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Sample records for palladium 101

  1. Silver-Palladium Surfaces Inhibit Biofilm Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiang, Wen-Chi; Schroll, Casper; Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel

    2009-01-01

    Undesired biofilm formation is a major concern in many areas. In the present study, we investigated biofilm-inhibiting properties of a silver-palladium surface that kills bacteria by generating microelectric fields and electrochemical redox processes. For evaluation of the biofilm inhibition...... efficacy and study of the biofilm inhibition mechanism, the silver-sensitive Escherichia coli J53 and the silver-resistant E. coli J53[pMG101] strains were used as model organisms, and batch and flow chamber setups were used as model systems. In the case of the silver-sensitive strain, the silver......-palladium surfaces killed the bacteria and prevented biofilm formation under conditions of low or high bacterial load. In the case of the silver-resistant strain, the silver-palladium surfaces killed surface-associated bacteria and prevented biofilm formation under conditions of low bacterial load, whereas under...

  2. Laccases as palladium oxidases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekmouche, Yasmina; Schneider, Ludovic; Rousselot-Pailley, Pierre; Faure, Bruno; Simaan, A Jalila; Bochot, Constance; Réglier, Marius; Tron, Thierry

    2015-02-01

    The first example of a coupled catalytic system involving an enzyme and a palladium(ii) catalyst competent for the aerobic oxidation of alcohol in mild conditions is described. In the absence of dioxygen, the fungal laccase LAC3 is reduced by a palladium(0) species as evidenced by the UV/VIS and ESR spectra of the enzyme. During the oxidation of veratryl alcohol performed in water, at room temperature and atmospheric pressure, LAC3 regenerates the palladium catalyst, is reduced and catalyzes the four-electron reduction of dioxygen into water with no loss of enzyme activity. The association of a laccase with a water-soluble palladium complex results in a 7-fold increase in the catalytic efficiency of the complex. This is the first step in the design of a family of renewable palladium catalysts for aerobic oxidation.

  3. Palladium Nanoparticle Hydrogen Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Pavlovsky

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available An innovative hydrogen sensor based on palladium (Pd nanoparticle networks is described in the article. Made by Applied Nanotech Inc. sensor has a fast response time, in the range of seconds, which is increased at 80 °C due to higher hydrogen diffusion rates into the palladium lattice. The low detection limit of the sensor is 10 ppm of H2, and the high limit is 40,000 ppm. This is 100% of a lowest flammability level of hydrogen. This range of sensitivities complies with the requirements that one would expect for a reliable hydrogen sensor.

  4. MONTANA PALLADIUM RESEARCH INITIATIVE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, John; McCloskey, Jay; Douglas, Trevor; Young, Mark; Snyder, Stuart; Gurney, Brian

    2012-05-09

    Project Objective: The overarching objective of the Montana Palladium Research Initiative is to perform scientific research on the properties and uses of palladium in the context of the U.S. Department of Energy's Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program. The purpose of the research will be to explore possible palladium as an alternative to platinum in hydrogen-economy applications. To achieve this objective, the Initiatives activities will focus on several cutting-edge research approaches across a range of disciplines, including metallurgy, biomimetics, instrumentation development, and systems analysis. Background: Platinum-group elements (PGEs) play significant roles in processing hydrogen, an element that shows high potential to address this need in the U.S. and the world for inexpensive, reliable, clean energy. Platinum, however, is a very expensive component of current and planned systems, so less-expensive alternatives that have similar physical properties are being sought. To this end, several tasks have been defined under the rubric of the Montana Palladium Research Iniative. This broad swath of activities will allow progress on several fronts. The membrane-related activities of Task 1 employs state-of-the-art and leading-edge technologies to develop new, ceramic-substrate metallic membranes for the production of high-purity hydrogen, and develop techniques for the production of thin, defect-free platinum group element catalytic membranes for energy production and pollution control. The biomimetic work in Task 2 explores the use of substrate-attached hydrogen-producing enzymes and the encapsulation of palladium in virion-based protein coats to determine their utility for distributed hydrogen production. Task 3 work involves developing laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) as a real-time, in situ diagnostic technique to characterize PGEs nanoparticles for process monitoring and control. The systems engineering work in task 4

  5. Palladium nanoparticle anchored polyphosphazene nanotubes ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    607–610. c Indian Academy of Sciences. Palladium ... 2Department of Chemistry, APA College of Arts and Culture, Palani, Tamil Nadu 624 601, India. 3Department of .... K Dinakaran acknowledges the financial support from. Department of ...

  6. Sensitization to palladium in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muris, Joris; Goossens, An; Gonçalo, Margarida

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recently, sodium tetrachloropalladate (Na2 PdCl4 ) was found to be a more sensitive palladium patch test allergen than palladium dichloride (PdCl2 ). OBJECTIVES: To determine the optimal test concentration of Na2 PdCl4 , to evaluate the prevalence of palladium sensitization with Na2 P...... patch test concentration. Sensitization to palladium is almost as prevalent as sensitization to nickel. The sex distribution is different between nickel-sensitized and palladium-sensitized patients, suggesting different sources of exposure.......Cl4 and PdCl2 , and to compare the results with nickel sensitization in a European multicentre study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In addition to the European or national baseline series including NiSO4 ·6H2 0 5% pet., consecutive patients were tested with PdCl2 and Na2 PdCl4 2%, 3% and 4% pet. in eight...... European dermatology clinics. The age and sex distributions were also evaluated in patients sensitized to nickel and palladium. RESULTS: In total, 1651 patients were tested. Relative to 3% Na2 PdCl4 , 4% Na2 PdCl4 did not add any information. Two per cent Na2 PdCl4 resulted in more doubtful reactions...

  7. Low-cost method for fabricating palladium and palladium-alloy thin films on porous supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tae H; Park, Chan Young; Lu, Yunxiang; Dorris, Stephen E; Balachandran, Uthamalingham

    2013-11-19

    A process for forming a palladium or palladium alloy membrane on a ceramic surface by forming a pre-colloid mixture comprising a powder palladium source, carrier fluid, dispersant and a pore former and a binder. Ultrasonically agitating the precolloid mixture and applying to a substrate with an ultrasonic nozzle and heat curing the coating form a palladium-based membrane.

  8. Determination of palladium content in palladium-alumina/palladium-silica/palladium-tin oxide catalyst for nuclear reactor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, P.K.; Bassan, M.K.T.; Avhad, D.K.; Singhal, R.K.

    2012-01-01

    Alumina and silica act as support for finely divided palladium metal powder in synthesis of catalyst. These catalyst (Pd-Al 2 O 3 , Pd-SiO 2 and Pd-SnO 2 ) used in nuclear power reactor (moderator cover gas system) for the conversion of hydrogen. In Indian nuclear power programme these catalyst are regularly used in Kaiga 1 and 2 and Rajasthan atomic power plant 3 and 4. The performance of the catalyst, solely depends on the concentration of palladium, which is the active component in this catalyst composition. Therefore it is highly desirable to have rouged analytical methodology for the accurate estimation of palladium. Leaching of Pd from the bulk matrix is tedious due to the less reactive nature of Pd therefore complete solubilization of the matrix is carried out by fusion method

  9. Palladium alloys for hydrogen diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    A palladium-base alloy with tin and/or a silicon addition and its use in the production of hydrogen from water via a cycle of chemical reactions, of which the decomposition of HI into H 2 and I 2 is the most important, is described

  10. Palladium-Catalysed Coupling Reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Johannes G.; Beller, M; Blaser, HU

    2012-01-01

    Palladium-catalysed coupling reactions have gained importance as a tool for the production of pharmaceutical intermediates and to a lesser extent also for the production of agrochemicals, flavours and fragrances, and monomers for polymers. In this review only these cases are discussed where it seems

  11. Palladium allergy in relation to dentistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muris, J.

    2015-01-01

    Palladium is a metal that is used as alloying metal for dental crowns and bridges. This thesis focusses on the possible impact of oral exposure to this metal on the immune system, and allergy in particular. An alternative skin test allergen for diagnosing palladium allergy is introduced: (di)sodium

  12. Mechanical, electrical, and thermal expansion properties of carbon nanotube-based silver and silver-palladium alloy composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Hemant; Sharma, Vimal

    2014-11-01

    The mechanical, electrical, and thermal expansion properties of carbon nanotube (CNT)-based silver and silver-palladium (10:1, w/w) alloy nanocomposites are reported. To tailor the properties of silver, CNTs were incorporated into a silver matrix by a modified molecular level-mixing process. CNTs interact weakly with silver because of their non-reactive nature and lack of mutual solubility. Therefore, palladium was utilized as an alloying element to improve interfacial adhesion. Comparative microstructural characterizations and property evaluations of the nanocomposites were performed. The structural characterizations revealed that decorated type-CNTs were dispersed, embedded, and anchored into the silver matrix. The experimental results indicated that the modification of the silver and silver-palladium nanocomposite with CNT resulted in increases in the hardness and Young's modulus along with concomitant decreases in the electrical conductivity and the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE). The hardness and Young's modulus of the nanocomposites were increased by 30%-40% whereas the CTE was decreased to 50%-60% of the CTE of silver. The significantly improved CTE and the mechanical properties of the CNT-reinforced silver and silver-palladium nanocomposites are correlated with the intriguing properties of CNTs and with good interfacial adhesion between the CNTs and silver as a result of the fabrication process and the contact action of palladium as an alloying element.

  13. Anionic Palladium(0) and Palladium(II) Ate Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolter, Marlene; Böck, Katharina; Karaghiosoff, Konstantin; Koszinowski, Konrad

    2017-10-16

    Palladium ate complexes are frequently invoked as important intermediates in Heck and cross-coupling reactions, but so far have largely eluded characterization at the molecular level. Here, we use electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry, electrical conductivity measurements, and NMR spectroscopy to show that the electron-poor catalyst [L 3 Pd] (L=tris[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]phosphine) readily reacts with Br - ions to afford the anionic, zero-valent ate complex [L 3 PdBr] - . In contrast, more-electron-rich Pd catalysts display lower tendencies toward the formation of ate complexes. Combining [L 3 Pd] with LiI and an aryl iodide substrate (ArI) results in the observation of the Pd II ate complex [L 2 Pd(Ar)I 2 ] - . © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Determination of palladium by flame photometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parellada Bellod, R.

    1964-01-01

    A study on the determination of palladium by lame photometry, fixing the most convent experimental conditions and using solvents to increase the emission of this elements is carried out. Among the organic solvents, acetone has been found the most efficient. The interferences produced by anions and cations have also been studied and an analytical method is related, in which lines of calibration of 0 to 100 ppm palladium re used. (Author) 7 refs

  15. 41 CFR 101-27.101 - General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true General. 101-27.101 Section 101-27.101 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND PROCUREMENT 27-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 27.1-Stock...

  16. Palladium-cobalt particles as oxygen-reduction electrocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adzic, Radoslav [East Setauket, NY; Huang, Tao [Manorville, NY

    2009-12-15

    The present invention relates to palladium-cobalt particles useful as oxygen-reducing electrocatalysts. The invention also relates to oxygen-reducing cathodes and fuel cells containing these palladium-cobalt particles. The invention additionally relates to methods for the production of electrical energy by using the palladium-cobalt particles of the invention.

  17. Unexpectedly high uptake of palladium by bituminous coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakatos, J. [Research Lab. for Mining Chemistry, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Miskolc-Egyetemvaros (Hungary); Brown, S.D.; Snape, C.E. [Univ. of Strathclyde, Dept. of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    1997-12-31

    The uptake of palladium as a conversion catalyst onto coals of different rank was investigated. Palladium fixation occurs by a different mode to that for alkaline earth and first row transition metals. Therefore, the dispersion of relatively high concentration of palladium by an ion sorption process is even possible for bituminous coals. (orig.)

  18. : Recyclable, ligand free palladium(II) catalyst for Heck reaction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    well as heterogeneous palladium catalysts, generated from either palladium(0) compounds or palladium(II) acetate or chloride salts.6 Several ligands such as phosphines, phoshites, carbenes, thioethers have been successfully employed for this reaction.7 However, homogeneous catalysis results in problems of recovery.

  19. Palladium transport in SiC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivier, E.J.; Neethling, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We investigate the reaction of Pd with SiC at typical HTGR operating temperatures. ► The high temperature mobility of palladium silicides within polycrystalline SiC was studied. ► Corrosion of SiC by Pd was seen in all cases. ► The preferential corrosion and penetration of Pd along grain boundaries in SiC was found. ► The penetration and transport of palladium silicides in SiC along grain boundaries was found. - Abstract: This paper reports on a transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) study of Pd corroded SiC. The reaction of Pd with different types of SiC at typical HTGR operating temperatures was examined. In addition the high temperature mobility of palladium silicides within polycrystalline SiC was investigated. The results indicated corrosion of the SiC by Pd in all cases studied. The corrosion leads to the formation of palladium silicides within the SiC, with the predominant phase found being Pd 2 Si. Evidence for the preferential corrosion and penetration of Pd along grain boundaries in polycrystalline SiC was found. The penetration and transport, without significant corrosion, of palladium silicides into polycrystalline SiC along grain boundaries was also observed. Implications of the findings with reference to the use of Tri Isotropic particles in HTGRs will be discussed.

  20. Palladium transport in SiC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivier, E.J., E-mail: jolivier@nmmu.ac.za [Centre for High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth (South Africa); Neethling, J.H. [Centre for High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth (South Africa)

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigate the reaction of Pd with SiC at typical HTGR operating temperatures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The high temperature mobility of palladium silicides within polycrystalline SiC was studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Corrosion of SiC by Pd was seen in all cases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The preferential corrosion and penetration of Pd along grain boundaries in SiC was found. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The penetration and transport of palladium silicides in SiC along grain boundaries was found. - Abstract: This paper reports on a transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) study of Pd corroded SiC. The reaction of Pd with different types of SiC at typical HTGR operating temperatures was examined. In addition the high temperature mobility of palladium silicides within polycrystalline SiC was investigated. The results indicated corrosion of the SiC by Pd in all cases studied. The corrosion leads to the formation of palladium silicides within the SiC, with the predominant phase found being Pd{sub 2}Si. Evidence for the preferential corrosion and penetration of Pd along grain boundaries in polycrystalline SiC was found. The penetration and transport, without significant corrosion, of palladium silicides into polycrystalline SiC along grain boundaries was also observed. Implications of the findings with reference to the use of Tri Isotropic particles in HTGRs will be discussed.

  1. Californium Recovery from Palladium Wire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, Jon D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The recovery of 252Cf from palladium-252Cf cermet wires was investigated to determine the feasibility of implementing it into the cermet wire production operation at Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s Radiochemical Engineering Development Center. The dissolution of Pd wire in 8 M HNO3 and trace amounts of HCl was studied at both ambient and elevated temperatures. These studies showed that it took days to dissolve the wire at ambient temperature and only 2 hours at 60°C. Adjusting the ratio of the volume of solvent to the mass of the wire segment showed little change in the kinetics of dissolution, which ranged from 0.176 mL/mg down to 0.019 mL/mg. A successful chromatographic separation of 153Gd, a surrogate for 252Cf, from Pd was demonstrated using AG 50x8 cation exchange resin with a bed volume of 0.5 mL and an internal diameter of 0.8 cm.

  2. Oxygen kinetics and mechanism at electrocatalysts on the base of palladium-iron system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarasevich, M.R.; Zhutaeva, G.V.; Bogdanovskaya, V.A.; Radina, M.V.; Ehrenburg, M.R.; Chalykh, A.E.

    2007-01-01

    Binary nanodispersed carbon XC72 supported PdFe catalysts with different atomic palladium-to-iron ratios are synthesized and studied in oxygen reduction reaction in acid solution at 60 o C. The Pd:Fe ratio was well controlled by the initial concentrations of Pd and Fe in the precursor solutions. The nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The optimum Pd:Fe ratio for this reaction was determined to be 3:1. The comparison of activities of the catalysts with component ratios equaled 3:1 and 10:1 is shown that the activities are differed from each other by 10-15 times in advantage of catalyst with lesser content of palladium. This phenomenon can be related to the different particle size of both catalysts and different distribution of particles by size discovered by TEM method. The achievement of maximum activity near the ratio of Pd:Fe = 3:1 is due to as effect of alloy-forming and the influence of binary system component ratio and synthesis conditions on dispersity degree of metallic phase nanoparticles. Under optimal conditions of precursor mixture high-temperature pyrolysis, iron produces the stabilizing effect palladium. It gives rise to obtaining the uniform and finely divided (7-8 nm) metallic particles

  3. Palladium-Catalyzed Asymmetric Quaternary Stereocenter Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gottumukkala, Aditya L.; Matcha, Kiran; Lutz, Martin; de Vries, Johannes G.; Minnaard, Adriaan J.

    2012-01-01

    An efficient palladium catalyst is presented for the formation of benzylic quaternary stereocenters by conjugate addition of arylboronic acids to a variety of beta,beta-disubstituted carbocyclic, heterocyclic, and acyclic enones. The catalyst is readily prepared from PdCl2, PhBOX, and AgSbF6, and

  4. Palladium-catalyzed asymmetric quaternary stereocenter formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gottumukkala, A.L.; Matcha, K.; Lutz, M.; de Vries, J.G.; Minnaard, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    An efficient palladium catalyst is presented for the formation of benzylic quaternary stereocenters by conjugate addition of arylboronic acids to a variety of β,β-disubstituted carbocyclic, heterocyclic, and acyclic enones. The catalyst is readily prepared from PdCl2, PhBOX, and AgSbF6, and provides

  5. Dendritic surface morphology of palladium hydride produced by electrolytic deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julin, Peng; Bursill, L.A.

    1990-01-01

    Conventional and high-resolution electron microscopic studies of electrolytically-deposited palladium hydride reveal a fascinating variety of surface profile morphologies. The observations provide direct information concerning the surface structure of palladium electrodes and the mechanism of electrolytic deposition of palladium black. Both classical electrochemical mechanisms and recent 'modified diffusion-limited-aggregation' computer simulations are discussed in comparison with the experimental results. 13 refs., 9 figs

  6. Sustainable Catalysis: Rational Pd Loading on MIL-101Cr-NH2 for More Efficient and Recyclable Suzuki–Miyaura Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascanu, Vlad; Yao, Qingxia; Bermejo Gómez, Antonio; Gustafsson, Mikaela; Yun, Yifeng; Wan, Wei; Samain, Louise; Zou, Xiaodong; Martín-Matute, Belén

    2013-01-01

    Palladium nanoparticles have been immobilized into an amino-functionalized metal–organic framework (MOF), MIL-101Cr-NH2, to form Pd@MIL-101Cr-NH2. Four materials with different loadings of palladium have been prepared (denoted as 4-, 8-, 12-, and 16 wt %Pd@MIL-101Cr-NH2). The effects of catalyst loading and the size and distribution of the Pd nanoparticles on the catalytic performance have been studied. The catalysts were characterized by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), N2-sorption isotherms, elemental analysis, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). To better characterize the palladium nanoparticles and their distribution in MIL-101Cr-NH2, electron tomography was employed to reconstruct the 3D volume of 8 wt %Pd@MIL-101Cr-NH2 particles. The pair distribution functions (PDFs) of the samples were extracted from total scattering experiments using high-energy X-rays (60 keV). The catalytic activity of the four MOF materials with different loadings of palladium nanoparticles was studied in the Suzuki–Miyaura cross-coupling reaction. The best catalytic performance was obtained with the MOF that contained 8 wt % palladium nanoparticles. The metallic palladium nanoparticles were homogeneously distributed, with an average size of 2.6 nm. Excellent yields were obtained for a wide scope of substrates under remarkably mild conditions (water, aerobic conditions, room temperature, catalyst loading as low as 0.15 mol %). The material can be recycled at least 10 times without alteration of its catalytic properties. PMID:24265270

  7. Adsorption of palladium ions by modified carbons from rice husks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostafa, M.R.

    1994-01-01

    Steam activated carbon of high surface area does not show palladium ions adsorption. Treatment of this carbon with HF acid increases to a great extent the gas adsorption capacity expressed as nitrogen surface area as well as the adsorption capacity of palladium ions from aqueous solution. HHB was loaded in different amounts on to these carbons. The acid sites represent the active fraction of the surface on which the adsorption palladium ions proceed. The uptake of palladium ions by HHB treated carbons is related to the total number of HHB molecules loaded on the carbon surface. (author)

  8. Development of Separation Materials Containing Palladium for Hydrogen Isotopes Separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Xiaojun; Luo Deli; Qian Xiaojing

    2010-01-01

    Displacement chromatography (DC) is a ascendant technique for hydrogen isotopes separation. The performance of separation materials is a key factor to determine the separation effect of DC. At present,kinds of materials are researched, including palladium materials and non-palladium materials. It is hardly replaceable because of its excellent separation performance, although palladium is expensive. The theory of hydrogen isotopes separation using DC was introduced at a brief manner, while several palladium separation materials were expatiated in detail(Pd/K, Pd-Al 2 O 3 , Pd-Pt alloy). Development direction of separation materials for DC was forecasted elementarily. (authors)

  9. Functionalized Palladium Nanoparticles for Hydrogen Peroxide Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Baccar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a comparison between two biosensors for hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 detection. The first biosensor was developed by the immobilization of Horseradish Peroxidase (HRP enzyme on thiol-modified gold electrode. The second biosensor was developed by the immobilization of cysteamine functionalizing palladium nanoparticles on modified gold surface. The amino groups can be activated with glutaraldehyde for horseradish peroxidase immobilization. The detection of hydrogen peroxide was successfully observed in PBS for both biosensors using the cyclic voltammetry and the chronoamperometry techniques. The results show that the limit detection depends on the large surface-to-volume ratio attained with palladium nanoparticles. The second biosensor presents a better detection limit of 7.5 μM in comparison with the first one which is equal to 75 μM.

  10. Oxygen isotope exchange on palladium catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravchuk, L.S.; Beschetvertnaya, T.I.; Novorodskij, V.G.; Novikova, M.G.; Zaretskij, M.V.; Valieva, S.V.

    1983-01-01

    Oxygen heteromolecular isotope exchange on unreduced palladium catalysts, distingushing by metal content is studied. Content of 18 O in gaseous phase is eoual to 46%. Calculations of heteroexchange rates are conducted with decrease of the 18 O in the gaseous phase over solid sample. Method of oxygen thermodesorption has been used to establish that palladium, deposited on γ-Al 2 O 3 during exchange process is in oxidized state; in this case strength of Pd-O bond is determined by content dispersity) of the metal. It is shown that significant increase of exchange rate on the samples with Pd >> 0.5 mass.% content can be induced as by side decomposition reaction of its oxide and corresponding dilution of gaseous mixture by ''light'' oxygen so by possibility of exchange with oxygen of PdO phase

  11. Extracellular Palladium Nanoparticle Production using Geobacter sulfurreducens

    KAUST Repository

    Yates, Matthew D.

    2013-09-03

    Sustainable methods are needed to recycle precious metals and synthesize catalytic nanoparticles. Palladium nanoparticles can be produced via microbial reduction of soluble Pd(II) to Pd(0), but in previous tests using dissimilatory metal reducing bacteria (DMRB), the nanoparticles were closely associated with the cells, occupying potential reductive sites and eliminating the potential for cell reuse. The DMRB Geobacter sulfurreducens was shown here to reduce soluble Pd(II) to Pd(0) nanoparticles primarily outside the cell, reducing the toxicity of metal ions, and allowing nanoparticle recovery without cell destruction that has previously been observed using other microorganisms. Cultures reduced 50 ± 3 mg/L Pd(II) with 1% hydrogen gas (v/v headspace) in 6 h incubation tests [100 mg/L Pd(II) initially], compared to 8 ± 3 mg/L (10 mM acetate) without H2. Acetate was ineffective as an electron donor for palladium removal in the presence or absence of fumarate as an electron acceptor. TEM imaging verified that Pd(0) nanoparticles were predominantly in the EPS surrounding cells in H2-fed cultures, with only a small number of particles visible inside the cell. Separation of the cells and EPS by centrifugation allowed reuse of the cell suspensions and effective nanoparticle recovery. These results demonstrate effective palladium recovery and nanoparticle production using G. sulfurreducens cell suspensions and renewable substrates such as H2 gas. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  12. Thermosonic wire bonding of IC devices using palladium wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shze, J.H.; Poh, M.T.; Tan, R.M.

    1996-01-01

    The feasibility of replacing gold wire by palladium wire in thermosonic wire bonding of CMOS and bipolar devices are studied in terms of the manufacturability, physical, electrical and assembly performance. The results that palladium wire is a viable option for bonding the bipolar devices but not the CMOS devices

  13. Thermodynamics of the hybrid interaction of hydrogen with palladium nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griessen, R.P.; Strohfeldt, N.; Giessen, H.

    2015-01-01

    Palladium-hydrogen is a prototypical metal-hydrogen system. It is therefore not at all surprising that a lot of attention has been devoted to the absorption and desorption of hydrogen in nanosized palladium particles. Several seminal articles on the interaction of H with Pd nanocubes and

  14. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Spinal Cord Injury 101 Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 David ...

  15. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Spinal Cord Injury 101 Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 ...

  16. Chemical recovery of a palladium-103 from irradiated silver target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapshina, E.V.; Kokhanyuk, V.M.; Zhuikov, B.L.; Myasoedova, G.V.; Zakhartchenko, E.A.; Phillips, D.R.; Jamriska, D.J.

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this work is to develop an extraction method of no-carrier-added palladium-103 from silver. Metallic silver targets were irradiated by protons with the energy of 60-140 MeV to generate palladium-103. Other radioactive isotopes of rhodium, ruthenium, technetium, palladium and silver are also formed at the same time. Two methods of Pd-103 recovering from irradiated silver target are considered. The first one includes the dissolving of the irradiated silver target in nitric acid followed by adding of hydrochloric acid to the solution. Palladium with rhodium, ruthenium and technetium completely remained in solution while silver was precipitated in the form of silver chloride. Extraction of palladium from the obtained solution was provided by the formation of palladium complex with a chelate sorbent which is specific to palladium in acidic solutions. The sorbent makes it possible to separate palladium from admixtures of rhodium, ruthenium and technetium isotopes. The polymeric complex-forming sorbent of fibrous structure with the groups of 3 (5) - methylpyrazole (POLYORGS-15n) is used. An other possible method has been also studied. It includes again dissolving of metallic silver in nitric acid, but does not need silver chloride precipitation. Silver may be sorbed by the complex-forming sorbents, but its sorption is very sensitive to acid concentration. Chelate sorbents of fibrous structure with the groups of amidoxime and hydrazidine (POLYORGS-33n) have been successfully used in our experiments. A high efficiency of palladium extraction by POLYORGS-33n from 2-4 M nitric acid solutions was achieved. Concentrated hydrochloric acid (without heating) was used for palladium desorption with higher yield than in the first method. (authors)

  17. 47 CFR 101.101 - Frequency availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Auxiliary Service—(Part 74) CARS: Cable Television Relay Service—(Part 78) CC: Common Carrier Fixed Point-to...: Digital Electronic Message Service—(Part 101, Subpart G) ISM: Industrial, Scientific & Medical—(Part 18...

  18. Tritium evolution from various morphologies of palladium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuggle, D.G.; Claytor, T.N.; Taylor, S.F.

    1994-01-01

    The authors have been able to extend the tritium production techniques to various novel morphologies of palladium. These include small solid wires of various diameters and a type of pressed powder wire and a plasma cell. In most successful experiments, the amount of palladium required, for an equivalent tritium output, has been reduced by a factor of 100 over the older powder methods. In addition, they have observed rates of tritium production (>5 nCi/h) that far exceed most of the previous results. Unfortunately, the methods that they currently use to obtain the tritium are poorly understood and consequently there are numerous variables that need to be investigated before the new methods are as reliable and repeatable as the previous techniques. For instance, it seems that surface and/or bulk impurities play a major role in the successful generation of any tritium. In those samples with total impurity concentrations of >400 ppM essentially no tritium has been generated by the gas loading and electrical simulation methods

  19. Characterising palladium-silver and palladium-nickel alloy membranes using SEM, XRD and PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keuler, J.N.; Lorenzen, L.; Sanderson, R.D.; Prozesky, V.; Przybylowicz, W.J.

    1999-01-01

    Palladium alloy membranes were prepared by successive electroless plating steps on an alumina-zirconia support membrane. Palladium, silver and nickel were deposited in layers and then the metal films were heat treated for 5 h in a hydrogen atmosphere at 650 deg. C. The topography of the metal coatings and cross-sections of the films (before and after heating) were characterised using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). XRD was used to determine the crystal phase of the alloy coatings. Both SEM and XRD provide only surface information and therefore micro-PIXE was used to extract depth information of the alloy coating. Concentration profiles across the thickness of the films were constructed to determine penetration of the coating into the support membrane pores during electroless plating and to investigate diffusion of coated layers during the heating step

  20. Fabrication of palladium-based microelectronic devices by microcontact printing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfe, Daniel B.; Love, J. Christopher; Paul, Kateri E.; Chabinyc, Michael L.; Whitesides, George M.

    2002-01-01

    This letter demonstrates the patterning of thin films of metallic palladium by microcontact printing (μCP) of octadecanethiol, and the use of the patterned films in the fabrication of a functional sensor. This technique was also used to prepare templates of palladium for the electroless deposition of copper. The resistivity of the palladium and copper microstructures was 13.8 and 2.8 μΩ cm, respectively; these values are approximately 40% larger than the values for the pure bulk metals. Palladium patterned into serpentine wires using μCP functioned as a hydrogen sensor with sensitivity of 0.03 vol % H 2 in N 2 , and a response time of ∼10 s (at room temperature)

  1. Antibacterial properties of palladium nanostructures sputtered on polyethylene naphthalate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Polívková, M.; Válová, M.; Siegel, J.; Rimpelová, S.; Hubáček, Tomáš; Lyutakov, O.; Švorčík, V.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 90 (2015), s. 73767-73774 ISSN 2046-2069 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : polymer * palladium sputtering * annealing * nanostructure * antibacterial effect Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials Impact factor: 3.289, year: 2015

  2. Palladium-catalysed arylation of sulfonamide stabilised enolates

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Zeevaart, JG

    2005-03-07

    Full Text Available Alpha-Arylation of inethanesulfonamides using palladium catalysis is described. For example, treatment of N-benzyl-Nmethylmethanesulfonamide with catalytic Pd (OAc) (2) in the presence of sodium tert-butoxide, triphenylphosphine and toluene afforded...

  3. Palladium silicide - a new contact for semiconductor radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Totterdell, D.H.J.

    1981-11-01

    Silicide layers can be used as low resistance contacts in semiconductor devices. The formation of a metal rich palladium silicide Pd 2 Si is discussed. A palladium film 100A thick is deposited at 300 0 C and the resulting silicide layer used as an ohmic contact in an n + p silicon detector. This rugged contact has electrical characteristics comparable with existing evaporated gold contacts and enables the use of more reproducible bonding techniques. (author)

  4. Toward Efficient Palladium-Catalyzed Allylic C-H Alkylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas; Fristrup, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Recent breakthroughs have proved that direct palladium (II)-catalyzed allylic C-H alkylation can be achieved. This new procedure shows that the inherent requirement for a leaving group in the Tsuji-Trost palladium-catalyzed allylic alkylation can be lifted. These initial reports hold great promise...... for the development of allylic C-H alkylation into a widely applicable methodology, thus providing a means to enhance synthetic efficiency in these reactions....

  5. Carbon in palladium catalysts: A metastable carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seriani, Nicola; Mittendorfer, Florian; Kresse, Georg

    2010-01-01

    The catalytic activity of palladium towards selective hydrogenation of hydrocarbons depends on the partial pressure of hydrogen. It has been suggested that the reaction proceeds selectively towards partial hydrogenation only when a carbon-rich film is present at the metal surface. On the basis of first-principles simulations, we show that carbon can dissolve into the metal because graphite formation is delayed by the large critical nucleus necessary for graphite nucleation. A bulk carbide Pd 6 C with a hexagonal 6-layer fcc-like supercell forms. The structure is characterized by core level shifts of 0.66-0.70 eV in the core states of Pd, in agreement with experimental x-ray photoemission spectra. Moreover, this phase traps bulk-dissolved hydrogen, suppressing the total hydrogenation reaction channel and fostering partial hydrogenation. (author)

  6. Recovery of Elemental Palladium by Shewanella putrefaciens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akasaka, S.; Xia, X.; Sawada, K.; Enokida, Y.; Yamamoto, I.; Ohnuki, T.

    2006-12-01

    Microbial reduction of metals plays an important role in environmental behavior and provides a technique for the recovery of metals from industrial wastewater. Recently, demand for platinum group metals (PGMs) increases by their catalytic properties. The extreme rarity of PGMs have led to a growing interest in their recovery. Palladium, one of PGMs, has different oxidation states of Pd(II) and Pd(0). The oxidized form of Pd(II) is soluble, while the reduced form of Pd(0) is insoluble. In this study, microbial reduction of palladium by Fe(III)- reducing bacterium, Shewanella putrefaceins was conducted. This bacterium is known to be capable of reducing metals, such as Mn(IV), U(VI), or Tc(VII) with organic C or H2 as an electron donor. In order to investigate the potential of S. putrefaciens to reduce Pd(II) in solution, resting cells or heat-killed cells were suspended under anaerobic conditions with lactate or H2 as an electron donor. The cells of S. putrefaciens (NBRC3908) were grown in aerobic medium, harvested by centrifugation, and then washed with 25 mmol/dm3 HEPES and 100 mmol/dm3 NaCl (HEPES-NaCl) solution (pH 7.0). The heat-killed cells were autoclaved for 20 min at 121 degrees C. The cell suspension (21.5 mg in dry weight) was resuspended in the HEPES-NaCl solution which contained 1.0 mmol/dm3 Na2PdCl4 (Wako Pure chemical Industries, Ltd). The suspensions were bubbled with N2 for 15 min before 10 mmol/dm3 lactate or 4.8 v/v% H2 was added. The suspensions were then incubated at 30 degrees C. Redox potential (Eh) and pH of the solutions were measured in an inert glove box with Ar gas. Concentration of Pd(II) was measured by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometer (ICP-AES). Deposited Pd and cells were analyzed by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) with Energy-Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). Approximately 86% of Pd(II) of the initial concentration was removed from solution by the resting cells within 24 h when

  7. 41 CFR 101-39.101-1 - Agency cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.1-Establishment, Modification, and Discontinuance of Interagency Fleet... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Agency cooperation. 101-39.101-1 Section 101-39.101-1 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management...

  8. 41 CFR 101-30.101-3 - National stock number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true National stock number. 101-30.101-3 Section 101-30.101-3 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND PROCUREMENT 30-FEDERAL CATALOG SYSTEM 30...

  9. 41 CFR 101-30.101-8 - Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... classifications, stock numbers, names, and identification data to using those of the Federal Catalog System in all... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Conversion. 101-30.101-8 Section 101-30.101-8 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations...

  10. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... How Peer Counseling Works Julie Gassaway, MS, RN Pediatric Injuries Pediatric Spinal Cord Injury 101 Lawrence Vogel, MD The Basics of Pediatric SCI Rehabilitation Sara Klaas, MSW Transitions for Children ...

  11. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Spinal Cord Injury 101 ... arrow What is the “Spinal Cord Injury Model Systems” program? play_arrow What are the most promising ...

  12. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... RN Pediatric Injuries Pediatric Spinal Cord Injury 101 Lawrence Vogel, MD The Basics of Pediatric SCI Rehabilitation ... Rogers, PT Recreational Therapy after Spinal Cord Injury Jennifer Piatt, PhD David Chen, MD Read Bio Medical ...

  13. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Medical Experts People Living with SCI Personal Experiences by Topic Resources Peer ... Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 David Chen, MD Preventing Pressure Sores Mary Zeigler, MS Transition from Hospital to ...

  14. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Living with SCI Personal Experiences by Topic Resources Peer ... Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 David Chen, MD Preventing Pressure Sores Mary Zeigler, MS Transition from Hospital to ...

  15. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Spinal Cord Injury 101 Lawrence Vogel, MD The Basics of Pediatric SCI Rehabilitation Sara Klaas, MSW Transitions for Children with Spinal Cord Injury Patricia Mucia, RN Family Life After Pediatric Spinal Injury Dawn Sheaffer, MSW Rehabilitation ...

  16. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Spinal Cord Injury 101 David Chen, MD Preventing Pressure Sores Mary Zeigler, MS Transition from Hospital to ... a spinal cord injury? play_arrow Why are high-dose steroids often used right after an injury? ...

  17. Sputtering induced surface composition changes in copper-palladium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundararaman, M.; Sharma, S.K.; Kumar, L.; Krishnan, R.

    1981-01-01

    It has been observed that, in general, surface composition is different from bulk composition in multicomponent materials as a result of ion beam sputtering. This compositional difference arises from factors like preferential sputtering, radiation induced concentration gradients and the knock-in effect. In the present work, changes in the surface composition of copper-palladium alloys, brought about by argon ion sputtering, have been studied using Auger electron spectroscopy. Argon ion energy has been varied from 500 eV to 5 keV. Enrichment of palladium has been observed in the sputter-altered layer. The palladium enrichment at the surface has been found to be higher for 500 eV argon ion sputtering compared with argon ion sputtering at higher energies. Above 500 eV, the surface composition has been observed to remain the same irrespective of the sputter ion energy for each alloy composition. The bulk composition ratio of palladium to copper has been found to be linearly related to the sputter altered surface composition ratio of palladium to copper. These results are discussed on the basis of recent theories of alloy sputtering. (orig.)

  18. Ageing of palladium tritide: mechanical characterization, helium state and modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segard, M.

    2010-01-01

    Palladium is commonly used for the storage of tritium (the hydrogen radioactive isotope), since it forms a low-equilibrium-pressure and reversible tritide. Tritium decay into helium-3 is responsible for the ageing of the tritide, leading to the apparition of helium-3 bubbles for instance. Both experimental and theoretical aspects of this phenomenon are studied here.Previous works on ageing modelling led to two main models, dealing with:- Helium-3 bubbles nucleation (using a cellular automaton), - Bubbles growth (using continuum mechanics).These models were quite efficient, but their use was limited by the lack of input data and fitting experimental parameters.To get through these limitations, this work has consisted in studying the most relevant experimental data to improve the modelling of the palladium tritide ageing.The first part of this work was focused on the assessment of the mechanical properties of the palladium tritide (yield strength, ultimate strength, mechanical behaviour). They were deduced from the in situ tensile tests performed on palladium hydride and deuteride. In the second part, ageing characterization was undertaken, mainly focusing on: - Bubbles observations in palladium tritide using transmission electron microscopy, - Internal bubble pressure measurements using nuclear magnetic resonance, - Macroscopic swelling measurements using pycno-metry.The present work has led to significant progress in ageing understanding and has brought very valuable improvements to the modelling of such a phenomenon. (author) [fr

  19. Atomistic simulation of helium bubble nucleation in palladium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Liang [Department of Applied Physics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Hu, Wangyu [Department of Applied Physics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)], E-mail: wangyuhu2001cn@yahoo.com.cn; Xiao Shifang [Department of Applied Physics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)], E-mail: sfxiao@yahoo.com.cn; Yang Jianyu [Department of Maths and Physics, Hunan Institute of Engineering, Xiangtan 411104 (China); Deng Huiqiu [Department of Applied Physics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2009-09-15

    A palladium crystal has been constructed with 11808 atoms. 55 helium atoms occupied the octahedral position of palladium crystal are introduced and retained in a spherical region. Molecular dynamic simulations are performed in a constant temperature and constant volume ensemble (NVT) with temperature controlled by Nose-Hoover thermostat. The interactions between palladium atoms are described with modified analytic embedded atom method (MAEAM), the interactions between palladium atom and helium atom are in the form of Morse potential, and the interactions between helium atoms are in the form of L-J potential function. With the analysis of the radial distribution function (RDF) and microstructure, it reveals that some of helium atoms form a series of clusters with different size, and the nucleation core is random at low temperature, and which is the embryo of helium bubble. Increasing temperature can accelerate the process of bubble nucleation, and the clusters will aggregate and coalesce into a bigger one in which there are no palladium atoms, and it is considered as a helium bubble.

  20. Metal allergen of the 21st century--a review on exposure, epidemiology and clinical manifestations of palladium allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurschou, Annesofie; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2011-01-01

    Consumers are mainly exposed to palladium from jewellery and dental restorations. Palladium contact allergy is nearly always seen together with nickel allergy, as palladium and nickel tend to cross-react. We aimed to analyse the available palladium patch test data and case reports to determine...

  1. Superconductivity and the structural phase transitions in palladium hydride and palladium deuteride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Standley, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    The results of two experimental studies of the superconducting transition temperature, T/sub c/, of palladium hydride, PdH/sub x/, and palladium deuteride, PdD/sub x/, are presented. In the first study, the superconducting transition temperature of PdH/sub x/(D/sub x/) is studied as a function of H(D) concentration, x, in the temperature range from 0.2 K to 4K. The data join smoothly with those reported previously by Miller and Satterthwaite at higher temperatures, and the composite data are described by the empirical relation T/sub c/ = 150.8 (x-x/sub o/) 2 244 , where x/sub o/ = 0.715 for hydride samples and 0.668 for deuteride samples. The results, when compared with the theoretical predictions of Klein and Papaconstantopoulos, et al., raise questions about the validity of their explanation of the reverse isotope effect, which is based solely on a difference in force constants. In the second study, the effect of the order-disorder structural transition associated with the 50 K anomaly on the superconductivity of PdH/sub x/(D/sub x/) is investigated. Samples were quenched to low temperatures in the disordered state, and their transition temperatures measured. The samples were then annealed just below the anomaly temperature, and the ordering process followed by monitoring the change in sample resistance. The transition temperatures in the ordered state were then measured

  2. Behavior of palladium and its impact on intermetallic growth in palladium-coated Cu wire bonding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Hui; Qin, Ivy; Clauberg, Horst; Chylak, Bob; Acoff, Viola L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the behavior of palladium in palladium-coated Cu (PdCu) wire bonding and its impact on bond reliability by utilizing transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A Pd layer approximately 80 nm thick, which is coated on the surface of Cu wire, dissolves into the Cu matrix during ball formation (under N 2 gas protection) when the wire tip is melted to form a ball. As a result of dissolving the very thin Pd layer into the ball, Pd is almost undetectable along the entire bond interface between the ball and the Al pad. The behavior of Pd during thermal aging in air, however, is different for central and peripheral interfaces. At the central interface, less than 5 at.% Pd is present after 168 h aging at 175 °C. At the periphery, however, Pd diffuses back and congregates, reaching a level of ∼12 at.% after 24 h, and a Pd-rich (Cu,Pd) 9 Al 4 layer (>40 at.% Pd) forms after 168 h. Pd acts substitutionally in Cu 9 Al 4 but cannot penetrate into the CuAl 2 or CuAl. By comparison of intermetallic thickness and interfacial morphology between PdCu and bare Cu wire bonds, it is concluded that the presence of Pd reduces intermetallic growth rate, and is associated with numerous nanovoids in PdCu bonds.

  3. Superlattices of platinum and palladium nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MARTIN,JAMES E.; WILCOXON,JESS P.; ODINEK,JUDY G.; PROVENCIO,PAULA P.

    2000-04-06

    The authors have used a nonionic inverse micelle synthesis technique to form nanoclusters of platinum and palladium. These nanoclusters can be rendered hydrophobic or hydrophilic by the appropriate choice of capping ligand. Unlike Au nanoclusters, Pt nanoclusters show great stability with thiol ligands in aqueous media. Alkane thiols, with alkane chains ranging from C{sub 6} to C{sub 18} were used as hydrophobic ligands, and with some of these they were able to form 2-D and/or 3-D superlattices of Pt nanoclusters as small as 2.7 nm in diameter. Image processing techniques were developed to reliably extract from transmission electron micrographs (TEMs) the particle size distribution, and information about the superlattice domains and their boundaries. The latter permits one to compute the intradomain vector pair correlation function of the particle centers, from which they can accurately determine the lattice spacing and the coherent domain size. From these data the gap between the particles in the coherent domains can be determined as a function of the thiol chain length. It is found that as the thiol chain length increases, the gaps between particles within superlattice domains increases, but more slowly than one might expect, possibly indicating thiol chain interdigitation.

  4. Palladium configuration dependence of hydrogen detection sensitivity based on graphene FET for breath analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Yuri; Uemura, Kohei; Ikuta, Takashi; Maehashi, Kenzo

    2018-04-01

    We have succeeded in fabricating a hydrogen gas sensor based on palladium-modified graphene field-effect transistors (FETs). The negative-voltage shift in the transfer characteristics was observed with exposure to hydrogen gas, which was explained by the change in work function. The hydrogen concentration dependence of the voltage shift was investigated using graphene FETs with palladium deposited by three different evaporation processes. The results indicate that the hydrogen detection sensitivity of the palladium-modified graphene FETs is strongly dependent on the palladium configuration. Therefore, the palladium-modified graphene FET is a candidate for breath analysis.

  5. Microwave-assisted synthesis of palladium nanocubes and nanobars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Yanchun; Zhao, Yanxi; Huang, Tao; Liu, Hanfan

    2010-01-01

    Microwave was employed in the shape-controlled synthesis of palladium nanoparticles. Palladium nanocubes and nanobars with a mean size of about 23.8 nm were readily synthesized with H 2 PdCl 4 as a precursor, tetraethylene glycol (TEG) as both a solvent and a reducing agent in the presence of PVP and CTAB in 80 s under microwave irradiation. The structures of the as-prepared palladium nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorption spectroscopy. The formation of PdBr 4 2- due to the coordination replacement of the ligand Cl - ions in PdCl 4 2- ions by Br - ions in the presence of bromide was responsible for the synthesis of Pd nanocubes and nanobars. In addition, a milder reducing power, a higher viscosity and a stronger affinity of TEG were beneficial to the larger sizes of Pd nanocubes and nanobars.

  6. The solubility of palladium(II) bis-dimethylglyoximate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maghzian, R.

    1978-01-01

    The solubility of palladium(II) bis-dimethylglyoximate in different solutions has been determined. Values obtained for the solubility of the palladium complex are tabulated. The solubility is the lowest in water, ammonium acetate and a 25% acetone-water mixture. It is highest in dilute HCl and acetone but precipitation from aqueous acetone should be satisfactory for most purposes if the acetone content of the solvent is roughly less than 50% by volume. The solubility in dilute HCl reflects the concern by previous workers for losses in precipitation from mineral acid. In general, however, the losses are unlikely to be significant unless the quantity of palladium to be precipitated and weighed is small. (T.G.)

  7. Investigation of radiation-chemical behaviour of divalent palladium in perchloric acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladimirova, M.V.; Kalinina, S.V.

    1988-01-01

    Gamma-radiolysis of divalent palladium in perchloric acid solutions is studied. Absorption spectra of intermediate palladium compounds formed in the irradiated solution are taken. The analysis of literature data as well as comparative analysis of the absorption spectra obtained under irradiation of palladium (2) perchloric acid solutions with absorption spectra of palladium chlorocomplexes allows to suppose that the mentioned compounds are chlorocomplexes of palladium (2) of different composition depending on HClO 4 concentration in the initial solution and absorbed radiation dose. Radiation-chemical reduction of palladium (2) up to metal is stated to take place in the whole studied range of initial concentrations of components of the system and dose rates. Kinetic dependences of metallic palladium formation are obtained. Values of radiation-chemical yields of metallic palladium formation depending on the initial concentrations of palladium (2) and perchloric acid are given. A mechanism of radiolytic reduction of palladium (2) in the investigated system is suggested based on the experimental data, and a theoretical value of the radiation-chemical yield of palladium (2) reduction being in a good agreement with experimentally found values is calculated

  8. Hydrogen Production via Steam Reforming of Ethyl Alcohol over Palladium/Indium Oxide Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuo Umegaki

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the synergetic effect between palladium and indium oxide on hydrogen production in the steam reforming reaction of ethyl alcohol. The palladium/indium oxide catalyst shows higher hydrogen production rate than indium oxide and palladium. Palladium/indium oxide affords ketonization of ethyl alcohol with negligible by-product carbon monoxide, while indium oxide mainly affords dehydration of ethyl alcohol, and palladium affords decomposition of ethyl alcohol with large amount of by-product carbon monoxide. The catalytic feature of palladium/indium oxide can be ascribed to the formation of palladium-indium intermetallic component during the reaction as confirmed by X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic measurements.

  9. Morphological Study Of Palladium Thin Films Deposited By Sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salcedo, K L; Rodriguez, C A [Grupo Plasma Laser y Aplicaciones, Ingenieria Fisica, Universidad Tecnologica de Pereira (Colombia); Perez, F A [WNANO, West Virginia University (United States); Riascos, H [Grupo Plasma Laser y Aplicaciones, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Tecnologica de Pereira (Colombia)

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a morphological analysis of thin films of palladium (Pd) deposited on a substrate of sapphire (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) at a constant pressure of 3.5 mbar at different substrate temperatures (473 K, 523 K and 573 K). The films were morphologically characterized by means of an Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM); finding a relation between the roughness and the temperature. A morphological analysis of the samples through AFM was carried out and the roughness was measured by simulating the X-ray reflectivity curve using GenX software. A direct relation between the experimental and simulation data of the Palladium thin films was found.

  10. Morphological Study Of Palladium Thin Films Deposited By Sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salcedo, K L; Rodriguez, C A; Perez, F A; Riascos, H

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a morphological analysis of thin films of palladium (Pd) deposited on a substrate of sapphire (Al 2 O 3 ) at a constant pressure of 3.5 mbar at different substrate temperatures (473 K, 523 K and 573 K). The films were morphologically characterized by means of an Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM); finding a relation between the roughness and the temperature. A morphological analysis of the samples through AFM was carried out and the roughness was measured by simulating the X-ray reflectivity curve using GenX software. A direct relation between the experimental and simulation data of the Palladium thin films was found.

  11. Chemical recovery of palladium-103 from irradiated silver target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapshina, E.V.; Kokhanyuk, V.M.; Zhuikov, B.L.; Myasoedova, G.V.; Zakhartchenko, E.A.; Phillips, D.R.; Jamriska, D.J.

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this work is to develop an extraction method of no-carrier-added palladium-103 from silver. Metallic silver targets may be irradiated by protons with energy of 60-200 MeV or more to generate palladium-103 simultaneously with other radioactive isotopes of rhodium, ruthenium, technetium, palladium and silver. According to the dependence experimental production yield of Pd-103 and isotopes of other elements in thick silver target vs. Proton energy the most suitable energy for maximum yield of Pd-103 and minimum yield of other elements is from about 100 to about 140 MeV. Activity of radionuclides produced in silver target depends from many factors (target thickness, irradiation time, etc.). Two methods of Pd-103 recovering from irradiated silver target are considered in this work: (1) Silver target is dissolved in nitric acid followed by silver precipitation in the form of silver chloride by addition of HCl. The solution containing Pd, Rh and other radionuclides is passed through the layer of fibrous sorbent POLYORGS-15n. Then the sorbent is washed and Pd is desorbed by hot 12 M hydrochloric acid; (2) Silver target is dissolved in nitric acid followed by passing of the obtained solution (2 M HNO 3 ) through a disk set of complex forming sorbent POLYORGS-33n. Under these conditions palladium is sorbed by the sorbent while silver, rhodium, ruthenium and technetium are passed through the sorbent. Then the sorbent is washed with 2M nitric acid, and Pd is desorbed by 12 M hydrochloric acid. Extraction of palladium is occurred during the formation of palladium complex with a chelate sorbent specific to palladium in acidic solutions. Such a sorbent makes possible separation of palladium from accompanying radionuclides such as rhodium, ruthenium and technetium. The polymeric complex-forming sorbent of fibrous structure with the groups of 3(5)-methylpyrazole (POLYORGS-15) is used. The distinctive feature of the sorbents in the form of fibrous 'filled' material is

  12. Porous palladium coated conducting polymer nanoparticles for ultrasensitive hydrogen sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun Seop; Kim, Sung Gun; Cho, Sunghun; Jang, Jyongsik

    2015-12-01

    Hydrogen, a clean-burning fuel, is of key importance to various industrial applications, including fuel cells and in the aerospace and automotive industries. However, hydrogen gas is odorless, colorless, and highly flammable; thus appropriate safety protocol implementation and monitoring are essential. Highly sensitive hydrogen leak detection and surveillance sensor systems are needed; additionally, the ability to maintain uniformity through repetitive hydrogen sensing is becoming increasingly important. In this report, we detail the fabrication of porous palladium coated conducting polymer (3-carboxylate polypyrrole) nanoparticles (Pd@CPPys) to detect hydrogen gas. The Pd@CPPys are produced by means of facile alkyl functionalization and chemical reduction of a pristine 3-carboxylate polypyrrole nanoparticle-contained palladium precursor (PdCl2) solution. The resulting Pd@CPPy-based sensor electrode exhibits ultrahigh sensitivity (0.1 ppm) and stability toward hydrogen gas at room temperature due to the palladium sensing layer.Hydrogen, a clean-burning fuel, is of key importance to various industrial applications, including fuel cells and in the aerospace and automotive industries. However, hydrogen gas is odorless, colorless, and highly flammable; thus appropriate safety protocol implementation and monitoring are essential. Highly sensitive hydrogen leak detection and surveillance sensor systems are needed; additionally, the ability to maintain uniformity through repetitive hydrogen sensing is becoming increasingly important. In this report, we detail the fabrication of porous palladium coated conducting polymer (3-carboxylate polypyrrole) nanoparticles (Pd@CPPys) to detect hydrogen gas. The Pd@CPPys are produced by means of facile alkyl functionalization and chemical reduction of a pristine 3-carboxylate polypyrrole nanoparticle-contained palladium precursor (PdCl2) solution. The resulting Pd@CPPy-based sensor electrode exhibits ultrahigh sensitivity (0.1 ppm

  13. Hydrogen uptake causes molecular "avalanches" in palladium | Argonne

    Science.gov (United States)

    air cylinders for storing the gas. Palladium, a precious metal closely related to platinum, is that storage or purification, and this research gets us closer to making that a reality. In this study take up hydrogen from the environment. "The ultimate goal is hydrogen storage or purification, and

  14. XPS study of palladium sensitized nano porous silicon thin film

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Porous silicon; passivation; palladium; oxidation; XPS. Abstract. Nano porous silicon (PS) was formed on -type monocrystalline silicon of 2–5 cm resistivity and (100) orientation by electrochemical anodization method using HF and ethanol as the electrolytes. High density of surface states, arising due to its ...

  15. Absorption of hydrogen by vanadium-palladium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artman, D.; Lynch, J.F.; Flanagan, T.B.

    1976-01-01

    Pressure composition isotherms (273-373 K) have been determined for the absorption of hydrogen by a series of six palladium alloys (f.c.c) in the composition range from 1 to 8 at.% vanadium. At a given hydrogen content, the equilibrium hydrogen pressure progressively increases with vanadium content. Thermodynamic parameters for the absorption of hydrogen are reported at infinite dilution of hydrogen and for the formation of the nonstoichiometric hydride from the hydrogen-saturated alloy. The relative, partial molar enthalpy of solution of hydrogen at infinite dilution increases slightly with vanadium content. The presence of vanadium, which absorbs hydrogen itself in its normal b.c.c. structure, greatly inhibits the ability of palladium to absorb hydrogen. For example, the isobaric solubility of hydrogen (1 atm, 298K) decreases from H/Pd=0.7 (palladium) to 0.024 (V(6%)-Pd). The lattice expansion due to the presence of interstitial hydrogen has been determined by X-ray diffraction. From these data it can be concluded that the formation of two non-stoichiometric hydride phases does not occur at vanadium contents greater that 5 at.% (298 K). Electrical resistance has been measured as a function of the hydrogen content of the alloys. The electrical resistance increases more markedly with hydrogen content for these alloys than for any of the palladium alloys previously examined. (Auth.)

  16. Microscopic observations of palladium used for cold fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, T.

    1991-01-01

    This paper examines the microscopic structures of palladium metals used for cold fusion experiments. Tiny spot defects suggesting cold fusion have been observed in grain boundaries as the Nattoh model predicts. The relationship between these defects and a series of neutron busts and an indirect loop of hydrogen chain reactions are discussed

  17. Palladium-based nanocatalysts for alcohol electrooxidation in alkaline media

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Modibedi, RM

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available in the electrocatalytic oxidation of alcohols in alkaline media compared to platinum catalysts. Recent efforts have focused on the discovery of palladium-based electrocatalysts with little or no platinum for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). This chapter is an overview...

  18. ERRATUM Study of microstructure in vanadium–palladium alloys by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    ERRATUM. Study of microstructure in vanadium–palladium alloys by X-ray diffraction technique. J Ghosh, S K Chattopadhyay, A K Meikap, S K Chatterjee and P Chatterjee 2007 Bull. Mater. Sci. 30 447–454. In page 448, under §2.1 Warren–Averbach method, after equation (1), the sentence starting with “Then the domain ...

  19. Fractal analysis of electrolytically-deposited palladium hydride dendrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bursill, L.A.; Julin, Peng; Xudong, Fan.

    1990-01-01

    The fractal scaling characteristics of the surface profile of electrolytically-deposited palladium hydride dendritic structures have been obtained using conventional and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. The results are in remarkable agreement with the modified diffusion-limited aggregation model. 19 refs., 3 tabs., 13 figs

  20. Palladium nanoparticles on InP for hydrogen detection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Černohorský, Ondřej; Žďánský, Karel; Zavadil, Jiří; Kacerovský, Pavel; Piksová, K.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 410 (2011), s. 4101-4104 ISSN 1931-7573 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KAN401220801; GA ČR GA102/09/1037 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20670512 Keywords : palladium * indium phosphide Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 2.726, year: 2011

  1. Palladium-catalyzed allylation of tautomerizable heterocycles with alkynes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chuan-Jun; Chen, Dong-Kai; Chen, Hong; Wang, Hong; Jin, Hongwei; Huang, Xifu; Gao, Jianrong

    2017-07-21

    A method for the allylic amidation of tautomerizable heterocycles was developed by a palladium catalyzed allylation reaction with 100% atom economy. A series of structurally diverse N-allylic substituted heterocycles can be synthesized in good yields with high chemo-, regio-, and stereoselectivities under mild conditions.

  2. Supporting Information Palladium Complexes of a New Type of N ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prasenjit Ghosh

    Palladium Complexes of a New Type of N-heterocyclic Carbene. Ligand Derived From a Tricyclic Triazolooxazine Framework. Manoj Kumar Gangwar, Alok Ch. Kalita and Prasenjit Ghosh*. Department of Chemistry,. Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, ... 2. Figure S1. 1. H NMR spectrum of the compound 1a in CDCl3.

  3. Electronic structure of palladium and its relation to uv spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, N.E.

    1976-01-01

    The electronic-energy-band structure of palladium has been calculated by means of the relativistic augmented-plane-wave method covering energies up to 30 eV above the Fermi level. The optical interband transitions producing structure in the dielectric function up to photon energies of 25 eV have ...

  4. Exposure to nickel and palladium from dental appliances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ventura Da Cruz Rodrigues Milheiro, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    The application of a dental material into the oral cavity is not free of biological implications, as deterioration of the material will undoubtedly occur. The adverse health effects of palladium and nickel are well known and their immunologic cross-reactivity is well established. The aim of this

  5. Study of electroplated silver-palladium biofouling inhibiting coating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiang, Wen-Chi; Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel; Schroll, Casper

    2008-01-01

    Biofouling can cause many undesirable effects in industrial and medical settings. In this study, a new biofouling inhibiting Ag-Pd surface was designed to form an inhibiting effect by itself. This design was based on silver combined with nobler palladium, both with catalytic properties. Owing to ...

  6. Confined palladium colloids in mesoporous frameworks for carbon nanotube growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berenguer-Murcia, A.; Rebrov, E.V.; Cabaj, M.; Wheatley, A.E.H.; Johnson, B.F.G.; Robertson, J.; Schouten, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    Palladium colloidal nanoparticles with an average size of approximately 2.4 nm have been incorporated into mesoporous inorganic thin films following a multistep approach. This involves the deposition of mesoporous titania thin films with a thickness of 200 nm by spin-coating on titanium plates with

  7. J. Genet. classic 101

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Journal of Genetics, Vol. 85, No. 2, August 2006. 101. Page 2. J. Genet. classic. 102. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 85, No. 2, August 2006. Page 3. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 85, No. 2, August 2006. 103. Page 4. J. Genet. classic. 104. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 85, No. 2, August 2006. Page 5. J. Genet. classic.

  8. 41 CFR 101-30.101-13 - Management data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Management data. 101-30....1-General § 101-30.101-13 Management data. Management data means recorded data that relate an item... of supply, or inventory control. Management data do not affect the identification of an item. [41 FR...

  9. Main: CRC101 [AT Atlas

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CRC101 CRC1 Establishment of Chemical Library and Development of Protein Regulation... Technology Chemical library Tetsuo Nagano Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University CRC101.csml ...

  10. Growth and sedimentation of fine particles produced in aqueous solutions of palladium sulfate and palladium sulfate-silver sulfate induced by gamma-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatada, Motoyoshi; Jonah, C.D.

    1994-10-01

    It is known that palladium and palladium-silver fine particles were formed from deaerated aqueous solutions of palladium sulfate and palladium sulfate-silver sulfate induced by gamma-ray irradiation. Changes in particle size and with amount of particles in the solution with time during and after irradiation were studied using dynamic light scattering technique and UV spectrophotometer. The particles formed from palladium sulfate solution are found to be water-filled bulky particles of diameter of 200 nm, which grow by mutual coagulation even after irradiation was terminated. Average density depends on concentration of palladium ion in the solution and dose, and the lowest density was about 2 g/cm 3 for particles of 200 nm obtained from 0.06 mM solution by 2.4 kGy irradiation. The average density of the particles obtained from palladium sulfate-silver sulfate solutions was smaller than those obtained for the corresponding palladium sulfate solutions. Supersonic agitation destroyed coagulated precipitates to form fine particles, but did not form clusters of a few atoms. (author)

  11. Palladium-Catalyzed Atom-Transfer Radical Cyclization at Remote Unactivated C(sp3 )-H Sites: Hydrogen-Atom Transfer of Hybrid Vinyl Palladium Radical Intermediates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratushnyy, Maxim; Parasram, Marvin; Wang, Yang; Gevorgyan, Vladimir

    2018-03-01

    A novel mild, visible-light-induced palladium-catalyzed hydrogen atom translocation/atom-transfer radical cyclization (HAT/ATRC) cascade has been developed. This protocol involves a 1,5-HAT process of previously unknown hybrid vinyl palladium radical intermediates, thus leading to iodomethyl carbo- and heterocyclic structures. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Palladium nanotubes formed by lipid tubule templating and their application in ethanol electrocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yinan; Ma, Shenghua; Su, Yingchun; Han, Xiaojun

    2015-04-13

    Palladium nanotubes were fabricated by using lipid tubules as templates for the first time in a controlled manner. The positively charged lipid 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammoniumpropane (DOTAP) was doped into lipid tubules to adsorb PdCl4 (2-) on the tubule surfaces for further reduction. The lipid tubule formation was optimized by studying the growing dynamics and ethanol/water ratio. The DOTAP-doped tubules showed pH stability from 0 to 14, which makes them ideal templates for metal plating. The Pd nanotubes are open-ended with a tunable wall thickness. They exhibited good electrocatalytic performance in ethanol. Their electrochemically active surface areas were 6.5, 10.6, and 83.2 m(2)  g(-1) for Pd nanotubes with 77, 101, and 150 nm wall thickness, respectively. These Pd nanotubes have great potential in fuel cells. The method demonstrated also opens up a way to synthesize hollow metal nanotubes. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Fexofenadine Suppresses Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity in the Murine Model of Palladium Allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryota Matsubara

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Palladium is frequently used in dental materials, and sometimes causes metal allergy. It has been suggested that the immune response by palladium-specific T cells may be responsible for the pathogenesis of delayed-type hypersensitivity in study of palladium allergic model mice. In the clinical setting, glucocorticoids and antihistamine drugs are commonly used for treatment of contact dermatitis. However, the precise mechanism of immune suppression in palladium allergy remains unknown. We investigated inhibition of the immune response in palladium allergic mice by administration of prednisolone as a glucocorticoid and fexofenadine hydrochloride as an antihistamine. Compared with glucocorticoids, fexofenadine hydrochloride significantly suppressed the number of T cells by interfering with the development of antigen-presenting cells from the sensitization phase. Our results suggest that antihistamine has a beneficial effect on the treatment of palladium allergy compared to glucocorticoids.

  14. Method for recovering palladium and technetium values from nuclear fuel reprocessing waste solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Delphin, Walter H.

    1979-07-24

    A method for recovering palladium and technetium values from nuclear fuel reprocessing waste solutions containing these and other values by contacting the waste solution with an extractant of tricaprylmethylammonium nitrate in an inert hydrocarbon diluent which extracts the palladium and technetium values from the waste solution. The palladium and technetium values are recovered from the extractant and from any other coextracted values with a strong nitric acid strip solution.

  15. Preparation of Palladium/Silver-Coated Polyimide Nanotubes: Flexible, Electrically Conductive Fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Lushi Kong; Guanchun Rui; Guangyu Wang; Rundong Huang; Ran Li; Jiajie Yu; Shengli Qi; Dezhen Wu

    2017-01-01

    A simple and practical method for coating palladium/silver nanoparticles on polyimide (PI) nanotubes is developed. The key steps involved in the process are silver ion exchange/reduction and displacement reactions between silver and palladium ions. With the addition of silver, the conductivity of the PI nanotubes is greatly enhanced. Further, the polyimide nanotubes with a dense, homogeneous coating of palladium nanoparticles remain flexible after heat treatment and show the possibility for u...

  16. Surface topography of a palladium cathode after electrolysis in heavy water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, D.S.; Dash, J.; Keefe, P.S.

    1993-01-01

    Electrolysis was performed with a palladium cathode and an electrolyte containing both hydrogen and deuterium ions. The cathode bends toward the anode during this process. Examination of both the concave and the convex surfaces with the scanning electron microscope, scanning tunneling microscope, and atomic force microscope shows unusual surface characteristics. Rimmed craters with faceted crystals inside and multitextural surfaces were observed on an electrolyzed palladium cathode but not on palladium that has not been electrolyzed. 9 refs., 9 figs

  17. Determination of the Debye-Waller Factor of hydrogen in Palladium and Palladium Silver alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khodabakhsh, R.

    1986-01-01

    The mean square amplitude of the vibrating hydrogen in metals can be determined by using coherent elastic neutron scattering experiments, inelastic one-phonon scattering measurements. To determine the D.W.F. Debye-Waller Factor from the coherent elastic scattering measurements, information about the positions of atoms within the unit is required, and vice versa. The main difficulty concerning the determination of the D.W.F. from the inelastic experiment is in elimination of multi-phonon contribution from the measured spectrum. However, the D.W.F. of hydrogen in palladium has been usually determined by the intensity of the quasi-elastic line. An integration of the measured scattering law S(Q,W) at constant Q, over a certain energy window ΔE, results in the quasi-elastic intensity. To obtain an accurate result, this window has to be chosen large enough to comprise most of the quasi-elastic line, but sufficiently small so that the phonon contributions are small. The MARX spectrometer is ideally constructed for this type of measurement where the window is about +-1 Mev for incident neutron wavelength, =4.115 A. Thus, the quasi-elastic scattering method was considered the best method of determining the D.W.F. of hydrogen in palladium using the MARX spectrometer. However, if the acoustic part overlaps with the quasi-elastic part, one has to obtain the D.W.F. by fitting the data to a quasi-elastic model. The work to be reported here is the investigation of variations of the D.W.F. of hydrogen in Pd and PdAgsub(0.085) with temperature and extension of the available data to as high a temperature as possible. Therefore the integrated intensity of incoherent quasi-elastic neutron scattering by proton in polycrystallin Pd/H and PdAgsub(0.085)/H was investigated as a function of the scattering vector Q. A quasi-harmonic D.W.F. behaviour was observed at elevated temperatures. The observed Debye-Waller Factor depends strongly on the form of the amplitude weighted frequency

  18. Noise temperature measurements for the determination of the thermodynamic temperature of the melting point of palladium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edler, F.; Kuhne, M.; Tegeler, E. [Bundesanstalt Physikalisch-Technische, Berlin (Germany)

    2004-02-01

    The thermodynamic temperature of the melting point of palladium in air was measured by noise thermometric methods. The temperature measurement was based on noise comparison using a two-channel arrangement to eliminate parasitic noises of electronic components by cross correlation. Three miniature fixed points filled with pure palladium (purity: {approx}99.99%, mass: {approx}90 g) were used to realize the melts of the fixed point metal. The measured melting temperature of palladium in air amounted to 1552.95 deg C {+-} 0.21 K (k = 2). This temperature is 0.45 K lower than the temperature of the melting point of palladium measured by radiation thermometry. (authors)

  19. Kinetic Characteristics of Hydrogen Transfer Through Palladium-Modified Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petriev, I. S.; Frolov, V. Yu.; Bolotin, S. N.; Baryshev, M. G.; Kopytov, G. F.

    2018-01-01

    The paper deals with hydrogen transfer through Pd-23%Ag alloy membrane, the surface of which is modified by the electrolytic deposition of highly dispersed palladium. The dependence between the density of hydrogen flow and its excess pressure on the input surface of membrane is well approximated by the first-order curve. This fact indicates that the process of hydrogen permeability is defined by its dissociation on the input surface. Activation energy of this process is 47.9 kJ/mol which considerably exceeds that of the process of hydrogen transfer through palladium (22-30 kJ/mol). This confirms the fact that the chemisorption is a rate-controlling step of the hydrogen transfer through membrane.

  20. Analysis of the anomalous hydrogen solubilities in deformed palladiums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Choong Nyeon; Lee, Ho Jong

    1987-02-01

    The anomalous hydrogen solubilities in the deformed palladiums were analyzed by empolying modified Kirchheim's model with considering the partially coherent strain energy which would induced during hydride precipitation around edge dislocations. The dislocation densities, obtained by this model, of the various cold worked and/or reversible US transformed palladium samples were the order of 10/sup 11/cm/sup -2/. The partially coherent strain energies were about 3 kJ/molH and nearly same in the various samples. This value could be compared with the incoherent strain energy, 0.4kJ/molH, which was obtained from the hysteresis on P-C isotherm, and the coherent strain energy calulated, 9.6kJ/molH.

  1. Hydrogenation of carbon monoxide over supported palladium catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, K.; Hashimoto, H.; Kunugi, T.

    1978-03-01

    An alumina-supported 2% palladium catalyst had higher activity for carbon monoxide hydrogenation than a silica-supported 2% palladium catalyst, at 250/sup 0/-400/sup 0/C and 1 atm. The addition of lanthanum oxide or thorium oxide, but not of potassium oxide, to the silica-supported catalyst increased the conversion at 350/sup 0/C from 1.1% to 81.0% with a selectivity of 56.1% for methane, 1.4% for C/sub 2/ compounds, 0.1% for C/sub 3/ compounds, and 42.5% for carbon dioxide. Temperature-programed desorption of carbon monoxide in a hydrogen stream showed that of two desorption peaks observed for carbon monoxide, the one at higher temperature corresponded to the carbon monoxide species which hydrogenates to methane and that the area of this peak increased with increasing thorium content of the catalyst. Graphs, tables, and 12 references.

  2. Adlayers of palladium particles and their aggregates on porous polypropylene hollow fiber membranes as hydrogenization contractors/reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volkov, V.V.; Lebedeva, V.I.; Petrova, I.V.; Bobyl, A.V.; Konnikov, S.G.; Roldughin, V.I.; Erkel, J. van; Tereshchenko, G.F.

    2011-01-01

    Principal approaches for the preparation of catalytic membrane reactors based on polymer membranes containing palladium nanoparticles and for the description of their characteristics are presented. The method for the development of adlayers composed of palladium nanoparticles and their aggregates on

  3. Co-deposition of palladium with hydrogen isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dash, J.; Ambadkar, A.

    2006-01-01

    Palladium was co-deposited with hydrogen isotopes on a Pd cathode. This resulted in enhanced production of excess thermal power. After electrolysis the Pd Lβ/ Lα ratio was found to be increased in characteristic X-ray spectra from localized, microscopic areas on the surface of the Pd cathode. This suggests the possibility that appreciable amounts of silver are present in these areas. (authors)

  4. Unsupported palladium alloy membranes and methods of making same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Way, J. Douglas; Thoen, Paul; Gade, Sabina K.

    2015-06-02

    The invention provides support-free palladium membranes and methods of making these membranes. Single-gas testing of the unsupported foils produced hydrogen permeabilities equivalent to thicker membranes produced by cold-rolling. Defect-free films as thin as 7.2 microns can be fabricated, with ideal H.sub.2/N.sub.2 selectivities as high as 40,000. Homogeneous membrane compositions may also be produced using these methods.

  5. Interaction of CO with Palladium Supported on Oxidized Tungsten

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirka, Ivan; Plšek, Jan; Šutara, F.; Matolín, V.; Cháb, Vladimír; Prince, K. C.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 110, č. 47 (2006), s. 23837-23844 ISSN 1520-6106 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/05/0244; GA AV ČR IAA1010413 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503; CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : palladium * WOx surfaces * TPD Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.115, year: 2006

  6. Application of Colloidal Palladium Nanoparticles for Labeling in Electron Microscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vancová, Marie; Šlouf, Miroslav; Langhans, Jan; Pavlová, Eva; Nebesářová, Jana

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 5 (2011), s. 810-816 ISSN 1431-9276 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200520704; GA AV ČR KJB600960906; GA ČR GAP205/10/0348 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518; CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : electron microscopy * colloidal palladium * nanoparticles * labeling * salivary glands * Ixodes ricinus Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.007, year: 2011

  7. HE3 outgassing from four working palladium and uranium beds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souers, P. C.; Coronado, P. R.; Fearon, F. M.; Garza, R. G.; Shaw , J. F.; Stump, R. K.; Tsugawa, R. T.

    1988-01-01

    The He 3 output from two palladium and two uranium beds storing T 2 and D-T was studied as a function of time. Three of the beds were started new and watched for a year; the fourth bed was twelve years old. All four were beds used in routine tritium handling. Initial stoichiometries were PdT/sub 0.3/ and UT/sub 0.7/ so that both operated at similar 1 to 130 kPa pressures. The He 3 from palladium ranged from the 0.002 mo1% lower level of sensitivity to 0.01% for PdT 2 at one year of age. The UT system showed 0.1% He 3 at 4 to 62 days and 0.1 to 10% at longer times, with the first cuts being high in He 3 . The palladium bed with 95 to 97% pure T 2 enriches the output to as high as 97 to 99%. 9 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  8. Substoichiometric extraction of traces of gold and palladium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colonat, J.-F.

    1975-01-01

    Several systems for extracting palladium at concentrations ranging from 10 -4 to 10 -6 M/l were studied. Extraction by dithizone is limited by the transformation of the primary complex into a secondary complex which takes place at concentrations around 10 -6 M. This transformation has been demonstrated kinetically. Dimethylglyoxime is an interesting reagent in substoichiometry, in spite of its comparatively low extraction constant. Various complexes which are formed in a highly chlorinated medium have been proposed. Use of copper diethyldithiocarbamate is limited principally by its stability in presence of chlorine ions. The kinetic formation of palladium diethyldithiocarbamate has been studied with greater precision. A direct determination of 100μg of palladium in a copper matrix without preliminary separation has given results comparable in every way with those of other methods. In the case of gold (III) the constants of formation with the diethyldithiocarbamate ion have been determined by an iterative method of calculation, using the influence curves of interfering metals. Finally conditions for an automatization of the substoichiometric extraction, as well as its possibilities for gold determination in the range 200-20ppm, were proposed [fr

  9. Arsenic (III Adsorption Using Palladium Nanoparticles from Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Arsiya

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Arsenic in drinking water is the greatest threat to health effects especially in water. The purpose of this study is application of green palladium nanoparticles for removal of trivalent Arsenic from aqueous solutions and also the impact of some factors such as retention time, pH, concentration of palladium nanoparticles and Arsenic concentrations was studied. The values for Arsenic removal from aqueous solutions were measured by furnace atomic adsorption spectrometry (Conter AA700. In the study, Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models and pseudo-second order kinetic model were studied. The results of  optimization is shown that 0.5 g of nanoparticles can removed %99.8 of Arsenic with initial concentration of  0.5 g/l, in 5 minutes at pH=4. Langmuir model, Freundlich model (R2=0.94 and pseudo-second order kinetic model (R2=0.99 shown high correlation for removing of Arsenic from aqueous solutions. It was found, palladium nanoparticles can be used as an efficient method to remove Arsenic from aqueous solutions in a short time.

  10. Recovery of hydrogen from impurities using a palladium membrane reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willms, R.S.; Okuno, K.

    1993-01-01

    One of the important steps in processing the exhaust from a fusion reactor is recovering tritium which is incorporated into molecules such as water and methane. One device which may prove to be very effective for this purpose is a palladium membrane reactor. This is a reactor which incorporates a Pd/Ag membrane in the reactor geometry. Reactions such as water gas shift, steam reforming and methane cracking can be carried out over the reactor catalyst, and the product hydrogen can be simultaneously removed from the reacting mixture. Because product is removed, greater than usual conversions can be obtained. In addition ultrapure hydrogen is produced, eliminating the need for an additional processing step. A palladium membrane reactor has been built and tested with three different catalysts. Initial results with a Ni-based catalyst show that it is very effective at promoting all three reactions listed above. Under the proper conditions, hydrogen recoveries approaching 100% have been observed. This study serves to experimentally validate the palladium membrane reactor as potentially important tool for fusion fuel processing

  11. Palladium alloy membrane process for the treatment of hydrogen isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Hongsuk; Paek, Seungwoo; Lee, Minsoo; Kim, Kwangrag; Yim, Sungpaal; Ahn, Dohee [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Shim, Myunghwa [Univ. of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-11-15

    Tritium is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen and it has a half-life of 12.3 years; it decays to He-3 by emitting a low energy beta radiation with an average energy of 5.7 keV and a maximum energy of 18.6 keV. Transfer of environmentally tritiated water to humans takes place via an inhalation, diffusion through the skin and ingestion. Radioactive waste containing tritium is continuously generated by the nuclear industry in, for example, nuclear reactor operations and a radioisotope production, as well as in medical research. Methods for removing tritium from liquid waste provide an alternative to the control of tritium emissions and a personnel exposure. A combined electrolysis and catalytic exchange process is a very effective method to remove small quantities of tritium from light or heavy waste water streams. The process consists of three main steps: (a) A front end step that exchanges the tritium to a less toxic hydrogen phase. This can be performed either through a chemical exchange in the presence of a platinum supported catalyst or through the decomposition of water. (b) A back end process that purifies the tritiated hydrogen gas which evolved from the electrolysis. This can be performed through a palladium alloy membrane separator. (c) A means of storing the concentrated gas safely. Uranium is used if the storage is temporary; titanium is usually employed for long term storage. To gain a better understanding of the tritiated hydrogen gas purification process, a mathematical model of the palladium alloy membrane has been used. This model is described herein, and the representative results of the model calculations are presented. The authors selected the palladium alloy membrane for the hydrogen purification process by considering the membrane properties, such as a chemical resistance, mechanical stability, thermal stability, high permeability, and a stable operation. The solution-diffusion model can be a useful tool for designing a membrane permeator. The

  12. Palladium alloy membrane process for the treatment of hydrogen isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Hongsuk; Paek, Seungwoo; Lee, Minsoo; Kim, Kwangrag; Yim, Sungpaal; Ahn, Dohee; Shim, Myunghwa

    2005-01-01

    Tritium is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen and it has a half-life of 12.3 years; it decays to He-3 by emitting a low energy beta radiation with an average energy of 5.7 keV and a maximum energy of 18.6 keV. Transfer of environmentally tritiated water to humans takes place via an inhalation, diffusion through the skin and ingestion. Radioactive waste containing tritium is continuously generated by the nuclear industry in, for example, nuclear reactor operations and a radioisotope production, as well as in medical research. Methods for removing tritium from liquid waste provide an alternative to the control of tritium emissions and a personnel exposure. A combined electrolysis and catalytic exchange process is a very effective method to remove small quantities of tritium from light or heavy waste water streams. The process consists of three main steps: (a) A front end step that exchanges the tritium to a less toxic hydrogen phase. This can be performed either through a chemical exchange in the presence of a platinum supported catalyst or through the decomposition of water. (b) A back end process that purifies the tritiated hydrogen gas which evolved from the electrolysis. This can be performed through a palladium alloy membrane separator. (c) A means of storing the concentrated gas safely. Uranium is used if the storage is temporary; titanium is usually employed for long term storage. To gain a better understanding of the tritiated hydrogen gas purification process, a mathematical model of the palladium alloy membrane has been used. This model is described herein, and the representative results of the model calculations are presented. The authors selected the palladium alloy membrane for the hydrogen purification process by considering the membrane properties, such as a chemical resistance, mechanical stability, thermal stability, high permeability, and a stable operation. The solution-diffusion model can be a useful tool for designing a membrane permeator. The

  13. New Palladium-Catalyzed Approaches to Heterocycles and Carbocycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Qinhua [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2004-12-19

    The tert-butylimines of o-(1-alkynyl)benzaldehydes and analogous pyridinecarbaldehydes have been cyclized under very mild reaction conditions in the presence of I2, ICl, PhSeCl, PhSCl and p-O2NC6H4SCl to give the corresponding halogen-, selenium- and sulfur-containing disubstituted isoquinolines and naphthyridines, respectively. Monosubstituted isoquinolines and naphthyridines have been synthesized by the metal-catalyzed ring closure of these same iminoalkynes. This methodology accommodates a variety of iminoalkynes and affords the anticipated heterocycles in moderate to excellent yields. The Pd(II)-catalyzed cyclization of 2-(1-alkynyl)arylaldimines in the presence of various alkenes provides an efficient way to synthesize a variety of 4-(1-alkenyl)-3-arylisoquinolines in moderate to excellent yields. The introduction of an ortho-methoxy group on the arylaldimine promotes the Pd-catalyzed cyclization and stabilizes the resulting Pd(II) intermediate, improving the yields of the isoquinoline products. Highly substituted naphthalenes have been synthesized by the palladium-catalyzed annulation of a variety of internal alkynes, in which two new carbon-carbon bonds are formed in a single step under relatively mild reaction conditions. This method has also been used to synthesize carbazoles, although a higher reaction temperature is necessary. The process involves arylpalladation of the alkyne, followed by intramolecular Heck olefination and double bond isomerization. This method accommodates a variety of functional groups and affords the anticipated highly substituted naphthalenes and carbazoles in good to excellent yields. Novel palladium migratiodarylation methodology for the synthesis of complex fused polycycles has been developed, in which one or more sequential Pd-catalyzed intramolecular migration processes involving C-H activation are employed. The chemistry works best with electron-rich aromatics, which is in agreement

  14. Palladium emissions in the environment: analytical methods, environmental assessment and health effects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alt, Friedrich; Zereini, Fathi

    2006-01-01

    ... (Eds)). But there is a clear lack of information concerning palladium. It is very important to condense the present state of research findings from emission to potential health risks for the environment and humans. Very important is the chapter about analytical determination of palladium, which shows clearly the problems of several analytic...

  15. Carbon nanotubes decorated with palladium nanoparticles : Synthesis, characterization, and catalytic activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karousis, Nikolaos; Tsotsou, Georgia-Eleni; Evangelista, Fabrizio; Rudolf, Petra; Ragoussis, Nikitas; Tagmatarchis, Nikos

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the in situ preparation of palladium nanoparticles, as mediated by the self-regulated reduction of palladium acetate with the aid of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), followed by subsequent deposition onto single-walled carbon nanotubes and multimalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), is

  16. Oxygen Activated, Palladium Nanoparticle Catalyzed, Ultrafast Cross-Coupling of Organolithium Reagents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijnen, Dorus; Tosi, Filippo; Vila, Carlos; Stuart, Marc C. A.; Elsinga, Philip H.; Szymanski, Wiktor; Feringa, Ben L.

    2017-01-01

    The discovery of an ultrafast cross-coupling of alkyland aryllithium reagents with a range of aryl bromides is presented. The essential role of molecular oxygen to form the active palladium catalyst was established; palladium nanoparticles that are highly active in cross-coupling reactions with

  17. Palladium(II)-Stabilized Pyridine-2-Diazotates: Synthesis, Structural Characterization, and Cytotoxicity Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tskhovrebov, Alexander G; Vasileva, Anna A; Goddard, Richard; Riedel, Tina; Dyson, Paul J; Mikhaylov, Vladimir N; Serebryanskaya, Tatiyana V; Sorokoumov, Viktor N; Haukka, Matti

    2018-02-05

    Well-defined diazotates are scarce. Here we report the synthesis of unprecedented homoleptic palladium(II) diazotate complexes. The palladium(II)-mediated nitrosylation of 2-aminopyridines with NaNO 2 results in the formation of metal-stabilized diazotates, which were found to be cytotoxic to human ovarian cancer cells.

  18. A DFT study of arsine adsorption on palladium doped graphene: Effects of palladium cluster size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunaseth, Manaschai; Mudchimo, Tanabat; Namuangruk, Supawadee; Kungwan, Nawee; Promarak, Vinich; Jungsuttiwong, Siriporn

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The relationship between charge difference and adsorption strength demonstrates that charge migration from Pd_n-SDG to AsH_x significantly enhanced adsorption strength, the Pd_6 clusters doped SDG with a steep slope is recommended as a superior adsorbent material for AsH_3 removal from gas stream. - Highlights: • Pd atom and Pd clusters bind strongly onto the defective graphene surface. • Larger size of Pd cluster adsorbs arsine and its hydrogenated products stronger. • Order of adsorption strength on Pd_n doped graphene: As > AsH > AsH_2 > > AsH_3. • Charge migration characterizes the strong adsorption of AsH_2, AsH, and As. • Pd cluster doped graphene is thermodynamically preferable for arsine removal. - Abstract: In this study, we have investigated the size effects of palladium (Pd) doped single-vacancy defective graphene (SDG) surface to the adsorption of AsH_3 and its dehydrogenated products on Pd using density functional theory calculations. Here, Pd cluster binding study revealed that Pd_6 nanocluster bound strongest to the SDG surface, while adsorption of AsH_x (x = 0–3) on the most stable Pd_n doped SDG showed that dehydrogenated arsine compounds adsorbed onto the surface stronger than the pristine AsH_3 molecule. Charge analysis revealed that considerable amount of charge migration from Pd to dehydrogenated arsine molecules after adsorption may constitute strong adsorption for dehydrogenated arsine. In addition, study of thermodynamic pathways of AsH_3 dehydrogenation on Pd_n doped SDG adsorbents indicated that Pd cluster doping on SDG adsorbent tends to be thermodynamically favorable for AsH_3 decomposition than the single-Pd atom doped SDG. Hence, our study has indicated that Pd_6 clusters doped SDG is more advantageous as adsorbent material for AsH_3 removal.

  19. Development of anodic stripping voltametry for the determination of palladium in high level nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhardwaj, T. K. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh (United States); Sharma, H. S.; Affarwal, S. K. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Jain, P. C. [Meerut College, Meerut (India)

    2012-12-15

    Deposition potential, deposition time, square wave frequency, rotation speed of the rotating disc electrode, and palladium concentration were studied on a Glassy Carbon Electrode (GCE) in 0.01M HCl for the determination of palladium in High Level Nuclear Waste (HLNW) by anodic stripping voltammetry. Experimental conditions were optimized for the determination of palladium at two different, 10-8 and 10-7 M, levels. Error and standard deviation of this method were under 1% for all palladium standard solutions. The developed technique was successfully applied as a subsidiary method for the determination of palladium in simulated high level nuclear waste with very good precision and high accuracy (under 1 % error and standard deviation).

  20. Main: PPD101 [AT Atlas

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available PPD101 PPD1 Development of novel affinity tag system for the high-quality productio...uantification, purification and tag removal for a variety of proteins. MPB3|MPB4 Protein Sci. (2008)|Hybridoma. (2008)|J Proteomics. (2010) 18787202|20566373|18847346 PPD101.csml ...

  1. 41 CFR 101-30.101-1a - Item of production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Item of production. 101-30.101-1a Section 101-30.101-1a Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management....1-General § 101-30.101-1a Item of production. Item-of-production means those articles, equipment...

  2. A DFT study of arsine adsorption on palladium doped graphene: Effects of palladium cluster size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunaseth, Manaschai, E-mail: manaschai@nanotec.or.th [National Nanotechnology Center (NANOTEC), National Science and Technology Development Agency (NSTDA) , Pathum Thani 12120 (Thailand); Mudchimo, Tanabat [Department of Chemistry and Center of Excellence for Innovation in Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Ubon Ratchathani University, Ubon Ratchathani 34190 (Thailand); Namuangruk, Supawadee [National Nanotechnology Center (NANOTEC), National Science and Technology Development Agency (NSTDA) , Pathum Thani 12120 (Thailand); Kungwan, Nawee [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Promarak, Vinich [Department of Material Science and Engineering, School of Molecular Science and Engineering, Vidyasirimedhi Institute of Science and Technology, Rayong 21201 (Thailand); Jungsuttiwong, Siriporn, E-mail: siriporn.j@ubu.ac.th [Department of Chemistry and Center of Excellence for Innovation in Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Ubon Ratchathani University, Ubon Ratchathani 34190 (Thailand)

    2016-03-30

    Graphical abstract: The relationship between charge difference and adsorption strength demonstrates that charge migration from Pd{sub n}-SDG to AsH{sub x} significantly enhanced adsorption strength, the Pd{sub 6} clusters doped SDG with a steep slope is recommended as a superior adsorbent material for AsH{sub 3} removal from gas stream. - Highlights: • Pd atom and Pd clusters bind strongly onto the defective graphene surface. • Larger size of Pd cluster adsorbs arsine and its hydrogenated products stronger. • Order of adsorption strength on Pd{sub n} doped graphene: As > AsH > AsH{sub 2} > > AsH{sub 3}. • Charge migration characterizes the strong adsorption of AsH{sub 2}, AsH, and As. • Pd cluster doped graphene is thermodynamically preferable for arsine removal. - Abstract: In this study, we have investigated the size effects of palladium (Pd) doped single-vacancy defective graphene (SDG) surface to the adsorption of AsH{sub 3} and its dehydrogenated products on Pd using density functional theory calculations. Here, Pd cluster binding study revealed that Pd{sub 6} nanocluster bound strongest to the SDG surface, while adsorption of AsH{sub x} (x = 0–3) on the most stable Pd{sub n} doped SDG showed that dehydrogenated arsine compounds adsorbed onto the surface stronger than the pristine AsH{sub 3} molecule. Charge analysis revealed that considerable amount of charge migration from Pd to dehydrogenated arsine molecules after adsorption may constitute strong adsorption for dehydrogenated arsine. In addition, study of thermodynamic pathways of AsH{sub 3} dehydrogenation on Pd{sub n} doped SDG adsorbents indicated that Pd cluster doping on SDG adsorbent tends to be thermodynamically favorable for AsH{sub 3} decomposition than the single-Pd atom doped SDG. Hence, our study has indicated that Pd{sub 6} clusters doped SDG is more advantageous as adsorbent material for AsH{sub 3} removal.

  3. Detecting Airborne Mercury by Use of Palladium Chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Margaret; Shevade, Abhijit; Kisor, Adam; Homer, Margie; Jewell, April; Manatt, Kenneth; Torres, Julia; Soler, Jessica; Taylor, Charles

    2009-01-01

    Palladium chloride films have been found to be useful as alternatives to the gold films heretofore used to detect airborne elemental mercury at concentrations of the order of parts per billion (ppb). Somewhat more specifically, when suitably prepared palladium chloride films are exposed to parts-per-billion or larger concentrations of airborne mercury, their electrical resistances change by amounts large enough to be easily measurable. Because airborne mercury adversely affects health, it is desirable to be able to detect it with high sensitivity, especially in enclosed environments in which there is a risk of leakage of mercury from lamps or other equipment. The detection of mercury by use of gold films involves the formation of gold/mercury amalgam. Gold films offer adequate sensitivity for detection of airborne mercury and could easily be integrated into an electronic-nose system designed to operate in the temperature range of 23 to 28 C. Unfortunately, in order to regenerate a gold-film mercury sensor, one must heat it to a temperature of 200 C for several minutes in clean flowing air. In preparation for an experiment to demonstrate the present sensor concept, palladium chloride was deposited from an aqueous solution onto sets of gold electrodes and sintered in air to form a film. Then while using the gold electrodes to measure the electrical resistance of the films, the films were exposed, at a temperature of 25 C, to humidified air containing mercury at various concentrations from 0 to 35 ppb (see figure). The results of this and other experiments have been interpreted as signifying that sensors of this type can detect mercury in room-temperature air at concentrations of at least 2.5 ppb and can readily be regenerated at temperatures <40 C.

  4. Palladium-Catalyzed alpha-Arylation of Tetramic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, Morten; Dorwald, F. Z.; Peschke, B.

    2009-01-01

    A mild, racemization-free, palladium-Catalyzed alpha-arylation of tetramic acids (2,4-pyrrolidinediones) has been developed. Various amino acid-derived tetramic acids were cleanly arylated by treatment with 2 mol % of Pd(OAc)(2), 4 mol % of a sterically demanding biaryl phosphine, 2.3 equiv of K2CO...... no effect on their reactivity: both electron-rich and electron-poor aryl chlorides and bromides or triflates led to good yields. Ortho-substituted aryl halides and heteroaryl halides, however, did not undergo the title reaction....

  5. Growth of nanoparticles in hydrogen-implanted palladium subsurfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuyama, F.

    2010-01-01

    Solid particles with nanometric dimensions are shown to grow in the opened subsurface of a polycrystalline palladium (Pd) hydrogen-implanted at around 500 C. The particles are Pd in main composition and densely grown on sloping walls of fissured grain boundaries or cracks. The average grain size increases from deeper to shallow regions, suggesting that a negative temperature gradient toward the surface existed along the crack walls. The nanoparticles are certain to arise from the condensation of Pd vapors on the walls, forcing us to assume that hydrogen atoms implanted in an overpopulation heated their implantation zone so strongly as to vaporize Pd. (orig.)

  6. Growth of nanoparticles in hydrogen-implanted palladium subsurfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuyama, F. [Nagoya Institute of Technology, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya (Japan)

    2010-07-15

    Solid particles with nanometric dimensions are shown to grow in the opened subsurface of a polycrystalline palladium (Pd) hydrogen-implanted at around 500 C. The particles are Pd in main composition and densely grown on sloping walls of fissured grain boundaries or cracks. The average grain size increases from deeper to shallow regions, suggesting that a negative temperature gradient toward the surface existed along the crack walls. The nanoparticles are certain to arise from the condensation of Pd vapors on the walls, forcing us to assume that hydrogen atoms implanted in an overpopulation heated their implantation zone so strongly as to vaporize Pd. (orig.)

  7. Palladium nanoparticles on InP for hydrogen detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdansky Karel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Layers of palladium (Pd nanoparticles on indium phosphide (InP were prepared by electrophoretic deposition from the colloid solution of Pd nanoparticles. Layers prepared by an opposite polarity of deposition showed different physical and morphological properties. Particles in solution are separated and, after deposition onto the InP surface, they form small aggregates. The size of the aggregates is dependent on the time of deposition. If the aggregates are small, the layer has no lateral conductance. Forward and reverse I-V characteristics showed a high rectification ratio with a high Schottky barrier height. The response of the structure on the presence of hydrogen was monitored.

  8. Determination of palladium in biological samples applying nuclear analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavalcante, Cassio Q.; Sato, Ivone M.; Salvador, Vera L. R.; Saiki, Mitiko

    2008-01-01

    This study presents Pd determinations in bovine tissue samples containing palladium prepared in the laboratory, and CCQM-P63 automotive catalyst materials of the Proficiency Test, using instrumental thermal and epithermal neutron activation analysis and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence techniques. Solvent extraction and solid phase extraction procedures were also applied to separate Pd from interfering elements before the irradiation in the nuclear reactor. The results obtained by different techniques were compared against each other to examine sensitivity, precision and accuracy. (author)

  9. Acoustic emission during hydrogen absorption and desorption in palladium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramesh, R.; Mukhopadhyay, C.K.; Jayakumar, T.; Baldev Raj

    1996-01-01

    Acoustic emission technique has been used to study charging and discharging of hydrogen in palladium. During charging, breaking of oxide film due to surface activation and saturation of hydrogen absorption have been identified by acoustic emission. In the discharging cycle, the desorption of hydrogen from the specimen leads to high AE activity immediately after initiation of discharging, followed by gradual decrease in the acoustic activity, which reaches a minimum upon completion of the desorption. The potential of the acoustic emission technique for studying the kinetics of hydrogen absorption and desorption in metals has been shown. (author)

  10. Synthesis of Dihydrobenzofurans via Palladium-Catalyzed Heteroannulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozhkov, Roman Vladimirovich [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Palladium-catalyzed heteroannulation of 1,3-dienes with 3-iodo-2-alkenols, and 2-iodo-2-alkenols, as well as their amino analogs, affords the corresponding cyclic ethers and amines respectively. The presence of a β-hydrogen in the vinylic halide results in β-hydride elimination giving the corresponding alkyne. The presence of a bulky group in the α-position of the vinylic halide results in failure or reduced amounts of annulation products. A chloride source, pyridine base and electron-rich phosphine are essential for this reaction.

  11. Palladium coated fibre Bragg grating based hydrogen sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasinathan, M.; Sosamma, S.; Kishore, S.; Elumalai, V.; Krishnan, R.; Babu Rao, C.; Dash, Sitaram; Murali, N.; Jayakumar, T.

    2011-01-01

    Detection of steam generator leaks in fast nuclear reactors is carried out by monitoring hydrogen in argon cover-gas. Hydrogen released during sodium cleaning of fast reactor components is required to be monitored. Hydrogen sensors with good sensitivity, stability and response time are required for all the above applications. We report a new type of hydrogen sensor with a Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) coated with palladium thin film which is used to detect the leak of hydrogen gas in the Steam Generator (SG) module of the Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR). If water leaks into sodium, it results in sodium-water reaction. In this reaction hydrogen and sodium hydroxide are formed. Due to the explosive risk of hydrogen system, hydrogen sensors are of great interest in this case. It is known that hydrogen forms an explosive mixture with air once its concentration exceeds beyond the explosion limit of four percent. The advantages of FBG based hydrogen sensor over the other hydrogen sensors are its inherent property of safety from sparking, immunity to ambient electromagnetic interference. The sensing mechanism in this device is based on mechanical strain that is induced in the palladium coating when it absorbs hydrogen. This process physically stretches the grating and causes the grating period and grating's refractive index, to change. The Bragg wavelength shift is directly proportional to the strain induced and can be directly related to the percentage of hydrogen exposure. The online monitoring of palladium thin film coating on FBG is carried out and recorded the wavelength change and strain induced on the FBG. A hydrogen sensor set up have been fabricated which consists of SS vessel of capacity 10 litres, provided with pressure gauge, Argon filling line with a valve, Hydrogen injection line with flange, a vent line with valve and Hydrogen sensor fixing point. The Palladium coated FBG based Hydrogen sensor is tested in this experimental facility in the exposure of hydrogen in

  12. 101 questions about energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furfari, S.

    2009-01-01

    Today, energy in the center of the world events. People get swamped with information about energy, environment, energy saving or renewable energy sources. However, the solutions proposed are still in the centre of debates and no consensus exists which allows to define a clear policy: nuclear energy or wind power? Solar energy or biomass fuels? And what about the meaning of the expression 'clean coal'? And why oil prices go up and down while it is said that the resource is close to exhaustion? Mass media are trying to tell us that 'urgency is here', mainly because of the climatic threat of greenhouse gases and because of a world economy totally dependent of politically unstable areas, like Middle East, Africa or Caucasus, but with huge oil and gas resources. And what about Europe, and what about all this gas in Russia? It is hard for a non-specialist to find his way in this complex domain. This is the aim of this book which has opted for the non-politically correct attitude to answer 101 key-questions about the energy topic: Europe's security of supply, energy geopolitics, oil future, energy crises, sustainable development etc. (J.S.)

  13. Palladium sulphide (PdS) films as a new thermoelectric sulphide compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ares, J.R.; Diaz-Chao, P.; Clamagirand, J.; Macia, M.D.; Ferrer, I.J.; Sanchez, C. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain). Lab. de Materiales de Interes en Energias Renovables

    2010-07-01

    Palladium sulphide (PdS) films have been prepared by direct sulphuration of 20 nm thick palladium films at different temperatures (200 C < T < 450 C). Sulphurated films exhibit an unique crystalline phase: PdS. Seebeck coefficient and electrical resistivity of these films are between -110 and -150 {mu}V/K and {proportional_to} 0.08 to 0.8 {omega}cm depending on the sulphuration temperature. Negative sign of Seebeck coefficient indicates an n type conduction in all films. Discussion is focused on the influence of atomic ratio between sulphur and palladium as well as impurities arising from the substrate on transport properties. (orig.)

  14. Interaction between Palladium Nanoparticles and Surface-Modified Carbon Nanotubes: Role of Surface Functionalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Bingsen; Shao, Lidong; Zhang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    degrees C. We focus on probing the effects of oxygen and nitrogen-containing functional groups on supported palladium nanoparticles (NPs) in the model catalytic system. The stability of palladium NPs supported on CNTs depends strongly on the surface properties of CNTs. Moreover, the oxygen...... feature, instability, and subtle response of the components upon application of an external field. Herein, we use insitu TEM, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy techniques to record the interaction in palladium on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) from room temperature to 600...

  15. Supported palladium nanoparticles synthesized by living plants as a catalyst for Suzuki-Miyaura reactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen L Parker

    Full Text Available The metal accumulating ability of plants has previously been used to capture metal contaminants from the environment; however, the full potential of this process is yet to be realized. Herein, the first use of living plants to recover palladium and produce catalytically active palladium nanoparticles is reported. This process eliminates the necessity for nanoparticle extraction from the plant and reduces the number of production steps compared to traditional catalyst palladium on carbon. These heterogeneous plant catalysts have demonstrated high catalytic activity in Suzuki coupling reactions between phenylboronic acid and a range of aryl halides containing iodo-, bromo- and chloro- moieties.

  16. Investigation of mechanical and structural characteristics of platinum and palladium at high temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trumie, B. T.; Gomidzelovie, L.; Marjanovic, S. R.; Krstic, V. R.

    2015-03-30

    In order to broaden future application of products based on platinum and palladium a comparative analysis of their high-temperature mechanical properties was performed. Platinum and palladium are of great importance and are widely used in chemical industry, electronics, for making laboratory dishes, to name a few. Mechanical properties of pure metals, such as: tensile strength, creep rate and rupture time were investigated using universal testing machine for tensile testing of materials. Microstructure of samples was investigated by optical microscopy. Based on obtained results it can be concluded that the platinum, compared to palladium, is superior for high-temperature applications. (Author)

  17. Investigation of mechanical and structural characteristics of platinum and palladium at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trumie, B. T.; Gomidzelovie, L.; Marjanovic, S. R.; Krstic, V. R.

    2015-01-01

    In order to broaden future application of products based on platinum and palladium a comparative analysis of their high-temperature mechanical properties was performed. Platinum and palladium are of great importance and are widely used in chemical industry, electronics, for making laboratory dishes, to name a few. Mechanical properties of pure metals, such as: tensile strength, creep rate and rupture time were investigated using universal testing machine for tensile testing of materials. Microstructure of samples was investigated by optical microscopy. Based on obtained results it can be concluded that the platinum, compared to palladium, is superior for high-temperature applications. (Author)

  18. Carbonylation of 1-hexene in the presence of palladium-anion-exchange resin catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapidus, A.L.; Pirozhkov, S.D.; Buiya, M.A.; Lunin, A.F.; Karapetyan, L.P.; Saldadze, K.M.

    1986-06-20

    Activated charcoal, silica gel, and zeolites containing palladium are active in the carbonylation of lower olefins by carbon monoxide. In the present work, they studied the carbonylation of 1-hexene in the presence of a series of palladium catalysts containing An-221, An-251, and AN-511 anion-exchange catalysts produced in the USSR as the supports. A catalyst obtained by the deposition of palladium(II) on weakly basic anion-exchange resins displays high efficiency in the carbonylation of 1-hexene with the formation of a nixture of enanthoic and 2-methylcaproic acids.

  19. Preliminary design of fusion reactor fuel cleanup system by palladium alloy membrane method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Hiroshi; Konishi, Satoshi; Naruse, Yuji

    1981-10-01

    A design of palladium diffuser and Fuel Cleanup System (FCU) for D-T fusion reactor is proposed. Feasibility of palladium alloy membrane method is discussed based on the early studies by the authors. Operating conditions of the palladium diffuser are determined experimentally. Dimensions of the diffuser are estimated from computer simulation. FCU system is designed under the feed conditions of Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. The system is composed of Pd-diffusers, catalytic oxidizer, freezer and zink beds, and has some advantages in system layout and operation. This design can readily be extended to other conditions of plasma exhaust gases. (author)

  20. Hydrogen sensor based on palladium-yttrium alloy nanosheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Boyi [Queensland Micro- and Nanotechnology Centre, Griffith University, Nathan, QLD 4111 (Australia); Zhu, Yong, E-mail: y.zhu@griffith.edu.au [Queensland Micro- and Nanotechnology Centre, Griffith University, Nathan, QLD 4111 (Australia); Chen, Youping; Song, Han; Huang, Pengcheng [School of Mechanical Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430074 (China); Dao, Dzung Viet [Queensland Micro- and Nanotechnology Centre, Griffith University, Nathan, QLD 4111 (Australia)

    2017-06-15

    This paper presents a hydrogen sensor based on palladium-yttrium (Pd-Y) alloy nanosheet. Zigzag-shaped Pd-Y nanosheet with a thickness of 19.3 nm was deposited on a quartz substrate by using an ultrahigh-vacuum magnetron sputtering system and shadow mask. The atomic ratio of palladium to yttrium in the nanosheet was 0.92/0.08. The fabrication process was simple and low-cost, and the sensor can be mass-produced. The experimental results show the sensor has a superior sensitivity, reversibility, and reproducibility. The resistive-based hydrogen detection mechanism in this research is much simpler and more compact compared to the optical-based detection method. - Highlights: • Pd-Y sensing element was fabricated using a magnetron sputtering system and shadow mask. • The Pd-Y compound consisted of 92% Pd and 8% Y. • The fabrication process was simple, low-cost, and mass-production compatible. • The sensor showed superior sensitivity, reversibility, and reproducibility to hydrogen gas. • The device is more compact than the optical-based counterpart.

  1. Chlorodifluoromethane-triggered formation of difluoromethylated arenes catalysed by palladium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhang; Min, Qiao-Qiao; Fu, Xia-Ping; An, Lun; Zhang, Xingang

    2017-09-01

    Difluoromethylated aromatic compounds are of increasing importance in pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals and materials. Chlorodifluoromethane (ClCF2H), an inexpensive, abundant and widely used industrial raw material, represents the ideal and most straightforward difluoromethylating reagent, but introduction of the difluoromethyl group (CF2H) from ClCF2H into aromatics has not been reported. Here, we describe a direct palladium-catalysed difluoromethylation method for coupling ClCF2H with arylboronic acids and esters to generate difluoromethylated arenes with high efficiency. The reaction exhibits a remarkably broad substrate scope, including heteroarylboronic acids, and was used for difluoromethylation of a range of pharmaceuticals and biologically active compounds. Preliminary mechanistic studies revealed that a palladium difluorocarbene intermediate is involved in the reaction. Although numerous metal-difluorocarbene complexes have been prepared, the catalytic synthesis of difluoromethylated or difluoromethylenated compounds involving metal-difluorocarbene complexes has not received much attention. This new reaction therefore also opens the door to understand metal-difluorocarbene complex catalysed reactions.

  2. Hydrogen sensor based on palladium-yttrium alloy nanosheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Boyi; Zhu, Yong; Chen, Youping; Song, Han; Huang, Pengcheng; Dao, Dzung Viet

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a hydrogen sensor based on palladium-yttrium (Pd-Y) alloy nanosheet. Zigzag-shaped Pd-Y nanosheet with a thickness of 19.3 nm was deposited on a quartz substrate by using an ultrahigh-vacuum magnetron sputtering system and shadow mask. The atomic ratio of palladium to yttrium in the nanosheet was 0.92/0.08. The fabrication process was simple and low-cost, and the sensor can be mass-produced. The experimental results show the sensor has a superior sensitivity, reversibility, and reproducibility. The resistive-based hydrogen detection mechanism in this research is much simpler and more compact compared to the optical-based detection method. - Highlights: • Pd-Y sensing element was fabricated using a magnetron sputtering system and shadow mask. • The Pd-Y compound consisted of 92% Pd and 8% Y. • The fabrication process was simple, low-cost, and mass-production compatible. • The sensor showed superior sensitivity, reversibility, and reproducibility to hydrogen gas. • The device is more compact than the optical-based counterpart.

  3. Arvutifirmade TOP 101 aastal 2004

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Arvutifirmade TOP 101; Käibe TOP 20; Käibe kasvu TOP 15; Kasumi TOP 15; Rentaabluse TOP 20; Kasumi kasvu TOP 15; Omakapiali tootlikkuse TOP 15; Eesti arvutifirmade finantsandmed; Arvutifirmade üldandmed

  4. Insertion of molecular oxygen into a palladium(II) methyl bond: a radical chain mechanism involving palladium(III) intermediates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisvert, Luc; Denney, Melanie C; Hanson, Susan Kloek; Goldberg, Karen I

    2009-11-04

    The reaction of (bipy)PdMe(2) (1) (bipy = 2,2'-bipyridine) with molecular oxygen results in the formation of the palladium(II) methylperoxide complex (bipy)PdMe(OOMe) (2). The identity of the product 2 has been confirmed by independent synthesis. Results of kinetic studies of this unprecedented oxygen insertion reaction into a palladium alkyl bond support the involvement of a radical chain mechanism. Reproducible rates, attained in the presence of the radical initiator 2,2'-azobis(2-methylpropionitrile) (AIBN), reveal that the reaction is overall first-order (one-half-order in both [1] and [AIBN], and zero-order in [O(2)]). The unusual rate law (half-order in [1]) implies that the reaction proceeds by a mechanism that differs significantly from those for organic autoxidations and for the recently reported examples of insertion of O(2) into Pd(II) hydride bonds. The mechanism for the autoxidation of 1 is more closely related to that found for the autoxidation of main group and early transition metal alkyl complexes. Notably, the chain propagation is proposed to proceed via a stepwise associative homolytic substitution at the Pd center of 1 with formation of a pentacoordinate Pd(III) intermediate.

  5. 47 CFR 101.513 - Transmitter power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmitter power. 101.513 Section 101.513... SERVICES 24 GHz Service and Digital Electronic Message Service § 101.513 Transmitter power. The transmitter power will be governed by § 101.113. Further, each application must contain an analysis demonstrating...

  6. 10 CFR 434.101 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scope. 434.101 Section 434.101 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Administration and Enforcement-General § 434.101 Scope. 101.1 This part provides design...

  7. Development of polymeric palladium-nanoparticle membrane-installed microflow devices and their application in hydrodehalogenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yoichi M A; Watanabe, Toshihiro; Ohno, Aya; Uozumi, Yasuhiro

    2012-02-13

    We have developed a variety of polymeric palladium-nanoparticle membrane-installed microflow devices. Three types of polymers were convoluted with palladium salts under laminar flow conditions in a microflow reactor to form polymeric palladium membranes at the laminar flow interface. These membranes were reduced with aqueous sodium formate or heat to create microflow devices that contain polymeric palladium-nanoparticle membranes. These microflow devices achieved instantaneous hydrodehalogenation of aryl chlorides, bromides, iodides, and triflates by 10-1000 ppm within a residence time of 2-8 s at 50-90 °C by using safe, nonexplosive, aqueous sodium formate to quantitatively afford the corresponding hydrodehalogenated products. Polychlorinated biphenyl (10-1000 ppm) and polybrominated biphenyl (1000 ppm) were completely decomposed under similar conditions, yielding biphenyl as a fungicidal compound. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Nano-palladium is a cellular catalyst for in vivo chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Miles A.; Askevold, Bjorn; Mikula, Hannes; Kohler, Rainer H.; Pirovich, David; Weissleder, Ralph

    2017-07-01

    Palladium catalysts have been widely adopted for organic synthesis and diverse industrial applications given their efficacy and safety, yet their biological in vivo use has been limited to date. Here we show that nanoencapsulated palladium is an effective means to target and treat disease through in vivo catalysis. Palladium nanoparticles (Pd-NPs) were created by screening different Pd compounds and then encapsulating bis[tri(2-furyl)phosphine]palladium(II) dichloride in a biocompatible poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-b-polyethyleneglycol platform. Using mouse models of cancer, the NPs efficiently accumulated in tumours, where the Pd-NP activated different model prodrugs. Longitudinal studies confirmed that prodrug activation by Pd-NP inhibits tumour growth, extends survival in tumour-bearing mice and mitigates toxicity compared to standard doxorubicin formulations. Thus, here we demonstrate safe and efficacious in vivo catalytic activity of a Pd compound in mammals.

  9. Dinuclear Tetrapyrazolyl Palladium Complexes Exhibiting Facile Tandem Transfer Hydrogenation/Suzuki Coupling Reaction of Fluoroarylketone

    KAUST Repository

    Dehury, Niranjan; Maity, Niladri; Tripathy, Suman Kumar; Basset, Jean-Marie; Patra, Srikanta

    2016-01-01

    Herein, we report an unprecedented example of dinuclear pyrazolyl-based Pd complexes exhibiting facile tandem catalysis for fluoroarylketone: Tetrapyrazolyl di-palladium complexes with varying Pd-Pd distances efficiently catalyze the tandem reaction

  10. Synthesis of pyrrolo(2,3-b)quinolines by palladium-catalyzed heteroannulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gee, Moon Bae; Lee, Won Jung; Yum, Eul Kgun

    2003-01-01

    Palladium-catalyzed heteroannulation of 2-amino-3-iodoquinoline derivatives and 1-trimethylsilyl internal alkynes provided highly regioselective pyrrolo(2,3-b)quinolines with trimethylsilyl group next to the nitrogen atom in the pyrrole ring

  11. Novel O N N Pyrazolyl-imine and Imidazolyl-imine Pincer Palladium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    pincer palladium complexes in Heck coupling reactions. The general form of .... while single crystals suitable for X-ray analyses of complexes 1–4 were grown by ...... non-hydrogen atoms were refined with anisotropic displacement coefficients.

  12. Development of chiral terminal-alkene-phosphine hybrid ligands for palladium-catalyzed asymmetric allylic substitutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhaoqun; Du, Haifeng

    2010-07-02

    A variety of novel chiral terminal-alkene-phosphine hybrid ligands were successfully developed from diethyl L-tartrate for palladium-catalyzed asymmetric allylic alkylations, etherifications, and amination to give the desired products in excellent yields and ee's.

  13. Preparation of fluorinated biaryls through direct palladium-catalyzed coupling of polyfluoroarenes with aryltrifluoroborates

    KAUST Repository

    Fang, Xin; Huang, Yuanyuan; Chen, Xiaoqing; Lin, Xiaoxi; Bai, Zhengshuai; Huang, Kuo-Wei; Yuan, Yaofeng; Weng, Zhiqiang

    2013-01-01

    The direct palladium-catalyzed coupling of polyfluoroarenes with aryltrifluoroborates gave the desired products of fluorinated biaryls in good to excellent yields. A diverse set of important functional groups including methoxy, aldehyde, ester

  14. Nanocomposite catalyst with palladium nanoparticles encapsulated in a polymeric acid: A model for tandem environmental catalysis

    KAUST Repository

    Isimjan, Tayirjan T.; He, Quan; Liu, Yong; Zhu, Jesse; Puddephatt, Richard J.; Anderson, Darren Jason

    2013-01-01

    The synthesis and characterization of a novel hybrid nanocomposite catalyst comprised of palladium nanoparticles embedded in polystyrene sulfonic acid (PSSH) and supported on metal oxides is reported. The catalysts are intended for application

  15. Radiochemical neutron activation analysis of high pure palladium and platinum by ion exchange chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadikov, I.I.; Zinov'ev, V.G.; Sadikova, Z.O.; Salimov, M.I.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The palladium and platinum are widely used for jewel manufacture because of their beautiful white color. However the most part of these metals are widely adopted in the world as catalysts. Many works on analytical chemistry of platinum group elements published during last years are devoted to determination of platinum and palladium in other materials. There are no articles on analysis technique of the palladium and platinum purity published during last 20 years. Available publications are very old and are published till 70th of the last century, and implement chemical and spectral methods. At the same time, the palladium and platinum are very suitable for NAA. Therefore the purpose of our research was development of high-sensitivity and multielement techniques of radiochemical neutron activation analysis of a high pure palladium and platinum. Research of nuclear characteristics of palladium and platinum has shown that radioactive nuclides with different yields are formed under the reactor neutrons. 109 , 111 , 111m Pd, 109m , 111 Ag, 191 , 197 , 199 Pt, 199 Au are the most important among them. 109Pd separation factor is equal to 1*10 5 at palladium analysis, whereas 197 Pt and 199 Au separation factor is equal to 1*10 4 at the platinum analysis every other day after irradiation. Palladium and platinum can be separated by precipitation, extraction and ion exchange methods. For separation of radioactive nuclide of the matrix elements from the impurity elements we used ion exchange chromatography system Dowex-1x8 - 1 M HNO 3 for palladium and Dowex-1x8 - 0.1 M HNO 3 for platinum. At the HNO 3 acid concentrations variation from 0,1 M to 1 M more then 25 elements have distribution factors less than 1 and 10 elements have distribution factors 5 while matrix elements have distribution factors higher than 100. It allows an effective separation of these elements from palladium and platinum. Optimum sizes of the chromatographic column and the column effluent

  16. Determination of palladium by flame photometry; Determinacion de paladio por fotometria de llama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parallada Bellod, R

    1964-07-01

    A study on the determination of palladium by lame photometry, fixing the most convent experimental conditions and using solvents to increase the emission of this elements is carried out. Among the organic solvents, acetone has been found the most efficient. The interferences produced by anions and cations have also been studied and an analytical method is related, in which lines of calibration of 0 to 100 ppm palladium re used. (Author) 7 refs.

  17. Facile synthesis of bacitracin-templated palladium nanoparticles with superior electrocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanji; Wang, Zi; Li, Xiaoling; Yin, Tian; Bian, Kexin; Gao, Faming; Gao, Dawei

    2017-02-01

    Palladium nanomaterials have attracted great attention on the development of electrocatalysts for fuel cells. Herein, we depicted a novel strategy in the synthesis of palladium nanoparticles with superior electrocatalytic activity. The new approach, based on the self-assembly of bacitracin biotemplate and palladium salt for the preparation of bacitracin-palladium nanoparticles (Bac-PdNPs), was simple, low-cost, and green. The complex, composed by a series of spherical Bac-PdNPs with a diameter of 70 nm, exhibited a chain-liked morphology in TEM and a face-centered cubic crystal structure in X-Ray diffraction and selected area electron diffraction. The palladium nanoparticles were mono-dispersed and stable in aqueous solution as shown in TEM and zeta potential. Most importantly, compared to the commercial palladium on carbon (Pd/C) catalyst (8.02 m2 g-1), the Bac-PdNPs showed a larger electrochemically active surface area (47.57 m2 g-1), which endowed the products an excellent electrocatalytic activity for ethanol oxidation in alkaline medium. The strategy in synthesis of Bac-PdNPs via biotemplate approach might light up new ideas in anode catalysts for direct ethanol fuel cells.

  18. Crystal size effect on the electrochemical oxidation of formate on carbon-supported palladium nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Rayana Marcela Izidoro da Silva; Nakazato, Roberto Zenhei; Ciapina, Eduardo Goncalves

    2016-01-01

    Full text: The electrochemical oxidation of formate in alkaline electrolytes has emerged an a promising anodic reaction in the Direct Formate Fuel Cells[1]. Although palladium is considered to be one of the best electro catalyst for the oxidation of formate, important structure-activity relationships are still not understood. In the present work, we investigated the effect of the size of the palladium crystals in the electrochemical oxidation of formate in 0.1 mol L -1 KOH. Carbon-supported palladium nanoparticles (Pd/C) were prepared by chemical reduction of palladium (II) chloride in aqueous media by sodium borohydride in the presence of varying quantities of sodium citrate in the reaction media to obtain metallic crystals with distinct sizes. Analysis of the X-ray diffraction profile revealed the presence of palladium crystals in the range of 6 to 19 nm. Potentiostatic oxidation of formate on the distinct Pd/C samples revealed a volcano-like dependence of the specific activity with the size of the palladium crystals, presenting the highest activity for crystals around 7.5 nm. Reference: [1] A.M. Bartrom, J.L. Haan, The direct formate fuel cell with an alkaline anion exchange membrane, J. Power Sources. 214 (2012) 68-74. (author)

  19. Mechanism of the palladium-catalyzed hydrothiolation of alkynes to thioethers: a DFT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xing-hui; Geng, Zhi-yuan; Wang, Ke-tai; Li, Shan-shan

    2014-09-01

    The mechanisms of the palladium-catalyzed hydrothiolation of alkynes with thiols were investigated using density functional theory at the B3LYP/6-31G(d, p) (SDD for Pd) level. Solvent effects on these reactions were explored using the polarizable continuum model (PCM) for the solvent tetrahydrofuran (THF). Markovnikov-type vinyl sulfides or cis-configured anti-Markovnikov-type products were formed by three possible pathways. Our calculation results suggested the following: (1) the first step of the cycle is a proton-transfer process from thiols onto the palladium atom to form a palladium-thiolate intermediate. The palladium-thiolate species is attacked on alkynes to obtain an elimination product, liberating the catalyst. (2) The higher activation energies for the alkyne into the palladium-thiolate bond indicate that this step is the rate-determining step. The Markovnikov-type vinyl sulfide product is favored. However, for the aromatic alkyne, the cis-configured anti-Markovnikov-type product is favored. (3) The activation energy would reduce when thiols are substituted with an aromatic group. Our calculated results are consistent with the experimental observations of Frech and colleagues for the palladium-catalyzed hydrothiolation of alkynes to thiols.

  20. Preparation of Palladium-Impregnated Ceria by Metal Complex Decomposition for Methane Steam Reforming Catalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worawat Wattanathana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Palladium-impregnated ceria materials were successfully prepared via an integrated procedure between a metal complex decomposition method and a microwave-assisted wetness impregnation. Firstly, ceria (CeO2 powders were synthesized by thermal decomposition of cerium(III complexes prepared by using cerium(III nitrate or cerium(III chloride as a metal source to form a metal complex precursor with triethanolamine or benzoxazine dimer as an organic ligand. Palladium(II nitrate was consequently introduced to the preformed ceria materials using wetness impregnation while applying microwave irradiation to assist dispersion of the dopant. The palladium-impregnated ceria materials were obtained by calcination under reduced atmosphere of 10% H2 in He stream at 700°C for 2 h. Characterization of the palladium-impregnated ceria materials reveals the influences of the metal complex precursors on the properties of the obtained materials. Interestingly, the palladium-impregnated ceria prepared from the cerium(III-benzoxazine dimer complex revealed significantly higher BET specific surface area and higher content of the more active Pdδ+ (δ > 2 species than the materials prepared from cerium(III-triethanolamine complexes. Consequently, it exhibited the most efficient catalytic activity in the methane steam reforming reaction. By optimization of the metal complex precursors, characteristics of the obtained palladium-impregnated ceria catalysts can be modified and hence influence the catalytic activity.

  1. Development of a second generation palladium-catalyzed cycloalkenylation and its application to bioactive natural product synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyota, Masahiro

    2013-07-01

    A novel palladium-catalyzed intramolecular oxidative alkylation of unactivated olefins is described. This protocol was devised to solve one of the drawbacks of the original palladium-catalyzed cycloalkenylation that we developed. We call this new procedure the 'second generation palladium-catalyzed cycloalkenylation'. This protocol has been applied to the total syntheses of cis-195A, trans-195A, boonein, scholareins A, C, D, and alpha-skytanthine.

  2. Controlled immobilization of palladium nanoparticles in two different fluorinated polymeric aggregate cores and their application in catalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kijima, Tetsushi; Javakhishvili, Irakli; Jankova Atanasova, Katja

    2012-01-01

    Fluoroalkyl end-capped betaine-type cooligomeric nanocomposites-immobilized palladium nanoparticles were prepared by the reactions of palladium chloride with sodium acetate in the presence of sodium chloride and the corresponding fluorinated cooligomers. Outer blocks of poly(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluoro....... These fluorinated nanocomposites-immobilized palladium nanoparticles were also applied to the catalysts for Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reaction, and the different reactivity between these nanocomposites was observed....

  3. Potential application of palladium nanoparticles as selective recyclable hydrogenation catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, DebKumar

    2008-01-01

    The search for more efficient catalytic systems that might combine the advantages of both homogeneous (catalyst modulation) and heterogeneous (catalyst recycling) catalysis is one of the most exciting challenges of modern chemistry. More recently with the advances of nanochemistry, it has been possible to prepare soluble analogues of heterogeneous catalysts. These nanoparticles are generally stabilized against aggregation into larger particles by electrostatic or steric protection. Herein we demonstrate the use of room temperature ionic liquid for the stabilization of palladium nanoparticles that are recyclable catalysts for the hydrogenation of carbon-carbon double bonds and application of these catalysts to the selective hydrogenation of internal or terminal C=C bonds in unsaturated primary alcohols. The particles suspended in room temperature ionic liquid show no metal aggregation or loss of catalytic activity even on prolonged use

  4. Superparamagnetic bimetallic iron-palladium nanoalloy: synthesis and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazir, Rabia; Mazhar, Muhammad [Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Akhtar, M Javed; Nadeem, M; Siddique, Muhammad [Physics Division, PINSTECH, PO Nilore, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Shah, M Raza [HEJ Research Institute of Chemistry, University of Karachi, Karachi 75270 (Pakistan); Khan, Nawazish A [Material Science Laboratory, Department of Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Mehmood, Mazhar [National Centre for Nanotechnology, PIEAS, Islamabad 45650 (Pakistan); Butt, N M [Pakistan Science Foundation, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan)], E-mail: mazhar42pk@yahoo.com

    2008-05-07

    Iron-palladium nanoalloy in the particle size range of 15-30 nm is synthesized by the relatively low temperature thermal decomposition of coprecipitated [Fe(Bipy){sub 3}]Cl{sub 2} and [Pd(Bipy){sub 3}]Cl{sub 2} in an inert ambient of dry argon gas. The silvery black Fe-Pd alloy nanoparticles are air-stable and have been characterized by EDX-RF, XRD, AFM, TEM, magnetometry, {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer and impedance spectroscopy. This Fe-Pd nanoalloy is in single phase and contains iron sites having up to 11 nearest-neighboring atoms. It is superparamagnetic in nature with high magnetic susceptibility, low coercivity and hyperfine field.

  5. Divergent unprotected peptide macrocyclisation by palladium-mediated cysteine arylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Anthony J; Zhang, Chi; Vinogradova, Ekaterina V; Buchwald, Nathan H; Reilly, John; Pentelute, Bradley L; Buchwald, Stephen L

    2017-06-01

    Macrocyclic peptides are important therapeutic candidates due to their improved physicochemical properties in comparison to their linear counterparts. Here we detail a method for a divergent macrocyclisation of unprotected peptides by crosslinking two cysteine residues with bis-palladium organometallic reagents. These synthetic intermediates are prepared in a single step from commercially available aryl bis-halides. Two bioactive linear peptides with cysteine residues at i , i + 4 and i , i + 7 positions, respectively, were cyclised to introduce a diverse array of aryl and bi-aryl linkers. These two series of macrocyclic peptides displayed similar linker-dependent lipophilicity, phospholipid affinity, and unique volume of distributions. Additionally, one of the bioactive peptides showed target binding affinity that was predominantly affected by the length of the linker. Collectively, this divergent strategy allowed rapid and convenient access to various aryl linkers, enabling the systematic evaluation of the effect of appending unit on the medicinal properties of macrocyclic peptides.

  6. Spectroscopic study of low-temperature hydrogen absorption in palladium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ienaga, K., E-mail: ienaga@issp.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Takata, H.; Onishi, Y.; Inagaki, Y.; Kawae, T. [Department of Applied Quantum Physics, Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu University, Motooka, Nishi-Ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Tsujii, H. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Education, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan); Kimura, T. [Department of Physics, Kyushu University, Hakozaki, Higashi-Ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan)

    2015-01-12

    We report real-time detection of hydrogen (H) absorption in metallic palladium (Pd) nano-contacts immersed in liquid H{sub 2} using inelastic electron spectroscopy (IES). After introduction of liquid H{sub 2}, the spectra exhibit the time evolution from the pure Pd to the Pd hydride, indicating that H atoms are absorbed in Pd nano-contacts even at the temperature where the thermal process is not expected. The IES time and bias voltage dependences show that H absorption develops by applying bias voltage 30 ∼ 50 mV, which can be explained by quantum tunneling. The results represent that IES is a powerful method to study the kinetics of high density H on solid surface.

  7. Palladium-based electrocatalysts for ethanol oxidation reaction in DEFC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, L.P.R. de; Elsheikh, A.; Silva, E. L. da; Radtke, C.; Amico, S.C.; Malfatti, C.F.

    2014-01-01

    Direct ethanol fuel cells require the use of electrocatalysts to promote bond cleavage of the ethanol molecule in an efficient way. Currently, most electrocatalysts contain platinum, which enables improved catalytic activity and stability in acidic media. However platinum presents high cost and low availability. Based on that, novel catalysts have been developed, such as those based on palladium and its alloys, which have attained excellent results in the oxidation of ethanol in alkaline media. In this work, Pd, PdSn and PdNiSn catalysts supported on Vulcan XC72R carbon were synthesized via impregnation/reduction. The electrocatalysts were characterized by RBS, XRD and cyclic voltammetry. The X-ray diffraction results showed the formation of an alloy and not the deposition of isolated elements. The synthesized catalysts displayed good catalytic activity, as observed by cyclic voltammetry, being the best electrochemical performance achieved by the ternary alloy. (author)

  8. Reactivity indexes for different geometries of palladium leads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Carrillo, S C; Bolcatto, P G [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad Nacional de Litoral, Santiago del Estero 2829 S3000AOM Santa Fe Argentina (Argentina); Ortega, J, E-mail: scgomez@fiq.unl.edu.a [Departamento de Fisica Teorica de la Materia Condensada, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain)

    2009-05-01

    Electronic transport through metallic break junctions or molecules is clearly dependent not only on the electronic structure of the central nanodevice connecting the leads, but also the shape and crystalline orientation of the contacts which can define the possible conduction channels. In this work we examine different geometries of contacts of palladium characterizing them through global and local reactivity indexes as electrophilicity, chemical hardness and Fukui functions. In molecules, these indicators are essentially defined by the energies of the frontier molecular orbitals and in solids they are related with the local and partial density of states. We use for this purpose an ab-initio based code (FIREBALL), applied to plane contacts with (001) fcc faces and also pyramidal tips grown following a (001) and (111) packaging. The results allow us to have an insight about the chemical features of this type of nanojunctions.

  9. Palladium complexes with simple iminopyridines as catalysts for polyketone synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosar, V; Dedeic, D; Nobile, T; Fini, F; Balducci, G; Alessio, E; Carfagna, C; Milani, B

    2016-10-07

    Four iminopyridines (N-N') differing in the nature of the substituents on the iminic carbon and on the ortho positions of the aryl ring (H or CH3) on the iminic nitrogen were used for the synthesis of neutral and monocationic palladium(ii) complexes of general formulae [Pd(CH3)Cl(N-N')] and [Pd(CH3)(NCCH3)(N-N')][PF6]. The detailed NMR characterization in solution highlighted that: (i) for both series of complexes, the Pd-CH3 signal is progressively shifted to a lower frequency on increasing the number of methyl groups on the ligand skeleton; (ii) for the neutral derivatives, the chemical shift of the (15)N NMR signals, determined through {(1)H,(15)N}-HMBC spectra, is significantly affected by the coordination to palladium; (iii) the coordination induced shift (CIS) of the nitrogen atom trans to the CH3 ligand is smaller than the other. The structure in the solid state for the neutral derivatives with all the four ligands was solved, pointing out that: (iv) the Pd-C bond distance increases with the basicity of the nitrogen-donor ligand; (v) the Pd-N bond distance correlates well with the CIS value. The combining of the solution and solid state structural features allows stating that: (vi) the Pd-CH3 singlet is a good probe for the electron donor capability of the ligand; (vii) the CIS value might be used as a probe for the strength of the Pd-N bond. All monocationic complexes generated active catalysts for the CO/vinyl arene copolymerization, leading to prevailingly syndiotactic polyketones. The catalyst performances, both in terms of catalyst productivity and polymer molecular weight, correlate well with the precatalyst structural features.

  10. Migration behavior of palladium in UO2, (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoneyama, Mitsuru; Sato, Seichi; Ohashi, Hiroshi; Ogawa, Toru; Ito, Akinori; Fukuda, Kousaku.

    1992-08-01

    Palladium (Pd) is easily released from UO 2 kernels in HTGR coated fuel particles, and reacts with SiC coating layer. In addition, Pd is one of metallic fission products in irradiation UO 2 , which constitutes in dissoluble residue in reprocessing of LWR fuels. In the present investigation, the migration of palladium in UO 2 was examined by heating diffusion pairs sandwiched Pd foil between UO 2 wafers at 1300 ∼ 1800degC. Experiments were also carried out on affinity of Pd to UP 2 and a formation of U-Pd alloy. Pd was found mainly in the pores of UO 2 . The maximum depth intruded by Pd in fairly large amount was more than 100 μm for UO 2 with 90%TD and 50μm for UO 2 with 95%TD, while the maximum length of open pores was 330 μm for UO 2 with 90%TD, and 50 m for that with 95%TD. Fused Pd wetted UO 2 very much. Pd intruded deeply into UO 2 , especially in the edge of Pd droplet. Furthermore, U was detected either in precipitates or the Pd source with α-Pd phase of U-Pd alloy containing Pd at about 10at%. This fact indicates that Pd highly reacts with UO 2 . From the above results, the transport of Pd in UO 2 was explained by the model of gaseous diffusion through pores in UO 2 , which is retarded by formation of U-Pd alloy. It is also indicated that UPd 3 forms even at the oxygen potential condition of O/U ratio, which is a little higher than 2.00 on the basis of thermodynamic calculation. (author)

  11. Electrophysical properties of silicon doped by palladium-103 isotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhkamov, Sh.; Tursunov, N.A.; Sattiev, A.R.; Normurodov, A.B.

    2007-01-01

    The work is devoted to study of radiation physical processes taking place in Si under nuclear transmutation, Identification and determination of defects microstructure and homogeneities and their distribution, study of interactions of nuclear-transformed phosphorus isotopes with palladium atoms, and its effect on crystal properties. For examination monocrystalline silicon of n- and p-type conductivity with specific resistance from 1 to 40 Ω·cm, dislocation density ∼10 4 cm -2 and oxygen content ∼10 17 cm -3 has been applied. Doping of silicon plates by examined admixture has been carried out by thermal diffusion method within temperature range 1000-1250 deg. C for 0.5- 5 h. Irradiation of doped silicon was conducted by reactor neutron fluences 5·10 18 - 5·10 19 cm -2 with subsequent annealing at 1000 deg. C for 30 min. Efficiency of mixture centers formation in silicon, effect of concentration of formed mixture-defect centers on electro-physical, photoelectric and recombination parameters of doped silicon and revealing of type and state of generated defects have been controlled by electric, volume and X-ray fluorescent methods. On the base of spectroscopic researches it is shown, that in silicon forbidden zone after Pd diffusion in DLTS spectra peaks related with acceptor (E c -0.18 and E v +0.34 eV) levels, and peak responsible for level E v +0.32 eV of donor character caused by palladium impurity. It is shown, that irradiation of doped silicon samples by neutrons lead to nuclear transmutation of 102 Pd, 104 Pd in 103 Pd isotopes in the crystal volume with following electron capture in stable isotope 103m Rh

  12. Pore surface fractal analysis of palladium-alumina ceramic membrane using Frenkel-Halsey-Hill (FHH) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, A L; Mustafa, N N N

    2006-09-15

    The alumina ceramic membrane has been modified by the addition of palladium in order to improve the H(2) permeability and selectivity. Palladium-alumina ceramic membrane was prepared via a sol-gel method and subjected to thermal treatment in the temperature range 500-1100 degrees C. Fractal analysis from nitrogen adsorption isotherm is used to study the pore surface roughness of palladium-alumina ceramic membrane with different chemical composition (nitric acid, PVA and palladium) and calcinations process in terms of surface fractal dimension, D. Frenkel-Halsey-Hill (FHH) model was used to determine the D value of palladium-alumina membrane. Following FHH model, the D value of palladium-alumina membrane increased as the calcinations temperature increased from 500 to 700 degrees C but decreased after calcined at 900 and 1100 degrees C. With increasing palladium concentration from 0.5 g Pd/100 ml H(2)O to 2 g Pd/100 ml H(2)O, D value of membrane decreased, indicating to the smoother surface. Addition of higher amount of PVA and palladium reduced the surface fractal of the membrane due to the heterogeneous distribution of pores. However, the D value increased when nitric acid concentration was increased from 1 to 15 M. The effect of calcinations temperature, PVA ratio, palladium and acid concentration on membrane surface area, pore size and pore distribution also studied.

  13. Low-temperature solution processing of palladium/palladium oxide films and their pH sensing performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yiheng; Alam, Arif U; Pan, Si; Howlader, Matiar M R; Ghosh, Raja; Selvaganapathy, P Ravi; Wu, Yiliang; Deen, M Jamal

    2016-01-01

    Highly sensitive, easy-to-fabricate, and low-cost pH sensors with small dimensions are required to monitor human bodily fluids, drinking water quality and chemical/biological processes. In this study, a low-temperature, solution-based process is developed to prepare palladium/palladium oxide (Pd/PdO) thin films for pH sensing. A precursor solution for Pd is spin coated onto pre-cleaned glass substrates and annealed at low temperature to generate Pd and PdO. The percentages of PdO at the surface and in the bulk of the electrodes are correlated to their sensing performance, which was studied by using the X-ray photoelectron spectroscope. Large amounts of PdO introduced by prolonged annealing improve the electrode's sensitivity and long-term stability. Atomic force microscopy study showed that the low-temperature annealing results in a smooth electrode surface, which contributes to a fast response. Nano-voids at the electrode surfaces were observed by scanning electron microscope, indicating a reason for the long-term degradation of the pH sensitivity. Using the optimized annealing parameters of 200°C for 48 h, a linear pH response with sensitivity of 64.71±0.56 mV/pH is obtained for pH between 2 and 12. These electrodes show a response time shorter than 18 s, hysteresis less than 8 mV and stability over 60 days. High reproducibility in the sensing performance is achieved. This low-temperature solution-processed sensing electrode shows the potential for the development of pH sensing systems on flexible substrates over a large area at low cost without using vacuum equipment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The study of hydrogen electrosorption in layered nickel foam/palladium/carbon nanofibers composite electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skowronski, J.M.; Czerwinski, A.; Rozmanowski, T.; Rogulski, Z.; Krawczyk, P.

    2007-01-01

    In the present work, the process of hydrogen electrosorption occurring in alkaline KOH solution on the nickel foam/palladium/carbon nanofibers (Ni/Pd/CNF) composite electrodes is examined. The layered Ni/Pd/CNF electrodes were prepared by a two-step method consisting of chemical deposition of a thin layer of palladium on the nickel foam support to form Ni/Pd electrode followed by coating the palladium layer with carbon nanofibers layer by means of the CVD method. The scanning electron microscope was used for studying the morphology of both the palladium and carbon layer. The process of hydrogen sorption/desorption into/from Ni/Pd as well as Ni/Pd/CNF electrode was examined using the cyclic voltammetry method. The amount of hydrogen stored in both types of composite electrodes was shown to increase on lowering the potential of hydrogen sorption. The mechanism of the anodic desorption of hydrogen changes depending on whether or not CNF layer is present on the Pd surface. The anodic peak corresponding to the removal of hydrogen from palladium is lower for Ni/Pd/CNF electrode as compared to that measured for Ni/Pd one due to a partial screening of the Pd surface area by CNF layer. The important feature of Ni/Pd/CNF electrode is anodic peak appearing on voltammetric curves at potential ca. 0.4 V more positive than the peak corresponding to hydrogen desorption from palladium. The obtained results showed that upon storing the hydrogen saturated Ni/Pd/CNF electrode at open circuit potential, diffusion of hydrogen from carbon to palladium phase occurs due to interaction between carbon fibers and Pd sites on the nickel foam support

  15. The electrocatalytical reduction of m-nitrophenol on palladium nanoparticles modified glassy carbon electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Qiaofang; Diao Guowang

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► The deposition of palladium on a GC electrode was performed by cyclic voltammetry. ► SEM images showed palladium nanoparticles deposited on a glassy carbon (GC) electrode. ► The Pd/GC electrode can effectively catalyze m-nitrophenol in aqueous media. ► The reduction of m-nitrophenol on the Pd/GC electrode depended on potential and pH. ► XPS spectra of the Pd/GC electrodes demonstrated the presence of palladium. - Abstract: Palladium nanoparticles modified glassy carbon electrodes (Pd/GC) were prepared via the electrodeposition of palladium on a glassy carbon (GC) electrode using cyclic voltammetry in different sweeping potential ranges. The scanning electron microscope images of palladium particles on the GC electrodes indicate that palladium particles with diameters of 20–50 nm were homogeneously dispersed on the GC electrode at the optimal deposition conditions, which can effectively catalyze the reduction of m-nitrophenol in aqueous solutions, but their catalytic activities are strongly related to the deposition conditions of Pd. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectra of the Pd/GC electrode confirmed that 37.1% Pd was contained in the surface composition of the Pd/GC electrode. The cyclic voltammograms of the Pd/GC electrode in the solution of m-nitrophenol show that the reduction peak of m-nitrophenol shifts towards the more positive potentials, accompanied with an increase in the peak current compared to the bare GC electrode. The electrocatalytic activity of the Pd/GC electrode is affected by pH values of the solution. In addition, the electrolysis of m-nitrophenol under a constant potential indicates that the reduction current of m-nitrophenol on the Pd/GC electrode is approximately 20 times larger than that on the bare GC electrode.

  16. Observation of Binuclear Palladium Clusters Upon ESI-MS Monitoring of the Suzuki-Miyaura Cross-Coupling Catalyzed by a Dichloro-bis(aminophosphine) Complex of Palladium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Agrawal, Divya; Schröder, Detlef; Frech, C. M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 13 (2011), s. 3579-3587 ISSN 0276-7333 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : catalysis * C-C coupling * electrospray ionization * palladium * Suzuki-Miyaura coupling Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.963, year: 2011

  17. Genetics 101 --The Hereditary Material of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Genetics 101 Genetics 101 — The Hereditary Material of Life Past Issues / Summer 2013 Table of Contents Genetics is the study of heredity, the process in ...

  18. 7 CFR 1160.101 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Act. 1160.101 Section 1160.101 Agriculture Regulations... Definitions § 1160.101 Act. Act means the Fluid Milk Promotion Act of 1990, Subtitle H of Title XIX of the Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act of 1990, Public Law 101-624, 7 U.S.C. 6401-6417, and any...

  19. 40 CFR 61.101 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... definition of reference man are outlined in the International Commission on Radiological Protection's... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 61.101 Section 61.101....101 Definitions. As used in this subpart, all terms not defined here have the meaning given them in...

  20. 36 CFR 10.1 - Animals available.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Animals available. 10.1 Section 10.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR DISPOSAL OF CERTAIN WILD ANIMALS § 10.1 Animals available. From time to time there are surplus live elk...

  1. 47 CFR 101.1525 - RF safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false RF safety. 101.1525 Section 101.1525 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Service and Technical Rules for the 70/80/90 GHz Bands § 101.1525 RF safety. Licensees in the 70...

  2. 7 CFR 1280.101 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 1280.101 Section 1280.101 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1280.101 Act. Act means the Commodity Promotion, Research, and Information Act of 1996 (7 U.S.C. 7411-7425; Pub. L. 104-127; 110 Stat...

  3. 7 CFR 1150.101 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Act. 1150.101 Section 1150.101 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Definitions § 1150.101 Act. Act means Title I, Subtitle B, of the Dairy and Tobacco Adjustment Act of 1983...

  4. 7 CFR 1220.101 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 1220.101 Section 1220.101 Agriculture... CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.101 Act. The term Act means the Soybean Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Act, subtitle E of title XIX, of the Food...

  5. 14 CFR 1251.101 - Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application. 1251.101 Section 1251.101 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON BASIS OF HANDICAP General Provisions § 1251.101 Application. This part applies to each recipient of Federal financial...

  6. 29 CFR 101.7 - Settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Settlements. 101.7 Section 101.7 Labor Regulations Relating... Section 10 (a) to (i) of the Act and Telegraph Merger Act Cases § 101.7 Settlements. Before any complaint... for the submission and consideration of facts, argument, offers of settlement, or proposals of...

  7. 24 CFR 904.101 - Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Introduction. 904.101 Section 904.101 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... LOW RENT HOUSING HOMEOWNERSHIP OPPORTUNITIES Turnkey III Program Description § 904.101 Introduction...

  8. 7 CFR 4287.101 - Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Introduction. 4287.101 Section 4287.101 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL... § 4287.101 Introduction. (a) This subpart supplements part 4279, subparts A and B, by providing...

  9. 34 CFR 101.114 - Expeditious treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Expeditious treatment. 101.114 Section 101.114 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF... § 101.114 Expeditious treatment. Requests for expeditious treatment of matters pending before the...

  10. 47 CFR 101.129 - Transmitter location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmitter location. 101.129 Section 101.129... SERVICES Technical Standards § 101.129 Transmitter location. (a) The applicant must determine, prior to... adequate to render the service proposed. In cases of questionable antenna locations, it is desirable to...

  11. 7 CFR 786.101 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration. 786.101 Section 786.101 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS DAIRY DISASTER ASSISTANCE PAYMENT PROGRAM (DDAP-III) § 786.101 Administration. (a) DDAP...

  12. 5 CFR 831.101 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration. 831.101 Section 831.101 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Administration and General Provisions § 831.101 Administration. (a) OPM has charge of the...

  13. 41 CFR 101-4.105 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 101-4.105 Definitions. As used... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Definitions. 101-4.105 Section 101-4.105 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System...

  14. 42 CFR 55a.101 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 55a.101 Section 55a.101 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS PROGRAM GRANTS FOR BLACK LUNG CLINICS General Provisions § 55a.101 Definitions. Act, as used in this part, means the Federal Mine Safety...

  15. 47 CFR 101.141 - Microwave modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Microwave modulation. 101.141 Section 101.141... SERVICES Technical Standards § 101.141 Microwave modulation. (a) Microwave transmitters employing digital modulation techniques and operating below 25.25 GHz (except for MVDDS stations in the 12,200-12,700 MHz band...

  16. 7 CFR 1900.101 - General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General. 1900.101 Section 1900.101 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE... GENERAL Applicability of Federal Law § 1900.101 General. This subpart provides Agency policy concerning...

  17. 39 CFR 10.1 - Applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability. 10.1 Section 10.1 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE THE BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE U.S. POSTAL SERVICE RULES OF CONDUCT FOR POSTAL SERVICE GOVERNORS (ARTICLE X) § 10.1 Applicability. This part contains rules of conduct for the...

  18. 25 CFR 115.101 - Individual accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Individual accounts. 115.101 Section 115.101 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES TRUST FUNDS FOR TRIBES AND INDIVIDUAL INDIANS IIM Accounts § 115.101 Individual accounts. Except as otherwise provided in this part...

  19. 12 CFR 708b.101 - Mergers generally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mergers generally. 708b.101 Section 708b.101 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS MERGERS OF FEDERALLY-INSURED CREDIT UNIONS; VOLUNTARY TERMINATION OR CONVERSION OF INSURED STATUS Mergers § 708b.101...

  20. 47 CFR 101.807 - Transmitter power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmitter power. 101.807 Section 101.807... SERVICES Local Television Transmission Service § 101.807 Transmitter power. Stations in this service will not be authorized to use transmitters having a rated power output in excess of the limits set forth in...

  1. 47 CFR 101.1505 - Segmentation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Segmentation plan. 101.1505 Section 101.1505 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Service and Technical Rules for the 70/80/90 GHz Bands § 101.1505 Segmentation plan. (a) An entity...

  2. 47 CFR 101.4 - Transition plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transition plan. 101.4 Section 101.4 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Applications and Licenses General Filing Requirements § 101.4 Transition plan. (a) All systems...

  3. 41 CFR 101-1.110 - Deviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Deviation. 101-1.110 Section 101-1.110 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS GENERAL 1-INTRODUCTION 1.1-Regulation System § 101-1.110 Deviation...

  4. 7 CFR 1463.101 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration. 1463.101 Section 1463.101 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Payment Program § 1463.101 Administration. (a) The program will be administered under the general...

  5. 1 CFR 10.1 - Publication required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Publication required. 10.1 Section 10.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER PRESIDENTIAL PAPERS Regular Publication § 10.1 Publication required. The Director publishes a special edition...

  6. 49 CFR 1503.101 - TSA requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false TSA requirements. 1503.101 Section 1503.101... Scope of Investigative and Enforcement Procedures § 1503.101 TSA requirements. (a) The investigative and enforcement procedures in this part apply to TSA's investigation and enforcement of violations of TSA...

  7. 22 CFR 1203.735-101 - Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONDUCT General Provisions § 1203.735-101 Purpose. The maintenance of the highest standards of honesty... reporting employment and financial interests. Note: These regulations are codified in State 3 FAM 620, AID... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Purpose. 1203.735-101 Section 1203.735-101...

  8. 49 CFR 374.101 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 374.101 Section 374.101... REGULATIONS Discrimination in Operations of Interstate Motor Common Carriers of Passengers § 374.101 Discrimination prohibited. No motor common carrier of passengers subject to 49 U.S.C. subtitle IV, part B shall...

  9. 29 CFR 541.101 - Business owner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Business owner. 541.101 Section 541.101 Labor Regulations... Executive Employees § 541.101 Business owner. The term “employee employed in a bona fide executive capacity... equity interest in the enterprise in which the employee is employed, regardless of whether the business...

  10. 27 CFR 10.1 - General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General. 10.1 Section 10.1... TREASURY LIQUORS COMMERCIAL BRIBERY Scope of Regulations § 10.1 General. The regulations in this part, issued pursuant to section 105 of the Federal Alcohol Administration Act (27 U.S.C. 205), specify...

  11. 29 CFR 1926.101 - Hearing protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hearing protection. 1926.101 Section 1926.101 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1926.101 Hearing protection. (a) Wherever it is not feasible to reduce the noise levels or duration of...

  12. 5 CFR 430.101 - Authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authority. 430.101 Section 430.101 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Performance Management § 430.101 Authority. Chapter 43 of title 5, United States Code, provides for the...

  13. 48 CFR 32.101 - Authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Authority. 32.101 Section 32.101 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Non-Commercial Item Purchase Financing 32.101 Authority. The basic authority...

  14. 48 CFR 17.101 - Authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Authority. 17.101 Section 17.101 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Multiyear Contracting 17.101 Authority. This subpart implements...

  15. 5 CFR 362.101 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 362.101 Section 362.101... PROGRAM Definitions § 362.101 Definitions. For purposes of this part, An agency means a component within... outstanding record of achievement in an applicable leadership, policy, managerial, professional, or technical...

  16. 5 CFR 211.101 - Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Purpose. 211.101 Section 211.101 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS VETERAN PREFERENCE § 211.101 Purpose. The purpose of this part is to define veterans' preference and the administration of preference...

  17. 47 CFR 101.1112 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 101.1112 Section 101.1112... SERVICES Competitive Bidding Procedures for LMDS § 101.1112 Definitions. (a) Scope. The definitions in this... million. (d) Entrepreneur. An entrepreneur is an entity that, together with its affiliates and controlling...

  18. 7 CFR 1400.101 - Minor children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minor children. 1400.101 Section 1400.101 Agriculture... SUBSEQUENT CROP, PROGRAM, OR FISCAL YEARS Payment Limitation § 1400.101 Minor children. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, payments received by a child under 18 years of age as of April 1...

  19. 23 CFR 710.101 - Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Purpose. 710.101 Section 710.101 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT RIGHT-OF-WAY AND REAL ESTATE General § 710.101 Purpose. The primary purpose of the requirements in this part is to ensure the...

  20. 12 CFR 410.101 - Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Purpose. 410.101 Section 410.101 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES § 410.101 Purpose...

  1. 5 CFR 7101.101 - General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... OF THE NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS BOARD § 7101.101 General. (a) Purpose. In accordance with 5 CFR 2635... responsible for reviewing the Confidential Financial Disclosure Reports filed by designated NLRB employees... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General. 7101.101 Section 7101.101...

  2. 7 CFR 1435.101 - Loan rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan rates. 1435.101 Section 1435.101 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Sugar Loan Program § 1435.101 Loan rates. (a) The national average loan rate for raw cane sugar produced from domestically grown sugarcane is: 18...

  3. 29 CFR 101.34 - Hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hearing. 101.34 Section 101.34 Labor Regulations Relating... Section 10(k) of the Act § 101.34 Hearing. If the parties have not adjusted the dispute or agreed upon methods of voluntary adjustment, a hearing, usually open to the public, is held before a hearing officer...

  4. 19 CFR 101.7 - Customs seal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Customs seal. 101.7 Section 101.7 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GENERAL PROVISIONS § 101.7 Customs seal. (a) Design. According to the design furnished by the Department...

  5. 19 CFR 101.0 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Scope. 101.0 Section 101.0 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GENERAL PROVISIONS § 101.0 Scope. This part sets forth general regulations governing the authority of Customs...

  6. 33 CFR 135.101 - Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OFFSHORE OIL POLLUTION COMPENSATION FUND Levy of Fees § 135.101 Purpose. (a) The purpose of this subpart is to state the general requirements concerning the levy of fees. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purpose. 135.101 Section 135.101...

  7. 5 CFR 10.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the General Accounting Office; and (b) 'Merit system principles' means the principles for Federal... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 10.1 Section 10.1... AUTHORITY TO REVIEW PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS (RULE X) § 10.1 Definitions. For purposes of this rule— (a...

  8. 49 CFR 28.101 - Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purpose. 28.101 Section 28.101 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION § 28.101 Purpose. The purpose of this...

  9. 9 CFR 101.6 - Cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cell cultures. 101.6 Section 101.6..., SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS DEFINITIONS § 101.6 Cell cultures. When used in conjunction with or in reference to cell cultures, which may be referred to as tissue cultures...

  10. 18 CFR 284.101 - Applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applicability. 284.101 Section 284.101 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT... Certain Transportation by Interstate Pipelines § 284.101 Applicability. This subpart implements section...

  11. 19 CFR 10.101 - Immediate delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Immediate delivery. 10.101 Section 10.101 Customs... Importations § 10.101 Immediate delivery. (a) Shipments entitled to immediate delivery. Shipments consigned to... as shipments the immediate delivery of which is necessary within the purview of section 448(b...

  12. 12 CFR 1806.101 - Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Summary. 1806.101 Section 1806.101 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BANK ENTERPRISE AWARD PROGRAM General Provisions § 1806.101 Summary. (a) Under the Bank Enterprise Award Program, the...

  13. 12 CFR 1805.101 - Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Summary. 1805.101 Section 1805.101 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS PROGRAM General Provisions § 1805.101 Summary. Under the Community...

  14. Separation of Hydrogen Isotopes by Palladium Alloy Membranes Separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiangfeng, S.; Deli, L.; Yifu, X.; Congxian, L.; Zhiyong, H.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Separation of hydrogen isotope with palladium alloy membranes is one of the promising methods for hydrogen isotope separation. It has several advantages, such as high separation efficiency, smaller tritium inventory, simple separation device, ect. Limited by the manufacture of membrane and cost of gas transportation pump, this method is still at the stage of conceptual study. The relationship between separation factors and temperatures, feed gas components, split ratios have not been researched in detail, and the calculated results of cascade separation have not been validated with experimental data. In this thesis, a palladium alloy membrane separator was designed to further study its separation performance between H 2 and D 2 . The separation factor of the single stage was affected by the temperature, the feed gas component, the split ratio and the gas flow rate, etc. The experimental results showed that the H 2 -D 2 separation factor decreased with the increasing of temperature. On the temperature from 573 K to 773 K, when the feed rate was 5 L/min, the separation factor of 66.2%H 2 - 33.8%D 2 decreased from 2.09 to 1.85 when the split ratio was 0.1 and from 1.74 to 1.52 when the split ratio was 0.2.The separation factor also decreased with the increasing of split ratio. At 573 K and the feed rate of 5 L/min, the separation factor of 15.0%H 2 and 85.0%D 2 decreased from 2.43 to 1.35 with the increasing of split ratio from 0.050 to 0.534,and for 66.2%H 2 -33.8%D 2 , the separation factor decreased from 2.87 to 1.30 with the increasing of split ratio from 0.050 to 0.688. When the separation factor was the biggest, the flow rate of feed gas was in a perfect value. To gain a best separation performance, perfect flow rate, lower temperature and reflux ratio should be chosen. (authors)

  15. Influence of residual catalyst on the properties of conjugated polyphenylenevinylene materials: Palladium nanoparticles and poor electrical performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, Frederik C; Nyberg, R.B.; Jørgensen, M.

    2004-01-01

    polymer material prepared by two different routes: the palladium route and the condensation route. The performance in a device application of the two polymer materials was, however, very different, and the palladium route was demonstrated to give poor films with low breakdown voltages and short circuits....

  16. Chiral separation of substituted phenylalanine analogues using chiral palladium phosphine complexes with enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkuijl, B.J.V.; Schuur, B.; Minnaard, A.J.; Vries, de J.G.; Feringa, B.L.

    2010-01-01

    Chiral palladium phosphine complexes have been employed in the chiral separation of amino acids and phenylalanine analogues in particular. The use of (S)-xylyl-BINAP as a ligand for the palladium complex in enantioselective liquid–liquid extraction allowed the separation of the phenylalanine

  17. Palladium on Carbon-Catalyzed Suzuki-Miyaura Coupling Reaction Using an Efficient and Continuous Flow System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Hattori

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The continuous flow Suzuki-Miyaura reaction between various haloarenes and arylboronic acids was successfully achieved within only ca. 20 s during the single-pass through a cartridge filled with palladium on carbon (Pd/C. No palladium leaching was observed in the collected reaction solution by atomic absorption spectrometry (detection limit: 1 ppm.

  18. Palladium-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling Reactions of Perfluoro Organic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masato Ohashi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we summarize our recent development of palladium(0-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions of perfluoro organic compounds with organometallic reagents. The oxidative addition of a C–F bond of tetrafluoroethylene (TFE to palladium(0 was promoted by the addition of lithium iodide, affording a trifluorovinyl palladium(II iodide. Based on this finding, the first palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction of TFE with diarylzinc was developed in the presence of lithium iodide, affording α,β,β-trifluorostyrene derivatives in excellent yield. This coupling reaction was expanded to the novel Pd(0/PR3-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction of TFE with arylboronates. In this reaction, the trifluorovinyl palladium(II fluoride was a key reaction intermediate that required neither an extraneous base to enhance the reactivity of organoboronates nor a Lewis acid additive to promote the oxidative addition of a C–F bond. In addition, our strategy utilizing the synergetic effect of Pd(0 and lithium iodide could be applied to the C–F bond cleavage of unreactive hexafluorobenzene (C6F6, leading to the first Pd(0-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction of C6F6 with diarylzinc compounds.

  19. Factors affecting the corrosion of SiC layer by fission product palladium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewita, E.

    2000-01-01

    HTR is one of the advanced nuclear reactors which has inherent safety system, graphite moderated and helium gas cooled. In general, these reactors are designed with the TRISO coated particle consist of four coating layers that are porous pyrolytic carbon (PyC). inner dense PyC (IPyC), silicon carbide (SiC), and outer dense PyC (OPyC). Among the four coating layers, the SiC plays an important role beside in retaining metallic fission products, it also provides mechanical strength to fuel particle. However, results of post irradiation examination indicate that fission product palladium can react with and corrode SiC layer, This assessment is conducted to get the comprehension about resistance of SiC layer on irradiation effects, especially in order to increase the fuel bum-up. The result of this shows that the corrosion of SiC layer by fission product palladium is beside depend on the material characteristics of SiC, and also there are other factors that affect on the SiC layer corrosion. Fuel enrichment, bum-up, and irradiation time effect on the palladium flux in fuel kernel. While, the fuel density, vapour pressure of palladium (the degree depend on the irradiation temperature and kernel composition) effect on palladium migration in fuel particle. (author)

  20. Some remarks on the neutron elastic- and enelastic-scattering cross sections of palladium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiba, S.; Guenther, P.T.; Smith, A.B.

    1989-05-01

    The cross sections for the elastic-scattering of 5.9, 7.1 and 8.0 MeV neutrons from elemental palladium were measured at forty scattering angles distributed between ∼15/degree/ and 160/degree/. The inelastic-scattering cross sections for the excitation of palladium levels at energies of 260 keV to 560 keV were measured with high resolution at the same energies, and at a scattering angle of 80/degree/. The experimental results were combined with lower-energy values previously obtained by this group to provide a comprehensive data base extending from near the inelastic-scattering threshold to 8 MeV. That data base was interpreted in terms of a coupled-channel model, including the inelastic excitation of one- and two-phonon vibrational levels of the even isotopes of palladium. It was concluded that the palladium inelastic-scattering cross section, at the low energies of interest in assessment of fast-fission-reactor performance, are large (∼50% greater than given in widely used evaluated fission-product data files). They primarily involve compound-nucleus processes, with only a small direct-reaction component attributable to the excitation of the one-phonon, 2 + , vibrational levels of the even isotopes of palladium. 24 refs., 6 figs

  1. 41 CFR 101-26.505-4-101-26.505-6 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true [Reserved] 101-26.505-4-101-26.505-6 Section 101-26.505-4-101-26.505-6 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND PROCUREMENT 26...

  2. 41 CFR 101-1.101 - Federal Property Management Regulations System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Federal Property Management Regulations System. 101-1.101 Section 101-1.101 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS GENERAL 1-INTRODUCTION 1.1...

  3. Evidence for hydrogen-assisted recovery of cold-worked palladium: hydrogen solubility and mechanical properties studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ferrer

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The influence of hydrogen as an agent to accelerate the thermal recovery of cold-worked palladium has been investigated. The techniques used to characterize the effects of hydrogen on the thermal recovery of palladium were hydrogen solubility and mechanical property measurements. Results show that the presence of modest amounts of hydrogen during annealing of cold-worked palladium does enhance the degree of thermal recovery, with a direct correlation between the amount of hydrogen during annealing and the degree of recovery. The results indicate that the damage resulting from cold-working palladium can be more effectively and efficiently reversed by suitable heat treatments in the presence of appropriate amounts of hydrogen, as compared to heat treatment in vacuum. The somewhat novel technique of using changes in the hydrogen solubility of palladium as an indicator of thermal recovery has been validated and complements the more traditional technique of mechanical property measurements.

  4. In situ synthesis of carbon nanotubes decorated with palladium nanoparticles using arc-discharge in solution method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bera, Debasis; Kuiry, Suresh C.; McCutchen, Matthew; Seal, Sudipta; Heinrich, Helge; Slane, Grady C.

    2004-01-01

    A unique, simple, inexpensive, and one-step synthesis route to produce carbon nanotubes (CNTs) decorated with palladium nanoparticles using a simplified dc arc-discharge in solution is reported. Zero-loss energy filtered transmission electron microscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy confirm the presence of 3 nm palladium nanoparticles. Such palladium nanoparticles form during the reduction of palladium tetra-chloro-square-planar complex. The deconvoluted x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy envelope shows the presence of palladium on the decorated CNTs. The energy dispersive spectroscopy suggests no functionalization of atomic chlorine to the sidewall of the CNTs. The presence of dislodged graphene sheets with wavy morphology supports the formation of CNTs through the 'scroll mechanism'

  5. Dislocation/hydrogen interaction mechanisms in hydrided nanocrystalline palladium films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin-Ahmadi, Behnam; Connétable, Damien; Fivel, Marc; Tanguy, Döme; Delmelle, Renaud; Turner, Stuart; Malet, Loic; Godet, Stephane; Pardoen, Thomas; Proost, Joris; Schryvers, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    The nanoscale plasticity mechanisms activated during hydriding cycles in sputtered nanocrystalline Pd films have been investigated ex-situ using advanced transmission electron microscopy techniques. The internal stress developing within the films during hydriding has been monitored in-situ. Results showed that in Pd films hydrided to β-phase, local plasticity was mainly controlled by dislocation activity in spite of the small grain size. Changes of the grain size distribution and the crystallographic texture have not been observed. In contrast, significant microstructural changes were not observed in Pd films hydrided to α-phase. Moreover, the effect of hydrogen loading on the nature and density of dislocations has been investigated using aberration-corrected TEM. Surprisingly, a high density of shear type stacking faults has been observed after dehydriding, indicating a significant effect of hydrogen on the nucleation energy barriers of Shockley partial dislocations. Ab-initio calculations of the effect of hydrogen on the intrinsic stable and unstable stacking fault energies of palladium confirm the experimental observations.

  6. Palladium-catalysed electrophilic aromatic C-H fluorination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kumiko; Li, Jiakun; Garber, Jeffrey A. O.; Rolfes, Julian D.; Boursalian, Gregory B.; Borghs, Jannik C.; Genicot, Christophe; Jacq, Jérôme; van Gastel, Maurice; Neese, Frank; Ritter, Tobias

    2018-02-01

    Aryl fluorides are widely used in the pharmaceutical and agrochemical industries, and recent advances have enabled their synthesis through the conversion of various functional groups. However, there is a lack of general methods for direct aromatic carbon-hydrogen (C-H) fluorination. Conventional methods require the use of either strong fluorinating reagents, which are often unselective and difficult to handle, such as elemental fluorine, or less reactive reagents that attack only the most activated arenes, which reduces the substrate scope. A method for the direct fluorination of aromatic C-H bonds could facilitate access to fluorinated derivatives of functional molecules that would otherwise be difficult to produce. For example, drug candidates with improved properties, such as increased metabolic stability or better blood-brain-barrier penetration, may become available. Here we describe an approach to catalysis and the resulting development of an undirected, palladium-catalysed method for aromatic C-H fluorination using mild electrophilic fluorinating reagents. The reaction involves a mode of catalysis that is unusual in aromatic C-H functionalization because no organometallic intermediate is formed; instead, a reactive transition-metal-fluoride electrophile is generated catalytically for the fluorination of arenes that do not otherwise react with mild fluorinating reagents. The scope and functional-group tolerance of this reaction could provide access to functional fluorinated molecules in pharmaceutical and agrochemical development that would otherwise not be readily accessible.

  7. Synthesis, crystal structure and applications of palladium thiosalicylate complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.B. Moosun

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Three palladium thiosalicylate complexes [Pd(tb(bipy]·3H2O (1, [Pd2(tb2(bipy2]·(dtdb2 (2 and [Pd2(tb2(phen2]·dtdb·H2O (3 (bipy = bipyridine; phen = phenanthroline were prepared from the reaction of PdCl2(CH3CN2 with dithiosalicylic acid (dtdb which underwent cleavage to form thiobenzoate anion (tb in DMF/MeOH. Square planar geometries of the complexes with a N2SO coordination type were proposed on the basis of single crystal X-ray structural study. The presence of trapped and uncoordinated dtdb was observed in complexes 2 and 3. Complexes 1–3 were evaluated as catalysts for Heck coupling reactions of methyl acrylate with iodobenzene, and showed moderate activities at a very low catalyst loading. Complex 1 was found to inhibit the growth of bacteria and scavenge free radicals efficiently.

  8. Biotemplated Palladium Catalysts Can Be Stabilized on Different Support Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Yates, Matthew D.; Logan, Bruce E.

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Sustainably biotemplated palladium catalysts generated on different carbon-based support materials are examined for durability under electrochemical (oxidative) and mechanical-stress conditions. Biotemplated catalysts on carbon paper under both stresses retain 95% (at 0.6V) of the initial catalytic activity as opposed to 70% for carbon cloth and 60% for graphite. Graphite electrodes retain 95% of initial catalytic activity under a single stress. Using electrodeposited polyaniline (PANI) and polydimethylsiloxane binder increases the current density after the stress tests by 22%, as opposed to a 30% decrease for Nafion. PANI-coated electrodes retain more activity than carbon-paper electrodes under elevated mechanical (94 versus 70%) or increased oxidative (175 versus 62%) stress. Biotemplated catalytic electrodes may be useful alternatives to synthetically produce catalysts for some electrochemical applications. Sustainable electrode fabrication: The biotemplated synthesis of catalytic porous electrodes is a sustainable process and, according to the results of durability tests under electrochemical and mechanical stress, these electrodes (e.g. the Pd/carbon paper electrode shown in the picture) are durable enough to replace catalytic electrodes based on synthetic materials in certain applications.

  9. Biotemplated Palladium Catalysts Can Be Stabilized on Different Support Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Yates, Matthew D.

    2014-07-30

    © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Sustainably biotemplated palladium catalysts generated on different carbon-based support materials are examined for durability under electrochemical (oxidative) and mechanical-stress conditions. Biotemplated catalysts on carbon paper under both stresses retain 95% (at 0.6V) of the initial catalytic activity as opposed to 70% for carbon cloth and 60% for graphite. Graphite electrodes retain 95% of initial catalytic activity under a single stress. Using electrodeposited polyaniline (PANI) and polydimethylsiloxane binder increases the current density after the stress tests by 22%, as opposed to a 30% decrease for Nafion. PANI-coated electrodes retain more activity than carbon-paper electrodes under elevated mechanical (94 versus 70%) or increased oxidative (175 versus 62%) stress. Biotemplated catalytic electrodes may be useful alternatives to synthetically produce catalysts for some electrochemical applications. Sustainable electrode fabrication: The biotemplated synthesis of catalytic porous electrodes is a sustainable process and, according to the results of durability tests under electrochemical and mechanical stress, these electrodes (e.g. the Pd/carbon paper electrode shown in the picture) are durable enough to replace catalytic electrodes based on synthetic materials in certain applications.

  10. Green Chemistry Approach for Synthesis of Effective Anticancer Palladium Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Kim, EunSu; Han, Jae Woong; Park, Jung Hyun; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2015-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to design and synthesize Palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs) using an environmentally friendly approach and evaluate the in vitro efficacy of PdNPs in human ovarian cancer A2780 cells. Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy was used to monitor the conversion of Pd(II) ions to Pd(0)NPs. X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed the crystallinity of the as-synthesized PdNPs and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) further confirmed the role of the leaf extract of Evolvulus alsinoides as a reducing and stabilizing agent for the synthesis of PdNPs. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that the average size of the NPs was 5 nm. After a 24-h exposure to PdNPs, cell viability and light microscopy assays revealed the dose-dependent toxicity of the PdNPs. Furthermore, the dose-dependent cytotoxicity of the PdNPs was confirmed by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, activation of PdNPs-induced autophagy, impairment of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), enhanced caspase-3 activity, and detection of TUNEL-positive cells. Our study demonstrates a single, simple, dependable and green approach for the synthesis of PdNPs using leaf extracts of Evolvulus alsinoides. Furthermore, the in vitro efficacy of PdNPs in human ovarian cancer cells suggests that it could be an effective therapeutic agent for cancer therapy.

  11. Green Chemistry Approach for Synthesis of Effective Anticancer Palladium Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangiliyandi Gurunathan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to design and synthesize Palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs using an environmentally friendly approach and evaluate the in vitro efficacy of PdNPs in human ovarian cancer A2780 cells. Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis spectroscopy was used to monitor the conversion of Pd(II ions to Pd(0NPs. X-ray diffraction (XRD revealed the crystallinity of the as-synthesized PdNPs and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR further confirmed the role of the leaf extract of Evolvulus alsinoides as a reducing and stabilizing agent for the synthesis of PdNPs. Dynamic light scattering (DLS and transmission electron microscopy (TEM showed that the average size of the NPs was 5 nm. After a 24-h exposure to PdNPs, cell viability and light microscopy assays revealed the dose-dependent toxicity of the PdNPs. Furthermore, the dose-dependent cytotoxicity of the PdNPs was confirmed by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS generation, activation of PdNPs-induced autophagy, impairment of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, enhanced caspase-3 activity, and detection of TUNEL-positive cells. Our study demonstrates a single, simple, dependable and green approach for the synthesis of PdNPs using leaf extracts of Evolvulus alsinoides. Furthermore, the in vitro efficacy of PdNPs in human ovarian cancer cells suggests that it could be an effective therapeutic agent for cancer therapy.

  12. Catalytic hydrolysis of ammonia borane via cobalt palladium nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Daohua; Mazumder, Vismadeb; Metin, Önder; Sun, Shouheng

    2011-08-23

    Monodisperse 8 nm CoPd nanoparticles (NPs) with controlled compositions were synthesized by the reduction of cobalt acetylacetonate and palladium bromide in the presence of oleylamine and trioctylphosphine. These NPs were active catalysts for hydrogen generation from the hydrolysis of ammonia borane (AB), and their activities were composition dependent. Among the 8 nm CoPd catalysts tested for the hydrolysis of AB, the Co(35)Pd(65) NPs exhibited the highest catalytic activity and durability. Their hydrolysis completion time and activation energy were 5.5 min and 27.5 kJ mol(-1), respectively, which were comparable to the best Pt-based catalyst reported. The catalytic performance of the CoPd/C could be further enhanced by a preannealing treatment at 300 °C under air for 15 h with the hydrolysis completion time reduced to 3.5 min. This high catalytic performance of Co(35)Pd(65) NP catalyst makes it an exciting alternative in pursuit of practical implementation of AB as a hydrogen storage material for fuel cell applications. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  13. Palladium-catalysed anti-Markovnikov selective oxidative amination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Daniel G.; Gockel, Samuel N.; Kennemur, Jennifer L.; Waller, Peter J.; Hull, Kami L.

    2018-03-01

    In recent years, the synthesis of amines and other nitrogen-containing motifs has been a major area of research in organic chemistry because they are widely represented in biologically active molecules. Current strategies rely on a multistep approach and require one reactant to be activated prior to the carbon-nitrogen bond formation. This leads to a reaction inefficiency and functional group intolerance. As such, a general approach to the synthesis of nitrogen-containing compounds from readily available and benign starting materials is highly desirable. Here we present a palladium-catalysed oxidative amination reaction in which the addition of the nitrogen occurs at the less-substituted carbon of a double bond, in what is known as anti-Markovnikov selectivity. Alkenes are shown to react with imides in the presence of a palladate catalyst to generate the terminal imide through trans-aminopalladation. Subsequently, olefin isomerization occurs to afford the thermodynamically favoured products. Both the scope of the transformation and mechanistic investigations are reported.

  14. Determination of palladium in various samples by atomic absorption spectrometry after preconcentration with dimethylglyoxime on silica gel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokalioglu, Serife; Oymak, Tuelay; Kartal, Senol

    2004-01-01

    A preconcentration method based on the adsorption of palladium-dimethylglyoxime (DMG) complex on silica gel for the determination of palladium at trace levels by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) has been developed. The retained palladium as Pd(DMG) 2 complex was eluted with 1 mol l -1 HCl in acetone. The effect of some analytical parameters such as pH, amount of reagent and the sample volume on the recovery of palladium was examined in synthetic solutions containing street dust matrix. The influence of some matrix ions on the recovery of palladium was investigated by using the developed method when the elements were present both individually and together. The results showed that 2500 μg ml -1 Na + , K + , Mg 2+ , Al 3+ and Fe 3+ ; 5000 μg ml -1 Ca 2+ ; 500 μg ml -1 Pb 2+ ; 125 μg ml -1 Zn 2+ ; 50 μg ml -1 Cu 2+ and 25 μg ml -1 Ni 2+ did not interfere with the palladium signal. At the optimum conditions determined experimentally, the recovery for palladium was found to be 95.3±1.2% at the 95% confidence level. The relative standard deviation and limit of detection (3s/b) of the method were found to be 1.7% and 1.2 μg l -1 , respectively. In order to determine the adsorption behaviour of silica gel, the adsorption isotherm of palladium was studied and the binding equilibrium constant and adsorption capacity were calculated to be 0.38 l mg -1 and 4.06 mg g -1 , respectively. The determination of palladium in various samples was performed by using both flame AAS and graphite furnace AAS. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of palladium in the street dust, anode slime, rock and catalytic converter samples

  15. Investigation of high temperature reactions on solid substrates with Rutherford backscattering spectrometry: interaction of palladium with selenium on heated graphite surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majidi, V.; Robertson, J.D.

    1991-01-01

    Selenium and palladium interactions on heated pyrolytically coated graphite substrates were investigated using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. The studies were performed using selenium alone, palladium alone, and a combination of selenium and palladium deposited on the graphite substrates. The results indicate that palladium instantaneously stabilizes selenium at ambient temperatures and prevents the diffusion of selenium into the graphite. As the substrate is heated, temperature dependent diffusion of all analytes into the graphite is observed. Furthermore, it appears that the stabilization of selenium is due to the formation of a stoichiometric compound with palladium and oxygen. This compound decomposes at a temperature between 1070 and 1770 K. (author)

  16. Investigation of high temperature reactions on solid substrates with Rutherford backscattering spectrometry: interaction of palladium with selenium on heated graphite surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majidi, V.; Robertson, J.D. (Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry)

    1991-01-01

    Selenium and palladium interactions on heated pyrolytically coated graphite substrates were investigated using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. The studies were performed using selenium alone, palladium alone, and a combination of selenium and palladium deposited on the graphite substrates. The results indicate that palladium instantaneously stabilizes selenium at ambient temperatures and prevents the diffusion of selenium into the graphite. As the substrate is heated, temperature dependent diffusion of all analytes into the graphite is observed. Furthermore, it appears that the stabilization of selenium is due to the formation of a stoichiometric compound with palladium and oxygen. This compound decomposes at a temperature between 1070 and 1770 K. (author).

  17. Nanostructured palladium tailored via carbonyl chemical route towards oxygen reduction reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Y.; Mora-Hernández, J.M.; Estudillo-Wong, L.A.; Arce-Estrada, E.M.; Alonso-Vante, N.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical Abstract: Mass-depending morphologies of nanostructured Palladium obtained via the carbonyl chemical route. Display Omitted -- Highlights: •Mass-depending morphology was observed in nanostructured palladium supported on carbon prepared by the carbonyl chemical route. •The Morphological effect of carbon supported Pd was investigated towards ORR. -- Abstract: Carbon supported palladium nanostructures were synthesized via the carbonyl chemical route. Compared with nanostructured platinum, prepared via carbonyl chemical route, Pd nanomaterials showed mass-loading morphology, whereas particle size and morphology of Pt nanostructures was constant. The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) on nanostructured Pd, with different morphology in both acid and alkaline medium was investigated. A relationship, based on X-ray diffraction structural analysis pattern, transmission electron microscope, with the Pd morphological effect on ORR activity was identified

  18. γ-Diimine palladium(II based complexes mediated polymerization of methyl methacrylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Sunjuk

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of new palladium(II complexes of the type [Pd(A–NC–ph–CN–ACl2] (4a–e (A = cyclohexyl (a, 2-isoprpropyl (b, pyrenyl (c, naphthyl (d, and 2,6-diisopropyl (e is described. The isolated γ-diimine ligands and their corresponding palladium(II complexes were characterized by their physical properties, elemental analysis, 1H NMR-, 13C NMR, and infrared spectroscopy. The palladium(II complexes (4a–e were employed successfully as catalysts for atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP of methyl methacrylate (MMA in the presence of ethyl-2-bromoisobutyrate (EBIB as initiator at 90 °C. Polymerization with these catalyst systems afforded polymers with low molecular weight distribution (Mw/Mn and syndio-rich atactic poly (MMA with relatively higher [rr] diads.

  19. Study on a multi-component palladium alloy membrane for the fusion fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Hiroshi; Okuno, Kenji; Nagasaki, Takanori; Noda, Kenji; Ishii, Yoshinobu; Takeshita, Hidefumi.

    1985-11-01

    A feasibility study on the material integrity with respect to the hydride formation and helium damage of the palladium alloy membrane was performed for an application of the palladium diffuser to a fusion fuel cleanup process. This study was conducted under the Japan/US Fusion Cooperation Program. Experimental works on the crystallography, hydrogen solubility and 3 He release characteristics were carried out with a multi-component palladium alloy(Pd-25Ag.Au.Ru). The excellent hydrogen permeability and mechanical properties of the membrane made of this alloy had been confirmed by authors' previous study. Based on the present study, this alloy membrane has high resistivity to the hydrogen embrittlement, and swelling and fracture due to the helium bubble formation under the practical operating conditions of the diffuser. (author)

  20. A dataset for preparing pristine graphene-palladium nanocomposites using swollen liquid crystal templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vats, Tripti; Siril, Prem Felix

    2017-12-01

    Pristine graphene (G) has not received much attention as a catalyst support, presumably due to its relative inertness as compared to reduced graphene oxide (RGO). In the present work, we used swollen liquid crystals (SLCs) as nano-reactors for graphene-palladium nanocomposites synthesis. The 'soft' confinement of SLCs directs the growth of palladium (Pd) nanoparticles over the G sheets. In this dataset we include all the parameters and details of different techniques used for the characterization of G, SLCs and synthesized G-Pd nanocomposites. The synthesized G-palladium nanocomposites (Pd-G) exhibited improved catalytic activity compared with Pd-RGO and Pd nanoparticles, in the hydrogenation of nitrophenols and C-C coupling reactions.

  1. Preparation of Palladium/Silver-Coated Polyimide Nanotubes: Flexible, Electrically Conductive Fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Lushi; Rui, Guanchun; Wang, Guangyu; Huang, Rundong; Li, Ran; Yu, Jiajie; Qi, Shengli; Wu, Dezhen

    2017-11-02

    A simple and practical method for coating palladium/silver nanoparticles on polyimide (PI) nanotubes is developed. The key steps involved in the process are silver ion exchange/reduction and displacement reactions between silver and palladium ions. With the addition of silver, the conductivity of the PI nanotubes is greatly enhanced. Further, the polyimide nanotubes with a dense, homogeneous coating of palladium nanoparticles remain flexible after heat treatment and show the possibility for use as highly efficient catalysts. The approach developed here is applicable for coating various noble metals on a wide range of polymer matrices, and can be used for obtaining polyimide nanotubes with metal loaded on both the inner and outer surface.

  2. Preparation of Palladium/Silver-Coated Polyimide Nanotubes: Flexible, Electrically Conductive Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lushi Kong

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A simple and practical method for coating palladium/silver nanoparticles on polyimide (PI nanotubes is developed. The key steps involved in the process are silver ion exchange/reduction and displacement reactions between silver and palladium ions. With the addition of silver, the conductivity of the PI nanotubes is greatly enhanced. Further, the polyimide nanotubes with a dense, homogeneous coating of palladium nanoparticles remain flexible after heat treatment and show the possibility for use as highly efficient catalysts. The approach developed here is applicable for coating various noble metals on a wide range of polymer matrices, and can be used for obtaining polyimide nanotubes with metal loaded on both the inner and outer surface.

  3. Low Temperature Steam Methane Reforming Over Ni Based Catalytic Membrane Prepared by Electroless Palladium Plating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Moon; Hong, Sung Chang; Kim, Sung Su

    2018-09-01

    A Pd/Ni-YSZ porous membrane with different palladium loadings and hydrazine as a reducing reagent was prepared by electroless plating and evaluated for the steam methane reforming activity. The steam-reforming activity of a Ni-YSZ porous membrane was greatly increased by the deposition of 4 g/L palladium in the low-temperature range (600 °C). With an increasing amount of reducing reagent, the Pd clusters were well dispersed on the Ni-YSZ surface and were uniform in size (∼500 nm). The Pd/Ni-YSZ catalytic porous membrane prepared by 1 of Pd/hydrazine ratio possessed an abundant amount of metallic Pd. The optimal palladium loadings and Pd/hydrazine ratio increased the catalytic activity in both the steam-reforming reaction and the Pd dispersion.

  4. Shaping surface of palladium nanospheres through the control of reaction parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lianmeng; Tan Enzhong; Guo Lin; Wang Lihua; Han Xiaodong

    2011-01-01

    Solid, cracked, and flower-shaped surfaces of palladium nanospheres with high yields and good uniformity were successfully prepared by a wet chemical method. On the basis of the experimental data, the same size of palladium nanosphere with different surface morphologies can be regulated only by changing the amount of ammonium hydroxide and reductant in one experimental system. The as-prepared products were studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). In addition, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra on the as-prepared different surface of palladium nanospheres exhibit high activity towards p-aminothiophenol (PATP) detection, and the result further reveals that the predominance of the a1 vibration mode in the SERS spectra via an electromagnetic (EM) mechanism is significant.

  5. Recovery of nonradioactive palladium and rhodium from high-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDuffie, H.F.

    1979-01-01

    A possible method for recovering significant quantities of nonradioactive palladium from fission-product wastes requires essentially complete separation of the fission-product (radioactive) palladium from fission-product ruthenium. After the decay of 106 Ru via 106 Rh to 106 Pd, this nonradioactive palladium is recovered for normal commercial use. The U.S. production of palladium has never been above 1000 kg per year vs consumption of about 46,000 kg per year. Most of the supply comes from Russia and South Africa. It has been estimated that a 400-GW(e) nuclear reactor economy will make available 2000 kg per year of 106 Ru at reactor fuel discharge. A substantial increase might be achieved if plutonium were recycled as fissionable material because of the higher yields of the 106 chain from plutonium. A literature search has uncovered support for three promising approaches to the required separation of palladium from ruthenium: (1) recrystallization from solution in bismuth or in zinc; (2) selective precipitation of a titanium--ruthenium intermetallic compound from bismuth, followed by precipitation of a zinc--palladium intermetallic compound; and (3) dissolution in molten magnesium followed by partitioning between molten magnesium and a molten uranium-5 wt % chromium eutectic at a temperature above 870 0 C. Liquid-liquid extraction appears to be the most promising method from a technological point of view, although intermetallic compound formation is much more interesting chemically. Recovery of some nonradioactive 103 Rh may be possible by liquid-liquid extraction of the fuel before the decay of the 39.8-d 103 Ru has gone substantially to completion. Demonstration of the practicality of these separations will contribute a positive factor to the evaluation of resumption in the United States of nuclear fuel reprocessing and plutonium recycle in light-water-moderated reactors

  6. Morphology of one-time coated palladium-alumina composite membrane prepared by sol-gel process and electroless plating technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, R.; Dewi, R.; Pardi; Hakim, L.; Diana, S.

    2018-03-01

    Palladium coated porous alumina ceramic membrane tube was obtained using a combination of sol-gel process and electroless plating technique. The thickness, structure and composition of palladium-alumina composite membrane were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Palladium particle size was 6.18 to 7.64 nm. Palladium membrane with thickness of approximately 301.5 to 815.1 nm was formed at the outer surface of the alumina layer. EDX data confirmed the formation of palladium-alumina membrane containing 45% of palladium. From this research it shows the combination of sol-gel process and electroless plating technique with one-time coating can produce a homogeneous and smoother palladium nano layer film on alumina substrate.

  7. Method for palladium activating molybdenum metallized features on a ceramic substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, A.H.; Schwartz, B.

    1985-01-01

    A molybdenum or tungsten metallurgical pattern is formed on or in a dielectric green sheet. Palladium, nickel, platinum or rhodium is coated on a layer of polyvinyl butyral which is carried on a polyester film. The metal layer of this assembly is laminated to a dielectric green sheet which carries the molybdenum or tungsten metallurgy. The polyester film is stripped off. The resulting assembly is sintered to a fired structure, whereby the polyvinyl butyral is volatilized off and the palladium, nickel, platinum or rhodium is alloyed with the molybdenum or tungsten metallurgy to provide a densified metallurgy whose surface is free of glass

  8. Fabrication of Polybenzimidazole/Palladium Nanoparticles Hollow Fiber Membranes for Hydrogen Purification

    KAUST Repository

    Villalobos, Luis Francisco

    2017-09-13

    A novel scheme to fabricate polybenzimidazole (PBI) hollow fiber membranes with a thin skin loaded with fully dispersed palladium nanoparticles is proposed for the first time. Palladium is added to the membrane during the spinning process in the form of ions that coordinate to the imidazole groups of the polymer. This is attractive for membrane production because agglomeration of nanoparticles is minimized and the high-cost metal is incorporated in only the selective layer—where it is required. Pd-containing membranes achieve three orders of magnitude higher H2 permeances and a twofold improvement in H2/CO2 selectivity compared to pure PBI hollow fiber membranes.

  9. Palladium-catalysed arylation of acetoacetate esters to yield 2-arylacetic acid esters

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Zeevaart, JG

    2004-05-24

    Full Text Available , was developed simultaneously by Hart- wig and Buchwald.5 Typically the tert-butyl ester of propionic acid is treated with an aryl halide (bromide or chloride) in the presence of a strong base, palladium and a bulky phosphine ligand or a bulky imidazolinium CO2t... novel palladium- catalysed conditions for the arylation of acetoacetate esters resulting in the formation of 2-arylacetic acid esters. When we attempted the arylation of tert-butyl aceto- acetate 1a with bromobenzene 2a using mild reaction conditions (K3...

  10. Neutron activation determination of gold and palladium using extraction by organic sulfides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil'berg, Eh.N.; Torgov, V.G.; Verevkin, G.V.; AN SSSR, Novosibirsk. Inst. Neorganicheskoj Khimii)

    1978-01-01

    Compared are methods of gold determination in standard rock samples of the USA National Geological Service: a) extraction by solutions of dioctylsulfide and oil sulfides from irradiated samples; b) preliminary extraction by the above solfides with the following extract radiation; c) the method of isotope dilution with substoichiometry extraction. A possibility is studied to determine palladium in the sulfide extract with gold using the NaI(Tl) thin crystal scintillators. It is established that joint palladium and gold extraction permits to determine them in many natural products simultaneously

  11. Watermelon rind-mediated green synthesis of noble palladium nanoparticles: catalytic application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmipathy, R.; Palakshi Reddy, B.; Sarada, N. C.; Chidambaram, K.; Khadeer Pasha, Sk.

    2015-02-01

    The present study reports the feasibility of synthesis of palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs) by watermelon rind. The aqueous extract prepared from watermelon rind, an agro waste, was evaluated as capping and reducing agent for biosynthesis of palladium nanoparticles. The formation of Pd NPs was visually monitored with change in color from pale yellow to dark brown and later monitored with UV-Vis spectroscopy. The synthesized Pd NPs were further characterized by XRD, FTIR, DLS, AFM and TEM techniques. The synthesized Pd NPs were employed in Suzuki coupling reaction as catalyst. The results reveal that watermelon rind, an agro waste, is capable of synthesizing spherical-shaped Pd NPs with catalytic activity.

  12. Efficiency of Al2O3 supported palladium sorbents in the process of hydrogen isotope exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreev, B.M.; Perevezentsev, A.N.; Yasenkov, V.I.

    1981-01-01

    It is found that in the hydrogen-palladium system while applying the metal to aluminium oxide a considerable increase of the heterogeneous hydrogen isotopic exchange rate is observed due to the increase of its specific surface at 167-298 K temperatures and 350-500 Torr hydrogen pressures. It is shown that in the process of thermal treatment of the supported palladium sorbent resulting in reconstruction of the carrier porous structure, as well as in increasing the metal crystal size, the change of the stage, limiting the isotopic exchange process, occurs. The values of the rate and energy of activation of the hydrogen isotopic exchange are presented [ru

  13. Insights into functional-group-tolerant polymerization catalysis with phosphine-sulfonamide palladium (II) complexes

    KAUST Repository

    Jian, Zhongbao; Falivene, Laura; Wucher, Philipp; Roesle, Philipp; Caporaso, Lucia; Cavallo, Luigi; Gç ttker-Schnetmann, Inigo; Mecking, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Two series of cationic palladium(II) methyl complexes {[(2-MeOC6H4)2PC6H4SO2NHC6H3(2,6-R1,R2)]PdMe}2[A]2 (X1+-A: R1=R2=H: H1+-A; R1=R2=CH(CH3)2: DIPP1+-A; R1=H, R2=CF3: CF31+-A; A=BF4 or SbF6) and neutral palladium(II) methyl complexes {[(2-MeOC6H4

  14. Progress in excess of power experiments with electrochemical loading of deuterium in palladium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Violante, V.; Moretti, S.; Bertolotti, M.

    2006-01-01

    A research activity has been carried out, during the last 3 years, in the field of triggering anomalous heat effects in palladium deuteride. An enhancement of the excess of power reproducibility in deuterated palladium was obtained by using He-Ne Laser irradiation during electrochemical loading. A preliminary correlation between excess of energy and 4 He concentration increasing above the background was found. The continuation of the experimental program confirmed that Laser triggering produce an interesting gain of reproducibility. An upgrade of the experimental set-up has been realized. (author)

  15. Study on the determination of palladium in biological samples by the method of neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavalcante, Cassio Queiroz

    2007-01-01

    Palladium is one of platinum group elements present in the nature at very low concentrations. However with the use of this element in the automobile catalyzers Pd became a new pollutant. Besides, Pd has been studied in the preparation of new antitumour drugs. Consequently, there is a need to determine Pd concentrations in biological and environmental samples. This study presents palladium results obtained in the analysis of biological samples and reference materials using instrumental thermal and epithermal neutron activation analysis (INAA and ENAA). The solvent extraction and solid phase extraction separation methods were also applied before ENAA. The samples analyzed in this study were, reference material BCR 723 - Palladium, Platinum and Rhodium in road dust, CCQM-P63 automotive catalyst material of the Proficiency Test and bovine tissue samples containing palladium prepared in the laboratory. Samples and palladium synthetic standard were irradiated at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor under thermal neutron flux of about 4 x 10 12 n cm-2 s-1, during a period of 4 and 16 h for INAA and ENAA, respectively. The induced gamma activity of 109 Pd to the sample and standard was measured using a hyper pure Ge detector coupled to a gamma ray spectrometer. The palladium concentration was calculated by comparative method. The gamma ray energy of 109 Pd radioisotope measured was of 88.0 keV, located in a spectrum region of low energy where occurs the interference of X rays, 'Bremsstrahlung' radiations, as well as Compton effect of 24 Na. The pre-separation of palladium from interfering elements by solvent extraction was performed using dimethylglyoxime complexant and chloroform as diluent. In the case of the pre separation procedure using solid reversed phase column, the palladium was retained using N,N-diethyl-N'-benzoyl thiourea complexant and eluted using ethanol. Aliquots of the resulting solutions from the pre-separations, free of interfering elements, were

  16. Sol-gel synthesized of nanocomposite palladium-alumina ceramic membrane for H{sub 2} permeability: Preparation and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, A.L.; Mustafa, N.N.N. [School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Seri Ampangan, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia)

    2007-08-15

    Palladium-alumina membrane with mesopore and narrow pore size distribution was prepared by the sol-gel method. Effect of the finely dispersed metal on the microstructure and the characteristic properties of the palladium-alumina membrane were investigated. Observations were made on membrane weight loss, morphology, pore structure, pore size, surface area, pore surface fractal and membrane's crystal structure. Autosorb analysis, X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analysis were employed in the membrane characterization. Autosorb analysis found that, BET surface area decreased and pore size of the membrane increased with the increasing of calcinations temperature (500-1100{sup o}C) and with the increasing of palladium amount in the membrane. FTIR and TG/DTA analysis show that the suitable temperature for calcinations of palladium-alumina membrane is at 700{sup o}C. Palladium metals are highly dispersed at calcinations temperature of 700{sup o}C as observed by TEM analysis. The fine crystallinity of the palladium and {gamma}-alumina phase was obtained after calcined at 700{sup o}C. The SEM morphology shows a smooth and free crack layer of palladium-alumina membrane after repeating the process of dipping, drying and calcinations at temperature of 700{sup o}C. The membrane also successfully coated with a good adhesion on support. The thickness of the final membrane layer was estimated as 9{mu} m. (author)

  17. Accelerating Palladium Nanowire H2 Sensors Using Engineered Nanofiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Won-Tae; Qiao, Shaopeng; Ogata, Alana F; Jha, Gaurav; Jang, Ji-Soo; Chen, Vivian T; Kim, Il-Doo; Penner, Reginald M

    2017-09-26

    The oxygen, O 2 , in air interferes with the detection of H 2 by palladium (Pd)-based H 2 sensors, including Pd nanowires (NWs), depressing the sensitivity and retarding the response/recovery speed in air-relative to N 2 or Ar. Here, we describe the preparation of H 2 sensors in which a nanofiltration layer consisting of a Zn metal-organic framework (MOF) is assembled onto Pd NWs. Polyhedron particles of Zn-based zeolite imidazole framework (ZIF-8) were synthesized on lithographically patterned Pd NWs, leading to the creation of ZIF-8/Pd NW bilayered H 2 sensors. The ZIF-8 filter has many micropores (0.34 nm for gas diffusion) which allows for the predominant penetration of hydrogen molecules with a kinetic diameter of 0.289 nm, whereas relatively larger gas molecules including oxygen (0.345 nm) and nitrogen (0.364 nm) in air are effectively screened, resulting in superior hydrogen sensing properties. Very importantly, the Pd NWs filtered by ZIF-8 membrane (Pd NWs@ZIF-8) reduced the H 2 response amplitude slightly (ΔR/R 0 = 3.5% to 1% of H 2 versus 5.9% for Pd NWs) and showed 20-fold faster recovery (7 s to 1% of H 2 ) and response (10 s to 1% of H 2 ) speed compared to that of pristine Pd NWs (164 s for response and 229 s for recovery to 1% of H 2 ). These outstanding results, which are mainly attributed to the molecular sieving and acceleration effect of ZIF-8 covered on Pd NWs, rank highest in H 2 sensing speed among room-temperature Pd-based H 2 sensors.

  18. Enhancing the performance of single-chambered microbial fuel cell using manganese/palladium and zirconium/palladium composite cathode catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, Dipak A; Deshpande, Parag A; Ghangrekar, Makarand M

    2017-08-01

    Application of ZrO 2 , MnO 2 , palladium, palladium-substituted-zirconium oxide (Zr 0.98 Pd 0.02 O 2 ) and palladium-substituted-manganese oxide (Mn 0.98 Pd 0.02 O 2 ) cathode catalysts in a single-chambered microbial fuel cell (MFC) was explored. The highest power generation (1.28W/m 3 ) was achieved in MFC with Mn 0.98 Pd 0.02 O 2 catalyst, which was higher than that with MnO 2 (0.58W/m 3 ) alone; whereas, MFC having Zr 0.98 Pd 0.02 O 2 catalyzed cathode and non-catalyzed cathode produced powers of 1.02 and 0.23W/m 3 , respectively. Also, low-cost zirconium-palladium-composite showed better catalytic activity and capacitance over ZrO 2 with 20A/m 3 current production and demonstrated its suitability for MFC applications. Cyclic voltammetry analyses showed higher well-defined redox peaks in composite catalysts (Mn/Zr-Pd-C) over other catalyzed MFCs containing MnO 2 or ZrO 2 . Electrochemical behaviour of composite catalysts on cathode showed higher availability of adsorption sites for oxygen reduction and, hence, enhanced the rate of cathodic reactions. Thus, Mn/Zr-Pd-C-based composite catalysts exhibited superior cathodic performance and could be proposed as alternatives to costly Pd-catalyst for field applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. In-situ observation of deuteride formation in palladium electrochemical cathode by X-ray diffraction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Takao; Oka, Takashi; Taniguchi, Ryoichi

    1990-01-01

    In-situ X-ray diffraction observation of palladium foil cathode (10 μm) was carried out during electrolysis of 0.1N-LiOD heavy water solution in order to estimate the deuterium content in palladium during the detection of charged particles in our previous work. A complete transformation into β-palladium deuteride phase was observed, and its maximum lattice constant 4.06 A was evaluated as corresponding to D/Pd = 0.73. The deuterium concentration in the previous work was estimated as higher than this considering the difference in cell conditions. (author)

  20. Synergistic dual activation catalysis by palladium nanoparticles for epoxide ring opening with phenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Kapileswar; Roy, Sudipta Raha; Pipaliya, Bhavin V; Chakraborti, Asit K

    2013-07-04

    Synergistic dual activation catalysis has been devised for epoxide phenolysis wherein palladium nanoparticles induce electrophilic activation via coordination with the epoxide oxygen followed by nucleophilic activation through anion-π interaction with the aromatic ring of the phenol, and water (reaction medium) also renders assistance through 'epoxide-phenol' dual activation.

  1. REMOVAL OF NICKEL(II) AND PALLADIUM(II) FROM SURFACE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    Nickel is widely used in electroplating, in the manufacture of Ni-Cd batteries, in rods for arc welding, in pigments for ... Palladium has an extensive use in electrical industry as grids for ... It is also used as catalytic converter in motor vehicles.

  2. Copper-based electrochemical sensor with palladium electrode for cathodic stripping voltammetry of manganese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Wenjing; Pei, Xing; Bange, Adam; Haynes, Erin N; Heineman, William R; Papautsky, Ian

    2014-12-16

    In this work, we report on the development of a palladium-based, microfabricated point-of-care electrochemical sensor for the determination of manganese using square wave cathodic stripping voltammetry. Heavy metals require careful monitoring, yet current methods are too complex for a point-of-care system. Voltammetry offers an attractive approach to metal detection on the microscale, but traditional carbon, gold, or platinum electrodes are difficult or expensive to microfabricate, preventing widespread use. Our sensor uses palladium working and auxiliary electrodes and integrates them with a copper-based reference electrode for simple fabrication and compatibility with microfabrication and printed circuit board processing, while maintaining competitive performance in electrochemical detection. Copper electrodes were prepared on glass substrate using a combination of microfabrication procedures followed by electrodeposition of palladium. The disposable sensor system was formed by bonding a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) well to the glass substrate. Cathodic stripping voltammetry of manganese using our new disposable palladium-based sensors exhibited 334 nM (18.3 ppb) limit of detection in borate buffer. The sensor was used to demonstrate manganese determination in natural water samples from a pond in Burnet Woods, located in Cincinnati, OH, and the Ohio River.

  3. Thin film platinum–palladium thermocouples for gas turbine engine applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tougas, Ian M.; Gregory, Otto J., E-mail: gregory@egr.uri.edu

    2013-07-31

    Thin film platinum:palladium thermocouples were fabricated on alumina and mullite surfaces using radio frequency sputtering and characterized after high temperature exposure to oxidizing environments. The thermoelectric output, hysteresis, and drift of these sensors were measured at temperatures up to 1100 °C. Auger electron spectroscopy was used to follow the extent of oxidation in each thermocouple leg and interdiffusion at the metallurgical junction. Minimal oxidation of the platinum and palladium thermoelements was observed after high temperature exposure, but considerable dewetting and faceting of the films were observed in scanning electron microscopy. An Arrhenius temperature dependence on the drift rate was observed and later attributed to microstructural changes during thermal cycling. The thin film thermocouples, however, did exhibit excellent stability at 1000 °C with drift rates comparable to commercial type-K wire thermocouples. Based on these results, platinum:palladium thin film thermocouples have considerable potential for use in the hot sections of gas turbine engines. - Highlights: • Stable thin film platinum:palladium thermocouples for gas turbine engines • Little oxidation but significant microstructural changes from thermal cycling • Minimal hysteresis during repeated thermal cycling • Drift comparable to commercial wire thermocouples.

  4. Green synthesis of palladium nanoparticles with carboxymethyl cellulose for degradation of azo-dyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Gang; Li, Yun; Wang, Zhengdong; Liu, Huihong, E-mail: huihongliu@126.com

    2017-02-01

    Palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs) were synthesized through friendly environmental method using PdCl{sub 2} and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) in an aqueous solution (pH 6) at controlled water bath (80 °C) for 30 min. CMC functioned as both reducing and stabilizing agent. The characterization through high resolution-transmission electron microscopic (HRTEM) and X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (XRF) inferred that the as-synthesized PdNPs were spherical in shape with a face cubic crystal (FCC) structure. The results from dynamic light scattering (DLS) suggested the PdNPs had the narrow size distribution with an average size of 2.5 nm. The negative zeta potential (−52.6 mV) kept the as-synthesized PdNPs stable more than one year. The PdNPs showed the excellent catalytic activity by reducing degradation of azo-dyes, such as p-Aminoazobenzene, acid red 66, acid orange 7, scarlet 3G and reactive yellow 179, in the present of sodium borohydride. - Highlights: • Green synthesis of palladium nanoparticles using carboxymethyl cellulose. • The synthesis of palladium nanoparticles were performed easily. • Carboxymethyl cellulose acts as both reducing and stabilization agents. • The as-synthesized palladium nanoparticles show excellent catalytic activity.

  5. Reversible, high molecular weight palladium and platinum coordination polymers based on phosphorus ligands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paulusse, J.M.J.; Huijbers, J.P.J.; Sijbesma, R.P.

    2005-01-01

    A general strategy for the preparation and characterization of high molecular weight coordination polymers based on bifunctional phosphorus ligands and palladium or platinum dichloride is described. Metal-to-ligand stoichiometry is of key importance for the formation of linear coordination polymers

  6. Reversible, High Molecular Weight Palladium and Platinum Coordination Polymers Based on Phosphorus Ligands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paulusse, Jos Marie Johannes; Huijbers, Jeroen P.J.; Sijbesma, Rint P.

    2005-01-01

    A general strategy for the preparation and characterization of high molecular weight coordination polymers based on bifunctional phosphorus ligands and palladium or platinum dichloride is described. Metal-to-ligand stoichiometry is of key importance for the formation of linear coordination polymers

  7. PALLADIUM-FACILITATED ELECTROLYTIC DECHLORINATION OF 2-CHLOROBIPHENYL USING A GRANULAR-GRAPHITE ELECTRODE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palladium-assisted electrocatalytic dechlorination of 2-chlorobiphenyl (2-Cl BP) in aqueous solutions was conducted in a membrane-separated electrochemical reactor with granular-graphite packed electrodes. The dechlorination took place at a granular-graphite cathode while Pd was ...

  8. Preparation of palladium impregnated alumina adsorbents: Thermal and neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, Sumanta; Gupta, N.K.; Roy, S.P.; Dash, S.; Kumar, A.; Bamankar, Y.R.; Rao, T.V. Vittal [Product Development Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Kumar, N. [Fuel Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Naik, Y., E-mail: ynaik@barc.gov.in [Product Development Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2016-02-10

    Highlights: • Pd/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite microspheres particles with high surface area were prepared sol–gel process. • Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies on silver coated particle. • Content of the palladium was determined using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). • Decomposition study has been done by quadrupole mass analyser. - Abstract: Pd/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite microspheres particles with high surface area were prepared sol–gel process. The decomposition of dried gel-particles was studied by TGA/DTA and FT-IR technique. TGA studies indicated that formation of palladium is marked by a broad exothermic peak with a loss of water and oxidation of trapped HMTA/Urea nitrate mixture. The main decomposition reaction took place in the temperature range of 660–1250 K in helium and relatively lower temperature of 400 K to 1250 K in oxygen. Optical microscopy indicated that the distribution of palladium is uniform. SEM studies on silver coated particle indicated that there was surface erosion of some gel spheres while in few of them micro cracks were seen at high resolution. Content of the palladium was determined using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). Decomposition at various temperatures was studied using Residual gas analyser and decomposition species were identified using quadrupole mass analyser.

  9. Chalcogen-containing oxazolines in the palladium-catalyzed asymmetric allylic alkylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braga Antonio L.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study about the ability of chiral chalcogen-containing oxazolines to act as chiral ligands in the palladium-catalyzed allylic alkylation of rac-1,3-diphenyl-2-propenyl acetate with dimethyl malonate is reported. Differences in the catalytic performance are observed with sulfur, selenium and tellurium analogues.

  10. Halide-Enhanced Catalytic Activity of Palladium Nanoparticles Comes at the Expense of Catalyst Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azzedine Bouleghlimat

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this communication, we present studies of the oxidative homocoupling of arylboronic acids catalyzed by immobilised palladium nanoparticles in aqueous solution. This reaction is of significant interest because it shares a key transmetallation step with the well-known Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reaction. Additives can have significant effects on catalysis, both in terms of reaction mechanism and recovery of catalytic species, and our aim was to study the effect of added halides on catalytic efficiency and catalyst recovery. Using kinetic studies, we have shown that added halides (added as NaCl and NaBr can increase the catalytic activity of the palladium nanoparticles more than 10-fold, allowing reactions to be completed in less than half a day at 30 °C. However, this increased activity comes at the expense of catalyst recovery. The results are in agreement with a reaction mechanism in which, under conditions involving high concentrations of chloride or bromide, palladium leaching plays an important role. Considering the evidence for analogous reactions occurring on the surface of palladium nanoparticles under different reaction conditions, we conclude that additives can exert a significant effect on the mechanism of reactions catalyzed by nanoparticles, including switching from a surface reaction to a solution reaction. The possibility of this switch in mechanism may also be the cause for the disagreement on this topic in the literature.

  11. Electrochemical behavior of fission palladium in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayakumar, M.; Venkatesan, K.A.; Srinivasan, T.G. [Fuel Chemistry Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India)

    2007-08-01

    Electrochemical behavior of palladium (II) chloride in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride has been investigated by various electrochemical transient techniques using glassy carbon working electrode at different temperatures (343-373 K). Cyclic voltammogram consisted of a prominent reduction wave at -0.61 V (vs. Pd) due to the reduction of Pd(II) to Pd, and two oxidation waves at -0.26 and 0.31 V. A nucleation loop is observed at -0.53 V. The diffusion coefficient of palladium (II) in bmimCl ({proportional_to}10{sup -7} cm{sup 2}/s) was determined and the energy of activation (63 kJ/mol) was deduced from the cyclic voltammograms at various temperatures. Nucleation and growth of palladium on glassy carbon working electrode has been investigated by chronoamperometry and chronopotentiometry. The growth and decay of chronocurrents measured for palladium deposition has been found to follow the instantaneous nucleation model with three-dimensional growth of nuclei. The surface morphology of the deposit obtained at various applied potentials revealed the formation of dendrites immediately after nucleation and spread in all the directions with time. (author)

  12. Alternative products to carbazoles in the oxidation of diphenylamines with palladium (II) acetate

    OpenAIRE

    Raposo, M. Manuela M.; Campos, Ana M. F. Oliveira; Shannon, Patrick V. R.

    1997-01-01

    Although simple diphenylamines are conveniently oxidised with Palladium (II) acetate to give carbazoles, for more complex examples, carbazoles are minor products amongst many. CRUP (Portugal). British Council - Treaty of Windsor Programme. Junta Nacional de Investigação Científica e Tecnológica.

  13. Oxidative addition of aryl chlorides to monoligated palladium(0): A DFT-SCRF study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlquist, Mårten Sten Gösta; Norrby, Per-Ola

    2007-01-01

    Oxidative addition of aryl chlorides to palladium has been investigated by hybrid density functional theory methods (B3LYP), including a continuum model describing the solvent implicitly. A series of para-substituted aryl chlorides were studied to see the influence of electronic effects...

  14. Definition of the size of nanoclusters of silver and palladium in carbon fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volobuev, V.S.; Bashmakov, I.A.; Lukashevich, S.M.; Tolkacheva, E.A.; Tikhonova, T.F.; Lukashevich, M.G.; Kaputskij, F.N.

    2008-01-01

    Size of palladium and silver nanoclusters is carbon matrix prepared by heart treatment of metal-polymer precursor has been determined by means of XR diffractions study. It was shown that the cluster size increases with increasing annealing temperature from 700 to 900 degree Celsius by factor two. No structuring of carbon matrix was observed under clusters forming. (authors)

  15. Sensitization to palladium and nickel in Europe and the relationship with oral disease and dental alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muris, J.; Goossens, A.; Gonçalo, M.; Bircher, A.J.; Giménez-Arnau, A.; Foti, C.; Rustemeyer, T.; Feilzer, A.J.; Kleverlaan, C.J.

    2015-01-01

    Background The role of palladium and nickel sensitization in oral disease and dermatitis is not fully understood. Objectives To investigate whether sensitization to these metals was associated with exposure to dental alloys and oral and skin complaints/symptoms in a European multicentre study.

  16. Controlled deposition of palladium nanodendrites on the tips of gold nanorods and their enhanced catalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Gaoxing; Jiang, Huaqiao; Zhu, Hongyan; Lv, Jing-Jing; Yang, Guohai; Yan, Bing; Zhu, Jun-Jie

    2017-08-31

    Plasmonic Au-Pd nanostructures have drawn significant attention for use in heterogeneous catalysis. In this study, palladium nanodendrite-tipped gold nanorods (PdND-T-AuNRs) were subjected to a facile fabrication under mild reaction conditions. The palladium amounts on the two tips were tunable. In the preparation of PdND-T-AuNRs, dense capped AuNRs, a low reaction temperature, and suitable stabilizing agents were identified as critical reaction parameters for controlling palladium nanodendrites deposited on both ends of AuNRs. After overgrowth with palladium nanodendrites, the longitudinal surface plasmonic resonance peaks of PdND-T-AuNRs were red-shifted from 810 nm to 980 nm. The electrocatalytic activity of PdND-T-AuNRs for ethanol oxidation was examined, which was a bit weaker than that of cuboid core-shell Au-Pd nanodendrites; however, PdND-T-AuNRs were more stable in ethanol electrooxidation. Moreover, the photocatalytic activity of PdND-T-AuNRs for Suzuki cross-coupling reactions was investigated. At room temperature, nearly 100% yield was obtained under laser irradiation. The results can further enhance our capability of fine-tuning the optical, electronic, and catalytic properties of the bimetallic Au-Pd nanostructures.

  17. Sonogashira Coupling Reaction with Palladium Powder and Potassium Fluoride in Methanol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王磊; 李品华

    2003-01-01

    A Sonogashira coupling reaction of aromatic halides with terminal alkynes in the presence of palladium powder,potassium fluoride,cuprous iodide and triphenylphosphine in methanol,giving the corresponding coupling products aryl alkynes in good to excellent yiekls,was investigated.

  18. Palladium-catalyzed aerobic oxidative cross-coupling of arylhydrazines with terminal alkynes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yingwei; Song, Qiuling

    2015-09-04

    The palladium-catalyzed Sonogashira-type aerobic oxidative coupling of arylhydrazines with terminal alkynes via C-N bond cleavage has been developed; internal alkynes were afforded with a broad substrate scope. This reaction proceeds under copper- and base-free conditions with molecular oxygen as the sole oxidant and nitrogen and water as the only by-products.

  19. Practical and General Palladium-Catalyzed Synthesis of Ketones from Internal Olefins

    KAUST Repository

    Morandi, Bill; Wickens, Zachary K.; Grubbs, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    Make it simple! A convenient and general palladium-catalyzed oxidation of internal olefins to ketones is reported. The transformation occurs at room temperature and shows wide substrate scope. Applications to the oxidation of seed-oil derivatives and a bioactive natural product (see scheme) are described, as well as intriguing mechanistic features.

  20. Reactivation of a Palladium Catalyst during Glucose Oxidation by Molecular Oxygen

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gogová, Zuzana; Hanika, Jiří

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 5 (2009), s. 520-526 ISSN 0366-6352 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GD203/08/H032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : glucose * palladium catalyst * deactivation Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 0.791, year: 2009

  1. Metal Palladium Dispersed Inside Macroporous Ion-Exchange Resins: Textural Characterization and Accessibility to Gaseou Reactants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Biffis, A.; Jeřábek, Karel; D'Archivio, A. A.; Galantini, L.; Corain, B.

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 130, - (2000), s. 2327-2332 ISSN 0167-2991. [International Congress on Catalysis /12./. Granada, 09.07.2000-14.07.2000] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : metal palladium * dispersed * ion-exchange resins Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 0.513, year: 2000

  2. Practical and General Palladium-Catalyzed Synthesis of Ketones from Internal Olefins

    KAUST Repository

    Morandi, Bill

    2013-01-16

    Make it simple! A convenient and general palladium-catalyzed oxidation of internal olefins to ketones is reported. The transformation occurs at room temperature and shows wide substrate scope. Applications to the oxidation of seed-oil derivatives and a bioactive natural product (see scheme) are described, as well as intriguing mechanistic features.

  3. Palladium-Catalysed Direct Cross-Coupling of Organolithium Reagents with Aryl and Vinyl Triflates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vila, Carlos; Hornillos, Valentin; Giannerini, Massimo; Fananas-Mastral, Martin; Feringa, Bernard L.

    2014-01-01

    Carbon-Carbon Bond Formation Carbon-carbon bond formation by the cross-coupling of highly reactive organolithium reagents is a major challenge. Recently, it was demonstrated that palladium catalysts are able to couple organic halides with various organolithium species under mild conditions in a

  4. Palladium-catalysed direct cross-coupling of secondary alkyllithium reagents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vila, Carlos; Giannerini, Massimo; Hornillos, Valentin; Fananas-Mastral, Martin; Feringa, Ben L.

    2014-01-01

    Palladium-catalysed cross-coupling of secondary C(sp(3)) organometallic reagents has been a long-standing challenge in organic synthesis, due to the problems associated with undesired isomerisation or the formation of reduction products. Based on our recently developed catalytic C-C bond formation

  5. Preparation of fluorinated biaryls through direct palladium-catalyzed coupling of polyfluoroarenes with aryltrifluoroborates

    KAUST Repository

    Fang, Xin

    2013-07-01

    The direct palladium-catalyzed coupling of polyfluoroarenes with aryltrifluoroborates gave the desired products of fluorinated biaryls in good to excellent yields. A diverse set of important functional groups including methoxy, aldehyde, ester, nitro and halide can be well tolerated in the protocol. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Silver-palladium catalysts for the direct synthesis of hydrogen peroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Zainab; Dummer, Nicholas F.; Edwards, Jennifer K.

    2017-11-01

    A series of bimetallic silver-palladium catalysts supported on titania were prepared by wet impregnation and assessed for the direct synthesis of hydrogen peroxide, and its subsequent side reactions. The addition of silver to a palladium catalyst was found to significantly decrease hydrogen peroxide productivity and hydrogenation, but crucially increase the rate of decomposition. The decomposition product, which is predominantly hydroxyl radicals, can be used to decrease bacterial colonies. The interaction between silver and palladium was characterized using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and temperature programmed reduction (TPR). The results of the TPR and XPS indicated the formation of a silver-palladium alloy. The optimal 1% Ag-4% Pd/TiO2 bimetallic catalyst was able to produce approximately 200 ppm of H2O2 in 30 min. The findings demonstrate that AgPd/TiO2 catalysts are active for the synthesis of hydrogen peroxide and its subsequent decomposition to reactive oxygen species. The catalysts are promising for use in wastewater treatment as they combine the disinfectant properties of silver, hydrogen peroxide production and subsequent decomposition. This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'Providing sustainable catalytic solutions for a rapidly changing world'.

  7. Bulk and Surface Structures of Palladium-Modified Copper-Zinc Oxides ex Hydroxycarbonate Precursors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    López Granados, M.; Melián-Cabrera, I.; Fierro, J.L.G.

    2002-01-01

    (Pd)-Cu-Zn ex hydroxycarbonate precursors were prepared and characterized by several bulk and surface techniques. A palladium-free Cu-Zn precursor (CZ) was prepared by coprecipitation. Two Pd-Cu-Zn samples were prepared by coprecipitation (PCZ-CP) and sequential precipitation (PCZ-SP). It is shown

  8. Synthesis of Nitriles via Palladium-Catalyzed Water Shuffling from Amides to Acetonitrile

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Wandi; Haskins, Christopher W.; Yang, Yang; Dai, Mingji

    2014-01-01

    Palladium-catalyzed synthesis of nitriles from amides has been described. Two similar, but complementary reaction conditions have been identified to convert various amides including α,β,γ,δ-unsaturated amides, cinnamides, aromatic amides and alkyl amides to the corresponding nitriles in good to excellent yield.

  9. Synthesis of nitriles via palladium-catalyzed water shuffling from amides to acetonitrile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wandi; Haskins, Christopher W; Yang, Yang; Dai, Mingji

    2014-12-07

    Palladium-catalyzed synthesis of nitriles from amides has been described. Two similar, but complementary reaction conditions have been identified to convert various amides including α,β,γ,δ-unsaturated amides, cinnamides, aromatic amides and alkyl amides to the corresponding nitriles in good to excellent yield.

  10. Palladium(II)-catalyzed ortho-olefination of arenes applying sulfoxides as remote directing groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Binjie; Shen, Chuang; Yao, Jinzhong; Yin, Hong; Zhang, Yuhong

    2014-01-03

    A novel palladium-catalyzed ortho-C(sp(2))-H olefination protocol has been developed by the use of sulfoxide as the directing group. Importantly, relatively remote coordination can be accessed to achieve the ortho olefination of benzyl, 2-arylethyl, and 3-arylpropenyl sulfoxide substrates, and the olefinated sulfoxide can be easily transformed to other functionalities.

  11. Palladium Hydride Promoted Stereoselective Isomerization of Unactivated Di(exo)methylenes to Endocyclic Dienes

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Michael E.; Lee, Gloria S.; Pham, Hung V.; Houk, K. N.

    2014-01-01

    The exomethylenes of 2,6-disubstituted bicyclo[3.3.1]nonan-9-ones 2 are readily isomerized over a palladium catalyst under an atmosphere of hydrogen to predominantly form the isomer 3 with C 2 symmetry with very little formation of the analogous product with C s symmetry. A hydrogen source is essential to effect the rearrangement.

  12. Memory effects in palladium-catalyzed allylic Alkylations of 2-cyclohexen-1-yl acetate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensen, Nina; Fristrup, Peter; Tanner, David Ackland

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this work was to characterize the enantiospecificity of the allylic alkylation of enantioenriched 2-cyclohexen-1-yl acetate with the enolate ion of dimethyl malonate catalyzed by unsymmetrical palladium catalysts. The precatalysts employed were (eta(3)-allyl)PdLCl, where L...

  13. Assembling strategy to synthesize palladium modified kaolin nanocomposites with different morphologies

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiaoyu; Ouyang, Jing; Zhou, Yonghua; Yang, Huaming

    2015-01-01

    Nanocomposites of aluminosilicate minerals, kaolins (kaolinite and halloysite) with natural different morphologies assembling with palladium (Pd) nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized through strong electrostatic adsorption and chemical bonding after surface modification with 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APTES). Meanwhile, the influence of different morphologies supports on catalytic hydrogenation properties was explored. The surface concentration of amino groups on the kaolins w...

  14. Preparation of palladium nanoparticles on alumina surface by chemical co-precipitation method and catalytic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Avvaru Praveen; Kumar, B. Prem; Kumar, A.B.V. Kiran; Huy, Bui The [Department of Chemistry, Changwon National University, Changwon 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yong-Ill, E-mail: yilee@changwon.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry, Changwon National University, Changwon 641-773 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Facile synthesis of palladium nanoparticles on alumina surface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The surface morphology and properties of the nanocrystalline powders were characterized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The catalytic activities of palladium nanoparticles were investigated. - Abstract: The present work reports a chemical co-precipitation process to synthesize palladium (Pd) nanoparticles using alumina as a supporting material. The optimized temperature for the formation of nanocrystalline palladium was found to be 600 Degree-Sign C. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy were used to study the chemical nature of the Pd in alumina matrix. The surface morphology and properties of the nanocrystalline powders were examined using thermogravimetric analysis (TG-DTA), XRD, Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The calcinations in different atmospheres including in the inert medium forms the pure nano Pd{sup 0} while in the atmospheric air indicates the existence pure Pd{sup 0} along with PdO nanoparticles. The catalytic activities of the as-synthesized nanocrystalline Pd nanoparticles in the alumina matrix were investigated in Suzuki coupling, Hiyama cross-coupling, alkene and alkyne hydrogenation, and aerobic oxidation reactions.

  15. Micromachined Dense Palladium Electrodes for Thin-film Solid Acid Fuel Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Unnikrishnan, S.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis paves the way towards the microfabrication of a solid acid electrolyte based fuel cell (µSAFC), which has a membrane electrode assembly (MEA) consisting of a thin-film of water soluble electrolyte encapsulated between two dense palladium electrode membranes. This project work

  16. A Palladium-Catalyzed Vinylcyclopropane (3 + 2) Cycloaddition Approach to the Melodinus Alkaloids

    KAUST Repository

    Goldberg, Alexander F. G.

    2011-08-19

    A palladium-catalyzed (3+2) cycloaddition of a vinylcyclopropane and a β-nitrostyrene is employed to rapidly assemble the cyclopentane core of the Melodinus alkaloids. The ABCD ring system of the natural product family is prepared in six steps from commercially available materials.

  17. GREEN SYNTHESIS OF SILVER AND PALLADIUM NANOPARTICLES AT ROOM TEMPERATURE USING COFFEE AND TEA EXTRACT

    Science.gov (United States)

    An extremely simple green approach that generates bulk quantities of nanocrystals of noble metals such as silver (Ag) and palladium (Pd) using coffee and tea extract at room temperature is described. The single-pot method uses no surfactant, capping agent, and/or template. The ob...

  18. DTDGA impregnated XAD-16 beads for separation and recovery of palladium from acidic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Krishan Kant; Kanagare, Anant B.; Bairwa, K.K.; Manmohan Kumar; Bajaj, Parma N.; Ruhela, Ritesh; Singh, Ajoy K.; Hubli, Rajendra C.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study DTDGA extractant impregnated XAD16 polymeric beads (DTDGA- XAD16) were synthesized by wet chemical method and the beads were characterized by various techniques viz. FT-IR, Optical microscopy, SEM and TGA. The DTDGA-XAD 16 beads were evaluated for separation and recovery of palladium from high level waste solutions (HLW)

  19. Active sulforhodamine 101 uptake into hippocampal astrocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Schnell

    Full Text Available Sulforhodamine 101 (SR101 is widely used as a marker of astrocytes. In this study we investigated labeling of astrocytes by SR101 in acute slices from the ventrolateral medulla and the hippocampus of transgenic mice expressing EGFP under the control of the astrocyte-specific human GFAP promoter. While SR101 efficiently and specifically labeled EGFP-expressing astrocytes in hippocampus, we found that the same staining procedure failed to label astrocytes efficiently in the ventrolateral medulla. Although carbenoxolone is able to decrease the SR101-labeling of astrocytes in the hippocampus, it is unlikely that SR101 is taken up via gap-junction hemichannels because mefloquine, a blocker for pannexin and connexin hemichannels, was unable to prevent SR101-labeling of hippocampal astrocytes. However, SR101-labeling of the hippocampal astrocytes was significantly reduced by substrates of organic anion transport polypeptides, including estron-3-sulfate and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, suggesting that SR101 is actively transported into hippocampal astrocytes.

  20. Characterization of intracellular palladium nanoparticles synthesized by Desulfovibrio desulfuricans and Bacillus benzeovorans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omajali, Jacob B., E-mail: JBO037@bham.ac.uk, E-mail: jbomajali@gmail.com; Mikheenko, Iryna P. [University of Birmingham, Unit of Functional Bionanomaterials, School of Biosciences, Institute of Microbiology and Infection (United Kingdom); Merroun, Mohamed L. [University of Granada, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Sciences (Spain); Wood, Joseph [University of Birmingham, School of Chemical Engineering (United Kingdom); Macaskie, Lynne E. [University of Birmingham, Unit of Functional Bionanomaterials, School of Biosciences, Institute of Microbiology and Infection (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-15

    Early studies have focused on the synthesis of palladium nanoparticles within the periplasmic layer or on the outer membrane of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans and on the S-layer protein of Bacillus sphaericus. However, it has remained unclear whether the synthesis of palladium nanoparticles also takes place in the bacterial cell cytoplasm. This study reports the use of high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy with a high-angle annular dark field detector and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry attachment to investigate the intracellular synthesis of palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs). We show the intracellular synthesis of Pd NPs within cells of two anaerobic strains of D. desulfuricans and an aerobic strain of B. benzeovorans using hydrogen and formate as electron donors. The Pd nanoparticles were small and largely monodispersed, between 0.2 and 8 nm, occasionally from 9 to 12 nm with occasional larger nanoparticles. With D. desulfuricans NCIMB 8307 (but not D. desulfuricans NCIMB 8326) and with B. benzeovorans NCIMB 12555, the NPs were larger when made at the expense of formate, co-localizing with phosphate in the latter, and were crystalline, but were amorphous when made with H{sub 2,} with no phosphorus association. The intracellular Pd nanoparticles were mainly icosahedrons with surfaces comprising {111} facets and about 5 % distortion when compared with that of bulk palladium. The particles were more concentrated in the cell cytoplasm than the cell wall, outer membrane, or periplasm. We provide new evidence for synthesis of palladium nanoparticles within the cytoplasm of bacteria, which were confirmed to maintain cellular integrity during this synthesis.

  1. Soluble Polymer-supported Synthesis of Indoles via Palladium-mediat -ed Heteroannulation of Terminal Alkynes with o-Iodoanilines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A soluble polymer-supported synthesis of indoles via palladium-mediated hetero- annulation of terminal alkynes with o-iodoanilines has been described. The protocol provides a useful tool for constructing combinatorial indole libraries.

  2. Stereoselective synthesis of tricyclic compounds by intramolecular palladium-catalyzed addition of aryl iodides to carbonyl groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Saadi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Starting from γ-ketoesters with an o-iodobenzyl group we studied a palladium-catalyzed cyclization process that stereoselectively led to bi- and tricyclic compounds in moderate to excellent yields. Four X-ray crystal structure analyses unequivocally defined the structure of crucial cyclization products. The relative configuration of the precursor compounds is essentially transferred to that of the products and the formed hydroxy group in the newly generated cyclohexane ring is consistently in trans-arrangement with respect to the methoxycarbonyl group. A transition-state model is proposed to explain the observed stereochemical outcome. This palladium-catalyzed Barbier-type reaction requires a reduction of palladium(II back to palladium(0 which is apparently achieved by the present triethylamine.

  3. Camphyl-based α-diimine palladium complexes: highly efficient precatalysts for direct arylation of thiazoles in open-air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fu-Min; Lu, Dong-Dong; Hu, Li-Qun; Huang, Ju; Liu, Feng-Shou

    2017-07-21

    Based on the strategy of the development of phosphine-free palladium-catalyzed direct C-H arylation, a series of camphyl-based α-diimine palladium complexes bearing sterically bulky substituents were synthesized and characterized. The palladium complexes were applied for the cross-coupling of thiazole derivatives with aryl bromides. The effect of the sterically bulky substituent on the N-aryl moiety as well as the reaction conditions was screened. Under the optimal protocols, a wide range of aryl bromides can be smoothly coupled with thiazoles in good to excellent yields in the presence of a low palladium loading of 0.2 mol% under open-air conditions.

  4. 18 CFR 4.101 - Applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... PROJECT COSTS Exemption of Small Hydroelectric Power Projects of 5 Megawatts or Less § 4.101 Applicability... the Federal Power Act (Act), including licensing, for small hydroelectric power projects as defined in... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applicability. 4.101...

  5. 47 CFR 101.1425 - RF safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false RF safety. 101.1425 Section 101.1425 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE... safety. MVDDS stations in the 12.2-12.7 GHz frequency band do not operate with output powers that equal...

  6. 7 CFR 4279.101 - Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Introduction. 4279.101 Section 4279.101 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL... Introduction. (a) Content. This subpart contains loan processing regulations for the Business and Industry (B&I...

  7. 41 CFR 101-8.717 - Mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Mediation. 101-8.717... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE 8.7-Discrimination Prohibited on the Basis of Age § 101-8.717 Mediation. (a) GSA promptly refers to the mediation agency designated by the Secretary, HHS, all sufficient complaints that...

  8. 41 CFR 101-39.002 - Applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability. 101-39.002 Section 101-39.002 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 39-INTERAGENCY FLEET...

  9. 41 CFR 101-39.205 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 39-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.2-GSA Interagency Fleet Management System Services § 101-39.205 [Reserved] ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true [Reserved] 101-39.205...

  10. 41 CFR 101-26.607 - Billings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Billings. 101-26.607 Section 101-26.607 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND PROCUREMENT 26-PROCUREMENT SOURCES AND PROGRAM 26.6...

  11. 41 CFR 101-26.301 - Applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability. 101-26.301 Section 101-26.301 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND PROCUREMENT 26-PROCUREMENT SOURCES AND PROGRAM 26.3...

  12. 41 CFR 101-26.504 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true [Reserved] 101-26.504 Section 101-26.504 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND PROCUREMENT 26-PROCUREMENT SOURCES AND PROGRAM 26.5-GSA...

  13. 41 CFR 101-26.601 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true [Reserved] 101-26.601 Section 101-26.601 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND PROCUREMENT 26-PROCUREMENT SOURCES AND PROGRAM 26.6...

  14. 17 CFR 300.101 - Individual accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Individual accounts. 300.101... Customers of Sipc Members § 300.101 Individual accounts. (a) Except as otherwise provided in these rules... deemed his individual accounts, shall be combined so as to constitute a single account of a separate...

  15. 27 CFR 70.101 - Bad checks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bad checks. 70.101 Section....101 Bad checks. If any check or money order in payment of any amount receivable under Title 26 of the... appropriate TTB officer that such check was tendered in good faith and that such person had reasonable cause...

  16. 47 CFR 101.1405 - Channeling plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Channeling plan. 101.1405 Section 101.1405 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE... Channeling plan. Each license shall have one spectrum block of 500 megahertz per geographic area that can be...

  17. 48 CFR 2.101 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 2.101 Section 2.101 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL DEFINITIONS OF..., recommendations, training and the day-to-day aid of support personnel needed for the successful performance of...

  18. 41 CFR 101-30.202 - Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... associated with, but never included as a part of the national stock number. These management codes or symbols... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Policies. 101-30.202 Section 101-30.202 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System...

  19. 18 CFR 1304.101 - Nonnavigable houseboats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... 1304.101 Section 1304.101 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY APPROVAL OF CONSTRUCTION IN THE TENNESSEE RIVER SYSTEM AND REGULATION OF STRUCTURES AND OTHER ALTERATIONS... on a boat hull or on two or more pontoons; (2) Equipped with a motor and rudder controls located at a...

  20. 48 CFR 50.101-1 - Authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Authority. 50.101-1... EXTRAORDINARY CONTRACTUAL ACTIONS AND THE SAFETY ACT Extraordinary Contractual Actions 50.101-1 Authority. (a... following agencies to exercise the authority conferred by Pub. L. 85-804 and to delegate it to other...

  1. 41 CFR 101-4.510 - Recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Recruitment. 101-4.510... Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 101-4.510 Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment and hiring. A recipient shall not discriminate on the basis of sex in the recruitment and hiring...

  2. 41 CFR 101-4.310 - Recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Recruitment. 101-4.310... Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 101-4.310 Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment. A recipient... recruitment and admission of students. A recipient may be required to undertake additional recruitment efforts...

  3. 41 CFR 101-29.210 - Product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Product. 101-29.210... FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND PROCUREMENT 29-FEDERAL PRODUCT DESCRIPTIONS 29.2-Definitions § 101-29.210 Product. The term product is any end item, either manufactured or produced, and also...

  4. 48 CFR 653.101-70 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Policy. 653.101-70 Section 653.101-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS General... exclusion of any form in accordance with FAR subpart 1.4 and 601.470. [53 FR 26180, July 11, 1988, as...

  5. 41 CFR 101-4.405 - Housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Housing. 101-4.405... Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 101-4.405 Housing. (a) Generally. A recipient shall not, on... offer different services or benefits related to housing, except as provided in this section (including...

  6. 14 CFR 1264.101 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 1264.101 Section 1264.101 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL... representation, certification, affirmation, document, record, or accounting or bookkeeping entry made— (1) With...

  7. 41 CFR 101-4.500 - Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Employment. 101-4.500... Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 101-4.500 Employment. (a) General. (1) No person... subjected to discrimination in employment, or recruitment, consideration, or selection therefor, whether...

  8. 5 CFR 2604.101 - Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AND SCHEDULE OF FEES FOR THE PRODUCTION OF PUBLIC FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE REPORTS General Provisions... reproduction and mailing of public financial disclosure reports requested by any person. ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Purpose. 2604.101 Section 2604.101...

  9. 45 CFR 2490.101 - Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purpose. 2490.101 Section 2490.101 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) JAMES MADISON MEMORIAL FELLOWSHIP FOUNDATION ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE JAMES MADISON MEMORIAL...

  10. 41 CFR 101-4.540 - Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Advertising. 101-4.540... Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 101-4.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation, specification, or...

  11. 9 CFR 101.2 - Administrative terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... toxic to microorganisms, e.g., antibiotics), or analogous products at any stage of production, shipment... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrative terminology. 101.2 Section 101.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  12. 48 CFR 470.101 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... 55314(c), with respect to an agricultural product acquired under this part the lowest aggregate cost for... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 470.101 Section 470.101 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS...

  13. 41 CFR 101-6.202 - Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS GENERAL 6-MISCELLANEOUS REGULATIONS 6.2-Nondiscrimination in Programs Receiving Federal Financial Assistance § 101-6.202 Purpose. The purpose of this subpart is to... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Purpose. 101-6.202...

  14. 41 CFR 101-45.002 - Gold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Gold. 101-45.002 Section... PERSONAL PROPERTY § 101-45.002 Gold. (a) Gold will be sold in accordance with this section and part 102-38 of the Federal Management Regulation. (b) Sales of gold shall be processed to— (1) Use the sealed bid...

  15. 40 CFR 430.101 - Specialized definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Specialized definitions. 430.101 Section 430.101 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES....01 of this part shall apply to this subpart. (b) Noncorrugating medium furnish subdivision mills are...

  16. 40 CFR 97.101 - Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purpose. 97.101 Section 97.101 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX... chapter, as a means of mitigating interstate transport of fine particulates and nitrogen oxides. ...

  17. 49 CFR 212.101 - Program principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Program principles. 212.101 Section 212.101 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... principles. (a) The purpose of the national railroad safety program is to promote safety in all areas of...

  18. Library 101: Why, How, and Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Michael; King, David Lee

    2010-01-01

    This article describes how and why the Library 101 Project was created and the lessons that the developers learned out of this project. The Library 101 is a project that challenges librarians to revise the paradigm of "basic" library services in order to remain relevant in this technology-driven world. It was developed by Michael Porter,…

  19. 48 CFR 2402.101 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... GENERAL DEFINITIONS OF WORDS AND TERMS Definitions 2402.101 Definitions. Accounting Office means the Office of Accounting Operations within the Office of the Chief Financial Officer and includes that Office... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Definitions. 2402.101...

  20. 48 CFR 3433.101 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PROTESTS, DISPUTES, AND APPEALS Protests 3433.101 Definitions. Filed, as... Accounting Office (GAO), or the General Services Administration Board of Contract Appeals (GSBCA). ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 3433.101...

  1. 13 CFR 106.101 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... legal consideration. (i) Non-Fee Based SBA-Sponsored Activity Record (Non-Fee Based Record) means a... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 106.101 Section 106.101 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION COSPONSORSHIPS, FEE AND NON-FEE BASED...

  2. 42 CFR 93.101 - Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purpose. 93.101 Section 93.101 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT General...

  3. User Manual for the AZ-101 Data Acquisition System (AS-101 DAS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BRAYTON, D.D.

    2000-02-17

    User manual for the TK AZ-101 Waste Retrieval System Data Acquisition System. The purpose of this document is to describe use of the AZ-101 Data Acquisition System (AZ-101 DAS). The AZ-101 DAS is provided to fulfill the requirements for data collection and monitoring as defined in Letters of Instruction (LOI) from Numatec Hanford Corporation (NHC) to Fluor Federal Services (FFS). For a complete description of the system, including design, please refer to the AZ-101 DAS System Description document, RPP-5572.

  4. User Manual for the AZ-101 Data Acquisition System (AS-101 DAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BRAYTON, D.D.

    2000-01-01

    User manual for the TK AZ-101 Waste Retrieval System Data Acquisition System. The purpose of this document is to describe use of the AZ-101 Data Acquisition System (AZ-101 DAS). The AZ-101 DAS is provided to fulfill the requirements for data collection and monitoring as defined in Letters of Instruction (LOI) from Numatec Hanford Corporation (NHC) to Fluor Federal Services (FFS). For a complete description of the system, including design, please refer to the AZ-101 DAS System Description document, RPP-5572

  5. Synthesis and Characterization Studies of MIL-101

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Kaya EKİNCİ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available MIL-101 is a kind of Metal Organic Frameworks (MOFs, which have attracted much attention in the past decade due to its promising application in chemical industries. MIL-101 is also known as “Porous Chromium Terephthalate”. It has very high surface area and pore volume. MIL-101 exhibits exceptional stability against moisture and other chemicals and is composed of coordinately unsaturated Cr- sites with high concentration available for catalysis and adsorption. MIL-101 was synthesized by hydrothermal method and characterized by XRD, nitrogen adsorption and desorption analyses and SEM. XRD patterns show the presence of MIL-101’s crystal structure with high surface area (~2400 m2/g. Nitrogen adsorption-desorption analyzes showed that the material exhibited mesoporous material behavior.

  6. Palladium nanoparticles supported on layered hydroxide salts and their use in carbon-carbon coupling organic reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez,Maby; Ocampo,Rogelio; Rios,Luz Amalia; Ramírez,Alfonso; Giraldo,Oscar

    2011-01-01

    Palladium nanoparticles supported on zinc hydroxide salts were prepared by intercalation of [PdCl6]2- and its further reduction with ethanol under reflux. All the materials were completely characterized by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric/derivative thermogravimetric (TG/DTG) analyses, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV-Visible spectrometry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). TEM analysis confirmed that the palladium nanoparticles we...

  7. 48 CFR 804.101 - Contracting officer's signature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... signature. 804.101 Section 804.101 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Contract Execution 804.101 Contracting officer's signature. (a) If a... signature. ...

  8. Dosimetric study of a new polymer encapsulated palladium-103 seed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, S; Vynckier, S

    2005-01-01

    The use of low-energy photon emitters for brachytherapy applications, as in the treatment of prostate or ocular tumours, has increased significantly over the last few years. Several new seed models utilizing 103 Pd and 125 I have recently been introduced. Following the TG43U1 recommendations of the AAPM (American Association of Physicists in Medicine) (Rivard et al 2004 Med. Phys. 31 633), dose distributions around these low-energy photon emitters are characterized by the dose rate constant, the radial dose function and the anisotropy function in water. These functions and constants can be measured for each new seed in a solid phantom (i.e. solid water such as WT1) using high spatial resolution detectors such as very small thermoluminescent detectors. These experimental results in solid water must then be converted into liquid water by using Monte Carlo simulations. This paper presents the dosimetric parameters of a new palladium seed, OptiSeed TM (produced by International Brachytherapy (IBt), Seneffe, Belgium), made with a biocompatible polymeric shell and with a design that differs from the hollow titanium encapsulated seed, InterSource 103 , produced by the same company. A polymer encapsulation was chosen by the company IBt in order to reduce the quantity of radioactive material needed for a given dose rate, and to improve the symmetry of the radiation field around the seed. The necessary experimental data were obtained by measurements with LiF thermoluminescent dosimeters (1 mm 3 ) in a solid water phantom (WT1) and then converted to values in liquid water using Monte Carlo calculations (MCNP-4C). Comparison of the results with a previous study by Reniers et al (2002 Appl. Radiat. Isot. 57 805) shows very good agreement for the dose rate constant and for the radial dose function. In addition, the results also indicate an improvement in isotropy compared to a conventional titanium encapsulated seed. The relative dose (anisotropy value relative to 90 deg.) from

  9. Experimental Observation of Nuclear Reactions in Palladium and Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. Dufour; D. Murat; X. Dufour; J. Foos

    2001-01-01

    By submitting various metals (Pd, U) containing hydrogen (from 2000 to 700 000 atoms of hydrogen for 1 000 000 atoms of the host metal) to the combined action of electrical currents and magnetic fields, we have observed a sizeable exothermal effect (from 0.1 to 8 W for 500 mg of metal used). This effect is beyond experimental errors, the energy output being typically 130 to 250% of the energy input and not of chemical origin (exothermal effect in the range of 7000 MJ/mol of metal in the case of palladium and of 60 MJ/mol in the case of uranium). New chemical species also appear in the processes metals. It has been shown by a QED calculation that resonances of long lifetime (s), nuclear dimensions (fm), and low energy of formation (eV) could exist. This concept seems to look like the 'shrunken hydrogen atoms' proposed by various authors. It is indeed very different in two ways (a) being a metastable state, it needs energy to be formed (a few eV) and reverts to normal hydrogen after a few seconds, liberating back its energy of formation (it is thus not the source of the energy observed); (b) its formation can be described as the electron spin/proton nuclear spin interaction becoming first order in the lattice environment (whereas it is third order in a normal hydrogen atom). Moreover, we consider that the hydrex cannot yield a neutron because this reaction is strongly endothermic. To explain our results, we put forward the following working hypothesis: In a metal lattice and under proper conditions, the formation of such resonances (metastable state) could be favored. We propose to call them HYDREX, and we assume that they are actually formed in cold fusion (CF) and low-energy nuclear reaction (LENR) experiments. Once formed, a number of HYDREX could gather around a nucleus of the lattice to form a cluster of nuclear size and of very long life time compared to nuclear time (10 -22 s). In this cluster, nuclear rearrangements could take place, yielding mainly 4 He

  10. On the possibility of deuteron disintegration in electrochemically compressed D+ in a palladium cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragheb, M.; Miley, G.H.

    1989-01-01

    The possibility of deuteron disintegration due to polarization in the coulomb field of a target nucleus according to an Oppenheimer-Phillips process is discussed within the context of electrochemically compressed D + in a palladium cathode. This reaction is possible between deuterons and palladium isotopes, as well as between the deuterons themselves. In the last case, the equivalent of the proton branch of the deuterium-deuterium fusion reaction occurs in preference to the neutron branch. The process provides a possible explanation for the observed energy release, tritium production, and neutron suppression in the Fleischmann and Pons experiment. If such a process can be experimentally verified, analogous processes leading to the disintegration of the 9 Be nucleus may be achievable

  11. Synthesis of phenanthridines via palladium-catalyzed picolinamide-directed sequential C–H functionalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Pearson

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We report a new synthesis of phenanthridines based on palladium-catalyzed picolinamide-directed sequential C–H functionalization reactions starting from readily available benzylamine and aryl iodide precursors. Under the catalysis of Pd(OAc2, the ortho-C–H bond of benzylpicolinamides is first arylated with an aryl iodide. The resulting biaryl compound is then subjected to palladium-catalyzed picolinamide-directed intramolecular dehydrogenative C–H amination with PhI(OAc2 oxidant to form the corresponding cyclized dihydrophenanthridines. The benzylic position of these dihydrophenanthridines could be further oxidized with Cu(OAc2, removing the picolinamide group and providing phenathridine products. The cyclization and oxidation could be carried out in a single step and afford phenathridines in moderate to good yields.

  12. Immobilization of Highly Effective Palladium Catalyst onto Poly(4-Vinylpyridine): Synthesis and Characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Kamilah Che Soh; Intan Shafinass Kassim; Siti Aminah Jusoh; Mustaffa Samsuddin

    2016-01-01

    A commonly known weakness of homogeneous catalysts is the difficulty to recover the active catalyst from the product. Due to the disadvantage, the designing of supported catalyst has been approached to overcome the separation difficulty of the palladium-based homogeneous catalyst. New polymer supported N 2 O 2 metal complex was successfully immobilized by mixing of poly(4-vinylpyridine) with palladium(II) complex in the presence of ethyl acetate as solvent. Then, the reaction was stirred for 72 hours at room temperature to form corresponding P 4 VP-Pd catalyst. The properties of immobilized catalyst were characterized by various techniques such as fourier transform infrared (FTIR), thermogravimetric (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy/ energy dispersive X-ray (SEM/ EDX) and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission (ICP-OES) spectroscopy. (author)

  13. Enhancement in photovoltaic properties of silicon solar cells by surface plasmon effect of palladium nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atyaoui, Malek; Atyaoui, Atef; Khalifa, Marwen; Elyagoubi, Jalel; Dimassi, Wissem; Ezzaouia, Hatem

    2016-04-01

    This work presents the surface Plasmon effect of Palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs) on the photovoltaic properties of silicon solar cells. Pd NPs were deposited on the p-type silicon base of the n+/p junction using a chemical deposition method in an aqueous solution containing Palladium (II) Nitrate (PdNO3)2 and Ammonium Hydroxide (NH4OH) followed by a thermal treatment at 500 °C under nitrogen atmosphere. Chemical composition and surface morphology of the treated silicon base were examined by energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The effect of the deposited Pd NPs on the electrical properties was evaluated by the internal quantum efficiency (IQE) and current-voltage (I-V) measurements. The results indicate that the formation of the Pd NPs is accompanied by an enhanced light absorption and improved photovoltaic parameters.

  14. Polystyrene-Supported Acyclic Diaminocarbene Palladium Complexes in Sonogashira Cross-Coupling: Stability vs. Catalytic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir N. Mikhaylov

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Two types of immobilized on the amino-functionalized polystyrene-supported acyclic diaminocarbene palladium complexes (ADC-PdII are investigated under Sonogashira cross-coupling conditions. Depending on substituents in the diaminocarbene fragment immobilized ADC-PdII, systems are found to have different catalytic activity and stability regarding Pd-leaching. PdII-diaminocarbenes possessing protons at both nitrogen atoms smoothly decompose into Pd0-containing species providing a catalytic “cocktail system” with high activity and ability to reuse within nine runs. Polymer-supported palladium (II complex bearing NBn–Ccarbene–NH-moiety exhibits greater stability while noticeably lower activity under Sonogashira cross-coupling. Four molecular ADC-PdII complexes are also synthesized and investigated with the aim of confirming proposed base-promoted pathway of ADC-PdII conversion through carbodiimide into an active Pd0 forms.

  15. PVP-Stabilized Palladium Nanoparticles in Silica as Effective Catalysts for Hydrogenation Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Pires Ruas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Palladium nanoparticles stabilized by poly (N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone (PVP can be synthesized by corresponding Pd(acac2 (acac = acetylacetonate as precursor in methanol at 80°C for 2 h followed by reduction with NaBH4 and immobilized onto SiO2 prepared by sol-gel process under acidic conditions (HF or HCl. The PVP/Pd molar ratio is set to 6. The effect of the sol-gel catalyst on the silica morphology and texture and on Pd(0 content was investigated. The catalysts prepared (ca. 2% Pd(0/SiO2/HF and ca. 0,3% Pd(0/SiO2/HCl were characterized by TEM, FAAS, and SEM-EDS. Palladium nanoparticles supported in silica with a size 6.6 ± 1.4 nm were obtained. The catalytic activity was tested in hydrogenation of alkenes.

  16. Palladium polypyridyl complexes: synthesis, characterization, DNA interaction and biological activity on Leishmania (L.) mexicana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro, Maribel [Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, Caracas (Venezuela). Centro de Quimica; Betancourt, Adelmo [Universidad de Carabobo, Valencia (Venezuela). Facultad Experimental de Ciencia y Tecnologia. Dept. de Quimica; Hernandez, Clara [Universidad de Carabobo Sede Aragua, Maracay (Venezuela). Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud. Dept. de Ciencias Basicas; Marchan, Edgar [Universidad de Oriente, Cumana (Venezuela). Inst. de Investigaciones en Biomedicina y Ciencias Aplicadas. Nucleo de Sucre

    2008-07-01

    This paper describes the search for new potential chemotherapeutic agents based on transition metal complexes with planar ligands. In this study, palladium polypyridyl complexes were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, NMR, UV-VIS and IR spectroscopies. The interaction of the complexes with DNA was also investigated by spectroscopic methods. All metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) bands of the palladium polypyridyl complexes exhibited hypochromism and red shift in the presence of DNA. The binding constant and viscosity data suggested that the complexes [PdCl{sub 2}(phen)] and [PdCl{sub 2}(phendiamine)] interact with DNA by electrostatic forces. Additionally, these complexes induced an important leishmanistatic effect on L. (L.) mexicana promastigotes at the final concentration of 10 {mu}mol L{sup -1} in 48 h. (author)

  17. Studies on nickel (II and palladium (II complexes with some tetraazamacrocycles containing tellurium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathee Nitu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of 10-membered and 12-membered tellurium containing tetraazamacrocyclic complexes of divalent nickel and palladium by template condensation of diaryltellurium dichlorides, (aryl = p-hydroxyphenyl, 3-methyl-4-hydroxyphenyl, p-methoxyphenyl with 1,2-diaminoethane and 1,3-diaminopropane in the presence of metal dichloride is reported. The resulting complexes have been subjected to elemental analyses, magnetic measurements, electronic absorption, infra-red, and proton magnetic resonance spectral studies. The formation of proposed macrocyclic skeletons and their donor sites have been identified on the basis of spectral studies. Distorted octahedral structure for the nickel complexes in the solid state and squareplanar structure for the palladium complexes have been suggested.

  18. Effects of impurities on hydrogen permeability through palladium alloy membrane at comparatively high pressure and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Hiroshi; Konishi, Satoshi; Katsuta, Hiroji; Naruse, Yuji

    1982-02-01

    Palladium alloy membrane method is considered to be a useful technique for fusion reactor fuel purification process. To study the feasibility of this method, the effects of impurities on permeation characteristics of palladium alloy membrane were examined. Experiments were carried out at practical conditions: pressure; 120 - 1200 kPa, temperature; about 700 K. No poisoning effect on hydrogen permeability of commercial Pd-Ag (Au.Ru) alloy was observed for impurities such as NH 3 , CH 4 , CO, CO 2 , O 2 and N 2 , which were mixed with hyper-pure H 2 at low concentration level (10 - 10000 ppm). Deterioration occurred by contamination with oil vapor. However, regeneration of the membrane was easily performed by air baking followed by hydrogen reduction. Chemical reactions in the permeation cell were also examined. (author)

  19. Experiments on a ceramic electrolysis cell and a palladium diffuser at the tritium systems test assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, Satoshi; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Ohno, Hideo; Naruse, Yuji; Coffin, D.O.; Walthers, C.R.; Binning, K.E.

    1985-01-01

    A ceramic electrolysis cell and a palladium diffuser are developed in Japan and is tested with tritium in Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) of the Los Alamos National Laboratory, in order to confirm the feasibility as possible upgrades for the fuel cleanup system (PCU). The ceramic electrolysis cell made of stabilized zirconia was operated at 630 0 C for an extended period with a mixture of 3% T 2 O in He carrier gas in the circulation system with oxidizing catalyst bed. The palladium diffuser was tested with circulated pure tritium gas at 280 0 C to verify the compatibility of the alloy with tritium, since the 3 He produced in the metal could cause a degradation. The isotopic effects were also measured for both devices

  20. A Palladium-Tin Modified Microband Electrode Array for Nitrate Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yexiang Fu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A microband electrode array modified with palladium-tin bimetallic composite has been developed for nitrate determination. The microband electrode array was fabricated by Micro Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS technique. Palladium and tin were electrodeposited successively on the electrode, forming a double-layer structure. The effect of the Pd-Sn composite was investigated and its enhancement of catalytic activity and lifetime was revealed. The Pd-Sn modified electrode showed good linearity (R2 = 0.998 from 1 mg/L to 20 mg/L for nitrate determination with a sensitivity of 398 μA/(mg∙L−1∙cm2. The electrode exhibited a satisfying analytical performance after 60 days of storage, indicating a long lifetime. Good repeatability was also displayed by the Pd-Sn modified electrodes. The results provided an option for nitrate determination in water.

  1. Palladium polypyridyl complexes: synthesis, characterization, DNA interaction and biological activity on Leishmania (L.) mexicana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro, Maribel; Betancourt, Adelmo; Hernandez, Clara; Marchan, Edgar

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the search for new potential chemotherapeutic agents based on transition metal complexes with planar ligands. In this study, palladium polypyridyl complexes were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, NMR, UV-VIS and IR spectroscopies. The interaction of the complexes with DNA was also investigated by spectroscopic methods. All metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) bands of the palladium polypyridyl complexes exhibited hypochromism and red shift in the presence of DNA. The binding constant and viscosity data suggested that the complexes [PdCl 2 (phen)] and [PdCl 2 (phendiamine)] interact with DNA by electrostatic forces. Additionally, these complexes induced an important leishmanistatic effect on L. (L.) mexicana promastigotes at the final concentration of 10 μmol L -1 in 48 h. (author)

  2. Synthesis of heterocyclic compounds through palladium-catalyzed C-H cyclization processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inamoto, Kiyofumi

    2013-01-01

    Herein, we describe our development of synthetic methods for heterocyclic compounds based on the palladium-catalyzed carbon-hydrogen bond (C-H) functionalization/intramolecular carbon-heteroatom (nitrogen or sulfur) bond formation process. By this C-H cyclization method, we efficiently prepared various N-heterocycles, including indazoles, indoles, and 2-quinolinones, as well as S-heterocycles such as benzothiazoles and benzo[b]thiophenes. Yields are typically good to high and good functional-group tolerance is observed for each process, thereby indicating that the method provides a novel, highly applicable synthetic route to the abovementioned biologically important heterocyclic frameworks. As an application of this approach, an auto-tandem-type, one-pot process involving the oxidative Heck reaction and subsequent C-H cyclization using cinnamamides and arylboronic acids as starting materials in the presence of a palladium catalyst was also developed for the rapid construction of the 2-quinolinone nucleus.

  3. Thermogravimetric determination of the enthalpy of astatine and radon adsorption on palladium surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichler, B.; Son Chun, K.

    1985-01-01

    In order to investigate the adsorption of astatine and radon on a palladium surface some on- and off-line thermochromatographic experiments were carried out with 210 At and 220 Rn tracers. The partial molar adsorption enthalpy for zero covering was found to be ΔH/sub a//sup 0, loc./(At) = -(15S +- 10) kJ mole -1 and ΔH/sub a//sup 0, mob./(Rn) = -(37 +- 4) kJ mole -1 . The results are compared with theoretical and experimental values for other elements of the sixth period. The adsorption behaviour of At is in conformity with that of the p-metals on a palladium surface. (author)

  4. Palladium-catalyzed aryl C-H olefination with unactivated, aliphatic alkenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Arghya; Bag, Sukdev; Kancherla, Rajesh; Maiti, Debabrata

    2014-10-01

    Palladium-catalyzed coupling between aryl halides and alkenes (Mizoroki-Heck reaction) is one of the most popular reactions for synthesizing complex organic molecules. The limited availability, problematic synthesis, and higher cost of aryl halide precursors (or their equivalents) have encouraged exploration of direct olefination of aryl carbon-hydrogen (C-H) bonds (Fujiwara-Moritani reaction). Despite significant progress, the restricted substrate scope, in particular noncompliance of unactivated aliphatic olefins, has discouraged the use of this greener alternative. Overcoming this serious limitation, we report here a palladium-catalyzed chelation-assisted ortho C-H bond olefination of phenylacetic acid derivatives with unactivated, aliphatic alkenes in good to excellent yields with high regio- and stereoselectivities. The versatility of this operationally simple method has been demonstrated through drug diversification and sequential C-H olefination for synthesizing divinylbenzene derivatives.

  5. Methanofullerene-Based Palladium Bis(amino)aryl Complexes and Applications in Lewis Acid Catalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koten, G. van; Meijer, M.D.; Ronde, N.; Vogt, D.; Klink, G.P.M. van

    2001-01-01

    Synthetic routes have been developed for the attachment of palladium(II) bis(amino)aryl (NCN or C6H2{CH2NMe2}2-2,6)- complexes to C60. Using diazo and Bingel addition reactions, various methanofullerene NCN-SiMe3 compounds (C60-L-NCN-SiMe3, L = C(Me), C(CO2Et)CO2CH2, and C(Me)C6H4CC) have been

  6. Sulphur containing novel extractants for extraction-separation of palladium (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, J.P.; Sawant, S.R.; Anil Kumar; Singh, R.K.

    1995-01-01

    Extraction performance of palladium (II) by sulphur containing extragents has unequivocally established their strong extraction ability toward this thiophilic soft metal. Hence a comprehensive investigative study was initiated by us to examine selective reversible extraction-separation of trace and macro amounts of palladium (II) from both aqueous nitric acid as well as hydrochloric acid media into 1,2-dichloroethane by 1,10-dithia-18 crown-6 (1,10-DT18C6), S 6 -pentano-36 (S 6 -P-36) and bis (2-ethylhexyl) sulphoxide (BESO) dissolved in toluene. From the study of aqueous phase acidity, reagent concentration, period of equilibration, diluent, strippant and diverse ions, conditions are established from its quantitative and reversible extraction. Recovery of Pd(II) from loaded thiacrown and sulphoxide phase is easily accomplished by using sodium thiocyanate, ammonium thiocyanate, thiourea, sodium thiosulphate and mixture of (2M Na 2 CO 3 + 0.5 NH 4 OH) (only for BESO) as the strippants. The lack of interference from even appreciable amounts of contaminants like 137 Cs, 106 Ru, 233 U and 239 Pu may be considered as one of the outstanding advantages of the method. Application of these extractants has been successfully tested for the recovery of palladium from high active waste matrix. The extracted complex from both the thiacrowns has been characterized by elemental analyses and UV-Visible spectra, confirmed to be PdA 2 .T (A = NO - 3 , Cl - ) from dilute (pH ∼ 2) acid solutions while composition of organic species with palladium for the sulphoxide, has also been confirmed to be disolvate of the type Pd(NO 3 ) 2 .2BESO. (author). 52 refs., 6 tabs., 6 figs

  7. Neutron measurements in deuterated palladium cathodes subjected to pulsed electrolytic currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granada, J.R.; Mayer, R.E.; Guido, G.; Florido, P.C.; Patino, N.E.; Gillette, V.H.; Sobehart, L.; Gomez, S.; Larreteguy, A.; Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, San Carlos de Bariloche

    1989-01-01

    We report on neutron measurements performed on electrolytic cells using a high efficiency (22%) detection system in combination with a procedure involving a non-stationary current through the cell's circuit. Under these conditions, neutron production was observed in cells containing LiH dissolved in heavy water with a Palladium cathode. Characteristic patterns showing one or two bumps were obtained in a repeatable fashion, depending on the previous charging history of the cathode. (orig.)

  8. Palladium-catalyzed, asymmetric Baeyer–Villiger oxidation of prochiral cyclobutanones with PHOX ligands

    KAUST Repository

    Petersen, Kimberly S.

    2011-06-01

    Described in this report is a general method for the conversion of prochiral 3-substituted cyclobutanones to enantioenriched γ-lactones through a palladium-catalyzed Baeyer-Villiger oxidation using phosphinooxazoline ligands in up to 99% yield and 81% ee. Lactones of enantiopurity ≥93% could be obtained through a single recrystallization step. Importantly, 3,3-disubtituted cyclobutanones produced enantioenriched lactones containing a β-quaternary center. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Ester versus polyketone formation in the palladium-diphosphine catalyzed carbonylation of ethene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuidema, Erik; Bo, Carles; van Leeuwen, Piet W N M

    2007-04-04

    The origin of the chemoselectivity of palladium catalysts containing bidentate phosphine ligands toward either methoxycarbonylation of ethene or the copolymerization of ethene and carbon monoxide was investigated using density functional theory based calculations. For a palladium catalyst containing the electron-donating bis(dimethylphosphino)ethane (dmpe) ligand, the rate determining step for chain propagation is shown to be the insertion of ethene into the metal-acyl bond. The high barrier for chain propagation is attributed to the low stability of the ethene intermediate, (dmpe)Pd(ethene)(C(O)CH3). For the competing methanolysis process, the most likely pathway involves the formation of (dmpe)Pd(CH3OH)(C(O)CH3) via dissociative ligand exchange, followed by a solvent mediated proton-transfer/reductive- elimination process. The overall barrier for this process is higher than the barrier for ethene insertion into the palladium-acetyl bond, in line with the experimentally observed preference of this type of catalyst toward the formation of polyketone. Electronic bite angle effects on the rates of ethene insertion and ethanoyl methanolysis were evaluated using four electronically and sterically related ligands (Me)2P(CH2)nP(Me)2 (n = 1-4). Steric effects were studied for larger tert-butyl substituted ligands using a QM/MM methodology. The results show that ethene coordination to the metal center and subsequent insertion into the palladium-ethanoyl bond are disfavored by the addition of steric bulk around the metal center. Key intermediates in the methanolysis mechanism, on the other hand, are stabilized because of electronic effects caused by increasing the bite angle of the diphosphine ligand. The combined effects explain successfully which ligands give polymer and which ones give methyl propionate as the major products of the reaction.

  10. Polymer producing palladium complexes of unidentate phosphines in the methoxycarbonylation of ethene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Graeme; Vautravers, Nicolas R; Cole-Hamilton, David J

    2009-02-07

    A wide range of unidentate phosphines have been studied as ligands for the palladium-catalysed methoxycarbonylation of ethene in the presence of methanesulfonic acid using methanol as the solvent. At high phosphine to Pd ratios, methyl propanoate is formed at a low rate. However, at P-Pd ratios of 4 : 1, some unidentate phosphines promote the formation of polyketone with moderate rates. Analysis of all the phosphines shows that good electron donating power, combined with small size, favours polyketone formation.

  11. Continuous flow hydrogenation using polysilane-supported palladium/alumina hybrid catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shū Kobayashi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Continuous flow systems for hydrogenation using polysilane-supported palladium/alumina (Pd/(PSi–Al2O3 hybrid catalysts were developed. Our original Pd/(PSi–Al2O3 catalysts were used successfully in these systems and the hydrogenation of unsaturated C–C bonds and a nitro group, deprotection of a carbobenzyloxy (Cbz group, and a dehalogenation reaction proceeded smoothly. The catalyst retained high activity for at least 8 h under neat conditions.

  12. Novel Base Metal-Palladium Catalytic Diesel Filter Coating with NO2 Reducing Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, K.; Dahl, S.; Mogensen, G.

    2007-01-01

    A novel alternative base metal/palladium coat has been developed that has limited NO2 formation and which even removes NO2 in a wide temperature range.Soot combustion, HC conversion and CO conversion properties are comparable to current platinum based solutions but the coating has a more attracti...... solutions. Furthermore, durability results from base metal/Pd coated DPFs installed on operating taxis and related tests cycle data is given....

  13. Separation of palladium from high-level waste using metal ferro cyanide loaded resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valsala, T.P.; Joseph, Annie; Yeotikar, R.G.

    2005-01-01

    High-level waste (HLW) is generated during reprocessing of spent fuel. HLW contains corrosion products, unextracted actinides, process chemicals and fission products. A recent trend is there to consider waste as a source of wealth. Among the fission products separation and recovery of platinum group metals have gained great attention. HLW is a good source of palladium of the platinum group metal. The present study shows the feasibility of ion exchange separation of Pd from HLW. (author)

  14. Neutron powder diffraction studies of Hydrogen and Denterium in Palladium Phosphides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Y.

    1986-01-01

    The use of the Rietveld-type profile refinements on neutron powder diffraction intensity data for determining crystallographic positions of hydrogen and deuterium in metal hydrides is illustrated by results obtained on some hydrogenated and deuterated palladium phosphides. The structural features of the solid solutions of hydrogen and deuterium in Pd/sb15/P/sb2/ Pd/sb6/P and Pd/sb3/P/sb1-u/ (0< u<0.28) are briefly presented and discussed

  15. Novel Role of Carbon Dioxide as a Selective Agent in Palladium-Catalyzed Cyclotrimerization of Alkynes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李金恒; 谢叶香

    2004-01-01

    Carbon dioxide was found as a selective agent to promote the palladium-catalyzed cyclotrimerization of alkynes in water. Both aryl and alkylacetylenes afforded the corresponding cyclotrimerization products regioselectively in high yields using PdCl2, CuCl2, and CO2 as the catalytic system. However, tert-butylacetylene bearing a bulky group gave a dimerization product. Mechanism of this reaction was also discussed.

  16. Interaction of ethylene with palladium clusters supported on oxidized tungsten foil

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirka, Ivan; Plšek, Jan; Vondráček, Martin; Šutara, F.; Matolin, V.; Cháb, Vladimír; Prince, K. C.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 601, č. 14 (2007), s. 3114-3124 ISSN 0039-6028 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/05/0244 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503; CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : synchrotron radiation photoelectron spectroscopy * thermal desorption spectroscopy * chemisorption * palladium Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.855, year: 2007

  17. Palladium-Catalyzed Carbenylative Cross-Coupling and Carbenylative Amination Utilizing Vinylcarbenes

    OpenAIRE

    Agee, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    This work focuses on the use of N-tosylhydrazones derived from α,β-unsaturated aldehydes – precursors to vinylcarbene ligands – in palladium-catalyzed carbenylative cross-coupling and carbenylative amination reactions. These carbenylative reactions were used to form η3-allylpalladium intermediates that generate stereogenic centers at the carbene center. An initial acyclic model system was used to intercept a well-known prochiral 1,3-diphenylallyl intermediate to probe the feasibility of enant...

  18. Palladium catalyzed selective distal C-H olefination of biaryl systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maity, Soham; Hoque, Ehtasimul; Dhawa, Uttam; Maiti, Debabrata

    2016-11-29

    Palladium catalyzed selective distal C-H activation with nitrile based templates has been of significant research interest in recent times. In this report, we disclose the distal C-H olefination of biphenyl systems with high regio- and stereo-selectivity and useful synthetic yields. The utility of this method has been demonstrated through its wide olefin scope, its operation at the gram scale and the easy removal/recovery of the directing group.

  19. Site preference of rare earth doping in palladium-iron-arsenide superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuerzer, Christine; Schulz, Anne; Johrendt, Dirk [Department Chemie, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen (Germany)

    2014-12-15

    The solid solutions (Ca{sub 1-y}RE{sub y}Fe{sub 1-x}Pd{sub x}As){sub 10}Pd{sub z}As{sub 8} with RE = La, Ce, and Pr were synthesized by solid state methods and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction with subsequent Rietveld refinements [(CaFeAs){sub 10}Pt{sub 3}As{sub 8}-type structure (''1038 type''), P anti 1, Z = 1]. Substitution levels (Ca/RE, Fe/Pd, and Pd/□) obtained from Rietveld refinements coincide well with the nominal values according to EDS and the linear courses of the lattice parameters as expected from the ionic radii. The RE atoms favor the one out of five calcium sites, which is eightfold coordinated by arsenic. This leads to significant stabilization of the structure, and especially prevents palladium over-doping in the iron-arsenide layers as observed in the pristine compound (CaFe{sub 1-x}Pd{sub x}As){sub 10}Pd{sub z}As{sub 8}. While the stabilization energy is estimated to about 40 kJ.mol{sup -1} by electronic structure calculations, the reason for the diminished Fe/Pd substitution through RE doping is still not yet understood. We suggest that the electrons transferred from RE{sup 3+} to the (Fe{sub 1-x}Pd{sub x})As layer makes higher palladium concentrations unfavorable. Anyway the reduced palladium doping enables superconductivity with critical temperatures up to 20 K (onset) in the RE doped Pd1038 samples, which could not be obtained earlier due to palladium over-doping in the active iron-arsenide layers. (Copyright copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Electrochemical catalytic activities of nanoporous palladium rods for methanol electro-oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaoguang; Wang, Weimin; Qi, Zhen; Zhao, Changchun; Ji, Hong; Zhang, Zhonghua [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials (MOE), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jingshi Road 73, Jinan 250061 (China)

    2010-10-01

    A novel electrocatalyst, nanoporous palladium (npPd) rods can be facilely fabricated by dealloying a binary Al{sub 80}Pd{sub 20} alloy in a 5 wt.% HCl aqueous solution under free corrosion conditions. The microstructure of these nanoporous palladium rods has been characterized using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The results show that each Pd rod is several microns in length and several hundred nanometers in diameter. Moreover, all the rods exhibit a typical three-dimensional bicontinuous interpenetrating ligament-channel structure with length scale of 15-20 nm. The electrochemical experiments demonstrate that these peculiar nanoporous palladium rods (mixed with Vulcan XC-72 carbon powders to form a npPd/C catalyst) reveal a superior electrocatalytic performance toward methanol oxidation in the alkaline media. In addition, the electrocatalytic activity obviously depends on the metal loading on the electrode and will reach to the highest level (223.52 mA mg{sup -1}) when applying 0.4 mg cm{sup -2} metal loading on the electrode. Moreover, a competing adsorption mechanism should exist when performing methanol oxidation on the surface of npPd rods, and the electro-oxidation reaction is a diffusion-controlled electrochemical process. Due to the advantages of simplicity and high efficiency in the mass production, the npPd rods can act as a promising candidate for the anode catalyst for direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). (author)

  1. Practical, economical, and eco-friendly starch-supported palladium catalyst for Suzuki coupling reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Talat

    2017-06-15

    In catalytic systems, the support materials need to be both eco friendly and low cost as well as having high thermal and chemical stability. In this paper, a novel starch supported palladium catalyst, which had these outstanding properties, was designed and its catalytic activity was evaluated in a Suzuki coupling reaction under microwave heating with solvent-free and mild reaction conditions. The starch supported catalyst gave remarkable reaction yields after only 5min as a result of the coupling reaction of the phenyl boronic acid with 23 different substrates, which are bearing aril bromide, iodide, and chloride. The longevity of the catalyst was also investigated, and the catalyst could be reused for 10 runs. The starch supported Pd(II) catalyst yielded remarkable TON (up to 25,000) and TOF (up to 312,500) values by using a simple, fast and eco-friendly method. In addition, the catalytic performance of the catalyst was tested against different commercial palladium catalysts, and the green starch supported catalyst had excellent selectivity. The catalytic tests showed that the novel starch based palladium catalyst proved to be an economical and practical catalyst for the synthesis of biaryl compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Palladium extraction by a malonamide: behavior and particularities compared to rare earths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirot, Remi

    2014-01-01

    Recycling of valuable metals appears as a solution of growing interest for a sustainable supply strategy nowadays. Palladium (Pd), along with other platinum group metals (PGM) and rare earth elements (REEs), represents one of the crucial issues in recovery processes. Malonamides are neutral amphiphilic molecules which have proved their potency for the extraction of lanthanides. These extractants in nitric media were thoroughly studied in frame of nuclear fuel treatment towards lanthanide-actinide separation. Within this framework, our purpose was to study liquid/liquid (L/L) extraction towards Pd recovery from nitric media by a malonamide: the DMDOHEMA. Various parameters such as as equilibration time, pH, extractant and nitrate concentrations were investigated in detail. In some experimental conditions, a Pd-rich solid third phase appears at the interface. These third phases were deeply analyzed with NMR, IR and XPS. Mechanistic studies involved complete analysis of the organic phases, including chemical speciation at the molecular level (coordination chemistry with NMR, IR, XRD), and supramolecular ordering characterization (with SAXS and NMR). Palladium complexes were identified and characterized. Similarities and differences between palladium and lanthanides behavior during extraction were evidenced and both can be efficiently co-extracted or separated according to different experimental conditions. (author) [fr

  3. Enantioconvergent synthesis by sequential asymmetric Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons and palladium-catalyzed allylic substitution reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Torben Møller; Hansen, E. Louise; Kane, John

    2001-01-01

    A new method for enantioconvergent synthesis has been developed. The strategy relies on the combination of an asymmetric Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons (HWE) reaction and a palladium-catalyzed allylic substitution. Different $alpha@-oxygen-substituted, racemic aldehydes were initially transformed by asy...... the allylic stereocenter and the alkene geometry. Thus, a single $gamma@-substituted ester was obtained as the overall product, in high isomeric purity. The method was applied to a synthesis of a subunit of the iejimalides, a group of cytotoxic macrolides.......A new method for enantioconvergent synthesis has been developed. The strategy relies on the combination of an asymmetric Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons (HWE) reaction and a palladium-catalyzed allylic substitution. Different $alpha@-oxygen-substituted, racemic aldehydes were initially transformed...... by asymmetric HWE reactions into mixtures of two major $alpha@,$beta@-unsaturated esters, possessing opposite configurations at their allylic stereocenters as well as opposite alkene geometry. Subsequently, these isomeric mixtures of alkenes could be subjected to palladium-catalyzed allylic substitution...

  4. Spatial and temporal distribution of platinum, palladium and rhodium in Zagreb air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinkovec, Jasmina; Pehnec, Gordana; Godec, Ranka; Davila, Silvije; Bešlić, Ivan

    2018-09-15

    Platinum (Pt), palladium (Pd) and rhodium (Rh) are most widely used in the production of automotive catalytic converters that serve to reduce toxic emissions from motor vehicles. The aim of this study was to quantitatively determine the levels of platinum, palladium and rhodium in the PM 10 and PM 2.5 fraction of airborne particle matter and find their spatial and temporal distribution at different polluted areas of the city of Zagreb, Croatia. The method used in this paper included weekly sampling of airborne particle matter on quartz filters, microwave digestion in acid under high pressure and temperature, and analysis by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS). The results have shown that the highest mean values at all three sampling stations (North, Center, South) were obtained for palladium (3.856 pg m -3 , 5.396 pg m -3 , 5.600 pg m -3 ) and the lowest for rhodium (0.444 pg m -3 , 0.643 pg m -3 , 0.750 pg m -3 ). The average mass concentrations of platinum group elements (PGE) in PM 10 increased for all three elements in the direction North Zagreb are the first results of their kind for this area and will provide insights into the contribution of catalytic converters to the presence of these elements in the environment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Nonenzymatic glucose sensing based on deposited palladium nanoparticles on epoxy-silver electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutes, Albert; Carraro, Carlo; Maboudian, Roya

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → New nonenzymatic glucose sensor material. → Modified epoxy-silver electrodes with palladium nanoparticles. → Simple electroless surface modification. → Wide linear response range. → Easy implementation. - Abstract: A new approach for nonenzymatic glucose sensing, based on a simple modification of epoxy-silver surfaces deposited on the tip of commercial copper electric wires, is presented. Palladium was galvanically displaced on the surface of the epoxy-silver surface in order to obtain metal nanoparticles that act as catalyst for the direct oxidation of glucose. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the formation of the metal nanoparticles. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed the metallic nature of the formed nanostructures on the surface. Electrochemical characterization and calibration of the palladium-modified epoxy-silver electrode is reported, obtaining a linear range of 1-20 mM for the detection of glucose with low interference of ascorbic acid and uric acid. A simple 3-step coulometry was used as the detection technique. The developed sensing material is believed to be a great candidate for integration in small devices for clinical essays, due to the simplicity and cost effectiveness of the presented approach, compared to the state-of-the-art devices reported recently in the literature. Simplicity in the coulometry determinations makes these Pd-modified epoxy-silver sensors a good candidate for easy glucose determinations.

  6. Palladium-based on-wafer electroluminescence studies of GaN-based LED structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salcianu, C.O.; Thrush, E.J.; Humphreys, C.J. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom); Plumb, R.G. [Centre for Photonic Systems, Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0FD (United Kingdom); Boyd, A.R.; Rockenfeller, O.; Schmitz, D.; Heuken, M. [AIXTRON AG, Kackertstr. 15-17, 52072 Aachen (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Electroluminescence (EL) testing of Light Emitting Diode (LED) structures is usually done at the chip level. Assessing the optical and electrical properties of LED structures at the wafer scale prior to their processing would improve the cost effectiveness of producing LED-lamps. A non-destructive method for studying the luminescence properties of the structure at the wafer-scale is photoluminescence (PL). However, the relationship between the on-wafer PL data and the final device EL can be less than straightforward (Y. H Aliyu et al., Meas. Sci. Technol. 8, 437 (1997)) as the two techniques employ different carrier injection mechanisms. This paper provides an overview of some different techniques in which palladium is used as a contact in order to obtain on-wafer electroluminescence information which could be used to screen wafers prior to processing into final devices. Quick mapping of the electrical and optical characteristics was performed using either palladium needle electrodes directly, or using the latter in conjunction with evaporated palladium contacts to inject both electrons and holes into the active region via the p-type capping layer of the structure. For comparison, indium was also used to make contact to the n-layer so that electrons could be directly injected into that layer. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  7. Effect of pH on the spontaneous synthesis of palladium nanoparticles on reduced graphene oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiaorui [Faculty of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Ooki, Wataru; Kosaka, Yoshinori R.; Okonogi, Akinori [Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Marzun, Galina; Wagener, Philipp; Barcikowski, Stephan [Technical Chemistry I and Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CENIDE), University of Duisburg-Essen, Universitaetsstrasse 7, D-45141 Essen (Germany); NanoEnergieTechnikZentrum (NETZ), University of Duisburg-Essen, Carl-Benz-Strasse 199, D-47057 Duisburg (Germany); Kondo, Takahiro [Faculty of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Tsukuba Research Center for Interdisciplinary Materials Science (TIMS) & Center for Integrated Research in Fundamental Science and Engineering (CiRfSE), University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, 305-8573 (Japan); Nakamura, Junji, E-mail: nakamura@ims.tsukuba.ac.jp [Faculty of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Tsukuba Research Center for Interdisciplinary Materials Science (TIMS) & Center for Integrated Research in Fundamental Science and Engineering (CiRfSE), University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, 305-8573 (Japan)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Palladium metal nanoparticles were spontaneously formed on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) via a redox reaction in H{sub 2}O. • The amount of Pd deposited on rGO was affected by pH. • The amount of oxygen-containing functional groups in rGO was increased with the deposition of palladium. • The importance of redox potential in spontaneous deposition was demonstrated by an experiment with Zn, Ni, Pt, Pd, etc.. • The spontaneous redox deposition method is facile, environmentally friendly, and needs no external reducing agents. - Abstract: Palladium (Pd) nanoparticles were spontaneously deposited on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) without any external reducing agents. The prepared Pd/rGO composites were then characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Spontaneous deposition occurred because of a redox reaction between the Pd precursor and rGO, which involved reduction of bivalent Pd to metallic Pd{sup 0} and oxidation of the sp{sup 2} carbon of rGO to oxygen-containing functional groups. The amount of Pd deposited on rGO varied with pH, and this was attributed to electrostatic interactions between the Pd precursor and rGO based on the results of zeta potential measurements. The importance of the redox reaction in the spontaneous deposition was demonstrated in the experiment with Zn, Ni, Cu, Ag, Pt, Pd, and Au.

  8. Palladium nanoparticles anchored on graphene nanosheets: Methanol, ethanol oxidation reactions and their kinetic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaraju, D.H.; Devaraj, S.; Balaya, P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Palladium nanoparticles decorated graphene is synthesized in a single step. • Electro-catalytic activity of Gra/Pd toward alcohol oxidation is evaluated. • 1:1 Gra/Pd exhibits good electro-catalytic activity and efficient electron transfer. - Abstract: Palladium nanoparticles decorated graphene (Gra/Pd nanocomposite) was synthesized by simultaneous chemical reduction of graphene oxide and palladium salt in a single step. The negatively charged graphene oxide (GO) facilitates uniform distribution of Pd 2+ ions onto its surface. The subsequent reduction by hydrazine hydrate provides well dispersed Pd nanoparticles decorated graphene. Different amount of Pd nanoparticles on graphene was synthesized by changing the volume to weight ratio of GO to PdCl 2 . X-ray diffraction studies showed FCC lattice of Pd with predominant (1 1 1) plane. SEM and TEM studies revealed that thin graphene nanosheets are decorated by Pd nanoparticles. Raman spectroscopic studies revealed the presence of graphene nanosheets. The electro-catalytic activity of Gra/Pd nanocomposites toward methanol and ethanol oxidation in alkaline medium was evaluated by cyclic voltammetric studies. 1:1 Gra/Pd nanocomposite exhibited good electro-catalytic activity and efficient electron transfer. The kinetics of electron transfer was studied using chronoamperometry. Improved electro-catalytic activity of 1:1 Gra/Pd nanocomposite toward alcohol oxidation makes it as a potential anode for the alcohol fuel cells

  9. High stability of palladium/kieselguhr composites during absorption/desorption cycling for hydrogen isotope separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lei, Yang, E-mail: lei.y@outlook.com; Liu, Xiaopeng; Li, Shuo; Jiang, Lijun; Zhang, Chao; Li, Shuai; He, Di; Wang, Shumao

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Pd/K composites with as high as 57 wt.% of Pd have been successfully prepared. • Palladium particles can be effectively packed into the pores of kieselguhr substrates. • Variation of heat-treatment temperatures hardly affect hydrogen absorption capacity and hydrogen saturation time of the Pd/K. • Anti-pulverization property of Pd/K can be improved by packing palladium into the kieselguhr internal pores and heating at 1300 °C. - Abstract: Palladium/kieselguhr (Pd/K) composites with 57 wt.% of Pd were prepared by an improved dipping and thermal decomposition method and heated at elevated temperature to reduce breakdown during hydrogenation-dehydrogenation cycles. The hydrogen absorption kinetic properties of the samples heated at different temperatures were tested under the condition of 20 °C with 100 kPa hydrogen pressure. The 1300 °C heated Pd/K composites were repeated up to 4010 absorption and desorption cycles at temperature ranges between −40 °C and 200 °C. The results show that the phase structure, hydrogen absorption capacity and hydrogen saturation time of the Pd/K were not affected by the change of heat-treated temperatures. And after heat treatment at 1300 °C, the Pd/K particles were strengthened and fraction of larger than 80 mesh were as high as 93.4%.

  10. Palladium nanoparticles anchored on graphene nanosheets: Methanol, ethanol oxidation reactions and their kinetic studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagaraju, D.H., E-mail: dhnagu@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, 117 576 (Singapore); Materials Science and Engineering, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Thuwal, 23955-6900 (Saudi Arabia); Devaraj, S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, 117 576 (Singapore); School of Chemical and Biotechnology, SASTRA University, Thanjavur, 613 401 (India); Balaya, P., E-mail: mpepb@nus.edu.sg [Department of Mechanical Engineering, 117 576 (Singapore); Engineering Science Program, National University of Singapore, 117 576 (Singapore)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Palladium nanoparticles decorated graphene is synthesized in a single step. • Electro-catalytic activity of Gra/Pd toward alcohol oxidation is evaluated. • 1:1 Gra/Pd exhibits good electro-catalytic activity and efficient electron transfer. - Abstract: Palladium nanoparticles decorated graphene (Gra/Pd nanocomposite) was synthesized by simultaneous chemical reduction of graphene oxide and palladium salt in a single step. The negatively charged graphene oxide (GO) facilitates uniform distribution of Pd{sup 2+} ions onto its surface. The subsequent reduction by hydrazine hydrate provides well dispersed Pd nanoparticles decorated graphene. Different amount of Pd nanoparticles on graphene was synthesized by changing the volume to weight ratio of GO to PdCl{sub 2}. X-ray diffraction studies showed FCC lattice of Pd with predominant (1 1 1) plane. SEM and TEM studies revealed that thin graphene nanosheets are decorated by Pd nanoparticles. Raman spectroscopic studies revealed the presence of graphene nanosheets. The electro-catalytic activity of Gra/Pd nanocomposites toward methanol and ethanol oxidation in alkaline medium was evaluated by cyclic voltammetric studies. 1:1 Gra/Pd nanocomposite exhibited good electro-catalytic activity and efficient electron transfer. The kinetics of electron transfer was studied using chronoamperometry. Improved electro-catalytic activity of 1:1 Gra/Pd nanocomposite toward alcohol oxidation makes it as a potential anode for the alcohol fuel cells.

  11. Adhesion enhancement between electroless nickel and polyester fabric by a palladium-free process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Yinxiang, E-mail: yxlu@fudan.edu.cn [Department of Materials Science, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, Shanghai 200433 (China); Xue Longlong; Li Feng [Department of Materials Science, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2011-01-15

    A new, efficient, palladium- and etchant-free process for the electroless nickel plating of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fabric has been developed. PET electroless plating can be prepared in three steps, namely: (i) the grafting of thiol group onto PET, (ii) the silver Ag{sup 0} seeding of the PET surface, and (iii) the nickel metallization using electroless plating bath. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectrometer, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and thermogravimetric analysis (TG) were used to characterize the samples in the process, and the nickel loading was quantified by weighing. This process successfully compares with the traditional one based on KMnO{sub 4}/H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} etching and palladium-based seed layer. The nickel coating obtained in this palladium-free process can pass through ultrasonic washing challenge, and shows excellent adhesion with the PET substrate. However, the sample with Pd catalyst via traditional process was damaged during the testing experiment.

  12. Electrooxidation of aliphatic alcohols on palladium oxide catalyst prepared by pulsed electrodeposition technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casella, Innocenzo G.

    2009-01-01

    Palladium film can be deposited on gold polycrystalline electrodes, from a deoxygenated alkaline solution containing 50 mM NaOH plus 0.5 mM K 2 Pd(CN) 4 . A multipulse sequence of potentials of equal amplitude and duration was used for the palladium deposition process. In particular, an optimized waveform of potentials of E 1 = 1.0 V vs. SCE and E 2 = -1.0 V vs. SCE for the relevant pulse duration of t 1 = 0.05 s and t 2 = 0.05 s, for 30 s, was used. Cyclic voltammetry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were employed to characterize the gold-palladium modified electrode (Au-Pd) towards the electrooxidation of aliphatic alcohols in alkaline solutions. The voltammetric study suggests that the kinetics involved in the alcohol electrooxidation at the Pd-Au electrode are sensibly higher than those observed on the bare Pd and Au electrodes. In addition, the most interesting aspect of the electrooxidation of aliphatic alcohols at the Au-Pd electrode was that as the number of methylene groups on the homologous series of aliphatic alcohols increased, the molar response also increased. Under pulsed chronoamerometric conditions (PCC), using an optimized triple pulse waveform of potentials the modified electrode exhibits interesting catalytic currents without any apparent poisoning effects during the oxidation of aliphatic alcohols.

  13. Effect of pH on the spontaneous synthesis of palladium nanoparticles on reduced graphene oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiaorui; Ooki, Wataru; Kosaka, Yoshinori R.; Okonogi, Akinori; Marzun, Galina; Wagener, Philipp; Barcikowski, Stephan; Kondo, Takahiro; Nakamura, Junji

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Palladium metal nanoparticles were spontaneously formed on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) via a redox reaction in H_2O. • The amount of Pd deposited on rGO was affected by pH. • The amount of oxygen-containing functional groups in rGO was increased with the deposition of palladium. • The importance of redox potential in spontaneous deposition was demonstrated by an experiment with Zn, Ni, Pt, Pd, etc.. • The spontaneous redox deposition method is facile, environmentally friendly, and needs no external reducing agents. - Abstract: Palladium (Pd) nanoparticles were spontaneously deposited on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) without any external reducing agents. The prepared Pd/rGO composites were then characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Spontaneous deposition occurred because of a redox reaction between the Pd precursor and rGO, which involved reduction of bivalent Pd to metallic Pd"0 and oxidation of the sp"2 carbon of rGO to oxygen-containing functional groups. The amount of Pd deposited on rGO varied with pH, and this was attributed to electrostatic interactions between the Pd precursor and rGO based on the results of zeta potential measurements. The importance of the redox reaction in the spontaneous deposition was demonstrated in the experiment with Zn, Ni, Cu, Ag, Pt, Pd, and Au.

  14. Dechlorination of Environmental Contaminants Using a Hybrid Nanocatalyst: Palladium Nanoparticles Supported on Hierarchical Carbon Nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hema Vijwani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates the effectiveness of a new type of hybrid nanocatalyst material that combines the high surface area of nanoparticles and nanotubes with the structural robustness and ease of handling larger supports. The hybrid material is made by fabricating palladium nanoparticles on two types of carbon supports: as-received microcellular foam (Foam and foam with carbon nanotubes anchored on the pore walls (CNT/Foam. Catalytic reductive dechlorination of carbon tetrachloride with these materials has been investigated using gas chromatography. It is seen that while both palladium-functionalized carbon supports are highly effective in the degradation of carbon tetrachloride, the rate of degradation is significantly increased with palladium on CNT/Foam. However, there is scope to increase this rate further if the wettability of these structures can be enhanced in the future. Microstructural and spectroscopic analyses of the fresh and used catalysts have been compared which indicates that there is no change in density or surface chemical states of the catalyst after prolonged use in dechlorination test. This implies that these materials can be used repeatedly and hence provide a simple, powerful, and cost-effective approach for dechlorination of water.

  15. 48 CFR 1601.101 - Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Employees Health Benefits Acquisition Regulation, within title 48, the Federal Acquisition Regulation System... for acquiring and administering contracts with health insurance carriers in the Federal Employees... 1601.101 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH...

  16. 101 sõbraga leedi / Jaan Mettik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mettik, Jaan

    2007-01-01

    Virve Roosti toalilleraamatutest. Vt. samas: Kuidas sündis Virve Roosti viimane teos "Toalilleraamat. 101 rohelist sõpra?" ; Miks peab lillesõbra raamaturiiulis olema vähemalt üks Virve Roosti toalilleraamat?

  17. 7 CFR 1212.101 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS..., PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Referendum Procedures § 1212.101 Definitions. (a) Administrator means the Administrator of the Agricultural Marketing Service, with power to re...

  18. 19 CFR 101.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...” means a weekday (Monday through Friday), excluding national holidays as specified in § 101.6(a). Customs... director. (The Customs ports in the Virgin Islands, although under the jurisdiction of the Secretary of the...

  19. Headaches and Migraines: Migraine 101 Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Headaches and Migraines Migraine 101 Quiz Past Issues / Spring 2009 Table of ... the facts when it comes to headaches and migraines? Test your knowledge with this quick quiz. True/ ...

  20. Menopause 101: A Primer for the Perimenopausal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abstracts Media Award Recipients Media Policy Media Requests Menopause 101: A primer for the perimenopausal The information ... about 2 years earlier. Common Body Changes at Menopause Each woman’s experience of menopause is different. Many ...

  1. 14 CFR 1201.101 - Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... INFORMATION Introduction § 1201.101 Purpose. It is the purpose of the National Aeronautics and Space... activities peculiar to or primarily associated with the development of weapons systems, military operations...

  2. 41 CFR 101-8.301 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 101-8.301 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System... body systems: Neurological; musculoskeletal; special sense organs; respiratory, including speech organs... palsy, epilepsy, muscular dystrophy, multiple sclerosis, cancer, heart disease, diabetes, mental...

  3. 5 CFR 582.101 - Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of the United States Postal Service, the Postal Rate Commission, and the General Accounting Office. ... FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' PAY Purpose, Definitions, and Exclusions § 582.101 Purpose. Section 5520a of title 5 of...

  4. Enceladus' 101 Geysers: Phantoms? Hardly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porco, C.; Nimmo, F.; DiNino, D.

    2015-12-01

    The discovery by the Cassini mission of present-day geysering activity capping the southern hemisphere of Saturn's moon Enceladus (eg, Porco, C. C. et al. Science 311, 1393, 2006) and sourced within a subsurface body of liquid water (eg, Postberg, F. et al. Nature 459, 1098, 2009; Porco, C.C. et al. AJ 148, 45, 2014, hereafter PEA], laced with organic compounds (eg, Waite, J.H. et al. Science 311, 1419, 2006), has been a significant one, with far-reaching astrobiological implications. In an extensive Cassini imaging survey of the moon's south polar terrain (SPT), PEA identified 101 distinct, narrow jets of small icy particles erupting, with varying strengths, from the four major fractures crossing the SPT. A sufficient spread in stereo angles of the 107 images used in that work allowed (in some cases, many) pair-wise triangulations to be computed; precise surface locations were derived for 98 jets. Recently, it has been claimed (Spitale, J.N. et al. Nature 521, 57, 2015) that the majority of the geysers are not true discrete jets, but are "phantoms" that appear in shallow-angle views of a dense continuous curtain of material with acute bends in it. These authors also concluded that the majority of the eruptive material is not in the form of jets but in the form of fissure-style 'curtain' eruptions. We argue below the contrary, that because almost all the moon's geysers were identified by PEA using multiple images with favorable viewing geometries, the vast majority of them, and likely all, are discrete jets. Specifically, out of 98 jets, no fewer than 90 to 95 were identified with viewing geometries that preclude the appearance of phantoms. How the erupting solids (i.e., icy particles) that are seen in Cassini images are partitioned between jets and inter-jet curtains is still an open question.

  5. Recovery of palladium, cesium, and selenium from heavy metal alkali borosilicate glass by combination of heat treatment and leaching processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Zhanglian; Okada, Takashi, E-mail: t-okada@u-fukui.ac.jp; Nishimura, Fumihiro; Yonezawa, Susumu

    2017-06-05

    Highlights: • A separation technique of both noble and less noble metal from glass is studied. • Via reductive heat treatment, 80% of palladium is extracted in liquid bismuth. • Sodium–potassium-rich materials with cesium and selenium are phase separated. • From the materials, over 80% of cesium and selenium are extracted in water. - Abstract: Reductive heat-treatment and leaching process were applied to a simulated lead or bismuth soda-potash-borosilicate glass with palladium, cesium, and selenium to separate these elements. In the reductive heat treatment, palladium is extracted in liquid heavy metal phase generated by the reduction of the heavy metal oxides, whereas cesium and selenium are concentrated in phase separated Na–K-rich materials on the glass surface. From the materials, cesium and selenium can be extracted in water, and the selenium extraction was higher in the treatment of the bismuth containing glass. The chemical forms of palladium in the glass affected the extraction efficiencies of cesium and selenium. Among the examined conditions, in the bismuth glass treatment, the cesium and selenium extraction efficiencies in water were over 80%, and that of palladium in liquid bismuth was over 80%.

  6. Flexible palladium-based H2 sensor with fast response and low leakage detection by nanoimprint lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Su Hui; Radha, Boya; Chan, Jie Yong; Saifullah, Mohammad S M; Kulkarni, Giridhar U; Ho, Ghim Wei

    2013-08-14

    Flexible palladium-based H2 sensors have a great potential in advanced sensing applications, as they offer advantages such as light weight, space conservation, and mechanical durability. Despite these advantages, the paucity of such sensors is due to the fact that they are difficult to fabricate while maintaining excellent sensing performance. Here, we demonstrate, using direct nanoimprint lithography of palladium, the fabrication of a flexible, durable, and fast responsive H2 sensor that is capable of detecting H2 gas concentration as low as 50 ppm. High resolution and high throughput patterning of palladium gratings over a 2 cm × 1 cm area on a rigid substrate was achieved by heat-treating nanoimprinted palladium benzyl mercaptide at 250 °C for 1 h. The flexible and robust H2 sensing device was fabricated by subsequent transfer nanoimprinting of these gratings into a polycarbonate film at its glass transition temperature. This technique produces flexible H2 sensors with improved durability, sensitivity, and response time in comparison to palladium thin films. At ambient pressure and temperature, the device showed a fast response time of 18 s at a H2 concentration of 3500 ppm. At 50 ppm concentration, the response time was found to be 57 s. The flexibility of the sensor does not appear to compromise its performance.

  7. 41 CFR 101-25.101-3 - Supply through consolidated purchase for direct delivery to use points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... consolidated purchase for direct delivery to use points. 101-25.101-3 Section 101-25.101-3 Public Contracts and... purchase for direct delivery to use points. The following criteria shall govern in determining whether an... following factors requires consolidated purchasing of such items for direct delivery to use points— (1...

  8. Tetradentate N2O2 Chelated Palladium(II Complexes: Synthesis, Characterization, and Catalytic Activity towards Mizoroki-Heck Reaction of Aryl Bromides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Kamilah Che Soh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Four air and moisture-stable palladium(II-Schiff base complexes, N,N′-bis(α-methylsalicylidenepropane-1,3-diamine palladium(II (2a, N,N′-bis(4-methyl-α-methylsalicylidenepropane-1,3-diamine palladium(II (2b, N,N′-bis(3,5-di-tert-butylsalicylidenepropane-1,3-diamine palladium(II (2c, and N,N′-bis(4-methoxy-salicylidenepropane-1,3-diamine palladium(II (2d, have been successfully synthesised and characterised by CHN elemental analyses and conventional spectroscopic methods. These complexes were investigated as catalysts in the phosphine-free Mizoroki-Heck cross-coupling reactions of aryl bromides with methyl acrylate.

  9. 41 CFR 101-39.101 - Notice of intention to begin a study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... VEHICLES 39-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.1-Establishment, Modification, and Discontinuance of Interagency Fleet Management Systems § 101-39.101 Notice of intention to begin a study. The Administrator, GSA... develop data and justification as to the feasibility of establishing a fleet management system. The...

  10. Activation and deactivation of neutral palladium(II) phosphinesulfonato polymerization catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Rünzi, Thomas

    2012-12-10

    13C-Labeled ethylene polymerization (pre)catalysts [κ2-(anisyl)2P,O]Pd(13CH3)(L) (1-13CH3-L) (L = pyridine, dmso) based on di(2-anisyl)phosphine benzenesulfonate were used to assess the degree of incorporation of 13CH3 groups into the formed polyethylenes. Polymerizations of variable reaction time reveal that ca. 60-85% of the 13C-label is found in the polymer after already 1 min polymerization time, which provides evidence that the pre-equilibration between the catalyst precursor 1-13CH3-L and the active species 1-13CH3-(ethylene) is fast with respect to chain growth. The fraction of 1-13CH3-L that initiates chain growth is likely higher than the 60-85% determined from the 13C-labeled polymer chain ends since (a) chain walking results in in-chain incorporation of the 13C-label, (b) irreversible catalyst deactivation by formation of saturated (and partially volatile) alkanes diminishes the amount of 13CH3 groups incorporated into the polymer, and (c) palladium-bound 13CH3 groups, and more general palladium-bound alkyl(polymeryl) chains, partially transfer to phosphorus by reductive elimination. NMR and ESI-MS analyses of thermolysis reactions of 1-13CH3-L provide evidence that a mixture of phosphonium salts (13CH3)xP+(aryl)4-x (2-7) is formed in the absence of ethylene. In addition, isolation and characterization of the mixed bis(chelate) palladium complex [κ2-(anisyl)2P,O]Pd[κ2-(anisyl) (13CH3)P,O] (11) by NMR and X-ray diffraction analyses from these mixtures indicate that oxidative addition of phosphonium salts to palladium(0) species is also operative. The scrambling of palladium-bound carbyls and phosphorus-bound aryls is also relevant under NMR, as well as preparative reactor polymerization conditions exemplified by the X-ray diffraction analysis of [κ2-(anisyl)2P,O] Pd[κ2-(anisyl)(CH2CH3)P,O] (12) and [κ2-(anisyl)2P,O]Pd[κ2-(anisyl) ((CH2)3CH3)P,O] (13) isolated from pressure reactor polymerization experiments. In addition, ESI-MS analyses of reactor

  11. A new metal electrocatalysts supported matrix: Palladium nanoparticles supported silicon carbide nanoparticles and its application for alcohol electrooxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Hong; Chen Yanling; Lin Yanyu; Xu Guifang; Yang Caiping; Tong Yuejin; Guo Longhua; Chen Guonan

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a facile approach for palladium nanoparticles load using silicon carbide nanoparticles as the new supported matrix and a familiar NaBH 4 as reducer. Detailed X-ray photoelectron spectrum (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis of the resultant products indicated that palladium nanoparticles are successfully immobilized onto the surface of the silicon carbide nanoparticles with uniform size distribution between 5 and 7 nm. The relative electrochemical characterization clearly demonstrated excellent electrocatalytic activity of this material toward alcohol in alkaline electrolytes. Investigation on the characteristics of the electrocatalytic activity of this material further indicated that the palladium nanoparticles supporting on SiC are very promising for direct alcohol fuel cells (DMFCs), biosensor and electronic devices. Moreover, it was proved that silicon carbide nanoparticles with outstanding properties as support for catalysis are of strong practical interest. And the silicon carbide could perform attractive role in adsorbents, electrodes, biomedical applications, etc.

  12. QuadraPure-Supported Palladium Nanocatalysts for Microwave-Promoted Suzuki Cross-Coupling Reaction under Aerobic Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kin Hong Liew

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cross-linked resin-captured palladium (XL-QPPd was readily prepared by simple physical adsorption onto the high loading QuadraPure macroporous resin and a subsequent reduction process. To enhance the mechanical stability, entrapped palladium nanocatalysts were cross-linked with succinyl chloride. Both transmission electron microscopy images and X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the palladium nanoparticles were well dispersed with diameters ranging in 4–10 nm. The catalyst performed good catalytic activity in microwave-promoted Suzuki cross-coupling reactions in water under aerobic condition with mild condition by using various aryl halides and phenylboronic acid. In addition, the catalyst showed an excellent recyclability without significant loss of catalytic activity.

  13. Palladium(II)-catalyzed desulfitative synthesis of aryl ketones from sodium arylsulfinates and nitriles: scope, limitations, and mechanistic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skillinghaug, Bobo; Sköld, Christian; Rydfjord, Jonas; Svensson, Fredrik; Behrends, Malte; Sävmarker, Jonas; Sjöberg, Per J R; Larhed, Mats

    2014-12-19

    A fast and efficient protocol for the palladium(II)-catalyzed production of aryl ketones from sodium arylsulfinates and various organic nitriles under controlled microwave irradiation has been developed. The wide scope of the reaction has been demonstrated by combining 14 sodium arylsulfinates and 21 nitriles to give 55 examples of aryl ketones. One additional example illustrated that, through the choice of the nitrile reactant, benzofurans are also accessible. The reaction mechanism was investigated by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and DFT calculations. The desulfitative synthesis of aryl ketones from nitriles was also compared to the corresponding transformation starting from benzoic acids. Comparison of the energy profiles indicates that the free energy requirement for decarboxylation of 2,6-dimethoxybenzoic acid and especially benzoic acid is higher than the corresponding desulfitative process for generating the key aryl palladium intermediate. The palladium(II) intermediates detected by ESI-MS and the DFT calculations provide a detailed understanding of the catalytic cycle.

  14. AGT 101 - Advanced Gas Turbine technology update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kidwell, J.R.; Kreiner, D.M.

    1985-03-01

    The Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) 101 program has made significant progress during 1984 in ceramic component and engine test bed development, including initial ceramic engine testing. All ceramic components for the AGT 101 (1644 K) engine are now undergoing development. Ceramic structures have been undergoing extensive analysis, design modification, and rig testing. AGT 101 (1644 K) start capability has been demonstrated in rig tests. Also, 1644 K steady-state testing has been initiated in the test rigs to obtain a better understanding of ceramics in that environment. The ceramic turbine rotor has progressed through cold spin test 12,040 rad/sec and hot turbine rig test, and is currently in initial phases of engine test. Over 400 hours of engine testing is expected by March 1985, including approximately 150 hours of operation and 50 starts on the 1422 K engine. All activities are progressing toward 1644 K engine testing in mid-1985.

  15. A tandem Mannich addition–palladium catalyzed ring-closing route toward 4-substituted-3(2H-furanones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jubi John

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A facile route towards highly functionalized 3(2H-furanones via a sequential Mannich addition–palladium catalyzed ring closing has been elaborated. The reaction of 4-chloroacetoacetate esters with imines derived from aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes under palladium catalysis afforded 4-substituted furanones in good to excellent yields. 4-Hydrazino-3(2H-furanones could also be synthesized from diazo esters in excellent yields by utilising the developed strategy. We could also efficiently transform the substituted furanones to aza-prostaglandin analogues.

  16. Natural phosphate-supported palladium: A highly efficient and recyclable catalyst for the suzuki-miyaura coupling under microwave irradiation

    KAUST Repository

    Hassine, Ayoub; Bouhrara, Mohamed; Sebti, Said; Solhy, Abderrahim; Mahfouz, Remi; Luart, Denis; Lene, Christophe; Fihri, Aziz

    2015-01-01

    This report explores Suzuki-Miyaura coupling under microwave irradiation, using a new generation of catalyst that is based on natural phosphate (NP) impregnated by palladium. This catalyst was prepared by the treatment of natural phosphate with bis(benzonitrile)palladium(II) chloride in acetone at room temperature. The catalyst displayed high catalytic activity for the Suzuki-Miyaura coupling of aryl bromides and chlorides with aryl boronic acids in pure water and with the use of microwave irradiation. The low-cost and availability of the solid support, mild reaction conditions, high yields of desired products, recyclability of the catalyst and short reaction times are the notable features of these methods.

  17. Test of the palladium diffuser in the JAERI Fuel Cleanup System in the Tritium Systems Test Assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, Satoshi; Hayashi, Takumi; O-hira, Shigeru

    1993-03-01

    The JAERI Fuel Cleanup System (JFCU) is a major subsystem of the TSTA simulated fusion fuel loop. The palladium diffuser, that accepts simulated plasma exhaust and purifies the hydrogen isotopes mixture for the feed to the Isotope Separation System, was tested with deuterium to investigate the characteristics of the components. Permeation flow rate is a linear function of the difference of the square root of the pressure across the palladium alloy membrane. However at the low pressure region, an impediment on the permeation was observed. It was suspected to be caused by the impurity adsorbed on the surface of the permeated side of the membrane and was reduced by oxidation treatment. (author)

  18. Palladium on Nitrogen-Doped Mesoporous Carbon: A Bifunctional Catalyst for Formate-Based, Carbon-Neutral Hydrogen Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fanan; Xu, Jinming; Shao, Xianzhao; Su, Xiong; Huang, Yanqiang; Zhang, Tao

    2016-02-08

    The lack of safe, efficient, and economical hydrogen storage technologies is a hindrance to the realization of the hydrogen economy. Reported herein is a reversible formate-based carbon-neutral hydrogen storage system that is established over a novel catalyst comprising palladium nanoparticles supported on nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon. The support was fabricated by a hard template method and nitridated under a flow of ammonia. Detailed analyses demonstrate that this bicarbonate/formate redox equilibrium is promoted by the cooperative role of the doped nitrogen functionalities and the well-dispersed, electron-enriched palladium nanoparticles. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Antibiofilm effect enhanced by modification of 1,2,3-triazole and palladium nanoparticles on polysulfone membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Biofouling impedes the performance of membrane bioreactors. In this study, we investigated the antifouling effects of polysulfone membranes that were modified by 1,2,3-triazole and palladium nanoparticles. The membranes to be tested were embedded within a drip flow biofilm reactor, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 was inoculated and allowed to establish biofilm on the tested membranes. It was found that 1,2,3-triazole and palladium nanoparticles can inhibit the bacterial growth in aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The decrease in bacterial growth was observed along with a decrease in the amount of total polysaccharide and Pel polysaccharide within the biofilm matrix but not the protein content.

  20. Antibiofilm effect enhanced by modification of 1,2,3-triazole and palladium nanoparticles on polysulfone membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Hong

    2015-08-01

    Biofouling impedes the performance of membrane bioreactors. In this study, we investigated the antifouling effects of polysulfone membranes that were modified by 1,2,3-triazole and palladium nanoparticles. The membranes to be tested were embedded within a drip flow biofilm reactor, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 was inoculated and allowed to establish biofilm on the tested membranes. It was found that 1,2,3-triazole and palladium nanoparticles can inhibit the bacterial growth in aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The decrease in bacterial growth was observed along with a decrease in the amount of total polysaccharide and Pel polysaccharide within the biofilm matrix but not the protein content.

  1. Determination of trace level of palladium and platinum content in anticancer drug Imatinib base by ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, Ravi; Salunke-Gawali, Sunita

    2013-01-01

    Metal impurities in Pharmaceutical drug substance is of great concern not only because of the intrinsic toxicity of certain contaminants but also due to the opposite effect that the contaminants which may have on drug stability and shelf life. Therefore it is necessary to monitor the organic as well as inorganic impurities throughout the process of manufacturing process at every stage from raw material, intermediate and finished products. An Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) method has been developed for Palladium and Platinum content in the anticancer drug, Imatinib mesylate. Rhodium (Rh) was used as internal standard for determination of Palladium and Platinum content on in Imatinib mesylate. (author)

  2. Density functional theory metadynamics of silver, caesium and palladium diffusion at β-SiC grain boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabone, Jeremy, E-mail: jeremy.rabone@ec.europa.eu [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, D-76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); López-Honorato, Eddie [Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN (CINVESTAV), Unidad Saltillo, Industria Metalúrgica 1062, Parque Industrial, Ramos Arizpe 25900, Coahuila (Mexico)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • DFT metadynamics of diffusion of Pd, Ag and Cs on grain boundaries in β-SiC. • The calculated diffusion rates for Pd and Ag tally with experimental release rates. • A mechanism of release other than grain boundary diffusion seems likely for Cs. - Abstract: The use of silicon carbide in coated nuclear fuel particles relies on this materials impermeability towards fission products under normal operating conditions. Determining the underlying factors that control the rate at which radionuclides such as Silver-110m and Caesium-137 can cross the silicon carbide barrier layers, and at which fission products such as palladium could compromise or otherwise alter the nature of this layer, are of paramount importance for the safety of this fuel. To this end, DFT-based metadynamics simulations are applied to the atomic diffusion of silver, caesium and palladium along a Σ5 grain boundary and to palladium along a carbon-rich Σ3 grain boundary in cubic silicon carbide at 1500 K. For silver, the calculated diffusion coefficients lie in a similar range (7.04 × 10{sup −19}–3.69 × 10{sup −17} m{sup 2} s{sup −1}) as determined experimentally. For caesium, the calculated diffusion rates are very much slower (3.91 × 10{sup −23}–2.15 × 10{sup −21} m{sup 2} s{sup −1}) than found experimentally, suggesting a different mechanism to the simulation. Conversely, the calculated atomic diffusion of palladium is very much faster (7.96 × 10{sup −11}–7.26 × 10{sup −9} m{sup 2} s{sup −1}) than the observed penetration rate of palladium nodules. This points to the slow dissolution and rapid regrowth of palladium nodules as a possible ingress mechanism in addition to the previously suggested migration of entire nodules along grain boundaries. The diffusion rate of palladium along the Σ3 grain boundary was calculated to be slightly slower (2.38 × 10{sup −11}–8.24 × 10{sup −10} m{sup 2} s{sup −1}) than along the Σ5 grain boundary. Rather

  3. Natural phosphate-supported palladium: A highly efficient and recyclable catalyst for the suzuki-miyaura coupling under microwave irradiation

    KAUST Repository

    Hassine, Ayoub

    2015-01-19

    This report explores Suzuki-Miyaura coupling under microwave irradiation, using a new generation of catalyst that is based on natural phosphate (NP) impregnated by palladium. This catalyst was prepared by the treatment of natural phosphate with bis(benzonitrile)palladium(II) chloride in acetone at room temperature. The catalyst displayed high catalytic activity for the Suzuki-Miyaura coupling of aryl bromides and chlorides with aryl boronic acids in pure water and with the use of microwave irradiation. The low-cost and availability of the solid support, mild reaction conditions, high yields of desired products, recyclability of the catalyst and short reaction times are the notable features of these methods.

  4. Catalytic Enantioselective Alkylation of β-Keto Esters with Xanthydrol in the Presence of Chiral Palladium Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyu Yeon; Kim, Dae Young [Soonchunhyang Univ., Asan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    Our research interest has been directed toward the development of synthetic methods for the enantioselective construction of stereogenic carbon centers. Recently, we explored the catalytic enantioselective functionalization of active methines in the presence of chiral palladium(II) complexes. In conclusion, we have accomplished the efficient catalytic enantioselective alkylation of β-keto esters 1 with xanthydrol 2 with high yields and excellent enantioselectivity (up to 98% ee). It should be noted that this alkyaltion reaction proceeds well using air- and moisture-stable chiral palladium com- plexes with low loading (1 mol%)

  5. Synthesis, characterization, DFT calculations and antibacterial activity of palladium(II) cyanide complexes with thioamides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Saeed; Nadeem, Shafqat; Anwar, Aneela; Hameed, Abdul; Tirmizi, Syed Ahmed; Zierkiewicz, Wiktor; Abbas, Azhar; Isab, Anvarhusein A.; Alotaibi, Mshari A.

    2017-08-01

    Palladium(II) cyanide complexes of thioamides (or thiones) having the general formula PdL2(CN)2, where L = Thiourea (Tu), Methylthiourea (Metu), N,N‧-Dimethylthiourea (Dmtu), Tetramethylthiourea (Tmtu), 2-Mercaptopyridine (Mpy) and 2-Mercaptopyrimidine (Mpm) were prepared by reacting K2[PdCl4] with potassium cyanide and thioamides in the molar ratio of 1:2:2. The complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, thermal and spectroscopic methods (IR, 1H and 13C NMR). The structures of three of the complexes were predicted by DFT calculations. The appearance of a band around 2100 cm-1 in IR and resonances around 120-130 ppm in the 13C NMR spectra indicated the coordination of cyanide to palladium(II). More than one resonances were observed for CN- carbon atoms in 13C NMR indicating the existence of equilibrium between different species in solution. DFT calculations revealed that in the case of the palladium(II) complex of Tmtu, the ionic dinuclear [Pd(Tmtu)4][Pd(CN)4] form was more stable than the dimer of mononuclear complex [Pd(Tmtu)2(CN)2] by 0.91 kcal mol-1, while for the complexes of Tu or Mpy ligands, the nonionic [Pd(L)2(CN)2] forms were more stable than the corresponding [Pd(L)4][Pd(CN)4] complexes by 1.26 and 6.49 kcal mol-1 for L = Tu and Mpy, respectively. The complexes were screened for antibacterial effects and some of them showed significant activities against both gram positive as well as gram negative bacteria.

  6. A Facile Synthesis of a Palladium-Doped Polyaniline-Modified Carbon Nanotube Composites for Supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Soumen; Ghosh, Debasis; Malas, Asish; Das, Chapal Kumar

    2013-08-01

    Supercapacitors have evolved as the premier choice of the era for storing huge amounts of charge in the field of energy storage devices, but it is still necessary to enhance their performance to meet the increasing requirements of future systems. This could be achieved either through advancing the interfaces of the material at the nanoscale or by using novel material compositions. We report a high-performance material composition prepared by combining a transition metal (palladium)-doped conductive polymer with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). MWCNTs/palladium-doped polyaniline (MWCNTs/Pd/PANI) composites and multiwalled carbon nanotube/polyaniline (MWCNTs/PANI) composites (for comparison) were prepared via in situ oxidative polymerization of aniline monomer. The reported composites were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR), x-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies. FESEM and TEM studies indicated the narrow size distribution of the π-conjugated polymer-protected palladium nanoparticles on the surface of the carbon nanotubes. All the electrochemical characterizations were executed using a three-electrode system in 1 M H2SO4 electrolyte. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) analysis was performed to observe the capacitive performance and redox behavior of the composites. The ion transfer behavior and cyclic stability of the composites were investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analysis and cyclic charge-discharge (CCD) testing, respectively. The MWCNTs/Pd/PANI composite was found to exhibit an especially high specific capacitance value of 920 F/g at scan rate of 2 mV/s.

  7. Effects of palladium coatings on oxygen sensors of titanium dioxide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castaneda, L.

    2007-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 -anatase phase) thin films were deposited by the ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique employing titanium (IV) oxide acetylacetonate (TiO(acac) 2 ) dissolved in pure methanol as a source material. In order to prepare oxygen sensors, TiO 2 thin films were deposited on interdigitated gold electrodes with contacted alumina substrates. Palladium (Pd) coatings were carried out by vacuum thermal evaporation through a metallic mask. The effect of the surface additive (Pd) on the response of the thin film TiO 2 oxygen sensors was monitored in a mixture with zero-grade air. The electrical characterization (monitoring of the electrical surface resistance with the operation temperature) of the sensors in an atmosphere of oxygen (diluted in zero-grade air) was performed in a vacuum chamber (10 -6 Torr), where the gas pressure can be controlled. The films sensitivity was estimated by the following relation: s=R gas -R 0 /R 0 . The response time of the sensor is defined to be the time needed to reach a 0.9R 0 value when the oxygen excess is removed. The gas-sensing properties of TiO 2 sensors in an atmosphere of 10 4 ppm of oxygen were measured between 100 and 450 deg. C. Experimental results obtained using palladium as a surface additive show that the sensitivity reaches a stationary value of 1.18 for O 2 concentration of 100ppm in zero-grade air at 300 deg. C, which is as high as those reported for oxygen sensors prepared with more expensive and complex techniques. The role and activity of palladium coatings incorporated on solid-state oxygen sensors are determined by their chemical state, aggregation form and interaction with the metal-oxide semiconductor

  8. Facile synthesis of palladium nanoparticle doped polyaniline nanowires in soft templates for catalytic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kshirasagar, Krushna J.; Markad, Uddhav S.; Saha, Abhijit; Sharma, Kiran Kumar K.; Sharma, Geeta K.

    2017-02-01

    Palladium nanoparticles doped polyaniline (Pd-PANI) nanocomposite (NCs) is synthesized in surfactant based liquid crystalline mesophase by chemical oxidation followed by radiolysis. The confinement of the liquid crystalline mesophase facilitates polymerization of aniline monomers and their 1D growth into polyaniline (PANI) nanowires by using ammonium persulfate. The PANI nanowires have an average diameter of 30-40 nm. The in situ radiolytic reduction of palladium ions ensures uniform size distribution of the palladium (Pd) nanoparticles on the surface of the PANI nanowires. The synthesized Pd-PANI nanocomposites show wire like structures of PANI (diameter ~30-40 nm) on which Pd nanoparticles of the size 10 nm are decorated. The identical average diameter of the PANI nanowires before and post gamma irradiation suggest high stability of the PANI nanowires in liquid crystalline mesophase. Surface characterization of the NCs were carried out using BET and XPS. The catalytic activity of Pd-PANI NCs are investigated in the reduction of methylene blue (MB) and 4-nitro phenol (4-NP) by sodium borohydride (NaBH4). The kinetics of the Pd-PANI NCs catalysed reactions are analysed using the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model. The apparent rate constant (k app) for the MB and 4-NP reduction reactions is 29  ×  10-3 s-1 and 20  ×  10-3 s-1 respectively with an actual Pd catalyst loading of 2.665  ×  10-4 ppm. Further, the recyclability of the Pd-PANI NCs catalyst in both the reduction reactions shows the stability of the catalyst up to four reaction cycles tested in this investigation and the multifunctional nature of the catalyst. The study provides a new approach for the directional synthesis of conducting polymer-metal nanocomposites and their possible application as a nanocatalyst in environmental remediation.

  9. Effects of soldering methods on tensile strength of a gold-palladium metal ceramic alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadhanfari, Husain A; Khajah, Hasan M; Monaco, Edward A; Kim, Hyeongil

    2014-10-01

    The tensile strength obtained by conventional postceramic application soldering and laser postceramic welding may require more energy than microwave postceramic soldering, which could provide similar tensile strength values. The purpose of the study was to compare the tensile strength obtained by microwave postceramic soldering, conventional postceramic soldering, and laser postceramic welding. A gold-palladium metal ceramic alloy and gold-based solder were used in this study. Twenty-seven wax specimens were cast in gold-palladium noble metal and divided into 4 groups: laser welding with a specific postfiller noble metal, microwave soldering with a postceramic solder, conventional soldering with the same postceramic solder used in the microwave soldering group, and a nonsectioned control group. All the specimens were heat treated to simulate a normal porcelain sintering sequence. An Instron Universal Testing Machine was used to measure the tensile strength for the 4 groups. The means were analyzed statistically with 1-way ANOVA. The surface and fracture sites of the specimens were subjectively evaluated for fracture type and porosities by using a scanning electron microscope. The mean (standard deviation) ultimate tensile strength values were as follows: nonsectioned control 818 ±30 MPa, microwave 516 ±34 MPa, conventional 454 ±37 MPa, and laser weld 191 ±39 MPa. A 1-way ANOVA showed a significant difference in ultimate tensile strength among the groups (F3,23=334.5; Ptensile strength for gold and palladium noble metals than either conventional soldering or laser welding. Conventional soldering resulted in a higher tensile strength than laser welding. Under the experimental conditions described, either microwave or conventional postceramic soldering would appear to satisfy clinical requirements related to tensile strength. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Catalytic Palladium Film Deposited by Scalable Low-Temperature Aqueous Combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voskanyan, Albert A; Li, Chi-Ying Vanessa; Chan, Kwong-Yu

    2017-09-27

    This article describes a novel method for depositing a dense, high quality palladium thin film via a one-step aqueous combustion process which can be easily scaled up. Film deposition of Pd from aqueous solutions by conventional chemical or electrochemical methods is inhibited by hydrogen embrittlement, thus resulting in a brittle palladium film. The method outlined in this work allows a direct aqueous solution deposition of a mirror-bright, durable Pd film on substrates including glass and glassy carbon. This simple procedure has many advantages including a very high deposition rate (>10 cm 2 min -1 ) and a relatively low deposition temperature (250 °C), which makes it suitable for large-scale industrial applications. Although preparation of various high-quality oxide films has been successfully accomplished via solution combustion synthesis (SCS) before, this article presents the first report on direct SCS production of a metallic film. The mechanism of Pd film formation is discussed with the identification of a complex formed between palladium nitrate and glycine at low temperature. The catalytic properties and stability of films are successfully tested in alcohol electrooxidation and electrochemical oxygen reduction reaction. It was observed that combustion deposited Pd film on a glassy carbon electrode showed excellent catalytic activity in ethanol oxidation without using any binder or additive. We also report for the first time the concept of a reusable "catalytic flask" as illustrated by the Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reaction. The Pd film uniformly covers the inner walls of the flask and eliminates the catalyst separation step. We believe the innovative concept of a reusable catalytic flask is very promising and has the required features to become a commercial product in the future.

  11. Palladium nanoparticles exposure: Evaluation of permeation through damaged and intact human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larese Filon, Francesca; Crosera, Matteo; Mauro, Marcella; Baracchini, Elena; Bovenzi, Massimo; Montini, Tiziano; Fornasiero, Paolo; Adami, Gianpiero

    2016-07-01

    The intensified use of palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs) in many chemical reactions, jewellery, electronic devices, in car catalytic converters and in biomedical applications lead to a significant increase in palladium exposure. Pd can cause allergic contact dermatitis when in contact with the skin. However, there is still a lack of toxicological data related to nano-structured palladium and information on human cutaneous absorption. In fact, PdNPs, can be absorbed through the skin in higher amounts than bulk Pd because NPs can release more ions. In our study, we evaluated the absorption of PdNPs, with a size of 10.7 ± 2.8 nm, using intact and damaged human skin in Franz cells. 0.60 mg cm(-2) of PdNPs were applied on skin surface for 24 h. Pd concentrations in the receiving solutions at the end of experiments were 0.098 ± 0.067 μg cm(-2) and 1.06 ± 0.44 μg cm(-2) in intact skin and damaged skin, respectively. Pd flux permeation after 24 h was 0.005 ± 0.003 μg cm(-2) h(-1) and 0.057 ± 0.030 μg cm(-2) h(-1) and lag time 4.8 ± 1.7 and 4.2 ± 3.6 h, for intact and damaged skin respectively. This study indicates that Pd can penetrate human skin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Size effects in electronic and catalytic properties of unsupported palladium nanoparticles in electrooxidation of formic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei Ping; Lewera, Adam; Larsen, Robert; Masel, Rich I; Bagus, Paul S; Wieckowski, Andrzej

    2006-07-13

    We report a combined X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), cyclic voltammetry (CV), and chronoamperometry (CA) study of formic acid electrooxidation on unsupported palladium nanoparticle catalysts in the particle size range from 9 to 40 nm. The CV and CA measurements show that the most active catalyst is made of the smallest (9 and 11 nm) Pd nanoparticles. Besides the high reactivity, XPS data show that such nanoparticles display the highest core-level binding energy (BE) shift and the highest valence band (VB) center downshift with respect to the Fermi level. We believe therefore that we found a correlation between formic acid oxidation current and BE and VB center shifts, which, in turn, can directly be related to the electronic structure of palladium nanoparticles of different particle sizes. Clearly, such a trend using unsupported catalysts has never been reported. According to the density functional theory of heterogeneous catalysis, and mechanistic considerations, the observed shifts are caused by a weakening of the bond strength of the COOH intermediate adsorption on the catalyst surface. This, in turn, results in the increase in the formic acid oxidation rate to CO2 (and in the associated oxidation current). Overall, our measurements demonstrate the particle size effect on the electronic properties of palladium that yields different catalytic activity in the HCOOH oxidation reaction. Our work highlights the significance of the core-level binding energy and center of the d-band shifts in electrocatalysis and underlines the value of the theory that connects the center of the d-band shifts to catalytic reactivity.

  13. Room temperature trapping of stibine and bismuthine onto quartz substrates coated with nanostructured palladium for total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, Vanesa; Costas-Mora, Isabel; Lavilla, Isela; Bendicho, Carlos, E-mail: bendicho@uvigo.es

    2015-05-01

    In this work, a novel method for determining Sb and Bi based on the trapping of their covalent hydrides onto quartz reflectors coated with immobilized palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs) followed by total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) analysis is proposed. Pd NPs were synthesized by chemical reduction of the metal precursor using a mixture of water:ethanol as mild reducing agent. Silanization using 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS) was performed for the immobilization of Pd NPs onto the quartz substrates. Volatile hydrides (stibine and bismuthine) generated by means of a continuous flow system were flushed onto the immobilized Pd NPs and retained by catalytic decomposition. As a result of the high catalytic activity of the nanostructured film, trapping can be performed at ambient temperature with good efficiency. Limits of detection (LODs) were 2.3 and 0.70 μg L{sup −1} for Sb and Bi, respectively. Enrichment factors of 534 and 192 were obtained for Sb and Bi, respectively. The new method was applied for the analysis of several matrices (milk, soil, sediment, cutaneous powder). Recoveries were in the range of 98.4–101% for both elements with a relative standard deviation of 2.5% (N = 5). - Highlights: • A novel method for trapping covalent hydrides of antimony and bismuth is proposed. • Emphasis is placed on the application of Pd nanoparticles as trapping surface. • The nanostructured surface provides high catalytic activity at ambient temperature. • Analysis by total reflection X-ray fluorescence is performed. • Determination of Bi and Sb in different matrices is carried out.

  14. Manufacturing process and electrode properties of palladium-electroded ionic polymer–metal composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Longfei; Chen, Hualing; Zhu, Zicai; Li, Bo

    2012-01-01

    This paper primarily focuses on the manufacturing process of palladium-electroded ionic polymer–metal composite (IPMC). First, according to the special properties of Pd, many experiments were done to determine several specific procedures, including the addition of a reducing agent and the time consumed. Subsequently, the effects of the core manufacturing steps on the electrode morphology were revealed by scanning electron microscopy studies of 22 IPMC samples treated with different combinations of manufacturing steps. Finally, the effects of electrode characteristics on the electromechanical properties, including the sheet resistivity, the elastic modulus and the electro-active performance, of IPMCs were evaluated experimentally and analyzed according to the electrode morphology. (paper)

  15. Kinetics of oxygen reduction reaction at electrochemically fabricated tin-palladium bimetallic electrocatalyst in acidic media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miah, Md. Rezwan, E-mail: mrmche@yahoo.co [Department of Electronic Chemistry, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Mail Box G1-5, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Masud, Jahangir [Department of Electronic Chemistry, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Mail Box G1-5, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Ohsaka, Takeo, E-mail: ohsaka@echem.titech.ac.j [Department of Electronic Chemistry, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Mail Box G1-5, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan)

    2010-12-15

    In the present article, oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at electrochemically fabricated tin-palladium (Sn-Pd) bimetallic electrocatalyst-modified glassy carbon (GC) electrode (Sn-Pd/GC electrode) in acidic media is addressed. Hydrodynamic voltammetric measurements were employed with a view to evaluating various kinetic parameters of the ORR at the Sn-Pd/GC electrode. The obtained results obviously demonstrated that the Sn-Pd bimetallic electrocatalyt substantially promoted the activity of the GC electrode and drove the ORR through an exclusive one-step four-electron pathway forming H{sub 2}O as the final product.

  16. Kinetics of oxygen reduction reaction at electrochemically fabricated tin-palladium bimetallic electrocatalyst in acidic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miah, Md. Rezwan; Masud, Jahangir; Ohsaka, Takeo

    2010-01-01

    In the present article, oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at electrochemically fabricated tin-palladium (Sn-Pd) bimetallic electrocatalyst-modified glassy carbon (GC) electrode (Sn-Pd/GC electrode) in acidic media is addressed. Hydrodynamic voltammetric measurements were employed with a view to evaluating various kinetic parameters of the ORR at the Sn-Pd/GC electrode. The obtained results obviously demonstrated that the Sn-Pd bimetallic electrocatalyt substantially promoted the activity of the GC electrode and drove the ORR through an exclusive one-step four-electron pathway forming H 2 O as the final product.

  17. Palladium catalyst system comprising zwitterion and/or acid-​functionalized ionic liquid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention concerns a catalyst system in particular a catalyst system comprising Palladium (Pd), a zwitterion and/or an acid-functionalized ionic liquid, and one or more phosphine ligands, wherein the Pd catalyst can be provided by a complex precursor, such as Pd(CH3COO)2, PdCI2, Pd(CH3...... methyl methacrylate and/or methacrylic acid. Catalyst systems according to the invention are suitable for reactions forming separable product and catalyst phases and supported ionic liquid phase SILP applications....

  18. Copolymerization of carbon monoxide and styrene catalyzed by resin-supported palladium polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Polyketone was prepared by the copolymerization of carbon monoxide (CO and styrene (ST catalyzed by o-phenylenediamine resin-supported palladium acetate. Effects of each catalytic system component such as 2,2’-bipyridine, 1,4-quinone and p-toluene-sulphonate on the copolymerization were investigated. The resin-supported catalyst and the copolymerization product were characterized by infrared spectroscopy (IR, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, thermogravimetry (TG, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. Results indicated that the resin-supported catalyst has excellent catalytic property. Furthermore, partial catalytic activity was maintained after the catalyst was used for five times.

  19. Artificial crystals with 3d metal and palladium particles subjected to high-temperature heat treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinkevich, A. B.; Nemytova, O. V.; Perov, D. V.; Samoylovich, M. I.; Kuznetsov, E. A.

    2018-04-01

    High-temperature heat treatment has valuable impact on the structure and physical properties of artificial crystals with 3d metal and palladium particles. Artificial crystals are obtained by means of introduction of particles into the interspherical voids of opal matrices. The magnetic properties are studied at the temperatures ranging from 2 to 300 K and in fields up to 350 kOe. Microwave properties are investigated in the millimeter frequency range. The complex dielectric permittivity of several nanocomposites is measured. The influence of heat treatment up to 960 °C on the structure of artificial crystals is clarified.

  20. On problems of hydrogen load of sponge palladium and determination of hydrogen content in it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittag, E.; Pleis, U.; Roemer, J.

    1977-01-01

    In the process of catalytic dehalogenation applied as a method for preparation of organic compounds labelled with tritium a special importance pertains to the determination of hydrogen (or tritium) bound on the catalyst. Hydrogen contained in palladium black may be determined quantitatively by oxidation with Pd ++ ions and successive potentiometric titration of the released H + ions. The method permits to obtain data on the quality of the catalyst and on the gas losses on the catalyst. Moreover, in connection with the radioactivity measurement, this method may be used for specific activity determination of the tritium gas

  1. Electrochemical permeation tests on the kinetics of the hydrogen absorption of palladium and iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dafft, E.G.

    1977-01-01

    Electrochemical permeation tests were performed to investigate the kinetics of the hydrogen development and hydrogen absorption. The cathode side of the samples was galvanostatically cathodically polarized in different electrolyte solutions with and without additions. THe hydrogen atoms diffusing out of the opposite side for iron and α-palladium were oxidized with potentiostatic, sufficiently anodic polarization. The thus registered stationary current is proportional to the hydrogen activity on the cathode side. Test apparatus and conditions are described. The measurements on iron are discussed. (orig./HPOE) [de

  2. Heteroaryl ethers by oxidative palladium catalysis of pyridotriazol-1-yloxy pyrimidines with arylboronic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardhan, Sujata; Wacharasindhu, Sumrit; Wan, Zhao-Kui; Mansour, Tarek S

    2009-06-18

    The oxidative palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling of pyrimidines containing pyridotriazol-1-yloxy (OPt) as either a urea or an amide functional group with arylboronic acids in the presence of Cs(2)CO(3) in DME containing 0.6-1.0% H(2)O is described for the preparation of heteroaryl ethers. The bromo substitution in the case of 3-(5-bromo-pyrimidin-2-yloxy)-3H-[1,2,3]triazolo[4,5-b]pyridine 1 could serve as a handle for further elaborations such as Suzuki coupling for attaching varied aryl groups.

  3. Reactivity of Aryl Halides for Reductive Dehalogenation in (Seawater Using Polymer-Supported Terpyridine Palladium Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshimasa Suzuka

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A polymer-supported terpyridine palladium complex was prepared. The complex was found to promote hydrodechlorination of aryl chlorides with potassium formate in seawater. Generally, reductive cleavage of aryl chlorides using transition metal catalysts is more difficult than that of aryl bromides and iodides (reactivity: I > Br > Cl; however, the results obtained did not follow the general trend. Therefore, we investigated the reaction inhibition agents and found a method to remove these inhibitors. The polymeric catalysts showed high catalytic activity and high reusability for transfer reduction in seawater.

  4. Mild Palladium Catalyzed ortho C-H Bond Functionalizations of Aniline Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tischler, Ms Orsolya; Tóth, Mr Balázs; Novák, Zoltán

    2017-02-01

    This account collects the developments and transformations which avoid the utilization of harsh reaction conditions in the field of palladium catalyzed, ortho-directed C-H activation of aniline derivatives from the first attempts to up-to-date results, including the results of our research laboratory. The discussed functionalizations performed under mild conditions include acylation, olefination, arylation, alkylation, alkoxylation reactions. Beside the optimization studies and the synthetic applications mechanistic investigations are also presented. © 2017 The Chemical Society of Japan & Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Carbon monoxide migratory insertion - A comparison of cationic and neutral palladium(II) complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankcombe, K.; Cavell, K.J.; Yates, B.F.; Knott, R.B.

    1998-01-01

    With the use of ANSTO's resources and expertise and with support from AINSE, we have carried out extensive computer modelling on the mechanism of the palladium catalysed carbonylation reaction, a process which is used industrially in the conversion of carbon monoxide into biodegradable polymers. In this project, experimental and theoretical work has focussed on using Pd(II) complexes containing pyridine carboxylate ligands (NC 5 H 4 COO ) to explore the fundamental mechanistic steps. The results for subsequent steps in the catalytic cycle are presented and their implication for the design of more efficient catalysts are discussed

  6. Thermal neutron measurements on electrolytic cells with deuterated palladium cathodes subjected to a pulsed current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granada, J.R.; Mayer, R.E.; Guido, G.; Florido, P.C.; Larreteguy, A.; Gillette, V.H.; Patino, N.E.; Converti, J.; Gomez, S.E.

    1990-01-01

    The present work describes the design of a high efficiency thermal neutron detection system and the measurements performed with it on electrolytic cells containing LiH dissolved in D 2 O with palladium cathodes. A procedure involving the use of a non-stationary (pulsed) current through the cell caused a correlated neutron production to be observed in a repeatable manner. These patterns are strongly dependent on the previous charging history of the cathodes. The technique employed seems to be very useful as a research tool for a systematic study of the different variables governing the phenomenon. (author)

  7. Synthesis of monodisperse palladium nanocubes and their catalytic activity for methanol electrooxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Ding; Xue-Zhao, Shi; Cheng-Min, Shen; Chao, Hui; Zhi-Chuan, Xu; Chen, Li; Yuan, Tian; Deng-Ke, Wang; Hong-Jun, Gao

    2010-01-01

    The single crystalline palladium nanocubes with an average size of 7 nm were prepared in the presence of poly (vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) and KBr using the polyol method. The as-prepared Pd nanocubes were highly uniform in both size and shape. The ordered packing structures including monolayer and multilayer can be fabricated via the rate-controlled evaporation of solution solvent. The electrochemical catalytic activity of these Pd nanocubes towards methanol oxidation was found to be higher than that of spherical Pd nanoparticles of similar size. (condensed matter: structure, thermal and mechanical properties)

  8. Synthesis of monodisperse palladium nanocubes and their catalytic activity for methanol electrooxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Hao; Shi, Xue-Zhao; Shen, Cheng-Min; Hui, Chao; Xu, Zhi-Chuan; Li, Chen; Tian, Yuan; Wang, Deng-Ke; Gao, Hong-Jun

    2010-10-01

    The single crystalline palladium nanocubes with an average size of 7 nm were prepared in the presence of poly (vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) and KBr using the polyol method. The as-prepared Pd nanocubes were highly uniform in both size and shape. The ordered packing structures including monolayer and multilayer can be fabricated via the rate-controlled evaporation of solution solvent. The electrochemical catalytic activity of these Pd nanocubes towards methanol oxidation was found to be higher than that of spherical Pd nanoparticles of similar size.

  9. Palladium-catalyzed ring-opening reactions of cyclopropanated 7-oxabenzonorbornadiene with alcohols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina Tait

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Palladium-catalyzed ring-opening reactions of cyclopropanated 7-oxabenzonorbornadiene derivatives using alcohol nucleophiles were investigated. The optimal conditions were found to be 10 mol % PdCl2(CH3CN2 in methanol, offering yields up to 92%. The reaction was successful using primary, secondary and tertiary alcohol nucleophiles and was compatible with a variety of substituents on cyclopropanated oxabenzonorbornadiene. With unsymmetrical C1-substituted cyclopropanated 7-oxabenzonorbornadienes, the regioselectivity of the reaction was excellent, forming only one regioisomer in all cases.

  10. Palladium-catalyzed arylation of enoates with iodobenzene: stereoselective synthesis of trisubstituted olefins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Talita de A. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ/LQB), RJ (Brazil). Nucleo de Pesquisas de Produtos Naturais. Laboratorio de Quimica Bioorganica; Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica. Interlab; Silva, Alcides J.M. da; Costa, Paulo R.R., E-mail: prrcosta2011@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ/LQB), RJ (Brazil). Nucleo de Pesquisas de Produtos Naturais. Laboratorio de Quimica Bioorganica; Esteves, Pierre M. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica. Interlab; Eberlin, Marcos N., E-mail: eberlin@iqm.unicamp.br [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica. Laboratorio ThoMSon de Espectrometria de Massas; Vaz, Boniek G. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica. Laboratorio ThoMSon de Espectrometria de Massas; Universidade Federal de Goias (UFGO), Goiania, GO (Brazil). Instituto de QuImica

    2013-03-15

    The Heck reaction between E- and Z-enoates and iodobenzene was studied in the presence of Pd(OAc){sub 2}. The stereochemistry in resulting adducts was dependent on the enoate geometry (stereospecific reaction). Best yields were obtained from Z-isomers in acetone using Ag{sub 2} CO{sub 3} as base. The main cationic palladium intermediates possibly involved in the catalytic cycle could be intercepted and characterized by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The stereoselectivity observed was rationalized through the classic mechanism of the Heck reaction. (author)

  11. Mechanistic study of the isotopic-exchange reaction between gaseous hydrogen and palladium hydride powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Outka, D.A.; Foltz, G.W.

    1991-01-01

    A detailed mechanism for the isotopic-exchange reaction between gaseous hydrogen and solid palladium hydride is developed which extends previous model for this reaction by specifically including surface reactions. The modeling indicates that there are two surface-related processes that contribute to the overall rate of exchange: the desorption of hydrogen from the surface and the exchange between surface hydrogen and bulk hydrogen. This conclusion is based upon measurements examining the effect of small concentrations of carbon monoxide were helpful in elucidating the mechanism. Carbon monoxide reversibly inhibits certain steps in the exchange; this slows the overall rate of exchange and changes the distribution of products from the reactor

  12. Platinum, palladium, and rhodium in volcanic and plutonic rocks from the Gravina-Nutzotin belt, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Norman J; Berg, Henry C.; Haffty, Joseph

    1977-01-01

    The Gravina-Nutzotin belt of Middle (?) Jurassic to middle Cretaceous sedimentary and volcanic rocks in south and southeastern Alaska includes concentrically zoned ultramafic complexes known to contain platinum-group metals. Previous isotopic, petrologic, and geologic studies suggested a close relation in time and space between the volcanic rocks and the ultramafic complexes. Interpretation of 40 analyses for platinum, palladium, and rhodium in volcanic and plutonic rocks of the belt indicates a strong geochemical correlation between the two groups of rocks and is in support of their being cogenetic either from directly connected magma chambers and flows or indirectly by selective concentration processes from similar mantle material.

  13. Platinum, palladium, and rhodium analyses of ultramafic and mafic rocks from the Stillwater Complex, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Norman J; Riley, Leonard Benjamin; Haffty, Joseph

    1969-01-01

    Analyses by a combination fire- assay-solution-optical-emission spectrographic method of 137 rocks from the Stillwater Complex, Mont., indicate that platinum, palladium, and rhodium are preferentially concentrated in chromitite zones. The A chromitite zone (21 samples) has an average of 988.9 ppb (pans per billion, 10-9) Pt, 2290.2 ppb Pd, and 245.9 ppb Rh and reaches a maximum (to date) of 8,000 ppb Pt, 11,000 ppb Pd, and 1,700 ppb Rh.

  14. Palladium-catalyzed arylation of enoates with iodobenzene: stereoselective synthesis of trisubstituted olefins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Talita de A.; Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro; Silva, Alcides J.M. da; Costa, Paulo R.R.; Esteves, Pierre M.; Eberlin, Marcos N.; Vaz, Boniek G.; Universidade Federal de Goias

    2013-01-01

    The Heck reaction between E- and Z-enoates and iodobenzene was studied in the presence of Pd(OAc) 2 . The stereochemistry in resulting adducts was dependent on the enoate geometry (stereospecific reaction). Best yields were obtained from Z-isomers in acetone using Ag 2 CO 3 as base. The main cationic palladium intermediates possibly involved in the catalytic cycle could be intercepted and characterized by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The stereoselectivity observed was rationalized through the classic mechanism of the Heck reaction. (author)

  15. Scope and mechanism in palladium-catalyzed isomerizations of highly substituted allylic, homoallylic, and alkenyl alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larionov, Evgeny; Lin, Luqing; Guénée, Laure; Mazet, Clément

    2014-12-03

    Herein we report the palladium-catalyzed isomerization of highly substituted allylic alcohols and alkenyl alcohols by means of a single catalytic system. The operationally simple reaction protocol is applicable to a broad range of substrates and displays a wide functional group tolerance, and the products are usually isolated in high chemical yield. Experimental and computational mechanistic investigations provide complementary and converging evidence for a chain-walking process consisting of repeated migratory insertion/β-H elimination sequences. Interestingly, the catalyst does not dissociate from the substrate in the isomerization of allylic alcohols, whereas it disengages during the isomerization of alkenyl alcohols when additional substituents are present on the alkyl chain.

  16. Palladium-Catalyzed Tandem Oxidative Arylation/Olefination of Aromatic Tethered Alkenes/Alkynes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Gao, Yinglan; Wu, Wanqing; Jiang, Huanfeng; Yang, Xiaobo; Liu, Wenbo; Li, Chao-Jun

    2017-01-18

    We describe herein a palladium-catalyzed tandem oxidative arylation/olefination reaction of aromatic tethered alkenes/alkynes for the synthesis of dihydrobenzofurans and 2 H-chromene derivatives. This reaction features a 1,2-difunctionalization of C-C π-bond with two C-H bonds using O 2 as terminal oxidant at room temperature. The products obtained are valuable synthons and important scaffolds in biological agents and natural products. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. 40 CFR 432.101 - Special definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... slaughterhouse, packinghouse or poultry dressing or processing operation, uses raw material at rates greater than... STANDARDS MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Renderers § 432.101 Special definitions. For the... animal and poultry trimmings, bones, meat scraps, dead animals, feathers and related usable by-products...

  18. 7 CFR 1221.101 - Nominations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Board § 1221.101 Nominations. All nominations authorized under this section shall be made in the...

  19. 48 CFR 45.101 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 45.101 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT... acquire a tangible capital asset including the purchase price of the asset and costs necessary to prepare... equipment, and real property. Government property does not include intellectual property and software...

  20. 41 CFR 101-4.450 - Athletics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 101-4.450 Athletics. (a) General. No person shall, on the...) Opportunity to receive coaching and academic tutoring; (vi) Assignment and compensation of coaches and tutors...

  1. 40 CFR 133.101 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS SECONDARY TREATMENT REGULATION § 133.101 Definitions. Terms used in this part are defined as follows: (a) 7-day average. The... pond is used as the principal process, and (3) The treatment works provide significant biological...

  2. WIMSD4 Version 101 and cataloged procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, M.J.; Taubman, C.J.; Lawrence, J.H.

    1982-06-01

    The changes made to WIMSD4 to produce Version 101 on the Harwell IBM 3033 and the Winfrith ICL 2976 computers are summarised. A detailed description of the amended catalogued procedure for executing WIMSD4 on the Harwell Computer is given. (author)

  3. 5 CFR 308.101 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS VOLUNTEER SERVICE § 308.101 Definitions. In this part: Student is an individual who is enrolled not less than half-time in a high school, trade school, technical or vocational institute, junior college, college, university or other accredited...

  4. 16 CFR 502.101 - Introductory offers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENT OF GENERAL POLICY OR... FAIR PACKAGING AND LABELING ACT Retail Sale Price Representations § 502.101 Introductory offers. (a... retail sale at a price lower than the anticipated ordinary and customary retail sale price. (b) The...

  5. 19 CFR 148.101 - Applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PERSONAL DECLARATIONS AND EXEMPTIONS Noncommercial Importations of Limited Value § 148.101... figured as follows: Fair retail value Duty (a) The $400 personal exemption $400 (b) Articles which carry a...: Fair retail value Duty (a) The $1,200 personal exemptions for residents returning from the U.S. Virgin...

  6. 46 CFR 169.101 - Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS General Provisions § 169.101 Purpose. The regulations in this part set forth uniform requirements which are suited to the particular characteristics and specialized operations of sailing school vessels as defined in Title 46...

  7. 29 CFR 1980.101 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) PROCEDURES FOR THE HANDLING OF DISCRIMINATION COMPLAINTS UNDER SECTION 806 OF THE CORPORATE AND CRIMINAL..., Investigations, Findings and Preliminary Orders § 1980.101 Definitions. Act means section 806 of the Corporate... Law No.107-204, July 30, 2002, codified at 18 U.S.C. 1514A. Assistant Secretary means the Assistant...

  8. 41 CFR 101-39.305 - Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 39-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.3-Use and Care of GSA Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles § 101-39.305 Storage. (a) GSA Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles shall be stored and parked at locations...

  9. 41 CFR 101-39.302 - Rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 39-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.3-Use and Care of GSA Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles § 101-39.302 Rotation. GSA Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles on high mileage assignments may be...

  10. 41 CFR 101-39.300 - General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 39-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.3-Use and Care of GSA Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles § 101-39.300 General. (a) The objective of the General Services Administration (GSA) Interagency Fleet Management System...

  11. 41 CFR 101-39.303 - Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 39-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.3-Use and Care of GSA Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles § 101-39.303 Maintenance. In order to ensure uninterrupted operation of GSA Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS...

  12. 41 CFR 101-39.200 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 39-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.2-GSA Interagency Fleet Management System Services § 101-39.200 Scope. This subpart... Administration (GSA) Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS). Local transportation services for Government...

  13. 41 CFR 101-39.102 - Determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.1-Establishment, Modification, and Discontinuance of Interagency Fleet Management Systems § 101-39.102 Determinations. Each determination to establish a fleet management system... name of the executive agency designated to be responsible for operating the fleet management system and...

  14. 41 CFR 101-39.400 - General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 39-INTERAGENCY FLEET... responsible for the operation of General Services Administration (GSA) Interagency Fleet Management System... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true General. 101-39.400...

  15. 29 CFR 1614.101 - General policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... seq.), the Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA) (29 U.S.C. 621 et seq.), the Equal Pay Act (29... Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION FEDERAL SECTOR EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY Agency Program To Promote Equal Employment Opportunity § 1614.101 General policy. (a) It is the...

  16. 7 CFR 1955.101 - Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Community and Business Programs (C&BP) and Multi-Family Housing (MFH) which will be handled in accordance... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Disposal of Inventory Property § 1955.101 Purpose. This subpart...

  17. 33 CFR 101.300 - Preparedness communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: GENERAL Communication (Port-Facility-Vessel) § 101.300 Preparedness... transportation security incident, the COTP will, when appropriate, communicate to the port stakeholders, vessels... risk. (c) Attainment. (1) Each owner or operator of a vessel or facility required to have a security...

  18. Tank 241-C-101 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, WHC 222-S Laboratory, and PNL 325 Analytical Chemistry Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples from tank 241-C-101

  19. 40 CFR 405.101 - Specialized definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AND STANDARDS DAIRY PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Dry Milk Subcategory § 405.101... definitions, abbreviations and methods of analysis set forth in part 401 of this chapter shall apply to this.... Composition of input materials may be based on either direct analysis or generally accepted published values. ...

  20. 45 CFR 73.735-101 - Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION STANDARDS OF CONDUCT General Provisions § 73.735-101 Purpose. To assure that the business of the Department of Health and Human Services... responsibilities. In accord with these principles, the regulations in this part are issued to inform HHS employees...