of PAMAM dendrimers across isolated rat jejunal mucosae in ussing chambers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Dallin; Ghandehari, Hamidreza; Brayden, David J

    2014-08-11

    Oral delivery remains a challenge for poorly permeable hydrophilic macromolecules. Poly(amido amine) (PAMAM) dendrimers have shown potential for their possible oral delivery. Transepithelial transport of carboxyl-terminated G3.5 and amine-terminated G4 PAMAM dendrimers was assessed using isolated rat jejunal mucosae mounted in Ussing chambers. The 1 mM FITC-labeled dendrimers were added to the apical side of mucosae. Apparent permeability coefficients (Papp) from the apical to the basolateral side were significantly increased for FITC when conjugated to G3.5 PAMAM dendrimer compared to FITC alone. Minimal signs of toxicity were observed when mucosae were exposed to both dendrimers with respect to transepithelial electrical resistance changes, carbachol-induced short circuit current stimulation, and histological changes. [(14)C]-mannitol fluxes were not altered in the presence of 1 mM dendrimers, suggesting that the paracellular pathway was not affected at this concentration in this model. These results give insight into the mechanism of PAMAM dendrimer transepithelial rat jejunal transport, as well as toxicological considerations important for oral drug delivery.

  17. Protein profiling of preeclampsia placental tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Shu

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia is a multi-system disorder involved in pregnancy without an effective treatment except delivery. The precise pathogenesis of this complicated disorder is still not completely understood. The objective of this study is to evaluate the alterations of protein expression and phosphorylations that are important in regulating placental cell function in preterm and term preeclampsia. Using the Protein Pathway Array, 38 proteins in placental tissues were found to be differentially expressed between preterm preeclampsia and gestational age matched control, while 25 proteins were found to be expressed differentially between term preeclampsia and matched controls. Among these proteins, 16 proteins and their associated signaling pathways overlapped between preterm and term preeclampsia, suggesting the common pathogenesis of two subsets of disease. On the other hand, many proteins are uniquely altered in either preterm or term preeclampsia and correlated with severity of clinical symptoms and outcomes, therefore, providing molecular basis for these two subsets of preeclampsia. Furthermore, the expression levels of some of these proteins correlated with neonatal small for gestational age (PAI-1 and PAPP-A and adverse outcomes (Flt-1 in women with preterm preeclampsia. These proteins could potentially be used as candidate biomarkers for predicting outcomes of preeclampsia.

  18. Dipotassium N-stearoyltyrosinate ameliorated pathological injuries in triple-transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease

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    Sha Liu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, anandamide (AEA analogues have been well recognized for its potent neuroprotective effects in counteracting the deterioration of Alzheimer's disease (AD brains through multiple pathological processes. In our previous studies, dipotassium N-stearoyltyrosinate (NSTK, an AEA analogue synthesized by our laboratory was reported to exert significant efficacy through multiple interventions. Within this study, the amyloid precursor protein (APPSWE/presenilin-1 (PS1M146V/TauP301L mouse (3×Tg-AD model was used to explore further the neuroprotective effects of NSTK and its underlying mechanisms. NSTK could increase spontaneous locomotor activity in the open field and low anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze, and improve the spatial memory deficits in the Morris water maze. The biochemical analysis suggested that NSTK could decrease Aβ42 deposition, abnormal tau aggregation, and the expressions of p-APP Thr668, PS1 and p-tau Ser202/Thr205 in the hippocampus of 3×Tg-AD mice. Consistently, NSTK could reduce the level of malondialdehyde, increase the activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase. Up-regulation of Bcl-2, and down-regulation of BAX, caspase-3 and inflammatory cytokines also occurred in the hippocampus of 3×Tg-AD mice after treatment with NSTK. Thus, NSTK could intervene in multiple pathological processes of AD and would be a drug candidate against AD.

  19. Protein Profiling of Preeclampsia Placental Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Chang; Liu, Zitao; Cui, Lifeng; Wei, Chengguo; Wang, Shuwen; Tang, Jian Jenny; Cui, Miao; Lian, Guodong; Li, Wei; Liu, Xiufen; Xu, Hongmei; Jiang, Jing; Lee, Peng; Zhang, David Y.

    2014-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a multi-system disorder involved in pregnancy without an effective treatment except delivery. The precise pathogenesis of this complicated disorder is still not completely understood. The objective of this study is to evaluate the alterations of protein expression and phosphorylations that are important in regulating placental cell function in preterm and term preeclampsia. Using the Protein Pathway Array, 38 proteins in placental tissues were found to be differentially expressed between preterm preeclampsia and gestational age matched control, while 25 proteins were found to be expressed differentially between term preeclampsia and matched controls. Among these proteins, 16 proteins and their associated signaling pathways overlapped between preterm and term preeclampsia, suggesting the common pathogenesis of two subsets of disease. On the other hand, many proteins are uniquely altered in either preterm or term preeclampsia and correlated with severity of clinical symptoms and outcomes, therefore, providing molecular basis for these two subsets of preeclampsia. Furthermore, the expression levels of some of these proteins correlated with neonatal small for gestational age (PAI-1 and PAPP-A) and adverse outcomes (Flt-1) in women with preterm preeclampsia. These proteins could potentially be used as candidate biomarkers for predicting outcomes of preeclampsia. PMID:25392996

  20. Management of abnormal serum markers in the absence of aneuploidy or neural tube defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnettler, William T.; Hacker, Michele R.; Barber, Rachel E.; Rana, Sarosh

    2013-01-01

    Objective Few guidelines address the management of pregnancies complicated by abnormal maternal serum analytes (MSAs) in the absence of aneuploidy or neural tube defects (NTDs). Our objective was to gather preliminary data regarding current opinions and management strategies among perinatologists in the US. Methods This survey of Maternal Fetal Medicine (MFM) physicians and fellows used a secure electronic web-based data capture tool. Results A total of 545 potential participants were contacted, and 136 (25%) responded. The majority were experienced academic physicians with robust practices. Nearly all (97.7%) respondents reported a belief in an association between abnormal MSAs and adverse pregnancy outcomes other than aneuploidy or NTDs. Plasma protein A (PAPP-A) and α-fetoprotein (AFP) were most often chosen as markers demonstrating a strong association with adverse outcomes. Most (86.9%) respondents acknowledged that abnormal MSAs influenced their counseling approach, and the majority (80.1%) offered additional ultrasound examinations. Nearly half started at 28 weeks and almost one-third at 32 weeks. Respondents acknowledging a relevant protocol in their hospital or practice were more likely to offer additional antenatal testing (p = 0.01). Conclusions Although most perinatologists were in agreement regarding the association of MSAs with adverse pregnancy outcomes, a lack of consensus exists regarding management strategies. PMID:22372385

  1. Detecting Methemoglobinemia in Animals with a Drop of Blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni G Patton

    Full Text Available A major concern during pesticide development and use is the impact on non-target species, such as raptors or domestic cats and dogs. Sodium nitrite and para-aminopropiophenone (PAPP are two toxicants currently being studied for the control of invasive species, such as starlings and feral swine. When given to an animal these compounds oxidize hemoglobin, which renders it unable to carry oxygen resulting in methemoglobinemia. This study developed a method to estimate methemoglobin levels in mammals and birds by examining the efficacy of sodium nitrite to induce the conversion of hemoglobin to methemoglobin. Varying concentrations of sodium nitrite were added to aliquots of coyote, vole, feral swine, starling, and duck blood, collected from captive animals. The blood samples were analyzed spectrophotometrically to determine percent methemoglobin and digitally to determine red color values (RCV associated with different methemoglobin levels. The avian and mammalian blood reached 100% methemoglobin levels at 200 mM and 15 mM sodium nitrite, respectively. All animals had similar RCV for a given percent methemoglobin. In conclusion, this study developed a procedure to quickly determine methemoglobin levels in mammals and birds. Furthermore, percent methemoglobin can be estimated with one standard curve from any animal species and an image of a blood spot. The technique will be useful during field studies, in agricultural areas, or in a veterinarian's office for the rapid diagnosis of methemoglobinemia in non-target animals that have eaten toxicants/baits or baited animals.

  2. Guidelineness of the parameters using integrated test in down syndrome risk prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jin Won; Go, Sung Jin; Kang, Se Sik; Kim, Chang Soo

    2016-01-01

    This study was an evaluation of the significance of each parameter through aimed at pregnant women subjected to screening test(integrated test) in predicting risk of Down syndrome. We retrospectively analysed the correlation of risk of Down's syndrome with Nuchal Translucency(NT) images measured by ultrasound, Pregnancy Associated Plasma Protein A(PAPP-A), alpha-fetoprotein(AFP), unconjugated estriol(uE3), human chorionic gonadotrophin(hCG) and Inhibin A by maternal serum. As a result, a significant correlation with NT, uE3, hCG, Inhibin A is revealed with Down's syndrome risk(P<.001). In ROC analysis, AUC of Inhibin A is analysed as the biggest predictor of Down's syndrome(0.859). And the criterion for cut-off was inhibin A 1.4 MoM(sensitivity 81.8%, specificity 75.9%). In conclusion, Inhibin A was the most useful in parameters to predict Down's syndrome in the integrated test. If we make up for the weakness based on the cut-off value of parameters they will be able to be used as an independent indicator in the risk of Down's syndrome screening

  3. Review of the East Palaearctic and North Oriental Psyttalia Walker, with the description of three new species (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Opiinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiong; van Achterberg, Cornelis; Tan, Jiang-Li; Chen, Xue-Xin

    2016-01-01

    The East Palaearctic and North Oriental species of the genus Psyttalia Walker (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Opiinae) are reviewed. Three new species are described and illustrated: Psyttalia latinervis Wu & van Achterberg, sp. n . and Psyttalia majocellata Wu & van Achterberg, sp. n . from China, and Psyttalia spectabilis van Achterberg, sp. n. from Japan. Coeloreuteus formosanus Watanabe, 1934, Opius (Lissosema) proclivis Papp, 1981, Opius (Psyttalia) subcyclogaster Tobias, 1998, Opius (Psyttalia) darasunicus Tobias, 1998, Opius (Psyttalia) cyclogastroides Tobias, 1998, Psyttalia extensa Weng & Chen, 2001, and Rhogadopsis longicaudifera Li & van Achterberg, 2013, are new synonyms of Psyttalia cyclogaster (Thomson, 1895); Opius (Psyttalia) ophthalmicus Tobias, 1977, and Opius (Psyttalia) brevitemporalis Tobias, 1998, of Psyttalia carinata (Thomson, 1895) and both Opius (Psyttalia) vacuus Tobias, 1998, and Opius (Lissosema) longurius Chen & Weng, 1995, of Rhogadopsis mediocarinata (Fischer, 1963). Phaedrotoma daghestanicum (Telenga, 1950), Rhogadopsis mediocarinata (Fischer, 1963) and Rhogadopsis mystica (Fischer, 1963) are new combinations. New records are Psyttalia carinata (Thomson, 1895) from The Netherlands and Norway, and Psyttalia cyclogaster (Thomson, 1895) from Japan. A lectotype is designated for Psyttalia carinata (Thomson, 1895) and Psyttalia cyclogaster (Thomson, 1895). A key to the East Palaearctic and North Oriental species of the genus Psyttalia Walker is included.

  4. Review of the East Palaearctic and North Oriental Psyttalia Walker, with the description of three new species (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Opiinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong Wu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The East Palaearctic and North Oriental species of the genus Psyttalia Walker (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Opiinae are reviewed. Three new species are described and illustrated: P. latinervis Wu & van Achterberg, sp. n. and P. majocellata Wu & van Achterberg, sp. n. from China, and P. spectabilis van Achterberg, sp. n. from Japan. Coeloreuteus formosanus Watanabe, 1934, Opius (Lissosema proclivis Papp, 1981, O. (Psyttalia subcyclogaster Tobias, 1998, O. (P. darasunicus Tobias, 1998, O. (P. cyclogastroides Tobias, 1998, Psyttalia extensa Weng & Chen, 2001, and Rhogadopsis longicaudifera Li & van Achterberg, 2013, are new synonyms of Psyttalia cyclogaster (Thomson, 1895; Opius (Psyttalia ophthalmicus Tobias, 1977, and O. (P. brevitemporalis Tobias, 1998, of Psyttalia carinata (Thomson, 1895 and both O. (P. vacuus Tobias, 1998, and O. (Lissosema longurius Chen & Weng, 1995, of Rhogadopsis mediocarinata (Fischer, 1963. Phaedrotoma daghestanicum (Telenga, 1950, Rhogadopsis mediocarinata (Fischer, 1963 and R. mystica (Fischer, 1963 are new combinations. New records are Psyttalia carinata (Thomson, 1895 from The Netherlands and Norway, and P. cyclogaster (Thomson, 1895 from Japan. A lectotype is designated for Psyttalia carinata (Thomson, 1895 and P. cyclogaster (Thomson, 1895. A key to the East Palaearctic and North Oriental species of the genus Psyttalia Walker is included.

  5. Formulation and optimization of itraconazole polymeric lipid hybrid nanoparticles (Lipomer) using Box Behnken design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajra, Balaram; Dalwadi, Chintan; Patel, Ravi

    2015-01-21

    The objective of the study was to formulate and to investigate the combined influence of 3 independent variables in the optimization of Polymeric lipid hybrid nanoparticles (PLHNs) (Lipomer) containing hydrophobic antifungal drug Itraconazole and to improve intestinal permeability. The Polymeric lipid hybrid nanoparticle formulation was prepared by the emulsification solvent evaporation method and 3 factor 3 level Box Behnken statistical design was used to optimize and derive a second order polynomial equation and construct contour plots to predict responses. Biodegradable Polycaprolactone, soya lecithin and Poly vinyl alcohol were used to prepare PLHNs. The independent variables selected were lipid to polymer ratio (X1) Concentration of surfactant (X2) Concentration of the drug (X3). The Box-Behnken design demonstrated the role of the derived equation and contour plots in predicting the values of dependent variables for the preparation and optimization of Itraconazole PLHNs. Itraconazole PLHNs revealed nano size (210 ± 1.8 nm) with an entrapment efficiency of 83 ± 0.6% and negative zeta potential of -11.7 mV and also enhance the permeability of itraconazole as the permeability coefficient (Papp) and the absorption enhancement ratio was higher. The tunable particle size, surface charge, and favourable encapsulation efficiency with a sustained drug release profile of PLHNs suggesting that it could be promising system envisioned to increase the bioavailability by improving intestinal permeability through lymphatic uptake, M cell of payer's patch or paracellular pathway which was proven by confocal microscopy.

  6. Intestinal Permeability and Cellular Antioxidant Activity of Phenolic Compounds from Mango (Mangifera indica cv. Ataulfo) Peels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco-Ordaz, Ramón; Antunes-Ricardo, Marilena; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A

    2018-02-08

    Mango ( Mangifera indica cv. Ataulfo) peel contains bound phenolics that may be released by alkaline or acid hydrolysis and may be converted into less complex molecules. Free phenolics from mango cv. Ataulfo peel were obtained using a methanolic extraction, and their cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) and permeability were compared to those obtained for bound phenolics released by alkaline or acid hydrolysis. Gallic acid was found as a simple phenolic acid after alkaline hydrolysis along with mangiferin isomers and quercetin as aglycone and glycosides. Only gallic acid, ethyl gallate, mangiferin, and quercetin were identified in the acid fraction. The acid and alkaline fractions showed the highest CAA (60.5% and 51.5%) when tested at 125 µg/mL. The value of the apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) across the Caco-2/HT-29 monolayer of gallic acid from the alkaline fraction was higher (2.61 × 10 -6 cm/s) than in the other fractions and similar to that obtained when tested pure (2.48 × 10 -6 cm/s). In conclusion, mango peels contain bound phenolic compounds that, after their release, have permeability similar to pure compounds and exert an important CAA. This finding can be applied in the development of nutraceuticals using this important by-product from the mango processing industry.

  7. [Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring for hypertension diagnosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gijón Conde, T; Banegas, J R

    2017-01-01

    The early and accurate diagnosis of hypertension is essential given its importance in the development of cardiovascular disease. The boundaries between normal blood pressure (BP) and hypertension are arbitrary and based on the benefits of treating exceeding those of not treating. Conventional BP measurement at the clinic only offers information of a particular time and presents multiple biases dependent on inherent variability of BP and measurement technique itself. Multiple studies have demonstrated the prognosis superiority in the development of cardiovascular disease of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM), allows detection of white coat hypertension, avoiding overdiagnosis and overtreatment, and the detection of patients with masked hypertension who are at risk of underdetection and undertreatment. ABPM also assess nightime BP and circadian variability, providing additional prognostic value. ABPM is recognized in the diagnosis of hypertension in 2011 British NICE Guidelines, very argued at the 2013 European Society of Hypertension guidelines, and recommended in the US Preventive Services Task Force in 2015, 2016 Canadian Guidelines and the 2016 Spanish Program of Preventive Activities and Health Promotion (PAPPS). Its generalization is likely to be only a matter of time. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Hipertension-Liga Española para la Lucha de la Hipertensión Arterial (SEH-LELHA). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Chitosan-modified porous silicon microparticles for enhanced permeability of insulin across intestinal cell monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Neha; Shahbazi, Mohammad-Ali; Araújo, Francisca; Zhang, Hongbo; Mäkilä, Ermei M; Kauppila, Jussi; Sarmento, Bruno; Salonen, Jarno J; Hirvonen, Jouni T; Santos, Hélder A

    2014-08-01

    Porous silicon (PSi) based particulate systems are emerging as an important drug delivery system due to its advantageous properties such as biocompatibility, biodegradability and ability to tailor the particles' physicochemical properties. Here, annealed thermally hydrocarbonized PSi (AnnTHCPSi) and undecylenic acid modified AnnTHCPSi (AnnUnTHCPSi) microparticles were developed as a PSi-based platform for oral delivery of insulin. Chitosan (CS) was used to modify the AnnUnTHCPSi microparticles to enhance the intestinal permeation of insulin. Surface modification with CS led to significant increase in the interaction of PSi microparticles with Caco-2/HT-29 cell co-culture monolayers. Compared to pure insulin, the CS-conjugated microparticles significantly improved the permeation of insulin across the Caco-2/HT-29 cell monolayers, with ca. 20-fold increase in the amount of insulin permeated and ca. 7-fold increase in the apparent permeability (P(app)) value. Moreover, among all the investigated particles, the CS-conjugated microparticles also showed the highest amount of insulin associated with the mucus layer and the intestinal Caco-2 cells and mucus secreting HT-29 cells. Our results demonstrate that CS-conjugated AnnUnTHCPSi microparticles can efficiently enhance the insulin absorption across intestinal cells, and thus, they are promising microsystems for the oral delivery of proteins and peptides across the intestinal cell membrane. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. In Vitro Bioavailability Study of an Antiviral Compound Enisamium Iodide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonore Haltner-Ukomadu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An investigation into the biopharmaceutics classification and a study of the in vitro bioavailability (permeability and solubility of the antiviral compound enisamium iodide (4-(benzylcarbamoyl-1-methylpyridinium iodide were carried out. The solubility of enisamium iodide was determined in four different buffers. Apparent intestinal permeability (Papp of enisamium iodide was assessed using human colon carcinoma (Caco-2 cells at three concentrations. The solubility of enisamium iodide in four buffer solutions from pH 1.2 to 7.5 is about 60 mg/mL at 25 °C, and ranges from 130 to 150 mg/mL at 37 °C, depending on the pH. Based on these results, enisamium iodide can be classified as highly soluble. Enisamium iodide demonstrated low permeability in Caco-2 experiments in all tested concentrations of 10–100 μM with permeability coefficients between 0.2 × 10−6 cm s−1 and 0.3 × 10−6 cm s−1. These results indicate that enisamium iodide belongs to class III of the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS due to its high solubility and low permeability. The bioavailability of enisamium iodide needs to be confirmed in animal and human studies.

  10. Carrier-Mediated Prodrug Uptake to Improve the Oral Bioavailability of Polar Drugs: An Application to an Oseltamivir Analogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incecayir, Tuba; Sun, Jing; Tsume, Yasuhiro; Xu, Hao; Gose, Tomoka; Nakanishi, Takeo; Tamai, Ikumi; Hilfinger, John; Lipka, Elke; Amidon, Gordon L

    2016-02-01

    The goal of this study was to improve the intestinal mucosal cell membrane permeability of the poorly absorbed guanidino analogue of a neuraminidase inhibitor, oseltamivir carboxylate (GOC) using a carrier-mediated strategy. Valyl amino acid prodrug of GOC with isopropyl-methylene-dioxy linker (GOC-ISP-Val) was evaluated as the potential substrate for intestinal oligopeptide transporter, hPEPT1 in Xenopus laevis oocytes heterologously expressing hPEPT1, and an intestinal mouse perfusion system. The diastereomers of GOC-ISP-Val were assessed for chemical and metabolic stability. Permeability of GOC-ISP-Val was determined in Caco-2 cells and mice. Diastereomer 2 was about 2 times more stable than diastereomer 1 in simulated intestinal fluid and rapidly hydrolyzed to the parent drug in cell homogenates. The prodrug had a 9 times-enhanced apparent permeability (P(app)) in Caco-2 cells compared with the parent drug. Both diastereomer exhibited high effective permeability (P(eff)) in mice, 6.32 ± 3.12 and 5.20 ± 2.81 × 10(-5) cm/s for diastereomer 1 and 2, respectively. GOC-ISP-Val was found to be a substrate of hPEPT1. Overall, this study indicates that the prodrug, GOC-ISP-Val, seems to be a promising oral anti-influenza agent that has sufficient stability at physiologically relevant pHs before absorption, significantly improved permeability via hPEPT1 and potentially rapid activation in the intestinal cells. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. FlexED8: the first member of a fast and flexible sample-changer family for macromolecular crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Gergely; Felisaz, Franck; Sorez, Clement; Lopez-Marrero, Marcos; Janocha, Robert; Manjasetty, Babu; Gobbo, Alexandre; Belrhali, Hassan; Bowler, Matthew W; Cipriani, Florent

    2017-10-01

    Automated sample changers are now standard equipment for modern macromolecular crystallography synchrotron beamlines. Nevertheless, most are only compatible with a single type of sample holder and puck. Recent work aimed at reducing sample-handling efforts and crystal-alignment times at beamlines has resulted in a new generation of compact and precise sample holders for cryocrystallography: miniSPINE and NewPin [see the companion paper by Papp et al. (2017, Acta Cryst., D73, 829-840)]. With full data collection now possible within seconds at most advanced beamlines, and future fourth-generation synchrotron sources promising to extract data in a few tens of milliseconds, the time taken to mount and centre a sample is rate-limiting. In this context, a versatile and fast sample changer, FlexED8, has been developed that is compatible with the highly successful SPINE sample holder and with the miniSPINE and NewPin sample holders. Based on a six-axis industrial robot, FlexED8 is equipped with a tool changer and includes a novel open sample-storage dewar with a built-in ice-filtering system. With seven versatile puck slots, it can hold up to 112 SPINE sample holders in uni-pucks, or 252 miniSPINE or NewPin sample holders, with 36 samples per puck. Additionally, a double gripper, compatible with the SPINE sample holders and uni-pucks, allows a reduction in the sample-exchange time from 40 s, the typical time with a standard single gripper, to less than 5 s. Computer vision-based sample-transfer monitoring, sophisticated error handling and automatic error-recovery procedures ensure high reliability. The FlexED8 sample changer has been successfully tested under real conditions on a beamline.

  12. [Risk assessment for fetal trisomy 21 based on nuchal translucency measurement and biochemical screening at 11-13 weeks.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harðardóttir, H

    2001-05-01

    Screening for fetal aneuploidy during the first trimester using fetal nuchal translucency measurement and maternal serum free ss-hCG (ss-human chorionic gonadotropin) and PAPP-A (pregnancy associated plasma protein A) is commonly practised. An approach with a one stop clinic for assessment of risk for fetal anomalies, where pre-test counseling, blood test, ultrasound and post-test counseling is offered in one hour visit is described. Based on maternal age, biochemistry and fetal nuchal translucency measurement an estimated risk for fetal trisomies 13,18 and 21 is calculated. The main benefit of this approach in screening for fetal aneuploidy is the short turnaround time, with immediate results and a low screen positive rate. This approach leads to diagnosis of the majority (95%) of fetal aneuploidy cases. If screening is positive a diagnostic test is available with chorionic villous sampling or amniocentesis. In Iceland, fetal karyotyping is offered to women 35 years and older and performed during the second trimester, but by using this approach prenatal diagnosis can be moved to the first trimester and also offered to women of all ages. A screening approach with a series of steps from 10-15 weeks, including maternal blood test at 10 and again at 15 weeks, as well as an ultrasound and nuchal translucency measurement at 11-13 weeks, with integrated results at 15+ weeks has been proposed. This method offers even lower screen positive rate (1%) while detection rates of fetal aneuploides are high (>90%) but it requires four visits instead of one and the prolonged approach is likely to cause excess anxiety for the parents to be. If all women are to be offered prenatal sreening in the first trimester the structure of prenatal care in Iceland needs some modifications including scheduling the first prenatal visit at 8-10 weeks and teaching healthcare providers counseling regarding prenatal testing.

  13. Early Pregnancy Biomarkers in Pre-Eclampsia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

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    Pensée Wu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Pre-eclampsia (PE complicates 2%–8% of all pregnancies and is an important cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. In order to reduce these complications and to develop possible treatment modalities, it is important to identify women at risk of developing PE. The use of biomarkers in early pregnancy would allow appropriate stratification into high and low risk pregnancies for the purpose of defining surveillance in pregnancy and to administer interventions. We used formal methods for a systematic review and meta-analyses to assess the accuracy of all biomarkers that have been evaluated so far during the first and early second trimester of pregnancy to predict PE. We found low predictive values using individual biomarkers which included a disintegrin and metalloprotease 12 (ADAM-12, inhibin-A, pregnancy associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A, placental growth factor (PlGF and placental protein 13 (PP-13. The pooled sensitivity of all single biomarkers was 0.40 (95% CI 0.39–0.41 at a false positive rate of 10%. The area under the Summary of Receiver Operating Characteristics Curve (SROC was 0.786 (SE 0.02. When a combination model was used, the predictive value improved to an area under the SROC of 0.893 (SE 0.03. In conclusion, although there are multiple potential biomarkers for PE their efficacy has been inconsistent and comparisons are difficult because of heterogeneity between different studies. Therefore, there is an urgent need for high quality, large-scale multicentre research in biomarkers for PE so that the best predictive marker(s can be identified in order to improve the management of women destined to develop PE.

  14. Heterologous Expression in Remodeled C. elegans: A Platform for Monoaminergic Agonist Identification and Anthelmintic Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Wenjing; Wuescher, Leah M; Ortega, Amanda; Hapiak, Vera M; Komuniecki, Patricia R; Komuniecki, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Monoamines, such as 5-HT and tyramine (TA), paralyze both free-living and parasitic nematodes when applied exogenously and serotonergic agonists have been used to clear Haemonchus contortus infections in vivo. Since nematode cell lines are not available and animal screening options are limited, we have developed a screening platform to identify monoamine receptor agonists. Key receptors were expressed heterologously in chimeric, genetically-engineered Caenorhabditis elegans, at sites likely to yield robust phenotypes upon agonist stimulation. This approach potentially preserves the unique pharmacologies of the receptors, while including nematode-specific accessory proteins and the nematode cuticle. Importantly, the sensitivity of monoamine-dependent paralysis could be increased dramatically by hypotonic incubation or the use of bus mutants with increased cuticular permeabilities. We have demonstrated that the monoamine-dependent inhibition of key interneurons, cholinergic motor neurons or body wall muscle inhibited locomotion and caused paralysis. Specifically, 5-HT paralyzed C. elegans 5-HT receptor null animals expressing either nematode, insect or human orthologues of a key Gαo-coupled 5-HT1-like receptor in the cholinergic motor neurons. Importantly, 8-OH-DPAT and PAPP, 5-HT receptor agonists, differentially paralyzed the transgenic animals, with 8-OH-DPAT paralyzing mutant animals expressing the human receptor at concentrations well below those affecting its C. elegans or insect orthologues. Similarly, 5-HT and TA paralyzed C. elegans 5-HT or TA receptor null animals, respectively, expressing either C. elegans or H. contortus 5-HT or TA-gated Cl- channels in either C. elegans cholinergic motor neurons or body wall muscles. Together, these data suggest that this heterologous, ectopic expression screening approach will be useful for the identification of agonists for key monoamine receptors from parasites and could have broad application for the identification

  15. Achalasia following reflux disease: coincidence, consequence, or accommodation? An experience-based literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vereczkei A

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available András Vereczkei, Laura Bognár, András Papp, Örs Péter Horváth Department of Surgery, University of Pécs, Pécs, Hungary Abstract: Achalasia is a motility disorder of the esophagus characterized by the defective peristaltic activity of the esophageal body and impaired relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter due to the degeneration of the inhibitory neurons in the myenteric plexus of the esophageal wall. The histopathological and pathophysiological changes in achalasia have been well described. However, the exact etiological factors leading to the disease still remain unclear. Currently, achalasia is believed to be a multifactorial disease, involving both extrinsic and intrinsic factors. Based on our experience and the review of literature, we believe that gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD might be one of the triggering factors leading to the development of achalasia. However, it is also stated that the two diseases can simultaneously appear independently from each other. Considering the large number and routine treatment of patients with GERD and achalasia, the rare combination of the two may even remain unnoticed; thus, the analysis of larger patient groups with this entity is not feasible. In this context, we report four cases where long-standing reflux symptoms preceded the development of achalasia. A literature review of the available data is also given. We hypothesize that achalasia following the chronic acid exposure of the esophagus is not accidental but either a consequence of a chronic inflammation or a protective reaction of the organism in order to prevent aspiration and lessen reflux-related symptoms. This hypothesis awaits further clinical confirmation. Keywords: achalasia, gastroesophageal reflux disease, Barrett’s esophagus, Nissen fundoplication

  16. Extensive intestinal first-pass metabolism of arctigenin: evidenced by simultaneous monitoring of both parent drug and its major metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qiong; Zhang, Yufeng; Wo, Siukwan; Zuo, Zhong

    2014-03-01

    The current study aims to investigate intestinal absorption and metabolism of arctigenin (AR) through simultaneous monitoring of AR and its major metabolites in rat plasma. An UPLC/MS/MS assay was developed with chromatographic separation of all analytes achieved by a C18 Column (3.9mm×150mm, 3.5μm) and a gradient elution with acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid within 9min. Sample extraction with acetonitrile was optimized to achieve satisfactory recovery for both AR and its major metabolites. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) for all analytes was 25ng/ml. The intra-day and inter-day precision and accuracy of each analyte at LLOQ and three quality control (QC) concentrations (low, middle and high) in rat plasma was within 15.0% RSD and 15.0% bias. The extraction recoveries were within the range of 83.8-94.0% for all analytes. The developed and validated assay was then applied to the absorption study of AR in both Caco-2 cell monolayer model and in situ single-pass rat intestinal perfusion model. High absorption permeability of AR was demonstrated in both models with Papp of (1.76±0.48)×10(-5) (A→B) (Caco-2) and Pblood of (8.6±3.0)×10(-6)cm/s (intestinal perfusion). Extensive first-pass metabolism of AR to arctigenic acid (AA) and arctigenin-4'-O-glucuronide (AG) was identified in rat intestinal perfusion study with Cummins's extraction ratios of 0.458±0.012 and 0.085±0.013, respectively. The current assay method demonstrated to be a practical tool for pharmacokinetics investigation of AR with complicated metabolism pathways and multiple metabolites. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Novel vehicle based on cubosomes for ophthalmic delivery of flurbiprofen with low irritancy and high bioavailability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shun; Shen, Jin-qiu; Gan, Yong; Geng, Hai-ming; Zhang, Xin-xin; Zhu, Chun-liu; Gan, Li

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To develop a novel vehicle based on cubosomes as an ophthalmic drug delivery system for flurbiprofen (FB) to reduce ocular irritancy and improve bioavailability. Methods: FB-loaded cubosomes were prepared using hot and high-pressure homogenization. Cubosomes were then characterized by particle size, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency, particle morphology, inner cubic structure and in vitro release. Corneal permeation was evaluated using modified Franz-type cells. Ocular irritation was then evaluated using both the Draize method and histological examination. The ocular pharmacokinetics of FB was determined using microdialysis. Results: The particle size of each cubosome formulation was about 150 nm. A bicontinuous cubic phase of cubic P-type was determined using cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) observation and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) analysis. In vitro corneal permeation study revealed that FB formulated in cubosomes exhibited 2.5-fold (F1) and 2.0-fold (F2) increase in Papp compared with FB PBS. In the ocular irritation test, irritation scores for each group were less than 2, indicating that all formulations exhibited excellent ocular tolerance. Histological examination revealed that neither the structure nor the integrity of the cornea was visibly affected after incubation with FB cubosomes. The AUC of FB administered as FB cubosome F2 was 486.36±38.93 ng·mL−1·min·μg−1, which was significantly higher than that of FB Na eye drops (P<0.01). Compared with FB Na eye drops, the Tmax of FB cubosome F2 was about 1.6-fold higher and the MRT was also significantly longer (P<0.001). Conclusion: This novel low-irritant vehicle based on cubosomes might be a promising system for effective ocular drug delivery. PMID:20686524

  18. A multi-system approach assessing the interaction of anticonvulsants with P-gp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Dickens

    Full Text Available 30% of epilepsy patients receiving antiepileptic drugs (AEDs are not fully controlled by therapy. The drug transporter hypothesis for refractory epilepsy proposes that P-gp is over expressed at the epileptic focus with a role of P-gp in extruding AEDs from the brain. However, there is controversy regarding whether all AEDs are substrates for this transporter. Our aim was to investigate transport of phenytoin, lamotrigine and carbamazepine by using seven in-vitro transport models. Uptake assays in CEM/VBL cell lines, oocytes expressing human P-gp and an immortalised human brain endothelial cell line (hCMEC/D3 were carried out. Concentration equilibrium transport assays were performed in Caco-2, MDCKII ±P-gp and LLC-PK1±P-gp in the absence or presence of tariquidar, an inhibitor of P-gp. Finally, primary porcine brain endothelial cells were used to determine the apparent permeability (Papp of the three AEDs in the absence or presence of P-gp inhibitors. We detected weak transport of phenytoin in two of the transport systems (MDCK and LLC-PK1 cells transfected with human P-gp but not in the remaining five. No P-gp interaction was observed for lamotrigine or carbamazepine in any of the seven validated in-vitro transport models. Neither lamotrigine nor carbamazepine was a substrate for P-gp in any of the model systems tested. Our data suggest that P-gp is unlikely to contribute to the pathogenesis of refractory epilepsy through transport of carbamazepine or lamotrigine.

  19. HIV-related neuropathy: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schütz SG

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Sonja G Schütz, Jessica Robinson-Papp Department of Neurology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA Abstract: Distal symmetric polyneuropathy (DSP related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV is one of the most common neurologic complications of HIV, possibly affecting as many as 50% of all individuals infected with HIV. Two potentially neurotoxic mechanisms have been proposed to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of HIV DSP: neurotoxicity resulting from the virus and its products; as well as adverse neurotoxic effects of medications used in the treatment of HIV. Clinically, HIV DSP is characterized by a combination of signs and symptoms that include decreased deep tendon reflexes at the ankles and decreased sensation in the distal extremities as well as paresthesias, dysesthesias, and pain in a symmetric stocking–glove distribution. These symptoms are generally static or slowly progressive over time, and depending on the severity, may interfere significantly with the patient's daily activities. In addition to the clinical picture, nerve conduction studies and skin biopsies are often pursued to support the diagnosis of HIV DSP. Anticonvulsants, antidepressants, topical agents, and nonspecific analgesics may help relieve neuropathic pain. Specifically, gabapentin, lamotrigine, pregabalin, amitriptyline, duloxetine, and high-dose topical capsaicin patches have been used in research and clinical practice. Further research is needed to elucidate the pathogenesis of HIV DSP, thus facilitating the development of novel treatment strategies. This review discusses the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical findings, diagnosis, and management of DSP in the setting of HIV. Keywords: neuropathy, human immunodeficiency virus, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, AIDS, distal symmetric polyneuropathy, DSP, pain

  20. Polyphenols from artichoke heads (Cynara cardunculus (L.) subsp. scolymus Hayek): in vitro bio-accessibility, intestinal uptake and bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Antuono, Isabella; Garbetta, Antonella; Linsalata, Vito; Minervini, Fiorenza; Cardinali, Angela

    2015-04-01

    Artichoke is a rich source of health promoting compounds such as polyphenols, important for their pharmaceutical and nutritional properties. In this study, the potential for bioavailability of the artichoke polyphenols was estimated by using both in vitro digestion and Caco-2 human intestinal cell models. In vitro digestive recoveries (bio-accessibility) were found to be 55.8% for total artichoke phenolics and in particular, 70.0% for chlorogenic acid, 41.3% for 3,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid, and 50.3% for 1,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid, highlighting potential sensitivity of these compounds to gastric and small intestinal digestive conditions. Uptake of artichoke polyphenols was rapid with peak accumulation occurring after 30 min with an efficiency of 0.16%, according to the poor uptake of dietary polyphenols. Some compounds, such as coumaric acid, caffeic acid and caffeic acid derivatives, were also detected in the basolateral side assuming extra and intracellular esterase activities on chlorogenic acid. Only apigenin-7-O-glucoside was transported through the Caco-2 monolayer demonstrating its bioavailability to the extent of 1.15% at 60 min. In addition, permeability coefficient (Papp = 2.29 × 10(-5) cm s(-1)), involving apical to basolateral transport of apigenin 7-O-glucoside, was calculated to facilitate estimation of transport through the Caco-2 monolayer. Finally, the mono and dicaffeoylquinic acids present in artichoke heads exert an antioxidant activity on the human low density lipoprotein system correlated to their chemical structure. In conclusion, the utilized in vitro models, although not fully responding to the morphological and physiological features of human in vivo conditions, could be a useful tool for investigating mechanistic effects of polyphenols released from the food matrix.

  1. Development of electrochemical reporter assay using HeLa cells transfected with vector plasmids encoding various responsive elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiku, Hitoshi, E-mail: shiku@bioinfo.che.tohoku.ac.jp [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University, 6-6-11-604 Aramaki-Aoba, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Takeda, Michiaki; Murata, Tatsuya [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University, 6-6-11-604 Aramaki-Aoba, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Akiba, Uichi; Hamada, Fumio [Graduate School of Engineering and Resource Science, Akita University, 1-1 Tegata gakuen-machi, Akita 010-8502 (Japan); Matsue, Tomokazu, E-mail: matsue@bioinfo.che.tohoku.ac.jp [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University, 6-6-11-604 Aramaki-Aoba, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)

    2009-04-27

    Electrochemical assay using HeLa cell lines transfected with various plasmid vectors encoding SEAP (secreted alkaline phosphatase) as the reporter has been performed by using SECM (scanning electrochemical microscopy). The plasmid vector contains different responsive elements that include GRE (glucocorticoid response elements), CRE (cAMP responsive elements), or {kappa}B (binding site for NF{kappa}B (nuclear factor kappa B)) upstream of the SEAP sequence. The transfected HeLa cells were patterned on a culture dish in a 4 x 4 array of circles of diameter 300 {mu}m by using the PDMS (poly(dimethylsiloxane)) stencil technique. The cellular array was first exposed to 100 ng mL{sup -1} dexamethasone, 10 ng mL{sup -1} forskolin, or 100 ng mL{sup -1} TNF-{alpha} (tumor necrosis factor {alpha}) after which it was further cultured in an RPMI culture medium for 6 h. After incubation, the cellular array was soaked in a measuring solution containing 4.7 mM PAPP (p-aminophenylphosphate) at pH 9.5, following which electrochemical measurements were performed immediately within 40 min. The SECM method allows parallel evaluation of different cell lines transfected with pGRE-SEAP, pCRE-SEAP, and pNF{kappa}B-SEAP patterned on the same solid support for detection of the oxidation current of PAP (p-aminophenol) flux produced from only 300 HeLa cells in each stencil pattern. The results of the SECM method were highly sensitive as compared to those obtained from the conventional CL (chemiluminescence) protocol with at least 5 x 10{sup 4} cells per well.

  2. Efficacious intestinal permeation enhancement induced by the sodium salt of 10-undecylenic acid, a medium chain fatty acid derivative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brayden, David J; Walsh, Edwin

    2014-09-01

    10-undecylenic acid (UA) is an OTC antifungal therapy and a nutritional supplement. It is an unsaturated medium chain fatty acid (MCFA) derivative, so our hypothesis was that its 11-mer sodium salt, uC11, would improve intestinal permeation similar to the established enhancer, sodium caprate (C10), but without the toxicity of the parent saturated MCFA, decylenic acid (C11). MTT assay and high-content screening (HCS) confirmed a cytotoxicity ranking in Caco-2 cells: C11 > C10 = uC11. Five to ten millimolars of the three agents reduced TEER and increased the Papp of [(14)C]-mannitol across Caco-2 monolayers and rat intestinal mucosae, a concentration that matched increases in plasma membrane permeability seen in HCS. Although C11 was the most efficacious enhancer in vitro, it damaged monolayers and tissue mucosae more than the other two agents at similar concentrations and exposure times and was therefore not pursued further. Rat jejunal and colonic in situ intestinal instillations of 100 mM C10 or uC11 with FITC-dextran 4000 (FD4) solutions yielded comparable regional enhancement ratios of ~10 and 30%, respectively, for each agent with acceptable tissue histology. Mini-tablets of uC11 and FD4 however delivered more FD4 compared to C10-FD-4 mini-tablets in both regions, as reflected by a statistically higher AUC, and with no evidence of membrane perturbation. The unsaturated bond in uC11 therefore confers a reduction in lipophilicity and cytotoxicity compared to C11, and the resulting permeation enhancement is on a par with or superior to that of C10, a key component of formulations in current phase II oral peptide clinical trials.

  3. Inhibition of PCAF histone acetyltransferase, cytotoxicity and cell permeability of 2-acylamino-1-(3- or 4-carboxy-phenyl)benzamides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Woong Jae; Ma, Eunsook

    2012-11-05

    Small molecule HAT inhibitors are useful tools to unravel the role of histone acetyltransferases (HATs) in the cell and they also have relevance in oncology. We synthesized a series of 2-acylamino-1-(3- or 4-carboxyphenyl)benzamides 8–19 bearing C6, C8, C10, C12, C14, and C16 acyl chains at the 2-amino position of 2-aminobenzoic acid. Enzyme inhibition of these compounds was investigated using in vitro PCAF HAT assays. The inhibitory activities of compounds 8–10, 16, and 19 were similar to that of anacardic acid, and 17 was found to be more active than anacardic acid at 100 μM. Compounds 11–15 showed the low inhibitory activity on PCAF HAT. The cytotoxicity of the synthesized compounds was evaluated by SRB (sulforhodamine B) assay against seven human cancer cell lines: HT-29 (colon), HCT-116 (colon), MDA-231 (breast), A549 (lung), Hep3B (hepatoma), HeLa (cervical) and Caki (kidney) and one normal cell line (HSF). Compound 17 was more active than anacardic acid against human colon cancer (HCT 116, IC(50): 29.17 μM), human lung cancer (A549, IC₅₀: 32.09 μM) cell lines. 18 was more active than anacardic acid against human colon cancer (HT-29, IC₅₀: 35.49 μM and HCT 116, IC₅₀: 27.56 μM), human lung cancer (A549, IC₅₀: 30.69 μM), and human cervical cancer (HeLa, IC₅₀: 34.41 μM) cell lines. The apparent permeability coefficient (P(app), cm/s) values of two compounds (16 and 17) were evaluated as 68.21 and 71.48 × 10⁻⁶ cm/s by Caco-2 cell permeability assay.

  4. Inhibition of PCAF Histone Acetyltransferase, Cytotoxicity and Cell Permeability of 2-Acylamino-1-(3- or 4-Carboxy-phenylbenzamides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunsook Ma

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Small molecule HAT inhibitors are useful tools to unravel the role of histone acetyltransferases (HATs in the cell and they also have relevance in oncology. We synthesized a series of 2-acylamino-1-(3- or 4-carboxyphenylbenzamides 8–19 bearing C6, C8, C10, C12, C14, and C16 acyl chains at the 2-amino position of 2-aminobenzoic acid. Enzyme inhibition of these compounds was investigated using in vitro PCAF HAT assays. The inhibitory activities of compounds 8–10, 16, and 19 were similar to that of anacardic acid, and 17 was found to be more active than anacardic acid at 100 μM. Compounds 11–15 showed the low inhibitory activity on PCAF HAT. The cytotoxicity of the synthesized compounds was evaluated by SRB (sulforhodamine B assay against seven human cancer cell lines: HT-29 (colon, HCT-116 (colon, MDA-231 (breast, A549 (lung, Hep3B (hepatoma, HeLa (cervical and Caki (kidney and one normal cell line (HSF. Compound 17 was more active than anacardic acid against human colon cancer (HCT 116, IC50: 29.17 μM, human lung cancer (A549, IC50: 32.09 μM cell lines. 18 was more active than anacardic acid against human colon cancer (HT-29, IC50: 35.49 μM and HCT 116, IC50: 27.56 μM, human lung cancer (A549, IC50: 30.69 μM, and human cervical cancer (HeLa, IC50: 34.41 μM cell lines. The apparent permeability coefficient (Papp, cm/s values of two compounds (16 and 17 were evaluated as 68.21 and 71.48 × 10−6 cm/s by Caco-2 cell permeability assay.

  5. Transport of trans-tiliroside (kaempferol-3-β-D-(6"-p-coumaroyl-glucopyranoside) and related flavonoids across Caco-2 cells, as a model of absorption and metabolism in the small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zijun; Morgan, Michael R A; Day, Andrea J

    2015-01-01

    1. Absorption and metabolism of tiliroside (kaempferol 3-β-D-(6"-p-coumaroyl)-glucopyranoside) and its related compounds kaempferol, kaempferol-3-glucoside and p-coumaric acid were investigated in the small intestinal Caco-2 cell model. Apparent permeation (Papp) was determined as 0.62 × 10(-6) cm/s, 3.1 × 10(-6) cm/s, 0 and 22.8 × 10(-6) cm/s, respectively. 2. Mechanistic study showed that the transportation of tiliroside, kaempferol-3-glucoside and p-coumaric acid in Caco-2 model were transporter(s) involved, while transportation of kaempferol was solely by passive diffusion mechanism. 3. Efflux transporters, multi-drug-resistance-associated protein-2 (MRP2), were shown to play a role in limiting the uptake of tiliroside. Inhibitors of MRP2, (MK571 and rifampicin) and co-incubation with kaempferol (10 μM), increased transfer from the apical to the basolateral side by three to five fold. 4. Metabolites of kaempferol-3-glucoside and p-coumaric acid were not detected in the current Caco-2 model, while tiliroside was metabolised to a limited extent, with two tiliroside mono-glucuronides identified; and kaempferol was metabolised to a higher extent, with three mono-glucuronides and two mono-sulfates identified. 5. In conclusion, tiliroside was metabolised and transported across Caco-2 cell membrane to a limited extent. Transportation could be increased by applying MRP2 inhibitors or co-incubation with kaempferol. It is proposed that tiliroside can be absorbed by human; future pharmacokinetics studies are warranted in order to determine the usefulness of tiliroside as a bioactive agent.

  6. Application of perfluorinated acids as ion-pairing reagents for reversed-phase chromatography and retention-hydrophobicity relationships studies of selected beta-blockers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flieger, J

    2010-01-22

    The addition of the homologous series of perfluorinated acids-trifluoroacetic acid (TFAA), pentafluoropropionic acid (PFPA), heptafluorobutyric acid (HFBA) to mobile phases for reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) of beta-blockers was tested. Acidic modifiers were responsible for acidification of mobile phase (pH 3) ensuring the protonation of the beta-blockers and further ion pairs creation. The effect of the type and concentration of mobile phase additives on retention parameters, the efficiency of the peaks, their symmetry and separation selectivity of the beta-blockers mixture were all studied. It appeared that at increasing acid concentration, the retention factor, for all compounds investigated, increased to varying degrees. It should be stressed that the presence of acids more significantly affected the retention of the most hydrophobic beta-blockers. Differences in hydrophobicity of drugs can be maximized through variation of the hydrophobicity of additives. Thus, the relative increase in the retention depends on either concentration and hydrophobicity of the anionic mobile phase additive or hydrophobicity of analytes. According to QSRR (quantitative structure retention relationship) methodology, chromatographic lipophilicity parameters: isocratic log k and log k(w) values (extrapolated retention to pure water) were correlated with the molecular (log P(o/w)) and apparent (log P(app)) octanol-water partition coefficients obtained experimentally by countercurrent chromatography (CCC) or predicted by Pallas software. The obtained, satisfactory retention-hydrophobicity correlations indicate that, in the case of the basic drugs examined in RP-HPLC systems modified with perfluorinated acids, the retention is mainly governed by their hydrophobicity. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Controlled release of β-carotene in β-lactoglobulin-dextran-conjugated nanoparticles' in vitro digestion and transport with Caco-2 monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jiang; Lam, Tina I; Yokoyama, Wallace; Cheng, Luisa W; Zhong, Fang

    2014-09-03

    Undesirable aggregation of nanoparticles stabilized by proteins may occur at the protein's isoelectric point when the particle has zero net charge. Stability against aggregation of nanoparticles may be improved by reacting free amino groups with reducing sugars by the Maillard reaction. β-Lactoglobulin (BLG)-dextran conjugates were characterized by SDS-PAGE and CD. Nanoparticles (60-70 nm diameter) of β-carotene (BC) encapsulated by BLG or BLG-dextran were prepared by the homogenization-evaporation method. Both BLG and BLG-dextran nanoparticles appeared to be spherically shaped and uniformly dispersed by TEM. The stability and release of BC from the nanoparticles under simulated gastrointestinal conditions were evaluated. Dextran conjugation prevented the flocculation or aggregation of BLG-dextran particles at pH ∼4-5 compared to very large sized aggregates of BLG nanoparticles. The released contents of BC from BLG and BLG-dextran nanoparticles under acidic gastric conditions were 6.2 ± 0.9 and 5.4 ± 0.3%, respectively. The release of BC from BLG-dextran nanoparticles by trypsin digestion was 51.8 ± 4.3% of total encapsulated BC, and that from BLG nanoparticles was 60.9 ± 2.9%. Neither BLG-BC nanoparticles nor the Maillard-reacted BLG-dextran conjugates were cytotoxic to Caco-2 cells, even at 10 mg/mL. The apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) of Caco-2 cells to BC was improved by nanoencapsulation, compared to free BC suspension. The results indicate that BC-encapsulated β-lactoglobulin-dextran-conjugated nanoparticles are more stable to aggregation under gastric pH conditions with good release and permeability properties.

  8. Evaluation of Ion Exchange Materials in K Basin Floor Sludge and Potential Solvents for PCB Extraction from Ion Exchange Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, A.J.; Klinger, G.S.; Bredt, P.R.

    1998-01-01

    Approximately 73 m 3 of heterogeneous solid material, ''sludge,'' (upper bound estimate, Packer 1997) have accumulated at the bottom of the K Basins in the 100 K Area of the Hanford Site. This sludge is a mixture of spent fuel element corrosion products, ion exchange materials (organic and inorganic), graphite-based gasket materials, iron and aluminum metal corrosion products, sand, and debris (Makenas et al. 1996, 1997). In addition, small amounts of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been found. These small amounts are significant from a regulatory standpoint. Ultimately, it is planned to transfer the K Basins sludge to the Hanford double shell tanks (DSTs). Chemical pretreatment is required to address criticality issues and the destruction or removal of PCBs before the K Basin sludge can be transferred to the DSTs. Eleven technologies have been evaluated (Papp 1997) as potential pretreatment methods. Based on the evaluations and engineering studies and limited testing, Fluor Daniel Hanford recommended solvent washing of the K Basin sludge, followed by nitric acid dissolution and, potentially, peroxide addition (FDH 1997). The solvent washing (extraction) and peroxide addition would be used to facilitate PCB removal and destruction. Following solvent extraction, the PCBs could be distilled and concentrated for disposal as a low-level waste. The purpose of the work reported here was to continue investigating solvent extraction, first by better identifying the ion exchange materials in the actual sludge samples and then evaluating various solvents for removing the PCBs or possibly dissolving the resins. This report documents some of the process knowledge on ion exchange materials used and spilled in the K Basins and describes the materials identified from wet sieving KE Basin floor and canister sludge and the results of other analyses. Several photographs are included to compare materials and illustrate material behavior. A summary of previous tests on solvent

  9. Enhanced Oral Bioavailability of Domperidone with Piperine in Male Wistar Rats: Involvement of CYP3A1 and P-gp Inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athukuri, Bhargavi Latha; Neerati, Prasad

    2017-01-01

    Domperidone is a commonly used antiemetic drug. The oral bioavailability of domperidone is very low due to its rapid first pass metabolism in the intestine and liver. Piperine, the main alkaloid present in black pepper has been reported to show inhibitory effects on Cytochrome P-450 (CYP-450) enzymes and P-glycoprotein (P-gp). In the present study we investigated the effect of piperine pretreatment on the intestinal transport and oral bioavailability of domperidone in male Wistar rats. The intestinal transport of domperidone was evaluated by an in-vitro non-everted sac method and in-situ single pass intestinal perfusion (SPIP) study. The oral pharmacokinetics of domperidone was evaluated by conducting oral bioavailability study in rats. A statistically significant improvement in apparent permeability (Papp) was observed in rats pretreated with piperine compared to the respective control group. The effective permeability (Peff) of domperidone was increased in the ileum of the piperine treated group. Following pretreatment with piperine, the peak plasma concentration (Cmax) and area under the concentration- time curve (AUC) were significantly increased. A significant decrease in time to reach maximum plasma concentration (Tmax), clearance and elimination rate constant (Kel) was observed in rats pretreated with piperine. Piperine enhanced the oral bioavailability of domperidone by inhibiting CYP3A1 and P-gp in rats. This observation suggests the possibility that the combination of piperine with other CYP3A4 and P-gp dual substrates may also improve bioavailability. Further clinical studies are recommended to verify this drug interaction in human volunteers and patients. This article is open to POST-PUBLICATION REVIEW. Registered readers (see "For Readers") may comment by clicking on ABSTRACT on the issue's contents page.

  10. Progress in elucidating the pathophysiological basis of nonrapid eye movement parasomnias: not yet informing therapeutic strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horváth A

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available András Horváth,1,2 Anikó Papp,1 Anna Szűcs,1 1Department of Neurology, National Institute of Clinical Neurosciences, 2János Szentágothai Doctoral School of Neurosciences, Semmelweis University School of PhD Studies, Budapest, Hungary Abstract: Nonrapid eye movement (NREM or arousal parasomnias are prevalent conditions in children and young adults, apparently provoked by any medical, physical, mental, or pharmacologic/toxic agent disturbing normal biorhythm and causing sleep fragmentation or abundant amount of slow wave sleep. The nadir and the ascending slope of the first sleep cycle of night sleep are the typical periods when NREM parasomnias, especially sleepwalking may occur on sleep-microstructural level; microarousals are the typical moments allowing NREM parasomnias. While sleep-disturbing factors have a clear precipitating effect, a genetic predisposition appears necessary in most cases. A candidate gene for sleepwalking has been identified on chromosome 20q12-q13.12 in one sleepwalking family. NREM parasomnias have a genetic and clinical link with nocturnal-frontal lobe epilepsies; possibly through an abnormality of the acetylcholine-related sleep-control system. The association of NREM parasomnias with the human leukocyte antigen system might be the sign of an autoimmune background to be further clarified. In the treatment of arousal parasomnias, the main tools are adequate sleep hygiene and the management of underlying conditions. Their pharmacotherapy has remained unresolved; the best options are clonazepam and some of the antidepressants, while a psychotherapy approach is also justified. Keywords: sleep disorders, arousal disorders, NREM parasomnia, sleepwalking, sleep terror

  11. Enhancing the intestinal absorption of low molecular weight chondroitin sulfate by conjugation with α-linolenic acid and the transport mechanism of the conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yuliang; Li, Pingli; Cheng, Yanna; Zhang, Xinke; Sheng, Juzheng; Wang, Decai; Li, Juan; Zhang, Qian; Zhong, Chuanqing; Cao, Rui; Wang, Fengshan

    2014-04-25

    The purpose of this report was to demonstrate the effect of amphiphilic polysaccharides-based self-assembling micelles on enhancing the oral absorption of low molecular weight chondroitin sulfate (LMCS) in vitro and in vivo, and identify the transepithelial transport mechanism of LMCS micelles across the intestinal barrier. α-Linolenic acid-low molecular weight chondroitin sulfate polymers(α-LNA-LMCS) were successfully synthesized, and characterized by FTIR, (1)HNMR, TGA/DSC, TEM, laser light scattering and zeta potential. The significant oral absorption enhancement and elimination half-life (t₁/₂) extension of LNA-LMCS2 in rats were evidenced by intragastric administration in comparison with CS and LMCS. Caco-2 transport studies demonstrated that the apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) of LNA-LMCS2 was significantly higher than that of CS and LMCS (p<0.001), and no significant effects on the overall integrity of the monolayer were observed during the transport process. In addition, α-LNA-LMCS micelles accumulated around the cell membrane and intercellular space observed by confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM). Furthermore, evident alterations in the F-actin cytoskeleton were detected by CLSM observation following the treatment of the cell monolayers with α-LNA-LMCS micelles, which further certified the capacity of α-LNA-LMCS micelles to open the intercellular tight junctions rather than disrupt the overall integrity of the monolayer. Therefore, LNA-LMCS2 with low cytotoxicity and high bioavailability might be a promising substitute for CS in clinical use, such as treating osteoarthritis, atherosclerosis, etc. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. ADME studies and preliminary safety pharmacology of LDT5, a lead compound for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Noël

    Full Text Available This study aimed to estimate the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME properties and safety of LDT5, a lead compound for oral treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia that has previously been characterized as a multi-target antagonist of α1A-, α1D-adrenoceptors and 5-HT1A receptors. The preclinical characterization of this compound comprised the evaluation of its in vitro properties, including plasma, microsomal and hepatocytes stability, cytochrome P450 metabolism and inhibition, plasma protein binding, and permeability using MDCK-MDR1 cells. De-risking and preliminary safety pharmacology assays were performed through screening of 44 off-target receptors and in vivo tests in mice (rota-rod and single dose toxicity. LDT5 is stable in rat and human plasma, human liver microsomes and hepatocytes, but unstable in rat liver microsomes and hepatocytes (half-life of 11 min. LDT5 is highly permeable across the MDCK-MDR1 monolayer (Papp ∼32×10-6 cm/s, indicating good intestinal absorption and putative brain penetration. LDT5 is not extensively protein-bound and is a substrate of human CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 but not of CYP3A4 (half-life >60 min, and did not significantly influence the activities of any of the human cytochrome P450 isoforms screened. LDT5 was considered safe albeit new studies are necessary to rule out putative central adverse effects through D2, 5-HT1A and 5-HT2B receptors, after chronic use. This work highlights the drug-likeness properties of LDT5 and supports its further preclinical development.

  13. Heterologous Expression in Remodeled C. elegans: A Platform for Monoaminergic Agonist Identification and Anthelmintic Screening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjing Law

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Monoamines, such as 5-HT and tyramine (TA, paralyze both free-living and parasitic nematodes when applied exogenously and serotonergic agonists have been used to clear Haemonchus contortus infections in vivo. Since nematode cell lines are not available and animal screening options are limited, we have developed a screening platform to identify monoamine receptor agonists. Key receptors were expressed heterologously in chimeric, genetically-engineered Caenorhabditis elegans, at sites likely to yield robust phenotypes upon agonist stimulation. This approach potentially preserves the unique pharmacologies of the receptors, while including nematode-specific accessory proteins and the nematode cuticle. Importantly, the sensitivity of monoamine-dependent paralysis could be increased dramatically by hypotonic incubation or the use of bus mutants with increased cuticular permeabilities. We have demonstrated that the monoamine-dependent inhibition of key interneurons, cholinergic motor neurons or body wall muscle inhibited locomotion and caused paralysis. Specifically, 5-HT paralyzed C. elegans 5-HT receptor null animals expressing either nematode, insect or human orthologues of a key Gαo-coupled 5-HT1-like receptor in the cholinergic motor neurons. Importantly, 8-OH-DPAT and PAPP, 5-HT receptor agonists, differentially paralyzed the transgenic animals, with 8-OH-DPAT paralyzing mutant animals expressing the human receptor at concentrations well below those affecting its C. elegans or insect orthologues. Similarly, 5-HT and TA paralyzed C. elegans 5-HT or TA receptor null animals, respectively, expressing either C. elegans or H. contortus 5-HT or TA-gated Cl- channels in either C. elegans cholinergic motor neurons or body wall muscles. Together, these data suggest that this heterologous, ectopic expression screening approach will be useful for the identification of agonists for key monoamine receptors from parasites and could have broad application for

  14. PREFACE: Carolina International Symposium on Neutrino Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avignone, Frank; Creswick, Richard; Kubodera, Kuniharu; Purohit, Milind

    2009-07-01

    The Carolina International Symposium on Neutrino Physics, 2008 (CISNP'08) was organized and held at the University of South Carolina by the Department of Physics in May 2008, to celebrate the 75th birthdays of Professors Frank Avignone (South Carolina) and Ettore Fiorini (Milan) and to commemorate the 75th birthday of the late Peter Rosen (DOE). Although much of the work done by these luminaries has been in non-accelerator areas such as double beta-decay, the meeting covered many topics in neutrino physics as well, including neutrino oscillations, supernova explosions, neutrino nucleosynthesis, axions, dark matter, dark energy, and cosmology. Talks included presentations of recent theoretical progress, experimental results, detector technology advances and a few reminiscences. This is the second such symposium held at Carolina, the first was held in 2000. We were fortunate to have attracted many top speakers who gave scintillating presentations, most of which have been put in writing and are presented in this volume. Many thanks go to various people involved in this conference, including of course Drs Avignone, Fiorini and Rosen whose efforts over the years provided us with the opportunity, and all the speakers, many of whom took time out of their very busy schedules to come to Columbia and give talks and then to write them up. Thanks also to our Department Chairman, Professor Chaden Djalali, and to our support staff which included Mr Robert Sproul, Ms Mary Papp, Ms Beth Powell and Mr R Simmons. Finally, we must thank our funding agencies which are the South Carolina EPSCoR/IDeA Program, The Oak Ridge Associated Universities, and the University of South Carolina. The Editorial Team: Frank Avignone (USC) Richard Creswick (USC) Kuniharu Kubodera (USC) Milind Purohit (USC, Chief Editor) CISNP Scientific Advisory Committee: Wick Haxton (Seattle) Barry Holstein (Amherst) Kuniharu Kubodera (USC) CISNP Organizing Committee: Richard Creswick (USC) Chaden Djalali (USC

  15. Expression and functional activity of P-glycoprotein in passaged primary human nasal epithelial cell monolayers cultured by the air-liquid interface method for nasal drug transport study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyun-Jong; Choi, Min-Koo; Lin, Hongxia; Kim, Jung Sun; Chung, Suk-Jae; Shim, Chang-Koo; Kim, Dae-Duk

    2011-03-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is an efflux transporter encoded by the multidrug resistance gene (MDR1), which is also known as the human ABCB1 gene (ATP-binding cassette, subfamily-B). The objectives of this study were to investigate the expression of P-gp in passaged primary human nasal epithelial (HNE) cell monolayer, cultured by the air-liquid interface (ALI) method, and to evaluate its feasibility as an in-vitro model for cellular uptake and transport studies of P-gp substrates. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to verify the expression of the MDR1 gene. Transport and cellular uptake studies with P-gp substrate (rhodamine123) and P-gp inhibitors (verapamil and cyclosporin A) were conducted to assess the functional activity of P-gp in HNE cell monolayers cultured by the ALI method. MDR1 gene expression in primary HNE cell monolayers cultured by ALI method was confirmed by RT-PCR. The apparent permeability coefficient (P(app) ) of the P-gp substrate (rhodamine123) in the basolateral to apical (B to A) direction was 6.9 times higher than that in the apical to basolateral (A to B) direction. B to A transport was saturated at high rhodamine123 concentration, and the treatment of P-gp inhibitors increased cellular uptake of rhodamine123 in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. These results support the MDR1 gene expression and the functional activity of P-gp in primary HNE cell monolayers cultured by the ALI method. © 2011 The Authors. JPP © 2011 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  16. Individualized correction for maternal weight in calculating the risk of chromosomal abnormalities with first-trimester screening data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, E; Thode, C; Eiben, B; Faber, R; Hackelöer, B J; Huesgen, G; Pruggmaier, M; Wellek, S

    2011-02-01

    In the algorithm developed by the Fetal Medicine Foundation (FMF) Germany designed to evaluate the findings of routine first-trimester screening, the false-positive rate (FPR) was determined for the entire study group without stratification by maternal weight. Based on the data received from the continuous audit we were able to identify an increase in the FPR for the weight-related subgroups of patients, particularly for patients with extremely high body weights. The aim of this study was to demonstrate that the variability of the FPR can be reduced through adjusting the concentrations of free β-HCG and PAPP-A measured in the maternal serum by means of a nonlinear regression function modeling the dependence of these values on maternal weight. The database used to establish a version of the algorithm enabling control of the FPR over the whole range of maternal weight consisted of n = 123 546 pregnancies resulting in the birth of a child without chromosomal anomalies. The group with positive outcomes covered n = 500 cases of trisomy 21 and n = 159 trisomies 13 or 18. The dependency of the serum parameters free β-HCG and PAPP-A on maternal weight was analyzed in the sample of negative outcomes by means of nonlinear regression. The fitted regression curve was of exponential form with negative slope. Using this model, all individual measurements were corrected through multiplication with a factor obtained as the ratio of the concentration level predicted by the model to belong to the average maternal body weight of 68.2 kg, over the ordinate of that point on the regression curve which belongs to the weight actually measured. Subsequently, the totality of all values of free β-HCG and PAPP-A corrected for deviation from average weight were used as input data for carrying out the construction of diagnostic discrimination rules described in our recent paper for a database to which no corrections for over- or under-weight had been applied. This entailed in particular the

  17. Fabrication and in vitro/in vivo evaluation of amorphous andrographolide nanosuspensions stabilized by d-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate/sodium lauryl sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Hongzhi; Chen, Lihua; Rui, Tianqi; Wang, Jingxian; Chen, Ting; Fu, Tingming; Li, Junsong; Di, Liuqing

    2017-01-01

    Andrographolide (ADG) is a diterpenoid isolated from Andrographis paniculata with a wide spectrum of biological activities, including anti-inflammatory, anticancer and hepatoprotective effects. However, its poor water solubility and efflux by P-glycoprotein have resulted in lower bioavailability. In this study, ADG nanosuspensions (ADG-NS) were prepared using a wet media milling technique followed by freeze drying. d-α-Tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS), a surfactant that inhibits P-glycoprotein function, and sodium lauryl sulfate were used as surface stabilizers. A Box–Behnken design was used to optimize the nanosuspension preparation. The products of these optimal preparation conditions were amorphous and possessed much faster dissolution in vitro than a coarse powder of ADG. The particle size and redispersibility index of the freeze-dried ADG-NS were 244.6±3.0 nm and 113%±1.14% (n=3), respectively. A short-term stability study indicated that the freeze-dried ADG-NS could remain highly stable as nanosuspensions during the testing period. A test of transport across a Caco-2 cell monolayer revealed that the membrane permeability (Papp) of ADG-NS was significantly higher than the permeability of the ADG coarse powder or ADG-NS without TPGS (P<0.01). Compared to the ADG coarse powder, a physical mixture, commercial dripping pills and ADG-NS without TPGS, ADG-NS exhibited significantly higher plasma exposure with significant enhancements in Cmax and area under the curve of plasma concentration versus time from zero to the last sampling time (AUC0−t) (P<0.01). An evaluation of the anti-inflammatory effect on Carr-induced paw edema demonstrated that the ADG-NS were more effective in reducing the rate of paw swelling, producing a greater increase in the serum levels of nitric oxide (NO), Interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) (P<0.01) and an increase in superoxide dismutase activity (P<0.05) compared to the ADG coarse powder

  18. Mobile Phone-Delivered Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia: A Randomized Waitlist Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancee, Jaap; Griffioen-Both, Fiemke; Spruit, Sandor; Fitrianie, Siska; Neerincx, Mark A; Beun, Robbert Jan; Brinkman, Willem-Paul

    2017-01-01

    Background This study is one of the first randomized controlled trials investigating cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) delivered by a fully automated mobile phone app. Such an app can potentially increase the accessibility of insomnia treatment for the 10% of people who have insomnia. Objective The objective of our study was to investigate the efficacy of CBT-I delivered via the Sleepcare mobile phone app, compared with a waitlist control group, in a randomized controlled trial. Methods We recruited participants in the Netherlands with relatively mild insomnia disorder. After answering an online pretest questionnaire, they were randomly assigned to the app (n=74) or the waitlist condition (n=77). The app packaged a sleep diary, a relaxation exercise, sleep restriction exercise, and sleep hygiene and education. The app was fully automated and adjusted itself to a participant’s progress. Program duration was 6 to 7 weeks, after which participants received posttest measurements and a 3-month follow-up. The participants in the waitlist condition received the app after they completed the posttest questionnaire. The measurements consisted of questionnaires and 7-day online diaries. The questionnaires measured insomnia severity, dysfunctional beliefs about sleep, and anxiety and depression symptoms. The diary measured sleep variables such as sleep efficiency. We performed multilevel analyses to study the interaction effects between time and condition. Results The results showed significant interaction effects (Papp condition on the primary outcome measures of insomnia severity (d=–0.66) and sleep efficiency (d=0.71). Overall, these improvements were also retained in a 3-month follow-up. Conclusions This study demonstrated the efficacy of a fully automated mobile phone app in the treatment of relatively mild insomnia. The effects were in the range of what is found for Web-based treatment in general. This supports the applicability of such technical

  19. Aplicação do gerenciamento de riscos no processo de desenvolvimento de produtos nas empresas de autopeças Application of risk management in the product development process of auto parts companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Sanches da Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa analisa a incorporação do gerenciamento de riscos no processo de desenvolvimento de produtos (PDP nas empresas de autopeças, fundamentado no Advanced Product Quality Planning (APQP, enfatiza as entregas do projeto de desenvolvimento preconizadas pelo Production Parts Approval Process (PAPP e realiza uma revisão bibliográfica estabelecendo os fundamentos teóricos para seu desenvolvimento. O método de pesquisa utilizado foi a pesquisa-ação, cujos dados foram coletados por meio de análise documental, entrevistas e observações dos pesquisadores. A incorporação do gerenciamento de riscos no PDP contribui para o processo decisório, principalmente nas etapas de análise de riscos qualitativos e de planejamento de respostas aos riscos, fornecendo maior precisão quanto aos prazos e à identificação das atividades críticas. Os fatores que se destacaram para se obter a precisão dos resultados são: a formação da equipe; a discussão coletiva dos prazos fornecidos, tendo como resultado o comprometimento; o papel do gerente do projeto, propiciando o feedback entre os participantes, e a existência de evidências objetivas do apoio da alta administração. Conclui-se que a formação da equipe influencia no gerenciamento de riscos, sendo preponderante na percepção dos riscos a formação educacional.This research analyzes the incorporation of risk management in the product development process (PDP in auto parts companies, based on Advanced Product and Quality Planning (APQP, and emphasizes the delivery of project development proposed by the Production Part Approval Process (PPAP and conducts a review of the literature, establishing the theoretical foundations for its development. The research method used was action research, where data were collected through documentary analysis, interviews and researchers' observations. The incorporation of risk management contributes to the PDP-making processes, especially in the stages

  20. Advances in prenatal screening for Down syndrome: II first trimester testing, integrated testing, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benn, Peter A

    2002-10-01

    The acceptability of prenatal screening and diagnosis of Down syndrome is dependent, in part, on the gestational age at which the testing is offered. First trimester screening could be advantageous if it has sufficient efficacy and can be effectively delivered. Two first trimester maternal serum screening markers, pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) and free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-hCG), are useful for identifying women at increased risk for fetal Down syndrome. In addition, measurement of an enlarged thickness of the subcutaneous fluid-filled space at the back of the neck of the developing fetus (referred to as nuchal translucency or NT) has been demonstrated to be an indicator for these high-risk pregnancies. When these three parameters are combined, estimates for Down syndrome efficacy exceed those currently attainable in the second trimester. Women who are screen-positive in the first trimester can elect to receive cytogenetic testing of a chorionic villus biopsy. The first trimester tests could also, theoretically, be combined with the second trimester maternal serum screening tests (integrated screening) to obtain even higher levels of efficacy. There are, however, several practical limitations to first trimester and integrated screening. These include scheduling of testing within relatively narrow gestational age intervals, availability of appropriately trained ultrasonographers for NT measurement, risks associated with chorionic villus biopsy, and costs. There is also increasing evidence that an enlarged NT measurement is indicative of a high risk for spontaneous abortion and for fetal abnormalities that are not detectable by cytogenetic analysis. Women whose fetuses show enlarged NT, therefore, need first trimester counseling regarding their Down syndrome risks and the possibility of other adverse pregnancy outcomes. Follow-up ultrasound and fetal echocardiography in the second trimester are also indicated. First trimester

  1. Influence of adenomyosis on pregnancy and perinatal outcomes in women with endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scala, Carolina; Leone Roberti Maggiore, Umberto; Racca, Annalisa; Barra, Fabio; Vellone, Valerio Gaetano; Venturini, Pier Luigi; Ferrero, Simone

    2017-12-20

    Several studies investigated the correlation between endometriosis and adverse pregnancy and perinatal outcomes. However, the role of adenomyosis as a risk factor for adverse perinatal outcomes in women with endometriosis has yet to be established. The aim of this study was to explore if fetal and maternal outcomes, in particular the incidence of small for gestational age (SGA) infants, are different in pregnant women with endometriosis (E) and the concomitant presence of diffuse (EDA) and focal ademonyosis (EFA). This is a retrospective analysis of a database collected prospectively during a three-year period. We included 206 pregnant women with endometriosis; 148 (71.8%) with E, 38 (18.4%) with EFA and 20 (9.7%) with EDA. Adenomyosis was diagnosed by ultrasonography, it was classified in focal or diffuse. The study included patients who conceived spontaneously or by assisted reproductive techniques. The three groups were similar in demographic characteristics (age, body mass index, mode of conception). Patients with diffuse adenomyosis compared with those with only endometriosis had significantly lower PAPP-A MoM (0.61 vs 0.88 MoM, p<0.001), higher mean uterine artery pulsatility index (UtA PI) in the 1st (2.23 vs 1.67, p<0.001) and 2nd (1.30 vs 0.94, p<0.001) trimester of pregnancy, and higher incidence of SGA (40% vs 10.8%, p<0.001; respectively). No statistically significant difference was found in patients with focal adenomyosis compared to those with only endometriosis. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that diffuse adenomyosis (OR=3.744 CI 95%1.158-12.099; p=0.027) was the only independent risk factors for SGA. The presence of diffuse adenomyosis in pregnant women with endometriosis is is strongly associated with SGA infants. Women with diffuse adenomyosis should be treated as being at high risk of placental dysfunction, therefore, these pregnancies might need a closer monitoring. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. A Spanish pillbox app for elderly patients taking multiple medications: randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mira, José Joaquín; Navarro, Isabel; Botella, Federico; Borrás, Fernando; Nuño-Solinís, Roberto; Orozco, Domingo; Iglesias-Alonso, Fuencisla; Pérez-Pérez, Pastora; Lorenzo, Susana; Toro, Nuria

    2014-04-04

    ). Patients in the experimental group obtained better MMAS-4 scores (Papp improves adherence, helps reduce rates of forgetting and of medication errors, and increases perceived independence in managing medication. Elderly patients with no previous experience with information and communication technologies are capable of effectively using an app designed to help them take their medicine more safely. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02071498; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02071498.

  3. Resonances in atomic few-body systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezei, J.Zs.; Kruppa, A.T.

    2005-01-01

    of Shake-shaft et al. [3] and Papp et al. [4]. We think that the good performance of the SVM method for the description of the auto ionizing state is due to the fact that the non-linear parameters are determined by a stochastic method. An advantage the complex scaled SVM method is that it can be easily extended to four- or five-particle problems. (author)

  4. Poly(vinyl methyl ether/maleic anhydride)-Doped PEG-PLA Nanoparticles for Oral Paclitaxel Delivery To Improve Bioadhesive Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Li, Chan; Ren, Tianyang; Chen, Shizhu; Ye, Xiaoxia; Guo, Hongbo; He, Haibing; Zhang, Yu; Yin, Tian; Liang, Xing-Jie; Tang, Xing

    2017-10-02

    Bioadhesive nanoparticles based on poly(vinyl methyl ether/maleic anhydride) (PVMMA) and poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether-b-poly(d,l-lactic acid) (mPEG-b-PLA) were produced by the emulsification solvent evaporation method. Paclitaxel was utilized as the model drug, with an encapsulation efficiency of up to 90.2 ± 4.0%. The nanoparticles were uniform and spherical in shape and exhibited a sustained drug release compared with Taxol. m-NPs also exhibited favorable bioadhesive efficiency at the same time. Coumarin 6 or DiR-loaded nanoparticles with/without PVMMA (C6-m-NPs/DiR-m-NPs or C6-p-NPs/DiR-p-NPs) were used for cellular uptake and intestinal adhesion experiments, respectively. C6-m-NPs were shown to enhance cellular uptake, and caveolae/lipid raft mediated endocytosis was the primary route for the uptake of the nanoparticles. Favorable bioadhesive efficiency led to prolonged retention in the intestine reflected by the fluorescence in isolated intestines ex vivo. In a ligated intestinal loops model, C6-m-NPs showed a clear advantage for transporting NPs across the mucus layer over C6-p-NPs and free C6. The apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) of PTX-m-NPs through Caco-2/HT29 monolayers was 1.3- and 1.6-fold higher than PTX-p-NPs and Taxol, respectively, which was consistent with the AUC 0-t of different PTX formulations after oral administration in rats. PTX-m-NPs also exhibited a more effective anticancer efficacy, with an IC 50 of 0.2 ± 1.4 μg/mL for A549 cell lines, further demonstrating the advantage of bioadhesive nanoparticles. The bioadhesive nanoparticles m-NPs demonstrated both mucus permeation and epithelial absorption, and thus, this bioadhesive drug delivery system has the potential to improve the bioavailability of drugs that are insoluble in the gastrointestinal environment.

  5. Towards a compact and precise sample holder for macromolecular crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Gergely; Rossi, Christopher; Janocha, Robert; Sorez, Clement; Lopez-Marrero, Marcos; Astruc, Anthony; McCarthy, Andrew; Belrhali, Hassan; Bowler, Matthew W; Cipriani, Florent

    2017-10-01

    SPINE was tested at different institutes using evaluation kits, and pilot beamlines are being equipped with compatible robotics for large-scale evaluation. A companion paper describes a new sample changer FlexED8 (Papp et al., 2017, Acta Cryst., D73, 841-851).

  6. Alteration of the irisin–brain-derived neurotrophic factor axis contributes to disturbance of mood in COPD patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papp C

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Csaba Papp,1 Krisztian Pak,2 Tamas Erdei,2 Bela Juhasz,2 Ildiko Seres,3 Anita Szentpéteri,3 Laszlo Kardos,4 Maria Szilasi,5 Rudolf Gesztelyi,2 Judit Zsuga1 1Department of Health Systems Management and Quality Management for Health Care, Faculty of Public Health, 2Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapy, Faculty of Medicine, 3Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Debrecen, 4Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Infectious Diseases and Allergology, Kenezy Gyula Teaching County Hospital and Outpatient Clinic, 5Department of Pulmonology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary Abstract: COPD is accompanied by limited physical activity, worse quality of life, and increased prevalence of depression. A possible link between COPD and depression may be irisin, a myokine, expression of which in the skeletal muscle and brain positively correlates with physical activity. Irisin enhances the synthesis of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, a neurotrophin involved in reward-related processes. Thus, we hypothesized that mood disturbances accompanying COPD are reflected by the changes in the irisin–BDNF axis. Case history, routine laboratory parameters, serum irisin and BDNF levels, pulmonary function, and disease-specific quality of life, measured by St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ, were determined in a cohort of COPD patients (n=74. Simple and then multiple linear regression were used to evaluate the data. We found that mood disturbances are associated with lower serum irisin levels (SGRQ’s Impacts score and reciprocal of irisin showed a strong positive association; β: 419.97; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 204.31, 635.63; P<0.001. This association was even stronger among patients in the lower 50% of BDNF levels (β: 434.11; 95% CI: 166.17, 702.05; P=0.002, while it became weaker for patients in the higher 50% of BDNF concentrations (β: 373.49; 95% CI: -74.91, 821.88; P=0

  7. Improving PAQ and comfort conditions in Spanish office buildings with passive climate control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orosa, Jose A.; Baalina, A. [Departamento de Energia y P.M. Escuela Tecnica Superior de N. y M, Universidade da Coruna, Paseo de Ronda 51, P.C.:15011 A Coruna (Spain)

    2009-03-15

    Some researchers have demonstrated that passive moisture transfer between indoor air and hygroscopic structures has the potential to moderate variations of indoor air relative humidity and, thus, to improve comfort and PAQ [Simonson CJ, Salonvaara M, Ojalen T. The effect of structures on indoor humidity-possibility to improve comfort and perceived air quality. Indoor Air 2002; 12: 243-51; Simonson CJ, Salonvaara M, Ojalen T. Improving indoor climate and comfort with wooden structures. Espoo 2001. Technical Research Centre of Finland, VTT Publications 431.200p+app 91p]. The main objective of this study is to show the internal wall coating effect on indoor air conditions and, as a consequence of this, in comfort conditions and PAQ. In a previous paper [Orosa JA, Baalina A. Passive climate control in Spanish office buildings for long periods of time. Building and Environment 2008], we analysed the influence of permeable and impermeable materials on indoor air conditions, during the unoccupied period, in 25 office buildings in different seasons. Results obtained lead us to conclude that real coverings such as permeable, semi-permeable and impermeable types, present different behavioural patterns in indoor air conditions. Furthermore, we concluded that an absorbent structure will moderate relative humidity indoors. In this paper, we study this indoor relative humidity effect on local thermal discomfort, due to decreased respiratory cooling, and indoor ambience acceptability for the early hours of morning applying PD and Acc models [Toftum J, Jorgensen AS, Fanger PO. Upper limits for indoor air humidity to avoid uncomfortably humid skin. Energy and buildings 1998; 28: 1-13; Toftum J, Jorgensen AS, Fanger PO. Upper limits of air humidity for preventing warm respiratory discomfort. Energy and Buildings 1998; 28: 15-23] such as that proposed by Simonson et al. [The effect of structures on indoor humidity-possibility to improve comfort and perceived air quality. Indoor Air

  8. Application of Neural Networks for classification of Patau, Edwards, Down, Turner and Klinefelter Syndrome based on first trimester maternal serum screening data, ultrasonographic findings and patient demographics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catic, Aida; Gurbeta, Lejla; Kurtovic-Kozaric, Amina; Mehmedbasic, Senad; Badnjevic, Almir

    2018-02-13

    The usage of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) for genome-enabled classifications and establishing genome-phenotype correlations have been investigated more extensively over the past few years. The reason for this is that ANNs are good approximates of complex functions, so classification can be performed without the need for explicitly defined input-output model. This engineering tool can be applied for optimization of existing methods for disease/syndrome classification. Cytogenetic and molecular analyses are the most frequent tests used in prenatal diagnostic for the early detection of Turner, Klinefelter, Patau, Edwards and Down syndrome. These procedures can be lengthy, repetitive; and often employ invasive techniques so a robust automated method for classifying and reporting prenatal diagnostics would greatly help the clinicians with their routine work. The database consisted of data collected from 2500 pregnant woman that came to the Institute of Gynecology, Infertility and Perinatology "Mehmedbasic" for routine antenatal care between January 2000 and December 2016. During first trimester all women were subject to screening test where values of maternal serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) and free beta human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) were measured. Also, fetal nuchal translucency thickness and the presence or absence of the nasal bone was observed using ultrasound. The architectures of linear feedforward and feedback neural networks were investigated for various training data distributions and number of neurons in hidden layer. Feedback neural network architecture out performed feedforward neural network architecture in predictive ability for all five aneuploidy prenatal syndrome classes. Feedforward neural network with 15 neurons in hidden layer achieved classification sensitivity of 92.00%. Classification sensitivity of feedback (Elman's) neural network was 99.00%. Average accuracy of feedforward neural network was 89.6% and for

  9. Enhancing the intestinal membrane permeability of zanamivir: a carrier mediated prodrug approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sheeba Varghese; Gupta, Deepak; Sun, Jing; Dahan, Arik; Tsume, Yasuhiro; Hilfinger, John; Lee, Kyung-Dall; Amidon, Gordon L

    2011-12-05

    The purpose of this study was to improve the membrane permeability and oral absorption of the poorly permeable anti-influenza agent, zanamivir. The poor oral bioavailability is attributed to the high polarity (cLogP ∼ -5) resulting from the polar and zwitterionic nature of zanamivir. In order to improve the permeability of zanamivir, prodrugs with amino acids were developed to target the intestinal membrane transporter, hPepT1. Several acyloxy ester prodrugs of zanamivir conjugated with amino acids were synthesized and characterized. The prodrugs were evaluated for their chemical stability in buffers at various pHs and for their transport and tissue activation by enzymes. The acyloxy ester prodrugs of zanamivir were shown to competitively inhibit [(3)H]Gly-Sar uptake in Caco-2 cells (IC(50): 1.19 ± 0.33 mM for L-valyl prodrug of zanamivir). The L-valyl prodrug of zanamivir exhibited ∼3-fold higher uptake in transfected HeLa/hPepT1 cells compared to wild type HeLa cells, suggesting, at least in part, carrier mediated transport by the hPepT1 transporter. Further, enhanced transcellular permeability of prodrugs across Caco-2 monolayer compared to the parent drug (P(app) = 2.24 × 10(-6) ± 1.33 × 10(-7) cm/s for L-valyl prodrug of zanamivir), with only parent zanamivir appearing in the receiver compartment, indicates that the prodrugs exhibited both enhanced transport and activation in intestinal mucosal cells. Most significantly, several of these prodrugs exhibited high intestinal jejunal membrane permeability, similar to metoprolol, in the in situ rat intestinal perfusion system, a system highly correlated with human jejunal permeability. In summary, this mechanistic targeted prodrug strategy, to enhance oral absorption via intestinal membrane carriers such as hPepT1, followed by activation to parent drug (active pharmaceutical ingredient or API) in the mucosal cell, significantly improves the intestinal epithelial cell permeability of zanamivir and has the

  10. IVF culture medium affects human intrauterine growth as early as the second trimester of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelissen, Ewka C M; Van Montfoort, Aafke P A; Smits, Luc J M; Menheere, Paul P C A; Evers, Johannes L H; Coonen, Edith; Derhaag, Josien G; Peeters, Louis L; Coumans, Audrey B; Dumoulin, John C M

    2013-08-01

    When does a difference in human intrauterine growth of singletons conceived after IVF and embryo culture in two different culture media appear? Differences in fetal development after culture of embryos in one of two IVF media were apparent as early as the second trimester of pregnancy. Abnormal fetal growth patterns are a major risk factor for the development of chronic diseases in adult life. Previously, we have shown that the medium used for culturing embryos during the first few days after fertilization significantly affects the birthweight of the resulting human singletons. The exact onset of this growth difference was unknown. In this retrospective cohort study, all 294 singleton live births after fresh embryo transfer in the period July 2003 to December 2006 were included. These embryos originated from IVF treatments that were part of a previously described clinical trial. Embryos were allocated to culture in either Vitrolife or Cook commercially available sequential culture media. We analysed ultrasound examinations at 8 (n = 290), 12 (n = 83) and 20 weeks' (n = 206) gestation and used first-trimester serum markers [pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) and free β-hCG]. Differences between study groups were tested by the Student's t-test, χ(2) test or Fisher's exact test, and linear multivariable regression analysis to adjust for possible confounders (for example, parity, gestational age at the time of ultrasound and fetal gender). A total of 294 singleton pregnancies (Vitrolife group nVL = 168, Cook group: nC = 126) from 294 couples were included. At 8 weeks' gestation, there was no difference between crown-rump length-based and ovum retrieval-based gestational age (ΔGA) (nVL = 163, nC = 122, adjusted mean difference, -0.04 days, P = 0.84). A total of 83 women underwent first-trimester screening at 12 weeks' gestation (nVL = 45, nC = 38). ΔGA, nuchal translucency (multiples of median, MoM) and PAPP-A (MoM) did not differ between the study

  11. OS090. Performance of candidate clinical and biochemical markers in screening early in pregnancy to detect women at high risk to develop preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest, J-C; Massé, J; Bujold, E; Rousseau, F; Charland, M; Thériault, S; Lafond, J; Giguère, Y

    2012-07-01

    The advent of early preventive measures, such as low-dose aspirin targeting women at high risk of preeclampsia (PE), emphasizes the need for better detection. Despite the emergence of promising biochemical markers linked to the pathophysiological processes, systematic reviews have shown that, until now, no single tests fulfill the criteria set by WHO for biomarkers to screen for a disease. However, recent literature reveals that by combining various clinical, biophysical and biochemical markers into multivariate algorithms, one can envisage to estimate the risk of PE with a performance that would reach clinical utility and cost-effectiveness, but this remains to be demonstrated in various environments and health care settings. To investigate, in a prospective study, the clinical utility of candidate biomarkers and clinical data to detect, early in pregnancy, women at risk to develop PE and to propose a multivariate prediction algorithm combining clinical parameters to biochemical markers. 7929 pregnant women prospectively recruited at the first prenatal visit, provided blood samples, clinical and sociodemographic information. 214 pregnant women developed hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) of which 88 had PE (1.2%), including 44 with severe PE (0.6%). A nested case-control study was performed including for each case of HDP two normal pregnancies matched for maternal age, gestational age at recruitment, ethnicity, parity, and smoking status. Based on the literature we selected the most promising markers in a multivariate logistic regression model: mean arterial pressure (MAP), BMI, placental growth factor (PlGF), soluble Flt-1, inhibin A and PAPP-A. Biomarker results measured between 10-18 weeks gestation were expressed as multiples of the median. Medians were determined for each gestational week. When combined with MAP at the time of blood sampling and BMI at the beginning of pregnancy, the four biochemical markers discriminate normal pregnancies from those

  12. Fabrication and in vitro/in vivo evaluation of amorphous andrographolide nanosuspensions stabilized by D-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate/sodium lauryl sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao H

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Hongzhi Qiao,1,2,* Lihua Chen,3,* Tianqi Rui,1,2 Jingxian Wang,1,2 Ting Chen,1,2 Tingming Fu,1,2 Junsong Li,1,2 Liuqing Di1,2 1College of Pharmacy, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, 2Jiangsu Engineering Research Center for Efficient Delivery System of TCM, Nanjing, 3Key Laboratory of Modern Preparation of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Ministry of Education, Jiangxi University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Nanchang, China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Andrographolide (ADG is a diterpenoid isolated from Andrographis paniculata with a wide spectrum of biological activities, including anti-inflammatory, anticancer and hepatoprotective effects. However, its poor water solubility and efflux by P-glycoprotein have resulted in lower bioavailability. In this study, ADG nanosuspensions (ADG-NS were prepared using a wet media milling technique followed by freeze drying. D-α-Tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS, a surfactant that inhibits P-glycoprotein function, and sodium lauryl sulfate were used as surface stabilizers. A Box–Behnken design was used to optimize the nanosuspension preparation. The products of these optimal preparation conditions were amorphous and possessed much faster dissolution in vitro than a coarse powder of ADG. The particle size and redispersibility index of the freeze-dried ADG-NS were 244.6±3.0 nm and 113%±1.14% (n=3, respectively. A short-term stability study indicated that the freeze-dried ADG-NS could remain highly stable as nanosuspensions during the testing period. A test of transport across a Caco-2 cell monolayer revealed that the membrane permeability (Papp of ADG-NS was significantly higher than the permeability of the ADG coarse powder or ADG-NS without TPGS (P<0.01. Compared to the ADG coarse powder, a physical mixture, commercial dripping pills and ADG-NS without TPGS, ADG-NS exhibited significantly higher plasma exposure with significant enhancements in Cmax

  13. Increasing oral absorption of polar neuraminidase inhibitors: a prodrug transporter approach applied to oseltamivir analogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Deepak; Varghese Gupta, Sheeba; Dahan, Arik; Tsume, Yasuhiro; Hilfinger, John; Lee, Kyung-Dall; Amidon, Gordon L

    2013-02-04

    Poor oral absorption is one of the limiting factors in utilizing the full potential of polar antiviral agents. The neuraminidase target site requires a polar chemical structure for high affinity binding, thus limiting oral efficacy of many high affinity ligands. The aim of this study was to overcome this poor oral absorption barrier, utilizing prodrug to target the apical brush border peptide transporter 1 (PEPT1). Guanidine oseltamivir carboxylate (GOCarb) is a highly active polar antiviral agent with insufficient oral bioavailability (4%) to be an effective therapeutic agent. In this report we utilize a carrier-mediated targeted prodrug approach to improve the oral absorption of GOCarb. Acyloxy(alkyl) ester based amino acid linked prodrugs were synthesized and evaluated as potential substrates of mucosal transporters, e.g., PEPT1. Prodrugs were also evaluated for their chemical and enzymatic stability. PEPT1 transport studies included [(3)H]Gly-Sar uptake inhibition in Caco-2 cells and cellular uptake experiments using HeLa cells overexpressing PEPT1. The intestinal membrane permeabilities of the selected prodrugs and the parent drug were then evaluated for epithelial cell transport across Caco-2 monolayers, and in the in situ rat intestinal jejunal perfusion model. Prodrugs exhibited a pH dependent stability with higher stability at acidic pHs. Significant inhibition of uptake (IC(50) 30-fold increase in affinity compared to GOCarb. The l-valyl prodrug exhibited significant enhancement of uptake in PEPT1/HeLa cells and compared favorably with the well-absorbed valacyclovir. Transepithelial permeability across Caco-2 monolayers showed that these amino acid prodrugs have a 2-5-fold increase in permeability as compared to the parent drug and showed that the l-valyl prodrug (P(app) = 1.7 × 10(-6) cm/s) has the potential to be rapidly transported across the epithelial cell apical membrane. Significantly, only the parent drug (GOCarb) appeared in the basolateral

  14. Catalogue of Tenebrionidae (Coleoptera of North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Bousquet

    2018-01-01

    angustula Casey, 1890, Stethasida stricta Casey, 1912, Stethasida muricatula languida Casey, 1912, Stethasida pertinax Casey, 1912, Stethasida socors Casey, 1912, Stethasida angustula inepta Casey, 1912, Stethasida tenax Casey, 1912, and Stethasida vegrandis Casey, 1912 [= Stenomorpha muricatula (LeConte, 1851]; Stethasida obsoleta expansa Casey, 1912, Stethasida obsoleta opacella Casey, 1912, Stethasida brevipes Casey, 1912, Stethasida torpida Casey, 1912, Stethasida convergens Casey, 1912, Stethasida discreta Casey, 1912, Stethasida longula Casey, 1912, Stethasida adumbrata Casey, 1912, Stethasida occulta Casey, 1912, Stethasida tarsalis Casey, 1912, Stethasida unica Casey, 1912, and Pelecyphorus laevigatus Papp, 1961 [= Stenomorpha obsoleta (LeConte, 1851]; Trichiasida eremica Wilke, 1922 [= Stenomorpha difficilis (Champion, 1884]; Trichiasida lineatopilosa Casey, 1912 [= Stenomorpha hirsuta (LeConte, 1851]; Trichiasida tenella Casey, 1912 [= Stenomorpha hispidula (LeConte, 1851]; Trichiasida duplex Casey, 1912 [= Stenomorpha villosa (Champion, 1884]; Alaudes squamosa Blaisdell, 1919, Alaudes testacea Blaisdell, 1919, and Alaudes fallax Fall, 1928 [= Alaudes singularis Horn, 1870]; Edrotes barrowsi Dajoz, 1999 [=Edrotes ventricosus LeConte, 1851]; Nyctoporis tetrica Casey, 1907 and Nyctoporis maura Casey, 1907 [= Nyctoporis aequicollis Eschscholtz, 1831]; Nyctoporis pullata Casey, 1907 [= Nyctoporis sponsa Casey, 1907]; Eleodes tibialis forma oblonga Blaisdell, 1909 [= Eleodes tibialis Blaisdell, 1909]; Eleodes (manni var. variolosa Blaisdell, 1917 [= Eleodes constrictus LeConte, 1858]; Eleodes cordata forma sublaevis Blaisdell, 1909, Eleodes cordata forma intermedia Blaisdell, 1909, Eleodes cordata forma oblonga Blaisdell, 1909, Eleodes cordata forma elongata Blaisdell, 1909, and Eleodes (cordata var. adulterina Blaisdell, 1917 [= Eleodes cordata Eschscholtz, 1829]; Eleodes hornii var. monticula Blaisdell, 1918 and Eleodes manni sierra Blaisdell, 1925 [= Eleodes fuchsii

  15. Selected Abstracts of the 20th National Congress of the Italian Society of Perinatal Medicine (Società Italiana di Medicina Perinatale, SIMP; Catania (Italy; March 22-24, 2018; Session “Prematurity”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    --- Various Authors

    2018-03-01

    . Bottazzoli, D. Di MartinoABS 8. MATERNAL AND FETAL OUTCOMES IN SINGLETON OOCYTE DONATION PREG­NANCIES: EXPERIENCE OF A TERTIARY REFERRAL OBSTETRIC ITALIAN CENTER • L. Primerano, F. Fuse’, A. Turri, E. Bottazzoli, O. Fornaciari, D. Di MartinoABS 9. PREECLAMPSIA OR CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE? A CORRECT DIAGNOSIS CAN PREVENT PRETERM BIRTH. A CASE REPORT • F. Minelli, B. Montersino, F. Fassio, P. Gaglioti, L. Colla, S. Palagi, G.B. Piccoli, R. Attini, T. TodrosABS 10. THE CERVICAL SLIDING SIGN: A NEW ULTRA­SOUND TOOL IN THE ASSESSMENT OF THREATENED PRETERM LABOR • N. Volpe, E. Roletti, A. Infranco, A. Dall’Asta, L. Galli, T. Ghi, T. FruscaABS 11. IS MATERNAL SERUM PREGNANCY AS­SOCIATED PLASMA PROTEIN-A (PAPP-A A PREDICTIVE MARKER OF SPONTANEOUS PRETERM BIRTH? • G. Fantappiè, S. Vannuccini, M.C. Cappellini, E.R. Magro Malosso, M. Di Tommaso, F. PetragliaABS 12. INSIGHTS ON THE USE OF EXTERNAL VENTRICULAR DEVICE IN THE TREATMENT OF POST-HAEMORRHAGIC VENTRICULAR DILATATION IN PRETERM INFANTS • M. Sebastiani, M. Severino, D. Tortora, G. Morana, M. Malova, A. Parodi, M. Ravegnani, A. Cama, A. Rossi, L. RamenghiABS 13. ARE THE 2 YEAR GRIFFITHS SCORES OF BA­BIES WITH CEREBELLAR HAEMORRHAGE (CBH AND INTRAVENTRICULAR HAEMOR­RHAGE (IVH SIGNIFICANTLY DIFFERENT COMPARED TO THOSE OF BABIES SUF­FERING FROM ISOLATED IVH? • S. Uccella, A. Parodi, M. Malova, L. Boeri, E. De Grandis, C. Traggiai, A. Sannia, M. Severino, G. Morana, D. Tortora, A. Rossi, E. Veneselli, L.A. RamenghiABS 14. ARE PACKED RED BLOOD CELL TRANS­FUSIONS (PRBCT IN PRETERM IN­FANTS ASSOCIATED WITH IMPROVED GROWTH AND/OR FLUID RETENTION? • B. Bartolomei, A. Correani, F. De Angelis, C. Biagetti, P. Marchionni, V.P. CarnielliABS 15. LOOKING FOR NEUROLOGICAL BIOMARKERS IN VLBW BABIES: BLOOD ADENOSINE LEVELS AND NEUROLOGICAL OUTCOME • L. De Angelis, M. Colella, V. Cardiello, M. Malova, S. Uccella, L. Boeri, E. De Grandis, I. Panfoli, G. Candiano, M. Cassanello, A. Parodi, E. Veneselli, L. RamenghiABS 16

  16. Selected Abstracts of the 1st Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2015; Budapest (Hungary; September 16-20, 2015; Session “Circulation, O2 Transport and Haematology”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Various Authors

    2015-09-01

    . Erickson-Owens, J. Mercer, D. Thulier, W. Oh, M. VanVleetABS 18. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN INDUCED LABOR AND FETAL STRESS HORMONE RELEASE • S. Wellmann, A. Koslowski, K. Spanaus, R. Zimmermann, T. BurkhardtABS 19. ASSESSMENT OF PULMONARY HEMODYNAMIC FUNCTION IN PRETERM INFANTS: MATURATIONAL PATTERNS OF PULMONARY ARTERY ACCELERATION TIME • M.D. Patel, A.T. James, P.J. McNamara, A. Jain, O. Franklin, A. Mathur, C. Lee, A. Hamvas, G.K. Singh, L. Mertens, P.T. LevyABS 20. LONGITUDINAL CARDIAC CHANGES IN PRETERM INFANTS WITH PROLONGED EXPOSURE TO A PATENT DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS • K. de Waal, N. PhadABS 21. NOVEL NON-INVASIVE MEASUREMENTS IN THE ASSESSMENT OF NORMAL CARDIOVASCULAR ADAPTATION IN TERM & NEAR TERM INFANTS • L. Mahoney, D. Wertheim, J.R. Fernandez Alvarez, N. Aiton, H. Rojas-Anaya, P. Seddon, H. RabeABS 22. PERFUSION INDEX USED AS A SIXTH VITAL SIGN IN PRETERM INFANTS LEADS TO EARLY DIAGNOSIS OF SHOCK AND BETTER OUTCOMES • D. Hariharan, G. Veluswami, L. Balasubramanian, V. Kannappan, R.M. SahadevanABS 23. EARLY CIRCULATORY AND RESPIRATORY PARAMETERS IN EXTREMELY PRETERM INFANTS • K.W. Olsson, R. Sindelar, A. JonzonABS 24. UK SURVEILLANCE OF SURGICAL LIGATION OF THE PATENT DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS (PDA IN PREMATURE BABIES PRIOR TO FIRST DISCHARGE HOME • A. Lakshmanan, L. Lee, T. Crosby, W. KelsallABS 25. CURRENT PRACTICES ON HEMODYNAMIC MONITORING IN NEONATAL INTENSIVE CARE: AN INTERNATIONAL SURVEY • S. Vrancken, L. Frijns, K. Liem, J. Hopman, J. Lemson, A. van Heijst, W. de BoodeABS 26. NON-INVASIVE ASSESSMENT OF DIASTOLIC MYOCARDIAL PROPERTIES IN ELBW NEONATES • T. Kovacs, G. Mogyorosy, A. Kertesz, A. Borbely, Z. Papp, Gy. BallaABS 27. PRIOR CLINICAL DESCRIPTION BIASES ASSESSMENT OF CAPILLARY REFILL TIME • E. Murphy, S. Coleman, S. Hill, C. Henry, D. Morris, D. SharkeyABS 28. AFTERLOAD REDUCTION IN CATECHOLAMINE-RESISTANT SHOCK IN EXTREME PREMATURITY: NOVEL THERAPY WITH OLD DRUG FOR AN UNRECOGNIZED FACTOR IN SHOCK • D. Hariharan, G. Veluswami, L