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Sample records for palustris rodentia sigmodontinae

  1. Description of the karyotype of Rhagomys rufescens Thomas, 1886 (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae from Southern Brazil Atlantic forest

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    André Filipe Testoni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhagomys rufescens (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae is an endemic species of the Atlantic forest from Southern and Southeastern Brazil. Some authors consider Rhagomys as part of the tribe Thomasomyini; but its phylogenetic relationships remain unclear. Chromosomal studies on eight specimens of Rhagomys rufescens revealed a diploid number of 2n = 36 and a number of autosome arms FN = 50. GTG, CBG and Ag-NOR banding and CMA3/DAPI staining were performed on metaphase chromosomes. Eight biarmed and nine acrocentric pairs were found in the karyotype of this species. The X and Y chromosomes were both acrocentric. Most of the autosomes and the sex chromosomes showed positive C-bands in the pericentromeric region. The X chromosome showed an additional heterochromatic block in the proximal region of the long arm. Nucleolus organizer regions (NORs were located in the pericentromeric region of three biarmed autosomes (pairs 4, 6 and 8 and in the telomeric region of the short arm of three acrocentrics (pairs 10, 12 and 17. CMA3/DAPI staining produced fluorescent signals in many autosomes, especially in pairs 4, 6, and 8. This study presents cytogenetic data of Rhagomys rufescens for the first time.

  2. Chromosomal diversity and molecular divergence among three undescribed species of Neacomys (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae separated by Amazonian rivers.

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    Willam Oliveira Da Silva

    Full Text Available The Neacomys genus (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae is distributed in the Amazon region, with some species limited to a single endemic area, while others may occur more widely. The number of species within the genus and their geographical boundaries are not known accurately, due to their high genetic diversity and difficulties in taxonomic identification. In this work we collected Neacomys specimens from both banks of the Tapajós River in eastern Amazon, and studied them using chromosome painting with whole chromosome probes of Hylaeamys megacephalus (HME; Rodentia, Sigmodontinae, and molecular analysis using haplotypes of mitochondrial genes COI and Cytb. Chromosome painting shows that Neacomys sp. A (NSP-A, 2n = 58/FN = 68 and Neacomys sp. B (NSP-B, 2n = 54/FN = 66 differ by 11 fusion/fission events, one translocation, four pericentric inversions and four heterochromatin amplification events. Using haplotypes of the concatenated mitochondrial genes COI and Cyt b, Neacomys sp. (2n = 58/FN = 64 and 70 shows a mean divergence of 6.2% for Neacomys sp. A and 9.1% for Neacomys sp. B, while Neacomys sp. A and Neacomys sp. B presents a medium nucleotide divergence of 7.4%. Comparisons were made with other published Neacomys data. The Tapajós and Xingu Rivers act as geographic barriers that define the distribution of these Neacomys species. Furthermore, our HME probes reveal four synapomorphies for the Neacomys genus (associations HME 20/[13,22]/4, 6a/21, [9,10]/7b/[9,10] and 12/[16,17] and demonstrate ancestral traits of the Oryzomyini tribe (HME 8a and 8b, 18 and 25 and Sigmodontinae subfamily (HME 15 and 24, which can be used as taxonomic markers for these groups.

  3. Chromosomal diversity and molecular divergence among three undescribed species of Neacomys (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae) separated by Amazonian rivers.

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    Oliveira Da Silva, Willam; Pieczarka, Julio Cesar; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm Andrew; O'Brien, Patricia Caroline Mary; Mendes-Oliveira, Ana Cristina; Sampaio, Iracilda; Carneiro, Jeferson; Nagamachi, Cleusa Yoshiko

    2017-01-01

    The Neacomys genus (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae) is distributed in the Amazon region, with some species limited to a single endemic area, while others may occur more widely. The number of species within the genus and their geographical boundaries are not known accurately, due to their high genetic diversity and difficulties in taxonomic identification. In this work we collected Neacomys specimens from both banks of the Tapajós River in eastern Amazon, and studied them using chromosome painting with whole chromosome probes of Hylaeamys megacephalus (HME; Rodentia, Sigmodontinae), and molecular analysis using haplotypes of mitochondrial genes COI and Cytb. Chromosome painting shows that Neacomys sp. A (NSP-A, 2n = 58/FN = 68) and Neacomys sp. B (NSP-B, 2n = 54/FN = 66) differ by 11 fusion/fission events, one translocation, four pericentric inversions and four heterochromatin amplification events. Using haplotypes of the concatenated mitochondrial genes COI and Cyt b, Neacomys sp. (2n = 58/FN = 64 and 70) shows a mean divergence of 6.2% for Neacomys sp. A and 9.1% for Neacomys sp. B, while Neacomys sp. A and Neacomys sp. B presents a medium nucleotide divergence of 7.4%. Comparisons were made with other published Neacomys data. The Tapajós and Xingu Rivers act as geographic barriers that define the distribution of these Neacomys species. Furthermore, our HME probes reveal four synapomorphies for the Neacomys genus (associations HME 20/[13,22]/4, 6a/21, [9,10]/7b/[9,10] and 12/[16,17]) and demonstrate ancestral traits of the Oryzomyini tribe (HME 8a and 8b, 18 and 25) and Sigmodontinae subfamily (HME 15 and 24), which can be used as taxonomic markers for these groups.

  4. Glaciation effects on the phylogeographic structure of Oligoryzomys longicaudatus (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae in the southern Andes.

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    R Eduardo Palma

    Full Text Available The long-tailed pygmy rice rat Oligoryzomys longicaudatus (Sigmodontinae, the major reservoir of Hantavirus in Chile and Patagonian Argentina, is widely distributed in the Mediterranean, Temperate and Patagonian Forests of Chile, as well as in adjacent areas in southern Argentina. We used molecular data to evaluate the effects of the last glacial event on the phylogeographic structure of this species. We examined if historical Pleistocene events had affected genetic variation and spatial distribution of this species along its distributional range. We sampled 223 individuals representing 47 localities along the species range, and sequenced the hypervariable domain I of the mtDNA control region. Aligned sequences were analyzed using haplotype network, bayesian population structure and demographic analyses. Analysis of population structure and the haplotype network inferred three genetic clusters along the distribution of O. longicaudatus that mostly agreed with the three major ecogeographic regions in Chile: Mediterranean, Temperate Forests and Patagonian Forests. Bayesian Skyline Plots showed constant population sizes through time in all three clusters followed by an increase after and during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM; between 26,000-13,000 years ago. Neutrality tests and the "g" parameter also suggest that populations of O. longicaudatus experienced demographic expansion across the species entire range. Past climate shifts have influenced population structure and lineage variation of O. longicaudatus. This species remained in refugia areas during Pleistocene times in southern Temperate Forests (and adjacent areas in Patagonia. From these refugia, O. longicaudatus experienced demographic expansions into Patagonian Forests and central Mediterranean Chile using glacial retreats.

  5. FISH with whole chromosome and telomeric probes demonstrates huge karyotypic reorganization with ITS between two species of Oryzomyini (Sigmodontinae, Rodentia): Hylaeamys megacephalus probes on Cerradomys langguthi karyotype.

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    Nagamachi, Cleusa Yoshiko; Pieczarka, Julio Cesar; O'Brien, Patricia Caroline Mary; Pinto, Jamilly Amaral; Malcher, Stella Miranda; Pereira, Adenilson Leão; Rissino, Jorge das Dores; Mendes-Oliveira, Ana Cristina; Rossi, Rogério Vieira; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm Andrew

    2013-04-01

    Rodentia comprises 42 % of living mammalian species. The taxonomic identification can be difficult, the number of species currently known probably being underestimated, since many species show only slight morphological variations. Few studies surveyed the biodiversity of species, especially in the Amazon region. Cytogenetic studies show great chromosomal variability in rodents, with diploid numbers ranging from 10 to 102, making it difficult to find chromosomal homologies by comparative G banding. Chromosome painting is useful, but only a few species of rodents have been studied by this technique. In this study, we sorted whole chromosome probes by fluorescence-activated cell sorting from two Hylaeamys megacephalus individuals, an adult female (2n = 54) and a fetus (2n = 50). We made reciprocal chromosome painting between these karyotypes and cross-species hybridization on Cerradomys langguthi (2n = 46). Both species belong to the tribe Oryzomyini (Sigmodontinae), which is restricted to South America and were collected in the Amazon region. Twenty-four chromosome-specific probes from the female and 25 from the fetus were sorted. Reciprocal chromosome painting shows that the karyotype of the fetus does not represent a new cytotype, but an unbalanced karyotype with multiple rearrangements. Cross-species hybridization of H. megacephalus probes on metaphases of C. langguthi shows that 11 chromosomes of H. megacephalus revealed conserved synteny, 10 H. megacephalus probes hybridized to two chromosomal regions and three hybridized to three regions. Associations were observed on chromosomes pairs 1-4 and 11. Fluorescence in situ hybridization with a telomeric probe revealed interstitial regions in three pairs (1, 3, and 4) of C. langguthi chromosomes. We discuss the genomic reorganization of the C. langguthi karyotype.

  6. Range expansion of Oligoryzomys longicaudatus (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae in Patagonian Chile, and first record of Hantavirus in the region Ampliación del rango de distribución de Oligoryzomys longicaudatus (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae en la Patagonia de Chile y primer registro de Hantavirus en la región

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    SEBASTIÁN BELMAR-LUCERO

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available At present, 20 species of Oligoryzomys (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae are recognized in the Neotropical region, most of them distinguished by their karyotypes, which fluctuates between 46-70 chromosomes. Two species are currently recognized in Chile, Oligoryzomys longicaudatus (Bennet, 1832; "colilargo" or the long-tailed pygmy rice rat; 2n = 56, which ranges from 27° to approximately 51° S, and O. magellanicus (Bennet, 1836; Magellanic pygmy rice rat; 2n = 54, south of 51° S in the Patagonian region of Chile and Argentina. As part of an ongoing research on the southern Patagonia of Chile, we report the results of small mammal samplings in six localities. We karyotyped 28 specimens and we also sequenced the hypervariable mtDNA region I in 22 individuals, aligning these sequences with an under development phylogeny of O. longicaudatus. We also evaluated the serology and viral charge in all captured specimens to detect the presence of antibodies to Andes virus (ANDV through Strip Immunoblot Assay (SIA, and of viral genome by RT-PCR. The results consistently showed that the karyotype of southern Patagonia specimens was 2n = 56, equal to that of O. longicaudatus, and that individuals from this area do not differentiate phylogenetically from those of the northern range of distribution. In addition, the serology showed the presence of antibodies IgG anti-ANDV and of viral genome in heart, kidney, spleen, and lungs of a single specimen of Oligoryzomys from the locality of Fuerte Bulnes in the Magallanes region. We conclude that all specimens trapped south of 51° S correspond to Oligoryzomys longicaudatus, thus expanding the distribution of this specie! from 51° to at least 55° S. The results also extended the disiribution of the Andes strain of Hantavirus to southernmost Patagonia.Actualmente se reconocen 20 especies de Oligoryzomys (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae en la región Neotropical, la mayoría de ellas distinguidas por sus cariotipos, los que fluct

  7. A new karyotype of Calomys (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae

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    Lima J. Fernando de S.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Calomys Waterhouse, 1837 is widely distributed within South America, being found in Venezuela, Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay and Argentina. Specimens of Calomys were collected in Formoso do Araguaia, Tocantins, Brazil. For chromosome characterization standard staining techniques and as G-banding and nucleolar organizer region were used. The karyotype was 2n=46 and AN=66. The X chromosome is a medium metacentric and the Y chromosome a small acrocentric chromosome. Chromosome homologies with other species were observed. Probably, karyotype differences were basically due to Robertsonian rearrangements.

  8. Patrones de distribución geográfica de la riqueza de especies de roedores de la tribu Oryzomyini (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae en Sudamérica: Evaluando la importancia de los procesos de colonización y extinción Geographic patterns of richness distribution of rodents species from the Oryzomyini tribe (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae in South America: Evaluating the importance of colonization and extinction processes

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    EVELYN VALENCIA-PACHECO

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available La tribu de roedores Oryzomyini es la más diversa dentro de la subfamilia Sigmodontinae. Está constituida por 120 especies y 31 géneros, de las cuales 83 son endémicas del continente sudamericano. Este grupo exhibe una extensa distribución que abarca toda la región Neotropical, caracterizada por la presencia de una mayor riqueza en la Amazonia con una disminución monotónica hacia el sur y norte de Sudamérica. Este es un patrón bastante conocido en la mayoría de los taxones, por lo que se han propuesto varios mecanismos causales. Sin embargo, se desconocen los mecanismos que dan cuenta de este gradiente latitudinal en la riqueza de especies de Oryzomyini. Debido a que estas especies son originarias de la Amazonia, y que a través de su historia colonizaron ambientes nuevos y más variables (sur y norte, se evaluó la hipótesis fuente-sumidero, mediada por procesos de colonización y extinción, como potencial explicación al patrón de riqueza observado. Para evaluar esta hipótesis se reunió una base de datos de distribución y riqueza de especies por grado de latitud para todo el continente sudamericano. Posteriormente se evaluó el grado de anidamiento mediante los índices de T (temperatura, BR (discrepancia y NODF. Nuestros resultados evidenciaron un grado de anidamiento significativo en la distribución de Oryzomyini, y un anidamiento significativo separadamente en filas y columnas de la matriz. Por lo tanto, se concluye que la dinámica fuente-sumidero afecta el patrón de distribución de la riqueza de roedores Oryzominos, a través de un proceso de colonización durante su expansión en Sudamérica que fue mediado por los rangos de tolerancia de las especies. Finalmente, las especies menos tolerantes se habrían extinguido, lo que determinaría un menor número de especies hacia el sur y norte de la Amazonia.The Oryzomyini rodent tribe is the most diverse taxon within the Sigmodontinae subfamily. This tribe includes 120

  9. Rodentia: Sciuridae

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    Close chromosomal congruence in two species of ground squirrel: Xerus inauris and X. princeps. (Rodentia: Sciuridae). T.J. Robinson, • .1.0. Skinner and A.S. Haim. Mammal Research Institute, University of Pretoria, Pretoria. Chromosomes from cultured fibroblasts of two southern. African ground squirrel species, Xerus ina ...

  10. Mammalia, Rodentia, Sigmodontinae, Holochilus brasiliensis (Desmarest, 1819: Distribution extention

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    Formoso, A. E.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the southernmost record for the marsh rats Holochilus brasiliensis 20 km S of Pedro Luro on Hwy3, province of Buenos Aires, Argentina (39°41’31.13”S, 62°40’23.5”W extending the range of the species ca. 110 km S.This represents the first contemporaneous record of H. brasiliensis in Patagonia, and also the only species of sigmodontinerodent with amphibious habits reported in Patagonia.

  11. RAPD analysis of Nectomys squamipes (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae populations

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    Almeida Francisca C.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Random amplified of polymorphic DNA (RAPD analysis was used to assess genetic distance and the genetic structure of populations of Nectomys squamipes, a semiaquatic rodent species distributed along watercourses. DNA samples of five populations were analyzed using three primers, producing 45 scorable bands, 31 of which were polymorphic. There was a significant differentiation among populations [F ST = 0.17; phiST = 0.14 (P < 0.004] but gene flow (Nm = 1.25 was sufficient to overcome genetic drift effects. No fixed specific markers were found for any population. The Mantel's test and UPGMA cluster analysis showed a lack of relationship between genetic and geographic distances. The apparent homogeneity indicated by RAPD markers coincided with morphometric data, despite the wide geographic range of N. squamipes. Alternative hypotheses for explaining our results include recurrent processes of local extinction and recolonization or a recent and sudden increase in the geographic distribution of this species.

  12. Robertsonian chromosome polymorphism of Akodon molinae (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae: analysis of trivalents in meiotic prophase Polimorfismo cromosómico Robertsoniano de Akodon molinae (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae

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    RAÚL FERNÁNDEZ-DONOSO

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Akodon molinae (with 2n = 42-43-44 and an FN = 44 shows a remarkable polymorphism of chromosome 1 in natural and laboratory populations. Specimens 2n = 42, named single homozygotes (SH, have a chromosome pair 1 formed by two large metacentric chromosomes. Specimens 2n = 3, heterozygotes (Ht, have one chromosome 1 and two medium-sized subtelocentric chromosomes, 1a and 1b, which are homologous with the long and short arms of chromosome 1 respectively. Specimens 2n = 44 are double homozygotes (DH, with just two pairs of medium-sized subtelocentric chromosomes, 1a and 1b. Analysis of meiotic metaphases I and II showed that anomalous segregation occurs more frequently in spermatocytes carrying the 1a and 1b chromosomes. This would disturb gametogenesis and other reproductive and developmental processes, producing a marked decrease in viability of DH individuals. There is, as yet, no satisfactory explanation for these phenomena. To investigate structural elements which might explain such segregational anomalies, we have studied bivalent and trivalent synapsis in pachytene spermatocytes from SH, Ht and DH specimens. Of a total of 80 spermatocyte nuclei microspreads, the following results were obtained: of 16 microspreads from two SH individuals, 20 autosomic bivalents plus the XY bivalent were observed; of 48 microspreads from three Ht individuals, 19 autosomic bivalents, 1 trivalent and an XY bivalent were seen; and of the 16 microspreads from two DH individuals, 21 autosomic bivalents plus the XY bivalent were found. Trivalents analysed showed complete pairing between the short arms of 1a and 1b, and having an apparently normal synaptonemal complex (SC with lengths of 1 and 2.8 µm. The trivalent SC showed three telomeric ends, corresponding to arms: q1 and q1a; p1 and q1b; and p1a and p1b, with attachment plates to the nuclear envelope of normal organisation. None of the trivalents showed asynapsis or desynapsis between p1a and p1b, nor an association with the XY bivalent. In 70 % of spermatocytes studied, the XY bivalent showed complete pairing between X and Y, with SC formation along the whole length of the Y chromosome. The remaining 30 % showed partial pairing, with an SC length which varied from the common end. Based on these findings and those of previous studies, we discuss: 1.- that the obliged configuration of the trivalent, with SC formation between the short arms of 1a and 1b, helps to assure a quasi normal segregation between 1, 1a and 1b in anaphase I of Ht meiosis; and 2.- that co-existence in trivalents of chromosomes 1, 1a and 1b in Ht individuals, breaks down the structural and functional integrity of the short arms of 1a and 1b, producing an accumulative damage which would also explain the decreased viability of individuals bearing these chromosomesAkodon molinae con 2n = 42-43-44 y FN = 44 presenta un notable polimorfismo en el cromosoma 1 en poblaciones naturales y de laboratorio, los individuos 2n = 42 tienen un par 1 formado por dos cromosomas metacéntricos grandes y son denominados homocigotos simples (SH; los individuos 2n = 43, heterocigotos (Ht, presentan un cromosoma 1 y dos cromosomas subtelocéntricos de tamaño medio 1a and 1b, que son homólogos con los brazos largo y corto del 1, respectivamente; y los individuos 2n = 44 que son los doble homocigotos (DH y presentan dos pares de cromosomas subtelocéntricos 1a y 1b. Análisis de la metafases I y II meióticas han demostrado que se producen segregaciones anómalas con una alta frecuencia en los espermatocitos portadores de los cromosomas 1a and 1b. Ello alteraría a otros procesos, como la gametogénesis, la reproducción y el desarrollo, disminuyendo la viabilidad individual y poblacional de los DH. No ha habido una explicación satisfactoria para estos fenómenos. Para investigar elementos estructurales que pudiesen explicar tales alteraciones segregacionales, se estudió la sinapsis de bivalentes y trivalentes en espermatocitos en paquiteno de ejemplares SH, Ht y DH. De un total de 80 microesparcidos de núcleos de espermatocitos: en 16 núcleos de ejemplares SH se observaron 20 bivalentes autosómicos más el bivalente XY; en 48 núcleos de Ht se observaron 19 bivalentes autosómicos, 1 trivalente y un bivalente XY; y en 16 núcleos de DH se observaron 21 bivalentes autosómicos más el bivalente XY. Los trivalentes analizados mostraron apareamiento completo entre los brazos cortos de 1a y 1b conformándose un complejo sinaptonémico (CS aparentemente normal con una longitud entre 1 µm y 2,8 µm. El CS de los trivalentes presentó tres extremos teloméricos correspondientes a los brazos: q1 y q1a, p1 y q1b y p1a y p1b, con placas de inserción a la envoltura nuclear de organización normal. En ninguno de los trivalentes se observó asinapsis o desinapsis entre p1a y p1b, ni asociaciones con el bivalente XY. En el 70 % de los espermatocitos estudiados el bivalente XY mostró apareamiento completo entre X e Y, con formación de CS en toda la longitud del cromosoma Y. El 30 % restante presentó apareamiento parcial con un CS de longitud variable a partir del extremo común. Sobre la base de los resultados de este trabajo y los antecedentes existentes, se discute: 1.- que la configuración obligada del trivalente con formación de CS entre los brazos cortos de 1a y 1b, contribuye a asegurar la segregación cuasi normal entre 1, 1a y 1b en la I anafase de la meiosis de los Ht; y 2.- que la coexistencia en los trivalentes de los cromosomas 1, 1a y 1b en los Ht, erosiona la integridad estructural y funcional de los brazos cortos de 1a y 1b, daño que sería acumulativo y que explicaría la viabilidad disminuída de los individuos portadores de estos cromosomas

  13. Metabolic rates and thermoregulatory characteristics of Akodon azarae (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae Tasas metabólicas y características termorregulatorias de Akodon azarae (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae

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    C. DANIEL ANTINUCHI

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we evaluated the energetic status, activity daily metabolic rate, thermoregulatory capacity and the existence of torpor in Akodon azarae (Fisher 1829. Basal metabolic rate (BMR was similar to the expected value from Kleiber´s, and also according to the BMR of phylogenetically related species. No statistical difference in BMR between sexes was detected. For both males and females, activity daily metabolic rate was 235 % of BMR. Body temperature was not statistically different, neither at different ambient temperatures nor between sexes. In the thermoneutral zone, body temperature was 36.1 ± 1.5 °C. Thermal conductance was lower than the expected for mammals whereas thermoregulatory capacity was 136 % of the expected. Akodon azarae did not show evidence of torporEn este trabajo fueron evaluadas, para Akodon azarae (Fisher 1829, la tasa metabólica basal (BMR y de actividad diaria así como la capacidad termorregulatoria y la posible existencia de torpor. La BMR no presentó diferencias estadísticas con la esperada por la ecuación de Kleiber así como con la esperada para especies filogenéticamente relacionadas. Tampoco fueron detectadas diferencias significativas en la BMR entre sexos. La tasa metabólica de actividad diaria para ambos sexos fue el 235 % de la BMR. La temperatura corporal no presentó variaciones entre individuos mantenidos a diferentes temperaturas ambiente ni tampoco entre sexos y en termoneutralidad fue de 36,1 ± 1,5 °C. Por otra parte, la conductancia térmica fue menor a la esperada mientras que la capacidad termorregulatoria fue el 136% de la esperada. Akodon azarae no presenta sopor

  14. Genetic diversity and relatedness within and between species of the genus Oligoryzomys (Rodentia; Sigmodontinae

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    A. Trott

    Full Text Available A RAPD analysis on six species of the rodent genus Oligoryzomys trapped in a wide area (ranging from 01° N to 32° S of Brazilian territory was performed in order to determine the levels of genetic variability within and between its populations and species. One-hundred and ninety-three animals were collected in 13 different sites (corresponding to 17 samples located at Pampas, Atlantic Rain Forest, Cerrado, and Amazon domains. Oligoryzomys sp., O. nigripes (8 populations, O. flavescens (4 populations, O. moojeni, O. stramineus, and O. fornesi were the taxa analyzed. Of the 20 primers tested, 4 generated a total of 75 polymorphic products simultaneously amplified in 151 specimens. Various diversity estimators analyzed showed considerable differences between species and populations, indicating a great genetic variation occurring in the Oligoryzomys taxa investigated. A cluster analysis was made using Nei's standard genetic distances, however, it did not correlate the genetic heterogeneity of the species and populations with the geographical areas.

  15. Genetic diversity and relatedness within and between species of the genus Oligoryzomys (Rodentia; Sigmodontinae).

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    Trott, A; Callegari-Jacques, S M; Oliveira, L F B; Langguth, A; Mattevi, M S

    2007-02-01

    A RAPD analysis on six species of the rodent genus Oligoryzomys trapped in a wide area (ranging from 01 degrees N to 32 degrees S) of Brazilian territory was performed in order to determine the levels of genetic variability within and between its populations and species. One-hundred and ninety-three animals were collected in 13 different sites (corresponding to 17 samples) located at Pampas, Atlantic Rain Forest, Cerrado, and Amazon domains. Oligoryzomys sp., O. nigripes (8 populations), O. flavescens (4 populations), O. moojeni, O. stramineus, and O. fornesi were the taxa analyzed. Of the 20 primers tested, 4 generated a total of 75 polymorphic products simultaneously amplified in 151 specimens. Various diversity estimators analyzed showed considerable differences between species and populations, indicating a great genetic variation occurring in the Oligoryzomys taxa investigated. A cluster analysis was made using Nei's standard genetic distances, however, it did not correlate the genetic heterogeneity of the species and populations with the geographical areas.

  16. Ontogenetic allometry in the foot size of Oligoryzomys flavescens (Waterhouse, 1837 (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae

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    R. Maestri

    Full Text Available Ontogenetic allometry is the study of how the size or shape of certain structures changes over the course of an animal’s development. In this study, using Huxley's formula of allometric growth (1932, we assessed the changes in the rate of growth of the feet size of the sigmodontine rodent Oligoryzomys flavescens during its ontogeny and compared differences between males and females. We find evidence of a change of polarity during the ontogenetic development of the species, with the presence of positive allometry during pregnancy and negative allometry in adulthood. Moreover, we note the presence of sexual dimorphism in the size of the feet, in which males of the species have a higher rate of growth than females. This growth pattern is positively related to escape from predators in childhood in both sexes and, in adulthood, provides a higher encounter rate of females by males, due to the larger displacement of the latter. We suggest that both the forces of natural selection and sexual selection have acted to shape the evolution of foot size in this species.

  17. Ontogenetic allometry in the foot size of Oligoryzomys flavescens (Waterhouse, 1837) (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae).

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    Maestri, R; Fornel, R; Freitas, T R O; Marinho, J R

    2015-05-01

    Ontogenetic allometry is the study of how the size or shape of certain structures changes over the course of an animal's development. In this study, using Huxley's formula of allometric growth (1932), we assessed the changes in the rate of growth of the feet size of the sigmodontine rodent Oligoryzomys flavescens during its ontogeny and compared differences between males and females. We find evidence of a change of polarity during the ontogenetic development of the species, with the presence of positive allometry during pregnancy and negative allometry in adulthood. Moreover, we note the presence of sexual dimorphism in the size of the feet, in which males of the species have a higher rate of growth than females. This growth pattern is positively related to escape from predators in childhood in both sexes and, in adulthood, provides a higher encounter rate of females by males, due to the larger displacement of the latter. We suggest that both the forces of natural selection and sexual selection have acted to shape the evolution of foot size in this species.

  18. An unusual feature of yolk sac placentation in Necromys lasiurus (Rodentia, Cricetidae, Sigmodontinae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Favaron, P O; Carter, Anthony Michael; Mess, A M

    2012-01-01

    . Elsewhere it was non-villous and closely attached to the uterus. The uterine glands were shallow and wide mouthed. They were associated with vessels and filled with secretion, suggesting the release of histotroph. This feature was absent at later stages. The intimate association of the yolk sac......We studied the development of the inverted yolk sac in a New World rodent, Necromys lasiurus during early placentation. Ten implantation sites were investigated by means of histology, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. The yolk sac was villous near its attachment to the placenta...

  19. Karyotypes of Akodon orophilus Osgood 1913 and Thomasomys sp. (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae from Huánuco, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Pacheco

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Conventional chromosomal preparations were made of three native mice from Huánuco, Peru: a male and a female of Thomasomys sp., and a male of Akodon orophilus. Thomasomys sp. had a karyotype of 2n = 42, XY (n = 21, meanwhile A. orophilus presented 2n = 22, XY (n = 11. Comparisons between chromosomal pairs from the existent literature indicate that both are new karyotypes. Thomasomys sp. has a distinct sexual Y chromosome, the only metacentric (m reported for the genus. The chromosomes X and Y of A. orophilus are acrocentrics (a; and the length of chromosome Y (2/3 of the length of X distinguishes A. orophilus from other congeneric. Because the structural differences between the sexual chromosomes usually generates mechanism of reproductive isolation at intraspecific level and are bigger still in interspecific crosses, we concluded that the karyotypes reported here support the validity of the species A. orophilus and suggest that Thomasomys sp. represents a new species to science.

  20. Population structure and genetic variability of mainland and insular populations of the Neotropical water rat, Nectomys squamipes (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca C. Almeida

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Seven microsatellite loci were used to investigate the genetic variability and structure of six mainland and two island populations of the Neotropical water rat Nectomys squamipes, a South American semi-aquatic rodent species with a wide distribution. High levels of variability were found within mainland populations while island populations were less variable but the more differentiated in respect to allele number and frequency. The time of biological divergence between mainland and island populations coincided with geological data. A significant geographic structure was found in mainland populations (theta = 0.099; rho = 0.086 although the degree of differentiation was relatively low in respect to the distance between surveyed localities (24 to 740 km. Genetic and geographic distances were not positively correlated as previously found with random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD markers. Significant but low genetic differentiation in the mainland and lack of isolation by distance can be explained by large population size and/or recent population expansion. Additionally, the agreement between the age of geologic events (sea level fluctuations and divergence times for insular populations points to a good reference for molecular clock calibration to associate recent environmental changes and the distribution pattern of small mammals in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

  1. Genetic differentiation in geographically close populations of the water rat Nectomys squamipes (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maroja L.S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the genetic structure and the effects of a bottleneck in populations of the water rat Nectomys squamipes, a primary host of Schistosoma mansoni. Eight microsatellite loci were studied in 7 populations from the Sumidouro region of the Brazilian state of Rio de Janeiro. Our data, covering a four-year period during which a bottleneck occurred, revealed substantial variation (6-31 alleles per locus and high levels of both observed (0.718-0.789 and expected (0.748-0.832 heterozygosity. Most populations were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium without linkage disequilibrium between loci. Overall average genetic differentiation between populations (estimated with the F ST (q and R ST (r analogues was 0.037 for q and 0.060 for r. There was significant allelic and genotypic differentiation between populations, especially in pairwise comparisons that included the most geographically isolated population. Direct migration estimates showed a low rate of migration, indicating that infected N. squamipes populations had a limited ability to spread S. mansoni. When the pre- and post-bottleneck populations were compared there was no detectable reduction in heterozygosity or allele number, although a significant excess of heterozygosity was detected in the post-bottleneck population.

  2. Morphological diagnosis and geographic distribution of Atlantic Forest red-rumped mice of the genus Juliomys (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae)

    OpenAIRE

    Pavan,Silvia E; Leite,Yuri L. R

    2011-01-01

    Recognition and identification of red-rumped mice of the genus Juliomys González, 2000 has been a problem among many mammalogists, and specimens of this genus are commonly confused with other Atlantic Forest sigmodontine rodents. Herein we provide an expanded diagnosis for the genus based on the analyses of the three living species of Juliomys, and provide morphological comparisons to the small bodied and bright colored rodents Rhagomys rufescens (Thomas, 1886) and Oligoryzomys flavescens (Wa...

  3. Ecosystem carbon stocks in Pinus palustris forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa Samuelson; Tom Stokes; John R. Butnor; Kurt H. Johnsen; Carlos A. Gonzalez-Benecke; Pete Anderson; Jason Jackson; Lorenzo Ferrari; Tim A. Martin; Wendell P. Cropper

    2014-01-01

    Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) restoration in the southeastern United States offers opportunities for carbon (C) sequestration. Ecosystem C stocks are not well understood in longleaf pine forests, which are typically of low density and maintained by prescribed fire. The objectives of this research were to develop allometric equations for...

  4. Molecular diversification of Trichuris spp. from Sigmodontinae (Cricetidae) rodents from Argentina based on mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callejón, Rocío; Robles, María Del Rosario; Panei, Carlos Javier; Cutillas, Cristina

    2016-08-01

    A molecular phylogenetic hypothesis is presented for the genus Trichuris based on sequence data from mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase 1 (cox1) and cytochrome b (cob). The taxa consisted of nine populations of whipworm from five species of Sigmodontinae rodents from Argentina. Bayesian Inference, Maximum Parsimony, and Maximum Likelihood methods were used to infer phylogenies for each gene separately but also for the combined mitochondrial data and the combined mitochondrial and nuclear dataset. Phylogenetic results based on cox1 and cob mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) revealed three clades strongly resolved corresponding to three different species (Trichuris navonae, Trichuris bainae, and Trichuris pardinasi) showing phylogeographic variation, but relationships among Trichuris species were poorly resolved. Phylogenetic reconstruction based on concatenated sequences had greater phylogenetic resolution for delimiting species and populations intra-specific of Trichuris than those based on partitioned genes. Thus, populations of T. bainae and T. pardinasi could be affected by geographical factors and co-divergence parasite-host.

  5. Variability of Caltha palustris L. populations in garden culture

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    Krystyna Falińska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of studies performed in the experimental garden the character of the variability of Caltha palustris L. populations is described. Individuals were bred under uniform conditions from diaspores of meadow, springwood, flood-plain forest and alder forest populations. The results obtained allow to evaluate the hypothesis concerning the ecological preference of cytotypes (S m i t 1967, 1968 and the somewhat different ecological requirements of two subspecies: C. palustris ssp. palustris and C. palustris ssp. cornuta. It was found that each population includes individuals with different cytotypes. The situation is similar as far as subspecies are concerned, distinguished on the basis of fruit morphology (Fig. 1. It should be stressed, however, that, investigations of many years duration raised serious doubts as to the diagnostic value of fruit morphology (Figs. 2, 3. On the basis of the preserved differences between the populations in shoot habitus, reproduction and phenology in garden culture, a springwood and an alder forest ecotype were distinguished. Meadow and flood-plain populations exhibited a transitional character with certain similarities both to the alder forest and to the springwood populations.

  6. Aberrante Epigynenbildungen bei der Wolfspinne Pardosa palustris (Araneae, Lycosidae

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    Martin, Dieter

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Two cases of aberrant epigyne shape in Pardosa palustris (Linnaeus, 1758 are described. Characteristic is the absence of the posterior lateral parts of the septum. Possible causes, such as `genital damage` during mating or the effects of parasite infestation, are discussed.

  7. How many species of mammals are there in Brazil? New records of rare rodents (Rodentia: Cricetidae: Sigmodontinae from Amazonia raise the current known diversity

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    Alexandre R. Percequillo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Since 1996, when Vivo questioned how many species of mammals occur in Brazil, there has been a huge effort to assess this biodiversity. In this contribution, we present new records for rare species of the sigmodontine rodent genera Rhagomys and Neusticomys previously unknown to Brazilian Amazon. We provided detailed information on the morphologic variation to allow the proper identification of these species. We also furnished updated information on their collection, aiming to establish hypothesis of their geographic distribution, based on SDM’s, aiming to hypothesize potential occurrence areas for these species. Methods Rodent specimens were sampled in separate inventories in two sites of Rondônia State (Hydroelectric Dam Jirau and Parque Nacional de Pacaás Novos and one site in Pará State (Pacajá, Brazil, and were compared to specimens from museum collections to apply appropriate names. The SDM were conducted using two algorithms for rare species, MaxEnt and randomForest (RF, and were based on seven localities for Rhagomys, and 10 for Neusticomys. Results All specimens were collected with pitfall traps. One specimen of genus Rhagomys was trapped in the Hydroelectric Dam Jirau. We identified this specimen as R. longilingua, and the SDM species indicates suitable areas for its occurrence at high elevations near on the Andes and lowlands of Amazon Basin to the South of the Rio Amazonas. Two specimens of Neusticomys were recorded, and we identified the specimen from Pacaás Novos as N. peruviensis, with SDM suggesting main areas of occurrence on Western Amazon. We applied the name N. ferreirai to the specimen from Pacajá, with SDM recovering suitable areas in Eastern Amazon. Discussion We reinforced the importance of pitfall traps on the study of Neotropical rodents. We described morphologic variation within and among all species that do not invalidate their specific status, but in the near future a re-evaluation will be mandatory. The new records extended the species distribution considerably. SDM was successful to predict their distributions, as the two algorithms presented important differences in range size recovered by the models that can be explained by differences in the thresholds used for the construction of the models. Most suitable areas coincide with the areas facing most of the deforestation in Amazon. We added two rare species of sigmodontine rodents to the list of Brazilian Mammals, which now comprises 722 species (or 775 valid nominal taxa. Although more information is available than in 1996, it is essential that mammal experts maintain inventory and revisionary programs to update and revise this information. This is even more important, as changes in Brazilian environmental legislation are being discussed, suggesting reduced need for environmental impact reports prior to beginning commercial enterprises, resulting in the loss of information about native biodiversity in the affected areas.

  8. Endogenous Life Cycle of Eimeria melanomytis (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the Dusky Rice Rat, Melanomys caliginosus (Rodentia: Cricetidae: Sigmodontinae) in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinchilla, Misael; Valerio, Idalia; Sánchez, Ronald; Duszynski, Donald W

    2017-02-01

    Endogenous stages of the life cycle of Eimeria melanomytis, infecting the peripheral epithelial cells of villi of the small intestine of experimentally infected young dusky rice rats, Melanomys caliginosus , were studied. Giemsa-stained mucosal scrapings and histological sections were examined for all the stages. Eimeria melanomytis has 3 generations of meronts (M), different in size, shape, and number of merozoites (m); and in size, shape, and location of the nuclei within the cytoplasm of the meronts. The 3 meront types, M 1 -M 3 , respectively, had 11-14 (m 1 ), 7-10 (m 2 ), and 20-30 (m 3 ) merozoites. Macrogametocytes and microgametocytes, as well as macrogametes and microgametes, complete the sexual cycle forming the unsporulated oocysts. This parasite's endogenous development produced severe intestinal lesions in experimentally infected dusky rice rats.

  9. Intense genomic reorganization in the genus Oecomys (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae): comparison between DNA barcoding and mapping of repetitive elements in three species of the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes Júnior, Renan Gabriel; Schneider, Carlos Henrique; de Lira, Thatianna; Carvalho, Natália Dayane Moura; Feldberg, Eliana; da Silva, Maria Nazareth Ferreira; Gross, Maria Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Oecomys Thomas, 1906 is one of the most diverse and widely distributed genera within the tribe Oryzomyini. At least sixteen species in this genus have been described to date, but it is believed this genus contains undescribed species. Morphological, molecular and cytogenetic study has revealed an uncertain taxonomic status for several Oecomys species, suggesting the presence of a complex of species. The present work had the goal of contributing to the genetic characterization of the genus Oecomys in the Brazilian Amazon. Thirty specimens were collected from four locations in the Brazilian Amazon and three nominal species recognized: Oecomys auyantepui (Tate, 1939), Oecomys bicolor (Tomes, 1860) and Oecomys rutilus (Anthony, 1921). COI sequence analysis grouped Oecomys auyantepui , Oecomys bicolor and Oecomys rutilus specimens into one, three and two clades, respectively, which is consistent with their geographic distribution. Cytogenetic data for Oecomys auyantepui revealed the sympatric occurrence of two different diploid numbers, 2n=64/NFa=110 and 2n=66/NFa=114, suggesting polymorphism while Oecomys bicolor exhibited 2n=80/NFa=142 and Oecomys rutilus 2n=54/NFa=90. The distribution of constitutive heterochromatin followed a species-specific pattern. Interspecific variation was evident in the chromosomal location and number of 18S rDNA loci. However, not all loci showed signs of activity. All three species displayed a similar pattern for 5S rDNA, with only one pair carrying this locus. Interstitial telomeric sites were found only in Oecomys auyantepui . The data presented in this work reinforce intra- and interspecific variations observed in the diploid number of Oecomys species and indicate that chromosomal rearrangements have led to the appearance of different diploid numbers and karyotypic formulas.

  10. Intense genomic reorganization in the genus Oecomys (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae: comparison between DNA barcoding and mapping of repetitive elements in three species of the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Gabriel Gomes Junior

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Oecomys Thomas, 1906 is one of the most diverse and widely distributed genera within the tribe Oryzomyini. At least sixteen species in this genus have been described to date, but it is believed this genus contains undescribed species. Morphological, molecular and cytogenetic study has revealed an uncertain taxonomic status for several Oecomys species, suggesting the presence of a complex of species. The present work had the goal of contributing to the genetic characterization of the genus Oecomys in the Brazilian Amazon. Thirty specimens were collected from four locations in the Brazilian Amazon and three nominal species recognized: Oecomys auyantepui (Tate, 1939, O. bicolor (Tomes, 1860 and O. rutilus (Anthony, 1921. COI sequence analysis grouped O. auyantepui, O. bicolor and O. rutilus specimens into one, three and two clades, respectively, which is consistent with their geographic distribution. Cytogenetic data for O. auyantepui revealed the sympatric occurrence of two different diploid numbers, 2n=64/NFa=110 and 2n=66/NFa=114, suggesting polymorphism while O. bicolor exhibited 2n=80/NFa=142 and O. rutilus 2n=54/NFa=90. The distribution of constitutive heterochromatin followed a species-specific pattern. Interspecific variation was evident in the chromosomal location and number of 18S rDNA loci. However, not all loci showed signs of activity. All three species displayed a similar pattern for 5S rDNA, with only one pair carrying this locus. Interstitial telomeric sites were found only in O. auyantepui. The data presented in this work reinforce intra- and interspecific variations observed in the diploid number of Oecomys species and indicate that chromosomal rearrangements have led to the appearance of different diploid numbers and karyotypic formulas.

  11. ?-Oryzanols of North American Wild Rice (Zizania palustris)

    OpenAIRE

    Aladedunye, Felix; Przybylski, Roman; Rudzinska, Magdalena; Klensporf-Pawlik, Dorota

    2013-01-01

    ?-Oryzanol, a natural mixture of ferulic acid esters of triterpene alcohols and sterols, are an important bioactive components present in rice bran oil. In light of the recent increase in the popularity of wild rice among consumers, and the possibility of a direct relationship between ?-oryzanol composition and its bioactivity, the oryzanol profile of major wild rice (Zizania palustris) grown in North America was studied and compared to regular brown rice (Oryza sativa L.). A total of twenty-...

  12. Photometabolism of Heterocyclic Aromatic Compounds by Rhodopseudomonas palustris OU 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasikala, C.; Ramana, C. V.; Rao, P. Raghuveer

    1994-01-01

    Rhodopseudomonas palustris OU 11 (ATCC 51186; DSM 7375) isolated from a pond of chemical industry effluent could anaerobically photometabolize heterocyclic aromatic compounds belonging to the pyridine and pyrazine groups only after a period of adaptation on pyrazinoic acid of 5 to 6 weeks. Growth on heterocyclic compounds was light dependent. The effects of various concentrations of heterocyclic compounds on growth suggest that higher concentrations of these compounds inhibit growth and are toxic. PMID:16349307

  13. Acclimation strategy of Rhodopseudomonas palustris to high light irradiance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzziotti, Dayana; Adessi, Alessandra; Faraloni, Cecilia; Torzillo, Giuseppe; De Philippis, Roberto

    2017-04-01

    The ability of Rhodopseudomonas palustris cells to rapidly acclimate to high light irradiance is an essential issue when cells are grown under sunlight. The aim of this study was to investigate the photo-acclimation process in Rhodopseudomonas palustris 42OL under different culturing conditions: (i) anaerobic (AnG), (ii) aerobic (AG), and (iii) under H 2 -producing (HP) conditions both at low (LL) and high light (HL) irradiances. The results obtained clearly showed that the photosynthetic unit was significantly affected by the light irradiance at which Rp. palustris 42OL was grown. The synthesis of carotenoids was affected by both illumination and culturing conditions. At LL, lycopene was the main carotenoid synthetized under all conditions tested, while at HL under HP conditions, it resulted the predominant carotenoid. Oppositely, under AnG and AG at HL, rhodovibrin was the major carotenoid detected. The increase in light intensity produced a deeper variation in light-harvesting complexes (LHC) ratio. These findings are important for understanding the ecological distribution of PNSB in natural environments, mostly characterized by high light intensities, and for its growth outdoors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. The anaerobic phototrophic metabolism of 3-chlorobenzoate by Rhodopseudomonas palustris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamal, V S

    1992-10-09

    The degradation of chlorinated aromatic compounds by anaerobic bacteria is now known to be an important mechanism of bioremediation. In an experimental study, a mixed phototrophic culture was found to metabolize 3-chlorobenzoate in the presence of benzoate following adaptation on a benzoate and 3-chlorobenzoate medium for 7 weeks. The dominant bacterial isolate was identified as Rhodopseudomonas palustris. Radioisotopic studies showed [sup 14]C-3-chlorobenzoate was converted by the isolate to [sup 14]CO[sub 2] and cell biomass in the absence of oxygen and in the presence of a cosubstrate red light. Cyclohexane carboxylate was able to replace the cosubstrate, benzoate. The isolate also metabolized 3-chlorobenzoate in the presence of pimelic acid, sodium acetate, and sodium succinate; however, the metabolic rate was reduced. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry and high pressure liquid chromatography indicated the intracellular presence of 3-chlorobenzoate and benzoyl-CoA. Cell-free extracts produced benzoate and benzoyl-CoA. A probable route of 3-chlorobenzoate metabolism via dehalogenation followed by steps similar to the benzoate reductive ring fission pathway is suggested. Comparison of kinetic coefficients showed a higher affinity of the isolate for benzoate. Isolates from representative samples of various freshwater and wastewater ecosystems indicated widespread ecological distribution of R. palustris and the common occurrence of the 3-chlorobenzoate metabolic phenotype. R. palustris was found to grow in mixed anaerobic cultures and retained its 3-chlorobenzoate degradation property. 91 refs., 25 figs., 14 tabs.

  15. Final report: 'Rhodopseudomonas palustris' genome workshop to be held in Spring of 2001; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harwood, Caroline S.

    2002-01-01

    The 'Rhodopseudomonas palustris' genome workshop took place in Iowa City on April 6-8, 2001. The purpose of the meeting was to instruct members of the annotation working group in approaches to accomplishing the 'human' phase of the 'R. palustris' genome annotation. A partial draft of a paper describing the 'Rhodopseudomonas palustris' genome has been written and a full version of the paper should be ready for submission by the end of the summer 2002

  16. A new marsh plant community of Eleocharito palustris-Alismatetum lanceolati (Eleocharito palustris-Sagittarion sagittifoliae alliance in Slovakia

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    Richard Hrivnák

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Open and species-poor stands with a dominance of Alisma lanceolatum were recorded in periodically flooded habitats of the southern part of central Slovakia (Ipeľ River catchment area during the summer of 2013. Phytosociological relevés correspond to the association Eleocharito palustris-Alismatetum lanceolati (alliance Eleocharito palustris-Sagittarion sagittifoliae, which is reported and documented here for the first time from the territory of Slovakia. It inhabits predominantly temporarily flooded depressions on agricultural land – wet arable fields and extensively used pastures. Detrended correspondence analysis showed that the variability in species composition was most significantly influenced by water depth, the presence of arable fields in the contact area and water conductivity. Special attention was paid to a detailed description of the floristic composition, habitat requirements, distribution patterns and nomenclature of the community.

  17. Muridae, Sigmodontinae

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    patterns; eight of them (Aaz1, Aaz2, Aaz3, Aaz4, Aaz5,. Aaz6, Aaz8 and Aaz11) were ... Kalendar R. 2004 Fast PCR: PCR primer design, DNA and protein tools, repeat and own ... Published on the Web: 19 May 2011. Journal of Genetics, Vol.

  18. Louisiana’s Palustris Experimental Forest: 75 years of research that transformed the South

    Science.gov (United States)

    James P. Barnett; James D. Haywood; Henry A. Pearson

    2011-01-01

    The Palustris Experimental Forest, located on Kisatchie National Forest, has been in existence for 75 years. Research at Palustris has focused on southern pine reforestation technology, including seed production, bareroot nursery production, direct seeding, and planting container seedlings. After establishing pine plantations, researchers developed stand management...

  19. Karyotype restructuring in Rodentia: from evolution to cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Sandra Louzada Gomes

    2015-01-01

    Tese de Doutoramento em Genética Molecular Comparativa e Tecnológica A ordem Rodentia representa a mais abundante e diversificada ordem de mamíferos. A análise dos cariótipos/genomas de roedores da superfamília Muroidea tem revelado a ocorrência de elevadas taxas de evolução para estas espécies, o que as torna bons modelos para o estudo da evolução de cromossomas, dos rearranjos cromossómicos e das consequências dos mesmos durante o processo tumoral. O principal objectivo desta...

  20. On the occurrence of Holochilus chacarius (Cricetidae: Sigmodontinae in Brazil, with taxonomic notes on Holochilus species

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    Marcus Vinícius Brandão

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently four species of Holochilus (Cricetidae: Sigmodontinae are recognized. According to the literature, three species are recorded for Brazil: H. sciureus, H. brasiliensis and H. chacarius. Samples from western Brazil (Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul states are usually reported as H. sciureus and, when referring to specimens from the Pantanal, as H. chacarius. However, the taxonomic status of specimens from this region has not been properly evaluated through detailed morphological analyses or voucher specimens. About 110 specimens of Holochilus deposited in Brazilian collections were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed (univariate and multivariate tests. Our results suggested the existence of three species (H. sciureus, H. brasiliensis and H. chacarius in Brazil, which present significant morphological and morphometric differences, thus confirming that the Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul samples, formerly misidentified as H. sciureus, belong to H. chacarius. This species differs from H. sciureus and H. brasiliensis by a series of pelage and skull characters, such as: the coloration of pelage, light orange-brown in the dorsum, light orangish in the flanks and white in the venter; ridges of the masseteric crest confluent at the level (or slightly above of the mental foramen and at the anterior part of m1, alternated main molar cusps, lophids compressed and with acute outer margins (rarely prismatic, anteromedian fossetid labially displaced and subcircular (small to medium, metaflexid less developed (frequently not reaching the midline of the tooth, proto and hipoconid subrectangular in outline and transversely orientated, mesoflexid transversely orientated and mesoloph absent. The updated geographic distribution of Holochilus in Brazil shows that H. sciureus is present in the northern portion of the country, being the only species present at the Amazon and at the Caatinga and with limit in the Cerrado biome at the center of Goi

  1. Phenomenon in the Evolution of Voles (Mammalia, Rodentia, Arvicolidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rekovets L. I.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents analytical results of the study of adaptatiogenesis within the family Arvicolidae (Mammalia, Rodentia based of morphological changes of the most functional characters of their masticatory apparatus — dental system — through time. The main directions of the morphological differentiation in parallel evolution of the arvicolid tooth type within the Cricetidae and Arvicolidae during late Miocene and Pliocene were identified and substantiated. It is shown that such unique morphological structure as the arvicolid tooth type has provided a relatively high rate of evolution of voles and a wide range of their adaptive radiation, as well as has determined their taxonomic and ecological diversity. The optimality of the current state of this group and evaluation of evolutionary prospects of Arvicolidae were presented and substantiated here as a phenomenon in their evolution.

  2. Acquisition of the ability for Rhodopseudomonas palustris to degrade chlorinated benzoic acids as the sole carbon source

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oda, Y; de Vries, YP; Forney, LJ; Gottschal, JC

    2001-01-01

    Three strains of Rhodopseudomonas palustris were isolated from phototrophic enrichment cultures containing 3-chlorobenzoate (3-CBA) and benzoate (BA). These new strains as well as several previously described strains of R. palustris were tested in this study and shown to degrade 3-CBA if grown in

  3. Late Cenozoic History of the Genus Micromys (Mammalia, Rodentia) in Central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horáček, I.; Knitlová, M.; Wagner, Jan; Kordos, L.; Nadachowski, A.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 5 (2013), e62498 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/0184 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Mammalia * Rodentia * Genus Micromys * Late Cenozoic Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 3.534, year: 2013

  4. Mortalidade em florestas de Pinus palustris causada por tempestade de raios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth W. Outcalt; Jorge Paladino Corrêa de Lima; Jose Américo de Mello Filho

    2002-01-01

    The importance of lightning as an ignition source for the fire driven Pinus palustris ecosystem is widely recognized. Lightning also impacts this system on a smaller scale by causing individual tree mortality. The objective of this study was to determine the level of mortality due to lightning activity at the Department of Energy's Savannah...

  5. Population Genetic Structure of Cochliobolus miyabeanus on Cultivated Wild Rice (Zizania palustris L.) in Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochliobolus miyabeanus (Bipolaris oryzae) is the causal agent of fungal brown spot (FBS) in wild rice (Zizania palustris L.), an aquatic grass, endemic in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and parts of Canada. Grain yield losses can reach up to 74% when the disease starts at the boot stage and continues until ...

  6. Forest floor depth mediates understory vigor in xeric Pinus palustris ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Kevin Hiers; Joseph J. O' Brien; Rodney E. Will; Robert J. Mitchell

    2007-01-01

    Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) woodlands and savannas are among the most frequently burned ecosystems in the world with fire return intervals of 1–10 years. This fire regime has maintained high levels of biodiversity in terms of both species richness and endemism. Land use changes have reduced the area of this ecosystem by .95%, and inadequate fire...

  7. Assessing longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) restoration after southern pine beetle kill using a compact experimental design

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.-P. Berrill; C.M. Dagley

    2010-01-01

    A compact experimental design and analysis is presented of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) survival and growth in a restoration project in the Piedmont region of Georgia, USA. Longleaf pine seedlings were planted after salvage logging and broadcast burning in areas of catastrophic southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis) attacks on even-aged mixed pine-hardwood...

  8. Nursery response of container Pinus palustris seedlings to nitrogen supply and subsequent effects on outplanting performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Paul Jackson; R. Kasten Dumroese; James P. Barnett

    2012-01-01

    Container longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) seedlings often survive and grow better after outplanting than bareroot seedlings. Because of this, most longleaf pine are now produced in containers. Little is known about nursery fertilization effects on the quality of container longleaf pine seedlings and how that influences outplanting performance. We compared various...

  9. A Transitional Gundi (Rodentia: Ctenodactylidae from the Miocene of Israel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel López-Antoñanzas

    Full Text Available We describe a new species of gundi (Rodentia: Ctenodactylidae: Ctenodactylinae, Sayimys negevensis, on the basis of cheek teeth from the Early Miocene of the Rotem Basin, southern Israel. The Rotem ctenodactylid differs from all known ctenodactylid species, including Sayimys intermedius, which was first described from the Middle Miocene of Saudi Arabia. Instead, it most resembles Sayimys baskini from the Early Miocene of Pakistan in characters of the m1-2 (e.g., the mesoflexid shorter than the metaflexid, the obliquely orientated hypolophid, and the presence of a strong posterolabial ledge and the upper molars (e.g., the paraflexus that is longer than the metaflexus. However, morphological (e.g., presence of a well-developed paraflexus on unworn upper molars and dimensional (regarding, in particular, the DP4 and M1 or M2 differences between the Rotem gundi and Sayimys baskini distinguish them and testify to the novelty and endemicity of the former. In its dental morphology, Sayimys negevensis sp. nov. shows a combination of both the ultimate apparition of key-characters and incipient features that would be maintained and strengthened in latter ctenodactylines. Thus, it is a pivotal species that bridges the gap between an array of primitive ctenodactylines and the most derived, Early Miocene and later, gundis.

  10. Revealing the functions of the transketolase enzyme isoforms in Rhodopseudomonas palustris using a systems biology approach.

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    Chia-Wei Hu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rhodopseudomonas palustris (R. palustris is a purple non-sulfur anoxygenic phototrophic bacterium that belongs to the class of proteobacteria. It is capable of absorbing atmospheric carbon dioxide and converting it to biomass via the process of photosynthesis and the Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB cycle. Transketolase is a key enzyme involved in the CBB cycle. Here, we reveal the functions of transketolase isoforms I and II in R. palustris using a systems biology approach. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By measuring growth ability, we found that transketolase could enhance the autotrophic growth and biomass production of R. palustris. Microarray and real-time quantitative PCR revealed that transketolase isoforms I and II were involved in different carbon metabolic pathways. In addition, immunogold staining demonstrated that the two transketolase isoforms had different spatial localizations: transketolase I was primarily associated with the intracytoplasmic membrane (ICM but transketolase II was mostly distributed in the cytoplasm. Comparative proteomic analysis and network construction of transketolase over-expression and negative control (NC strains revealed that protein folding, transcriptional regulation, amino acid transport and CBB cycle-associated carbon metabolism were enriched in the transketolase I over-expressed strain. In contrast, ATP synthesis, carbohydrate transport, glycolysis-associated carbon metabolism and CBB cycle-associated carbon metabolism were enriched in the transketolase II over-expressed strain. Furthermore, ATP synthesis assays showed a significant increase in ATP synthesis in the transketolase II over-expressed strain. A PEPCK activity assay showed that PEPCK activity was higher in transketolase over-expressed strains than in the negative control strain. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together, our results indicate that the two isoforms of transketolase in R. palustris could affect photoautotrophic growth

  11. Similarity of satellite DNA properties in the order Rodentia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazrimas, J A; Hatch, F T

    1977-09-01

    We have characterized satellite DNAs from 9 species of kangaroo rat (Dipodomys) and have shown that the HS-..cap alpha.. and HS-..beta.. satellites, where present, are nearly identical in all species as to melting transition midpoint (Tm), and density in neutral CsCl, alkaline CsCl, and Cs/sub 2/SO/sub 4/-Ag/sup +/ gradients. However, the MS satellites exist in two internally similar classes. The satellite DNAs from three other rodents were characterized (densities listed are in neutral CsCl). The pocket gopher, Thomomys bottae, contains Th-..cap alpha.. (1.713 g/ml) and Th-..beta.. (1.703 g/ml). The guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) contains Ca-..cap alpha.., Ca-..beta.., and Ca-..gamma.. at densities of 1.706 g/ml, 1.704 g/ml, and 1.704 g/ml, respectively. The antelope ground squirrel (Ammospermophilus harrisi) contains Am-..cap alpha.., 1.708 g/ml, Am-..beta.., 1.717 g/ml, and Am-..gamma.., 1.707 g/ml. The physical and chemical properties of the alpha-satellites from the above four rodents representing four different families in two suborders of Rodentia were compared. They show nearly identical Tm, nucleoside composition of single strands, and single strand densities in alkaline CsCl. Similar comparisons on the second or third satellite DNAs from these rodents also indicate a close relationship to each other. Thus the high degree of similarity of satellite sequences found in such a diverse group of rodents suggests a cellular function that is subject to natural selection, and implies that these sequences have been conserved over a considerable span of evolutionary time since the divergence of these rodents about 50 million years ago.

  12. Similarity of satellite DNA properties in the order Rodentia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazrimas, J A; Hatch, F T

    1977-09-01

    Satellite DNAs from 9 species of kangaroo rat (Dipodomys) have been characterized and have shown that the HS-..cap alpha.. and HS-..beta.. satellites, where present, are nearly identical in all species as to melting transition midpoint (Tm), and density in neutral CsCl, alkaline CsCl, and Cs/sub 2/SO/sub 4/-Ag/sup +/ gradients. However, the MS satellites exist in two internally similar classes. The satellite DNAs from three other rodents were characterized (densities listed are in neutral CsCl). The pocket gopher, Thomomys bottae, contains Th-..cap alpha.. (1.713 g/ml) and Th..beta.. (1.703 g/ml). The guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) contains Ca-..cap alpha.., Ca-..beta.. and Ca-..gamma.. at densities of 1.706 g/ml, 1.704 g/ml and 1.704 g/ml, respectively. The antelope ground squirrel (Ammospermophilus harrisi) contains Am-..cap alpha.., 1.708 g/ml, Am-..beta.., 1.717 g/ml, and Am-..gamma.., 1.707 g/ml. The physical and chemical properties of the alpha-satellites from the above four rodents representing four different families in two suborders of Rodentia were compared. They show nearly identical Tm, nucleoside composition of single strands, and single strand densities in alkaline CsCl. Similar comparisons on the second or third satellite DNAs from these rodents also indicate a close relationship to each other. Thus the high degree of similarity of satellite sequences found in such a diverse group of rodents suggests a cellular function that is subject to natural selection, and implies that these sequences have been conserved over a considerable span of evolutionary time since the divergence of these rodents about 50 million years ago.

  13. Experimental evidence and ecological perspectives for the adaptation of Schistosoma mansoni Sambon, 1907 (Digenea: Schistosomatidae to a wild host, the water-rat, Nectomys squamipes Brants, 1827 (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae

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    Paulo Sérgio D'Andrea

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to the semi aquatic habits and the overlap of the geographical distribution of the water-rat, Nectomys spp., with schistosomiasis endemic areas, these wild rodents are very likely to acquire Schistosoma mansoni infection in their daily activities. The role of the water-rat in the S. mansoni cycle would be substantiated if one could prove that these rodents acquire the parasite during their own activity time, a completely independent time schedule of human activities. To pursue this goal, we performed two field experiments in the municipality of Sumidouro, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, a schistosomiasis endemic area where N. squamipes is found naturally infected. One experiment was devised as a series of observations of activity time of the water-rat. The other experiment was a test of the occurrence of late transmission of S. mansoni to the water-rat. The daily activity pattern showed that the water-rat is active chiefly just after sunset. At both diurnal and late exposition essays the water-rat sentinels got infected by S. mansoni. These findings clarify ecological and behavioral components necessary to the adaptation of S. mansoni to the water-rat as a non human definitive host and the existence of a transmission cycle involving this animals as a reservoir.

  14. A new species of Eimeria Schneider, 1875 from the Serra dos Órgãos National Park, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, with notes on its endogenous development in the montane grass mouse, Akodon montensis Thomas, 1913 (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Santana Miglionico, Marcos Tobias; Viana, Lúcio André; Barbosa, Helene Santos; Mota, Ester Maria; da Costa Neto, Sócrates Fraga; Frazão-Teixeira, Edwards; D'Andrea, Paulo Sergio

    2018-02-01

    A total of 53 specimens of the montane grass mouse, Akodon montensis Thomas, 1913 were collected in the Serra dos Órgãos National Park (SONP) in November 2014 and July 2015. The fecal material was analyzed, and a prevalence of 7.5% was recorded for a new coccidian species of the genus Eimeria Schneider, 1875, with part of its endogenous development recorded in the small intestine. The oocysts of a new coccidian species of genus Eimeria are ellipsoidal to subspherical. The wall is bi-layered, c. 1.5 μm (1.3-1.6 μm) thick, outer layer rough. Oocyst (n = 126) mean length is 25.3 μm (21.0-28.0 μm), with a width of 20.2 μm (17.0-22.0 μm) and mean length/width (L:W) ratio of 1.3 (1.2-1.4). Polar granule is present, with the oocyst residuum as a large spherical to subspherical globule. Sporocyst shape (n = 126) is ellipsoidal, with a mean length of 11.8 μm (9.3-14.4 μm), width of 7.9 μm (6.7-9.3 μm), and mean L:W ratio of 1.5 (1.4-1.7). Sporocysts with nipple-like Stieda body and sub-Stieda body are absent. A sporocyst residuum formed by several globules, usually along the sporocyst wall. This is the first record of Eimeria in the montane grass mouse from Brazil.

  15. Sequence Analysis of the Cryptic Plasmid pMG101 from Rhodopseudomonas palustris and Construction of Stable Cloning Vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inui, Masayuki; Roh, Jung Hyeob; Zahn, Kenneth; Yukawa, Hideaki

    2000-01-01

    A 15-kb cryptic plasmid was obtained from a natural isolate of Rhodopseudomonas palustris. The plasmid, designated pMG101, was able to replicate in R. palustris and in closely related strains of Bradyrhizobium japonicum and phototrophic Bradyrhizobium species. However, it was unable to replicate in the purple nonsulfur bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides and in Rhizobium species. The replication region of pMG101 was localized to a 3.0-kb SalI-XhoI fragment, and this fragment was stably maintained in R. palustris for over 100 generations in the absence of selection. The complete nucleotide sequence of this fragment revealed two open reading frames (ORFs), ORF1 and ORF2. The deduced amino acid sequence of ORF1 is similar to sequences of Par proteins, which mediate plasmid stability from certain plasmids, while ORF2 was identified as a putative rep gene, coding for an initiator of plasmid replication, based on homology with the Rep proteins of several other plasmids. The function of these sequences was studied by deletion mapping and gene disruptions of ORF1 and ORF2. pMG101-based Escherichia coli-R. palustris shuttle cloning vectors pMG103 and pMG105 were constructed and were stably maintained in R. palustris growing under nonselective conditions. The ability of plasmid pMG101 to replicate in R. palustris and its close phylogenetic relatives should enable broad application of these vectors within this group of α-proteobacteria. PMID:10618203

  16. Cholinesterase inhibitory activity and chemical constituents of Stenochlaena palustris fronds at two different stages of maturity

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    Nelson Jeng-Yeou Chear

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Stenochlaena palustris fronds are popular as a vegetable in Southeast Asia. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the anticholinesterase properties and phytochemical profiles of the young and mature fronds of this plant. Both types of fronds were found to have selective inhibitory effect against butyrylcholinesterase compared with acetylcholinesterase. However, different sets of compounds were responsible for their activity. In young fronds, an antibutyrylcholinesterase effect was observed in the hexane extract, which was comprised of a variety of aliphatic hydrocarbons, fatty acids, and phytosterols. In the mature fronds, inhibitory activity was observed in the methanol extract, which contained a series of kaempferol glycosides. Our results provided novel information concerning the ability of S. palustris to inhibit cholinesterase and its phytochemical profile. Further research to investigate the potential use of this plant against Alzheimer's disease is warranted, however, young and mature fronds should be distinguished due to their phytochemical differences.

  17. The role of oxalic acid in tolerance to N’N-napthaloylhydroxylamine in Tyromyces palustris

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.A. Arango; C.A. Clausen; Frederick Green

    2006-01-01

    Certain wood decay fungi exhibit tolerance to one or more wood preservatives. Copper tolerance of brown-rot fungi has been studied in our laboratory for the past six years. We have observed some degree of tolerance to N’N-naphthaloylhydroxamine (NHA), a recently patented termite bait, by the brown-rot fungus Tyromyces palustris TYP-6137. In an effort to try and confirm...

  18. Effects of metal ions on biomass and 5-aminolevulinic acid production in Rhodopseudomonas palustris wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuli; Zhang, Guangming; Li, Jianzheng; Li, Xiangkun; Zhang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    This work investigated the effects of eight metal ions on Rhodopseudomonas palustris growth and 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) yield in wastewater treatment. Results show that metal ions (Mg(2+) of 15 mmol/L, Fe(2+) of 400 μmol/L, Co(2+) of 4 μmol/L, Ni(2+) of 8 μmol/L and Zn(2+) of 4 μmol/L) could effectively improve the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal, Rp. palustris biomass and ALA yield. The highest ALA yield of 13.1 mg/g-biomass was achieved with Fe(2+) of 400 μmol/L. ALA yields were differentially increased under different metal ions in the following order: Fe(2+) group > Mg(2+) group > Co(2+) group = Ni(2+) group > Zn(2+) group = Mo(2+) group > control. Cu(2+) and Mn(2+) inhibited Rp. palustris growth and ALA production. Mechanism analysis revealed that metal ions changed ALA yields by influencing the activities of ALA synthetase and ALA dehydratase.

  19. Development of antioxidative effect in ice cream with Kalakai (Stenochlaena palustris) water extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadhiwaluyo, Kristania; Rahmawati, Della; Gunawan Puteri, Maria D. P. T.

    2017-11-01

    Kalakai (Stenochlaena. palustris) extract was used to develop the ice cream. The antioxidant activity of the extracts and its stability over process and storage were evaluated through various antioxidant assay including DPPH assay, Folin-Ciocalteau assay and aluminum chloride colorimetric method. In general, the leaves of S. palustris had a significantly higher antioxidant activity (p ice cream without affecting the sensory properties of the ice cream. In addition, the high phenolic and flavonoid content also suggest the more compounds that were capable to act as an antioxidant. The result of the stability test also suggested the ability low temperature storage and processing in maintaining the stability of the antioxidant activity of the extract (p > 0.05) over processing and storage. Thus, this strengthen the feasibility of S. palustris to be used as a potential functional food ingredient that is low cost and easily accessible with an antioxidant activity and safe iron content that is beneficial to increase the quality of food produced including in ice cream.

  20. High-throughput transcriptome sequencing analysis provides preliminary insights into the biotransformation mechanism of Rhodopseudomonas palustris treated with alpha-rhamnetin-3-rhamnoside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Lei; Guan, Chun-jie; Yang, Guan-e; Yang, Fei; Yan, Hong-yu; Li, Qing-shan

    2016-04-01

    The purple photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris has been widely applied to enhance the therapeutic effects of traditional Chinese medicine using novel biotransformation technology. However, comprehensive studies of the R. palustris biotransformation mechanism are rare. Therefore, investigation of the expression patterns of genes involved in metabolic pathways that are active during the biotransformation process is essential to elucidate this complicated mechanism. To promote further study of the biotransformation of R. palustris, we assembled all R. palustris transcripts using Trinity software and performed differential expression analysis of the resulting unigenes. A total of 9725, 7341 and 10,963 unigenes were obtained by assembling the alpha-rhamnetin-3-rhamnoside-treated R. palustris (RPB) reads, control R. palustris (RPS) reads and combined RPB&RPS reads, respectively. A total of 9971 unigenes assembled from the RPB&RPS reads were mapped to the nr, nt, Swiss-Prot, Gene Ontology (GO), Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COGs) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) (E-value biotransformation in R. palustris. Furthermore, we propose two putative ARR biotransformation mechanisms in R. palustris. These analytical results represent a useful genomic resource for in-depth research into the molecular basis of biotransformation and genetic modification in R. palustris. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Muscle senescence in short-lived wild mammals, the soricine shrews Blarina brevicauda and Sorex palustris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, Allyson G; Lawler, John M; Campbell, Kevin L; Horning, Markus

    2009-06-01

    Red-toothed (soricine) shrews are consummate predators exhibiting the highest energy turnovers and shortest life spans (ca. 18 months) of any mammal, yet virtually nothing is known regarding their physiological aging. We assessed the emerging pattern of skeletal muscle senescence (contractile/connective tissue components) in sympatric species, the semi-aquatic water shrew (WS), Sorex palustris, and the terrestrial short-tailed shrew (STS), Blarina brevicauda, to determine if muscle aging occurs in wild, short-lived mammals (H(0): shrews do not survive to an age where senescence occurs), and if so, whether these alterations are species-specific. Gracilis muscles were collected from first-year (n=17) and second-year (n=17) field-caught shrews. Consistent with typical mammalian aging, collagen content (% area) increased with age in both species (S. palustris: approximately 50%; B. brevicauda: approximately 60%). Muscle was dominated by stiffer Type I collagen, and the ratio of collagen Type I:Type III more than doubled with age. The area ratio of muscle:collagen decreased with age in both species, but was considerably lower in adult STS, suggesting species-specificity of senescence. Extracellular space was age-elevated in B. brevicauda, but was preserved in S. palustris ( approximately 50 vs. 10% elevation). Though juvenile interspecific comparisons revealed no significance, adult WS myocytes had 68% larger cross-sectional area and occurred at 28% lower fibers/area than those of adult STS. We demonstrate that age-related muscle senescence does occur in wild-caught, short-lived mammals, and we therefore reject this classic aging theory tenet. Our findings moreover illustrate that differential age adjustments in contractile/connective tissue components of muscle occur in the two species of wild-caught shrews. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Muscle Senescence in Short-Lived Wild Mammals, the Soricine Shrews Blarina brevicauda and Sorex palustris

    Science.gov (United States)

    HINDLE, ALLYSON G.; LAWLER, JOHN M.; CAMPBELL, KEVIN L.; HORNING, MARKUS

    2015-01-01

    Red-toothed (soricine) shrews are consummate predators exhibiting the highest energy turnovers and shortest life spans (ca. 18 months) of any mammal, yet virtually nothing is known regarding their physiological aging. We assessed the emerging pattern of skeletal muscle senescence (contractile/connective tissue components) in sympatric species, the semi-aquatic water shrew (WS), Sorex palustris, and the terrestrial short-tailed shrew (STS), Blarina brevicauda, to determine if muscle aging occurs in wild, short-lived mammals (H0: shrews do not survive to an age where senescence occurs), and if so, whether these alterations are species-specific. Gracilis muscles were collected from first-year (n = 17) and second-year (n = 17) field-caught shrews. Consistent with typical mammalian aging, collagen content (% area) increased with age in both species (S. palustris: ~50%; B. brevicauda: ~60%). Muscle was dominated by stiffer Type I collagen, and the ratio of collagen Type I:Type III more than doubled with age. The area ratio of muscle:collagen decreased with age in both species, but was considerably lower in adult STS, suggesting species-specificity of senescence. Extracellular space was age-elevated in B. brevicauda, but was preserved in S. palustris (~50 vs. 10% elevation). Though juvenile interspecific comparisons revealed no significance, adult WS myocytes had 68% larger cross-sectional area and occurred at 28% lower fibers/area than those of adult STS. We demonstrate that age-related muscle senescence does occur in wild-caught, short-lived mammals, and we therefore reject this classic aging theory tenet. Our findings moreover illustrate that differential age adjustments in contractile/connective tissue components of muscle occur in the two species of wild-caught shrews. PMID:19296507

  3. Endemic Marsh Mongoose Herpestes palustris (Carnivora: Herpestidae of East Kolkata Wetlands, India: a status report

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    J.K. Mallick

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Marsh Mongoose Herpestes palustris is the only extant endemic mammal of the East Kolkata wetlands, which has been declared a RAMSAR site in 2002. Since its first description by the scientists of the Zoological Survey of India, the population of this species has dwindled to an alarming state due to reclamation of the Salt Lake City and Rajarhat expansion, as well as from other anthropogenic causes. Recently, during a field survey only a small population of this endangered mongoose was found in a single location. Immediate conservation measures are required to be taken by the concerned authorities to stop its probable extinction in the near future.

  4. The potential of Thelypteris palustris and Asparagus sprengeri in phytoremediation of arsenic contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, LaShunda L; Walsh, Maud; Roy, Amitava; Bianchetti, Christopher M; Merchan, Gregory

    2011-02-01

    The potential of two plants, Thelypteris palustris (marsh fern) and Asparagus sprengeri (asparagus fern), for phytoremediation of arsenic contamination was evaluated. The plants were chosen for this study because of the discovery of the arsenic hyperaccumulating fern, Pteris vittata (Ma et al., 2001) and previous research indicating asparagus fern's ability to tolerate > 1200 ppm soil arsenic. Objectives were (1) to assess if selected plants are arsenic hyperaccumulators; and (2) to assess changes in the species of arsenic upon accumulation in selected plants. Greenhouse hydroponic experiments arsenic treatment levels were established by adding potassium arsenate to solution. All plants were placed into the hydroponic experiments while still potted in their growth media. Marsh fern and Asparagus fern can both accumulate arsenic. Marsh fern bioaccumulation factors (> 10) are in the range of known hyperaccumulator, Pteris vittata Therefore, Thelypteris palustris is may be a good candidate for remediation of arsenic soil contamination levels of arsenic. Total oxidation of As (III) to As (V) does not occur in asparagus fern. The asparagus fern is arsenic tolerant (bioaccumulation factors phytoremediation candidate.

  5. Ethylene regulates fast apoplastic acidification and expansin A transcription during submergence-induced petiole elongation in Rumex palustris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreeburg, RAM; Benschop, JJ; Peeters, AJM; Colmer, TD; Ammerlaan, AHM; Staal, M; Elzenga, TM; Staals, RHJ; Darley, CP; McQueen-Mason, SJ; Voesenek, LACJ

    The semi-aquatic dicot Rumex palustris responds to complete submergence by enhanced elongation of young petioles. This elongation of petiole cells brings leaf blades above the water surface, thus reinstating gas exchange with the atmosphere and increasing survival in flood-prone environments. We

  6. Modeling silviculture after natural disturbance to sustain biodiversity in the longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) ecosystem : balancing complexity and implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian J. Palik; Robert J. Mitchell; J. Kevin Hiers

    2002-01-01

    Modeling silviculture after natural disturbance to maintain biodiversity is a popular concept, yet its application remains elusive. We discuss difficulties inherent to this idea, and suggest approaches to facilitate implementation, using longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) as an example. Natural disturbance regimes are spatially and temporally variable. Variability...

  7. Influence of residual basal area on longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) first year germination and establishment under selection silviculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferhat Kara; Edward F. Loewenstein

    2015-01-01

    Even-aged silvicultural methods have been successfully used to manage longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) forests for wood production; however, successful use of uneven-aged methods to manage this ecosystem is less well documented. In this study, the effects of varying levels of residual basal area (RBA) (9.2, 13.8, and 18.4 m2...

  8. Phytodesalinization potential of Typha angustifolia, Juncus maritimus, and Eleocharis palustris for removal of de-icing salts from runoff water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guesdon, Gaëlle; de Santiago-Martín, Ana; Galvez-Cloutier, Rosa

    2016-10-01

    Typha angustifolia, Juncus maritimus, and Eleocharis palustris were evaluated for de-icing salt removal from runoff water. Plants were exposed to a range of de-icing salt levels (0.2, 0.7, 4, 8, and 13 dS m(-1)) in laboratory-scale subsurface constructed wetlands (CWs) for 2 months under greenhouse conditions. Effluent characteristics, plant height, biomass, and Cl and Na removal rates and uptake were monitored. More water volume was retained in CWs of T. angustifolia (∼60 %) than of J. maritimus and E. palustris (∼37.5 %), which accounted for the electrical conductivity increase in effluents (1.3-1.9-fold). Based on the NaCl removal rate, T. angustifolia showed the greatest phytodesalinization ability (31-60 %) with the highest removal at the lowest salt levels (0.2-0.7 dS m(-1)), followed by J. maritimus (22-36 %) without differences in removal among levels, and E. palustris (3-26 %) presenting a removal rate highly decreased with increasing salt levels. Plant height and biomass were stimulated at low de-icing salt levels, but, at higher levels, T. angustifolia and E. palustris growth was inhibited (tolerance index ∼67 and 10 %, respectively, in the worst cases). Salt amounts in aboveground biomass in g m(-2) differed among levels and ranged as follows: 13.6-29.1 (Cl), 4.2-9.3 (Na; T. angustifolia); 7.0-12.0 (Cl), 2.7-6.4 (Na; J. maritimus); and 0.9-7.6 (Cl), 0.3-1.6 (Na; E. palustris). Chloride and Na translocation decreased with de-icing salt increase in T. angustifolia, while no significant differences were found in J. maritimus, which is interesting for harvesting purposes.

  9. Experiments on accumulation of phosphorus in the plants Myosotis palustris, Glyceria maxima and Nasturtium officinale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Prokopchuk

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The problem of availability of quality water is highly relevant today, so the technologies of prediction and prevention of water pollution and purification are very important. Biological methods of cleaning, in paticular cleaning water by the so-called method of biosorption, have been increasingly used in the last decade. This method means the removal of dangerous substances and improvement of water condition by using aquatic organisms, in particular plants. Therefore, in view of the rich experience of research conducted in the biosorption sphere, we decided to predict the effectiveness of this method by using the cumulative ability of higher water plants to absorb phosphorus compounds. For this purpose, we selected water and plant samples (Glyceria maxima (C. Hartm. Holmb., Nasturtium officinale R. Br., Myosotis palustris (L. L. from the river Seret (Ternopil, Ukraine. The plants were placed into sterilized glass jars filled with 3 liters of water from the river Seret (control samples and still tap water with addition of sodium phosphate with phosphorus concentration of 3.5 mg/dm³ (research sample, which were cultured in laboratory conditions for four months. We determined the content of phosphates, permanganate and dichromate oxidation in the water and the total content of phosphorus in the plants. We traced the dynamic of organic substances and the content of phosphates in the water, the accumulation of phosphorus in plants and the rate of accumulation of phosphorus in the plants and in the water. We calculated correlation coefficients to detect the dependence between phosphorus indicators in the aquatic plants and the concentration of phosphate ions in the water. We found that M. palustris had the greatest capacity to accumulate phosphorus and the highest rate of phosphorus accumulation from water, which allows us to consider it the most effective aquatic plant for absorption of elements and decreasing water pollution. We also established

  10. Reproductive system abnormalities in Schistosoma mansoni adult worms isolated from Nectomys squamipes (Muridae: Sigmodontinae: brightfield and confocal laser scanning microscopy analysis

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    Neves Renata Heisler

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Schistosoma mansoni adult worms with genital anomalies isolated from Nectomys squamipes (Muridae: Sigmodontinae were studied by confocal laser scanning microscopy under the reflected mode. One male without testicular lobes (testicular agenesia/anorchism and two females, one with an atrophied ovary and another with 17 uterine eggs, were identified. The absence of testicular lobes occurred in a worm presenting otherwise normal male adult characteristics: tegument, tubercles and a gynaecophoric canal with spines. In both female specimens the digestive tube showed a vacuolated appearance, and the specimen with supernumerary uterine eggs exhibited a developing miracidium and an egg with a formed shell. The area of the ventral sucker was similar in both specimens however the tegument thickness, ovary and vitelline glands of the specimen with the atrophied ovary were smaller than those of the one with supernumerary eggs. These reported anomalies in the reproductive system call attention to the need to improve our understanding of genetic regulation and the possible role of environmental influences upon trematode development.

  11. Current status of Marsh Crocodiles Crocodylus palustris (Reptilia: Crocodylidae in Vishwamitri River, Vadodara City, Gujarat, India

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    R. Vyas

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Data presented here is based on a three year study (2008-2010 on a population of Mugger Crocodylus palustris inhabiting Vishwamitri River near Vadodara City, Gujarat State, India. In total, 155 Muggers were counted in the 25km river stretch during 2010. In all, 40 burrows were observed along the river bank, and the same were clumped in certain sections of the river. Muggers fed eight species of birds, and domestic livestock in addition to scavenging. Eight instances of human-crocodile conflicts were observed including four human causalities. A total 90 Muggers were rescued from the urban areas and the same were relocated elsewhere in the river system. Various types of threats to Mugger were also noticed including habitat loss, alteration and soil erosion and mortality due to rail traffic. The present study suggests further research to propose strategies to conserve this population.

  12. Uranium interaction with two multi-resistant environmental bacteria: Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34 and Rhodopseudomonas palustris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorens, Isabelle; Untereiner, Guillaume; Jaillard, Danielle; Gouget, Barbara; Chapon, Virginie; Carriere, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Depending on speciation, U environmental contamination may be spread through the environment or inversely restrained to a limited area. Induction of U precipitation via biogenic or non-biogenic processes would reduce the dissemination of U contamination. To this aim U oxidation/reduction processes triggered by bacteria are presently intensively studied. Using X-ray absorption analysis, we describe in the present article the ability of Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34 and Rhodopseudomonas palustris, highly resistant to a variety of metals and metalloids or to organic pollutants, to withstand high concentrations of U and to immobilize it either through biosorption or through reduction to non-uraninite U(IV)-phosphate or U(IV)-carboxylate compounds. These bacterial strains are thus good candidates for U bioremediation strategies, particularly in the context of multi-pollutant or mixed-waste contaminations.

  13. Uranium Interaction with Two Multi-Resistant Environmental Bacteria: Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34 and Rhodopseudomonas palustris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorens, Isabelle; Untereiner, Guillaume; Jaillard, Danielle; Gouget, Barbara; Chapon, Virginie; Carriere, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Depending on speciation, U environmental contamination may be spread through the environment or inversely restrained to a limited area. Induction of U precipitation via biogenic or non-biogenic processes would reduce the dissemination of U contamination. To this aim U oxidation/reduction processes triggered by bacteria are presently intensively studied. Using X-ray absorption analysis, we describe in the present article the ability of Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34 and Rhodopseudomonas palustris, highly resistant to a variety of metals and metalloids or to organic pollutants, to withstand high concentrations of U and to immobilize it either through biosorption or through reduction to non-uraninite U(IV)-phosphate or U(IV)-carboxylate compounds. These bacterial strains are thus good candidates for U bioremediation strategies, particularly in the context of multi-pollutant or mixed-waste contaminations. PMID:23251623

  14. How Posttranslational Modification of Nitrogenase Is Circumvented in Rhodopseudomonas palustris Strains That Produce Hydrogen Gas Constitutively

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiniger, Erin K.; Oda, Yasuhiro; Samanta, Sudip K.

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogenase catalyzes the conversion of dinitrogen gas (N2) and protons to ammonia and hydrogen gas (H2). This is a catalytically difficult reaction that requires large amounts of ATP and reducing power. Thus, nitrogenase is not normally expressed or active in bacteria grown with a readily utilized nitrogen source like ammonium. nifA* mutants of the purple nonsulfur phototrophic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris have been described that express nitrogenase genes constitutively and produce H2 when grown with ammonium as a nitrogen source. This raised the regulatory paradox of why these mutants are apparently resistant to a known posttranslational modification system that should switch off the activity of nitrogenase. Microarray, mutation analysis, and gene expression studies showed that posttranslational regulation of nitrogenase activity in R. palustris depends on two proteins: DraT2, an ADP-ribosyltransferase, and GlnK2, an NtrC-regulated PII protein. GlnK2 was not well expressed in ammonium-grown NifA* cells and thus not available to activate the DraT2 nitrogenase modification enzyme. In addition, the NifA* strain had elevated nitrogenase activity due to overexpression of the nif genes, and this increased amount of expression overwhelmed a basal level of activity of DraT2 in ammonium-grown cells. Thus, insufficient levels of both GlnK2 and DraT2 allow H2 production by an nifA* mutant grown with ammonium. Inactivation of the nitrogenase posttranslational modification system by mutation of draT2 resulted in increased H2 production by ammonium-grown NifA* cells. PMID:22179236

  15. Two Distinct Aerobic Methionine Salvage Pathways Generate Volatile Methanethiol in Rhodopseudomonas palustris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Anthony R.; North, Justin A.; Wildenthal, John A.

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT 5′-Methyl-thioadenosine (MTA) is a dead-end, sulfur-containing metabolite and cellular inhibitor that arises from S-adenosyl-l-methionine-dependent reactions. Recent studies have indicated that there are diverse bacterial methionine salvage pathways (MSPs) for MTA detoxification and sulfur salvage. Here, via a combination of gene deletions and directed metabolite detection studies, we report that under aerobic conditions the facultatively anaerobic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris employs both an MTA-isoprenoid shunt identical to that previously described in Rhodospirillum rubrum and a second novel MSP, both of which generate a methanethiol intermediate. The additional R. palustris aerobic MSP, a dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP)-methanethiol shunt, initially converts MTA to 2-(methylthio)ethanol and DHAP. This is identical to the initial steps of the recently reported anaerobic ethylene-forming MSP, the DHAP-ethylene shunt. The aerobic DHAP-methanethiol shunt then further metabolizes 2-(methylthio)ethanol to methanethiol, which can be directly utilized by O-acetyl-l-homoserine sulfhydrylase to regenerate methionine. This is in contrast to the anaerobic DHAP-ethylene shunt, which metabolizes 2-(methylthio)ethanol to ethylene and an unknown organo-sulfur intermediate, revealing functional diversity in MSPs utilizing a 2-(methylthio)ethanol intermediate. When MTA was fed to aerobically growing cells, the rate of volatile methanethiol release was constant irrespective of the presence of sulfate, suggesting a general housekeeping function for these MSPs up through the methanethiol production step. Methanethiol and dimethyl sulfide (DMS), two of the most important compounds of the global sulfur cycle, appear to arise not only from marine ecosystems but from terrestrial ones as well. These results reveal a possible route by which methanethiol might be biologically produced in soil and freshwater environments. PMID:29636438

  16. Hydrogen production under salt stress conditions by a freshwater Rhodopseudomonas palustris strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adessi, Alessandra; Concato, Margherita; Sanchini, Andrea; Rossi, Federico; De Philippis, Roberto

    2016-03-01

    Hydrogen represents a possible alternative energy carrier to face the growing request for energy and the shortage of fossil fuels. Photofermentation for the production of H2 constitutes a promising way for integrating the production of energy with waste treatments. Many wastes are characterized by high salinity, and polluted seawater can as well be considered as a substrate. Moreover, the application of seawater for bacterial culturing is considered cost-effective. The aims of this study were to assess the capability of the metabolically versatile freshwater Rhodopseudomonas palustris 42OL of producing hydrogen on salt-containing substrates and to investigate its salt stress response strategy, never described before. R. palustris 42OL was able to produce hydrogen in media containing up to 3 % added salt concentration and to grow in media containing up to 4.5 % salinity without the addition of exogenous osmoprotectants. While the hydrogen production performances in absence of sea salts were higher than in their presence, there was no significant difference in performances between 1 and 2 % of added sea salts. Nitrogenase expression levels indicated that the enzyme was not directly inhibited during salt stress, but a regulation of its expression may have occurred in response to salt concentration increase. During cell growth and hydrogen production in the presence of salts, trehalose was accumulated as a compatible solute; it protected the enzymatic functionality against salt stress, thus allowing hydrogen production. The possibility of producing hydrogen on salt-containing substrates widens the range of wastes that can be efficiently used in production processes.

  17. Differences in mycorrhizal communities between Epipactis palustris, E. helleborine and its presumed sister species E. neerlandica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquemyn, Hans; Waud, Michael; Lievens, Bart; Brys, Rein

    2016-07-01

    In orchid species that have populations occurring in strongly contrasting habitats, mycorrhizal divergence and other habitat-specific adaptations may lead to the formation of reproductively isolated taxa and ultimately to species formation. However, little is known about the mycorrhizal communities associated with recently diverged sister taxa that occupy different habitats. In this study, 454 amplicon pyrosequencing was used to investigate mycorrhizal communities associating with Epipactis helleborine in its typical forest habitat and with its presumed sister species E. neerlandica that almost exclusively occurs in coastal dune habitats. Samples of the phylogenetically more distant E. palustris, which co-occurred with E. neerlandica, were also included to investigate the role of habitat-specific conditions on mycorrhizal communities. A total of 105 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of putative orchid mycorrhizal fungi were observed in the three studied species. The majority of these fungi were endophytic fungi of Helotiales and ectomycorrhizal fungi belonging to Thelephoraceae, Sebacinaceae and Inocybaceae. In addition, a large number of other ectomycorrhizal taxa were detected, including Cortinarius, Cenococcum, Tuber, Geopora, Wilcoxina, Meliniomyces, Hebeloma, Tricholoma, Russula and Peziza Mycorrhizal communities differed significantly between the three species, but differences were most pronounced between the forest species (E. helleborine) and the two dune slack species (E. neerlandica and E. palustris). The results clearly showed that recently diverged orchid species that occupy different habitats were characterized by significantly different mycorrhizal communities and call for more detailed experiments that aim at elucidating the contribution of habitat-specific adaptations in general and mycorrhizal divergence in particular to the process of speciation in orchids. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany

  18. Traffic-emitted metal status and uptake by Carex meyeriana Kunth and Thelypteris palustris var. pubescens Fernald growing in roadside turfy swamp in the Changbai Mountain area, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Nie, Lei; Xu, Yan; Li, Miao; Lv, Yan

    2018-04-26

    Six traffic-emitted metals (Cr, Zn, Cu, Cd, Pb, and Ni) were determined in soil and plants for below- and aboveground parts along different distances from highway to evaluate their behavior and uptake by Carex meyeriana Kunth and Thelypteris palustris var. pubescens Fernald growing in turfy swamps. The results indicated that the different plant tissues showed significantly different levels of metal content. Nonlinear regression analysis indicated that metal contents leveled off at constant values before they decreased as the distance from the roadside increased. The high R 2 values of the regression model indicated good fit of the exponential function applied to depict the distribution pattern of the metal elements. It was deduced that Cr, Cu, and Cd in Thelypteris palustris var. pubescens Fernald were mainly derived from the soil; Carex meyeriana Kunth and Thelypteris palustris var. pubescens Fernald absorbed Pb mainly through the stomata from atmospheric depositions; Cr, Cu, and Cd in Carex meyeriana Kunth and Zn in Thelypteris palustris var. pubescens Fernald were mainly affected by soil and atmospheric depositions. After excluding the effects of traffic, only the bioaccumulation factor of Cd (1.34) in Carex meyeriana Kunth and the translocation factor of Zn (1.13) in Thelypteris palustris var. pubescens Fernald were greater than 1, suggesting that Carex meyeriana Kunth could be a good candidate for assimilating Cd from soils and Thelypteris palustris var. pubescens Fernald could be suitable for the phytoextraction of Zn.

  19. Correlation between oxalic acid production and tolerance of Tyromyces palustris strain TYP-6137 to N',N-naphthaloylhydroxamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachel A. Arango; Patricia K. Lebow; Frederick III Green

    2009-01-01

    Eleven strains of T. palustris were evaluated for mass loss and production of phosphate buffer soluble oxalic acid on pine wood blocks treated with 0.5% N’,N-naphthaloylhydroxamine (NHA) in a soil-block test. After 12 weeks higher percentage mass loss was observed in control groups for 10 strains, while TYP-6137 was shown to be tolerant with no difference between the...

  20. Phenotype fingerprinting suggests the involvement of single-genotype consortia in degradation of aromatic compounds by Rhodopseudomonas palustris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana V Karpinets

    Full Text Available Anaerobic degradation of complex organic compounds by microorganisms is crucial for development of innovative biotechnologies for bioethanol production and for efficient degradation of environmental pollutants. In natural environments, the degradation is usually accomplished by syntrophic consortia comprised of different bacterial species. This strategy allows consortium organisms to reduce efforts required for maintenance of the redox homeostasis at each syntrophic level. Cellular mechanisms that maintain the redox homeostasis during the degradation of aromatic compounds by one organism are not fully understood. Here we present a hypothesis that the metabolically versatile phototrophic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris forms its own syntrophic consortia, when it grows anaerobically on p-coumarate or benzoate as a sole carbon source. We have revealed the consortia from large-scale measurements of mRNA and protein expressions under p-coumarate, benzoate and succinate degrading conditions using a novel computational approach referred as phenotype fingerprinting. In this approach, marker genes for known R. palustris phenotypes are employed to determine the relative expression levels of genes and proteins in aromatics versus non-aromatics degrading condition. Subpopulations of the consortia are inferred from the expression of phenotypes and known metabolic modes of the R. palustris growth. We find that p-coumarate degrading conditions may lead to at least three R. palustris subpopulations utilizing p-coumarate, benzoate, and CO2 and H2. Benzoate degrading conditions may also produce at least three subpopulations utilizing benzoate, CO2 and H2, and N2 and formate. Communication among syntrophs and inter-syntrophic dynamics in each consortium are indicated by up-regulation of transporters and genes involved in the curli formation and chemotaxis. The N2-fixing subpopulation in the benzoate degrading consortium has preferential activation of the

  1. Toxicity of sulfide to early life stages of wild rice (Zizania palustris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, Douglas J; Todhunter, Kevin; Fort, Troy D; Mathis, Michael B; Walker, Rachel; Hansel, Mike; Hall, Scott; Richards, Robin; Anderson, Kurt

    2017-08-01

    The sensitivity of wild rice (Zizania palustris) to sulfide is not well understood. Because sulfate in surface waters is reduced to sulfide by anaerobic bacteria in sediments and historical information indicated that 10 mg/L sulfate in Minnesota (USA) surface water reduced Z. palustris abundance, the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency established 10 mg/L sulfate as a water quality criterion in 1973. A 21-d daily-renewal hydroponic study was conducted to evaluate sulfide toxicity to wild rice and the potential mitigation of sulfide toxicity by iron (Fe). The hydroponic design used hypoxic test media for seed and root exposure and aerobic headspace for the vegetative portion of the plant. Test concentrations were 0.3, 1.6, 3.1, 7.8, and 12.5 mg/L sulfide in test media with 0.8, 2.8, and 10.8 mg/L total Fe used to evaluate the impact of iron on sulfide toxicity. Visual assessments (i.e., no plants harvested) of seed activation, mesocotyl emergence, seedling survival, and phytoxicity were conducted 10 d after dark-phase exposure. Each treatment was also evaluated for time to 30% emergence (ET30), total plant biomass, root and shoot lengths, and signs of phytotoxicity at study conclusion (21 d). The results indicate that exposure of developing wild rice to sulfide at ≥3.1 mg sulfide/L in the presence of 0.8 mg/L Fe reduced mesocotyl emergence. Sulfide toxicity was mitigated by the addition of Fe at 2.8 mg/L and 10.8 mg/L relative to the control value of 0.8 mg Fe/L, demonstrating the importance of iron in mitigating sulfide toxicity to wild rice. Ultimately, determination of site-specific sulfate criteria taking into account factors that alter toxicity, including sediment Fe and organic carbon, are necessary. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:2217-2226. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  2. Hydrogen production using Rhodopseudomonas palustris WP 3-5 with hydrogen fermentation reactor effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi-Mei Lee; Kuo-Tsang Hung

    2006-01-01

    The possibility of utilizing the dark hydrogen fermentation stage effluents for photo hydrogen production using purple non-sulfur bacteria should be elucidated. In the previous experiments, Rhodopseudomonas palustris WP3-5 was proven to efficiently produce hydrogen from the effluent of hydrogen fermentation reactors. The highest hydrogen production rate was obtained at a HRT value of 48 h when feeding a 5 fold effluent dilution from anaerobic hydrogen fermentation. Besides, hydrogen production occurred only when the NH 4 + concentration was below 17 mg-NH 4 + /l. Therefore, for successful fermentation effluent utilization, the most important things were to decrease the optimal HRT, increase the optimal substrate concentration and increase the tolerable ammonia concentration. In this study, a lab-scale serial photo-bioreactor was constructed. The reactor overall hydrogen production efficiency with synthetic wastewater exhibiting an organic acid profile identical to that of anaerobic hydrogen fermentation reactor effluent and with effluent from two anaerobic hydrogen fermentation reactors was evaluated. (authors)

  3. Optimization of phototrophic hydrogen production by Rhodopseudomonas palustris PBUM001 via statistical experimental design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamil, Zadariana [Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya (Malaysia); Faculty of Civil Engineering, Technology University of MARA (Malaysia); Mohamad Annuar, Mohamad Suffian; Vikineswary, S. [Institute of Biological Sciences, University of Malaya (Malaysia); Ibrahim, Shaliza [Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya (Malaysia)

    2009-09-15

    Phototrophic hydrogen production by indigenous purple non-sulfur bacteria, Rhodopseudomonas palustris PBUM001 from palm oil mill effluent (POME) was optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). The process parameters studied include inoculum sizes (% v/v), POME concentration (% v/v), light intensity (klux), agitation (rpm) and pH. The experimental data on cumulative hydrogen production and COD reduction were fitted into a quadratic polynomial model using response surface regression analysis. The path to optimal process conditions was determined by analyzing response surface three-dimensional surface plot and contour plot. Statistical analysis on experimental data collected following Box-Behnken design showed that 100% (v/v) POME concentration, 10% (v/v) inoculum size, light intensity at 4.0 klux, agitation rate at 250 rpm and pH of 6 were the best conditions. The maximum predicted cumulative hydrogen production and COD reduction obtained under these conditions was 1.05 ml H{sub 2}/ml POME and 31.71% respectively. Subsequent verification experiments at optimal process values gave the maximum yield of cumulative hydrogen at 0.66 {+-} 0.07 ml H{sub 2}/ml POME and COD reduction at 30.54 {+-} 9.85%. (author)

  4. Aptitude of Lymnaea palustris and L. stagnalis to Fasciola hepatica larval development through the infection of several successive generations of 4-mm-high snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignoles, P; Rondelaud, D; Dreyfuss, G

    2016-06-01

    Bimiracidial infections of Lymnaea palustris and Lymnaea stagnalis (shell height at exposure, 4 mm) with Fasciola hepatica were carried out during six successive snail generations to determine if prevalence and intensity of snail infection increased over time through descendants issuing from eggs laid by parents already exposed to this digenean. Controls were constituted by a French population of Galba truncatula (a single generation) infected according to the same protocol. In a first experiment performed with the F1 to F5 generations of L. palustris, the prevalence and intensity of F. hepatica infection in snails progressively increased. Immature rediae and a few cercariae-containing rediae of the digenean were observed in L. stagnalis from the F3 generation, but no free cercaria was noted in the bodies of this lymnaeid from the F4 to F6 generations. In another experiment carried out with the F6 generation of L. palustris, the prevalence of F. hepatica infection and the number of shed cercariae were significantly lower in L. palustris than in G. truncatula. This mode of snail infection suggests an explanation for cases of human fasciolosis occurring in central France after the collection of wild watercress from beds where L. palustris was the sole lymnaeid.

  5. A novel electrophototrophic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris strain RP2, exhibits hydrocarbonoclastic potential in anaerobic environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnaveni Venkidusamy

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available An electrophototrophic, hydrocarbonoclastic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris stain RP2 was isolated from the anodic biofilms of hydrocarbon fed microbial electrochemical remediation systems (MERS. Salient properties of the strain RP2 were direct electrode respiration, dissimilatory metal oxide reduction, spore formation, anaerobic nitrate reduction, free living diazotrophy and the ability to degrade n-alkane components of petroleum hydrocarbons in anoxic, photic environments. In acetate fed microbial electrochemical cells, a maximum current density of 305±10 mA/m2 (1000Ω was generated (power density 131.65±10 mW/m2 by strain RP2 with a coulombic efficiency of 46.7 ± 1.3%. Cyclic voltammetry studies showed that anaerobically grown cells of strain RP2 is electrochemically active and likely to transfer electrons extracellularly to solid electron acceptors through membrane bound compounds, however, aerobically grown cells lacked the electrochemical activity. The ability of strain RP2 to produce current (maximum current density 21±3 mA/m2; power density 720±7 µW/m2, 1000Ω using petroleum hydrocarbon (PH as a sole energy source was also examined using an initial concentration of 800 mg l-1 of diesel range hydrocarbons (C9- C36 with a concomitant removal of 47.4 ± 2.7% hydrocarbons in MERS. Here, we also report the first study that shows an initial evidence for the existence of a hydrocarbonoclastic behavior in the strain RP2 when grown in different electron accepting and illuminated conditions (anaerobic and MERS degradation. Such observations reveal the importance of photoorganotrophic growth in the utilization of hydrocarbons from contaminated environments. Identification of such novel petrochemical hydrocarbon degrading electricigens, not only expands the knowledge on the range of bacteria known for the hydrocarbon bioremediation but also shows a biotechnological potential that goes well beyond its applications to MERS.

  6. Hydraulic architecture and tracheid allometry in mature Pinus palustris and Pinus elliottii trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Benecke, C A; Martin, T A; Peter, G F

    2010-03-01

    Pinus palustris Mill. (longleaf pine, LL) and Pinus elliottii Engelm. var. elliottii (slash pine, SL) frequently co-occur in lower coastal plain flatwoods of the USA, with LL typically inhabiting slightly higher and better-drained microsites than SL. The hydraulic architecture and tracheid dimensions of roots, trunk and branches of mature LL and SL trees were compared to understand their role in species microsite occupation. Root xylem had higher sapwood-specific hydraulic conductivity (k(s)) and was less resistant to cavitation compared with branches and trunk sapwood. Root k(s) of LL was significantly higher than SL, whereas branch and trunk k(s) did not differ between species. No differences in vulnerability to cavitation were observed in any of the organs between species. Across all organs, there was a significant but weak trade-off between water conduction efficiency and safety. Tracheid hydraulic diameter (D(h)) was strongly correlated with k(s) across all organs, explaining >73% of the variation in k(s). In contrast, tracheid length (L(t)) explained only 2.4% of the variability. Nevertheless, for trunk xylem, k(s) was 39.5% higher at 20 m compared with 1.8 m; this increase in k(s) was uncorrelated with D(h) and cell-wall thickness but was strongly correlated with the difference in L(t). Tracheid allometry markedly changed between sapwood of roots, trunks and branches, possibly reflecting different mechanical constraints. Even though vulnerability to cavitation was not different for sapwood of roots, branches or the trunks of LL and SL, higher sapwood to leaf area ratio and higher maximum sapwood-specific hydraulic conductivity in roots of LL are functional traits that may provide LL with a competitive advantage on drier soil microsites.

  7. Identification of protein W, the elusive sixth subunit of the Rhodopseudomonas palustris reaction center-light harvesting 1 core complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Philip J; Hitchcock, Andrew; Swainsbury, David J K; Qian, Pu; Martin, Elizabeth C; Farmer, David A; Dickman, Mark J; Canniffe, Daniel P; Hunter, C Neil

    2018-02-01

    The X-ray crystal structure of the Rhodopseudomonas (Rps.) palustris reaction center-light harvesting 1 (RC-LH1) core complex revealed the presence of a sixth protein component, variably referred to in the literature as helix W, subunit W or protein W. The position of this protein prevents closure of the LH1 ring, possibly to allow diffusion of ubiquinone/ubiquinol between the RC and the cytochrome bc 1 complex in analogous fashion to the well-studied PufX protein from Rhodobacter sphaeroides. The identity and function of helix W have remained unknown for over 13years; here we use a combination of biochemistry, mass spectrometry, molecular genetics and electron microscopy to identify this protein as RPA4402 in Rps. palustris CGA009. Protein W shares key conserved sequence features with PufX homologs, and although a deletion mutant was able to grow under photosynthetic conditions with no discernible phenotype, we show that a tagged version of protein W pulls down the RC-LH1 complex. Protein W is not encoded in the photosynthesis gene cluster and our data indicate that only approximately 10% of wild-type Rps. palustris core complexes contain this non-essential subunit; functional and evolutionary consequences of this observation are discussed. The ability to purify uniform RC-LH1 and RC-LH1-protein W preparations will also be beneficial for future structural studies of these bacterial core complexes. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A two-step fermentation of distillers' grains using Trichoderma viride and Rhodopseudomonas palustris for fish feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Wen-Xue; Li, Shun-Zhou; You, Ling; Zhang, Chao; Sun, Chuan-Ze; Liu, Xiao-Bin

    2013-10-01

    It is important to provide added value or to make full use of the co-product of grains from ethanol production. In order to convert distillers' grains into a high-quality feed, the Trichoderma viride and Rhodopseudomonas palustris fermentation were combined and investigated in this study. The T. viride fermentation was carried out in an aerobic fermentation installation in favoring of the growth of the fungi and the degradation of the cellulose, and then the fermentation of R. palustris was performed to increase the content of protein with an anaerobic installation. After the two step fermentations, the true protein content of dried distiller' grains increased from 11.4 to 33.6 % (w/w) (the content of crude protein from 14.5 to 39.7 %), the crude fiber content decreased from 21.3 to 7.6 % (w/w), the crude fat content increased from 5.5 to 7.9 % (w/w), the crude ash decreased from 14.6 to 10.2 % (w/w), the total phosphorus content increased from 0.4 to 1.2 % (w/w), and the water content was 11.8 % (w/w). The dried and fermented grains contain the R. palustris viable count of 5.3 × 10¹¹ CFU/g dry matter. The results may support a new application of an active photosynthetic bacteria fish feed in fisheries industry and offer a reference for the further study of lignocellulosic materials as raw materials converting into high-quality feed.

  9. Preservation of H2 production activity in nanoporous latex coatings of Rhodopseudomonas palustris CGA009 during dry storage at ambient temperatures: Preservation of R. palustris latex coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piskorska, M. [Univ. of South Carolina, Aiken, SC (United States); Soule, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Gosse, J. L. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Milliken, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Flickinger, M. C. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Smith, G. W. [Univ. of South Carolina, Aiken, SC (United States); Yeager, C. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2013-01-21

    To assess the applicability of latex cell coatings as an ‘off-the-shelf’ biocatalyst, the effect of osmoprotectants, temperature, humidity and O2 on preservation of H2 production in Rhodopseudomonas palustris coatings was evaluated. Immediately following latex coating coalescence (24 h) and for up to 2 weeks of dry storage, rehydrated coatings containing different osmoprotectants displayed similar rates of H2 production. Beyond 2 weeks of storage, sorbitol-treated coatings lost all H2 production activity, whereas considerable H2 production was still detected in sucrose- and trehalose-stabilized coatings. The relative humidity level at which the coatings were stored had a significant impact on the recovery and subsequent rates of H2 production. After 4 weeks storage under air at 60% humidity, coatings produced only trace amounts of H2 (0–0.1% headspace accumulation), whereas those stored at < 5% humidity retained 27–53% of their H2 production activity after 8 weeks of storage. In conWhen stored in argon at < 5% humidity and room temperature, R. palustris coatings retained full H2 production activity for 3 months, implicating oxidative damage as a key factor limiting coating storage. Overall, the results demonstrate that biocatalytic latex coatings are an attractive cell immobilization platform for preservation of bioactivity in the dry state.

  10. Nitric oxide production by Peromyscus yucatanicus (Rodentia infected with Leishmania (Leishmania mexicana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsy Nalleli Loría-Cervera

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Peromyscus yucatanicus (Rodentia: Cricetidae is a primary reservoir of Leishmania (Leishmania mexicana (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae. Nitric oxide (NO generally plays a crucial role in the containment and elimination of Leishmania. The aim of this study was to determine the amount of NO produced by P. yucatanicus infected with L. (L. mexicana. Subclinical and clinical infections were established in P. yucatanicus through inoculation with 1 x 10 2 and 2.5 x 10 6 promastigotes, respectively. Peritoneal macrophages were cultured alone or co-cultured with lymphocytes with or without soluble Leishmania antigen. The level of NO production was determined using the Griess reaction. The amount of NO produced was significantly higher (p ≤ 0.0001 in co-cultured macrophages and lymphocytes than in macrophages cultured alone. No differences in NO production were found between P. yucatanicus with subclinical L. (L. mexicana infections and animals with clinical infections. These results support the hypothesis that the immunological mechanisms of NO production in P. yucatanicus are similar to those described in mouse models of leishmaniasis and, despite NO production, P. yucatanicus is unable to clear the parasite infection.

  11. Ecosystem engineering potential of the gastropod Terebralia palustris (Linnaeus, 1767) in mangrove wastewater wetlands - A controlled mesocosm experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penha-Lopes, Gil, E-mail: gil.penha-lopes@biology-research.co [Centro de Oceanografia - Laboratorio Maritimo da Guia, Departamento de Biologia Animal, Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade de Lisboa, Avenida Na, Senhora do Cabo 939, 2750-374 Cascais (Portugal); Department of Analytical and Environmental Chemistry, Vrije Universiteit Brussels, Brussels (Belgium); Bartolini, Fabrizio [Dipartimento di Biologia Evoluzionistica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, via Romana 17, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Limbu, Samwel [University of Dar es Salaam, Department of Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries, P.O. Box 35064, Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of); Cannicci, Stefano [Dipartimento di Biologia Evoluzionistica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, via Romana 17, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Mgaya, Yunus [University of Dar es Salaam, Department of Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries, P.O. Box 35064, Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of); Kristensen, Erik [Institute of Biology, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5230 Odense M (Denmark); Paula, Jose [Centro de Oceanografia - Laboratorio Maritimo da Guia, Departamento de Biologia Animal, Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade de Lisboa, Avenida Na, Senhora do Cabo 939, 2750-374 Cascais (Portugal)

    2010-01-15

    The effect of different sewage concentrations (0, 20, 60 and 100%), vegetation (Bare, Avicennia marina or Rhizophora mucronata) and immersion periods (immersion/emersion period of 12/12 h or 3/3 days just for 100%) conditions were studied for 6 months on survival and growth rates of Terebralia palustris (Linnaeus, 1767). Gastropods' activity and ecosystem engineering preformed at bare and A. marina planted cells and 3 sewage conditions (0, 20 and 60%) were determined. Survival rates were higher than 70% in all treatments. Growth rate decreased significantly with increasing sewage concentrations (mainly at unplanted conditions) and longer immersion periods. A complete shift (from immersion to emersion periods) and a significant decrease in mobility and consequently its engineer potential, due to sewage contamination, lead to a 3-4 fold decrease in the amount of sediment disturbed. Sewage contamination, primary producers' abundance and environmental conditions may have influenced the gastropods survival, growth and its ecosystem engineering potential. - Terebralia palustris high ecosystem engineering potential in constructed mangrove wetlands.

  12. Differential responses of the freshwater wetland species Juncus effusus L. and Caltha palustris L. to iron supply in sulfidic environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welle, Marlies E.W. van der; Niggebrugge, Karla; Lamers, Leon P.M.; Roelofs, Jan G.M.

    2007-01-01

    Sulfur pollution can lead to serious problems in freshwater wetlands, including phosphorus eutrophication and sulfide toxicity. We tested the effects of anaerobic iron-rich groundwater discharge in fens, simulated by iron injection, on two characteristic species (Juncus effusus and Caltha palustris) in a sulfidic environment. Biomass production of C. palustris roots showed an optimum response to the combined addition of iron and sulfide, with highest values at intermediate concentrations of both substances. Iron deficiency apparently occurred at low iron concentrations, while at high iron concentrations, growth was decreased. For J. effusus, in contrast, no toxic effects were found of both iron and sulfide. This could be explained by larger radial oxygen loss (ROL) of J. effusus and could not be explained by differences in phosphorous concentrations. The results of our experiments confirm that iron-rich groundwater discharge has the potential to affect vegetation composition through toxicity modification in sulfidic environments. - Toxicity of iron and sulfide are interacting with each other and have the potential to affect vegetation composition

  13. Promoting effects of a single Rhodopseudomonas palustris inoculant on plant growth by Brassica rapa chinensis under low fertilizer input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wai-Tak; Tseng, Ching-Han; Hsu, Shu-Hua; Lur, Huu-Sheng; Mo, Chia-Wei; Huang, Chu-Ning; Hsu, Shu-Chiung; Lee, Kung-Ta; Liu, Chi-Te

    2014-09-17

    Several Rhodopseudomonas palustris strains have been isolated from rice paddy fields in Taiwan by combining the Winogradsky column method and molecular marker detection. These isolates were initially screened by employing seed germination and seedling vigor assays to evaluate their potential as inoculants. To fulfill the demand in the present farming system for reducing the application of chemical fertilizers, we assessed the plant growth-promoting effects of the R. palustris YSC3, YSC4, and PS3 inoculants on Brassica rapa chinensis (Chinese cabbage) cultivated under a half quantity of fertilizer. The results obtained showed that supplementation with approximately 4.0×10(6) CFU g(-1) soil of the PS3 inoculant at half the amount of fertilizer consistently produced the same plant growth potential as 100% fertility, and also increased the nitrogen use efficiency of the applied fertilizer nutrients. Furthermore, we noted that the plant growth-promotion rate elicited by PS3 was markedly higher with old seeds than with new seeds, suggesting it has the potential to boost the development of seedlings that were germinated from carry-over seeds of poor quality. These beneficial traits suggest that the PS3 isolate may serve as a potential PGPR inoculant for integrated nutrient management in agriculture.

  14. Transfer of the high-GC cyclohexane carboxylate degradation pathway from Rhodopseudomonas palustris to Escherichia coli for production of biotin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Jeffrey R; Bulter, Thomas; Liao, James C

    2008-01-01

    This work demonstrates the transfer of the five-gene cyclohexane carboxylate (CHC) degradation pathway from the high-GC alphaproteobacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris to Escherichia coli, a gammaproteobacterium. The degradation product of this pathway is pimeloyl-CoA, a key metabolite in E. coli's biotin biosynthetic pathway. This pathway is useful for biotin overproduction in E. coli; however, the expression of GC-rich genes is troublesome in this host. When the native R. palustris CHC degradation pathway is transferred to a DeltabioH pimeloyl-CoA auxotroph of E. coli, it is unable to complement growth in the presence of CHC. To overcome this expression problem we redesigned the operon with decreased GC content and removed stretches of high-GC intergenic DNA which comprise the 5' untranslated region of each gene, replacing these features with shorter low-GC sequences. We show this synthetic construct enables growth of the DeltabioH strain in the presence of CHC. When the synthetic degradation pathway is overexpressed in conjunction with the downstream genes for biotin biosynthesis, we measured significant accumulation of biotin in the growth medium, showing that the pathway transfer is successfully integrated with the host metabolism.

  15. rodentia: sciuridae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    it is apparently not an efficient vector of plague. Sucking lice. The sucking louse, Neohoematopinw heliosciuri has been found on the African tree squinels. Heliosciurus rufobrachium. Funisciurus anerythrus and Paraxerus boehmi em;"i by Rahm (19~2). and. Ledger (1976) additionally records these lice from. Paraxerus ...

  16. RODENTIA: MURIDAE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    size of 4.7 and the rapid postnatal development are thought to be ..... the sand in the cage was fairly shallow, i.e. to mm, ZelolOmys did show that it was ... shredded, and a deep cup-shaped nest made by the female pushing her head ..... Most of our data on numbers and developmental time can be interpreted in the frame-.

  17. (RODENTIA: SCIURIDAE).

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DOBRORUKA, L J 1970. Behaviour in the bush squirrel, Paraxerus cepapi (A Smith, 1836). Revue Zoo I. Bot. afro 82: 131-141. GUNTER, G cl ELEUTERIUS, L 1971. Bark-eating by the common gray squirrel following a hurricane. Am. Midi. Nat. 85:23S. NIXON, C M 1970. Insects as food for juvenile gray squirrels. Am. Midi.

  18. Concerted evolution of body mass and cell size: similar patterns among species of birds (Galliformes) and mammals (Rodentia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragosz-Kluska, Dominika; Pis, Tomasz; Pawlik, Katarzyna; Kapustka, Filip; Kilarski, Wincenty M.; Kozłowski, Jan

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cell size plays a role in body size evolution and environmental adaptations. Addressing these roles, we studied body mass and cell size in Galliformes birds and Rodentia mammals, and collected published data on their genome sizes. In birds, we measured erythrocyte nuclei and basal metabolic rates (BMRs). In birds and mammals, larger species consistently evolved larger cells for five cell types (erythrocytes, enterocytes, chondrocytes, skin epithelial cells, and kidney proximal tubule cells) and evolved smaller hepatocytes. We found no evidence that cell size differences originated through genome size changes. We conclude that the organism-wide coordination of cell size changes might be an evolutionarily conservative characteristic, and the convergent evolutionary body size and cell size changes in Galliformes and Rodentia suggest the adaptive significance of cell size. Recent theory predicts that species evolving larger cells waste less energy on tissue maintenance but have reduced capacities to deliver oxygen to mitochondria and metabolize resources. Indeed, birds with larger size of the abovementioned cell types and smaller hepatocytes have evolved lower mass-specific BMRs. We propose that the inconsistent pattern in hepatocytes derives from the efficient delivery system to hepatocytes, combined with their intense involvement in supracellular function and anabolic activity. PMID:29540429

  19. Concerted evolution of body mass and cell size: similar patterns among species of birds (Galliformes and mammals (Rodentia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Czarnoleski

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Cell size plays a role in body size evolution and environmental adaptations. Addressing these roles, we studied body mass and cell size in Galliformes birds and Rodentia mammals, and collected published data on their genome sizes. In birds, we measured erythrocyte nuclei and basal metabolic rates (BMRs. In birds and mammals, larger species consistently evolved larger cells for five cell types (erythrocytes, enterocytes, chondrocytes, skin epithelial cells, and kidney proximal tubule cells and evolved smaller hepatocytes. We found no evidence that cell size differences originated through genome size changes. We conclude that the organism-wide coordination of cell size changes might be an evolutionarily conservative characteristic, and the convergent evolutionary body size and cell size changes in Galliformes and Rodentia suggest the adaptive significance of cell size. Recent theory predicts that species evolving larger cells waste less energy on tissue maintenance but have reduced capacities to deliver oxygen to mitochondria and metabolize resources. Indeed, birds with larger size of the abovementioned cell types and smaller hepatocytes have evolved lower mass-specific BMRs. We propose that the inconsistent pattern in hepatocytes derives from the efficient delivery system to hepatocytes, combined with their intense involvement in supracellular function and anabolic activity.

  20. Genome assembly of the fungus Cochliobolus miyabeanus, and transcriptome analysis during early stages of infection on American wild rice (Zizania palustris L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochliobolus miyabeanus causes a severe, yield-reducing leaf spot disease on rice (Oryza sativa) and two North American specialty crops, American wildrice (Zizania palustris) and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum). Despite the importance of the pathogen in wildrice, little is known about mechanisms of p...

  1. Long-term effects of fire and fire-return interval on population structure and growth of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelcy R. Ford; Emily S. Minor; Gordon A. Fox

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the effect of fire and fire frequency on stand structure and longleaf pine (Pinus palustris P. Mill.) growth and population demography in an experimental research area in a southwest Florida sandhill community. Data were collected from replicated plots that had prescribed fire-return intervals of 1, 2, 5, or 7 years or were left...

  2. Effects of site preparation treatments on early growth and survival of planted longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) seedlings in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin O. Knapp; G. Geoff Wang; Joan L. Walker; Susan Cohen

    2006-01-01

    We tested the effects of eight site preparation treatments on early growth and survival of container-grown longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) seedlings. Treatments included an untreated check, six combinations of two initial vegetation control treatments (chopping or herbicide) with three planting site conditions (flat [no additional treatment],...

  3. High-resolution bioactivity profiling combined with HPLC-HRMS-SPE-NMR: α-glucosidase inhibitors and acetylated ellagic acid rhamnosides from Myrcia palustris DC. (Myrtaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wubshet, Sileshi Gizachew; Moresco, Henrique H.; Tahtah, Yousof

    2015-01-01

    , and therefore improved drug leads or functional foods containing α-glucosidase inhibitors are needed for management of blood glucose. In this study, leaves of Myrcia palustris were investigated by high-resolution α-glucosidase inhibition profiling combined with HPLC–HRMS–SPE–NMR. This led to identification...

  4. Purification, molecular cloning, and enzymatic properties of a family 12 endoglucanase (EG-II) from fomitopsis palustris: role of EG-II in larch holocellulose hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimokawa, Tomoko; Shibuya, Hajime; Nojiri, Masanobu; Yoshida, Shigeki; Ishihara, Mitsuro

    2008-09-01

    A family 12 endoglucanase with a molecular mass of 23,926 Da (EG-II) from the brown-rot basidiomycete Fomitopsis palustris was purified and characterized. One of the roles of EG-II in wood degradation is thought to be to loosen the polysaccharide network in cell walls by disentangling hemicelluloses that are associated with cellulose.

  5. Comparison of red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) nestling diet in old-growth and old-field longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    James L. Hanula; R. Todd Engstrom

    2000-01-01

    Automatic cameras were used to record adult red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) nest visits with food for nestlings. Diet of nestlings on or near an old-growth longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) remnant in southern Georgia was compared to that in longleaf pine stands established on old farm fields in western South Carolina....

  6. Postnatal ontogeny of limb proportions and functional indices in the subterranean rodent Ctenomys talarum (Rodentia: Ctenomyidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverría, Alejandra Isabel; Becerra, Federico; Vassallo, Aldo Iván

    2014-08-01

    Burrow construction in the subterranean Ctenomys talarum (Rodentia: Ctenomyidae) primarily occurs by scratch-digging. In this study, we compared the limbs of an ontogenetic series of C. talarum to identify variation in bony elements related to fossorial habits using a morphometrical and biomechanical approach. Diameters and functional lengths of long bones were measured and 10 functional indices were constructed. We found that limb proportions of C. talarum undergo significant changes throughout postnatal ontogeny, and no significant differences between sexes were observed. Five of six forelimb indices and two of four hindlimb indices showed differences between ages. According to discriminant analysis, the indices that contributed most to discrimination among age groups were robustness of the humerus and ulna, relative epicondylar width, crural and brachial indices, and index of fossorial ability (IFA). Particularly, pups could be differentiated from juveniles and adults by more robust humeri and ulnae, wider epicondyles, longer middle limb elements, and a proportionally shorter olecranon. Greater robustness indicated a possible compensation for lower bone stiffness while wider epicondyles may be associated to improved effective forces in those muscles that originate onto them, compensating the lower muscular development. The gradual increase in the IFA suggested a gradual enhancement in the scratch-digging performance due to an improvement in the mechanical advantage of forearm extensors. Middle limb indices were higher in pups than in juveniles-adults, reflecting relatively more gracile limbs in their middle segments, which is in accordance with their incipient fossorial ability. In sum, our results show that in C. talarum some scratch-digging adaptations are already present during early postnatal ontogeny, which suggests that they are prenatally shaped, and other traits develop progressively. The role of early digging behavior as a factor influencing on

  7. Extended longevity of reproductives appears to be common in Fukomys mole-rats (Rodentia, Bathyergidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Dammann

    Full Text Available African mole-rats (Bathyergidae, Rodentia contain several social, cooperatively breeding species with low extrinsic mortality and unusually high longevity. All social bathyergids live in multigenerational families where reproduction is skewed towards a few breeding individuals. Most of their offspring remain as reproductively inactive "helpers" in their natal families, often for several years. This "reproductive subdivision" of mole-rat societies might be of interest for ageing research, as in at least one social bathyergid (Ansell's mole-rats Fukomys anselli, breeders have been shown to age significantly slower than non-breeders. These animals thus provide excellent conditions for studying the epigenetics of senescence by comparing divergent longevities within the same genotypes without the inescapable short-comings of inter-species comparisons. It has been claimed that many if not all social mole-rat species may have evolved similar ageing patterns, too. However, this remains unclear on account of the scarcity of reliable datasets on the subject. We therefore analyzed a 20-year breeding record of Giant mole-rats Fukomys mechowii, another social bathyergid species. We found that breeders indeed lived significantly longer than helpers (ca. 1.5-2.2fold depending on the sex, irrespective of social rank or other potentially confounding factors. Considering the phylogenetic positions of F. mechowii and F. anselli and unpublished data on a third Fukomys-species (F. damarensis showing essentially the same pattern, it seems probable that the reversal of the classic trade-off between somatic maintenance and sexual reproduction is characteristic of the whole genus and hence of the vast majority of social mole-rats.

  8. Arsenic-Redox Transformation and Plant Growth Promotion by Purple Nonsulfur Bacteria Rhodopseudomonas palustris CS2 and Rhodopseudomonas faecalis SS5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batool, Kanza; Tuz Zahra, Fatima; Rehman, Yasir

    2017-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is a well-known toxic metalloid found naturally and released by different industries, especially in developing countries. Purple nonsulfur bacteria (PNSB) are known for wastewater treatment and plant growth promoting abilities. As-resistant PNSB were isolated from a fish pond. Based on As-resistance and plant growth promoting attributes, 2 isolates CS2 and SS5 were selected and identified as Rhodopseudomonas palustris and Rhodopseudomonas faecalis , respectively, through 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Maximum As(V) resistance shown by R. faecalis SS5 and R. palustris CS2 was up to 150 and 100 mM, respectively. R . palustris CS2 showed highest As(V) reduction up to 62.9% (6.29 ± 0.24 mM), while R. faecalis SS5 showed maximum As(III) oxidation up to 96% (4.8 ± 0.32 mM), respectively. Highest auxin production was observed by R. palustris CS2 and R. faecalis SS, up to 77.18 ± 3.7 and 76.67 ± 2.8  μ g mL -1 , respectively. Effects of these PNSB were tested on the growth of Vigna mungo plants. A statistically significant increase in growth was observed in plants inoculated with isolates compared to uninoculated plants, both in presence and in absence of As. R. palustris CS2 treated plants showed 17% (28.1 ± 0.87 cm) increase in shoot length and 21.7% (7.07 ± 0.42 cm) increase in root length, whereas R. faecalis SS5 treated plants showed 12.8% (27.09 ± 0.81 cm) increase in shoot length and 18.8% (6.9 ± 0.34 cm) increase in root length as compared to the control plants. In presence of As, R. palustris CS2 increased shoot length up to 26.3% (21.0 ± 1.1 cm), while root length increased up to 31.3% (5.3 ± 0.4 cm), whereas R. faecalis SS5 inoculated plants showed 25% (20.7 ± 1.4 cm) increase in shoot length and 33.3% (5.4 ± 0.65 cm) increase in root length as compared to the control plants. Bacteria with such diverse abilities could be ideal for plant growth promotion in As-contaminated sites.

  9. The role of growth stop as a morphogenetic factor in Mastomys natalensis (Rodentia: Muridae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fadda, Carlo; Leirs, Herwig

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated growth patterns under three different environmental conditions in a single population of the rodent Mastomys natalensis (Rodentia, Muridae) in Morogoro, Tanzania. The study aimed to test whether and how post-weaning ontogenetic processes are affected by different...... environmental conditions. Morogoro is characterized by a bimodal rainfall pattern, with unreliable peaks occurring in November/December of some years and reliable ones in February to May. We recognized three different generation types. In the first one, the alpha generation, growth occurred during the dry...... there was a continuity between both rainfall peaks. Analyses of size and shape following both Huxley-Jolicoeur and Gould-Mosimann approaches revealed that the three groups differ significantly both in size and shape. In both cases, the importance of the environment in assessing growth trajectories during post...

  10. Least speciose among the most speciose: Natural history correlates of monospecific and bispecific genera of Rodentia and Soricomorpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amori, Giovanni; Bissattini, Alessandra Maria; Gippoliti, Spartaco; Vignoli, Leonardo; Maiorano, Luigi; Luiselli, Luca

    2017-11-01

    Monospecific and bispecific genera are of special concern as they represent unique phylogenetic/evolutionary trajectories within larger clades. In addition, as phylogenetically older taxa are supposed to be exposed to higher rarity and extinction risk, monospecific and bispecific genera may be intrinsically more prone to extinction risks than multispecies genera, although extinction risks also depend on the ecological and biological strategy of the species. Here, the distribution across biogeographical zones and the levels of threat to 2 speciose orders of mammals (monospecific and bispecific genera of Rodentia and Soricomorpha) are investigated in order to highlight major patterns at the worldwide scale. In Rodentia, 39.7% of the genera (n = 490) were monospecific and 17.9% were bispecific. In Soricomorpha, 44.4% of the total genera (n = 45) were monospecific and 15% were bispecific. There was a positive correlation between the number of monospecific genera and the total number of genera per family. Peaks of monospecific and bispecific genera richness were observed in Neotropical, Oriental and Afrotropical regions in rodents and in the Palearctic region in soricomorphs. Range size was significantly uneven across biogeographic region in rodents (with larger ranges in Nearctic and Oriental regions and smaller ranges in the Australian region), but there was no difference across biogeographic regions in terms of range size in soricomorphs. Most of the monospecific and bispecific genera occurred in forest habitat in both taxa. The frequency distribution of the monospecific and bispecific genera across IUCN categories did not differ significantly from the expected pattern using the total rodent genera and the multispecies genera. © 2017 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  11. Food supply (Orthoptera, Mantodea, Rodentia and Eulipotyphla and food preferences of the red-footed falcon (Falco vespertinus in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krištín Anton

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Food supply in the nesting territories of species has a key role to the species diet composition and their breeding success. Red-footed falcon (Falco vespertinus preys predominantly on larger insect species with a supplementary portion of smaller vertebrates. In the breeding periods 2014 and 2016 their food supply, focusing on Orthoptera, Mantodea, Rodentia and Eulipotyphla, was analysed at five historical nesting sites of the species in Slovakia. Preference for these prey groups in the diet was also studied at the last active nesting site in this country. Overall we recorded 45 Orthoptera species (of which 23 species are known as the food of the red-footed falcon, one species of Mantodea, 10 species of Rodentia (of which 2 species are known as the food of the red-footed falcon and 5 species of the Eulipotyphla order in the food supply. With regard to the availability of the falcons' preferred food, in both years the most suitable was the Tvrdošovce site, which continuously showed the greatest range and abundance of particular species. In the interannual comparison the insects showed lower variability in abundance than the small mammals. In 2014 the growth of the common vole (Microtus arvalis population culminated and with the exception of a single site (Bodza a slump in abundance was recorded in 2016. In comparing the diet composition with the food supply at the last Slovak breeding site Rusovce (Special Protection Area Sysľovské polia, we recorded significant preference for grasshopper Caliptamus italicus (in 2014, common vole (in 2016 and cricket Tettigonia viridissima (in both years in the falcons' diet. They did not prey on the Apodemus sylvaticus species belonging among the abundant small mammal species in that locality. Conservation measures in the agricultural landscape are discussed in relation to homogeneous red-footed falcon breeding territories.

  12. The jaw is a second-class lever in Pedetes capensis (Rodentia: Pedetidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip G. Cox

    2017-08-01

    hystricomorphous morphology has evolved multiple times independently within Rodentia.

  13. Size-dependent distribution and feeding habits of Terebralia palustris in mangrove habitats of Gazi Bay, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pape, Ellen; Muthumbi, Agnes; Kamanu, Chomba Peter; Vanreusel, Ann

    2008-03-01

    The gastropod Terebralia palustris often dominates the surface of muddy to sandy substrates of intertidal mudflats and mangrove forests, where they clearly destabilize the sediment. In the present study, it was investigated whether and to what extent the behaviour of juvenile and adult snails differs among habitats (mudflat vs. mangrove stand) in a Sonneratia alba mangal at Gazi Bay, Kenya. For this purpose we: (1) examined their distribution along three land-sea transects; and (2) applied stable isotope analysis to determine the feeding patterns of different-sized snails from the mangrove and mudflat habitats. Additionally, we investigated if these gastropods exert an impact on microphytobenthic (diatom) biomass, and whether this is size-dependent. The latter objective was met by either enclosing or excluding different-sized snails from experimental cages on the intertidal mudflat and the subsequent assessment of a change in pigment concentration of the sediment surface. In agreement with several previous studies conducted in other mangroves and geographical locations, a spatial segregation was demonstrated between juveniles (more common on the mudflat) and adults (more common in the mangrove forest). On the intertidal mudflat juveniles avoided sediment patches characterized by highly saline water in intertidal pools and a high mud content, while adults tended to dwell on substrates covered by a high amount of leaf litter. Stable carbon isotope analysis of the foot tissue of snails sampled from the S. alba stand and the mudflat indicated a transition in food source when a shell length of 51 mm is reached. Considering the δ13C value of juveniles, it seems they might be selecting for microphytobenthos, which might explain their preference for the mudflat. The diet of size classes found in both habitats did not differ significantly, although juveniles inhabiting the mangrove forest were slightly more depleted in 13C compared to those residing on the mudflat

  14. Differentiation of epipactis palustris (l.) crantz (orchidaceae) in habitats altered by man based on species populations within poznan city (poland)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieloch, M.K.; Raszewska, M.W.; Drapikowska, M.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare two populations of Epipactis palustris (Orchidaceae) growing in the valley of Junikowski Stream, in the south-western part of the Poznan city (square of ATPOL BD08) and to compare current results to data on the species described in the literature. Group characteristics of both populations, such as population size, average density and congestion factor, as well as the average coefficient of dispersion, were defined. Specimen variability was determined by measuring 250 generative ramets in each population. The following plant traits were included: stem length, inflorescence length, number of flowers per inflorescence, number of leaves per stem and length and width of the largest leaf. Obtained data were subjected to statistical analyses. Descriptive statistics were calculated (arithmetic average, standard deviation, minimum and maximum). The variation coefficient (V) was established to determine the variation degree of each trait. In order to determine statistical significance of average values of traits of the samples in question, the factor variance ANOVA F-statistics was used. The significance degree was examined with Scheffe's test. Principal component analysis (PCA) enabled the examination of mutual relations between the samples in the system of two first principal components. This work confirmed previous information about low variability of marsh helleborine. Individual traits in both populations were very similar. The differences concerned the group characteristics. The plants were in good condition irrespective of occupied habitat. (author)

  15. Cloning and characterization of a pyrethroid pesticide decomposing esterase gene, Est3385, from Rhodopseudomonas palustris PSB-S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiangwen; Zhang, Deyong; Zhou, Xuguo; Du, Jiao; Zhang, Songbai; Liu, Yong

    2018-05-09

    Full length open reading frame of pyrethroid detoxification gene, Est3385, contains 963 nucleotides. This gene was identified and cloned based on the genome sequence of Rhodopseudomonas palustris PSB-S available at the GneBank. The predicted amino acid sequence of Est3385 shared moderate identities (30-46%) with the known homologous esterases. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Est3385 was a member in the esterase family I. Recombinant Est3385 was heterologous expressed in E. coli, purified and characterized for its substrate specificity, kinetics and stability under various conditions. The optimal temperature and pH for Est3385 were 35 °C and 6.0, respectively. This enzyme could detoxify various pyrethroid pesticides and degrade the optimal substrate fenpropathrin with a Km and Vmax value of 0.734 ± 0.013 mmol·l -1 and 0.918 ± 0.025 U·µg -1 , respectively. No cofactor was found to affect Est3385 activity but substantial reduction of enzymatic activity was observed when metal ions were applied. Taken together, a new pyrethroid degradation esterase was identified and characterized. Modification of Est3385 with protein engineering toolsets should enhance its potential for field application to reduce the pesticide residue from agroecosystems.

  16. An evaluation of memory accuracy in food hoarding marsh tits Poecile palustris--how accurate are they compared to humans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodin, Anders; Urhan, A Utku

    2013-07-01

    Laboratory studies of scatter hoarding birds have become a model system for spatial memory studies. Considering that such birds are known to have a good spatial memory, recovery success in lab studies seems low. In parids (titmice and chickadees) typically ranging between 25 and 60% if five seeds are cached in 50-128 available caching sites. Since these birds store many thousands of food items in nature in one autumn one might expect that they should easily retrieve five seeds in a laboratory where they know the environment with its caching sites in detail. We designed a laboratory set up to be as similar as possible with previous studies and trained wild caught marsh tits Poecile palustris to store and retrieve in this set up. Our results agree closely with earlier studies, of the first ten looks around 40% were correct when the birds had stored five seeds in 100 available sites both 5 and 24h after storing. The cumulative success curve suggests high success during the first 15 looks where after it declines. Humans performed much better, in the first five looks most subjects were 100% correct. We discuss possible reasons for why the birds were not doing better. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Different Metabolomic Responses to Carbon Starvation between Light and Dark Conditions in the Purple Photosynthetic Bacterium, Rhodopseudomonas palustris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Nanako; Matsuura, Katsumi; Haruta, Shin

    2018-03-29

    Purple photosynthetic bacteria utilize light energy for growth. We previously demonstrated that light energy contributed to prolonging the survival of multiple purple bacteria under carbon-starved conditions. In order to clarify the effects of illumination on metabolic states under carbon-starved, non-growing conditions, we herein compared the metabolic profiles of starved cells in the light and dark using the purple bacterium, Rhodopseudomonas palustris. The metabolic profiles of starved cells in the light were markedly different from those in the dark. After starvation for 5 d in the light, cells showed increases in the amount of ATP and the NAD + /NADH ratio. Decreases in the amounts of most metabolites related to glycolysis and the TCA cycle in energy-rich starved cells suggest the active utilization of these metabolites for the modification of cellular components. Starvation in the dark induced the consumption of cellular compounds such as amino acids, indicating that the degradation of these cellular components produced ATP in order to maintain viability under energy-poor conditions. The present results suggest that intracellular energy levels alter survival strategies under carbon-starved conditions through metabolism.

  18. Actividad ovárica del tepezcuintle Agouti paca (Rodentia: Agoutidae en cautiverio

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    Rubén C Montes Pérez

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Se caracterizó la actividad ovárica de A. paca por medio de perfiles hormonales y estructuras ováricas. Se muestrearon ocho hembras (siete adultas y una juvenil en el criadero de la Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia en el estado de Yucatán, México, durante aproximadamente dos meses. Se recolectaron muestras sanguíneas cada 3 y 6 días en animales anestesiados. Se estimaron los niveles de progesterona (P4 y 17 β estradiol (E2 sanguνneos por radioinmunoanαlisis. Las estructuras ováricas de animales muertos durante el periodo de muestreo fueron analizadas macro y microscópicamente. El ciclo ovárico duró 29±8.4 días, con niveles de 1.61±0.65 ng/ml para P4 y de 39±24 pg/ml para E2 durante la fase folicular, y de 6.18±3.70 ng/ml y 29±16 pg/ml para P4 y E2 respectivamente, en la fase luteal. Hubo diferencias (pOvarian activity of Agouti paca (Rodentia: Agoutidae under captivity. The ovarian activity of Agouti paca was characterized by hormonal profiles and ovarian structures. Samples of blood were taken from eight females (seven adults and one juvenile at the breeding grounds of the Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia in Yucatán, México. Sampling lasted approximately two months and was done every three and six days. Blood was collected from anesthetized animals, and the levels of progesterone (P4 and 17 β estradiol (E2 were analized by radioimmunoassay technique. Macroscopic and microscopic analyses were carried out in ovaries of dead animals. The estrous cycle lasted 29±8.4 days, levels of 1.61±0.65 ng/ml for P4 and 39±24 pg/ml for E2 were observed for a follicular phase, 6.18±3.70 ng/ml and 29±16 pg/ml for P4 and E2 respectively in the luteal phase. Statistically significant differences were found between phases for P4 but not for E2. The presence of extragonadal steroids with levels of P4 of 1.9±0.77 ng/ml and E2 of 22±17 pg/ml were observed, which are not produced by the effects of managing stress

  19. Descripción del nido de Scolomys melanops (Rodentia, Cricetidae y su relación con Lepidocaryum tenue (Arecales, Arecaceae

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    Edgardo M. Rengifo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Se describe el nido de Scolomys melanops (Rodentia: Cricetidae, encontrado en el Nororiente de Perú en un hábitat de Colinas bajas. Se identificó tres estructuras en el nido: a Orificio de acceso y salida; b Túnel y c Dormidero, en este último se encontraron restos de frutos, fibras del pedúnculo y tallos de Lepidocaryum tenue (Arecales: Arecaceae “Irapay”. Se sugiere en base al material vegetal encontrado en el nido, la existencia de una relación de depredación entre el roedor Scolomys melanops y la palmera Lepidocaryum tenue.

  20. Karyotype evolution and phylogenetic relationships of hamsters (Cricetidae, Muroidea, Rodentia) inferred from chromosomal painting and banding comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanenko, Svetlana A; Volobouev, Vitaly T; Perelman, Polina L; Lebedev, Vladimir S; Serdukova, Natalya A; Trifonov, Vladimir A; Biltueva, Larisa S; Nie, Wenhui; O'Brien, Patricia C M; Bulatova, Nina Sh; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A; Yang, Fengtang; Graphodatsky, Alexander S

    2007-01-01

    The evolutionary success of rodents of the superfamily Muroidea makes this taxon the most interesting for evolution studies, including study at the chromosomal level. Chromosome-specific painting probes from the Chinese hamster and the Syrian (golden) hamster were used to delimit homologous chromosomal segments among 15 hamster species from eight genera: Allocricetulus, Calomyscus, Cricetulus, Cricetus, Mesocricetus, Peromyscus, Phodopus and Tscherskia (Cricetidae, Muroidea, Rodentia). Based on results of chromosome painting and G-banding, comparative maps between 20 rodent species have been established. The integrated maps demonstrate a high level of karyotype conservation among species in the Cricetus group (Cricetus, Cricetulus, Allocricetulus) with Tscherskia as its sister group. Species within the genera Mesocricetus and Phodopus also show a high degree of chromosomal conservation. Our results substantiate many of the conclusions suggested by other data and strengthen the topology of the Muroidea phylogenetic tree through the inclusion of genome-wide chromosome rearrangements. The derivation of the muroids karyotypes from the putative ancestral state involved centric fusions, fissions, addition of heterochromatic arms and a great number of inversions. Our results provide further insights into the karyotype relationships of all species investigated.

  1. Habitat use by Oryzomys subflavus (Rodentia) in an open shrubland formation in Restinga de Jurubatiba National Park, RJ, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergallo, H G; Luz, J L; Raíces, D S; Hatano, F H; Martins-Hatano, F

    2005-11-01

    The Restinga de Jurubatiba has at least 10 plant formations, including open Clusia shrubland. This formation is composed of dense shrubs of many shapes and sizes, where Clusia hilariana is one of the most important plant species. Shrublands with Clusia (CC) are poorer in plant species and less dense than shrublands without Clusia (SC). Oryzomys subflavus (Rodentia) is the most abundant small mammal species in the open Clusia shrubland. We tested the hypothesis that the abundance of rodents would increase with the size of the patch and would be higher in SC shrublands. Rodents were captured, marked and released in three 780-m-long transects. At each capture site, we evaluated the shape of the shrubland patch, calculated the area and noted the category of the shrubland. Using ANCOVA, we ascertained whether the abundance of Oryzomys subflavus increased with the sampled area and used CC and SC shrublands differently. We also verified if the size of patches used by rodents varies in the same frequency as the size of available shrublands. Rodent abundance was found to increase significantly with the area. There were no differences in the size of the patches used by rodents and the frequency of the size of available patches. This finding indicates that O. subflavus, in the study area, is a generalist species that uses its habitat according to availability.

  2. A phylogeographic study of the endemic rodent Eliurus carletoni (Rodentia: Nesomyinae) in an ecological transition zone of Northern Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakotoarisoa, Jean-Eric; Raheriarisena, Martin; Goodman, Steven M

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a mitochondrial phylogeographic study of the endemic dry forest rodent Eliurus carletoni (Rodentia: Nesomyinae) in an ecological transition zone of northern Madagascar (Loky-Manambato) and 2 surrounding regions (Ankarana and Analamerana). The main goal was to assess the evolutionary consequences on this taxon of the complex landscape features and Quaternary ecological vicissitudes. Three haplogroups were identified from the 215 specimens obtained from 15 populations. High levels of genetic diversity and significant genetic differentiation among populations were observed. The different geographical subdivisions of the study area by regions, by river catchment zones, and the physical distance between populations are not correlated with genetic patterns. In contrast, population structure is mostly explained by the geographic distribution of the samples among existing forest blocks. E. carletoni experienced a genetic bottleneck between 18 750 and 7500 years BP, which correlates with periods when moister climates existed on the island. Overall, our data suggest that the complex genetic patterns of E. carletoni can be explained by Quaternary climatic vicissitudes that resulted in habitat fluctuations between dry and humid forests, as well as subsequent human-induced fragmentation of forest habitat.

  3. Habitat use by Oryzomys subflavus (Rodentia in an open shrubland formation in Restinga de Jurubatiba National Park, RJ, Brazil

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    H. G. Bergallo

    Full Text Available The Restinga de Jurubatiba has at least 10 plant formations, including open Clusia shrubland. This formation is composed of dense shrubs of many shapes and sizes, where Clusia hilariana is one of the most important plant species. Shrublands with Clusia (CC are poorer in plant species and less dense than shrublands without Clusia (SC. Oryzomys subflavus (Rodentia is the most abundant small mammal species in the open Clusia shrubland. We tested the hypothesis that the abundance of rodents would increase with the size of the patch and would be higher in SC shrublands. Rodents were captured, marked and released in three 780-m-long transects. At each capture site, we evaluated the shape of the shrubland patch, calculated the area and noted the category of the shrubland. Using ANCOVA, we ascertained whether the abundance of Oryzomys subflavus increased with the sampled area and used CC and SC shrublands differently. We also verified if the size of patches used by rodents varies in the same frequency as the size of available shrublands. Rodent abundance was found to increase significantly with the area. There were no differences in the size of the patches used by rodents and the frequency of the size of available patches. This finding indicates that O. subflavus, in the study area, is a generalist species that uses its habitat according to availability.

  4. Virtual endocasts of Eocene Paramys (Paramyinae): oldest endocranial record for Rodentia and early brain evolution in Euarchontoglires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Ornella C; Amador-Mughal, Farrah; Silcox, Mary T

    2016-01-27

    Understanding the pattern of brain evolution in early rodents is central to reconstructing the ancestral condition for Glires, and for other members of Euarchontoglires including Primates. We describe the oldest virtual endocasts known for fossil rodents, which pertain to Paramys copei (Early Eocene) and Paramys delicatus (Middle Eocene). Both specimens of Paramys have larger olfactory bulbs and smaller paraflocculi relative to total endocranial volume than later occurring rodents, which may be primitive traits for Rodentia. The encephalization quotients (EQs) of Pa. copei and Pa. delicatus are higher than that of later occurring (Oligocene) Ischyromys typus, which contradicts the hypothesis that EQ increases through time in all mammalian orders. However, both species of Paramys have a lower relative neocortical surface area than later rodents, suggesting neocorticalization occurred through time in this Order, although to a lesser degree than in Primates. Paramys has a higher EQ but a lower neocortical ratio than any stem primate. This result contrasts with the idea that primates were always exceptional in their degree of overall encephalization and shows that relative brain size and neocortical surface area do not necessarily covary through time. As such, these data contradict assumptions made about the pattern of brain evolution in Euarchontoglires. © 2016 The Author(s).

  5. A new species of Cystoisospora Frenkel, 1977 (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae) from Oecomys mamorae Thomas (Rodentia: Cricetidae) in the Brazilian Pantanal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Wanessa Teixeira Gomes; de Andrade, Gisele Braziliano; Viana, Lúcio André; de Oliveira Porfírio, Grasiela Edith; Santos, Filipe Martins; Perdomo, Alessandra Cabral; do Carmo, Jéssica Soares; da Silva, Alanderson Rodrigues; Maltezo, Taynara Rocha; Herrera, Heitor Miraglia

    2018-05-01

    Despite the great diversity of coccidians, to our knowledge, no coccidian infections have been described in Oecomys spp. In this context, we examined Oecomys mamorae Thomas (Rodentia: Cricetidae) from the Brazilian Pantanal for infections with enteric coccidia. Nine individuals were sampled, and one was found to be infected. The oöcysts were recovered through centrifugal flotation in sugar solution. Using morphological and morphometric features, we described a new species of Cystoisospora Frenkel, 1977. Sporulated oöcysts were ovoidal 20.0-29.1 × 16.4-23.2 (26.7 × 21.2) µm and contained two sporocysts, 12.9-19.1 × 9.4-13.9 (16.4 × 12.4) µm, each with four banana-shaped sporozoites. Polar granule and oöcyst residuum were both absent. We documented the developmental forms in the small intestine and described the histopathological lesions in the enteric tract. Our results indicate that the prevalence of Cystoisospora mamorae n. sp. in O. mamorae is low, and tissue damage in the enteric tract is mild, even in the presence of coccidian developmental stages.

  6. Characteristics of the larval Echinococcus vogeli Rausch and Bernstein, 1972 in the natural intermediate host, the paca, Cuniculus paca L. (Rodentia: Dasyproctidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausch, R L; D'Alessandro, A; Rausch, V R

    1981-09-01

    In Colombia, the natural intermediate host of Echinococcus vogeli Rausch and Bernstein, 1972 is the paca, Cuniculus paca L. (Rodentia: Dasyproctidae). The larval cestode develops in the liver of the host, where it usually is situated superficially, partly exposed beneath Glisson's capsule. The infective larva consists of a subspherical to asymmetrical, fluid-filled vesicle, up to 30 mm in diameter, enclosed by a thick laminated membrane. It typically contains numerous chambers, often interconnected, produced by endogenous proliferation of germinal and laminated tissue, within which brood capsules arise in an irregular pattern from the germinal layer. Invasive growth by means of exogenous proliferation, typical of infections in man, was not observed in the natural intermediate host. The development of the larval cestode is described on the basis of material from pacas, supplemented by observations on early-stage lesions in experimentally infected nutrias, Myocastor coypus (Molina) (Rodentia: Capromyidae). The tissue response is characterized for early-stage, mature (infective), and degenerating larvae in the comparatively long-lived intermediate host. In addition to previously reported differences in size and form of rostellar hooks, other morphologic characteristics are defined by which the larval stage of E. vogeli is distinguished from that of E. oligarthrus (Diesing, 1863). Pathogenesis by the larval E. vogeli in man, like that by the larval E. multilocularis Leuckart, 1863, is the consequence of atypical proliferation of vesicles attributable to parasite-host incompatibility.

  7. A Tribal Story Written in Silica: Using Phytoliths to Research the Effects of Mining on Past Wild Rice (Zizania palustris) Abundance in Sandy Lake, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, I. R.; Jones, M. A.; Yost, C. L.; Drake, C.; Ladwig, J. L.; Myrbo, A.; Howes, T.

    2014-12-01

    Wild rice (Zizania palustris, manoomin) is an emergent aquatic plant that grows annually in the northern Great Lakes region of North America. This region is also rich in iron ore deposits and correspondingly has an extensive history of mining activities. Wild rice no longer grows in some areas where it was previously abundant. Sandy Lake, located in St. Louis County on federally protected lands that are ceded territory of the Fond du Lac Band of Lake Superior Chippewa in Minnesota and downstream of the nearby U.S. Steel Minntac mine, was selected as a test site. This lake has a history of ricing activities by the Ojibwe (Chippewa) People, for whom manoomin has cultural importance. Lake cores were taken on June 17, 2014 by LacCore and FDLRM staff and samples were obtained. This project used phytolith analysis to answer the question of past wild rice presence and abundance in Sandy Lake. Phytoliths are microscopic opal silica deposits produced in some plants. Zizania palustris produces phytolith morphotypes that are unequivocally diagnostic of this species in this region. Microscopic slides were prepared and analyzed for wild rice phytoliths. Concentration values ranged from 25 to 4379 phytoliths per cm3/year, and wild rice accumulation figures ranged from 7 to 789 phytoliths/cm2/year, the maximum values of which occurred in the 1920s and generally declined to the current lowest levels observed. Mining has likely impacted wild rice populations by causing increased sulfate levels and possibly contributing to higher lake levels.

  8. Allodaposuchus palustris sp. nov. from the upper cretaceous of Fumanya (South-Eastern Pyrenees, Iberian Peninsula: systematics, palaeoecology and palaeobiogeography of the enigmatic allodaposuchian crocodylians.

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    Alejandro Blanco

    Full Text Available The controversial European genus Allodaposuchus is currently composed of two species (A. precedens, A. subjuniperus and it has been traditionally considered a basal eusuchian clade of crocodylomorphs. In the present work, the new species A. palustris is erected on the base of cranial and postcranial remains from the lower Maastrichtian of the southern Pyrenees. Phylogenetic analyses here including both cranial and postcranial data support the hypothesis that Allodaposuchus is included within Crocodylia. The studied specimen suggests little change in postcranial skeleton along the evolutionary history of crocodylians, except for some bone elements such as the axis, the first caudal vertebra and the ilium. The specimen was found in an organic mudstone corresponding to a coastal wetland environment. Thus, A. palustris from Fumanya is the first Allodaposuchus reported in lacustrine-palustrine settings that expand the ecological range for this genus. The S-DIVA palaeobiogeographic reconstruction of ancestral area suggests that early members of Crocodylia rapidly widespread for the Northern Hemisphere landmasses no later than the Campanian, leading the apparition of endemic groups. In that way "Allodaposuchia" represents an endemic European clade probably originated in the Ibero-Armorican domain in the late Campanian and dispersed by the Southern European archipelago prior to the early Maastrichtian.

  9. Genética poblacional de cobayas de Colombia, Cavia spp. (Rodentia: Caviidae con marcadores moleculares RAPD

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    Héctor Aníbal Campos

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available En el presente estudio, mostramos los primeros resultados moleculares de formas colombianas de Cavia. Claramente, la población silvestre de C. anolaimae fue genéticamente diferenciada de la forma doméstica, C. porcellus, tal como ha sido demostrado por otros autores utilizando resultados morfométricos, osteológicos y cariotípicos. Ambas especies mostraron un considerable nivel de diversidad genética, aunque el segundo taxon mostró niveles mayores de esta diversidad. Los niveles de heterogeneidad genética también fueron mayores entre las poblaciones de C. porcellus (F ST = 0.254 que entre las poblaciones de C. anolaimae (F ST = 0.118. Esos niveles significativos de heterogeneidad genética, y los consiguientes bajos niveles de flujo génico, fueron discutidos comparativamente con los resultados por otros autores analizando otros marcadores moleculares (citocromo-b mitocondrial. Los resultados aquí mostrados son coherentes con un complejo proceso de domesticación en Cavia porcellus.Population genetics of Colombian Guinea Pigs, Cavia spp. (Rodentia: Caviidae with RAPD molecular markers. The genus Cavia occurs in South America, mainly in grasslands.. We collected blood samples from 97 individuals in six field populations and analyzed them with RAPD molecular markers. One wild type (C. anolaimae was differentiated from the domestic form (C. porcellus, in agreement with other authors who used morphological, osteological and karyotipic results. Genetic diversity was considerable in both species, but higher in C. porcellus. The levels of genetic heterogeneity were also higher among the populations of C. porcellus (F ST = 0.254 than among the populations of C. anolaimae (F ST = 0.118. These significant levels of genetic heterogeneity, and the low levels of gene flow, were consistent with a complex domestication process for Cavia porcellus. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (3: 1481-1501. Epub 2008 September 30.

  10. Dos nuevas especies de Stilestrongylus (Nematoda: Heligmonellidae parásitos de peromyscus (Rodentia: Cricetidae de México

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    Jorge Falcón Ordaz

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describen dos especies nuevas del género Stilestrongylus Freitas, Lent & Almeida, 1937, parásitas de Peromyscus spp. (Rodentia: Cricetidae provenientes del Estado de Hidalgo, Mexico. Stilestrongylus peromysci n. sp. infecta a Peromyscus difficilis y se caracteriza por la presencia de 30 espínas en el synlophe para ambos sexos, así como por el nacimiento simétrico de los rayos 8 a partir de la raíz del rayo nueve. S. hidalguensis n. sp. parásita a Peromyscus sp., diferenciándose del resto de las especies congenéricas porque el macho presenta 24 espinas en el synlophe a nivel de la parte media del cuerpo y porque el arreglo de los rayos bursales es diferente en ambos lóbulos (2-2-1 derecho y 2-3 izquierdo. Se presenta una clave para la identificación de 18 de las 19 especies del género.Stilestrongylus peromysci n. sp. collected from Peromyscus difficilis (Hidalgo state, México, differs from other species in the genus in number of the spines (30 in the synlophe (both sexes and because the eigth ray arises from the root of the ninth ray; S. hidalguensis n. sp. parasited Peromyscus sp. and differs from all other congeneric species in the presence of 24 spines in the male synlophe and in the arrangement of the bursal rays (2-2-1 in the right lobe and 2-3 in the left lobe. A key to the species of Stilestrongylus is provided.

  11. Action of sulfurous acid on pollen. [Hepatica triloba; Helleborus orientalis; Vinca minor; Viola tricolor; Primula officinalis; Lilium candidum; Petunia; Pisum; Helleborus viridus; Galanthus nivealis; Vinca major; Convallaria maialis; Narcissus poeticus; Caltha palustris; Cystisus laburnum; Orchis maculata; Bilbergia; Eranthus; Crocus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabachnikoff, V

    1912-01-23

    The following ornamental plants: Hepatica triloba, Helleborus orientalis, Vinca minor, Viola tricolor, Primula officinalis, Lilium candidum, Petunia, Pisum, Helleborus viridus, Galanthus nivealis, Vinca major, Convallaria maialis, Narcissus poeticus, Caltha palustris, Cystisus laburnum, Orchis maculata, Bilbergia, Eranthus, and Crocus were tested for seed production. Exposure to sulfuric acid ranged from three to forty-eight hours. Responses were noted for varying concentrations.

  12. Scheuchzeria palustris L

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šída, O.; Štěpánková, Jitka

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 1 (2015), s. 100-101 ISSN 1211-5258 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36079G Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : floristics * distribution * endangered species Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  13. The micromammals (Lagomorpha, Eulipotyphla and Rodentia) from the Middle Pleistocene site of Cuesta de la Bajada (Teruel, Spain): Systematic study and paleoenvironmental considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sese, C.; Soto, E.; Santonja, M.; Perez-Gonzalez, A.; Dominguez-Rodrigo, M.

    2016-07-01

    The micromammal association established in this work is the following: Lagomorpha: Oryctolagus cuniculus; Eulipotyphla: Crocidura cf. russula, cf. Sorex sp., Neomys sp., Soricidae indet. and Talpa sp.; and Rodentia: Eliomys quercinus, Apodemus cf. sylvaticus, Cricetulus (Allocricetus) bursae, Arvicola aff. sapidus, Microtus (Iberomys) brecciensis and Microtus (Terricola duodecimcostatus. This association is characteristic of the Middle Pleistocene. The morphological state of Cricetulus (A.) bursae, Arvicola aff. sapidus and Microtus (I.) brecciensis allows to place it in the advanced, but not final, Middle Pleistocene, which agrees with the numerical data of the site (243–337 ka) that places it in the MIS 8 or 9. The micromammals indicate the predominance of the open spaces with abundant vegetation mainly of herbaceous and bushes but also with some areas with trees. The climate would be of Mediterranean type, similar to the actual or perhaps a little milder and more humid. (Author)

  14. Estructura genética de un grupo de capibaras, Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Rodentia: Hydrocheridae en los Llanos orientales colombianos

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    Adriana Maldonado-Chaparro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Los capibaras son los roedores más grandes del mundo, sin embargo, no se han realizado estudios genético poblacionales exhaustivos con ellos. En el presente trabajo se analizó la estructura genética de una manada de 31 capibaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris muestreada en Hato Corozal, Departamento de Casanare en los Llanos Orientales de Colombia, mediante cinco marcadores microsatelitales. La diversidad genética se determinó en 0.61 y un número promedio de alelos de 5.2, lo cual se puede considerar medio-bajo para este tipo de marcadores. De los cinco marcadores empleados, tres mostraron proporciones genotípicas en concordancia con lo esperado en equilibrio Hardy-Weinberg, mientras que un marcador mostró un exceso significativo de homocigotos y otro un exceso significativo de heterocigotos. No se encontraron diferencias significativas para esos cinco marcadores entre machos y hembras de la manada muestreada. La aplicación de diferentes procedimientos para detectar posibles cambios demográficos históricos (expansiones poblacionales o cuellos de botella mostró claramente que la población analizada ha pasado por un cuello de botella extremadamente fuerte en épocas recientes. La limitada variabilidad genética encontrada y la fuerte evidencia de que la manada estudiada ha pasado por un cuello de botella reciente es probablemente el resultado de la cacería ilegal.Genetic structure of a group of capybaras, Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Rodentia: Hydrocheridae in the Colombian Eastern Llanos. The capybaras are the biggest rodents in the world but, however, there are not extensive population genetics studies on them. In the current work, we studied the genetic structure of a troop of 31 capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris sampled in Hato Corozal, Casanare Department at the Colombian Eastern Llanos, by means of five microsatellite markers. The gene diversity was 0.61 and the average allele number was 5.2, which is a medium-low level for

  15. Detection and enumeration of methanotrophs in acidic Sphagnum peat by 16S rRNA fluorescence in situ hybridization, including the use of newly developed oligonucleotide probes for Methylocella palustris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedysh, S N; Derakshani, M; Liesack, W

    2001-10-01

    Two 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes, Mcell-1026 and Mcell-181, were developed for specific detection of the acidophilic methanotroph Methylocella palustris using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The fluorescence signal of probe Mcell-181 was enhanced by its combined application with the oligonucleotide helper probe H158. Mcell-1026 and Mcell-181, as well as 16S rRNA oligonucleotide probes with reported group specificity for either type I methanotrophs (probes M-84 and M-705) or the Methylosinus/Methylocystis group of type II methanotrophs (probes MA-221 and M-450), were used in FISH to determine the abundance of distinct methanotroph groups in a Sphagnum peat sample of pH 4.2. M. palustris was enumerated at greater than 10(6) cells per g of peat (wet weight), while the detectable population size of type I methanotrophs was three orders of magnitude below the population level of M. palustris. The cell counts with probe MA-221 suggested that only 10(4) type II methanotrophs per g of peat (wet weight) were present, while the use of probe M-450 revealed more than 10(6) type II methanotroph cells per g of the same samples. This discrepancy was due to the fact that probe M-450 targets almost all currently known strains of Methylosinus and Methylocystis, whereas probe MA-221, originally described as group specific, does not detect a large proportion of Methylocystis strains. The total number of methanotrophic bacteria detected by FISH was 3.0 (+/-0.2) x 10(6) cells per g (wet weight) of peat. This was about 0.8% of the total bacterial cell number. Thus, our study clearly suggests that M. palustris and a defined population of Methylocystis spp. were the predominant methanotrophs detectable by FISH in an acidic Sphagnum peat bog.

  16. Methylocella palustris gen. nov., sp. nov., a new methane-oxidizing acidophilic bacterium from peat bogs, representing a novel subtype of serine-pathway methanotrophs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedysh, S N; Liesack, W; Khmelenina, V N; Suzina, N E; Trotsenko, Y A; Semrau, J D; Bares, A M; Panikov, N S; Tiedje, J M

    2000-05-01

    A new genus, Methylocella, and a new species, Methylocella palustris, are proposed for three strains of methane-oxidizing bacteria isolated from acidic Sphagnum peat bogs. These bacteria are aerobic, Gram-negative, colourless, non-motile, straight and curved rods that utilize the serine pathway for carbon assimilation, multiply by normal cell division and contain intracellular poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate granules (one at each pole). These strains use methane and methanol as sole sources of carbon and energy and are moderately acidophilic organisms with growth between pH 4.5 and pH 7.0, the optimum being at pH 5.0-5.5. The temperature range for growth is 10-28 degrees C with the optimum at 15-20 degrees C. The intracytoplasmic membrane system is different from those of type I and II methanotrophs. Cells contain an extensive periplasmic space and a vesicular membrane system connected to the cytoplasmic membrane. The strains grew only on media with a low salt content (0.2-0.5 g l(-1)). All three strains were found to possess soluble methane monooxygenase and are able to fix atmospheric nitrogen via an oxygen-sensitive nitrogenase. No products were observed in a PCR with particulate methane monooxygenase-targeted primers; hybridization with a pmoA probe was also negative. The major phospholipid fatty acids are 18:1 acids. The G+C content of the DNA is 61.2 mol%. The three strains share identical 16S rRNA gene sequences and represent a novel lineage of methane-oxidizing bacteria within the alpha-subclass of the class Proteobacteria and are only moderately related to type II methanotrophs of the Methylocystis-Methylosinus group. The three strains are most closely related to the acidophilic heterotrophic bacterium Beijerinckia indica subsp. indica (96.5% 16S rDNA sequence similarity). Collectively, these strains comprise a new species and genus Methylocella palustris gen. nov., sp. nov.; strain KT (= ATCC 700799T) is the type strain.

  17. Single-molecule spectroscopy reveals that individual low-light LH2 complexes from Rhodopseudomonas palustris 2.1.6. have a heterogeneous polypeptide composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotosudarmo, Tatas H P; Kunz, Ralf; Böhm, Paul; Gardiner, Alastair T; Moulisová, Vladimíra; Cogdell, Richard J; Köhler, Jürgen

    2009-09-02

    Rhodopseudomonas palustris belongs to the group of purple bacteria that have the ability to produce LH2 complexes with unusual absorption spectra when they are grown at low-light intensity. This ability is often related to the presence of multiple genes encoding the antenna apoproteins. Here we report, for the first time to our knowledge, direct evidence that individual low-light LH2 complexes have a heterogeneous alphabeta-apoprotein composition that modulates the site energies of Bchl a molecules, producing absorption bands at 800, 820, and 850 nm. The arrangement of the Bchl a molecules in the "tightly coupled ring" can be modeled by nine alphabeta-Bchls dimers, such that the Bchls bound to six alphabeta-pairs have B820-like site energies and the remaining Bchl a molecules have B850-like site energies. Furthermore, the experimental data can only be satisfactorily modeled when these six alphabeta-pairs with B820 Bchl a molecules are distributed such that the symmetry of the assembly is reduced to C(3). It is also clear from the measured single-molecule spectra that the energies of the electronically excited states in the mixed B820/850 ring are mainly influenced by diagonal disorder.

  18. Sulfide Generated by Sulfate Reduction is a Primary Controller of the Occurrence of Wild Rice (Zizania palustris) in Shallow Aquatic Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrbo, A.; Swain, E. B.; Engstrom, D. R.; Coleman Wasik, J.; Brenner, J.; Dykhuizen Shore, M.; Peters, E. B.; Blaha, G.

    2017-11-01

    Field observations suggest that surface water sulfate concentrations control the distribution of wild rice, an aquatic grass (Zizania palustris). However, hydroponic studies show that sulfate is not toxic to wild rice at even unrealistically high concentrations. To determine how sulfate might directly or indirectly affect wild rice, potential wild rice habitat was characterized for 64 chemical and physical variables in over 100 sites spanning a relatively steep climatic and geological gradient in Minnesota. Habitat suitability was assessed by comparing the occurrence of wild rice with the field variables, through binary logistic regression. This analysis demonstrated that sulfide in sediment pore water, generated by the microbial reduction of sulfate that diffuses or advects into the sediment, is the primary control of wild rice occurrence. Water temperature and water transparency independently control the suitability of habitat for wild rice. In addition to generating phytotoxic sulfide, sulfate reduction also supports anaerobic decomposition of organic matter, releasing nutrients that can compound the harm of direct sulfide toxicity. These results are important because they show that increases in sulfate loading to surface water can have multiple negative consequences for ecosystems, even though sulfate itself is relatively benign.

  19. Kocuria palustris sp. nov. and Kocuria rhizophila sp. nov., isolated from the rhizoplane of the narrow-leaved cattail (Typha angustifolia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, G; Burghardt, J; Pradella, S; Schumann, P; Stackebrandt, E; Màrialigeti, K

    1999-01-01

    Two Gram-positive, aerobic spherical actinobacteria were isolated from the rhizoplane of narrow-leaved cattail (Typha angustifolia) collected from a floating mat in the Soroksár tributary of the Danube river, Hungary. Sequence comparisons of the 16S rDNA indicated these isolates to be phylogenetic neighbours of members of the genus Kocuria, family Micrococcaceae, in which they represent two novel lineages. The phylogenetic distinctness of the two organisms TA68T and TAGA27T was supported by DNA-DNA similarity values of less than 55% between each other and with the type strains of Kocuria rosea, Kocuria kristinae and Kocuria varians. Chemotaxonomic properties supported the placement of the two isolates in the genus Kocuria. The diagnostic diamino acid of the cell-wall peptidoglycan is lysine, the interpeptide bridge is composed of three alanine residues. Predominant menaquinone was MK-7(H2). The fatty acid pattern represents the straight-chain saturated iso-anteiso type. Main fatty acid was anteiso-C15:0. The phospholipids are diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and an unknown component. The DNA base composition of strains TA68T and TAGA27T is 69.4 and 69.6 mol% G+C, respectively. Genotypic, morphological and physiological characteristics are used to describe two new species of Kocuria, for which we propose the names Kocuria palustris, type strain DSM 11925T and Kocuria rhizophila, type strain DSM 11926T.

  20. High-resolution bioactivity profiling combined with HPLC-HRMS-SPE-NMR: α-Glucosidase inhibitors and acetylated ellagic acid rhamnosides from Myrcia palustris DC. (Myrtaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wubshet, Sileshi G; Moresco, Henrique H; Tahtah, Yousof; Brighente, Inês M C; Staerk, Dan

    2015-08-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is an endocrine metabolic disease with a worldwide prevalence of more than 8%, and an expected increase close to 50% in the next 15-20years. T2D is associated with severe and life-threatening complications like retinopathy, neuropathy, nephropathy, and cardiovascular diseases, and therefore improved drug leads or functional foods containing α-glucosidase inhibitors are needed for management of blood glucose. In this study, leaves of Myrcia palustris were investigated by high-resolution α-glucosidase inhibition profiling combined with HPLC-HRMS-SPE-NMR. This led to identification of casuarinin, myricetin 3-O-β-d-(6″-galloyl)galactopyranoside, kaempferol 3-O-β-d-galactopyranoside, myricetin, and quercetin as α-glucosidase inhibitors. In addition, four acetylated ellagic acid rhamnosides, i.e., 4-O-(2″,4″-O-diacetyl-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl)ellagic acid, 4-O-(2″,3″-O-diacetyl-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl)ellagic acid, 4-O-(3″,4″-O-diacetyl-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl)ellagic acid, and 4-O-(2″,3″,4″-O-triacetyl-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl)ellagic acid were identified. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Juvenile dispersal in Calomys venustus (Muridae: Sigmodontinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priotto, José; Steinmann, Andrea; Provensal, Cecilia; Polop, Jaime

    2004-05-01

    Both spacing behaviour and dispersal movement are viewed as hierarchical processes in which the effects may be expressed at spatial scale. This research was carried out to examine the hypothesis that the presence of parents promotes the dispersal of juveniles from their natal nest and their father or mother home-range, in Calomys venustus.The study was carried out in four 0.25 ha fences (two controls and two experimentals), in a natural pasture. This study had two periods: Father Removal (FR) (August and December 1997; year one) and Mother Removal (MR) (August 1998 and January 1999; year two). For the FR treatment fathers were removed after juveniles were born, but in the MR treatment mothers were removed after the juveniles were weaned. The effect of parents on the dispersal distance of juveniles was analysed with respect to their natal nest and their mother and father home-range. Dispersal distance from the nest of C. venustus was independent of either male or female parent. Juveniles were more dispersing in relation to the centre of activity of their mothers than to that of their fathers, and females were more dispersing than males. Female juveniles overlap their home-range with their parents less than male juveniles do. The differences observed between female and male juveniles would be related to their different sexual maturation times, as well as to the female territoriality.

  2. Una nueva especie del género Hoplopleura Enderlein, 1904 (Anoplura, Hoplopleuridae parásita de Andinomys edax (Rodentia, Cricetidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González, A.

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors described a new species Hoplopleura zentaensi sp. n. based on specimens collected on Andinomys edax Thomas, l902, from Sierra de Zenta, Jujuy province, Argentina. Descriptions involve the holotype female; three nymphal instar, external architecture of eggs and sites of oviposition, providing differences with its close relative Hoplopleura hirsuta Ferris, l916 and Hoplopleura oxymycteri Ferris, l921. Comments on distribution of these species on their hosts are presented and they are included in the “erratica” group.Describimos en esta contribución a Hoplopleura zentaensi sp. n., a partir de la hembra, sus tres estadios ninfales y las características coriónicas externas del huevo de la referida especie parásita de Andinomys edax Thomas, 1902 (Rodentia, Cricetidae, capturado en Sierra de Zenta, Jujuy, Argentina. Hoplopleura zentaensi sp. n. es afín a Hoplopleura hirsuta Ferris, 1916 y de Hoplopleura oxymycteri Ferris, 1921, integrando junto a estas especies el grupo “erratica”.

  3. Anaerobic p-coumarate degradation by Rhodopseudomonas palustris and identification of CouR, a MarR repressor protein that binds p-coumaroyl coenzyme A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirakawa, Hidetada; Schaefer, Amy L; Greenberg, E Peter; Harwood, Caroline S

    2012-04-01

    The phenylpropanoid p-coumarate and structurally related aromatic compounds are produced in large amounts by green plants and are excellent carbon sources for many soil bacteria. Aerobic bacteria remove the acyl side chain from phenylpropanoids to leave an aromatic aldehyde, which then enters one of several possible central pathways of benzene ring degradation. We investigated the pathway for the anaerobic degradation of p-coumarate by the phototrophic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris and found that it also follows this metabolic logic. We characterized enzymes for the conversion of p-coumarate to p-hydroxybenzaldehyde and acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) encoded by the couAB operon. We also identified a MarR family transcriptional regulator that we named CouR. A couR mutant had elevated couAB expression. In addition, His-tagged CouR bound with high affinity to a DNA fragment encompassing the couAB promoter region, and binding was abrogated by the addition of nanomolar quantities of p-coumaroyl-CoA but not by p-coumarate. Footprinting demonstrated binding of CouR to an inverted repeat sequence that overlaps the -10 region of the couAB promoter. Our results provide evidence for binding of a CoA-modified aromatic compound by a MarR family member. Although the MarR family is widely distributed in bacteria and archaea and includes over 12,000 members, ligands have been identified for relatively few family members. Here we provide biochemical evidence for a new category of MarR ligand.

  4. Genome Assembly of the Fungus Cochliobolus miyabeanus, and Transcriptome Analysis during Early Stages of Infection on American Wildrice (Zizania palustris L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia V Castell-Miller

    Full Text Available The fungus Cochliobolus miyabeanus causes severe leaf spot disease on rice (Oryza sativa and two North American specialty crops, American wildrice (Zizania palustris and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum. Despite the importance of C. miyabeanus as a disease-causing agent in wildrice, little is known about either the mechanisms of pathogenicity or host defense responses. To start bridging these gaps, the genome of C. miyabeanus strain TG12bL2 was shotgun sequenced using Illumina technology. The genome assembly consists of 31.79 Mbp in 2,378 scaffolds with an N50 = 74,921. It contains 11,000 predicted genes of which 94.5% were annotated. Approximately 10% of total gene number is expected to be secreted. The C. miyabeanus genome is rich in carbohydrate active enzymes, and harbors 187 small secreted peptides (SSPs and some fungal effector homologs. Detoxification systems were represented by a variety of enzymes that could offer protection against plant defense compounds. The non-ribosomal peptide synthetases and polyketide synthases (PKS present were common to other Cochliobolus species. Additionally, the fungal transcriptome was analyzed at 48 hours after inoculation in planta. A total of 10,674 genes were found to be expressed, some of which are known to be involved in pathogenicity or response to host defenses including hydrophobins, cutinase, cell wall degrading enzymes, enzymes related to reactive oxygen species scavenging, PKS, detoxification systems, SSPs, and a known fungal effector. This work will facilitate future research on C. miyabeanus pathogen-associated molecular patterns and effectors, and in the identification of their corresponding wildrice defense mechanisms.

  5. Hydrogen photo-evolution by Rhodopseudomonas palustris 6A using pre-treated olive mill wastewater and a synthetic medium containing sugars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pintucci, Cristina; Padovani, Giulia; Giovannelli, Alessio; Traversi, Maria Laura; Ena, Alba; Pushparaj, Benjamin; Carlozzi, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Adsorbent matrices to convert fresh olive mill wastewater (OMW F ) in feedstock. • Dry-Azolla and granular active carbon for adsorbing polyphenols from OMW F . • Photofermentative processes for biohydrogen production. • Culture mixing by means of an impeller or a magnetic stir bar. • A 30% of dephenolised OMW containing medium suits the photofermentative process. - Abstract: Increasing costs of petroleum, associated with the escalating problems of global climate change, require always greater efforts in order to produce an energy carrier as bioH 2 . In this study, bioH 2 production using photofermentative process was investigated. Two culture broths were used: (a) a synthetic medium rich in sugars (glucose and fructose) and (b) a pre-treated fresh olive-mill wastewater (OMW F ) diluted with water (30%, v:v). The pre-treatment was carried out using two different vegetable matrices (dry-Azolla and granular active carbon) to decrease both the content of polyphenols and the dark colour of wastewater. Rhodopseudomonas palustris 6A isolated from soil spread with OMW was utilized for batch growth experiments, carried out indoors under continuous light (200 μE/m 2 /s). When synthetic medium was used, the culture mixing was performed using either (i) a magnetic stir bar, and (ii) an impeller equipped with five turbines. The latter system made it possible to increase the bioH 2 photo-evolution by 1.4 times. The specific hydrogen photo-evolution rate was 13.5 mL/g(dw)/h in the broth containing diluted OMW F and 11.8 mL/g(dw)/h in the synthetic medium containing sugars (glucose and fructose)

  6. Rodentia and lagomorpha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffield, S.R.; Sawicka-Kapusta, K.; Cohen, J.B.; Rattner, B.A.; Shore, Richard F.; Rattner, Barnett A.

    2001-01-01

    This comprehensive review examines the extensive literature on wild rodents and lagomorphs as biomonitors of environmental contamination. This chapter covers studies dealing with exposure and effects of environmental contaminants on rodent and lagomorph species, including pesticides (organochlorines, organophosphorus and carbamate compounds, herbicides, plant growth regulators, fungicides, and rodenticides), other organic chemicals, metals, radionuclides, and other miscellaneous contaminants. Many research needs become evident when reviewing ecotoxicological data for rodents and lagomorphs, the most striking being the paucity of information on rodent families other than Muridae (mice and rats). While our ability to qualitatively extrapolate effects observed in laboratory studies to field situations is good for a variety of contaminants, quantitative predictions of dose-response relationships are poor because inter-specific variation and differences in exposure patterns between laboratory and wild species to toxicants are for the most part unknown. More sophisticated comparative toxicity studies need to be undertaken that build on previous work in order to develop a database of information, to account for and model differences in exposure pathways, to document interactions among multiple stressors, to generate data establishing thresholds, critical concentrations, and diagnostic guidelines, and even to develop physiologically-based toxicokinetic models. Such efforts may enhance our ability to predict effects on wild populations, including threatened and endangered species.

  7. natalensis (Muridae: Rodentia)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-04-07

    Apr 7, 2011 ... Mastomys natalensis, the multimammate mouse, was live-trapped on six grids varying in vegetative cover and ... induced cotton rats to occupy open patches which. without ... The presenL study was designed to test experimentally the ..... Swanepoel 1980; Monadjem 1997b) and insects (Field 1975).

  8. Leishmaniose cutânea na Amazônia: isolamento de Leishmania (Viannia lainsoni do roedor Agouti paca (Rodentia: Dasyproctidae, no estado do Pará, Brasil Cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Amazon Region: isolation of Leishmania (Viannia lainsoni from the rodent Agouti paca (Rodentia: Dasyproctidae in Pará State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando T. Silveira

    1991-02-01

    Full Text Available Fez-se o registro, pela primeira vez, do isolamento de Leishmania (V. lainsoni de um mamífero silvestre, o roedor Agouti paca (Rodentia: Dasyproctidae, no Estado do Pará, Brasil. As amostras do parasita foram isoladas da pele, aparentemente íntegra, de 3 espécimes desse roedor, capturados no município de Tucuruí (ilha de Tocantins, em área que seria inundada pela formação do lago da hidrelétrica construída naquele município. Nenhum isolamento foi obtido de vísceras de qualquer dos animais. A identificação das amostras de L. (V. lainsoni baseou-se na morfologia de amastigotas e promastigotas, no comportamento da infecção em "hamsters", na análise bioquímica de isoenzimas e, ainda, através de testes com anticorpos monoclonais. A natureza inaparente da infecção nos animais faz supor que o mamífero em questão possa representar um hospedeiro definitivo do parasita na região Amazônica.The isolation of Leishmania (V. lainsoni is recorded for the first time from a wild animal, the rodent Agouti paca (Rodentia: Dasyproctidae, from Pará State, north Brazil. Isolates of the parasite were made from apparently normal skin of 3 specimens of this rodent captured on the Island of Tocantins, in the municipality of Tucuruí, an area subsequently flooded in the formation of the lake associated with the Tucuruí hydroeletric dam. No isolations were made from the viscera. Identification of the parasite was in each case based on morphology of the amastigotes and promastigotes, behavior of the organism in hamsters, isoenzymes profiles and the use of monoclonal antibodies. The inapparent nature of the infection leads us to suggest that the "paca", Agouti paca, represents a primitive host of L. (V. lainsoni in the Amazon Region.

  9. Functional differentiation of trailing and leading forelimbs during locomotion on the ground and on a horizontal branch in the European red squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris, Rodentia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, André

    2011-06-01

    Mammalian locomotion is characterized by the frequent use of in-phase gaits in which the footfalls of the left and right fore- or hindlimbs are unevenly spaced in time. Although previous studies have identified a functional differentiation between the first limb (trailing limb) and the second limb (leading limb) to touch the ground during terrestrial locomotion, the influence of a horizontal branch on limb function has never been explored. To determine the functional differences between trailing and leading forelimbs during locomotion on the ground and on a horizontal branch, X-ray motion analysis and force measurements were carried out in two European red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris, Rodentia). The differences observed between trailing and leading forelimbs were minimal during terrestrial locomotion, where both limbs fulfill two functions and go through a shock-absorbing phase followed by a generating phase. During locomotion on a horizontal branch, European red squirrels reduce speed and all substrate reaction forces transmitted may be due to the reduction of vertical oscillation of the center of mass. Further adjustments during locomotion on a horizontal branch differ significantly between trailing and leading forelimbs and include limb flexion, lead intervals, limb protraction and vertical displacement of the scapular pivot. Consequently, trailing and leading forelimbs perform different functions. Trailing forelimbs function primarily as shock-absorbing elements, whereas leading forelimbs are characterized by a high level of stiffness. This functional differentiation indicates that European red squirrels 'test' the substrate for stability with the trailing forelimb, while the leading forelimb responds to or counteracts swinging or snapping branches. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of dilution and L-malic acid addition on bio-hydrogen production with Rhodopseudomonas palustris from effluent of an acidogenic anaerobic reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azbar, N.; Tuba, F.; Dokgoz, C.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, H 2 was produced in a two-stage biological process: I) first stage; the dark fermentation of cheese whey wastewater, which is rich in lactose, by mixed anaerobic culture grown at thermophilic temperature in a continuously running fermentor and ii) second stage; the photo-fermentation of the residual medium by R. palustris strain (DSM 127) at 31 o C under illumination of 150 W in batch mode, respectively. In the first part of the study, the effluent from the dark fermentation reactor was used either as it is (no dilution) or after dilution with distilled water at varying ratios such as 1/2 , 1/5, 1/10 (1 volume effluent/5 volume distilled water) before used in photo-fermentation experiments. In the second part of the study, L-malic acid at varying amounts was added into the hydrogen production medium in order to have L-malic acid concentrations ranging from 0 to 4 g/l. Non-diluted and pre-diluted mediums with or without L-malic acid addition were also tested for comparison purpose (as controls). Prior to the hydrogen production experiments, all samples were subjected to pH adjustment, (pH 6.7) and sterilized by autoclave at 121 o C for 15 min. In regards to the experiments in which the effect of dilution of the effluent from dark fermentation was studied, it was observed that dilution of the effluent from dark fermentation resulted in much better hydrogen productions. Among the dilution rates used, the experiments operated with 1/5 dilution ratio produced the best hydrogen production (241 ml H 2 / g COD fed ). On the other hand, it was seen that the mixing the effluent with L-malic acid (0 - 4 g/l) at increasing ratios (studied from 0% L-malic acid up to 100% by volume in the mixture) had further positive effect and improved the hydrogen production. The bioreactors containing only L-malic acid media resulted in the best hydrogen production (438 ml H 2 / g COD fed ). It was found that, undiluted raw cheese whey wastewater effluent from dark hydrogen

  11. Effect of dilution and L-malic acid addition on bio-hydrogen production with Rhodopseudomonas palustris from effluent of an acidogenic anaerobic reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azbar, N.; Tuba, F.; Dokgoz, C. [Bioengineering Dept., Faculty of Engineering, Ege Univ., Izmir (Turkey)], E-mail: nuri.azbar@ege.edu.tr

    2009-07-01

    In this study, H{sub 2} was produced in a two-stage biological process: I) first stage; the dark fermentation of cheese whey wastewater, which is rich in lactose, by mixed anaerobic culture grown at thermophilic temperature in a continuously running fermentor and ii) second stage; the photo-fermentation of the residual medium by R. palustris strain (DSM 127) at 31{sup o}C under illumination of 150 W in batch mode, respectively. In the first part of the study, the effluent from the dark fermentation reactor was used either as it is (no dilution) or after dilution with distilled water at varying ratios such as 1/2 , 1/5, 1/10 (1 volume effluent/5 volume distilled water) before used in photo-fermentation experiments. In the second part of the study, L-malic acid at varying amounts was added into the hydrogen production medium in order to have L-malic acid concentrations ranging from 0 to 4 g/l. Non-diluted and pre-diluted mediums with or without L-malic acid addition were also tested for comparison purpose (as controls). Prior to the hydrogen production experiments, all samples were subjected to pH adjustment, (pH 6.7) and sterilized by autoclave at 121{sup o}C for 15 min. In regards to the experiments in which the effect of dilution of the effluent from dark fermentation was studied, it was observed that dilution of the effluent from dark fermentation resulted in much better hydrogen productions. Among the dilution rates used, the experiments operated with 1/5 dilution ratio produced the best hydrogen production (241 ml H{sub 2}/ g COD{sub fed}). On the other hand, it was seen that the mixing the effluent with L-malic acid (0 - 4 g/l) at increasing ratios (studied from 0% L-malic acid up to 100% by volume in the mixture) had further positive effect and improved the hydrogen production. The bioreactors containing only L-malic acid media resulted in the best hydrogen production (438 ml H{sub 2} / g COD{sub fed}). It was found that, undiluted raw cheese whey wastewater

  12. Variaciones nucleotídicas de dos grupos de tepezcuintles, Agouti paca (Rodentia: Agoutidae, en cautiverio provenientes de dos localidades de Yucatán, México

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    Rubén C Montes-Pérez

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Estimamos las variaciones nucleotídicas entre dos grupos de tepezcuintles (Agouti paca provenientes de los estados de Campeche y Quintana Roo, México y, dentro de cada grupo. Se colectaron muestras sanguíneas de once A. paca mantenidos en cautiverio. El ADN de leucocitos se utilizó para efectuar la amplificación aleatoria de polimorfismos de ADN (RAPD. Se seleccionaron los iniciadores número tres 5’ -d(GTAGACCCGT-3’ y seis 5’ -d(CCCGTCAGCA-3’ del estuche (Ready.To.Go. RAPD Analysis Beads, Amersham Pharmacia Biotech, porque produjeron un adecuado número de bandas. Los patrones electroforéticos de bandas fueron procesados con el software para análisis filogenético basado en el método de UPGMA para estimar la variación nucleotídica. El árbol filogenético obtenido con el iniciador tres reveló una agrupación dicotómica entre los animales de ambos estados de la Península de Yucatán, con un valor de divergencia de 1.983 nucleótidos de cada cien. Los animales de Quintana Roo mostraron un agrupamiento con el iniciador seis y, otro grupo más con animales procedentes de Campeche. La variación nucleotídica entre estos dos grupos fue de 2.118 nucleótidos por cada cien. Las variaciones nucleotídicas dentro de los grupos procedentes de ambos estados, para los dos iniciadores, mostraron valores que fluctuaron entre 0.46 y 1.68 nucleótidos de cada cien, lo cual indica que la variación nucleotídica entre los dos grupos de animales es alrededor de dos nucleótidos por cada cien y, dentro de grupos es menor a 1.7 nucleótidos por cada cien.Nucleotidic variations of two captive groups of tepezcuintle, Agouti paca (Rodentia: Agoutidae, from two sites in Yucatan, Mexico. The objective of this work was to estimate the nucleotidic variation between two groups of tepezcuintles (Agouti paca from the states of Campeche and Quintana Roo, Mexico and within members of each group. Blood samples were collected from eleven A. paca kept in

  13. Ecología poblacional del ratón Peromyscus mexicanus (Rodentia: Muridae en el Parque Nacional Volcán Poás, Costa Rica

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    Licidia Rojas Rojas

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió el tamaño poblacional, la proporción de sexos, el peso y el número de adultos e inmaduros de Peromyscus mexicanus en tres sitios, durante 14 meses, en el Parque Nacional volcán Poás, Costa Rica. Se colocaron 30 trampas Sherman en cada sitio, para un estudio de captura-recaptura durante seis días consecutivos de cada mes, desde marzo de 2002 hasta abril de 2003. Se hicieron 2 393 capturas, hallándose en Tierra Fría, además de P. mexicanus, Reithrodontomys creper, R. rodriguezi, Scotinomys teguina y Oryzomys devius (Muridae. En Potrero Grande se capturaron P. mexicanus, R. creper, R. sumichrasti, S. teguina y O. devius. En Canto de las Aves se capturaron P. mexicanus, R. creper, R. rodriguezi y O. devius. El 34.77 % del total de ratones capturados fueron P. mexicanus. Se capturaron en promedio 34 individuos por mes por hectárea en Tierra Fría y 11 en Potrero Grande; en Canto de las Aves sólo se capturaron 4 individuos en todo el muestreo. El tamaño estimado de la población de P. mexicanus no varió mensualmente en Tierra Fría, pero si en Potrero Grande. No se observó variación en la proporción de sexos en ninguno de los dos sitios. El valor promedio de peso en Tierra Fría fue de 43.83+1.93 g machos 39.29+2.07 g hembras. En Potrero Grande fue 43.54+3.42 g machos y 42.08+3.45 g hembras. En ninguno de los dos sitios se encontraron diferencias en la cantidad de individuos inmaduros a través del tiempo.Population ecology of the mouse Peromyscus mexicanus (Rodentia: Muridae in Poas Volcano National Park, Costa Rica. The Mexican Deer Mouse has been reported as an abundant wild mouse in Costa Rica; nevertheless, it has not been studied as well as other Peromyscus species. Thirty Sherman traps were placed on three habitats during six consecutive days of each month, from March 2002 through April 2003 in three sites of Poás volcano National Park, Costa Rica. A total of 2 393 mice were captured. Other species such as

  14. In Situ Dark Adaptation Enhances the Efficiency of DNA Extraction from Mature Pin Oak (Quercus palustris Leaves, Facilitating the Identification of Partial Sequences of the 18S rRNA and Isoprene Synthase (IspS Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csengele E. Barta

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Mature oak (Quercus spp. leaves, although abundantly available during the plants’ developmental cycle, are rarely exploited as viable sources of genomic DNA. These leaves are rich in metabolites difficult to remove during standard DNA purification, interfering with downstream molecular genetics applications. The current work assessed whether in situ dark adaptation, to deplete sugar reserves and inhibit secondary metabolite synthesis could compensate for the difficulties encountered when isolating DNA from mature leaves rich in secondary metabolites. We optimized a rapid, commercial kit based method to extract genomic DNA from dark- and light-adapted leaves. We demonstrated that in situ dark adaptation increases the yield and quality of genomic DNA obtained from mature oak leaves, yielding templates of sufficiently high quality for direct downstream applications, such as PCR amplification and gene identification. The quality of templates isolated from dark-adapted pin oak leaves particularly improved the amplification of larger fragments in our experiments. From DNA extracts prepared with our optimized method, we identified for the first time partial segments of the genes encoding 18S rRNA and isoprene synthase (IspS from pin oak (Quercus palustris, whose full genome has not yet been sequenced.

  15. A 400-year phytolith-based reconstruction of wild rice (Zizania palustris) abundance from Mud Lake core sediments, Fond du Lac Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Reservation, Minnesota, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, R.; Caylor, E.; Yost, C. L.; Drake, C.; Ladwig, J. L.; Myrbo, A.; Howes, T.

    2014-12-01

    Wild rice (Zizania palustris L.) is an aquatic grass with spiritual and subsistence significance to Native people of the Great Lakes region of North America. Mud Lake (Mashkiigwaagamaag), located on the Fond du Lac Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Reservation in Carlton County, Minnesota, USA, once supported an extensive population of wild rice (manoomin). However, early 20th century attempts to ditch and drain surrounding wetlands for landuse intensification severely altered the natural hydrological system that supports wild rice. Fond du Lac Resource Management (FDLRM) technicians are currently working to increase the wild rice population in Mud Lake. As part of these efforts, this phytolith study was undertaken to better understand how wild rice abundance has fluctuated over the past 400 years, with particular emphasis on the 19th and 20th centuries. Phytoliths are microscopic opal silica plant remains that are incorporated into soils and lake sediments after the plant-parts that contain them decay. Wild rice produces phytolith morphotypes that are unequivocally diagnostic. Mud Lake core MNMN-MUD11-1C-1P-1 (46°43'38.39"N, 92°42'2.45"W) was piston cored by LacCore (National Lacustrine Core Facility) and FDLRM technicians on 24 May 2011. Initial core descriptions, multi-sensor core logging, phytolith sampling and phytolith extractions were completed during the summer of 2014 at LacCore. Wild rice phytolith identification and quantification was conducted on twelve samples using brightfield microscopy at 400x magnification. Wild rice phytolith concentration values ranged from 68 to 2,300 phytoliths/cm3. Wild rice accumulation rates ranged from 9 to 383 phytoliths/ cm2/yr, peaking in 1952 AD. Wild rice abundance in Mud Lake appears to be influenced by a complex set of variables that include anthropogenic disturbance, climatic events and aquatic plant community succession.

  16. Development of a Novel Escherichia coli–Kocuria Shuttle Vector Using the Cryptic pKPAL3 Plasmid from K. palustris IPUFS-1 and Its Utilization in Producing Enantiopure (S-Styrene Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Toda

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The novel cryptic pKPAL3 plasmid was isolated from the Gram-positive microorganism Kocuria palustris IPUFS-1 and characterized in detail. pKPAL3 is a circular plasmid that is 4,443 bp in length. Open reading frame (ORF and homology search analyses indicated that pKPAL3 possesses four ORFs; however, there were no replication protein coding genes predicted in the plasmid. Instead, there were two nucleotide sequence regions that showed significant identities with untranslated regions of K. rhizophila DC2201 (NBRC 103217 genomic sequences, and these sequences were essential for autonomous replication of pKPAL3 in Kocuria cells. Based on these findings, we constructed the novel Escherichia coli–Kocuria shuttle vectors pKITE301 (kanamycin resistant and pKITE303 (thiostrepton resistant from pKPAL3. The copy numbers of the constructed shuttle vectors were estimated to be 20 per cell, and they exhibited low segregation stability in Kocuria transformant cells in the absence of antibiotics. Moreover, constructed vectors showed compatibility with the other K. rhizophila shuttle vector pKITE103. We successfully expressed multiple heterologous genes, including the styrene monooxygenase gene from Rhodococcus sp. ST-10 (rhsmo and alcohol dehydrogenase gene from Leifsonia sp. S749 (lsadh, in K. rhizophila DC2201 using the pKITE301P and pKITE103P vectors under the control of the glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gapdh promotor. The RhSMO–LSADH co-expressing K. rhizophila was used as a biocatalyst in an organic solvent–water biphasic reaction system to efficiently convert styrene into (S-styrene oxide with 99% ee in the presence of 2-propanol as a hydrogen donor. The product concentration of the reaction in the organic solvent reached 235 mM after 30 h under optimum conditions. Thus, we demonstrated that this novel shuttle vector is useful for developing biocatalysts based on organic solvent-tolerant Kocuria cells.

  17. Placentation in Sigmodontinae: a rodent taxon native to South America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Favaron, Phelipe O; Carter, Anthony Michael; Ambrosio, Carlos E

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Sigmondontinae, known as "New World rats and mice," is a large subfamily of Cricetidae for which we herein provide the first comprehensive investigation of the placenta. METHODS: Placentas of various gestational ages ranging from early pregnancy to near term were obtained fo...

  18. Productive Performance Of The Grasscutter (Rodentia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The floor housing, open-cage and closed-cage housing systems for rearing grasscutters in captivity were respectively used to evaluate the performance of the grasscutter (Thryonomys swinderianus Temmnick, 1827) in the humid tropics of southern Nigeria. There was no significant difference (P>0.05) in the average initial ...

  19. Historia natural de un roedor raro del desierto argentino, Salinomys delicatus (Cricetidae: Sigmodontinae Natural history of a rare rodent of the Argentinean desert, Salinomys delicatus(Cricetidae: Sigmodontinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELA RODRÍGUEZ

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available El ratón delicado de los salares (Salinomys delicatus es un pequeño roedor endémico de Argentina. Ha sido considerado como vulnerable a la extinción dada su distribución restringida y en parches, tamaño poblacional pequeño y especialización en hábitats salinos. A pesar de que el ratón delicado tiene adaptaciones morfológicas y fisiológicas para la supervivencia en ambientes áridos y salitrosos, poco es lo que se conoce de su historia natural. El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo estudiar la historia natural de S. delicatus, reportar nuevas localidades de ocurrencia, caracterizar el uso de hábitat, su dieta y el ensamble acompañante, y describir su biología reproductiva y morfología. Se registraron dos nuevos sitios de ocurrencia en ambientes de bosques en galería y bajos salinos en la región noreste de la provincia de Mendoza (Argentina, siendo las primeras citas para esta provincia. S. delicatus presenta una dieta omnívora, como es frecuente en otros roedores de desierto, y consume en igual medida semillas, artrópodos y plantas halófitas. El ensamble acompañante está compuesto por no más de tres especies de pequeños mamíferos que varían según la localidad, siendo esta riqueza similar a otros sitios del Monte. La proporción de sexos y el patrón de dimorfismo sexual mostraron un marcado desvío hacia las hembras (H:M = 3.6:1.1 y H:M = 1.151 respectivamente. La morfología externa y craneal presenta una importante variabilidad intra e interpoblacional, sugiriendo que el aislamiento juega un rol importante. Cuando se consideraron adultos y juveniles, conjuntamente dos de las seis medidas externas (longitud total y longitud de cabeza y cuerpo y siete de las 22 medidas craneales resultaron significativamente mayores en hembras que en machos. Cuando se compararon solo los adultos, cuatro características externas (longitud total, longitud de cabeza y cuerpo, largo de la cola y peso y seis medidas craneales fueron significativamente mayores en hembras que en machos. Este trabajo refuerza la importancia del desarrollo de nuevos estudios más detallados sobre la historia de vida de S. delicatus y permite reafirmar la importancia de conservación de esta especie.The delicate mouse (Salinomys delicatus is a small rodent endemic of Argentina. It has been considered vulnerable to extinction because of its restricted and patchy distribution, small population size and specialization on salty habitats. Besides its morphological and physiological adaptations to survive in arid and salty habitats, there is still little information about the natural history of the delicate mouse. The objectives of our study are to study the natural history of S. delicatus, report new localities of occurrence, characterize its habitat use, diet and accompanying assemblages and describe its reproductive biology and morphology. We report two new localities of occurrences in gallery woodlands and salt flats in the northeast of Mendoza province (Argentina, these being the first records for this province. Like other South AAmerican rodents, S. delicatus has an omnivorous diet consisting in similar proportion of seeds, arthropods and halophytic plants. The assemblages are composed by no more than three small mammal species, varying according to the locality. Sex ratio and the pattern of sexual dimorphism shows a strong bias towards females (H:M = 3.6:1.1 and H:M = 1.151 respectively. External and cranial morphology exhibits a clear intra- and inter-population variability. When considering in the analysis adults and juvenile, two of six external measurements (head and body length and total length and seven of twenty-two cranial measurements were significantly higher in females than in males. When considering only adults, four external measures (total length, head and body length, tail length and weight and six cranial measurements were significantly higher in females than in males. This integrative analysis highlights the relevance of conducting further and more detailed studies on the natural history of S. delicatus and allows us to reassert the conservation importance of this species.

  20. Avaliação de possível interferência do tabagismo na ovoposição de larvas de Calliphoridae (Díptera em carcaça de Mus musculus L. (Rodentia: Muriade em São Paulo, SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Souza Guerra

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A estimativa do intervalo post-mortem (IPM é uma das principais utilizações de insetos na perícia, que pode ser fundamentado no ciclo biológico, ecologia e distribuição geográfica de uma determinada espécie, bem como o comportamento de toda fauna presente em um corpo a fim de estimar o menor intervalo possível da ocorrência da morte. Diversos fatores podem interferir no ciclo de vida de um inseto, tais como temperatura, umidade e presença de substâncias nos tecidos de uma carcaça, promovendo, em certos casos, aceleração ou retardo neste ciclo afetando diretamente na estimativa do IPM. O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a possível interferência do tabagismo na ovoposição de larvas de Calliphoridae (Díptera em carcaça de Mus musculus L. (Rodentia: Muridae, na zona leste de São Paulo, SP, correlacionando os estágios de decomposição da carcaça e o desenvolvimento larval de moscas. A captura das larvas foi realizada durante o mês de outubro de 2014, as quais as carcaças foram acondicionadas em aparato adequado para coleta de insetos imaturos e adultos: uma contendo a carcaça tabagista e outra com a carcaça não fumante. No curso da decomposição da carcaça não fumante, foram capturados 37 indivíduos adultos da família Calliphoridae emergidos durante o processo de decomposição, ao passo que, na carcaça com fumígeno, não foi coletado nenhuma espécie emergida deste substrato, porém, a mesma apresentou uma decomposição até a fase de esqueletização em menor tempo comparado á carcaça controle, sugerindo assim, uma possível interferência do ato de tabagismo na estimativa do IPM.

  1. Carbon Dynamics of Pinus palustris Ecosystems Following Drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Starr

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Drought can affect forest structure and function at various spatial and temporal scales. Forest response and recovery from drought may be a result of position within landscape. Longleaf pine forests in the United States have been observed to reduce their carbon sequestration capacity during drought. We collected eddy covariance data at the ends of an edaphic longleaf pine gradient (xeric and mesic sites over seven years; two years of normal rainfall were followed by 2.5 years of drought, then 2.5 years of normal or slightly above-average rainfall. Drought played a significant role in reducing the physiological capacity of the sites and was compounded when prescribed fire occurred during the same periods. The mesic site has a 40% greater basal area then the xeric site, which accounts for its larger sequestration capacity; however, both sites show the same range of variance in fluxes over the course of the study. Following drought, both sites became carbon sinks. However, the xeric site had a longer carry-over effect and never returned to pre-drought function. Although this study encompassed seven years, we argue that longer studies with greater spatial variance must be undertaken to develop a more comprehensive understanding of forest response to changing climate.

  2. Adiciones a las haloragaceae de Colombia: Proserpinaca palustris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt Mumm Udo

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Las especies colombianas de la familia Haloragaceae se han asignado a dos subfamilias y tres géneros. Según Mora-Osejo (1984, quién comparte la opinión de Schindler (1905 en incluir el género Gunnera L. en la sub familia terrestre Gunneroideae, la sub familia Haloragoideae distingue las plantas acuáticas y semiacuáticas de tallos herbáceos, raras veces subleñosos, hojas opuestas o verticiladas e inflorescencias terminales. Inicialmente se designaron dos especies del género Myriophyllum L. a esta subfamilia y poco después se señaló también el hallazgo del género Laurembergia Berg. (Mora-Osejo et al. 1988. En la actualidad, sin embargo, se ha generalizado la tendencia a considerar el género Gunnera separadamente en la familia Gunneraceae (Cronquist 1988, L. E. Mora-Osejo, como pers., con lo cual las Haloragaceae de Colombia se encuentran representadas por tres especies de los géneros Myriophyllum y Laurembergia.

  3. Adiciones a las haloragaceae de Colombia: Proserpinaca palustris

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt Mumm Udo; Posada José Andrés

    2000-01-01

    Las especies colombianas de la familia Haloragaceae se han asignado a dos subfamilias y tres géneros. Según Mora-Osejo (1984), quién comparte la opinión de Schindler (1905) en incluir el género Gunnera L. en la sub familia terrestre Gunneroideae, la sub familia Haloragoideae distingue las plantas acuáticas y semiacuáticas de tallos herbáceos, raras veces subleñosos, hojas opuestas o verticiladas e inflorescencias terminales. Inicialmente se designaron dos especies del género Myriophyllum L. a...

  4. Sistemática do gênero Nectomys Peters, 1861 (Cricetidae: Sigmodontinae)

    OpenAIRE

    Elisandra de Almeida Chiquito

    2015-01-01

    A tribo Oryzomyini abriga 34 dos 86 gêneros sigmodontíneos e apresenta ampla distribuição geográfica, ocorrendo em diversos habitats desde a Terra do Fogo ao sudeste dos Estados Unidos; com representantes cursoriais, arborícolas ou ainda semi-aquáticos, e com diferentes hábitos alimentares, variando de onívoros a insetívoros. Estudos sistemáticos nessa tribo têm sido desenvolvidos com base em dados de morfologia, morfometria, informações citogenéticas e moleculares, o que vêm contribuindo par...

  5. Filogenia molecular de especies colombianas de tres tribus de roedores dentro de la subfamilia Sigmodontinae (Muridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Ernesto Pantoja Peña

    2006-01-01

    Es importante la generación de estudios adicionales de información de tipo morfológico y molecular que ayuden a definir los límites a nivel de especies y géneros para estos importantes organismos de mamíferos del neotrópico, muchos de ellos presentes en Colombia.

  6. Phylogeographic study of Apodemus ilex (Rodentia: Muridae in Southwest China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Mountains of southwest China have complex river systems and a profoundly complex topography and are among the most important biodiversity hotspots in the world. However, only a few studies have shed light on how the mountains and river valleys promote genetic diversity. Apodemus ilex is a fine model for investigating this subject. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To assess the genetic diversity and biogeographic patterns of Apodemus ilex, the complete cytochrome b gene sequences (1,140 bp were determined from 203 samples of A. draco/ilex that were collected from southwest China. The results obtained suggested that A. ilex and A. draco are sistergroups and diverged from each other approximately 2.25 million years ago. A. ilex could be divided into Eastern and Western phylogroups, each containing two sub-groups and being widespread in different geographical regions of the southern Hengduan Mountains and the western Yunnan - Guizhou Plateau. The population expansions of A. ilex were roughly from 0.089 Mya to 0.023 Mya. CONCLUSIONS: Our result suggested that A. ilex is a valid species rather than synonym of A. draco. As a middle-high elevation inhabitant, the phylogenetic pattern of A. ilex was strongly related to the complex geographical structures in southwest China, particularly the existence of deep river valley systems, such as the Mekong and Salween rivers. Also, it appears that the evolutionary history of A. ilex, such as lineage divergences and population expansions were strongly affected by climate fluctuation in the Late Pleistocene.

  7. The ways of formation Rodentis (Rodentia helminth fauna in Azerbaijan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Q. Fataliyev

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available There were researched 314 animals related to 6 genious in different zones of Azerbaijan. It is defined that 6 genious helminthes parasits on Sсiurus anomalus, 2 genious helminthes parasits on Hystrix leucura, 5 on Myocastor coypus, 3 on Dryomys nitedula, 13 genious helminthes and etc. parasits on Arvikola terrestris –totally 28 helminthes. There were fully analyzed bioecological connection with different living organisms in Azerbaijan.

  8. The ways of formation Rodentis (Rodentia) helminth fauna in Azerbaijan

    OpenAIRE

    Q. Q. Fataliyev

    2009-01-01

    There were researched 314 animals related to 6 genious in different zones of Azerbaijan. It is defined that 6 genious helminthes parasits on Sсiurus anomalus, 2 genious helminthes parasits on Hystrix leucura, 5 on Myocastor coypus, 3 on Dryomys nitedula, 13 genious helminthes and etc. parasits on Arvikola terrestris –totally 28 helminthes. There were fully analyzed bioecological connection with different living organisms in Azerbaijan.

  9. [Ovarian activity of Agouti paca (Rodentia: Agoutidae) under captivity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes Pérez, Rubén C; Cabrera Baz, Elsy A

    2006-09-01

    The ovarian activity of Agouti paca was characterized by hormonal profiles and ovarian structures. Samples of blood were taken from eight females (seven adults and one juvenile) at the breeding grounds of the Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia in Yucatśn, Mexico. Sampling lasted approximately two months and was done every three and six days. Blood was collected from anesthetized animals, and the levels of progesterone (P4) and 17 beta estradiol (E2) were analized by radioimmunoassay technique. Macroscopic and microscopic analyses were carried out in ovaries of dead animals. The estrous cycle lasted 29+/-8.4 days, levels of 1.61+/-0.65 ng/ml for P4 and 39+/-24 pg/ml for E2 were observed for a follicular phase, 6.18+/-3.70 ng/ml and 29+/-16 pg/ml for P4 and E2 respectively in the luteal phase. Statistically significant differences were found between phases for P4 but not for E2. The presence of extragonadal steroids with levels of P4 of 1.9+/-0.77 ng/ml and E2 of 22+/-17 pg/ml were observed, which are not produced by the effects of managing stress. The changes in the levels of P4 during the cycle are indicators of luteal activity, with the intersticial tissue acting probably as active steroids-producing gland. Follicular growth was observed during the entire cycle.

  10. First report of partial albinism in genus Thrichomys (Rodentia: Echimyidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos da S.A. Neves

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reports about albinism in rodents are common. In the family Echimyidae, however, albinism is very rare. This is the second case of coat color variation reported within Echimyidae and the first for the genus Thrichomys. The pelages of Thrichomys pachyurus individuals with normal and variant coat color were observed under a fluorescent artificial light and were examined with a stereoscopic microscope. The descriptions of pelage color were based on the book "Color Standards and Color Nomenclature". The predominantly white pattern of coat color in individuals of T. pachyurus suggests a partial albinism caused by delay in migration time of melanoblasts from neural crest to epidermis. The habitat of T. pachyurus has a heavy vegetative cover, which offers natural protection against predators and high-quality nutrition.

  11. Population dynamics of Lemniscomys rosalia (Muridae: Rodentia) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Numerous studies have reported increases in rodent populations following good rainfall (Nel 1978; Perrin & Swanepoel 1987; Bronner, Rau- ten bach & Meester 1988). This relationship is thought to be an indirect one where increased rainfall acts to increase cover and food supply. thus enabling rodents to reproduce (Neal.

  12. (De Winton, 1897) and A. namaquensis (A. Smith, 1834) (Rodentia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1993-03-24

    Mar 24, 1993 ... genus Aethornys Thomas, the present study examines non- geographic variation in ... Watson 1986; Visser & Robinson 1986; 1987; Brecd, Cox,. Leigh & Hawkins 1988) ... Verheyen & Bracke (J 966), Morris (J 972), Perrin (J 982) and Dippenaar ...... GENOWA YS, H.H. & JONES, Jr., J.K. t972. Variation and.

  13. Skull size and shape variation in Psammomys spp. (Rodentia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This finding might explain the uncertainty in classification of these species in the past. The interspecific allometric-free phenotypic differences observed may be associated with adaptive processes linked to the different environmental and trophic preferences of the two species. Keywords: allometry, cranium, geometric ...

  14. Population dynamics of Lemniscomys rosalia (Muridae: Rodentia) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ecology of L. rosalia over a twelve month period. Materials and methods. Study area. Three permanently marked grids (100 m x 100 m) were established in an .... of the study. The habitat characteristics of the three grids are shown in Table I. There were significant differences in per cent cover, per cent green grass and grass ...

  15. Cytogenetic investigations in Sciurus anomalus from Turkish Thrace (Rodentia: Sciuridae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Arslan, A.; Zima, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 4 (2012), s. 421-426 ISSN 0324-0770 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : karyotype * C-banding * Ag-NOR staining * Caucasian squirrel * Turkey Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.309, year: 2012 http://www.acta-zoologica-bulgarica.eu/downloads/acta-zoologica-bulgarica/2012/64-4-421-426.pdf

  16. Notes on Mesocapromys sanfelipensis (Rodentia: Capromyidae) from Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LÓpez, Lazaro W viÑola; Garrido, Orlando H; BermÚdez, Alberto

    2018-04-16

    The San Felipe Hutia, Mesocapromys sanfelipensis, is one of the most endangered species of rodents in the world, and little is known about its ecology, evolution, and ancient distribution. At present, this hutia has been found only in its type locality, Cayo Juan Garcia, a cay in the southwest Cuban insular platform. Here we report for the first time a well preserved fossil skull referred to this species, collected in Cueva del Indio, Mayabeque province, western Cuba. This specimen shows that the modern population of M. sanfelipensis is a marginal relic of its former distribution, a consequence of climatic, eustatic, and neotectonic changes in the last 8 ka years. Also, we reevaluate the cranial characters and measurements that correspond to M. sanfelipensis and found that two of the eight specimens referred to this species and deposited at the Instituto de Ecologia y Sistematica belong to Mesocapromys auritus. Finally, we include six unpublished photos of specimens of M. sanfelipensis captured in 1970 during two expeditions to Cayo Juan Garcia.

  17. Micromammals (Insectivora; Rodentia of "Valle dell'Inferno" (Rome / Micromammiferi (Insectivora; Rodentia della Valle dell'Inferno (Roma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Federici

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A research on micromammals in the area of "Valle dell'Inferno" (in the north-west of Rome was carried out. The study was based on a previous phytosociological survey which describes a Quercus suber population in the valley (a once larger residua1 of a roman cork-tree wood which is now included in the town. Specimens from Rodents (Apodemus sylvaticus, Mus domesticus, Rattus rattus, R. norvegicus, Pitymys savii and Insectivores (Crocidura suaveolens, Erinaceus europaeus were captured by live traps. Most of Insectivores specimens are represented by C. suaveolens. Generally C. suaveolens lives in sympatry with C. leucodon but no specimens of the latter were found in this area. Three different kinds of landscape are present in the "Inferno" valley, namely, the wood, the meadow, and the bottom valley (with high anthropic impact; we have compared these three landscapes with biotic indexes (index of faunistic affinity, index of biocoenotic affinity and index of environmental evaluation. We have also compared through the same indexes, the micromammal fauna of the "Inferno" valley with six other differently polluted localities in Latium, where animals were captured with the same live traps. This area retains its natura1 environment in despite of the high anthropic impact. Riassunto È stato effettuato uno studio sulla micromammalofauna terrestre della Valle dell'Inferno situata a nord-ovest di Roma. Lo studio è basato su una precedente indagine fitosociologica effettuata per la caratterizzazione vegetazionale di una sughereta un tempo molto estesa ed ora racchiusa nell'abitato cittadino. È stato pertanto possibile tracciare, tramite gli indici biotici, una correlazione tra microteriocenosi ed effetti dell'impatto antropico.

  18. Guerrerostrongylus marginalis n. sp. (Trichostrongyloidea: Heligmonellidae from the Guianan arboreal mouse (Oecomys auyantepui from French Guiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weirich Jessica M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the number and arrangement of cuticular ridges and configuration of the dorsal ray, nematode specimens collected from the small intestine of eight Guianan arboreal mice, Oecomys auyantepui (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae, in French Guiana are herein described and characterized. Guerrerostrongylus marginalis n. sp. (Heligmosomoidea: Heligmonellidae shows a synlophe consisting of more than 40 ridges and a unique bursal arrangement with ray 8 (externo-dorsal extending to the edge of the bursal margin, and appearing more prominent than the dorsal ray. This bursal arrangement is common in members of Hassalstrongylus Durette-Desset, 1971, but uncommon in the other four species in Guerrerostrongylus Sutton & Durette-Desset, 1991. The placement of the new species in Guerrerostrongylus is based on the number and nature of cuticular ridges and the ray arrangement and symmetry of the caudal bursa. Diagnostic characteristics of Guerrerostrongylus marginalis n. sp. include the length of ray 8 relative to bursal margin, the relative size of the spicules and vestibule, and the number of eggs in the uterus. We propose an amendment to the generic diagnosis of Guerrerostrongylus to modify the characters of the long rays 6 (postero-lateral, rays 8 (externo-dorsal, and dorsal ray as diagnostic, since at least ray 6 appears to be short in two different species in the genus, namely G. ulysi Digiani, Notarnicola & Navone, 2012 and G. marginalis n. sp.

  19. New occurrences and biological aspects to four species of rodents (Mammalia: Cricetidae from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Santana Machado

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The most representative group among mammals are rodents for presenting high ratio to the total of species. However, rodents are considered a "taxonomic chaos" and some species such as Blarinomys breviceps, Bibimys labiosus, Akodon lindberghi and Pseudoryzomys simplex are little known. That can be explained because of low occurrence of small terrestrial mammals in wildlife inventories and/or reduced abundance. The objective is to describe the occurrence of these species and analyze these locations presenting descriptive comments about their biological aspects. Therefore, in addition to specimens collected in the field, some scientific collections were visited and reviews in relevant literature were conducted in order to obtain information about the locations and biological aspects. Akodon lindberghi was found in five sites, Bibimys labiosus was found in 15, Blarinomys breviceps in 39 and Pseudoryzomys simplex  in 13. Each species has specific information and they are included in two threatened areas, Atlantic Forest and Cerrado. The occurrences are disconnected and related to taxonomic and methodological problems. Keywords: New records. Rodentia. Sigmodontinae. Occurence area.

  20. Fossil history of the marsh rats of the genus Holochilus and Lundomys (Cricetidae, Sigmodontinae in southern South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teta, P.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The sister genera Holochilus and Lundomys, plus the extinct forms Carletonomys and Noronhomys and the living Pseudoryzomys, constitute a small clade of amphibious sigmodontine rodents that inhabits in tropical and subtropical environments of the Neotropics. Based on almost all the available fossil evidence recovered in Argentina, Bolivia, southeastern Brazil, and Uruguay we revised the paleontological record of Holochilus and Lundomys in southern South America. Past distributions and chronologies indicate the following occurrences [biochrons] for the study area: Holochilus brasiliensis (Middle Pleistocene-Recent in Argentina, Late Pleistocene-Recent in Brazil, H. chacarius (Late Holocene-Recent in Argentina, Early Holocene-Recent in Bolivia, †H. primigenius (Middle Pleistocene in Bolivia, and Lundomys molitor (Middle Pleistocene-Late Pleistocene in Argentina, Late Pleistocene-Recent in Uruguay. Taking into account the present distributions and environmental requirements of these rodents we hypothesize several expansion/retraction episodes of their populations triggered by the occurrence of moist/dry climatic pulses during Pleistocene-Holocene times.Los géneros hermanos Holochilus y Lundomys, junto con las formas extintas Carletonomys y Noronhomys y la viviente Pseudoryzomys, constituyen un pequeño clado de sigmodontinos de hábitos anfibios, que habitan en ambientes tropicales y subtropicales del Neotrópico. Basándonos en la totalidad de la evidencia fósil disponible para Argentina, Bolivia, sudeste de Brasil y Uruguay se revisó el registro paleontológico de Holochilus y Lundomys de la porción austral de América del Sur. Las distribuciones en el pasado y sus cronologías indican las siguientes ocurrencias para el área de estudio: Holochilus brasiliensis (Pleistoceno Medio-Reciente en Argentina, Pleistoceno Tardío-Reciente en Brasil, H. chacarius (Holoceno Tardío-Reciente en Argentina, Holoceno Temprano-Reciente en Bolivia, †H. primigenius (Pleistoceno Medio en Bolivia y Lundomys molitor (Pleistoceno Medio-Pleistoceno Tardío en Argentina, Pleistoceno Tardío-Reciente en Uruguay. Considerando en conjunto las distribuciones actuales, los requerimientos ambientales de estos taxones y los registros fósiles, se verifican varios episodios de expansión y retracción de sus poblaciones, posiblemente vinculados con pulsos climáticos húmedos y secos alternantes durante el Pleistoceno-Holoceno.

  1. Parasite prevalence and community diversity in sympatric and allopatric populations of two woodrat species (Sigmodontinae: Neotoma) in central California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtel, Molly J; Teglas, Michael B; Murphy, Peter J; Matocq, Marjorie D

    2015-04-01

    Patterns of host-parasite association may vary across the landscape in part because of host and parasite diversity, divergence, local ecology, or interactions among these factors. In central coastal California, we quantified parasite prevalence, infection intensity, and diversity in two sister species of woodrats (Neotoma fuscipes and Neotoma macrotis) where the species co-occur (sympatry) and where each species exists alone (allopatry). In feces from 50 adults we identified seven taxa: the protozoans Eimeria, Giardia, and Cryptosporidium, the nematodes Trichuris, Aspicularis, and Eucoleus, and a cestode in the family Anoplocephalidae. Gastrointestinal parasite infection intensity and diversity were higher in males than in females, a difference that was most pronounced in the more aggressive N. fuscipes. Both species had lower infection intensity in sympatry than in allopatry and in sympatry the two species did not differ in infection intensity in total but did maintain distinct parasite communities. Taken together, our findings suggest that host evolutionary differences, including perhaps species-specific patterns of aggressive behavior, as well as local ecology, influence the likelihood of infection by these endoparasite taxa.

  2. Systematic studies of Oryzomyine rodents (Muridae, Sigmodontinae): diagnoses and distributions of species formerly assigned to Oryzomys 'capito'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musser, G.G.; Carleton, M.D.; Brothers, E.M.; Gardner, A.L.

    1998-01-01

    We describe the morphological species-boundaries and geographic distributions of ten Neotropical Oryzomys based on analyses of museum specimens (skins and skulls, examples preserved in fluid, chromosomal spreads, and information about collection sites from skin tags, field catalogs, and other sources). These species have been regarded as members of an Oryzomys capito complex and for a long time were consolidated into a single entity identified as O. capito. Our study documents the following: 1. Defining the limits of species within the O. capito complex first requires a comprehensive review and rigorous definition of O. capito itself. We consider Fischer's (1814) Mus megacephalus to be valid and available, designate a neotype to bear the name, and reinstate it as a senior synonym of capito Olfers (1818). We then provide a working definition of O. megacephalus and its close relative, O. laticeps, derived from analyses of morphometric variation, estimates of geographic distributions, and evaluations of synonyms. In our view, O. megacephalus occurs in Amazonia but also extends into eastern Paraguay; its synonyms are capito Olfers (1818), cephalotes Desmarest (1819), velutinus Allen and Chapman (1893), goeldi Thomas (1897), modestus Allen (1899), and perenensis Allen (1901). Oryzomys laticeps Lund (1840) occurs in the Atlantic Forest region of eastern Brazil. We designate a lectotype for laticeps and allocate the names saltator Winge (1887) and oniscus Thomas (1904) as synonyms. 2. We provide the first comprehensive taxonomic revision of Oryzomys yunganus Thomas (1902). Its range covers tropical evergreen rainforest formations in the Guiana region and the Amazon Basin where, as documented by voucher specimens, it has been collected at the same localities as O. megacephalus, O. nitidus, and O. tern of carotid arterial circulation, occlusal patterns of second upper and lower molars, cranial proportions, and chromosomal features. Appreciable intraspecific geographic variation occurs in diploid number of chromosomes and frequency of occurrence of the hypothenar plantar pad, but sampling inadequacies obscure the significance of this variation. Large body size is characteristic of populations in the western Amazon Basin and in the tepui region of eastern Venezuela; smaller size characterizes populations in the Guianas and along the eastern margin of the Amazon Basin. No other scientific name has been correctly associated with the species. Samples from Mirador, Palmera, and Mera in the western Andean foothills of central Ecuador possess a combination of pelage, cranial, and dental traits that distinguish them from all samples of O. yunganus. These specimens are the basis for a new species we describe here, one that is more closely related to O. yunganus than to any other member of the former O. 'capito' complex. 3. We redescribe Oryzomys bolivaris (reviewed by Pine, 1971, under the name O. bombycinus), amplify its geographic range, and contrast it with O. talamancae and O. alfaroi, two sympatric congeners often confused with it. A distinctive set of morphological traits allows unambiguous identification of specimens belonging to O. bolivaris. It is a trans-Andean species recorded from very wet tropical evergreen rainforests extending from eastern Honduras and Nicaragua through Costa Rica and Panama to western Colombia and Ecuador. Allen's (1901) bolivaris is the oldest name for this species; castaneus Allen (1901), rivularis Allen (1901), bombycinus Goldman (1912), alleni Goldman (1915), and orinus Pearson (1939) are synonyms. 4. We revise the definition of Oryzomys talamancae Allen (1891) provided by Musser and Williams (1985), document additional specimens, describe karyotypes from Ecuadoran and Venezuelan samples, and contrast its morphology, chromosomes, and distribution with those of O. alfaroi and O. megacephalus. The geographic distribution of O. talamancae is also trans-Andean, but it inh

  3. The ecological classification of coastal wet longleaf pine (pinus palustris) of Florida from reference conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    George L. McCaskill; Jose. Shibu

    2012-01-01

    Tropical storms, fire, and urbanization have produced a heavily fragmented forested landscape along Florida’s Gulf coast. The longleaf pine forest, one of the most threatened ecosystems in the US, makes up a major part of this fragmented landscape. These three disturbance regimes have produced a mosaic of differently-aged pine patches of single or two cohort structures...

  4. Factors Affecting the Distribution of Wild Rice (Zizania palustris) and the Surrounding Macrophyte Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillsbury, R. W.; McGuire, M.

    2005-05-01

    A recent decline in wild rice wetlands is cause for concern due to its importance as a food source, refuge for wildlife, and cultural significance. Sixty wetlands in Wisconsin and Minnesota (USA) were sampled, with approximately equal numbers displaying dense, moderate and sparse wild rice production. Chemical, physical, and watershed parameters were measured as well as macrophyte densities. Data were analyzed using multivariate statistics (CCA). Moderate levels of phosphorus appear beneficial to the overall success of wild rice, while free-floating macrophytes show an overwhelming positive response to higher levels of P. The distribution of macrophytes bordering wild rice beds is correlated to pH,with Potamogeton robbinsii and filamentous green algae responding most strongly to its increase. Healthy stands of wild rice exhibit a narrow circum-neutral range of pH (6.1-8.0)which is significantly different from the greater range exhibited by sparse wild rice wetlands (6.5-8.5). This pattern was paralleled when considering depth which suggests that deeper wetlands may be more susceptible to wild rice loss. Management of existing wild rice wetlands should focus monitoring on pH, depth, phosphorus concentrations and shore development. We are currently using this data base to locate the best reintroduction sites for wild rice.

  5. Moulting and wintering grounds of Marsh Warblers Acrocephalus palustris: evidence from stable isotopes and ring recoveries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Procházka, Petr; Kralj, J.; Pearson, D. J.; Yohannes, E.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 2 (2014), s. 193-200 ISSN 0001-6454 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-06451S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : bird migration * feather stable isotopes * ring recoveries * stopover * migratory connectivity * δ13C * δ15N Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.745, year: 2014

  6. Resprouting after disturbance in the short-lived herb Rorippa palustris (Brassicaceae): an experiment with juveniles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Martínková, Jana; Kočvarová, Marie; Klimešová, Jitka

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 3 (2004), s. 143-150 ISSN 1146-609X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK6005114; GA ČR GD206/03/H034; GA ČR GA206/01/1039 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : root-sprouting * bud bank * disturbance Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.034, year: 2004

  7. Photosynthetic consequences of phenotypic plasticity in response to submergence: Rumex palustris as a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mommer, L.; Pons, T.L.; Visser, E.J.W.

    2006-01-01

    Survival and growth of terrestrial plants is negatively affected by complete submergence. This is mainly the result of hampered gas exchange between plants and their environment, since gas diffusion is severely reduced in water compared with air, resulting in O2 deficits which limit aerobic

  8. Time series analysis of forest carbon dynamics: recovery of Pinus palustris physiology following a prescribed fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. Starr; C. L. Staudhammer; H. W. Loescher; R. Mitchell; A. Whelan; J. K. Hiers; J. J. O’Brien

    2015-01-01

    Frequency and intensity of fire determines the structure and regulates the function of savanna ecosystems worldwide, yet our understanding of prescribed fire impacts on carbon in these systems is rudimentary. We combined eddy covariance (EC) techniques and fuel consumption plots to examine the short-term response of longleaf pine forest carbon dynamics to one...

  9. Spatial patterns of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) seedling eastablishment on the croatan national forest, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick R. Avery; Susan Cohen; Kathleen C. Parker; John S. Kush

    2004-01-01

    Ecological research aimed at determining optimal conditions for longleaf pine regeneration has become increasingly important in efforts @ restore the longleaf pine ecosystem. Numerous authors have concluded that a negative relationship exists between the occurrence of seedlings and the occurrence of mature trees; however, observed field conditions in several North...

  10. Spatial and Temporal Analyses of Environmental Affects on Zizania Palustris and Its Natural Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickman, Douglas L.; Greensky, Wayne; Al-Hamdan, M. Z.; Estes, M. G.; Crosson, W. L.; Estes, Sue M.

    2017-01-01

    As part of a joint education and research effort funded by NASA, research studies were initiated involving students associated with the Ojibwe and researchers at Marshall Space Flight Center. Topics were chosen that satisfied the nature of the work proposed and were tractable, given the student's constraints (abilities, interests, and time). One of the studies, which spanned two summers, examined some potential environmental effects on northern wild rice in northern Wisconsin. The rice of interest is naturally occurring ('wild' wild rice), as opposed to cultivated wild rice ('paddy' wild rice).

  11. Differences in mycorrhizal communities between Epipactis palustris, E. helleborine and its presumed sister species E. neerlandica

    OpenAIRE

    Jacquemyn, Hans; Waud, Michael; Lievens, Bart; Brys, Rein

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims In orchid species that have populations occurring in strongly contrasting habitats, mycorrhizal divergence and other habitat-specific adaptations may lead to the formation of reproductively isolated taxa and ultimately to species formation. However, little is known about the mycorrhizal communities associated with recently diverged sister taxa that occupy different habitats.

  12. Comportamentos e atividade diária de Sciurus ingrami (Thomas em cativeiro (Rodentia, Sciuridae Behaviour and diary activity of Sciurus ingrami (Thomas in captivity (Rodentia, Sciuridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Bordignon

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available From October 1994 to November 1995 the behaviour, postures and diurnal activity of tive captive squirrels Sciurus ingrami were observed and registered. Four basics postures, five grooming behaviours, displacements and face wiping behaviour were identified. Based on behavioural observations, the diurnal activity was divided into four categories: resting, displacement, teeding and maintenance. The time spent in each category varied seasonally and the squirrels spent more time resting during winter and spring. However, more time was spent feeding during autum and summer and was reduced the displacement in autum. Two types of breeding behaviour were identified: sexual trailing and mating chase of females by males. However copulatori behaviour was not recorded during the studied period. We also verified that S. ingrami presents thermorregulation behaviour during winter, remaining resting in the nest to conserve energy in heath maintenance. During the hottest seasons, the squirrels remain resting out of the nest, placed on the branchs to decrease their body heat to normal temperature, The behaviours observed in this study were similar to those described in the literature, as well as the mating behaviour, which was very similar to S. carolinensis.

  13. A new species of Lentiella (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae from Proechimys simonsi (Rodentia: Echimyidae in Bolivia Una especie nueva de Lentiella (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae de Proechimys (Rodentia: Echimyidae en Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry R. Haverkost

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available During a biodiversity survey of mammals and their parasites in the Beni, Bolivia in the summer of 2000, several spiny rats, Proechimys simonsi Thomas, 1900, were collected and examined for parasites. Herein we describe Lentiella lamothei n. sp. from one of these hosts. This species is can be distinguished from L. machadoi Rêgo, 1964 by having a greater total length but smaller maximum width, a greater number of segments, a smaller cirrus sac, a smaller scolex diameter, and in the eggs, a larger pyriform apparatus. In addition, we formally validate the genus Lentiella Rêgo, 1964, that had been placed in synonomy with Monoecocestus Beddard, 1914.Como parte del monitoreo de la biodiversidad de Bolivia, varias ratas espinosas (Proechimys simonsi Thomas, 1900 fueron examinadas en busca de parásitos durante el verano boreal del año 2000. En el presente trabajo se describe el céstodo Lentiella lamothei n. sp. recolectado en estos hospederos. Esta especie puede distinguirse de L. machadoi Rêgo, 1964 por tener una mayor longitud total pero menor ancho máximo, mayor número de proglótidos, bolsa del cirro más pequeña, escólex de menor diámetro, y un mayor aparato piriforme en los huevos. Además, se revalida formalmente al género Lentiella Rêgo, 1964, anteriormente sinonimizado con Monoecocestus Beddard, 1914.

  14. LATE PLEISTOCENE RODENTS (MAMMALIA: RODENTIA FROM THE BARANICA CAVE NEAR KNJAZEVAC (EASTERN SERBIA: SYSTEMATICS AND PALAEOECOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KATARINA BOGICEVIC

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Baranica is a cave in the Balkan mountain range in the eastern part of Serbia. It contains four layers of sediments of Quaternary age. The Upper Pleistocene deposits (layers 2-4 have yielded a rich and diverse assemblage of vertebrate fauna, including fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and small and large mammals. In this work, preliminary results of a study of the rodent fauna from the Upper Pleistocene deposits of the Baranica Cave (Knjazevac, eastern Serbia are presented. The fossil material comes from the 1995 archaeological excavation. The remains of 10 rodent species are described herein: Spermophilus cf. citelloides, Castor fiber, Sicista subtilis, Cricetulus migratorius, Cricetus cricetus, Mesocricetus newtoni, Apodemus ex gr. sylvaticus-flavicollis, Spalax leucodon, Dryomys nitedula, and Muscardinus avellanarius. Along with eight vole species, this makes altogether 18 species of rodents found in this locality. Both layers 2 and 4 (layer 3 is very poor in fossils have yielded a rodent fauna typical for the cold periods of the Late Pleistocene on the Balkan Peninsula, with a prevalence of open and steppe inhabitants, but some forest dwellers were also present. The assemblages from these layers are similar, but there are some differences in the composition of the fauna, which may indicate a slight shift towards drier conditions. They have also been compared to rodent associations from some Serbian and Bulgarian localities of the same age and their similarities and differences are discussed. SHORT NOTE-NOTA BREVE

  15. Discongruence of Mhc and cytochrome b phylogeographical patterns in Myodes glareolus (Rodentia: Cricetidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malé, P.-J, G.; Martin, J.-F.; Galan, M.; Deffontaine, V.; Bryja, Josef; Cosson, J.-F.; Michaux, J.; Charbonnel, N.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 105, č. 4 (2012), s. 881-899 ISSN 0024-4066 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 10284 - EDEN Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK Keywords : balancing selection * bank voles * diversity * immunogenetics * molecular epidemiology * Puumala hantavirus * zoonoses Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.413, year: 2012

  16. Systematic relationships within the Microtus arvalis (Rodentia: Cricetidae) group in Iran, inferred from cytogenetic analyses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mahmoudi, A.; Zima, Jan; Kryštufek, B.; Darvish, J.; Aliabadian, M.; Arslan, A.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 1 (2018), s. 1-8 ISSN 0939-7140 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : chromosome C-banding * karyotype * NORs * taxonomy Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.525, year: 2016

  17. A new chromosomal race (2n=44) of Nannospalax xanthodon from Turkey (Mammalia: Rodentia)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kankilic, T.; Arslan, A.; Seker, P. S.; Kankilic, T.; Toyran, K.; Zima, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 3 (2017), s. 181-188 ISSN 0939-7140 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Nannospalax * Pülümür race * karyotype * C-bands * Ag-NORs Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 0.525, year: 2016

  18. The lumbosacral plexus of the red-rumped agouti (Dasyprocta leporina Linnaeus, 1758 (Rodentia: Caviidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleidson Benevides de Oliveira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The red-rumped agouti is a small-sized wild rodent, belonging to the Dasyproctidae family, with great zootechnical potential, and it adapts well to captivity. In order to contribute to the species biology, this study describes the origin of the nerves forming the lumbosacral plexus. Twelve animals (six males and six females were used, from previous experiments. The animals were fixed in a 10% formaldehyde aqueous solution and eviscerated after 72 hours. Then, the major and minor psoas muscles were retracted, exposing the nerves forming the plexus. Cotton soaked with 20-volume hydrogen peroxide was placed on these nerves, remaining for 12 hours straight for bleaching and subsequent dissection. The topographical relations of the lumbosacral plexus were grouped into tables and arranged in terms of simple percentage. In 7 cases (58.34%, the lumbosacral plexus in the red-rumped agouti stemmed from the ventral roots of the last 4 lumbar nerves and the first 3 sacral nerves (Type I – L4-S3, in 4 animals (33.33% it stemmed from L5-S3 (Type II, and in 1 case (8.33% it stemmed from L5-S4 (Type III. The nerves participating of the lumbosacral plexus in the red-rumped agouti were: lateral femoral cutaneous, genitofemoral, femoral, obturator, sciatic, cranial gluteal, caudal gluteal, and pudendal nerve. The origin of the lumbosacral plexus and the spinal nerves making up this plexus in red-rumped agoutis were similar to that described in other rodents, such as rock cavy, lowland paca and spix's yellow-toothed cavy.

  19. Genetic variation in house mice (Mus, Muridae, Rodentia) from the Czech and Slovak Republics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šugerková, Monika; Munclinger, P.; Božíková, E.; Piálek, Jaroslav; Macholán, Miloš

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 2 (2002), s. 81-92 ISSN 0139-7893 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6045601; GA AV ČR IAA6045902; GA ČR GA206/01/0989; GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5045916 Keywords : house mouse * genetic variation * allozymes Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.234, year: 2002 http://www.ivb.cz/folia/51/2/081-092.pdf

  20. Progonomys Schaub, 1938 and Huerzelerimys gen. nov. (Rodentia) : their evolution in Western Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mein, P.; Martín Suárez, E.; Agustí, J.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper the various species and populations attributed to the genus Progonomys Schaub, 1938 are revised. Valerymys Michaux, 1969 is considered to be synonymous with Occitanomys Michaux, 1969, since the type-species V. ellenbergeri (Thaler, 1966) was included in Occitanomys by Aguilar et al.

  1. ectoparasites of the bush cep.a.pi, in the transvaal (rodentia: sciuridae)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    plague in Mrica and in some places it is probably the main vector. An additional record of the flea,. Xenopsylla sp., was also recorded from Naboom- spruit (July). The cat flea, CtenocepluJlidesfelis, is widespread over Mrica on Canidae, Felidae, Viver- ridae, Hyaenidae and Leporidae as well as on domestic animals and ...

  2. A new form of rodent placentation in the relict species, Laonastes aenigmamus (Rodentia Diatomyidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Anthony Michael; Enders, A C; Jones, C J P

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The Laotian rock rat is a relict species in a sister group relationship to hystricognath rodents (Hystricognathi). We asked whether there were similarities in placentation that might reflect this relationship or differences that might cast light on the evolution of Hystricognathi....... METHODS: We examined the reproductive tract of nonpregnant (n = 5), early (n = 3) and mid to late gestation (n = 2) females. Selected characters were mapped to a phylogenetic tree to examine their evolution in rodents. RESULTS: The chorionic placenta was discoid and labyrinthine with a spongy zone...

  3. Population dynamics of the rat Microryzomys minutus (Rodentia: Muridae in the Venezuelan Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R Cabello

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The population dynamics of the small forest rice rat Microryzomys minutus, a murid rodent that occurs in the high altitudes of the northern and central Andes, was studied in disturbed and primary environments in a cloud forest of the Venezuelan Andes (Juan Pablo Peñaloza National Park, 8º11’N, 71º49’W. We collected 121 animals (66♀♀ and 55♂♂ between 1995 and 1998, using pitfall traps with formalin. Adult males were heavier than adult females. Relative abundance was much greater in the disturbed environments (over 10 individuals in some periods than in the primary cloud forest: 4-8 individuals. In the disturbed environments, the rats were extremely abundant in the first sampling period, and less frequent afterwards. In the cropland, abundance showed some fluctuations during the study and displayed two small abundance peaks in March-June 1997 and 1998. In the mined area, the rats had irregular fluctuations until March-June 1997 and were not recorded in July-October 1997. The occurrence of this rat in both disturbed and natural habitats confirms the wide ecological tolerance of this species. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54(2: 651-. Epub 2006 Jun 01.Se analizó la dinámica poblacional de las pequeñas ratas silvestres del arroz Microryzomys minutus en ambientes alterados y primarios, en un bosque nublado de los Andes venezolanos. El estudio fue basado en 121 animales (66♀♀ y 55♂♂ recolectados entre 1995 y 1998, usando trampas que contenían formalina. Esta especie está presente en ambos hábitats lo que confirma su amplia tolerancia ecológica. La abundancia poblacional fue mayor en ambientes alterados que en los no alterados. M. minutus presenta dimorfismo sexual en el peso: los machos son más pesados que las hembras.

  4. The role of the water voles (Arvicola, Rodentia in the Quatemary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz Bustos, A.

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Arvicolids are rodents which have molars with a morphology formed by a sequence of enamel folds similar to the curve y = sin f(x. The morphology of the crown of the first lower molar (mi of living species of Arvicola (large voles is identified with six criteria, irrespective of tooth size. When rootless arvicolid fossil communities are analysed, it can be seen that the mi morphology of Arvicola is present in those communities represented by specimens of small size at the beginning of the Quaternary. Before this data was known, the presence of Arvicola communities could only be detected in the second half of the Quaternary, when the specimens were comparable to the large size characterising living species. The existence of communities of small-sized Arvicola at the beginning of the Quaternary implies that the mi of Arvicola undergoes a continuous and accelerated growth throughout the entire Quatemary, which allows representatives the genus to be used as a chronological tool. These data mean that it is necessary to change the concept of the genus Allophaiomys and to formulate a new classification to reflect evolutionary relationships of quatemary arvicolids.Los arvicólidos son roedores que tienen la morfología de la corona de los dientes formada por una secuencia de pliegues de esmalte que se asemeja a la curva y=sen f(x. Las especies actuales del género Arvicola cumplen en la morfología del molar mI, seis criterios que son independientes de la talla. El examen de las poblaciones de arvicólidos sin raíz, procedentes del Pleistoceno inferior, indica la existencia de molares con una morfología idéntica a la de los ejemplares vivos de Arvicola, pero con menor talla. La existencia de esta identidad permite proponer la hipótesis de poblaciones primitivas del género Arvicola con pequeña talla durante el Pleistoceno Inferior. Estas han pasado desapercibidas entre las poblaciones de Allophaiomys. a causa de su identidad morfológica entre ambos. La hipótesis de la existencia de Arvicola en el Pleistoceno Inferior supone un profundo cambio en el concepto de Allophaiomys como género y convierte la talla de Arvicola, por su continuo crecimiento durante todo el Pleistoceno, en un útil instrumento cronológico.

  5. Fleas (Siphonaptera) in the Nests of Dormice (Gliridae: Rodentia) in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipatova, I; Stanko, M; Paulauskas, A; Spakovaite, S; Gedminas, V

    2015-05-01

    Negative effects of flea (Siphonaptera) parasitism on the host may be expressed in different ways. The aim of this study was to assess distribution of the flea fauna in nests of dormice in Lithuania. Nests of Glis glis (L.), Dryomys nitedula (Pallas), and Muscardinus avellanarius (L.) were collected from nest boxes in 2012 and 2013. Fleas were collected from nests in the laboratory and put into plastic tubes with 70% ethanol. Flea species were identified using morphological keys. From 400 nest boxes, 112 nests of dormice were collected from eight sites from mixed forests of central Lithuania. Twenty-three nests of G. glis were collected from nest boxes, with 16 of them containing 286 fleas belonging to four species: Ceratophyllus sciurorum (Schrank) (259), C. gallinae (Schrank) (23), Hystrichopsylla talpae (Curtis) (3), and Megabothris turbidus (Rothschild) (1). Fourteen nests of M. avellanarius were collected from nest boxes, 4 of which contained 224 fleas belonging to two species: C. sciurorum (221) and C. gallinae (3). Twenty-four nests of D. nitedula were collected from nest boxes, including 17 containing 207 fleas belonging to two species: C. sciurorum (205) and C. gallinae (2). Fifty-one nests of undetermined dormice species also were collected from nest boxes, 12 of them contained 395 fleas belonging to three species: C. sciurorum (374), Ctenophthalmus agyrtes (Heller) (19), and Ctenophthalmus assimilis (Taschenberg) (2). C. sciurorum was a predominant species in the nests of dormice. The occurrence of C. gallinae was documented in Lithuania for the first time. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Chromosome banding pattern in fat dormouse and bank vole (Mammalia: Rodentia) from Turkey

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Arslan, A.; Zima, Jan; Yorulmaz, T.; Gözütok, S.; Toyran, K.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 61, 1-2 (2013), s. 47-51 ISSN 0015-5497 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : AgNOR staining * Anatolia * C-banding * Glis glis * Myodes glareorus Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.478, year: 2013

  7. Cytogenetic damage and postradiation restoration of eye cornea epithelium of Rodentia characterizing by different radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popova, M.F.; Bulyakova, N.V.

    1983-01-01

    Intensity of beam damage and reparation of eye cornea epithelium of animals inhabiting under different conditions and differing by radiosensitivity has been studied. Mice differing by high radiosensitivity have the hardest cytogenetic damage. Cornea epithelium of bank voles is more radiostable than that of mice. The most negligible damages of cornea epithelium is observed in Mongolian sandwort despite the fact that their total radiation stability is lower than that of bank voles. High protective-restoring properties of eye cornea epithelium of Mongolian sandwort are explained by the structure of epithelium cells diffe-- ring by a large number of cytoplasm

  8. Mandible shape and dwarfism in squirrels (Mammalia, Rodentia): interaction of allometry and adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hautier, Lionel; Fabre, Pierre-Henri; Michaux, Jacques

    2009-06-01

    Squirrels include several independent lineages of dwarf forms distributed into two ecological groups: the dwarf tree and flying squirrels. The mandible of dwarf tree squirrels share a highly reduced coronoid process and a condylar process drawn backwards. Dwarf flying squirrels on the other hand, have an elongated coronoid process and a well-differentiated condylar process. To interpret such a difference, Elliptic Fourier Transform was used to evaluate how mandible shape varies with dwarfism in sciurids. The results obtained show that this clear-cut difference cannot be explained by a simple allometric relationship in relation with size decrease. We concluded that the retention of anteriorly positioned eye sockets, in relation with distance estimation, allowed the conservation of a well-differentiated coronoid process in all flying species, despite the trend towards its reduction observed among sciurids as their size decreases.

  9. Habitats, population densities, and social structure of capybaras (Hydrochaeris Hydrochaeris, Rodentia in the Pantanal, Brazil

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    Cleber J.R. Alho

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available (1 The Pantanal is the central portion of a sunken flat plain bordering the upper Paraguay river, with an area of 140,000 km². Seasonal floods begin in January and end in April. From May to October the land dries out and campos (grassland formations and scattered pools appear. (2 Typical capybara habitat in the Pantanal is composed of three components: the water, a patch of forest, and a grass field for foraging. Highest densities of capybaras (14 individuals/km² were found during the rainy season when the available space for capybaras was reduced due to the flooding. Areas without ponds or creeks presented low densities (from 0.38 to 0.84 capybaras/km². Group sizes ranged from 2 to 49 individuals (x = 9.48. (3 Reproduction occurred year-round and young of different ages were seen throughout the year. However, the principal recruitment of young to the population was observed in July-August. While the females took turns in caring for young of different ages, probably the offspring of mothers who are sisters in the same social groups, the males competed intensively with each other for access to breeding females. The male's reproductive success appears to be limited to the number of breeding females that males have access to in the social group.

  10. Use of the paca, Cuniculus paca (Rodentia: Agoutidae in the Sierra de Tabasco State Park, Mexico

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    Sonia Gallina

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cuniculus paca is widely distributed throughout the Neotropics. Known as the paca, it is the largest rodent in the Mexican tropical forests, and one of the most used as a subsistence species for its meat. Since colonial times, this species has been subject of an unreported hunting pressure. For this reason, the aim of this work was to describe the use of the paca by the inhabitants of the Sierra de Tabasco State Park (STSP using sampling areas in a matrix of vegetation with different degrees of disturbance, and different types of land use. We included both preserved areas: owing to the presence of large continuous areas of fragmented rainforest and areas that are not preserved, with smaller rainforest fragments and more isolated. To obtain information about paca use, we interviewed 176 people (>18 years old who live in the STSP. All those interviewed had eaten paca meat, and indicated that this species is most frequently observed in the rainforest during the dry season. Hunting and trapping were the most common ways to obtain pacas, rather than gifting or purchasing, and firearms and dogs are used to hunt them. We estimated that these interviewed group had hunted a total of 488 paca in the year prior to the study.

  11. Macroscopic description of thoracic member musculature in Cuniculus paca (Linnaeus, 1766 (Rodentia, Cuniculidae

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    Rodrigo Gomes de Souza

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cuniculus paca (Mammalia: Cuniculidae, or ‘paca’ is a rodent species in great demand for its meat, which has led to domestication and development of paca farms in the Brazilian Amazon region, as well as in other states. Despite the growing consumption of paca meat, knowledge on muscle anatomy is still scarce. An anatomical description of paca forelimbs will form the basis for future zootechnical and veterinary studies, enabling the development of sustainable production in the Amazon region, as well as the preservation of the species. We studied forelimb anatomy in four (04 adult pacas from the Caboclinho Project of Catuaba Experimental Farm (UFAC under IBAMA authorization n°509309. Specimens were fixed in 10% formalin and thoracic limbs were dissected, after which anatomical descriptions and photographic records were generated. We found that paca forelimb musculature is similar to that of other groups of domestic animals with regard to the origin and muscle insertion.

  12. Use of the paca, Cuniculus paca (Rodentia: Agoutidae) in the Sierra de Tabasco State Park, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallina, Sonia; Pérez-Torres, Jairo; Guzmán-Aguirre, Carlos César

    2012-09-01

    Cuniculus paca is widely distributed throughout the Neotropics. Known as the paca, it is the largest rodent in the Mexican tropical forests, and one of the most used as a subsistence species for its meat. Since colonial times, this species has been subject of an unreported hunting pressure. For this reason, the aim of this work was to describe the use of the paca by the inhabitants of the Sierra de Tabasco State Park (STSP) using sampling areas in a matrix of vegetation with different degrees of disturbance, and different types of land use. We included both preserved areas: owing to the presence of large continuous areas of fragmented rainforest and areas that are not preserved, with smaller rainforest fragments and more isolated. To obtain information about paca use, we interviewed 176 people (>18 years old) who live in the STSP. All those interviewed had eaten paca meat, and indicated that this species is most frequently observed in the rainforest during the dry season. Hunting and trapping were the most common ways to obtain pacas, rather than gifting or purchasing, and firearms and dogs are used to hunt them. We estimated that these interviewed group had hunted a total of 488 paca in the year prior to the study.

  13. Macroscopic description of thoracic member musculature in Cuniculus paca (Linnaeus, 1766 (Rodentia, Cuniculidae

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    Rodrigo Gomes de Souza

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2017v30n2p43 Cuniculus paca (Mammalia: Cuniculidae, or ‘paca’ is a rodent species in great demand for its meat, which has led to domestication and development of paca farms in the Brazilian Amazon region, as well as in other states. Despite the growing consumption of paca meat, knowledge on muscle anatomy is still scarce. An anatomical description of paca forelimbs will form the basis for future zootechnical and veterinary studies, enabling the development of sustainable production in the Amazon region, as well as the preservation of the species. We studied forelimb anatomy in four (04 adult pacas from the Caboclinho Project of Catuaba Experimental Farm (UFAC under IBAMA authorization n°509309. Specimens were fixed in 10% formalin and thoracic limbs were dissected, after which anatomical descriptions and photographic records were generated. We found that paca forelimb musculature is similar to that of other groups of domestic animals with regard to the origin and muscle insertion.

  14. Use of the paca, Cuniculus paca (Rodentia: Agoutidae in the Sierra de Tabasco State Park, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Gallina

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cuniculus paca is widely distributed throughout the Neotropics. Known as the paca, it is the largest rodent in the Mexican tropical forests, and one of the most used as a subsistence species for its meat. Since colonial times, this species has been subject of an unreported hunting pressure. For this reason, the aim of this work was to describe the use of the paca by the inhabitants of the Sierra de Tabasco State Park (STSP using sampling areas in a matrix of vegetation with different degrees of disturbance, and different types of land use. We included both preserved areas: owing to the presence of large continuous areas of fragmented rainforest and areas that are not preserved, with smaller rainforest fragments and more isolated. To obtain information about paca use, we interviewed 176 people (>18 years old who live in the STSP. All those interviewed had eaten paca meat, and indicated that this species is most frequently observed in the rainforest during the dry season. Hunting and trapping were the most common ways to obtain pacas, rather than gifting or purchasing, and firearms and dogs are used to hunt them. We estimated that these interviewed group had hunted a total of 488 paca in the year prior to the study.Cuniculus paca está ampliamente distribuido en el Neotrópico. El tepezcuintle o paca es el roedor más grande que se encuentra en las selvas tropicales de México. En cuanto a la cacería de subsistencia es una de las especies más buscadas por su carne. Como se desconoce el impacto de esta actividad, se describe el aprovechamiento que le dan las comunidades humanas en el Parque Estatal de la Sierra de Tabasco (PEST. También, se determinaron zonas de muestreo, las cuales se encontraban en una matriz perturbada en menor o mayor grado, con diferentes tipos de uso de suelo. Además, se consideraron zonas conservadas por la presencia continua de grandes extensiones de selvas fragmentadas y las zonas no conservadas por tener fragmentos menores de selvas y estar más aisladas. Para conocer el aprovechamiento que se le da al tepezcuintle se realizaron 176 encuestas a campesinos o pobladores del PEST mayores de 18 años. El 100% de las personas encuestadas dijo conocer al tepezcuintle y haberlo consumido. La sequía fue la época en que significativamente se le observó más en la selva. Las formas de obtención del tepezcuintle que prevalecen son la cacería y el trampeo en contraste con la donación y la compra. Por otro lado, también utilizan armas de fuego y perros para su cacería. Consecuentemente, se estimó que las personas entrevistadas cazaron un total de 488 tepezcuintles en el año.

  15. Development of the inverted visceral yolk sac in three species of caviids (Rodentia, Caviomorpha, Caviidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miglino, M A; Franciolli, A L R; de Oliveira, M F; Ambrósio, C E; Bonatelli, M; Machado, M R F; Mess, A

    2008-08-01

    Guinea pig related rodents possess numerous derived placental characters. We attempt to identify diversity within the visceral yolk sac and its association with the chorioallantoic placenta in three species of caviids, two of them possessing a capsule formed by the decidua that covers the chorioallantoic placenta. The results verify that in early pregnancy all three species have an inverted yolk sac placenta. In advanced pregnancy the species differ: Galea spixii, as representative without a capsule, bear a yolk sac in apposition to the chorioallantoic placenta with signs of exchange activity until term. Galea is similar to other caviomorphs in this respect. In Dasyprocta leporina and Cuniculus paca, the representatives possessing a capsule, the yolk sac endoderm lacks signs of substance exchange. Evidently, the presence of a capsule prevents such an interaction. The variations established here must be considered if animal models for human placentation are required which have restricted access to the chorioallantoic placenta from the outside.

  16. Morphology of the tongue and characteristics of lingual papillae in Cuniculus paca (Rodentia: Cuniculidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Quagliatto Santos

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the morphology of the tongue, its extrinsic muscles, and the characteristics of lingual papillae in Cuniculus paca. We used fifteen specimens from the Wild Animals Sector of Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP. In this species, the tongue is divided into three regions: root, body, and apex. The latter is delimited by the lingual frenum, which has the aspect of fibrous membrane. We also identified a median groove and a prominence on its dorsal surface. The extrinsic tongue muscles are the styloglossus, hyoglossus, genioglossus, geniohyoid, and milohyoid, the latter two are inserted into the hyoid apparatus. As for the presence of lingual papillae, we observed five papillae types in all specimens: filiform, fungiform, vallate, foliate, and conic. The filiform papillae are distributed throughout the apex surface and tongue body. They are caudally inclined throughout the body, until they are modified in the root region and form the conic papillae. The fungiform papillae are distributed in a large amount on the lingual apex, between the filiform papillae. This papilla type has a mushroom-like shape. Only two vallate papillae are located in the caudal portion of the lingual root, and they have an oval shape and are surrounded by a deep groove. The foliate papillae are observed in parallel grooves or slots located in the lateral portion of the tongue, between the vallate papillae and half of the intermolar prominence. In the tongue root, body, and apex we observed keratinized squamous stratified epithelium lining both the lingual papillae and the surface between them.

  17. Notocotylus loeiensis n. sp. (Trematoda: Notocotylidae) from Rattus losea (Rodentia: Muridae) in Thailand

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chaisiri, K.; Morand, S.; Ribas, Alexis

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 1 (2011), s. 35-38 ISSN 1252-607X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Trematoda * lesser rice field rat * Thailand Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.000, year: 2011

  18. A Borrelia afzelii Infection Increases Larval Tick Burden on Myodes glareolus (Rodentia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijvendijk, van Gilian; Andel, van Wouter; Fonville, Manoj; Gort, Gerrit; Hovius, Joppe W.; Sprong, Hein; Takken, Willem

    2017-01-01

    Several microorganisms have been shown to manipulate their host or vector to enhance their own transmission. Here we examined whether an infection with Borrelia afzelii affects its transmission between its bank vole (Myodes glareolus, Schreber, 1780) host and tick vector. Captive-bred bank voles

  19. First cytogenetic information for Drymoreomys albimaculatus (Rodentia, Cricetidae, a recently described genus from Brazilian Atlantic Forest

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    Elkin Suárez-Villota

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The recently described taxon Drymoreomys albimaculatus is endemic to the Brazilian Atlantic Forest and its biology and genetics are still poorly known. Herein, we present, for the first time, the karyotype of the species using classical and molecular cytogenetics, which showed 2n=62, FN=62, and interstitial telomeric signals at the sex chromosomes. Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences from the two karyotyped individuals verify the taxonomic identity as the recently described D. albimaculatus and confirm the relationship of the species with other Oryzomyini. Additionally, external morphological information is provided.

  20. Karyotypic analysis in species of the genus Dasyprocta (Rodentia: Dasyproctidae found in Brazilian Amazon

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    ROSEMAR S. L. RAMOS

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of 30 animals of the genus Dasyprocta were cytogenetically studied. They belong to the following species: D. prymnolopha (N=20, D. leporina (N=6, D. fuliginosa (N=1 and Dasyprocta sp. (N=3 (Dasyproctidae, Hystricognathi. Cell suspensions were obtained by peripheral blood culture, besides bone marrow and spleen cells, from D. prymnolopha and D. leporina. The diploid number was 64/65 for all samples. The karyotypes showed similarity, and chromosomal polymorphism was not detected by Giemsa conventional staining and G banding. The constitutive heterochromatin distribution at the pericentromeric region of all the chromosomes was similar in all species. D. prymnolopha, D. leporina and Dasyprocta sp. presented variation in the heterochromatical block size at one of the homologues of the A18 pair. D. fuliginosa presented the heterochromatin uniformly distributed in all chromosomes. There was not variation in the NORs pattern in the species studied.Foram estudados citogeneticamente um total de 30 animais das espécies D. prymnolopha (N=20, D. leporina (N=6, D. fuliginosa (N=1 e Dasyprocta sp. (N=3 (Dasyproctidae, Histricognathi. As preparações cromossômicas foram obtidas do cultivo de sangue periférico, além de medula óssea e baço em D. prymnolopha e D. leporina. O número diplóide foi de 64/65 em todos os exemplares. O cariótipo mostrou similaridade, não sendo detectado, através de coloração convencional de giemsa e de banda G, polimorfismo cromossômico em qualquer uma das espécies estudadas. A distribuição da heterocromatina constitutiva na região pericentromérica de todos os cromossomos foi similar nas quatro espécies. D. prymnolopha, D. leporina e Dasyprocta sp. apresentaram variação no tamanho do bloco heterocromático em um dos homólogos do par A18. D. fuliginosa apresentou a heterocromatina uniformemente distribuída em todos os cromossomos. Não houve variação no padrão das RONs entre as esp��cies estudadas.

  1. Death of Boa constrictor amarali (serpentes, boidae after ingestion of a tree porcupine (rodentia

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    A. L. Cherubini

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to report the death of a Boa constrictor amarali after ingestion of a tree porcupine. The animal was donated to the Center for the Study of Venoms and Venomous Animals (CEVAP/UNESP - and died in captivity. At necropsy, spine-like structures were observed in the stomach serosa and vicinity, and the stomach mucosa showed an intense reddish area, suggesting inflammation. The analysis of the spine-like structure revealed that they were tree porcupine spines. The feeding habits and inexperience of this Boa constrictor amarali in selecting its prey may have been be responsible for its death.

  2. Esqueletogênese em punaré (Thrichomys laurentinus- Rodentia, Echimyidae

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    Phelipe O. Favaron

    Full Text Available Resumo: O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever o desenvolvimento do esqueleto do punaré (Thrichomys laurentinus. Para tanto, foram utilizados 11 embriões e 12 fetos em diferentes estágios de desenvolvimento, sendo divididos em 4 grupos de acordo com o período gestacional. As amostras foram obtidas no Centro de Multiplicação de Animais Silvestres da Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido, Mossoró-RN, Brasil. Após fixados em formol (10% ou glutaraldeído (2,5%, foi realizada a analise morfológica com auxílio de lupa, sendo as características macroscópicas fotodocumentadas. Análises de raios-x e coloração por alizarina red foram realizadas para melhor compreensão do desenvolvimento ósseo. Nas análises de raio-x os embriões não apresentaram nenhuma radiopacidade, ao contrário dos fetos que apresentavam radiopacidade gradual ao longo dos grupos. No grupo II houve aumento de radiopacidade na região da coluna vertebral e das regiões mandibular e maxilar. No grupo III a radiopacidade estava aumentada nos membros pélvicos, nas costelas e na região frontal e no grupo IV nos membros torácicos e nas regiões occipital, temporal e frontal do crânio. Tais características foram confirmadas pelas analises histológicas e pela técnica de Alizarina Red. Com isso podemos concluir que o conhecimento acerca da embriologia do sistema ósseo normal é fundamental para o entendimento dos efeitos adversos causados pela nutrição e uso de drogas durante o desenvolvimento.

  3. Evolutionary history of tree squirrels (Rodentia, Sciurini) based on multilocus phylogeny reconstruction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pečnerová, P.; Martínková, Natália

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 3 (2012), s. 211-219 ISSN 0300-3256 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : phylogeny * Sciurus * biogeography * colonisation Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.793, year: 2012

  4. Multilocus phylogeny of arvicoline voles (Arvicolini, Rodentia) shows small tree terrace size

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Martínková, Natália; Moravec, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 61, 3-4 (2012), s. 254-267 ISSN 0139-7893 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600930609 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : divergence * evolutionary history * supertree * supermatrix * phylogenetic tree terrace * Microtus * Arvicolinae Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.494, year: 2012

  5. Variación cariológica en diferentes fenotipos de Sciurus granatensis (Rodentia, Sciuridae

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    Marcos Nicolás Chacón Rojas

    2007-01-01

    de individuos con genomas diferentes en un población puede originar un proceso de depresión por exogamia o introgresión genética (pérdida de alelos adaptativos locales, procesos nocivos para la población receptora. Se estudiaron siete especímenes (cinco hembras y dos machos de S. granatensis procedentes del tráfico ilegal. Los cariotipos fueron obtenidos a partir de cultivos de linfocitos de sangre periférica. Las metafases con bandas G, R, C, Q y NOR, se analizaron al microscopio y se ordenaron en el programa Lucia Karyotyping®. Los individuos estudiados corresponden a los tres fenotipos reportados por Emmons LH, 1990, pero con una gran variación cariológica. Solo uno de los machos no corresponde a los fenotipos descritos, y además presenta varios rearreglos cromosómicos que lo diferencian notablemente de los demás, por lo cual posiblemente se trate de un híbrido estéril originado de dos poblaciones diferenciadas cariológicamente. El número de cromosomas fue constante (2n=42, con variación en el número fundamental (NF=80; 81, por lo cual se reportan tres cariomorfos para Sciurus granatensis, según NF y los rearreglos cromosómicos encontrados. Se observó variación en los pares 9, 16 y una translocación universal entre autosomas dentro de uno de los ejemplares. El cromosoma X es submetacéntrico mediano. El cromosoma Y es acrocéntrico, coincidente con lo descrito para Sciurus. No se registró una relación cariotipo-fenotipo. Por lo tanto se puede sugerir que Sciurus granatensis, es un complejo de especies con diferencias cariológicas y morfológicas que no ha sido estudiado a profundidad teniendo en cuenta su amplia distribución geográfica.

  6. Dinomys branickii Peters, 1873 (Rodentia, Dinomyidae: consumption and food preference in captivity

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    Raymundo Tomaz Melo dos Santos Neto

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Dinomys branickii is a large rodent listed as Endangered (EN, that suffers pressure from anthropogenic activities such as hunting and habitat destruction. Captive breeding methods are viable for supplementation of conservation projects, and may enhance our knowledge of main aspects of the biology of this species. The objective of this study was to determine consumption and food preferences in a captive group of D. branickii. To determine feeding preferences, the Food Preference Index (P was used for the type of food with highest consumption. The mean amount of food provided was 6.6 kg per day per group, with 4.4 kg per day/group consumed (66%. An average of 11 ± 2.9 types of food were offered daily. The consumption of fruits (71% was higher than the consumption of other food groups, followed by roots/tubers (65.3%. The food groups least consumed were cereals and seeds (39.4% and leaves (38.3%. The preferred foods were: Brassica oleracea (P = 1.38, Zea mays (P = 1.25, Ipomoea batatas (P = 1.17, Mangifera indica (P = 1.13, Cucurbita moschata (P = 1.10, Talinum esculentum (P = 1.00 and Manihot esculenta (P = 1.00. These results suggest that foods with high fiber and carbohydrate content are the best choices for D. branickii development and well-being in captivity.

  7. A new species of Calomys Waterhouse (Rodentia, Sigmodontinaefrom the Cerrado of Central Brazil

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    Cibele R. Bonvicino

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A new Brazilian Calomys Waterhouse, 1837 species is described based on morphologic and karyologic data. This species is endemic to the Cerrado of Central Brazil and allopatric with all other species of the genus Calomys. Its chromosome complement (2n = 46, AN = 66 is different from those described in other Calomys species. Morphometric analysis significantly distinguished this new species from other Calomys of the Brazilian fauna like C. callosus (Renger, 1830, C. expulsus (Lund, 1841 and C. tener (Winge, 1887 and placed it among the large-sized Calomys.

  8. Behaviour and diary activity of Sciurus ingrami (Thomas) in captivity (Rodentia, Sciuridae)

    OpenAIRE

    Bordignon, Marcelo; Monteiro Filho, Emygdio L.A

    1997-01-01

    From October 1994 to November 1995 the behaviour, postures and diurnal activity of tive captive squirrels Sciurus ingrami were observed and registered. Four basics postures, five grooming behaviours, displacements and face wiping behaviour were identified. Based on behavioural observations, the diurnal activity was divided into four categories: resting, displacement, teeding and maintenance. The time spent in each category varied seasonally and the squirrels spent more time resting during win...

  9. Evolutionary history and species diversity of African pouched mice (Rodentia: Nesomyidae: Saccostomus)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikula, Ondřej; Šumbera, R.; Aghová, Tatiana; Mbau, J. S.; Katakweba, A. S.; Sabuni, C. A.; Bryja, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 6 (2016), s. 595-617 ISSN 0300-3256 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/0983; GA ČR GA15-20229S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Saccostomus * phylogeny * phylogeography * Plio-Pleistocene climate changes * taxonomic revision * Nesomyidae * Cricetomyinae Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.837, year: 2016

  10. [Reproduction of European bank vole (Myodes glareolus, Rodentia) under conditions of natural geochemical anomalies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baĭtimirova, E A; Mamina, V P; Zhigal'skiĭ, O A

    2010-01-01

    Estimates of abundance, morpho-functional state of ovaries, potential and actual fecundity of European bank vole, Myodes glareolus, inhabiting the territories of natural geochemical anomalies that are situated over ultra-basic rock and have an excess content of chrome, nickel, and cobaltare obtained. The population adaptive response to extreme geochemical conditions that facilitates the species survival under unfavorable environmental conditions and is manifested through an increase in potential and actual fecundity, decline of pre-implantation mortality, and decrease in proportion of females with pre-implantation losses is revealed. It is shown that in anomalous areas the intensity of folliculogenesis in mature voles is independent of the population cycle phase. As for immature animals residing within geochemical anomalies, an increase in size and numbers of follicles in ovaries is observed which is indicative of maturation fastening. An increase in potential and actual fecundity, as well as changes in morpho-functional state of ovaries, can be interpreted as means of birth rate accelerating which is supposed to compensate high postnatal mortality and maintain population abundance.

  11. Morphogenesis of palatal ridges in the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus, Rodentia)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buchtová, M.; Matulová, Petra; Witter, K.; Tichý, F.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 74, č. 3 (2005), s. 319-327 ISSN 0001-7213 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC B23.001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : oral cavity Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.353, year: 2005

  12. Are ribosomal DNA clusters rearrangement hotspots? A case study in the genus Mus (Rodentia, Muridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douzery Emmanuel JP

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent advances in comparative genomics have considerably improved our knowledge of the evolution of mammalian karyotype architecture. One of the breakthroughs was the preferential localization of evolutionary breakpoints in regions enriched in repetitive sequences (segmental duplications, telomeres and centromeres. In this context, we investigated the contribution of ribosomal genes to genome reshuffling since they are generally located in pericentromeric or subtelomeric regions, and form repeat clusters on different chromosomes. The target model was the genus Mus which exhibits a high rate of karyotypic change, a large fraction of which involves centromeres. Results The chromosomal distribution of rDNA clusters was determined by in situ hybridization of mouse probes in 19 species. Using a molecular-based reference tree, the phylogenetic distribution of clusters within the genus was reconstructed, and the temporal association between rDNA clusters, breakpoints and centromeres was tested by maximum likelihood analyses. Our results highlighted the following features of rDNA cluster dynamics in the genus Mus: i rDNA clusters showed extensive diversity in number between species and an almost exclusive pericentromeric location, ii a strong association between rDNA sites and centromeres was retrieved which may be related to their shared constraint of concerted evolution, iii 24% of the observed breakpoints mapped near an rDNA cluster, and iv a substantial rate of rDNA cluster change (insertion, deletion also occurred in the absence of chromosomal rearrangements. Conclusions This study on the dynamics of rDNA clusters within the genus Mus has revealed a strong evolutionary relationship between rDNA clusters and centromeres. Both of these genomic structures coincide with breakpoints in the genus Mus, suggesting that the accumulation of a large number of repeats in the centromeric region may contribute to the high level of chromosome repatterning observed in this group. However, the elevated rate of rDNA change observed in the chromosomally invariant clade indicates that the presence of these sequences is insufficient to lead to genome instability. In agreement with recent studies, these results suggest that additional factors such as modifications of the epigenetic state of DNA may be required to trigger evolutionary plasticity.

  13. Natural Intestinal Protozoa in Rodents (Rodentia: Gerbillinae, Murinae, Cricetinae in Northwestern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi MOHEBALI

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Majority of parasitic infections in rodents have zoonotic importance. This study aimed to determine the frequency and intensity of intestinal protozoa infections of rodents including Meriones persicus, Mus musculus and, Cricetulus migratorius.Methods: This survey was conducted in Meshkin Shahr district in northwestern Iran from Mar. to Dec. of 2014. Intestinal samples of 204 rodents including M. persicus (n=117, M. musculus (n=63 and C. migratorius (n=24 were parasitologically examined. Formalin-ether concentration method was done for all of rodents stool samples and observed with light microscope. All of suspected cases were stained with trichorome staining Method. Cultivation in dichromate potassium 2.5% was carried out for all of coccidian positive samples. Acid fast and aniline blue staining methods were used for detecting of coccidian oocysts and intestinal microsporidial spores, respectively.Results: About 121(59.3% of the caught rodents were generally infected with intestinal protozoa. Entamoeba muris 14(6.9%, Trichomonas muris 55(27.0%, Chilomastix betencourtti 17 (8.3%, Giardia muris 19(9.3%, Eimeria spp. 46(22.5%, Isospora spp. 4(2% and Cryptosporidium spp. 1(0.5% were found from the collected rodents. Microsporidian spores were identified in 63 (31% out of the 204 collected rodents using aniline blue staining method.Conclusion: Since some of the infections are zoonotic importance thus, control of rodents can be decreased new cases of the parasitic zoonoses in humans.

  14. Natural Intestinal Protozoa in Rodents (Rodentia: Gerbillinae, Murinae, Cricetinae) in Northwestern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    MOHEBALI, Mehdi; ZAREI, Zabiholah; Khanaliha, Khadijeh; KIA, Eshrat Beigom; MOTAVALLI-HAGHI, Afsaneh; DAVOODI, Jaber; REZAEIAN, Tahereh; TARIGHI, Fathemeh; REZAEIAN, Mostafa

    2017-01-01

    Background: Majority of parasitic infections in rodents have zoonotic importance. This study aimed to determine the frequency and intensity of intestinal protozoa infections of rodents including Meriones persicus, Mus musculus and, Cricetulus migratorius. Methods: This survey was conducted in Meshkin Shahr district in northwestern Iran from Mar. to Dec. of 2014. Intestinal samples of 204 rodents including M. persicus (n=117), M. musculus (n=63) and C. migratorius (n=24) were parasitologically examined. Formalin-ether concentration method was done for all of rodents stool samples and observed with light microscope. All of suspected cases were stained with trichorome staining Method. Cultivation in dichromate potassium 2.5% was carried out for all of coccidian positive samples. Acid fast and aniline blue staining methods were used for detecting of coccidian oocysts and intestinal microsporidial spores, respectively. Results: About 121(59.3%) of the caught rodents were generally infected with intestinal protozoa. Entamoeba muris 14(6.9%), Trichomonas muris 55(27.0%), Chilomastix betencourtti 17 (8.3%), Giardia muris 19(9.3%), Eimeria spp. 46(22.5%), Isospora spp. 4(2%) and Cryptosporidium spp. 1(0.5%) were found from the collected rodents. Microsporidian spores were identified in 63 (31%) out of the 204 collected rodents using aniline blue staining method. Conclusion: Since some of the infections are zoonotic importance thus, control of rodents can be decreased new cases of the parasitic zoonoses in humans. PMID:28979348

  15. Digital dissection of the masticatory muscles of the naked mole-rat, Heterocephalus glaber (Mammalia, Rodentia

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    Philip G. Cox

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The naked mole-rat, Heterocephalus glaber, of the family Bathyergidae is a subterranean rodent that feeds on underground roots and tubers and digs extensive tunnel systems with its incisors. It is a highly unusual mammal with regard to its social structure, longevity, pain insensitivity and cancer resistance, all of which have made it the subject of a great deal of research in recent years. Yet, much of the basic anatomy of this species remains undocumented. In this paper, we describe the morphology of the jaw-closing musculature of the naked mole-rat, as revealed by contrast-enhanced micro-computed tomography. This technique uses an iodine stain to enable the imaging of soft tissues with microCT. The iodine-enhanced scans were used to create 3D reconstructions of the naked mole-rat masticatory muscles from which muscle masses were calculated. The jaw-closing musculature of Heterocephalus glaber is relatively very large compared to other rodents and is dominated by the superficial masseter, the deep masseter and the temporalis. The temporalis in particular is large for a rodent, covering the entirety of the braincase and much of the rear part of the orbit. The morphology of the masseter complex described here differs from two other published descriptions of bathyergid masticatory muscles, but is more similar to the arrangement seen in other rodent families. The zygomaticomandibularis (ZM muscle does not protrude through the infraorbital foramen on to the rostrum and thus the naked mole-rat should be considered protrogomorphous rather than hystricomorphous, and the morphology is consistent with secondarily lost hystricomorphy as has been previously suggested for Bathyergidae. Overall, the morphology of the masticatory musculature indicates a species with a high bite force and a wide gape–both important adaptations for a life dominated by digging with the incisors.

  16. Ear Structures of the Naked Mole-Rat, Heterocephalus glaber, and Its Relatives (Rodentia: Bathyergidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Mason

    Full Text Available Although increasingly popular as a laboratory species, very little is known about the peripheral auditory system of the naked mole-rat, Heterocephalus glaber. In this study, middle and inner ears of naked mole-rats of a range of ages were examined using micro-computed tomography and dissection. The ears of five other bathyergid species (Bathyergus suillus, Cryptomys hottentotus, Fukomys micklemi, Georychus capensis and Heliophobius argenteocinereus were examined for comparative purposes. The middle ears of bathyergids show features commonly found in other members of the Ctenohystrica rodent clade, including a fused malleus and incus, a synovial stapedio-vestibular articulation and the loss of the stapedius muscle. Heterocephalus deviates morphologically from the other bathyergids examined in that it has a more complex mastoid cavity structure, poorly-ossified processes of the malleus and incus, a 'columelliform' stapes and fewer cochlear turns. Bathyergids have semicircular canals with unusually wide diameters relative to their radii of curvature. How the lateral semicircular canal reaches the vestibule differs between species. Heterocephalus has much more limited high-frequency hearing than would be predicted from its small ear structures. The spongy bone forming its ossicular processes, the weak incudo-stapedial articulation, the columelliform stapes and (compared to other bathyergids reduced cochlear coiling are all potentially degenerate features which might reflect a lack of selective pressure on its peripheral auditory system. Substantial intraspecific differences were found in certain middle and inner ear structures, which might also result from relaxed selective pressures. However, such interpretations must be treated with caution in the absence of experimental evidence.

  17. Ear Structures of the Naked Mole-Rat, Heterocephalus glaber, and Its Relatives (Rodentia: Bathyergidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Matthew J; Cornwall, Hannah L; Smith, Ewan St J

    2016-01-01

    Although increasingly popular as a laboratory species, very little is known about the peripheral auditory system of the naked mole-rat, Heterocephalus glaber. In this study, middle and inner ears of naked mole-rats of a range of ages were examined using micro-computed tomography and dissection. The ears of five other bathyergid species (Bathyergus suillus, Cryptomys hottentotus, Fukomys micklemi, Georychus capensis and Heliophobius argenteocinereus) were examined for comparative purposes. The middle ears of bathyergids show features commonly found in other members of the Ctenohystrica rodent clade, including a fused malleus and incus, a synovial stapedio-vestibular articulation and the loss of the stapedius muscle. Heterocephalus deviates morphologically from the other bathyergids examined in that it has a more complex mastoid cavity structure, poorly-ossified processes of the malleus and incus, a 'columelliform' stapes and fewer cochlear turns. Bathyergids have semicircular canals with unusually wide diameters relative to their radii of curvature. How the lateral semicircular canal reaches the vestibule differs between species. Heterocephalus has much more limited high-frequency hearing than would be predicted from its small ear structures. The spongy bone forming its ossicular processes, the weak incudo-stapedial articulation, the columelliform stapes and (compared to other bathyergids) reduced cochlear coiling are all potentially degenerate features which might reflect a lack of selective pressure on its peripheral auditory system. Substantial intraspecific differences were found in certain middle and inner ear structures, which might also result from relaxed selective pressures. However, such interpretations must be treated with caution in the absence of experimental evidence.

  18. A new karyotype for the genus Cavia from a southern island of Brazil (Rodentia - Caviidae

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    A. Gava

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Intraspecific karyotype variation in mammal species is very common and often caused by centromeric fusion of acrocentric chromosomes. We describe here a new karyotype 2n = 62 (FN = 112 for the genus Cavia from the Moleques do Sul Islands, of the southern coast of Brazil. We analyzed two male and four female karyotypes that had twenty-four biarmed pairs and six pairs of acrocentric chromosomes. The sexual pair consisted of a metacentric X-chromosome and a large acrocentric Y. C-bands were found in the centromeric and pericentromeric regions of almost all chromosomes, except for some small biarmed and acrocentric ones. Nucleolus organizer regions appeared in two biarmed chromosomes, and G-banding patterns were also seen.RESUMO A variação cariotípica nas espécies de mamíferos é bastante comum e geralmente causada pela fusão de cromossomos acrocêntricos. Foi descrito neste trabalho um novo cariótipo, com 2n = 62 e FN = 112, para o gênero Cavia proveniente das ilhas Moleques do Sul, da costa sul do Brasil. Foram analisados os cariótipos de dois machos e quatro fêmeas que possuiam 24 pares de cromossomos com dois braços e seis pares de acrocêntricos. O par sexual era constituído por um cromossomo X metacêntrico grande e um Y acrocêntrico. As bandas C estavam localizadas nas regiões centroméricas e pericentroméricas da maioria dos cromossomos, com exceção de alguns acrocêntricos e os cromossomos de dois braços menores. As regiões organizadoras de nucléolo ocorreram em dois cromossomos com dois braços e o padrão de bandamento G foi também apresentado.

  19. Hypsodont Myomiminae (Gliridae, Rodentia) from the Miocene and the Oligocene-Miocene boundary interval of Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daams, R.

    1990-01-01

    Fifty-one localities from the Oligocene-Miocene boundary interval and the Miocene of Spain have yielded nearly 4000 teeth of hypsodont Gliridae (Armantomys and Praearmantomys). The phylogeny and palaeoecology are discussed. Two new species of Armantomys (A. parsani sp. nov. from Ramblar 1 and A.

  20. A pheasantry as the habitat of small terrestrial mammals (Rodentia, Insectivora) in southern Moravia (Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Suchomel, J.; Heroldová, Marta

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 4 (2007), s. 185-191 ISSN 1212-4834 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GP526/03/P051 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : pheasantry * diversity * small terrestrial mammals Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour http://journals.uzpi.cz:8050/uniqueFiles/00162.pdf/

  1. The complete mitochondrial genome of the bank vole Clethrionomys glareolus ( Rodentia: Arvicolinae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bendová, Karolína; Marková, Silvia; Searle, J. B.; Kotlík, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 1 (2016), s. 111-112 ISSN 1940-1736 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/11/1872; GA AV ČR IAA600450901 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : mtDNA capture * Myodes glareolus * phylogeography Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.350, year: 2016

  2. A model to optimize trap systems used for small mammal (Rodentia, Insectivora density estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damiano Preatoni

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The environment found in the upper and lower Padane Plain and the adjoining hills isn't very homogeneous. In fact it is impossible to find biotopes extended enough to satisfy the necessary criteria for density estimate of small mammals based on the Removal method. This limitation has been partially overcome by adopting a reduced grid, counting 39 traps whose spacing depends on the studied species. Aim of this work was to verify - and eventually measure - the efficiency of a sampling method based on a "reduced" number of catch points. The efficiency of 18 trapping cycles, realized from 1991 to 1993, was evaluated as percent bias. For each of the trapping cycles, 100 computer simulations were performed, so obtaining a Monte-Carlo estimate of bias in density values. Then later, the efficiency of different trap arrangements was examined by varying the criteria. The numbers of traps ranged from 9 to 49, with trap spacing varying from 5 to 15 m and a trapping period duration from 5 to 9 nights. In this way an optimal grid system was found both for dimensions and time duration. The simulation processes involved, as a whole, 1511 different grid types, for 11347 virtual trapping cycles. Our results indicate that density estimates based on "reduced" grids are affected by an average -16% bias, that is an underestimate, and that an optimally sized grid must consist of 6x6 traps square, with about 8.7 m spacing. and be in operation for 7 nights.

  3. Genetic diversity and population structure of the Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus, Rodentia, Caviidae) in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos-Paz, William; Cerón-Muñoz, Mario; Solarte-Portilla, Carlos

    2011-10-01

    The aim was to establish the genetic diversity and population structure of three guinea pig lines, from seven production zones located in Nariño, southwest Colombia. A total of 384 individuals were genotyped with six microsatellite markers. The measurement of intrapopulation diversity revealed allelic richness ranging from 3.0 to 6.56, and observed heterozygosity (Ho) from 0.33 to 0.60, with a deficit in heterozygous individuals. Although statistically significant (p guinea-pig lines and populations, coincided with the historical and geographical distribution of the populations. Likewise, high genetic identity between improved and native lines was established. An analysis of group probabilistic assignment revealed that each line should not be considered as a genetically homogeneous group. The findings corroborate the absorption of native genetic material into the improved line introduced into Colombia from Peru. It is necessary to establish conservation programs for native-line individuals in Nariño, and control genealogical and production records in order to reduce the inbreeding values in the populations.

  4. Genetic diversity and population structure of the Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus, Rodentia, caviidae in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Burgos-Paz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to establish the genetic diversity and population structure of three guinea pig lines, from seven production zones located in Nariño, southwest Colombia. A total of 384 individuals were genotyped with six microsatellite markers. The measurement of intrapopulation diversity revealed allelic richness ranging from 3.0 to 6.56, and observed heterozygosity (Ho from 0.33 to 0.60, with a deficit in heterozygous individuals. Although statistically significant (p < 0.05, genetic differentiation between population pairs was found to be low. Genetic distance, as well as clustering of guinea-pig lines and populations, coincided with the historical and geographical distribution of the populations. Likewise, high genetic identity between improved and native lines was established. An analysis of group probabilistic assignment revealed that each line should not be considered as a genetically homogeneous group. The findings corroborate the absorption of native genetic material into the improved line introduced into Colombia from Peru. It is necessary to establish conservation programs for native-line individuals in Nariño, and control genealogical and production records in order to reduce the inbreeding values in the populations.

  5. Progonomys Schaub, 1938 and Huerzelerimys gen. nov. (Rodentia) : their evolution in Western Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Mein, P.; Martín Suárez, E.; Agustí, J.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper the various species and populations attributed to the genus Progonomys Schaub, 1938 are revised. Valerymys Michaux, 1969 is considered to be synonymous with Occitanomys Michaux, 1969, since the type-species V. ellenbergeri (Thaler, 1966) was included in Occitanomys by Aguilar et al. (1986a). Other species from Western Europe that had been included in Valerymys cannot be transferred to Occitanomys. They are the descendants of Progonomys cathalai, for which we create the new genus...

  6. Albinismo parcial em cutia Dasyprocta azarae (Lichtenstein, 1823 (Rodentia, Dasyproctidae, no sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Vilges de Oliveira

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2009v22n4p243 O presente trabalho registra um caso de albinismo parcial em cutia, Dasyprocta azarae, observado no município de Caçapava do Sul, RS.

  7. Rattus norvegicus (Rodentia: Muridae Infected by Leishmania (Leishmania infantum (syn. Le. chagasi in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana de Oliveira Lara-Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we surveyed the fauna of phlebotomine sand flies and small mammals in peridomestic areas from a Brazilian municipality where the American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL is endemic. A total of 608 female phlebotomine sand flies were captured during nine months in 2009 and 2010. Seven different species were represented with 60% of them being Lutzomyia intermedia and Lu. whitmani, both incriminated vectors of ACL. Lu. longipalpis, a proven vector of visceral leishmaniasis (VL was also captured at high proportion (12.8%. Genomic DNA analysis of 136 species-specific pools of female sand flies followed by molecular genotyping showed the presence of Leishmania infantum DNA in two pools of Lu. longipalpis. The same Leishmania species was found in one blood sample from Rattus norvegicus among 119 blood and tissue samples analysed. This is the first report of Le. infantum in R. norvegicus in the Americas and suggests a possible role for this rodent species in the zoonotic cycle of VL. Our study coincided with the reemergence of VL in Governador Valadares.

  8. Observations on the Reproductive Biology of Gerbillus dasyurus (Wagner, 1842) (Mammalia: Rodentia) in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    ÇOLAK, Ercüment; SÖZEN, Mustafa; YİĞİT, Nuri

    1999-01-01

    The reproductive data along with some ecological observations of Gerbillus dasyurus are reported based on field studies and investigations in captivity. The findings indicate that the favorable habitat of G. dasyurus is rocky areas with sparse vegetated soil and that the reproduction period extends from January to September. According to the reproductive data, the average weight at birth is 2.22 g., litter size ranges from 3 to 9, with an average of 5.66, a female gives three litters during a...

  9. Evolutionary systematics and biogeography of endemic gerbils (Rodentia, Muridae) from Morocco: an integrative approach

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ndiaye, A.; Ba, K.; Aniskin, V. M.; Benazzou, T.; Chevret, P.; Konečný, Adam; Sembene, M.; Tatard, C.; Kergoat, G. J.; Granjon, L.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 1 (2012), s. 11-28 ISSN 0300-3256 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6093404 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : geometric morphometrics * Middle Pleistocene * African gerbils * West Africa * taxonomy Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.793, year: 2012

  10. Karyological analysis of Proechimys cuvieri and Proechimys guyannensis (Rodentia, Echimyidae from central Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Faresin e Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to characterize the karyotype of rodents of the genus Proechimys from three localities in the central Brazilian Amazon, in the search for new markers that might shed light on our understanding of the taxonomy and evolutionary history of this taxon. Two karyotypes were found, viz., 2n = 28, FN = 46 in individuals from the NRSP (Cuieiras River and REMAN (Manaus, and 2n = 46, FN = 50 in individuals from the Balbina Hydroelectric Plant. While individuals with the karyotype with 2n = 28 chromosomes were morphologically associated with Proechimys cuvieri, their karyotype shared similarities with those of the same diploid number in two other regions. Although three karyotypes are described for Proechimys cuvieri, no geographic distribution pattern that defined a cline could be identified. Based on the morphological examination of voucher specimens and additional results from molecular analysis, the karyotype with 2n = 46 and FN = 50 could be associated with P. guyannensis.

  11. Karyological analysis of Proechimys cuvieri and Proechimys guyannensis (Rodentia, Echimyidae) from central Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    E Silva, Carlos Eduardo Faresin; Eler, Eduardo Schmidt; da Silva, Maria Nazareth F; Feldberg, Eliana

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to characterize the karyotype of rodents of the genus Proechimys from three localities in the central Brazilian Amazon, in the search for new markers that might shed light on our understanding of the taxonomy and evolutionary history of this taxon. Two karyotypes were found, viz., 2n = 28, FN = 46 in individuals from the NRSP (Cuieiras River) and REMAN (Manaus), and 2n = 46, FN = 50 in individuals from the Balbina Hydroelectric Plant. While individuals with the karyotype with 2n = 28 chromosomes were morphologically associated with Proechimys cuvieri, their karyotype shared similarities with those of the same diploid number in two other regions. Although three karyotypes are described for Proechimys cuvieri, no geographic distribution pattern that defined a cline could be identified. Based on the morphological examination of voucher specimens and additional results from molecular analysis, the karyotype with 2n = 46 and FN = 50 could be associated with P. guyannensis.

  12. Phylogenetic position of a monotypic Ethiopian endemic rodent genus Megadendromus (Rodentia, Nesomyidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lavrenchenko, L. A.; Nadjafova, R. S.; Bekele, A.; Mironova, T. A.; Bryja, Josef

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 81, č. 1 (2017), s. 71-82 ISSN 0025-1461 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Dendromurinae * Ethiopia * karyotype * Megadendromus * phylogeny Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 0.805, year: 2016

  13. Aspectos morfológicos da tuba uterina de cutias (Dasyprocta aguti, Mammalia: Rodentia

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    Eunice Anita de Moura Fortes

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available It was analysed the uterine tube structure in Agouti. We have used three adult females, caming from Wild Animals Preservation and Study Nucleous of "Universidade Federal do Piauí". Soon after anaesthesia and euthanasia we got collected uterine tube fragments from cranial, medial and caudal regions. The cuts of 3 to 5m were stained with HE, and analysed and photographed with a light microscope. We could observed that the uterine tubes have three distincts stratums: mucous membrane, muscular and serous with histologicals differences that characterize the infundibulum, ampulla and isthmus regions. The uterine tube light is irregular, on cranial and medium portions. It is bigger and irregular than caudal portion. The mucous membrane is coat with simple columnar epithelium with ciliar and nonciliar cells. The own lamina, formed of slack conjunctive tissue, without glands, on ampulla region, become small and we can observe many cells. On isthmus mucous we observe ephithelial tissue with low cells. The muscular, constituted of smooth fibres, that is observed like a circular and longitudinal stratum, and the serous stratum full of vessels. Histologically, the uterine tube in Agouti is similar to the others domestic and wild animals.

  14. Fire Frequency Effects on Longleaf Pine (Pinus palustris P. Miller) Vegetation in South Carolina and Northeast Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeff S. Glitzenstein; Donna R. Streng; Dale D. Wade

    2003-01-01

    Southeastern United States habitats dominated by longleaf pine (Pinus pulutris P. Miller) have declined precipitously in area and extent. Conservation of diverse ground-layer vegetation in these endangered habitats depends on prescribed fire. While the need for prescribed fire is now generally accepted, there is disagreement concerning the most...

  15. The effect of flooding and injury on vegetative regeneration from roots: a case study with Rorippa palustris

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sosnová, Monika; Klimešová, Jitka

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 214, č. 8 (2013), 999-1006 ISSN 1385-0237 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/09/0963 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : root buds * submergence * disturbance Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.640, year: 2013

  16. LONG-TERM TRENDS IN GROWTH OF PINUS PALUSTRIS AND PINUS ELLIOTTII GROWING ALONG A HYDROLOGICAL GRADIENT IN CENTRAL FLORIDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land-use change and urbanization has led to changes in the hydrologic regime in wet central Florida, with a trend toward lowered water table levels. These hydrologic changes are having environmental consequences in wetlands, where shifts in species composition and fire frequency...

  17. Imputation of individual longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) tree attributes from field and LiDAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlos A. Silva; Andrew T. Hudak; Lee A. Vierling; E. Louise Loudermilk; Joseph J. O' Brien; J. Kevin Hiers; Steve B. Jack; Carlos Gonzalez-Benecke; Heezin Lee; Michael J. Falkowski; Anahita Khosravipour

    2016-01-01

    Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) has demonstrated potential for forest inventory at the individual-tree level. The aim in this study was to predict individual-tree height (Ht; m), basal area (BA; m2), and stem volume (V; m3...

  18. Study of Feasibility Integrated Agroindustry Development Unit Black Grass Jelly Powder (Mesona palustris in Province of East Java

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    Irvan Adhin Cholilie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Potential of black grass jelly plant in Indonesia is very prospective. These plants grow in areas such as Malang East Java, Pacitan, Magetan and Ponorogo. In 2010 the production of dried black grass jelly of 568 tons with a total productivity of 8.6 tons / year.  Location selection of the plant with a score weighting method produces the highest value of 4,16 for the city of Surabaya, so the establishment of the plant will be held in Surabaya. Therefore, it is necessary the application of a suitable drying models for this factory that is tunnel dryer based on the results of research and with the highest value is 4,281. To ensure the availability of black grass jelly dried leaves as raw materials of black grass jelly powder it is necessary to establish a partnership between farmers and companies. The partnership pattern that works best for black grass jelly powder factory is a partnership “inti plasma”. It is based on research with the results of the assessment and weighting by using pairwise comparison and rating scale, the value of the highest weight in the “inti plasma” partnership with a value of 4,893. By implementing this partnership will allow the factory to obtain raw materials easily and is more economical and can always be available throughout the year for partnering with farmers.    Keywords: black grass jelly powder, drying method, financial feasibility analysis, partnership patterns

  19. Life-history variation in the short-lived herb Rorippa palustris: effects of germination date and injury timing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klimešová, Jitka; Sosnová, Monika; Martínková, Jana

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 189, - (2007), s. 237-246 ISSN 1385-0237 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD206/03/H034 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Bud bank * Cohorts * Life history Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.236, year: 2007

  20. No evidence for memory interference across sessions in food hoarding marsh tits Poecile palustris under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urhan, A Utku; Brodin, Anders

    2015-05-01

    Scatter hoarding birds are known for their accurate spatial memory. In a previous experiment, we tested the retrieval accuracy in marsh tits in a typical laboratory set-up for this species. We also tested the performance of humans in this experimental set-up. Somewhat unexpectedly, humans performed much better than marsh tits. In the first five attempts, humans relocated almost 90 % of the caches they had hidden 5 h earlier. Marsh tits only relocated 25 % in the first five attempts and just above 40 % in the first ten attempts. Typically, in this type of experiment, the birds will be caching and retrieving many times in the same sites in the same experimental room. This is very different from the conditions in nature where hoarding parids only cache once in a caching site. Hence, it is possible that memories from previous sessions will disturb the formation of new memories. If there is such proactive interference, the prediction is that success should decay over sessions. Here, we have designed an experiment to investigate whether there is such memory interference in this type of experiment. We allowed marsh tits and humans to cache and retrieve in three repeated sessions without prior experience of the arena. The performance did not change over sessions, and on average, marsh tits correctly visited around 25 % of the caches in the first five attempts. The corresponding success in humans was constant across sessions, and it was around 90 % on average. We conclude that the somewhat poor performance of the marsh tits did not depend on proactive memory interference. We also discuss other possible reasons for why marsh tits in general do not perform better in laboratory experiments.

  1. Dietas de Abrothrix andinus, Phyllotis xanthopygus (Rodentia y Lepus europaeus (Lagomorpha en un ambiente altoandino de Chile Feeding habits of Abrothrix andinus, Phyllotis xanthopygus (Rodentia and Lepus europaeus (Lagomorpha in an Andean environment of Chile

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    FRANCISCO LÓPEZ-CORTÉS

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Los roedores nativos Abrothrix andinus, Phyllotis xanthopygus y el lagomorfo introducido Lepus europaeus, coexisten en ambientes altoandinos del centro-norte de Chile, donde la disponibilidad de alimento es escasa y distribuida heterogéneamente en el paisaje. Propusimos que en estos ambientes las especies en estudio se comportarían como herbívoros generalistas y que existiría una alta sobreposición en la dieta entre la liebre y los roedores nativos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue documentar la composición de la dieta de las tres especies y determinar su amplitud, preferencia y sobreposición en la dieta a partir del análisis microhistológico de heces frescas. Los resultados indican que las tres especies se comportaron como herbívoros-folívoros, siendo la dieta de L. europaeus la de mayor amplitud trófica. Abrothrix andinus seleccionó todos los ítemes que consume, mientras que P. xanthopygus y L. europaeus realizaron un consumo más oportunista. La mayor sobreposición en la dieta se observó entre los roedores nativosThe native rodents Abrothrix andinus, Phyllotis xanthopygus and the introduced lagomorph Lepus europaeus coexist in the highlands of north-central Chile, where food availability is scarce. We hypothesized that in these environments, the studied species would behave as generalist herbivores and where the diet of native rodents would overlap that of hares greatly. The aim of this study was to quantify feeding habits, amplitude, diet preferences and overlap of these three species through microhistological analysis of fresh faeces. While all three species behaved as herbivore-folivores, L. europaeus showed the largest niche breath. Abrothrix andinus selected all consumed items, while P. xanthopygus and L. europaeus exhibited a more opportunistic consumption food items. The highest diet overlap was observed between native rodents

  2. Habitat use and relative abundance of the Spotted Paca Cuniculus paca (Linnaeus, 1766 (Rodentia: Cuniculidae and the Red-rumped Agouti Dasyprocta leporina (Linnaeus, 1758 (Rodentia: Dasyproctidae in Guatopo National Park, Venezuela

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    Elinor Jax

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Spotted Paca Cuniculus paca and the Red-rumped Agouti Dasyprocta leporina are affected by habitat loss and hunting.  In Venezuela, their conservation status is unknown, even within protected areas.  The objective of this study was to estimate the relative abundance, activity patterns, habitat use, and effect of human activities on these species in Venezuela.  To achieve this, 26 camera-trap stations (20.8km2 were established in Guatopo National Park between February and April 2011, characterization of the habitat was undertaken and occupancy models were created.  The relative abundance of the Spotted Paca was 1.62 captures/100trap-nights, with a fully nocturnal activity pattern.  The relative abundance of the Red-rumped Agouti was 2.32 captures/100trap-nights, with a pronounced diurnal activity pattern. The occupation probability of the Red-rumped Agouti (0.61 SE 0.02 was higher than that of the Spotted Paca (0.27 SE 0.02. Spotted Pacas were mainly found in areas with mature forest and high tree density, whereas the  Red-rumped Agoutis were most frequently found in valleys with little disturbed forest.  A positive correlation was found between illegal hunting activities and areas occupied by the Spotted Paca.  It is important to strengthen the park control measurements to reduce illegal hunting of Spotted Pacas.

  3. Temporal dynamics of milk composition of the precocial caviomorph Octodon degus (Rodentia: Octodontidae Dinámica temporal de la composición de la leche del caviomorfo precocial Octodon degus (Rodentia: Octodentidae

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    CLAUDIO VELOSO

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available During lactation, both the nutritional and energetic requirements of suckling change gradually. These changes normally are accompanied by modifications in chemical composition of the milk. We investigated the temporal course of milk composition during lactation in a precocial caviomorph rodent, the "degu" (Octodon degus under laboratory condition. Female degus were kept in laboratory during gestation and lactation and fed with commercial food pellets. Milk was collected at three stages of lactation: early (days 5-8, n = 12, middle (days 15-21, n = 7 and late (days 26-40, n = 6, and analyzed for protein, carbohydrates, lipids, ash, total solids and energy. On average, carbohydrates decreased from 3.1 ± 0.3 % (early to 1.1 ± 0.3 % (late during lactation; lipids, protein, ash, total solids and energy remained about the same. Lipids, the main component of the milk, were 17.3 % and protein remained near 4.4 %. Over lactation, total energy concentration of milk remained near 4.0 kJ mL-1. The maintenance of milk composition during lactation may be related to the initially high energetic and nutritional requirements associated with a precocial reproductive modeDurante la lactancia, tanto los requerimientos energéticos como nutricionales de las crías cambian gradualmente. Estos cambios normalmente van acompañados por modificaciones en la composición química de la leche. Se investigaron los cambios temporales de la composición de la leche durante la lactancia en el roedor caviomorfo precocial "degu" (Octodon degus bajo condiciones de laboratorio. Las hembras de degu fueron mantenidas en el laboratorio durante preñez y lactancia, y fueron alimentadas con alimento comercial de conejo. La leche fue colectada en tres estados de lactancia: temprana (días 5-8, n = 12, media (días 15-21, n = 7 y tardía (días 26-40, n = 6, y analizadas para proteínas, hidratos de carbono, lípidos, ceniza, sólidos totales y energía. En promedio, los hidratos de carbono disminuyen desde 3,1 ± 0,3 % (temprana hasta 1,1 ± 0,3 % (tardía durante la lactancia; mientras que, los lípidos, las proteínas, la ceniza, los sólidos totales y la energía se mantienen relativamente constantes. Los lípidos, el principal constituyente de la leche fue de 17,3 % y las proteínas correspondieron al 4,4 %. Durante la lactancia, la concentración de energía total de la leche permaneció cerca de los 4,0 kJ mL-1. La mantención de la composición de la leche durante la lactancia puede estar relacionada con los altos requerimientos energéticos y nutricionales asociados al modo reproductivo precocial

  4. Parâmetros hematológicos do roedor fossorial Ctenomys lami (Rodentia, Ctenomidae no estado do Rio Grande do Sul Hematological parameters of fossorial rodent Ctenomys lami (Rodentia, Ctenomidae in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Gisele G. Stein

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O perfil hematológico sanguíneo foi determinado em três populações de Ctenomys lami, em áreas denominadas A e B, impactadas pela bovinocultura, e C, sem impacto antrópico, ambas no sul do Brasil. Sessenta e dois animais foram coletados ao total. Os valores de hematócrito (Ht, hemoglobina (Hb e eritrócitos apresentaram diferenças significativas entre machos e fêmeas. Os valores médios de Ht e a Hb encontrados na espécie foram mais baixos em comparação com os de outras espécies de roedores subterrâneos, podendo estes valores estarem relacionados ao habitat de forrageio ou às características do solo. Também foram encontradas diferenças significativas nas médias de hemoglobina, CHCM e linfócitos em animais das áreas A e B em relação à área C. O valor da média dos hematócritos dos animais entre as áreas foi mais elevado nas áreas A e B, porém significativamente diferentes entre A e C. Algumas dessas alterações sugerem a relação dos valores encontrados com o estresse dos animais em relação a áreas impactadas. Variações significativas no VCM foram encontradas entre os animais das áreas A e C, e também nas plaquetas destes entre as áreas A e B. Não foram observados Corpúsculo de Kurloff no sangue dos animais analisados. Os valores hematológicos encontrados nesses espécimes de Ctenomys lami fornecem informações importantes sobre a espécie e podem ser úteis em outras pesquisas.The hematological profile was determined in three populations of Ctenomys lami that inhabits three different areas nominated as A and B, affected by cattle production, and C, without human impact, all of them in southern Brazil, under the same geologic formation. Sixty two individuals were collected. The packed cell volume (PCV values, hemoglobin (Hb and red blood cell (RBC count presents statistic significant differences between males and females. PCV and Hb values were lower in comparison with other subterranean rodents, which could be related to the food searching behavior or soil characteristic of the species. Significant statistic differences were found to for Hb, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC and lymphocytes between animals belonging to A and C areas. The PCV values were higher for animals from areas A and B, with significance only between A and C. Some of these alterations may suggest a modification on stress levels of the animals inhabiting areas A and B with anthropic alterations, or maybe just an inherited characteristic. Significant statistic differences were found either in mean corpuscular volume (MCV between A and C areas, and platelets between A and B areas. No Kurloff cells were observed in the blood smear from analyzed individuals. The hematological values founded for Ctenomys lami are an important information for this species, which can be used for future research and management.

  5. Population dynamics and bioenergetics of a fossorial herbivore, Thomomys talpoides (Rodentia: Geomyidae), in a spruce-fir sere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Douglas C.; MacMahon, James A.

    1981-01-01

    Studies of the bioenergetics of the northern pocket gopher, Thomomys talpoides, are coupled with data on demography, activity budgets, and microclimates to model the energy requirements of individuals and populations in the Wasatch Mountains of Utah during 1976-1979. Metabolic rates during rest increased linearly with decreasing ambient temperature, but burrowing metabolic rates (16.3 mL O2 • h-1 • g-9.75) were independent of both temperature and physical properties of the soil. Radio-telemetry studies indicated that free-ranging gophers are active =50% of each day. Conservative estimates of true energy consumption were calculated using estimates of habitat-specific minimum daily burrowing requirements. Rates of burrowing measured in the laboratory were either ∞ 0.0 or ∞ 2.0 cm/min. The low burrowing rate was observed when the soil was frozen or saturated with water, as would occur in the field in early winter and in spring, respectively. Gophers burrowed through soil at the study site at an average rate of ∞ 1.5 cm/min. Belowground food energy densities at gopher foraging depth declined from 24.6 to 3.2 J/cm3 along a successional gradient (subalpine forb meadow to Engelmann spruce dominated forest). We conclude that individual gophers are food limited within the climax spruce seral stage. Further, daily energy costs associated with reproduction in females may exceed the belowground energy supply available in intermediate seral stages (aspen and subalpine fir). Reduction of burrowing rates for any reason will affect gophers in the late seral stages proportionately more than those resident in the meadow. The peak gopher densities recorded (from 62 individuals/ha in the meadow to 2 individuals/ha in spruce forest) support these inferences. Detailed demographic information was obtained only in the meadow seral stage. Adult survivorship was lower in winter than in summer and varied greatly between years (0.18-0.70 yr-1). Juvenile survivorship from weaning through the first year was comparable to adult annual rates. The fertility rate was 3.75 young • female-1 • yr-1. The energy supply and demand analyses indicate that the growth of Thomomys talpoides populations in the early seral stages is seldom directly limited by the amount of food present. From our demographic, environmental, and autecological studies we conclude that stochastic events associated with weather affect energy acquisition (burrowing) rates, and thus survivorship. In montane environments, such events may prevent populations from attaining sizes at which territorial behavior would hypothetically limit further increases. The energy flow through the meadow population at moderate to high )1976-1977) densities (at least 1100 MJ • ha-1 • yr-1) indicates that pocket gophers are proficient energy movers relative to non-fossorial small mammals. Subalpine T. talpoides populations appear commonly to attain such densities. More than 30% of the annual primary productivity allocated to belowground parts of meadow forbs may be consumed by gophers.

  6. Masticatory muscle architecture in the Laotian rock rat Laonastes aenigmamus (Mammalia, Rodentia): new insights into the evolution of hystricognathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hautier, Lionel; Saksiri, Soonchan

    2009-10-01

    We present the first descriptive comparison of the skull, mandible and jaw muscles of the recently recovered Laotian rock rat Laonastes aenigmamus. The gross anatomy of five specimens captured in Laos and internal architecture of the jaw musculature were studied using dissections. The following muscles are described: temporal, masseter, pterygoids, digastric, mylohyoid, geniohyoid and transverse mandibular. The description of the masticatory apparatus of L. aenigmamus offers a rare opportunity to assess the order of establishment of the morphological characters during the evolution of Ctenohystrica. Striking convergences have occurred during the evolution of Diatomyidae and L. aenigmamus presents a unique combination of myological features that corresponds to a mixture of sciurognathous and hystricognathous characters. If L. aenigmamus is a sciurognathous rodent, we have to assume that it independently acquired a pars reflexa of the superficial masseter. We show for the first time that the development of this pars reflexa has occurred several times during the evolution of Ctenohystrica and can no longer be considered a synapomorphic feature of 'Hystricognathi'. These results bring new insights into the evolution of hystricognathy and have profound implications for the interpretation of the fossil record of early hystricognath rodents.

  7. On cognitive ecology and the environmental factors that promote Alzheimer disease: lessons from Octodon degus (Rodentia: Octodontidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Daniela S; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C; Bozinovic, Francisco

    2016-02-20

    Cognitive ecologist posits that the more efficiently an animal uses information from the biotic and abiotic environment, the more adaptive are its cognitive abilities. Nevertheless, this approach does not test for natural neurodegenerative processes under field or experimental conditions, which may recover animals information processing and decision making and may explain, mechanistically, maladaptive behaviors. Here, we call for integrative approaches to explain the relationship between ultimate and proximate mechanisms behind social behavior. We highlight the importance of using the endemic caviomorph rodent Octodon degus as a valuable natural model for mechanistic studies of social behavior and to explain how physical environments can shape social experiences that might influence impaired cognitive abilities and the onset and progression of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer disease. We consequently suggest neuroecological approaches to examine how key elements of the environment may affect neural and cognitive mechanisms associated with learning, memory processes and brain structures involved in social behavior. We propose the following three core objectives of a program comprising interdisciplinary research in O. degus, namely: (1) to determine whether diet types provided after weaning can lead to cognitive impairment associated with spatial memory, learning and predisposing to develop Alzheimer disease in younger ages; (2) to examine if early life social experience has long term effects on behavior and cognitive responses and risk for development Alzheimer disease in later life and (3) To determine if an increase of social interactions in adult degu reared in different degree of social stressful conditions alter their behavior and cognitive responses.

  8. Exceptional Chromosomal Evolution and Cryptic Speciation of Blind Mole Rats Nannospalax leucodon (Spalacinae, Rodentia from South-Eastern Europe

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    Ivo Savić

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Mole rats are exclusively subterranean and highly specialized rodents. Their long lifespans, remarkable anti-cancer mechanisms, and various distinctive adaptive features make them a useful research model. Moreover, opposing convergence of morphological traits, they have developed extremely high karyotype variability. Thus, 74 chromosomal forms have been described so far and new ones are being revealed continuously. These evolved during the process of rapid radiation and occur in different biogeographical regions. During research into their reproductive biology we have already provided substantial evidence for species-level separation of these taxa. Here, we review diverse chromosomal forms of the lesser blind mole rat, Mediterranean Nannospalax leucodon, distributed in South-eastern Europe, their karyotype records, biogeography, origin, and phylogeny from our extensive research. In the light of new data from molecular genetic studies, we question some former valuations and propose a cryptospecies rank for seven reproductively isolated chromosomal forms with sympatric and parapatric distribution and clear ecogeographical discrepances in their habitats, as well as new experimental and theoretical methods for understanding the courses of speciation of these unique fossorial mammals.

  9. Rediscovery Of The Northern Mole Vole, Ellobius Talpinus (Rodentia, Cricetidae, At The Western Bank Of The Dnipro River, Ukraine

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    Rusin M.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ellobius talpinus was supposed to become extinct from the westernbank of the river Dnipro. Aft er 50 years the species was found again in Dnipropetrovsk and Kherson Region. The brief description of the current distribution of the northern mole vole to the west of the Dnipro is given. Altogether 11 localities were found. The rediscovered populations may be treated as endangered in the region.

  10. Activity pattern of medium and large sized mammals and density estimates of Cuniculus paca (Rodentia: Cuniculidae in the Brazilian Pampa

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    C. Leuchtenberger

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Between July 2014 and April 2015, we conducted weekly inventories of the circadian activity patterns of mammals in Passo Novo locality, municipality of Alegrete, southern Brazil. The vegetation is comprised by a grassy-woody steppe (grassland. We used two camera traps alternately located on one of four 1 km transects, each separated by 1 km. We classified the activity pattern of species by the percentage of photographic records taken in each daily period. We identify Cuniculus paca individuals by differences in the patterns of flank spots. We then estimate the density 1 considering the area of riparian forest present in the sampling area, and 2 through capture/recapture analysis. Cuniculus paca, Conepatus chinga and Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris were nocturnal, Cerdocyon thous had a crepuscular/nocturnal pattern, while Mazama gouazoubira was cathemeral. The patterns of circadian activity observed for medium and large mammals in this Pampa region (southern grasslands may reflect not only evolutionary, biological and ecological affects, but also human impacts not assessed in this study. We identified ten individuals of C. paca through skin spot patterns during the study period, which were recorded in different transects and months. The minimum population density of C. paca was 3.5 individuals per km2 (resident animals only and the total density estimates varied from 7.1 to 11.8 individuals per km2, when considering all individuals recorded or the result of the capture/recapture analysis, respectively.

  11. Activity pattern of medium and large sized mammals and density estimates of Cuniculus paca (Rodentia: Cuniculidae) in the Brazilian Pampa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuchtenberger, C; de Oliveira, Ê S; Cariolatto, L P; Kasper, C B

    2018-02-22

    Between July 2014 and April 2015, we conducted weekly inventories of the circadian activity patterns of mammals in Passo Novo locality, municipality of Alegrete, southern Brazil. The vegetation is comprised by a grassy-woody steppe (grassland). We used two camera traps alternately located on one of four 1 km transects, each separated by 1 km. We classified the activity pattern of species by the percentage of photographic records taken in each daily period. We identify Cuniculus paca individuals by differences in the patterns of flank spots. We then estimate the density 1) considering the area of riparian forest present in the sampling area, and 2) through capture/recapture analysis. Cuniculus paca, Conepatus chinga and Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris were nocturnal, Cerdocyon thous had a crepuscular/nocturnal pattern, while Mazama gouazoubira was cathemeral. The patterns of circadian activity observed for medium and large mammals in this Pampa region (southern grasslands) may reflect not only evolutionary, biological and ecological affects, but also human impacts not assessed in this study. We identified ten individuals of C. paca through skin spot patterns during the study period, which were recorded in different transects and months. The minimum population density of C. paca was 3.5 individuals per km2 (resident animals only) and the total density estimates varied from 7.1 to 11.8 individuals per km2, when considering all individuals recorded or the result of the capture/recapture analysis, respectively.

  12. Morfologia da língua e características das papilas linguais de Cuniculus paca (Rodentia: Cuniculidae

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    Márcia Rita Fernandes Machado

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2013v26n4p167 Este artigo descreve a morfologia da língua, seus músculos extrínsecos e as características das papilas linguais de Cuniculus paca. Foram utilizados quinze espécimes provenientes do Setor de Animais Silvestres da Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP. Nessa espécie, a língua se divide em três regiões: raiz, corpo e ápice. Este último é delimitado pelo frênulo lingual, que possui aspecto de membrana fibrosa. Identificou-se também um sulco mediano e uma proeminência em sua superfície dorsal. Os músculos extrínsecos da língua são o estiloglosso, hioglosso, genioglosso, gênohioide e milohioide, estes dois últimos inseridos no aparelho hioide. Quanto à presença de papilas linguais, em todos os espécimes se observou cinco tipos de papilas: filiforme, fungiforme, valada, folheada e cônica. As papilas filiformes distribuem-se por toda a superfície do ápice e corpo da língua. São inclinadas caudalmente por todo o corpo, até que se modificam na região da raiz e formam as papilas cônicas. As papilas fungiformes distribuem-se em grande quantidade no ápice lingual, entre as papilas filiformes. Esse tipo de papila possui formato semelhante a cogumelos. Apenas duas papilas valadas estão localizadas na porção caudal da raiz lingual, possuem formato ovalado e estão envolvidas por um sulco profundo. As papilas folheadas apresentam-se em sulcos ou ranhuras paralelas localizadas na porção lateral da língua, entre as papilas valadas e a metade da proeminência intermolar. Na raiz, corpo e ápice da língua foi observado epitélio do tipo estratificado pavimentoso queratinizado, que reveste tanto as papilas linguais como a superfície entre elas.

  13. New species of Eimeria (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from Thrichomys fosteri and Clyomys laticeps (Rodentia: Echimyidae) of the Brazilian Pantanal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Wanessa Teixeira Gomes; Viana, Lúcio André; Santos, Filipe Martins; de Oliveira Porfírio, Grasiela Edith; Perdomo, Alessandra Cabral; da Silva, Alanderson Rodrigues; de Sousa, Keyla Carstens Marques; de Oliveira, Michel Angelo Constantino; Herrera, Heitor Miraglia; de Andrade, Gisele Braziliano

    2017-11-01

    The echimyid rodents Thrichomys fosteri and Clyomys laticeps are among the most commonly recorded small mammals in the Pantanal wetland of Brazil. These species play important ecological roles since they are the basis of the food chain of some predators and are parasitized by some pathogens. Knowledge of the eimerians that parasitize echimyid rodents in Brazil is absent, and only one report is available for South America. We therefore investigated parasitism by coccidians in the echimyids T. fosteri and C. laticeps in the Pantanal. Using morphological and morphometric features and associated statistical analyses, we describe five new eimerian species parasitizing T. fosteri (Eimeria nhecolandensis n. sp., Eimeria jansenae n. sp., and Eimeria fosteri n. sp.) and C. laticeps (E. nhecolandensis n. sp., Eimeria corumbaensis n. sp., and Eimeria laticeps n. sp.) in different types of infection associations. We document the developmental forms in the tissues, and describe lesions in the enteric tract of some infected animals. We also discuss some approaches regarding epidemiological and ecological data. Our results demonstrate that echimyid rodents in the Brazilian Pantanal are important hosts for the maintenance of enteric coccidia. Moreover, in some circumstances, this parasitism may threaten the health of the hosts.

  14. Association of the "IUCN vulnerable "spiny rat Clyomys bishopi (Rodentia:Echimyidaewith palm trees and armadillo burrows in southeastern Brazil

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    Adriana A Bueno

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The globally vulnerable Clyomys bishopi ,a semi-fossorial and colonial rodent,is apparently limited to cerrado (savannah-like vegetationphysiognomies in São Paulo State,Brazil.The aim of the study was to verify whether the presence of C.bishopi is associated to the occurrence of palm trees (Attalea gearensis, Syagrus loefgrenii and armadillo burrows.Thirty six quadrats were placed in different physiognomies of cerrado vegetation at Itirapina Ecological Station,southeastern Brazil to survey the number of C.bishopi burrows of individuals of palm trees and burrows of armadillos.There was a strong dependence and association between the number of C.bishopi burrows and all measured variables (Contingency tables and Spearman rank correlations.It is suggested that this rodent can be found in great numbers where palm trees are abundant.The use of armadillo burrows possibly makes the movement of the rodents easier inside their own galleries.Rev.Biol. Trop. 52(4:1009-1011.Epub 2005 Jun 24.El roedor colonial Clyomys bishopi está aparentemente limitado a vegetación de semi-sabana (cerradoen el estado de São Paulo,Brasil.El objetivo de este estudio fue verificar si la presencia de C.bishopi está asociada a la individuos de las palmeras Attalea gearensis,Syagrus loefgrenii y madrigueras de armadillos.El estudio fue realizado en la Estación Ecológica de Itirapina,en el sureste de Brasil.Treinta y seis cuadrantes fueron dispuestos en diferentes fisionomías del la vegetación del cerrado para encuestar el número de madrigueras de C.bishopi, árboles individuales de palma y madrigueras de armadillos.Se calcularon tablas de contingencia y correlaciones de Sperman para evaluar, respectivamente, la dependencia y asociación entre el número de madrigueras de C.bishopi y las otras variables.Se encontró una fuerte dependencia y asociación entre el número de madrigueras de C.bishopi y todas las variables medidas.Esto sugiere que este roedor alcanza grandes poblaciones cuando hay palmeras en abundancia. El uso de madrigueras de armadillos posiblemente facilita el movimiento de los roedores dentro de sus propias galerías.

  15. Multilocus phylogeny of East African gerbils (Rodentia, Gerbilliscus) illuminates the history of the Somali-Masai savanna

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aghová, Tatiana; Šumbera, R.; Piálek, L.; Mikula, Ondřej; McDonough, M. M.; Lavrenchenko, L. A.; Meheretu, Y.; Mbau, J. S.; Bryja, Josef

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 10 (2017), s. 2295-2307 ISSN 0305-0270 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/0983; GA ČR GA15-20229S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : biogeography * Gerbillinae * historical DNA * murid rodents * phylogeography * Plio-Pleistocene climate change * pyrosequencing * Rift Valley * species delimitation * tropical Africa Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 4.248, year: 2016

  16. Multilocus phylogeny of East African gerbils (Rodentia, Gerbilliscus) illuminates the history of the Somali-Masai savanna

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aghová, T.; Šumbera, R.; Piálek, L.; Mikula, Ondřej; McDonough, M. M.; Lavrenchenko, L. A.; Meheretu, Y.; Mbau, J. S.; Bryja, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 10 (2017), s. 2295-2307 ISSN 0305-0270 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : biogeography * Gerbillinae * historical DNA * murid rodents * phylogeography Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology OBOR OECD: Biology (theoretical, mathematical, thermal, cryobiology, biological rhythm), Evolutionary biology Impact factor: 4.248, year: 2016

  17. Estructura genética de un grupo de capibaras, Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Rodentia: Hydrocheridae en los Llanos orientales colombianos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Maldonado-Chaparro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Los capibaras son los roedores más grandes del mundo, sin embargo, no se han realizado estudios genético poblacionales exhaustivos con ellos. En el presente trabajo se analizó la estructura genética de una manada de 31 capibaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris muestreada en Hato Corozal, Departamento de Casanare en los Llanos Orientales de Colombia, mediante cinco marcadores microsatelitales. La diversidad genética se determinó en 0.61 y un número promedio de alelos de 5.2, lo cual se puede considerar medio-bajo para este tipo de marcadores. De los cinco marcadores empleados, tres mostraron proporciones genotípicas en concordancia con lo esperado en equilibrio Hardy-Weinberg, mientras que un marcador mostró un exceso significativo de homocigotos y otro un exceso significativo de heterocigotos. No se encontraron diferencias significativas para esos cinco marcadores entre machos y hembras de la manada muestreada. La aplicación de diferentes procedimientos para detectar posibles cambios demográficos históricos (expansiones poblacionales o cuellos de botella mostró claramente que la población analizada ha pasado por un cuello de botella extremadamente fuerte en épocas recientes. La limitada variabilidad genética encontrada y la fuerte evidencia de que la manada estudiada ha pasado por un cuello de botella reciente es probablemente el resultado de la cacería ilegal.

  18. On cognitive ecology and the environmental factors that promote Alzheimer disease: lessons from Octodon degus (Rodentia: Octodontidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela S. Rivera

    Full Text Available Cognitive ecologist posits that the more efficiently an animal uses information from the biotic and abiotic environment, the more adaptive are its cognitive abilities. Nevertheless, this approach does not test for natural neurodegenerative processes under field or experimental conditions, which may recover animals information processing and decision making and may explain, mechanistically, maladaptive behaviors. Here, we call for integrative approaches to explain the relationship between ultimate and proximate mechanisms behind social behavior. We highlight the importance of using the endemic caviomorph rodent Octodon degus as a valuable natural model for mechanistic studies of social behavior and to explain how physical environments can shape social experiences that might influence impaired cognitive abilities and the onset and progression of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer disease. We consequently suggest neuroecological approaches to examine how key elements of the environment may affect neural and cognitive mechanisms associated with learning, memory processes and brain structures involved in social behavior. We propose the following three core objectives of a program comprising interdisciplinary research in O. degus, namely: (1 to determine whether diet types provided after weaning can lead to cognitive impairment associated with spatial memory, learning and predisposing to develop Alzheimer disease in younger ages; (2 to examine if early life social experience has long term effects on behavior and cognitive responses and risk for development Alzheimer disease in later life and (3 To determine if an increase of social interactions in adult degu reared in different degree of social stressful conditions alter their behavior and cognitive responses.

  19. Cranial and dental analysis of mouse-like hamsters of the genus Calomyscus (Rodentia: Calomyscidae) from plateau of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Shahabi, Saeed; Darvish, Jamshid; Aliabadian, Mansour; Mirshamsi, Omid; Mohammadi, Zeinolabedien

    2012-01-01

    To assess morphometric interspecific differences, we studied by multivariate and univariate analyses 32 cranial, mandibular and dental variables and four standard external measurements in 84 specimens of the genus Calomyscus (C. elburzensis, C. bailwardi, C. hotsoni and C. grandis) from Iran. Almost all mean cranial measurements in C. grandis were larger than in the other three species, while the opposite occurred for C. hotsoni. C. bailwardi showed the smallest dental measurement. Principal ...

  20. El aparato masticador del género extinto Actenomys Burmeister, 1888 (Rodentia, Ctenomyidae: inferencias sobre su modo de vida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreira, G. J.

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available The genus Actenomys is registered from Plioceno sediments of Buenos Aires province, Argentina. Anatomy of skull and dentition of the genus is described, giving special emphasis to the origin and insertion points of the masticatory musculature. Actenomys is compared with the extant fossorial rodent of the genus Ctenomys, and the development of the masticatory muscles and their degree of functionality are inferred. It is concluded that Actenomys presents a less robust skull, with a masticatory musculature in agreement and incisives with great procumbency. This evidence could explain a possible adaptation of Actenomys to dig using the incisives and an adaptation to live in habitats of higher humidity than the extant forms.Se describe la anatomía cráneo-dentaria del género Actenomys, registrado en sedimentos del Plioceno de la provincia de Buenos Aires (República Argentina, con especial énfasis los puntos de origen e inserción de la musculatura masticatoria; se lo compara con el roedor fosorial viviente del género Ctenomys, infiriéndose el desarrollo de los músculos masticatorios y su grado de funcionalidad. Se concluye que Actenomys presenta un cráneo menos robusto, con una musculatura masticatoria acorde e incisivos procumbentes, lo que podría explicar una posible adaptación para cavar con los mismos, y que estaría adaptado a vivir en ambientes con un porcentaje de humedad mayor que las formas actuales.

  1. Syphacia obvelata (Nematode, Oxyuridae) infecting laboratory mice Mus musculus (Rodentia, Muridae): phylogeny and host-parasite relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Gaber, Rewaida

    2016-03-01

    Syphacia obvelata is a pinworm nematode parasite infecting man and laboratory animals in high abundance. This parasitological study was carried out during the period of March 2014-February 2015 to investigate the helminth parasites infecting the laboratory mice Mus musculus in the Animal House at Cairo University, Egypt. The prevalence of S. obvelata in M. musculus was 75.0 %. The extent of infection with S. obvelata is analyzed according to the sex of the host mice. It was shown that the prevalence of male infection was greater than female worms. Morphological characterization revealed that the present Oxyurid species possesses a rounded cephalic end with less developed lips, esophagus divided into cylindrical corpus, and globular bulb supported internally with valvular apparatus; three mamelons are located at the ventral surface with a single chitinized spicule and a gubernaculum provided with an accessory hook in males, and ovijector apparatus opens ventrally by the vulva surrounded by protruded lips in female worms. Body of the male was 0.623-1.130 (0.830 ± 0.11) mm long and 0.092-0.130 (0.110 ± 0.01) mm wide; the esophagus was 0.164-0.280 (0.210 ± 0.01) mm long; the nerve ring and excretory pore are located at 0.035-0.132 (0.073 ± 0.01) and 0.087-0.191 (0.145 ± 0.01) mm from the anterior end, respectively, while the female measured 2.930-4.650 (3.540 ± 0.1) mm long and 0.120-0.232 (0.156 ± 0.001) mm wide; the esophagus was 0.213-0.410 (0.342 ± 0.01) mm long; the nerve ring, excretory pore, and vulval opening are located at 0.026-0.157 (0.121 ± 0.01), 0.134-0.243 (0.195 ± 0.01), and 0.323-0.632 (0.546 ± 0.11) mm from the anterior end, respectively; eggs measured 0.120-0.139 (0.129 ± 0.001) mm long and 0.030-0.052 (0.045 ± 0.001) mm wide. It compared morphometrically with other Syphacia species described previously and showed little differences in measurements. Molecular characterization based on small subunit ribosomal DNA (rDNA) was done to confirm the obtained morphological and morphometric results. A preliminary genetic comparison between SSU rDNA of the present parasite and other species of Oxyuridae places it as a putative sister taxon to other S. obvelata.

  2. Into Tibet: An Early Pliocene Dispersal of Fossil Zokor (Rodentia: Spalacidae) from Mongolian Plateau to the Hinterland of Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Wang, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the fossil zokors (Myospalacinae) collected from the lower Pliocene (~4.4 Ma) of Zanda Basin, southwestern Tibet, which is the first record in the hinterland of Tibetan Plateau within the Himalayan Range. Materials include 29 isolated molars belonging to Prosiphneus eriksoni (Schlosser, 1924) by having characters including large size, highly fused roots, upper molars of orthomegodont type, m1 anterior cap small and centrally located, and first pair of m1 reentrants on opposing sides, high crowns, and high value of dentine tract parameters. Based on the cladistics analysis, all seven species of Prosiphneus and P. eriksoni of Zanda form a monophyletic clade. P. eriksoni from Zanda, on the other hand, is nearly the terminal taxon of this clade. The appearance of P. eriksoni in Zanda represents a significant dispersal in the early Pliocene from its center of origin in north China and Mongolian Plateau, possibly via the Hol Xil-Qiangtang hinterland in northern Tibet. The fast evolving zokors are highly adapted to open terrains at a time when regional climates had become increasingly drier in the desert zones north of Tibetan Plateau during the late Miocene to Pliocene. The occurrence of this zokor in Tibet thus suggests a rather open steppe environment. Based on fossils of large mammals, we have formulated an "out of Tibet" hypothesis that suggests earlier and more primitive large mammals from the Pliocene of Tibet giving rise to the Ice Age megafauna. However, fossil records for large mammals are still too poor to evaluate whether they have evolved from lineages endemic to the Tibetan Plateau or were immigrants from outside. The superior record of small mammals is in a better position to address this question. With relatively dense age intervals and numerous localities in much of northern Asia, fossil zokors provide the first example of an "into Tibet" scenario--earlier and more primitive taxa originated from outside of the Tibetan Plateau and the later the lineage became extinct in southwestern Tibet.

  3. Cryptic Species in Proechimys goeldii (Rodentia, Echimyidae)? A Case of Molecular and Chromosomal Differentiation in Allopatric Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues da Costa, Marlyson J; Siqueira do Amaral, Paulo J; Pieczarka, Julio C; Sampaio, Maria I; Rossi, Rogério V; Mendes-Oliveira, Ana C; Rodrigues Noronha, Renata C; Nagamachi, Cleusa Y

    2016-01-01

    The spiny rats of the genus Proechimys have a wide distribution in the Amazon, covering all areas of endemism of this region. We analyzed the karyotype and cytochrome b (Cyt b) sequences in Proechimys goeldii from 6 localities representing 3 interfluves of the eastern Amazon. A clear separation of P. goeldii into 2 monophyletic clades was observed, both chromosomally and based on Cyt b sequences: cytotype A (2n = 26x2640;/27x2642;, NF = 42) for samples from the Tapajos-Xingu interfluve and cytotype B (2n = 24x2640;/25x2642;, NF = 42) for samples from the Xingu-Tocantins interfluve and east of the Tocantins River. The karyotypes differ in a pericentric inversion and a centric fusion/fission and an average nucleotide divergence of 6.1%, suggesting cryptic species. Meiotic analysis confirmed the presence of a XX/XY1Y2 multiple sex chromosome determination system for both karyotypes. The karyotypes also vary from the literature (2n = 24, NF = 42, XX/XY). The autosome translocated to the X chromosome is different both in size and morphology to P. cf. longicaudatus, which also has a multiple sex chromosome determination system (2n = 14x2640;/15x2640;x2642;/16x2640;/17x2642;, NF = 14). The Xingu River is a barrier that separates populations of P. goeldii, thus maintaining their allopatric nature and providing an explanation for the molecular and cytogenetic patterns observed for the Xingu River but not the Tocantins River. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. The visual system in subterranean African mole-rats (Rodentia, Bathyergidae): Retina, subcortical visual nuclei and primary visual cortex

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Němec, P.; Cveková, P.; Benada, Oldřich; Wielkopolska, E.; Olkowitz, S.; Turlejski, K.; Burda, H.; Bennett, N. C.; Peichl, L.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 75, 2-4 (2008), s. 356-364 ISSN 0361-9230 Grant - others:GA AV ČR(CZ) GA206/06/1469; ZA(ZA) 2069070 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : microphthalmia * ocular regression * subterranean mammals Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.281, year: 2008

  5. Comparison between Oligoryzomys nigripes and O. flavescens by RAPD and genetic diversity in O. nigripes (Rodentia, Cricetidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AJ Mossi

    Full Text Available The genus of Oligoryzomys includes species of small size, morphologically similar, which may impede taxonomic identification, mainly between O. flavescens (Waterhouse, 1837 and O. nigripes (Olfers, 1818. The main objective of this work was to investigate whether the RAPD markers are capable of genetically differentiating the specimens O. nigripes and O. flavescens, coming from Rio Grande do Sul (RS and Santa Catarina (SC states, and also to estimate the genetic variability among populations of O. nigripes, with the Uruguay River as a geographical barrier. For this purpose, samples were collected in fragments of forests situated in the North of RS, at FLONA (Floresta Nacional de Passo Fundo and in fragments from SC, close to the Uruguay River. The karyotyping of two samples for each species was carried out and compared using the RAPD technique together with non- karyotyped individuals. Samples of O. nigripes presented 2n = 62; NA = 82, with submetacentric arms on the largest chromosomes, while samples of O. flavescens showed 2n = 64; NA = 66, with the largest chromosomes presenting acrocentric morphology, making such a result the main difference between the species. The analysis was able to detect two distinct groups, being the first one with karyotyped O. flavescens and the second with karyotyped O. nigripes. Identification afforded 211 loci, among them 181 (85.78% polymorphic. The Jaccard similarity coefficient was in the range of 0.45 to 0.87. The UPGMA and Main Coordinate Analysis techniques demonstrated the existence of heterogeneous genetics among populations, but did not separate them completely in terms of geographical standards, and they are not influenced by the Uruguay River, which did not act as an efficient barrier.

  6. Re-evaluation of the holotype of Mus ruber Jentink, 1880 (Rodentia: Muridae) from western New Guinea (Irian Jaya)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calaby, J.H.; Mary Taylor, J.

    1980-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The first rodent from the New Guinea region, now included in the genus Rattus, to be formally named, was Mus ruber Jentink, 1880. The name R. ruber is currently in widespread use (Lidicker, 1968, 1973; Lidicker & Ziegler, 1968; Misonne, 1969; Ziegler, 1971; Bulmer & Menzies, 1972, 1973;

  7. Screening of B chromosomes for presence of two genes in yellow-necked mice, Apodemus flavicollis (Mammalia, Rodentia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajičić Marija

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available B chromosomes (Bs are a very heterogeneous group of extra chromosomes. In various species Bs occur with different nucleotide sequences ranging from repetitive to protein coding. In yellow-necked field mice, Apodemus flavicollis Bs are small euchromatic chromosomes and untill now, only few molecular analyses have been conducted. In this study we examined A. flavicollis individuals with different number of Bs for presence of two genes, C-KIT and 18S rRNA. The C-KIT proto-oncogene was found on Bs in three Canidae species and one Cervidae species. This gene is a coding receptor critical for proliferation and cell differentiation of hematopoietic, melanoblast and primordial germ cells, and is highly conserved within mammals. While using semiquantitative PCR, we did not notice any difference in the C-KIT band intensity among animals with different number of Bs (0-3. The presence of only one copy of C- KIT gene was confirmed using real time-PCR on genomic DNA of A. flavicollis specimens with different number of Bs. rRNA genes in eukaryotes’ genome are organized like units of tandem repeated sequences. The units form distinct clusters on one to several chromosome pairs. rRNA genes were found on Bs in different species including two species of genus Apodemus. One particular sample with 2 Bs showed the number of 18S rRNA gene about three times that of the calibrator 0 B sample. This result can indicate the presence of 18S rRNA gene on Bs, but its confirmation requires the implementation of other methods. Still, we can neither confirm nor deny the existence of pseudogen of tested target genes, or lose of exon 1 of C-KIT protooncogen in Bs of A. flavicollis. Our findings are further discussed. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173003

  8. Diversity of tuco-tucos (Ctenomys, Rodentia) in the Northeastern wetlands from Argentina: mitochondrial phylogeny and chromosomal evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraballo, Diego A; Abruzzese, Giselle A; Rossi, María Susana

    2012-06-01

    Tuco-tucos (small subterranean rodents of the genus Ctenomys) that inhabit sandy soils of the area under the influence of the second largest wetland of South America, in Northeastern Argentina (Corrientes province), are a complex of species and forms whose taxonomic status were not defined, nor are the evolutionary relationships among them. The tuco-tuco populations of this area exhibit one of the most ample grades of chromosomal variability within the genus. In order to analyze evolutionary relationships within the Corrientes group and its chromosomal variability, we completed the missing karyotypic information and performed a phylogenetic analysis. We obtained partial sequences of three mitochondrial markers: D-loop, cytochrome b and cytochrome oxidase I. The Corrientes group was monophyletic and split into three main clades that grouped related karyomorphs. The phylogeny suggested an ancestral condition of the karyomorph with diploid number (2n) 70 and fundamental number (FN) 84 that has evolved mainly via reductions of the FN although amplifications occurred in certain lineages. We discuss the relationship between patterns of chromosomal variability and species and groups boundaries. From the three main clades the one named iberá exhibited a remarkable karyotypic homogeneity, and could be considered as an independent and cohesive evolutionary lineage. On the contrary, the former recognized species C. dorbignyi is a polyphyletic lineage and hence its systematic classification should be reviewed.

  9. Genetic diversity and genetic structure of the striped field mouse Apodemus agrarius coreae (Muridae, Rodentia) in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye Ri; Park, Yung Chul

    2015-11-10

    The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic diversity and genetic structure of the striped field mouse Apodemus agrarius coreae in Korea. The Korean A. a. coreae is characterized by high levels of haplotype diversity (Hd=0.967) and low levels of nucleotide diversity (π=0.00683). Haplogroup 1 is well separated from the haplotypes of the neighboring regions of the Korean Peninsula, while the other haplogroups are closely related to those from the Russian Far East. Thus, further investigations are required to confirm the validity of the subspecies status of A. a. coreae by implementing additional morphological characters as well as genetic data from the populations present in the Korean Peninsula and its neighboring countries. Haplogroup 1 includes most Korean haplotypes and forms a star-like haplotype network structure, which reveals relatively low levels of sequence divergence and high frequency of unique mutations (only few mutations are shared in most of the haplotype nodes). The results indicate that the haplotypes of Haplogroup 1 might have experienced population expansion since their migration into Korea, which was further corroborated with negative results of neutrality tests for Korean population of A. a. coreae. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. A geometric morphometric analysis of the shape of the first upper molar in mice of the genus Mus (Muridae, Rodentia)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Macholán, Miloš

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 270, č. 4 (2006), s. 672-681 ISSN 0952-8369 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6045307 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : Mus * geometric morphometrics * thin-plate spline Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.413, year: 2006

  11. The role of growth stop as a morphogenetic factor in Mastomys natalensis (Rodentia: Muridae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fadda, Carlo; Leirs, Herwig

    2009-01-01

    environmental conditions. Morogoro is characterized by a bimodal rainfall pattern, with unreliable peaks occurring in November/December of some years and reliable ones in February to May. We recognized three different generation types. In the first one, the alpha generation, growth occurred during the dry...

  12. Mammalia, Rodentia, Cricetidae, Neusticomys monticolus (Anthony, 1921): noteworthy records of the Montane Fish- Eating Rat in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Velandia-Perilla, Jorge; Saavedra-Rodríguez, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    We document the presence of the Montane Fish-eating Rat, Neusticomys monticolus, in two páramo ecosystems of the Colombian Andes, in the departments of Valle del Cauca and Cauca at 3558 and 3300 m respectively. For small mammals, páramo ecosystems are underexplored zones in a biogeographic context.

  13. Thrichomys laurentius (Rodentia; Echimyidae as a putative reservoir of Leishmania infantum and L. braziliensis: patterns of experimental infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Rodrigues Roque

    Full Text Available The importance of the genus Thrichomys in the retention of infection and transmission of Leishmania species is supported by previous studies that describe an ancient interaction between caviomorphs and trypanosomatids and report the natural infection of Thrichomys spp. Moreover, these rodents are widely dispersed in Brazil and recognized as important hosts of other tripanosomatids. Our main purpose was to evaluate the putative role of Thrichomys laurentius in the retention of infection and amplification of the transmission cycle of Leishmania infantum and L. braziliensis. Male and female T. laurentius (n = 24 born in captivity were evaluated for the retention of infection with these Leishmania species and followed up by parasitological, serological, hematological, biochemical, histological, and molecular assays for 3, 6, 9, or 12 months post infection (mpi. T. laurentius showed its competence as maintenance host for the two inoculated Leishmania species. Four aspects should be highlighted: (i re-isolation of parasites 12 mpi; (ii the low parasitic burden displayed by T. laurentius tissues; (iii the early onset and maintenance of humoral response, and (iv the similar pattern of infection by the two Leishmania species. Both Leishmania species demonstrated the ability to invade and maintain itself in viscera and skin of T. laurentius, and no rodent displayed any lesion, histological changes, or clinical evidence of infection. We also wish to point out the irrelevance of the adjective dermotropic or viscerotropic to qualify L. braziliensis and L. infantum, respectively, when these species are hosted by nonhuman hosts. Our data suggest that T. laurentius may act at least as a maintenance host of both tested Leishmania species since it maintained long-lasting infections. Moreover, it cannot be discarded that Leishmania spp. infection in free-ranging T. laurentius could result in higher parasite burden due the more stressing conditions in the wild. Therefore the tissular parasitism of the skin, infectiveness to the vector, and amplification of the transmission cycle of both Leishmania species could be expected.

  14. Two new species of Eimeria (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the mountain beaver, Aplodontia rufa (Rodentia: Aplodontiidae), from Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Chris T; Duszynski, Donald W; McKown, Richard D

    2013-06-01

    Two mountain beavers, Aplodontia rufa , were collected in Lincoln County, Oregon, and examined for coccidia. Both were infected with 2 new species of Eimeria. Oocysts of Eimeria chitkoae n. sp. were ellipsoidal with a bilayered wall and measured (L × W) 24.5 × 20.2 μm, with a shape index (SI) of 1.2. Both micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but a polar granule of several fragments was present. Sporocysts were ovoidal, 12.5 × 7.9 μm, SI was 1.6. Stieda and substieda bodies were present, but a parastieda body was absent; a sporocyst residuum was present, composed of a cluster of moderately coarse granules with many scattered fine granules. Stout sporozoites were 14.7 × 2.9 μm in situ, with spheroidal anterior and posterior refractile bodies. Oocysts of Eimeria lewisi n. sp. were ovoidal, with a smooth single-layered wall, and measured 13.7 × 7.8 μm, SI was 1.7. A micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but 1-2 polar granule(s) were present. Sporocysts were 6.6 × 4.2 μm, with SI of 1.6. A Stieda body was present, but substieda and parastieda bodies were absent; a sporocyst residuum was present, composed of a small cluster of several granules. Sporozoites were granular, 8.2 × 1.8 μm in situ, with a posterior refractile body. These are the first coccidians reported from the mountain beaver.

  15. New Details of the Eurasian Beaver’s, Castor Fiber (Rodentia, Castoridae, Expansion in the Lowland Part of Transcarpathia, Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barkasi Z.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper contains information on a new beaver colony discovered in the Chornyi mochar tract, which is located in the lowland part of Transcarpathia (= Zakarpattia Region. This rodent species disappeared from the territory of Transcarpathia most likely in the 18th century. Its first reappearance was recorded in 2003. Since, the Eurasian beaver has demonstrated a rapid expansion, primarily along the main rivers. The discovered by us colony allows to suggest that the beaver is continuing its dispersal, entering far into the main river’s tributaries and other shallower water bodies. Consequently, we are witnessing not only the expansion of the species’ geographical range, but also the enlargement of the number of habitat types occupied by the animal. The possibilities and supposed consequences of the species’ further expansion within the tract are shown as well.

  16. Germ cell differentiation and proliferation in the developing testis of the South American plains viscacha, Lagostomus maximus (Mammalia, Rodentia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, C R; Muscarsel Isla, M L; Fraunhoffer, N A; Leopardo, N P; Vitullo, A D

    2012-08-01

    Cell proliferation and cell death are essential processes in the physiology of the developing testis that strongly influence the normal adult spermatogenesis. We analysed in this study the morphometry, the expression of the proliferation cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), cell pluripotency marker OCT-4, germ cell marker VASA and apoptosis in the developing testes of Lagostomus maximus, a rodent in which female germ line develops through abolished apoptosis and unrestricted proliferation. Morphometry revealed an increment in the size of the seminiferous cords with increasing developmental age, arising from a significant increase of PCNA-positive germ cells and a stable proportion of PCNA-positive Sertoli cells. VASA showed a widespread cytoplasmic distribution in a great proportion of proliferating gonocytes that increased significantly at late development. In the somatic compartment, Leydig cells increased at mid-development, whereas peritubular cells showed a stable rate of proliferation. In contrast to other mammals, OCT-4 positive gonocytes increased throughout development reaching 90% of germ cells in late-developing testis, associated with a conspicuous increase in circulating FSH from mid- to late-gestation. TUNEL analysis was remarkable negative, and only a few positive cells were detected in the somatic compartment. These results show that the South American plains viscacha displays a distinctive pattern of testis development characterized by a sustained proliferation of germ cells throughout development, with no signs of apoptosis cell demise, in a peculiar endocrine in utero ambiance that seems to promote the increase of spermatogonial number as a primary direct effect of FSH.

  17. Characterisation of the vascular pathology in Sigmodon hispidus (Rodentia: Cricetidae following experimental infection with Angiostrongylus costaricensis (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae

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    Danielle Ingrid Bezerra de Vasconcelos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Angiostrongylus costaricensis is a nematode that causes human abdominal angiostrongyliasis, a disease found mainly in Latin American countries and particularly in Brazil and Costa Rica. Its life cycle involves exploitation of both invertebrate and vertebrate hosts. Its natural reservoir is a vertebrate host, the cotton rat Sigmodon hispidus. The adult worms live in the ileo-colic branches of the upper mesenteric artery of S. hispidus, causing periarteritis. However, there is a lack of data on the development of vasculitis in the course of infection. OBJECTIVE To describe the histopathology of vascular lesions in S. hispidus following infection with A. costaricensis. METHODS Twenty-one S. hispidus were euthanised at 30, 50, 90 and 114 days post-infection (dpi, and guts and mesentery (including the cecal artery were collected. Tissues were fixed in Carson’s Millonig formalin, histologically processed for paraffin embedding, sectioned with a rotary microtome, and stained with hematoxylin-eosin, resorcin-fuchsin, Perls, Sirius Red (pH = 10.2, Congo Red, and Azan trichrome for brightfield microscopy analysis. FINDINGS At 30 and 50 dpi, live eggs and larvae were present inside the vasa vasorum of the cecal artery, leading to eosinophil infiltrates throughout the vessel adventitia and promoting centripetal vasculitis with disruption of the elastic layers. Disease severity increased at 90 and 114 dpi, when many worms had died and the intensity of the vascular lesions was greatest, with intimal alterations, thrombus formation, iron accumulation, and atherosclerosis. CONCLUSION In addition to abdominal angiostrongyliasis, our data suggest that this model could be very useful for autoimune vasculitis and atherosclerosis studies.

  18. Caracterização morfológica dos dentes de mocó Kerodon rupestris: Mammalia: Rodentia

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    Juliana Montovani Thomaz

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available O Kerodon rupestris, também conhecido como mocó, é um roedor herbívoro encontrado no Brasil. A dentição dos mamíferos apresenta-se variável de acordo com as espécies embora seja formada pelos mesmos componentes: esmalte, dentina, cemento e polpa. Neste estudo foram utilizadas sete cabeças de Kerodon rupestris, adultos, de ambos os sexos. Na cavidade oral do Kerodon rupestris, devido ao tamanho relativamente grande dos incisivos, estes se destacaram dos demais e foram encontrados um par em cada mandíbula. Dois pares de pré-molares e três pares de molares foram encontrados, sendo representados na fórmula 2x (I 1/1, C 0/0, P 1/1, M 3/3. Os molares apresentaram duas cúspides, conformação que conferia a estes dentes um aspecto serrilhado. Microscopicamente os dentes incisivos, pré-molares e molares foram classificados como hipsodontes, ou seja, dentes em constante erupção.

  19. A taxonomic revision of the Pleistocene Hystrix (Hystricidae, Rodentia) from Eurasia with notes on the evolution of the family

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weers, van D.J.

    2005-01-01

    Measurements of many hundreds of the high-crowned cheek teeth of Hystrix specimens from the Euro-Asiatic Pleistocene in the collections of European and Asiatic institutions have been compared with extant species for a revision of the genus. A review is given about the extant genera and species of

  20. Comparative glycopattern analysis of mucins in the Brunner's glands of the guinea-pig and the house mouse (Rodentia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scillitani, Giovanni; Mentino, Donatella

    2015-09-01

    The mucins secreted by the Brunner's glands and the duodenal goblet cells of the Guinea-pig and the house mouse were compared by conventional and FITC-conjugated lectin histochemistry. Methylation/saponification and sialidase digestion were performed prior to lectin binding to detect the residues subterminal to sulfated groups and sialic acid, respectively. In the Guinea-pig the Brunner's glands produce class-III stable sulfosialomucins. Sialic acid is mostly 2,6-linked to galactose or to N-acetylgalactosamine and is in part O-acetylated in C7, C8, and C9. Sulfated groups are probably linked to sialic acid and N-acetylgalactosamine. Terminal residuals of N-acetylglucosamine, galactose, N-acetylgalactosamine and fucose linked in α1,2, α1,3, and α1,4 are also present. Duodenal goblet cells of the Guinea-pig present a lower number of residuals in respect to the Brunner's glandular ones, with sialic acid and N-acetylgalactosamine subterminal to sulfated groups. In the house mouse the Brunner's glands produce class-III stable neutral mucins, binding to same lectins as in the Guinea-pig except for those specific to sialic acid. A diversity of fucosylated residuals higher than in the Guinea-pig is observed. The mouse duodenal goblet cells lack stable class-III mucins, have little sialic acid and present a lower number of residuals in respect to the correspondent Brunner's glands. Regulation of the acidic intestinal microenvironment, prevention of pathologies and hosting of microflora can explain the observed results and the differences observed between the two rodents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Paraspidodera uncinata (Nematoda, Lauroiinae as parasite of Cavia magna and Cavia aperea (Rodentia, Caviidae in southern Brazil

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    Ana Gabriela da Silva Rocha

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Out of the 5 species of Guinea pig registered for Brazil, 4 (Cavia fulgida, C. porcellus, C. aperea, and C. magna have already been reported as hosts of Paraspidodera uncinata. The rodent species C. magna and C. aperea are small-sized mammals, with terrestrial habits, which occur from southern Brazil to eastern Uruguay. Guinea pig specimens donated for research were necropsied for the analysis of endoparasites, and the nematodes found were identified as P. uncinata. The microhabitats of this species were the small and large intestines in C. magna and the large intestine in C. aperea. The prevalence of P. uncinata in the hosts was 60% in C. magna (n = 5 and 14% in C. aperea (n = 7. The record of P. uncinata in different Guinea pig species allows inferring that the foraging mode is similar in the different locations where they occur in southern Brazil, because, perhaps, the infection of hosts has occurred through the ingestion of vegetables contaminated with P. uncinata eggs. This study contributes to knowledge on the helminth fauna of C. magna and C. aperea in southern Brazil.

  2. Napoleon Bonaparte and the fate of an Amazonian rat: new data on the taxonomy of Mesomys hispidus (Rodentia: Echimyidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, Ludovic; Mauffrey, Jean-François; Cuisin, Jacques; Patton, James L; Hänni, Catherine; Catzeflis, François

    2003-04-01

    The spiny rat Mesomys hispidus is one of many South American rodents that lack adequate taxonomic definition. The few sampled populations of this broadly distributed trans-Amazonian arboreal rat have come from widely separated regions and are typically highly divergent. The holotype was described in 1817 by A.-G. Desmarest, after Napoleon's army brought it to Paris following the plunder of Lisbon in 1808; however, the locality of origin has remained unknown. Here we examine the taxonomic status of this species by direct comparison of 50 extant individuals with the holotype at the morphometric and genetic levels, the latter based on 331 bp of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene retrieved from a small skin fragment of the holotype with ancient DNA technology. Extensive sequence divergence is present among samples of M. hispidus collected from throughout its range, from French Guiana across Amazonia to Bolivia and Peru, with at least seven mitochondrial clades recognized (average divergence of 7.7% Kimura 2-parameter distance). Sequence from the holotype is, however, only weakly divergent from those of recent samples from French Guiana. Moreover, the holotype clusters with greater that 99% posterior probability with samples from this part of Amazonia in a discriminant analysis based on 22 cranial and dental measurements. Thus, we suggest that the holotype was originally obtained in eastern Amazonia north of the Amazon River, most likely in the Brazilian state of Amapá. Despite the high level of sequence diversity and marked morphological differences in size across the range of M. hispidus, we continue to regard this assemblage as a single species until additional samples and analyses suggest otherwise. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science (USA)

  3. Jenis-Jenis Tikus (Rodentia: Muridae dan Pakan Alaminya di Daerah Pertanian Sekitar Hutan di Kabupaten Banggai, Sulawesi Tengah

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    Bambang Agus Suripto

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The species diversity of rats (Fam. Muridae differs on each island in Indonesia. There are at least 16 genera of 41 species of rats in Sulawesi Island. Recently it has been reported that rats attack relatively new paddy field surrounding forest, but the identity of the species is still unknown. The objectives of this research are to assess the rat’s diversity and the guilds of rats living around the forest. The research was done in agricultural area surrounding forest in Siuna, foothill of Tompotika Mt, Banggai Regency, Central Sulawesi. Rats in the forest and coconut plantation were captured using Shermann traps, which were randomly situated. Rats in paddy field were captured by trap barrier system (TBS. Habitat condition and the presence of predators were recorded. All rat specimens were identified to their scientific names using Corbert & Hill (1992. Their stomach contents was put in 70% alcohol, taken 5 samples for each stomach, and analyzed under a microscope to determine their feed. The data were interpreted descriptively, which was emphasizing its potency as a pest. The result shows that there are 7 genera i.e. Bunomys, Maxomys, Taeromys, Paruromys, Tateomys, Mus, Rattus and 18 species of rats. Bunomys sp., B. penitus, B. prolatus, Maxomys sp., M. musschenbroekii, M. dollmani, Taeromys sp., T. callitrichus, T. celebensis, T. rhinogradoide, Paruromys ursinus, P. camurus, and P. dominator occupy the forest. B. heinrichi, B. prolatus, M. musschenbroekii, P. camurus, Mus musculus; and Rattus nitidus ocupy coconut plantation. R. argentiventer, R. exulans and R. nitidus occupies the paddy field. The stomach content examination shows that B. prolatus, M. musschenbroekii, R. exulans, R. nitidus, and T. rhinogradoide eat mostly animal materials, especially member of Phylum Arthropoda; R. argentiventer mostly eat plant material, especially member of Family Graminae (grass family. Unfortunately the stomach contents B. heinrichi, B. penitus, M. musculus, and T. callitrichus couldn’t identified since it was either empty and or severely damaged. The field data and literature study, suggest that R. argentiventer and R. exulans are pests or at least potential pests in the paddy field. B. heinrichi, B. penitus, B. prolatus, M. musschenbroekii, M. musculus, R. nitidus, and T. callitrichus are potential pests, since those species are basically omnivorous. However M. musculus prefers to eat grains. Meanwhile T. rhinogradoides is not potential to be a pest since it is carnivorous. Key words: TBS, omnivorous, predator

  4. Variations in C-heterochromatin and AgNOR distribution in the common vole (Microtus arvalis sensu lato) (Mammalia: Rodentia)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yorulmaz, T.; Zima, Jan; Arslan, A.; Kankilic, T.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 3 (2013), s. 989-995 ISSN 0354-4664 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Common vole * Altai vole * Central Europe * Anatolia * C-banding * AgNOR staining Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.607, year: 2013

  5. C-banding and Ag-NOR distribution patterns in Euphrates jerboa, Allactaga euphratica (Mammalia: Rodentia), from Turkey

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Arslan, A.; Yorulmaz, T.; Toyran, K.; Albayrak, I.; Zima, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 76, č. 4 (2012), s. 435-439 ISSN 0025-1461 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : AgNOR staining * C-banding * cytogenetic s * jerboas Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.809, year: 2012

  6. Exceptional mortality model in cricetids (Rodentia of the middle Miocene from Somosaguas (Pozuelo de Alarcón, Madrid

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    I. Menéndez

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work we studied the wear degree of the superior and lower molars of the two most abundant rodent species from the South Somosaguas fossil site: Megacricetodon collongensis (Mein, 1958 and Democricetodon larteti (Schaub, 1925. The results show a great abundance of elements with scarce tooth wear in both species, which indicates the existence of a high mortality of young individuals. This mortality model shows an enduring catastrophic event associated to long periods of aridity that produced juvenile mortality along generations. This tendency of mortality fits in the patterns obtained from other works from Somosaguas where the existence of high rates of deaths of young individuals is associated with events of high aridity. D. larteti and M. collongensis have different patterns of wear degree along their dental rows, which could indicate that the mastication process was different in both species or maybe that the tooth wear started earlier. Finally, the differences in wear degree observed in the M1 of M. collongensis and D. larteti can be explained by the different morphology of the peaks and valleys of the molars, which cause a faster wear of the first molar of D. larteti than in those of M. collongensis; or by light dietary differences.

  7. Origin and developmental fate of vestigial tooth primordia in the upper diastema of the field vole (Microtus agrestis, Rodentia)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Witter, K.; Lesot, H.; Peterka, Miroslav; Vonesch, J. L.; Míšek, Ivan; Peterková, Renata

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 50, - (2005), s. 401-409 ISSN 0003-9969 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC B23.001; GA ČR GA304/02/0448 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : tooth development * odontogenesis * embryo Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.288, year: 2005

  8. Soil nitrogen availability and in situ nitrogen uptake by Acer rubrum L. and Pinus palustris Mill. in the southeastern U.S. Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant uptake of soil organic N in addition to inorganic N could play an important role in ecosystem N cycling as well as plant nutrition. We measured in situ plant uptake of organic and inorganic N by the dominant canopy species in two contrasting temperate forest ecosystems (bottomland floodplain ...

  9. Comparison of Red-Cockaded Woodpecker (Piciodes borealis) Nestling Diet in Old-Growth and Old-Field Longleaf Pine (Pinus palustris)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanula, J.L.; Engstrom, R.T.

    1999-10-01

    Automatic cameras were used to record adult woodpecker diets in old-growth and old-field longleaf pine in the South. Roaches were the number one prey for the woodpeckers based on either biomass or numbers. The latter ranged from 37% to 57% of the prey numbers and 55%-73% of the biomass. Morisita's index of similarity between old-field and old growth varied from 0.89 to 0.95. The authors conclude that the prey base is similar in both conditions and that old-growth provides similar foraging habitat.

  10. Weeds that can do both tricks: vegetative versus generative regeneration of short-lived root-sprouting herbs Rorippa palustris and Barbarea vulgaris

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klimešová, Jitka; Kociánová, Alena; Martínková, Jana

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 2 (2008), s. 131-135 ISSN 0043-1737 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD206/03/H034 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Adventitious sprouting * disturbance * Brassicaceae Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.793, year: 2008

  11. Effects of dormant and growing season burning on surface fuels and potential fire behavior in northern Florida longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) flatwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    James B. Cronan; Clinton S. Wright; Maria Petrova

    2015-01-01

    Prescribed fire is widely used to manage fuels in high-frequency, low-severity fire regimes including pine flatwoods of the southeastern USA where prescribed burning during the growing season (the frost-free period during the calendar year) has become more common in recent decades. Growing season prescribed fires address ecological management objectives that focus on...

  12. Variación heterocromática en Proechimys semispinosus (Rodentia: Echimyidae de la región pacífica colombiana

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    Bueno Martha Lucía

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence oftwo chromosomal races is reported in a comparative study of populatlons of Proechimys semlspinosus from the Pacific lowlands of Colombia. These races are differenciated by the constitutive heterochromatin found using the C-band technlque. The population from Nariño locality lacks centromeric heterochromatin and has large blocks of telomeric heterochromatin in several chromosomes while the population from Chocó loca lity has small blocks of centromeric heterochromatin in the majority of the chromosomes and small and medium size blocks of telomeric heterochromatin only in three pairs of chromosomes. Thesimilarity between the heterochromatin pattem in the Gorgona island (Gómez-Laverde et al" 1990 and Nariño populations suggests a very close relation ship and supports the affinities ofthe island's biota with the southwestem region of Colombia and northem region of Ecuador previously reported in others biological groups.Mediante un estudio comparativo en poblaciones de Proechimys semispinosus del pacífico colombiano se registra la presencia de dos razas cromosómicas; estas se diferencian por el patrón de heterocromatina constitutiva detectable mediante las técnicas de bandas C. La población de la localidad de Nariño presenta ausencia casi total de heterocromatina centromérica y presencia de bloques grandes de heterocromatina telomérica en varios cromosomas, mientras que la población de la localidad del Chocó presenta bloques muy pequeños de heterocromatina centromérica en la mayoría de los cromosomas y bloques pequeños y medianos teloméricos solo en tres pares cromosómlcos. La similitud del patrón de heterocromatina, entre las poblaciones de la isla Gorgona (Gómez-Laverde et al" 1990 y de Nariño, sugiere una estrecha relación entre ellas; este hecho se suma a las evidencias sobre la afinidad de la biota de la isla con la región su roccidental de Colombia y del norte del Ecuador, reportada en otros grupos biológicos.

  13. The egg coat zona pellucida 3 glycoprotein - evolution of its putative sperm-binding region in Old World murine rodents (Rodentia: Muridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, Christine A; Cooper, Steven J B; Breed, William G

    2017-11-01

    In eutherian mammals, before fertilisation can occur the spermatozoon has to bind to, and penetrate, the egg coat, the zona pellucida (ZP). In the laboratory mouse there is good evidence that the primary sperm-binding site is a protein region encoded by Exon 7 of the ZP3 gene and it has been proposed that binding is species specific and evolves by sexual selection. In the present study we investigate these hypotheses by comparing Exon 6 and 7 sequences of ZP3 in 28 species of murine rodents of eight different divisions from Asia, Africa and Australasia, in which a diverse array of sperm morphologies occurs. We found considerable nucleotide (and corresponding amino acid) sequence divergence in Exon 7, but not in Exon 6, across these species, with evidence for positive selection at five codon positions. This molecular divergence does not appear to be due to reinforcement to reduce hybridisation, nor does it correlate with divergence in sperm head morphology or tail length, thus it is unlikely to be driven by inter-male sperm competition. Other forms of post-copulatory sexual selection therefore appear to have resulted in the molecular divergence of this region of ZP3 in this highly speciose group of mammals.

  14. Biochemical Changes of the Organism of Apodemus flavicollis (Rodentia: Muridae Under Conditions of Environmental Anthropogenic Pollution by Heavy Metals in Northern Areas of Ukraine

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    Svitlana V. Zadyra

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The present research dedicates the integral assessment of biochemistry indexes of nature populations of rodents under conditions of environment pollution by heavy metals. The raised content in soils of mobile forms Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni and Co was revealed оn distance of 500 m to the South-West from Tripillya Thermal Power Plant (Kyiv region, Ukraine. That’s considerably (3–5 times exceeds levels for territory of Kaniv Nature Reserve (Cherkassy region, Ukraine. Territory of National Nature Park “Holosiivsky” (Kyiv, Ukraine characterized by rather increased content of active form of researched heavy metals especially Pb. Increase of the concentration of diene conjugates (3–7 times and malonic dialdehyde (2–4 times in yellow-necked mouse liver (Apodemus flavicollis of under pollution by heavy metals has been discovered. Insignificant increasing of content of Schiff basis in liver cells of rodents in region of impact of Tripillya TPP (in 2 times in spring and in summer, in autumn – in 2.5 times was detected. Seasonal dynamics of the maintenance of lipid peroxidation has been revealed. The registered changes of biochemical indicators testify about presence ecological-biochemical stress in an organism of the yellow-necked mouse in the district of influence of Tripillya TPP.

  15. Panic-like defensive behavior but not fear-induced antinociception is differently organized by dorsomedial and posterior hypothalamic nuclei of Rattus norvegicus (Rodentia, Muridae

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    A.F. Biagioni

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The hypothalamus is a forebrain structure critically involved in the organization of defensive responses to aversive stimuli. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABAergic dysfunction in dorsomedial and posterior hypothalamic nuclei is implicated in the origin of panic-like defensive behavior, as well as in pain modulation. The present study was conducted to test the difference between these two hypothalamic nuclei regarding defensive and antinociceptive mechanisms. Thus, the GABA A antagonist bicuculline (40 ng/0.2 µL or saline (0.9% NaCl was microinjected into the dorsomedial or posterior hypothalamus in independent groups. Innate fear-induced responses characterized by defensive attention, defensive immobility and elaborate escape behavior were evoked by hypothalamic blockade of GABA A receptors. Fear-induced defensive behavior organized by the posterior hypothalamus was more intense than that organized by dorsomedial hypothalamic nuclei. Escape behavior elicited by GABA A receptor blockade in both the dorsomedial and posterior hypothalamus was followed by an increase in nociceptive threshold. Interestingly, there was no difference in the intensity or in the duration of fear-induced antinociception shown by each hypothalamic division presently investigated. The present study showed that GABAergic dysfunction in nuclei of both the dorsomedial and posterior hypothalamus elicit panic attack-like defensive responses followed by fear-induced antinociception, although the innate fear-induced behavior originates differently in the posterior hypothalamus in comparison to the activity of medial hypothalamic subdivisions.

  16. Causes and consequences of change rates in the habitat of the threatened tropical porcupine, Sphiggurus mexicanus (Rodentia: Erethizontidae) in Oaxaca, Mexico: implications for its conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, Consuelo; Sántiz, Eugenia C; Navarrete, Darío A; Bolaños, Jorge

    2014-12-01

    Land use changes by human activities have been the main causes of habitats and wildlife population degradation. In the Tehuantepec Isthmus in Oaxaca, the tropical habitat of the porcupine Sphiggurus mexicanus has been subject to vegetation and land use changes, causing its reduction and fragmentation. In this study, we estimated vegetation cover and land use (δn) change rates and assessed habitat availability and potential cor- ridors for possible porcupine movements to avoid its isolation. In the study area, the type of vegetation with the most change rate value was the savanna (δn = -2.9), transformed into induced grasslands. Additionally, we have observed the porcupine (since 2011) in semi-deciduous (δn = -0.87) and tropical dry (δn = -0.89) forests that have been transformed in temporal agriculture and mesquite and induced grasslands. The vegetation inhabited by the porcupine resulted in recording a total of 64 plant species (44 trees, nine vines, seven herbs, four shrubs), of which the vine Bunchosia lanceolata showed the highest importance value (41.85) followed by the trees Guazuma ulmifolia (22.71), Dalbergia glabra (18.05), and Enterolobium cyclocarpum (17.02). The habitat evaluation and potential corridor analysis showed that only 1 501.93ha could be considered as suitable habitats with optimum structural conditions (coverage, surface, and distances to transformed areas) to maintain viable populations of S. mexicanus, and 293.6 ha as corridors. An increasing destruction of the porcupines' habitat has been observed in the study area due to excessive logging, and actions for this species and its habitat conserva- tion and management have to be taken urgently.

  17. Causes and consequences of change rates in the habitat of the threatened tropical porcupine, Sphiggurus mexicanus (Rodentia: Erethizontidae in Oaxaca, Mexico: implications for its conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consuelo Lorenzo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Land use changes by human activities have been the main causes of habitats and wildlife population degradation. In the Tehuantepec Isthmus in Oaxaca, the tropical habitat of the porcupine Sphiggurus mexicanus has been subject to vegetation and land use changes, causing its reduction and fragmentation. In this study, we estimated vegetation cover and land use (δn change rates and assessed habitat availability and potential corridors for possible porcupine movements to avoid its isolation. In the study area, the type of vegetation with the most change rate value was the savanna (δn=-2.9, transformed into induced grasslands. Additionally, we have observed the porcupine (since 2011 in semi-deciduous (δn=-0.87 and tropical dry (δn=-0.89 forests that have been transformed in temporal agriculture and mesquite and induced grasslands. The vegetation inhabited by the porcupine resulted in recording a total of 64 plant species (44 trees, nine vines, seven herbs, four shrubs, of which the vine Bunchosia lanceolata showed the highest importance value (41.85 followed by the trees Guazuma ulmifolia (22.71, Dalbergia glabra (18.05, and Enterolobium cyclocarpum (17.02. The habitat evaluation and potential corridor analysis showed that only 1 501.93ha could be considered as suitable habitats with optimum structural conditions (coverage, surface, and distances to transformed areas to maintain viable populations of S. mexicanus, and 293.6ha as corridors. An increasing destruction of the porcupines’ habitat has been observed in the study area due to excessive logging, and actions for this species and its habitat conservation and management have to be taken urgently. Rev. Biol. Trop. 62 (4: 1481-1494. Epub 2014 December 01.

  18. Biome specificity of distinct genetic lineages within the four-striped mouse Rhabdomys pumilio (Rodentia: Muridae) from southern Africa with implications for taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Toit, Nina; van Vuuren, Bettine Jansen; Matthee, Sonja; Matthee, Conrad A

    2012-10-01

    Within southern Africa, a link between past climatic changes and faunal diversification has been hypothesized for a diversity of taxa. To test the hypothesis that evolutionary divergences may be correlated to vegetation changes (induced by changes in climate), we selected the widely distributed four-striped mouse, Rhabdomys, as a model. Two species are currently recognized, the mesic-adapted R. dilectus and arid-adapted R. pumilio. However, the morphology-based taxonomy and the distribution boundaries of previously described subspecies remain poorly defined. The current study, which spans seven biomes, focuses on the spatial genetic structure of the arid-adapted R. pumilio (521 specimens from 31 localities), but also includes limited sampling of the mesic-adapted R. dilectus (33 specimens from 10 localities) to act as a reference for interspecific variation within the genus. The mitochondrial COI gene and four nuclear introns (Eef1a1, MGF, SPTBN1, Bfib7) were used for the construction of gene trees. Mitochondrial DNA analyses indicate that Rhabdomys consists of four reciprocally monophyletic, geographically structured clades, with three distinct lineages present within the arid-adapted R. pumilio. These monophyletic lineages differ by at least 7.9% (±0.3) and these results are partly confirmed by a multilocus network of the combined nuclear intron dataset. Ecological niche modeling in MaxEnt supports a strong correlation between regional biomes and the distribution of distinct evolutionary lineages of Rhabdomys. A Bayesian relaxed molecular clock suggests that the geographic clades diverged between 3.09 and 4.30Ma, supporting the hypothesis that the radiation within the genus coincides with paleoclimatic changes (and the establishment of the biomes) characterizing the Miocene-Pliocene boundary. Marked genetic divergence at the mitochondrial DNA level, coupled with strong nuclear and mtDNA signals of non-monophyly of R. pumilio, support the notion that a taxonomic revision of the genus is needed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Taxonomic identification using geometric morphometric approach and limited data: an example using the upper molars of two sympatric species of Calomys (Cricetidae: Rodentia

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    Natália Lima Boroni

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The taxonomic identification of micromammals might be complicated when the study material is fragmented, as it is the case with pellets and fossil material. On the other hand, tooth morphology generally provides accurate information for species identification. Teeth preserve notably well, retaining their original morphology, unlike skulls and mandibles, which can get crushed or have missing parts. Here, we explored a geometric morphometrics approach (GM to identify fragmented specimens of two sympatric Calomys Waterhouse, 1837 species - Calomys tener (Winge, 1888 and Calomys expulsus (Lund, 1841 - using the morphology of intact molars as the basis for identification. Furthermore, we included some specimens of uncertain taxonomic identification to test their affinities and the utility of the shape of the molar to identify incomplete specimens. We evaluated the variations in the shape of the first upper molar (M1 among 46 owl pellets specimens of Calomys, including C. expulsus (n = 15, C. tener (n = 15, and unidentified specimens treated as Calomys sp. (n = 16 through GM analysis using 17 landmarks. The data was explored using PCA, PERMANOVA, and Discriminant analyses over the Procrustes residuals matrix were applied to evaluate inter- and intraspecific shape differences. Also, we evaluated whether allometric shape differences could impact the data, but found no evidence of a correlation between size and shape. Our results support that shape differences in the M1 are effective for discriminating between C. tener and C. expulsus. Moreover, the unidentified specimens do not represent a third shape but could be identified with confidence either as C. tener or C. expulsus. Our results show that even with fragmentary materials, GM is a feasible and useful tool for exploring inter-specific shape differences and assisting in taxonomic identification as a complement to traditional qualitative description of diagnostic features in poorly preserved specimens.

  20. Geographic phenetic variation of two eastern-Mediterranean non-commensal mouse species, Mus macedonicus and M. cypriacus (Rodentia: Muridae) based on traditional and geometric approaches to morphometrics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Macholán, Miloš; Mikula, Ondřej; Vohralík, V.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 247, - (2008), s. 67-80 ISSN 0044-5231 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6045307; GA ČR GA206/06/0707 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA206/05/2334 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : Mus macedonicus * Mus cypriacus * phenotypic variation Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.319, year: 2008

  1. Note on breeding and parental care behaviours of albino Hoary-bellied Squirrel Callosciurus pygerythrus (Rodentia: Sciuridae in Sibsagar District of Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kalita

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A few individuals of albino Horay-bellied Squirrels along with normal gray individuals of Callosciurus pygerythrus have been observed in Sibsagar district of Assam, India. One albino female was studied in captivity. This paper presents our observations on the breeding behaviour and the parental care exhibited by the albino squirrel in captivity. The squirrel bred twice in captivity with a normal male of the same species. In both the periods, a single male baby with normal coat colour developed. Oral dose of vitamin E has been found helpful in the breeding of the studied squirrel species. The mother squirrel exhibited parental care by carrying her baby using her mouth, to a safer place during danger. However, the observed phenomenon is unlike that of the cat species. Some of the habitat ecology and feeding habits of the albino squirrels have also been studied, both in natural and in captive conditions.

  2. Demography, reproductive biology and diet of the bushveld gerbil Tatera leucogaster (Rodentia: Gerbillinae) in the Lake Rukwa valley, southwestern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odhiambo, Richgard O.; Makundi, Rhodes H.; Leirs, Herwig

    2008-01-01

    Seasonal abundance, reproductive biology and feeding ecology of the bushveld gerbil Tatera leucogaster (Peters, 1852) were investigated in small-scale maize field-fallow land mosaics in south-western Tanzania. The gerbils were collected over a 2-year period using Sherman live and Victor hold......-fast snap traps in permanent 4.5-ha grids. A total of 664 individuals were captured over 13 650 trap nights, giving an overall trap success rate of 4.9%. Trap success varied between seasons with and without crops in the field but not between habitat types. At this site, the breeding activity of this species...

  3. Relantionship between vestibular lamina, dental lamina, and the developing oral vestibule in the upper jaw of the field vole (Microtus agrestis, Rodentia)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Witter, K.; Pavlíková, H.; Matulová, Petra; Míšek, Ivan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 265, - (2005), s. 264-270 ISSN 0362-2525 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA304/02/0448; GA MŠk OC B23.001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : mouth * dentition * tooth Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.421, year: 2005

  4. Dietary selection in Mastomys natalensis (Rodentia: Muridae) in the maize agro-ecosystems of central and southwestern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odhiambo, Richard O; Makundi, Rhodes H; Leirs, Herwig

    2008-01-01

    in their diet; however, there was a clear seasonal effect on the consumption of the different food categories. They fed more on seeds, arthropods and grasses during the wet season and on the other plant materials during the dry season. Maize seed was the most preferred diet category, when available. The shifts...

  5. The gastrointestinal nematodes of Paramelomys lorentzii and Mammelomys spp. (Rodentia: Muridae) with descriptions of a new genus and three new species (Heligmonellidae) from Papua New Guinea and Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smales, Lesley R

    2017-12-20

    Unidentified cestodes and 14 species of nematode and larvae that could not be placed to family level, were collected from the digestive tracts of 27 individuals of Paramelomys lorentzii, four of Mammelomys lanosus and a single M. rattoides from Papua New Guinea and Papua Indonesia. Of these three were new species. Hughjonestrongylus woolleyae sp. nov. can be distinguished from its congeners in having up to 26 ridges in the synlophe and a dissymmetric dorsal ray. Parvinema bafunminensis gen. nov., sp. nov. can be distinguished from all other genera in the family by the combination of features in the synlophe; with a carene, up to 17 ridges, and the pattern of ridge sizes. Parvinema helgeni sp. nov. differs from P. bafunminensis in the length of the spicule and the number of eggs in the uterus. The nematode assemblage of P. lorentzii had similar species richness to, and was also dominated by heligmonellids, as that of Paramelomys rubex, although the two assemblages differed in species composition.

  6. Cadmium and lead concentrations in Skrjabinotaenia lobata (Cestoda: Catenotaeniidae) and in its host, Apodemus sylvaticus (Rodentia: Muridae) in the urban dumping site of Garraf (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, Jordi; Peig, Jordi; Eira, Catarina; Borras, Miquel

    2006-01-01

    The present study evaluates the parasitological model constituted by the wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus) and its intestinal cestode (Skrjabinotaenia lobata) as a potential bioindicator of Cd and Pb in the urban dumping site of Garraf near the city of Barcelona (Spain) and in Begues (reference site). Tissues and respective S. lobata specimens of 38 wood mice captured in Garraf and Begues were analyzed for Cd and Pb by means of ICP-MS. Higher cadmium levels in S. lobata were found only in respect to the muscular levels of their hosts. Nevertheless, lead levels were 8.5-, 53.2- and 81.4-fold higher in S. lobata than kidney, liver and muscle levels of A. sylvaticus from Garraf, respectively. Thus, the proposed model seems to be a promising bioindicator to evaluate environmental lead exposure in terrestrial habitats. In addition, all available data on lead bioaccumulation by cestode parasites of terrestrial mammals are generally discussed. - The parasitological model S. lobata/A. sylvaticus presents suitable features to be used as a bioindicator of lead pollution in terrestrial habitats

  7. Echinococcus vogeli Rausch and Bernstein, 1972, from the paca, Cuniculus paca L. (Rodentia: Dasyproctidae), in the Departamento de Santa Cruz, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, S L; Rausch, R L; Camacho, O C

    1988-06-01

    Among approximately 2,000 mammals examined for helminths in various regions of Bolivia during 1983-1987, cysts of Echinococcus vogeli Rausch and Bernstein, 1972, were found in a single paca, Cuniculus paca L., collected at La Laguna, Departamento de Santa Cruz (lat. 16 degrees 36'W; long. 62 degrees 42'S). This record, the first from Bolivia, represents a considerable extension of the known geographic range of this species in South America. Upon analysis of the morphologic characteristics of the protoscoleces derived from the cysts, the sizes of rostellar hooks from the material from the paca were found to be well within the ranges reported in previous studies. Statistical analysis of frequency distributions of hook characteristics revealed some deviations from normality. These results indicate that parametric statistics should be applied with caution in analyses of inter-and intraspecific variation of morphologic characteristics of hooks of metacestodes of the genus Echinococcus.

  8. Activity pattern of Cuniculus paca (Rodentia: Cuniculidae in relation to lunar illumination and other abiotic variables in the southern Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Michalski

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding what influences the activity of organisms is important for both ecological understanding and species conservation. Using data from 2,707 camera trap days distributed across 24 forest sites, we present quantitative analyses of the activity pattern of Cuniculus paca (Linnaeus, 1766 in southern Amazonia. We compared the activity pattern of this species across four designated subsets of the 24-hours diel cycle (dawn, dusk, day and night. Using linear regression models we tested the influence of season, temperature and rainfall on the activity patterns of C. paca (paca. We also evaluated the nocturnal photos of paca (N = 111 as a function of the degree of lunar illumination in order to test the prediction that pacas minimize their activity during moon phase when illumination is brighter. Pacas were not recorded during the day but were active at dawn, dusk and night time. We found differences in the influence of the abiotic variables on the nocturnal activity of pacas in the study area. There was no significant difference between the observed (expressed as the frequency of total counts of independent photos over the five classes of lunar illumination and the expected activity of pacas, based on the frequency of days in the lunar cycle with different classes of lunar illumination, whereas lunar illumination had a weak negative influence on the timing of paca activity (i.e. pacas were active closer to sunset with increasing lunar illumination. However, the timing of nocturnal activity in pacas was not influenced by season, temperature or rainfall. Our findings highlight the ecological plasticity of this Neotropical rodent which has a key function in the maintenance of Neotropical forests.

  9. Polimorfismos en la longitud de fragmentos amplificados (AFLP´s) a partir de muestras de sangre almacenadas en tarjetas FTA® para la especie Cavia porcellus Lin. (Rodentia: Caviidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Burgos-Paz, William; Rosero-Galindo, Carol; Cárdenas-Henao, Heiber; Solarte-Portilla, Carlos

    2007-01-01

    Una manera eficaz de establecer el grado de variabilidad entre y dentro de poblaciones, es a través del análisis de polimorfismos de ADN con marcadores moleculares como los AFLP`s. En este artículo se presenta una metodología que combina la utilización de tarjetas de FTA® (Whatman Bioscience, Cambridge) para colección y conservación de muestras de sangre, con los procedimientos de extracción de ADN y obtención de marcadores AFLP´s, aspectos sobre los cuales no existen antecedentes para la esp...

  10. [Variability of Cytochrome b Gene and Adjacent Section of Gene tRNA-Thr of Mitochondrial DNA in the Northern Mole Vole Ellobius talpinus (Mammalia, Rodentia)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanov, A S; Lebedev, V S; Zykov, A E; Bakloushinskaya, I Yu

    2015-12-01

    The Northern mole vole E. talpinus, despite its wide distribution, is characterized by a stable karyotype (2n = NF = 54) and slight morphological polymorphism. We made a preliminary analysis of a mitochondrial DNA fragment to clarify the level of genetic variation and differentiation of E. talpinus. the complete cytochrome b gene (cyt b, 1143 bp) and a short part of its flanking gene tRNA-Thr (27 bp) were sequenced. We studied 16 specimens from eight localities, including Crimea, the Volga region, the Trans-Volga region, the Southern Urals, Western Siberia, and Eastern Turkmenistan. Mitotypes of E. talpinus were distributed on a ML dendrogram as four distinct clusters: the first (I) contains specimens from the Crimea, the second (II) combines individuals from the Volgograd region and the left bank of the Don River, the third (III) includes those from the Trans-Volga region, Southern Urals, the left bank of the Irtysh River, and Eastern Turkmenistan; the fourth (IV) are those from the right bank of the Irtysh River. These clusters were relatively distant from each other: the mean genetic distances (D) between them are 0.021-0.051. The Eastern mole vole E. tancrei differed from E. talpinus population groups 1.5-2 times more (D = 0.077-0.084) than the latter did among themselves. Such variations indirectly proved the unity of E. talpinus, despite its high intraspecific differentiation for the studied fragment of mitochondrial DNA. This differentiation apparently occurred because of the long isolation of E. talpinus population groups, which was due to geographic barriers, in particular, the large rivers that completely separate the species range meridionally (the Volga River, the Irtysh River). Sociality and underground lifestyle could accelerate the fixation of mutations in disjunct populations. The composition and distribution of intraspecific groups of E. talpinus, which were identified in analysis of the mitochondrial DNA fragment, do not coincide with the subspecies taxonomy. The subspecies E. t. talpinus is actually a complex taxon, including two or three genetically discrete forms (III, IV, and probably II). Moreover, one of the forms (III) occupies the territory where three subspecies, E. t. talpinus, E. t. rufescens, and E. t. transcaspiae, were described.

  11. First Report on Isolation and Characterization of Leishmania major from Meriones hurrianae (Rodentia: Gerbillidae) of A Rural Cutaneous leishmaniasis Focus in South-Eastern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassiri, Hamid; Naddaf, Saied Reza; Javadian, Ezat-Aldin; Mohebali, Mehdi

    2013-09-01

    Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ZCL) is an endemic health problem in many rural areas of Iran, with doubled number of incidences over the last decade. Different species of rodents serve as natural reservoir host for ZCL. The disease is considered as a major health problem in rural areas of Mirjaveh, Chabahar, and Konarak Counties of Sistan va Baluchistan Province. This study describes the identity of Leishmania species, isolated from Meriones hurrianae from Chabahar County using RAPD-PCR methodology. Rodents were entrapped by live traps baited with roasted walnut, tomato, and cucumber during spring and summer. All rodents were identified based on external features including fur color, ears characteristics, tail length, hind feet, body measurements, and internal features of teeth and cranium. Giemsa-stained impressions from rodents' ears were examined for amastigotes microscopically. The samples from infected rodents were cultured in NNN+LIT medium and then the harvested parasites at the stationary phase were subjected to DNA extraction followed by amplification with RAPD-PCR. All the 28 entrapped animals were identified as M. hurrianae. Five animals showed to harbor Leishmania parasite by microscopy. Leishmania DNA isolated from five M. hurrianae produced distinctive bands of L. major with four primers. However, the products that were amplified with primers AB1-07, 327, and 329 were stable and reproducible. This is the first report on the isolation and identification of L. major from M. hurrianae from Iran. Regarding infection rate of 17.8%, M. hurrianae seems to play the major role in the maintenance and transmission of disease to humans in this area.

  12. The small mammals (Eulipotyphla, Chiroptera, Rodentia and Lagomorpha from the Late Pleistocene site of the cave of El Castillo (Cantabria, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Sesé

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The micromammals remains from the Late Pleistocene site of the cave of El Castillo studied here in detail, came from the Aurignacian levels 18b and 18c (dated in 40.000-45.000 BP, level 19, and the Musterian levels 20b, 20c, 20d, 20e (dated in 41.000-49.000 BP, 21a and 21b. The micromammal association is the following: Erinaceus europaeus, Crocidura russula, Sorex coronatus, Sorex minutus, Neomys fodiens, Talpa europaea, Galemys pyrenaicus, cf. Miniopterus schreibersii, Chiroptera indet., Pliomys lenki, Microtus arvalis – Microtus agrestis, Microtus lusitanicus, Microtus oeconomus, Chionomys nivalis, Arvicola terrestris, Apodemus sylvaticus – Apodemus flavicollis and Lepus sp. Most of these species are in the present fauna of Cantabria, except Pliomys lenki that got extinct in the last third of the Upper Pleistocene, and Microtus oeconomus that disappeared from the Iberian Peninsula during the Holocene, in historical times, and is nowadays present in northern Euroasiatic regions. There is a great continuity of most of the taxa in all the levels. The faunal association seems to indicate a mainly open environment, in general with wet meadows (and few dry meadows, with good vegetation cover in the soil, with perhaps also some tree-covered areas, and some watercourses. The thermophiles indicators are very scarce, which could indicate that the climate could be a lesser temperate than other Upper Pleistocene periods and the present-day climate in the area.

  13. Plio-Pleistocene history of West African Sudanian savanna and the phylogeography of the Praomys daltoni complex (Rodentia): the environment/geography/genetic interplay

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bryja, Josef; Granjon, L.; Dobigny, G.; Patzenhauerová, Hana; Konečný, Adam; Duplantier, J.-M.; Gauthier, P.; Colyn, M.; Durnez, L.; Lalis, A.; Nicolas, V.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 21 (2010), s. 4783-4799 ISSN 0962-1083 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6093404; GA ČR GAP506/10/0983 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : cytochrome b * microsattelites * mtDNA introgression * Quaternary * rodenta Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 6.457, year: 2010

  14. Two new species of Eimeria Schneider, 1875 (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from Gerbilliscus guineae Thomas (Rodentia: Gerbillinae) in the Niokolo Koba National Park, Senegal

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Modrý, David; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Jirků, Miloslav; Koubek, Petr

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 3 (2008), s. 223-228 ISSN 0165-5752 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD524/03/H133; GA ČR GA524/03/1548; GA AV ČR IAA6093403 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518; CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Coccidia * Eimeriidae * rodent Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.927, year: 2008

  15. Systematics and evolution of the Meriones shawii/grandis complex (Rodentia, Gerbillinae) during the Late Quaternary in northwestern Africa: Exploring the role of environmental and anthropogenic changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoetzel, Emmanuelle; Cornette, Raphaël; Lalis, Aude; Nicolas, Violaine; Cucchi, Thomas; Denys, Christiane

    2017-05-01

    Rodents of the Meriones shawii/grandis complex have been attested to in North Africa since the Middle Pleistocene and are abundant in archaeological sites. Today, they are widely spread and represent a major pest to local human populations. This complex, therefore, represents an accurate model for investigating the roles of climate change and human impact in shaping Quaternary faunal diversity and distribution. Many gray areas still exist regarding the systematics, ecology and geographical distribution of this complex, for both present and past populations. The purpose of this study is to compare modern genotyped and fossil Meriones specimens in order to 1) clarify the current systematics and distribution of the Meriones populations of the shawii/grandis complex, 2) document the taxonomic diversity in fossil Meriones from northwestern Africa, and 3) track their phenotypic and biogeographic evolution through time. To answer these questions we used geometric morphometrics on skulls (landmarks) and first upper molars (landmarks and sliding landmarks). We evidenced the existence of two morpho-groups within the M. shawii/grandis complex, with a clear geographic pattern (M. grandis in Morocco vs. M. shawii in Algeria and Tunisia). Currently only one morpho-group, attributed to M. grandis, seems to exist in Morocco, with a small overlap with M. shawii in the most eastern part of the country. However, according to fossil data, M. shawii was also present in Atlantic Morocco during the Late Pleistocene. We have also highlighted the impact of Holocene climate change and habitat anthropization on this arid adapted group. During the Middle Holocene, a major climatic event (last interglacial optimum) seems to have induced a demographic collapse in Moroccan populations and the disappearance of the shawii clade from Morocco (except in the most eastern areas). Both species then re-expanded, benefitting from the increasing aridity and the new ecological niche driven by agriculture dispersal from the Neolithic onwards.

  16. Analysis of the modern distribution of South African Gerbilliscus (Rodentia: Gerbillinae with implications for Plio-Pleistocene palaeoenvironmental reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin K. Williams

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There are four extant species of Gerbilliscus, formally classified as Tatera, native to the southern African subregion, each exhibiting varying degrees of environmental tolerance. These species are also routinely reported from many of the palaeontological and archaeological sites in the region. We used a geographic information systems analysis to examine the distribution of modern Gerbilliscus by georeferencing museum specimens. The distribution of Gerbilliscus was then compared to the latest treatment of the vegetation of South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland in order to quantify the genus’s environmental tolerances and propose a new niche model for this taxon. Palaeoenvironmental reconstructions are made possible by defining the tolerance limits of modern taxa that have persisted relatively unchanged throughout the Plio-Pleistocene. Tolerance limits can then be applied to fossil-bearing localities where these taxa are known to have occurred in the past. Results from our analysis indicated that Gerbilliscus exhibits a wide range of environmental tolerances that must be considered when reconstructing palaeoenvironments.

  17. Phylogeographic structure in long-tailed voles (Rodentia: Arvicolinae) belies the complex Pleistocene history of isolation, divergence, and recolonization of Northwest North America's fauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Yadéeh E; Cook, Joseph A

    2016-09-01

    Quaternary climate fluctuations restructured biodiversity across North American high latitudes through repeated episodes of range contraction, population isolation and divergence, and subsequent expansion. Identifying how species responded to changing environmental conditions not only allows us to explore the mode and tempo of evolution in northern taxa, but also provides a basis for forecasting future biotic response across the highly variable topography of western North America. Using a multilocus approach under a Bayesian coalescent framework, we investigated the phylogeography of a wide-ranging mammal, the long-tailed vole, Microtus longicaudus . We focused on populations along the North Pacific Coast to refine our understanding of diversification by exploring the potentially compounding roles of multiple glacial refugia and more recent fragmentation of an extensive coastal archipelago. Through a combination of genetic data and species distribution models (SDMs), we found that historical climate variability influenced contemporary genetic structure, with multiple isolated locations of persistence (refugia) producing multiple divergent lineages (Beringian or northern, southeast Alaska or coastal, and southern or continental) during glacial advances. These vole lineages all occur along the North Pacific Coast where the confluence of numerous independent lineages in other species has produced overlapping zones of secondary contact, collectively a suture zone. Finally, we detected high levels of neoendemism due to complex island geography that developed in the last 10,000 years with the rising sea levels of the Holocene.

  18. Infecção experimental de Calomys callosus (Rengger, 1830, (Cricetidae - Rodentia a quatro espécies de parasitos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalva A. Mello

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foram estudados exemplares do roedor, Calomys callosus, nascidos em laboratório, a infecções experimentais com quatro parasitos: Plasmodium berghei, Leishmania mexicana amazonensis, Schistosoma mansoni e Hymenolepsis nana. A positividade das infecções foi de 80% para os três primeiros parasitos e 0 para H. nana. C. callosus é um roedor de excelente adaptação em laboratório e de fácil manuseio. Acredita-se que, de acordo com os resultados obtidos neste trabalho, este animal poderia ser um bom modelo experimental de laboratório para certos agentes patogênicos.

  19. An update on the distribution and nomenclature of fleas (Order Siphonaptera of bats (Order Chiroptera and rodents (Order Rodentia from La Rioja Province, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fernanda López Berrizbeitia

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The mammalian and flea fauna of La Rioja Province is one of the least known from northwestern Argentina. In this study, the distribution and nomenclature of 13 species of fleas of bats and rodents from La Rioja Province are updated. Four species of fleas are recorded for the first time in La Rioja Province including a new record for northwestern Argentina, and two new flea-host associations. An identification key and distribution map are included for all known species of Siphonaptera of bats and rodents from La Rioja Province, Argentina.

  20. Estudio preliminar del esqueleto postcraneal del Muscardinus cyclopeus Agustí, Moyà-Solà & Pons-Moyà, 1982 (Mammalia, Rodentia, Myoxidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quintana Cardona, J.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available For the first time, the partial skeleton of the Pliocene Muscardinus cyclopeus is described from Punta Nati-3, located in the northwest of the municipality of Ciutadella de Menorca (Balearic Islands, western Mediterranean. Based on bone parameters it is shown that the size of Muscardinus cyclopeus is on overage 69% higher than that of Muscardinus avellanarius. The main features that distinguish M. cyclopeus from M. avellanarius are, among others: the relatively wider diameter of the proximal epiphysis of the ulna; the relatively shorter olecranon; the less marked concavity in the fovea of the proximal epiphysis of the radius; the relatively shorter ilium; the more symmetrical epicondyles of the distal femoral epiphysis; the relatively higher lateral epicondyle dorsoventrally, with a very flat ventral surface; and the relatively narrower tibia transversely. As a species evolved in an insular context, it is still very difficult to discern which of these characters are primitive and which are derived.Se describe, por primera vez, parte del esqueleto del muscardino gigante del Plioceno de Menorca, procedente del yacimiento 3 de Punta Nati, situado al noroeste del término municipal de Ciutadella de Menorca (Islas Baleares, Mediterráneo occidental. A partir de los parámetros óseos se ha podido constatar que Muscardinus cyclopeus muestra, de media, un tamaño un 69% superior al de Muscardinus avellanarius (Linnaeus, 1758. Entre las principales características óseas que diferencian M. cyclopeus de M. avellanarius cabe destacar, entre otras, el diámetro proporcionalmente más ancho de la epífisis proximal de la ulna, el olecranon proporcionalmente más corto, la fóvea de la epífisis proximal del radio con una concavidad menos marcada, el ilium proporcionalmente más corto, los epicóndilos de la epífisis distal del fémur más simétricos, el epicóndilo lateral proporcionalmente más alto en sentido dorso-ventral, con la superficie ventral muy aplanada y la tibia proporcionalmente más estrecha en sentido transversal. Al tratarse de una especie evolucionada en un contexto insular, resulta difícil dilucidar cuales son caracteres primitivos y caracteres derivados.

  1. Ciclo Vital de Schistosoma mansoni através do Holochilus brasiliensis (Desmarest, 1818 em ambiente semi-natural (Trematoda, Shistosomatidae; Rodentia, Cricetidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar dos Santos Carvalho

    1976-10-01

    Full Text Available Junto ao Lago da Pampulha, Belo Horizonte, MG, foram capturados (julho/72-novembro/73 28 exemplares de Holochilus brasiliensis, dos quais 11 (39,3% eliminavam nas fezes ovos viáveis de S. mansoni. Miracídios da cepa mencionada ("H" infectaram Biomphalaria glabrata e as cercárias obtidas também infectaram camundongos albinos, recuperando-se, ao final do experimento, 35,3% de vermes adultos. Por outro lado, cercárias de cepa humana ("LE" de S. mansoni infectaram sete exemplares de H. brasiliensis, nascidos em laboratório, recuperando-se no fim de 60 dias, 30,5% de vermes adultos. Estudos anatomapatológicos de H. brasiliensis demonstraram infecção generalizada, encontrando-se granuloma no esôfago, estômago, intestino (delgado e grosso, fígado, baço, pâncreas e linfonodos abdominais. Espessamentos fibrosos da íntima da veia porta, granulomas em espaços porta e fibrose incipiente dos espaços porta e interlobular foram lesões decorrentes da presença de ovos de S. mansoni encontrados no fígado. Em ambiente semi-natural, foi possível fechar o ciclo do S. mansoni sem direta participação humana, utilizando-se B. glabrata experimentalmente infectadas com trematódeos da cepa "LE", H. brasiliensis nascidos em laboratório e B. glabrata nascida no ambiente semi-natural estabelecido. Verificou-se que ambas as cepas ("H" e "LE" comportaram-se de maneira análoga, não sendo verificadas, também, diferenças morfológicas entre os ovos e vermes adultos de ambas. As observações, realizadas no campo e no laboratório demonstraram que o Holochilus brasiliensis é bom hospedeiro de Schistosoma mansoni. Assim, em determinadas áreas e sob certas condições ecológicas, o cricetídeo em questão poderá, efetivamente, integrar-se ao ciclo do trematódeo na natureza, independente ou paralelamente à presença do homem. Assinala-se, finalmente, que o presente trabalho relata o segundo fechamento do ciclo biológico de S. mansoni em condições ditas semi-naturais. Os primeiros estudos, entretanto, de Antunes, Milward de Andrade, Katz & Coelho4,,em 1971 e de Antunes5, em 1971 foram feitos utilizando-se o Nectomys s. squamipes.

  2. Toxicological Evaluation of Essential Oil From the Leaves of Croton argyrophyllus (Euphorbiaceae) on Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) and Mus musculus (Rodentia: Muridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, R C D; Silva, S L C E; Souza, I A; Gualberto, S A; Carvalho, K S; Santos, F R; Carvalho, M G

    2017-07-01

    Plant-derived essential oils can be used as insecticides for vector control. However, to establish their safety, it is necessary to perform toxicological studies. Herein, we evaluated the chemical composition and insecticidal activity of the essential oil from the leaves of Croton argyrophyllus on the third- and fourth-instar larvae and adult Aedes aegypti (L., 1762). We also evaluated the acute toxicity of the essential oil in adult female Mus musculus. The lethal concentration 50 (LC50) and 90 (LC90) of C. argyrophyllus essential oil on larvae of Ae. aegypti were 0.31 and 0.70 mg ml-1, respectively, and 5.92 and 8.94 mg ml-1, respectively, on Ae. aegypti adults. The major components of the essential oil were spathulenol (22.80%), (E)-caryophyllene (15.41%), α-pinene (14.07%), and bicyclogermacrene (10.43%). It also displayed acute toxicity in adults of Mus musculus; the intraperitoneal and oral lethal dose 50 (LD50) were 2,000 mg kg-1 and 2,500 mg kg-1, respectively. The results showed that the essential oil from C. argyrophyllus leaves has insecticidal activity on Ae. aegypti larvae and adults at an average lethal concentration below the median lethal dose needed to cause acute toxicity in the common mouse. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Parasitism of two zoonotic reservoirs Dasyprocta leporina and D. fuliginosa (Rodentia from Amazonas, with Trichostrongylina nematodes (Heligmonellidae: description of a new genus and a new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Queiroga Gonçalves

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A new genus and a new species of Heligmonellidae nematodes are described parasiting the stomach of three agoutis (two Dasyprocta fuliginosa and one D. leporina captured in the middle and high Negro river microregion, state of Amazonas, Brazil. The new genus, as well as its type-species, are closely related to the trichostrongylids included in Fuellebornema, particularly on what concerns the pattern of the caudal bursa, but differing from them by the characteristics of the synlophe, that presents a poorly developed carene, when compared to the referred number of body ridges in Freitastrongylus n. gen. and consequently in F. angelae n. sp.,in which the ridges are well developed and the carene at mid-body has a similar size when compared to the ridge situated in front of the right field (ridge no. 5. Caudal bursa is of the type 1-4, with rays 9 shorter than rays 10, with a very long genital cone.

  4. Two models of the sound-signal frequency dependence on the animal body size as exemplified by the ground squirrels of Eurasia (mammalia, rodentia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikol'skii, A A

    2017-11-01

    Dependence of the sound-signal frequency on the animal body length was studied in 14 ground squirrel species (genus Spermophilus) of Eurasia. Regression analysis of the total sample yielded a low determination coefficient (R 2 = 26%), because the total sample proved to be heterogeneous in terms of signal frequency within the dimension classes of animals. When the total sample was divided into two groups according to signal frequency, two statistically significant models (regression equations) were obtained in which signal frequency depended on the body size at high determination coefficients (R 2 = 73 and 94% versus 26% for the total sample). Thus, the problem of correlation between animal body size and the frequency of their vocal signals does not have a unique solution.

  5. [Patterns of morphological variability in reintroduced populations with two beaver subspecies Castor fiber orientoeuropaeus and Castor fiber belorussicus (Castoridae, Rodentia) as an example].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korablev, N P; Korablev, P N

    2012-01-01

    Taking as an example two beaver subspecies (Castor fiber orientoeuropaeus and Castor fiber belorussicus) with documented history of population formation, the patterns of morphological variability in translocated groups of mammals are studied. The variability of quantitative and qualitative traits in the formed populations is not characterized by a single direction. The main trend consists in increasing of adaptive norms diversity as related to body size. There observed a slight increase in the level of fluctuating asymmetry, reduction in polymorphism of nonmetric traits, and increase in fraction of rare aberrations. All these may be caused by inbreeding taking place during the period of prapopulations formation. The results of the study allow for considering the intraspecific differentiation as a consequence of adaptive variability (adaptatiogenesis) or subspecies hybridization. As for stochastic processes (genetic drift, founder effect), they seem to not influence the morphological variability significantly. The differences between discrete and dimensional traits are indicative of population groups' peculiarity.

  6. Development of nine new microsatellite loci for the American beaver, Castor canadensis (Rodentia: Castoridae), and cross-species amplification in the European beaver, Castor fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelz-Serrano, Karla; Munguia-Vega, Adrian; Piaggio, Antoinette J; Neubaum, Melissa; Munclinger, Pavel; Pártl, Adam; VAN Riper Iii, Charles; Culver, Melanie

    2009-03-01

    We developed nine new nuclear dinucleotide microsatellite loci for Castor canadensis. All loci were polymorphic, except for one. The number of alleles ranged from two to four and from five to 12 in populations from Arizona and Wisconsin, respectively. Average heterozygosity ranged from 0.13 to 0.86 per locus. Since cross-species amplification in Castor fiber was successful only in four loci, we tested also nine recently published C. canadensis loci in the Eurasian species. Eight of the published loci amplified; however, three were monomorphic. The number of alleles was lower in C. fiber than in C. canadensis at all loci tested. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Extinction of endemic vertebrates on islands : The case of the giant rat Canariomys bravoi (Mammalia, Rodentia) on Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bocherens, Herve; Michaux, Jacques; Talavera, Francisco Garcia; Van der Plicht, Johannes

    2006-01-01

    Fossil bone collagen (14)C dating and delta(13)C and delta(15)N isotopic measurements of the rodent Canariomys bravoi from Tenerife (Canary Islands.. Spain) were used to test two different hypotheses about the causes of extinctions of endemic vertebrates on islands. climate versus humans. For the

  8. Causes and consequences of change rates in the habitat of the threatened tropical porcupine, Sphiggurus mexicanus (Rodentia: Erethizontidae) in Oaxaca, Mexico: implications for its conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenzo, Consuelo; Sántiz, Eugenia C; Navarrete, Darío A; Bolaños, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Land use changes by human activities have been the main causes of habitats and wildlife population degradation. In the Tehuantepec Isthmus in Oaxaca, the tropical habitat of the porcupine Sphiggurus mexicanus has been subject to vegetation and land use changes, causing its reduction and fragmentation. In this study, we estimated vegetation cover and land use (δn) change rates and assessed habitat availability and potential corridors for possible porcupine movements to avoid its isolation. In ...

  9. Dynamics of regional distribution and ecology investigation of rare mammals of taiga Eurasia (case study of flying squirrel Pteromys volans, Rodentia, Pteromyidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juri P. Kurhinen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study of the spatial distribution and ecology of the flying squirrel during the turn of the 20th century provides a description of new methods and techniques for detecting and accounting flying squirrels in the forest zone of Eurasia. The flying squirrel population area covers the territory of 61 regions of Russia, including Kamchatsky Krai and Chukotka Autonomous District. The number of flying squirrels in Karelia especially to the east – in the Arkhangelsk region and Western Siberia – significantly exceeds that of Finland, but considerable spatial variability in the number is obvious through all the regions: there are areas where this animal is quite abundant, or inhabits all the territory rather evenly, and there are areas where it is completely absent in vast territories even with seemingly favourable conditions. The flying squirrel is quite difficult to study and the reasons of its absence in obviously favourable areas are still to be explained. Some reasons are: the specificity of favourable landscape, forest coverage pattern, trophic relationships with predators and genetic aspect. A number of hypotheses are supposed to be tested in the nearest future.

  10. Short-term effects of avian predation variation on population size and local survival of the multimammate rat, Mastomys natalensis (Rodentia, Muridae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulck, T. van; Stocks, R.; Verhagen, Ron

    1998-01-01

    The influence of avian predation on population size and local survival of Mastomys natalensis rats in Tanzania was studied in a capture-recapture study over a six month period on experimental fields with decreased, controlled and increased predation pressure. Bird observations indicated that the ......The influence of avian predation on population size and local survival of Mastomys natalensis rats in Tanzania was studied in a capture-recapture study over a six month period on experimental fields with decreased, controlled and increased predation pressure. Bird observations indicated...... that the placement of perches increased local hunting activity of at least the Black Shouldered Kite but there were no obvious effects on rodent population size or survival. In a single field where avian predation was prevented by covering the field with a net, an increase in survival was observed. The opposite...

  11. Cadmium and lead concentrations in Skrjabinotaenia lobata (Cestoda: Catenotaeniidae) and in its host, Apodemus sylvaticus (Rodentia: Muridae) in the urban dumping site of Garraf (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Jordi [Laboratori de Parasitologia, Departament de Microbiologia i Parasitologia Sanitaries, Facultat de Farmacia, Universitat de Barcelona, Av. Joan XXIII, sn, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: jtorres@ub.edu; Peig, Jordi [Departament de Biologia Animal (Vertebrats), Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Av. Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Eira, Catarina [Laboratori de Parasitologia, Departament de Microbiologia i Parasitologia Sanitaries, Facultat de Farmacia, Universitat de Barcelona, Av. Joan XXIII, sn, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Borras, Miquel [Unitat de Toxicologia Experimental i Ecotoxicologia. Parc Cientific de Barcelona, C/Josep Samitier 1-5, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2006-09-15

    The present study evaluates the parasitological model constituted by the wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus) and its intestinal cestode (Skrjabinotaenia lobata) as a potential bioindicator of Cd and Pb in the urban dumping site of Garraf near the city of Barcelona (Spain) and in Begues (reference site). Tissues and respective S. lobata specimens of 38 wood mice captured in Garraf and Begues were analyzed for Cd and Pb by means of ICP-MS. Higher cadmium levels in S. lobata were found only in respect to the muscular levels of their hosts. Nevertheless, lead levels were 8.5-, 53.2- and 81.4-fold higher in S. lobata than kidney, liver and muscle levels of A. sylvaticus from Garraf, respectively. Thus, the proposed model seems to be a promising bioindicator to evaluate environmental lead exposure in terrestrial habitats. In addition, all available data on lead bioaccumulation by cestode parasites of terrestrial mammals are generally discussed. - The parasitological model S. lobata/A. sylvaticus presents suitable features to be used as a bioindicator of lead pollution in terrestrial habitats.

  12. Lineage-specific responses of tooth shape in murine rodents (murinae, rodentia) to late Miocene dietary change in the Siwaliks of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yuri; Jacobs, Louis L; Flynn, Lawrence J

    2013-01-01

    Past ecological responses of mammals to climate change are recognized in the fossil record by adaptive significance of morphological variations. To understand the role of dietary behavior on functional adaptations of dental morphology in rodent evolution, we examine evolutionary change of tooth shape in late Miocene Siwalik murine rodents, which experienced a dietary shift toward C4 diets during late Miocene ecological change indicated by carbon isotopic evidence. Geometric morphometric analysis in the outline of upper first molars captures dichotomous lineages of Siwalik murines, in agreement with phylogenetic hypotheses of previous studies (two distinct clades: the Karnimata and Progonomys clades), and indicates lineage-specific functional responses to mechanical properties of their diets. Tooth shapes of the two clades are similar at their sympatric origin but deviate from each other with decreasing overlap through time. Shape change in the Karnimata clade is associated with greater efficiency of propalinal chewing for tough diets than in the Progonomys clade. Larger body mass in Karnimata may be related to exploitation of lower-quality food items, such as grasses, than in smaller-bodied Progonomys. The functional and ecophysiological aspects of Karnimata exploiting C4 grasses are concordant with their isotopic dietary preference relative to Progonomys. Lineage-specific selection was differentially greater in Karnimata, and a faster rate of shape change toward derived Karnimata facilitated inclusion of C4 grasses in the diet. Sympatric speciation in these clades is most plausibly explained by interspecific competition on resource utilization between the two, based on comparisons of our results with the carbon isotope data. Interspecific competition with Karnimata may have suppressed morphological innovation of the Progonomys clade. Pairwise analyses of morphological and carbon isotope data can uncover ecological causes of sympatric speciation and define functional adaptations of teeth to resources.

  13. Lineage-specific responses of tooth shape in murine rodents (murinae, rodentia to late Miocene dietary change in the Siwaliks of Pakistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Kimura

    Full Text Available Past ecological responses of mammals to climate change are recognized in the fossil record by adaptive significance of morphological variations. To understand the role of dietary behavior on functional adaptations of dental morphology in rodent evolution, we examine evolutionary change of tooth shape in late Miocene Siwalik murine rodents, which experienced a dietary shift toward C4 diets during late Miocene ecological change indicated by carbon isotopic evidence. Geometric morphometric analysis in the outline of upper first molars captures dichotomous lineages of Siwalik murines, in agreement with phylogenetic hypotheses of previous studies (two distinct clades: the Karnimata and Progonomys clades, and indicates lineage-specific functional responses to mechanical properties of their diets. Tooth shapes of the two clades are similar at their sympatric origin but deviate from each other with decreasing overlap through time. Shape change in the Karnimata clade is associated with greater efficiency of propalinal chewing for tough diets than in the Progonomys clade. Larger body mass in Karnimata may be related to exploitation of lower-quality food items, such as grasses, than in smaller-bodied Progonomys. The functional and ecophysiological aspects of Karnimata exploiting C4 grasses are concordant with their isotopic dietary preference relative to Progonomys. Lineage-specific selection was differentially greater in Karnimata, and a faster rate of shape change toward derived Karnimata facilitated inclusion of C4 grasses in the diet. Sympatric speciation in these clades is most plausibly explained by interspecific competition on resource utilization between the two, based on comparisons of our results with the carbon isotope data. Interspecific competition with Karnimata may have suppressed morphological innovation of the Progonomys clade. Pairwise analyses of morphological and carbon isotope data can uncover ecological causes of sympatric speciation and define functional adaptations of teeth to resources.

  14. Lineage-Specific Responses of Tooth Shape in Murine Rodents (Murinae, Rodentia) to Late Miocene Dietary Change in the Siwaliks of Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Kimura, Yuri; Jacobs, Louis L.; Flynn, Lawrence J.

    2013-01-01

    Past ecological responses of mammals to climate change are recognized in the fossil record by adaptive significance of morphological variations. To understand the role of dietary behavior on functional adaptations of dental morphology in rodent evolution, we examine evolutionary change of tooth shape in late Miocene Siwalik murine rodents, which experienced a dietary shift toward C4 diets during late Miocene ecological change indicated by carbon isotopic evidence. Geometric morphometric analy...

  15. Short-term effects of avian predation variation on population size and local survival of the multimammate rat, Mastomys natalensis (Rodentia, Muridae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulck, T. van; Stocks, R.; Verhagen, Ron

    1998-01-01

    was not true but this might be due to the small size of the experimental fields. Analysis of weekly collected raptor pellets, over a 15 month period, showed an overrepresentation of M. natalensis as prey and a strong positive correlation between the density of M. natalensis and the avian predation intensity....

  16. On the status of the Long-tailed Marmot Marmota caudata (Mammalia: Rodentia: Sciuridae in Kargil, Ladakh (Indian Trans-Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanveer Ahmed

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Two species of marmots occur in India, the Himalayan Marmot Marmota himalayana and the Long-tailed Marmot or Golden Marmot Marmota caudata.  Marmots constitute part of the diet of some globally endangered carnivores in the Trans-Himalaya, yet studies on marmots in India are scanty.  Besides, the status of the Long-tailed Marmot is still unknown in India.  Considering this, a survey was carried out in Rangdum Valley, Kargil between May and July 2011 to collect baseline information on the Long-tailed Marmot.  Trails and roads were explored through walk and slow moving vehicle, respectively.  The Long-tailed Marmot was found to have a density of 14.31±2.10 per sq.km. and an encounter rate of 2.86±0.42 per km.  Most of the observations of Long-tailed Marmot were in hilly areas (77.7%, lower slope (48.8% and herbaceous meadow (38.0%.  The current information is expected to bring concern towards this lesser known species in India.  

  17. Primer registro del ratón colombiano del bosque Chilomys instans (Cricetidae: Rodentia en Cajamarca: actualizando el listado de mamíferos del Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César E. Medina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available El roedor Chilomys instans (Thomasomyini, Cricetidae es una especie común en la comunidad de mamíferos que habita los Andes del Norte en Sudamérica. Aquí presentamos el primer registro de la especie para el Perú, en base a la revisión morfológica de tres ejemplares colectados en el departamento de Cajamarca (Andes del Centro. Se presentan comentarios sobre la taxonomía de C. instans e información sobre su historia natural. La amplia distribución del género Chilomys en los Andes pone de manifiesto la necesidad de realizar la revisión taxonómica de éste género para esclarecer los límites de las especies que la conforman.

  18. Effect of six antiretroviral drugs (delavirdine, stavudine, lamivudine, nelfinavir, amprenavir and lopinavir/ritonavir in association) on albino pregnant rats (Rattus norvegicus Albinus, Rodentia, Mammalia): biological assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, M U; Araujo Júnior, E; Simões, J M; Oliveria, R M Filho; Kulay, L Júnior

    2014-08-01

    To compare the chronic effects of antiretrovirals (lamivudine, stavudine, delavirdine, nelfinavir, amprenavir and an association of lopinavir/ritonavir) on albino pregnant rats. Review. Department of Obstetrics, Federal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP), São Paulo, SP, Brazil. This was a comparative retrospective study formed by 18 groups of 10 pregnant rats each, which were nearly three months of age and weighed 200 g. All of them were medicated every day using a stomach probe, while the control group was given 1 mL of distilled water. The study groups received lamivudine (at 5, 15 and 45 mg/kg/day); stavudine (at 1, 3 and 9 mg/kg/day); nelfinavir (at 40, 120 and 360 mg/kg/day); amprenavir (at 46, 138 and 414 mg/kg/day); lopinavir/ritonavir (at 12.8/3.2, 38.4/9.6 and 115/28.8 mg/kg/day) and delavirdine (at 20 and 60 mg/kg/day). These represented 1, 3 and 9 times the human therapeutic dose, except for the last drug, for which the 9-times dose was not used. Maternal, litter and placental weights, implantation and reabsorption numbers, major external fetal malformations and fetal and maternal deaths were evaluated. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare quantitative variables and the chi-square test was used to compare qualitative variables. At all three doses, stavudine increased the maternal weight (p=0.001), while lamivudine at 3- and 9-times doses reduced it (p0.05). Stavudine at all doses reduced the litter weights (p<0.001); however, lamivudine at the usual and 3-times doses, delavirdine at 3-times dose, and amprenavir at 3-times dose increased the litter weight (p<0.001). In the maternal compartment, we observed lethal toxicity in the pregnant rats that received amprenavir and ritonavir/lopinavir; and maternal weight change with lamivudine and stavudine. In the fetal compartment, adverse effects were observed in relation to litter weight from stavudine, lamivudine, delavirdine and amprenavir.

  19. Helmintos parásitos de la rata Sigmodon hispidus (Rodentia: Cricetidae) de un hábitat estacional y otro perenne en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez, Beatriz; González, Ricardo; Chinchilla, Misael

    2000-01-01

    La fauna helmintológica de ejemplares de Sigmodon hispidus capturados en Costa Rica, varió de acuerdo a la región de procedencia. En las ratas provenientes de una zona extensa del Pacífico seco, (Guanacaste) que ofrecía una dieta variada, se encontraron 6 especies de nemátodos y 2 especies de céstodos. En las provenientes de la Meseta Central, (Alajuela) que disfrutaban de una dieta única y abundante, se aislaron solamente dos especies: una de ellas, Angiostrongylus costaricensis, de gran imp...

  20. Efeitos da música clássica como elemento de enriquecimento ambiental em Mus musculus em cativeiro (Rodentia: Muridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Geraldo Pereira da Cruz

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2010v23n2p191 No ambiente selvagem, os animais são submetidos a mudanças constantes nos estímulos sensoriais. Entretanto, o ambiente de cativeiro é muito mais pobre em termos de estímulos fornecidos aos animais alojados no seu interior. Numa tentativa de remediar esta situação e promover um melhor bem estar, camundongos (Mus musculus foram expostos a duas condições: sem estímulos auditivos e com música clássica. Em todos os experimentos foi utilizada uma bateria de testes comportamentais. Os resultados demonstram uma diminuição significativa na imobilidade no nado forçado, aumento de entradas nos braços fechados do labirinto em cruz elevado e diminuição na imobilidade no campo aberto, nos animais que haviam sido pré-expostos anteriormente a 24h de música e sugerem que a música clássica causas mudanças na atividade motora em camundongos. Este estudo leva a conclusão que o enriquecimento do ambiente causa profundos efeitos sobre o comportamento de camundongos nos testes comportamentais e a música clássica é um método relativamente simples de contribuir para o bem estar de camundongos em cativeiro, mas pode comprometer resultados de experimentos como o nado forçado.

  1. Trichospirura aethiopica n. sp. (Nematoda: Rhabdochonidae from Malacomys longipes (Rodentia: Muridae in Gabon, first record of the genus in the Ethiopian Realm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bain Odile

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichospirura aethiopica n. sp. is described from unidentified tubular structures (pancreatic ducts? near the stomach of the murid Malacomys longipes Milne-Edwards, 1877 in Gabon. The extremely long and narrow buccal capsule, posterior position of the vulva, unequal spicules and absence of caudal alae readily identified the specimens as belonging to Trichospirura Smith & Chitwood, 1967, but a combination of several characters distinguished them from the described species in this genus. Males of the new species are characterized by the absence of precloacal papillae, the presence of four pairs of postcloacal papillae and a left spicule length of 165–200 μm. With only five nominal and one unnamed species, the host range of Trichospirura extends into the Neotropical, Indo-Malayan and Ethiopian Realms and comprises three classes of vertebrates, Amphibia, Reptilia and Mammalia, suggesting a larger species diversity than that currently recorded. Detection is difficult as predilection sites are often outside the gut lumen. It was noted that, irrespective of their geographic origin, species from mammals share certain characters (shorter left spicule and absence of precloacal papillae that oppose them to those from amphibians and reptiles. A hypothesis for the origin of Trichospirura in mammals through a remote host-switching event in tupaiids in southern Asia, likely facilitated by the intermediate hosts, and for their subsequent migration to the Ethiopian and finally Neotropical Realm is proposed. Regarding the two species from anurans and saurians in the Antilles, one or two host-switching events are considered equally possible, based on morphological characters.

  2. Endoparasitos em cobaias (Cavia porcellus (Mammalia, Rodentia, Caviidae provenientes de biotérios de criação e experimentação do município do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Endoparasites in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus (Mammalia, Rodentia, Caviidae from breeding and experimentation animal housing of the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Casartelli Alves

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um levantamento sobre a prevalência e intensidade de infecção de endoparasitos em cobaias convencionais de linhagem Short Hair provenientes de biotérios de criação (A e experimentação (B do município do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, avaliando-se a eficácia das medidas de prevenção entre eles. Para a realização do estudo, utilizou-se exame direto de mucosa e do conteúdo intestinal, a técnica de tricromo de WHEATLEY e exames coproparasitológicos pelas técnicas de Ritchie e Kinyoun. Os parasitos encontrados através da técnica de exame direto da mucosa e do conteúdo intestinal e de tricromo de WHEATLEY com as respectivas prevalências foram: Balantidium sp. (78%, Cyathodinium sp. (68%, Eimeria caviae (38%, Paraspidodera uncinata (34% e Giardia muris (24%. Nos exames de fezes realizados pelas técnicas de Ritchie e Kinyoun, foram encontrados os seguintes parasitos com as respectivas prevalências no biotério A: E. caviae (74%, Balantidium sp. (68%, Cyathodinium sp. (68% e Cryptosporidium sp. (5%. No biotério B, observou-se: E. caviae (58%, Balantidium sp. (42%, Cyathodinium sp. (25% e G. muris (8%. A alta prevalência de endoparasitos nos biotérios sugere a necessidade de se rever a eficácia das barreiras sanitárias adotadas.This paper discusses the prevalence and intensity of infection of endoparasites in conventionally maintained Short Hair guinea pigs colonies from a breeding (A and an experimental (B facilities in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. It also evaluates the efficacy of the methods of prevention adopted by both facilities. The search of parasites was performed by direct examination of intestinal mucosa and its contents, WHEATLEY's trichrome method and coproparasitological examinations by Ritchie's and Kinyoun's techniques. The prevalences of endoparasites found throught direct examination of intestinal mucosa and its contents were: Balantidium sp. (78%, Cyathodinium sp. (68%, Eimeria caviae (38%, Paraspidodera uncinata (34% and Giardia muris (24%. The prevalences of endoparasites found throught Ritchie's and Kinyoun's techniques in facility A were: E. caviae (74%, Balantidium sp. (68%, Cyathodinium sp. (68% and Cryptosporidium sp. (5%. In facility B: E. caviae (58%, Balantidium sp. (42%, Cyathodinium sp. (25% and G. muris (8% were found. The high prevalences in both facilities suggest that the efficacy of the sanitary barriers adopted in the prevention of parasitic infections should be revised.

  3. Intraspecific differences in metabolic rate of Chroeomys olivaceus (Rodentia: Muridae: the effect of thermal acclimation in arid and mesic habitats Diferencias intraespecíficas en la tasa metabólica de Chroeomys olivaceus (Rodentia: Muridae: efecto de la aclimatación térmica en hábitat áridos y mésicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Fernando Novoa

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies of metabolic capacities in rodents have been largely studied at an inter-specific levels, but physiological capacities of populations belonging to the same species have received lesser attention. Here we studied the maximum and basal metabolic rates of two populations of the rodent Chroeomys olivaceus dwelling in habitats with contrasting temperature and rainfall regimes, and to test if differences in metabolic capacities are due to local adaptation or acclimatization effect. After four weeks of acclimation to 25 ºC and 10 ºC, the BMR and MMR were determined in individuals from the northern population of Caleta Loa, and the southern population of La Picada. Individuals from ‘La Picada’ population were heavier than those from Caleta Loa. MMR and BMR exhibited higher values in cold acclimated animals compared with warm-acclimated animals. Besides, BMR, but not MMR, was lower in Caleta Loa individuals, in spite of the acclimation treatment. Hence, the differences in the metabolic capacities and the response to acclimation of C. olivaceus populations appear to be an evolutionary response to the environmental cuesLas capacidades metabólicas en roedores han sido ampliamente estudiadas en un nivel ínterespecífico, pero los atributos fisiológicos de las poblaciones que pertenecen a una misma especie, han recibido menos atención. Aquí estudiamos las tasas metabólicas máximas y basales de dos poblaciones del roedor Chroeomys olivaceus que viven en habitats con temperaturas y regímenes de precipitaciones contrastantes y se analiza si las diferencias en las capacidades metabólicas se deben a diferenciación local o a efectos de aclimatación. Después de cuatro semanas de aclimatación a 25 ºC y 10 ºC, el BMR y MMR fueron determinados en individuos de la población norteña de Caleta Loa y en la población sureña de "La Picada". Los individuos de la población "La Picada" presentaron mayor masa corporal que los de Caleta Loa. Los valores de MMR y BMR fueron más altos en animales aclimatados al frío, comparados con los aclimatados a temperaturas más cálidas. Asimismo, sólo BMR y no MMR, fue más bajo en los individuos de Caleta Loa, a pesar del tratamiento de aclimatación. Por lo tanto, las diferencias en las capacidades metabólicas y en la respuesta a la aclimatación de las poblaciones de C. olivaceus, parecen ser una respuesta evolutiva a las claves ambientales

  4. Infección inducida en el roedor selvático Dasyprocta leporina (Rodentia: Dasyproctidae, con huevos larvados de Lagochilascaris minor (Nematoda: Ascarididae Induced infection in the wild rodent Dasyprocta leporina (Rodentia: Dasyproctidae with larval eggs of Lagochilascaris minor (Nematoda: Ascarididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gregorio

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available Ejemplares de Dasyprocta leporina Linnaeus, 1758 fueron criados alejados de su ambiente natural. A los 3 ó 4 meses de edad, se los inoculó por vía oral con huevos de Lagochilascaris minor Leiper, 1909 obtenidos de una paciente nativa. Los huevos se los incubó por más de 80 dias, para que de ellos fuese posible obtener por compresión mecánica, larvas que se mantuviesen vivas en medio acuoso por 48 horas o más. Sacrificados los animales a los 14 ó 46 dias posteriores a la infección, se hallaron en los músculos esqueléticos larvas ovilladas dentro de nódulos inflamatorios, los cuales no presentaban reacción a cuerpo extraño, abscedación o calcificación. El desarollo de los nódulos no parecía afectar la normalidad de los hospedadores. Las larvas obtenidas eran similares a las descritas por SPRENT como de tercer estadio para estos helmintos. Ratones blancos infectados con material similar, no presentaron nódulos en sus músculos ni se pudo recuperar de sus tejidos larva alguna. Por los hallazgos obtenidos con la infección de estos animales, se postula que el helminto no posee ciclo pulmonar y que su desarrollo requiere de un hospedador intermediario.Specimens of Dasyprocta leporina (Linnaeus, 1758 were raised out their natural environment. At three to four months of age they were orally inoculated with Lagochilascaris minor (Leiper, 1909 eggs obtained from a native patient. The eggs were incubated for more than 80 days so that it was possible to obtain, by mechanical compression, larvae that could be maintained alive in liquid medium for 48 hours or more. The animals were sacrificed 14-46 days after infection and tangled larva in inflammatory nodules were found in skeletal muscle without foreign body reaction, abscess formation or calcification. The development of the nodules did not seem to affect the hosts. The larvae obtained were similar to those described by SPRENT as the third stage of these helminths. When white mice were inoculated with similar material it was not possible to recuperate larva from their tissues nor were nodules found. Based on these results it is postulated that the helminth does not present a pulmonary cycle and that its development requires an intermediary host.

  5. Ectoparásitos Asociados a Machos y Hembras de Oxymycterus rufus (Rodentia: Muridae: Estudio comparativo en la Selva Marginal del río de La Plata, Argentina Ectoparasites Associated with Males and Females of Oxymycterus rufus (Rodentia: Muridae: Comparative Study in La Plata River Marshland, Argentina

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    Marcela Lareschi

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente estudio es comparar parámetros e índices de infestación de los ectoparásitos asociados a cada sexo de Oxymycterus rufus (Fischer. El índice de densidad relativa de los machos fue 4,4% y el de las hembras 5,0%. Se recolectaron 873 ectoparásitos de 38 machos y 1015 de 43 hembras. La riqueza y la diversidad específica de los ectoparásitos fueron 12,0 y 1,2 en los machos, 11,0 y 0,7 en las hembras. La similitud entre machos y hembras de acuerdo a sus ectoparásitos fue del 87%. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que el sexo del huésped influenciaría la prevalencia y abundancia media de aquellas especies ectoparásitas que en estudios previos mostraron preferencia por O. rufus, tales como Androlaelaps fahrenholzi (Berlese (abundancia media = 3,5 y prevalencia = 65,8% en los machos; abundancia media = 1,6 y prevalencia = 50,0% en las hembras, Eutrombicula alfreddugesi (Oudemans (abundancia media = 10,9 y prevalencia = 29,0% en los machos; abundancia media = 18,7 y prevalencia = 32,6% en los machos y Ornithonyssus bacoti (Hirst (abundancia media = 7,8 y prevalencia = 63,0% en los machos; abundancia media = 2,7 y prevalencia = 52,6% en las hembras. Esta información es importante desde un punto de vista epidemiológico.Infestation parameters and indexes of ectoparasites associated with each sex of Oxymycterus rufus (Fischer are compared. Males relative density index = 4.4%, females RDI = 5.0%. A total of 873 ectoparasites were collected on 38 males, and 1015 on 43 females; specific richness = 12.0, specific diversity = 1.2 on males, and S = 11.0 H = 0.7 on females. The similarity between both sexes according to their ectoparasites was of 87.0%. The results obtained show that host sex may influence on the prevalence and mean abundance of those ectoparasites which in previous studies have showed preference for O. rufus, such as Androlaelaps fahrenholzi (Berlese (mean abundance = 3.5 and prevalence = 65.8% in males; mean abundance = 1.6 and prevalence = 50.0% in females, Eutrombicula alfreddugesi (Oudemans (mean abundance = 10.9 and prevalence = 29.0% in males; mean abundance = 18.7 and prevalence = 32.6% in females and Ornithonyssus bacoti (Hirst (mean abundance = 7.8 and prevalence = 63.0% in males; mean abundance = 2.7 and prevalence = 52.6% in females. This information is important since an epidemiological viewpoint.

  6. Endoparasitos em cobaias (Cavia porcellus) (Mammalia, Rodentia, Caviidae) provenientes de biotérios de criação e experimentação do município do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Endoparasites in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) (Mammalia, Rodentia, Caviidae) from breeding and experimentation animal housing of the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Luciana Casartelli Alves; Cleide Cristina Apolinário Borges; Sidnei da Silva; Sebastião Enes Reis Couto; Rodrigo Caldas Menezes

    2007-01-01

    Foi realizado um levantamento sobre a prevalência e intensidade de infecção de endoparasitos em cobaias convencionais de linhagem Short Hair provenientes de biotérios de criação (A) e experimentação (B) do município do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, avaliando-se a eficácia das medidas de prevenção entre eles. Para a realização do estudo, utilizou-se exame direto de mucosa e do conteúdo intestinal, a técnica de tricromo de WHEATLEY e exames coproparasitológicos pelas técnicas de Ritchie e Kinyoun. Os...

  7. Aspectos ecológicos del roedor arborícola Rhipidomys Latimanus Tomes, 1860, (Rodentia: Cricetidae en el oriente de Cundinamarca, Colombia Aspectos ecológicos del roedor arborícola Rhipidomys Latimanus Tomes, 1860, (Rodentia: Cricetidae en el oriente de Cundinamarca, Colombia

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    Montenegro Díaz Olga

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available The population biology of Rhipidomys latimanus was studied by capture-recapture methods from February to August, 1989, on a grid of 1.2 ha of high Andean forest and paramo vegetation, at 3000 m.sl, elevation in the eastern part of departament of Cundinamarca, Colombia. Survivor ship was moderately high through the study period, and highest population density was associated with periods of maximum precipitation. Reproduction activity appeared to be constant throughout the study period. Average home range was stimated to  be 0.21 ha. Information on diets is given and the possible role of Rhipidomys latimanus in seed dispersal is discussed. Se estudiaron aspectos demográficos de Rhipidomys latimanus de febrero a agosto de 1989, utilizando la técnica de captura-recaptura en una cuadrícula de 1.2 Ha. con vegetación de Bosque altoandino y páramo a una altura superior a los 3.000 msnm en el oriente de Cundinamarca, Colombia. La densidad poblacional se incrementó en los meses de mayor precipitación y la supervivencia se mantuvo entre moderada y alta. La actividad reproductiva fue constante en esta época del año, El área de acción promedio de la especie se estimó en 0.21 hectáreas. Se presenta información sobre la dieta de este roedor y su posible papel como dispersor de semillas.

  8. Identificación de los mecanismos subyacentes a la invasión de Castor canadensis (Rodentia en el archipiélago de Tierra del Fuego, Chile Identifying the mechanisms underlying the invasion of Castor canadensis (Rodentia into Tierra del Fuego archipelago, Chile

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    PETRA K WALLEM

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Castor canadensis es considerado un ingeniero ecosistémico arquetípico, ya que altera el estado de factores bióticos y abióticos, mediante interacciones no tróficas, modificando sustancialmente los ecosistemas que habita. Esta especie fue introducida en la Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego en 1946 por el gobierno argentino, con el fin de estimular la industria peletera. Actualmente se encuentra presente en las principales islas del archipiélago, incluyendo Tierra del Fuego, Navarino, Dawson y Hoste y ocupando habitat tan contrastantes como los bosques subpolares magallánicos, el matorral y la estepa patagónica. Su éxito en estos habitat sugiere que su expansión solo se verá limitada por la disponibilidad de recursos hídricos. De acuerdo a lo observado en Tierra del Fuego, en ausencia de un programa de control poblacional, los castores amenazan con establecerse en todos los bosques templados nativos del continente (entre los 35 y 55° S y ocupar los habitat de matorral y pastizal circundantes a los mismos. El presente artículo propone tres hipótesis referentes a los mecanismos subyacentes al éxito de esta invasión: el escape de enemigos naturales, la oportunidad de recursos, y la autofacilitación mediante interacciones no tróficas. Los antecedentes disponibles develan patrones conductuales (e.g., el establecimiento de colonias en forma independiente de la cercanía de recursos maderables, un aparente crecimiento poblacional irruptivo, así como una explotación centrada en Nothofagus pumilio, especie dominante en los bosques magallánicos que sugieren la operación de los mecanismos de escape de enemigos naturales y oportunidad de recursos. También se observa una mayor densidad de colonias activas en habitat que presentan mayor extensión de modificación ambiental, sugiriendo el accionar del mecanismo de autofacilitación. Si bien la información reunida no permite poner a prueba las hipótesis propuestas, sí entrega un marco conceptual sobre el cual se pueden desarrollar futuras investigaciones referentes a esta invasiónCastor canadensis is considered an archetypical ecosystem engineer, which modifies the state of biotic and abiotic factors through non-trophic interactions. This species was introduced by the Argentinean government into Tierra del Fuego island in 1946, and subsequently colonized autonomously the neighboring islands of Navarino, Dawson and Hoste. Currently this invader occupies contrasting ecosystems such as the Magellan subpolar beech forest and Patagonian scrub and steppe. This ability to colonize contrasting habitats suggests that beaver expansion will be limited mainly by hydrological resources, threatening to colonize the complete extent of temperate beech forests on the mainland (from 35 to 55° S. The present review proposes three hypotheses regarding the underlying mechanisms to this successful invasion: natural enemy escape, resource opportunities, and self-facilitation through non-trophic interactions. Current knowledge regarding beaver colonization and foraging behavior (e.g., habitat selection independently of forest availability, irruptive population growth, and apparent selective exploitation of Nothofagus pumilio, dominant species in the Magellan forest suggests that enemy escape and resource opportunity are the main mechanisms underlying this invasion. The observation of higher densities of active colonies, where the extent of beaver habitat modification is larger, suggests that self-facilitation may be relevant to the success of this invasion. Current information does not allow testing these hypotheses, but it provides a framework to develop future investigations regarding this invasion in Tierra del Fuego

  9. Free and total testosterone levels in field males of Octodon degus (Rodentia, Octodontidae: accuracy of the hormonal regulation of behavior Niveles de testosterona libre y totales en machos silvestres de Octodon degus (Rodentia, Octodontidae: exactitud de la regulación hormonal del comportamiento

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    MAURICIO SOTO- GAMBOA

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Animals exhibit continuous seasonal changes in physiological, morphological and behavioral traits associated to their natural annual cycles. One of the most important changes in the organism occurs at the initiation of breeding season. In males these changes include activation of spermatogenesis, enhance of sexual secondary characters and an increase of aggressiveness. All of theses changes are basically regulated by testosterone, but the physiological basis of this testosterone regulation and the effective hormone proportion that acts in target tissues are unknown. In this work I evaluated the relationship between total testosterone, free testosterone associated to aggressive behavior in wild males of Octodon degus. I compared hormonal levels and aggressive behavior during pre, middle and post breeding periods. Results showed that behavioral aggressiveness was correlated with both total and free testosterone in June, during the beginning of breeding season, but not at other times. Results also indicated a lack of relationship between free and total testosterone in most of breeding period. I discuss the importance of this behavior-hormonal regulation (determined by free testosterone and the physiological importance of this mechanism to the organismLos animales presentan variaciones estacionales continuas que incluyen cambios fisiológicos, morfológicos y conductuales, asociados al ciclo anual. Estos cambios generalmente están activados por factores endógenos o exógenos, pero son regulados por el sistema endocrino de organismo. Uno de los cambios más importantes ocurre en el inicio del periodo reproductivo. Durante este periodo los machos presentan cambios asociados a la producción de esperatozoides, exacerbación de caracteres sexuales secundarios y un aumento de la agresividad. Todos estos cambios son regulados en parte por los niveles de testosterona, sin embargo, los mecanismos fisiológicos de esta regulación son desconocidos. En este trabajo evalué la relación que existe entre los niveles de testosterona libre y totales, y examiné su posible asociación con los niveles de agresividad en machos de una población natural de Octodon degus. Mis resultados indicaron que la agresividad se correlaciona directamente con los niveles de testosterona libre y totales solo durante el mes de junio, al inicio del periodo reproductivo, pero no durante el resto del ciclo reproductivo de esta especie. Esto indicaría que la agresividad solo se correlaciona con los niveles de testosterona libre ya que en el medio y el final del periodo reproductivo los niveles de testosterona se mantienen altos sin que se manifiesten dichas conductas. Finalmente, discuto la importancia de la regulación fina de la conducta determinada por la testosterona libre y la importancia fisiológica de este mecanismo de regulación dentro del organismo

  10. Method of releasing and number of animals are determinants for the success of European ground squirrel (Spermophilus citellus) reintroductions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějů, J.; Říčanová, Štěpánka; Poláková, S.; Ambros, M.; Kala, B.; Matějů, K.; Kratochvíl, L.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 2 (2012), s. 473-482 ISSN 1612-4642 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Translocation * Endangered species * Rodentia Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.355, year: 2012

  11. Seasonal variation in plasma and corpus luteum oestradiol.17[3and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Flemming 1993) and, in males, with circulating sex steroid concentrations ..... biology of the Cape mole-rat, Georychus capensis (Rodentia. Bathycrgidac), j, Zool" ... brain. and behavior: an emerging discipline in herpetology. In: Biology of the ...

  12. ORF Alignment: NC_005296 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ... palustris CGA009] ... Length = 77 ... Query: 195 NRRKVYPESARQTRQQGTASLSFAIGASGEVISYKITRSTGSDALDRAIDS...MMKTARPPP 254 ... NRRKVYPESARQTRQQGTASLSFAIGASGEVISYKITRSTGSDALDRAIDSMMKTA...RPPP Sbjct: 1 ... NRRKVYPESARQTRQQGTASLSFAIGASGEVISYKITRSTGSDALDRAIDSMMKTARPPP 60 ...

  13. ORF Alignment: NC_005296 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Query: 350 RNEMTARRIVTADHTILVSGSGYVPKGDLTVDGKDNPEAVSSAMQLVRSALLCNDAQLRP 409 ... RNEMTARRIVTADHT...ILVSGSGYVPKGDLTVDGKDNPEAVSSAMQLVRSALLCNDAQLRP Sbjct: 1 ... RNEMTARRIVTADHTILVSGSGYVPKGDL... ... cation-transporting P-type ATPase [Rhodopseudomonas ... palustris CGA009] ... Length = 203 ...

  14. ORF Alignment: NC_004757 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ... [Rhodopseudomonas palustris CGA009] ... Length = 102 ... Query: 14 ... ...MRDGEFLVSKTTAKGVITYINEPFIRMSGFTEQELVGQAHNIIRHPDMPPEAFADFWNTL 73 ... + DG ++VSKT ... KG +TY NE F++ SGF+EQ

  15. ORF Alignment: NC_005296 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ... palustris CGA009] ... Length = 157 ... Query: 95 ... YLQTAIDCHSRYAFARLYSSKLPVTAVHLMNNDVLPTFEAHDA...KIETVLSDNGREFCGRP 154 ... YLQTAIDCHSRYAFARLYSSKLPVTAVHLMNNDVLPTFEAHDAKIETV...LSDNGREFCGRP Sbjct: 1 ... YLQTAIDCHSRYAFARLYSSKLPVTAVHLMNNDVLPTFEAHDAKIETVLSDNGREFCGRP 60 ... Query: 215 LDDYLVGY

  16. ORF Alignment: NC_005296 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ... [Rhodopseudomonas palustris CGA009] ... Length = 150 ... Query: 1 ... MRIALFQPDIPQNTGTILRFCACLNVEAHIIEPAGFPTSD...RHFRRSGMDYLDQVSIVRHD 60 ... MRIALFQPDIPQNTGTILRFCACLNVEAHIIEPAGFPTSD...RHFRRSGMDYLDQVSIVRHD Sbjct: 1 ... MRIALFQPDIPQNTGTILRFCACLNVEAHIIEPAGFPTSDRHFRRSGMDYLDQVSIVRHD 60 ... Qu

  17. ORF Alignment: NC_005296 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available LGETGSGKDVFARRVHAESARRNKPFVPVNCAALPEGLIES 387 ... MAQLSRTVRLVEAGIPVLLLGETGSGKDVFARRVHAESARRNKPFVPVNCA...ALPEGLIES Sbjct: 1 ... MAQLSRTVRLVEAGIPVLLLGETGSGKDVFARRVHAESARRNKPFVPVNCAALPEGLIES 60 ... Query: 448 GRPVPVDFALI...domonas palustris CGA009] ... Length = 229 ... Query: 328 MAQLSRTVRLVEAGIPVLL

  18. MAMÍFEROS PEQUEÑOS EN LA DIETA DE LA LECHUZA TYTO ALBA (STRIGIFORMES: TYTONIDAE EN DOS LOCALIDADES DEL OCCIDENTE DE ECUADOR, CON AMPLIACIÓN DISTRIBUCIONAL DE ICHTHYOMYS HYDROBATES (RODENTIA: CRICETIDAE

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    JORGE BRITO M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente estudio a partir de 107 egagrópilas de la lechuza, determinamos el consumo de 300 presas agrupadas en 21 especies, las egagrópilas fueron colectadas en dos localidades de diferente ambiente Los Santiagos y La Ciénaga, en las provincias de Chimborazo y Manabí, al occidente de Ecuador. Nuestros análisis revelaron una dieta compuesta mayoritariamente de mamíferos pequeños, sobre todo roedores, quienes constituyeron el 80%. Entre las presas más abundantes se encontró a Oligoryzomys sp. que representó el 38.7% de la dieta en las muestras de Los Santiagos y Sigmodon peruanus 33.6% en La Ciénaga, siendo el 22,5% y 41% respectivamente de la biomasa total consumida para cada sitio. La rata cangrejera Ichthyomys hydrobates es reportada por primera vez en la dieta de la lechuza y también en la localidad de Los Santiagos, ampliando el rango distribucional de este roedor para el centro-sur al occidente de Ecuador en aproximadamente 200 km.

  19. About rats and jackfruit trees: modeling the carrying capacity of a Brazilian Atlantic Forest spiny-rat Trinomys dimidiatus (Günther, 1877) - Rodentia, Echimyidae - population with varying jackfruit tree (Artocarpus heterophyllus L.) abundances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, J H F; Moulton, T P; Raíces, D S L; Bergallo, H G

    2015-01-01

    We carried out a six-year study aimed at evaluating if and how a Brazilian Atlantic Forest small mammal community responded to the presence of the invasive exotic species Artocarpus heterophyllus, the jackfruit tree. In the surroundings of Vila Dois Rios, Ilha Grande, RJ, 18 grids were established, 10 where the jackfruit tree was present and eight were it was absent. Previous results indicated that the composition and abundance of this small mammal community were altered by the presence and density of A. heterophyllus. One observed effect was the increased population size of the spiny-rat Trinomys dimidiatus within the grids where the jackfruit trees were present. Therefore we decided to create a mathematical model for this species, based on the Verhulst-Pearl logistic equation. Our objectives were i) to calculate the carrying capacity K based on real data of the involved species and the environment; ii) propose and evaluate a mathematical model to estimate the population size of T. dimidiatus based on the monthly seed production of jackfruit tree, Artocarpus heterophyllus and iii) determinate the minimum jackfruit tree seed production to maintain at least two T. dimidiatus individuals in one study grid. Our results indicated that the predicted values by the model for the carrying capacity K were significantly correlated with real data. The best fit was found considering 20~35% energy transfer efficiency between trophic levels. Within the scope of assumed premises, our model showed itself to be an adequate simulator for Trinomys dimidiatus populations where the invasive jackfruit tree is present.

  20. Evaluation of the in vivo mutagenic potential of hydroalcoholic extracts of the northern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. Ericales, Ericaceae on peripheral blood cells of Swiss mice (Mus musculus Rodentia, Muridae

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    Patrícia Scotini Freitas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The northern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. Ericales, Ericaceae is very rich in anthocyanins, natural pigments which have strong antioxidant properties and potential health benefits, resulting in the worldwide use the blueberry as a medicinal plant. We investigated the mutagenic potential of simple hydroalcoholic extracts of V. corymbosum acutely administrated by gavage to Swiss mice at doses of 1 g kg-1, 1.5 g kg-1 and 2 g kg-1. Peripheral blood cells were collected 4 h and 24 h post-gavage and assessed by the alkaline comet assay, with further blood samples being collected at 48 h and 72 h for assessment using the micronucleus (MN assay. Our results show that the V. corymbosum extracts did not induce any statistically significant increase in the average amount of DNA damage in peripheral blood leukocytes. However, we did record a significant increase in the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes at the three doses tested.

  1. Identidade, riqueza e abundãncia de pequenos mamíferos (Rodentia e Didelphimorphia de área de Floresta com Araucária no estado do Paraná, Brasil

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    Guilherme Grazzini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Roedores e Marsupiais são componentes importantes da fauna na região Neotropical. Estudos sobre a riqueza e abundância destes animais são raros na Floresta Ombrófila Mista (FOM e aqui apresentamos um inventário conduzido na Floresta Nacional de Piraí do Sul. Esta área possui uma área aproximada de 150 ha, cercada por pastos e plantações de Pinus. A amostragem foi feita através de armadilhas de queda, Sherman e Tomahawk, dispostas nos principais tipos de vegetação encontrados. Pelo menos um casal de cada espécie foi coletado. Como resultado, durante 5.892 armadilhas.noite nós obtivemos um total de 1.049 capturas, representando 17 espécies: Akodon montensis, Bibimys labiosus, Brucepattersonius iheringi, Cryptonanus sp., Didelphis albiventris, D. aurita, Gracilinanus microtarsus, Monodelphis americana, M. scalops, Myocastor coypus, Nectomys squamipes, Oligoryzomys nigripes, Oxymycterus judex, O. nasutus, Sooretamys angouya e Thaptomys nigrita. Capturas por armadilhas de queda representaram 67% do total, e oito espécies foram registradas exclusivamente por este método. Akodon montensis, O. nigripes e T. nigrita foram as espécies mais abundantes.

  2. Ecomorphological characterization of murines and non-arvicoline cricetids (Rodentia from south-western Europe since the latest Middle Miocene to the Mio-Pliocene boundary (MN 7/8–MN13

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana R. Gomez Cano

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Rodents are the most speciose group of mammals and display a great ecological diversity. Despite the greater amount of ecomorphological information compiled for extant rodent species, studies usually lack of morphological data on dentition, which has led to difficulty in directly utilizing existing ecomorphological data of extant rodents for paleoecological reconstruction because teeth are the most common or often the only micromammal fossils. Here, we infer the environmental ranges of extinct rodent genera by extracting habitat information from extant relatives and linking it to extinct taxa based on the phenogram of the cluster analysis, in which variables are derived from the principal component analysis on outline shape of the upper first molars. This phenotypic “bracketing” approach is particularly useful in the study of the fossil record of small mammals, which is mostly represented by isolated teeth. As a case study, we utilize extinct genera of murines and non-arvicoline cricetids, ranging from the Iberoccitanian latest middle Miocene to the Mio-Pliocene boundary, and compare our results thoroughly with previous paleoecological reconstructions inferred by different methods. The resultant phenogram shows a predominance of ubiquitous genera among the Miocene taxa, and the presence of a few forest specialists in the two rodent groups (Murinae and Cricetidae, along with the absence of open environment specialists in either group of rodents. This appears to be related to the absence of enduring grassland biomes in the Iberian Peninsula during the late Miocene. High consistency between our result and previous studies suggests that this phenotypic “bracketing” approach is a very useful tool.

  3. Ecomorphological characterization of murines and non-arvicoline cricetids (Rodentia) from south-western Europe since the latest Middle Miocene to the Mio-Pliocene boundary (MN 7/8–MN13)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yuri; Blanco, Fernando; Menéndez, Iris; Álvarez-Sierra, María A.; Hernández Fernández, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Rodents are the most speciose group of mammals and display a great ecological diversity. Despite the greater amount of ecomorphological information compiled for extant rodent species, studies usually lack of morphological data on dentition, which has led to difficulty in directly utilizing existing ecomorphological data of extant rodents for paleoecological reconstruction because teeth are the most common or often the only micromammal fossils. Here, we infer the environmental ranges of extinct rodent genera by extracting habitat information from extant relatives and linking it to extinct taxa based on the phenogram of the cluster analysis, in which variables are derived from the principal component analysis on outline shape of the upper first molars. This phenotypic “bracketing” approach is particularly useful in the study of the fossil record of small mammals, which is mostly represented by isolated teeth. As a case study, we utilize extinct genera of murines and non-arvicoline cricetids, ranging from the Iberoccitanian latest middle Miocene to the Mio-Pliocene boundary, and compare our results thoroughly with previous paleoecological reconstructions inferred by different methods. The resultant phenogram shows a predominance of ubiquitous genera among the Miocene taxa, and the presence of a few forest specialists in the two rodent groups (Murinae and Cricetidae), along with the absence of open environment specialists in either group of rodents. This appears to be related to the absence of enduring grassland biomes in the Iberian Peninsula during the late Miocene. High consistency between our result and previous studies suggests that this phenotypic “bracketing” approach is a very useful tool. PMID:28966888

  4. Gastrointestinal helminths (Cestoda, Chabertiidae and Heligmonellidae) of Pogonomys loriae and Pogonomys macrourus (Rodentia: Muridae) from Papua Indonesia and Papua New Guinea with the description of a new genus and two new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smales, L R

    2014-11-28

    Pieces of cestode, not indentified further, and 12 species of nematode including 1 new genus, 3 new species and 7 putative new species from the Families Chabertiidae and Heligmonellidae were collected from the digestive tracts of 16 Pogonomys loriae and 19 P. macrurous (Murinae: Hydromyini) from Papua, Indonesia and Papua New Guinea. The chabertiid Cyclodontostomum purvisi and the heligmonellid Odilia mackerrasae have been described previously from endemic murids. Hasanuddinia pogonomyos n. sp. can be distinguished from its congeners by the number of ridges in the synlophe, length of spicules and having a vagina with a dorsal diverticulum. Odilia dividua n. sp. is larger than its congeners, has a longer oesophagus, relatively shorter spicules and larger eggs. Pogonomystrongylus domaensis n. gen., n. sp. differs from all other genera in the Heligmonellidae in the characters of the synlophe, 7-10 ridges oriented sub frontally with a single left ventral ridge hypertrophied. Species richness of the nematode assemblages of P. loriae and P. macrourus are comparable to those of Abeomelomys sevia, Chiruromys vates and Coccymys rummleri when numbers of hosts examined are considered. Species composition was distinctive with 12, including the 7 putative species, of 14 species presently known only from species of Pogonomys. Similarities between the nematode fauna of endemic rodent hosts from Indonesia and Papua New Guinea were noted.

  5. INFLUÊNCIA DO CICLO LUNAR NO PADRÃO DE ATIVIDADE DE CUNICULUS PACA (RODENTIA: CUNICULIDAE EM UMA FLORESTA DE MATA ATLÂNTICA NO SUL DO BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALAN DEIVID PEREIRA

    Full Text Available RESUMO Entender o que influência o período de atividade é relevante para a compreensão de como as espécies se adaptam e persistem em seus ambientes. A influência da luz da Lua no padrão de atividade de mamíferos já foi documentada em algumas espécies. Para verificar se as fases lunares exercem influência no período atividade de Cuniculus paca, fez-se o uso de dez armadilhas fotográficas, que permaneceram ligadas por 12 meses, distribuídas ao longo de um fragmento florestal de Mata Atlântica no Sul do Brasil. Em 8.928 horas armadilhas fotográficas ligadas, obtiveram-se 96 registros de C. paca. Encontrou-se um padrão de atividade predominantemente noturno (92%, sendo que a maior quantidade de registros ocorreu em Lua Nova (40% e a menor em Lua Cheia (12%, havendo diferenças entre os picos de atividade em relação às fases da Lua. Nossos resultados demonstraram que C. paca reage negativamente a maior incidência de luz lunar, diminuindo ou alterando seu ciclo circadiano em noites de Lua cheia.

  6. Caracterización molecular y cariológica de cuatro especies del Género Proechimys (Rodentia: echimyidae, en una colonia en cautiverio en el Instituto Nacional de Salud (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita María Tamayo Arenas

    2004-07-01

    MA y 5,92 MA se aproximan al Mioceno, época en la cual se presume que Proechimys evolucionó en la Amazonia. Tres de las cuatro especies de este estudio son incluidas dentro de los grupos propuestos por Patton (1987: P. chrysaeolus, grupo trinitatus, P. canicollis, grupo canicollis (monotípico y P. oconnelli, grupo semispinosus. La forma nominal P. sp. “Barinas” no es referida por este autor.

  7. Presencia de Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Hydrochoeridae, Rodentia, Mammalia en la cuenca del río Carcarañá, Santa Fe, Argentina: Comentarios acerca de su conservación y biogeografía en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo G. Rimoldi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El carpincho (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris es el roedor actual más grande del mundo y uno de los mamíferos típico de las Provincias Fitogeográficas Pampeana y del Espinal, habitando todo el sector Este de las mismas. Estas regiones han sido categorizadas por la World Wildlife Foundation (WWF como áreas "en peligro crítico/ amenazada", y se les asigna el nivel de máxima prioridad de conservación como consecuencia de la destrucción de hábitat, la sobreexplotación, la contaminación y la introducción de especies exóticas. El carpincho presenta una preferencia marcada por los ambientes con abundancia de cuerpos de agua donde la vegetación palustre le proporciona alimento y refugio. De esta forma, tanto los cuerpos de agua como la vegetación asociada es determinante para la prevalescencia de poblaciones de carpinchos en un ambiente determinado. Para la provincia de Santa Fe los registros no son muy abundantes, registrándose hasta la actualidad unos 33 puntos de colecta/observación, la gran mayoría ubicados en el centro y norte de la provincia. El objetivo de la presente contribución es presentar nuevos registros de presencia de Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris en la cuenca del río Carcarañá (sur de la provincia de Santa Fe, y su asociación con algunas variables climático-ambientales y evaluar la distribución de esta especie. Finalmente, se discute la posible expansión o migración de este especie hacia el oeste de esta provincia y de la provincia de Buenos Aires.

  8. About rats and jackfruit trees: modeling the carrying capacity of a Brazilian Atlantic Forest spiny-rat Trinomys dimidiatus (Günther, 1877 – Rodentia, Echimyidae – population with varying jackfruit tree (Artocarpus heterophyllus L. abundances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JHF Mello

    Full Text Available We carried out a six-year study aimed at evaluating if and how a Brazilian Atlantic Forest small mammal community responded to the presence of the invasive exotic species Artocarpus heterophyllus, the jackfruit tree. In the surroundings of Vila Dois Rios, Ilha Grande, RJ, 18 grids were established, 10 where the jackfruit tree was present and eight were it was absent. Previous results indicated that the composition and abundance of this small mammal community were altered by the presence and density of A. heterophyllus. One observed effect was the increased population size of the spiny-rat Trinomys dimidiatus within the grids where the jackfruit trees were present. Therefore we decided to create a mathematical model for this species, based on the Verhulst-Pearl logistic equation. Our objectives were i to calculate the carrying capacity K based on real data of the involved species and the environment; ii propose and evaluate a mathematical model to estimate the population size of T. dimidiatus based on the monthly seed production of jackfruit tree, Artocarpus heterophyllus and iii determinate the minimum jackfruit tree seed production to maintain at least two T. dimidiatus individuals in one study grid. Our results indicated that the predicted values by the model for the carrying capacity K were significantly correlated with real data. The best fit was found considering 20~35% energy transfer efficiency between trophic levels. Within the scope of assumed premises, our model showed itself to be an adequate simulator for Trinomys dimidiatus populations where the invasive jackfruit tree is present.

  9. Trichostrongylina (Nematoda, Heligmosomoidea coparasites in Dasyprocta fuliginosa Wagler (Rodentia, Dasyproctidae from Brazil, with the re-establishment of the genus Avellaria Freitas & Lent and the description of two new species Trichostrongylina (Nematoda, Heligmosomoidea co-parasitos em Dasyprocta fuliginosa Wagler (Rodentia, Dasyproctidae do Brasil, com o restabelecimento do gênero Avellaria Freitas & Lent e a descrição de duas novas espécies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie C. Durette-Desset

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Two new tichostrongylid nematodes of the family Viannaiidae Durette-Desset & Chabaud, 1981 coparasites in Dasyprocta fuliginosa Wagler, 1832 from the State of Amazonas, Brazil, are described: Viannella trichospicula sp. nov. is differentiated from the other species of the genus by the extreme slenderness of its spicules. Avellaria intermedia sp. nov. is distinguished from the single type species Avellaria avellari Freitas & Lent, 1934, by a smaller number of cuticular ridges (17 versus 27, a higher ratio of spicule length/ body length (8% versus 5.6% and spicules with a single tip. This genus, synonymized with the genus Viannella Travassos, 1918, by Durette-Desset (1968 is re-established, the female being didelphic. It is the first record of a nematode of the family Viannaiidae in a host of the family Dasyproctidae Bonaparte, 1838.Dois novos nematóides tricostrongilídeos da família Viannaiidae Durette-Desset & Chabaud, 1981 co-parasitos em um espécime de Dasyprocta fuliginosa Wagler, 1832 do Estado do Amazonas, Brasil, são descritos: Viannella trichospicula sp. nov. distingue-se das espécies do gênero, pelos espículos extremamente delgados. Avellaria intermedia sp. nov. diferencia-se da espécie tipo e única do gênero Avellaria avellari Freitas & Lent, 1934, pelo menor número de arestas cuticulares (17 comparado a 27, pela maior relação entre o tamanho do espículo e o comprimento do corpo (8% comparado a 5,6% e espículos com extremidade única. Este gênero, que havia sido considerado sinônimo de Viannella Travassos, 1918, por Durette-Desset (1968, é restabelecido; as fêmeas são didelfas. Este é o primeiro registro de um nematóide da família Viannaiidae em um hospedeiro da família Dasyproctidae Bonaparte, 1838.

  10. City of Freeport, Florida, State Road 20 Water Main Installation, Final Environmental Assessment, Eglin Air Force Base, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    If contamination, drought or natural disaster, such as a hurricane, impacted one water supply, an interconnection with neighboring municipalities...Scientific Name Sandhills Ecological Association Longleaf Pine Pinus palustris Red-cockaded Woodpecker Picoides borealis Turkey Oak Quercus laevis...canadensis Flatwoods Ecological Association Longleaf Pine Pinus palustris Wood Duck Aix sponsa Runner Oak Quercus pumila Red-winged Blackbird Agelaius

  11. The Aragonian and Vallesian high-resolution micromammal succession from the Calatayud-Montalbán Basin (Aragón, Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    García-Paredes, Israel; Álvarez-Sierra, María Ángeles; Van den Hoek Ostende, Lars W.; Hernández-Ballarín, Verónica; Hordijk, Kees; López-Guerrero, Paloma; Oliver, Adriana; Peláez-Campomanes, Pablo

    We present an updated taxonomy and faunal distribution of the micromammal fossil record from the Aragonian and Lower Vallesian of the Calatayud-Montalbán Basin. The analysed record includes the orders Rodentia, Eulipotyphla, and Lagomorpha. The pattern of species turnover shows seven major faunal

  12. Evolutionary history of the thicket rats (genus Grammomys) mirrors the evolution of African forests since late Miocene

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bryja, Josef; Šumbera, R.; Kerbis Peterhans, J. C.; Aghová, Tatiana; Bryjová, Anna; Mikula, Ondřej; Nicolas, V.; Denys, C.; Verheyen, E.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 1 (2017), s. 182-194 ISSN 0305-0270 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Arvicanthini * coastal forests * late Miocene * lowland forests * mountain forests * phylogeography * Plio-Pleistocene climate changes * Rodentia * tropical Africa Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 4.248, year: 2016

  13. Isolation and characterization of microsatellites in Rattus rattus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Loiseau, A.; Rahelinirina, S.; Rahalison, L.; Konečný, Adam; Duplantier, J.-M.; Brouat, C.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 4 (2008), s. 916-918 ISSN 1755-098X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6093404 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : genetic diversity * microsatellite * Rattus rattus * Rodentia Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  14. Towards conserving regional mammalian species diversity: a case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1995-03-03

    Mar 3, 1995 ... Species richness maps were derived for the Transvaal region from two different databases, namely a primary point database based on ... of biological diversity is internationally supported, there is no agreement on the ..... example is that of the Rodentia. where greatest species diver- sity. based on survey ...

  15. Spiny mice of the Zambezian bioregion – phylogeny, biogeography and ecological differentiation within the Acomys spinosissimus complex

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petružela, Jan; Šumbera, R.; Aghová, Tatiana; Bryjová, Anna; Katakweba, A. S.; Sabuni, C. A.; Chitaukali, W. N.; Bryja, Josef

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 91, July (2018), s. 79-90 ISSN 1616-5047 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-20229S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : phylogeography * Plio-Pleistocene climate change * Rodentia * savannah * tropical Africa Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.429, year: 2016

  16. Distribution of the common hamster in the Czech Republic after 2000: retreating to optimum lowland habitats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tkadlec, Emil; Heroldová, Marta; Víšková, V.; Bednář, M.; Zejda, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 61, 3-4 (2012), s. 246-253 ISSN 0139-7893 R&D Projects: GA MZe QH72075 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Cricetus cricetus * questionnaire * Rodentia Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.494, year: 2012

  17. Reticulate Pleistocene evolution of Ethiopian rodent genus along remarkable altitudinal gradient

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bryja, Josef; Kostin, D.; Meheretu, Y.; Šumbera, R.; Bryjová, Anna; Kasso, M.; Mikula, Ondřej; Lavrenchenko, L. A.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 118, January (2018), s. 75-87 ISSN 1055-7903 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Stenocephalemys * mitochondrial introgression * Ethiopian highlands * Rodentia * ecological speciation * Great Rift Valley Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 4.419, year: 2016

  18. Spot-on Treatments of Diflubenzuron and Permethrin to Control a Guinea Pig Louse, Gliricola Porcelli (Phthiraptera: Gyropidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus (L.)) (Rodentia: Caviidae) are pets and laboratory animals. They can be infested by a chewing louse, Gliricola porcelli (Schrank) (Phthiraptera: Gyropidae), which is fairly common in some animal rearing facilities, pet stores, and on wild guinea pigs. Infestation with G....

  19. Distribution patterns of terrestrial mammals in KwaZulu-Natal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hluhluwe-Umfolozi Park, Itala Game Reserve), the numbers of mammal species recorded .... Chiroptera and Rodentia, cannot be explained by the level of sampling, and .... generated data. A count of the ...... radarida aI/sorge;. Tmiarida condY/ ...

  20. Rare, threatened and relict species in flora of SNR Zasavica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković, M.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In group of biodiversity important plant species there are 23 taxa. 20 taxa are mentioned in „Preliminary Red List of flora of Serbia and Montenegro with IUCN 2001 Conservation Statuses“ in following categories: two as critically endangered (Aldrovanda vesiculosa L. and Hottonia palustris L., four as endangered (Hippuris vulgaris L., Lindernia palustris Hartm., Ranunculus lingua L. and Urtica kioviensis Rogow., five as vulnerable (Achillea aspleniifolia Vent., Dryopteris carthusiana (Vill. H. P. Fuchs, Leucojum aestivum L. subsp. aestivum, Stratiotes aloides L. and Thelypteris palustris (Schott subsp.palustris, while 9 are with indefinite categories (CR-VU, due to data deficient (DD. Special Nature Reserve „Zasavica“ is the only habitat in Serbia for Aldrovanda vesiculosa L., which was until 2005. considered as extinct from Serbia.

  1. ORF Alignment: NC_005296 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available clase ... (GGDEF) [Rhodopseudomonas palustris CGA009] ... Length = 124 ... Query: 353 PDILWHETYACGEPTIDAQHRELFDLANVILGPEI...EMLEPARLSELVELLLTRVAEHFQY 412 ... PDILWHETYACGEPTIDAQHRELFDLANVILGPEI...EMLEPARLSELVELLLTRVAEHFQY Sbjct: 1 ... PDILWHETYACGEPTIDAQHRELFDLANVILGPEIEMLEPARLSELVELLLTRVAEHFQY 60 ... Query: 473 DRRF 476 ... DRRF Sbjct: 121 DRRF 124

  2. Variation in manuka oil lure efficacy for capturing Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scholytinae), and Cubeb oil as an alternative attractant

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Hanula; Brian Sullivan; David Wakarchuk

    2013-01-01

    Redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichoff, is an exotic species to North America vectoring a deadly vascular wilt disease of redbay [Persea borbonia (L.) Spreng], swampbay [P. palustris (Raf.) Sarg.], avocado (P. americana Mill.), and sassafras [Sassafras albidum (...

  3. ORF Alignment: NC_005296 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_005296 gi|39936477 >1kmoA 7 661 92 753 2e-72 ... emb|CAE28855.1| putative hydroxamate-type ferris... ... putative hydroxamate-type ferrisiderophore receptor ... [Rhodopseudomonas palustris CGA009] ...

  4. Soil Fungi Respond More Strongly Than Fine Roots to Elevated CO2 in a Model Regenerating Longleaf Pine-Wiregrass Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing atmospheric CO2 will have significant effects on belowground processes which will affect forest structure and function. A model regenerating longleaf pine-wiregrass community [consisting of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris), wiregrass (Aristida stricta), sand post oak (Quescus margaretta),...

  5. Bioregional Planning in Central Georgia, USA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dale, Virginia; Aldridge, Matthew; Arthur, Taryn; Baskaran, Latha; Berry, Michael; Chang, Michael; Efroymson, Rebecca; Garten, Chuck; Stewart, Catherine; Washington-Allen, Robert

    2005-01-01

    ...% of the native longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) forest remains intact. Besides the loss of species, habitats, and ecosystem services associated with longleaf pine forests, the environmental concerns of the region include air, water, and noise pollution...

  6. Formalized classification of European fen vegetation at the alliance level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterka, Tomáš; Hájek, Michal; Jiroušek, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Aims Phytosociological classification of fen vegetation (Scheuchzerio palustris-Caricetea fuscae class) differs among European countries. Here we propose a unified vegetation classification of European fens at the alliance level, provide unequivocal assignment rules for individual vegetation plot...

  7. First documented record of Holochilus brasiliensis (Desmarest, 1819 and Calomys laucha (G. Fischer, 1814 in the state of Santa Catarina, south Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Bortolotto Peters

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the richness of small mammals in the Brazilian South Region are recent and point out the need for using varied methods. This way, this paper contributes to knowledge on the fauna of small sigmodontinae rodents in Santa Catarina, including Holochilus brasiliensis and Calomys laucha in the list of species with confirmed occurrence in this state. The records of H. brasiliensis refer to Laguna (n = 2 and Timbe do Sul (n = 1. In turn, C. laucha presents 23 records from Capinzal. The entire material is represented by skull fragments from owl pellets samples collected from nests and feeding perches of the Tyto alba.

  8. Further support for a palaearctic origin of Leishmania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara F Kerr

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available The fossil record and systematics of murid rodents, reservoirs of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Palaearctic, Oriental, African, Nearctic and Neotropical, strongly support a Palaearctic origin of Leishmania. The fossil record and systematics of phlebotomine sand flies reinforce this idea. Interpretations of molecular data that place the origin of Leishmania in the Neotropical are inconsistent with the natural histories of reservoirs and vectors. The evolutionary pattern of New World rats (Sigmodontinae indicates that they may be the most important reservoirs of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis throughout their range.

  9. Las Haloragaceae de Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betancourt Gandul, Martha

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available A study of the Haloragaceae in Cuba is presented. The presence of Proserpinaca palustris, P. pectinata. Myriophyllum laxum and M. pinnatum is confirmed, and the possible extinction of M. sparsiflorum is suggestedEstudio de la familia Haloragaceae en Cuba. Se confirma la existencia de Proserpinaca palustris, P. pectinata. Myriophyllum laxum y M, pinnatum, y se plantea la posible extinción de M. sparsiflorum.

  10. Fort Bragg Old Post Historic District Landscape Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    proved to be of substantial economic value (Lefler and Powell 1973). Lon- gleaf pines ( Pinus palustris) produce higher quality pine resin/crude gum than...plants that have the same characteristics as the historic varieties; na- tive plants require relatively little upkeep, are drought tolerant, and can... Pinus palustris Longleaf Pine 1933/IDG 2009 Native Quercus alba White Oak Large Evergreen Trees 1933/IDG 2009 Native Magnolia grandiflora Southern

  11. Relating appendicular skeletal variation of sigmodontine rodents to locomotion modes in a phylogenetic context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho Coutinho, Ludmilla; Alves de Oliveira, João

    2017-10-01

    Sigmodontinae rodents constitute the second-largest subfamily among mammals. Alongside the taxonomic diversity, they are also ecologically diverse, exhibiting a wide array of locomotion modes, with semifossorial, terrestrial, semiaquatic, scansorial, arboreal, and saltatorial forms. To understand the ecomorphologic aspects that allow these rodents to display such locomotion diversity, we analyzed 35 qualitative characters of the appendicular skeleton (humerus, ulna, radius, scapula, femur, tibia, ilium, ischium and pubis) in 795 specimens belonging to 64 species, 34 genera and 10 tribes, representing all locomotion modes assigned to this subfamily. We performed a statistical analysis based upon the coefficient of trait differentiation to test the congruence of character states and the different locomotion modes. We also mapped characters states in a molecular phylogeny in order to reconstruct ancestral states and to evaluate how appendicular characters evolved within main lineages of Sigmodontinae radiation under a phylogenetic framework. The statistical analyses revealed six characters related to specific locomotion modes, except terrestrial. The mapping and parsimony ancestral states reconstruction identified two characters with phylogenetical signal and eight characters that are exclusively or more frequently recorded in certain modes of locomotion, four of them also detected by the statistical analysis. Notwithstanding the documented morphological variation, few changes characterize the transition to each of the locomotion modes, at least regarding the appendicular skeleton. This finding corroborates previous results that showed that sigmodontines exhibit an all-purpose appendicular morphology that allows them to use and explore a great variety of habitats. © 2017 Anatomical Society.

  12. Characteristics of purple nonsulfur bacteria grown under Stevia residue extractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J; Feng, Y; Wang, Y; Lin, X

    2013-11-01

    As a consequence of the large-scale cultivation of Stevia plants, releases of plant residues, the byproduct after sweetener extraction, to the environment are inevitable. Stevia residue and its effluent after batching up contain large amounts of organic matters with small molecular weight, which therefore are a potential pollution source. Meanwhile, they are favourite substrates for micro-organism growths. This investigation was aimed to utilize the simulated effluent of Stevia residue to enrich the representative purple nonsulfur bacterium (PNSB), Rhodopseudomonas palustris (Rps. palustris), which has important economic values. The growth profile and quality of Rps. palustris were characterized by spectrophotometry, compared to those grown in common PNSB mineral synthetic medium. Our results revealed that the simulated effluent of Stevia residue not only stimulated Rps. palustris growth to a greater extent, but also increased its physiologically active cytochrome concentrations and excreted indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) content. This variation in phenotype of Rps. palustris could result from the shift in its genotype, further revealed by the repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) fingerprinting analysis. Our results showed that the effluent of Stevia residue was a promising substrate for microbial growth. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. Micromamiferos andinos holocenicos del sitio arqueologico Inca Cueva 5, Ju Juy, Argentina: tafonomia, zoogeografia y reconstruccion paleoambiental

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz, P. E.; Teta, P.

    2002-01-01

    A micromammal archaeological sequence (2120 f 120 to 780 f 100 years BP) from Inca Cueva 5 site (23" 05' S - 65" 27' W; 3700 m.a.s.l., Jujuy Province, Argentina) was studied. The following mammalian taxa were recorded: Order Didelphimorphia, Family Didelphidae, Thylamys cf. T. pallidior; Order Rodentia, Family Muridae, Akodon cf. A. albiventer, Andinomys edax, Auliscomys sublimis, Calomys lepidus, Neotomys ebriosus, Phyllotis sp.; Family Caviidae, Cavia cf. C. tschudii, Galea musteloides; Fam...

  14. Evolution of recombination in eutherian mammals: insights into mechanisms that affect recombination rates and crossover interference

    OpenAIRE

    Segura, Joana; Ferretti, Luca; Ramos-Onsins, Sebastián; Capilla, Laia; Farré, Marta; Reis, Fernanda; Oliver-Bonet, Maria; Fernández-Bellón, Hugo; Garcia, Francisca; Garcia-Caldés, Montserrat; Robinson, Terence J.; Ruiz-Herrera, Aurora

    2013-01-01

    Recombination allows faithful chromosomal segregation during meiosis and contributes to the production of new heritable allelic variants that are essential for the maintenance of genetic diversity. Therefore, an appreciation of how this variation is created and maintained is of critical importance to our understanding of biodiversity and evolutionary change. Here, we analysed the recombination features from species representing the major eutherian taxonomic groups Afrotheria, Rodentia, Primat...

  15. Ontogenesis peculiarities species of genus Rorippa Scopoli (Cruciferae in the subzone of the southern taiga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Shabalkina

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Latent, pregenerative and generative periods in the ontogeny of Rorippa amphibia (L. Bess., R. palustris (L. Bess. and R. ×anceps (Wahlenb. Reichenb. were described. Skipping of a postgenerative stage, and some of ontogenetic states demonstrates the dynamic multiplicity of individual development; while the combination of seed and vegetative reproductions – multiplicity of the ways of reproduction and generation. The ontogeny of R. palustris individuals corresponds to A-type, R. amphibia and R. ×anceps – to G-type, and R. ×anceps – to D-type.

  16. Molecular Regulation of Photosynthetic Carbon Dioxide Fixation in Nonsulfur Purple Bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabita, Fred Robert [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The overall objective of this project is to determine the mechanism by which a transcriptional activator protein affects CO2 fixation (cbb) gene expression in nonsulfur purple photosynthetic bacteria, with special emphasis to Rhodobacter sphaeroides and with comparison to Rhodopseudomonas palustris. These studies culminated in several publications which indicated that additional regulators interact with the master regulator CbbR in both R. sphaeroides and R. palustris. In addition, the interactive control of the carbon and nitrogen assimilatory pathways was studied and unique regulatory signals were discovered.

  17. Parasitic arthropods of some wild rodents from Juréia-Itatins Ecological Station, State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bossi David Eduardo Paolinetti

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of the associations between three species of rodents in the Atlantic forest and their parasitic arthropods was undertaken at the Juréia-Itatins Ecological Station, located in the State of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, from March 1989 to February 1990. Individuals of three species, Oryzomys russatus, Proechimys iheringi and Nectomys squamipes were captured and examined for ectoparasites. Eleven species of parasitic arthropods were found, including four species of insects and seven of Acari. Parasitism intensity, phenology, and rainfall were positively correlated with the abundance of the ectoparasites and their hosts. The most abundant host was O. russatus (Muridae: Sigmodontinae, and the most common parasite on it was the laelapid mite Gigantolaelaps oudemansi. The cuterebrid Metacuterebra apicalis caused myiasis in O. russatus. A mutualistic association between the staphylinid beetle Amblyopinus sp. and its host P. iheringi (Echimyidae was observed. The few N. squamipes captured had small numbers of ectoparasites.

  18. Appendix 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blyth's Reed Warbler x Marsh Warbler hybrid Acrocephalus dumetorum x A. palustris ............1. Number of .... in May 2009 when the finding date was given as “in December. 2005” ...... worn, brown wing feathers would not be replaced until the ...

  19. A whole stand growth and yield system for young longleaf pine plantations in Southwest Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Brooks; Steven B. Jack

    2006-01-01

    A whole stand growth and yield system for planted longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) was developed from permanent plot data collected annually over an 8 year period. The dataset consists of 12 intensively-managed longleaf pine plantations that are located in Lee, Worth, Mitchell, and Baker counties in southwest Georgia. Stand survival, dominant...

  20. 7 CFR 457.170 - Cultivated wild rice crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... reinsured policies: Cultivated Wild Rice Crop Provisions. 1. Definitions Approved laboratory. A testing.... Cultivated Wild Rice. A member of the grass family Zizania Palustris L., adapted for growing in man-made... for the crop year. Planted acreage. In addition to the definition contained in the Basic Provisions...

  1. Evaluation of Fungal Deterioration in Liquidambar orientalis Mill. heartwood by FT-IR and light microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nural Yilgor; Dilek Dogu; Roderquita Moore; Evren Terzi; S. Nami Kartal

    2013-01-01

    The chemical and morphological changes in heartwood specimens of Liquidambar orientalis Mill. caused by the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor and the brown-rot fungi Tyromyces palustris and Gloeophyllum trabeum were studied by wet chemistry, FT-IR, GC-MS analyses, and photo-...

  2. Final Environmental Assessment for Aircraft Maintenance Operations Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    lies within the Southern Mixed Forest Province that is typically characterized by forests of broadleaf deciduous and needleleaf evergreen trees ...virginiana), pin oak (Q. palustris), and southern magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora). Small tree and shrub species include the eastern red cedar, eastern ...this burden estimate or any other aspect of this collection of information, including suggestions for reducing this burden, to Washington

  3. Introducing close-range photogrammetry for characterizing forest understory plant diversity and surface fuel structure at fine scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin C. Bright; E. Louise Loudermilk; Scott M. Pokswinski; Andrew T. Hudak; Joseph J. O' Brien

    2016-01-01

    Methods characterizing fine-scale fuels and plant diversity can advance understanding of plant-fire interactions across scales and help in efforts to monitor important ecosystems such as longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) forests of the southeastern United States. Here, we evaluate the utility of close-range photogrammetry for measuring fuels and plant...

  4. Long-term effects of biennial prescribed fires on the growth of longleaf pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    William D. Boyer

    2000-01-01

    The effects of several hardwood control treatments on understory succession and overstory growth have been followed for 22 years on a Coastal Plain site in southwest Alabama. The study began in 1973, with 12 treatment combinations in 14-year-old naturally established longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) thinned to about 1,236 stems per hectare (500 stems...

  5. First report of laurel wilt, caused by Raffaelea lauricola, on sassafras (Sassafras albidum) in Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.A. Bates; Stephen Fraedrich; T.C. Harrington; R.S. Cameron; R.D. Menard; Susan Best

    2013-01-01

    Laurel wilt, caused by Raffaelea lauricola, a fungal symbiont of the redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, is responsible for extensive mortality of native redbays (Persea borbonia and P. Palustris) in the coastal plains of the southeastern United States. The wilt also affect the more...

  6. Typhaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Backer, C.A.

    1948-01-01

    Perennial, palustrial or aquatic herbs with a creeping rhizome; stems erect, solid, submerged at the base. Leaves biseriate, partly radical or subradical, partly cauline, lower congested, higher remote, elongate-linear, rather thick and spongy, bluntmargined; their sheathing bases excreting slime on

  7. Restoration of the Native Plant Communities in Longleaf Pine Landscapes on the Kisatchie National Forest, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    James D. Haywood; Alton Martin; Finis L. Harris; Michael L. Elliott-Smith

    1998-01-01

    In January 1993, the Kisatchie National Forest and Southern Research Station began monitoring the effects of various management practices on overstory and midstory trees, shrubs, and understory woody and herbaceous vegetation in several longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) stands. The monitoring of these stands is part of several Ecosystem...

  8. Disturbance from southern pine beetle, suppression, and wildfire affects vegetation composition in central Louisiana: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.W. Coleman; Alton Martin; J.R. Meeker

    2010-01-01

    We assessed plant composition and forest succession following tree mortality from infestation of southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis), associated suppression, and wildfire in two forest types, pine (Pinus spp.) with mixed hardwood and longleaf pine (P. palustris). In this case study, vegetation was...

  9. Protecting and restoring longleaf pine forests on the Kisatchie National Forest in Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    James D. Haywood; Michael Elliot-Smith; Finis Harris; Alton Martin

    2000-01-01

    Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) forests once constituted a major ecosystem in the Southern United States stretching from southeastern Virginia south to central Florida and west into East Texas. These forests covered a wide range of site conditions, from wet pine flatwoods to dry mountain slopes. Intensive exploitation reduced the extent of old-...

  10. Ecological restoration of an old-growth longleaf pine stand utilizing prescribed fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Morgan Varner; John S. Kush; Ralph S. Meldahl

    2000-01-01

    Ecological restoration using prescribed fire has been underway for 3 years in an uncut, old-growth longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) stand located in south Alabama. The longleaf pine ecosystem requires frequent (once every 1-10 years) surface fire to prevent succesion to later several stages. Before this study began, this stand had not burned in >...

  11. Fungicide sensitivity in the wild rice pathogen Bipolaris oryzae

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years the occurrence of fungal brown spot, caused by Bipolaris oryzae has increased in cultivated wild rice (Zizania palustris) paddies in spite of the use of fungicides. To implement an efficient integrated disease management system, we are exploring whether field isolates have developed ...

  12. Phylogeny and biogeography of North-American wild rice (Zizania L.Poaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The wild-rice genus Zizania includes four species disjunctly distributed in eastern Asia and North America, with three species (Z. aquatica, Z. palustris, and Z. texana) in North America and one (Z. latifolia) in eastern Asia. The phylogeny and biogeography of Zizania were explored using sequences o...

  13. Site Index Curves for Direct-Seeded Loblolly and Longleaf Pines in Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quang V. Cao; V. Clark Baldwin; Richard E. Lohrey

    1995-01-01

    Site index equations were developed for direct-seeded loblollypine (Pinus taeda L.) and longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) based on data from 148 and 75 permanent plots, respectively. These plots varied from 0.053 to 0.119 ac in size, and were established in broadcast, row, and spot seeded stands throughout Louisiana. The Bailey and Clutter (1974) model was...

  14. Analyzing the complexity of cone production in longleaf pine by multiscale entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiongwen Chen; Qinfeng Guo; Dale G. Brockway

    2016-01-01

    The longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) forests are important ecosystems in the southeastern USA because of their ecological and economic value. Since European settlement, longleaf pine ecosystems have dramatically declined in extent, to the degree that they are now listed as endangered ecosystems. Its sporadic seed production, which...

  15. Fire in longleaf pine stand management: an economic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney L. Busby; Donald G. Hodges

    1999-01-01

    A simulation analysis of the economics of using prescribed fire as a forest management tool in the management of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) plantations was conducted. A management regime using frequent prescribed fire was compared to management regimes involving fertilization and chemical release, chemical control, and mechanical control. Determining the...

  16. Air lateral root pruning affects longleaf pine seedling root system morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi-Jean Susana Sung; Dave Haywood

    2016-01-01

    Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) seedlings were cultured with air lateral root pruning (side-vented containers, VT) or without (solid-walled containers, SW). Seedling root system morphology and growth were assessed before planting and 8 and 14 months after planting. Although VT seedlings had greater root collar diameter than the SW before planting,...

  17. Understory fuel variation at the Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge: a description of chemical and physical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evelyn S. Wenk; G. Geoff Wang; Joan L. Walker

    2013-01-01

    Upland forest in the Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge is characterized by a longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) canopy with a variable understory and ground-layer species composition. The system was historically maintained by fire and has been managed with prescribed fire in recent decades. A management goal is to reduce turkey oak (...

  18. Early growth of planted longleaf pine seedlings in relation to light, soil moisture, and soil temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin O. Knapp; G. Geoff Wang; Joan L. Walker

    2006-01-01

    Drastic reductions in longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) acreage have led to an increased focus on regeneration of the longleaf pine ecosystem. Many areas require artificial regeneration for establishment, and site preparation techniques may be implemented to increase regeneration success. The objectives of this study were to determine differences...

  19. Using existing growth models to predict RCW habitat development following site preparation: pitfalls of the process and potential growth response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin O. Knapp; Joan L. Walker

    2013-01-01

    Land managers throughout the Southeast are interested in restoring the longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) ecosystem, due in part to its value as habitat for the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis). In 2003, we established a study at Camp Lejeune, NC, to determine the effects of common site preparation...

  20. The health of loblolly pine stands at Fort Benning, GA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soung-Ryoul Ryu; G. Geoff Wang; Joan L. Walker

    2013-01-01

    Approximately two-thirds of the red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) (RCW) groups at Fort Benning, GA, depend on loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) stands for nesting or foraging. However, loblolly pine stands are suspected to decline. Forest managers want to replace loblolly pine with longleaf pine (P. palustris...

  1. Silvicultural treatments for converting loblolly pine to longleaf pine dominance: Effects on planted longleaf pine seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huifeng Hu; G.Geoff Wang; Joan L. Walker; Benjamin O. Knapp

    2012-01-01

    A field study was installed to test silvicultural treatments for establishing longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill) in loblolly pine (P. taeda L.) stands. Harvesting was used to create seven canopy treatments, four with uniformly distributed canopies at different residual basal areas [Control (16.2 m2/ha),...

  2. Effects of canopy treatments on early growth of planted longleaf pine seedlings and ground vegetation in North Carolina: a preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huifeng Hu; Benjamin O. Knapp; G. Geoff Wang; Joan L. Walker

    2013-01-01

    We installed a field experiment to support the development of protocols to restore longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) to existing mature loblolly pine (P. taeda L.) stands at Camp Lejeune, NC. Seven canopy treatments included four uniform and three gap treatments. The four uniform treatments were defined by target residual basal...

  3. Silvicultural treatments for converting loblolly pine to longleaf pine dominance: Effects on resource availability and their relationships with planted longleaf pine seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huifeng Hu; G.Geoff Wang; Joan L. Walker; Benjamin O. Knapp

    2012-01-01

    Throughout the southeastern United States, land managers are currently interested in converting loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantations to species rich longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) ecosystems. In a 3-year study on moderately well- to well-drained soils of the Lower Coastal Plain in North Carolina, we examined the...

  4. Effects of spring prescribed fire on short-term, leaf-level photosynthesis and water use efficiency in longleaf pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    John K. Jackson; Dylan N. Dillaway; Michael C. Tyree; Mary Anne Sword Sayer

    2015-01-01

    Fire is a natural and important environmental disturbance influencing the structure, function, and composition of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) ecosystems. However, recovery of young pines to leaf scorch may involve changes in leaf physiology, which could influence leaf water-use efficiency (WUE). This work is part of a larger seasonal...

  5. Measured and modelled leaf and stand-scale productivity across a soil moisture gradient and a severe drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, J K; Williams, M; Starr, G; McGee, J; Mitchell, R J

    2013-02-01

    Environmental controls on carbon dynamics operate at a range of interacting scales from the leaf to landscape. The key questions of this study addressed the influence of water and nitrogen (N) availability on Pinus palustris (Mill.) physiology and primary productivity across leaf and canopy scales, linking the soil-plant-atmosphere (SPA) model to leaf and stand-scale flux and leaf trait/canopy data. We present previously unreported ecophysiological parameters (e.g. V(cmax) and J(max)) for P. palustris and the first modelled estimates of its annual gross primary productivity (GPP) across xeric and mesic sites and under extreme drought. Annual mesic site P. palustris GPP was ∼23% greater than at the xeric site. However, at the leaf level, xeric trees had higher net photosynthetic rates, and water and light use efficiency. At the canopy scale, GPP was limited by light interception (canopy level), but co-limited by nitrogen and water at the leaf level. Contrary to expectations, the impacts of an intense growing season drought were greater at the mesic site. Modelling indicated a 10% greater decrease in mesic GPP compared with the xeric site. Xeric P. palustris trees exhibited drought-tolerant behaviour that contrasted with mesic trees' drought-avoidance behaviour. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. 75 FR 31387 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Mississippi...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    ...-- historically forest dominated by longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) --and isolated temporary wetland breeding... frequency and duration of severe storms and droughts (McLauglin et al. 2002, p. 6074; Golladay et al. 2004, p. 504; Seager et al. 2009, p. 5043). During a period of drought from 2004 to 2007, rainfall during...

  7. Preliminary Feasibility Report (Stage 2), Review of Reports on Lorain Harbor, Ohio. Volume 2. Appendices. Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-01

    casts for iron ore within the GL/SLS region. A recent downturn in the economic health of the domestic steel industry has probably deferred any major...emergents: Swamp rose mallow Hibiscus palustris Nettle Urtica sp. Nightshade Solanum dulcamara Hedge bindweed Convolvulus sepium Peppermint Mentha arvensis

  8. Chesapeake Bay Low Freshwater Inflow Study. Biota Assessment. Phase I. Appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    Resources Coastal Resources Power Plant Siting Maryland Geological Survey Maryland Environmental Health Administration university of Maryland Marine...are very common: Acorus calamus Polygonum spp. Hibiscus palustris Pontederia cordata Leersia spp. Sagittaria latifolia Nuphar leiteum Typha... Hibiscus ) penetrate to mesohaline salinities. In general, the fresh water marsh associations are limited to areas upstream of 3 - 50Xsalinity

  9. Individual tree diameter, height, and volume functions for longleaf pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlos A. Gonzalez-Benecke; Salvador A. Gezan; Timothy A. Martin; Wendell P. Cropper; Lisa J. Samuelson; Daniel J. Leduc

    2014-01-01

    Currently, little information is available to estimate individual tree attributes for longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.), an important tree species of the southeastern United States. The majority of available models are local, relying on stem diameter outside bark at breast height (dbh, cm) and not including stand-level parameters. We developed...

  10. Environmental Impact Study of the Northern Section of the Upper Mississippi River, St. Croix River Pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-11-01

    Poa palustris Fowl meadow-grass P Poa pratensis Blue grass Setaria viridis Green foxtail P P P P D Setaria sp. Bristly foxtail P Spartina pectinata...Juneberry) Crataegus spp. (Thorn-Apple) Fragaria vesca (Wild Strawberry) Geum canadense (White Avens) Geum laciniatum (Avens) Geum triflorum (Three

  11. A decision tree approach using silvics to guide planning for forest restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharon M. Hermann; John S. Kush; John C. Gilbert

    2013-01-01

    We created a decision tree based on silvics of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) and historical descriptions to develop approaches for restoration management at Horseshoe Bend National Military Park located in central Alabama. A National Park Service goal is to promote structure and composition of a forest that likely surrounded the 1814 battlefield....

  12. Are we over-managing longleaf pine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    John S. Kush; Rebecca J. Barlow; John C. Gilbert

    2012-01-01

    Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) is not loblolly (Pinus taeda L.) or slash pine (Pinus elliottii L.). There is the need for a paradigmatic shift in our thinking about longleaf pine. All too often we think of longleaf as an intolerant species, slow-grower, difficult to regenerate, and yet it dominated the pre...

  13. Analysis of seasonal, diurnal, and noctural growth patterns of young longleaf pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    John C. Gilbert; Ralph S. Meldahl; John S. Kush; William D. Boyer

    2006-01-01

    Forty longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) trees initially ranging from 1 to 1.5 m in height were measured on the Escambia Experimental Forest from 1969 through 1980. The trees were evenly divided between two soil types. From 1969 through 1970, height and diameter measurements were recorded one to four times weekly during the growing seasons and...

  14. What 45 years of RLGS data has to say about longleaf pine mortality - not much

    Science.gov (United States)

    John S. Kush; John C. Gilbert; Rebecca J. Barlow

    2015-01-01

    The original longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) forest was self-perpetuating where seedlings always had to be present. It reproduced itself in openings in the overstory where dense young stands developed. These openings would range from a few tenths of an acre to large openings of several thousand acres. Regardless of the event size, longleaf...

  15. Overhead shading and growth of young longleaf pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    John C. Gilbert; John S. Kush; Ralph S. Meldahl; William D. Boyer; Dean H. Gjerstad

    2014-01-01

    A study to determine the effects of environmental conditions on the growth of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) was initiated in 1969 on the Escambia Experimental Forest near Brewton, Alabama, USA. This study sample consisted of forty young naturally regenerated, even aged longleaf pine seedlings evenly divided between two soil types. At the beginning of the study...

  16. Spatial analysis of longleaf pine stand dynamics after 60 years of management

    Science.gov (United States)

    John C. Gilbert; John S. Kush; Rebecca J. Barlow

    2012-01-01

    There are still many questions and misconceptions about the stand dynamics of naturally-regenerated longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.). Since 1948, the “Farm Forty,” a forty-acre tract located on the USDA Forest Service Escambia Experimental Forest near Brewton, Alabama, has been managed to create high quality wood products, to successfully...

  17. Prescribed fire effects in a longleaf pine ecosystem--are winter fires working?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca J. Barlow; John S. Kush; John C. Gilbert; Sharon M. Hermann

    2015-01-01

    Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) ecosystems once dominated 60 to 90 million acres and supported one of the most diverse floras in North America. It is well-known that longleaf pine ecosystems must burn frequently to maintain natural structure and function. This vegetation type ranks as one of the most fire-dependent in the country and must...

  18. Impact of fire in two old-growth montane longleaf pine stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    John S. Kush; John C. Gilbert; Crystal Lupo; Na Zhou; Becky Barlow

    2013-01-01

    The structure of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) forests of the Southeastern United States Coastal Plains has been the focus of numerous studies. By comparison, the forests in the mountains of Alabama and Georgia are not well understood. Less than 1 percent of longleaf pine stands found in the montane portion of longleaf’s range are considered...

  19. Longleaf Pine: An Updated Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    John S. Kush; Ralph S. Meldahl; William D. Boyer; Charles K. McMahon

    1996-01-01

    The longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) forest figured prominently in the cultural and economic development of the South. What was once one of the most extensive forest ecosystems in North America has now become critically endangered (6). At the time of European settlement, this ecosystem dominated as much as 92 million acres throughout the...

  20. WATER-USE ALONG A HYDROLOGICAL GRADIENT IN CENTRAL FLORIDA: A TALE OF TWO PINUS SPECIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although central Florida is relatively flat, the distribution of species on the landscape is controlled by subtle changes in elevation. Along a four-meter elevation gradient, xeric sandhill vegetation dominated by Pinus palustris (Longleaf pine) gives way to mesic pine flatwoods...

  1. Surfing the Koehler Curve: revisiting a method for the identification of longleaf pine stumps and logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas L. Eberhardt; Philip M. Sheridan; Karen G. Reed

    2009-01-01

    Measurements of pith and second growth ring diameters were used by Koehler in 1932 to separate longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) timbers from those of several southern pines (e.g., loblolly, shortleaf). In the current study, measurements were taken from plantation-grown longleaf, loblolly and shortleaf pine trees, as well as old growth longleaf pine, lightwood, and...

  2. The quest for methods to identify longleaf pine stump relicts in Southeastern Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas L. Eberhardt; Philip M. Sheridan; Chi-Leung So; Arvind A.R. Bhuta; Karen G. Reed

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of lightwood and turpentine stumps in southeastern Virginia raised questions about the true historical range for longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.). Several investigative studies were therefore carried out to develop a method to determine the taxa of these relicts. Chemical approaches included the use of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy coupled with...

  3. Revivification of a method for identifying longleaf pine timber and its application to southern pine relicts in southeastern Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas L. Eberhardt; Philip M. Sheridan; Arvind A.R. Bhuta

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) cannot be distinguished from the other southern pines based on wood anatomy alone. A method that involves measuring pith and second annual ring diameters, reported by Arthur Koehler in 1932 (The Southern Lumberman, 145: 36–37), was revisited as an option for identifying longleaf pine timbers and stumps. Cross-section...

  4. The influence of canopy, sky condition, and solar angle on light quality in a longleaf pine woodland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen D. Pecot; Stephen B. Horsley; Michael A. Battaglia; Robert J. Mitchell

    2005-01-01

    Light transmittance estimates under open, heterogeneous woodland canopies such as those of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) forests report high spatial and temporal variation in the quantity of the light environment. In addition, light quality, that is, the ratio of red to far-red light (R:FR), regulates important aspects of plant...

  5. Competitive responses of seedlings and understory plants in longleaf pine woodlands: separating canopy influences above and below ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen D. Pecot; Robert J. Mitchell; Brian J. Palik; Barry Moser; J. Kevin Hiers

    2007-01-01

    A trenching study was used to investigate above- and below-ground competition in a longleaf pine (Pinus palustris P. Mill.) woodland. Trenched and nontrenched plots were replicated in the woodland matrix, at gap edges, and in gap centers representing a range of overstory stocking. One-half of each plot received a herbicide treatment to remove the...

  6. Structure and composition of historical longleaf pine ccosystems in Mississippi, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brice B. Hanberry; Keith Coursey; John S. Kush

    2018-01-01

    Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) historically was a widespread ecosystem composed of a simple tree canopy and grasslands ground layer. After widespread loss of this ecosystem due to logging and fire exclusion, little quantitative information exists about historical structure for restoration goals. We identified composition in De Soto National Forest and Pearl River...

  7. The social and economic drivers of the southeastern forest landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Kevin McIntyre; Barrett B. McCall; David N. Wear

    2018-01-01

    The last quarter century has witnessed an unprecedented resurgence of interest in the management of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) forests, a phenomenon that has been coupled with increased understanding of the ecology, management, and restoration of these ecosystems. As interest in longleaf pine becomes more mainstream among landowners and the...

  8. Fertilizer responses of longleaf pine trees within a loblolly pine plantation: separating direct effects from competition effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter H Anderson; Kurt H. Johnsen

    2009-01-01

    Evidence is mixed on how well longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) responds to increased soil nitrogen via fertilization. We examined growth and physiological responses of volunteer longleaf pine trees within an intensive loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) fertilization experiment. Fertilizer was applied annually following thinning at age 8 years (late 1992) at rates...

  9. Financial performance of loblolly and longleaf pine plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven D. Mills; Charles T. Stiff

    2013-01-01

    The financial performance of selected management regimes for loblolly (Pinus taeda L.) and longleaf pine (P. palustris Mill.) plantations were compared for four cases, each with low- and high-site productivity levels and each evaluated using 5 and 7 percent real discount rates. In all cases, longleaf pine was considered both with...

  10. Growth and mortality of pin oak and pecan reforestation in a constructed wetland: analysis with management implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.E. Henderson; P. Botch; J. Cussimanio; D. Ryan; J. Kabrick; D. Dey

    2009-01-01

    Pin oak (Quercus palustris Muenchh.) and pecan (Carya illinoensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch) trees were planted on reforestation plots at Four Rivers Conservation Area in west-central Missouri. The study was conducted to determine survival and growth rates of the two species under different production methods and environmental variables....

  11. Ecosystem carbon density and allocation across a chronosequence of longleaf pine forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa J. Samuelson; Thomas A. Stokes; John R. Butnor; Kurt H. Johnsen; Carlos A. Gonzalez-Benecke; Timothy A. Martin; Wendell P. Cropper; Pete H. Anderson; Michael R. Ramirez; John C. Lewis

    2017-01-01

    Forests can partially offset greenhouse gas emissions and contribute to climate change mitigation, mainly through increases in live biomass. We quantified carbon (C) density in 20 managed longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) forests ranging in age from 5...

  12. ORF Alignment: NC_005296 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_005296 gi|39936538 >1u07A 13 88 186 259 1e-09 ... emb|CAE28917.1| possible energy ...transducer TonB [Rhodopseudomonas palustris CGA009] ... ref|NP_948814.1| possible energy transducer T

  13. North American Lauraceae: terpenoid emissions, relative attraction and boring preferences of redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul E. Kendra; Wayne S. Montgomery; Jerome Niogret; Grechen E. Pruett; Albert (Bud) Mayfield; Martin MacKenzie; Mark A. Deyrup; Gary R. Bauchan; Randy C. Ploetz

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The invasive redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, is the primary vector of Raffaelea lauricola, a symbiotic fungus and the etiologic agent of laurel wilt. This lethal disease has caused severe mortality of redbay (Persea borbonia) and swampbay (P. palustris) trees in the southeastern USA, threatens avocado (P. americana) production in Florida, and has...

  14. From loblolly to longleaf: fifth-year results of a longleaf pine restoration study at two ecologically distinct sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin O. Knapp; G. Geoff Wang; Joan L. Walker; Huifeng Hu

    2015-01-01

    Historical land-use and management practices in the southeastern United States have resulted in the widespread conversion of many upland sites from dominance of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) to loblolly pine (P. taeda L.) in the time following European settlement. Given the ecological, economic, and cultural...

  15. Picloram Movement in Soil Solution and Streamflow from a Coastal Plain Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerry L. Michael; D.G. Neary; M.J.M. Wells

    1989-01-01

    Picloram (4-amino-3,5,6-trichloropicolinic acid) was aerially applied to P longleaf pine (Pinus palustris L.) site in the upper constnl plain of Alabama to control kudzu [Purraria lobota (Willd.) Ohwi]. Pellets (10% a.i.) were spread at the rate of 56 kg ha-1 on loamy sand Typic Knnhspludult soils....

  16. Korte mededeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rensen-Bronkhorst, R.; Spronk, J.

    1983-01-01

    Ludwigia palustris (L.) Elliot weer in Noord-Brabant gevonden. Geïnspireerd door leuke plantevondsten op de ijsbaan van Schijndel werd op 17 augustus 1983 door de plantenwerkgroep van de KNNV-afdeling Eindhoven een bezoek gebracht aan de Nuenense ijsbaan. Door de zeer droge zomer was het terreintje

  17. Cavity size and copper root pruning affect production and establishment of container-grown longleaf pine seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marry Anne Sword Sayer; James D. Haywood; Shi-Jean Susana Sung

    2009-01-01

    With six container types, we tested the effects of cavity size (i.e., 60, 93, and 170 ml) and copper root pruning on the root system development of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) seedlings grown in a greenhouse. We then evaluated root egress during a root growth potential test and assessed seedling morphology and root system development 1 year after planting in...

  18. The role of large container seedlings in afforesting oaks in bottomlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel C. Dey; John M. Kabrick; Michael Gold

    2006-01-01

    We planted large container (RPM®) and 1-0 bareroot seedlings of pin oak (Quercus palustris Muenchh.) and swamp white oak (Q. bicolor Willd.) in crop fields in the Missouri River floodplain. We also evaluated the benefits of soil mounding and a grass (Agrostis gigantea Roth) cover crop. RPM®) oak seedlings had significantly greater...

  19. Planning for an uncertain future: Restoration to mitigate water scarcity and sustain carbon sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven T. Brantley; James M. Vose; David N. Wear; Larry Band

    2018-01-01

    The desired future conditions of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) can be described by ecosystem structural characteristics as well as by the provision of ecosystem services. Although the desired structural characteristics of restored longleaf pine ecosystems have been described at length, these characteristics deserve a brief review here because...

  20. Arthropod density and biomass in longleaf pines: effects of pine age and hardwood midstory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard N. Conner; Christopher S. Collins; Daniel Saenz; Toni Trees; Richard R. Schaefer; D. Craig Rudolph

    2004-01-01

    During a 2-year study we examined arthropod communities (density and biomass) on longleaf pines (Pinus palustris) in eastern Texas during spring, summer, and winter on trees in 3 age classes: 40-50, 60-70, and 130-1 50 years, as a potential food source for the red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis). We also examined arthropod...

  1. Ground-dwelling arthropod association with coarse woody debris following long-term dormant season prescribed burning in the longleaf pine flatwoods of North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    James L Hanula; Dale Wade; Joseph O' Brien; Susan Loeb

    2009-01-01

    A 5-year study of long-term (40 years) study plots was conducted on the Osceola National Forest in northern Florida to determine how dormant-season fire frequency (annual, biennial, quadrennial, or unburned) affects ground-dwelling macroarthropod use of coarse woody debris in longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) forests. Pitfall traps were used to sample arthropods...

  2. Thickness and roughness measurements for air-dried longleaf pine bark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas L. Eberhardt

    2015-01-01

    Bark thicknesses for longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) were investigated using disks collected from trees harvested on a 70-year-old plantation. Maximum inner bark thickness was relatively constant along the tree bole whereas maximum outer bark thickness showed a definite decrease from the base of the tree to the top. The minimum whole bark thickness followed the...

  3. Longleaf pine site response to repeated fertilization and forest floor removal by raking and prescribed burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim Ludovici; Robert Eaton; Stanley Zarnoch

    2018-01-01

    Removal of forest floor litter by pine needle raking and prescribed burning is a common practice in longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) stands on Coastal Plain sites in the Southeastern United States. Repeated removal of litter by raking and the loss of surface organic matter from controlled burns can affect the...

  4. ORF Alignment: NC_005296 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_005296 gi|39935198 >1u07A 9 88 204 283 1e-12 ... emb|CAE27570.1| possible energy t...ransducer TonB, C-terminal region ... [Rhodopseudomonas palustris CGA009] ref|NP_947474.1| ... possible energy

  5. ORF Alignment: NC_002939 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_002939 gi|39995137 >1u07A 13 88 186 259 1e-09 ... emb|CAE28917.1| possible energy ...transducer TonB [Rhodopseudomonas palustris CGA009] ... ref|NP_948814.1| possible energy transducer T

  6. ORF Alignment: NC_002939 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_002939 gi|39996799 >1u07A 9 88 204 283 1e-12 ... emb|CAE27570.1| possible energy t...ransducer TonB, C-terminal region ... [Rhodopseudomonas palustris CGA009] ref|NP_947474.1| ... possible energy

  7. ORF Alignment: NC_002678 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_002678 gi|13471241 >1u07A 13 88 186 259 1e-09 ... emb|CAE28917.1| possible energy ...transducer TonB [Rhodopseudomonas palustris ... CGA009] ref|NP_948814.1| possible energy transducer ...

  8. ORF Alignment: NC_004463 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_004463 gi|27379019 >1u07A 13 88 186 259 1e-09 ... emb|CAE28917.1| possible energy ...transducer TonB [Rhodopseudomonas palustris CGA009] ... ref|NP_948814.1| possible energy transducer T

  9. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. Anurag Kumar Mishra. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 27 Issue 3 June 2002 pp 251-259 Articles. Cloning and sequencing of complete -crystallin cDNA from embryonic lens of Crocodylus palustris · Raman Agrawal Reena Chandrashekhar Anurag Kumar Mishra ...

  10. On the number of genes controlling the grass stage in longleaf pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Dana Nelson; C. Weng; Thomas L. Kubisiak; M. Stine; C.L. Brown

    2003-01-01

    The grass stage is an inherent and distinctive developmental trait of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris), in which height growth in the first few years after germination is suppressed. In operational forestry practice the grass stage extends for nvo to several years and often plays a role in planting failures and decisions to plant alternative species....

  11. ORF Alignment: NC_005296 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_005296 gi|39933548 >1v7zA 10 254 14 256 2e-44 ... emb|CAE25915.1| putative creatin...e amidohydrolase [Rhodopseudomonas palustris ... CGA009] ref|NP_945824.1| putative creatine ...

  12. Insect Pollinators of Three Rare Plants in a Florida Longleaf Pine Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theresa Pitts-Singer; James L. Hanula; Joan L. Walker

    2002-01-01

    As a result of human activity, longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Miller) forests in the southern United States have been lost or drastically altered. Many of the plant species that historically occupied those forests now persist only as remnants and are classified as threatened or endangered. In order to safeguard such species, a better understanding of...

  13. Influence of herbicides and felling, fertilization, and prescribed fire on longleaf pine growth and understory vegetation through ten growing seasons and the outcome of an ensuing wildfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    James D. Haywood

    2011-01-01

    Restoring longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) over much of its original range requires artificial regeneration. In central Louisiana, USA, two fertilization levels - No (NF) or Yes (F-36 kg/ha N and 40 kg/ha P) in combination with three vegetation treatments - Check, four prescribed fires (PF), or multi-year vegetation control by herbicidal and mechanical means (IVM...

  14. Preliminary Guide to the Onsite Identification and Delineation of the Wetlands of the South Atlantic United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    shield) Ceratophyilum demersum (Coontail) Myriophyllum spp. (Watermilfoil) Nelumbo lutea ( American lotus) Nuphar luteum (Spatterdock) Nymphaea odorata...Overcup oak) Quercus palustris (Pin oak) Quercus phelios (Willow oak) Ulmus americana ( American elm) UlmuS rubra (Slippery elm) c. Atlantic White...var. biflora (Swamp black gum) Persea borbonia (Red bay) Pinus serotina (Pond pine) Smilax laurifolia (Bamboo vine) Sphagnum spp. (Sphagnum moss

  15. Feasibility Report and Environmental Impact Statement for Navigation Improvements at Bayou La Batre, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-12

    and plant corn. When coastal Alabama was opened to British and American settlers; fishing, livestock and, later, resort hotels became the important...bay (Magnolia virginiana), swamp bay ( Persea palustris), water oak (Quercus nigra), and sweet gum (Liquidambar styraciflua). Bald cypress (Taxodium

  16. Regional Guidebook for Applying the Hydrogeomorphic Approach to Assessing the Functions of Headwater Slope Wetlands on the Mississippi and Alabama Coastal Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    sourwood Bignonia capreolata crossvine Panicum virgatum switchgrass Callicarpa americana American beautyberry Persea borbonia redbay Calystegia sepium...sweetbay (Magnolia virginiana), loblolly-bay (Gordonia lasianthus), redbay ( Persea borbonia), and swamp bay ( Persea palustris) make up a significant...com- munity model. The Society of American Foresters (Eyre 1980) recognizes a “Sweetbay- Swamp Tupelo (Nyssa sylvatica var. biflora)-Redbay” forest

  17. Seed Bank Viability in Disturbed Longleaf Pine Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan Cohen; Richard Braham; Felipe Sanchez

    2004-01-01

    Some of the most species-rich areas and highest concentrations of threatened and endangered species in the southeastern United States are found in wet savanna and flatwood longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) communities. Where intensive forestry practices have eliminated much of the natural understory of the longleaf ecosystem, the potential for...

  18. Impacts of pine species, stump removal, cultivation, and fertilization on soil properties half a century after planting

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Butnor; Kurt H. Johnsen; Felipe G Sanchez; C. Dana Nelson

    2012-01-01

    To better understand the long-term effects of species selection and forest management practices on soil quality and soil C retention, we analyzed soil samples from an experimental planting of loblolly (Pinus taeda L.), longleaf ((Pinus palustris Mill.), and slash ((Pinus elliottii Engelm.) pines under...

  19. Longleaf and loblolly pine seedlings respond differently to soil compaction, water content, and fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Andrew Scott; James A. Burger

    2014-01-01

    Aims Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) is being restored across the U.S. South for a multitude of ecological and economic reasons, but our understanding of longleaf pine’s response to soil physical conditions is poor. On the contrary, our understanding of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) root and...

  20. Comparison of arthropod prey of red-cockaded woodpeckers on the boles of long-leaf and loblolly pines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott Horn; James L. Hanula

    2002-01-01

    Red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) forage on the boles of most southern pines. Woodpeckers may select trees based on arthropod availability, yet no published studies have evaluated differences in arthropod abundance on different species of pines. We used knockdown insecticides to sample arthropods on longleaf (Pinus palustris...