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Sample records for papaya tree carica

  1. The draft genome of the transgenic tropical fruit tree papaya (Carica papaya Linnaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Ray; Hou, Shaobin; Feng, Yun; Yu, Qingyi; Dionne-Laporte, Alexandre; Saw, Jimmy H; Senin, Pavel; Wang, Wei; Ly, Benjamin V; Lewis, Kanako L T; Salzberg, Steven L; Feng, Lu; Jones, Meghan R; Skelton, Rachel L; Murray, Jan E; Chen, Cuixia; Qian, Wubin; Shen, Junguo; Du, Peng; Eustice, Moriah; Tong, Eric; Tang, Haibao; Lyons, Eric; Paull, Robert E; Michael, Todd P; Wall, Kerr; Rice, Danny W; Albert, Henrik; Wang, Ming-Li; Zhu, Yun J; Schatz, Michael; Nagarajan, Niranjan; Acob, Ricelle A; Guan, Peizhu; Blas, Andrea; Wai, Ching Man; Ackerman, Christine M; Ren, Yan; Liu, Chao; Wang, Jianmei; Wang, Jianping; Na, Jong-Kuk; Shakirov, Eugene V; Haas, Brian; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Nelson, David; Wang, Xiyin; Bowers, John E; Gschwend, Andrea R; Delcher, Arthur L; Singh, Ratnesh; Suzuki, Jon Y; Tripathi, Savarni; Neupane, Kabi; Wei, Hairong; Irikura, Beth; Paidi, Maya; Jiang, Ning; Zhang, Wenli; Presting, Gernot; Windsor, Aaron; Navajas-Pérez, Rafael; Torres, Manuel J; Feltus, F Alex; Porter, Brad; Li, Yingjun; Burroughs, A Max; Luo, Ming-Cheng; Liu, Lei; Christopher, David A; Mount, Stephen M; Moore, Paul H; Sugimura, Tak; Jiang, Jiming; Schuler, Mary A; Friedman, Vikki; Mitchell-Olds, Thomas; Shippen, Dorothy E; dePamphilis, Claude W; Palmer, Jeffrey D; Freeling, Michael; Paterson, Andrew H; Gonsalves, Dennis; Wang, Lei; Alam, Maqsudul

    2008-04-24

    Papaya, a fruit crop cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions, is known for its nutritional benefits and medicinal applications. Here we report a 3x draft genome sequence of 'SunUp' papaya, the first commercial virus-resistant transgenic fruit tree to be sequenced. The papaya genome is three times the size of the Arabidopsis genome, but contains fewer genes, including significantly fewer disease-resistance gene analogues. Comparison of the five sequenced genomes suggests a minimal angiosperm gene set of 13,311. A lack of recent genome duplication, atypical of other angiosperm genomes sequenced so far, may account for the smaller papaya gene number in most functional groups. Nonetheless, striking amplifications in gene number within particular functional groups suggest roles in the evolution of tree-like habit, deposition and remobilization of starch reserves, attraction of seed dispersal agents, and adaptation to tropical daylengths. Transgenesis at three locations is closely associated with chloroplast insertions into the nuclear genome, and with topoisomerase I recognition sites. Papaya offers numerous advantages as a system for fruit-tree functional genomics, and this draft genome sequence provides the foundation for revealing the basis of Carica's distinguishing morpho-physiological, medicinal and nutritional properties.

  2. CARICA PAPAYA EXTRACTS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    2Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Hussaini Adamu Federal Polytechnic, Kazaure ... Powdered leaves of Carica papaya (L.) were extracted with ethanol and partitioned in .... about 15 minutes indicated the presence of saponins.

  3. Somatic embryogenesis of Carica Papaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvina Lindsay Mijen; Rusli Ibrahim

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the somatic embryogenesis of Carica papaya. Culture medium used was1/2 strength MS basal medium supplemented with 6% sucrose, 0.27 % agar, glutamine and various concentrations of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). After 8 weeks in culture, the best concentration of 2,4-D to induce somatic embryo is at 45.2 μM. (Author)

  4. Addition of Selenium to Carica papaya Linn Pulp Extract Enhances ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Purpose: To investigate the combined effect of Carica papaya extract and mineral elements wound healing. ... International Pharmaceutical Abstract, Chemical Abstracts, Embase, Index ..... and ripe Carica papaya epicarp extracts on wound.

  5. Effect of Carica papaya (Linn) aqueous leaf extract on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Carica papaya (Linn) aqueous leaf extract on pharmacokinetic ... Keywords: Carica papaya, Ciprofloxacin, Sickle cell anaemia, Herb-drug interaction, Pharmacokinetics. Tropical ..... and reproduction in any medium, provided the.

  6. Antisickling agent in an extract of unripe pawpaw ( Carica papaya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antisickling agent in an extract of unripe pawpaw (Carica papaya): Is it real? T Oduola, FAA Adeniyi, EO Ogunyemi, IS Bello, TO Idowu. Abstract. Investigations into antisickling and reversal of sickling activities of an aqueous extract of unripe pawpaw (Carica papaya) were carried out on blood from sickle cell patients ...

  7. RAP2.4a Is Transported through the Phloem to Regulate Cold and Heat Tolerance in Papaya Tree (Carica papaya cv. Maradol: Implications for Protection Against Abiotic Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Figueroa-Yañez

    Full Text Available Plants respond to stress through metabolic and morphological changes that increase their ability to survive and grow. To this end, several transcription factor families are responsible for transmitting the signals that are required for these changes. Here, we studied the transcription factor superfamily AP2/ERF, particularly, RAP2.4 from Carica papaya cv. Maradol. We isolated four genes (CpRap2.4a, CpRAap2.4b, CpRap2.1 and CpRap2.10, and an in silico analysis showed that the four genes encode proteins that contain a conserved APETALA2 (AP2 domain located within group I and II transcription factors of the AP2/ERF superfamily. Semiquantitative PCR experiments indicated that each CpRap2 gene is differentially expressed under stress conditions, such as extreme temperatures. Moreover, genetic transformants of tobacco plants overexpressing CpRap2.4a and CpRap2.4b genes show a high level of tolerance to cold and heat stress compared to non-transformed plants. Confocal microscopy analysis of tobacco transgenic plants showed that CpRAP2.4a and CpRAP2.4b proteins were mainly localized to the nuclei of cells from the leaves and roots and also in the sieve elements. Moreover, the movement of CpRap2.4a RNA in tobacco grafting was analyzed. Our results indicate that CpRap2.4a and CpRap2.4b RNA in the papaya tree have a functional role in the response to stress conditions such as exposure to extreme temperatures via direct translation outside the parental RNA cell.

  8. Effect of Carica papaya (Linn) aqueous leaf extract on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the fate of ciprofloxacin, after concomitant administration with the aqueous leaf extract of Carica papaya, which herbal practitioners in Nigeria have found helpful in the treatment of painful crisis in sickle cell anaemia (SCA) patients. Method: Thirteen rabbits were fasted for 12 h and given by oral route ...

  9. Anthelmintic efficacy of pawpaw ( Carica papaya ) seeds in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The anthelmintic efficacy of the aqueous and crude extract of Carica papaya seeds was studied in 40 Isa Brown commercial layers infected naturally with nematodes. They were randomly divided into 4 groups: A, B, C and D with 10 birds per group. Group A birds were untreated, while groups B, C and D were treated orally ...

  10. Carica Papaya Seed Extract Enhances Cellular Response to Stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, the present study was carried out to investigate the role of Carica papaya seed (CPS) extract that contains, Benzyl Isothiocyanates, one of the inducers of phase II enzymes in the regulation of cellular stress. The cellular responses were observed in U937 cells (human monocyte/macrophage cell line) at the ...

  11. Protective effect of Carica papaya fruit extract against gamma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Radiation side effects have been reported to induce oxidative stress by free radical generation. The protective effect of Carica papaya (CP) fruit extract, vitamins C and E against gamma radiation-induced oxidative damage on postnatal developing rat cerebellum was studied. Forty-two female Wistar rats were mated and ...

  12. Characterization of chromoplasts and carotenoids of red- and yellow-fleshed papaya (Carica papaya L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweiggert, Ralf M; Steingass, Christof B; Heller, Annerose; Esquivel, Patricia; Carle, Reinhold

    2011-11-01

    Chromoplast morphology and ultrastructure of red- and yellow-fleshed papaya (Carica papaya L.) were investigated by light and transmission electron microscopy. Carotenoid analyses by LC-MS revealed striking similarity of nutritionally relevant carotenoid profiles in both the red and yellow varieties. However, while yellow fruits contained only trace amounts of lycopene, the latter was found to be predominant in red papaya (51% of total carotenoids). Comparison of the pigment-loaded chromoplast ultrastructures disclosed tubular plastids to be abundant in yellow papaya, whereas larger crystalloid substructures characterized most frequent red papaya chromoplasts. Exclusively existent in red papaya, such crystalloid structures were associated with lycopene accumulation. Non-globular carotenoid deposition was derived from simple solubility calculations based on carotenoid and lipid contents of the differently colored fruit pulps. Since the physical state of carotenoid deposition may be decisive regarding their bioavailability, chromoplasts from lycopene-rich tomato fruit (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) were also assessed and compared to red papaya. Besides interesting analogies, various distinctions were ascertained resulting in the prediction of enhanced lycopene bioavailability from red papaya. In addition, the developmental pathway of red papaya chromoplasts was investigated during fruit ripening and carotenogenesis. In the early maturation stage of white-fleshed papaya, undifferentiated proplastids and globular plastids were predominant, corresponding to incipient carotenoid biosynthesis. Since intermediate plastids, e.g., amyloplasts or chloroplasts, were absent, chromoplasts are likely to emerge directly from proplastids.

  13. Erwinia mallotivora sp., a New Pathogen of Papaya (Carica papaya in Peninsular Malaysia

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    Noriha Mat Amin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Erwinia mallotivora was isolated from papaya infected with dieback disease showing the typical symptoms of greasy, water-soaked lesions and spots on leaves. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strain belonged to the genus Erwinia and was united in a monophyletic group with E. mallotivora DSM 4565 (AJ233414. Earlier studies had indicated that the causal agent for this disease was E. papayae. However, our current studies, through Koch’s postulate, have confirmed that papaya dieback disease is caused by E. mallotivora. To our knowledge, this is the first new discovery of E. mallotivora as a causal agent of papaya dieback disease in Peninsular Malaysia. Previous reports have suggested that E. mallotivora causes leaf spot in Mallotus japonicus. However, this research confirms it also to be pathogenic to Carica papaya.

  14. Dengue fever treatment with Carica papaya leaves extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nisar; Fazal, Hina; Ayaz, Muhammad; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Mohammad, Ijaz; Fazal, Lubna

    2011-08-01

    The main objective of the current study is to investigate the potential of Carica papaya leaves extracts against Dengue fever in 45 year old patient bitten by carrier mosquitoes. For the treatment of Dengue fever the extract was prepared in water. 25 mL of aqueous extract of C. papaya leaves was administered to patient infected with Dengue fever twice daily i.e. morning and evening for five consecutive days. Before the extract administration the blood samples from patient were analyzed. Platelets count (PLT), White Blood Cells (WBC) and Neutrophils (NEUT) decreased from 176×10(3)/µL, 8.10×10(3)/µL, 84.0% to 55×10(3)/µL, 3.7×10(3)/µL and 46.0%. Subsequently, the blood samples were rechecked after the administration of leaves extract. It was observed that the PLT count increased from 55×10(3)/µL to 168×10(3)/µL, WBC from 3.7×10(3)/µL to 7.7×10(3)/µL and NEUT from 46.0% to 78.3%. From the patient feelings and blood reports it showed that Carica papaya leaves aqueous extract exhibited potential activity against Dengue fever. Furthermore, the different parts of this valuable specie can be further used as a strong natural candidate against viral diseases.

  15. Influence of gamma radiation on carbohydrates metabolism of ripening papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Solo)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, M.L.P.A.; Lajolo, F.M.; Cordenunsi, B.R.

    1999-01-01

    Food irradiation is one of the most promising treatments that can be utilized for fruits disinfestation and extension of shelf life. The authors studied the influence of 0,5 kGy of Gamma irradiation on the soluble carbohydrates composition of papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Solo) fruit, and on sucrose metabolizing enzymes: sucrose synthase (SS), sucrose-phosphate synthase, acid and neutral invertases activities, during ripening. The results demonstrated that ethylene production, total soluble sugars, sucrose content, and sucrose-phosphate synthase and invertases activities were affected by irradiation, but not respiration, glucose and fructose content, and SS activity. (author)

  16. Physical-chemical analyses of irradiated papayas ( Carica papaya L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, R. J.; Tadini, C. C.; Sabato, S. F.

    2007-11-01

    Papaya is cultivated in Espírito Santo State/Brazil and as it stands up to irradiation, it is important to validate this technology, since it is already being applied in some countries. Penetration energy, ratio (relation between soluble solids and titrable acidity) and skin color were evaluated to verify the influence of four different doses of irradiation (0.0, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.00 kGy) on papayas, during 21 days. As a result for the skin color and the penetration energy, it was found that in the first days after irradiation, these variables increased with increase in radiation dose; however, after a time lapse, the tendency inverted and the irradiated fruits had a slower ripening process. For the ratio, a very important variable that it is responsible for the fruit taste, no difference was found between irradiated and the control fruit. Color and texture measurements are dependent on the storage temperature.

  17. Physical-chemical analyses of irradiated papayas (Carica papaya L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camargo, R.J.; Tadini, C.C.; Sabato, S.F.

    2007-01-01

    Papaya is cultivated in Espirito Santo State/Brazil and as it stands up to irradiation, it is important to validate this technology, since it is already being applied in some countries. Penetration energy, ratio (relation between soluble solids and titrable acidity) and skin color were evaluated to verify the influence of four different doses of irradiation (0.0, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.00 kGy) on papayas, during 21 days. As a result for the skin color and the penetration energy, it was found that in the first days after irradiation, these variables increased with increase in radiation dose; however, after a time lapse, the tendency inverted and the irradiated fruits had a slower ripening process. For the ratio, a very important variable that it is responsible for the fruit taste, no difference was found between irradiated and the control fruit. Color and texture measurements are dependent on the storage temperature

  18. Quantification of the antiplasmodial alkaloid carpaine in papaya (Carica papaya) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julianti, Tasqiah; Oufir, Mouhssin; Hamburger, Matthias

    2014-08-01

    Daily consumption of papaya (Carica papaya) leaves as greens and an herbal infusion is common in some parts of Indonesia as a means for preventing malaria. Antiplasmodial activity of the leaf extracts and of the main alkaloid carpaine were recently confirmed. A quantitative assay for determination of carpaine in papaya leaves was developed and validated. The assay involved pressurized liquid extraction and quantification with the aid of ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy. Extraction conditions were optimized with respect to solvent, temperature, and number of extraction cycles. The ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy assay was validated over a range of 20-5000 ng/mL (R(2) of 0.9908). A total of 29 papaya leaf samples were analyzed, and carpaine concentration in dry leaves was found to range from 0.02 to 0.31%. No obvious dependence on geographic origin and leaf maturity was observed. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Radioprotective efficacy of Carica papaya (L.) leaf extract in electron beam irradiated Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yogish Somayaji, T.; Suchetha Kumari, N.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that leaf extract of Carica papaya (Linn.) has antibacterial, antitumor, antioxidant, anti-sickling properties and has shown to increase the platelets in patients with dengue fever. In the present study, the radioprotective effects and radioadaptive response of Carica papaya (L.) was evaluated in mice irradiated with electron beam radiation. Radiation induced hematological suppression was seen at sublethal doses of 6 Gy irradiated groups. There was a decrease in hemoglobin, red blood cell, total white blood cell count and platelet counts in irradiated groups whereas papaya leaf extract enhanced platelet levels indicated thrombopoietic effect

  20. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Carica papaya [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Carica papaya 名詞 一般 * * * * パパイヤ ...パパイヤ パパイヤ Thesaurus2015 200906054153056489 C LS06/LS72 UNKNOWN_2 Carica papaya

  1. Effect of Biopreservatives on Storage Life of Papaya (Carica papaya L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatema H. Brishti

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE In this experiment the effect on post-harvest preservation of papaya (Carica papaya L. fruit coated with either Aloe gel (AG; 100% or papaya leaf extract with Aloe gel (PLEAG; 1:1 was studied. To evaluate the role of coating on ripening behavior and quality of papaya the uncoated and coated fruits were stored and ripened at room temperature (25 °C-29 °C and 82-84% relative humidity. Physico-chemical properties were analyzed at 4 day intervals during the storage period. The incidence of disease attack was also visually observed. The overall results showed the superiority of AG and PLEAG coating in lengthening the shelf-life of papaya fruit compared to controls which showed significant decay from 6th day onward and complete decay within 12 days of storage. The AG and PLEAG coated fruits maintained their shelf life for 12 days and decayed at 16th day. The coated fruits also maintained their color, flavor and firmness up to 12 days of storage. An increase in ascorbic acid content (120.2 mg/100 g was also found in coated fruits in contrast to the control (59 mg/100 g. Only 27% disease incidence was observed in AG and 13% in PLEAG coated fruits as compared to control (100% during the storage period. The results of this study show that both AG and PLEAG coatings have excellent potential to be used on fresh produce to maintain quality and extend shelf-life.

  2. BIOLOGICAL EFFICACY AND SELECTIVITY OF ACARICIDES IN PAPAYA (Carica papaya L.

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    Marycruz Abato-Zárate

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Mites are considered the second pest in importance in papaya (Carica papaya L. in Veracruz, Mexico, caused by a general increment in pesticide use that might unbalance predatory populations. Efficacy of acaricides was evaluated against phytophagous mites, and their selectivity to predators in papaya cv. Maradol. A completely randomized block design with nine treatments and four replications was used. Significant differences (P = 0.005 were found in the number of phytophagous mites alive per leaf after the third weekly application. The lowest populations of pest mites per leaf (2.6, 3.9, 3.5 and 4.9 were observed in the following treatments: dicofol rotated with bifenthrin, paraffinic oil alone, sulphur powder alone and a weekly regime of fatty acid salts followed by paraffinic oil and azadirachtin 1.2%. Azadirachtin 1.2% alone had a lower efficacy than the previous group (5.8 mites per leaf, and the following pesticides were not significantly different (P > 0.05 than the control (17.4 mites per leaf: fatty acids sprayed alone (6.7, azadirachtin 4.5% alone (9.5 and drenched imidacloprid (7.6. No differences were found among treatments in the number of predatory mites, possibly due to the low mite densities found.

  3. Molecular characterization and pathogenicity of Erwinia spp. associated with pineapple [Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.] and papaya (Carica papaya L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Ramachandran Kogeethavani; Manaf Uyub Abdul; Zakaria Latiffah

    2015-01-01

    The Erwinia species are well-known pathogens of economic importance in Malaysia causing serious damage to high-value fruit crops that include pineapple [Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.] and papaya (Carica papaya L.).The 16S rRNA sequence using eubacteria fD1 and rP2 primers, identified two bacteria species; Dickeya zeae from pineapple heart rot, and Erwinia mallotivora from papaya dieback. Phylogenetic analysis based on the neighbor-joining method indicated that all the bacterial isolates clustered...

  4. Anatomy of somatic embryogenesis in Carica papaya L.

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    Juliana A. Fernando

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Mature zygotic embryos of Carica papaya L. ‘Sunrise Solo’ were used as explants for embryogenesis induction. The explants were inoculated on Murashige and Skoog culture medium supplemented with 2 mg.L-1 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and incubated in darkness at 25+2°C. Histological analysis of callogenesis and somatic embryogenesis indicated occurrence of direct and indirect somatic embryogenesis development. Direct somatic embryo formation was observed from hypocotyledonary epidermic cells only from explant 18 days after inoculation. Somatic embryos formed indirectly were originated from embryogenic superficial cells of pre-embryonic complexes located on peripherical and on internal cell layers of callus 49 days after inoculation. Diverse morphological differences including disformed embryos were observed among the somatic embryos.Embriões zigóticos maduros de Carica papaya L. ‘Sunrise Solo’ foram utilizados como explantes para indução da embriogênese. Estes explantes foram inoculados em meio de cultura de Murashige & Skoog suplementado com 2,0 mg.L-1 de 2,4 ácido diclorofenoxiacético (2,4-D e mantidos no escuro em câmara de crescimento à temperatura de 21°C por período de tempo variável. Através da análise histológica foi possível verificar que os primeiros embriões somáticos formaram-se diretamente a partir de células únicas da epiderme hipocotiledonar do explante após o 18º dia de cultura. Porém, os demais embriões somáticos originaram-se indiretamente a partir de células superficiais de complexos pré-embriônicos presentes nas camadas periféricas e internas do calo após o 49º dia de cultura. Foram detectadas algumas diferenças morfológicas entre os embriões somáticos obtidos.

  5. NUEVO ACTIVADOR FISIOLOGICO POTENCIALIZADOR DE LA FRUCTIFICACIÓN EN PAPAYA ( Carica papaya L.

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    RICARDO HERNÁNDEZ PÉREZ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Nuevos productos son aplicados actualmente con éxito en agricultura sustentable con el fin de activar rutas metabólicas específicas en plantas, los que son conocidos comercialmente como activadores fisiológicos, desestresantes o potencializadores del rendimiento. Sin embargo, pocas investigaciones han logrado introducir en la práctica tales alternativas. En este estudio se ofrece información sobre los resultados de un nuevo formulado denominado A-CETAS/07, obtenido a partir de residuos de la industria azucarera y complementado con moléculas antioxidantes. Este se comparó con un activador comercial (testigo y se aplicó foliarmente para estimular el potencial de fructificación en papaya ( L Carica papaya., cv. Maradol roja. Los resultados evidenciaron una revigorización de las plantas, con aumento progresivo del rendimiento a medida que se incrementó la dosis de A-CETAS/07, por encima de la media histórica regional entre 64 - 74 t ha-1 a los 9 meses después del trasplante, lo cual representa una alternativa económica y con impacto favorable en el medio ambiente.

  6. The effect of aqueous extract of Carica papaya leaves on liver ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of crude leaf extract of Carica papaya (Linn) on aspartate aminostransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), total white blood cells (WBC), lymphocytes, neutrophils, thrombocytes and on body weight of normal albino rats were investigated. Albino rats weighing between 74 g and 90.5 g, of both sexes ...

  7. Antiplasmodial Properties and Bioassay-Guided Fractionation of Ethyl Acetate Extracts from Carica papaya Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melariri, Paula; Campbell, William; Etusim, Paschal; Smith, Peter

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the antiplasmodial properties of crude extracts from Carica papaya leaves to trace the activity through bioassay-guided fractionation. The greatest antiplasmodial activity was observed in the ethyl acetate crude extract. C. papaya showed a high selectivity for P. falciparum against CHO cells with a selectivity index of 249.25 and 185.37 in the chloroquine-sensitive D10 and chloroquine-resistant DD2 strains, respectively. Carica papaya ethyl acetate extract was subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation to ascertain the most active fraction, which was purified and identified using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and GC-MS (Gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry) methods. Linoleic and linolenic acids identified from the ethyl acetate fraction showed IC50 of 6.88 μg/ml and 3.58 μg/ml, respectively. The study demonstrated greater antiplasmodial activity of the crude ethyl acetate extract of Carica papaya leaves with an IC50 of 2.96 ± 0.14 μg/ml when compared to the activity of the fractions and isolated compounds. PMID:22174990

  8. Hypoglycemic effect of Carica papaya leaves in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

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    Juárez-Rojop Isela Esther

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditional plant treatment for diabetes has shown a surging interest in the last few decades. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the hypoglycemic effect of the aqueous extract of C. papaya leaves in diabetic rats. Several studies have reported that some parts of the C. papaya plant exert hypoglycemic effects in both animals and humans. Methods Diabetes was induced in rats by intraperitoneal administration of 60 mg/kg of streptozotocin (STZ. The aqueous extract of C. papaya was administered in three different doses (0.75, 1.5 and 3 g/100 mL as drinking water to both diabetic and non-diabetic animals during 4 weeks. Results The aqueous extract of Carica papaya (0.75 g and 1.5 g/100 mL significantly decreased blood glucose levels (pC. papaya could help islet regeneration manifested as preservation of cell size. In the liver of diabetic treated rats, C. papaya prevented hepatocyte disruption, as well as accumulation of glycogen and lipids. Finally, an antioxidant effect of C. papaya extract was also detected in diabetic rats. Conclusions This study showed that the aqueous extract of C. papaya exerted a hypoglycemic and antioxidant effect; it also improved the lipid profile in diabetic rats. In addition, the leaf extract positively affected integrity and function of both liver and pancreas.

  9. DESHIDRATACIÓN OSMÓTICA DE FRUTOS DE PAPAYA HAWAIANA (Carica papaya L. EN CUATRO AGENTES EDULCORANTES OSMOTIC DEHYDRATION OF HAWAIIAN PAPAYA FRUITS (Carica papaya L. USING FOUR SWEETENER AGENTS

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    Margarita Maria Ríos Pérez

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Trozos de papaya hawaiiana (Carica papaya L. fueron sometidos a un proceso de osmo-deshidratación usando cuatro agentes edulcorantes: miel de abejas, miel de caña, crema de miel de abejas y sacarosa en medio acuoso a 79 grados Brix, temperatura de 20 ºC y 23 horas de inmersión. Los resultados estadísticos mostraron que el agente de mayor capacidad deshidratante fue la miel de abejas y el menor la sacarosa. Además, los análisis cinéticos indicaron que la máxima transferencia de masa ocurre en las primeras cuatro horas del proceso y la máxima pérdida de masa del producto que puede ser alcanzada fue de 32 % con un contenido de humedad final en los frutos de papaya osmodeshidratada de 41,3 % b.h.Pieces of Hawaiian papaya (Carica papaya L. were subjected to osmotic dehydration using four sweetener agents: honey, molasses, honey cream and sucrose in aqueous solution to 79 degrees Brix, 20 ºC temperature and 23 hours of immersion. The statistical results showed that honey was the sweetener agent with highest osmotic capacity while sucrose had the lowest. The kinetic analysis also showed that the maximum mass transfer occurs during the first four hours of the process and the maximum mass loss of the product that can be attained was 32 % with a final moisture content of 41,3 % w.b.

  10. Influence of gamma radiation on carbohydrates metabolism of ripening papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Solo); Metabolismo de carboidratos durante o amadurecimento do mamao (Carica papaya L. Cv. Solo): influencia da radiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, M.L.P.A. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FCF/USP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Farmaceuticas; Lajolo, F.M.; Cordenunsi, B.R. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FCF/USP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Farmaceuticas. Dept. de Alimentos e Nutricao Experimental

    1999-05-15

    Food irradiation is one of the most promising treatments that can be utilized for fruits disinfestation and extension of shelf life. The authors studied the influence of 0,5 kGy of Gamma irradiation on the soluble carbohydrates composition of papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Solo) fruit, and on sucrose metabolizing enzymes: sucrose synthase (SS), sucrose-phosphate synthase, acid and neutral invertases activities, during ripening. The results demonstrated that ethylene production, total soluble sugars, sucrose content, and sucrose-phosphate synthase and invertases activities were affected by irradiation, but not respiration, glucose and fructose content, and SS activity. (author)

  11. Chemical Characterization and in Vitro Cytotoxicity on Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells of Carica Papaya Leaf Extracts

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    Thao T. Nguyen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In traditional medicine, Carica papaya leaf has been used for a wide range of therapeutic applications including skin diseases and cancer. In this study, we investigated the in vitro cytotoxicity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Carica papaya leaves on the human oral squamous cell carcinoma SCC25 cell line in parallel with non-cancerous human keratinocyte HaCaT cells. Two out of four extracts showed a significantly selective effect towards the cancer cells and were found to contain high levels of phenolic and flavonoid compounds. The chromatographic and mass spectrometric profiles of the extracts obtained with Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometry were used to tentatively identify the bioactive compounds using comparative analysis. The principal compounds identified were flavonoids or flavonoid glycosides, particularly compounds from the kaempferol and quercetin families, of which several have previously been reported to possess anticancer activities. These results confirm that papaya leaf is a potential source of anticancer compounds and warrant further scientific investigation to validate the traditional use of papaya leaf to treat cancer.

  12. Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration in Carica papaya L. tissue culture derived from root explants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M H; Wang, P J; Maeda, E

    1987-10-01

    The regeneration potential of shoot tip, stem, leaf, cotyledon and root explants of two papaya cultivars (Carica papaya cv. 'Solo' and cv. 'Sunrise') were studed. Callus induction of these two cultivars of papaya showed that the shoot tips and stems are most suitable for forming callus, while leaves, cotyledons and roots are comparatively difficult to induce callus. Callus induction also varied with the varities. Somatic embryogenesis was obtained from 3-month-old root cultures. A medium containing half strength of MS inorganic salts, 160 mg/l adenine sulfate, 1.0 mg/1 NAA, 0.5 mg/1 kinetin and 1.0 mg/1 GA3 was optimal for embryogenesis. The callus maintained high regenerative capacity after two years of culture on this medium. Plants derived from somatic embryos were obtained under green-house conditions.

  13. Protective role of Carica papaya (Linn.) in electron beam radiation induced hematological and cytogenetic damages in Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yogish Somayaji, T.; Suchetha Kumari, N.

    2014-01-01

    Carica papaya (Linn.) is known to possess various biomedical applications. It has remarkable antioxidant properties. The main objective of the study was to evaluate the leaf extracts of Carica papaya (Linn.) on hematologic and cytogenetic changes occurring due to irradiation of mice to sub-lethal doses of Electron Beam Radiation (EBR). Analysis of hematological changes occurring due to irradiation of mice to sub-lethal doses of EBR, and the effects of Carica papaya (Linn.) extract on the same. The Assessment of hematopoietic stress by spleen colony forming unit and spleen body weight index. The analysis of cell proliferation and immunomodulation with response to the effects of Carica papaya (Linn.) extract by estimation of IL-6. The estimation of serum total antioxidants, lipid peroxidation and analyzing the activities of enzymes like SOD, ALP, and AST. Male Swiss albino mice were fed orally with papaya aqueous leaf extract for 15 days. They were irradiated with a whole body dose of 6 Gy Electron Beam radiation. The mice were dissected for liver, kidney, bone marrow, spleen and brain. The hematological studies were done using blood cell count in an automated cell counter. The biochemical estimations like urea, creatinine, SGOT, SGPT, Total Protein, Albumin, Bilirubin were done using the serum and homogenates. The total antioxidant capacity, the antioxidant enzymes were estimated. The Interleukin-6 levels were estimated in serum to assess immune modulation. The results show a decrease in the hematological parameters in radiated animals. The papaya treated groups have shown modulation in the hematological parameters. The extract has also reduced the suppression of the bone marrow induced by radiation. The radiation induced liver damage is also reduced in papaya treated groups. The aqueous extract of Carica papaya (Linn.) has shown protective effects in electron beam radiation induced tissue damages in Swiss Albino mice (author)

  14. Investigation of The Antibacterial Effects of Papaya (Carica

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    market and the seeds were collected, thoroughly cleaned with distilled water, sun ... 18.38 mg/ml of media, indicating that Streptococcus pneumoniae, clinical .... Plant materials: Papaya solution of the broth culture was then equilibrated ... held at a temperature range of 45-50° C .... inactivated a wide range of Gram negative.

  15. The efficacy of Carica papaya leaf extract on some bacterial and a fungal strain by well diffusion method

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    C. Baskaran

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the antimicrobial activity and phytochemical screening Ethanol, methanol, Ethyl acetate, acetone, chloroform, Petroleum ether, hexane, hot water, and extracts of Carica papaya. Methods: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the qualitative analysis of phytochemicals and antimicrobial activity of various solvent extracts of Carica papaya. The antimicrobial activities of different solvent extracts of Carica papaya were tested against the Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains and fungus by observing the zone of inhibition. The Gram-positive bacteria used in the test were Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Micrococcus luteus, and the Gram-negative bacteria were Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella pneumoniae, fungus like Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Candida kefyr. Results: It was observed that ethanol, methanol, ethyl acetate, aceton, chloroform, petroleum ether, hexane and aquas extracts showed activity against bacteria and fungus. The chloroform extract of Carica papaya showed more activity against Micrococcus luteus, zone of diameter 15.17暲0.29mm and acetone extract of Carica papaya showed more activity against Candida albicans, zone of diameter 11.23暲0.25mm compared to other solvent extracts. Conclusions: In this study chloroform extract in bacteria and acetone extract in fungus showed a varying degree of inhibition to the growth of tested organism, than Ethanol, methanol, Ethyl acetate, Petroleum ether, hexane and hot water extracts. The results confirmed the presence of antibacterial and antifungal activity of Carica papaya extract against various human pathogenic bacteria. Presences of phytochemical and antimicrobial activity are confirmed.

  16. Identification and expression of the WRKY transcription factors of Carica papaya in response to abiotic and biotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Lin-Jie; Jiang, Ling

    2014-03-01

    The WRKY transcription factor (TF) plays a very important role in the response of plants to various abiotic and biotic stresses. A local papaya database was built according to the GenBank expressed sequence tag database using the BioEdit software. Fifty-two coding sequences of Carica papaya WRKY TFs were predicted using the tBLASTn tool. The phylogenetic tree of the WRKY proteins was classified. The expression profiles of 13 selected C. papaya WRKY TF genes under stress induction were constructed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The expression levels of these WRKY genes in response to 3 abiotic and 2 biotic stresses were evaluated. TF807.3 and TF72.14 are upregulated by low temperature; TF807.3, TF43.76, TF12.199 and TF12.62 are involved in the response to drought stress; TF9.35, TF18.51, TF72.14 and TF12.199 is involved in response to wound; TF12.199, TF807.3, TF21.156 and TF18.51 was induced by PRSV pathogen; TF72.14 and TF43.76 are upregulated by SA. The regulated expression levels of above eight genes normalized against housekeeping gene actin were significant at probability of 0.01 levels. These WRKY TFs could be related to corresponding stress resistance and selected as the candidate genes, especially, the two genes TF807.3 and TF12.199, which were regulated notably by four stresses respectively. This study may provide useful information and candidate genes for the development of transgenic stress tolerant papaya varieties.

  17. Improving Tenderness of Spent Layer Hens Meat Using Papaya Leaves (Carica papaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. O. Abdalla, N. N. A. Ali, F. S. Siddig and S. A. M. Ali*

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were performed to study the use of papaya leaves as a meat tenderizer. The first experiment was to evaluate the effect of papaya dry leaves added to hen’s diet before slaughter. Spent hens (n=48 were used, half of them were fed a concentrate ration containing10% dried papaya leaves powder (DPLP while others received layer ration (Control, for 10 days. The second experiment involved a comparison between papaya leaves juice (PLJ, fresh papaya leaves (FPL and vinegar solution (VS as marinades applied to meat for one or two hours before cooking. Spent layer hens (n=42 were used for tenderness evaluation method. After slaughtering and preparing the chickens two methods of cooking were used (oven and moist cooking. The cooked parts (breast, thigh and drumstick were subjected to a panel test evaluation according to a designed questionnaire. Addition of dried papaya leaves powder to spent layer hens ration significantly (P≤0.05 increased the level of meat tenderness. Moist cooking had significantly (P≤0.05 improved meat tenderization compared to oven cooking. Meat treated with fresh papaya leaves had significantly (P≤0.05 improved tenderness. It was concluded that wrapping the tough meat of spent layer hens with fresh papaya leaves for one hour and moist cooking improve tenderness of meat.

  18. Validation and use of DNA markers for sex determination in papaya (Carica papaya)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ejaz, M.; Iqbal, M.; Ahmed, I.

    2015-01-01

    Profitable papaya production requires female and hermaphrodite plants in higher number than male plants. This is only possible if sex of plants is determined at an early growth stage. The present study was conducted to validate sex-linked DNA markers using plants from two Pakistani papaya varieties and subsequently utilize them for determination of sex in juvenile papaya plants. One hundred and five plants (including 49 male and 56 female) of two Pakistani Papaya varieties at flowering stage were screened with six DNA markers viz., W-11, T12, SDP, Napf-76Napf-76, PKBT4 and PKBT5. All male plants exhibited amplification of sex-linked alleles with markers T12 and W11, whereas, 96% and 95% of female plants showed the absence of sex-linked allele with these markers, respectively. Markers SDP, PKBT5 and Napf-76 showed the presence of sex-linked alleles in 98%, 96% and 93% of male plants, respectively, whereas the same markers showed the absence of sex-linked alleles in 100%, 96% and 94% of female plants. One marker, PKBT4 could not produce expected PCR amplification reported previously. The five DNA markers were further used to screen 171 papaya seedlings. These markers clearly differentiated male and female sex types in the studied papaya plants. Results of our study are likely to facilitate Pakistani papaya breeders and growers to incorporate DNA based screening at juvenile stage to determine sex at early stage and to ensure profitable papaya production. (author)

  19. Analisis Permeasi Air Pada Dehidrasi Osmosis Pepaya (Carica Papaya)

    OpenAIRE

    Wirawan, Sang Kompiang; Anasta, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    Fruit preservation using low temperature drying is commonly initiated by osmotic dehydration process. The osmotic time is strongly influenced by the water permeation from the fruit to the osmotic solution. This research aimed to study the osmotic dehydration process of papaya by finding out the permeation rate of water to the osmotic solution across a semi permeable membrane. The effect of temperature and osmotic solution concentration on the permeation rate were also observed. The osmotic te...

  20. Isolation And Purification Of Flavonoids From The Leaves Of Locally Produced Carica Papaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahaya Mobmi Musa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The leaves of Carica papaya 150g was defatted with N-Hexane and extracted with Methanol. The N-Hexane exract showed the presence of Flavonoid Saponin Tannin Glycoside Anthraquinone Resin and Steroid while Methanolic extract showed the presence of Flavonoid Saponin and Resins. 6g of the Methanolic extract was chromatographed using Column chromatography over Silica gel of column 200g60-200 mesh and eluted with the solvent mixture of CH2Cl2CH3OH H2O in the ratio of 70301. The yield of the isolated Flavonoid was 0.23.

  1. Molecular characterization and pathogenicity of Erwinia spp. associated with pineapple [Ananas comosus (L. Merr.] and papaya (Carica papaya L.

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    Ramachandran Kogeethavani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Erwinia species are well-known pathogens of economic importance in Malaysia causing serious damage to high-value fruit crops that include pineapple [Ananas comosus (L. Merr.] and papaya (Carica papaya L..The 16S rRNA sequence using eubacteria fD1 and rP2 primers, identified two bacteria species; Dickeya zeae from pineapple heart rot, and Erwinia mallotivora from papaya dieback. Phylogenetic analysis based on the neighbor-joining method indicated that all the bacterial isolates clustered in their own taxa and formed monophyletic clades. From the pathogenicity test, all isolates of D. zeae and E. mallotivora showed pathogenic reactions on their respective host plants. Genetic variability of these isolates was assessed using repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR fingerprinting. The results indicated interspecies, and intraspecies variation in both species’ isolates. There were more polymorphic bands shown by rep-PCR fingerprints than enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC and BOX- PCRs, however both species’ isolates produced distinguishable banding patterns. Unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA cluster analysis indicated that all Dickeya and Erwinia isolates from the same species were grouped in the same main cluster. Similarity among the isolates ranged from 77 to 99%. Sequencing of 16S rRNA using eubacteria fD1 and rP2 primers, and rep-PCR fingerprinting revealed diversity among Dickeya and Erwinia isolates. But this method appears to be reliable for discriminating isolates from pineapple heart rot and papaya dieback.

  2. Effect of gamma irradiation in papaya (Carica papaya L.) harvested in three degrees of maturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimentel, Rodrigo Meirelles de Azevedo

    2001-01-01

    The papaya is a fragile tropical fruit with thin skin, susceptible to post harvest diseases and mechanical injuries. Furthermore, it is sensible to low temperatures and at normal conditions it ripens rapidly, increasing the difficulties with storage. The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of gamma irradiation in papayas harvested in three degrees of maturation, in order to increase shelf life. To accomplish that, papayas were harvested in perfect quality conditions, washed, submitted to carnauba wax and selected by skin coloration into three distinct degrees of maturation: Mat 0, or beginning of yellow coloration; Mat 1, yellow stripes more developed, and Mat 2, one third yellow. Half of them were submitted to irradiation with 0, 75 kGy, while the others became control treatment. They were analyzed in four different periods of conservation, which were 1 day after irradiation (DAI) refrigerated (11 +- 1 deg C), 14 DAI refrigerated, 14 DAI refrigerated + 3 at room temperature (RT = 24 deg +- 2 deg C) and 14 DAI refrigerated + 6 at RT. The effect of irradiation was not influenced by the maturation degree at harvest. Irradiation promoted firmness maintenance of papaya and, therefore, delayed ripening; modified the green color of papaya to a lighter tone, which determined more homogeneity in the skin yellow color development (greater values of L* and b*), and turned the papaya flesh color lighter (rower values of b*). There was no effect of irradiation in papaya weight loss, in the occurrence of diseases, in the development of surface yellow color, in the parameter a* of papaya skin color, in the parameters L*, a* and chroma of flesh color, p H and total soluble solids content. Visual and organoleptic sensorial tests were accomplished with papayas from a new delivery in the conservation period of 14 DAI refrigerated + 3 at RT. In the visual test was evaluated the appearance of papaya in the following treatments: Mat O control, Mat O irradiated, Mat 1

  3. Lipase inhibitory activity of Carica papaya, Chrysophyllum cainito, Corcorus olitorius, Cympogon citrates and Syzygium cumini extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Briones, A.T.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The lipase inhibitory action of Carica papaya, Chrysophyllum cainito, Corcorus olitorius, Cymbopogon citrates and Syzygium cumini were evaluated to explore for the presence of anti-obesity compounds and their potential weight-lowering activity. Enzyme inhibition results of the alcoholic extracts of the five plants showed that C. cainito has the highest percent inhibition at 74.91% while S. cumini, C. citratus, C. olitorius and C. papaya obtained less than 50% average inhibition. C. cainito was partitioned using hexane and ethyl acetate to further concentrate the bioactive compounds. The lipase inhibition assay of hexane and ethyl acetate extracts showed 92.11% inhibition and 21.9% inhibition, respectively. The greater activity in the former may imply that majority of potential anti-lipase constituents are found in the hexane portion.

  4. Phytochemical screening and in-vitro evaluation of pharmacological activities of peels of Musa sapientum and Carica papaya fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddique, Sarmad; Nawaz, Shamsa; Muhammad, Faqir; Akhtar, Bushra; Aslam, Bilal

    2018-06-01

    Aqueous, absolute and 80% ethanolic extract of fruit peels of Musa sapientum and Carica papaya were investigated for their antibacterial activity, measured by disc diffusion method and antioxidant activity, measured by four different methods. Papaya and banana peels were found to contain terpenoids, tannins, alkaloids, saponins steroid, phenols, fixed oils and fats. 80% ethanolic extract of banana peel was found to contain highest total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and antioxidant activity but in papaya peel, highest TPC and reducing activity was shown by water extract while, TFC and radical scavenging activity was given by 80% ethanolic extract. In banana, water extract showed highest antibacterial activity against tested bacteria while in case of papaya, absolute ethanolic extract showed highest antibacterial activity. The present study revealed that peels of banana and papaya fruits are potentially good source of antioxidant and antibacterial agents.

  5. Isolation of natural inhibitors of papain obtained from Carica papaya latex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Monti

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies were carried out to natural papain inhibitor from papaya latex. Fresh latex from green fruits of Carica papaya was collected and immediately transported in ice bath to the lab, from which three fractions with inhibitor effect of esterase papain activity were isolated by latex dialysis, Sephadex G-25 gel filtration and ionic exchange chromatography in SP-Sephadex C-25. The isolated fractions, identified as inhibitors I and II, showed a negative reaction with ninhydrin; however, the fraction identified as P-III showed positive reaction with ninhydrin. Kinetics data showed non-competitive inhibition (inhibitor I and uncompetitive (inhibitors II and P-III.Este trabalho apresenta novos dados sobre inibidores naturais de papaína. O látex fresco de frutos verdes de Carica papaya foi coletado pela manhã em plantações da região de Araraquara, SP, Brasil e imediatamente transportado ao laboratório em banho de gelo. Três frações com efeito inibitório da atividade esterásica da papaína foram isoladas a partir do látex fresco, através de diálise, filtração em Sephadex G-25 e cromatografia em SP-Sephadex C-25. As frações isoladas identificadas como inibidores I e II, mostraram reação negativa à ninidrina; entretanto, a fração identificada como P-III mostrou reação positiva. Dados cinéticos revelaram inibição não-competitiva (inibidor I e incompetitiva (inibidores II e P-III.

  6. Empleo del método de secado convectivo combinado para la deshidratación de papaya (Carica papaya L.), variedad Maradol roja

    OpenAIRE

    Sahylin Muñiz Becerá; Antihus Hernández Gómez; Annia García Pereira; Lilia Méndez Lagunas

    2013-01-01

    La presente investigación tiene como objetivo evaluar el método de secado convectivo de papaya (Carica papaya L.) variedad Maradol roja, combinado con la aplicación de pretratamientos de osmosis (DOSC) y escaldado simple (ESSC), mediante el efecto de los factores tecnológi- cos del secador: temperatura (40 y 60oC) y velocidad del flujo de aire (2,5 y 1,5 m/s) sobre el comportamiento de las propiedades de calidad de la fruta deshidratada y la cinética del proceso. El pretratamiento de escaldad...

  7. Purification of papain from fresh latex of Carica papaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Monti

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we wish to report a method of crystallizing papain from fresh papaya latex which gave higher yields than previously reported. This method does not involve the use of sulphydryl reagents. The papain thus obtained is practically pure and shows a single band when submitted to electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gel, and is identical to the papain obtained by other methods. In routine enzymatic assays, specific activity was measured using Z-gly-pNP and BAEE as substrates. Papain crystallized by this method, without the use of high concentrations of salts or thiol-containing substances such as cysteine and dithiothreitol, is obtained in the form of a complex with natural inhibitors existent in latex which can be removed by dialysis.No presente trabalho apresenta-se um método de cristalização da papaína oriunda do látex fresco de mamão, o qual apresenta uma alta produtividade em relação aos métodos previamente descritos. A metodologia aqui descrita não envolve o uso de reagentes sulfidrílicos, a papaína foi obtida de forma praticamente pura, apresentando uma simples banda quando submetida a eletroforese, e com propriedades idênticas àquelas obtidas por outros métodos. A atividade específica foi determinada utilizando Z-gly-pNP e BAEE como substrato. A papaína obtida por essa metodologia, sem uso de substâncias tais como cisteína e ditiotreitol, apresenta-se na forma de um complexo com inibidores naturais, os quais podem ser removidos por diálise.

  8. Evaluation of the composition of Carica papaya L. seed oil extracted with supercritical CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro T.W. Barroso

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Among the most important tropical fruit grown in the world today and in Brazil, papaya occupies a prominent place. Native to tropical America, papaya has spread to several regions of the world, and Brazil accounts for 12.74% of the world production, followed by Mexico, Nigeria and India. The culture reached a harvested area of 441,042 ha and production of 12,420,585 t worldwide. The largest interest in this fruit relies on its main constituent compounds, like vitamins A, B and C, alkaloids (carpaine and pseudocarpaine, proteolytic enzymes (papain and quimiopapain and benzyl isothiocyanate, more known as BITC, which has anthelmintic activity. Because of that, the present work has as objective the evaluation of the efficiency and composition of the oil extracted from Carica papaya L. seeds with supercritical carbon dioxide. The experiments were performed in a unit containing mainly a high-pressure pump and a stainless steel extractor with 42 mL of volume. The sampling was performed at each 20 min until the saturation of the process. About 6.5 g of sample were fed for each experiment done at 40, 60 and 80 °C under the pressures of 100, 150 and 200 bar. Samples of the Carica papaya L. fruit were acquired in a popular market and free for personal use intended for the study. After collection, the seeds were crushed with the help of a pestle, and dried at 60 °C for 60 min. For each operational condition, the extraction curves were constructed relating cumulative mass of oil extracted in function of the operational time. The better efficiencies were found at 40 °C and 200 bar (1.33% followed by 80 °C and 200 bar (2.56%. Gas chromatography and NMR analysis could identify an insecticide component (BITC that enables new applications of this residue in pharmaceutical and chemical industries.

  9. Evaluation of the composition of Carica papaya L. seed oil extracted with supercritical CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, Pedro T W; de Carvalho, Pedro P; Rocha, Thiago B; Pessoa, Fernando L P; Azevedo, Debora A; Mendes, Marisa F

    2016-09-01

    Among the most important tropical fruit grown in the world today and in Brazil, papaya occupies a prominent place. Native to tropical America, papaya has spread to several regions of the world, and Brazil accounts for 12.74% of the world production, followed by Mexico, Nigeria and India. The culture reached a harvested area of 441,042 ha and production of 12,420,585 t worldwide. The largest interest in this fruit relies on its main constituent compounds, like vitamins A, B and C, alkaloids (carpaine and pseudocarpaine), proteolytic enzymes (papain and quimiopapain) and benzyl isothiocyanate, more known as BITC, which has anthelmintic activity. Because of that, the present work has as objective the evaluation of the efficiency and composition of the oil extracted from Carica papaya L. seeds with supercritical carbon dioxide. The experiments were performed in a unit containing mainly a high-pressure pump and a stainless steel extractor with 42 mL of volume. The sampling was performed at each 20 min until the saturation of the process. About 6.5 g of sample were fed for each experiment done at 40, 60 and 80 °C under the pressures of 100, 150 and 200 bar. Samples of the Carica papaya L. fruit were acquired in a popular market and free for personal use intended for the study. After collection, the seeds were crushed with the help of a pestle, and dried at 60 °C for 60 min. For each operational condition, the extraction curves were constructed relating cumulative mass of oil extracted in function of the operational time. The better efficiencies were found at 40 °C and 200 bar (1.33%) followed by 80 °C and 200 bar (2.56%). Gas chromatography and NMR analysis could identify an insecticide component (BITC) that enables new applications of this residue in pharmaceutical and chemical industries.

  10. Origin and evolution of female plant from an identical male plant, in carica papaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tariq, R.M.

    2014-01-01

    A field study was carried during January 2011 to March, 2013, to confirm the origin and evolution of female plant from an identical male plant in, a dioecious plant, the Carica papaya L. The plants were grown from the seeds of a normal female plant fruit. The grown, plants were identified as XX, XY and XYh (in March - April, 2012) on the basis of male and female flower bearing. The identical male plants, which usually bear only male (unisexual) flowers having calyx, corrolla and androecium, were observed also to bear bisexual flower, having calyx, corrolla, and gynoecium (ovary fused with androecium ). The fruits were set having the bisexual flowers in the identical male (hermaphrodite) plant. These fruits were kept under observation from setting to ripening stage. The ripened fruits were harvested from the identical male plants and 90-95% fruits from these plants were found with the seeds. Plants grown from these male fruit seeds produced all three type of plants i.e., male, female and hermaphrodite. This study indicated that an identical male (XYh) plant produced the female (XX) plant naturally, because of the XXY= XYh condition, which can contribute basic genetic material to male and female plants i.e an identical male (XYh = XXY= 2N +1 = 18+1= 19) produced all three type of plants, the pure male, the hermaphrodite and the female plant, originated from a single source of an identical male, as shown here. XYh = XXY g XY + XX + XXY. The propagation of all three sexes of Carica papaya from a single source of an identical male plant seeds is the first report in the world. (author)

  11. Estimativa dos níveis ótimos e econômicos de irrigação no mamoeiro (Carica papaya L. cultivar Golden nas condições do norte do Espírito Santo Estimate of great and economic levels of irrigation in papaya tree (Carica papaya L. Golden cultivar in north of Espírito Santo conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Bastos Lyra

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, no presente trabalho, identificar os níveis ótimos de irrigação e adubação nitrogenada que propiciem a máxima produtividade física e econômica da cultivar de mamoeiro Golden. Na identificação dos níveis ótimos, utilizou-se a função de produção. O estudo experimental foi conduzido na fazenda Caliman Agrícola S.A., no município de Linhares-ES. Utilizou-se o delineamento estatístico experimental em blocos casualizados, com esquema fatorial 5x4, em parcelas subdivididas, sendo cinco lâminas de irrigação (0,5; 0,7; 0,9; 1,1 e 1,3 da evapotranspiração de referência, com turno de rega diário, e quatro doses de sulfato de amônio (90; 188; 288 e 377 kg ha-1mês-1. A estimativa da produtividade (t ha-1, em função da lâmina total de água aplicada, obteve ajuste estatístico significativo (p This paper aimed in identifying great levels of irrigation and nitrogen fertilization that provide the greatest physical and economical productivity of papaya tree Golden cultivar. In the identification of the great levels it was used production function. The experimental study was conducted at Caliman S.A. farm, in the city of Linhares, State of Espírito Santo, Brazil. The experimental design was randomized blocks in a 5x4 factorial scheme in split-plot. Five irrigation water depths (0.5; 0.7; 0.9; 1.1 e 1.3 of the evapotranspiration of reference were used with daily irrigation frequency and four rates of ammonium sulphate (90, 188, 288 e 377 kg ha-1 month-1. The productivity estimation (t ha-1 as a function of the applied total water depth obtained a significant statistical adjustment (p < 0.05 from the model of second order. The great economical productivity was 94.83 t ha-1, with the maximum depth of 1546.50 mm. Operational net incomes for domestic and international markets were R$ 313.19 e R$ 929.57 ha-1 month-1, respectively.

  12. Evaluación de híbridos de papaya (carica papaya l. en pococí, limón, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Mora

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluación de híbridos de papaya (Carica papaya L. en Pococí, Limón, Costa Rica. Se estableció un experimento con nueve híbridos de papaya con el objetivo de determinar sus potenciales agronómicos y comerciales en una región de alta pluviosidad (cantón de Pococí, provincia de Limón. Las características evaluadas fueron tamaño de fruta, productividad total, brix de la pulpa y susceptibilidad a la antracnosis de la fruta causado por Colletotrichum gloesporioides. Se determinó que solo uno de los materiales mostró características similares al testigo comercial como fruta para consumo en fresco. Otro de los híbridos tuvo potencial para uso con fines agroindustriales.

  13. INFLUENCE OF THICKNESS ON THE DRYING OF PAPAYA PUREE (Carica papaya L. THROUGH REFRACTANCE WINDOWTM TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARÍA U. OCORÓ-ZAMORA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la influencia del espesor de las muestras (2, 3 y 4 mm sobre las cinéticas de secado, actividad de agua (aw y color (∆E de rodajas de puré de papaya procesadas por tecnología de ventana de refractanciaTM (RWTM. Adicionalmente se evaluó la difusividad del agua (Deff teniendo en cuenta el encogimiento. Los datos de humedad se ajustaron mediante los modelos de Newton y Midilli. Los resultados mostraron que a menor espesor el secado fue más rápido, los valores de aw fueron menores y los ∆E superiores. Las muestras alcanzaron 0.0652, 0.1132 y 0.2624 g agua/ g sólido seco en 60 min para rodajas de 2, 3 y 4 mm, respectivamente. El Modelo de Midilli fue el más apropiado para predecir las curvas de secado de papaya por RWTM. Deff disminuyó a menor espesor y su orden de magnitud fue de 10-10 m2/s.

  14. DETERMINATION of OPTIMUM CONDITION of PAPAIN ENZYME FROM PAPAYA VAR JAVA (Carica papaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Puspita Kusumadjaja

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A study to investigate the optimum condition of papain enzyme has been carried out. The condition that are investigated are pH and temperature, based on measurement of enzyme activity which is defined as mmole tyrosin that are released in reaction between papain enzyme and casein as substrat per minute. In this research, the papain enzyme was isolated from pepaya burung varietas Java. The enzyme was partially purified by precipitation method using 30% - 50% saturated acetone. The result showed that the optimum conditions of papain enzyme are in pH 6 with activity 2,606 U/mL, and temperature at 50 oC with activity 2,469 U/mL. Keywords : Papaya var Java, papain, optimum condition, enzymatic activity

  15. Preparation and physicochemical evaluation of emulsified virgin coconut oil (VCO)-carica papaya extract concoction using Tween80

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Hazreen; Zubairi, Saiful Irwan; Fadhilah, Mohd Faizulhelmi; Omar, Dzolkhifli; Asib, Norhayu

    2016-11-01

    Carica papaya is a member of the Caricaceae. Its leaves have been used in folk medicine for centuries. Recent studies have shown its beneficial effects as an anti-inflammatory agent (Owoyele et al 2008) and anti-tumour15 as well as antioxidant and wound healing properties7. The study has shown that the effect of carica papaya leaves juice intake also can accelerate the rate of increase in platelet count among the patients infected with dengue fever and dengue haemorrhagic fever18. With all the goodness of carica papaya leaves, a formulation with addition of virgin coconut oil (VCO) is produced to give an enhanced supplement beverage to market nowadays. Virgin coconut oil is well known as anti-oxidant4. The combination of these two substances gives a balance combination in healthy supplement. In recent years the application of emulsion is rapidly increasing in many fields such as cosmetics and paints. Emulsions are dispersions of droplets of one liquid in another, immiscible, liquid in which the droplets are of colloidal or near-colloidal sizes. The combination of water and oil (VCO) with addition of non-ionic surfactant Tween80 was constructed using ternary phase diagram. By considering the Hydrophilic-Lipophilic Balance (HLB) value of each substance will help in producing a stable emulsion.

  16. Study about papaya (Carica papaya L.) conservation submitted to a combined treatment of irradiation and an edible film of quitosan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camargo, Rita Junqueira de

    2004-01-01

    In this research, on a first stage the effect of two treatments were studied: thermal, and a chitosan edible coating, combined with four different irradiation doses: 0,00 kGy, 0,50 kGy, 0,75 kGy and 1,00 kGy for effects in the ripening of papaya (Carica Papaya) cv. Golden. To evaluate the influence of these two factors in the physical-chemical characteristics of the fruit during ripening, analysis on color, both skin and pulp, firmness, soluble solids, pH and titrable acidity were performed. The incidence of fungi in fruit skin was also analyzed. The fruits were first maintained at 10 deg C chamber for fifteen days to simulate maritime transportation to the importer country and then transferred to a 25 deg C chamber aiming simulation of the commercialization conditions. From this first step, the conclusion was that chitosan in the concentration of 2% was not able to contain the fungi development and that it also influenced in a significant form the variable pH. A more expressive result was obtained for irradiation doses of 0,75 kGy and 1,00 kGy, as it was observed in the beginning the acceleration in ripening through the variables skin color and penetration energy of the fruit pulp. When storage temperature was changed to 25 deg C this situation inverted for these same variables and a two day delay was observed on the development of yellow color on the fruit skin and loss of pulp firmness. The variables titrable acidity, soluble solids and pulp color were not influenced by treatment or by irradiation. On a second stage, the fruits, in the same condition of the previous stage, were analyzed in relation of their mass and ripening stage using a ripening scale provided by the producer of the fruits for this experiment, as to evaluate the gradual development of fruit ripening according to the various treatments (chitosan 3%, thermal or control) and irradiation dose (0,00 kGy and 0,75 kGy). Confirming the results obtained in the first stage, the irradiation was able to

  17. Green synthesis and antibacterial activity screening of silver nanoparticles reduced by papaya (Carica papaya L.) leaves extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esplana, Camille S.; Cabling, Mercedes Q.

    2013-01-01

    The field of nano technology is the most active area of research in modern material sciences. Though there are many chemical, as well as physical methods, green synthesis is the most emerging method of synthesis. This study aimed to describe a cost effective and environment friendly technique for green synthesis of silver nanoparticles. The synthesis of silver nanoparticles was prepared by adding Carica papaya L. leaves extract to 1mM silver nitrate solution. The color change in reaction mixture (pale yellow to dark brown color was observed during the incubation period , due to excitation of surface plasmon vibrations in silver nanoparticles. Nanoparticles were characterized using UV-Visible absorption spectroscopy, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) pattern, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy-Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDX) analysis. Absorption spectra of silver nanoparticles formed in the reaction media has absorbance peak at 280 nm, broadening of peak indicates that the particles are poly dispersed. SEM analysis described the morphology and the size of the particles. XRD confirmed the crystalline structure of the nanoparticles. The presence of the elemental silver was observed in the graph obtained from EDX analysis, which also supports the XRD results. The biomass of plants produces their nano materials by a process called bio mineralization. The tests cultures included in the study were Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Salmonella. Results showed that the maximum inhibitory effect using 1mM silver nitrates against the microbes were obtained. The approach of plant-mediated synthesis appears to be cost efficient, eco-friendly and easy alternative to conventional methods of silver nanoparticles synthesis (author)

  18. Lactogenic Activity of an Enzymatic Hydrolysate from Octopus vulgaris and Carica papaya in SD Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Bingna; Chen, Hua; Sun, Han; Sun, Huili; Wan, Peng; Chen, Deke; Pan, Jianyu

    2015-11-01

    The traditional Chinese medicine theory believes that octopus papaya soup can stimulate milk production in lactating women. The objective of this study was to determine whether dietary supplementation with an enzymatic hydrolysate of Octopus vulgaris and Carica papaya (EHOC) could increase milk production and nutritional indexes in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Female SD rats (n = 24) were fed a control diet (n = 8), EHOC-supplemented diet, or a positive control diet (Shengruzhi) from day 10 of pregnancy to day 10 of lactation. Maternal serum, mammary gland (day 10 of lactation), milk, and pup weight (daily) were collected for analysis. Results showed that the EHOC diet obviously elevated daily milk yield and pup weight compared to the control group (P < .05). The EHOC diet was found to increase the concentration of prolactin (PRL), progesterone (P), estradiol (E2), and growth hormone (GH) significantly in the circulation and mammary gland. Mammary glands of EHOC-treated dams showed clear lobuloalveolar development and proliferation of myoepithelial cells, but no striking variations were observed among the groups. Furthermore, the nutrition content and immune globulin concentration in the milk of EHOC-supplemented dams were higher than those of the control group, especially the cholesterol, glucose, and IgG were higher by 44.98% (P < .001), 42.76% (P < .01), and 42.23% (P < .01), respectively. In conclusion, this article demonstrates that EHOC administration has beneficial effects on milk production in the dams and on performance of the dam and pup. These results indicate that EHOC could be explored as a potentially lactogenic nutriment for lactating women.

  19. Caracterización de accesiones de papaya (Carica papaya L.) a través de marcadores AFLP en Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Maruchi Alonso Esquivel; Martín Bautista Alor; Matilde Ortiz García; Adriana Quiroz Moreno; Wolfgang Rohde; Lorenzo Felipe Sánchez Teyer

    2010-01-01

    Los marcadores moleculares son herramientas valiosas en los estudios genéticos en plantas, y están siendo empleados exitosamente en programas de mejoramiento principalmente en la elección de progenitores y en la selección. El polimorfismo observado mediante la técnica molecular AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism) ha sido de utilidad para estudios de diversidad genética en frutales. En el presente trabajo se realizó la caracterización molecular de 12 accesiones de papaya (Carica papa...

  20. Caracterización de accesiones de papaya (Carica papaya L.) a través de marcadores AFLP en Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Esquivel, Maruchi Alonso; Bautista Alor, Martín; Ortiz García, Matilde; Quiroz Moreno, Adriana; Rohde, Wolfgang; Sánchez Teyer, Lorenzo Felipe

    2009-01-01

    Los marcadores moleculares son herramientas valiosas en los estudios genéticos en plantas, y están siendo empleados exitosamente en programas de mejoramiento principalmente en la elección de progenitores y en la selección. El polimorfismo observado mediante la técnica molecular AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism) ha sido de utilidad para estudios de diversidad genética en frutales. En el presente trabajo se realizó la caracterización molecular de 12 accesiones de papaya (Carica papa...

  1. Repeated Dose 28-Days Oral Toxicity Study of Carica papaya L. Leaf Extract in Sprague Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussin Muhammad

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Carica papaya L. leaves have been used in ethnomedicine for the treatment of fevers and cancers. Despite its benefits, very few studies on their potential toxicity have been described. The aim of the present study was to characterize the chemical composition of the leaf extract from ‘Sekaki’ C. papaya cultivar by UPLC-TripleTOF-ESI-MS and to investigate the sub-acute oral toxicity in Sprague Dawley rats at doses of 0.01, 0.14 and 2 g/kg by examining the general behavior, clinical signs, hematological parameters, serum biochemistry and histopathology changes. A total of twelve compounds consisting of one piperidine alkaloid, two organic acids, six malic acid derivatives, and four flavonol glycosides were characterized or tentatively identified in the C. papaya leaf extract. In the sub-acute study, the C. papaya extract did not cause mortality nor were treatment-related changes in body weight, food intake, water level, and hematological parameters observed between treatment and control groups. Some biochemical parameters such as the total protein, HDL-cholesterol, AST, ALT and ALP were elevated in a non-dose dependent manner. Histopathological examination of all organs including liver did not reveal morphological alteration. Other parameters showed non-significant differences between treatment and control groups. The present results suggest that C. papaya leaf extract at a dose up to fourteen times the levels employed in practical use in traditional medicine in Malaysia could be considered safe as a medicinal agent.

  2. Low-dose gamma irradiation following hot water immersion of papaya (Carica papaya linn.) fruits provides additional control of postharvest fungal infection to extend shelf life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashid, M.H.A.; Grout, B.W.W.; Continella, A.; Mahmud, T.M.M.

    2015-01-01

    Low-dose gamma irradiation (0.08 kGy over 10 min), a level significantly below that required to satisfy the majority of international quarantine regulations, has been employed to provide a significant reduction in visible fungal infection on papaya fruit surfaces. This is appropriate for local and national markets in producer countries where levels of commercial acceptability can be retained despite surface lesions due to fungal infection. Irradiation alone and in combination with hot-water immersion (50 °C for 10 min) has been applied to papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruits at both the mature green and 1/3 yellow stages of maturity. The incidence and severity of surface fungal infections, including anthracnose, were significantly reduced by the combined treatment compared to irradiation or hot water treatment alone, extending storage at 11 °C by 13 days and retaining commercial acceptability. The combined treatment had no significant, negative impact on ripening, with quality characteristics such as surface and internal colour change, firmness, soluble solids, acidity and vitamin C maintained at acceptable levels. - Highlights: • Storage of papaya extended to 28 days whilst retaining commercial quality. • Additive effect of low gamma irradiation (0.08 kGy over 10 min) and hot-water treatment. • Significant reduction in surface fungal lesions. • No significant impact on colour change or flesh quality during storage

  3. Effect of wine inhibitors on the proteolytic activity of papain from Carica papaya L. latex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benucci, Ilaria; Esti, Marco; Liburdi, Katia

    2015-01-01

    The influence of potential inhibitors naturally present in wine on the proteolytic activity of papain from Carica papaya latex was investigated to evaluate its applicability in white wine protein haze stabilization. Enzymatic activity was tested against a synthetic tripeptide chromogenic substrate in wine-like acidic medium that consisted of tartaric buffer (pH 3.2) supplemented with ethanol, free sulfur dioxide (SO2 ), grape skin and seed tannins within the average ranges of concentrations that are typical in wine. The diagnosis of inhibition type, performed with the graphical method, demonstrated that all of tested wine constituents were reversible inhibitors of papain. The strongest inhibition was exerted by free SO2 , which acted as a mixed-type inhibitor, similar to grape skin and seed tannins. Finally, when tested in table white wines, the catalytic activity of papain, even when if it was ascribable to the hyperbolic behavior of Michaelis-Menten equation, was determined to be strongly affected by free SO2 and total phenol level. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  4. ANTIOXIDATIVE PROPERTIES OF ETHYL ACETATE FRACTION OF UNRIPE PULP OF CARICA PAPAYA IN MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joao Rocha Magareth Athayde

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Unripe Carica papaya fruits were extracted with methanol in Soxhlet apparatus and later with a liquid-liquid extraction with the aim of identifying and quantifying secondary metabolite fraction of this plant. Quercetin and β-sitosterol have been isolated from the fruit and the quantities detected were 120.2±0.16 mg/g (dry fruit and 279.1±0.09mg/g respectively. In addition, the extracts were evaluated in vivo for their effects on activities of some antioxidant enzymes which includes Glutathione peroxidase (GPx, Glutathione reductase (GR, Glutathione transferase (GST, Catalase (CAT and metabolizing enzyme Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH in mice treated orally with a daily dose of extracts (100mg/kg for 7 days. Results showed that ethyl acetate fraction caused significant increase(p<0.05 in the activities of GR, GPx, GST, and G6PDH. Significant decrease (p<0.05 in GPx activity was observed in kidney following administration of ethyl acetate fraction. It is likely that quercetin and β-sitosterol may be responsible for the antioxidant potential demonstrated by the ethyl acetate fraction from unripe fruit.

  5. Pengaruh getah pepaya (Carica papaya) terhadap sintasan tokolan udang windu (Panaeus monodon) pada kepadatan yang berbeda selama pengangkutan

    OpenAIRE

    Sofyatuddin Karina; Wahyu Tursina

    2013-01-01

    The objective of present study was to evaluate the possibility of papaya’s latex (Carica papaya) as anti stress or larvaside for tiger shrimp (Panaeus monodon) post larvae Pl 14-30 during transportation. The tiger shrimp post larvae was collected from BBAP Ujung Batee, Aceh Besar on September, 2012. Reseach method used the completely random design with two factors, density of post larvae with three treatments (1000; 1500 dan 2000 ind/l) and concentration of papaya’s latex with four treatments...

  6. ANTI-DIABETIC EFFICACY AND PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF METHANOLIC LEAF EXTRACT OF PAWPAW (Carica papaya GROWN IN NORTH CENTRAL NIGERIA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayorinde Victor Ogundele

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Carica papaya leaves samples (Green were freshly harvested from Islamic village in Ilorin, Ilorin west local Government, Kwara State Nigeria. The leaves were extracted with methanol; the resulting extracts were screened for the phytochemical constituents using standard procedure. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of bioactive compounds such as tannins, saponins, terpenoids, glycosides and alkaloids. The in-vitro anti-diabetic potential of the plant was also determined so as to justify the traditional usage of the plant in treating diabetes. The result of the present study confirmed that the methanolic extract of C.papaya leaves possess significant anti-diabetic activity in-vitro, this shows that the leaves has the potential for the development of drugs in combating diabetes.

  7. Inhibition of Platelet Aggregation by the Leaf Extract of Carica papaya During Dengue Infection: An In Vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnappan, Shobia; Ramachandrappa, Vijayakumar Shettikothanuru; Tamilarasu, Kadhiravan; Krishnan, Uma Maheswari; Pillai, Agiesh Kumar Balakrishna; Rajendiran, Soundravally

    2016-04-01

    Dengue cases were reported to undergo platelet activation and thrombocytopenia by a poorly understood mechanism. Recent studies suggested that Carica papaya leaf extract could recover the platelet count in dengue cases. However, no studies have attempted to unravel the mechanism of the plant extract in platelet recovery. Since there are no available drugs to treat dengue and considering the significance of C. papaya in dengue treatment, the current study aimed to evaluate two research questions: First one is to study if the C. papaya leaf extract exerts its action directly on platelets and second one is to understand if the extract can specifically inhibit the platelet aggregation during dengue viral infection. Sixty subjects with dengue positive and 60 healthy subjects were recruited in the study. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and platelet-poor plasma were prepared from both the dengue-infected and healthy control blood samples. Effect of the leaf extract obtained from C. papaya leaves was assessed on plasma obtained as well as platelets collected from both healthy and dengue-infected individuals. Platelet aggregation was significantly reduced when leaf extract preincubated with dengue plasma was added into control PRP, whereas no change in aggregation when leaf extract incubated-control plasma was added into control PRP. Upon direct addition of C. papaya leaf extract, both dengue PRP and control PRP showed a significant reduction in platelet aggregation. Within the dengue group, PRP from severe and nonsevere cases showed a significant decrease in aggregation without any difference between them. From the study, it is evident that C. papaya leaf extract can directly act on platelet. The present study, the first of its kind, found that the leaf extract possesses a dengue-specific neutralizing effect on dengue viral-infected plasma that may exert a protective role on platelets.

  8. Low-dose gamma irradiation following hot Water immersion of Papaya (Carica Papaya linn.) fruits provides additional control of postharvest fungal infection to extend shelf life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rashid, M.H.A.; Grout, Brian William Wilson; Continella, A.

    2015-01-01

    Low-dose gamma irradiation (0.08 kGy over 10 min), a level significantly below that required to satisfy the majority of international quarantine regulations, has been employed to provide a significant reduction in visible fungal infection on papaya fruit surfaces. This is appropriate for local an....... The combined treatment had no significant, negative impact on ripening, with quality characteristics such as surface and internal colour change, firmness, soluble solids, acidity and vitamin C maintained at acceptable levels....... and national markets in producer countries where levels of commercial acceptability can be retained despite surface lesions due to fungal infection. Irradiation alone and in combination with hot-water immersion (50 °C for 10 min) has been applied to papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruits at both the mature green...... and 1/3 yellow stages of maturity. The incidence and severity of surface fungal infections, including anthracnose, were significantly reduced by the combined treatment compared to irradiation or hot water treatment alone, extending storage at 11 °C by 13 days and retaining commercial acceptability...

  9. Genome analysis methods: Carica papaya [PGDBj Registered plant list, Marker list, QTL list, Plant DB link and Genome analysis methods[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Carica papaya Draft 2n=18 372 Mb 2008 Sanger (WGS) 1.6M reads 370 Mb 3x ... 17,764 47...,483 TIGR Eukaryotic Annotation Pipeline 13,311 CpGDB; http://www.plantgdb.org/CpGDB/ Cpapaya_113 Cpapaya_113 10.1038/nature06856 18432245 ...

  10. Pemanfaatan Buah Pepaya (Carica Papaya L.,) dan Tomat (Lycopersicum Esculentum Mill.,) dalam Pembuatan Fruit Leather

    OpenAIRE

    Ramli, Redi; Hamzah, Faizah

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed was to got exact formulation of combination of papaya fruit puree and tomato puree in the manufacture of fruit leather. This study used a completely randomized design (CRD) with 5 treatments and 3 replications. The treatments used against fruit leather were PT1 (papaya fruit puree 65%, tomato puree 35%), PT2 (papaya fruit puree 55%, tomato puree 45%), PT3 (papaya fruit puree 50%, tomato puree 50%), PT4 (45% papaya fruit puree, tomato puree 55%) and PT5 (35% papaya fruit puree...

  11. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a family 19 glycosyl hydrolase from Carica papaya latex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huet, Joëlle, E-mail: jhuet@ulb.ac.be [Laboratoire de Chimie Générale (CP 206/4), Institut de Pharmacie, Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Campus de la Plaine, Boulevard du Triomphe, B-1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Azarkan, Mohamed [Laboratoire de Chimie Générale (CP 609), Faculté de Médecine, Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Campus Erasme, 808 Route de Lennik, B-1070 Bruxelles (Belgium); Looze, Yvan [Laboratoire de Chimie Générale (CP 206/4), Institut de Pharmacie, Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Campus de la Plaine, Boulevard du Triomphe, B-1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Villeret, Vincent [CNRS-UMR 8161, Institut de Biologie de Lille, Université de Lille 1-Université de Lille 2-Institut Pasteur de Lille, IFR142, 1 Rue du Professeur Calmette, F-59021 Lille (France); Wintjens, René, E-mail: jhuet@ulb.ac.be [Laboratoire de Chimie Générale (CP 206/4), Institut de Pharmacie, Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Campus de la Plaine, Boulevard du Triomphe, B-1050 Bruxelles (Belgium)

    2008-05-01

    A chitinase isolated from the latex of the tropical species Carica papaya has been crystallized. The addition of N-acetyl-d-glucosamine to the crystallization solution has improved the diffraction quality resolution of the crystal to 1.8 Å resolution. A chitinase isolated from the latex of the tropical species Carica papaya has been purified to homogeneity and crystallized. This enzyme belongs to glycosyl hydrolase family 19 and exhibits exceptional resistance to proteolysis. The initially observed crystals, which diffracted to a resolution of 2.0 Å, were improved through modification of the crystallization protocol. Well ordered crystals were subsequently obtained using N-acetyl-d-glucosamine, the monomer resulting from the hydrolysis of chitin, as an additive to the crystallization solution. Here, the characterization of a chitinase crystal that belongs to the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 69.08, b = 44.79, c = 76.73 Å, β = 95.33° and two molecules per asymmetric unit, is reported. Diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 1.8 Å. Structure refinement is currently in progress.

  12. Caracterización de accesiones de papaya (Carica papaya L. a través de marcadores AFLP en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maruchi Alonso Esquivel

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Los marcadores moleculares son herramientas valiosas en los estudios genéticos en plantas, y están siendo empleados exitosamente en programas de mejoramiento principalmente en la elección de progenitores y en la selección. El polimorfismo observado mediante la técnica molecular AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism ha sido de utilidad para estudios de diversidad genética en frutales. En el presente trabajo se realizó la caracterización molecular de 12 accesiones de papaya (Carica papaya L. del banco de germoplasma del Instituto de Investigaciones en Fruticultura Tropical (IIFT, empleando la técnica AFLP. Se evaluaron seis combinaciones de iniciadores para la amplificación selectiva, las cuales amplificaron un total de 431 bandas con 73,3% de polimorfismo. El número total de patrones de bandas identificados fue igual en todas las combinaciones utilizadas, con un porcentaje de identificación alto, lo que sugiere que dichas combinaciones pudieran ser empleadas para estudios de variabilidad genética en papaya. En general, los resultados presentados demuestran que existe diversidad genética entre las accesiones evaluadas, lo cual constituye un reflejo del origen que presentan los genotipos analizados a partir de la introducción de materiales foráneos y la polinización abierta de un grupo de materiales selectos. Por tanto, se recomienda retomar la prospección y selección de accesiones locales, así como la introducción de nuevos genotipos foráneos, como dos vías fundamentales para aumentar la diversidad genética presente en el banco de germoplasma de papaya de Cuba.

  13. Study about papaya (Carica papaya L.) conservation submitted to a combined treatment of irradiation and an edible film of quitosan; Estudo do tratamento combinado de radiacao ionizante e cobertura de quitosana em mamao papaia (Carica papaya L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camargo, Rita Junqueira de

    2004-07-01

    In this research, on a first stage the effect of two treatments were studied: thermal, and a chitosan edible coating, combined with four different irradiation doses: 0,00 kGy, 0,50 kGy, 0,75 kGy and 1,00 kGy for effects in the ripening of papaya (Carica Papaya) cv. Golden. To evaluate the influence of these two factors in the physical-chemical characteristics of the fruit during ripening, analysis on color, both skin and pulp, firmness, soluble solids, pH and titrable acidity were performed. The incidence of fungi in fruit skin was also analyzed. The fruits were first maintained at 10 deg C chamber for fifteen days to simulate maritime transportation to the importer country and then transferred to a 25 deg C chamber aiming simulation of the commercialization conditions. From this first step, the conclusion was that chitosan in the concentration of 2% was not able to contain the fungi development and that it also influenced in a significant form the variable pH. A more expressive result was obtained for irradiation doses of 0,75 kGy and 1,00 kGy, as it was observed in the beginning the acceleration in ripening through the variables skin color and penetration energy of the fruit pulp. When storage temperature was changed to 25 deg C this situation inverted for these same variables and a two day delay was observed on the development of yellow color on the fruit skin and loss of pulp firmness. The variables titrable acidity, soluble solids and pulp color were not influenced by treatment or by irradiation. On a second stage, the fruits, in the same condition of the previous stage, were analyzed in relation of their mass and ripening stage using a ripening scale provided by the producer of the fruits for this experiment, as to evaluate the gradual development of fruit ripening according to the various treatments (chitosan 3%, thermal or control) and irradiation dose (0,00 kGy and 0,75 kGy). Confirming the results obtained in the first stage, the irradiation was able to

  14. Potential anti-Dengue Concoction of Carica Papaya (C. Papaya) Leaf and G. Mangostana (G. Mangostana) Pericarp and Their Bioactivity Enhancement by Fermentation: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    So’aib, M. S.; Salihon, J.; Tan, H. L.

    2018-05-01

    This review highlights the anti-dengue potency of Carica Papaya leaf (CPL) extract which was associated with platelet increase and other medicinal properties such as antiinflammatory and antioxidant. Garcinia Mangostana’s pericarp (GMP) extract have much commonalities with CPL, in addition to antiviral and immunomodulatory properties of the former. These properties may exhibit, yet unproven, analgesic, hemorrhage prevention and antiviral effects that may facilitate dengue recovery. Nevertheless, the limited bioavailability of native polyphenolic contents of both, as hinted by studies on colonic microbiome metabolism on dietary polyphenols, highlighted fermentation as viable method to enhance the functionality of the compounds. Thus, this review also highlights some relevant parameters in existing fermentation of well known fermented foods that impact their bioactivity, functionality and palatability that may applicable for the development of CPL and GMP fermentations.

  15. Effects of crude extracts of Mucuna pruriens (Fabaceae) and Carica papaya (Caricaceae) against the protozoan fish parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekanem, A P; Obiekezie, A; Kloas, W; Knopf, K

    2004-03-01

    The ciliate Ichthyophthirius multifiliis is among the most pathogenic parasites of fish maintained in captivity. In the present study, the effects of the crude methanolic extract of leaves of Mucuna pruriens and the petroleum-ether extract of seeds of Carica papaya against I. multifiliis were investigated under in vivo and in vitro conditions. Goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus) infected with the parasites were immersed for 72 h in baths with M. pruriens extract, and for 96 h in baths with C. papaya extract. There was a 90% reduction in numbers of I. multifiliis on fish after treatment in baths of each plant extract at 200 mg l(-1 )compared to untreated controls. Consequently, parasite-induced fish mortality was reduced significantly. A complete interruption of trophont recruitment was achieved by immersion in the M. pruriens extract. In vitro tests led to a 100% mortality of I. multifiliis in 150 mg/l M. pruriens extract, and in 200 mg/l of C. papaya extract after 6 h. Although the active constituents of the medicinal plant extracts are still unknown, we have demonstrated that they have potential for effective control of I. multifiliis.

  16. Morfología de la flor y de la semilla de papaya (Carica papaya L.: variedad Maradol e híbrido Tainung-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Arlette Ivonne

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Con el objetivo de analizar la morfología de la flor y de la semilla de papaya (Carica papaya L. de la variedad ‘Maradol’ y el híbrido ‘Tainung-1’, se recolectó el material vegetal en dos plantaciones y se llevaron al laboratorio de Fisiología de Cultivos, Facultad de Agronomía, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá, con el fin de realizar las descripciones correspondientes de los tres tipos de flores (femeninas, hermafroditas y estaminadas y de la semilla, sus características externas (forma, tamaño, hilo, micrópilo, funículo, rafe y cubierta seminal e internas (cubierta seminal, endospermo y embrión. Se concluyó principalmente que a nivel morfológico las flores y semillas de los dos materiales evaluados mostraron características similares, por tanto, las descripciones dadas en este trabajo son generales para ambos.

  17. Determinação de isotiocianato de benzila em Carica papaya utilizando cromatografia gasosa com detectores seletivos Determination of benzyl isothiocyanate in Carica papaya using gas chromatography with selectives detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Miranda de Castro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, a method was developed and validated for the quantification of benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC in the fruits of Carica papaya. The quantification of this compound was carried out by gas chromatography (GC with selective detectors - nitrogen phosphorus detector (NPD and flame photometric detector (FPD. The performance of these detectors showed a higher sensitivity of the NPD with a broader linear range of detection. The LOD/LOQ were 0.038/0.100 µg/mL for NPD and 5.78/19.29 µg/mL for FPD. The recovery of the method for BITC was 90,64%. An average value of BITC concentration in all the analyzed samples was 16,23 µg BITC/g.

  18. Effect of maleic hydrazide and waxing on quality and shelf life of papaya (carica papaya L.) fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Goukh, A. A.; Shattir, A. E.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of post harvest treatment of maleic hydrazide (MH) with and with out waxing on the quality and shelf-life of Baladi and Ekostika I papaya fruits at 18 ±1°C and 85%-90% relative humidity was evaluated. Maleic hydrazide at 250 and 500 ppm significantly delayed fruit ripening by two and three days in both papaya cultivars, respectively, compared with untreated fruits. The higher the concentration, the more was the delay in fruit ripening. The results also showed that waxing addition to MH resulted in a delay of two more days in fruit ripening that treatment with MH alone. The effect of MH and waxing treatments in delaying papaya fruits ripening was manifested in retarded respiratory climacteric, reduced weight loss and delayed fruit softening and increase in total soluble solids and ascorbic acid content.(Author)

  19. Portable chlorophyll meter (PCM-502) values are related to total chlorophyll concentration and photosynthetic capacity in papaya (Carica papaya L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was carried out to verify the practical use of the portable chlorophyll meter-PCM502 (PCM) in two papaya cultivars with contrasting green coloring of the leaf blade (‘Golden’: yellowish-green; ‘Solo’: dark green). The relationship was studied between the photosynthetic process and leaf n...

  20. A microsatellite library for Carica papaya L. cv. Sunrise solo Marcadores microssatélites para Carica papaya L. cv. Sunrise solo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Correa Santos

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available In experimental areas of the Education and Researches Ilha Solteira and Jaboticabal UNESP/Campus farms were selected and tagged 20 hermaphrodite plants and 20 feminine of cultivar Sunrise Solo, Improved Sunrise Solo cv.72/12 and Baixinho of Santa Amália.The seeds origined of the selected fruits were cropped to be analysed the self-pollination efficiency and frequency of the sex in the progenies. After that, samples of the young leaf of the matrix plants were colected for the extration of the DNA. It was built five library enriched of microsatellite sequencies, using probes (TCA10, (TC13, (GATA4, (CAC10 e (TGAG8.It was possible the development of the primers only in the library that has utilized the probe (TCA10. This probe allowed the design of 32 primer pairs. From these, 31 presented pattern of unique band in agarose Metaphor and in acrilamide. For primer S36 were observed 2 bands, but with no polymorphism to differentiation in the sexual form at papaya tree culture. However, these primers can be tested, in the futures, in the investigation of the others features in segregated populations of this specie and the related species, germoplasm analysis, cultivars identification, parent evolution and molecular markers for the assisted plant breeding programs.Em áreas experimentais das Fazendas de Ensino e Pesquisa da UNESP/Campus de Ilha Solteira e Jaboticabal foram selecionadas e marcadas 20 plantas hermafroditas e 20 femininas dos cultivares Sunrise Solo, Improved Sunrise Solo cv.72/12 e Baixinho de Santa Amália. As sementes provenientes dos frutos selecionados foram plantadas para analisar-se a eficiência da autofecundação e a freqüência dos sexos nas progênies. Posteriormente, amostras de tecido foliar jovem das plantas matrizes foram coletadas para a extração de DNA. Foram construídas cinco bibliotecas enriquecidas de seqüências microsatélites, utilizando-se as sondas (TCA10, (TC13, (GATA4, (CAC10 e (TGAG8. Foi possível o

  1. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITIES OF DRIED LEAF EXTRACTS OF CARICA PAPAYA, PTEROCARPUS SOYAUXII, AND VERNONIA AMYGDALINA ON CLINICAL ISOLATES OF ESCHERICHIA COLI, KLEBSIELLA PNEUMONIAE, STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS AND BACILLUS SUBTILIS

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    Chima NGUMAH

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial activities of cold and hot ethanol extracts of air-dried leaves of Carica papaya, Pterocarpus soyauxii, and Vernonia amygdalina on clinical isolates of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis were investigated. The cup-plate agar method was used to determine bacterial susceptibility. All the plant extracts screened were potent on the entire clinical isolates tested. However, there was no significant difference in the inhibition zone diameters of the plant extracts screened (on all the test isolates. There was also no significant difference in the inhibition zone diameters between the cold and hot ethanol extracts of each plant. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, anthroquinone, flavonoids, saponins, steroids, tannins, terpenoids and glycosides in all leaf samples. The results obtained here reveal the antibacterial potentials of the leaf extracts of Carica papaya, Pterocarpus soyauxii, and Vernonia amygdalina, and suggests their possible exploitation for the development of novel herbal-based antimicrobials.

  2. Nematodos agalladores asociados al cultivo de papaya (Carica papaya L. en el departamento de Córdoba, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaraba Juan de Dios

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available

    El objetivo de este trabajo fue identificar los nematodos agalladores asociados al cultivo de papaya (Carica papaya L. en los municipios de Tierralta, Valencia, Lorica, Montería y Montelíbano que constituyen el área productora de papaya en Córdoba. Se evaluaron variables morfológicas y morfométricas en hembras, machos y juveniles de segundo estadío (J2. En las muestras de suelo se determinó pH, contenido de materia orgánica (MO, conductividad eléctrica (CE y textura, a fin de correlacionarlas con la presencia de especies nematodas. Se encontraron Meloidogyne javanica,M. incognita y M. arenaria, siendo M. incognita la especie más frecuente. Las tres especies se encontraron mezcladas en 37,5% de los individuos;M. incognita y M. arenaria en 50%, mientras que M. incognita y M. javanica no se encontraron mezcladas. Las especies se encontraron en pH de 4,9 a 6,4; CE de 0,1 a 0,45 dS· m-1; MO de 1,2 % a 2,5 % y la textura fue arenosa, franca y franco arenosa. El pH, el contenido de arena y la CE correlacionan de manera positiva con la presencia de los nematodos, mientras la MO mostró correlación negativa. Se reporta por primera vez la ocurrencia de M. javanica, M. incognita, M. arenaria, así como la mezcla de M. incognita y M. arenaria, en papayas de Colombia.

  3. The effectiveness of laser diode induction to Carica Papaya L. chlorophyll extract to be ROS generating in the photodynamic inactivation mechanisms for C.albicans biofilms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astuty, S Dewi; Baktir, A

    2017-01-01

    Research on the effectiveness of photo inactivation of C.albicans biofilms led by a-PDT system mediated by chlorophyll-diode-laser-induced was done. This research was done using in vitro technique in order to effectively determine chlorophyll extract of ROS-generated Carica Papaya L. using in situ technique. This technique induced laser diode on different dose and C. albicans with reduced degree. This research is a preliminary study in efforts to find anew sensitizer agent candidate made of chlorophyll extract and antifungal of Carica Papaya L. The effectiveness of eradication has been tested with MDA’s content and OD of biomass biofilms as well as analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey Test (α=0.05). The characteristic of chlorophyll extract of Carica Papaya L. has maximum absorptions on blue areas (λ max = 420 nm) and red areas (λ max = 670 nm). The MIC value of Carica Papaya L. ’s chlorophyll extract against C. albicans planktonic and biofilms cell is 63.8 μM and 31.9 μM respectively. The result shows that treatment using laser which was combined with chlorophyll extract is more effective than that with laser only or chlorophyll extract only. The treatment using laser combined with chlorophyll extract obtained more than 65% (α=0.05) (more than that of negative control) for P 2 L 1 group with OD 595 0.915. The MDA’s content showed that group of laser which was mediated with chlorophyll extract had larger values than group of laser or chlorophyll extract only. (paper)

  4. Microbiological safety aspects of mangoes (Mangifera indica and papayas (Carica papaya: a mini-review | Aspectos de segurança microbiológica de manga (Mangifera indica e papaya (Carica papaya: mini revisão

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    Ana Lúcia Penteado

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This review describes several aspects related to microbiological safety in mangoes and papayas, such as incidence, outbreaks, internalisation and growth/survival of bacterial pathogens. Mangoes and papayas are often served sliced in food establishments in fresh pieces at salad bars, deli counters and as pulp juice. In general, these products do not undergo any process to eliminate pathogenic microorganisms before consumption, and a long shelf life could theoretically provide time for these microorganisms to multiply without affecting the organoleptic qualities of the fruit, thereby increasing the risks of food-borne illness. The data presented in this review show that low temperatures can impede microbial growth, but not completely inhibit such growth in mangoes and papayas. Highest growth rates were observed in the range between 22 and 37oC. In the last 20 years, several outbreaks of salmonellosis caused by these fruits or by food made with these fruits have been reported. The control of the temperature in the fruit washing water is important to prevent the internalisation of Salmonella spp. The implementation of strategies such as Good Agricultural Practices, Good Manufacturing Practices and Hazard Analysis Critical is important, as these methods can eliminate or significantly reduce microbial contamination. ================================================== Esta revisão descreve diversos aspectos relacionados à segurança microbiológica em manga e mamão papaya como; incidência, surtos, internalização e crescimento/sobrevivência de patógenos bacterianos nestas frutas. Mangas e papayas são frequentemente servidas fatiadas em estabelecimentos alimentícios como pedaços frescos, em misturas para saladas, expostas em balcões e como polpas de frutas. No geral, estes produtos não passam por qualquer processo para eliminar microrganismos patogênicos antes do seu consumo e uma vida longa de prateleira poderia teoricamente fornecer tempo

  5. GC-MS profiling, descriptive sensory analysis, and consumer acceptance of Costa Rican papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit purees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieb, Veronika M; Esquivel, Patricia; Cubero Castillo, Elba; Carle, Reinhold; Steingass, Christof B

    2018-05-15

    Volatiles of papaya purees from four Costa Rican cultivars were analysed by solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 83 volatiles was assigned in the purees, of which 19 were detected for the first time as papaya constituents. As revealed by multivariate statistics, i.e., principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), the purees may be allocated to terpene- and lactone-rich ('SH-5'), ester-containing ('Criolla'), and intermediate chemotypes ('Pococí' and 'Silvestre'). Descriptive sensory analysis and a consumer acceptance test were additionally performed. Floral, fruity, and honey-like notes were perceived at significantly higher intensities in 'SH-5' puree. The latter descriptors strongly correlated with volatiles discriminating 'SH-5' in the PCA and PLS-DA, respectively. Consumer acceptance of the papaya purees differed significantly. 'Pococí' and 'SH-5' purees appear to be suitable for improving the nutritional value of blended fruit juices without impairing their sensory quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Sales de calcio mejoran vida de anaquel y aceptabilidad general de papaya (Carica papaya L. var. Maradol fresca cortada

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    Nayely Leyva López

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Las tendencias actuales de los consumidores por alimentos sanos y de conveniencia promueven un mayor consumo de frutas y hortalizas, donde destacan productos frescos cortados. Sin embargo, por su naturaleza estos productos pueden ser muy susceptibles a diferentes alteraciones que afectan su calidad. El uso de aditivos como sales de calcio representa una alternativa tecnológica para mantener, o incluso mejorar, la calidad durante su vida de anaquel. Por lo anterior el objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar el efecto de sales de calcio en papaya fresca cortada sobre la calidad física, química, microbiológica, nutracéutica y sensorial. Cubos de papaya, variedad Maradol (2 cm de arista fueron tratados con lactato y cloruro de calcio al 1,0 y 3,0 %, bajo condiciones de inmersión por 2 min a 40 °C. Las muestras tratadas fueron colocadas en vasos de polietileno tereftalato (PET de 500 mL tapa, y almacenadas por 8 días a 5 °C. En comparación con los frutos testigo, los tratamientos a base de calcio demostraron mejorar la firmeza (~ 8 N, principalmente los frutos tratados con cloruro de calcio al 3,0 %. Por otra parte, la calidad nutracéutica (fenólicos totales no se vio afectada por el uso de sales de calcio, mientras que las evaluaciones microbiológicas demuestran condiciones de inocuidad conforme a normatividad. Se sugiere el uso de cloruro de calcio para fines de comercializar papaya fresca cortada.

  7. Sales de calcio mejoran vida de anaquel y aceptabilidad general de papaya (Carica papaya L. var. Maradol fresca cortada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayely Leyva López

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Las tendencias actuales de los consumidores por alimentos sanos y de conveniencia promueven un mayor consumo de frutas y hortalizas, donde destacan productos frescos cortados. Sin embargo, por su naturaleza estos productos pueden ser muy susceptibles a diferentes alteraciones que afectan su calidad. El uso de aditivos como sales de calcio representa una alternativa tecnológica para mantener, o incluso mejorar, la calidad durante su vida de anaquel. Por lo anterior el objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar el efecto de sales de calcio en papaya fresca cortada sobre la calidad física, química, microbiológica, nutracéutica y sensorial. Cubos de papaya, variedad Maradol (2 cm de arista fueron tratados con lactato y cloruro de calcio al 1,0 y 3,0 %, bajo condiciones de inmersión por 2 min a 40 °C. Las muestras tratadas fueron colocadas en vasos de polietileno tereftalato (PET de 500 mL con tapa, y almacenadas por 8 días a 5 °C. En comparación con los frutos testigo, los tratamientos a base de calcio demostraron mejorar la firmeza (~ 8 N, principalmente los frutos tratados con cloruro de calcio al 3,0 %. Por otra parte, la calidad nutracéutica (fenólicos totales no se vio afectada por el uso de sales de calcio, mientras que las evaluaciones microbiológicas demuestran condiciones de inocuidad conforme a normatividad. Se sugiere el uso de cloruro de calcio para fines de comercializar papaya fresca cortada.

  8. INCIDENCIA Y SEVERIDAD DE LA ANTRACNOSIS EN LÍNEAS E HÍBRIDOS DE PAPAYA (Carica papaya)

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Bogantes-Arias; Eric Mora-Newcomer

    2013-01-01

    El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la incidencia y severidad de la antracnosis (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides), en frutas de papaya. El experimento se realizó en Guápiles, Limón, Costa Rica, entre los años 2010 y 2011. Se sembraron cinco líneas y cuatro híbridos bajo un diseño de bloques completos al azar con tres repeticiones. Se evaluó la incidencia y severidad de la antracnosis, así como la firmeza y los sólidos solubles (grados Brix) de la fruta. Los híbridos presentaron carac te...

  9. Effect of gamma irradiation in papaya (Carica papaya L.) harvested in three degrees of maturation.; Efeito da irradiacao gama em mamao papaia (Carica papaya L.) colhido em tres pontos de maturacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimentel, Rodrigo Meirelles de Azevedo

    2001-07-01

    The papaya is a fragile tropical fruit with thin skin, susceptible to post harvest diseases and mechanical injuries. Furthermore, it is sensible to low temperatures and at normal conditions it ripens rapidly, increasing the difficulties with storage. The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of gamma irradiation in papayas harvested in three degrees of maturation, in order to increase shelf life. To accomplish that, papayas were harvested in perfect quality conditions, washed, submitted to carnauba wax and selected by skin coloration into three distinct degrees of maturation: Mat 0, or beginning of yellow coloration; Mat 1, yellow stripes more developed, and Mat 2, one third yellow. Half of them were submitted to irradiation with 0, 75 kGy, while the others became control treatment. They were analyzed in four different periods of conservation, which were 1 day after irradiation (DAI) refrigerated (11 +- 1 deg C), 14 DAI refrigerated, 14 DAI refrigerated + 3 at room temperature (RT = 24 deg +- 2 deg C) and 14 DAI refrigerated + 6 at RT. The effect of irradiation was not influenced by the maturation degree at harvest. Irradiation promoted firmness maintenance of papaya and, therefore, delayed ripening; modified the green color of papaya to a lighter tone, which determined more homogeneity in the skin yellow color development (greater values of L* and b*), and turned the papaya flesh color lighter (rower values of b*). There was no effect of irradiation in papaya weight loss, in the occurrence of diseases, in the development of surface yellow color, in the parameter a* of papaya skin color, in the parameters L*, a* and chroma of flesh color, p H and total soluble solids content. Visual and organoleptic sensorial tests were accomplished with papayas from a new delivery in the conservation period of 14 DAI refrigerated + 3 at RT. In the visual test was evaluated the appearance of papaya in the following treatments: Mat O control, Mat O irradiated, Mat 1

  10. INCIDENCIA Y SEVERIDAD DE LA ANTRACNOSIS EN LÍNEAS E HÍBRIDOS DE PAPAYA (Carica papaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Bogantes-Arias

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la incidencia y severidad de la antracnosis (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, en frutas de papaya. El experimento se realizó en Guápiles, Limón, Costa Rica, entre los años 2010 y 2011. Se sembraron cinco líneas y cuatro híbridos bajo un diseño de bloques completos al azar con tres repeticiones. Se evaluó la incidencia y severidad de la antracnosis, así como la firmeza y los sólidos solubles (grados Brix de la fruta. Los híbridos presentaron carac terísticas intermedias a los padres para las características evaluadas. En la antracnosis de fruta, la resistencia tiende a ser dominante para el material evaluado.

  11. Transcriptome analysis of Carica papaya embryogenic callus upon De-etiolated 1 (DET1 gene suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diyana Jamaluddin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Papaya is considered to be one of the most nutritional fruits. It is rich in vitamins, carotenoids, flavonoids and other phytonutrient which function as antioxidant in our body [1]. Previous studies revealed that the suppression of a negative regulator gene in photomorphogenesis, De-etiolated 1 (DET1 can improve the phytonutrient in tomato and canola without affecting the fruit quality [2,3]. This report contains the experimental data on high-throughput 3′ mRNA sequencing of transformed papaya callus upon DET1 gene suppression.

  12. Metabolomic profiling of the phytomedicinal constituents of Carica papaya L. leaves and seeds by 1H NMR spectroscopy and multivariate statistical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogna, Navdeep; Hamid, Neda; Dorai, Kavita

    2015-11-10

    Extracts from the Carica papaya L. plant are widely reported to contain metabolites with antibacterial, antioxidant and anticancer activity. This study aims to analyze the metabolic profiles of papaya leaves and seeds in order to gain insights into their phytomedicinal constituents. We performed metabolite fingerprinting using 1D and 2D 1H NMR experiments and used multivariate statistical analysis to identify those plant parts that contain the most concentrations of metabolites of phytomedicinal value. Secondary metabolites such as phenyl propanoids, including flavonoids, were found in greater concentrations in the leaves as compared to the seeds. UPLC-ESI-MS verified the presence of significant metabolites in the papaya extracts suggested by the NMR analysis. Interestingly, the concentration of eleven secondary metabolites namely caffeic, cinnamic, chlorogenic, quinic, coumaric, vanillic, and protocatechuic acids, naringenin, hesperidin, rutin, and kaempferol, were higher in young as compared to old papaya leaves. The results of the NMR analysis were corroborated by estimating the total phenolic and flavonoid content of the extracts. Estimation of antioxidant activity in leaves and seed extracts by DPPH and ABTS in-vitro assays and antioxidant capacity in C2C12 cell line also showed that papaya extracts exhibit high antioxidant activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Características fenotípicas y agronómicas de seis genotipos de papaya (Carica papaya L. de Tuxpan, Guerrero, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ángel Alcántara Jiménez

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available En México la producción de papayo (Carica papaya L. es afectada por factores genéticos, ambientales y bióticos. Destacan los daños provocados por el virus de la mancha anular, el cual reduce considerablemente la cantidad y calidad de la fruta; por eso es muy importante, conocer la productividad de los genotipos en un ambiente determinado. La presente investigación se realizó con el objetivo de evaluar el desarrollo y las características agronómicas de seis genotipos de papayo. El estudio se llevó a cabo en la localidad de Tuxpan, Guerrero, donde se cultivaron los genotipos: R4M3, Maradol, Criolla, Red Lady, Zapote y R5M2. Como diseño experimental se utilizó el de bloques completos al azar, con cuatro repeticiones. Las variables evaluadas fueron: altura al primer fruto, diámetro del cuello, altura de la planta, número de días a la cosecha, rendimiento de frutos (t/ha, número, diámetro y longitud de frutos, concentración de azúcares (grados Brix, textura, color de la pulpa y epicarpio de frutos maduros. Los datos de las variables se sometieron a análisis de varianza y prueba de comparación de medias de Tukey. En relación a la adaptación de los genotipos: todos los genotipos se desarrollaron y produjeron frutos en las condiciones de trópico seco. La variedad Maradol fue la más sobresaliente, presentando un porte menor, mayor precocidad y productividad, textura dura de pulpa, alta concentración de azúcares, buen tamaño y color.

  14. Características fenotípicas y agronómicas de seis genotipos de papaya (Carica papaya L. de Tuxpan, Guerrero, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ángel Alcántara Jiménez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available En México la producción de papayo (Carica papaya L. es afectada por factores genéticos, ambientales y bióticos. Destacan los daños provocados por el virus de la mancha anular, el cual reduce considerablemente la cantidad y calidad de la fruta; por eso es muy importante, conocer la productividad de los genotipos en un ambiente determinado. La presente investigación se realizó con el objetivo de evaluar el desarrollo y las características agronómicas de seis genotipos de papayo. El estudio se llevó a cabo en la localidad de Tuxpan, Guerrero, donde se cultivaron los genotipos: R4M3, Maradol, Criolla, Red Lady, Zapote y R5M2. Como diseño experimental se utilizó el de bloques completos al azar, con cuatro repeticiones. Las variables evaluadas fueron: altura al primer fruto, diámetro del cuello, altura de la planta, número de días a la cosecha, rendimiento de frutos (t/ha, número, diámetro y longitud de frutos, concentración de azúcares (grados Brix, textura, color de la pulpa y epicarpio de frutos maduros. Los datos de las variables se sometieron a análisis de varianza y prueba de comparación de medias de Tukey. En relación a la adaptación de los genotipos: todos los genotipos se desarrollaron y produjeron frutos en las condiciones de trópico seco. La variedad Maradol fue la más sobresaliente, presentando un porte menor, mayor precocidad y productividad, textura dura de pulpa, alta concentración de azúcares, buen tamaño y color.

  15. Influência da adubação com esterco bovino e inoculação de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares no crescimento de mudas de Carica papaya L. (var. Formosa Influence of fertilization with bovine manure and inoculation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the growth of Carica papaya L. 'Formosa' seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Elizabete de Lima Lins

    1999-12-01

    been employed for the seedling production of several types of fruit trees. The objectives of this work were to evaluate the influence of the inoculation of AMF and the application of organic matter in the growth of papaya (Carica papaya L. 'Formosa', in a greenhouse. Seedlings were cultivated in sandy soil (characterized by a low P: 4ppm, inoculated with AMF and fertilized or not with 50g of bovine manure. The experimental design was entirely randomized with six treatments and three replicates: - inoculation with either native AMF, Gigaspora albida Schenck & Smith or Scutellospora hetervgama (Nicol. & Gerd. Walker & Sanders with/without organic matter. The experiment was evaluated ev ery 10 days, considering the parameters: height, diameter of stem and number of leaves. Significant differences between fertilized and non fertilized treatments were observed on the 30th day. After 40 days, plants inoculated with native AMF presented better development than those inoculated separately with G. albida or S. heterogama, in both fertilized and non fertilized soils.

  16. HPLC-ESI-MS Characterization of Certain Polyphenolic Compounds of Carica papaya L. Fruit Extracts and Evaluation of Their Potential Against Murine Schistosomiasis mansoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Lateef, Ezzat El-Sayed; Rabia, Ibrahim Aly; El-Sayed, Mortada Mohamed; Abdel-Hameed, El-Sayed Saleh

    2018-04-10

    The in vivo antischistosomal activities of Carica papaya L. extracts were evaluated and the characterization of the active secondary metabolites of the defatted methanolic extract was performed using HPLC-ESI-MS. The plant fruit powders were extracted with 85% methanol and fractionated using organic solvents. The in vivo antischistosomal effects of the methanolic extracts and its fractions, as well as the assessment of the relationship between the antischistosomal activity of these plant extracts and oxidative stress, was determined. In addition, the defatted methanolic extract was characterized by HPLC-ESI-MS analysis. The number of worms, ova, and the Oogram pattern displayed typical Schistosoma mansoni pathology 8 weeks after infection in mice. Treatment of the infected group with the defatted methanolic extracts significantly decreased worm burden, immature ova and mature ova, while increasing the percentage of dead ova in vivo. The butanol fraction was the most effective fraction reducing worm burden by 77%, ova count in the intestine by 76% and in the liver by 80%, and significantly decreased immature and mature ova ( P group. Additionally, the defatted methanolic extracts improved the reduced glutathione and malondialdehyde levels in hepatic tissues in the treated groups compared to the infected group. The HPLC-ESI-MS analysis of the Carica papaya defatted methanolic extract revealed the presence of several polyphenolic compounds. Carica papaya fruit extracts are rich with phenolic acids and flavonoids and show a significant effect against S. mansoni infections which may be used alternative to PZQ as anti-schistosomal drug against schistosomiasis. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Papaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... called carpain. Carpain seems to be able to kill certain parasites, and it might affect the central ... Herbs and supplements that might lower blood sugarPapaya that has been fermented might lower blood sugar. Using ...

  18. Expressão transiente do gene gus, sob regulação de quatro promotores, em diferentes tecidos de mamoeiro (Carica papaya L. e videira (Vitis sp. Transient expression of the gus gene, under the regulation of four promoters, on different tissues of papaya (Carica papaya l. and grape (Vitis sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelar Almeida Pinto

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available O mamoeiro (Carica papaya L. e a videira (Vitis vinifera L. destacam-se entre as fruteiras produzidas no Brasil por serem plantadas em quase todo o território nacional e apresentarem importância econômica e social. A tecnologia de produção de organismos geneticamente modificados, também conhecidos como "transgênicos", tem grande potencial de uso no desenvolvimento de fruteiras melhoradas. Porém, questões de propriedade intelectual limitam o uso da engenharia genética por países em desenvolvimento, que normalmente não detêm direitos sobre processos ou produtos necessários ao uso desta. Neste contexto, o presente estudo buscou avaliar promotores de expressão gênica alternativos ao CaMV 35S, que é o mais utilizado no desenvolvimento de transgênicos, mas é patenteado. Para tanto, construções gênicas com o gene gus sob a regulação de diferentes promotores foram testadas para expressão transiente em diversos tecidos de mamoeiro e videira. Expressão transiente foi avaliada em embriões somáticos, folhas, caules, raízes e frutos. O promotor do gene UBQ3, que é constitutivo e se encontra em domínio publico, mostrou ser uma alternativa promissora para futuros trabalhos de transformação genética de mamoeiro, mas não de videira.Papaya (Carica papaya L. and grapes (Vitis vinifera L. are among the most important fruit crops produced in Brazil, and are cultivated in several regions around the country being of economical and social importance. Genetic engineering has great potential on the development of genetically improved fruit crops. However, intellectual property issues constantly limit the commercial use of this technology in developing countries. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate gene promoters as alternatives to the 35S CaMV, which is the most used so far in the development of transgenic plants, but it is patented. In order to do that, the expression of the gus gene under the regulation of distinct promoters was

  19. Injection of Carica papaya L. Seed Extract of Cibinong Variety to Macaca fascicularis L. and its Effect to Quality of Spermatozoa and Level of Testosterone Hormone.

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    Tuti Nuraini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Lack of contraceptive choices which meet the requirements is one of the contributing factors to less participation of man in contraceptive use. This research aimed to study the effectiveness of natural material for alternative male contraception, by injecting papaya seed extract with Cibinong variety (Carica papaya L. to long tail monkey (Macaca fascicularis L. The research was conducted at Primates Study Center, Institute of Agriculture, Bogor. Total samples of this research were 8 monkeys, with three intervention groupsand one control group. Papaya seed extract was injected via intramuscular in 21 days, with dose for each group were 40 mg/monkey, 80 mg/monkey, and 120 mg/monkey. Data analysis of spermatozoa quality (motility, viability, morfology was done by using Cochran test before and after intervention stages, and during recovery stage. Meanwhile, data aalysis of spermatozoa concentration and testosterone hormone level was done by using Friedman test. Result of this reseachdemonstrated reduction of motility, viability, and morfology ofspermatozoa after inejction of papaya seed extract and increase to normal level at recovery stage (p ≤ 0.05. These results was supported with cement aglutination. The most effective dose was at 40 mg/monkey/day, with reduction of spermatozoa motility from 87.5 % to 40%, and reduction of testosterone level from 2.35 ng/mL to 1.83 ng/mL. Even though spermatozoa motility and testosterone hormone levelreduced, but its conditions were still in good condition category.

  20. Ekstrak Daun Pepaya dan Kangkung untuk Meningkatkan Daya Tetas Telur dan Kelangsungan Hidup Larva Lele (EXTRACTS OF CARICA PAPAYA AND IPOMOEA AQUATICA FOR IMPROVING EGG HATCHABILITY AND LARVAL VIABILITY OF CATFISH

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    Gina Saptiani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to investigate the potential use of leaf extract of Carica papaya and Ipomoeaaquatica lto improve egg hatchability and larval viability of catfish. Dried leaves of Carica papaya andIpomoea aquatica were macerated and extracted in water and ethanol. Eggs and larvae were tested in theaquarium size of 10 L with a a diameter of 28 cm. The extracts in concentration 600, 800 and 1.000 ppmwere tested on the egg hatchability of catfish with immersion method, and challed with Aeromonashydrophyla, Pseudomonas sp., and Saprolegnia spp. The extracts in concentration 800 and 1.000 ppm weretested on the larval viability with immersion method, and challed with pathogens. Water or ethanolextract of Carica papaya and Ipomoea aquatica can improve egg hatchability 67±8% until 90±6% andlarval viability of catfish 77±0,5 until 90±9%. Eight hundred ppm ethanol extract of Carica papaya has thebest egg hatchability and 1000 ppm can improve larval viability of catfish.

  1. Ekstraksi Minyak dari Biji Pepaya (Carica Papaya) dengan Metode Soxhlet Extraction dengan Mengunakan N-Butil Asetat

    OpenAIRE

    Purwanto, Sigit

    2016-01-01

    Papaya seed it is a waste product from home industry. Commonly, papaya seed used to be a new plant to grow. Papaya seed have a potential as a edible oil. Soxhlet is used to obtain the oil from papaya seed by using several solvent such as: petroleum ether, methanol and n-hexane. In this research, papaya seed as raw material by using a solvent n-butyl acetate. The variables studied were the time of extraction and the ratio papaya seed to solvent . The results showed that the highest fatty acid ...

  2. Protective Action of Carica papaya on β-Cells in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda-Osorio, Pedro H.; Castell-Rodríguez, Andrés E.; Vargas-Mancilla, Juan; Tovilla-Zárate, Carlos A.; Ble-Castillo, Jorge L.; Aguilar-Domínguez, Dora E.; Juárez-Rojop, Isela E.; Díaz-Zagoya, Juan C.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of C. papaya L. leaf extract (CPLE) on pancreatic islets in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats, as well as on cultured normal pancreatic cells with STZ in the medium. CPLE (3–125 mg/Kg) was administered orally for 20 days, while a group of diabetic rats received 5 IU/Kg/day of insulin. At the end of the treatment the rats were sacrificed. Blood was obtained to assess glucose and insulin levels. The pancreas was dissected to evaluate β cells by immunohistochemistry. In addition, normal pancreatic cells were cultured in a medium that included CPLE (3–12 mg). One half of the cultured cells received simultaneously CPLE and STZ (6 mg), while the other half received CPLE and five days later the STZ. After three days of incubation, insulin was assayed in the incubation medium. The CPLE administered to diabetic rats improved the fasting glycemia and preserved the number and structure of pancreatic islets. However, when CPLE was added to pancreatic cells in culture along with STZ, the insulin concentration was higher in comparison with the cells that only received STZ. In conclusion, the CPLE preserves the integrity of pancreatic islets, improves the basal insulin secretion and protects cultured cells from the adverse effects of STZ. PMID:27128930

  3. Uso de esterco associado à adubação mineral na produção de mudas de mamoeiro (Carica papaya L. The use of manure associated with mineral fertilization in papaya (Carica papaya L. seedling production

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    Regina Célia Faria Simão Canesin

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Na composição do substrato para produção de mudas de mamoeiro, recomenda-se o uso de adubação orgânica, que traz como vantagens a melhoria das características físicas, químicas e biológicas do solo, criando um ambiente favorável ao desenvolvimento inicial das mudas, bem como boa resposta do mamoeiro. Os materiais orgânicos desempenham ainda um importante papel na nutrição das plantas como fornecedores de nutrientes. Contudo, observa-se que existe uma grande variação nas recomendações e quase sempre a adubação orgânica está associada à adubação mineral. Neste contexto, o objetivo deste trabalho foi o de verificar os efeitos do uso de esterco de curral associado ou não à adubação mineral no substrato sobre a formação de mudas de mamoeiro. O Experimento foi conduzido na FEP/UNESP/Câmpus de Ilha Solteira-SP. O delineamento utilizado foi em blocos, em esquema de parcelas subdivididas, sendo parcelas as cultivares e subparcelas os substratos. Cada parcela com 5 repetições e 10 plantas úteis por subparcela. Para a comparação das médias, utilizou-se o teste de Tukey. Com base nos resultados obtidos, pode-se concluir que: a Na formação das mudas de mamoeiro, o esterco de curral pode ser utilizado sem a necessidade de adubação mineral com o superfosfato simples e o cloreto de potássio; b O esterco de curral foi capaz de fornecer às mudas de mamoeiro os nutrientes N, P, K, Ca, Mg e Cu, necessários para seu desenvolvimento até o transplantio para o campo.The use of organic fertilization is recommended to be added to the substrate for papaya seedling production, as it enhances the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the soil, creating a favorable environment for the initial development of the plants, which results in better plant growth. The organic matter has also the important role of providing nutrients to the plants. However, there is great variation in the recommendations, and in most cases

  4. Metabolismo de carboidratos durante o amadurecimento do mamão (Carica papaya L. Cv. Solo: influência da radiação gama Influence of gamma radiation on carbohydrates metabolism of ripening papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Solo

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    M. L. P. A. GOMEZ

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available A irradiação de alimentos é um tratamento pós-colheita bastante promissor, capaz de atuar tanto na desinfestação como no aumento da vida útil de frutos. O mamão é um fruto com curta vida pós-colheita, levando de 6 a 12 dias para atingir a senescência. Além disto, a infestação por larvas de mosca diminui sensivelmente o seu potencial de exportação. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a ação de uma dose de 0,5 kGy de irradiação gama, normalmente utilizada para desinfestação e aumento de vida útil dos frutos, sobre o comportamento dos carboidratos solúveis durante o amadurecimento do mamão (Carica papaya L. cv. Solo, e sobre as enzimas relacionadas ao metabolismo da sacarose: sacarose sintase (SS, sacarose-fosfato sintase (SPS e invertases ácida e neutra. Os resultados demonstraram que a irradiação não exerce efeito sobre o teor de glicose e frutose, ou sobre a respiração e atividade da SS. Entretanto, a composição dos açúcares solúveis totais e da sacarose, e a atividade da SPS e das invertases foram afetados.Food irradiation is one of the most promising treatments that can be utilized for fruits desinfestation and extension of shelf life. The authors studied the influence of 0,5 kGy of Gamma irradiation on the soluble carbohydrates composition of papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Solo fruit, and on sucrose metabolizing enzymes: sucrose synthase (SS, sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS, acid and neutral invertases activities, during ripening. The results demonstred that ethylene production, total soluble sugars, sucrose content, and sucrose-phosphate synthase and invertases activities were affected by irradiation, but not respiration, glucose and fructose content, and SS activity.

  5. Adsorption of saponin compound in Carica papaya leaves extract using weakly basic ion exchanger resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidin, Noraziani Zainal; Janam, Anathasia; Zubairi, Saiful Irwan

    2016-11-01

    Adsorption of saponin compound in papaya leaves juice extract using Amberlite® IRA-67 resin was not reported in previous studies. In this research, Amberlite® IRA-67 was used to determine the amount of saponin that can be adsorbed using different weights of dry resin (0.1 g and 0.5 g). Peleg model was used to determine the maximum yield of saponin (43.67 mg) and the exhaustive time (5.7 days) prior to a preliminary resin-saponin adsorption study. After adsorption process, there was no significant difference (p>0.05) in total saponin content (mg) for sample treated with 0.1 g (3.79 ± 0.55 mg) and sample treated with 0.5 g (3.43 ± 0.51 mg) dry weight resin. Long-term kinetic adsorption of resin-saponin method (>24 hours) should be conducted to obtain optimum freed saponin extract. Besides that, sample treated with 0.1 g dry weight resin had high free radical scavenging value of 50.33 ± 2.74% compared to sample treated with 0.5 g dry weight resin that had low free radical scavenging value of 24.54 ± 1.66% dry weights. Total saponin content (mg), total phenolic content (mg GAE) and free radical scavenging activity (%) was investigated to determine the interaction of those compounds with Amberlite® IRA-67. The RP-HPLC analysis using ursolic acid as standard at 203 nm showed no peak even though ursolic acid was one of the saponin components that was ubiquitous in plant kingdom. The absence of peak was due to weak solubility of ursolic acid in water and since it was only soluble in solvent with moderate polarity. The Pearson's correlation coefficient for total saponin content (mg) versus total phenolic content (mg GAE) and radical scavenging activity (%) were +0.959 and +0.807. Positive values showed that whenever there was an increase in saponin content (mg), the phenolic content (mg GAE) and radical scavenging activity (%) would also increase. However, as the resin-saponin adsorption was carried out, there was a significant decrease of radical scavenging activity

  6. AKTIVITAS DIURETIK KOMBINASI EKSTRAK BIJI PEPAYA (Carica papaya L DAN BIJI SALAK (Salacca zalacca varietas zalacca (Gaert.Voss PADA TIKUS JANTAN GALUR WISTAR (Rattus norvegicus L

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    Nurihardiyanti Nurihardiyanti

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Research on diuretic activity of seed extract combination of papaya (Carica papaya L and snake fruit (Salacca zalacca (Gaert. Voss to male wistar strain rats (Rattus norvegicus L. has been conducted. This study aimed to determine the diuretic effect of the seed extract combination and its effective dose combination as diuretics. The extract was prepared by maceration method using ethanol 96%. Diuretic activity test was divided into 5 treatment groups. Each group consisted of 5 rats. Group 1 (negative control was given suspension of Na-CMC 0.5%; Group 2 (positive control was given furosemide 3.6 mg/kgBW; Group 3, 4, and 5 were given dose combination of snake fruit seed extract and papaya seed extract successively at “37.5 mg/kgBW + 7.5 mg/kgBW”; “70 mg/kgBW + 15mg/kgBW”; and “140 mg/kgBW + 30 mg/kgBW”. Each rat was then orally given warm distilled water (70°C 10ml/100gBW as loading dose. The excreted urine volume was measured and recorded every 30 minutes for 6 hours which was continued to cumulative urine volume calculation. Furthermore, sample was taken from the cumulative urine to measure levels of sodium (Na, potassium (K, and the pH of the urine. Data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA (Analysis of Variance. The results showed that the effective extract dose combination was found in Group 5’s dose (140 mg/kgBW of snake fruit seed extract and 30 mg/kgBW papaya seed extract with diuretic activity index of 1.48; urine pH of 7.52; sodium saluretic index of 1.62; and potassium saluretik index of 1.56

  7. Caracterización de diversas fracciones del látex Carica papaya como biocatalizadores en la hidrólisis de triglicéridos

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    Rivera, I.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Carica papaya latex contains interesting enzymes; the best known is papain, but lipolytic activity is also present. Due to the complexity of the latex polymeric matrix, it has not been possible to completely isolate enzymes responsible of lipolytic activity. The aim of this work was to characterize the lipolytic activity in the raw latex (CPLtx and two partially purified fractions of papaya latex (without protease, CPL-p and without esterase CPL-e. Thermostability, optimal temperature and pH in the hydrolysis of two model triglycerides (tributyrin and triolein and the selectivity towards triglycerides with different chain lengths were determined. The lipolytic activity of these biocatalysts in the hydrolysis of tributyrin and olive oil was similar to other commercially available immobilized microbial lipases (RM IM and Novozyme 435.El látex de Carica papaya es fuente de interesantes enzimas, la más conocida es la papaína, pero la actividad lipolítica también está presente. No obstante, debido a la complejidad de la matriz polimérica del látex, hasta la fecha no ha sido posible aislar las enzimas responsables de la actividad lipolítica del látex. Este trabajo está dedicado a la caracterización de la actividad lipolítica en el látex crudo (CPLtx y dos fracciones parcialmente purificadas de látex de papaya (sin proteasas, CPL-p y sin esterasas, CPL-e, a las cuales se determinaron la termostabilidad, temperatura y pH óptimos en la hidrólisis de dos triglicéridos modelo (tributirina y trioleina, así como la selectividad hacia triglicéridos con diferentes longitudes de cadena. Los tres presentaron actividades lipolíticas en hidrólisis de tributirina y aceite de oliva comparables con otras lipasas microbianas inmovilizadas disponibles comercialmente (RM IM y Novozyme 435.

  8. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of extracts from Cassia alata, Eleusine indica, Eremomastax speciosa, Carica papaya and Polyscias fulva medicinal plants collected in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagnia, Bertrand; Fedeli, Donatella; Casetti, Rita; Montesano, Carla; Falcioni, Giancarlo; Colizzi, Vittorio

    2014-01-01

    The vast majority of the population around the world has always used medicinal plants as first source of health care to fight infectious and non infectious diseases. Most of these medicinal plants may have scientific evidence to be considered in general practice. The aim of this work was to investigate the antioxidant capacities and anti-inflammatory activities of ethanol extracts of leaves of Cassia alata, Eleusine indica, Carica papaya, Eremomastax speciosa and the stem bark of Polyscias fulva, collected in Cameroon. Chemiluminescence was used to analyze the antioxidant activities of plant extracts against hydrogen peroxide or superoxide anion. Comet assays were used to analyze the protection against antioxidant-induced DNA damage induced in white blood cells after treating with hydrogen peroxide. Flow cytometry was used to measure γδ T cells proliferation and anti-inflammatory activity of γδ T cells and of immature dendritic cells (imDC) in the presence of different concentrations of plant extracts. Ethanol extracts showed strong antioxidant properties against both hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion. Cassia alata showed the highest antioxidant activity. The effect of plant extracts on γδ T cells and imDC was evidenced by the dose dependent reduction in TNF-α production in the presence of Cassia alata, Carica papaya, Eremomastax speciosa Eleusine indica, and Polyscias fulva. γδ T cells proliferation was affected to the greatest extent by Polyscias fulva. These results clearly show the antioxidant capacity and anti-inflammatory activities of plant extracts collected in Cameroon. These properties of leaves and stem bark extracts may contribute to the value for these plants in traditional medicine and in general medical practice.

  9. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of extracts from Cassia alata, Eleusine indica, Eremomastax speciosa, Carica papaya and Polyscias fulva medicinal plants collected in Cameroon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand Sagnia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The vast majority of the population around the world has always used medicinal plants as first source of health care to fight infectious and non infectious diseases. Most of these medicinal plants may have scientific evidence to be considered in general practice. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work was to investigate the antioxidant capacities and anti-inflammatory activities of ethanol extracts of leaves of Cassia alata, Eleusine indica, Carica papaya, Eremomastax speciosa and the stem bark of Polyscias fulva, collected in Cameroon. METHODS: Chemiluminescence was used to analyze the antioxidant activities of plant extracts against hydrogen peroxide or superoxide anion. Comet assays were used to analyze the protection against antioxidant-induced DNA damage induced in white blood cells after treating with hydrogen peroxide. Flow cytometry was used to measure γδ T cells proliferation and anti-inflammatory activity of γδ T cells and of immature dendritic cells (imDC in the presence of different concentrations of plant extracts. RESULTS: Ethanol extracts showed strong antioxidant properties against both hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion. Cassia alata showed the highest antioxidant activity. The effect of plant extracts on γδ T cells and imDC was evidenced by the dose dependent reduction in TNF-α production in the presence of Cassia alata, Carica papaya, Eremomastax speciosa Eleusine indica, and Polyscias fulva. γδ T cells proliferation was affected to the greatest extent by Polyscias fulva. CONCLUSION: These results clearly show the antioxidant capacity and anti-inflammatory activities of plant extracts collected in Cameroon. These properties of leaves and stem bark extracts may contribute to the value for these plants in traditional medicine and in general medical practice.

  10. Effect of Papaya Seed Extract (Carica papaya Linn. on Glucose Transporter 4 (GLUT 4 Expression of Skeletal Muscle Tissue in Diabetic Mice Induced by High Fructose Diet

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    Devyani Diah Wulansari

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Ethnobotany surveys show that papaya seeds are widely used as herbs for the management of some diseases such as abdominal discomfort, pain, malaria, diabetes, obesity, and infection. This research was conducted to analyze the effect of papaya seed extract on GLUT4 expression on skeletal muscle tissue of DM type II model induced by high fructose diet. This study used 24 animals, divided into 4 groups of negative control group, treated with papaya seed extract 100 mg / kgBB, 200 mg / kgBW and 300 mg / kgBW, was adapted for 14 days then induced by fructose solution 20% Orally with a dose of 1.86 grams / kgBB for 56 days. The treatment group was given papaya seed extract in accordance with the dose of each group for 14 days. GDP levels was measured using a spectrophotometer. Skeletal muscle tissue is used on the gastrocnemius part. GLUT4 expression was measured through a Immunoreactive Score (IRS method with immunohistochemical staining using GLUT4 polyclonal antibodies. Comparative test results showed that there were significant differences between groups (p <0.05 in final GDP variables and GLUT4 expression. Pearson correlation test results show that the value p = 0.001, meaning there is a significant relationship between GLUT4 expression with final GDP levels. The result of simple linear regression analysis showed that p = 0,000 (<0,05, meaning that dose of papaya seed extract had a significant influence on GLUT4 expression.

  11. Marcadores RAPD para la identificación del sexo en papaya (Carica papaya L. en Colombia

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    Chaves-Bedoya Giovanni

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available

    La determinación del sexo en plantas de papaya es considerado un sistema intrigante, debido a que esta especie presenta tres sexos (macho, hembra y hermafrodita determinados por un locus multialélico. Además, esta especie no presenta cromosomas sexuales morfológicamente diferenciables. Los marcadores moleculares pueden asociarse a características de interés, como en el presente caso, al sexo en plántulas de papaya. Con el objetivo de identificar marcadores moleculares que permitan una rápida identificación del sexo en genotipos colombianos de plántulas de papaya, se aplicó la técnica RAPD (ampliación aleatoria de polimorfismos del ADN. El estudio encontró tres marcadores RAPD polimórficos, los cuales permitieron diferenciar los sexos de la papaya. Dos marcadores fueron específicos para plantas macho y hermafrodita, y un tercero para plantas hembra. Estos nuevos marcadores moleculares podrán ser beneficiosos en la determinación del sexo en genotipos colombianos de papaya.

  12. Efectos de la fertilización con nitrógeno en la producción de papaya (Carica papaya L. y en la incidencia de virosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vallejo G. Gladys

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available En un suelo Vertic Aplustoll arcilloso sobre franco esmetítico, isohipertérmico, del Centro de Producción Agropecuaria ACotové@, ubicado en el municipio de Santafé de Antioquia, en la zona de vida bosque seco Tropical (bs-T, se realizó un trabajo para determinar la respuesta de la variedad de papaya AU.N. Cotové@ (Carica papaya L. a la fertilización con N en dosis de 0, 183 y 366 kg/ha, equivalentes a dosis individuales de 5, 5, 10, 15, 25, 25, 25 y 10,10, 20, 30, 50, 50, 50 g de N/planta, respectivamente, fertilizando cada mes durante los primeros 4 meses después del transplante y cada 2 meses posteriormente, durante un período de 9 meses. Se suministraron además dosis constantes de P, K, S, Fe, Mn, Zn, y B. Se utilizó un diseño de bloques al azar con cuatro repeticiones y 10 plantas por unidad experimental, con distancias entre plantas de 2 m y entre surcos de 3m.

  13. THE EFFECT OF IMMERSION LENGTH IN PAPAYA LEAF SOLUTION (CARICA PAPAYA L. TOWARD FERTILIZATION AND HATCHING OF IRIDESCENT SHARKS (PANGASIANODON HYPOPHTHALMUS S.

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    Eka S.H.

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Iridescent sharks is one kind of freshwater fish that is quite economical. However, the availability of the fish eggs is rather problematic due to the hatcheries, i.e. the adhesive nature of the eggs. Papaya leaves contain papain enzymes that can reduce the adhesive nature of eggs. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of papaya leaf solution with different immersion period on the successful hatching of the iridescent sharks (P. hypophthalmus. This study was conducted experimentally using a complete randomized design. There were five treatments, i.e. (K 0 seconds, (A 30 seconds, (B 60 seconds, (C 90 seconds, (D 120 seconds, and (E 150 seconds with three-time repetition. The result of this study shows that the best hatching (80.31% happens to the eggs immersed in papaya leaf solution for 60 seconds (treatment B.

  14. Gamma radiation use as a quarantine treatment for Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824) and Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied., 1830) in papaya fruits (Carica papaya, Linnaeus), cultivar sunrise solo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, J.T. de.

    1989-01-01

    The gamma irradiation as treatment for control of the immature stages of fruit flies, C. capitata and A. fraterculus in papaya fruits, cultivar Sunrise Solo is studied. The gamma rays attenuation was observed by one and two papaya fruits placed between source and infested fruit, and this changed the radiation doses required to obtain mortality in eggs and larvae of the Medfly. The efficacy of irradiation was higher when the infested papayas were packed in paper box. The radiation dose determined using the Probit 9 concept, for immature stages mortality of C. capitata was 107,74 Gy and for A. fraterculus was 50,82 Gy. The sterilizing doses for adults of C. capitata and D. fraterculus, irradiated as pupae, was 60 Gy and 40 Gy, respectively. (author)

  15. Identificación de especies del género Colletotrichum asociadas a la antracnosis en papaya (Carica papaya L.) En Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony Molina-Chaves; Luis Gómez-Alpízar; Gerardina Umaña-Rojas

    2017-01-01

    La antracnosis, causada por Colletotrichum spp., es una de la enfermedades poscosecha más importantes en papaya. En este estudio, frutas de papaya, híbrido Pococí, recolectados en plantaciones ubicadas en el cantón de Guácimo, provincia de Limón, presentaron 7 síntomas de antracnosis, luego de un período de almacenamiento. De cada síntoma se obtuvieron aislados de Colletotrichum en medio de cultivo PDA (papa-dextrosa-agar). Los aislamientos se clasificaron en 3 grupos según la similitud de lo...

  16. Heat treatment and gamma radiation on the control of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.) Penz. et Sacc., causal agent of the papaya fruits (Carica papaya L.) anthracnose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Tanni Maria Werneck da.

    1988-12-01

    For controlling papaya anthracnose on stored fruits the effect of heat treatment and gamma radiation on Colletotrichum gloeosporioides was studied in vitro and in vivo. Some physiological studies with four isolades of C. gloeosporioides from papaya fruits concerning the best conditions for mycelial growth and sporulation were also performed. The results showed that the best conditions for isolates development in BDA were: temperature between 25 and 27 0 C for mycelium radial growth; between 27 and 30 0 C under 12 hours alternating periods of fluorescent). (author). 131 refs., 9 figs., 33 tabs

  17. Identificación de especies del género Colletotrichum asociadas a la antracnosis en papaya (Carica papaya L. En Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Molina-Chaves

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available La antracnosis, causada por Colletotrichum spp., es una de la enfermedades poscosecha más importantes en papaya. En este estudio, frutas de papaya, híbrido Pococí, recolectados en plantaciones ubicadas en el cantón de Guácimo, provincia de Limón, presentaron 7 síntomas de antracnosis, luego de un período de almacenamiento. De cada síntoma se obtuvieron aislados de Colletotrichum en medio de cultivo PDA (papa-dextrosa-agar. Los aislamientos se clasificaron en 3 grupos según la similitud de los síntomas y la morfología de la colonia. El análisis de la secuencia de la región espaciadora interna transcrita (ITS del ADN ribosomal reveló que los aislamientos pertenecieron a 3 especies del género Colletotrichum: C. gloeosporioides sensu lato, C. magnum y C. capsici (C. truncatum. La identificación de las especies fue confirmada con imprimadores taxón específico para C. gloeosporioides e imprimadores especie-específicos para C. magnum. Las 3 especies identificadas mostraron ser patogénicas sobre frutas de papaya. Las especies C. magnum y C. capsici (C. truncatum se registran por primera vez en Costa Rica, como agentes causales de la antracnosis en papaya.

  18. Carica papaya L.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    à 2 types d'explants (bourgeons apicaux et axillaires), la performance de 3 milieux d'enracinement. Les résultats obtenus ont ...... l'entreprise serricole-. Cahier de références techniques, 44 p. CILSS. 2004. Normes de consommation des principaux produits alimentaires dans les pays du CILSS. p 44. CIRAD-. GRET. 2006.

  19. Carica papaya L

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-08-08

    Aug 8, 2017 ... ion Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 434. Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia lture Science and Biotechnology, Faculty of Bioresources and Food Sc ... sing the Biolog system showed ...... management.

  20. carica papaya l.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    reducing sugars, total sugars, soluble solids, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid content and PPO activity were .... Sample preparation. Fresh fruit juice ..... vegetables and soils from vegetable gardens in ... produced in Eastern Canada. J. Assoc.

  1. Papaya Lethal Yellowing Virus (PLYV) Infects Vasconcellea cauliflora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amaral, P.P.R.; Resende, de R.O.; Souza, M.T.

    2006-01-01

    Papaya lethal yellowing virus (PLYV) é um dos três vírus descritos infectando mamoeiros (Carica papaya L.) no Brasil. Vasconcellea cauliflora (Jacq.) A. DC., antes denominada de Carica cauliflora (Jacq.), é uma reconhecida fonte de resistência natural ao Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), causador da

  2. Estudio de la conservación de la papaya (Carica papaya L. asociado a la aplicación de películas comestibles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Almeida Castro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Brasil es un importante productor de papaya, pero sólo una pequeña parte se exporta. Esta fruta es altamente perecedera, por lo que el control de la maduración es esencial para aumentar la vida útil, tanto para el mercado interno como para la exportación. Una alternativa que ha cobrado impulso en el mercado es el uso de películas comestibles biodegradables, entre ellas la película producida a partir de almidón de yuca. En este estudio se evaluó el efecto de una película de almidón de yuca (2 % sobre la papaya almacenadas a temperatura ambiental (25 ± 2 ºC y a 8 °C, y 82 % de humedad relativa durante 6 días de almacenamiento. Se realizaron análisis de pérdida de peso, color, pH, acidez, carotenoides totales, vitamina C y sólidos solubles totales, cada tres días de almacenamiento. La película comestible de almidón de yuca resultó ser una buena alternativa para la preservación de la papaya durante seis días de almacenamiento, en relación a los parámetros pH, grados Brix, acidez y carotenoides.

  3. Potencial antifúngico de extractos de cuatro especies vegetales sobre el crecimiento de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides en papaya (Carica papaya en poscosecha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Landero Valenzuela

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available El manejo de antracnosis por Colletotrichum gloeosporioides es el problema más importante en poscosecha de frutos tropicales. La actividad antifúngica de diferentes extractos vegetales fue evaluada in vitro e in vivo para controlar la antracnosis poscosecha en papaya. Extractos de ajo (Allium sativum (10 y 15 % y canela (Cinnamomum zeylanicum (0,0050; 0,0100; 0,0150 % mostraron efecto fungicida en contra de C. gloeosporioides para supresión de crecimiento micelial (100 %, inhibición de germinación (100 % y esporulación del hongo (100 %, considerándose estos extractos como los más promisorios para inhibir el desarrollo del hongo in vitro. Estudios in vivo también revelaron que los extracto de ajo (11,74 % y canela a dosis de 0,0054 % aplicada antes y al mismo tiempo de la inoculación con C. gloeosporioides, fueron las dosis óptimas para el control (severidad de la antracnosis en frutos de papaya artificialmente inoculados, mientras que a mayores dosis la severidad aumentó. La variable fitotoxicidad arrojó resultados consistentes con lo anterior, comprobándose que al aumentar las dosis de extracto de canela se presentó cambio de color en los frutos. Los resultados sugieren la posibilidad de usar estos extractos a dosis adecuadas como biofungicidas para controlar antracnosis en papaya en poscosecha.

  4. Potencial antifúngico de extractos de cuatro especies vegetales sobre el crecimiento de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides en papaya (Carica papaya en poscosecha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Landero Valenzuela

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El manejo de antracnosis por Colletotrichum gloeosporioides es el problema más importante en poscosecha de frutos tropicales. La actividad antifúngica de diferentes extractos vegetales fue evaluada in vitro e in vivo para controlar la antracnosis poscosecha en papaya. Extractos de ajo (Allium sativum (10 y 15 % y canela (Cinnamomum zeylanicum (0,0050; 0,0100; 0,0150 % mostraron efecto fungicida en contra de C. gloeosporioides para supresión de crecimiento micelial (100 %, inhibición de germinación (100 % y esporulación del hongo (100 %, considerándose estos extractos como los más promisorios para inhibir el desarrollo del hongo in vitro. Estudios in vivo también revelaron que los extracto de ajo (11,74 % y canela a dosis de 0,0054 % aplicada antes y al mismo tiempo de la inoculación con C. gloeosporioides, fueron las dosis óptimas para el control (severidad de la antracnosis en frutos de papaya artificialmente inoculados, mientras que a mayores dosis la severidad aumentó. La variable fitotoxicidad arrojó resultados consistentes con lo anterior, comprobándose que al aumentar las dosis de extracto de canela se presentó cambio de color en los frutos. Los resultados sugieren la posibilidad de usar estos extractos a dosis adecuadas como biofungicidas para controlar antracnosis en papaya en poscosecha.

  5. Efecto de la biofertilización y los biorreguladores en la germinación y el crecimiento de Carica papaya L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maricela Constantino

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Título en inglés: Effect of biofertilization and bioregulators on germination and growth of Carica papaya L. Resumen Con el objetivo de incrementar y acelerar el proceso de germinación de las semillas y obtener una alta producción y homogeneidad de plántulas de Carica papaya variedad Maradol en vivero, se evaluó el efecto de tres biofertilizantes aplicados solos o en combinación (Azotobacter chroococcum, Azospirillum brasilense y Glomus intraradices, y un biorregulador del crecimiento vegetal, el ácido giberélico (AG3, en la germinación y el crecimiento vegetal. Se realizó un experimento bajo un diseño completamente al azar con ocho tratamientos y tres repeticiones. A las semillas se les aplicó un pretratamiento germinativo con alternancia de temperatura para superar la dormancia. Los tratamientos simples con A. chroococcum y A. brasilense, incrementaron el porcentaje de germinación a 90,28 y 88,89% respectivamente. Además, con la aplicación de los biofertilizantes y el AG3, la velocidad de germinación se incrementó y el tiempo medio de germinación se redujo. La doble aplicación en semillas y foliar de los biofertilizantes y el AG3 en plántulas mejoró el crecimiento vegetal. La población de A. chroococcum fue mayor cuando se inoculó en combinación con G. intraradices. La prevalencia de colonización de las plántulas inoculadas con G. intraradices varió de 18,53 a 26,67%, con el mayor valor registrado para el tratamiento combinado con A. brasilense. Finalmente, aplicando esta metodología se logró acelerar la germinación, obteniéndose una mayor homogeneidad en la emergencia de las plántulas, disminuyendo así el tiempo de permanencia en el vivero. Palabras clave: Azospirillum brasilense; Azotobacter chroococcum; Glomus intraradices; ácido giberélico; dormancia. Abstract In order to increase and accelerate the process of seed germination and obtain a high yield and homogeneity of papaya seedlings cv. Maradol in

  6. EFECTO DE CERAS COMO COMPLEMENTO A LA INMERSIÓN HIDROTÉRMICA SOBRE LA CALIDAD EN LA FRUTA DE PAPAYA (Carica papaya L. HÍBRIDO POCOCÍ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Gustavo Corrales

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto de ceras, como com - plemento a la inmersión hidrotérmica, sobre variables de calidad poscosecha de papaya. Las frutas se cosecharon, empacaron y fueron lava - das, desinfectadas e inmersas en agua a 49°C por 20 minutos (TH para posteriormente aplicar los tratamientos: 1 cera de abejas y aceite de palma 5%; 2 cera de mezcla ácidos grasos 4,7%; 3 qui - tosano 0,1%; 4 solo TH; 5 testigo (sin inmersión hidrotérmica ni cera. La papaya fue almacena - da 15 días a 12ºC y posteriormente a 20°C. Se encontraron diferencias significativas (p<=0,05 entre las frutas que recibieron el TH complemen - tado con cera de abejas y palma al 5%, que tuvie - ron menor tasa respiratoria (12,27 ml CO 2 /kg*h a 8 días de salida del almacenamiento en frío, en comparación con las que solo recibieron el TH (16,72 ml CO 2 /kg*h, o las papayas testigo (17,01 ml CO 2 /kg*h. El menor porcentaje de pérdida de peso acumulado se registró con el TH más cera de abejas y palma. Las variables de color no fueron afectadas, excepto por el tratamiento 2, cera de mezcla de ácidos grasos, que indujo un retraso en el desarrollo del color (p≤0,05. No se observaron cambios en firmeza interna o externa ni en grados brix. El TH permitió una disminu - ción en la incidencia de pudriciones, severidad de antracnosis y prolongación de la vida útil. El uso de ceras como complemento al TH puede contri - buir a mantener algunos de los parámetros que inciden en la calidad de la papaya.

  7. The development of functional mapping by three sex-related loci on the third whorl of different sex types of Carica papaya L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Yu Lee

    Full Text Available Carica papaya L. is an important economic crop worldwide and is used as a model plant for sex-determination research. To study the different flower sex types, we screened sex-related genes using alternative splicing sequences (AS-seqs from a transcriptome database of the three flower sex types, i.e., males, females, and hermaphrodites, established at 28 days before flowering using 15 bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs of C. papaya L. After screening, the cDNA regions of the three sex-related loci, including short vegetative phase-like (CpSVPL, the chromatin assembly factor 1 subunit A-like (CpCAF1AL, and the somatic embryogenesis receptor kinase (CpSERK, which contained eight sex-related single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs from the different sex types of C. papaya L., were genotyped using high-resolution melting (HRM. The three loci were examined regarding the profiles of the third whorl, as described below. CpSVPL, which had one SNP associated with the three sex genotypes, was highly expressed in the male and female sterile flowers (abnormal hermaphrodite flowers that lacked the fourth whorl structure. CpCAF1AL, which had three SNPs associated with the male genotype, was highly expressed in male and normal hermaphrodite flowers, and had no AS-seqs, whereas it exhibited low expression and an AS-seqs in intron 11 in abnormal hermaphrodite flowers. Conversely, carpellate flowers (abnormal hermaphrodite flowers showed low expression of CpSVPL and AS-seqs in introns 5, 6, and 7 of CpSERK, which contained four SNPs associated with the female genotype. Specifically, the CpSERK and CpCAF1AL loci exhibited no AS-seq expression in the third whorl of the male and normal hermaphrodite flowers, respectively, and variance in the AS-seq expression of all other types of flowers. Functional mapping of the third whorl of normal hermaphrodites indicated no AS-seq expression in CpSERK, low CpSVPL expression, and, for CpCAF1AL, high expression and no AS

  8. Design, fabrication and initial evaluation of an upflow fixed-bed adsorption column for lead (Pb2+) using Carica papaya seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piquero, Ronald E.

    2005-03-01

    The study is about the adsorption pf lead (Pb 2+ ) using Carica papaya as biosorbent in an upflow continuous fixed-bed adsorption column. A column was designed and fabricated which was used in the experiment. It aimed to determine the effect of flowrates in the adsorption mechanism of the biosorbent. Three flowrates were used in the experiment: 100 mL/min, 150 mL/min, and 200 mL/min. A solution of 100 ppm of unbuffered lead was allowed to pass through a bed of biosorbent that has a length of 15 cm and the amount of lead ions was measured using flame atomic absorption spectroscopy in terms of residual concentration of lead in the outlet stream. The result showed that the 100 mL/min flowrate had the lowest amount of residual concentration measured compared to the 150 mL/min and 200 mL/min. This means that the 100 mL/min had the most lead ions adsorbed. Statistical test like the one-factor anova and t-test were also done in the research. Anova result showed that the flowrate has significant effect in the adsorption of lead ions of the biosorbent while the t-test results showed that the 100 ml/min is the most effective flowrate wherein the bed had adsorbed the most amounts of ions. (Author)

  9. The effect of waxes, as a complement to hydrothermal immersion, on the quality of papaya fruit (Carica papaya L. Pococí hybrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Gustavo Corra

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Different waxes were evaluated as a complement to hydrothermal treatment on the overall papaya fruit quality parameters. The fruits were harvested, washed in water, disinfected with sodium hypochlorite and exposed to hydrothermal immersion treatment at 49°C/20 min (HT; then treatments were applied: 1 bees wax +palm oil 5% solution; 2 fatty acids wax mixture 4.7%; 3 chitosan 0.1%; 4 only HT; 5 control (no hydrothermal immersion nor wax. The fruit was stored for 15 days at 12°C, then at 20°C. Significant differences (p≤0.05 were found between fruits receiving HT complemented with 5% bees + palm oil wax, which exhibited lower respiration rate (12.27 ml CO2/kg*h a 8 days after leaving cold storage, as compared with those receiving only HT (16.72 ml CO2/ kg*h or control fruits (17.01 ml CO2/kg*h. The lesser percent of acumulated weight loss was registered whit TH plus bees wax cund palm oil. The color parameters were not affected, except for treatment 2, fatty acids wax mixture, which induced a delay in color development (p≤0.05. No changes were observed in internal or external firmness, nor in degrees brix. HT reduced the incidence of peduncular rot and anthracnose severity (p≤0.05, and extended useful life time. The use of waxes as a complement to HT can contribute to preserving some of the parameters which influence the final papaya fruit quality.

  10. Cinética de secado de fruta bomba (Carica papaya L., cv. Maradol Roja) mediante los métodos de deshidratación osmótica y por flujo de aire caliente

    OpenAIRE

    Daybelis Fernández Valdés; Sahylin Muñiz Becerá; Annia García Pereira; Rafael Cervantes Beyra; Dayvis Fernández Valdés

    2015-01-01

    La deshidratación es uno de los métodos más utilizados para la conservación de frutas y vegetales, mediante su uso se logra extender los períodos de almacenamiento preservando siempre la calidad de los productos. El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo evaluar el comportamiento cinético de las principales propiedades de la fruta bomba (Carica papaya L, cv. Maradol Roja) durante los procesos agroindustriales de deshidratación osmótica (DO) y por flujo de aire caliente (DAC). Las frutas se cort...

  11. A Multi-centric, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled, Randomized, Prospective Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Carica papaya Leaf Extract, as Empirical Therapy for Thrombocytopenia associated with Dengue Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasture, Prabhu Nagnathappa; Nagabhushan, K H; Kumar, Arun

    2016-06-01

    Dengue is a rapidly expanding global health problem. Approximately 2.5 billion people live in dengue-risk regions with about 100 million new cases each year worldwide. The cumulative dengue diseases burden has attained an unprecedented proportion in recent times with sharp increase in the size of human population at risk. The management of dengue virus infection is essentially supportive and symptomatic and no specific treatment is available for increasing the fallen platelets, which have a significant role in causing the mortality of dengue patient.This study was conducted to evaluate the platelet increasing efficacy of Carica papaya leaf extract (CPLE) in patients with dengue fever (DF). The administration of Carica papaya leaf extract should significantly increase the platelet count in cases of thrombocytopenia associated with dengue, preventing the patient to go in DHF or DSS conditions. A Multi-centric, Double blind, Placebo controlled, Randomized, prospective study was conducted in 300 patients across 5 centres', to evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Carica Papaya Leaf Extract, as empirical therapy for thrombocytopenia associated with dengue fever. The subjects were randomized into two groups, as control and intervention group. Both the groups were managed by the standard management guidelines for dengue except steroid administration. In addition to this, the intervention group received CPLE tablet three times daily for five days. All of them were followed daily with platelet monitoring. This study has been registered in the clinical trial registry-India (CTRI Registration number: CTRI/2015/05/005806). The results indicate that CPLE had significant increase(p< 0.01) in the platelet count over the therapy duration, in dengue fever patients, confirming CPLE accelerates the increase in platelet count compared to the control group. There were few adverse events related to GI disturbance like nausea and vomiting which were similar in both groups. Thus this study

  12. POST-HARVEST FUNGAL DISEASES OF PAWPAW ( CARICA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Post-harvest fungal diseases of pawpaw (Carica papaya L.) fruits sold in Mile 3 Market, Port Harcourt were investigated bi-weekly for sixteen weeks using the Standard Blotter Method. The following fungi were isolated from the tissues of diseased fruits: Fusarium solani, Phoma carica-papaya Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus ...

  13. Efecto del calcio en aplicaciones precosecha y poscosecha sobre la severidad de antracnosis (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides y la calidad de frutos de papaya (Carica papaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Saborío

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evalu6 el efecto de aplicaciones pre- cosecha y poscosecha de calcio en papaya va- riedad "criolla" sabre la severidad de antracno- sis (CoUetotrichum gloeosporioides y varia- hIes de calidad del fruto. Los tratamientos pre- cosecha fueron 4: aspersi6n de CaCl2 al 1% Y 4% (2 aplicaciones: <40 dfas posantesis (dpa y entre 100-140 dpa con el penetrante alquilaril- polimero (NP- 7 Bayer (0.4 mIlL, CaCO3 al suelo (1 ton/ha, 70 dpa y testigo (0% Ca. El diseno experimental fue un BCA (4 repeticio- nes de 20 frutos. Los tratamientos poscosecha fueron 3: inmersiones par 5 min con 0%, 1 % Y 4% de CaCI2, con el mismo penetrante. El dise- no experimental fue un BCA (3 repeticiones de 15 frutas. Se evalu6 severidad, % calcio en cascara, brix, pH, % acidez, firmeza (cascara y pulpa y % de madurez. En la aplicaci6n de cal- cia precosecha la severidad fue: 1 % CaC12 con 6%, testigo 7%, CaCO3 9% y 4% CaC12 con 11 %, no se encontr6 que el Ca tuviera un efec-

  14. Characterisation of an acidic peroxidase from papaya (Carica papaya L. cv Tainung No. 2) latex and its application in the determination of micromolar hydrogen peroxide in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Chun; Chung, Yun-Chin; Chang, Chen-Tien

    2012-12-15

    An acidic peroxidase isoform, POD-A, with a molecular mass of 69.4 kDa and an isoelectric point of 3.5 was purified from papaya latex. Using o-phenylenediamine (OPD) as a hydrogen donor (citrate-phosphate as pH buffer), the optimum pH for the function of POD-A was 4.6, and the optimum temperature was 50°C. The peroxidase activity of POD-A toward hydrogen donors was both pH- and concentration-dependent. Under optimal conditions, POD-A catalysed the oxidation of OPD at higher rates than pyrogallol, catechol, quercetin and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS). The chemical modification reagents N-bromosuccinimide and sodium azide significantly inhibited POD-A activity. The results of kinetic studies indicated that POD-A followed a ping-pong mechanism and had a K(m) value of 2.8mM for OPD. Using CPC silica-immobilised POD-A for the determination of micromolar H(2)O(2) in milk, the lower limit of determination was 0.1 μM, and the recoveries of added H(2)O(2) were 96-109%. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. RNA Interference of 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic Acid Oxidase (ACO1 and ACO2 Genes Expression Prolongs the Shelf Life of Eksotika (Carica papaya L. Papaya Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogayah Sekeli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of using RNA interference in down regulating the expression of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase gene in Eksotika papaya. One-month old embryogenic calli were separately transformed with Agrobacterium strain LBA 4404 harbouring the three different RNAi pOpOff2 constructs bearing the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase gene. A total of 176 putative transformed lines were produced from 15,000 calli transformed, selected, then regenerated on medium supplemented with kanamycin. Integration and expression of the targeted gene in putatively transformed lines were verified by PCR and real-time RT-PCR. Confined field evaluation of a total of 31 putative transgenic lines planted showed a knockdown expression of the targeted ACO1 and ACO2 genes in 13 lines, which required more than 8 days to achieve the full yellow colour (Index 6. Fruits harvested from lines pRNAiACO2 L2-9 and pRNAiACO1 L2 exhibited about 20 and 14 days extended post-harvest shelf life to reach Index 6, respectively. The total soluble solids contents of the fruits ranged from 11 to 14° Brix, a range similar to fruits from non-transformed, wild type seed-derived plants.

  16. Fabrication and hemocompatibility assessment of novel polyurethane-based bio-nanofibrous dressing loaded with honey and Carica papaya extract for the management of burn injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, Arunpandian; Jaganathan, Saravana Kumar; Ismail, Ahmad Fauzi; Rajasekar, Rathanasamy

    Management of burn injury is an onerous clinical task since it requires continuous monitoring and extensive usage of specialized facilities. Despite rapid improvizations and investments in burn management, >30% of victims hospitalized each year face severe morbidity and mortality. Excessive loss of body fluids, accumulation of exudate, and the development of septic shock are reported to be the main reasons for morbidity in burn victims. To assist burn wound management, a novel polyurethane (PU)-based bio-nanofibrous dressing loaded with honey (HN) and Carica papaya (PA) fruit extract was fabricated using a one-step electrospinning technique. The developed dressing material had a mean fiber diameter of 190±19.93 nm with pore sizes of 4-50 µm to support effective infiltration of nutrients and gas exchange. The successful blending of HN- and PA-based active biomolecules in PU was inferred through changes in surface chemistry. The blend subsequently increased the wettability (14%) and surface energy (24%) of the novel dressing. Ultimately, the presence of hydrophilic biomolecules and high porosity enhanced the water absorption ability of the PU-HN-PA nanofiber samples to 761.67% from 285.13% in PU. Furthermore, the ability of the bio-nanofibrous dressing to support specific protein adsorption (45%), delay thrombus formation, and reduce hemolysis demonstrated its nontoxic and compatible nature with the host tissues. In summary, the excellent physicochemical and hemocompatible properties of the developed PU-HN-PA dressing exhibit its potential in reducing the clinical complications associated with the treatment of burn injuries.

  17. Estudo e modelagem da cinética de desidratação osmótica do mamão formosa (Carica papaya L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Aquar Ânoar Abbas

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo o estudo da cinética e modelagem do processo de desidratação osmótica de cubos de mamão Formosa (Carica papaya L., assim como da qualidade do produto final. O tratamento osmótico foi conduzido a 30ºC, com agitação de 110rpm, utilizando-se dois tipos de soluções de sacarose 70ºBrix: a primeira contendo lactato de sódio 2,4% p/p e ácido láctico 0,1M e a segunda com lactato de sódio 2,4% p/p e ácido cítrico 0,1M. O estudo da cinética de desidratação osmótica mostrou que a solução contendo ácido cítrico apresentou valor de perda de água (WL, ao final de 48 horas de processo, ligeiramente superior ao encontrado para a solução contendo ácido láctico. Comportamento contrário ocorreu para o ganho de sólidos (SG. O ajuste dos dados experimentais foi realizado através do modelo difusional para geometria cúbica, sem considerar encolhimento durante o processo e um modelo empírico de dois parâmetros. Os coeficientes de difusividade efetiva de água (Def variaram de 1,27 a 5,03 x 10-10 m²/s. A qualidade da fruta após processamento foi avaliada através de análises de vitamina C, carotenóides totais, acidez e pH.

  18. Incidencia de la mecanización del suelo sobre sus propiedades físicas y el crecimiento vegetativo de papaya (Carica papaya L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Fernando Mendez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Para determinar la incidencia de la mecanización del suelo sobre sus propiedades físicas y el crecimiento vegetativo de papaya en Florencia (Caquetá, se utilizó el Diseño de Bloques Completos al Azar con tres tratamientos: suelo mecanizado con Motoazada, Azadón y no mecanizado - Testigo y cuatro repeticiones. Se midió en campo la resistencia a la penetración y los índices de crecimiento vegetativo, mientras que en laboratorio se calcularon la porosidad total, y la densidad aparente. En el mes uno (M1 la resistencia a la penetración presentó diferencias significativas (p0,05 en ninguna de las profundidades. La densidad aparente y resistencia a la penetración aumentaron a través del tiempo. Los mayores valores de producción de asimilados y rendimiento en adsorción de energía lumínica representada en la tasa de asimilación neta, se presentaron a los 180 días después de la siembra en Testigo, donde alcanzó 10,04gm-2dia-1. La duración de área foliar y la tasa de crecimiento del cultivo fueron las variables más sensibles en respuesta de los cambios de porosidad y resistencia a la penetración del suelo. El Testigo, alcanzó los mayores niveles de tasa de asimilación neta, posiblemente por la homogeneidad en la ganancia de asimilados, a través del periodo fotosintético evaluado.

  19. Microbicidal effect of medicinal plant extracts (Psidium guajava Linn. and Carica papaya Linn. upon bacteria isolated from fish muscle and known to induce diarrhea in children Uso de extrato de plantas medicinais (Psidium guajava Linn. e Carica papaya Linn. frente a bactérias isoladas de pescado, causadoras de diarréias infantis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regine Helena Silva dos Fernandes VIEIRA

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Out of the twenty-four samples of shrimp and fish muscle used for this study, twelve were collected near a large marine sewer for waste disposal, 3 km off the coast of Fortaleza (Brazil and used for the isolation of E. coli. Other twelve were collected at the Mucuripe fresh fish market (Fortaleza, Brazil and used for the isolation of Staphylococcus aureus. Ethanol, water and acetone-diluted extracts of guava and papaya leaf sprouts were tested on the bacteria in order to verify their microbicidal potential. The E. coli strains used in the trials were rated LT positive. The papaya leaf extracts (Carica papaya Linn showed no microbicidal activity while the guava sprout extracts (Psidium guajava Linn displayed halos exceeding 13 mm for both species, an effect considered to be inhibitory by the method employed. Guava sprout extracts by 50% diluted ethanol most effectively inhibited E. coli (EPEC, while those in 50% acetone were less effective. It may be concluded that guava sprout extracts constitute a feasible treatment option for diarrhea caused by E. coli or by S. aureus-produced toxins, due to their quick curative action, easy availability in tropical countries and low cost to the consumer.Foram coletadas doze amostras de camarão e peixes nas imediações do interceptor oceânico, em Fortaleza e igual número na Feira de pescado do Mucuripe, Fortaleza, para isolamento de E. coli e Staphylococcus aureus, respectivamente. Extratos aquosos, alcoólicos e cetônicos de broto de goiabeira e de folha de mamão foram testados frente às bactérias para se verificar suas ações antibióticas. As cepas de E. coli utilizadas nos ensaios foram as classificadas como LT positivas. Os extratos de folhas de mamão (Carica papaya Linn não revelaram quaisquer atividades antibióticas enquanto que os preparados com broto de goiabeira (Psidium guajava Linn apresentaram halos sempre >13 mm para as duas espécies, considerados como de inibição pelo m

  20. Artificial neural network and response surface methodology modeling in mass transfer parameters predictions during osmotic dehydration of Carica papaya L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Prakash Maran

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a comparative approach was made between artificial neural network (ANN and response surface methodology (RSM to predict the mass transfer parameters of osmotic dehydration of papaya. The effects of process variables such as temperature, osmotic solution concentration and agitation speed on water loss, weight reduction, and solid gain during osmotic dehydration were investigated using a three-level three-factor Box-Behnken experimental design. Same design was utilized to train a feed-forward multilayered perceptron (MLP ANN with back-propagation algorithm. The predictive capabilities of the two methodologies were compared in terms of root mean square error (RMSE, mean absolute error (MAE, standard error of prediction (SEP, model predictive error (MPE, chi square statistic (χ2, and coefficient of determination (R2 based on the validation data set. The results showed that properly trained ANN model is found to be more accurate in prediction as compared to RSM model.

  1. Propagación in vitro de Carica papaya var. PTM-331 a partir de meristemos apicales In vitro propagation of Carica papaya var. PTM-331 from apical meristem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynaldo Solis L.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo consistió en desarrollar un protocolo de propagación in vitro de la variedad de papaya PTM-331 a partir de meristemos apicales, con la finalidad de obtener plántulas vigorosas y libres de enfermedades, empleando la técnica del cultivo de tejidos. Las yemas apicales empleadas fueron obtenidas de plantas cultivadas en invernadero, los cuales fueron usados como explantes para la extracción de meristemos. La mejor diferenciación de meristemos se logró en el medio basal MS suplementado con 0,5 mg.L-1 de BAP, 0,5 mg.L-1 de AIA y 10 mg.L-1 de adenina. La mejor multiplicación se logró con el medio MS suplementado con 0,5 mg.L-1 de BAP, 0,5 mg.L-1 de AIA y 0,3 mg.L-1 de AG3, con un coeficiente de multiplicación de 3,42; mientras que el mejor medio para el enraizamiento fue la combinación del medio MS, 3 mg.L-1 de AIB y 5 mg.L-1 de adenina, donde se obtuvo 83,33% de plantas enraizadas.An in vitro protocol was develop to propagate variety of papaya PTM-331 from apical meristems, with the objective of obtaining vigorous and disease-free seedlings, using tissue culture techniques. Apical buds were obtained from seedlings cultivated in greenhouse and used as explants for meristem dissection. Meristems were cultured on MS basal medium supplemented with 0,5 mg.L-1 of BAP, 0,5 mg.L-1 of AIA and 10 mg.L-1 of adenine for their differentiation. The best multiplication of explants was achieved with the combination of MS medium supplemented with 0,5 mg.L-1 of BAP, 0,5 mg.L-1 of AIA and 0,3 mg.L-1 of AG3, where largest seedlings, with more shoots were obtained. The best medium for rooting was the combination of MS, 3 mg.L-1 of AIB and 5 mg.L-1 of adenine, where 83,33% of rooted plants were obtained.

  2. Fabrication and hemocompatibility assessment of novel polyurethane-based bio-nanofibrous dressing loaded with honey and Carica papaya extract for the management of burn injuries

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    Balaji A

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Arunpandian Balaji,1 Saravana Kumar Jaganathan,2–4 Ahmad Fauzi Ismail,5 Rathanasamy Rajasekar6 1Faculty of Biosciences and Medical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru, Malaysia; 2Department for Management of Science and Technology Development, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam; 3Faculty of Applied Sciences, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam; 4IJNUTM Cardiovascular Engineering Centre, Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Biosciences and Medical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru, Malaysia; 5Advanced Membrane Technology Research Center, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru, Malaysia; 6Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Building and Mechanical Sciences, Kongu Engineering College, Tamil Nadu, India Abstract: Management of burn injury is an onerous clinical task since it requires continuous monitoring and extensive usage of specialized facilities. Despite rapid improvizations and investments in burn management, >30% of victims hospitalized each year face severe morbidity and mortality. Excessive loss of body fluids, accumulation of exudate, and the development of septic shock are reported to be the main reasons for morbidity in burn victims. To assist burn wound management, a novel polyurethane (PU-based bio-nanofibrous dressing loaded with honey (HN and Carica papaya (PA fruit extract was fabricated using a one-step electrospinning technique. The developed dressing material had a mean fiber diameter of 190±19.93 nm with pore sizes of 4–50 µm to support effective infiltration of nutrients and gas exchange. The successful blending of HN- and PA-based active biomolecules in PU was inferred through changes in surface chemistry. The blend subsequently increased the wettability (14% and surface energy (24% of the novel dressing. Ultimately, the presence of hydrophilic biomolecules and high porosity enhanced the water absorption ability of the PU

  3. Acute and sub-chronic toxicity studies of three plants used in Cameroonian ethnoveterinary medicine: Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (Xanthorrhoeaceae) leaves, Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae) seeds or leaves, and Mimosa pudica L. (Fabaceae) leaves in Kabir chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghonjuyi, Ndaleh Wozerou; Tiambo, Christian Keambou; Taïwe, Germain Sotoing; Toukala, Jean Paul; Lisita, Frederico; Juliano, Raquel Soares; Kimbi, Helen Kuokuo

    2016-02-03

    Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (Xanthorrhoeaceae), Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae) and Mimosa pudica L. (Fabaceae) are widely used in the Cameroonian ethnoveterinary medicine as a panacea, and specifically for gastrointestinal disorders as well as an anthelmintic and antibacterial. The present study evaluated the potential toxicity of the hydroalcoholic extracts of Aloe vera leaves, Carica papaya leaves or seeds, and Mimosa pudica leaves after acute and sub-chronic administration in chicks. For the acute toxicity test a single administration of each of the four hydroalcoholic extracts was given orally at doses ranging from 40 to 5120 mg/kg (n=5/group/sex). In the sub-chronic study, these extracts were given orally as a single administration to chicks at doses of 80, 160, 320 and 640 mg/kg/day for 42 days. The anti-angiogenic properties of these extracts (5-320 µg/mg) were investigated in the chick chorioallantoic membrane in vivo. In the acute toxicity test, none of the four studied hydroalcoholic extracts induced mortality or significant behavioural changes. The sub-acute treatment with the four plant extracts did not alter either the body weight gain or the food and water consumption. However, the results indicated that Aloe vera leaf extract acute treatment by oral route at doses up to 2560 mg/kg did not produce death in 50% (5/10) of chicks during 24h or 14 days of observation, but 20% (2/10) chicks died. The haematological and biochemical analyses did not show significant differences in any of the parameters examined in female or male groups, with the exception of a transient rise in white blood cell counts at high doses (640 mg/kg). Additionally, these extracts did not have the potential for anti-angiogenic effects through the inhibition of neo-angiogenesis in the chick chorioallantoic membrane in vivo. The results showed that the therapeutic use of the hydroalcoholic extracts of Aloe vera leaves, Carica papaya leaves or seeds and Mimosa pudica leaves had very low

  4. Heat treatment and gamma radiation on the control of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.) Penz. et Sacc., causal agent of the papaya fruits (Carica papaya L.) anthracnose; Tratamento termico e radiacao gamma no controle de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (PENZ.) PENTZ et SACC., agente causal da antracnose em frutos de mamoeiro (Carica papaya L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Tanni Maria Werneck da

    1988-12-01

    For controlling papaya anthracnose on stored fruits the effect of heat treatment and gamma radiation on Colletotrichum gloeosporioides was studied in vitro and in vivo. Some physiological studies with four isolades of C. gloeosporioides from papaya fruits concerning the best conditions for mycelial growth and sporulation were also performed. The results showed that the best conditions for isolates development in BDA were: temperature between 25 and 27{sup 0} C for mycelium radial growth; between 27 and 30{sup 0} C under (12 hours alternating periods of fluorescent). (author). 131 refs., 9 figs., 33 tabs.

  5. Domestication and Genetics of Papaya: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana Chávez-Pesqueira; Juan Núñez-Farfán

    2017-01-01

    A wealth of plant species used by humans for different purposes, but mainly as food, originated and domesticated in the Mesoamerican region. Papaya (Carica papaya) is the third most cultivated tropical crop worldwide, and it has been hypothesized that Mesoamerica is the most likely center of its origin and domestication. In support of it, many wild populations of papaya occur throughout Mesoamerica and hence represent the gene pool of genetic variability for further evolution and future crop ...

  6. L-ascorbic acid, β-carotene and lycopene content in papaya fruits (Carica papaya with or without physiological skin freckles Conteúdo de ácido l-ascórbico, β-caroteno e licopeno em frutos de mamão (Carica papaya com e sem mancha fisiológica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Marelli de Souza

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The Skin Freckles is a papaya skin disorder that depreciates de fruit appearance and hampers its commercialization, although not lowering its nutritive value. Being the papaya a good source of ascorbic acid, β-carotene and licopene this research aimed at determining L-ascorbic acid, β-carotene and licopene content in papaya fruits, from 'Formosa' and 'Solo' group varieties, with and without apparent physiological skin disease (skin freckles. Fruits were harvested in the Southeast Region of Brazil. L-ascorbic acid content was determined by titration technique. β-carotene and licopene contents were determined by high performance liquid chromatography technique (HPLC. L-ascorbic acid content in papaya fruits ranged from (59.9 ± 3.4 mg 100 g-1 to (112.4 ± 12.6 mg 100 g-1 in fresh papaya pulp. β-carotene content ranged from (0.19 ± 0.07 mg 100 g-1 to (0.56 ± 0.09 mg 100 g-1 and that of licopene ranged from (1.44 ± 0.28 mg 100 g-1 to (3.39 ± 0.32 mg 100 g-1 in fresh papaya pulp. L-ascorbic acid contents of papaya fruits with skin disease averaged 7.0 mg 100 g-1 to 10.0 mg 100 g-1 higher than those of papaya fruits without skin freckles (P A Mancha Fisiológica do Mamão (MFM é uma desordem da casca do mamão, que deprecia a aparência do fruto e prejudica a sua comercialização, embora não prejudique o seu valor nutritivo. Considerando ser o mamão, uma boa fonte de ácido L-ascórbico, b-caroteno e licopeno, esta pesquisa visou determinar o índice destes componentes em frutas de mamão, das variedades do grupo 'Formosa' e 'Solo', com e sem Mancha Fisiológica do Mamão (MFM aparente na pele. As frutas foram colhidas na região do sudeste de Brasil. O teor de ácido L-ascórbico foi determinado pela técnica de titulação. Os índices do b-caroteno e do licopeno foram determinados pela técnica de cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (HPLC. O teor de ácido L-ascórbico variou de (59,9 ± 3,4 mg 100 g-1 a (112,4 ± 12,6 mg 100 g-1

  7. Direct LAMP Assay without Prior DNA Purification for Sex Determination of Papaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Chu Tsai

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Papaya (Carica papaya L. is an economically important tropical fruit tree with hermaphrodite, male and female sex types. Hermaphroditic plants are the major type used for papaya production because their fruits have more commercial advantages than those of female plants. Sex determination of the seedlings, or during the early growth stages, is very important for the papaya seedling industry. Thus far, the only method for determining the sex type of a papaya at the seedling stage has been DNA analysis. In this study, a molecular technique—based on DNA analysis—was developed for detecting male-hermaphrodite-specific markers to examine the papaya’s sex type. This method is based on the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP and does not require prior DNA purification. The results show that the method is an easy, efficient, and inexpensive way to determine a papaya’s sex. This is the first report on the LAMP assay, using intact plant materials-without DNA purification-as samples for the analysis of sex determination of papaya. We found that using high-efficiency DNA polymerase was essential for successful DNA amplification, using trace intact plant material as a template DNA source.

  8. Evaluation de l'efficacité anthelminthique des extraits éthanoliques de graines de papaye (Carica papaya L. contre l'ascardiose aviaire à Ascaridia galli chez le poulet de chair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djitie Kouatcho, F.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of the Efficiency of Ethanolic Extracts of Papaw Seeds (Carica papaya L. against Ascaridia galli Ascaridiasis in Broiler Chicken. A study was carried out to study the efficiency of ethanolic extracts of papaw seeds against Ascaridia galli ascaridiasis in broiler chicken. Fifty-four 7 days old ISA 15 VEDETTE broilers raised in the Practical Training and Research Farm of Dschang University in Cameroon were inoculated with 1 ml of suspension containing approximately 100 embryonated A. galli eggs per bird. The broilers, divided into 3 groups of 18 birds, after 47 days, received either 0 g/l, 1.5 g/l and 3 g/l of ethanolic papaw seeds extracts administered one time only and corresponding to Do, D3/2 and D3 treatments. The reduction rates of number of eggs per gramme of faeces were 2.4%, 72.7%, 82.1% for treatment Do, D3/2 and D3 respectively. The reduction rates of parasitic load were 49% and 76% respectively for treatment D3/2 and D3 compared to parasitic load obtained from control Do at autopsy. Average weight gains a week after treatment was 108 g, 297 g and 400 g in Do, D3/2 and D3 treatment respectively. Ethanolic extracts of papaw seed appear to be efficient in the treatment of A. galli ascaridiasis at the doses of 1.5 g/l and 3 g/l in broiler.

  9. Genótipos melhorados de mamão (Carica papaya L.: avaliação tecnológica dos frutos na forma de sorvete Improved genotypes of papaya (Carica papaya L.: technological evaluation as ice-cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia R.R. Santana

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo a avaliação tecnológica na forma de sorvete, de frutos de cinco genótipos selecionados de mamão (CMF012, CMF020, CMF023, CMF031, CMF047, provenientes do Banco Ativo de Germoplasma da Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura, Cruz das Almas, Bahia. Estes genótipos foram identificados em estudos anteriores por apresentarem cor atraente, sabor agradável e valores elevados de sólidos solúveis (ºBrix. As amostras de sorvete foram submetidas à avaliação sensorial para os atributos aparência, cor, aroma, sabor e textura, através de testes afetivos, utilizando-se escala hedônica estruturada de nove pontos. Realizou-se determinações de pH, acidez total titulável, sólidos solúveis (ºBrix, "ratio", ácido ascórbico, sólidos totais, cinzas, proteínas, lipídeos, açúcares totais, redutores e não-redutores. Os resultados das avaliações sensoriais e físico-químicas foram analisados através de ANOVA e teste de Tukey. Os sorvetes demonstraram elevada aceitação, obtendo médias correspondentes ao conceito "gostei moderadamente" para todos os atributos avaliados. Os genótipos CMF020 e CMF031 destacaram-se alcançando média correspondente ao termo da escala hedônica "gostei muito" para o atributo sabor. Os provadores não indicaram prevalência entre os produtos quanto à aparência, cor e textura; portanto, os genótipos pouco atraentes como fruto de mesa, poderão ser aproveitados na indústria para elaboração de sorvete. Além disso, podem ser considerados como uma sobremesa valiosa e nutritiva, pois apresentaram níveis satisfatórios de carboidratos e razoáveis de vitamina C e proteínas. O estudo demonstrou que o sorvete de mamão é uma excelente alternativa para o aproveitamento da fruta.The objective of the present work was to evaluate as an alternative of consumption the ice-cream of five selective papaya genotypes (CMF012, CMF020, CMF023, CMF031, CMF047 obtained from the Active

  10. Distribution, diversity and environmental adaptation of highland papaya (Vasconcellea spp.) in tropical and subtropical America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheldeman, X.; Willemen, L.; Coppens D'eeckenbrugge, G.; Romeijn-Peeters, E.; Restrepo, M.T.; Romero Motoche, J.; Jimenez, D.; Lobo, M.; Medina, C.I.; Reyes, C.; Rodriguez, D.; Ocampo, J.A.; Damme, van P.; Goetghebeur, P.

    2007-01-01

    Vasconcellea species, often referred to as highland papayas, consist of a group of fruit species that are closely related to the common papaya (Carica papaya). The genus deserves special attention as a number of species show potential as raw material in the tropical fruit industry, fresh or in

  11. Efecto de la madurez, geometría y presión sobre la cinética de transferencia de masa en la deshidratación osmótica de papaya (Carica papaya L., var. Maradol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Marcela Chavarro-Castrillón

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Las papayas obtenidas en el raleo (papayas menos desarrolladas entresacadas de los árboles para beneficiar el crecimiento de las otras generalmente se descartan. Alternativamente, estas papayas pueden secarse por un proceso de deshidratación osmótica y secado térmico convencional para usarlas como snacks o como ingrediente para otros productos. Se comparó la cinética de transferencia de masa en la deshidratación osmótica de papayas de raleo frente a papayas desarrolladas con diferente grado de madurez, considerando el efecto de la geometría de la muestra y de la presión del proceso. La deshidratación osmótica se efectuó en una solución agitada de sacarosa a 50 °Brix, a 25 °C. Se consideraron tres niveles de madurez: raleo, verde y pintona, tres geometrías: lámina, cilindro y anillo y dos niveles de presión: atmosférica y vacío. Se estudiaron como variables cinéticas la variación de peso (WR, pérdida de agua (WL y ganancia de sólidos (SG entre 10 y 180 min. La madurez tuvo efecto significativo sobre las tres respuestas de la cinética a 30 min y sobre SG a 180 min; la geometría tuvo efecto sobre WR y SG a 30 min y sobre los tres parámetros cinéticos a 180 min y la presión solamente tuvo efecto sobre WL y SG a 30 min. La mayor pérdida de agua (65% se obtuvo a 30 min para la combinación raleo/cilindro/vacío; mientras que la mayor ganancia de sólidos fue 31% para el tratamiento verde/lámina/vacío a 180 min.

  12. Development of transgenic papayas expressing the coat protein gene from a Brazilian isolate of Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) = Desenvolvimento de mamoeiros transgênicos resistentes a vírus expressando o gene da capa protéica de um isolado brasileiro de Papaya ringspot virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souza, M.T.; Níckel, O.; Gonsalves, D.

    2005-01-01

    Translatable and nontranslatable versions of the coat protein (cp) gene of a Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) isolate collected in the state of Bahia, Brazil, were engineered for expression in Sunrise and Sunset Solo varieties of papaya (Carica papaya). The biolistic system was used to transform

  13. Domestication and Genetics of Papaya: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Chávez-Pesqueira

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A wealth of plant species used by humans for different purposes, but mainly as food, originated and domesticated in the Mesoamerican region. Papaya (Carica papaya is the third most cultivated tropical crop worldwide, and it has been hypothesized that Mesoamerica is the most likely center of its origin and domestication. In support of it, many wild populations of papaya occur throughout Mesoamerica and hence represent the gene pool of genetic variability for further evolution and future crop management. Despite its importance, a dearth of information exists regarding the status of wild populations of papaya, as compared to the extent of knowledge, and interest, on domesticated varieties. We review the evidence on the extant wild populations of papaya, as well as its origin and distribution. Also, we synthetize what is known on the domestication history of the species, including the domestication syndrome that distinguishes wild and domesticated papayas. Moreover, we make an account of the use of genetic markers to assess genetic diversity of wild and domesticated papaya, and discuss the importance of papaya as the first species with a transgenic cultivar to be released for human consumption, and one that has its complete genome sequenced. Evidence from different disciplines strongly suggest that papaya originated and was domesticated in Mesoamerica, and that wild populations in the region possess, still, high genetic diversity compared to the domesticated papaya. Finally, we outline papaya as an excellent model species for genomic studies that will help gain insight into the domestication process and improvement of papaya and other tropical crops.

  14. Managing oriental fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae), with spinosad-based protein bait sprays and sanitation in papaya orchards in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñero, Jaime C; Mau, Ronald F L; Vargas, Roger I

    2009-06-01

    The efficacy of GF-120 NF Naturalyte Fruit Fly Bait in combination with field sanitation was assessed as a control for female oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), in papaya (Carica papaya L.) orchards in Hawaii. Three different bait spray regimes were evaluated: every row (high use of the bait), every fifth row (moderate use), and every 10th row (low use). Orchard plots in which no bait was applied served as controls. For five of the seven biweekly periods that followed the first bait spray, trapping data revealed significantly fewer female B. dorsalis captured in plots subject to high and moderate bait use than in control plots. Differences in incidence of infestation among treatments were detected only by the third (12 wk after first spray) fruit sampling with significantly fewer infested one-fourth to one-half ripe papaya fruit in plots subject to high and moderate bait use than in control plots. Parasitism rates by Fopius arisanus (Sonan) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) were not negatively affected by bait application. Results indicate that foliar applications of GF-120 NF Naturalyte Fruit Fly Bait either to all rows (every other tree), or to every fifth row (every tree) in combination with good sanitation can effectively reduce infestation by B. dorsalis in papaya orchards in Hawaii.

  15. First Report of the Fig Cyst Nematode, Heterodera fici Kirjanova, on Fig Tree, Ficus carica, in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fengcheng; Henry, Neil; Yu, Qing

    2017-06-01

    Although fig trees are a popular ornamental fruit tree in subtropical regions, some hardy species, such as Ficus carica , have been grown in the west coast of British Columbia and southern Ontario in Canada. The fig cyst nematode, Heterodera fici Kirjanova, is a pest on fig plants, and the heavy infestation can cause retarded growth and yellowing of leaves (Maqbool et al., 1987). In the spring of 2016, a sample of rhizosphere from a potted fig ( F. carica ) seedling was submitted to the Nematology Laboratory, Canadian Food Inspection Agency. The sample was collected from a nursery in Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario, Canada, during an inspection to support export certification. The fig trees in the nursery had been grown in the outside fields during the growing seasons and potted and moved to indoor during the winters for last 3 years. The sample was subjected to a nematode extraction process, including decanting and sieving and misting, and lemon-shaped cysts and second-stage juveniles of Heterodera sp. were recovered from the sample examined. The morphological and molecular analyses of the cysts, vulval cone, and second-stage juveniles from both the roots and the crushed cysts identified the species as Heterodera fici Kirjanova. The cysts were characterized by their dark brown color and lemon shape, as well as distinct necks and vulval cones. The vulval cones were observed having an ambifenestrate fenestra (Fig. 1AFig. 1Photomicrographs of Heterodera fici on fig tree from Ontario, Canada. A, B. Cyst vulval cones with the ambifenestrate fenestra in A) and well-developed underbridge and bullae in B). C-E. The second-stage juveniles from a crushed cyst with the whole body in C), the anterior region in D) and the posterior region in E).), dome-shaped bullae scattered around the underbridge plane (Fig. 1B), well-developed underbridge (Fig. 1B), and coarse zig-zag ridges surrounding the fenestra on the surface. The cyst measurements ( n = 3) were length 608.7 ± 91.6 (506

  16. Obtaining of transgenic papaya plants var. Maradol roja that carry out the rice oryzacystatin gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milady F. Mendoza

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Papaya (Carica papaya L., is severely affected by Papaya Ringspot virus, which belongs to plant potyvirus group. A recent strategy for pest control produced by this virus is the transformation with genes encoding cysteine proteinase inhibitors. Rice oryzacistatin gene encoding for cystatins, was inserted in a pCAMBIA binary vector, for genetic transformation of papaya somatic embryos var. Maradol roja, mediated by gene gun. Gene integration was confirmed by means of polimerase chain reaction using the primers designed from gene bar sequence. Forty out of eighty in vitro transgenic papaya lines amplified a 402 fragment which correspond to the expecting size. Key words: Carica papaya, genetic engineering, potyvirus, proteinase inhibitor

  17. In vitro regeneration of selected Kenyan papaya (Carica papaya L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    naomi

    2013-12-04

    Dec 4, 2013 ... acid (NAA) at 0.05, 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/l and a control on shoot multiplication and elongations, and ... Sexual propagation is the commercial method of propa- ... collected was analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and.

  18. Papaya extract to treat dengue: a novel therapeutic option? | Sarala ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dengue is a viral disease that today affects a vast number of people in over 125 countries and is responsible for a sizable number of deaths. In the absence of an effective antiviral drug to treat the disease, various treatments are being investigated. Studies have indicated that the juice of the leaves of the Carica papaya plant ...

  19. Ficus carica L.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Issam

    2013-02-27

    Feb 27, 2013 ... of fig (Ficus carica L.) to develop an efficient in vitro propagation method. The results ... In vitro grown F. carica L. were obtained from Plant Tissue Culture ..... biochemical responses of tomato microshoots to induce salinity.

  20. Post-transcriptional gene silencing is involved in resistance of transgenic papayas to Papaya Ringspot Virus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ruanjan, P.; Kertbundit, Sunee; Juříček, Miloslav

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 3 (2007), s. 517-520 ISSN 0006-3134 Grant - others:BIOTEC, NASDA(TH) BT-B-06-PG-14-4503 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : Carica papaya * reverse transcription PCR * COAT PROTEIN GENE Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.259, year: 2007

  1. Papaya Tree Detection with UAV Images Using a GPU-Accelerated Scale-Space Filtering Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Jiang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV can allow individual tree detection for forest inventories in a cost-effective way. The scale-space filtering (SSF algorithm is commonly used and has the capability of detecting trees of different crown sizes. In this study, we made two improvements with regard to the existing method and implementations. First, we incorporated SSF with a Lab color transformation to reduce over-detection problems associated with the original luminance image. Second, we ported four of the most time-consuming processes to the graphics processing unit (GPU to improve computational efficiency. The proposed method was implemented using PyCUDA, which enabled access to NVIDIA’s compute unified device architecture (CUDA through high-level scripting of the Python language. Our experiments were conducted using two images captured by the DJI Phantom 3 Professional and a most recent NVIDIA GPU GTX1080. The resulting accuracy was high, with an F-measure larger than 0.94. The speedup achieved by our parallel implementation was 44.77 and 28.54 for the first and second test image, respectively. For each 4000 × 3000 image, the total runtime was less than 1 s, which was sufficient for real-time performance and interactive application.

  2. Bandeo de cromosomas humanos con extracto crudo de frutas u hojas de papaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Virginia Solís

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Preparaciones de una semana de cromosomas humanos fueron tratadas con filtrados de una hoja de papaya (Carica papaya licuada (53 g en 100 ml de agua destilada, y tenidas con 1.5 % Giemsa (pH 6.8. Se obtuvo buen bandeo de cromosomas luego de 2 min de tratamiento. Soluciones que han sido congeladas por años son efectivas y el método es más barato y fácil que otrosOne week old human chromosome preparations were treated with filtrate from one liquefied leaf (53 g of papaya (Carica papaya in 100 ml of distilled water, and stained with 1.5 % Giemsa (pH 6.8. Good chromosome banding was obtained after 2 min of treatment. Solutions that have been frozen even for years are effective and the method is cheaper and easier than others

  3. Isolation and Identification of Active Compounds from Papaya Plants and Activities as Antimicrobial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetya, A. T.; Mursiti, S.; Maryan, S.; Jati, N. K.

    2018-04-01

    Extraction and isolation of papaya seeds and leaves (Carica papaya L) has been performed using n-hexane and ethanol solvents. Further isolation of the extract obtained using ethyl acetate and diethyl ether solvents. The result of the phytochemical test of papaya extract obtained by mixture of an active compound of flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, steroids, and saponins. Ethyl acetate isolates containing only flavonoids and diethyl ether isolates contain only alkaloids. Extracts and isolates from papaya plants had gram-positive antibacterial activity greater than the gram-negative bacteria, but both did not have antifungal activity. Papaya extracts have greater antibacterial activity than flavonoid isolates and alkaloid isolates. Strong antibacterial inhibitory sequences are extracts of papaya plants, flavonoid isolates, and alkaloid isolates.

  4. Chromosomal location and gene paucity of the male specific region on papaya Y chromosome

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yu, Q.; Hou, S.; Hobza, Roman; Feltus, F.A.; Wang, X.; Jin, W.; Skelton, R.L.; Blas, A.; Lemke, C.; Saw, J.H.; Moore, P.H.; Alam, M.; Jiang, J.; Paterson, A.H.; Vyskot, Boris; Ming, R.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 278, č. 2 (2007), s. 177-185 ISSN 1617-4615 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA521/06/0056 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : Carica papaya * repetitive sequences * sex chromosome Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.978, year: 2007

  5. Evaluation of agronomic and fruit quality traits of fig tree varieties (Ficus carica L.) grown in Mediterranean conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, C.; Serradilla, M.J.; Pérez-Gragera, F.; Martín, A.; Villalobos, M. C.; López-Corrales, M.

    2017-07-01

    In this work, the agronomic behaviour and fruit quality of ten varieties of common fig were evaluated for the establishment of new commercial orchards destined for fresh consumption. The following traits were measured: annual yield, cumulative yield, trunk cross sectional area (TCSA) and yield efficiency of each variety, as well as weight, width, total soluble solids (TSS), pH, titratable acidity (TA) and maturation index (MI) of brebas and figs. The results show that ‘Banane’ and ‘Brown Turkey’ were the earliest to enter into production, and ‘Banane’ showed the highest annual yield in the 7th green (2014), with 76 kg/tree, followed by ‘Brown Turkey’ (57.6 kg/tree), ‘Cuello Dama Blanco’ (52 kg/tree) and ‘Colar Elche’ (39 kg/tree). On the other hand, 'Cuello Dama Blanco' and 'De Rey' exhibited the better organoleptic traits, with TSS and MI values ranged from 18.7 ºBrix and 203.3 MI (‘Cuello Dama Blanco’) to 20.4 ºBrix and 187.1 MI (‘De Rey’) for brebas and from 21.4 ºBrix and 278.7 (‘Cuello Dama Blanco’) to 23.3 ºBrix and 255.6 (‘De Rey’) for figs. This study will allow the fruit grower to select the most interesting and appropriate range of varieties based on market needs taking into account the ripening season (early, middle or late) and fruit colour (green, purple or black).

  6. Evaluation of agronomic and fruit quality traits of fig tree varieties (Ficus carica L.) grown in Mediterranean conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, C.; Serradilla, M.J.; Pérez-Gragera, F.; Martín, A.; Villalobos, M. C.; López-Corrales, M.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, the agronomic behaviour and fruit quality of ten varieties of common fig were evaluated for the establishment of new commercial orchards destined for fresh consumption. The following traits were measured: annual yield, cumulative yield, trunk cross sectional area (TCSA) and yield efficiency of each variety, as well as weight, width, total soluble solids (TSS), pH, titratable acidity (TA) and maturation index (MI) of brebas and figs. The results show that ‘Banane’ and ‘Brown Turkey’ were the earliest to enter into production, and ‘Banane’ showed the highest annual yield in the 7th green (2014), with 76 kg/tree, followed by ‘Brown Turkey’ (57.6 kg/tree), ‘Cuello Dama Blanco’ (52 kg/tree) and ‘Colar Elche’ (39 kg/tree). On the other hand, 'Cuello Dama Blanco' and 'De Rey' exhibited the better organoleptic traits, with TSS and MI values ranged from 18.7 ºBrix and 203.3 MI (‘Cuello Dama Blanco’) to 20.4 ºBrix and 187.1 MI (‘De Rey’) for brebas and from 21.4 ºBrix and 278.7 (‘Cuello Dama Blanco’) to 23.3 ºBrix and 255.6 (‘De Rey’) for figs. This study will allow the fruit grower to select the most interesting and appropriate range of varieties based on market needs taking into account the ripening season (early, middle or late) and fruit colour (green, purple or black).

  7. Analysis of papaya cell wall-related genes during fruit ripening indicates a central role of polygalacturonases during pulp softening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Fabi

    Full Text Available Papaya (Carica papaya L. is a climacteric fleshy fruit that undergoes dramatic changes during ripening, most noticeably a severe pulp softening. However, little is known regarding the genetics of the cell wall metabolism in papayas. The present work describes the identification and characterization of genes related to pulp softening. We used gene expression profiling to analyze the correlations and co-expression networks of cell wall-related genes, and the results suggest that papaya pulp softening is accomplished by the interactions of multiple glycoside hydrolases. The polygalacturonase cpPG1 appeared to play a central role in the network and was further studied. The transient expression of cpPG1 in papaya results in pulp softening and leaf necrosis in the absence of ethylene action and confirms its role in papaya fruit ripening.

  8. Interlaboratory validation data on real-time polymerase chain reaction detection for unauthorized genetically modified papaya line PRSV-YK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosuke Nakamura

    2016-06-01

    Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR detection method for unauthorized genetically modified (GM papaya (Carica papaya L. line PRSV-YK (PRSV-YK detection method was developed using whole genome sequence data (DDBJ Sequenced Read Archive under accession No. PRJDB3976. Interlaboratory validation datasets for PRSV-YK detection method were provided. Data indicating homogeneity of samples prepared for interlaboratory validation were included. Specificity and sensitivity test data for PRSV-YK detection method were also provided.

  9. Removal of hazardous pharmaceutical dyes by adsorption onto papaya seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Caroline Trevisan; Collazzo, Gabriela Carvalho; Mazutti, Marcio Antonio; Foletto, Edson Luiz; Dotto, Guilherme Luiz

    2014-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) seeds were used as adsorbent to remove toxic pharmaceutical dyes (tartrazine and amaranth) from aqueous solutions, in order to extend application range. The effects of pH, initial dye concentration, contact time and temperature were investigated. The kinetic data were evaluated by the pseudo first-order, pseudo second-order and Elovich models. The equilibrium was evaluated by the Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models. It was found that adsorption favored a pH of 2.5, temperature of 298 K and equilibrium was attained at 180-200 min. The adsorption kinetics followed the pseudo second-order model, and the equilibrium was well represented by the Langmuir model. The maximum adsorption capacities were 51.0 and 37.4 mg g(-1) for tartrazine and amaranth, respectively. These results revealed that papaya seeds can be used as an alternative adsorbent to remove pharmaceutical dyes from aqueous solutions.

  10. Evaluation of phenolic content, total flavonoid and survey of antioxidant activity of leaves of Ficus carica and Pterocarya fraxinifolia trees using spectrophotometry and high performance liquid chromatograph methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Jafari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this research, to evaluate the antioxidant activity of leaf Pterocarya fraxinifolia (Juglandaceae and Ficus carica (Moraceae extract were carried out by spectrophotometry and high performance liquid chromatography methods. The leaves of P. fraxinifolia and F. carica were collected from Whitney and Shast Kalate (Golestan, Noor (Mazandaran and Asalem (Guilan forests in Iran. Methanolc extract was used in different experiments. The phenolic compounds (gallic acid, coumaric acid and quercetin were also measured by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method.The maximum IC50 for DPPH radical-scavenging activity (595.12±21.4 μg ml-1 were observed in P. fraxinifolia leaves. According to the inhibition time, phenolic compound (gallic acid, coumaric acid and quercetin in F. carica leaves and gallic acid and coumaric acid were detected of Pterocarya leaves methanol extracts. The maximum amount of gallic acid (78.93 and coumaric acid (8.14 in extracts Pterocarya leaves Asalem and the lowest gallic acid (8.56 and coumaric acid (0.89 milligrams per gram was observed in Ficus leaf of Noor forest. Based on the standard chromatogram retention time of gallic acid (2.383, coumaric acid (3.817 and quercetin (7.217 mg/g was reported. This study showed that soil factors, such as potassium, sodium, phosphorus and nitrogen compounds with antioxidant phenolic extracts of the leaves of both plants there is a significant correlation.

  11. Propolis extract in postharvest conservation Solo papaya cv. 'Golden'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Regina Passos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The high perishability of papaya (Carica papaya L. reduces its lifespan as well as limits marketing. Coating the fruits is an alternative to aid food preservation. We aimed to evaluate the effects of coating propolis extract on the physicochemical characteristics of papaya stored at room temperature. Solo papayas cv. 'Golden' were randomly divided into five postharvest treatment groups, three forms of dip-coating (70% alcohol, hydroalcoholic extract of propolis to 2.5%, and hydroalcoholic extract of propolis to 5% and two controls (one uncoated and one with refrigerated uncoated fruits. The weight loss, firmness, soluble solids (SS, titratable acidity (TA, SS/TA, and hydrogen potential (pH were evaluated at the intervals of 4 days every 12th storage day. Sensory analysis was performed on the 4th day of storage of papayas and evaluated by untrained through the acceptance testing. Treatments “refrigerated”, “propolis 2.5%”, and “5% propolis” presented with the lowest weight loss. The firmness level for treatment propolis 5% was superior to that of control, alcohol, and 2.5% propolis treatments. The SS was greater for propolis 5% treatment, which only differed from the alcohol treatment. The TA and SS/TA did not vary with the treatments, but with the storage time. The pH of refrigerated papaya showed significant differences in relation to other treatments. The fruits subjected to refrigerated treatment presented with chilling injury. Papayas coated with propolis extract showed sensory acceptability similar to that in other treatments on the 4th day of storage. The coating of propolis extract is a promising alternative for the control of weight loss and for the maintenance of firmness in Solo papaya cv. 'Golden'.

  12. STRATEGI PENGEMBANGAN INDUSTRI KECIL CARICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Permadi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui bagaimana profil industri kecil carica di Kabupaten Wonosobo serta untuk mengetahui strategi pengembangan apa yang bisa digunakan. Variabel yang diteliti adalah profil industri yang meliputi sumber daya manusia, permodalan, teknologi, dan pemasaran. Metode analisis data yang digunakan adalah metode analisis deskriptif dan analisis SWOT. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa profil industri kecil carica di Kabupaten Wonosobo pada tahun 2014 ada 15 unit usaha. Ada beberapa prioritas strategi pengembangan yaang dilakukaan yaitu strategi SO dengan meningkatkan kualitas SDM, memanfaatkan tenaga kerja dari daerah sekitar, dan mengoptimalkan lokasi industri yang strategis. Strategi WO menyiapkan stok produk carica, mengoptimalkan produk carica, dan mengoptimalkan pelatihan dari dinas terkait. Strategi ST dengan meningkatkan kualitas ciri khas produk carica,peranan pemerintah dalam hal mengantisipasi bencana longsor di Dieng, dan melakukan inovasi produk carica. Strategi WT dengan meningkatkan kemampuan manajerial pengusaha, menaikkan harga jual produk carica, dan pada musim kemarau diganti dengan produk makanan komoditas Kabupaten Wonosobo. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, strategi yang diterapkan dalam kondisi ini adalah mendukung kebijakan yang agresif, yaitu industri kecil carica di Kabupaten Wonosobo dapat bersaing dengan produk olahan makanan jenis lainnya dari berbagai daerah dengan cara menjaga dan meningkatkan kualitas produk carica yang dihasilkan.The purpose of this study to find out the profiles of carica industries in Wonosobo regency and to determine what is the development strategy can be used. The variables in this research belongs to human resources, capital, technology, and marketing. Data analysis method used is descriptive analysis method and SWOT analysis. Based on the results of this study showed that small industrial profiles carica in Wonosobo regency in 2014 there were 15 business

  13. Effect of ionizing radiation on the activity of pectinesterase in papaya (cultivar solo)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iaderoza, M.; Bleinroth, E.W.; Azuma, E.HG.

    1988-01-01

    Papaya fruits (Carica papaya L.) were exposed to ionizing radiation gamma type ( sup(60)Co), using a dose of 0.7kGy, and then stored in a cold room at 10C with a relative humidity of 85% for a period of 25 days. The pectinesterase activity of the irradiated fruits was found to be similar to that of the non-irradiated fruits during the storage period. The radiation dose maintained the texture and enzyme activity of the irradiated fruits the same as that of the non-irradiated fruits. (author)

  14. Plant regeneration and ploidy level stability in Carica papaya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Usuario

    2013-04-11

    Apr 11, 2013 ... these outcomes, the tissue culture protocol presented here may be considered a successful .... response was strongly influenced by climatic seasonality, .... Indian J. Biotechnol. ... PhD Thesis, Universiti Sains Malaysia Publ.

  15. markers and morphochemical traits of Carica papaya L.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Javier Orlando Mijangos Cortés

    southern of Yucatán Peninsula (Cancún, Quintana Roo), México, and the commercial M22 (maradol tpe) were selected as parents. Both genotypes are hermaphrodites but they have contrasting plant height, fruit size and pulp color characters. M22 are shorter plants bearing large red pulp fruits, while L7 are taller plants ...

  16. Production of ethanol from Carica papaya (pawpaw) agro waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    sample was pulverised with a blender, packed in plastic container and stored in the freezer for subsequent analysis. Dried baker's yeast (Sacchromyces cerevisiae) is .... Production from Corn-cob Wastes and Grass-straw. Nig. J. Biotechnol. 6: 110 - 112. Akin-Osanaiye et al. 659. Association of Official Analytical Chemists ...

  17. Nutritional quality of raw and processed unripe Carica papaya fruit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the unripe or green fruit is added into fresh salads (Boshra .... Copper showed the least concentration being undetectable in the raw and dried-cooked samples ..... meat. COMPETING INTERESTS. The authors declare that there is no conflict of ...

  18. Acute and chronic toxicity of pawpaw (Carica papaya) seed powder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-04

    Jul 4, 2008 ... pawpaw seed powder to adult tilapia and its effect on water quality, through the ... Technology fish farm at Calabar, Obubra Campus. The specimen ..... 0 mg/l as control. Histopathological changes in the gill, skin, liver, and kid-.

  19. Molecular characterization of papaya genotypes using AFLP markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eder Jorge de Oliveira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the low genetic variability reported in the commercial plantations of papaya (Carica papaya L., the objective of this study was analyze the genetic diversity of 32 genotypes including cultivars, landraces, inbred lines, and improved germplasm using the AFLP technique (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism. The genetic distance matrix was obtained using the Nei and Li genetic distance and clustering was performed using the unweighted pair-method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA. Using 11 combinations of EcoRI/MseI primers, 383 polymorphic bands were obtained. On average, 34.8 polymorphic bands were obtained per primer combination. Five clusters were formed. The traditional cultivar 'Sunrise' and the inbred line CMF-L30-08 were the closest genotypes, and the improved germplasm (CMF041 and landrace (CMF233 the most distant. The main papaya cultivars commercially grown in Brazil, as well as four inbred lines and three improved germplasm, were clustered together, however, were not grouped in the same branch. The genetic distance between the Sunrise and Golden cultivars was 0.329, and even arising from mutation and selection within the Sunrise variety, the Golden stores considerable genetic variability. Additional variability was observed in the inbred lines derived from papaya breeding program at Embrapa Cassava and Fruits.

  20. The use of sodium alginate-based coating and cellulose acetate in papaya post-harvest preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Andrade Silva

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the ripening of papaya fruit (Carica papaya L. at room temperature (±25°C and10°C with 80% relative humidity, coated with edible film based on sodium alginate (1% and cellulose acetate film (3% by dipping the fruit in the suspensions for 1 min. On the application of the treatment and every three days during 12 days of storage, fruit were evaluated for weight loss, firmness, total carotenoid content, lycopene content and vitamin C content of the pulp. The cellulose acetate film extended the shelf-life of papayas, without affecting their quality. This treatment delayed fruit ripening, whose changes in all the parameters analyzed were significantly slower than fruit treated with sodium alginate-based coating. The coating with cellulose acetate at 3% was more effective in the preservation of papaya stored for 12 days under both temperatures.

  1. Infestation of Pseudopiazurus papayanus (Marshall) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on Carica spp. and Vasconcella spp. genotypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fancelli, Marilene; Sanches, Nilton F.; Dantas, Jorge L.L.; Caldas, Ranulfo C.; Morales, Cinara F.G.

    2008-01-01

    The papaya borer weevil, Pseudopiazurus papayanus (Marshall), is generally considered a secondary pest, but it has been reported in high infestations in Northeast Brazil. This work aimed at evaluating the occurrence of P. papayanus and reporting its infestation level in papaya genotypes kept at the germplasm bank of EMBRAPA Cassava and Tropical Fruits (Cruz das Almas, Bahia, Brazil). The number of larvae, pupae and adults found in each plant of 65 Carica spp. genotypes and of three Vasconcella spp. genotypes was registered in three to five plants of each genotype, by cutting the exsudating trunks lengthwise. Papaya borer weevil was found in C. papaya and V. cauliflora but not in those of V. quercifolia. Among the evaluated genotypes, 52.4% of those belonging to the Solo group were infested, against 25.0% of the Formosa group. Larval infestation was the best criterion for sorting out genotypes concerning this insect infestation. This is also the first occurrence of the papaya borer weevil . (author)

  2. Combined treatment of UV and gamma radiation of papaya for decay control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moy, J.H.; McElhaney, T.; Matsuzaki, C.; Piedrahita, C.

    1978-01-01

    An exploratory study was made to determine if combining u.v. and gamma radiation treatment at selective doses would decrease the fungal decay incidence in papaya (Carica papaya L. var. Solo), and thereby increase the marketable life of the fruit. Also studied was the effect of the combined treatment on the spores of Aschochyta spp., Colletotrichium spp. and Phytophthora spp., which are commonly found on papaya grown in Hawaii. This was to test the postulate that the combined treatment would prevent photoreactivation of the disrupted nuclei in microorganisms and lead to eventual death. Experimental results did not indicate a conclusive trend to effectiveness but suggested a number of problems to be resolved before the treatment can become useful in fungal decay control of fruits. (author)

  3. The effect of gamma radiation on the chemical content, texture and shelf life of papaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhamad Samudi bin Yasir

    1990-01-01

    Commercially matured papaya, Carica papaya var. Solo were gamma irradiated at doses of 0 kGy, 0.75 kGy, 1.0 KGy and 1.5 kGy. The production rate of ethylene, development of ripening colour, pectin substances and ascorbic acid content as well as the weight losses were studied during storage at room temperature. Ethylene production, development of ripening colour and softening were found to be retarded by irradiation. Irradiation also slowed down the reduction rate of alcohol insoluble substances and hydrochloric acid soluble pectin and the increment of water soluble pectin and hexamataphosphate soluble pectin. Doses of 1.0 kGy and 1.5 kGy effectively suppressed the synthesis of vitamin C although no effect on the existing ascorbic acid was detected. The weight losses of papaya were not affected by irradiation treatment

  4. Bacterias antagonistas con potencial para el control biológico postcosecha de la antracnosis en papaya

    OpenAIRE

    Núñez Oregel, Veronica

    2013-01-01

    El fruto del papayo (Carica papaya L.) es un cultivo de gran importancia en nuestro país ya que es uno de los principales productos agrícolas de exportación, el cual tiene múltiples usos de consumo e industriales. La antracnosis ha sido señalada como la principal limitante fitopatológica de los frutos de papaya en postcosecha a nivel mundial, causando pérdidas del 40 al 100%. Por tal motivo en busca de alternativas más seguras que los fungicidas sintéticos, que sean eficaces y ...

  5. Collaborative ring trial of the papaya endogenous reference gene and its polymerase chain reaction assays for genetically modified organism analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jiaojun; Li, Feiwu; Guo, Jinchao; Li, Xiang; Xu, Junfeng; Wu, Gang; Zhang, Dabing; Yang, Litao

    2013-11-27

    The papaya (Carica papaya L.) Chymopapain (CHY) gene has been reported as a suitable endogenous reference gene for genetically modified (GM) papaya detection in previous studies. Herein, we further validated the use of the CHY gene and its qualitative and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays through an interlaboratory collaborative ring trial. A total of 12 laboratories working on detection of genetically modified organisms participated in the ring trial and returned test results. Statistical analysis of the returned results confirmed the species specificity, low heterogeneity, and single-copy number of the CHY gene among different papaya varieties. The limit of detection of the CHY qualitative PCR assay was 0.1%, while the limit of quantification of the quantitative PCR assay was ∼25 copies of haploid papaya genome with acceptable PCR efficiency and linearity. The differences between the tested and true values of papaya content in 10 blind samples ranged from 0.84 to 6.58%. These results indicated that the CHY gene was suitable as an endogenous reference gene for the identification and quantification of GM papaya.

  6. HERBICIDAS PARA EL CONTROL DE Spermacoce tenuior L EN PAPAYA (Carica papaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Bogantes-Arias

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de determinar la eficacia de varios herbicidas en el control de Spermacoce tenuior y otras arvenses en papa ya, se realizó un ensayo en el 2007, en una plantación de papa ya "Pococí" ubicada en Guápiles, en el Ca ribe de Costa Ri ca. La primera etapa consistió en la evaluación de seis tratamie ntos posemergentes (1. Glifosato 24 SL, 2. Glifosato 68 SG , 3. Glifosato 24 SL + carfentrazone 24 EC , 4. Glifosato 68 SG + carfentrazone 24 EC , 5. Glifosato 24 SL + metsulfurón metil 60 WG, 6. Glifosato 24 SL + oxifluorfen 24 EC. En la segunda etapa se evaluaron tres preemergentes (1. Orizalina 75 WP, 2. Oxifluorfen 12 EC, 3. Acetaclor 90 EC; distribuidos en bloques al azar. Se evaluó la cobertura de especie s antes y después de la aplicación, daño al cultivo, altura y grosor de plantas de papa ya. El tratamie nto posemergente glifosato (0,94 kg i.a./ ha + metsulfurón (16 g i.a./ha en aplicación dirigida, mostró el mejor control de malezas a partir de la segunda y hasta la sexta semana después de la aplicación (SDA, sin observarse daño en el cultivo. El herbicida preemergente orizalina (3 kg i.a./ha mostró el mejor control de Spermacoce tenuior hasta las 14 SDA tanto en el lomillo como en la rodaja. No se observó fitotoxidad en el cultivo.

  7. New fruit and seed disorders in Papaya (Carica papaya L.) in India

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2014-01-22

    Jan 22, 2014 ... The maximum incidence of vivipary and white seed disorders were observed during May .... calculated by working out the difference between gross return from normal and bumpy fruits as ... Abnormal. Pusa Dwarf. 25.0. 41.0.

  8. Phenotypic characterization of papaya genotypes to determine powdery mildew resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Vivas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In support of breeding of papaya (Carica papaya, the disease incidence and severity of powdery mildew (Ovulariopsis caricicola were evaluated in papaya genotypes. Two experiments in complete randomized blocks were carried out, one in the field and the other in a greenhouse. In field experiments, the lowest mean disease incidence was observed on the genotypes ‘Costa Rica’ and ‘Baixinho Super’, and the lowest mean disease severity on ‘Caliman M5’, ‘GTF’, ‘SH 11-08’, and ‘JS 11’. In the greenhouse experiment, the genotypes ‘Caliman M5’, ‘Golden’, ‘Kapoho Solo’, ‘Waimanalo’, ‘Mamão Bené’, ‘SH 12-07’, ‘JS 12’, and ‘GTF’ had the lowest mean incidence in at least one evaluation. On the other hand, for severity, the genotypes ‘Diva’, ‘Sunrise Solo 72/12’, ‘Kapoho Solo PA’, ‘Waimanalo’, ‘Maradol’, ‘Maradol GL’, ‘SH 15-04’, ‘FMV, ‘JS 12-4’, ‘SH 12-07’ and ‘Sekati FLM’ had the lowest means. These results indicate these genotypes for a possible use in breeding for reduction of powdery mildew intensity

  9. Characterization of the exogenous insert and development of event-specific PCR detection methods for genetically modified Huanong No. 1 papaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jinchao; Yang, Litao; Liu, Xin; Guan, Xiaoyan; Jiang, Lingxi; Zhang, Dabing

    2009-08-26

    Genetically modified (GM) papaya (Carica papaya L.), Huanong No. 1, was approved for commercialization in Guangdong province, China in 2006, and the development of the Huanong No. 1 papaya detection method is necessary for implementing genetically modified organism (GMO) labeling regulations. In this study, we reported the characterization of the exogenous integration of GM Huanong No. 1 papaya by means of conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and thermal asymmetric interlaced (TAIL)-PCR strategies. The results suggested that one intact copy of the initial construction was integrated in the papaya genome and which probably resulted in one deletion (38 bp in size) of the host genomic DNA. Also, one unintended insertion of a 92 bp truncated NptII fragment was observed at the 5' end of the exogenous insert. Furthermore, we revealed its 5' and 3' flanking sequences between the insert DNA and the papaya genomic DNA, and developed the event-specific qualitative and quantitative PCR assays for GM Huanong No. 1 papaya based on the 5' integration flanking sequence. The relative limit of detection (LOD) of the qualitative PCR assay was about 0.01% in 100 ng of total papaya genomic DNA, corresponding to about 25 copies of papaya haploid genome. In the quantitative PCR, the limits of detection and quantification (LOD and LOQ) were as low as 12.5 and 25 copies of papaya haploid genome, respectively. In practical sample quantification, the quantified biases between the test and true values of three samples ranged from 0.44% to 4.41%. Collectively, we proposed that all of these results are useful for the identification and quantification of Huanong No. 1 papaya and its derivates.

  10. Produção de mudas de mamoeiro utilizando Bokashi e Lithothamnium Production of seedlings of papaya tree using Bokashi and Lithothamnium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Mariano Hafle

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve o objetivo avaliar o crescimento de mudas de mamoeiro do grupo Solo, sob diferentes doses dos fertilizantes naturais bokashi e pó de algas marinhas (Lithothamnium sp. O substrato utilizado foi a mistura de terra, areia e composto orgânico (3:2:1, v/v. Os tratamentos consistiram de quatro doses do fertilizante bokashi (0; 3; 6; 10%, v/v e quatro doses do fertilizante lithothamnium (0; 3; 6; 10 g L-1, adicionados ao substrato, antes do enchimento das sacolas. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental em blocos inteiramente casualizados, em esquema fatorial 4x4, com quatro repetições e cinco plantas por parcela experimental. Foram realizadas avaliações aos 15; 30; 60 e 100 dias após a semeadura, sendo elas: emergência (%, número de folhas, comprimento da parte aérea e da raiz (cm, massa seca da parte aérea, da raiz e total (mg. Houve interação significativa dos fatores testados para o comprimento da parte aérea, aos sessenta e cem dias após a semeadura; efeito isolado do bokashi para todas as variáveis analisadas, exceto na emergência, comprimento da parte aérea e número de folhas aos trinta dias após a semeadura. O uso conjugado dos fertilizantes mostrou efeito positivo na precocidade e altura da planta, podendo ser recomendado na formulação de substratos para a produção de mudas de mamoeiro do grupo Solo.The work had the objective to evaluate the growth of papaya seedlings of the Solo group, under different doses of the natural fertilizers bokashi (fermented organic matter and powderd sea algae (Lithothamnium sp. The substrate used was a mixture of soil, sand and organic compost (3:2:1, v/v. Treatments consisted of four doses of the bokashi fertilizer (0; 3; 6; 10%, v/v and four doses of lithothamnium fertilizer (0; 3; 6; 10 g L-1, added to the substrate, before the filling of the bags. The experimental design used was completely randomized blocks, in a 4x4 factorial outline, with four repetitions and five

  11. Effective selection of transgenic papaya plants with the PMI/Man selection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yun J; Agbayani, Ricelle; McCafferty, Heather; Albert, Henrik H; Moore, Paul H

    2005-09-01

    The selectable marker gene phospho-mannose isomerase (pmi), which encodes the enzyme phospho-mannose isomerase (PMI) to enable selection of transformed cell lines on media containing mannose (Man), was evaluated for genetic transformation of papaya (Carica papaya L.). We found that papaya embryogenic calli have little or no PMI activity and cannot utilize Man as a carbon source; however, when calli were transformed with a pmi gene, the PMI activity was greatly increased and they could utilize Man as efficiently as sucrose. Plants regenerated from selected callus lines also exhibited PMI activity but at a lower specific activity level. Our transformation efficiency with Man selection was higher than that reported using antibiotic selection or with a visual marker. For papaya, the PMI/Man selection system for producing transgenic plants is a highly efficient addition to previously published methods for selection and may facilitate the stacking of multiple transgenes of interest. Additionally, since the PMI/Man selection system does not involve antibiotic or herbicide resistance genes, its use might reduce environmental concerns about the potential flow of those genes into related plant populations.

  12. Variabilidade morfocultural e genética de fungos associados a podridão peduncular do mamão Morphocultural and genetic variability of fungi associated with stem-end rot of papaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Pimenta Peres

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, verificar a variabilidade morfocultural e genética de fungos associados à podridão peduncular do mamão (Carica papaya L.. As avaliações morfoculturais foram feitas pelo índice de crescimento micelial e características das colônias, como coloração e tipo de micélio, quando os isolados foram crescidos em diferentes meios de cultura (BDA, MDA e Czapek. A variabilidade genética foi verificada por meio de análises de AFLP. Os isolamentos foram feitos em frutos obtidos de diferentes regiões produtoras do Brasil. Foram estudados oito isolados de cada uma das três espécies mais incidentes (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Phoma caricae-papayae e Fusarium solani. Foi verificado que os meios BDA e MDA promoveram um maior e mais rápido crescimento micelial para a maioria dos isolados testados e houve variações nas colorações das colônias desses isolados nos diferentes meios. A análise de AFLP gerou um total de 339 bandas polimórficas, indicando uma variabilidade genética entre os isolados de cada espécie fúngica, com alguns desses microrganismos formando grupos divergentes dos demais. Não foi observada uma correlação entre características morfológicas e análises de AFLP.The objective of this work was to look at the variability between isolates of the three fungal species, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Fusarium solani and Phoma caricae-papayae associated with stem-end rot in papaya fruits (Carica papaya L. which were produced in different regions of Brazil. In one trial, comparisons were made considering morphological and cultural characteristics exhibited by the fungi grown in different media: Potato dextrose agar (PDA, Papaya extract agar (PEA and Czapek. In general, mycelial growth of all fungi was higher in PDA and PEA and no correlation was seen between growth rates and other morphocultural characteristics such as color, colony type and others for all isolates compared. The analysis of

  13. Comparative study of the antioxidant and immunomodulant activities between yeast and lab fermented papaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Caliceti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dietary supplements of Carica papaya Linn fermented with yeast using a biotechnological process have well recognized positive effects on immunological, hematological, inflammatory, and oxidative stress parameters, utilized as biomarkers of chronic and degenerative diseases. Although many natural products fermented with lactic acid bacteria (LAB have shown beneficial effects on the immune system and on antioxidant defenses, formulations of papaya fermented with LAB have not yet been studied. Aims: The aims of this study were to investigate the immunomodulatory activity linked to the type of papaya fermentation (yeast vs LAB in macrophages and to evaluate whether the type of fermentation differently modulates oxidative stress both in cell free system and in a model of embryonic brain cells. Methods: Cytotoxicity was evaluated through cell proliferation kinetic and lactate dehydrogenase release assays; immunomodulatory activity through the transcriptional activation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and Tumor Necrosis Factor α (TNFα by qRT-PCR in RAW 264.7 macrophages; antioxidant capacity was assessed, in cell free system and in pheochromocytoma cells embryonic brain cells, by measuring the intracellular ROS levels through a fluorescent dye. Results: Our data showed that all the formulations studied are safe at low concentrations (3-6 mg/ml; the LAB- fermented formulations promoted the expression of iNOS and TNFα more efficiently than yeast-fermented papaya preparation (p <0.001. In a cell free system, the LAB-fermented formulation acted as mild scavengers of ROS while, in cells, both formulations didn’t show any significant effect. Conclusions: This study corroborates previous reports showing the efficacy of yeast fermented papaya as a potent immunostimulant and highlights the beneficial contribution of lactic bacteria fermentation.

  14. Planting spacing and NK fertilizing on physiological indexes and fruit production of papaya under semiarid climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Monteiro Santos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The nutritional requirements of papaya (Carica papaya L. increase continuously throughout the crop cycle, especially for potassium and nitrogen, which are the most required nutrients and act on plant vital functions such as photosynthetic activity, respiration, transpiration and stomatal regulation. An experiment was conducted from November 2010 to December 2012 to evaluate physiological indexes and fruit production of papaya cv. Caliman-01 as a function of planting spacing and NK fertilizing. The experimental design consisted of randomized blocks, with treatments distributed in a factorial arrangement (2 × 4 × 4, using 2 planting spacing [simple rows (3.8 × 2.0 m and double rows (3.8 × 2.0 × 1.8 m], 4 nitrogen doses (320, 400, 480 and 560 g of N per plant-1 and 4 potassium doses (380, 475, 570 and 665 g of K2O per plant-1 with 4 replications of 3 plants each. The following variables were evaluated: leaf area index (LAI, leaf chlorophyll index (a, b and total index, intercepted photosynthetically active radiation (Int.PAR, in µmol∙m-2∙s-1, efficiency use of photosynthetically active radiation (Ef.PAR and fruit yield. The fruit production and physiological characteristics of papaya cv. Caliman-01 depend on planting spacing. Under the soil, climate and plant conditions of this study, 665 g of K2O and 320 g of N per plant under double spacing could be recommended for the production of papaya cv. Caliman-01.

  15. Radiation-induced mutation breeding of papaya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Y. K. [Horticulture Research Centre, Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI), Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2009-05-15

    Irradiation-induced mutation breeding of papaya commenced at the Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI) in August, 2000. This research was initiated under a Coordinated Research Project (CRP - D23023) with assistance from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). In the preliminary dosimetry study, seeds from two local papaya varieties, Sekaki and Eksotika were irradiated, either as dry seeds or as pre-soaked seeds (soaked overnight in water and surface-dried) with radiation doses ranging from 0 to 300 Gy. 100 Gy dose was lethal for all wet presoaked seeds while dry seed did not show loss of viability, even at 300 Gy. From the growth data it was estimated that dose of 525 Gy reduced shoot elongation by 50%, and this dose was recommended for mass irradiation of dry seeds. For wet, pre-soaked seeds results indicated that 42.5 Gy was the optimal dose for mass irradiation. At this dose, both seeds germination and seedlings growth were reduced by 50%. In a massive irradiation experiment 2,000 Eksotika seeds were irradiated at 42.5 Gy (pre-soaked) and another 2,000 at 525 Gy (dry). In the M2 population, numerous physiological defects were observed, including stem splitting, leaf variegation and puckering, and crinkled dwarfs. In the M3 population, a wide variability was recorded for a number of traits. M3 seedlings derived from presoaked seeds irradiated a low 42.5 Gy dose presented a high number of plants that were shorter and more vigorous in leaf development compared to those irradiated at 525 Gy and to non-irradiated control seedlings. The distribution patterns of M3 progenies for nine quantitative field characters showed great variation, often exceeding the limits of the control population. There appears to be good prospects in improving Eksotika papaya especially in the development of dwarf trees with lower fruit bearing stature, higher total soluble solids in fruits and larger fruit size. Several M2 and M3 putative mutants also

  16. Palynology of Carica and Vasconcellea (Caricaceae Palinología de Carica y Vasconcellea (Caricaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lagos Túlio César

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Palynology of Carica and Vasconcellea (Caricaceae. The pollen of C. papaya and agreements of Vasconcellea cauliflora, V. cundinamarcensis, V. crassipetala, V. goudotiana, V. x heilbornii var. chrysopetala, V. longiflora and V. sphaerocarpa collected in the Colombian Coffee Growing Zone, using the technique of acetolisis for optic microscopy and the fixation procedure with glutaraldehide, dehydration and ionization with gold-palade, for scanning electronic microscopy was described. The pollen grains were characterized using descriptors, which include the characters of taxonomic value for pollen identification, genetically determined. The most important are the number, position and character of the aperture (NPC and exine ornamentation and stratification. The pollen is of medium size for both genera, tricolporate, zonoaperturate, prolate-spheroid to subprolate, isopolar radial symmetry, tectate, dug, foveolate, with columelas. These characters have demonstrated a great contribution to the taxonomy of Caricaceae because the cluster analysis allowed distinguish very well the two genera.

    Se describe el polen de C. papaya y accesiones de Vasconcellea cauliflora, V. cundinamarcensis, V. crassipetala, V. goudotiana, V. x heilbornii var. chrysopetala, V. longiflora y V. sphaerocarpa recolectadas en la Zona Cafetera de Colombia, empleando la técnica de acetólisis para microscopía óptica y el procedimiento de fijación con glutaraldehído, deshidratación e ionización con oro paladio, para microscopía electrónica de barrido (MEB. Se caracterizaron los granos de polen por medio de una lista de descriptores que incluyeron los caracteres de valor taxonómico para identi

  17. Radiation induced mutation to develop dwarf and precocious lines of papaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, K.; Prakash, Jai; Goswami, A.K.

    2014-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is one of the most important fruit cultivated throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the country. Almost all the varieties of papaya developed either through selection or hybridization. As regards mutation breeding, very little work has been done in India. Only one variety PusaNanha has been developed through mutation breeding by treating the seed of papaya strain Pusa 1-15 with 15 Kr gamma rays. Mutation breeding is the most appropriate for improving one or two easily identifiable traits in an otherwise well accepted breeding lines or commercial variety. Dwarfness and earliness in flowering are important traits in high density planting as breeding objective for improving papaya varieties for high yield with medium size fruits and good fruit quality. With these objectives, seeds of the papaya P 7-2 were treated with gamma rays 0.1, 0.15, 0.2, 0.25 and 0.3 kGy. The control recorded maximum germination (68%). Among the other treatments maximum germination (64.25%) was recorded at 0.1 kGy. The germination percentage was observed to be least (45%) at 0.3 kGy. Minimum length of seedlings (8.5 cm) and diameter (3.92 mm) was recorded in treatment 0.1 kGy while maximum length (19.2 cm) and diameter (6.26 mm) was recorded in treatment 0.3 kGy after 30 days of sowing. Minimum height of the plant (79.24 cm) was recorded in treatment 0.1 kGy while maximum (112.20) in control. Minimum plant girth (33.40 cm) was measured in 0.3 kGy while maximum (44.34 cm) in 0.15 kGy treatment. Minimum height at first flower initiation (55.28 cm), days to flower initiation (78.28) and length of petiole (60.45 cm) was noted in treatment 0.1 kGy while maximum height at first flower initiation (78.2 cm), days to flower initiation (87.46) and length of petiole (68.24 cm) was found in control. Among treatments, maximum number (18) of fruit was counted in 0.3 kGy treatment while maximum weight of fruit (750 g) was recorded in control. Maximum TSS (10.6 °Brix) in

  18. Use of stem sliced from in vitro plants of papaya (hybrid IBP 42-99 by obtained callus with embryogenic structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Gallardo Colina

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Inside in vitro propagation via, the somatic embriogenesis offers possibilities of obtaining top volumes of production in a minor period of time and a lower cost, which are a method potentially more efficient than the regeneration via organogenesis. In papaya the somatic embryogenesis could have developed from zigotic embryos and axis hipocotilos, nevertheless in case of the hybrids these methods cannot be used and it becomes necessary to develop it from a somatic fabric, without link with the sexual reproduction. This work chased as main objective Evaluated the use of in vitro plants stem sections of the Carica papaya IBP 42-99 hybrid for the formation of callus with embryogenic structures. As plant material were use in vitro plants of the papaya hybrid IBP 42-99. For it there took sections of different parts of the stem from the meristem up to the base of the in vitro plants, was use the culture medium Nitsh and Nitsh supplemented with 1.5 mg.l-1 of 6-BAP and 1.5 mg.l-1 of AIA. It was achieved to obtain callus from the stem sections with the culture medium used, nevertheless, in the treatments where used cylinders inside 1.0 cm from the apex down, the best results were achieved. The use of in vitro plants stem sections as explant for the formation of callus in this vegetable species it opens new possibilities for his in vitro propagation, specially in case of resultant hybrids of genetic improvement programs. Key words: apexes, Carica papaya, callogenesis, somatic embryogenesis

  19. Effect of Fitomas-E on seedling production of papaya var. Maradol Roja in Cienfuegos,Cuba

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    Fernando G. Serbelló Guzmán

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available An experiment in nursery in bag conditions was carried out at the Cienfuegos Horticultural Company, in order to evaluate the effect of different alternatives to stimulate the growth and the development of papaya seedlings (Carica papaya L. variety Maradol Red, in the period from June to September 2010. The treatments were: applying Fitomas-E, Trichoderma, EcoMic, the combination of Trichoderma + EcoMic and a control without application. We evaluated the height and diameter at four different positions, the number of leaves, green and dry mass of roots as well as for the external part of the plant at the transplantation time. The obtained data were subjected to the given statistical analyzes. Results indicate that the height and diameter of the papaya plants are increased with the application of Fitomas E and EcoMic, while a higher number of leaves is reached with the application of Fitomas E, and the combination of EcoMic with Trichoderma.

  20. Current status of tropical fruit breeding and genetics for three tropical fruit species cultivated in Japan: pineapple, mango, and papaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Tatsushi; Yamanaka, Shinsuke; Shoda, Moriyuki; Urasaki, Naoya; Yamamoto, Toshiya

    2016-01-01

    Tropical fruit crops are predominantly produced in tropical and subtropical developing countries, but some are now grown in southern Japan. Pineapple (Ananas comosus), mango (Mangifera indica) and papaya (Carica papaya) are major tropical fruits cultivated in Japan. Modern, well-organized breeding systems have not yet been developed for most tropical fruit species. Most parts of Japan are in the temperate climate zone, but some southern areas such as the Ryukyu Islands, which stretch from Kyushu to Taiwan, are at the northern limits for tropical fruit production without artificial heating. In this review, we describe the current status of tropical fruit breeding, genetics, genomics, and biotechnology of three main tropical fruits (pineapple, mango, and papaya) that are cultivated and consumed in Japan. More than ten new elite cultivars of pineapple have been released with improved fruit quality and suitability for consumption as fresh fruit. New challenges and perspectives for obtaining high fruit quality are discussed in the context of breeding programs for pineapple. PMID:27069392

  1. Control of anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum species in guava, mango and papaya using synergistic combinations of chitosan and Cymbopogon citratus (D.C. ex Nees) Stapf. essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima Oliveira, Priscila Dinah; de Oliveira, Kataryne Árabe Rimá; Vieira, Willie Anderson Dos Santos; Câmara, Marcos Paz Saraiva; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2018-02-02

    This study assessed the efficacy of chitosan (Chi) and Cymbopogon citratus (D.C. ex Nees) Stapf. essential oil (CCEO) combinations to control the mycelial growth of five pathogenic Colletotrichum species (C. asianum, C. siamense, C. fructicola, C. tropicale and C. karstii) in vitro, as well as the anthracnose development in guava (Psidium guajava L.) cv. Paluma, mango (Mangifera indica L.) cv. Tommy Atkins and papaya (Carica papaya L.) cv. Papaya artificially inoculated with these species. Combinations of Chi (2.5, 5 or 7.5mg/mL) and CCEO (0.15, 0.3, 0.6 or 1.25μL/mL) inhibited the mycelial growth of all tested fungal species in vitro. Examined Chi-CCEO combinations showed additive or synergistic interactions to inhibit the target Colletotrichum species based on the Abbott index. Coatings formed by synergistic Chi (5mg/mL) and CCEO (0.15, 0.3 or 0.6μL/mL) combinations decreased anthracnose lesion development in guava, mango and papaya inoculated with any of the tested Colleotrichum species during storage. Overall, anthracnose lesion development inhibition in fruit coated with synergistic Chi-CCEO combinations was higher than that observed in fruit treated with synthetic fungicides. These results show that the application of coatings formed by Chi-CCEO synergistic combinations could be effective to control postharvest anthracnose development in fruit. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Germination and biochemical changes in ‘Formosa’ papaya seeds treated with plant hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Fonsêca Zanotti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effects of growth regulators on germination rates and biochemical compound concentrations in Carica papaya L. seeds (‘Formosa’ group. The seeds were harvested from fruits at maturation stages 3 and 5 (50 and 75% yellow fruit skin, respectively. The effects of 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid (CEPA, KNO3 and gibberellic acid (GA3on seed germination, germination index speed, soluble sugars, starch, lipids, soluble proteins and total proteins of the papaya seeds were evaluated. The seeds from stage 5 showed a higher rate of germination 30 days after sowing than did the seeds from stage 3. Treatment with CEPA decreased seed germination, apparently due to decreased starch mobilization; the opposite response was observed following KNO3 treatment. GA3, alone or in combination with KNO3, stimulated an increase in lipid mobilization. In general, with the exception of CEPA, all growth regulators tested were effective in overcoming seed dormancy, and KNO3 was the most effective. The seeds from stage 3 fruits treated with KNO3 or KNO3 + GA3 had higher rates of germination at 14 days.

  3. Model-assisted phenotyping by digital images in papaya breeding program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Fernando Marmolejo Cortes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Manual phenotyping for papaya Carica papaya (L breeding purposes limits the evaluation of a great number of plants and hampers selection of superior genotypes. This study aimed to validate two methodologies for the phenotyping of morpho-agronomic plant traits using image analysis and fruit traits through image processing. In plants of the ‘THB’ variety and ‘UENF/Caliman-01’ hybrid two images (A and B were analyzed to estimate commercial and irregularly shaped fruits. Image A was also used in the estimation of plant height, stem diameter and the first fruit insertion height. In ‘THB’ fruits, largest and smallest diameters, length, and volume were estimated by using a caliper and image processing (IP. Volume was obtained by water column displacement (WCD and by the expression of ellipsoid approximation (EA. Correlations above 0.85 between manual and image measurements were obtained for all traits. The averages of the morpho-agronomic traits, estimated by using images, were similar when compared to the averages measured manually. In addition, the errors of the proposed methodologies were low compared to manual phenotyping. Bland-Altman's approach indicated agreement between the volume estimated by WCD and EA using caliper and IP. The strong association obtained between volume and fruit weight suggests the use of regression to estimate this trait. Thus, the expectation is that image-based phenotyping can be used to expand the experiments, thereby maintaining accuracy and providing greater genetic gains in the selection of superior genotypes.

  4. Efficacy Of Aqueous Extract Of Carica papaya Leaf In The Control Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experimental chicks were divided into five groups (treatments) of twenty each and replicated thrice. Each group was infected with sporulated oocyst of the cultured coccidian through drinking water. The crude Pawpaw leaves extract was administered intramuscularly at the rate of 2ml, 3ml and 4ml /kg to three groups ...

  5. The protective effects of aqueous extract of Carica papaya seeds in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ular and widely used drugs for the treatment of pain and fever. It occupies a unique ... and heart attacks11. ... atinine, urea and uric acid from the serum in all the ex- .... Amino acids. + + ... edema was also exhibited due to leakage of fluid from.

  6. Genotoxic and Cytotoxic Safety Evaluation of Papain (Carica papaya L. Using In Vitro Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia R. da Silva

    2010-01-01

    This work evaluated the toxic and mutagenic potential of papain and its potential antioxidant activity against induced-H2O2 oxidative stress in Escherichia coli strains. Cytotoxicity assay, Growth inhibition test, WP2-Mutoxitest and Plasmid-DNA treatment, and agarose gel electrophoresis were used to investigate if papain would present any toxic or mutagenic potential as well as if papain would display antioxidant properties. Papain exhibited negative results for all tests. This agent presented an activity protecting cells against H2O2-induced mutagenesis.

  7. FACTORS CONSTRAINING THE PRODUCTION AND MARKETING OF PAWPAW (Carica papaya) IN EKITI STATE, SOUTHWESTERN NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Agbowuro G.O

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work is to identify and examine major factors constraining pawpaw production and marketing in Ekiti State, Southwestern Nigeria. Questionnaire schedule and personal interviews were used to collect data from ten Local Government Areas in the state. A total of 76 pawpaw farmers were randomly interviewed for this study. The study identified poor patronage in the market, poor marketing system, inadequate capital, poor price, inadequate extension services, poor transportation...

  8. the effect of carica papaya seed extracts on urea, creatinine and uric

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-10-31

    Oct 31, 2015 ... the world use herbal drugs (Chang, 1987) and one such source of herbal ... antidiabetic, antihypertensive and antihyperlipidemic potentials (Nor et al., 2008). ... like carpine and papain, have been found to be toxic (Eno et al., ...

  9. PEMANFAATAN LIMBAH PEPAYA (Carica papaya L DAN TOMAT (Solanum lycopersicum L UNTUK MEMPERCEPAT PENGOMPOSAN SAMPAH ORGANIK

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    Aji Baharudin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Salah satu penanganan sampah organik adalah memaanfaatkannya menjadi bahan baku kom-pos. Dalam penelitian ini, untuk mempercepat waktu pengomposan,digunakan limbah pepaya dan limbah tomat sebagai inokulan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui jenis inokulan yang lebih efektif di antara dua jenis limbah buah tersebut, melalui eksperimen yang mengguna-kan rancangan post test only group. Obyek penelitian adalah sampah organik yang berasal dari halaman Asrama I Poltekkes Kemenkes Yogyakarta sebanyak 60 kg yang diperoleh dengan me-toda integrated sampling, sedangkan sampah limbah pepaya dan tomat sebanyak 2 kg yang di-peroleh dari Pasar Serangan, diambil dengan metoda purposive sampling. Berdasarkan indika-tor kompos matang, dari lima kali ulangan, rata-rata waktu terbentuknya kompos pada kelompok perlakuan dengan inokulan limbah pepaya adalah selama 32,3 hari dan inokulan limbah tomat selama 31,7 hari. Hasil uji statistik dengan t-test bebas memperoleh nilai p < 0,001 yang berarti bahwa perbedaan lama waktu pengomposan antara kedua inokulan tersebut memang bermak-na. Dapat disimpulkan bahwa limbah tomat lebih efektif dan cepat dibandingkan dengan limbah pepaya dalam mempercepat proses pengomposan.

  10. The protective effects of aqueous extract of Carica papaya seeds in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Oxidative stress plays a crucial role in the development of drug induced nephrotoxicity. The study .... the experiments, but were allowed free access to water. Approval of institutional review ethical committee was obtained prior to ...

  11. Ocorrência de Ovulariopsis papayae Bijl em folhas de mamoeiro Occurrence of Ovulariopsis papayae Bijl in papaya leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan José Antunes Ribeiro

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available É citada pela primeira vez, em nossas condições, a ocorrência de oídio causado por Ovulariopsis papayae Bijl em folhas de mamoeiro (Cacica papaya L.. São descritas a sintomatologia, as características morfológicas do patógeno e o teste de patogenicidade.The occurrence causing powdery mildew in papaya leaves was observed for the first time in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The symptomatology and the morphological characteristics of the pathogen were described and the pathogenicity was comproved.

  12. Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khaja, Nawal

    2007-01-01

    This is a thematic lesson plan for young learners about palm trees and the importance of taking care of them. The two part lesson teaches listening, reading and speaking skills. The lesson includes parts of a tree; the modal auxiliary, can; dialogues and a role play activity.

  13. Inhibition of the host proteasome facilitates papaya ringspot virus accumulation and proteosomal catalytic activity is modulated by viral factor HcPro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandita Sahana

    Full Text Available The ubiquitin/26S proteasome system plays an essential role not only in maintaining protein turnover, but also in regulating many other plant responses, including plant-pathogen interactions. Previous studies highlighted different roles of the 20S proteasome in plant defense during virus infection, either indirectly through viral suppressor-mediated degradation of Argonaute proteins, affecting the RNA interference pathway, or directly through modulation of the proteolytic and RNase activity of the 20S proteasome, a component of the 20S proteasome, by viral proteins, affecting the levels of viral proteins and RNAs. Here we show that MG132, a cell permeable proteasomal inhibitor, caused an increase in papaya ringspot virus (PRSV accumulation in its natural host papaya (Carica papaya. We also show that the PRSV HcPro interacts with the papaya homologue of the Arabidopsis PAA (α1 subunit of the 20S proteasome, but not with the papaya homologue of Arabidopsis PAE (α5 subunit of the 20S proteasome, associated with the RNase activity, although the two 20S proteasome subunits interacted with each other. Mutated forms of PRSV HcPro showed that the conserved KITC54 motif in the N-terminal domain of HcPro was necessary for its binding to PAA. Co-agroinfiltration assays demonstrated that HcPro expression mimicked the action of MG132, and facilitated the accumulation of bothtotal ubiquitinated proteins and viral/non-viral exogenous RNA in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. These effects were not observed by using an HcPro mutant (KITS54, which impaired the HcPro - PAA interaction. Thus, the PRSV HcPro interacts with a proteasomal subunit, inhibiting the action of the 20S proteasome, suggesting that HcPro might be crucial for modulating its catalytic activities in support of virus accumulation.

  14. jfewr ©2016 - jfewr Publications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    J FOR WDLIFE & ENVIR

    Moringa oleifera), Pawpaw (Carica papaya), Coconut tree (Cocus nusifera) .... conserve water loss through transpiration. Neem is a deciduous plant which has to shed its leaves and fruits in order to get ready for another flowering and fruit.

  15. Diversity of Papaya ringspot virus isolates in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) devastates papaya production worldwide. In Puerto Rico, papaya fields can be completely infected with PRSV within a year of planting. Information about the diversity of the Puerto Rican PRSV population is relevant in order to establish a control strategy in the island. T...

  16. 78 FR 48628 - Importation of Papayas From Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 319 [Docket No. APHIS-2012-0014] RIN 0579-AD68 Importation of Papayas From Peru... from Peru into the continental United States. The conditions for the importation of papayas from Peru... action would allow for the importation of papayas from Peru while continuing to provide protection...

  17. Expressão sexual do mamoeiro sob diferentes lâminas de irrigação na Região Norte Fluminense Sexual expression of papaya tree affected by depth of irrigation in the North Region of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Terra de Almeida

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O aparecimento de flores imperfeitas nas plantas hermafroditas do mamoeiro está relacionado a fatores genéticos, os quais são afetados pelo ambiente. Condições de alta umidade, altos teores de nitrogênio e de água no solo tendem a mudar o sexo das flores hermafroditas, produzindo frutos deformados. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o comportamento do mamoeiro 'Improved Sunrise Solo 72/12', na produção dos diferentes tipos de flores hermafroditas, em relação à aplicação de diferentes lâminas de água, na região Norte Fluminense. O experimento foi conduzido sob delineamento em blocos casualizados com sete tratamentos (lâminas de irrigação, três repetições e cinco plantas úteis em cada parcela experimental. Foi utilizado um sistema de irrigação por microaspersão para aplicação de água. Os níveis de irrigação aplicados foram sete percentagens da evapotranspiração de referência (T1 = 0; T2 = 40; T3 = 80; T4 = 120; T5 = 160; T6 = 200 e T7 = 240 % da ET0. Após o início do florescimento foram avaliados, mensalmente, os números de flores estéreis, de frutos carpelóides e pentândricos. A ocorrência de flores estéreis foi responsável pelas maiores perdas na produção e foi maior no verão e agravada pelo déficit hídrico. A adoção de uma lâmina em torno de 120% da ETo minimizou as perdas pela produção de flores imperfeitas.Imperfect flowers occurrence in hermaphrodite plants of papaya tree is related to genetic causes, which are affected by environmental factors. High humidity conditions as well as high concentration of water and nitrogen in the soil tend to change the sex of the hermaphrodite flowers producing deformed fruits. The intent of this work was studying the production behavior of flowers of hermaphrodite types of the papaya tree 'Improved Sunrise Solo 72/12' affected by the application of different depth of water in the North Region of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The experiment was carried out

  18. Papaya Development Model As A Competitive Local Superior Commodity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reny Sukmawani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to study the comparative advantage and papaya competitive and to design its development model by using the approach of local base agriculture development. This research uses survey method. The resulting research shows that papaya is a base commodity that has comparative advantage and competitive. The development papaya in the district of Sukabumi is quite good bases on eight superior creations. But in order to be the main sector in economic development and has a competition, the development of papaya must concern to its influence factors. In supporting papaya development as a competitive local superior commodity, it needs to be done some efforts are as follows: (1 increase a skillful worker; (2 improve business management; (3 increase papaya productivity by using technology and study papaya planted technology in specific local superior commodity; (4 develop the involvement of the business relation; (5 provide market information and information technology network; and (6 improve infrastructures.

  19. Determination of thermal diffusivity in papaya pulp as a function of maturation stage Determinação da difusividade térmica da polpa de mamão em função do estádio de maturação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savio Figueira Corrêa

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the penetration of the thermal wave in the papaya fruit pulp (Carica papaya L., cv. Golden, thermal diffusivity of the pulp was obtained measuring temperature at four different depths. Measurements were carried out initially with the fruit on the first stage of maturity. The changes of the thermal diffusivity were expressed as a function of ripening. A temporal decrease of the thermal diffusivity was observed. Chemical (pH, soluble solids and total titratable acidity and physical (pulp firmness properties were measured as well and the results were compared to the thermal diffusivity change.Para determinar a penetração da onda térmica na polpa do fruto do mamoeiro (Carica papaya L., cv. Golden, a difusividade térmica foi obtida medindo a temperatura da polpa em quatro diferentes profundidades. As medidas foram realizadas inicialmente no estádio I de maturação do fruto, e as variações da difusividade térmica foram expressas em função do amadurecimento. Foi observada a diminuição da difusividade térmica no tempo. Propriedades químicas (pH, sólidos solúveis e acidez titulável e física (firmeza da polpa também foram determinadas, e os resultados, comparados com as variações da difusividade térmica.

  20. Estimativas de parâmetros genéticos e fenotípicos em mamão Estimates of genetic and phenotypic parameters in papaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulcinéia Elizabete Foltran

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Na Estação Experimental de Tietê, estimaram-se os parâmetros genéticos e fenotípicos das variáveis altura da planta, diâmetro do caule a 10 e a 50 cm acima do nível do solo, comprimento do internódio mediano, número de folhas e índice foliar, a partir de dados tomados aos três, cinco e sete meses de idade, em um ensaio de oito progênies de meios-irmãos de mamoeiro (Carica papaya L.. As análises da variância foram significativas para altura das plantas, nas três idades; para diâmetro do caule a 10 cm de altura, aos sete meses, e para comprimento do internódio mediano, aos três e aos cinco meses. As estimativas do coeficiente de determinação genotípica, ao nível de médias de progênies, foram, na maioria, altas. Esses resultados mostram a possibilidade de sucesso na seleção massal para as variáveis estudadas.Genetic and phenotypic parameters of papaya (Carica papaya L. were estimated for plant height, stem diameter at 10 and 50 cm height (above the soil surface, number of leaves, internodes length and foliar index at the ages of three, five and seven months old. The experiment was conducted using eight half-sib progenies at Tietê Experimental Station, State of São Paulo, Brazil. The results of the variance analyses showed significant effects for plant height for the three ages; for stem diameter at 10 cm height, in seven month old plants; and for median internodes length in three and five month old plants. Estimates for the genotypic determination coefficient, for the average of progenies, were high in most of the cases. These results showed the possibility of a successful mass selection of papaya, for the variables studied.

  1. Indução e desenvolvimento de calos e embriões somáticos em mamoeiro Papaya callus and somatic embryo induction and development

    OpenAIRE

    Eliane Pires de Almeida; Roberto Pedroso de Oliveira; Jorge Luis Loyola Dantas

    2001-01-01

    Este trabalho teve por objetivo estabelecer um protocolo para a indução e desenvolvimento de calos e embriões somáticos em mamoeiro (Carica papaya L. cv. Tainung n.1). Foram utilizados quatro tipos de explantes (hipocótilo com folhas cotiledonares, hipocótilo, folhas cotiledonares e epicótilo) e duas condições de cultivo (escuro e 16 horas de luz). A indução e o desenvolvimento de calos foram avaliados nos meios de cultura ½MS2, ½MS10 e HMH e a indução e o desenvolvimento de embriões somático...

  2. Phytophthora palmivora, agente da podridão de raiz e frutos de mamoeiro no Estado de Alagoas Phytophthora palmivora, causal agent of root and fruit rots of papaya in the State of Alagoas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Paiva Carnaúba

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available O mamoeiro (Carica papaya é uma das mais importantes fruteiras tropicais, e seus frutos contribuem com uma produção de 1,65 milhão de toneladas por ano para o Brasil. Um isolado de Phytophthora sp. obtido de frutos de mamoeiro da cultivar Havaí, em Alagoas, foi caracterizado morfologicamente e sua patogenicidade foi confirmada em frutos e mudas deste hospedeiro. Em meio suco V-8, os esporangióforos apresentaram-se delgados, simples ou pouco ramificados, enquanto os esporângios se apresentaram ovóides a elipsóides, proeminentemente papilados e um pedicelo curto na porção basal, medindo em média 37,68 x 27,52 mm. Através das características apresentadas pelo isolado e os sintomas induzidos, o agente causal foi identificado como Phytophthora palmivora. Apesar de essa doença já ocorrer em outros estados, como Bahia, Espírito Santo, São Paulo, Pernambuco e Pará, este é o primeiro relato de Phytophthora palmivora em mamoeiro no Estado de Alagoas.The papaya (Carica papaya is one of the most important tropical fruit crops and its fruit contribute with a production of 1.65 millions tons/year in Brazil. An isolated of Phytophthora sp. gotten from papaya fruits cv. Hawaii, in the state of Alagoas, was characterized morphologically and its pathogenicity to this fruits and seedling was confirmed. In a V-8 medium, the sporangiophores presented to be slim, simple or little ramified, while the sporangia presented ovoid to ellipsoid, prominently papillae and one short pedicel in the basal portion, measuring in average 37,68 x 27,52 (m. Through the characteristics presented by the isolated and the induced symptoms, the causal agent was identified as Phytophthora palmivora. Despite of this disease already occurring in other states like in Bahia, Espirito Santo, São Paulo, Pernambuco and Pará, this is the first report of Phytophthora palmivora on papaya in the state of Alagoas, Brazil.

  3. Production of Saccharomyces cerevisiae biomass in papaya extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extracts of papaya fruit were used as substrate for single cell protein (SCP) production using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A 500 g of papaya fruit was extracted with different volumes of sterile distilled water. Extraction with 200 mL of sterile distilled water sustained highest cell growth. Biochemical analysis of dry biomass ...

  4. 75 FR 22207 - Importation of Papayas From Colombia and Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    .... APHIS-2008-0050] RIN 0579-AC95 Importation of Papayas From Colombia and Ecuador AGENCY: Animal and Plant... Colombia and Ecuador into the continental United States. The conditions for the importation of papayas from Colombia and Ecuador include requirements for field sanitation, hot water treatment, and fruit fly trapping...

  5. Plants regeneration of a papaya hybrid (IBP 42-99 from callus obtained from apexes of in vitro plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Gallardo Colina

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available In Cuba there realizes innumerable efforts to increase the food production and especially the fruit trees Inside which the papaya has great importance. In this sense studies are realized to obtain plants resistant to virus that they need of tools that they support and increase the indexes of obtaining transgenic line in the events of transformation specifically in a papaya hybrid. As main objective was to develop a protocol for the regeneration of plants of papaya hybrid from callus obtained of in vitro plant apexes.plan to develop a tool that supports and increases the indexes of obtaining line transgenic in the events of transformation in a hybrid of papaya.In vitro plants of the hybrid IBP 42-99 were used as plant material. The culture medium Nitsh and Nitsh was used and the growth regulators that permitted the obtaining of the best callus with embryogenic structures were studied, and also, the concentrations in which they were more efficient were adjusted. The capacity of callus formation from different parts of the stem of the in vitro plants was studied. Different culture medium for the regeneration of papaya plants from the obtained callus was studied. It was possible to obtain callus by combining 6-BAP with ANA and AIA. The best results are obtained when segments from in vitro plants shoot, 1 cm length from the meristem, were used. Also, by eliminating the meristem in the apexes, an increase in the callus formation capacity of the explant was achieved. Plants were obtained from callus using the culture medium MS supplement with 0.09mg.l-1 of AIA, 0.01mg.l-1 of AG3 and 2mg.l-1 of Zeatin and the best percentage was achieved with the callus coming from the treatments with less concentration of 6-BAP and AIA. Key words: culture medium, micropropagation, organogenesis, segments

  6. PRESENCIA DE Colletotrichum acutatum y Colletotrichum gloeosporioides EN HELECHO HOJA DE CUERO, LIMÓN CRIOLLO, PAPAYA, CARAMBOLA Y MANGO EN COSTA RICA Y FLORIDA (ESTADOS UNIDOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Barquero Quirós

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La antracnosis es una enfermedad causada por varias especies del género Colletotrichum en diferentes hospederos. C. acutatum y C. gloeosporioides son especies morfológicamente similares, que pueden causar síntomas similares en el mismo hospedero. Se colectaron 220 aislamientos de Colletotrichum de muestras con síntomas típicos de antracnosis en helecho hoja de cuero (Rumohra adiantiformis, limón criollo (Citrus aurantifolia, carambola (Averrhoa carambola, papaya (Carica papaya y mango (Mangifera indica en Costa Rica y Florida, Estados Unidos. Los aislamientos se caracterizaron por morfología de colonia, sensibilidad al benomil, y PCR con los iniciadores específicos para C. acutatum y C. gloeosporioides CaInt2 y Cg/fInt1, respectivamente; también se analizó la morfología de las colonias de ambas especies. De los 85 aislamientos obtenidos de mango, todos los aislamientos de Florida fueron identificados como C. acutatum, mientras que todos los aislamientos de Costa Rica fueron C. gloeosporioides. De los 60 aislamientos de carambola, 3 provenientes de Costa Rica fueron C. acutatum (primer informe y el resto fueron C. gloeosporioides. Todos los aislamientos de helecho hoja de cuero (25 aislamientos y de limón criollo (25 aislamientos se identificaron como C. acutatum. Los demás aislamientos de carambola y mango así como todos los aislamientos de papaya, se identificaron como C. gloeosporioides. No se encontró diferenciación de síntomas entre ambas especies sobre los hospederos donde se encontraron.

  7. TEORES FOLIARES E EXPORTAÇÃO DE NUTRIENTES DO MAMOEIRO BAIXINHO DE SANTA AMÁLIA TRATADO COM BIOFERTILIZANTES LEAF NUTRIENT STATUS AND NUTRIENT EXPORTATION OF “BAIXINHO DE SANTA AMÁLIA” PAPAYA CULTIVAR TREATED WITH BIOFERTILIZERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ítalo Herbert Lucena Cavalcante

    2009-12-01

    ="font-size: small;">sódio, macro e micronutrientes, nas folhas das plantas e na exportação dos respectivos nutrientes, com a colheita dos frutos do mamoeiro em todas as doses de insumos aplicados ao solo. As plantas, no início da floração, estavam com teores adequados de nitrogênio, potássio, enxofre, boro, cobre e zinco e deficientes em fósforo, cálcio, magnésio, ferro e manganês. O potássio (dentre os macronutrientes e o ferro (dentre os micronutrientes foram os mais exportados, com a colheita dos frutos.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Carica papaya L.; biofertilizante; composição mineral.

    Papaya tree is a crop with expressive economic importance in Brazil, where it has been traditionally cultivated with mineral soil fertilizing, although, for the last two decades, the world market has required lower levels of synthetic products use for food production and higher levels of the natural ones. In this way, one experiment was carried out in Remígio, Paraíba State, Brazil, to evaluate the leaf nutrient status, at the beginning of the blooming stage, and the exportation of sodium, macro, and micronutrients of the “Baixinho de Santa Amália” papaya cultivar. A complete randomized blocks experimental design was used in a

  8. Ficus carica L. (Moraceae: Phytochemistry, Traditional Uses and Biological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukranul Mawa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the botanical features of Ficus carica L. (Moraceae, its wide variety of chemical constituents, its use in traditional medicine as remedies for many health problems, and its biological activities. The plant has been used traditionally to treat various ailments such as gastric problems, inflammation, and cancer. Phytochemical studies on the leaves and fruits of the plant have shown that they are rich in phenolics, organic acids, and volatile compounds. However, there is little information on the phytochemicals present in the stem and root. Reports on the biological activities of the plant are mainly on its crude extracts which have been proven to possess many biological activities. Some of the most interesting therapeutic effects include anticancer, hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and antimicrobial activities. Thus, studies related to identification of the bioactive compounds and correlating them to their biological activities are very useful for further research to explore the potential of F. carica as a source of therapeutic agents.

  9. Compositional changes during papaya fruit ripening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shattir, A. E.; Abu-Goukh, A.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate compositional changes during ripening of Baladi, Ekostika I and Ekostika II papaya fruit cultivars at 20±1°C and 85% -90% relative humidity. The fruits of the three cultivars exhibited a typical climacteric pattern of respiration with peak of respiration of 82,92 and 98 mg CO 2 / kg-hr, reached after 10 days in the three cultivars, respectively. Weight loss, total soluble solids (TSS), total sugars and ascorbic acid content progressively increased during ripening of the three papaya cultivars. More increase in TSS and total sugars was observed after the climacteric peak of respiration. Fruit tissue firmness and total phenolic compounds decreased continuously during ripening in the three cultivars. Reducing sugars, total protein and titratable acidity steadily increased to reach a peak, which coincided with climacteric peak of respiration, and subsequently decreased afterwards. The local Baladi cultivar had a lower respiration rate, more firm and less weight loss during ripening, which may indicate a longer shelf life than the other two introduced cultivars. On the other hand, the introduced cultivars were higher in TSS, total and reducing sugars and ascorbic acid content and lower in titratable acidity and phenolic compounds, which may reflect a better eating quality.(Author)

  10. Long term hypolipidaemic and anti-atherogenic effects of Carica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to assess the long term (24 weeks) effects of daily oral administration of C. papaya aqueous leaf extract (at 200 mg/kg body weight) on the serum lipid profile and other atherogenic indices of normal rabbits. Total cholesterol, total triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, atherogenic and ...

  11. Evaluation of fruit leather made from two cultivars of papaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZUHAIR RADHI ADDAI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Two papaya cultivars were used to manufacture fruit leather. The objective of this study was to formulate papaya leather from locally grown papaya using natural ingredients like pectin, honey and citric acid. The fresh fruits were pureed and mix with natural ingredients, and dried in an oven at 60°C for 12 hours. The physicochemical properties and antioxidant activity were determined.The results showed that fruit leather made from Hongkong cultivar is significantly (P<0.05 higher in sensory parameters as well as physicochemical properties and antioxidant activity. The phenolics content and antioxidant activity increased by process of drying the fruit leather compared to fresh fruits in both papaya cultivars. Therefore, the consumer requirements for healthy and safe food products were respected.

  12. A comparative evaluation of leaf meals of pawpaw ( C. papaya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative evaluation of leaf meals of pawpaw ( C. papaya ), swordbean ( C. gladiate ), jackbean ( C. ensiformis ) and pigeonpea ( C. cajan ) as feed ingredients and yolk colouring agents in layers' diets.

  13. Evapotranspiração e coeficiente da cultura do mamoeiro Evapotranspiration and crop coefficient of papaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson P. Posse

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivos determinar a evapotranspiração da cultura (ETc e o coeficiente da cultura (Kc para o mamoeiro (Carica papaya L.. O experimento foi realizado na área de convênio UENF/PESAGRO-RIO, no município de Campos dos Goytacazes - RJ, no período de 25-4-2006 a 20-8-2007, utilizando o mamoeiro cultivar Híbrido UENF/CALIMAN01. Para a determinação da ETc e do Kc, foi utilizado lisímetro de pesagem com área superficial de 6 m². A evapotranspiração de referência (ETo foi estimada pelo método de Penman-Monteith (FAO. A evapotranspiração máxima da cultura foi de 2,9 mm dia-1, aos 229 dias após o transplantio (DAT, sendo a evapotranspiração média da cultura, em todo o período, de 1,8 mm dia ¹. O valor do Kc do mamoeiro variou linearmente de 0,63 até 1,05, do transplantio até 206 DAT. Após esse período, a variação do Kc relacionou-se inversamente com o diâmetro de copa, reduzindo-se ao valor médio mínimo de 0,81, aos 300 DAT. Considerando todo o período em estudo, obteve-se Kc médio de 0,87.This study aimed to determine the crop evapotranspiration (ETc and the crop coefficient (Kc for of UENF/CALIMAN01 papaya hybrid (Carica papaya L.. The experiment was conducted in an area of UENF/PESAGRO-RIO, in Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ, Brazil, from 4-25-2006 to 8-20-2007. To determine the ETc and Kc, a weighing lysimeter (6 m² was used. The reference evapotranspiration (ETo was determined by the Penmam-Monteith (FAO method. The maximum crop evapotranspiration was of 2.9 mm day-1, 229 days after the transplant (DAT, and the medium crop evapotranspiration during the experiment was of 1.8 mm day-1. The value of crop coefficient (Kc varied linearly from 0.63 to 1.05, the transplant to 206 DAT. After this period, the variation of Kc presented inversely relation with the canopy diameter, being reduced to a value medium minimum of 0.81, to 300 DAT. Considering the whole period of study, it was obtained an average Kc

  14. In Situ Earthworm Breeding to Improve Soil Aggregation, Chemical Properties, and Enzyme Activity in Papayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huimin Xiang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The long-term use of mineral fertilizers has decreased the soil fertility in papaya (Carica papaya L. orchards in South China. In situ earthworm breeding is a new sustainable practice for improving soil fertility. A field experiment was conducted to compare the effects of four treatments consisting of the control (C, chemical fertilizer (F, compost (O, and in situ earthworm breeding (E on soil physico-chemical properties and soil enzyme activity in a papaya orchard. The results showed that soil chemical properties, such as pH, soil organic matter (SOM, total nitrogen (TN, available nitrogen (AN, and total phosphorus (TP were significantly improved with the E treatment but declined with the F treatment. On 31 October 2008, the SOM and TN with the O and E treatments were increased by 26.3% and 15.1%, respectively, and by 32.5% and 20.6% compared with the F treatment. Furthermore, the O and E treatments significantly increased the activity of soil urease and sucrase. Over the whole growing season, soil urease activity was 34.4%~40.4% and 51.1%~58.7% higher with the O and E treatments, respectively, than that with the C treatment. Additionally, the activity of soil sucrase with the E treatment was always the greatest of the four treatments, whereas the F treatment decreased soil catalase activity. On 11 June 2008 and 3 July 2008, the activity of soil catalase with the F treatment was decreased by 19.4% and 32.0% compared with C. Soil bulk density with the four treatments was in the order of O ≤ E < F < C. The O- and E-treated soil bulk density was significantly lower than that of the F-treated soil. Soil porosity was in the order of C < F < E < O. Soil porosity with the O and E treatments was 6.0% and 4.7% higher, respectively, than that with the F treatment. Meanwhile, the chemical fertilizer applications significantly influenced the mean weight diameter (MWD of the aggregate and proportion of different size aggregate fractions. The E treatment

  15. Origin and domestication of papaya Yh chromosome

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanBuren, Robert; Zeng, Fanchang; Chen, Cuixia; Zhang, Jisen; Wai, Ching Man; Han, Jennifer; Aryal, Rishi; Gschwend, Andrea R.; Wang, Jianping; Na, Jong-Kuk; Huang, Lixian; Zhang, Lingmao; Miao, Wenjing; Gou, Jiqing; Arro, Jie; Guyot, Romain; Moore, Richard C.; Wang, Ming-Li; Zee, Francis; Charlesworth, Deborah; Moore, Paul H.; Yu, Qingyi; Ming, Ray

    2015-01-01

    Sex in papaya is controlled by a pair of nascent sex chromosomes. Females are XX, and two slightly different Y chromosomes distinguish males (XY) and hermaphrodites (XYh). The hermaphrodite-specific region of the Yh chromosome (HSY) and its X chromosome counterpart were sequenced and analyzed previously. We now report the sequence of the entire male-specific region of the Y (MSY). We used a BAC-by-BAC approach to sequence the MSY and resequence the Y regions of 24 wild males and the Yh regions of 12 cultivated hermaphrodites. The MSY and HSY regions have highly similar gene content and structure, and only 0.4% sequence divergence. The MSY sequences from wild males include three distinct haplotypes, associated with the populations’ geographic locations, but gene flow is detected for other genomic regions. The Yh sequence is highly similar to one Y haplotype (MSY3) found only in wild dioecious populations from the north Pacific region of Costa Rica. The low MSY3-Yh divergence supports the hypothesis that hermaphrodite papaya is a product of human domestication. We estimate that Yh arose only ∼4000 yr ago, well after crop plant domestication in Mesoamerica >6200 yr ago but coinciding with the rise of the Maya civilization. The Yh chromosome has lower nucleotide diversity than the Y, or the genome regions that are not fully sex-linked, consistent with a domestication bottleneck. The identification of the ancestral MSY3 haplotype will expedite investigation of the mutation leading to the domestication of the hermaphrodite Yh chromosome. In turn, this mutation should identify the gene that was affected by the carpel-suppressing mutation that was involved in the evolution of males. PMID:25762551

  16. 7 CFR 319.56-25 - Papayas from Central America and Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Papayas from Central America and Brazil. 319.56-25... § 319.56-25 Papayas from Central America and Brazil. The Solo type of papaya may be imported into the... shipment to the United States in one of the following locations: (1) Brazil: State of Espirito Santo; all...

  17. Fluxo de seiva xilemática em mamoeiro 'Golden' cultivado por microaspersão sobre copa: relações com as variáveis ambientais Relationship between sap flow and environmental variables in a microspray irrigation upon papaya tree canopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício de Oliveira Reis

    2009-01-01

    generally caused by the deficit of water in the soil, in the atmosphere or in both. The environmental variables control the plant water loss. However, high values of leaf to air vapor pressure deficit (VPDleaf-to-air can cause the stomatal closure and can reduce the transpiration process, mainly in large trees. In this experiment, it was used the heat dissipation method developed by GRANIER (1985 to sap flow measurements. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between xylem sap flow and reference evapotranspiration (ET0 in papaya plants cultivated with and without microspray irrigation over canopy and under field conditions. It was also investigated the relationship between xylem sap flow, photosynthetic photons flux density (PPFD and air vapor pressure deficit (VPDair values. There was a delay between the loss of water through the leaves and the movement of water through the trunk (lag phase. From January to March, there was a better relation between xylem sap flow and VPDair, which was not observed from June to August, probably because of this lag phase. From January to March, plants cultivated with microaspersion showed an increase in xylem sap flow, in relation to plants cultivated without microaspersion when, at this stage, the ET0 was higher.

  18. Purification and autolysis of the ficin isoforms from fig (Ficus carica cv. Sabz) latex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare, Hamid; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar; Salami, Maryam; Mirzaei, Morteza; Saboury, Ali Akbar; Sheibani, Nader

    2013-03-01

    Ficin (EC 3.4.22.3), a cysteine endoproteolytic protease in fig trees' latex, has multiple isoforms. Until now, no data on autolysis of individual ficins (ficin isoforms) are available. Following purification, ficins' autolysis was determined by HPLC chromatogram changes and ultrafiltrations at different temperatures and storage times. These results showed that the number of HPLC peaks in latex proteins purification of Ficus carica cv. Sabz varied from previous fig varieties or cultivars. Proteolytic activity of ficins was inhibited by specific cysteine protease inhibitors, confirming the participation of the cysteine residue in the active site. The zeta potential of the first two eluted peaks (I and II) was negative, while that of other peaks were positive. All ficins were susceptible to autolysis when stored at high temperatures. In contrast, only the last two ficins (B, C) were prone to autolysis at cold temperature after long storage period. The rate of degradation of the ficins was significantly increased with the increased storage time. The ficin (A) related to peak (III) had the highest and the lowest surface hydrophobic patches and ratio of autolytic to proteolytic activity, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Consumer in-store response to irradiated papayas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruhn, C.M.; Noell, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    In this study, purchase behavior of California consumers in response to irradiated papayas is described. The papayas were shipped from Hawaii and irradiated in California under a permit by the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service and approved by the California Department of Food and Agriculture. Results show that the superior appearance of the irradiated fruit appealed to consumers and that two-thirds or more of the people queried indicated that they would buy irradiated produce. It is noted that this marketing took place in a supportive environment with no protestors present. Informational material was available

  20. Papaya Extract to Treat Dengue: A Novel Therapeutic Option?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    review of available literature regarding the use of the papaya leaf extract for the treatment of ... there are no effective antiviral agents available to treat dengue complications. .... A study in the journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants reported an ...

  1. Papaya fruit quality management during the postharvest supply chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papayas are popular in tropical and subtropical regions and are being exported in large volumes to Europe, the U.S. and Japan. The fruit has excellent taste, exotic flavor and nutritional properties, being rich in vitamins A, C, and antioxidants. However, due to its highly perishable nature it has n...

  2. Sensitivity of papaya seeds to gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Y.K.; Lam, P.F.; Abdul Rahim Harun

    2002-01-01

    The major problems faced by the papaya industry in Malaysia are the papaya ringspot virus disease and the short shelf-life of the fruit. Efforts have been made to address these problems and they include conventional breeding and selection and biotechnological tools for development of transgenic papayas with PRSV resistance and delayed fruit ripening characteristics. Irradiation-induced changes in papaya for selection of improved varieties could offer another approach to resolve these problems. As the first step, the radio-sensitivity of papaya seed must be established before mass irradiation of the materials to generate the desired variability for evaluation and selection later. For the first approximation dosage, the seeds of two local. varieties, Sekaki and Eksotika were irradiated as either dry seeds or as pre-germinated seeds (soaked overnight in water and surface-dried). The dosage ranged from 0 to 300 Gy. Wet pre-germinated seeds were all killed at 100 Gy while dry seeds did not show loss of viability even at 300 Gy. The dosage for dry seeds was raised to 1000 Gy in the following experiment and the LD 50 (or half-kill) was estimated to be 650 Gy. However, at this dosage, seedling growth was markedly reduced and this dosage may not be suitable for mass irradiation. From the growth data, it was estimated that 525 Gy was the dosage that reduced 50% of growth in height and this dosage was recommended for mass irradiation of dry seeds. For wet, pre-germinated seeds, results from the third experiment indicated that 42.5 Gy was the optimal dosage for mass irradiation. At this dosage, both seed germination and seedling growth was reduced by 50%. (Author)

  3. ALTERNATIVA COMERCIAL PARA EXTENDER VIDA DE ANAQUEL DE PAPAYA 'MARADOL'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Osuna-García

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el efecto del 1-Metilciclopropeno (1-MCP y etileno (solos o en combinación para manipular el proceso de maduración y extender vida de anaquel de papaya 'Maradol'. Durante el 2007 se realizaron tres ensayos: 1. Efecto del 1-MCP en papaya almacenada en condiciones de mercadeo y refrigeración más mercadeo; 2. Papaya tratada con 1-MCP y etileno y mezcla 1-MCP + etileno; 3. Evaluación comercial del 1-MCP y etileno en papaya. Se analizaron pérdida de peso, color externo, firmeza, color de pulpa y sólidos solubles totales. Se encontró que el 1-MCP a 100 nl·litro-1 retrasó el desarrollo de color externo y pulpa e inhibió el ablandamiento de los frutos. También se observó que el etileno a dosis de 100 ¿l·litro-1 aplicado después del 1-MCP no revirtió el efecto de éste, sin embargo, el 1-MCP aplicado después del etileno redujo la velocidad de ablandamiento y el desarrollo del color en cáscara y pulpa inducido por el etileno. Se concluye que el 1-MCP a 100 nl·litro-1 por 12 horas aplicado después del etileno puede ser una técnica viable para manipular el proceso de maduración y alargar vida de anaquel de papaya 'Maradol'.

  4. Polyphenoloxidase and Perioxidase Activity During Open Air ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polyphenoloxidase and Perioxidase Activity During Open Air Ripening Storage of Pineapple ( Ananas comosus L.), Mango ( Mangifera indica ) and Papaya ( Carica papaya ) Fruits Grown in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

  5. Physical-chemical characteristics of figs (Ficus carica) preready to submitted to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Lucia C.A.S.; Harder, Marcia N.C.; Arthur, Paula B.; Lima, Roberta B.; Modlo, Debora M.; Arthur, Valter

    2009-01-01

    Fig (Ficus carica) is the fruit of the fig tree, original of Mediterranean, has fleshy and succulent pulp, besides being sweetened slightly. It is very appreciated for dessert. The immature form (green) can be used for make a sweet home-made. The aim of the present work was irradiate samples of fruits of pre-ready green fig, seeking the increase of the useful shelf-life. The samples were washed, made hygienic and submitted the cooking by a period of 15 minutes, after the cooking they were put in an drainer to expect cooling the fruits and after that process they were wrapped in plastic sack of 15x30cm and sealed in a manual sealing and stored at 8 deg C in a OBD camera for 7 days. Later samples were irradiated with doses of: 0 (control); 1.0 and 2.0 kGy, under a rate of dose of 0.601 kGy/h, in a Gammacell-220 irradiator and stored by 24 hours to 8 deg C in OBD. Each treatment was consisted with 3 repetitions with 10 fruits each. The samples were appraised, immediately after the irradiation, as for the parameters pH, soluble solids content, color peel, color pulp, texture, chlorophyll A, chlorophyll B and total carotenoids. The statistical analysis of the results was accomplished, through outline entirely randomized by test F for variance analysis and when significant compared by Tuckey test. By the obtained results was concluded that there was not significant difference between the treatments and the control. After four days the samples presented microbiological contamination, they went desecrated. (author)

  6. First Complete Genome Sequence of Papaya ringspot virus-W Isolated from a Gourd in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Akhtar

    2017-01-12

    In the United States, the Papaya ringspot virus was first reported from papaya in Florida in 1949. Here, we determined the first complete genome sequence (10,302 nucleotides) of a Papaya ringspot virus-W isolate, which was collected from a commercial field of gourd in Tulsa, OK. Copyright © 2017 Ali.

  7. The potential of papaya leaf extract in controlling Ganoderma boninense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Z. H.; Chong, K. P.

    2016-06-01

    Basal Stem Rot (BSR) disease causes significant losses to the oil palm industry. Numerous controls have been applied in managing the disease but no conclusive result was reported. This study investigated the antifungal potential of papaya leaf extracts against Ganoderma boninense, the causal pathogen of BSR. Among the five different solvents tested in extraction of compounds from papaya leaf, methanol and acetone gave the highest yield. In vitro antifungal activity of the methanol and acetone extracts were evaluated against G. boninense using agar dilution at four concentrations: 5 mg mL-1, 15 mg mL-1, 30 mg mL-1and 45 mg mL-1. The results indicated a positive correlation between the concentration of leaf extracts and the inhibition of G. boninense. ED50 of methanol and acetone crude extracts were determined to be 32.016 mg mL-1and 65.268 mg mL-1, respectively. The extracts were later semi-purified using solid phase extraction (SPE) and the nine bioactive compounds were identified: decanoic acid, 2-methyl-, Z,Z-10-12-Hexadecadien-1-ol acetate, dinonanoin monocaprylin, 2-chloroethyl oleate, phenol,4-(1-phenylethyl)-, phenol,2,4-bis(1-phenylethyl)-, phenol-2-(1-phenylethyl)-, ethyl iso-allocholate and 1- monolinoleoylglycerol trimethylsilyl ether. The findings suggest that papaya leaf extracts have the ability to inhibit the growth of G. boninense, where a higher concentration of the extract exhibits better inhibition effects.

  8. An umbra-like virus of papaya discovered in Ecuador: detection, occurrence and phylogenetic relatedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) extractions from papaya leaves infected with Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) revealed the presence of an unusual 4kb band, in addition to the presumed PRSV-associated 10kb band. Partial sequence of RT-PCR products from the 4kb dsRNA revealed homology to genomes of several me...

  9. First report of papaya meleira virus (PMeV) in Mexico | Perez-Brito ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Papaya meleira virus (PMeV), causal agent of meleira or sticky disease, is a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) virus which has been previously reported only in Brazil. A study was carried out in order to verify the presence and occurrence of PMeV in Mexico. Latex samples from symptomatic and asymptomatic papaya fruits ...

  10. Hurdle technology to preserve the 'Golden' papaya post harvest quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molinari, Andrea Cristina Fialho

    2007-01-01

    With the purpose of evaluating a combination of post harvest techniques on papaya Golden storage, the following treatments were investigated: carton boxes packaging (CP); CP + plastic bag of PEBD - low density polyethylene film, with 0.05mm of thickness (PE); CP + PEBD with 0.025mm of thickness impregnated with mineral ethylene scavenger (PEAbs); gamma-irradiation (0.4 kGy and 0.7 kGy); and refrigerated storage at 10 deg C e 90% of relative humidity for 2, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 days plus five days under environmental conditions to allow ripening and to simulate the product marketing. To evaluate the effects on fruit quality the following measurements were taken: - first experiment, disease incidence, skin color and loss of turgidity (as visual variables); skin and flesh color, weight loss, flesh firmness, total soluble solids, total titratable acidity, pH, lycopene and beta-carotene composition; - second experiment, sensorial analysis on samples submitted to the treatments with better results from the first experiment. Post harvest diseases were the main factor responsible for discarding fruits. Percentage of weight loss was higher on papayas stored without plastic packaging. Time affected the flesh firmness (F = 95%). However, there wasn't influence of the treatments on that parameter. A significant effect on skin color was observed with interaction between irradiation (0.4 and 0.7 kGy) and storage period. Once reached the edible stage, irradiated papayas presented more uniformity on skin color. For beta-carotene and Lycopene, the mean values were 1.27 to 1.79 and 19.16 to 23.90 mug/ml of flesh, respectively. But those substances weren't affected by the combined methods or the time. The same behavior were observed for total soluble solids, total titratable acidity and pH (mean values of 11.53 to 12.20 deg Brix, 0.117 to 0.136 g of citric acid/100g of flesh and 4.91 to 5.04, respectively). On sensory evaluation, the judges didn't get to detect significant

  11. Yield and fruit quality of papaya as function of types and levels of Biofertilizers / Produtividade e qualidade de frutos do mamoeiro em função de tipos e doses de biofertilizantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márkilla Zunete Beckmann-Cavalcante

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Biofertilizers are organic products usually obtained from an anaerobic process, evaluated mainly as phytoprotectors for agriculture, although they can improve fruit production. By this way, a field experiment was carried out in Remígio County, Paraiba State, Brazil, to evaluate the effects of two bovine biofertilizers on yield, medium mass and quality of papaya fruits (Carica papaya L., ‘Baixinho de Santa Amália’ cultivar. Treatments were distributed in a randomized complete blocks design with three replications and 15 plants in each parcel, in a 2 x 5 factorial arrangement, with two biofertilizers: simple (water and fresh bovine manure and supermagro (water, fresh bovine manure, macro and micronutrients and a protein mix, applied in soil under liquid form at five volumes, as follows: 0.0; 0.5; 1.0; 1.5; e 2.0 L cave-1. There was no statistical difference between biofertilizers for fruit mass, yield and external and internal fruit quality variables, while between volumes differences were registered for both biofertilizers. The results, except for fruit firmness, registered positive effects of the biofertilizers on ‘Baixinho de Santa Amália’ papaya cultivar in relation to yield and physical and chemical fruit quality.Os biofertilizantes são produtos orgânicos geralmente obtidos via anaerobiose, estudados, principalmente, como fitoprotetores para a agricultura, mas que podem também incrementar a produção das plantas. Nesse sentido, um experimento de campo foi desenvolvido, no período de maio/2003 a agosto/2004, no município de Remígio-Pb, para avaliar os efeitos de dois biofertilizantes bovinos sobre a massa média, produtividade e a qualidade externa e interna dos frutos do mamoeiro Havaí (Carica papaya L. cultivar ‘Baixinho de Santa Amália’. Os tratamentos foram dispostos em blocos casualizados com três repetições e 15 plantas por parcela, em esquema fatorial 2 x 5,sendo dois biofertilizantes: puro (água e esterco

  12. Learning and memory enhancing activity of Ficus carica (Fig: An experimental study in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meera Sumanth

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The study aimed to assess the learning and memory enhancing activity of the ethanolic fruit extract of Ficus carica in rats using elevated plus maze (EPM, Hebb-William maze (HWM and Morris water maze (MWM. Materials and Methods: Wistar rats (100-150 g of either sex, were divided into 5 groups (n = 6. Group I (control animals received vehicle, Group II (scopolamine control animals received scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg i.p, Groups III and IV animals received ethanolic fruit extract of F. carica (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg p.o and Group V animals received piracetam (400 mg/kg i.p for 27 days. The rats of Groups III-V were injected with a single dose of scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg i.p on 19 th and 27 th day. Assessment of transfer latency (TL, time taken to reach reward chamber (TRC and swim latency (SL was done on 19 th and 27 th day using EPM, HWM and MWM, respectively. The data was analyzed by one-way Analysis of Variance followed by Dunnett′s test. P ≤ 0.05 was considered to be significant. Results: Ethanolic fruit extract of F. carica decreased TL, TRC and SL in comparison to scopolamine treated rats. Conclusion: The fruit of F. carica enhanced learning and memory activity.

  13. Central nervous system activity of an aqueous acetonic extract of Ficus carica L. in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal M Bhanushali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ficus carica Linn. is reported to possess variety of activities, but its potential in CNS disorders is still to be explored. Objective: The present study was carried out to evaluate the CNS depressant activity of aqueous acetonic extract of Ficus carica Linn on different models in mice. Materials and Methods: The aerial parts of the plant Ficus carica L. were extracted with aqueous acetone and the solvent was removed by rotary vacuum evaporator under reduced pressure. A crude extract was given orally and its effects were tested on ketamine-induced sleeping time, muscle-coordination, anxiety (elevated-plus maze and Staircase test, convulsions [maximal electroshock (MES and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ-induced seizures], and nociception. In addition, we determined the levels of neurotransmitters, norepinephrine (NE and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT. Results: Results from the experimental models tested showed: (1 a delay on onset and prolongation of sleep of ketamine-induced sleeping time; (2 significant muscle relaxant activity; (3 a significant attenuation in the anxiety-response (4 a delay in the onset of seizures and reduction in duration of seizures and mortality induced by MES and PTZ; (5 a reduction in the licking time in nociception test and (6 increased levels of NE and 5-HT. Conclusion: This suggests that Ficus carica L. exerts its CNS depressive effect by modulating the neurotransmitters NE and 5-HT in the brain.

  14. Comportamiento de los cultivares de papaya Sunset, Sunrise y de los genotipos Baixinho de Santa Amalia y BH - 65 en la zona sur de la isla de Tenerife Behavior of papaya cultivars Sunset, Sunrise and genotypes of 'Baixinho de Santa Amalia' and BH- 65 in the south of Tenerife island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Rodríguez Pastor

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Los antecedentes de la papaya (Carica papaya, L. en Canarias vienen a poner de manifiesto, la viabilidad de este cultivo en invernadero y la posibilidad de su mayor expansión a corto plazo, debido a la introducción a lo largo de los últimos años de cultivares comerciales y de gran calidad, procedentes de Hawaii ('Sunrise' y de Brasil 'Baixinho de Santa Amalia' (BSA. En este trabajo se ha estudiado el crecimiento, desarrollo y productividad de los cultivares Sunset, Sunrise, y de los genotipos BH-65 y 'Baixinho de Santa Amalia' y las características morfológicas y organolépticas de sus frutos, con el fin de continuar con la selección de aquellos cultivares que mejor se adapten y cumplan con las exigencias mínimas de mercado, que mantengan una buena productividad en aquellas zonas marginales para la platanera y que sirvan de base para futuros programas de mejora. Los resultados ponen de manifiesto que los mayores porcentajes de floración se obtienen en el mes de Mayo (6 meses después de la plantación en las plantas hermafroditas de todos los cultivares, correspondiendo los mayores porcentajes a 'Sunset' y 'Sunrise' (80 y 90,4%, respectivamente. El número de hojas emitidas mensualmente es semejante en todos los cultivares, entre 7,5 y 7,8. Las plantas femeninas de 'Sunrise' así como las hermafroditas de 'Sunset' tienen mayor diámetro, y además, este último cultivar es más precoz en florecer y sus frutos son de mayor peso y tamaño. Hay que destacar también que en el punto de consumo los frutos del cultivar Sunrise son los que poseen mayor contenido en sólidos solubles totales (10,33 ºBrix. Además, los frutos hermafroditas de 'Sunrise' son los primeros en ser recolectados (422 días desde la plantación. Finalmente, señalar que el cultivar Sunset destaca por ser el más productivo (59,5 kg/pl y por tener mayores rendimientos por hectárea (158,627 kg/ha. No obstante, los genotipos BH-65 y BSA poseen un comportamiento muy

  15. Application of lemongrass oil in vapour phase for the effective control of anthracnose of 'Sekaki' papaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, A; Wee Pheng, T; Mustafa, M A

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the potential use of lemongrass essential oil vapour as an alternative for synthetic fungicides in controlling anthracnose of papaya. Lemongrass oil used in the study was characterized using gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) before it was tested against anthracnose of papaya in vitro and in vivo. The GC-FID analysis showed that geranial (45·6%) and neral (34·3%) were the major components in lemongrass oil. In vitro study revealed that lemongrass oil vapour at all concentrations tested (33, 66, 132, 264 and 528 μl l(-1) ) suppressed the mycelial growth and conidial germination of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. For the in vivo study, 'Sekaki' papaya were exposed to lemongrass oil fumigation (0, 7, 14, 28 μl l(-1) ) for 18 h and at room temperature for 9 days. Lemongrass oil vapour at the concentration of 28 μl l(-1) was most effective against anthracnose of artificially inoculated papaya fruit while quality parameters of papaya were not significantly altered. This suggests that lemongrass oil vapour can control anthracnose disease development on papaya without affecting its natural ripening process. The potential practical application of this technology can reduce reliance on synthetic fungicides for the control of postharvest diseases in papaya. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. Potential of fermented papaya beverage in the prevention of foodborne illness incidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koh, S.P.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Foodborne illness is recognized as an emerging infectious disease. The incidence of foodborne infections is common and the majority cases are undiagnosed or unreported. Apart from some diarrhea or minor gastrointestinal problem, some foodborne pathogenic microbes may cause death, particularly to those people with weakened immune system. In this study, we have developed a new fermented papaya beverage using symbiotic culture of yeast and acetic acid bacteria under controlled biofermentation process. An in-vitro assessment of fermented papaya beverage against few foodborne pathogenic microorganism was conducted to determine its minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC>99. Three types of foodborne pathogen: Escherichia coli O157, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium ATCC 53648, Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (isolated from infectious chicken were selected. From minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC>99 assay, both fermented papaya pulp and leaves beverages have shown 100% killing rate against three selected foodborne pathogenic microbes. Inversely, non-fermented papaya pulp and leaves beverages indicated no inhibition at all. In fact, further dilution of fermented papaya pulp and leaves beverages demonstrated different degree of MBC>99 and brix value, but the pH value remained less than 3.5. These findings indicated the combination of soluble solid compounds presents in both fermented papaya beverage and product acidity play an important role in the inhibition of pathogenic microorganisms. The preliminary promising results of this work have shown that the great potential of fermented papaya beverages as a preventive measure to reduce the incidence of foodborne illness.

  17. Controle alternativo de helmintos de Astyanax cf. zonatus utilizando fitoterapia com sementes de abóbora (Cucurbita maxima e mamão (Carica papaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Y. Fujimoto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a eficácia de sementes de abóbora e mamão desidratadas e moídas, no controle de helmintos parasitos de Astyanax cf. zonatus. Sessenta peixes foram distribuídos em doze recipientes, um peixe/litro. O experimento constituiu de quatro tratamentos e três repetições: TJ = peixes deixados em jejum; TRC = peixes alimentados com ração comercial; TSA = peixes alimentados ad libitum com abóbora, e TSM = peixes alimentados ad libitum com mamão. Após sete dias de alimentação, todos os peixes foram pesados, e o sangue foi retirado para extensão sanguínea. A eficácia foi determinada, verificando a presença de parasitos nas brânquias, no estômago e no intestino. Os peixes do TJ e TSM apresentaram perda de peso (39% e 25%, respectivamente. O TSA apresentou melhor eficácia no controle de nematóides do intestino e do estômago (95,26% e 92,48%. No controle de monogenéticos TSM promoveu 72% de eficácia. Na hematologia observou-se aumento de monócitos nos peixes do TSM e os valores de eosinofilos diminuíram nos tratamentos TSA, TSM e TRC. Assim pode-se concluir que a alimentação com abóbora pode ser utilizado como um controle alternativo eficaz de nematóides intestinais do lambari.

  18. Heavy Metal Contents of Municipal and Rural Dumpsite Soils and Rate of Accumulation by Carica papaya and Talinum triangulare in Uyo, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Ebong

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Dumpsites in Uyo and most cities in Nigeria are used nutrients rich soils for cultivating fruits and vegetables without regards to the risk of toxic metal pollution by the wastes. This development necessitated the research on the assessment of the impact of municipal and rural dumpsites on the metal levels of the underlying soils, the relationship between the dumpsite- soil metal content and the rate of bio-accumulation by plants, the effect of plant specie and plant part on the rate of metal uptake. Atomic absorption spectrophotometer was employed for the analysis of the samples and results obtained from municipal dumpsite soil indicated the following mean concentrations: Fe, 1711.20 μg/g; Pb, 43.28 ug/g; Zn, 88.34 ug/g; Ni, 12.18 ug/g; Cd, 14.10 ug/g and Cu, 56.33 ug/g. These concentrations were relatively higher than the following concentrations: Fe, 1016.98 ug/g; Pb, 18.57 ug/g; Zn, 57.90 ug/g; Ni, 7.98 ug/g; Cd, 9.25 ug/g and Cu, 33.70 ug/g recorded for the rural dumpsite soil. Consequently, plants grown on municipal dumpsites soil accumulated higher concentrations of the metals than those on rural dumpsites. Results obtained from this study also revealed that plants grown on dumpsite soils bio-accumulated higher metal concentrations than their counterparts obtained from normal agricultural soils. The ability of plants to bioaccumulate these metals were also observed as being different from one plant to the other and from one plant parts to the other. And apart from Fe and Zn which recorded higher concentrations in the leaves of the plants studied, other metals recorded higher concentrations in the roots. The general results obtained revealed that the levels of Cd in dumpsite-soil were above the standard while the levels of Cd and Pb in plants were also above the recommended levels in plants. The implications of these high concentrations of these metals in soil and plants have been discussed. Some useful recommendations on the proper handling of wastes to reduce toxic metal loads at dumpsites have also been highlighted.

  19. Genótipos melhorados de mamão (Carica papaya L.): avaliação tecnológica dos frutos na forma de sorvete

    OpenAIRE

    Santana, Ligia Regina Radomille de; Matsuura, Fernando César Akira Urbano; Cardoso, Ricardo Luís

    2003-01-01

    p.151-155 O presente trabalho teve como objetivo a avaliação tecnológica na forma de sorvete, de frutos de cinco genótipos selecionados de mamão (CMF012, CMF020, CMF023, CMF031, CMF047), provenientes do Banco Ativo de Germoplasma da Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura, Cruz das Almas, Bahia. Estes genótipos foram identificados em estudos anteriores por apresentarem cor atraente, sabor agradável e valores elevados de sólidos solúveis (ºBrix). As amostras de sorvete foram submetidas à avaliação ...

  20. Genótipos melhorados de mamão (Carica papaya L.): avaliação tecnológica dos frutos na forma de sorvete

    OpenAIRE

    Santana,Ligia R.R.; Matsuura,Fernando C.A.U.; Cardoso,Ricardo L.

    2003-01-01

    O presente trabalho teve como objetivo a avaliação tecnológica na forma de sorvete, de frutos de cinco genótipos selecionados de mamão (CMF012, CMF020, CMF023, CMF031, CMF047), provenientes do Banco Ativo de Germoplasma da Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura, Cruz das Almas, Bahia. Estes genótipos foram identificados em estudos anteriores por apresentarem cor atraente, sabor agradável e valores elevados de sólidos solúveis (ºBrix). As amostras de sorvete foram submetidas à avaliação sensorial par...

  1. Papaya pulp gelling: is it premature ripening or problems of water accumulation in the apoplast?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurandi Gonçalves de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Gelled aspect in papaya fruit is typically confused with premature ripening. This research reports the characterization of this physiological disorder in the pulp of papaya fruit by measuring electrolyte leakage, Pi content, lipid peroxidation, pulp firmness, mineral contents (Ca, Mg and K - in pulp and seed tissues, and histological analysis of pulp tissue. The results showed that the gelled aspect of the papaya fruit pulp is not associated with tissue premature ripening. Data indicate a reduction of the vacuole water intake as the principal cause of the loss of cellular turgor; while the waterlogged aspect of the tissue may be due to water accumulation in the apoplast.

  2. SIMULTANEOUS PRODUCTIVE GROWTH GROUPS (SPGG: INNOVATION ON PAPAYA MITE MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marycruz Abato-Zárate

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Grower’s previous experience and their ability to communicate technical information to other growers, allows greater adoption of technologies. Thus, appropriation of technologies of mite management and sampling was evaluated, based on the “Simultaneous Productive Growth Groups (SPGG” technology transfer model. A preliminary diagnosis was made, evaluating the technology transfer achieved by six leading growers showing up continuously to seven meetings carried out from March to July 2010, and also by 19 growers showing up on a more irregular basis. All growers were from the municipality of Cotaxtla and belonged to the Papaya-Product-System of Veracruz, Mexico. Participation, attitude and efficacy of training were evaluated with a survey. Forty-two percent of growers considered the papaya ring spot virus as the main problem and 48 % revealed spider mites as the second one; 96 % used pesticides on spider mites. Participation of the SPGG basic group was 71 %, who agreed on sampling, recording data in sampling forms and using selective acaricides. Seventy percent were able to recognize spider mites from predatory mites and 83 % recognized selective acaricides. Growers considered that sampling can help reduce control costs. The SPGG model allowed building collective knowledge and better decision making by the working group.

  3. Phenological adaptations in Ficus tikoua exhibit convergence with unrelated extra-tropical fig trees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Ting Zhao

    Full Text Available Flowering phenology is central to the ecology and evolution of most flowering plants. In highly-specific nursery pollination systems, such as that involving fig trees (Ficus species and fig wasps (Agaonidae, any mismatch in timing has serious consequences because the plants must balance seed production with maintenance of their pollinator populations. Most fig trees are found in tropical or subtropical habitats, but the dioecious Chinese Ficus tikoua has a more northerly distribution. We monitored how its fruiting phenology has adapted in response to a highly seasonal environment. Male trees (where fig wasps reproduce had one to three crops annually, whereas many seed-producing female trees produced only one fig crop. The timing of release of Ceratosolen fig wasps from male figs in late May and June was synchronized with the presence of receptive figs on female trees, at a time when there were few receptive figs on male trees, thereby ensuring seed set while allowing remnant pollinator populations to persist. F. tikoua phenology has converged with those of other (unrelated northern Ficus species, but there are differences. Unlike F. carica in Europe, all F. tikoua male figs contain male flowers, and unlike F. pumila in China, but like F. carica, it is the second annual generation of adult wasps that pollinate female figs. The phenologies of all three temperate fig trees generate annual bottlenecks in the size of pollinator populations and for female F. tikoua also a shortage of fig wasps that results in many figs failing to be pollinated.

  4. Induced mutation in tropical fruit trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-05-15

    This publication is based on an FAO/IAEA coordinated research project (CRP) and provides insight into the application of induced mutation and in vitro techniques for the improvement of well known fruit trees such as citrus, mango, avocado and papaya, as well as more exotic fruit trees such as litchi, annona, jujube, carambola, pitanga and jaboticaba. The latter are of particular importance due to their adaptation to harsh environments and their high potential as basic food and micronutrient providers for populations in poorer and more remote regions. The findings of the CRP show that application of radiation induced mutation techniques in tropical and subtropical fruit trees can contribute to improving nutritional balance food security, and to enhancing the economic status of growers.

  5. Induced mutation in tropical fruit trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-05-01

    This publication is based on an FAO/IAEA coordinated research project (CRP) and provides insight into the application of induced mutation and in vitro techniques for the improvement of well known fruit trees such as citrus, mango, avocado and papaya, as well as more exotic fruit trees such as litchi, annona, jujube, carambola, pitanga and jaboticaba. The latter are of particular importance due to their adaptation to harsh environments and their high potential as basic food and micronutrient providers for populations in poorer and more remote regions. The findings of the CRP show that application of radiation induced mutation techniques in tropical and subtropical fruit trees can contribute to improving nutritional balance food security, and to enhancing the economic status of growers

  6. [Antimutagenic activity of Armoracia rusticana, Zea mays and Ficus carica plant extracts and their mixture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agabeĭli, R A; Kasimova, T E

    2005-01-01

    Antimutagenic action of plant extracts of Armoracia rusticana, Ficus carica, Zea mays and their mixture on environmental xenobiotics has been investigated. The plant extracts and their mixture decreased the level of mutations induced by N-metil-N'-nitro-N-nitrozoguanidin (MNNG) in Vicia faba cells, chlorophyll mutations in Arabidopsis thaliana and NaF induced mutability in rat marrow cells. The studied plant extracts and their mixture demonstrate the ability to decrease the genotoxicity of environmental mutagens.

  7. Comportamiento de los cultivares de papaya Sunset, Sunrise y de los genotipos Baixinho de Santa Amalia y BH - 65 en la zona sur de la isla de Tenerife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Rodríguez Pastor

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Los antecedentes de la papaya (Carica papaya, L. en Canarias vienen a poner de manifiesto, la viabilidad de este cultivo en invernadero y la posibilidad de su mayor expansión a corto plazo, debido a la introducción a lo largo de los últimos años de cultivares comerciales y de gran calidad, procedentes de Hawaii ('Sunrise' y de Brasil 'Baixinho de Santa Amalia' (BSA. En este trabajo se ha estudiado el crecimiento, desarrollo y productividad de los cultivares Sunset, Sunrise, y de los genotipos BH-65 y 'Baixinho de Santa Amalia' y las características morfológicas y organolépticas de sus frutos, con el fin de continuar con la selección de aquellos cultivares que mejor se adapten y cumplan con las exigencias mínimas de mercado, que mantengan una buena productividad en aquellas zonas marginales para la platanera y que sirvan de base para futuros programas de mejora. Los resultados ponen de manifiesto que los mayores porcentajes de floración se obtienen en el mes de Mayo (6 meses después de la plantación en las plantas hermafroditas de todos los cultivares, correspondiendo los mayores porcentajes a 'Sunset' y 'Sunrise' (80 y 90,4%, respectivamente. El número de hojas emitidas mensualmente es semejante en todos los cultivares, entre 7,5 y 7,8. Las plantas femeninas de 'Sunrise' así como las hermafroditas de 'Sunset' tienen mayor diámetro, y además, este último cultivar es más precoz en florecer y sus frutos son de mayor peso y tamaño. Hay que destacar también que en el punto de consumo los frutos del cultivar Sunrise son los que poseen mayor contenido en sólidos solubles totales (10,33 ºBrix. Además, los frutos hermafroditas de 'Sunrise' son los primeros en ser recolectados (422 días desde la plantación. Finalmente, señalar que el cultivar Sunset destaca por ser el más productivo (59,5 kg/pl y por tener mayores rendimientos por hectárea (158,627 kg/ha. No obstante, los genotipos BH-65 y BSA poseen un comportamiento muy

  8. Identification of gamma-irradiated papaya, melon and watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Huachaca, Nélida S.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge; Delincée, Henry; Villavicencio, Anna Lúcia C. H.

    2004-09-01

    Ionizing radiation can be used to control spoilage microorganisms and to increase the shelf life of fresh fruits and vegetables in replacement for the treatment with chemical fumigants. In order to enforce labelling regulations, methods for detecting the irradiation treatment directly in the produce are required. Recently, a number of detection methods for irradiated food have been adopted by the Codex Comission. A rapid screening method for qualitative detection of irradiation is the DNA Comet Assay. The applicability of the DNA Comet Assay for distinguishing irradiated papaya, melon, and watermelon was evaluated. The samples were treated in a 60Co facility at dose levels of 0.0, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0kGy. The irradiated samples showed typical DNA fragmentation whereas cells from non-irradiated ones appeared intact. In addition to the DNA Comet Assay also the half-embryo test was applied in melon and watermelon to detect the irradiation treatment.

  9. Identification of gamma-irradiated papaya, melon and watermelon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin-Huachaca, N.S.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge; Delincee, Henry; Villavicencio, A.L.C.H.

    2004-01-01

    Ionizing radiation can be used to control spoilage microorganisms and to increase the shelf life of fresh fruits and vegetables in replacement for the treatment with chemical fumigants. In order to enforce labelling regulations, methods for detecting the irradiation treatment directly in the produce are required. Recently, a number of detection methods for irradiated food have been adopted by the Codex Comission. A rapid screening method for qualitative detection of irradiation is the DNA Comet Assay. The applicability of the DNA Comet Assay for distinguishing irradiated papaya, melon, and watermelon was evaluated. The samples were treated in a 60 Co facility at dose levels of 0.0, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 kGy. The irradiated samples showed typical DNA fragmentation whereas cells from non-irradiated ones appeared intact. In addition to the DNA Comet Assay also the half-embryo test was applied in melon and watermelon to detect the irradiation treatment

  10. Identification of gamma-irradiated papaya, melon and watermelon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin-Huachaca, N.S.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge E-mail: jmancini@usp.br; Delincee, Henry E-mail: henry.delincee@bfe.uni-karlsruhe.de; Villavicencio, A.L.C.H. E-mail: villavic@net.ipen.br

    2004-10-01

    Ionizing radiation can be used to control spoilage microorganisms and to increase the shelf life of fresh fruits and vegetables in replacement for the treatment with chemical fumigants. In order to enforce labelling regulations, methods for detecting the irradiation treatment directly in the produce are required. Recently, a number of detection methods for irradiated food have been adopted by the Codex Comission. A rapid screening method for qualitative detection of irradiation is the DNA Comet Assay. The applicability of the DNA Comet Assay for distinguishing irradiated papaya, melon, and watermelon was evaluated. The samples were treated in a {sup 60}Co facility at dose levels of 0.0, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 kGy. The irradiated samples showed typical DNA fragmentation whereas cells from non-irradiated ones appeared intact. In addition to the DNA Comet Assay also the half-embryo test was applied in melon and watermelon to detect the irradiation treatment.

  11. A case study to determine the geographical origin of unknown GM papaya in routine food sample analysis, followed by identification of papaya events 16-0-1 and 18-2-4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, Theo W.; Scholtens-Toma, Ingrid; Bak, Arno W.; Dijk, Van Jeroen P.; Voorhuijzen, Marleen M.; Laurensse, Emile J.; Kok, Esther J.

    2016-01-01

    During routine monitoring for GMOs in food in the Netherlands, papaya-containing food supplements were found positive for the genetically modified (GM) elements P-35S and T-nos. The goal of this study was to identify the unknown and EU unauthorised GM papaya event(s). A screening strategy was

  12. Study on shelf life extension of papayas irradiated by /sup 60/Co gamma-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, M.S.; Chen, M.D.; Lin, C.T.; Fu, Y.K.

    1984-11-01

    Papayas are one of the main fresh fruits in Taiwan area. Papaya fruits were treated with hot water to pasteurize peels followed by /sup 60/Co gamma-ray irradiation to extend the ripening time. The purpose of synergetic methods is to extend the shelf life of papaya fruits. This experiment was carried out by seven treatments, which were: (1) control group, (2) hot water treatment only, (3) hot water treatment with a 25 krad ..gamma..-irradiation, (4) hot water treatment with a 50 krad ..gamma..-irradiation, (5) hot water treatment with a 75 krad ..gamma..-irradiation, (6) 75 krad ..gamma..-irradiation only, and (7) hot water treatment with a 100 krad ..gamma..-irradiation. The items of observation were: surface yellowing, surface decaying, quality of texture, and length of period lasted after irradiation for 50% marketable papayas. The results of this study showed that a shelf-life extension of six days could be obtained for papayas subjected to hot water (50 to 55/sup 0/C) treatment and a 100 krad irradiation. 3 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Influência da adubação com esterco bovino e inoculação de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares no crescimento de mudas de Carica papaya L. (var. Formosa) Influence of fertilization with bovine manure and inoculation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the growth of Carica papaya L. 'Formosa' seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Cláudia Elizabete de Lima Lins; Regina Lúcia Félix de Aguiar; Uided Maaze T Cavalcante; Leonor Costa Maia

    1999-01-01

    Devido ao rápido crescimento do mamoeiro, poucos são os solos que, em condições naturais, podem satisfazer a sua demanda por nutrientes, sendo necessária a aplicação de fertilizantes minerais que favoreçam as plantas no período do transplantio para o campo. Os fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMA) são conhecidos por tornarem os seus hospedeiros mais resistentes aos estresses bióticos e abióticos, sendo por isso empregados na produção de mudas de diversas árvores frutíferas. Nesse trabalho ob...

  14. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in papaya plantations of Espírito Santo and Bahia, Brazil Fungos micorrízicos arbusculares em pomares de mamoeiro do Espírito Santo e Bahia no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Vilar Trindade

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to obtain knowledge on arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM associations in papaya (Caricapapaya, L. in field soils and nursery conditions. Sixty seven soil and root samples were taken in February and May of 1996, from 47 commercial plantations in the North of Espirito Santo State and the West and South of Bahia State, in Brazil. Samples were used for direct spore counts, root colonization assessment and for trap culture with Sorghumbicolor (L. Moench and Crotalariajuncea L. Additional sampling was done in commercial nurseries to evaluate mycorrhizal colonization. Although papaya cropping systems are usually under high input of fertilizers and pesticides, papaya roots showed considerable arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM colonization, ranging from 6% to 83%. Colonization rates were most influenced by available soil P, correlated positively with percentage of sand and soil pH, but correlated negatively with soil clay content. AM colonization of nursery seedlings was very low in most samples. Field spore numbers varied from 34 to 444/30g of soil. All Glomerales families were represented and 24 fungal species identified. Glomusetunicatum, Paraglomusoccultum, Acaulosporascrobiculata and Gigaspora sp. were the most common species.O trabalho objetivou a obtenção de conhecimento sobre a associação micorrízica arbuscular (MA em mamoeiro (Carica papaya, L. em condições de pomar e viveiro. Sessenta e sete amostras de solo e raízes foram coletadas em quarenta e sete pomares comerciais nos meses de fevereiro e maio de 1996, abrangendo o Norte do Espírito Santo e o Oeste e Sul da Bahia. Amostras foram usadas para contagem direta de esporos, avaliação da colonização radicular e para cultivo armadilha com Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench e Crotalariajuncea (L.. Amostragens adicionais foram feitas em viveiros comerciais, para avaliar a colonização micorrízica. Embora os sistemas de cultivo do mamoeiro recebam grande quantidade de insumos na

  15. KURSUS SINGKAT DAN PELATIHAN PEMANFAATAN PEPAYA (CARISA PAPAYA L. MENJADI MANISAN KERING BUAH PEPAYA DI DESA TIMUHUN, KECAMATAN BANJARANGKAN, KABUPATEN KLUNGKUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Nada

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In Desa Timuhun, eventhough papaya is not primary fruit product, but usually papaya is planted among the other plants and easily to grow. Papaya has good potency to be processed to become food product. Matured papaya fruit is usually fresh served for desk fruit. On the other hand, for papaya which is not mature yet, usually used for vegetable. Papaya has high water content, so it makes papaya fruit easy to experience damage. With papaya processing, papaya which is originally assumed improper to be sold or to be consumed (mechanical damage, diseased, acid, physical damage and will only to be thrown, finally can be used. The making of papaya dry candy is one of effort to preserve and to vary form of papaya serving. It also improves the economic value of papaya. The making of papaya can be conducted in big or small scale. The activity objectives are to introduce and give additional knowledge to society about papaya processing technology, to increase economic added value of papaya and the using of papaya which is improper to be sold or to be consumed becoming valuable food product .Realization of the objectives above are by performing an information sharing and discussion with the society about process of the making dry candy from papaya, training of papaya dry candy making, introduce simple technology of dry candy papaya making. This activity was performed at the head of Desa Timuhun office, on Friday, September 14, 2007 and was attended by 26 persons, including association of woman farmer and the staff in that office. The result of this activity shows that there was positive response of people who attend this activity, because by processing papaya fruit into dry candy, have a lot of advantage compare to sale it freshly. Beside that, this dry candy is healthy snack, without synthetic preservation, enriched with vitamins which is useful for health, also this dry candy is still good up to 1 month and of course it could to improve economic

  16. UniProt search blastx result: AK289220 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK289220 J100065H20 P05994|PAPA4_CARPA Papaya proteinase 4 precursor (EC 3.4.22.25) (Papay...a proteinase IV) (PPIV) (Papaya peptidase B) (Glycyl endopeptidase) - Carica papaya (Papaya) 1.00E-57 ...

  17. UniProt search blastx result: AK289220 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK289220 J100065H20 P10056|PAPA3_CARPA Caricain precursor (EC 3.4.22.30) (Papaya proteinase omega) (Papay...a proteinase III) (PPIII) (Papaya peptidase A) - Carica papaya (Papaya) 8.00E-59 ...

  18. The effects of Ficus carica on the activity of enzymes related to metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramgopal Mopuri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the effects of the various parts of Ficus carica L. (figs on antioxidant, antidiabetic, and antiobesogenic effects in vitro. Fruit, leaves, and stembark of the F. carica plant were sequentially extracted using organic and inorganic solvents and their total polyphenol and flavonoid contents were estimated. The effects of the extracts on antioxidative, antidiabetic (inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes, and antiobesogenic (antilipase activities were measured using several experimental models. The fruit ethanolic extract contained a high quantity of polyphenols and flavonoids (104.67±5.51 μg/mL and 81.67±4.00 μg/mL compared with all other extracts. The activity of the ethanolic extract of F. carica fruit was significantly (p<0.05 higher than all other extracts and parts of the plant in terms of antioxidative, antidiabetic, and antiobesogenic effects. The IC50 values of the fruit ethanolic extract in terms of antioxidative (134.44±18.43 μg/mL, and inhibition of α-glucosidase (255.57±36.46 μg/mL, α-amylase (315.89±3.83 μg/mL, and pancreatic lipase (230.475±9.65 μg/mL activity indicate that the activity of fruit ethanolic extract is better than all other extracts of the plant. The gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy analysis of the fruit ethanolic extract showed the presence of a number of bioactive compounds such as butyl butyrate, 5-hydroxymethyl furfural, 1-butoxy-1-isobutoxy butane, malic acid, tetradecanoic acid, phytol acetate, trans phytol, n-hexadecanoic acid, 9Z,12Z-octadecadienoic acid, stearic acid, sitosterol, 3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-2,3-dihydro-4H-pyran-4-one, and 2,4,5-trimethyl-2,4-dihydro-3H-pyrazol-3-one. The results of this study suggest that the ethanolic extract of the fruit of F. carica may have potential antidiabetic and antiobesogenic agents.

  19. TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER NETWORKS ON PAPAYA PRODUCTION WITH TRANSITIONAL GROWERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio Cano-Reyes

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Social networks analysis applied to rural innovation processes becomes a very useful technology transfer tool, since it helps to understand the complexity of social relationships among people and/or institutions in their environment, and it also defines those innovation networks given in specific working groups or regions. This study was conducted from April to May 2011 to determine those networks and key players present in the group of growers associated as “Productora y Comercializadora de Papaya de Cotaxtla S.P.R. de R.L.”, that influence the technology transfer process in Cotaxtla, Veracruz, Mexico. Data were analyzed using UCINET 6 software. Three centrality measures were obtained: range, degree of mediation and closeness. Of 32 network players, 27 actively diffuse innovations according to their interests; alliances must be established with them to transfer technology. Four growers stand out as central actors, which along with the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales Agricolas y Pecuarias, the Colegio de Postgraduados and the growers’ organization itself, could be the most appropriate actors to establish a technology transfer program to accelerate the diffusion and adoption of innovations. Wholesalers, middlemen and credit institutions do not participate in this process, but having capital they could be incorporated in the innovation diffusion process.

  20. Line 63-1: A New Virus-resistant Transgenic Papaya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tennant, P.; Souza, M.T.; Fitch, M.M.; Manshardt, R.; Slightom, J.L.; Gonsalves, D.

    2005-01-01

    The disease resistance of a transgenic line expressing the coat protein (CP) gene of the mild strain of the papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) from Hawaii was further analyzed against PRSV isolates from Hawaii and other geographical regions. Line 63-1 originated from the same transformation experiment

  1. INFLUENCE OF 1-METHYLCYCLOPROPENE ON THE BIOCHEMICAL RESPONSE AND RIPENING OF ‘SOLO’ PAPAYAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    THAÍS LURI OHASHI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The market demand for tropical fruits has been growing steadily over the past two decades and global papaya production has grown significantly over the last few years. This sector, however, suffers greatly from postharvest losses due to reduced quantity and quality of fruits between harvest and consumption. The use of ethylene inhibitors after harvest could improve the final quality of the fruit to satisfy the consumer and also minimize waste. The physiological and biochemical responses of ‘Solo’ papayas treated with the ethylene inhibitor 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP to extend storage shelf life and maintain quality during long-term storage are deeply discussed in this study. Papaya fruits arrived at Cranfield University (CU and received a 24 h 1-MCP, being stored at 20 ºC for 10 days. The ethylene inhibitor 1-MCP application significantly delayed ‘Solo’ papaya ripeness on fruit storage by reducing respiration rate and ethylene production. There was a delay from 7 days in fruit firmness loss and the retention of green peel colour was increased. Inhibition of ethylene perception by 1-MCP did not prevent the accumulation of sugars and the mean values were similar and higher than those found for control fruits, which are possibly due to the lower reaction speed, leading to a higher accumulation.

  2. Molecular and Clinical Effects of Green Tea and Fermented Papaya Preparation on Diabetes and Cardiovascular Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-14

    Assess the Effect of Green Tea on Diabetes; Assess the Effect of Fermented Papaya Pretration on Diabetes; Effects of Green Tea and FPP on C-reactive Proteins; Effects of Green Tea and FPP of Lipid Profiles in Diabetes; Effect of Green Tea and FPP on Atheroma Formation

  3. Production of bioethanol from papaya and pineapple wastes using marine associated microorganisms

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jayaprakashvel, M.; Akila, S.; Venkatramani, M.; Vinothini, S.; Bhagat, J.; Hussain, A. J.

    and methane are advantageous. In this study, an attempt was made to produce bio-ethanol by marine fungi in fermentation process with the use of fruit wastes (papaya and pine apple) as substrates. A total of 19 marine fungi were isolated from various marine...

  4. Edible Film from the Pectin of Papaya Skin (The Study of Cassava Starch and Glycerol Addition)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosida; Sudaryati; Yahya, A. M.

    2018-01-01

    The production of edible cooking made from the pectin of papaya skin with cassava starch and glycerol adition had been studied. The usage of pectin of papaya skin was one way to use papaya skin waste in order to raise its economic value. The aim of this study was to study the effect of cassava starch and glycerol concentration on the product qualities and to determine the the best treatment in making a good quality adible film and acceptable by the consumer. This research used completely randomized design in factorial patern with two factors. The first factor was cassava starch concentration (25%, 35% and 45%) and the second factor was glycerol concentration (20 %, 15% and 10). The data were analyzed by Analysis of Variance (Anova) and Duncan’s Multiple Range Test to detect the difference between the treatment. The best treatment was 25% cassava starch addition and 10% glycerol concentration which produced edible film which had moisture content of 21.16%, thickness of 0.023 mm, tensile strength of 1.900 N, elasticity of 14.223%, and vapor transmission rate of 116.963 g/m2/24 hours. So the production of edible film from papaya skin pectin was potential to be developed.

  5. Application of Transgenic Technologies to Papaya: Developments and Biosafety Assessments in Thailand

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kertbundit, Sunee; Juříček, Miloslav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 1 (2010), s. 52-57 ISSN 1749-0413 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : coat protein-mediated resistance * GMO * Papaya ringspot virus Subject RIV: EF - Botanics http://home.ueb.cas.cz/publikace/2010_Kertbundit_TransgenicPlantJournal_52.pdf

  6. Effect of Precursors on Volatile Compounds in Papaya Wine Fermented by Mixed Yeasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pin-Rou Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of the addition of fusel oil or amino acids on the volatile compounds in papaya wine fermented with a mixed culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. bayanus R2 and Williopsis saturnus var. mrakii NCYC 2251 at a ratio of 1:1000 was studied. Fusel oil addition increased the fraction of alcohols and promoted the production of isoamyl octanoate, isoamyl decanoate and isobutyl decanoate, while decreased the fraction of ethyl acetate and 2-phenylethyl acetate. The addition of amino acids enhanced the formation of total volatile fatty acids, 2-phenylethanol and some ethyl esters. The papaya wine with added amino acids possessed more acidic and buttery notes than the control, while that with added fusel oil had an overall aroma profile comparable to that of the control. This study suggests that papaya juice fermentation with mixed yeasts in conjunction with the added fusel oil or selected amino acids may be another method of modulating the flavour of papaya wine.

  7. A STUDY OF PAPAYA EXTRACT IN THE TREATMENT OF LOW PLATELET COUNT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakuntala Putrevu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Thrombocytopenia is defined as platelet count less than one and half lakh per mm cube of blood. Thrombocytopenia has been documented in patients with infectious mononucleosis, cytomegalovirus, and varicella zoster infections. Hepatitis C, tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus also have been reported in the causes list. Thrombocytopenia is a well-known complication of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, although it may not be encountered as easily as seen in autoimmune haemolytic anaemias in these patients. It has also been reported in patients with other lymphoproliferative disorders including Hodgkin’s disease. Thrombocytopenia in patients with a variety of solid tumours has also been thought to most likely be immune mediated. Thrombocytopenia may accompany Graves’ disease and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, but it is not certain that it is immunologically mediated or not. In our country, Dengue and malaria remain the predominant cause for Thrombocytopenia. Chymopapain and papain are the two important compound that are present in papaya. Lipase, a hydrolase, which is tightly bonded to the waterinsoluble fraction of crude papain is also seen in papaya. The papaya seeds and fruits have excellent antibiotic properties. The consumption of unripe and semi-ripe papaya fruits could be dangerous during pregnancy as it contains papain which may cause natural uterine contraction and may lead to abortions. It is reported that the plant extracts of papaya have maximum activity against dengue virus. It also has been reported that the methyl gallate of plant origin interacts with herpes simplex virus and causes its destruction. Majority of the papaya plant parts is known to have antimicrobial property. This study puts in a sincere effort to check the effects of papaya extract in the treatment of low platelet count. This study is intended to help the practising physicians to understand the benefits of the use of papaya extract when using in the

  8. Removal of methylene blue by adsorption onto activated carbon developed from Ficus carica bast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Pathania

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, activated carbon was developed from Ficus carica bast (FCBAC. The experiments were carried out to explore methylene blue (MB uptake by FCBAC. The influence of various experimental factors such as contact time, initial dye concentration, adsorbent dosage, temperature and pH of dye solution was investigated. The adsorption equilibrium was represented with Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models. Langmuir and Tempkin equations were found to have the correlation coefficient value in good agreement. Adsorption of MB onto FCBAC followed pseudo second order kinetics. The calculated values of ΔH°, ΔS° and ΔG° were found to be 21.55 kJ/mol, 76.24 J/mol K and −1.55 kJ/mol, respectably. Adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic in nature.

  9. Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and solvent extraction of papaya seed oil: yield, fatty acid composition and triacylglycerol profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaram, Shadi; Mirhosseini, Hamed; Tan, Chin Ping; Ghazali, Hasanah Mohd

    2013-10-10

    The main objective of the current work was to evaluate the suitability of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) for the recovery of oil from papaya seed as compared to conventional extraction techniques (i.e., Soxhlet extraction (SXE) and solvent extraction (SE)). In the present study, the recovery yield, fatty acid composition and triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil obtained from different extraction methods and conditions were compared. Results indicated that both solvent extraction (SE, 12 h/25 °C) and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) methods recovered relatively high yields (79.1% and 76.1% of total oil content, respectively). Analysis of fatty acid composition revealed that the predominant fatty acids in papaya seed oil were oleic (18:1, 70.5%-74.7%), palmitic (16:0, 14.9%-17.9%), stearic (18:0, 4.50%-5.25%), and linoleic acid (18:2, 3.63%-4.6%). Moreover, the most abundant triacylglycerols of papaya seed oil were triolein (OOO), palmitoyl diolein (POO) and stearoyl oleoyl linolein (SOL). In this study, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) significantly (p < 0.05) influenced the triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil, but no significant differences were observed in the fatty acid composition of papaya seed oil extracted by different extraction methods (SXE, SE and UAE) and conditions.

  10. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction (UAE and Solvent Extraction of Papaya Seed Oil: Yield, Fatty Acid Composition and Triacylglycerol Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasanah Mohd Ghazali

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the current work was to evaluate the suitability of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE for the recovery of oil from papaya seed as compared to conventional extraction techniques (i.e., Soxhlet extraction (SXE and solvent extraction (SE. In the present study, the recovery yield, fatty acid composition and triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil obtained from different extraction methods and conditions were compared. Results indicated that both solvent extraction (SE, 12 h/25 °C and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE methods recovered relatively high yields (79.1% and 76.1% of total oil content, respectively. Analysis of fatty acid composition revealed that the predominant fatty acids in papaya seed oil were oleic (18:1, 70.5%–74.7%, palmitic (16:0, 14.9%–17.9%, stearic (18:0, 4.50%–5.25%, and linoleic acid (18:2, 3.63%–4.6%. Moreover, the most abundant triacylglycerols of papaya seed oil were triolein (OOO, palmitoyl diolein (POO and stearoyl oleoyl linolein (SOL. In this study, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE significantly (p < 0.05 influenced the triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil, but no significant differences were observed in the fatty acid composition of papaya seed oil extracted by different extraction methods (SXE, SE and UAE and conditions.

  11. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Flowering Trees. Boswellia serrata Roxb. ex Colebr. (Indian Frankincense tree) of Burseraceae is a large-sized deciduous tree that is native to India. Bark is thin, greenish-ash-coloured that exfoliates into smooth papery flakes. Stem exudes pinkish resin ... Fruit is a three-valved capsule. A green gum-resin exudes from the ...

  12. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Flowering Trees. Ailanthus excelsa Roxb. (INDIAN TREE OF. HEAVEN) of Simaroubaceae is a lofty tree with large pinnately compound alternate leaves, which are ... inflorescences, unisexual and greenish-yellow. Fruits are winged, wings many-nerved. Wood is used in making match sticks. 1. Male flower; 2. Female flower.

  13. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Flowering Trees. Gyrocarpus americanus Jacq. (Helicopter Tree) of Hernandiaceae is a moderate size deciduous tree that grows to about 12 m in height with a smooth, shining, greenish-white bark. The leaves are ovate, rarely irregularly ... flowers which are unpleasant smelling. Fruit is a woody nut with two long thin wings.

  14. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 8 Issue 8 August 2003 pp 112-112 Flowering Trees. Zizyphus jujuba Lam. of Rhamnaceae · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 8 Issue 9 September 2003 pp 97-97 Flowering Trees. Moringa oleifera · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 8 Issue 10 October 2003 pp 100-100 Flowering Trees.

  15. Sex and aggregation pheromone transport after methyl eugenol consumption in male Bactrocera papayae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hee, Alvin K.W.; Tan, K.H.

    2000-01-01

    Amongst at least 52 sibling species complexes in the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (Diptera: Tephritidae), B. papayae (formerly Mal B) Drew and Hancock (Drew and Hancock 1994) is beginning to emerge as an economically important insect pest which poses a severe threat to the fruit cultivation in both subtropical and tropical countries. In Malaysia, B. papayae is one of the most damaging pests which infests many commercially grown fruits (Tan and Lee 1982). Like the Oriental fruit fly and its sibling species complex, B. carambolae Drew and Hancock, B. papayae is also strongly attracted to, and compulsively feeds on, methyl eugenol (ME) (Tan 1993). Chemical analyses revealed that in B. papayae males, ME is converted to phenylpropanoids which are then selectively accumulated in the rectal gland. Of the three major volatile substances, 2-allyl-4,5-dimethoyphenol (allyl-DMP) was detected in higher quantities relative to the trans-coniferyl alcohol (4-(3-hydroxy-E-propenyl)-2-methoxyphenol) (CF) and cis-3,4-dimethoxycinnamyl alcohol (cis-DMC) (Nishida et al. 1988a, 1988b). Behavioural studies have also shown that allyl-DMP and CF function as male sex and aggregation pheromone in B. papayae (Tan and Nishida 1996, Hee and Tan 1998). Allyl-DMP was found to be the most attractive compound and cis-DMC the least attractive to the males (Tan 1996). Consumption of ME enhances the mating competitiveness of males. This is demonstrated by the strong attraction of females to conspecific ME-fed males in wind tunnel experiments (Hee and Tan 1998). In male-male mating competition for virgin females, males that fed on ME performed significantly better (Shelly and Dewire 1994, Tan and Nishida 1996). Thus it appears that ME-fed males produced signals that were more attractive. However, the characterisation and understanding of the functions of these phenylpropanoids have not been accompanied by studies of their physiological mode of transport in male flies. The current

  16. [Antimutagenic activity of plant extracts from Armoracia rusticana, Ficus carica and Zea mays and peroxidase in eukaryotic cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agabeĭli, R A; Kasimova, T E; Alekperov, U K

    2004-01-01

    Antimutagene activity and high efficiency of antimutagene action of plant extracts from horseradish roots (Armoracia rusticana), fig brunches (Ficus carica) and mays seedlings (Zea mays) and their ability to decrease the frequency of spontaneous and induced by gamma-rays chromosome aberrations in meristematic cells of Vicia faba and marrow cells of mice have been shown. Comparative assessment of genoprotective properties of peroxidase and the studied extracts has revealed higher efficiency of antimutagene action of peroxidase.

  17. Effects of different culture conditions (photoautotrophic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of different culture conditions (photoautotrophic, photomixotrophic) and the auxin indole-butyric acid on the in vitro acclimatization of papaya ( Carica papaya L. var. Red Maradol) plants using zeolite as support.

  18. Innovative approach for urease inhibition by Ficus carica extract-fabricated silver nanoparticles: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borase, Hemant P; Salunkhe, Rahul B; Patil, Chandrashekhar D; Suryawanshi, Rahul K; Salunke, Bipinchandra K; Wagh, Nilesh D; Patil, Satish V

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, a rapid, low-cost, and ecofriendly method of stable silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesis using leaves extract of Ficus carica (F. carica), a plant with diverse metabolic consortium, is reported for the first time. An absorption peak at 422 nm in UV-Vis spectroscopy, a spherical shape with an average size of 21 nm in transmission electron microscopy, and crystalline nature in X-ray powder diffraction studies were observed for the synthesized AgNPs. Fourier transform infrared analysis indicated that proteins of F. carica might have a vital role in AgNP synthesis and stabilization. AgNPs were found to inhibit urease, a key enzyme responsible for the survival and pathogenesis of the bacterium, Helicobacter pylori. Inhibition of urease by AgNPs was monitored spectrophotometrically by the evaluation of ammonia release. The urease inhibition potential of AgNPs can be explored in the treatment of H. pylori by preparing novel combinations of standard drugs with AgNPs- or AgNPs-encapsulated drug molecules. © 2015 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Tree compression with top trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Landau, Gad M.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a new compression scheme for labeled trees based on top trees [3]. Our compression scheme is the first to simultaneously take advantage of internal repeats in the tree (as opposed to the classical DAG compression that only exploits rooted subtree repeats) while also supporting fast...

  20. Tree compression with top trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Landau, Gad M.

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a new compression scheme for labeled trees based on top trees. Our compression scheme is the first to simultaneously take advantage of internal repeats in the tree (as opposed to the classical DAG compression that only exploits rooted subtree repeats) while also supporting fast...

  1. The effect of gamma radiation on the peroxides activity, colour and ascorbic acid content of papaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asmah, R.; Nitisewojo, P.

    1977-01-01

    The activity of peroxidase enzyme increases during ripening with external colour used as a maturity index. An experiment indicated that 200 Krad dose level was most effective in inhibiting any increase in peroxidase activity when papaya was stored at room temperature. The doses of 25, 50 and 100 Krad level at least double the shelf life of fruit with 100 Krad was the most effective when kept in the cold. The development of yellow colour and synthesis of vitamin C is not effected. So, this preliminary study indicates that gamma radiation prolongs the shelf life of papaya when stored at cold or room temperature due to the inhibiting of the ripening process. It is also suggested that treatment of fungicides combined with gamma radiation might have an additive effect on shelf life

  2. Optimal plot size in the evaluation of papaya scions: proposal and comparison of methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Felipe Celanti

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Evaluating the quality of scions is extremely important and it can be done by characteristics of shoots and roots. This experiment evaluated height of the aerial part, stem diameter, number of leaves, petiole length and length of roots of papaya seedlings. Analyses were performed from a blank trial with 240 seedlings of "Golden Pecíolo Curto". The determination of the optimum plot size was done by applying the methods of maximum curvature, maximum curvature of coefficient of variation and a new proposed method, which incorporates the bootstrap resampling simulation to the maximum curvature method. According to the results obtained, five is the optimal number of seedlings of papaya "Golden Pecíolo Curto" per plot. The proposed method of bootstrap simulation with replacement provides optimal plot sizes equal or higher than the maximum curvature method and provides same plot size than maximum curvature method of the coefficient of variation.

  3. Enzymatic wound debridement; role of papaya in the management of post cesarean gaped wounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisa, M.U.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Enzymatic wound debridement is an emerging concept in facilitating the wound healing process. Papaya has de-sloughing, antibacterial and wound healing properties. It has been used in African countries since centuries for different medicinal pur-poses. Apart from anecdotal reports and few studies on chronic ulcers and burns, no planned studies are available to support its action in postoperative wound infection.Objectives: To compare efficacy and safety of papaya dressing with conventional wound dressing with povidone iodine in post cesarean section gaped wounds. Setting: Gynecology Unit 3, Sir Ganga Ram Hospital Lahore - Pakistan, over a period of six months(June 2012 to Nov 2012). Study Design: Randomized, quasi experimental stu-dy. Materials and Methods: The study sample included 60 patients with post cesarean section gaped wounds. The sample was divided into two groups; thirty patients as Group A or the study group received Papaya dressing and rest of thirty patients as Group B or the control group received Povidone iodine dressing. Wounds were thoroughly washed with saline and then mashed unripe papaya was spread over the whole area of wound in the study group and povidone iodine in the control group. Wounds were covered with sterile bandage for at least 48 hours in study group and 24 hours in the control group. The process was repeated till a clean base of wound with healthy granulation tis-sue was achieved suitable for secondary suture. The efficacy parameters studied were the duration of time needed to develop healthy granulation tissue and total duration of hospital stay which were compared bet-ween the two groups. Safety factors studied were the adverse effects of medications used in the study. Results: Out of 1200 cesarean sections done during study period, sixty (5%) were gaped in the post-operative period. Out of 60, 55 (90%) were emergency and only 5 (10%) were elective cesarean sections. All the sixty patients with postoperative gaped

  4. Semen quality in papaya workers with long term exposure to ethylene dibromide.

    OpenAIRE

    Ratcliffe, J M; Schrader, S M; Steenland, K; Clapp, D E; Turner, T; Hornung, R W

    1987-01-01

    To examine whether long term occupational exposure to ethylene dibromide (EDB) affects semen quality a cross sectional study of semen quality was conducted among 46 men employed in the papaya fumigation industry in Hawaii, with an average duration of exposure of five years and a geometric mean breathing zone exposure to airborne EDB of 88 ppb (eight hour time weighted average) and peak exposures of up to 262 ppb. The comparison group consisted of 43 unexposed men from a nearby sugar refinery....

  5. Sensory acceptance of mixed nectar of papaya, passion fruit and acerola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsuura Fernando César Akira Urbano

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Nectars are beverages formulated with the juice or pulp of one or more fruits, plus water and sugar in concentrations resulting in a "ready-to-drink" product. Recently, the market for such products has greatly expanded. Fruit mixtures present a series of advantages, such as the combination of different aromas and flavors and the sum of their nutritional components. The objective of this work was to develop a nectar based on papaya pulp and passion fruit juice, enriched with the vitamin C present in acerola pulp, optimizing the formulation using sensory consumer tests and a response surface statistical methodology. Eleven formulations were prepared using different concentrations of papaya pulp and passion fruit juice and sucrose, and maintaining the concentration of acerola pulp constant. The sensory tests were carried out with 22 non-trained panelists using a structured 9-point hedonic scale to evaluate overall acceptance. The acceptance means were submitted to regression analysis, by first calculating a polynomial quadratic equation. A predictive model was adjusted considering only those parameters where P < 0.05, and a response surface was generated. The overall acceptance of nectars of different formulations varied from 5 ("neither liked nor disliked" to more than 7 ("liked moderately", showing that some products can be considered adequate to consumers, like the nectar produced with 37.5% papaya pulp, 7.5% passion fruit juice, and 5.0% acerola pulp, added of 15% sucrose. A quadratic predictive overall acceptance model, with a regression coefficient of 0.97 was obtained. The sensory acceptance of nectars was positively affected by increases in the concentrations of papaya pulp and of sucrose. Thus, some products presented good sensory acceptance suggesting commercial potential.

  6. New substrate containing agroindustrial carnauba residue for production of papaya under foliar fertilization

    OpenAIRE

    Albano, Francisca G.; Cavalcante, Ítalo H. L.; Machado, Jailson S.; Lacerda, Claudivan F. de; Silva, Esdras R. da; Sousa, Humberto G. de

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The use of organic waste in the composition of substrates for seedlings constitutes an alternative to the recycling of these materials. Thus, an experiment was conducted with the objective to evaluate the production of ‘Formosa’ papaya seedlings in substrate containing carnauba wax residue, under foliar fertilization. The experimental design was completely randomized with five replicates, with treatments distributed in a 5 x 2 factorial scheme, corresponding to five materials used as...

  7. New substrate containing agroindustrial carnauba residue for production of papaya under foliar fertilization

    OpenAIRE

    Albano,Francisca G.; Cavalcante,Ítalo H. L.; Machado,Jailson S.; Lacerda,Claudivan F. de; Silva,Esdras R. da; Sousa,Humberto G. de

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The use of organic waste in the composition of substrates for seedlings constitutes an alternative to the recycling of these materials. Thus, an experiment was conducted with the objective to evaluate the production of ‘Formosa’ papaya seedlings in substrate containing carnauba wax residue, under foliar fertilization. The experimental design was completely randomized with five replicates, with treatments distributed in a 5 x 2 factorial scheme, corresponding to five mater...

  8. FREQUENCY OF QUIESCENT FUNGI AND POST-HARVEST ALTERNATIVE MANAGEMENT OF STEM END ROT IN PAPAYA

    OpenAIRE

    DANIELA DAMBROS AMARAL; ANA LETICIA ROCHA MONTEIRO; ELIAS INÁCIO DA SILVA; SEVERINA RODRIGUES DE OLIVEIRA LINS; SONIA MARIA ALVES DE OLIVEIRA

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of quiescent fungi and the effect of phosphites under modified atmosphere on Lasiodiplodia theobromae in papaya. The fruits were treated with a range of doses of phosphites and their actions evaluated under conditions of ambient and modified atmosphere. Of the eight fungal genera found, Lasiodiplodia was the most common. No interaction was observed between the evaluated factors and only atmosphere and dose were independently significant. The...

  9. FREQUENCY OF QUIESCENT FUNGI AND POST-HARVEST ALTERNATIVE MANAGEMENT OF STEM END ROT IN PAPAYA

    OpenAIRE

    AMARAL, DANIELA DAMBROS; MONTEIRO, ANA LETICIA ROCHA; SILVA, ELIAS INÁCIO DA; LINS, SEVERINA RODRIGUES DE OLIVEIRA; OLIVEIRA, SONIA MARIA ALVES DE

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of quiescent fungi and the effect of phosphites under modified atmosphere on Lasiodiplodia theobromae in papaya. The fruits were treated with a range of doses of phosphites and their actions evaluated under conditions of ambient and modified atmosphere. Of the eight fungal genera found, Lasiodiplodia was the most common. No interaction was observed between the evaluated factors and only atmosphere and dose were independently signifi...

  10. Efficiency of a yeast-based formulation for the biocontrol of postharvest anthracnose of papayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Rabelo de Lima

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available To identify formulations of biological agents that enable survival, stability and a good surface distribution of the antagonistic agent, studies that test different application vehicles are necessary. The efficiency of two killer yeasts, Wickerhamomyces anomalus (strain 422 and Meyerozyma guilliermondii (strain 443, associated with five different application vehicles, was assessed for the protection of postharvest papayas. In this study, after 90 days of incubation at 4ºC, W. anomalus (strain 422 and M. guilliermondii (strain 443 were viable with all application vehicles tested. Fruits treated with different formulations (yeasts + application vehicles had a decreased severity of disease (by at least 30% compared with untreated fruits. The treatment with W. anomalus (strain 422 + 2% starch lowered disease occurrence by 48.3%. The most efficient treatments using M. guilliermondii (strain 443 were those with 2% gelatin or 2% liquid carnauba wax, both of which reduced anthracnose by 50% in postharvest papayas. Electron micrographs of the surface tissues of the treated fruits showed that all application vehicles provided excellent adhesion of the yeast to the surface. Formulations based on starch (2%, gelatin (2% and carnauba wax (2% were the most efficient at controlling fungal diseases in postharvest papayas.

  11. New substrate containing agroindustrial carnauba residue for production of papaya under foliar fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca G. Albano

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The use of organic waste in the composition of substrates for seedlings constitutes an alternative to the recycling of these materials. Thus, an experiment was conducted with the objective to evaluate the production of ‘Formosa’ papaya seedlings in substrate containing carnauba wax residue, under foliar fertilization. The experimental design was completely randomized with five replicates, with treatments distributed in a 5 x 2 factorial scheme, corresponding to five materials used as substrates, in the presence and absence of foliar fertilization. The materials used were: earthworm humus, carnauba residue + fresh rice husk; carnauba residue in powder; carnauba residue semi-decomposed and mixture of carnauba residues: carnauba residue + fresh rice husk + carnauba residue semi-decomposed + carnauba residue in powder, at the proportion 1:1:1. The agroindustrial residue of carnauba wax semi-decomposed can be used as substrates in the production of ‘Formosa’ papaya seedlings. The foliar fertilization increases the quality of papaya seedlings, leading to increment in leaf area, root volume and sulfur content in the leaves, thus becoming a necessary practice.

  12. Tree Nut Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blog Vision Awards Common Allergens Tree Nut Allergy Tree Nut Allergy Learn about tree nut allergy, how ... a Tree Nut Label card . Allergic Reactions to Tree Nuts Tree nuts can cause a severe and ...

  13. Effect of cassava starch-based edible coating incorporated with lemongrass essential oil on the quality of papaya MJ9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praseptiangga, D.; Utami, R.; Khasanah, L. U.; Evirananda, I. P.; Kawiji

    2017-02-01

    Edible films and coatings have emerged as an alternative packaging in food applications and have received much attention due to their advantages. The incorporation of essential oils in film matrices to give antimicrobial properties had been observed recently, and could be used as promising preservation technology. In this study, cassava starch-based edible coating incorporated with lemongrass essential oil (1%) was applied by spraying and dipping methods to preserve papaya MJ9 during storage at room temperature. The quality of papaya MJ9 was analyzed based on its physicochemical and microbiological properties. The addition of lemongrass essential oil (1%) significantly inhibited the microbial growth on papaya MJ9 by reducing the value of total yeast and mold as compared to the control. This study also showed that for parameters of weight loss, total soluble solid, vitamin C, and total titratable acid, papaya MJ9 with cassava starch-based edible coating incorporated with lemongrass essential oil (1%) had the lower values than control, however, they had the higher value than control on firmness parameter. These results indicate that cassava starch-based edible coating incorporated with lemongrass essential oil (1%) can be used as an alternative preservation for papaya MJ9.

  14. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    medium-sized handsome tree with a straight bole that branches at the top. Leaves are once pinnate, with two to three pairs of leaflets. Young parts of the tree are velvety. Inflorescence is a branched raceme borne at the branch ends. Flowers are large, white, attractive, and fragrant. Corolla is funnel-shaped. Fruit is an ...

  15. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cassia siamia Lamk. (Siamese tree senna) of Caesalpiniaceae is a small or medium size handsome tree. Leaves are alternate, pinnately compound and glandular, upto 18 cm long with 8–12 pairs of leaflets. Inflorescence is axillary or terminal and branched. Flowering lasts for a long period from March to February. Fruit is ...

  16. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Flowering Trees. Cerbera manghasL. (SEA MANGO) of Apocynaceae is a medium-sized evergreen coastal tree with milky latex. The bark is grey-brown, thick and ... Fruit is large. (5–10 cm long), oval containing two flattened seeds and resembles a mango, hence the name Mangas or. Manghas. Leaves and fruits contain ...

  17. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    user

    Flowering Trees. Gliricidia sepium(Jacq.) Kunta ex Walp. (Quickstick) of Fabaceae is a small deciduous tree with. Pinnately compound leaves. Flower are prroduced in large number in early summer on terminal racemes. They are attractive, pinkish-white and typically like bean flowers. Fruit is a few-seeded flat pod.

  18. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Flowering Trees. Acrocarpus fraxinifolius Wight & Arn. (PINK CEDAR, AUSTRALIAN ASH) of. Caesalpiniaceae is a lofty unarmed deciduous native tree that attains a height of 30–60m with buttresses. Bark is thin and light grey. Leaves are compound and bright red when young. Flowers in dense, erect, axillary racemes.

  19. Talking Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolman, Marvin

    2005-01-01

    Students love outdoor activities and will love them even more when they build confidence in their tree identification and measurement skills. Through these activities, students will learn to identify the major characteristics of trees and discover how the pace--a nonstandard measuring unit--can be used to estimate not only distances but also the…

  20. Drawing Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkjær From, Andreas; Schlichtkrull, Anders; Villadsen, Jørgen

    2018-01-01

    We formally prove in Isabelle/HOL two properties of an algorithm for laying out trees visually. The first property states that removing layout annotations recovers the original tree. The second property states that nodes are placed at least a unit of distance apart. We have yet to formalize three...

  1. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    Grevillea robusta A. Cunn. ex R. Br. (Sil- ver Oak) of Proteaceae is a daintily lacy ornamental tree while young and growing into a mighty tree (45 m). Young shoots are silvery grey and the leaves are fern- like. Flowers are golden-yellow in one- sided racemes (10 cm). Fruit is a boat- shaped, woody follicle.

  2. Interlaboratory comparison of fig (Ficus carica L. microsatellite genotyping data and determination of reference alleles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matjaž HLADNIK

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Microsatellites have been identified as the marker of choice in plant genotyping projects. However, due to length discrepancies obtained between different laboratories for the same allele, interlaboratory comparison of fingerprinting results is often a difficult task. The objectives of this study were to compare genotyping results of two laboratories, to evaluate genetic parameters of microsatellite markers and to determine reference allele sizes for fig cultivars from the Istrian peninsula.Genotyping results of ninety fig (Ficus carica L. accessions were comparable between the laboratories despite differences observed when comparing electropherograms of different capillary electrophoresis systems. Differences in lengths of the same alleles were detected due to different PCR methods and laboratory equipment, but the distances between alleles of the same locus were preserved. However, locus FSYC01 exhibited one allele dropout which led to misidentification of 28 heterozygotes as homozygote individuals suggesting this locus as unreliable. Allele dropout was assigned to the tail PCR technology or to a touchdown PCR protocol.Genotypes of twenty-four reference cultivars from the Istrian peninsula were confirmed by both laboratories. These results will contribute to the usage of markers with greater reliability, discrimination power and consequently, to more reliable standardization with other fig genotyping projects.

  3. STRATEGI PENGEMBANGAN USAHA INDUSTRI KECIL OLAHAN CARICA UKM GEMILANG DI KABUPATEN WONOSOBO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfiah Mudrikah

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to describe and analyzing the internal and external factors which became the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats for SMEs, and formulated an alternative strategy for SMEs in developing their business. The approach used is qualitative with descriptive method and the design research is case studies. Data collection techniques used are observation, interviewing, documentation, and filling the questionnaire. The research results the internal factors which become a strength in the industry is a strategic location and which become a weakness is that there hasn't any research and development facility of its own yet. External factors that become an opportunity is the increasing numbers of tourists and that become a threat is that the main raw material is a seasonal fruit. An alternative strategy that can be offered in business development efforts is the SO which can increase the production capacity, optimize the distribution channels, WO by increasing product marketing using promotion, cooperating with Wonosobo research and development institutions, ST by improving product quality in order to compete with the industries, increasing the selling price of the carica products and consumers' loyalty, WT by increasing the availability of the raw materials' stock, cooperating, improving the financial management systems

  4. Wound-healing activity of a proteolytic fraction from Carica candamarcensis on experimentally induced burn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Flávia S L; Spínola, Cássia de V; Ribeiro, Henrique A; Lopes, Miriam T P; Cassali, Geovanni D; Salas, Carlos E

    2010-03-01

    Carica candamarcensis is a species from the Caricaceae family whose immature fruit contains latex with large amounts of cysteine proteinases. In prior studies, we isolated two of these enzymes displaying mitogenic activity when incubated with L929 fibroblastic cells. One of the fractions containing these enzymes (P1G10) was shown to enhance wound healing of skin and to accelerate healing of chemically induced gastric ulcer. In this study we evaluate the effect of P1G10 on heat-induced, third-degree burn using a rodent model. The results show that 0.1% P1G10 accelerates epithelisation while the effect of 1% or 0.01% P1G10 is not significantly different to 1% silver sulphadiazine, 2% papain or the hydrosoluble vehicle used as control. In a double-blind randomised experiment comparing the healing response of 0.1%, 1% and the vehicle alone, we confirmed the enhanced healing property of P1G10. Histological analysis of burn-tissue sections following treatment with P1G10 support these observations. These results extend the healing properties of these groups of enzymes to a different type of trauma and open the way to future clinical applications. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  5. Control of egg hatch ability and adult emergence of three fruit fly species in papayas by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resilva, S.S.; Pasion, W.B.; Moy, J.H.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of gamma radiation on the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera Dorsalis (Hendel), melon fly, Bactrocera Cucurbitae (Coquilett), and Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis Capitata (Weidemann) were studied. Melon fly was determined to be the most susceptible of the three species. A dosage of 550 Gy rendered the eggs 100% sterile when irradiated in papayas at 4-6 hours before hatching. Oriental and mediterranean fruit flies were found to be more resistant, requiring doses of 750 and 850 Gy, respectively. A dose of only 100 Gy was needed to inhibit adult eclosion when the three species were treated at third instar larvae. Warm water treatment at 49 0 C for 20 minutes was found sufficient in preventing the hatching of any egg in the infested papaya fruits. However, since eggs may hatch before the warm-water treatment can be applied, a combination of irradiation treatment using 100 Gy is recommended for disinfestation of papaya fruits. (author). 17 refs.; 3 tabs

  6. Phylogenetic trees

    OpenAIRE

    Baños, Hector; Bushek, Nathaniel; Davidson, Ruth; Gross, Elizabeth; Harris, Pamela E.; Krone, Robert; Long, Colby; Stewart, Allen; Walker, Robert

    2016-01-01

    We introduce the package PhylogeneticTrees for Macaulay2 which allows users to compute phylogenetic invariants for group-based tree models. We provide some background information on phylogenetic algebraic geometry and show how the package PhylogeneticTrees can be used to calculate a generating set for a phylogenetic ideal as well as a lower bound for its dimension. Finally, we show how methods within the package can be used to compute a generating set for the join of any two ideals.

  7. Effect of irradiation on the biochemical and organoleptic changes during the ripening of papaya and mango fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacroix, M.; Bernard, L.; Jobin, M.; Milot, S.; Gagnon, M.

    1990-01-01

    Papaya and mango rot caused by fungi is a major problem during storage and marketing. Gamma irradiation treatment was used to determine its effect on the quality of papayas and mangoes irradiated at 0,5 to 0,95 kGy. The level of respiration, soluble solids, texture, vitamin C and the sensorial evaluation were effectuated. The results indicate that irradiation treatment reduces significantly (p≤0,001) weakens the texture of mangoes. The content of soluble solids and vitamin C are not significantly affected by the irradiation. The sensory evaluation indicates that up to 0,95 kGy the sensorial quality is not changed. (author)

  8. Fungal Presence in Selected Tree Nuts and Dried Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.H. Tournas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sixty-four tree nut samples (almonds, pecans, pine nuts, and walnuts and 50 dried fruit samples (apricots, cranberries, papaya, pineapple, and raisins were purchased from local supermarkets and analyzed for fungal contamination using conventional culture as well as molecular methods. The results of our study showed that the highest yeast and mold (YM counts (5.34 log 10 CFU g -1 were found in walnuts and the lowest in pecans. The most common mold in nuts was Aspergillus niger , relatively low numbers of A. flavus were found across the board, while Penicillium spp. were very common in pine nuts and walnuts. Low levels (2.00–2.84 log 10 CFU g -1 of yeasts were recovered from only two pine nut samples. Fungal contamination in dried fruits was minimal (ranging from <2.00 to 3.86 log 10 CFU g -1 . The highest fungal levels were present in raisins. All papaya samples and the majority of cranberry, pineapple, and apricot samples were free of live fungi. The most common mold in dried fruits was A. niger followed by Penicillium spp. One apricot sample also contained low levels (2.00 log 10 CFU g -1 of yeasts.

  9. Accumulation and long-term decline of radiocaesium contamination in tropical fruit trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjos, R. M.; Mosquera, B.; Carvalho, C.; Sanches, N.; Bastos, J.; Gomes, P. R. S.; Macario, K.

    2007-09-01

    The accumulation of 137Cs, 40K and NH 4+ in several organs of tropical plants species were studied through measurements of its concentrations from mango, avocado, guava, papaya, banana and chili pepper trees. Our goal was to infer their differences in the uptake and translocation of such ions to the aboveground plant parts and to establish the suitability of using radiocaesium as a tracer for the plant uptake of nutrients. The results indicate Cs + is better tracer for K + as it is for NH 4+.

  10. Accumulation and long-term decline of radiocaesium contamination in tropical fruit trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anjos, R.M.; Mosquera, B.; Carvalho, C.; Sanches, N.; Bastos, J.; Gomes, P.R.S.; Macario, K.

    2007-01-01

    The accumulation of 137 Cs, 40 K and NH 4 + in several organs of tropical plants species were studied through measurements of its concentrations from mango, avocado, guava, papaya, banana and chili pepper trees. Our goal was to infer their differences in the uptake and translocation of such ions to the aboveground plant parts and to establish the suitability of using radiocaesium as a tracer for the plant uptake of nutrients. The results indicate Cs + is better tracer for K + as it is for NH 4 +

  11. Accumulation and long-term decline of radiocaesium contamination in tropical fruit trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anjos, R.M. [Instituto de Fisica da Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Litoranea s/n, Gragoata, 24210-346 Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: meigikos@if.uff.br; Mosquera, B.; Carvalho, C.; Sanches, N.; Bastos, J.; Gomes, P.R.S.; Macario, K. [Instituto de Fisica da Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Litoranea s/n, Gragoata, 24210-346 Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2007-09-21

    The accumulation of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 40}K and NH{sub 4}{sup +} in several organs of tropical plants species were studied through measurements of its concentrations from mango, avocado, guava, papaya, banana and chili pepper trees. Our goal was to infer their differences in the uptake and translocation of such ions to the aboveground plant parts and to establish the suitability of using radiocaesium as a tracer for the plant uptake of nutrients. The results indicate Cs{sup +} is better tracer for K{sup +} as it is for NH{sub 4}{sup +}.

  12. Electron Tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelt, Ane L; Rønde, Heidi S

    2013-01-01

    The photo shows a close-up of a Lichtenberg figure – popularly called an “electron tree” – produced in a cylinder of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). Electron trees are created by irradiating a suitable insulating material, in this case PMMA, with an intense high energy electron beam. Upon discharge......, during dielectric breakdown in the material, the electrons generate branching chains of fractures on leaving the PMMA, producing the tree pattern seen. To be able to create electron trees with a clinical linear accelerator, one needs to access the primary electron beam used for photon treatments. We...... appropriated a linac that was being decommissioned in our department and dismantled the head to circumvent the target and ion chambers. This is one of 24 electron trees produced before we had to stop the fun and allow the rest of the accelerator to be disassembled....

  13. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    shaped corolla. Fruit is large, ellipsoidal, green with a hard and smooth shell containing numerous flattened seeds, which are embedded in fleshy pulp. Calabash tree is commonly grown in the tropical gardens of the world as a botanical oddity.

  14. Evaluation of new reference genes in papaya for accurate transcript normalization under different experimental conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyang Zhu

    Full Text Available Real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR is a preferred method for rapid and accurate quantification of gene expression studies. Appropriate application of RT-qPCR requires accurate normalization though the use of reference genes. As no single reference gene is universally suitable for all experiments, thus reference gene(s validation under different experimental conditions is crucial for RT-qPCR analysis. To date, only a few studies on reference genes have been done in other plants but none in papaya. In the present work, we selected 21 candidate reference genes, and evaluated their expression stability in 246 papaya fruit samples using three algorithms, geNorm, NormFinder and RefFinder. The samples consisted of 13 sets collected under different experimental conditions, including various tissues, different storage temperatures, different cultivars, developmental stages, postharvest ripening, modified atmosphere packaging, 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP treatment, hot water treatment, biotic stress and hormone treatment. Our results demonstrated that expression stability varied greatly between reference genes and that different suitable reference gene(s or combination of reference genes for normalization should be validated according to the experimental conditions. In general, the internal reference genes EIF (Eukaryotic initiation factor 4A, TBP1 (TATA binding protein 1 and TBP2 (TATA binding protein 2 genes had a good performance under most experimental conditions, whereas the most widely present used reference genes, ACTIN (Actin 2, 18S rRNA (18S ribosomal RNA and GAPDH (Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase were not suitable in many experimental conditions. In addition, two commonly used programs, geNorm and Normfinder, were proved sufficient for the validation. This work provides the first systematic analysis for the selection of superior reference genes for accurate transcript normalization in papaya under different experimental

  15. Papaya ringspot virus coat protein gene for antigen presentation Escherichia coli

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chatchen, S.; Juříček, Miloslav; Rueda, P.; Kertbundit, Sunee

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 1 (2006), s. 16-21 ISSN 1225-8687 Grant - others:Thai Research Fund(TH) BT-B-06-PG-14-4503 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : antigen presentation * canine parvo virus * epitope * papaya ringspot virus Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.465, year: 2006 http://www.jbmb.or.kr/view_article.php3?cont=jbmb&kid=174&mid=3&pid=3

  16. Influence of Maturity States on Viscoelastic Properties of Tropical Fruits (Mango, Papaya y Plantain)

    OpenAIRE

    Torres, Ramiro; Montes, Everaldo J; Pérez, Omar A; Andrade, Ricardo D

    2012-01-01

    En esta investigación se determinó la relación del estado de madurez con la viscoelasticidad, en mango de las variedades puerco y corazón , papaya de la variedad hawaiana y plátano. El estado de madurez se determinó por el color de la fruta visualmente, de acuerdo a una escala de maduración, y las propiedades viscoelásticas se determinaron por prueba de relajación y compresión del esfuerzo en un texturómetro. Dos modelos comunes, Maxwell generalizado y Peleg, se ajustaron a los datos experime...

  17. FREQUENCY OF QUIESCENT FUNGI AND POST-HARVEST ALTERNATIVE MANAGEMENT OF STEM END ROT IN PAPAYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELA DAMBROS AMARAL

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of quiescent fungi and the effect of phosphites under modified atmosphere on Lasiodiplodia theobromae in papaya. The fruits were treated with a range of doses of phosphites and their actions evaluated under conditions of ambient and modified atmosphere. Of the eight fungal genera found, Lasiodiplodia was the most common. No interaction was observed between the evaluated factors and only atmosphere and dose were independently significant. The usage of phosphites and modified atmosphere reduced the severity of the disease, and did not affect the chemical properties of the fruits.

  18. Effect of the Combination Hot Water - Calcium Chloride on the In Vitro Growth of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and the Postharvest Quality of Infected Papaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Elena Ayón-Reyna

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthracnose of papaya fruit caused by the fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is one of the most economically important postharvest diseases. Hot water immersion (HW and calcium chloride (Ca treatments have been used to control papaya postharvest diseases; however, the effect of the combination HW-Ca on the pathogen growth and the development of the disease in infected papaya fruit has been scarcely studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the HW-Ca treatment on the in vitro growth of C. gloesporioides conidia and the quality of infected papaya. In vitro, the HW-Ca treated conidia showed reduced mycelial growth and germination. In vivo, the HW-Ca treatment of infected papaya delayed for 5 days the onset of the anthracnose symptoms and improved the papaya postharvest quality. The combined treatment HW-Ca was better than any of the individual treatments to inhibit the in vitro development of C. gloeosporioides and to reduce the negative effects of papaya anthracnose.

  19. Effect of temperature on the development and survival of immature stages of the carambola fruit fly, Bactrocera carambolae, and the Asian papaya fruit fly, Bactrocera papayae, reared on guava diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danjuma, Solomon; Thaochan, Narit; Permkam, Surakrai; Satasook, Chutamas

    2014-01-01

    Members of the Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (Diptera: Tephritidae) complex constitute well-recognized destructive pests of fruits in peninsular Thailand. The development and survival of immature stages of the carambola fruit fly, Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock, and the Asian papaya fruit fly, Bactrocera papayae Drew & Hancock, were compared at six constant temperatures of 15, 20, 25, 27, 30, and 35°C, 70 ± 5% relative humidity, and a photoperiod of 12:12 (L:D). The objectives were to determine the effect of temperature on the developmental stages for optimizing rearing and to understand the geographical pattern of occurrence of these fruit fly species. A strong and positive linear relationship was observed between temperature and developmental rate of immature stages of B. carambolae. Similarly, a strong and positive linear relationship was observed between temperature and developmental rate of B. papayae. A temperature summation model was used to estimate the lower threshold temperature and the thermal constant. Bactrocera papayae was significantly faster in development and higher in survival and appeared to be better adapted to low temperatures than B. carambolae, as it exhibited the lowest threshold temperatures at all immature stages. The observed differences in response to various temperatures revealed to some extent the impact of temperature on these species' distribution in peninsular Thailand and other parts of the world. This is an open access paper. We use the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license that permits unrestricted use, provided that the paper is properly attributed.

  20. A case study to determine the geographical origin of unknown GM papaya in routine food sample analysis, followed by identification of papaya events 16-0-1 and 18-2-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prins, Theo W; Scholtens, Ingrid M J; Bak, Arno W; van Dijk, Jeroen P; Voorhuijzen, Marleen M; Laurensse, Emile J; Kok, Esther J

    2016-12-15

    During routine monitoring for GMOs in food in the Netherlands, papaya-containing food supplements were found positive for the genetically modified (GM) elements P-35S and T-nos. The goal of this study was to identify the unknown and EU unauthorised GM papaya event(s). A screening strategy was applied using additional GM screening elements including a newly developed PRSV coat protein PCR. The detected PRSV coat protein PCR product was sequenced and the nucleotide sequence showed identity to PRSV YK strains indigenous to China and Taiwan. The GM events 16-0-1 and 18-2-4 could be identified by amplifying and sequencing events-specific sequences. Further analyses showed that both papaya event 16-0-1 and event 18-2-4 were transformed with the same construct. For use in routine analysis, derived TaqMan qPCR methods for events 16-0-1 and 18-2-4 were developed. Event 16-0-1 was detected in all samples tested whereas event 18-2-4 was detected in one sample. This study presents a strategy for combining information from different sources (literature, patent databases) and novel sequence data to identify unknown GM papaya events. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Efficacy of Tissue Culture in Virus Elimination from Caprifig and Female Fig Varieties (Ficus carica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chokri Bayoudh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Fig mosaic disease (FMD is a viral disease that spreads in all Tunisian fig (Ficus carica L. orchards. RT-PCR technique was applied to leaf samples of 29 fig accessions of 15 fig varieties from the fig germplasm collection of High Agronomic Institute (I.S.A of Chatt-Mariem, to detect viruses associated to FMD. Analysis results show that 65.5% of the accessions (19/29 and 80.0% (12/15 of the fig varieties are infected by FMD-associated viruses. From all fig accessions, 41.4% of them are with single infection (one virus and 24.1% are with multi-infections (2 virus and more. Viruses infecting fig leaf samples are Fig mosaic virus (FMV (20.7%, Fig milde-mottle-associated virus (FMMaV (17.25%, Fig fleck associated virus (FFkaV (3.45%, and Fig cryptic virus (FCV (55.17%. A reliable protocol for FCV and FMMaV elimination from 4 local fig varieties Zidi (ZDI, Soltani (SNI, Bither Abiadh (BA, and Assafri (ASF via in vitro culture of 3 meristem sizes was established and optimized. With this protocol, global sanitation rates of 79.46%, 65.55%, 68.75%, and 70.83% respectively for ZDI, SNI, BA, and ASF are achieved. For all sanitized varieties, the effectiveness of meristem culture for the elimination of FCV and FMMaV viruses was related to meristem size. Meristem size 0.5 mm provides the highest sanitation rates ranging from 70% to 90%.

  2. Ficus carica latex prevents invasion through induction of let-7d expression in GBM cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezcan, Gulcin; Tunca, Berrin; Bekar, Ahmet; Yalcin, Murat; Sahin, Saliha; Budak, Ferah; Cecener, Gulsah; Egeli, Unal; Demir, Cevdet; Guvenc, Gokcen; Yilmaz, Gozde; Erkan, Leman Gizem; Malyer, Hulusi; Taskapilioglu, Mevlut Ozgur; Evrensel, Turkkan; Bilir, Ayhan

    2015-03-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the deadliest human malignancies. A cure for GBM remains elusive, and the overall survival time is less than 1 year. Thus, the development of more efficient therapeutic approaches for the treatment of these patients is required. Induction of tumor cell death by certain phytochemicals derived from medicinal herbs and dietary plants has become a new frontier for cancer therapy research. Although the cancer suppressive effect of Ficus carica (fig) latex (FCL) has been determined in a few cancer types, the effect of this latex on GBM tumors has not been investigated. Therefore, in the current study, the anti-proliferative activity of FCL and the effect of the FCL-temozolomide (TMZ) combination were tested in the T98G, U-138 MG, and U-87 MG GBM cell lines using the WST-1 assay. The mechanism of cell death was analyzed using Annexin-V/FITC and TUNEL assays, and the effect of FCL on invasion was tested using the chick chorioallantoic membrane assay. To determine the effect of FCL on GBM progression, the expression levels of 40 GBM associated miRNAs were analyzed in T98G cells using RT-qPCR. According to the obtained data, FCL causes cell death in GBM cells with different responses to TMZ, and this effect is synergistically increased in combination with TMZ. In addition, the current study is the first to demonstrate the effect of FCL on modulation of let-7d expression, which may be an important underlying mechanism of the anti-invasive effect of this extract.

  3. Ephedra alte (joint pine): an invasive, problematic weedy species in forestry and fruit tree orchards in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qasem, Jamal R

    2012-01-01

    A field survey was carried out to record plant species climbed by Ephedra alte in certain parts of Jordan during 2008-2010. Forty species of shrubs, ornamental, fruit, and forest trees belonging to 24 plant families suffered from the climbing habit of E. alte. Growth of host plants was adversely affected by E. alte growth that extended over their vegetation. In addition to its possible competition for water and nutrients, the extensive growth it forms over host species prevents photosynthesis, smothers growth and makes plants die underneath the extensive cover. However, E. alte did not climb all plant species, indicating a host preference range. Damaged fruit trees included Amygdalus communis, Citrus aurantifolia, Ficus carica, Olea europaea, Opuntia ficus-indica, and Punica granatum. Forestry species that were adversely affected included Acacia cyanophylla, Ceratonia siliqua, Crataegus azarolus, Cupressus sempervirens, Pinus halepensis, Pistacia atlantica, Pistacia palaestina, Quercus coccifera, Quercus infectoria, Retama raetam, Rhamnus palaestina, Rhus tripartita, and Zizyphus spina-christi. Woody ornamentals attacked were Ailanthus altissima, Hedera helix, Jasminum fruticans, Jasminum grandiflorum, Nerium oleander, and Pyracantha coccinea. Results indicated that E. alte is a strong competitive for light and can completely smother plants supporting its growth. A. communis, F. carica, R. palaestina, and C. azarolus were most frequently attacked.

  4. Ephedra alte (Joint Pine: An Invasive, Problematic Weedy Species in Forestry and Fruit Tree Orchards in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal R. Qasem

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A field survey was carried out to record plant species climbed by Ephedra alte in certain parts of Jordan during 2008–2010. Forty species of shrubs, ornamental, fruit, and forest trees belonging to 24 plant families suffered from the climbing habit of E. alte. Growth of host plants was adversely affected by E. alte growth that extended over their vegetation. In addition to its possible competition for water and nutrients, the extensive growth it forms over host species prevents photosynthesis, smothers growth and makes plants die underneath the extensive cover. However, E. alte did not climb all plant species, indicating a host preference range. Damaged fruit trees included Amygdalus communis, Citrus aurantifolia, Ficus carica, Olea europaea, Opuntia ficus-indica, and Punica granatum. Forestry species that were adversely affected included Acacia cyanophylla, Ceratonia siliqua, Crataegus azarolus, Cupressus sempervirens, Pinus halepensis, Pistacia atlantica, Pistacia palaestina, Quercus coccifera, Quercus infectoria, Retama raetam, Rhamnus palaestina, Rhus tripartita, and Zizyphus spina-christi. Woody ornamentals attacked were Ailanthus altissima, Hedera helix, Jasminum fruticans, Jasminum grandiflorum, Nerium oleander, and Pyracantha coccinea. Results indicated that E. alte is a strong competitive for light and can completely smother plants supporting its growth. A. communis, F. carica, R. palaestina, and C. azarolus were most frequently attacked.

  5. Ephedra alte (Joint Pine): An Invasive, Problematic Weedy Species in Forestry and Fruit Tree Orchards in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qasem, Jamal R.

    2012-01-01

    A field survey was carried out to record plant species climbed by Ephedra alte in certain parts of Jordan during 2008–2010. Forty species of shrubs, ornamental, fruit, and forest trees belonging to 24 plant families suffered from the climbing habit of E. alte. Growth of host plants was adversely affected by E. alte growth that extended over their vegetation. In addition to its possible competition for water and nutrients, the extensive growth it forms over host species prevents photosynthesis, smothers growth and makes plants die underneath the extensive cover. However, E. alte did not climb all plant species, indicating a host preference range. Damaged fruit trees included Amygdalus communis, Citrus aurantifolia, Ficus carica, Olea europaea, Opuntia ficus-indica, and Punica granatum. Forestry species that were adversely affected included Acacia cyanophylla, Ceratonia siliqua, Crataegus azarolus, Cupressus sempervirens, Pinus halepensis, Pistacia atlantica, Pistacia palaestina, Quercus coccifera, Quercus infectoria, Retama raetam, Rhamnus palaestina, Rhus tripartita, and Zizyphus spina-christi. Woody ornamentals attacked were Ailanthus altissima, Hedera helix, Jasminum fruticans, Jasminum grandiflorum, Nerium oleander, and Pyracantha coccinea. Results indicated that E. alte is a strong competitive for light and can completely smother plants supporting its growth. A. communis, F. carica, R. palaestina, and C. azarolus were most frequently attacked. PMID:22645486

  6. Influência da adubação com esterco bovino e inoculação de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares no crescimento de mudas de Carica papaya L. (var. Formosa)

    OpenAIRE

    Lins, Cláudia Elizabete de Lima; Aguiar, Regina Lúcia Félix de; Cavalcante, Uided Maaze T; Maia, Leonor Costa

    1999-01-01

    Devido ao rápido crescimento do mamoeiro, poucos são os solos que, em condições naturais, podem satisfazer a sua demanda por nutrientes, sendo necessária a aplicação de fertilizantes minerais que favoreçam as plantas no período do transplantio para o campo. Os fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMA) são conhecidos por tornarem os seus hospedeiros mais resistentes aos estresses bióticos e abióticos, sendo por isso empregados na produção de mudas de diversas árvores frutíferas. Nesse trabalho ob...

  7. 76 FR 13972 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Fresh Papaya Fruit From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ...] Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Fresh Papaya Fruit From Malaysia...: Notice. SUMMARY: We are advising the public that we have prepared a pest risk analysis for the purpose of... making the pest risk analysis available to the public for review and comment. DATES: We will consider all...

  8. Yeast ratio is a critical factor for sequential fermentation of papaya wine by Williopsis saturnus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pin-Rou; Kho, Stephanie Hui Chern; Yu, Bin; Curran, Philip; Liu, Shao-Quan

    2013-07-01

    The growth kinetics and fermentation performance of Williopsis saturnus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae at ratios of 10:1, 1:1 and 1:10 (W.:S.) were studied in papaya juice with initial 7-day fermentation by W.saturnus, followed by S. cerevisiae. The growth kinetics of W. saturnus were similar at all ratios, but its maximum cell count decreased as the proportion of S. cerevisiae was increased. Conversely, there was an early death of S. cerevisiae at the ratio of 10:1. Williopsis saturnus was the dominant yeast at 10:1 ratio that produced papaya wine with elevated concentrations of acetate esters. On the other hand, 1:1 and 1:10 ratios allowed the coexistence of both yeasts which enabled the flavour-enhancing potential of W.saturnus as well as the ethyl ester and alcohol-producing abilities of S. cerevisiae. In particular, 1:1 and 1:10 ratios resulted in production of more ethyl esters, alcohols and 2-phenylethyl acetate. However, the persistence of both yeasts at 1:1 and 1:10 ratios led to formation of high levels of acetic acid. The findings suggest that yeast ratio is a critical factor for sequential fermentation of papaya wine by W.saturnus and S. cerevisiae as a strategy to modulate papaya wine flavour. © 2012 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. 40 CFR 174.515 - Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 174.515 Section 174.515 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance...

  10. Growth and nutrient accumulation in mycorrhized papaya seedlings cultivated in a phosphorus-fertilized substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dácio Jerônimo de Almeida

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The indiscriminate use of mineral fertilizers in papaya orchards has increased production costs, and the use of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi is a promising alternative to reduce such expenses. Therefore, the present research aimed at studying the efficiency of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF on dry matter and nutrient accumulation in Sunrise Solo papaya seedlings, by applying doses of P2O5 (triple superphosphate that are harmful to the symbiosis. The experiment was carried out in a protected environment and was set up in a randomized block design with four replications, and consisted of four P2O5 doses (0, 672, 1386 and 2100 mg dm-3, three mycorrhizal fungi species (Gigaspora margarita, Entrophospora colombiana and Scutellospora heterogama and the control treatment (mycorrhiza-free. Shoot and root dry matter as well as nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium contents in leaf and root tissues were assessed. Mycorrhizal inoculation promoted a 30% increase in shoot dry matter in relation to the control treatment. Mycorrhizal fungi promoted increases in leaf and root nitrogen content up to 672 mg dm-3 P2O5. Inoculation of E. colombiana favored the highest gains in root and shoot dry matter. P2O5 fertilization increased foliar and root phosphorus content.

  11. Prediction of genetic gain from selection indices for disease resistance in papaya hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Vivas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to select superior hybrids for the concentration of favorable alleles for resistance to papaya black spot, powdery mildew and phoma spot, 67 hybrids were evaluated in two seasons, in 2007, in a randomized block design with two replications. Genetic gains were estimated from the selection indices of Smith & Hazel, Pesek & Baker, Williams, Mulamba & Mock, with selection intensity of 22.39%, corresponding to 15 hybrids. The index of Mulamba & Mock showed gains more suitable for the five traits assessed when it was used the criterion of economic weight tentatively assigned. Together, severity of black spot on leaves and on fruits, characteristics considered most relevant to the selection of resistant materials, expressed percentage gain of -44.15%. In addition, there were gains for other characteristics, with negative predicted selective percentage gain. The results showed that the index of Mulamba & Mock is the most efficient procedure for simultaneous selection of papaya hybrid resistant to black spot, powdery mildew and phoma spot.

  12. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    deciduous tree with irregularly-shaped trunk, greyish-white scaly bark and milky latex. Leaves in opposite pairs are simple, oblong and whitish beneath. Flowers that occur in branched inflorescence are white, 2–. 3cm across and fragrant. Calyx is glandular inside. Petals bear numerous linear white scales, the corollary.

  13. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Berrya cordifolia (Willd.) Burret (Syn. B. ammonilla Roxb.) – Trincomali Wood of Tiliaceae is a tall evergreen tree with straight trunk, smooth brownish-grey bark and simple broad leaves. Inflorescence is much branched with white flowers. Stamens are many with golden yellow anthers. Fruit is a capsule with six spreading ...

  14. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Canthium parviflorum Lam. of Rubiaceae is a large shrub that often grows into a small tree with conspicuous spines. Leaves are simple, in pairs at each node and are shiny. Inflorescence is an axillary few-flowered cymose fascicle. Flowers are small (less than 1 cm across), 4-merous and greenish-white. Fruit is ellipsoid ...

  15. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sriranga

    Hook.f. ex Brandis (Yellow. Cadamba) of Rubiaceae is a large and handsome deciduous tree. Leaves are simple, large, orbicular, and drawn abruptly at the apex. Flowers are small, yellowish and aggregate into small spherical heads. The corolla is funnel-shaped with five stamens inserted at its mouth. Fruit is a capsule.

  16. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Celtis tetrandra Roxb. of Ulmaceae is a moderately large handsome deciduous tree with green branchlets and grayish-brown bark. Leaves are simple with three to four secondary veins running parallel to the mid vein. Flowers are solitary, male, female and bisexual and inconspicuous. Fruit is berry-like, small and globose ...

  17. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Aglaia elaeagnoidea (A.Juss.) Benth. of Meliaceae is a small-sized evergreen tree of both moist and dry deciduous forests. The leaves are alternate and pinnately compound, terminating in a single leaflet. Leaflets are more or less elliptic with entire margin. Flowers are small on branched inflorescence. Fruit is a globose ...

  18. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    user

    Flowers are borne on stiff bunches terminally on short shoots. They are 2-3 cm across, white, sweet-scented with light-brown hairy sepals and many stamens. Loquat fruits are round or pear-shaped, 3-5 cm long and are edible. A native of China, Loquat tree is grown in parks as an ornamental and also for its fruits.

  19. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    mid-sized slow-growing evergreen tree with spreading branches that form a dense crown. The bark is smooth, thick, dark and flakes off in large shreds. Leaves are thick, oblong, leathery and bright red when young. The female flowers are drooping and are larger than male flowers. Fruit is large, red in color and velvety.

  20. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Andira inermis (wright) DC. , Dog Almond of Fabaceae is a handsome lofty evergreen tree. Leaves are alternate and pinnately compound with 4–7 pairs of leaflets. Flowers are fragrant and are borne on compact branched inflorescences. Fruit is ellipsoidal one-seeded drupe that is peculiar to members of this family.

  1. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    narrow towards base. Flowers are large and attrac- tive, but emit unpleasant foetid smell. They appear in small numbers on erect terminal clusters and open at night. Stamens are numerous, pink or white. Style is slender and long, terminating in a small stigma. Fruit is green, ovoid and indistinctly lobed. Flowering Trees.

  2. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Muntingia calabura L. (Singapore cherry) of. Elaeocarpaceae is a medium size handsome ever- green tree. Leaves are simple and alternate with sticky hairs. Flowers are bisexual, bear numerous stamens, white in colour and arise in the leaf axils. Fruit is a berry, edible with several small seeds embedded in a fleshy pulp ...

  3. ~{owering 'Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    . Stamens are fused into a purple staminal tube that is toothed. Fruit is about 0.5 in. across, nearly globose, generally 5-seeded, green but yellow when ripe, quite smooth at first but wrinkled in drying, remaining long on the tree ajier ripening.

  4. Tree Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark J. Ambrose

    2012-01-01

    Tree mortality is a natural process in all forest ecosystems. However, extremely high mortality also can be an indicator of forest health issues. On a regional scale, high mortality levels may indicate widespread insect or disease problems. High mortality may also occur if a large proportion of the forest in a particular region is made up of older, senescent stands....

  5. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Guaiacum officinale L. (LIGNUM-VITAE) of Zygophyllaceae is a dense-crowned, squat, knobbly, rough and twisted medium-sized ev- ergreen tree with mottled bark. The wood is very hard and resinous. Leaves are compound. The leaflets are smooth, leathery, ovate-ellipti- cal and appear in two pairs. Flowers (about 1.5.

  6. Major gene mutations in fruit tree domestication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiegel-Roy, P.

    1989-01-01

    Though fruit gathering from the wild began long before domestication, fruit tree domestication started only after the establishment of grain agriculture. Banana, fig, date, grape and olive were among the first fruit trees domesticated. Most fruit trees are outbreeders, highly heterozygous and vegetatively propagated. Knowledge of genetics and economic traits controlled by major genes is limited. Ease of vegetative propagation has played a prominent part in domestication; advances in propagation technology will play a role in domestication of new crops. Changes toward domestication affected by major genes include self-fertility in peach, apricot and sour cherry, while the emergence of self-fertile almond populations is more recent and due probably to introgression from Amygdalus webbii. Self-compatibility in the sweet cherry has been attained only by pollen irradiation. A single gene controls sex in Vitis. Wild grapes are dioecious, with most domesticated cultivars hermaphrodite, and only a few females. In the papaya changes from dioecism to hermaphroditism have also occurred. Self-compatible systems have also been selected during domestication in Rubus. Changes towards parthenocarpy and seedlessness during domestication occurred in the banana, citrus, grape, fig and pineapple. In the banana, parthenocarpy is due to three complementary dominant genes; stenospermocarpy in the grape depends on two complementary recessive genes; parthenocarpy and sterility in citrus seems more complicated; however, it can be induced in genetic material of suitable background with ease by irradiation. Presence of persistent syconia in the fig is controlled by a mutant allele P dominant to wild +. Thornlessness in blackberry is recessive, while in the pineapple spineless forms are dominant. Changes affecting fruit composition owing to major genes include the disappearance of amygdalin present in bitter almonds (bitter kernel recessive to sweet), shell hardness in almond, and a recessive

  7. Effect of irradiation on color of minimally processed melon and papaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabbri, Adriana D.T.; Sagretti, Juliana M.A.; Hirashima, Fabiana K.; Rogovschi, Vladimir D.; Nunes, Thaise C.F.; Sabato, Susy F.

    2013-01-01

    The access to nutritious food is an essential dimension of food meal. High potential for fresh-cut industry exists and ready-to-eat fruit market has grown rapidly in recent years due to the health benefits associated. Although there is many concerns to food safety other parameters like texture, taste, color and sensory acceptance are fundamental principles of acceptance to any food. Actually the use of instrumental measurements has proven to be a major predictor of sensory responses. According to many authors, the addition of different techniques should always be considered to provide additional information of the sensory aspects. Therefore the objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of irradiation on color of minimally processed melon and papaya. The fruits were purchased in a market of Sao Paulo, at the same point of ripeness and sent to the IPEN/CNEN-SP. The fruits were sanitized and manually cut into cubes of approximately 2 x 2 cm with the aid of stainless steel knives and packed in polyethylene bags. Melons and papaya were irradiated in a Multipurpose Gamma Source (IPEN - Sao Paulo - Brazil) and were divided in six groups for color analysis: Control; 0.5 kGy; 1.0 kGy, 1.5kGy, 2.0 kGy and 3.0kGy. After the treatment, the MP fruits were kept in a refrigerator at 4 deg C ± 1 deg C until the end of the analysis. The color of the samples was determined using a Minolta colorimeter CR-400 Chromameter. The parameters L * , a * and b * were evaluated. The results were statistically analyzed by analysis of variance One-Dimensional Analysis of Variance (One-Way-ANOVA) followed by Tukey test. All statistical analysis was performed using the program Graph Pad Prism 5 and adopting a significance level of 5 % (p * parameter of any dose despite the tendency to darkening observed for the group of 3.0 kGy. This fact also occurred for the chromatographic coordinates a * and b * which remained in the same tonality for all treatments (p<0.05). Current results

  8. Flavonoid content in leaf extracts of the fig (Ficus carica L.), carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) and pistachio (Pistacia lentiscus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaya, Jacob; Mahmood, Saeed

    2006-01-01

    The total flavonoid content of leaf extracts (70% ethanol) from fig (Ficus carica L.), carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) and pistachio (Pistacia lentiscus L.) plants were determined by using reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-and analyzed by UV/VIS array and electrospray ionization (ESI)-mass spectrometry (MS) detectors. As a base for comparison, flavonoid type and level were also determined in extracts from soybeans and grape seeds. It was found that the major flavonoids in Ficus are quercetin and luteolin, with a total of 631 and 681 mg/kg extract, respectively. In Ceratonia leaves, nine different flavonoids were detected. The major one was myricetin (1486 mg/kg extract), with a similar level in Pistacia (1331 mg/kg extract, myricetin). The present study is the first to report the presence of the isoflavone genistein in the Pistacia leaf, which was discovered to consist of about a third of the genistein level detected in soybean.

  9. Radiation preservation of foods of plant origin. III. Tropical fruits: bananas, mangoes, and papayas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.

    1986-01-01

    The current status of research on the use of ionizing radiation for shelf life improvement and disinfestation of fresh tropical fruits like bananas, mangoes, and papayas are reviewed. The aspects covered are influence of maturity and physiological state of the fruits on delayed ripening and tolerance to radiation; varietal responses; changes in chemical constituents, volatiles, respiration, and ethylene evolution; biochemical mechanisms of delayed ripening and browning of irradiated fruits; and organoleptic quality. The efficacy of the combination of hot water dip and radiation treatments for control of postharvest fungal diseases are considered. The immediate potential of radiation as a quarantine treatment, in place of the currently used chemical fumigants, for disinfestation of fruit flies and mango seed weevil are discussed. Future prospects for irradiation of tropical fruits are discussed in the light of experience gained from studies conducted in different countries.146 references

  10. Effect of irradiation on color of minimally processed melon and papaya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabbri, Adriana D.T.; Sagretti, Juliana M.A.; Hirashima, Fabiana K.; Rogovschi, Vladimir D.; Nunes, Thaise C.F.; Sabato, Susy F., E-mail: adriana.fabbri@yahoo.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Irradiacao de Alimentos

    2013-07-01

    The access to nutritious food is an essential dimension of food meal. High potential for fresh-cut industry exists and ready-to-eat fruit market has grown rapidly in recent years due to the health benefits associated. Although there is many concerns to food safety other parameters like texture, taste, color and sensory acceptance are fundamental principles of acceptance to any food. Actually the use of instrumental measurements has proven to be a major predictor of sensory responses. According to many authors, the addition of different techniques should always be considered to provide additional information of the sensory aspects. Therefore the objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of irradiation on color of minimally processed melon and papaya. The fruits were purchased in a market of Sao Paulo, at the same point of ripeness and sent to the IPEN/CNEN-SP. The fruits were sanitized and manually cut into cubes of approximately 2 x 2 cm with the aid of stainless steel knives and packed in polyethylene bags. Melons and papaya were irradiated in a Multipurpose Gamma Source (IPEN - Sao Paulo - Brazil) and were divided in six groups for color analysis: Control; 0.5 kGy; 1.0 kGy, 1.5kGy, 2.0 kGy and 3.0kGy. After the treatment, the MP fruits were kept in a refrigerator at 4 deg C ± 1 deg C until the end of the analysis. The color of the samples was determined using a Minolta colorimeter CR-400 Chromameter. The parameters L{sup *}, a{sup *} and b{sup *} were evaluated. The results were statistically analyzed by analysis of variance One-Dimensional Analysis of Variance (One-Way-ANOVA) followed by Tukey test. All statistical analysis was performed using the program Graph Pad Prism 5 and adopting a significance level of 5 % (p<0.05), expressed as the mean results ± standard deviation. Samples of papaya and melons showed no statistical difference for the L{sup *} parameter of any dose despite the tendency to darkening observed for the group of 3.0 kGy. This

  11. Surface tree languages and parallel derivation trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelfriet, Joost

    1976-01-01

    The surface tree languages obtained by top-down finite state transformation of monadic trees are exactly the frontier-preserving homomorphic images of sets of derivation trees of ETOL systems. The corresponding class of tree transformation languages is therefore equal to the class of ETOL languages.

  12. Effect of calcium chloride treatments on calcium content, anthracnose severity and antioxidant activity in papaya fruit during ambient storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, Babak; Mirshekari, Amin; Yahia, Elhadi

    2016-07-01

    There have been no reports on the effects of preharvest calcium application on anthracnose disease severity, antioxidant activity and cellular changes during ambient storage of papaya, and therefore the objective of this study was to investigate these effects. Higher calcium concentrations (1.5 and 2% w/v) increased calcium concentration in the peel and pulp tissues, maintained firmness, and reduced anthracnose incidence and severity. While leakage of calcium-treated fruit was lower for 1.5 and 2% calcium treatments compared to the control, microscopic results confirmed that pulp cell wall thickness was higher after 6 days in storage, for the 2% calcium treatment compared to the control. Calcium-treated fruit also had higher total antioxidant activity and total phenolic compounds during storage. Calcium chloride, especially at higher concentrations, is effective in maintaining papaya fruit quality during ambient storage. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Effect of irradiation on the biochemical and organoleptic changes during the ripening of papaya and mango fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, Monique; Bernard, Linda; Jobin, Michele; Milot, Sylvain; Gagnon, Marcel

    Papaya and mango rot caused by fungi is a major problem during storage and marketing. Gamma irradiation treatment was used to determine its effect on the quality of papayas and mangoes irradiated at 0,5 to 0,95 kGy. The level of respiration, soluble solids, texture, vitamin C and the sensorial evaluation were effectuated. The results indicate that irradiation treatment reduces significantly (p ⪕ 0,001) the level of respiration and significantly (p ⪕ 0,001) weakens the texture of mangoes. The content of soluble solids and vitamin C are not significantly affected by the irradiation. The sensory evaluation indicates that up to 0,95 kGy the sensorial quality is not changed.

  14. Trees are good, but…

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.G. McPherson; F. Ferrini

    2010-01-01

    We know that “trees are good,” and most people believe this to be true. But if this is so, why are so many trees neglected, and so many tree wells empty? An individual’s attitude toward trees may result from their firsthand encounters with specific trees. Understanding how attitudes about trees are shaped, particularly aversion to trees, is critical to the business of...

  15. Study of C/N Ratio Effect on Biogas Production of Carica Solid Waste by SS-AD Method And LS-AD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jos Bakti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Biogas is a renewable energy which can be used as an alternative source to replace fossil fuels. Recently, the use of energy has become an important issue because the oil sources and natural gas are depleting. Utilization of carica waste to produce biogas can reduce the consumption of commercial energy sources such as kerosene as well as the use of firewood. Biogas is produced by the process of organic material digestion by certain anaerobic bacterial activity in anaerobic digester. In this study we studied the influence of LS-AD and SS-AD methods, the effect of C / N ratio on biogas yield obtained and kinetics of biogas production reaction. The study was conducted by making a total solid variation of 7%, 9%, 11%, 13%, 19%, 21%, 23% and C/N ratio 25 and 30. The study started with carica waste collection process and examination of the total composition of solids and water content. Thereafter, calculation and determination of variation of C / N ratio by mixing the substrate with inoculum and urea into the reactor. Observe the volume of biogas produced every two-day intervals. The highest biogas production rate of 1.7825 ml/g TS day was obtained from carica solid waste variable by liquid state anaerobic disgestion and C/N 25.

  16. Comparative evaluation of volatiles, phenolics, sugars, organic acids and antioxidant properties of Sel-42 and Tainung papaya varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelebek, Hasim; Selli, Serkan; Gubbuk, Hamide; Gunes, Esma

    2015-04-15

    The present study was designed to determine the phenolic compounds, organic acids, sugars, aroma profiles and antioxidant properties of Sel-42 and Tainung papayas grown in Turkey. High-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) method was used for the phenolic compounds analysis. Twelve phenolic compounds were identified and quantified in the samples. The total phenolic content of Sel-42 was clearly higher than that of Tainung. Protocatechuic acid-hexoside, gallic acid-deoxyhexoside, ferulic acid and chlorogenic acids were the most abundant phenolics in both cultivars. Aroma composition of papaya was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 46 and 42 aroma compounds, including esters, alcohols, terpenes, lactones, acids, carbonyl compounds, and volatile phenols were identified in the Sel-42 and Tainung, respectively. The significant linear correlation was confirmed between the values for the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of papaya extracts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Modular tree automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Tree automata are traditionally used to study properties of tree languages and tree transformations. In this paper, we consider tree automata as the basis for modular and extensible recursion schemes. We show, using well-known techniques, how to derive from standard tree automata highly modular...

  18. Simple street tree sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Jeffrey T. Walton; James Baldwin; Jerry. Bond

    2015-01-01

    Information on street trees is critical for management of this important resource. Sampling of street tree populations provides an efficient means to obtain street tree population information. Long-term repeat measures of street tree samples supply additional information on street tree changes and can be used to report damages from catastrophic events. Analyses of...

  19. DPPH RADICAL SCAVENGING ACTIVITY, TOTAL PHENOLICS AND FLAVONOIDS OF WATER SOLUBLE EXTRACTS DERIVED FROM LEAVES AND FRUIT OF Ficus carica L. AND Ficus parietalis Bl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oktavia Tri Wahyuni

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Ficus carica L and Ficus parietalis Bl. (Moraceae are closely related plants which also known in Indonesia as Figs L. Considering the wide therapeutic value of Figs, this research was aimed to evaluate the DPPH-radical scavenging activity of both plants as well as their total phenolic and flavonoids. Extracts were produced by using boiled water and diluted to gain the desired concentration. Analyses were performed by using UV-vis spectrophotometer. Radical scavenging activity testing was done by using radical of DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-pycrylhydrazyl to determine the IC50s. The determination of total phenolic was conducted by using Folin-Ciocalteau method and calculated as Gallic Acid Equivalence (GAE. The total flavonoid was measured by using AlCl3-reagents, and calculated as Rutin Equivalence (RE. Afterwards, the radical scavenging activity was correlated to the total phenolic and flavonoids contents. The results showed that the water soluble extract of F. carica fruit had the best IC50 value of 33.38 mg/mL, followed successively by the F. parietalis fruit (35.69 mg/mL, F. parietalis leaves (44.01 mg/mL and the F. carica leaves (76.38 mg/mL. The highest content of total phenolic was shown by the leaves of F. parietalis (1.46% w/w GAE and the lowest was in the fruit or F. carica (0.36% w/w GAE. The highest flavonoid content was detected in the leaves of F. carica (1.42% w/w RE and the lowest was in the F. parietalis fruit (0.20% w/w RE. Correlation analyses of the IC50 values vs. the total phenolic and the flavonoids contents resulted in a positive slope having R2 values as 0.5362 and 0.9895, respectively. As a conclusion, the total flavonoid content influenced the DPPH radical scavenging activity by 98.95%, while the total phenolic content influence was only 53.62%.

  20. Sequence similarity between the cp gene and the transgene in transgenic papayas = Similaridade de seqüência entre o gene cp do vírus e do transgene presente em mamoeiros transgênicos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souza, M.T.; Teixeira, M.; Gonsalves, D.

    2005-01-01

    The Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) coat protein transgene present in 'Rainbow' and 'SunUp' papayas disclose high sequence similarity (>89%) to the cp gene from PRSV BR and TH. Despite this, both isolates are able to break down the resistance in 'Rainbow', while only the latter is able to do so in

  1. Multiplicação in vitro DE Ficus carica L.: efeito da cinetina e do ácido giberélico In vitro multiplication of Ficus carica L.: kinetin and giberelic acid effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrystiane Borges Fráguas

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available A cultura da figueira é afetada pelo vírus-do-mosaico e a cultura de tecidos é uma alternativa para se proceder à limpeza clonal. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se estudar o efeito da cinetina e GA3 na multiplicação in vitro da figueira. Segmentos nodais foram inoculados em meio de cultura WPM contendo as seguintes combinações de cinetina (0; 0,5; 1; 2 e 4 mg.L-1 e GA3 (0, 2, 4, 6 e 8 mg.L-1. Avaliaram-se número e comprimento dos brotos, peso da matéria fresca e seca da parte aérea, número de raízes, peso da matéria fresca e seca do sistema radicular e de calos. A utilização de 0,5 mg.L-1 de cinetina promoveu melhor taxa de multiplicação in vitro de Ficus carica. O GA3 reduziu a formação e multiplicação dos brotos e induziu ao estiolamento, à hiperidricidade, clorose e necrose apical das plântulas.The fig culture is affected by mosaic virus and the tissue culture is an alternative in the clonal cleaning. The kinetin and GA3 effects on in vitro fig multiplication was studied. Nodal segments were inoculated in WPM culture medium containing the following combination of kinetin (0, 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 mg.L-1 and GA3 (0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 mg.L-1. The number and length, fresh and dry weigh matter of aerial part, number of roots, fresh and dry weight matter of root system and fresh and dry weight matter of callus were evaluated. The use of kinetin 0.5 mg.L-1 promoted higher rates of in vitro Ficus carica multiplication. The GA3 reduced the formation and shoot multiplication, and induced etiolation, hyperhydricity, clorosis and apical necrosis at the plantlets.

  2. City of Pittsburgh Trees

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Trees cared for and managed by the City of Pittsburgh Department of Public Works Forestry Division. Tree Benefits are calculated using the National Tree Benefit...

  3. Construction of physical maps for the sex-specific regions of papaya sex chromosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Jong-Kuk

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Papaya is a major fruit crop in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. It is trioecious with three sex forms: male, female, and hermaphrodite. Sex determination is controlled by a pair of nascent sex chromosomes with two slightly different Y chromosomes, Y for male and Yh for hermaphrodite. The sex chromosome genotypes are XY (male, XYh (hermaphrodite, and XX (female. The papaya hermaphrodite-specific Yh chromosome region (HSY is pericentromeric and heterochromatic. Physical mapping of HSY and its X counterpart is essential for sequencing these regions and uncovering the early events of sex chromosome evolution and to identify the sex determination genes for crop improvement. Results A reiterate chromosome walking strategy was applied to construct the two physical maps with three bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC libraries. The HSY physical map consists of 68 overlapped BACs on the minimum tiling path, and covers all four HSY-specific Knobs. One gap remained in the region of Knob 1, the only knob structure shared between HSY and X, due to the lack of HSY-specific sequences. This gap was filled on the physical map of the HSY corresponding region in the X chromosome. The X physical map consists of 44 BACs on the minimum tiling path with one gap remaining in the middle, due to the nature of highly repetitive sequences. This gap was filled on the HSY physical map. The borders of the non-recombining HSY were defined genetically by fine mapping using 1460 F2 individuals. The genetically defined HSY spanned approximately 8.5 Mb, whereas its X counterpart extended about 5.4 Mb including a 900 Kb region containing the Knob 1 shared by the HSY and X. The 8.5 Mb HSY corresponds to 4.5 Mb of its X counterpart, showing 4 Mb (89% DNA sequence expansion. Conclusion The 89% increase of DNA sequence in HSY indicates rapid expansion of the Yh chromosome after genetic recombination was suppressed 2–3 million years ago. The

  4. Rooting of stem segments from fig tree cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayane Barcelos Bisi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Although Brazil is the largest fig (Ficus carica L. producer in the Southern Hemisphere, it mainly uses only one cultivar, ‘Roxo de Valinhos’. In addition, propagation is almost entirely through hardwood cuttings. Therefore, the aim of this study was to establish a propagation method that provides more successful rooting of stem segments of fig cultivars for the purpose of expanding the genetic base of the fig tree. The cultivars used were ‘Brunswick’, ‘Calabacita’, ‘Negro de Bursa’, ‘Mini Figo’, ‘Lampa Preta’, ‘Lemon’, ‘Troiano’,’ Nazaré’, ‘Três num Prato’, ‘Princesa’, ‘Colo de Dama’, ‘Montes’, ‘Bêbera Branca’, ‘Pingo de Mel’, and ‘Roxo de Valinhos’. The propagation methods used were layering, hardwood cuttings, nodal segments, herbaceous cuttings originating from the removal of sprouts, and herbaceous cuttings obtained during growth. We found that the propagation method influences the rooting of stem segments, and cultivars differ in their rooting potential.

  5. Novel concepts on functional foods and nutrigenomics in healthy aging and chronic diseases: a review of fermented papaya preparation research progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Marotta

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstractFunctional foods are an emerging research field corresponding with genomical, epidemiological and clinical studies integrated with the food industry in accordance with the consumer demands. Consequently, the features of the functional foods are being discussed by various researchers and related institutions, and a common view has been pointed out about the availability and the nature of the components of functional foods. Recently, the outcomes of functional foods are being assessed by the help of all the available scientific tools. Genomic medicine is one of the most promising areas of research to reveal the benefits of functional foods and the bioactive ingredients. Nutrigenomics aims at studying the genetic and epigenetic interactions with a nutrient or the functional component in order to lead to a phenotype change and therefore to the cell metabolism, differentiation or even apoptosis. Papaya and its fermentation product arespecific products derived from the technologically advanced and controlled environmentalfriendly bio-fermentation process. Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2012, 2(5:120-136 It has been well known for a long time that the natural anti-oxidant properties of papaya, mainly depending on vitamins A and C in addition to certain amino acids, were consistent both in the fruit and derived from the papain enzyme which is no longer present in the fermented product. In this article, functional foods in genomic medicine are discussed in review of the fermented papaya preparation research progress. Clinical evidences about fermented papaya as a functional food are reported as supported by various research protocols and experimental models. The benefits of fermented papaya preparation are also discussed in nutrigenomic basis and it is reported to have an important antioxidant and transcriptomic potential which deserves further investigation. As a conclusion, fermented papaya preparation represents a Functional Food

  6. Diversity and ecology of Varanus indicus in Pepaya Island at Teluk Cenderawasih National Park, West Irian Jaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DENY ANJELIUS IYAI

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Monitor lizard (Varanidae has dispersed widely in Indonesia, even in Papua. Papua contents of six species. It’s distribution, abundance, both in land and island have been known yet, even carrying capacity of feeding relative limited. However, species extinction rates in nature were increasing both in it. This research was done in Papaya Island in Teluk Cenderawasih National Park, Nabire, Papua since 24th -25th October 2005. Descriptive method was done to answer this study. This research resulted that in Papaya island contents only one species that is Varanus indicus. The V. indicus chosen same habitat in southern part of Papaya island. This species dispersed on 0-4 m above sea level, humidity about 78.6%, and temperature about 23.90C. Vegetation was dominated by coconut (Cocos nucifera, bitangur (Calophyllum inophyllum and tikar (Pandanus sp., papaya (Carica papaya, and ketapang (Terminalia catappa. V. indicus chosen Megapodius reinwadt nest as nesting area. Population of V. indicus was estimated as much 36.3 ≈ 36 pieces by King Method. The nest of V. indicus placed in Cassuarina sp. tree where cutting down. The diet of V. indicus was found such as megapods, sea birds, lizard (sauria, butterflies and bats (Macrochyroptera. People were caused threatened both direct and indirect toward the V. indicus existence.

  7. Categorizing ideas about trees: a tree of trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisler, Marie; Lecointre, Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore whether matrices and MP trees used to produce systematic categories of organisms could be useful to produce categories of ideas in history of science. We study the history of the use of trees in systematics to represent the diversity of life from 1766 to 1991. We apply to those ideas a method inspired from coding homologous parts of organisms. We discretize conceptual parts of ideas, writings and drawings about trees contained in 41 main writings; we detect shared parts among authors and code them into a 91-characters matrix and use a tree representation to show who shares what with whom. In other words, we propose a hierarchical representation of the shared ideas about trees among authors: this produces a "tree of trees." Then, we categorize schools of tree-representations. Classical schools like "cladists" and "pheneticists" are recovered but others are not: "gradists" are separated into two blocks, one of them being called here "grade theoreticians." We propose new interesting categories like the "buffonian school," the "metaphoricians," and those using "strictly genealogical classifications." We consider that networks are not useful to represent shared ideas at the present step of the study. A cladogram is made for showing who is sharing what with whom, but also heterobathmy and homoplasy of characters. The present cladogram is not modelling processes of transmission of ideas about trees, and here it is mostly used to test for proximity of ideas of the same age and for categorization.

  8. Urban tree growth modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Gregory McPherson; Paula J. Peper

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes three long-term tree growth studies conducted to evaluate tree performance because repeated measurements of the same trees produce critical data for growth model calibration and validation. Several empirical and process-based approaches to modeling tree growth are reviewed. Modeling is more advanced in the fields of forestry and...

  9. Keeping trees as assets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith

    2009-01-01

    Landscape trees have real value and contribute to making livable communities. Making the most of that value requires providing trees with the proper care and attention. As potentially large and long-lived organisms, trees benefit from commitment to regular care that respects the natural tree system. This system captures, transforms, and uses energy to survive, grow,...

  10. Effects of Common Fig (Ficus carica Leaf Extracts on Sperm Parameters and Testis of Mice Intoxicated with Formaldehyde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Naghdi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Formaldehyde (FA is the leading cause of cellular injury and oxidative damage in testis that is one of the main infertility causes. There has been an increasing evidence of herbal remedies use in male infertility treatment. This assay examines the role of Ficus carica (Fc leaf extracts in sperm parameters and testis of mice intoxicated with FA. Twenty-five adult male mice were randomly divided into control; sham; FA-treated (10 mg/kg twice per day; Fc-treated (200 mg/kg; and FA + Fc-treated groups. Cauda epididymal spermatozoa were analyzed for viability, count, and motility. Testes were weighed and gonadosomatic index (GSI was calculated. Also, histoarchitecture of seminiferous tubules was assessed in the Haematoxylin and Eosin stained paraffin sections. The findings showed that FA significantly decreased GSI and increased percentage of immotile sperm compared with control group. Disorganized and vacuolated seminiferous epithelium, spermatogenic arrest, and lumen filled with immature germ cells were also observed in the testes. However, Fc leaf extracts improved sperm count, nonprogressive motility of spermatozoa, and GSI in FA-treated testes. Moreover, seminiferous tubule with spermatogenic arrest was rarely seen, indicating that Fc has the positive effects on testis and epididymal sperm parameters exposed with FA.

  11. Traditional agroecosystems as conservatories and incubators of cultivated plant varietal diversity: the case of fig (Ficus carica L. in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santoni Sylvain

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditional agroecosystems are known to host both large crop species diversity and high within crop genetic diversity. In a context of global change, this diversity may be needed to feed the world. Are these agroecosystems museums (i.e. large core collections or cradles of diversity? We investigated this question for a clonally propagated plant, fig (Ficus carica, within its native range, in Morocco, but as far away as possible from supposed centers of domestication. Results Fig varieties were locally numerous. They were found to be mainly highly local and corresponded to clones propagated vegetatively. Nevertheless these clones were often sufficiently old to have accumulated somatic mutations for selected traits (fig skin color and at neutral loci (microsatellite markers. Further the pattern of spatial genetic structure was similar to the pattern expected in natural population for a mutation/drift/migration model at equilibrium, with homogeneous levels of local genetic diversity throughout Moroccan traditional agroecosystems. Conclusions We conclude that traditional agroecosystems constitue active incubators of varietal diversity even for clonally propagated crop species, and even when varieties correspond to clones that are often old. As only female fig is cultivated, wild fig and cultivated fig probably constitute a single evolutionary unit within these traditional agroecosystems. Core collections, however useful, are museums and hence cannot serve the same functions as traditional agroecosystems.

  12. Classification and regression trees

    CERN Document Server

    Breiman, Leo; Olshen, Richard A; Stone, Charles J

    1984-01-01

    The methodology used to construct tree structured rules is the focus of this monograph. Unlike many other statistical procedures, which moved from pencil and paper to calculators, this text's use of trees was unthinkable before computers. Both the practical and theoretical sides have been developed in the authors' study of tree methods. Classification and Regression Trees reflects these two sides, covering the use of trees as a data analysis method, and in a more mathematical framework, proving some of their fundamental properties.

  13. cDNA cloning of a novel gene codifying for the enzyme lycopene β-cyclase from Ficus carica and its expression in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya-Garay, José Miguel; Feijoo-Siota, Lucía; Veiga-Crespo, Patricia; Villa, Tomás González

    2011-11-01

    Lycopene beta-cyclase (β-LCY) is the key enzyme that modifies the linear lycopene molecule into cyclic β-carotene, an indispensable carotenoid of the photosynthetic apparatus and an important source of vitamin A in human and animal nutrition. Owing to its antioxidant activity, it is commercially used in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries, as well as an additive in foodstuffs. Therefore, β-carotene has a large share of the carotenoidic market. In this study, we used reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE)-PCR to obtain and clone a cDNA copy of the gene Lyc-β from Ficus carica (Lyc-β Fc), which codes for the enzyme lycopene β-cyclase (β-LCY). Expression of this gene in Escherichia coli produced a single polypeptide of 56 kDa of weight, containing 496 amino acids, that was able to cycle both ends of the lycopene chain. Amino acid analysis revealed that the protein contained several conserved plant cyclase motifs. β-LCY activity was revealed by heterologous complementation analysis, with lycopene being converted to β-carotene as a result of the enzyme's action. The β-LCY activity of the expressed protein was confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) identification of the β-carotene. The lycopene to β-carotene conversion rate was 90%. The experiments carried out in this work showed that β-LYC is the enzyme responsible for converting lycopene, an acyclic carotene, to β-carotene, a bicyclic carotene in F. carica. Therefore, by cloning and expressing β-LCY in E. coli, we have obtained a new gene for β-carotene production or as part of the biosynthetic pathway of astaxanthin. So far, this is the first and only gene of the carotenoid pathway identified in F. carica. © Springer-Verlag 2011

  14. Biospeckle Supported Fruit Bruise Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Adilson M. Enes; Juliana A. Fracarolli; Inácio M. Dal Fabbro; Silvestre Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    This research work proposed a study of fruit bruise detection by means of a biospeckle method, selecting the papaya fruit (Carica papaya) as testing body. Papaya is recognized as a fruit of outstanding nutritional qualities, showing high vitamin A content, calcium, carbohydrates, exhibiting high popularity all over the world, considering consumption and acceptability. The commercialization of papaya faces special problems which are associated to bruise generation during harvesting, packing an...

  15. Processamento mínimo de mamão 'formosa' Fresh cut of 'formosa' papaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Henrique de Almeida TEIXEIRA

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido para verificar o efeito do tamanho do corte, 2,5 x 2,5cm (corte 1 e 2,5 x 5,0cm (corte 2, e da temperatura de armazenamento (3, 6 e 9ºC, na velocidade da modificação da atmosfera ambiente e nas características químicas de mamões do grupo `Formosa' minimamente processados e embalados em copos plásticos (500ml. A concentração de CO2 no interior destes copos aumentou 2 a 3 vezes, durante as primeiras 6 horas após o corte, para depois diminuir e se estabilizar. Esta concentração aumentou com o aumento da temperatura de armazenamento. A umidade dos pedaços diminuiu consideravelmente nos dois primeiros dias, e a temperatura que melhor conservou a umidade foi a de 6ºC. A acidez total titulável foi menor no corte 2, com as maiores reduções a 6 e 9oC. Os teores de sólidos solúveis totais não variaram entre os tratamentos, e os cuidados higiênicos adotados durante o processamento permitiram a obtenção de produtos com baixa contagem microbiana, 10³UFC.g-1 nos pedaços armazenados a 9ºC após sete dias, e com boa manutenção da qualidade sensorial das mesmas. Estes resultados permitem indicar o mamão `Formosa' para a produção de produtos minimamente processados, na forma de pedaços, com conservação refrigerada (3 e 6ºC por um período de 7 dias.This work was undertaken to verify the effect of cutting size, 2.5 x 2.5cm (chunk 1, 2.5 x 5.0cm (chunk 2, and storage temperatures (3, 6 and 9ºC, on atmosphere modification rate and chemical characteristics of `Formosa' fresh-cut papaya packed in plastic cups (500 ml. The CO2 concentration into theses cups increased fron two to three fold during first 6 hours after cutting, then it decreased and stabilized. This concentration increased with the storage temperature increasing. The chunks's moisture remarkably decreased in the first 2 days, and the temperature which best sustained the moisture was 6ºC. The titratable total acidity was lower in chunk 2

  16. Fault tree handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haasl, D.F.; Roberts, N.H.; Vesely, W.E.; Goldberg, F.F.

    1981-01-01

    This handbook describes a methodology for reliability analysis of complex systems such as those which comprise the engineered safety features of nuclear power generating stations. After an initial overview of the available system analysis approaches, the handbook focuses on a description of the deductive method known as fault tree analysis. The following aspects of fault tree analysis are covered: basic concepts for fault tree analysis; basic elements of a fault tree; fault tree construction; probability, statistics, and Boolean algebra for the fault tree analyst; qualitative and quantitative fault tree evaluation techniques; and computer codes for fault tree evaluation. Also discussed are several example problems illustrating the basic concepts of fault tree construction and evaluation

  17. Detection of differentially methylated regions of irradiated fig tree selections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gabriela Fontanetti Rodrigues

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Fig tree (Ficus carica L. breeding programs using conventional methods, such as directed crosses, to obtain new cultivars, are unworkable in many countries, including Brazil. Consequently, genetic breeding through mutagenesis has emerged as an important line of research that can improve this crop, and be a significant source of information about this species and assist in the implementation of propagation projects and appropriate management. The aim of this study was to verify the existence of epigenetic variability attributable to DNA methylation in irradiated fig selections when compared both to each other and to the main commercial cultivar, “Roxo-de-Valinhos”, which had previously used methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP and DNA sequencing to detect the position of polymorphic regions, analyzable by bioinformatic tools. The sequencing of DNA, isolated from the differentially methylated sites, makes it possible to observe different patterns of methylation by sequencing the treated DNA with sodium bisulfite in the coding regions of regulatory genes active in the development, and fruit ripening stages. Furthermore, they have been found in the mitochondrial DNA of treatments which regulate the supply of energy in Adenosine triphosphate (ATP form in plants. Closely related to their development, they justify the different phenotypes found in both fruit and plant growth that have suffered stress due to exposure to gamma radiation. Thus, future studies on gene expression in treatments have emerged as an extremely important strategy for understanding these complex regulatory systems, which may lead to the identification of genes of agricultural interest for the fig tree crop, and allow for manipulation and subsequent propagation of improved crops for commercial purposes.

  18. Detection of differentially methylated regions of irradiated fig tree selections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Maria Gabriela Fontanetti; Soares, Murilo Racy; Gimenez, Daniele Fernanda Jovino; Fonseca, Larissa Fernanda Simielli; Torrieri, Erico; Ramos, Ester Silveira; Giuliatti, Silvana; Universidade de Sao Paulo; Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho

    2017-01-01

    Fig tree (Ficus carica L.) breeding programs using conventional methods, such as directed crosses, to obtain new cultivars, are unworkable in many countries, including Brazil. Consequently, genetic breeding through mutagenesis has emerged as an important line of research that can improve this crop, and be a significant source of information about this species and assist in the implementation of propagation projects and appropriate management. The aim of this study was to verify the existence of epigenetic variability attributable to DNA methylation in irradiated fig selections when compared both to each other and to the main commercial cultivar, 'Roxo-de-Valinhos', which had previously used methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) and DNA sequencing to detect the position of polymorphic regions, analyzable by bioinformatic tools. The sequencing of DNA, isolated from the differentially methylated sites, makes it possible to observe different patterns of methylation by sequencing the treated DNA with sodium bisulfite in the coding regions of regulatory genes active in the development, and fruit ripening stages. Furthermore, they have been found in the mitochondrial DNA of treatments which regulate the supply of energy in Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) form in plants. Closely related to their development, they justify the different phenotypes found in both fruit and plant growth that have suffered stress due to exposure to gamma radiation. Thus, future studies on gene expression in treatments have emerged as an extremely important strategy for understanding these complex regulatory systems, which may lead to the identification of genes of agricultural interest for the fig tree crop, and allow for manipulation and subsequent propagation of improved crops for commercial purposes. (author)

  19. Detection of differentially methylated regions of irradiated fig tree selections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Maria Gabriela Fontanetti; Soares, Murilo Racy; Gimenez, Daniele Fernanda Jovino; Fonseca, Larissa Fernanda Simielli; Torrieri, Erico; Ramos, Ester Silveira; Giuliatti, Silvana, E-mail: mariagabriela@dracena.unesp.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Dracena, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Agricultura e Ciencias Tecnologicas; Universidade de Sao Paulo (FMRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Genetica; Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Agricultura e Ciencias Veterinarias

    2017-07-15

    Fig tree (Ficus carica L.) breeding programs using conventional methods, such as directed crosses, to obtain new cultivars, are unworkable in many countries, including Brazil. Consequently, genetic breeding through mutagenesis has emerged as an important line of research that can improve this crop, and be a significant source of information about this species and assist in the implementation of propagation projects and appropriate management. The aim of this study was to verify the existence of epigenetic variability attributable to DNA methylation in irradiated fig selections when compared both to each other and to the main commercial cultivar, 'Roxo-de-Valinhos', which had previously used methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) and DNA sequencing to detect the position of polymorphic regions, analyzable by bioinformatic tools. The sequencing of DNA, isolated from the differentially methylated sites, makes it possible to observe different patterns of methylation by sequencing the treated DNA with sodium bisulfite in the coding regions of regulatory genes active in the development, and fruit ripening stages. Furthermore, they have been found in the mitochondrial DNA of treatments which regulate the supply of energy in Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) form in plants. Closely related to their development, they justify the different phenotypes found in both fruit and plant growth that have suffered stress due to exposure to gamma radiation. Thus, future studies on gene expression in treatments have emerged as an extremely important strategy for understanding these complex regulatory systems, which may lead to the identification of genes of agricultural interest for the fig tree crop, and allow for manipulation and subsequent propagation of improved crops for commercial purposes. (author)

  20. HERANÇA DA RESISTÊNCIA AO Papaya ringspot virus EM MELANCIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LINDOMAR MARIA DA SILVEIRA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to study the genetic control of Papaya ringspot virus, type watermelon (PRSV-W in watermelon, the cultivar Crimson Sweet (P1 – susceptible and L26 derived from PI 244019 (P2 – resistant, as well as the resulting populations F1, F2, RC11 and RC21 of the cross of both lines were evaluated. The trials were carried out in a greenhouse, and the evaluations were done using artificial inoculations with PRSV-W isolates. The seedling symptoms were recorded using a graded scale, and the serological evaluation was done with specific antiserum using indirect ELISA. The estimated variances of the populations were used to obtain the genetic (σ 2 G, the environmental (σ 2 E, phenotypic (σ 2 F2, additive (σ 2 A and dominance (σ 2 D variances as well as the broad (h2 a and narrow sense (h2 r heritabilities. The hypothesis of monogenic inheritance was tested under different presumed average degrees of dominance as well as using the maximum likelihood. The distribution of resistant plants in the segregating populations was different from a distribution based on monogenic inheritance for all presumed average degrees of dominance, therefore, the hypothesis of monogenic inheritance was rejected indicating that this character in the line L26 is controlled by more than one major gene with the presence of modifiers. The additive-dominant model was adequate to explain the type of gene action involved, and the epistatic effects were not important in the expression of the resistance. The estimated average degree of dominance indicated complete dominance. The broad sense heritabilities for the two variables analyzed were intermediate.

  1. There's Life in Hazard Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary Torsello; Toni McLellan

    The goals of hazard tree management programs are to maximize public safety and maintain a healthy sustainable tree resource. Although hazard tree management frequently targets removal of trees or parts of trees that attract wildlife, it can take into account a diversity of tree values. With just a little extra planning, hazard tree management can be highly beneficial...

  2. Rooting of hardwood cuttings of Roxo de Valinhos fig (Ficus carica L. with different propagation strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar Antônio Nava

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the substrate, cuttings collection time, the position and the cutting depth, and the propagation environment on rooting of 'Purple Valinhos' fig tree cuttings in Southwestern Paraná, Brazil. Two experiments were carried out at UTFPR, Câmpus Dois Vizinhos, with hardwoods cuttings from Roxo de Valinhos fig tree. The first experiment used a randomized block design, in 3 x 3 x 2 factorial (substrate x environment x collection time, with four replications of 10 cuttings per plot. The cuttings were collected in the first fifteen days of July and August. The substrates were sand, soil and the mixture of these [1:1 (v / v]. The environments used were open sky, tunnel with plastic cover and tunnel with half-shade black net cover. The second experiment used a randomized block design, 2 x 2 x 3 factorial (shoot cutting position x soil cover x shoot cutting depth, with four replications of 12 cuttings per plot. In the factor position, the vertically (0 º inclination and inclined (45 º inclination shoot cuttings were evaluated. Soil cover was tested with mulching plastic cover or not. The tested depths were 1/3, 1/2 and 2/3 in relation to the total length of the shoot cutting. In both experiments, the following were analyzed: rooting and mortality indices, number of leaves and primary shoots, length of the three largest roots per cutting. It was conclude that, the protected environment with plastic cover on sand as substrate must recommended for the rooting of fig estaca, collecting them in the first half of July. The inclination position and cutting depth of the estaca and the substrate coverage with plastic mulching did not influence the results.

  3. Covering tree with stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumbach, Jan; Guo, Jiong; Ibragimov, Rashid

    2015-01-01

    We study the tree edit distance problem with edge deletions and edge insertions as edit operations. We reformulate a special case of this problem as Covering Tree with Stars (CTS): given a tree T and a set of stars, can we connect the stars in by adding edges between them such that the resulting...... tree is isomorphic to T? We prove that in the general setting, CST is NP-complete, which implies that the tree edit distance considered here is also NP-hard, even when both input trees having diameters bounded by 10. We also show that, when the number of distinct stars is bounded by a constant k, CTS...

  4. Trees and highway safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    To minimize the severity of run-off-road collisions of vehicles with trees, departments of transportation (DOTs) : commonly establish clear zones for trees and other fixed objects. Caltrans clear zone on freeways is 30 feet : minimum (40 feet pref...

  5. Decision-Tree Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buntine, Wray

    1994-01-01

    IND computer program introduces Bayesian and Markov/maximum-likelihood (MML) methods and more-sophisticated methods of searching in growing trees. Produces more-accurate class-probability estimates important in applications like diagnosis. Provides range of features and styles with convenience for casual user, fine-tuning for advanced user or for those interested in research. Consists of four basic kinds of routines: data-manipulation, tree-generation, tree-testing, and tree-display. Written in C language.

  6. Minnesota's Forest Trees. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, William R.; Fuller, Bruce L.

    This bulletin describes 46 of the more common trees found in Minnesota's forests and windbreaks. The bulletin contains two tree keys, a summer key and a winter key, to help the reader identify these trees. Besides the two keys, the bulletin includes an introduction, instructions for key use, illustrations of leaf characteristics and twig…

  7. D2-tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Sioutas, Spyros; Pantazos, Kostas

    2015-01-01

    We present a new overlay, called the Deterministic Decentralized tree (D2-tree). The D2-tree compares favorably to other overlays for the following reasons: (a) it provides matching and better complexities, which are deterministic for the supported operations; (b) the management of nodes (peers...

  8. Covering tree with stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumbach, Jan; Guo, Jian-Ying; Ibragimov, Rashid

    2013-01-01

    We study the tree edit distance problem with edge deletions and edge insertions as edit operations. We reformulate a special case of this problem as Covering Tree with Stars (CTS): given a tree T and a set of stars, can we connect the stars in by adding edges between them such that the resulting ...

  9. Winter Birch Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Debra; Rounds, Judy

    2011-01-01

    Trees are great inspiration for artists. Many art teachers find themselves inspired and maybe somewhat obsessed with the natural beauty and elegance of the lofty tree, and how it changes through the seasons. One such tree that grows in several regions and always looks magnificent, regardless of the time of year, is the birch. In this article, the…

  10. Total well dominated trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finbow, Arthur; Frendrup, Allan; Vestergaard, Preben D.

    cardinality then G is a total well dominated graph. In this paper we study composition and decomposition of total well dominated trees. By a reversible process we prove that any total well dominated tree can both be reduced to and constructed from a family of three small trees....

  11. effect of caricapryl-99 seed alkaloid extract on the serum levels

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Daniel Owu

    LEVELS OF SEX HORMONES AND PITUITARY GONADOTROPHINS IN MALE ... of caricapryl–99 seeds (Carica papaya Linn seeds) on the serum levels .... Textbook Reproductive Medicine (pp.157). ... United Nation, Department of Int. Econ.

  12. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 5, No 20 (2006)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antisickling agent in an extract of unripe pawpaw (Carica papaya): Is it real? EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. T Oduola, FAA Adeniyi, EO Ogunyemi, IS Bello, TO Idowu ...

  13. Tropical Journal of Health Sciences - Vol 23, No 2 (2016)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative study of the ownership and utilization of insecticide treated nets in ... Carica papaya juice enhanced in-vitro cell proliferation better than ... zinc supplementation among mothers attending primary health centers in an urban ...

  14. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Vol 5, No 1 (2012) ... pharmacy, nursing, biotechnology, cell and molecular biology, and related engineering and social science fields. ... Public Health Implication of Mycotoxin Contaminated Pawpaw (Carica papaya L) on ...

  15. TreePics: visualizing trees with pictures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Puillandre

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available While many programs are available to edit phylogenetic trees, associating pictures with branch tips in an efficient and automatic way is not an available option. Here, we present TreePics, a standalone software that uses a web browser to visualize phylogenetic trees in Newick format and that associates pictures (typically, pictures of the voucher specimens to the tip of each branch. Pictures are visualized as thumbnails and can be enlarged by a mouse rollover. Further, several pictures can be selected and displayed in a separate window for visual comparison. TreePics works either online or in a full standalone version, where it can display trees with several thousands of pictures (depending on the memory available. We argue that TreePics can be particularly useful in a preliminary stage of research, such as to quickly detect conflicts between a DNA-based phylogenetic tree and morphological variation, that may be due to contamination that needs to be removed prior to final analyses, or the presence of species complexes.

  16. Spectra of chemical trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasubramanian, K.

    1982-01-01

    A method is developed for obtaining the spectra of trees of NMR and chemical interests. The characteristic polynomials of branched trees can be obtained in terms of the characteristic polynomials of unbranched trees and branches by pruning the tree at the joints. The unbranched trees can also be broken down further until a tree containing just two vertices is obtained. The effectively reduces the order of the secular determinant of the tree used at the beginning to determinants of orders atmost equal to the number of vertices in the branch containing the largest number of vertices. An illustrative example of a NMR graph is given for which the 22 x 22 secular determinant is reduced to determinants of orders atmost 4 x 4 in just the second step of the algorithm. The tree pruning algorithm can be applied even to trees with no symmetry elements and such a factoring can be achieved. Methods developed here can be elegantly used to find if two trees are cospectral and to construct cospectral trees

  17. Refining discordant gene trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górecki, Pawel; Eulenstein, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary studies are complicated by discordance between gene trees and the species tree in which they evolved. Dealing with discordant trees often relies on comparison costs between gene and species trees, including the well-established Robinson-Foulds, gene duplication, and deep coalescence costs. While these costs have provided credible results for binary rooted gene trees, corresponding cost definitions for non-binary unrooted gene trees, which are frequently occurring in practice, are challenged by biological realism. We propose a natural extension of the well-established costs for comparing unrooted and non-binary gene trees with rooted binary species trees using a binary refinement model. For the duplication cost we describe an efficient algorithm that is based on a linear time reduction and also computes an optimal rooted binary refinement of the given gene tree. Finally, we show that similar reductions lead to solutions for computing the deep coalescence and the Robinson-Foulds costs. Our binary refinement of Robinson-Foulds, gene duplication, and deep coalescence costs for unrooted and non-binary gene trees together with the linear time reductions provided here for computing these costs significantly extends the range of trees that can be incorporated into approaches dealing with discordance.

  18. Optimum pH and pH Stability of Crude Polyphenol Oxidase (PPO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of pH on the activity and stability of crude polyphenol oxidase (PPO) extracted from garden egg (Solanum aethiopicum), pawpaw (Carica papaya), pumpkin ... Optimum pH values were found to be 6.0,6.5,6.0, 4.5 and 4.0/or 8.0 for the enzyme extracted from Solanum aethiopicum, Carica papaya, Cucurbita pepo, ...

  19. The valuative tree

    CERN Document Server

    Favre, Charles

    2004-01-01

    This volume is devoted to a beautiful object, called the valuative tree and designed as a powerful tool for the study of singularities in two complex dimensions. Its intricate yet manageable structure can be analyzed by both algebraic and geometric means. Many types of singularities, including those of curves, ideals, and plurisubharmonic functions, can be encoded in terms of positive measures on the valuative tree. The construction of these measures uses a natural tree Laplace operator of independent interest.

  20. Coded Splitting Tree Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Hemming; Stefanovic, Cedomir; Popovski, Petar

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to multiple access control called coded splitting tree protocol. The approach builds on the known tree splitting protocols, code structure and successive interference cancellation (SIC). Several instances of the tree splitting protocol are initiated, each...... instance is terminated prematurely and subsequently iterated. The combined set of leaves from all the tree instances can then be viewed as a graph code, which is decodable using belief propagation. The main design problem is determining the order of splitting, which enables successful decoding as early...

  1. Morocco - Fruit Tree Productivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — Date Tree Irrigation Project: The specific objectives of this evaluation are threefold: - Performance evaluation of project activities, like the mid-term evaluation,...

  2. PRODUCTION AND OPTIMIZATION OF GROWTH CONDITIONS FOR INVERTASE ENZYME BY ASPERGILLUS SP., IN SOLID STATE FERMENTATION (SSF USING PAPAYA PEEL AS SUBSTRATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brindha Chelliappan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Invertase enzymes are produced mainly by plants, some filamentous fungi, yeast and many other microorganisms which finds applications in food industries, confectionaries, pharmaceuticals, etc., The present work deals with the production of Invertase by Aspergillus sp., isolated from various soil samples in solid state fermentation using papaya peel waste as substrate. Enzyme activity was checked using Fehling’s reagent and assay was carried out by DNSA method. The results of optimized conditions showed that the invertase activity was high in the SSF using papaya peel as substrate, incubated for 6 days at temperature of 35°C, pH 7, with 2.25gms/100ml of Ammonium nitrate as nitrogen source and 10gms/100ml of sucrose as carbon source. Hence the agro wastes from industries can be recycled by using it as substrate in SSF for high invertase enzyme production which finds applications in many fields.

  3. Are trees long-lived?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith

    2009-01-01

    Trees and tree care can capture the best of people's motivations and intentions. Trees are living memorials that help communities heal at sites of national tragedy, such as Oklahoma City and the World Trade Center. We mark the places of important historical events by the trees that grew nearby even if the original tree, such as the Charter Oak in Connecticut or...

  4. Better Rooting Procedure to Enhance Survival Rate of Field Grown Malaysian Eksotika Papaya Transformed with 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylic Acid Oxidase Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekeli, Rogayah; Abdullah, Janna Ong; Namasivayam, Parameswari; Muda, Pauziah; Abu Bakar, Umi Kalsom

    2013-01-01

    A high survival rate for transformed papaya plants when transferred to the field is useful in the quest for improving the commercial quality traits. We report in this paper an improved rooting method for the production of transformed Malaysian Eksotika papaya with high survival rate when transferred to the field. Shoots were regenerated from embryogenic calli transformed with antisense and RNAi constructs of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase (ACO) genes using the Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation method. Regenerated transformed shoots, each measuring approximately 3-4 cm in height, were cultured in liquid half-strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium or sterile distilled water, and with either perlite or vermiculite supplementation. All the culturing processes were conducted either under sterile or nonsterile condition. The results showed that rooting under sterile condition was better. Shoots cultured in half-strength MS medium supplemented with vermiculite exhibited a 92.5% rooting efficiency while perlite showed 77.5%. The survival rate of the vermiculite-grown transformed papaya plantlets after transfer into soil, contained in polybags, was 94%, and the rate after transfer into the ground was 92%. Morpho-histological analyses revealed that the tap roots were more compact, which might have contributed to the high survival rates of the plantlets. PMID:25969786

  5. Photodegradation of ethylene by use of TiO2 sol-gel on polypropylene and on glass for application in the postharvest of papaya fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Ruth Evelyn R S; Linhares, Amanda A N; de Oliveira, André Vicente; da Silva, Marcelo Gomes; de Oliveira, Jurandi Gonçalves; Canela, Maria Cristina

    2017-03-01

    The papaya is a commercially important fruit commodity worldwide. Being a climacteric fruit, it is highly perishable. Thus, for the transportation of papaya fruit for long distances without loss of quality, it is necessary to avoid the autocatalytic effect of ethylene in accelerating the ripening of the fruit. This work addresses the application of heterogeneous photocatalysis to the degradation of ethylene. A TiO 2 sol-gel supported on polypropylene (PP) and on glass was used as the catalytic material, and a UV-A lamp was employed as the radiation source. Initially, a concentration of 500 ppbv ethylene was exposed to the catalyst material irradiated by UV-A radiation. A sensitive photoacoustic spectrometer was used to monitor the photocatalytic activity. The TiO 2 sol-gel supported on the glass substrate was more efficient than on the PP in degrading the ethylene. Under direct UV-A exposure, the skin appearance of 'Golden' papaya was damaged, depreciating the fruit quality and thus preventing its commercialization. However, the feasibility of the heterogeneous photocatalysis to preserve the fruit quality was achieved when ethylene was removed from the storage ambient using fans, and then, this plant hormone was degraded by a reactor set apart in a ventilation closed system.

  6. Better rooting procedure to enhance survival rate of field grown malaysian eksotika papaya transformed with 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic Acid oxidase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekeli, Rogayah; Abdullah, Janna Ong; Namasivayam, Parameswari; Muda, Pauziah; Abu Bakar, Umi Kalsom

    2013-01-01

    A high survival rate for transformed papaya plants when transferred to the field is useful in the quest for improving the commercial quality traits. We report in this paper an improved rooting method for the production of transformed Malaysian Eksotika papaya with high survival rate when transferred to the field. Shoots were regenerated from embryogenic calli transformed with antisense and RNAi constructs of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase (ACO) genes using the Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation method. Regenerated transformed shoots, each measuring approximately 3-4 cm in height, were cultured in liquid half-strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium or sterile distilled water, and with either perlite or vermiculite supplementation. All the culturing processes were conducted either under sterile or nonsterile condition. The results showed that rooting under sterile condition was better. Shoots cultured in half-strength MS medium supplemented with vermiculite exhibited a 92.5% rooting efficiency while perlite showed 77.5%. The survival rate of the vermiculite-grown transformed papaya plantlets after transfer into soil, contained in polybags, was 94%, and the rate after transfer into the ground was 92%. Morpho-histological analyses revealed that the tap roots were more compact, which might have contributed to the high survival rates of the plantlets.

  7. Plasma cholinesterase inhibition in the clay-colored robin (Turdus grayi) exposed to diazinon in maradol papaya crops in Yucatan, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobos, V.M.; Mora, M.A.; Escalona, G.

    2006-01-01

    The use of organophosphorous pesticides in agriculture can result in intoxication of birds foraging in sprayed crops. Effects on birds resulting from pesticide intoxication are varied and include behavioral and reproductive effects, including death. One widely used insecticide in Maradol papaya crops is diazinon which has been associated with various incidents of intoxication and death of wild birds. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of diazinon application to papaya crops on plasma cholinesterase activity of the clay-colored robin (Turdus grayi). We captured clay-colored robins foraging in a papaya crop the following day after the field had been sprayed with diazinon at a dose of 1.5 kg/ha during March and May, respectively. We took a blood sample from the brachialis vein of the birds captured and measured plasma enzymatic activity. The plasma samples from birds used as controls were taken during the same time period and were analyzed in a similar way. Enzymatic activity of males was greater than that of females (53,52%) and mean cholinesterase inhibition was 49.43%. Cholinesterase inhibition was greater during May than in March probably due to more continuous exposure and ingestion of the insecticide through food and possible absorption through the skin. This degree of enzymatic inhibition is possibly affecting the behavior of the clay-colored robin and could result in death in severe cases.

  8. Optimization of formulation of cmc-na, xanthan gum and carrageenan affecting the physicochemical properties of papaya-wolfberry beverage using response surface methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geo, J.Z.H.; Zong, G.L.P.

    2013-01-01

    CMC-Na, xanthan gum and carrageenan are widely employed in food industry. They were used for its thickening properties of aqueous solutions or emulsifying abilities. The present work aims to optimize the formula of the three stabilizers in the process of papaya-wolfberry beverage by response surface methodology (RSM). The results showed that the models were significantly (p<0.05) fitted for describing the viscosity and cloudiness of papaya-wolfberry beverage. The results also indicated that the linear terms of CMC-Na and xanthan gum were the most significant (p<0.05) variables affecting the viscosity, while xanthan gum and carrageenan were the most significant (p<0.05) variable affecting the cloudiness. The interaction of CMC-Na and xanthan gum behaved extremely significant for viscosity. From the optimization procedure, the best formula for viscosity was obtained at the combined level of 0.0652% (w/w) CMC-Na, 0.1070% (w/w) xanthan gum and 0.1485% (w/w) carrageenan, and the other group of 0.0623% (w/w) CMC-Na, 0.1375% (w/w) xanthan gum and 0.1461% (w/w) carrageenan for cloudiness. The results of our study would be used to improve the quality of papaya-wolfberry beverage and increase its economic efficiency. (author)

  9. Fragmentation of random trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalay, Z; Ben-Naim, E

    2015-01-01

    We study fragmentation of a random recursive tree into a forest by repeated removal of nodes. The initial tree consists of N nodes and it is generated by sequential addition of nodes with each new node attaching to a randomly-selected existing node. As nodes are removed from the tree, one at a time, the tree dissolves into an ensemble of separate trees, namely, a forest. We study statistical properties of trees and nodes in this heterogeneous forest, and find that the fraction of remaining nodes m characterizes the system in the limit N→∞. We obtain analytically the size density ϕ s of trees of size s. The size density has power-law tail ϕ s ∼s −α with exponent α=1+(1/m). Therefore, the tail becomes steeper as further nodes are removed, and the fragmentation process is unusual in that exponent α increases continuously with time. We also extend our analysis to the case where nodes are added as well as removed, and obtain the asymptotic size density for growing trees. (paper)

  10. The tree BVOC index

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.R. Simpson; E.G. McPherson

    2011-01-01

    Urban trees can produce a number of benefits, among them improved air quality. Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emitted by some species are ozone precursors. Modifying future tree planting to favor lower-emitting species can reduce these emissions and aid air management districts in meeting federally mandated emissions reductions for these compounds. Changes...

  11. Tree growth visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    L. Linsen; B.J. Karis; E.G. McPherson; B. Hamann

    2005-01-01

    In computer graphics, models describing the fractal branching structure of trees typically exploit the modularity of tree structures. The models are based on local production rules, which are applied iteratively and simultaneously to create a complex branching system. The objective is to generate three-dimensional scenes of often many realistic- looking and non-...

  12. Flowering T Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Adansonia digitata L. ( The Baobab Tree) of Bombacaceae is a tree with swollen trunk that attains a dia. of 10m. Leaves are digitately compound with leaflets up to 18cm. long. Flowers are large, solitary, waxy white, and open at dusk. They open in 30 seconds and are bat pollinated. Stamens are many. Fruit is about 30 cm ...

  13. Fault tree graphics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, L.; Wynholds, H.W.; Porterfield, W.R.

    1975-01-01

    Described is an operational system that enables the user, through an intelligent graphics terminal, to construct, modify, analyze, and store fault trees. With this system, complex engineering designs can be analyzed. This paper discusses the system and its capabilities. Included is a brief discussion of fault tree analysis, which represents an aspect of reliability and safety modeling

  14. Tree biology and dendrochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith; Walter C. Shortle

    1996-01-01

    Dendrochemistry, the interpretation of elemental analysis of dated tree rings, can provide a temporal record of environmental change. Using the dendrochemical record requires an understanding of tree biology. In this review, we pose four questions concerning assumptions that underlie recent dendrochemical research: 1) Does the chemical composition of the wood directly...

  15. Individual tree control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey A. Holt

    1989-01-01

    Controlling individual unwanted trees in forest stands is a readily accepted method for improving the value of future harvests. The practice is especially important in mixed hardwood forests where species differ considerably in value and within species individual trees differ in quality. Individual stem control is a mechanical or chemical weeding operation that...

  16. Trees and Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Dettenmaier, Megan; Kuhns, Michael; Unger, Bethany; McAvoy, Darren

    2017-01-01

    This fact sheet describes the complex relationship between forests and climate change based on current research. It explains ways that trees can mitigate some of the risks associated with climate change. It details the impacts that forests are having on the changing climate and discuss specific ways that trees can be used to reduce or counter carbon emissions directly and indirectly.

  17. Structural Equation Model Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandmaier, Andreas M.; von Oertzen, Timo; McArdle, John J.; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2013-01-01

    In the behavioral and social sciences, structural equation models (SEMs) have become widely accepted as a modeling tool for the relation between latent and observed variables. SEMs can be seen as a unification of several multivariate analysis techniques. SEM Trees combine the strengths of SEMs and the decision tree paradigm by building tree…

  18. Matching Subsequences in Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2009-01-01

    Given two rooted, labeled trees P and T the tree path subsequence problem is to determine which paths in P are subsequences of which paths in T. Here a path begins at the root and ends at a leaf. In this paper we propose this problem as a useful query primitive for XML data, and provide new...

  19. Environmental tritium in trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.M.

    1979-01-01

    The distribution of environmental tritium in the free water and organically bound hydrogen of trees growing in the vicinity of the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL) has been studied. The regional dispersal of HTO in the atmosphere has been observed by surveying the tritium content of leaf moisture. Measurement of the distribution of organically bound tritium in the wood of tree ring sequences has given information on past concentrations of HTO taken up by trees growing in the CRNL Liquid Waste Disposal Area. For samples at background environmental levels, cellulose separation and analysis was done. The pattern of bomb tritium in precipitation of 1955-68 was observed to be preserved in the organically bound tritium of a tree ring sequence. Reactor tritium was discernible in a tree growing at a distance of 10 km from CRNL. These techniques provide convenient means of monitoring dispersal of HTO from nuclear facilities. (author)

  20. Generalising tree traversals and tree transformations to DAGs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick; Axelsson, Emil

    2017-01-01

    We present a recursion scheme based on attribute grammars that can be transparently applied to trees and acyclic graphs. Our recursion scheme allows the programmer to implement a tree traversal or a tree transformation and then apply it to compact graph representations of trees instead. The resul......We present a recursion scheme based on attribute grammars that can be transparently applied to trees and acyclic graphs. Our recursion scheme allows the programmer to implement a tree traversal or a tree transformation and then apply it to compact graph representations of trees instead...... as the complementing theory with a number of examples....

  1. Weathering and chemical degradation of methyl eugenol and raspberry ketone solid dispensers for detection, monitoring and male annihilation of Bactrocera dorsalis and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solid male lure dispensers containing methyl eugenol (ME) and raspberry ketone (RK), or mixtures of the lures (ME + RK), and dimethyl dichloro-vinyl phosphate (DDVP) were evaluated in AWPM bucket or Jackson traps in commercial papaya (Carica papaya L.) orchards where both oriental fruit fly, Bactroc...

  2. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 201 - 250 of 11090 ... Issue, Title. Vol 12, No 49 (2013), In vitro regeneration of selected Kenyan papaya (Carica papaya L.) lines through shoot tip culture, Abstract PDF. Naomi Nzilani Mumo, Fredah Karambu Rimberia, George Edward Mamati, Agnes Wanjiru Kihurani. Vol 7, No 12 (2008), In vitro regeneration of Turkish ...

  3. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Akakpo, Alfred. Vol 3, No 3 (2001): - Articles The use of biopesticides to control insect pests of papaya (Carica papaya) Abstract. ISSN: 0855-3823. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use ...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1585 - Papain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1585 Papain. (a) Papain (CAS Reg. No. 9001-73-4) is a proteolytic enzyme derived from Carica papaya L. Crude latex containing the enzyme is collected from slashed unripe papaya... latex or by precipitation from an aqueous solution of latex. The resulting enzyme preparation may be...

  5. A recursive algorithm for trees and forests

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Song; Guo, Victor J. W.

    2017-01-01

    Trees or rooted trees have been generously studied in the literature. A forest is a set of trees or rooted trees. Here we give recurrence relations between the number of some kind of rooted forest with $k$ roots and that with $k+1$ roots on $\\{1,2,\\ldots,n\\}$. Classical formulas for counting various trees such as rooted trees, bipartite trees, tripartite trees, plane trees, $k$-ary plane trees, $k$-edge colored trees follow immediately from our recursive relations.

  6. Phylogenetic trees in bioinformatics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burr, Tom L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Genetic data is often used to infer evolutionary relationships among a collection of viruses, bacteria, animal or plant species, or other operational taxonomic units (OTU). A phylogenetic tree depicts such relationships and provides a visual representation of the estimated branching order of the OTUs. Tree estimation is unique for several reasons, including: the types of data used to represent each OTU; the use ofprobabilistic nucleotide substitution models; the inference goals involving both tree topology and branch length, and the huge number of possible trees for a given sample of a very modest number of OTUs, which implies that fmding the best tree(s) to describe the genetic data for each OTU is computationally demanding. Bioinformatics is too large a field to review here. We focus on that aspect of bioinformatics that includes study of similarities in genetic data from multiple OTUs. Although research questions are diverse, a common underlying challenge is to estimate the evolutionary history of the OTUs. Therefore, this paper reviews the role of phylogenetic tree estimation in bioinformatics, available methods and software, and identifies areas for additional research and development.

  7. Skewed Binary Search Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Moruz, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    It is well-known that to minimize the number of comparisons a binary search tree should be perfectly balanced. Previous work has shown that a dominating factor over the running time for a search is the number of cache faults performed, and that an appropriate memory layout of a binary search tree...... can reduce the number of cache faults by several hundred percent. Motivated by the fact that during a search branching to the left or right at a node does not necessarily have the same cost, e.g. because of branch prediction schemes, we in this paper study the class of skewed binary search trees....... For all nodes in a skewed binary search tree the ratio between the size of the left subtree and the size of the tree is a fixed constant (a ratio of 1/2 gives perfect balanced trees). In this paper we present an experimental study of various memory layouts of static skewed binary search trees, where each...

  8. The gravity apple tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldama, Mariana Espinosa

    2015-01-01

    The gravity apple tree is a genealogical tree of the gravitation theories developed during the past century. The graphic representation is full of information such as guides in heuristic principles, names of main proponents, dates and references for original articles (See under Supplementary Data for the graphic representation). This visual presentation and its particular classification allows a quick synthetic view for a plurality of theories, many of them well validated in the Solar System domain. Its diachronic structure organizes information in a shape of a tree following similarities through a formal concept analysis. It can be used for educational purposes or as a tool for philosophical discussion. (paper)

  9. Visualizing phylogenetic tree landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilgenbusch, James C; Huang, Wen; Gallivan, Kyle A

    2017-02-02

    Genomic-scale sequence alignments are increasingly used to infer phylogenies in order to better understand the processes and patterns of evolution. Different partitions within these new alignments (e.g., genes, codon positions, and structural features) often favor hundreds if not thousands of competing phylogenies. Summarizing and comparing phylogenies obtained from multi-source data sets using current consensus tree methods discards valuable information and can disguise potential methodological problems. Discovery of efficient and accurate dimensionality reduction methods used to display at once in 2- or 3- dimensions the relationship among these competing phylogenies will help practitioners diagnose the limits of current evolutionary models and potential problems with phylogenetic reconstruction methods when analyzing large multi-source data sets. We introduce several dimensionality reduction methods to visualize in 2- and 3-dimensions the relationship among competing phylogenies obtained from gene partitions found in three mid- to large-size mitochondrial genome alignments. We test the performance of these dimensionality reduction methods by applying several goodness-of-fit measures. The intrinsic dimensionality of each data set is also estimated to determine whether projections in 2- and 3-dimensions can be expected to reveal meaningful relationships among trees from different data partitions. Several new approaches to aid in the comparison of different phylogenetic landscapes are presented. Curvilinear Components Analysis (CCA) and a stochastic gradient decent (SGD) optimization method give the best representation of the original tree-to-tree distance matrix for each of the three- mitochondrial genome alignments and greatly outperformed the method currently used to visualize tree landscapes. The CCA + SGD method converged at least as fast as previously applied methods for visualizing tree landscapes. We demonstrate for all three mtDNA alignments that 3D

  10. Evaluation of the probiotic potential and effect of encapsulation on survival for Lactobacillus plantarum ST16Pa isolated from papaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, Svetoslav D; Leblanc, Jean Guy; Franco, Bernadette D G M

    2012-03-01

    Capability to produce antilisterial bacteriocins by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) can be explored by the food industry as a tool to increase the safety of foods. Furthermore, probiotic activity of bacteriogenic LAB brings extra advantages to these strains, as they can confer health benefits to the consumer. Beneficial effects depend on the ability of the probiotic strains to maintain viability in the food during shelf-life and to survive the natural defenses of the host and multiply in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). This study evaluated the probiotic potential of a bacteriocinogenic Lactobacillus plantarum strain (Lb. plantarum ST16Pa) isolated from papaya fruit and studied the effect of encapsulation in alginate on survival in conditions simulating the human GIT. Good growth of Lb. plantarum ST16Pa was recorded in MRS broth with initial pH values between 5.0 and 9.0 and good capability to survive in pH 4.0, 11.0 and 13.0. Lb. plantarum ST16Pa grew well in the presence of oxbile at concentrations ranging from 0.2 to 3.0%. The level of auto-aggregation was 37%, and various degrees of co-aggregation were observed with different strains of Lb. plantarum, Enterococcus spp., Lb. sakei and Listeria, which are important features for probiotic activity. Growth was affected negatively by several medicaments used for human therapy, mainly anti-inflammatory drugs and antibiotics. Adhesion to Caco-2 cells was within the range reported for other probiotic strains, and PCR analysis indicated that the strain harbored the adhesion genes mapA, mub and EF-Tu. Encapsulation in 2, 3 and 4% alginate protected the cells from exposure to 1 or 2% oxbile added to MRS broth. Studies in a model simulating the transit through the GIT indicated that encapsulated cells were protected from the acidic conditions in the stomach but were less resistant when in conditions simulating the duodenum, jejunum, ileum and first section of the colon. To our knowledge, this is the first report on a

  11. Tree-growth analyses to estimate tree species' drought tolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eilmann, B.; Rigling, A.

    2012-01-01

    Climate change is challenging forestry management and practices. Among other things, tree species with the ability to cope with more extreme climate conditions have to be identified. However, while environmental factors may severely limit tree growth or even cause tree death, assessing a tree

  12. Big trees, old trees, and growth factor tables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith

    2018-01-01

    The potential for a tree to reach a great size and to live a long life frequently captures the public's imagination. Sometimes the desire to know the age of an impressively large tree is simple curiosity. For others, the date-of-tree establishment can make a big diff erence for management, particularly for trees at historic sites or those mentioned in property...

  13. A bijection between phylogenetic trees and plane oriented recursive trees

    OpenAIRE

    Prodinger, Helmut

    2017-01-01

    Phylogenetic trees are binary nonplanar trees with labelled leaves, and plane oriented recursive trees are planar trees with an increasing labelling. Both families are enumerated by double factorials. A bijection is constructed, using the respective representations a 2-partitions and trapezoidal words.

  14. A Suffix Tree Or Not a Suffix Tree?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starikovskaya, Tatiana; Vildhøj, Hjalte Wedel

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we study the structure of suffix trees. Given an unlabeled tree r on n nodes and suffix links of its internal nodes, we ask the question “Is r a suffix tree?”, i.e., is there a string S whose suffix tree has the same topological structure as r? We place no restrictions on S, in part...

  15. NLCD 2001 - Tree Canopy

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The National Land Cover Database 2001 tree canopy layer for Minnesota (mapping zones 39-42, 50-51) was produced through a cooperative project conducted by the...

  16. Trees for future forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lobo, Albin

    Climate change creates new challenges in forest management. The increase in temperature may in the long run be beneficial for the forests in the northern latitudes, but the high rate at which climate change is predicted to proceed will make adaptation difficult because trees are long living sessile...... organisms. The aim of the present thesis is therefore to explore genetic resilience and phenotypic plasticity mechanisms that allows trees to adapt and evolve with changing climates. The thesis focus on the abiotic factors associated with climate change, especially raised temperatures and lack...... age of these tree species and the uncertainty around the pace and effect of climate, it remains an open question if the native populations can respond fast enough. Phenotypic plasticity through epigenetic regulation of spring phenology is found to be present in a tree species which might act...

  17. Value tree analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keeney, R.; Renn, O.; Winterfeldt, D. von; Kotte, U.

    1985-01-01

    What are the targets and criteria on which national energy policy should be based. What priorities should be set, and how can different social interests be matched. To answer these questions, a new instrument of decision theory is presented which has been applied with good results to controversial political issues in the USA. The new technique is known under the name of value tree analysis. Members of important West German organisations (BDI, VDI, RWE, the Catholic and Protestant Church, Deutscher Naturschutzring, and ecological research institutions) were asked about the goals of their organisations. These goals were then ordered systematically and arranged in a hierarchical tree structure. The value trees of different groups can be combined into a catalogue of social criteria of acceptability and policy assessment. The authors describe the philosophy and methodology of value tree analysis and give an outline of its application in the development of a socially acceptable energy policy. (orig.) [de

  18. QUINTAIS AGROFLORESTAIS: ESTRUTURA, COMPOSIÇÃO FLORÍSTICA E ASPECTOS SOCIOAMBIENTAIS EM ÁREA DE ASSENTAMENTO RURAL NA AMAZÔNIA BRASILEIRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Santos de Almeida

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The structure, floristic and environmental aspects survey of home gardens was performed in the community of Santo Antonio, municipality of Santarém, Pará state, Brazil. The area studied comprises 6 home gardens, where each yard handler and 2 more former residents were heard. A total of 522 plants were sampled comprising 90 species distributed in 53 families. The family with the greatest number of species was Asteraceae. The species for food (32% dominated the area and the most frequent ones were Persea americana, Psidium guajava, Carica papaya and Allium fistulosum. Most of species were imported plants (78%, predominantly subshrubs (40% and trees (22%. The management of the gardens is done by a woman who is also responsible for the introduction of new species and its diversification tends to evolve over time. The Analysis of the Species Importance Coefficient indicates how these potentially commercial Euterpe oleracea, Annona muricata, Carica papaya, Psidium guajava and Carapa guianensis, which management should be favored in the agroforestry for example, optimizing the use of land, food security and aggregating income families through the sale of surplus.

  19. Multiscale singularity trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Somchaipeng, Kerawit; Sporring, Jon; Johansen, Peter

    2007-01-01

    We propose MultiScale Singularity Trees (MSSTs) as a structure to represent images, and we propose an algorithm for image comparison based on comparing MSSTs. The algorithm is tested on 3 public image databases and compared to 2 state-of-theart methods. We conclude that the computational complexity...... of our algorithm only allows for the comparison of small trees, and that the results of our method are comparable with state-of-the-art using much fewer parameters for image representation....

  20. Type extension trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Manfred

    2006-01-01

    We introduce type extension trees as a formal representation language for complex combinatorial features of relational data. Based on a very simple syntax this language provides a unified framework for expressing features as diverse as embedded subgraphs on the one hand, and marginal counts...... of attribute values on the other. We show by various examples how many existing relational data mining techniques can be expressed as the problem of constructing a type extension tree and a discriminant function....

  1. Ficus carica L.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-01-17

    Jan 17, 2011 ... enhancement of oxidation resistance, antibiotic effects, antiviral properties, and ... antifungal activity against Trichoderma viride, and purified from fig leaves. ... Fungi were obtained from the National Key Laboratory for Biology of Plant ... inhibition around the cup with the antifungal samples. RESULTS AND ...

  2. Tree felling 2014

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    With a view to creating new landscapes and making its population of trees safer and healthier, this winter CERN will complete the tree-felling campaign started in 2010.   Tree felling will take place between 15 and 22 November on the Swiss part of the Meyrin site. This work is being carried out above all for safety reasons. The trees to be cut down are at risk of falling as they are too old and too tall to withstand the wind. In addition, the roots of poplar trees are very powerful and spread widely, potentially damaging underground networks, pavements and roadways. Compensatory tree planting campaigns will take place in the future, subject to the availability of funding, with the aim of creating coherent landscapes while also respecting the functional constraints of the site. These matters are being considered in close collaboration with the Geneva nature and countryside directorate (Direction générale de la nature et du paysage, DGNP). GS-SE Group

  3. Benefit-based tree valuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.G. McPherson

    2007-01-01

    Benefit-based tree valuation provides alternative estimates of the fair and reasonable value of trees while illustrating the relative contribution of different benefit types. This study compared estimates of tree value obtained using cost- and benefit-based approaches. The cost-based approach used the Council of Landscape and Tree Appraisers trunk formula method, and...

  4. Attack Trees with Sequential Conjunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jhawar, Ravi; Kordy, Barbara; Mauw, Sjouke; Radomirović, Sasa; Trujillo-Rasua, Rolando

    2015-01-01

    We provide the first formal foundation of SAND attack trees which are a popular extension of the well-known attack trees. The SAND at- tack tree formalism increases the expressivity of attack trees by intro- ducing the sequential conjunctive operator SAND. This operator enables the modeling of

  5. Bioprocessing papaya processing waste for potential aquaculture feed supplement--economic and nutrient analysis with shrimp feeding trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, H Y; Yang, P Y; Dominy, W G; Lee, C S

    2010-10-01

    Papaya processing waste (PPW), a major fruit processing waste in the Hawaii islands, served as substrate for yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) growth. The fermented PPW products containing nutrients of 45% crude protein and various fat, fiber, lignin, cellulose, and minerals were advantages to nutrients of yeast alone. Three experimental diets controlled at 35% protein formulation containing different levels of inclusion of PPW products and a commercial control diet were fed to shrimps for 8 weeks. The 50% inclusion of PPW diets were comparable to commercial feed in weight, growth, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and survival rate. Such bioprocess treatment system would be economically feasible with the control of annual cost and increase of the amount of PPW treated. The selling price of PPW products and annual operation and maintenance cost were the most influential factors to additional profits. This study presented a promising alternative for environmental-friendly treatment of organic wastes as well as the sustainability of local agriculture and aquaculture industries. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Tree manipulation experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishina, K.; Takenaka, C.; Ishizuka, S.; Hashimoto, S.; Yagai, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Some forest operations such as thinning and harvesting management could cause changes in N cycling and N2O emission from soils, since thinning and harvesting managements are accompanied with changes in aboveground environments such as an increase of slash falling and solar radiation on the forest floor. However, a considerable uncertainty exists in effects of thinning and harvesting on N2O fluxes regarding changes in belowground environments by cutting trees. To focus on the effect of changes in belowground environments on the N2O emissions from soils, we conducted a tree manipulation experiment in Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) stand without soil compaction and slash falling near the chambers and measured N2O flux at 50 cm and 150 cm distances from the tree trunk (stump) before and after cutting. We targeted 5 trees for the manipulation and established the measurement chambers to the 4 directions around each targeted tree relative to upper slope (upper, left, right, lower positions). We evaluated the effect of logging on the emission by using hierarchical Bayesian model. HB model can evaluate the variability in observed data and their uncertainties in the estimation with various probability distributions. Moreover, the HB model can easily accommodate the non-linear relationship among the N2O emissions and the environmental factors, and explicitly take non-independent data (nested structure of data) for the estimation into account by using random effects in the model. Our results showed tree cutting stimulated N2O emission from soils, and also that the increase of N2O flux depended on the distance from the trunk (stump): the increase of N2O flux at 50 cm from the trunk (stump) was greater than that of 150 cm from the trunk. The posterior simulation of the HB model indicated that the stimulation of N2O emission by tree cut- ting could reach up to 200 cm in our experimental plot. By tree cutting, the estimated N2O emission at 0-40 cm from the trunk doubled

  7. Steiner trees in industry

    CERN Document Server

    Du, Ding-Zhu

    2001-01-01

    This book is a collection of articles studying various Steiner tree prob­ lems with applications in industries, such as the design of electronic cir­ cuits, computer networking, telecommunication, and perfect phylogeny. The Steiner tree problem was initiated in the Euclidean plane. Given a set of points in the Euclidean plane, the shortest network interconnect­ ing the points in the set is called the Steiner minimum tree. The Steiner minimum tree may contain some vertices which are not the given points. Those vertices are called Steiner points while the given points are called terminals. The shortest network for three terminals was first studied by Fermat (1601-1665). Fermat proposed the problem of finding a point to minimize the total distance from it to three terminals in the Euclidean plane. The direct generalization is to find a point to minimize the total distance from it to n terminals, which is still called the Fermat problem today. The Steiner minimum tree problem is an indirect generalization. Sch...

  8. IBA levels and substrates in the rooting of UENF/CALIMAN 02 hybrid papaya minicuttings in a semi-hydroponic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio José Vieira de Oliveira

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mini-cutting is a technique with large applications in various crops, mainly due to the increase in the percentage and quality of adventitious roots, reducing time for the formation of clonal seedlings. The aim of this study was to evaluate IBA levels and substrates on the rooting of UENF/CALIMAN 02 hybrid papaya mini-cuttings. To perform the experiment, papaya mini-cuttings were taken from mother plants grown in pots in greenhouse, induced to produce shoots through pruning and growth regulator applications. Mini-cuttings were fixed in vermiculite or coconut fiver substrates placed in alveolate trays with 4.5x4.5x5.0 cm cells, and styrofoam trays were placed in plastic trays where different IBA levels were added in a modified Hoagland solution. After 45 days, rooted buds were transplanted to plastic pots of 600 mL of volume with soil, sand, well-cured bovine fertilizer, in the proportion of 3:1:1, remaining for 45 days. When they were taken from pots, roots were carefully washed, and the length of shoots, length of the largest root, dried mass of shoots and radicular system and root percentage were measured. The experiment was set up in a randomized complete block 5 x 2 factorial design, with 5 IBA levels: 0; 2.5; 5.0; 7.5 and 10 mg L-1, two substrates: vermiculite and coconut fiber, three replicates, with six plants per replicate. IBA levels of 5.0 mg L-1 and substrate vermiculite are the most adequate for the rooting of ‘UENF/CALIMAN 02’ papaya mini-cuttings in semi-hydroponic system in alveolate styrofoam trays with 4.5x4.5x5.0 cm cells.

  9. Visualization of Uncertain Contour Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraus, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Contour trees can represent the topology of large volume data sets in a relatively compact, discrete data structure. However, the resulting trees often contain many thousands of nodes; thus, many graph drawing techniques fail to produce satisfactory results. Therefore, several visualization methods...... were proposed recently for the visualization of contour trees. Unfortunately, none of these techniques is able to handle uncertain contour trees although any uncertainty of the volume data inevitably results in partially uncertain contour trees. In this work, we visualize uncertain contour trees...... by combining the contour trees of two morphologically filtered versions of a volume data set, which represent the range of uncertainty. These two contour trees are combined and visualized within a single image such that a range of potential contour trees is represented by the resulting visualization. Thus...

  10. Estudo da comercialização do mamão em Brasília-DF Papaya commercialization study in Brasília-DF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GENI RODRIGUES FAGUNDES

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se os principais fatores envolvidos na comercialização do mamão em 10 supermercados e 9 varejões de Brasília-DF, em janeiro de 1999. O levantamento dos dados foi realizado através da aplicação de questionários aos responsáveis pelos estabelecimentos. Os atacadistas da CEASA-DF, foram os principais fornecedores dos estabelecimentos analisados. O grau de perda dos frutos foi considerado muito alto apenas pelos varejões. A má qualidade do fruto, demora entre compra e venda, transporte precário e condições climáticas foram as principais causas de perdas segundo os varejões. Nos supermercados, foram: falta de armazenamento apropriado, má qualidade do fruto, condições climáticas e manuseio do cliente. Na maioria dos estabelecimentos, o mamão é entregue pelo fornecedor em caixas de madeira. Os mamões ficam expostos para venda em prateleiras na maioria dos estabelecimentos analisados.The main factors involved in the commercialization of papaya in 10 supermarkets and 9 retail shops of Brasília-DF was studied in January of 1999. The data was colleted using questionnaire answered by the manager of the establishment. It was observed that the wholesalers of Federal District Wholesale Market (CEASA-DF are the main supplier of papaya in all establishment analyzed. The fruit loss was considered very high only in the retail shops. The poor quality of fruit, the delay between purchasing and selling, precarious transport system and climatic condition were the main reasons of losses attributed by the retail shops. In the supermarkets the lack of appropriate storage, poor quality of purchased fruit, climatic conditions and manipulation by clients were considered as the main causes for the losses. The supplier delivers the papaya in wood boxes in almost all establishments. Papaya fruits for selling were displayed in racks in most of the establishments analyzed.

  11. Generic Ising trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durhuus, Bergfinnur Jøgvan; Napolitano, George Maria

    2012-01-01

    The Ising model on a class of infinite random trees is defined as a thermodynamiclimit of finite systems. A detailed description of the corresponding distribution of infinite spin configurations is given. As an application, we study the magnetization properties of such systems and prove that they......The Ising model on a class of infinite random trees is defined as a thermodynamiclimit of finite systems. A detailed description of the corresponding distribution of infinite spin configurations is given. As an application, we study the magnetization properties of such systems and prove...... that they exhibit no spontaneous magnetization. Furthermore, the values of the Hausdorff and spectral dimensions of the underlying trees are calculated and found to be, respectively,¯dh =2 and¯ds = 4/3....

  12. ColorTree: a batch customization tool for phylogenic trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Hua; Lercher, Martin J

    2009-07-31

    Genome sequencing projects and comparative genomics studies typically aim to trace the evolutionary history of large gene sets, often requiring human inspection of hundreds of phylogenetic trees. If trees are checked for compatibility with an explicit null hypothesis (e.g., the monophyly of certain groups), this daunting task is greatly facilitated by an appropriate coloring scheme. In this note, we introduce ColorTree, a simple yet powerful batch customization tool for phylogenic trees. Based on pattern matching rules, ColorTree applies a set of customizations to an input tree file, e.g., coloring labels or branches. The customized trees are saved to an output file, which can then be viewed and further edited by Dendroscope (a freely available tree viewer). ColorTree runs on any Perl installation as a stand-alone command line tool, and its application can thus be easily automated. This way, hundreds of phylogenic trees can be customized for easy visual inspection in a matter of minutes. ColorTree allows efficient and flexible visual customization of large tree sets through the application of a user-supplied configuration file to multiple tree files.

  13. A parallel buffer tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sitchinava, Nodar; Zeh, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    We present the parallel buffer tree, a parallel external memory (PEM) data structure for batched search problems. This data structure is a non-trivial extension of Arge's sequential buffer tree to a private-cache multiprocessor environment and reduces the number of I/O operations by the number of...... in the optimal OhOf(psortN + K/PB) parallel I/O complexity, where K is the size of the output reported in the process and psortN is the parallel I/O complexity of sorting N elements using P processors....

  14. IDENTIFICACIÓN MORFOLÓGICA, MORFOMÉTRICA Y MOLECULAR DE Meloidogyne incognita EN HIGUERA (Ficus carica L. EN COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Peraza-Padilla

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar la especie de Meloidogyne asociada a dos plantaciones de higuera en Costa Rica. En marzo de 2012, en el distrito de Pacayas, provincia de Cartago, se detectaron agallas en los sistemas radicales de plantas de higuera (Ficus carica L. de dos fincas. De las raíces agalladas se extrajeron hembras, masas de huevos y juveniles (J2 de Meloidogyne sp. Se examinaron los patrones perineales de las hembras y los segundos estadios infectivos se analizaron morfológica y molecularmente mediante PCR-RFLP. Se amplificó la región intergénica (IGS del genoma mitocondrial, delimitada por el gen de la subunidad II de la citocromo oxidasa (COII y el gen ribosomal 16S. La población de nematodos se identificó como M. incognita. El tamaño de los productos de PCR generados con los imprimadores C2F3 y 1108 fue de 1,7 kb. Al tratar los productos de PCR con enzimas de restricción, se generaron cuatro fragmentos de 850, 450, 250 y 150 pb con la enzima AluI y dos fragmentos de 1300 y 400 pb con la enzima HinfI.

  15. Lâminas de irrigação e coberturas do solo sobre a incidência da mancha fisiológica e produtividade do mamão "Golden" Irrigation dosages and soil coverings in the incidence of skin freckles and yield components of papaya ‘Golden’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aroldo Gomes Filho

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Nesse experimento, avaliou-se o efeito de diferentes lâminas de irrigação e coberturas do solo sobre aspectos qualitativos e de produção do mamão cv. "Golden" no período de dezembro de 2003 a novembro de 2004. Utilizou-se delineamento em blocos casualizados, com três repetições, em esquema fatorial. Os resultados encontrados demonstram uma alta correlação entre a época de colheita com a incidência da mancha fisiológica e as variáveis de produção. Com relação à mancha fisiológica do mamão (MFM, confirmou-se o aspecto sazonal de incidência, sendo que a cv. "Golden" apresentou a maior incidência do distúrbio no mês de setembro. Com relação às coberturas de solo, a cobertura morta se mostrou promissora para os fatores em estudo, ao contrário da cobertura verde com a leguminosa Arachis pintoe, pois a mesma, provavelmente, competiu por água e nutrientes com o mamoeiro, acarretando, assim, redução na sua produtividade.In this experiment the effect of different irrigation rates and soil coverings on qualitative aspects as well as yield components of the papaya cv. ‘Golden’ during the period December 2003 to November 2004 were evaluated. A randomized complete block design was used with three replications in a factorial scheme. The results demonstrate high correlation involving the factors harvest season, incidence of skin freckles and yield components. With relation to skin freckles a seasonal incidence was confirmed, showing that for cv. ‘Golden’, the major incidence of the disturbance was verified in September. The mulching treatment was promising for the factors studied, in contrast to the green covering using the leguminosae Arachis pintoe, due to competition with the papaya trees for water and nutrients, causing a reduction in the yield components.

  16. RELACIÓN ENTRE EL CONTENIDO DE NITRÓGENO EN PECIOLOS Y PRODUCCIÓN DE FRUTOS DE PAPAYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvarez-Hernández JC, Munro-Olmos D

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de generar una curva de abastecimiento nutrimental para nitrógeno (N en el cultivo de papaya cv. `Maradol Roja ́, que sirva como referencia en la interpretación de los resultados de análisis foliares y diagnosticar el estado nutrimental de plantaciones comerciales, se llevó a efecto un experimento en un suelo vertisol pélico (arcilloso en Apatzingán Michoacán, México. Se aplicaron cuatro dosis contrastantes de N, junto con un testigo sin N, con una dosis constante de fósforo (P y potasio (K, bajo un diseño experimental de bloques al azar con cuatro repeticiones. A los 147 días después del trasplante (ddt se registró la altura de planta, número de hojas y frutos; y al inicio de la fructificación (225 ddt, se seleccionaron dos plantas en cada unidad experimental, se colectaron dos peciolos de hojas recientemente maduras, para determinar mediante análisis foliar el contenido de N (% del total de materia seca, conjuntamente se les registró el rendimiento. A las variables fenológicas se les practicó análisis de varianza, y una regresión múltiple a los resultados de análisis foliares y el rendimiento de fruta. Se obtuvo, una curva de abastecimiento nutrimental de N para las condiciones ambientales de Apatzingán Michoacán, donde se relaciona el contenido de N en peciolos y el rendimiento. de fruta. En el nivel de 2 a 2.13 % de N en pe- ciolos, el rendimiento de fruta alcanzó 72.7 kg planta-1. Con esta curva nutrimental de N, es factible mejorar los criterios y eficiencia de la fertilización nitrogenada de este cultivo.

  17. Biomass, virus concentration, and symptomatology of cucurbits infected by mild and severe strains of Papaya ringspot virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pacheco Davi Andrade

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Pre-immunization with mild strains of Papaya ringspot virus - type W (PRWV-W has allowed the mosaic disease to be controlled in different cucurbit species, with increases in marketable fruit yield. The objective of this study was to compare virus concentration, biomass and symptomatology of 'Caserta' zucchini squash, 'Menina Brasileira' long-neck squash and 'Crimson Sweet' watermelon plants infected by three mild strains and one severe strain of PRSV-W. Plants were inoculated at the cotyledonary stage, under greenhouse conditions, sampled at 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 days after inoculation (DAI, and analyzed by PTA-ELISA. The severity of the symptoms was scored according to a scale from 1 to 5, and the fresh and dry biomass of the aerial part of the plants were evaluated at 40 DAI. Concentrations of the mild strains, based on absorbance values of the PTA-ELISA, were lower than the concentration of the severe strain for all species. The mild strains did not cause mosaic in infected plants of all species. Plants of zucchini squash and watermelon infected by the severe strain exhibited severe mosaic symptoms, but the same was not noticed for infected long-neck squash plants. Biomass values from zucchini squash and watermelon plants infected by the mild strains were 1.7 % to 12.4 % lower as compared to healthy plants. Biomass values of zucchini squash and watermelon plants infected by the severe strain presented greater reduction, varying from 29 % to 74 %. However, biomass values of long-neck squash plants infected by the mild and severe strains were similar for all treatments.

  18. Embedding complete ternary tree in hypercubes using AVL trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.A. Choudum; I. Raman (Indhumathi)

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractA complete ternary tree is a tree in which every non-leaf vertex has exactly three children. We prove that a complete ternary tree of height h, TTh, is embeddable in a hypercube of dimension . This result coincides with the result of [2]. However, in this paper, the embedding utilizes

  19. Portraits of Tree Families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balgooy, van M.M.J.

    1998-01-01

    With the publication of the second volume of the series ‘Malesian Seed Plants’, entitled ‘Portraits of Tree Families’, I would like to refer to the Introduction of the first volume, ‘Spot-characters’ for a historical background and an explanation of the aims of this series. The present book treats

  20. P{owering 'Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Melia dubia Cav. of Meliaceae is a large deciduous tree. Leaves are compound with toothed leaflets. Flowers are small, greenish-yellow in much-branched inflorescences. Fruits are green, ellipsoidal with a single seed covered by hard portion ( as in a mango fruit) and surrounded by fleshy pulp outside. The bark is bitter ...

  1. Programming macro tree transducers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick; Day, Laurence E.

    2013-01-01

    transducers can be concisely represented in Haskell, and demonstrate the benefits of utilising such an approach with a number of examples. In particular, tree transducers afford a modular programming style as they can be easily composed and manipulated. Our Haskell representation generalises the original...

  2. Chapter 5 - Tree Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark J. Ambrose

    2014-01-01

    Tree mortality is a natural process in all forest ecosystems. Extremely high mortality, however, can also be an indicator of forest health issues. On a regional scale, high mortality levels may indicate widespread insect or disease problems. High mortality may also occur if a large proportion of the forest in a particular region is made up of older, senescent stands....

  3. A Universal Phylogenetic Tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offner, Susan

    2001-01-01

    Presents a universal phylogenetic tree suitable for use in high school and college-level biology classrooms. Illustrates the antiquity of life and that all life is related, even if it dates back 3.5 billion years. Reflects important evolutionary relationships and provides an exciting way to learn about the history of life. (SAH)

  4. Base tree property

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Balcar, B.; Doucha, Michal; Hrušák, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 1 (2015), s. 69-81 ISSN 0167-8094 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190902 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : forcing * Boolean algebras * base tree Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.614, year: 2015 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11083-013-9316-2

  5. Multiquarks and Steiner trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, Jean-Marc

    2010-01-01

    A brief review review is presented of models tentatively leading to stable multiquarks. A new attempt is presented, based on a Steiner-tree model of confinement, which is inspired by by QCD. It leads to more attraction than the empirical colour-additive model used in earlier multiquark calculations, and predict several multiquark states in configurations with different flavours.

  6. Tree Transduction Tools for Cdec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin Matthews

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe a collection of open source tools for learning tree-to-string and tree-to-tree transducers and the extensions to the cdec decoder that enable translation with these. Our modular, easy-to-extend tools extract rules from trees or forests aligned to strings and trees subject to different structural constraints. A fast, multithreaded implementation of the Cohn and Blunsom (2009 model for extracting compact tree-to-string rules is also included. The implementation of the tree composition algorithm used by cdec is described, and translation quality and decoding time results are presented. Our experimental results add to the body of evidence suggesting that tree transducers are a compelling option for translation, particularly when decoding speed and translation model size are important.

  7. Selecting Landscape Plants: Shade Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Relf, Diane; Appleton, Bonnie Lee, 1948-2012; Close, David

    2015-01-01

    Because of the permanency of trees and their importance in the landscape, care must be taken to select the best species for each situation. This publication goes over how to choose landscape trees that are shade tolerant.

  8. Evaluation of demand for water and electricity for papaya micro sprinkler irrigation system in Paraiba state, Brazil; Avaliacao das demandas de agua e energia eletrica para mamao irrigado por microaspersao no estado da Paraiba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Riuzuani Michelle Bezerra Pedrosa; Dantas Neto, Jose; Farias, Soahd Arruda Rached Farias; Azevedo, Carlos Alberto Vieira de [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UAEAG/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia e Recursos Naturais. Unidade Academica de Engenharia Agricola], Emails: riuzuani@yahoo.com.br, zedantas@deag.ufcg.edu.br, soahd_rached@hotmail.com, cazevedo@deag.ufcg.edu.br

    2010-07-01

    This study aimed to conduct an assessment on the demands for water and electricity for fruit irrigated by micro sprinkler irrigation in agricultural planning. We obtained the demands of gross water and electricity for papaya in 15 municipalities spread over the Rio Paraiba-PB, which was used by micro irrigation system with 90% application efficiency. The city of Joao Pessoa is the place to lower water consumption, requiring 32.9% of the amount required for papaya in Exile, which had the highest annual and daily evapotranspiration, combined with the lowest annual rainfall likely at a 75 % probability. The municipalities were chosen because they had a greater variance in terms of climate, in order to examine various irrigation demands. In Exile is a necessary volume of water-to 8.006,9 m{sup 3}.ha{sup -1}.year{sup -1} to produce one hectare of papaya while in Joao Pessoa need to 2.712,89 m{sup 3}.ha-1.year{sup -1}. The consumption of electricity in the city of Desterro is higher among the cities studied, necessitating 2.009,0 kW.ha{sup -1}.ano{sup -1} to produce one hectare of papaya, while in Joao Pessoa we only need 876,54 kW.ha {sup -1}.ano{sup -1} (author)

  9. Adjustable chain trees for proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winter, Pawel; Fonseca, Rasmus

    2012-01-01

    A chain tree is a data structure for changing protein conformations. It enables very fast detection of clashes and free energy potential calculations. A modified version of chain trees that adjust themselves to the changing conformations of folding proteins is introduced. This results in much...... tighter bounding volume hierarchies and therefore fewer intersection checks. Computational results indicate that the efficiency of the adjustable chain trees is significantly improved compared to the traditional chain trees....

  10. Introduction to fault tree analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlow, R.E.; Lambert, H.E.

    1975-01-01

    An elementary, engineering oriented introduction to fault tree analysis is presented. The basic concepts, techniques and applications of fault tree analysis, FTA, are described. The two major steps of FTA are identified as (1) the construction of the fault tree and (2) its evaluation. The evaluation of the fault tree can be qualitative or quantitative depending upon the scope, extensiveness and use of the analysis. The advantages, limitations and usefulness of FTA are discussed

  11. Validation and assessment of matrix effect and uncertainty of a gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry method for pesticides in papaya and avocado samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Susana Pano-Farias

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a method of using the “quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe” (QuEChERS extraction and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry detection (GC–MS was developed for the analysis of five frequently applied pesticides in papaya and avocado. The selected pesticides, ametryn, atrazine, carbaryl, carbofuran, and methyl parathion, represent the most commonly used classes (carbamates, organophosphorous, and triazines. Optimum separation achieved the analysis of all pesticides in 0.99. The limits of detection (LOD and quantification (LOQ in papaya ranged from 0.03 mg/kg to 0.35 mg/kg and from 0.06 mg/kg to 0.75 mg/kg, respectively. Meanwhile for avocado, LOD values varied from 0.14 mg/kg to 0.28 mg/kg and LOQ values ranged from 0.22 mg/kg to 0.40 mg/kg. Recoveries obtained for each pesticide in both matrices ranged between 60.6% and 104.3%. The expanded uncertainty of the method was < 26% for all the pesticides in both fruits. Finally, the method was applied to other fruits.

  12. The Re-Think Tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gear, Jim

    1993-01-01

    The Re-Think Tree is a simple framework to help individuals assess and improve their behaviors related to environmental issues. The branches of the tree in order of priority are refuse, reduce, re-use, and recycle. Roots of the tree include such things as public opinion, education, and watchdog groups. (KS)

  13. The Hopi Fruit Tree Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyhuis, Jane

    Referring as often as possible to traditional Hopi practices and to materials readily available on the reservation, the illustrated booklet provides information on the care and maintenance of young fruit trees. An introduction to fruit trees explains the special characteristics of new trees, e.g., grafting, planting pits, and watering. The…

  14. Rectilinear Full Steiner Tree Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariasen, Martin

    1999-01-01

    The fastest exact algorithm (in practice) for the rectilinear Steiner tree problem in the plane uses a two-phase scheme: First, a small but sufficient set of full Steiner trees (FSTs) is generated and then a Steiner minimum tree is constructed from this set by using simple backtrack search, dynamic...

  15. Inferences from growing trees backwards

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Green; Kent A. McDonald

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to illustrate how longitudinal stress wave techniques can be useful in tracking the future quality of a growing tree. Monitoring the quality of selected trees in a plantation forest could provide early input to decisions on the effectiveness of management practices, or future utilization options, for trees in a plantation. There will...

  16. Genetic transformation of forest trees

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    In this review, the recent progress on genetic transformation of forest trees were discussed. Its described also, different applications of genetic engineering for improving forest trees or understanding the mechanisms governing genes expression in woody plants. Key words: Genetic transformation, transgenic forest trees, ...

  17. TREE SELECTING AND TREE RING MEASURING IN DENDROCHRONOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sefa Akbulut

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Dendrochronology is a method of dating which makes use of the annual nature of tree growth. Dendrochronology may be divided into a number of subfields, each of which covers one or more aspects of the use of tree ring data: dendroclimatology, dendrogeomorphology, dendrohydrology, dendroecology, dendroarchaelogy, and dendrogylaciology. Basic of all form the analysis of the tree rings. The wood or tree rings can aid to dating past events about climatology, ecology, geology, hydrology. Dendrochronological studies are conducted either on increment cores or on discs. It may be seen abnormalities on tree rings during the measurement like that false rings, missing rings, reaction wood. Like that situation, increment cores must be extracted from four different sides of each tree and be studied as more as on tree.

  18. Tree Colors: Color Schemes for Tree-Structured Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennekes, Martijn; de Jonge, Edwin

    2014-12-01

    We present a method to map tree structures to colors from the Hue-Chroma-Luminance color model, which is known for its well balanced perceptual properties. The Tree Colors method can be tuned with several parameters, whose effect on the resulting color schemes is discussed in detail. We provide a free and open source implementation with sensible parameter defaults. Categorical data are very common in statistical graphics, and often these categories form a classification tree. We evaluate applying Tree Colors to tree structured data with a survey on a large group of users from a national statistical institute. Our user study suggests that Tree Colors are useful, not only for improving node-link diagrams, but also for unveiling tree structure in non-hierarchical visualizations.

  19. Rate of tree carbon accumulation increases continuously with tree size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, N L; Das, A J; Condit, R; Russo, S E; Baker, P J; Beckman, N G; Coomes, D A; Lines, E R; Morris, W K; Rüger, N; Alvarez, E; Blundo, C; Bunyavejchewin, S; Chuyong, G; Davies, S J; Duque, A; Ewango, C N; Flores, O; Franklin, J F; Grau, H R; Hao, Z; Harmon, M E; Hubbell, S P; Kenfack, D; Lin, Y; Makana, J-R; Malizia, A; Malizia, L R; Pabst, R J; Pongpattananurak, N; Su, S-H; Sun, I-F; Tan, S; Thomas, D; van Mantgem, P J; Wang, X; Wiser, S K; Zavala, M A

    2014-03-06

    Forests are major components of the global carbon cycle, providing substantial feedback to atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Our ability to understand and predict changes in the forest carbon cycle--particularly net primary productivity and carbon storage--increasingly relies on models that represent biological processes across several scales of biological organization, from tree leaves to forest stands. Yet, despite advances in our understanding of productivity at the scales of leaves and stands, no consensus exists about the nature of productivity at the scale of the individual tree, in part because we lack a broad empirical assessment of whether rates of absolute tree mass growth (and thus carbon accumulation) decrease, remain constant, or increase as trees increase in size and age. Here we present a global analysis of 403 tropical and temperate tree species, showing that for most species mass growth rate increases continuously with tree size. Thus, large, old trees do not act simply as senescent carbon reservoirs but actively fix large amounts of carbon compared to smaller trees; at the extreme, a single big tree can add the same amount of carbon to the forest within a year as is contained in an entire mid-sized tree. The apparent paradoxes of individual tree growth increasing with tree size despite declining leaf-level and stand-level productivity can be explained, respectively, by increases in a tree's total leaf area that outpace declines in productivity per unit of leaf area and, among other factors, age-related reductions in population density. Our results resolve conflicting assumptions about the nature of tree growth, inform efforts to undertand and model forest carbon dynamics, and have additional implications for theories of resource allocation and plant senescence.

  20. Fault tree analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-09-01

    Suggestion are made concerning the method of the fault tree analysis, the use of certain symbols in the examination of system failures. This purpose of the fault free analysis is to find logical connections of component or subsystem failures leading to undesirable occurrances. The results of these examinations are part of the system assessment concerning operation and safety. The objectives of the analysis are: systematical identification of all possible failure combinations (causes) leading to a specific undesirable occurrance, finding of reliability parameters such as frequency of failure combinations, frequency of the undesirable occurrance or non-availability of the system when required. The fault tree analysis provides a near and reconstructable documentation of the examination. (orig./HP) [de