Sample records for paleomagnetism

  1. : An online multi-platform open source environment for paleomagnetic data analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koymans, Mathijs R.; Langereis, C.G.; Pastor-Galán, D.; van Hinsbergen, D.J.J.


    This contribution provides an overview of, an open-source, multi-platform online environment for paleomagnetic data analysis. provides an interactive environment where paleomagnetic data can be interpreted, evaluated, visualized, and exported. The

  2. Paleomagnetism continents and oceans

    CERN Document Server

    McElhinny, Michael W; Dmowska, Renata; Holton, James R; Rossby, H Thomas


    Paleomagnetism is the study of the fossil magnetism in rocks. It has been paramount in determining that the continents have drifted over the surface of the Earth throughout geological time. The fossil magnetism preserved in the ocean floor has demonstrated how continental drift takes place through the process of sea-floor spreading. The methods and techniques used in paleomagnetic studies of continental rocks and of the ocean floor are described and then applied to determining horizontal movements of the Earth''s crust over geological time. An up-to-date review of global paleomagnetic data enables 1000 millionyears of Earth history to be summarized in terms of the drift of the major crustal blocks over the surface of the Earth. The first edition of McElhinny''s book was heralded as a "classic and definitive text." It thoroughly discussed the theory of geomagnetism, the geologicreversals of the Earth''s magnetic field, and the shifting of magnetic poles. In the 25 years since the highly successful first editio...


    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilten, D. van


    The method for detecting changes in the earth’s radius from paleomagnetic data, as originally proposed by Ward (1963) is reviewed and, slightly modified, applied to the available observations. The method enables us to calculate the paleomagnetic pole positions for different radii of the

  4. Paleomagnetic Analysis Using SQUID Microscopy (United States)

    Weiss, Benjamin P.; Lima, Eduardo A.; Fong, Luis E.; Baudenbacher, Franz J.


    Superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) microscopes are a new generation of instruments that map magnetic fields with unprecedented spatial resolution and moment sensitivity. Unlike standard rock magnetometers, SQUID microscopes map magnetic fields rather than measuring magnetic moments such that the sample magnetization pattern must be retrieved from source model fits to the measured field data. In this paper, we presented the first direct comparison between paleomagnetic analyses on natural samples using joint measurements from SQUID microscopy and moment magnetometry. We demonstrated that in combination with apriori geologic and petrographic data, SQUID microscopy can accurately characterize the magnetization of lunar glass spherules and Hawaiian basalt. The bulk moment magnitude and direction of these samples inferred from inversions of SQUID microscopy data match direct measurements on the same samples using moment magnetometry. In addition, these inversions provide unique constraints on the magnetization distribution within the sample. These measurements are among the most sensitive and highest resolution quantitative paleomagnetic studies of natural remanent magnetization to date. We expect that this technique will be able to extend many other standard paleomagnetic techniques to previously inaccessible microscale samples.

  5. Paleomagnetism and the alpine tectonics of Eurasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raven, Th.


    The following paper by Gregor and Zijderveld is the first of a series planned to report results of paleomagnetic investigations in the Alpine area from Italy to the Himalayas. These investigations are carried out in close collaboration between the well-equipped paleomagnetic laboratory of

  6. Ted Irving's early contributions to paleomagnetism (United States)

    Frankel, H. R.


    Edward (Ted) Irving (1927 - 2014) was one of the most deeply and widely respected paleomagnetists, making significant contributions to the field throughout his career which spanned six decades. Restricting attention to the first decade of his career, the 1950s, he discovered from work on the Torridonian (1951-1953) that fine-grained red sandstones were generally suitable for paleomagnetic work (1951-1952). He rediscovered (1951) that paleomagnetism could be used to test continental drift, and initiated (1951) the first paleomagnetic test of whether India had drifted northward relative to Asia and argued (1954) that it had. He also made significant contributions to the first APW path for Great Britain (Creer, Irving, and Runcorn, 1954). He was the first to draw two APW paths to explain results from Great Britain and North America (1956) and to use paleomagnetism and paleoclimatology together to argue for continental drift (1954, 1956). With Ron Green, his first student, he first APW path for Australia (1958). He was the first to invoke axial rotations to explain away an apparent anomaly with an APW path (1959). His work on the Torridonian led to the first description of stratigraphically sequential reversals in sedimentary rocks. Moreover, his 1959 superb review of the paleomagnetic support for continental drift was instrumental in Hess's becoming a continental drifter before he came up with the idea of seafloor spreading.

  7. Paleomagnetic dating: Methods, MATLAB software, example (United States)

    Hnatyshin, Danny; Kravchinsky, Vadim A.


    A MATLAB software tool has been developed to provide an easy to use graphical interface for the plotting and interpretation of paleomagnetic data. The tool takes either paleomagnetic directions or paleopoles and compares them to a user defined apparent polar wander path or secular variation curve to determine the age of a paleomagnetic sample. Ages can be determined in two ways, either by translating the data onto the reference curve, or by rotating it about a set location (e.g. sampling location). The results are then compiled in data tables which can be exported as an excel file. This data can also be plotted using variety of built-in stereographic projections, which can then be exported as an image file. This software was used to date the giant Sukhoi Log gold deposit in Russia. Sukhoi Log has undergone a complicated history of faulting, folding, metamorphism, and is the vicinity of many granitic bodies. Paleomagnetic analysis of Sukhoi Log allowed for the timing of large scale thermal or chemical events to be determined. Paleomagnetic analysis from gold mineralized black shales was used to define the natural remanent magnetization recorded at Sukhoi Log. The obtained paleomagnetic direction from thermal demagnetization produced a paleopole at 61.3°N, 155.9°E, with the semi-major axis and semi-minor axis of the 95% confidence ellipse being 16.6° and 15.9° respectively. This paleopole is compared to the Siberian apparent polar wander path (APWP) by translating the paleopole to the nearest location on the APWP. This produced an age of 255.2- 31.0+ 32.0Ma and is the youngest well defined age known for Sukhoi Log. We propose that this is the last major stage of activity at Sukhoi Log, and likely had a role in determining the present day state of mineralization seen at the deposit.

  8. Evaluation of some geotectonic hypotheses by paleomagnetism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilten, D. van


    All available Carboniferous and younger paleomagnetic data (some 220 individual observations) have been studied and are presented by pole positions and isoclines, averaged over the geological period and continental block to which they belong (Plate I). In view of the growing evidence for global

  9. The First Paleomagnetic Polar Wander Path (United States)

    Creer, K. M.


    At the end of 1952, having completed my work on the Cambridge astatic magnetometer, I was motivated to embark on a "Preliminary Paleomagnetic Survey of Rocks from the British Isles" by exciting results obtained by two fellow research students:- Jan Hospers' proposal of the axial dipole hypothesis and Ted Irving's discovery of strongly oblique Pre-Cambrian paleomagnetic directions, substantiated by the oblique Triassic directions obtained by John Clegg's group. Geologists advised me to collect from palaeontologically well dated rock formations. But these turned out to be very weakly magnetized and thereafter I concentrated on purple and dark red coloured rock formations. By the end of July 1954 I had compiled a table of nine Period-mean paleomagnetic directions spanning the last 600 Myr. I passed a copy to Keith Runcorn to include in a talk (co-authors Creer and Irving) scheduled for the August 1954 Rome Assembly of IAGA. Meanwhile, background reading took me to Gutenberg's "Internal Constitution of the Earth (1951)" where I came across (Fig 12) paths of the north pole proposed by Kreichgauer (1902) and by Koppen and Wegener (1924). This prompted me to calculate a paleomagnetic polar wander path. I presented this at the Annual Meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science held at Oxford on September 8th. An artist's representation of it was published in Time Magazine of September 24th 1954 where the accompanying text records that I stressed that similar work on other continents would be necessary to distinguish whether the continents had drifted independently or whether the sole mechanism had been polar wander. On my return to Cambridge, Maurice Hill informally suggested that I should indicate precision, so for each pole I calculated semi-major and minor axes of the ellipse of confidence corresponding to the radius of confidence of each mean direction. These were shown in my Ph.D. thesis, where also I calculated a paleomagnetic pole for John

  10. A Paleomagnetic Reconnaissance of the Bonin Islands


    Kodama, Kazuto


    A paleomagnetic study has been carried out on the volcanic rocks of the Bonin Islands (27°N, 142°E). A total of 15 sites were visited for sampling; eight sites on Chichi-jima, four on Haha-jima, two on Muko-jima and one on Yome-jima. The directions of natural remanent magnetization of the samples after alternating field demagnetization not only deflect considerably from the present geomagnetic field but they clearly show that Chichi-jima differs from the other islands. That is, the mean direc...

  11. Revised paleomagnetic pole for the Sonoma Volcanics, California (United States)

    Mankinen, E.A.


    Paleomagnetic sampling of the Miocene and Pliocene Sonoma Volcanics, northern California, was undertaken to supplement an earlier collection. Data from 25 cooling units yield positive fold and reversal tests, and a paleomagnetic pole located at 80.2??N., 069.2??E., with ??95 = 6.8??. This paleopole is significantly displaced (9.6?? ?? 5.3?? of latitude) to the farside of the geographic pole. A highly elliptical distribution of the data in both direction and VGP space indicates that incomplete averaging of geomagnetic secular variation is a more likely explanation for this anomaly than is northward translation of the volcanic field. -Author

  12. Paleomagnetism of ~635 Ma "Elatina Rhythmites," Reconsidered (United States)

    Raub, T. D.; Raub, T. M.


    Extraordinary laminated sand-siltstone of South Australia's synglacial/deglacial Elatina Formation-equivalent at Pichi Richi Pass is an iconic outcrop for paleomagnetists, paleoclimatologists, and astrophysicists. Cyclic- bedded stacks of coarse/fine-grained doublets have been interpreted as rhythmites of semi-diurnal tidal origin in a deep-water delta front environment. Cycle analysis has yielded estimates of Earth's paleorotation and revolution periods and lunar distance. The reported 10 m (interpreted 60 year) record disagrees somewhat with coeval and younger biological "sediment-clocks," and Williams (2000) argues that the sedimentological context and extraordinary preservation of Elatina rhythmites makes that record preferable. A paleomagnetic "synsedimentary fold" test on 50 cm packages to culminate in unambiguous ladderback ripples. This shallowing-upward sequence reflects high sediment supply over 60 years and/or else significant sea level regression during (possibly longer) rhythmite deposition. The exceptional character of climbing-ripple rhythmites can be explained by pervasive microbial binding of sediment, in the anomalous mode characterizing many Ediacaran siliciclastic environments. Detrital magnetization seemingly should not around ripple crests. Either the interval of Snowball Earth deglaciation was characterized by unusually low geomagnetic field strength, biasing magnetization fidelity, or else Elatina rhythmites do not record DRM over a continuous 60-year timescale. This latter alternative may find support in the original studies, which document considerable dispersion, unexpected for a VGP. Kirschvink, 1992. in Schopf, J.W. and Klein, C., eds. The Proterozoic Biosphere, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 51-52. Schmidt and Williams, 1995. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 134, pp. 107-124. Sohl, Christie-Blick, and Kent, 1999. Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 111, pp. 1120-1139. Sumner, Kirschvink, and Runnegar, 1987

  13. Geomagnetism and paleomagnetism 1979-1983 (United States)

    Fuller, M.

    My function, in writing these notes, is to bring you up to date in Geomagnetism and Paleomagnetism, in as painless a manner as possible—without tears, as the French language texts for tourists used to promise. In writing this account of progress in the past quadrennium, I must first acknowledge that it is a personal and subjective viewpoint;; another reporter would surely emphasize other developments. Yet, there is some virture in writing of things, about which one knows something, so I leave to future reporters the task of redresssing the balance in matters covered.At the outset, one very sad event must be recorded. On April 3, 1981, Sir Edward Bullard died. His published work alone marks him as one of the leaders of geomagnetism in our times. Yet his contribution was much greater; many an American geophysicist, as well as a whole generation of British colleagues, have felt the benefit of his perceptive advice on their research. To those who saw him in the last few months of his life, his courage in the face of his illness was a remarkable example of fortitude. It is by now well known that the definitive paper, which he wrote with Malin, on secular variation at London, was only completed immediately before his death. The transmittal letter had been typed, but death prevented him from signing it. Bullard returned in this final paper to a topic to which he had contributed much. In it, he notes the role of Halley, who first described the phenomenon of westward drift, to which Bullard gave a new numerical precision, two and a half centuries later. I seem to remember Bullard saying in a lecture years ago that, while the Newtons of this world seem other than mortal, Halley was a scientist whose life and acheivements could encourage one's own efforts. Bullard, like Halley, inspires and encourages us.

  14. Reappraisal of paleomagnetic data from Gargano (South Italy)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandenberg, J.


    VandenBerg, J., 1983. Reappraisal of paleomagnetic data from Gargano (South Italy). In: E. McClelland Brown and J. VandenBerg (Editors), Palaeomagnetism of Orogenic Belts. Tectonophysics, 98: 29-41. The platform limestones of Apulia (Italy) outcropping in the Gargano peninsula have been

  15. Paleomagnetic modeling of seamounts near the Hawaiian Emperor bend (United States)

    Sager, William W.; Lamarche, Amy J.; Kopp, Christian


    The Hawaiian-Emperor Seamount chain records the motion of the Pacific Plate relative to the Hawaiian mantle hotspot for ˜80 m.y. A notable feature of the chain is the pronounced bend at its middle. This bend had been widely credited to a change in plate motion, but recent research suggests a change in hotspot motion as an alternative. Existing paleomagnetic data from the Emperor Chain suggest that the hotspot moved south during the Late Cretaceous and Early Tertiary, but reached its current latitude by the age of the bend. Thus, data from area of the bend are important for understanding changes in plume latitude. In this study, we analyze the magnetic anomalies of five seamounts (Annei, Daikakuji-W, Daikakuji- E, Abbott, and Colahan) in the region of the bend. These particular seamounts were chosen because they have been recently surveyed to collect multibeam bathymetry and magnetic data positioned with GPS navigation. Inversions of the magnetic and bathymetric data were performed to determine the mean magnetization of each seamount and from these results, paleomagnetic poles and paleolatitudes were calculated. Three of the five seamounts have reversed magnetic polarities (two are normal) and four contain a small volume of magnetic polarity opposite to the main body, consistent with formation during the Early Cenozoic, a time of geomagnetic field reversals. Although magnetization inhomogene ties can degrade the accuracy of paleomagnetic poles calculated from such models, the seamounts give results consistent with one another and with other Pacific paleomagnetic data of approximately the same age. Seamount paleolatitudes range from 13.7 to 23.7, with an average of 19.4 ± 7.4 (2σ). These values are indistinguishable from the present-day paleolatitude of the Hawaiian hotspot. Together with other paleomagnetic and geologic evidence, these data imply that the Hawaiian hotspot has moved little in latitude during the past ˜45 m.y.

  16. Paleomagnetism and the assembly of the Mexican subcontinent. (United States)

    Molina-Garza, R. S.


    The paleomagnetic database for Mexico is still small, but using available data and new results paleomagnetic data can be used to support the following hypothesis: (1) Jurassic anticlockwise rotation of the Chiapas massif and the Yucatan peninsula from a position in the northwest interior of the Golf of Mexico; (2) apparent stability of the Tampico and Coahuila blocks respect to North America for Late Triassic and Jurassic time, allowing for local vertical axis rotations attributed to Cenozoic deformation; (3) clockwise rotation of the Caborca block and the adjacent Jurassic continental arc, without significant north to south latitudinal displacement, between Middle Jurassic and Early Cretaceous time (which argues against the Mojave-Sonora megashear model); and, (4) the apparent accretion of the Guerrero terrane to mainland Mexico after clockwise rotation and transport from a more southern latitude. Paleomagnetic data for the southern Mexico block (SMB) are still difficult to incorporate in reconstructions of western equatorial Pangea. Paleomagnetic data for remagnetized Lower Permian strata and primary directions in igneous rocks of the SMB (crystalline terranes of Oaxaca and Acatlan) suggest stability with respect to North America, which is not consistent with reconstruction of South America closing the Golf region. Alternative explanations require a position for the SMB similar to its present location but at more westerly longitudes. We propose that terranes of the SMB reach their Mesozoic position through mechanisms of extrusion tectonics. Interpretation of Jurassic data for southern Mexico is hindered by incomplete knowledge of the North American APWP and rapid northward drift of the continent. Nonetheless, any model for the evolution of southern Mexico must consider that paleomagnetic data indicate internal deformation of Oaxaquia in pre-Cretaceous time. Paleomagnetic directions reported for Jurassic strata of the Tlaxiaco basin in Oaxaca are interpreted as

  17. Paleomagnetic evidence of a Late ediacaran ocean in South America?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapalini, A.; Sanchez Bettucci, L.; Tohver, E.


    In recent years, a controversy arose on whether a large ocean, called Cymene, existed between the Amazon ian craton and the Rio de la Plata / Congo-Sao Francisco craton s in the late Ediacaran. Comparison of the available reliable Paleomagnetic poles from the latter two craton s, West Africa and Lauren tia for the interval 615-560 Ma suggests that by ca. 575 Ma a large ocean existed between Lauren tia-Amazon ia-West Africa on one side and Río de la Plata and Congo-Sao Francisco on the other. This conclusion is still valid whether the “high latitude” or the “low latitude” option is chosen for Lauren tia. However, Paleomagnetic data from the proper Amazon ia are needed for definite conclusions

  18. Online plot services for paleomagnetism and rock magnetism (United States)

    Hatakeyama, T.


    In paleomagnetism and rock magnetism, a lot of types of original plots are used for obtained data from measurements. Many researchers in paleomagnetism often use not only general-purpose plotting programs such as Microsoft Excel but also single-purpose tools. A large benefit of using the latter tools is that we can make a beautiful figure for our own data. However, those programs require specific environment for their operation such as type of hardware and platform, type of operation system and its version, libraries for execution and so on. Therefore, it is difficult to share the result and graphics among the collaborators who use different environments on their PCs. Thus, one of the best solution is likely a program operated on popular environment. The most popular is web environment as we all know. Almost all current operating systems have web browsers as standard and all people use them regularly. Now we provide a web-based service plotting paleomagnetic results easily.We develop original programs with a command-line user interface (non-GUI), and we prepared web pages for input of the simple measured data and options and a wrapper script which transfers the entered values to the program. The results, analyzed values and plotted graphs from the program are shown in the HTML page and downloadable. Our plot services are provided in In this talk, we introduce our program and service and discuss the philosophy and efficiency of these services.

  19. Paleomagnetic evidence of large fault displacement around the Po basin—Reply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandenberg, J.; Wonders, A.A.H.


    The supposed Tuscan Autochtho~ (i.e. the Monticiano area) was chosen for ,paleomagnetic research in order to establish, whether the detailed movement pattern deduced from paleomagnetic data of NW Umbria was representative for the entire Northwestern Apennines. As it could not be excluded that

  20. Paleomagnetism of the Neoproterozoic Mount Harper Volcanic Complex, Canada (United States)

    Eyster, A. E.; Macdonald, F. A.; O'Connell, R. J.


    Paleomagnetism can be used to identify apparent polar wander, which involves contributions from plate tectonics and true polar wander. True polar wander events have been suggested to have played an important role throughout Earth's history. The Neoproterozoic Mount Harper Volcanic Complex (MHVC) provides paleomagnetic data that bears on this issue. The MHVC is located in the southern Ogilvie Mountains in the Yukon Territory, on the north-west corner of the Laurentian craton. The MHVC involves up to 1200 m of basaltic and andesitic flows. The MHVC reflects the propagating rifting event involved in the breakup of the supercontinent Rodinia. The MHVC is well dated with an age of 717.43± 0.14Ma from the top (Macdonald et al., Science, 2010). Below the MHVC are alluvial fan conglomerate and sandstone from Proterozoic normal faulting. Above the MHVC is a glacial diamictite dated to 716.47± 0.24 Ma and related to Snowball Earth glaciation (Macdonald et al., Science, 2010). Both block and core samples were collected from different members of the MHVC for paleomagnetic study. Included in the sampling were several stratigraphic sections. Alternating field and thermal stepwise demagnetization methods were used to analyze specimens. Magnetic components were determined using principal component analysis and Fisher statistical procedures were used to calculate mean directions. The stratigraphically sampled basalt flows yielded two components. One was a common secondary overprint, and the other was a high stability component which yielded two different directions. One pole is the same as the accepted Neoproterozoic Laurentian grand mean pole and the other is ˜50 degrees away from this grand mean pole. Several possible interpretations are explored- tectonic rotation, true polar wander or the presence of a non-dipolar geomagnetic field.

  1. Paleomagnetism and 40Ar / 39Ar Geochronology of Yemeni Oligocene volcanics: Implications for timing and duration of Afro-Arabian traps and geometry of the Oligocene paleomagnetic field (United States)

    Riisager, Peter; Knight, Kim B.; Baker, Joel A.; Ukstins Peate, Ingrid; Al-Kadasi, Mohamed; Al-Subbary, Abdulkarim; Renne, Paul R.


    A combined paleomagnetic and 40Ar / 39Ar study was carried out along eight stratigraphically overlapping sections in the Oligocene Afro-Arabian flood volcanic province in Yemen (73 sites). The composite section covers the entire volcanic stratigraphy in the sampling region and represents five polarity zones that are correlated to the geomagnetic polarity time scale based on 40Ar / 39Ar ages from this and previous studies. The resulting magnetostratigraphy is similar to that of the conjugate margin in Ethiopia. The earliest basaltic volcanism took place in a reverse polarity chron that appears to correspond to C11r, while the massive rhyolitic ignimbrite eruptions correlated to ash layers in Oligocene Indian Ocean sediment 2700 km away from the Afro-Arabian traps, appear to have taken place during magnetochron C11n. The youngest ignimbrite was emplaced during magnetochron C9n. Both 40Ar / 39Ar and paleomagnetic data suggest rapid Red Sea. By analyzing Afro-Arabian paleomagnetic data in conjunction with contemporaneous paleomagnetic poles available from different latitudes we argue that the Oligocene paleomagnetic field was dominated by the axial dipole with insignificant non-dipole field contributions.

  2. Paleomagnetic analysis of curved thrust belts reproduced by physical models (United States)

    Costa, Elisabetta; Speranza, Fabio


    This paper presents a new methodology for studying the evolution of curved mountain belts by means of paleomagnetic analyses performed on analogue models. Eleven models were designed aimed at reproducing various tectonic settings in thin-skinned tectonics. Our models analyze in particular those features reported in the literature as possible causes for peculiar rotational patterns in the outermost as well as in the more internal fronts. In all the models the sedimentary cover was reproduced by frictional low-cohesion materials (sand and glass micro-beads), which detached either on frictional or on viscous layers. These latter were reproduced in the models by silicone. The sand forming the models has been previously mixed with magnetite-dominated powder. Before deformation, the models were magnetized by means of two permanent magnets generating within each model a quasi-linear magnetic field of intensity variable between 20 and 100 mT. After deformation, the models were cut into closely spaced vertical sections and sampled by means of 1×1-cm Plexiglas cylinders at several locations along curved fronts. Care was taken to collect paleomagnetic samples only within virtually undeformed thrust sheets, avoiding zones affected by pervasive shear. Afterwards, the natural remanent magnetization of these samples was measured, and alternating field demagnetization was used to isolate the principal components. The characteristic components of magnetization isolated were used to estimate the vertical-axis rotations occurring during model deformation. We find that indenters pushing into deforming belts from behind form non-rotational curved outer fronts. The more internal fronts show oroclinal-type rotations of a smaller magnitude than that expected for a perfect orocline. Lateral symmetrical obstacles in the foreland colliding with forward propagating belts produce non-rotational outer curved fronts as well, whereas in between and inside the obstacles a perfect orocline forms

  3. Paleomagnetism and magnetic fabric of the Triassic rocks from Spitsbergen (United States)

    Dudzisz, K.; Szaniawski, R.; Michalski, K.; Manby, G.


    Understanding the origin and directions of the natural remanent magnetization and the tectonic deformation pattern reflected in magnetic fabric is of importance for investigation of the West Spitsbergen Fold and Thrust Belt (WSFTB) and its foreland. Previous research carried out on Triassic rocks from the study area concluded that these rocks record a composite magnetization of both, normal and reverse polarity, consisting of a primary Triassic remanence that is overlapped by a secondary post-folding component. Standard paleomagnetic procedures were conducted in order to determine the remanence components and a low-field AMS was applied to assess the degree and pattern of deformation. The AMS results from the WSFTB reveal a magnetic foliation that parallels the bedding planes and a dominantly NNW-SSE oriented magnetic lineation that is sub-parallel to the regional fold axial trend. These results imply a low to moderate degree of deformation and a maximum strain orientation parallel to that of the fold belt. These data are consistent with an orthogonal convergence model for the WSFTB formation. In turn, the magnetic fabric on the undeformed foreland displays a distinct NNE-SSW orientation that we attribute to the paleocurrent direction. Rock-magnetic analyses reveal that the dominant ferrimagnetic carriers are magnetite and titanomagnetite. The Triassic rocks are characterised by complicated NRM patterns often with overlapping unblocking temperature spectra of particular components. The dominant magnetisation is characterised, however, by a steep inclination of 70-80º. The derived paleomagnetic direction from the WSFTB falls on the Jurassic - recent sector of the apparent polar wander path (APWP) of Baltica after tectonic unfolding. These data imply that at least some of the identified secondary components could have originated before the Eurekan folding event (K/Pg), for example, in Early Cretaceous time which corresponds to the period of rifting events on Barents

  4. Lifetime of the solar nebula constrained by meteorite paleomagnetism. (United States)

    Wang, Huapei; Weiss, Benjamin P; Bai, Xue-Ning; Downey, Brynna G; Wang, Jun; Wang, Jiajun; Suavet, Clément; Fu, Roger R; Zucolotto, Maria E


    A key stage in planet formation is the evolution of a gaseous and magnetized solar nebula. However, the lifetime of the nebular magnetic field and nebula are poorly constrained. We present paleomagnetic analyses of volcanic angrites demonstrating that they formed in a near-zero magnetic field (nebula field, and likely the nebular gas, had dispersed by this time. This sets the time scale for formation of the gas giants and planet migration. Furthermore, it supports formation of chondrules after 4563.5 million years ago by non-nebular processes like planetesimal collisions. The core dynamo on the angrite parent body did not initiate until about 4 to 11 million years after solar system formation. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  5. Limitations in paleomagnetic data and modelling techniques and their impact on Holocene geomagnetic field models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panovska, S.; Korte, M.; Finlay, Chris


    orientation is highlighted by inconsistencies in the West Pacific and Australian sediment records in CALS10k.1b model. Great care must also be taken to assess uncertainties associated with both paleomagnetic and age data and to evaluate the effects of poor data distribution. New consistently allocated....... This would be facilitated by realistic and globally consistent data and age uncertainties from the paleomagnetic community....

  6. Paleomagnetism of the Puente Piedra Formation, Central Peru (United States)

    May, Steven R.; Butler, Robert F.


    Paleomagnetic samples were collected from 15 sites in the early Cretaceous Puente Piedra Formation near Lima, Peru. This formation consists of interbedded volcanic flows and marine sediments and represents the oldest known rocks of the Andean coastal province in this region. The Puente Piedra Formation is interpreted as a submarine volcanic arc assemblage which along with an overlying sequence of early Cretaceous clastic and carbonate rocks represents a terrane whose paleogeographic relationship with respect to the Peruvian miogeocline in pre-Albian time is unknown. Moderate to high coercivities, blocking temperatures below 320°C, and diagnostic strong-field thermomagnetic behavior indicate that pyrrhotite is the dominant magnetic phase in the Puente Piedra Formation. This pyrrhotite carries a stable CRM acquired during an event of copper mineralization associated with the intrusion of the Santa Rosa super-unit of the Coastal Batholith at about 90 ± 5 m.y. B.P. The tectonically uncorrected formation mean direction of: D = 343.2°, I = -28.6°, α 95 = 3.4° is statistically concordant in inclination but discordant in declination with respect to the expected direction calculated from the 90-m.y. reference pole for cratonic South America. The observed declination indicates approximately 20° of counterclockwise rotation of the Puente Piedra rocks since about 90 m.y. This is consistent with other paleomagnetic data from a larger crustal block which may indicate modest counterclockwise rotation during the Cenozoic associated with crustal shortening and thickening in the region of the Peru-Chile deflection.

  7. Paleomagnetism of Cretaceous limestones from western Tarim basin suggests negligible latitudinal offset yet significant clockwise rotation (United States)

    Tan, X.; Gilder, S.; Chen, Y.; Cogné, J. P.; Courtillot, V. E.; Cai, J.


    Large northward translation of central Asian crustal blocks has been reported from paleomagnetism of Cretaceous and Tertiary terrestrial sediments. This motion was initially taken as evidence of deformation occurred in the Asian interior as a result of indentation of the Indian Plate. However, because the amount of motion is far greater than geological observations, accuracy of the paleomagnetic record has become a controversial issue. To solve the problem, it has been shown that the latitudinal offset can be entirely attributed to inclination shallowing during deposition and compaction processes (Tan et al., 2003; Tauxe and Kent, 2004). On the other hand, coeval volcanic rocks from central Asia did record steeper paleomagnetic inclinations than terrestrial rocks (Gilder et al., 2003). To extend the effort of solving the controversy, we report paleomagnetic results of Cretaceous limestones from western Tarim basin. Our results show that the majority of our collections have been overprinted. Fortunately, a special type of limestones preserved stable characteristic remanence. Fold tests suggest a primary origin of the magnetization. Comparison of the paleomagnetic direction with the coeval expected direction from reference poles indicates a negligible amount of northward movement consistent with previous result of inclination correction based on magnetic fabrics, and a pattern of clockwise rotation symmetric with the style observed in the western flank of the Pamir ranges. Rock magnetic data will also be presented to support the accurate paleomagnetic record.

  8. New paleomagnetic data from late Paleozoic sedimentary rocks of Novaya Zemlya Archipelago: tectonic implications (United States)

    Abashev, Victor V.; Metelkin, Dmitry V.; Mikhaltsov, Nikolay E.; Vernikovsky, Valery A.; Matushkin, Nikolay Yu.


    New paleomagnetic data for Novaya Zemlya archipelago were obtained by processing the samples collection gathered during the 2014 field season. The paleomagnetic directions and paleomagnetic poles were determined from the Paleozoic sedimentary complexes located on the Southern Island (Upper Permian) and the Northern Island (Lower and Upper Devonian, Upper Carboniferous) of the archipelago. Positive fold and reversal tests indicate that the isolated paleomagnetic directions correspond to the primary magnetization components. The corresponding paleomagnetic pole are in good agreement with poles obtained earlier in the 1980s by E.L. Gurevich and I.A. Pogarskaya. Considering the confidence ovals, the paleomagnetic poles obtained for the sites of the Northern Island are located close to the corresponding path segment of the APWP of Europe. This means that at least since the early Devonian, the northern part of Novaya Zemlya Archipelago had a position that was close to its current position relatively to the Arctic margin of Europe and has not undergone significant shifts or rotations. However, the upper Permian paleomagnetic pole for the Southern Island is very different from the corresponding part of the European APWP. We are considering this pole position within a model, involving significant intraplate movement between the structures of the European and Siberian tectonic provinces until the Late Cretaceous. The sinistral strike-slips inferred by the model could have caused or were accompanying the opening of the Mesozoic rift system in Western Siberia. This event has reached its maximum within the South Kara basin and resulted in the north-westward (in geographic coordinates) displacement of the southern part of the Novaya Zemlya Archipelago in relation to the Arctic margin of Europe and in the deformation of the Pay-Khoy-Novaya Zemlya margin, which caused its modern curved form. The study was supported by the Russian Science Foundation, grant No. 14-37-00030 and the

  9. New paleomagnetic data from Siberia: Non-uniformitarian geomagnetic field around the Proterozoic-Phanerozoic boundary? (United States)

    Pavlov, V.; Shatsillo, A.; Kouznetsov, N.; Gazieva, E.


    There is a range of evidence, mainly from sedimentary and volcanic rocks of the Laurentia and Baltica cratons, that argue for the anomalous character of the Ediacaran-Early Cambrian paleomagnetic record. This feature could be linked either to some peculiarities of the paleomagnetic record itself or to some unusual geophysical event that would have taken place around the Proterozoic-Phanerozoic boundary (e.g., true polar wander or nonuniformitarian geomagnetic field behavior). In the latter case, the traces of this event should be observed in Ediacaran-Early Cambrian rocks anywhere there is a possibility to observe a primary paleomagnetic signal. In previous work, we reported results that suggested an anomalous paleomagnetic record in Siberian Ediacaran-Lower Cambrian rocks. Here we present new Siberian data that indicate a very high geomagnetic reversal frequency during this period and the coexistence of two very different paleomagnetic directions. We speculate that these features could be due either to a near-equatorial geomagnetic dipole during the polarity transitions or to alternation between axial and near equatorial dipoles not directly linked with polarity reversals.

  10. Paleomagnetic investigations at Mahd adh Dhahab, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (United States)

    Gettings, M.E.


    Paleomagnetic studies of 25 oriented bedrock specimens from Jabal Mahd adh Dhahab, located 160 km southeast of Al Madinah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, have yielded important structural information relating to the geologic history of this base and precious metal deposit. Samples were collected along one traverse away from the mineralized zones, across the northeast-plunging antiform that constitutes the dominant regional structure of the area, and along another traverse down the axis of the mineralized zones. Lithologies range from andesite flows through andesitic to rhyodacitic tuffs, lapilli tuffs, and volcaniclastic sediments. Measurements of remanent magnetization direction and intensity before and after stepwise alternating-field demagnetization ranging from 25 Oersted (Oe) to 1000 Oe were carried out on all samples. Three classes of demagnetization behavior were observed: A very stable class with little change in direction and intensity of magnetization; a class in which rapid changes were observed at first but which then settled on a high coercivity stable component of magnetization; and a class in which the magnetization was composed of a spectrum of low coervicity components, and continuous variation of direction and intensity of magnetization occurred.

  11. Why do paleomagnetic studies in Tibet lead to such disparate paleolatitude estimates? (Invited) (United States)

    Lippert, P. C.; Huang, W.; Van Hinsbergen, D. J.; Dupont-Nivet, G.


    Paleomagnetism is the only technique that can quantify paleolatitudes. Thus, many paleomagnetists have attempted to date the India-Asia collision by determining when the latitudes of rocks of the northern Himalayas (i.e. the northernmost continental rocks derived from India) overlap with those from the Lhasa terrane (i.e., the southern margin of Asia). The first studies were published in the 1980s, and only recently has the paleomagnetic community revived this technique. A suite of recent papers reported paleomagnetic data from coeval volcanic units of the upper Linzizong Formation in Southern Tibet. Despite similar sampling and measurement methods, these studies presented paleolatitudes for the Lhasa terrane that range over more than 20 degrees, i.e. >2200 km. These results have engendered skepticism within the tectonics community and raised questions regarding the usefulness of paleomagnetism in studying the India-Asia collision. Here we attempt to demonstrate that the diversity of paleolatitude estimates from the upper Linzizong Formation is an artifact of the statistical treatment of datasets primarily arising from under-sampling of the time-averaged paleomagnetic field in many of the individual studies. Previous reviews treated all of these data with equal weight, despite disparate sample sizes and quality criteria among the individual studies. This approach introduces large errors and spurious uncertainty in paleolatitude calculations. We show that applying the rigorous methodology typically employed by the geomagnetic field community to each paleomagnetic data set establishes coherency within and between data sets. The resulting latitude history provides a paleomagnetically-determined collision age between the Tibetan Himalaya and the southern margin of Asia at the longitudes of Nepal that is 49.5×4.5 Ma at 21×4° N latitude. The paleomagnetic age and latitude of this collision may be a few millions of years earlier and ~2° lower if estimates for

  12. Paleomagnetic record determined in cores from deep research wells in the Quaternary Santa Clara basin, California (United States)

    Mankinen, Edward A.; Wentworth, Carl M.


    Paleomagnetic study of cores from six deep wells provides an independent temporal framework for much of the alluvial stratigraphy of the Quaternary basin beneath the Santa Clara Valley. This stratigraphy consists of 8 upward-fining cycles in the upper 300 m of section and an underlying 150 m or more of largely fine-grained sediment. The eight cycles have been correlated with the marine oxygen isotope record, thus providing one means of dating the section. The section has also proved to contain a rich paleomagnetic record despite the intermittent sedimentation characteristic of alluvial environments.

  13. Chinese tombs oriented by a compass: evidence from paleomagnetic changes versus the age of tombs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Charvátová, Ivanka; Klokočník, Jaroslav; Kolmaš, J.; Kostelecký, J.


    Roč. 55, č. 1 (2011), s. 159-174 ISSN 0039-3169 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515; CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : Chinese tombs * magnetic compass * paleomagnetic declination * Fuson hypothesis Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 0.700, year: 2011

  14. Shear in the tethys and the permian paleomagnetism in the Southern Alps, including new results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijderveld, J.D.A.; Hazeu, G.J.A.; Nardin, M.; Voo, R. van der


    To verify paleomagnetic proof for megatectonic translation in the Tethys a large collection of samples from a key area, the Bolzano Quartz Porphyry Plateau in the Southern Alps, was examined. Their natural remanent magnetization was analyzed with thermal, and mainly alternating field

  15. Paleomagnetism of rocks from Sumba: tectonic implications since the late Cretaceous

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wensink, H.


    The island of Sumba (Southeast Indonesia) is a continental fragment that is situated in the transition zone from the Sunda Arc to the Banda Arc, between the active volcanic inner arc to the north and the locally less well developed outer arc to the south. On Sumba, rock samples for paleomagnetic

  16. Discussion of some recent papers on ancient continental configurations reconstructed from paleomagnetic evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilten, D. van


    In theory it is possible now to reconstruct the ancient continental configurations, both in latitude and in longitude, from paleomagnetic data alone. The papers that have first applied this new method are discussed. At present only the data from Africa and South America seem appropriate for

  17. Paleomagnetic constraints on the timing and distribution of Cenozoic rotations in Central and Eastern Anatolia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gürer, Derya; Van Hinsbergen, Douwe J.J.; Özkaptan, Murat; Creton, Iverna; Koymans, Mathijs R.; Cascella, Antonio; Langereis, Cornelis G.


    To quantitatively reconstruct the kinematic evolution of Central and Eastern Anatolia within the framework of Neotethyan subduction accommodating Africa-Eurasia convergence, we paleomagnetically assess the timing and amount of vertical axis rotations across the Uluklisla and Sivas regions. We show

  18. Paleomagnetic and geochronologic constraints on the geodynamic evolution of the Central Dinarides (United States)

    de Leeuw, Arjan; Mandic, Oleg; Krijgsman, Wout; Kuiper, Klaudia; Hrvatović, Hazim


    The geodynamic evolution of the Dinaride Mountains of southeastern Europe is relatively poorly understood, especially in comparison with the neighbouring Alps and Carpathians. We have constructed a new chronostratigraphy for the post-orogenic intra-montane basins of the Central Dinarides based on paleomagnetic and 40Ar/39Ar age data. Our results provide time constraints on the formation of these basins and elucidate their subsequent evolution. This is a fundamental step towards a better understanding of the late stage geodynamic evolution of the Central Dinarides. Our paleomagnetic results moreover indicate that the Dinarides have not experienced significant tectonic rotation since the late Oligocene. This implies that the Dinarides were decoupled from the adjacent Adria and the Tisza-Dacia Mega-Units that both underwent major rotation. We provide a reference frame for our rotation results through a review of Late Jurassic to Miocene paleomagnetic data, which elucidates spatial and tectonic rotation patterns in the Adria-Dinarides collision zone. The obtained results significantly improve our insight in the evolution of the Central Dinarides and help reconcile structural geological and paleomagnetic rotation estimates.

  19. Magnetic scanning and interpretation of paleomagnetic data from Prague Synform’s volcanics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kletetschka, Günther; Schnabl, Petr; Šifnerová, Kristýna; Tasáryová, Z.; Manda, Š.; Pruner, Petr


    Roč. 57, č. 1 (2013), s. 103-117 ISSN 0039-3169 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP210/10/2351 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : paleomagnetism * magnetic scanner * magnetic mineralogy * amygdales * magnetic anomalies * magnetic texture * Barrandian Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 0.752, year: 2013

  20. Paleomagnetism and geochronology of the Pliocene-Pleistocene lavas in Iceland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McDougall, Ian; Wensink, H.

    Potassium-argon dates are reported on five basalt samples from the Pliocene-Pleistocene sequence of lavas in the Jökuldalur area, northeastern Iceland. These dates confirm the correlations previously made with the geological time scale by means of paleomagnetic stratigraphy. The R1 and N2 polarity

  1. Ted Irving's legacy: recent developments on his pioneering work in paleomagnetism (United States)

    Enkin, R. J.; Opdyke, N. D.; Kent, D. V.; Frankel, H. R.; Evans, D. A.; Geissman, J. W.


    Edward (Ted) Irving (1927-2014) was one of the principal developers of paleomagnetism and an early champion of continental drift. Through careful multidisciplinary research and with great insight, he pioneered many aspects of paleomagnetism which continue to be actively researched. Irving was convinced of the reality of continental drift by 1954 and provided compelling arguments for its support in his classic 1964 textbook, but thought it would take the rest of his career to convince the rest of the scientific community. With the acceptance of plate tectonics in the late 1960s, he then applied his paleomagnetic tools to study young rocks (mid-ocean ridges), old rocks (the Laurentian shield), and mobile belts (the Appalachians and the Cordillera). In this poster we highlight recent work on several of his methods, results and ideas. Topics will include spherical statistics and paleosecular variation, the geomagnetic polarity time scale and the Kiaman superchron, paleoclimatic tests of paleogeography, compilation of paleomagnetic poles and the definition of apparent polar wander paths, and the paleogeography of cratons (e.g., Pangea) and mobile belts (e.g., Baja BC).

  2. The geology of the Vicentinian Alps (NE-Italy) : (with special reference to their paleomagnetic history)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, J. de


    This geological study on the Vicentinian Alps is mainly an analysis of the tectonic and paleomagnetic data, collected by the author in the years 1959, 1960, and 1961. The stratigraphy is based for the greater part on data published in the first decenniums of this century. In the

  3. The geology of the Vicentinian Alps (NE-Italy) : (with special reference to their paleomagnetic history)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, J.


    This geological study on the Vicentinian Alps is mainly an analysis of the tectonic and paleomagnetic data, collected by the author in the years 1959, 1960, and 1961. The stratigraphy is based for the greater part on data published in the first decenniums of this century. In the westtern part of the

  4. The geology of the Vicentinian Alps (NE-Italy) : with special reference to their paleomagnetic history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, Jelle de


    This geological study on the Vicentinian Alps is mainly an analysis of the tectonic and paleomagnetic data, collected by the author in the years 1959, 1960, and 1961. The stratigraphy is based for the greater part on data published in the first decenniums of this century. In the

  5. Paleomagnetic, paleontologic and radiometric study of the Uquia Formation (Plio-Pleistocene) in Esquina Blanca (Jujuy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walther, Ana M.; Orgeira, Maria J.; Vilas, Juan F.A.; Kelley, Shari; Jordan, Teresa


    A multidisciplinary study of the Uquia Formation has been performed. The results of the paleontologic, paleomagnetic, radiometric and stratigraphic analyses suggest that the superior levels of the formation are equivalent to the 'Marplatense Superior', while the basic ones should be considered older. Radiometric ages have been determined by fission tracks in zircons

  6. The new Permian-Triassic paleomagnetic pole for the East European Platform corrected for inclination shallowing (United States)

    Fetisova, A. M.; Veselovskiy, R. V.; Scholze, F.; Balabanov, Yu. P.


    The results of detailed paleomagnetic studies in seven Upper Permian and Lower Triassic reference sections of East Europe (Middle Volga and Orenburg region) and Central Germany are presented. For each section, the coefficient of inclination shallowing f (King, 1955) is estimated by the Elongation-Inclination (E-I) method (Tauxe and Kent, 2004) and is found to vary from 0.4 to 0.9. The paleomagnetic directions, corrected for the inclination shallowing, are used to calculate the new Late Permian-Early Triassic paleomagnetic pole for the East European Platform (N = 7, PLat = 52.1°, PLong = 155.8°, A95 = 6.6°). Based on this pole, the geocentric axial dipole hypothesis close to the Paleozoic/Mesozoic boundary is tested by the single plate method. The absence of the statistically significant distinction between the obtained pole and the average Permian-Triassic (P-Tr) paleomagnetic pole of the Siberian Platform and the coeval pole of the North American Platform corrected for the opening of the Atlantic (Shatsillo et al., 2006) is interpreted by us as evidence that 250 Ma the configuration of the magnetic field of the Earth was predominantly dipolar; i.e., the contribution of nondipole components was at most 10% of the main magnetic field. In our opinion, the hypothesis of the nondipolity of the geomagnetic field at the P-Tr boundary, which has been repeatedly discussed in recent decades (Van der Voo and Torsvik, 2001; Bazhenov and Shatsillo, 2010; Veselovskiy and Pavlov, 2006), resulted from disregarding the effect of inclination shallowing in the paleomagnetic determinations from sedimentary rocks of "stable" Europe (the East European platform and West European plate).

  7. 40Ar/ 39Ar ages and paleomagnetism of São Miguel lavas, Azores (United States)

    Johnson, Catherine L.; Wijbrans, Jan R.; Constable, Catherine G.; Gee, Jeff; Staudigel, Hubert; Tauxe, Lisa; Forjaz, Victor-H.; Salgueiro, Mário


    We present new 40Ar/ 39Ar ages and paleomagnetic data for São Miguel island, Azores. Paleomagnetic samples were obtained for 34 flows and one dike; successful mean paleomagnetic directions were obtained for 28 of these 35 sites. 40Ar/ 39Ar age determinations on 12 flows from the Nordeste complex were attempted successfully: ages obtained are between 0.78 Ma and 0.88 Ma, in contrast to published K-Ar ages of 1 Ma to 4 Ma. Our radiometric ages are consistent with the reverse polarity paleomagnetic field directions, and indicate that the entire exposed part of the Nordeste complex is of a late Matuyama age. The duration of volcanism across São Miguel is significantly less than previously believed, which has important implications for regional melt generation processes, and temporal sampling of the geomagnetic field. Observed stable isotope and trace element trends across the island can be explained, at least in part, by communication between different magma source regions at depth. The 40Ar/ 39Ar ages indicate that our normal polarity paleomagnetic data sample at least 0.1 Myr (0-0.1 Ma) and up to 0.78 Myr (0-0.78 Ma) of paleosecular variation and our reverse polarity data sample approximately 0.1 Myr (0.78-0.88 Ma) of paleosecular variation. Our results demonstrate that precise radiometric dating of numerous flows sampled is essential to accurate inferences of long-term geomagnetic field behavior. Negative inclination anomalies are observed for both the normal and reverse polarity time-averaged field. Within the data uncertainties, normal and reverse polarity field directions are antipodal, but the reverse polarity field shows a significant deviation from a geocentric axial dipole direction.

  8. UDECON: deconvolution optimization software for restoring high-resolution records from pass-through paleomagnetic measurements (United States)

    Xuan, Chuang; Oda, Hirokuni


    The rapid accumulation of continuous paleomagnetic and rock magnetic records acquired from pass-through measurements on superconducting rock magnetometers (SRM) has greatly contributed to our understanding of the paleomagnetic field and paleo-environment. Pass-through measurements are inevitably smoothed and altered by the convolution effect of SRM sensor response, and deconvolution is needed to restore high-resolution paleomagnetic and environmental signals. Although various deconvolution algorithms have been developed, the lack of easy-to-use software has hindered the practical application of deconvolution. Here, we present standalone graphical software UDECON as a convenient tool to perform optimized deconvolution for pass-through paleomagnetic measurements using the algorithm recently developed by Oda and Xuan (Geochem Geophys Geosyst 15:3907-3924, 2014). With the preparation of a format file, UDECON can directly read pass-through paleomagnetic measurement files collected at different laboratories. After the SRM sensor response is determined and loaded to the software, optimized deconvolution can be conducted using two different approaches (i.e., "Grid search" and "Simplex method") with adjustable initial values or ranges for smoothness, corrections of sample length, and shifts in measurement position. UDECON provides a suite of tools to view conveniently and check various types of original measurement and deconvolution data. Multiple steps of measurement and/or deconvolution data can be compared simultaneously to check the consistency and to guide further deconvolution optimization. Deconvolved data together with the loaded original measurement and SRM sensor response data can be saved and reloaded for further treatment in UDECON. Users can also export the optimized deconvolution data to a text file for analysis in other software.

  9. Paleomagnetism of Siberian Trap Intrusions: Implications for the Timing and Intensity of the Magmatic Activity (United States)

    Latyshev, Anton; Veselovskiy, Roman; Mirsayanova, Elina; Ulyahina, Polina


    Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) are the areas of the exceptional interest due to associated Cu-Ni-Pt deposits, problems of the causal link between volcanic hazards and mass extinctions, and questions about mantle plume dynamics. High-precise U-Pb and 40Ar/39Ar dating determined the duration of the main phase of the most voluminous Siberian Trap province formation as 1-2 Ma (Kamo et al., 2003; Reichow et al., 2008). Recent paleomagnetic investigations demonstrated the predominance of pulsating volcanic activity during LIPs formation (Chenet et al., 2009; Pavlov et al., 2015). We perform the results of detailed paleomagnetic study of intrusive complexes from Tunguska syncline and Angara-Taseeva depression (Siberian Trap province). Our data taken together with the previous paleomagnetic results from trap intrusions revealed two different styles of magmatic activity. In the central part of Tunguska syncline emplacement of was rather even without sharp bursts. Local intrusive events coeval to volcanic eruptions took place within spatially limited areas. In contrast, in the periphery of Tunguska syncline several short and powerful peaks of magmatic activity happened on the background of weak prolonged magmatism. These events resulted in huge Padunsky, Tulunsky and some other sills in the southern part of the Siberian platform. According to our paleomagnetic data, the duration of such pulses did not exceed 10-100 thousand years. Taking into account our paleomagnetic data and recent U-Pb ages for Siberian trap intrusions from (Burgess, Bowring, 2015), it is possible to correlate intrusive complexes with the volcanic section. In particular, formation the largest Tulunsky and Padunsky sills happened right after the termination of the main phase of Permian-Triassic volcanic activity on the Siberian platform. This work was supported by grants RFBR # 16-35-60114 and 15-35-20599 and Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation (grant 14.Z50.31.0017).

  10. Paleomagnetism and geochronological studies on a 450 km long 2216 Ma dyke from the Dharwar craton, southern India (United States)

    Nagaraju, E.; Parashuramulu, V.; Kumar, Anil; Srinivas Sarma, D.


    Paleomagnetic and geochronological studies were carried out on a ∼ 450 km long (from 17 sites) N-S striking Paleoproterozoic dyke swarm exposed along a natural crustal cross section of about 10 km (increasing from North to South) in the Dharwar Craton, to study the characteristics of paleomagnetism and geochronology in vertical dimension. U-Pb/Pb-Pb dating on baddeleyite gives a crystallisation age of 2216.0 ± 0.9 Ma for long dyke AKLD. Paleomagnetic data from this well dated ∼ 2216 Ma dyke swarm in Dharwar Craton are of excellent quality. High coercivity and high blocking temperature components are carried by single domain magnetite and show dual polarity remanence directions. Combined normal and reverse polarity remanences on AKLD and other N-S dykes define the most reliable paleomagnetic pole for ∼ 2216 Ma at latitude 36°S and longitude 312°E (A95 = 7°). Though paleomagnetic data is unavailable on other N-S dykes below the Cuddapah basin, high precision geochronology suggest that they are of similar age within errors. Though there is a variation in the crustal depth of Dharwar craton from north to south, consistent Pb-Pb/U-Pb baddeleyite geochronology and paleomagnetic studies along the AKLD established its continuity and preservation along its entire strike length. The virtual geomagnetic poles of these sites confirm a stable remanence and are almost identical to the previously reported paleomagnetic pole and also supported by positive reversal test. Positive paleomagnetic reversal test on these dykes signify that the remanent magnetization is primary and formed during initial cooling of the intrusions. Updated apparent polar wander path of Dharwar craton indicates relatively low drift rate during 2.21-2.08 Ga interval. Magnetogranulometry and SEM studies show that remanent magnetization in this dyke was carried by single domain magnetite residing within silicate minerals.

  11. Paleosecular variation analysis of high-latitude paleomagnetic data from the volcanic island of Jan Mayen (United States)

    Cromwell, G.; Tauxe, L.; Staudigel, H.; Pedersen, L. R.; Constable, C.; Pedersen, R.; Duncan, R. A.; Staudigel, P.


    Recent investigation of high-latitude paleomagnetic data from the Erebus Volcanic Province (EVP), Antarctica shows a departure from magnetic dipole predictions for paleointensity data for the period 0-5 Ma. The average EVP paleointensity (31.5 +/- 2.4 μT) is equivalent to low-latitude measurements (1) or approximately half the strength predicted for a dipole at high-latitude. Also, paleosecular variation models (e.g., 2,3) predict dispersions of directions that are much lower than the high latitude observations. Observed low intensity values may be the result of reduced convective flow inside the tangent cylinder of the Earth’s core or insufficient temporal sampling (1). More high-latitude paleomagnetic data are necessary in order to investigate the cause of the depressed intensity values and to provide better geographic and temporal resolution for future statistical paleosecular variation models. To address this, we carried out two field seasons, one in Spitzbergen (79°N, 14°E) and one on the young volcanic island of Jan Mayen (71°N, 8°W). The latter sampling effort was guided by age analyses of samples obtained by P. Imsland (unpublished and 4). We will present new paleodirectional and paleointensity data from a total of 25 paleomagnetic sites. These data enhance the temporal resolution of global paleomagnetic data and allow for a more complete evaluation of the time-averaged magnetic field from 0-5 Ma. We will present a new analysis of paleosecular variation based on our new data, in combination with other recently published data sets. (1) Lawrence, K.P., L.Tauxe, H. Staudigel, C.G. Constable, A. Koppers, W. MacIntosh, C.L. Johnson, Paleomagnetic field properties at high southern latitude. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems 10 (2009). (2) McElhinny, M.W., P.L. McFadden, Paleosecular variation over the past 5 Myr based on a new generalized database. Geophysics Journal International 131 (1997), 240-252. (3) Tauxe, L., Kent, D.V., A simplified statistical

  12. New paleomagnetic poles from Arctic Siberia support Indian Ocean option for the Neoproterozoic APWP of the Siberian craton. (United States)

    Pasenko, A.; Malyshev, S. V.


    Quantity and quality of paleomagnetic poles obtained so far for Neoproterozoic of Siberia are still insufficient even to outline the general trend of APWP of Siberia for this huge and very interesting time interval. Meanwhile, the solution of this problem is crucial for choice of polarity option for Siberian proterozoic paleomagnetic directions, for construction and testing of world paleotectonic and paleogeographic reconstructions. For example, whether or not the Siberian craton could be connected with Laurentia within the supercontinent Rodinia depends directly on paleomagnetic polarity option choice, which , in its turn, is determined by either we choose for neoproterozoic drift of Siberian paleomagnetic poles Pacific ocean trend [Smethurst et al., 1998] or Indian ocean [Pavlov et al., 2015] trend. To advance in solution of this problem we have carried out the paleomagnetic investigations of several sedimentary sections and sills of Arctic Siberia considered to be meso-neoproterozoic in age. In particular we have studied the terrigenous Udza and Unguohtah Formations and basic sills of the Udzha Uplift; the carbonate Khaipakh Formation of the Olenek Uplift; the carbonate Burovaya Formation of the Turukhansk Uplift; basic sills of the Kparaulakh Mountains.In this report we present the paleomagnetic poles obtained, discuss their bearing on construction of the adequate Siberian neoproterozoic APWP and show that our new data rather support the Indian ocean option.This research were supported by Grant from RF President #MK-739.2017.5

  13. Paleomagnetism and tectonics of the Jura arcuate mountain belt in France and Switzerland (United States)

    Gehring, Andreas U.; Keller, Peter; Heller, Friedrich


    Goethite and hematite in ferriferous oolitic beds of Callovian age from the Jura mountains (Switzerland, France) carry either pre- and/or post-tectonic magnetization. The frequent pre-tectonic origin of goethite magnetization indicates a temperature range during formation of the arcuate Jura mountain belt below the goethite Néel temperature of about 100°C. The scatter of the pre-tectonic paleomagnetic directions ( D = 11.5° E, I = 55.5°; α95 = 4.7) which reside both in goethite and hematite, provides strong evidence that the arcuate mountain belt was shaped without significant rotation. The paleomagnetic results support tectonic thin-skinned models for the formation of the Jura mountain belt.

  14. Paleomagnetic dating of tectonically influenced Plio-Quaternary fan-system deposits from the Apennines (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Saroli


    Full Text Available The Roveto Valley is a narrow, elongated, NW-trending depression filled with continental Plio-Quaternary deposits that outcrop at different topographic elevations. A morpho-lithostratigraphic succession of the continental deposits has been defined in order to reconstruct the geological Quaternary evolution of the area. These deposits do not contain materials suitable for biostratigraphic dating; therefore, in order to determine their chronology, three different units were sampled for magnetostratigraphic investigations. Paleomagnetic results demonstrated that standard demagnetization techniques are effective in removing secondary remanence components and in isolating the characteristic remanent magnetization, allowing us to determine, for each cycle, whether it was deposited before or after the Brunhes-Matuyama geomagnetic reversal at 781 ka. Preliminary rock magnetic analyses indicated that magnetite is the main magnetic carrier and that hematite, which gives the pink colour to the matrix, is in the superparamagnetic grain-size range and thus does not retain any paleomagnetic remanence.

  15. Paleomagnetism of Early Cambrian Itabaiana mafic dikes (NE Brazil) and the final assembly of Gondwana (United States)

    Trindade, Ricardo I. F.; D'Agrella-Filho, Manoel S.; Epof, Igor; Brito Neves, Benjamim B.


    Paleomagnetic analysis on 15 early Cambrian mafic dikes from Itabaiana (Paraíba State) yielded a southern (northwestern) direction with steep upward (downward) inclination ( Dm = 167.5°, Im = - 63.7°, α95 = 7.3°). AF and Thermal demagnetization, thermomagnetic curves, and hysteresis results suggest that this component is dominantly carried by fine-grained SD magnetite. The high stability of this component and positive baked contact tests on three dikes indicate it represents a primary thermoremanent magnetization. Ar-Ar analysis on whole-rock samples from two sites provides a strong constraint on the age of the Itabaiana paleomagnetic pole (134.6° E, 34.9° S; A95 = 7.3, K = 28) defined by plateau ages of 525 ± 5 and 526 ± 4 Ma. This pole completely satisfies six out of the seven quality criteria proposed by Van der Voo [R. Van der Voo, The reliability of paleomagnetic data, Tectonophysics 184 (1990) 1-9.] and permits a tight constraint on the Early Cambrian sector of the Gondwana apparent polar wander path. Paleogeographic reconstructions consistent with the available paleomagnetic and geological record show that Gondwana was sutured along three major orogenies, the Mozambique (Brasilano/Pan-African) Orogeny (800-650 Ma), the Kuunga Orogeny (570-530 Ma) and the Pampean-Araguaia Orogeny (540-520 Ma). We suggest that after rifting away from Laurentia at the end of the Neoproterozoic, opening the Iapetus ocean, the Amazonian craton and minor adjoining blocks, such as Rio Apa and Pampia, collided with the proto-Gondwana by Cambrian times at ca. 530-520 Ma. Unless for small adjustments, Gondwana was completely formed by 525 Ma whose paleogeography is defined by the Itabaiana pole.

  16. PaleoMac: A Macintosh™ application for treating paleomagnetic data and making plate reconstructions (United States)

    Cogné, J. P.


    This brief note provides an overview of a new Macintosh™ application, PaleoMac, (MacOS 8.0 or later, 15Mb RAM required) which permits rapid processing of paleomagnetic data, from the demagnetization data acquired in the laboratory, to the treatment of paleomagnetic poles, plate reconstructions, finite rotation computations on a sphere, and characterization of relative plate motions. Capabilities of PaleoMac include (1) high interactivity between the user and data displayed on screen which provides a fast and easy way to handle, add and remove data or contours, perform computations on subsets of points, change projections, sizes, etc.; (2) performance of all standard principal component analysis and statistical processing on a sphere [, 1953] etc.); (3) output of high quality plots, compatible with graphic programs such as Adobe Illustrator, and output of numerical results as ASCII files. Beyond its usefulness in treating paleomagnetic data, its ability to handle plate motion computations should be of large interest to the Earth science community.

  17. Paleomagnetic constraints on the timing and distribution of Cenozoic rotations in Central and Eastern Anatolia (United States)

    Gürer, Derya; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; Özkaptan, Murat; Creton, Iverna; Koymans, Mathijs R.; Cascella, Antonio; Langereis, Cornelis G.


    To quantitatively reconstruct the kinematic evolution of Central and Eastern Anatolia within the framework of Neotethyan subduction accommodating Africa-Eurasia convergence, we paleomagnetically assess the timing and amount of vertical axis rotations across the Ulukışla and Sivas regions. We show paleomagnetic results from ˜ 30 localities identifying a coherent rotation of a SE Anatolian rotating block comprised of the southern Kırşehir Block, the Ulukışla Basin, the Central and Eastern Taurides, and the southern part of the Sivas Basin. Using our new and published results, we compute an apparent polar wander path (APWP) for this block since the Late Cretaceous, showing that it experienced a ˜ 30-35° counterclockwise vertical axis rotation since the Oligocene time relative to Eurasia. Sediments in the northern Sivas region show clockwise rotations. We use the rotation patterns together with known fault zones to argue that the counterclockwise-rotating domain of south-central Anatolia was bounded by the Savcılı Thrust Zone and Deliler-Tecer Fault Zone in the north and by the African-Arabian trench in the south, the western boundary of which is poorly constrained and requires future study. Our new paleomagnetic constraints provide a key ingredient for future kinematic restorations of the Anatolian tectonic collage.

  18. Paleomagnetic constraints on the timing and distribution of Cenozoic rotations in Central and Eastern Anatolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Gürer


    Full Text Available To quantitatively reconstruct the kinematic evolution of Central and Eastern Anatolia within the framework of Neotethyan subduction accommodating Africa–Eurasia convergence, we paleomagnetically assess the timing and amount of vertical axis rotations across the Ulukışla and Sivas regions. We show paleomagnetic results from ∼ 30 localities identifying a coherent rotation of a SE Anatolian rotating block comprised of the southern Kırşehir Block, the Ulukışla Basin, the Central and Eastern Taurides, and the southern part of the Sivas Basin. Using our new and published results, we compute an apparent polar wander path (APWP for this block since the Late Cretaceous, showing that it experienced a ∼ 30–35° counterclockwise vertical axis rotation since the Oligocene time relative to Eurasia. Sediments in the northern Sivas region show clockwise rotations. We use the rotation patterns together with known fault zones to argue that the counterclockwise-rotating domain of south-central Anatolia was bounded by the Savcılı Thrust Zone and Deliler–Tecer Fault Zone in the north and by the African–Arabian trench in the south, the western boundary of which is poorly constrained and requires future study. Our new paleomagnetic constraints provide a key ingredient for future kinematic restorations of the Anatolian tectonic collage.

  19. Paleomagnetism and Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility study of the Miocene Jack Springs Tuff (Nevada, USA) (United States)

    Shields, S.; Petronis, M. S.; Pluhar, C. J.; Gordon, L.


    The mid-Miocene Jack Springs Tuff (JST) outcrops across the western Mina Deflection accommodation zone, west-central Nevada and into eastern California. Previously, the source location for the JST was unknown, yet recent studies northwest of Mono Lake, CA have identified a relatively un-rotated structural block in which to reference the paleomagnetic data. Although new studies have indicated that this block may be rotated up to 13º, we argue that the probable source area is located near the Bodie Hills, CA. At this site, the paleomagnetic reference direction is D = 353°, I = 43°, α95 = 7.7° (Carlson et al, 2013). Based on these data, the JST can be used to measure absolute vertical-axis rotation as well as enable reconstruction of the paleo-topography using the corrected anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) data. A total of 19 sites were sampled to constrain Cenozoic to recent vertical axis rotation within the region and AMS experiments were conducted to determine the flow direction of the JST. Curie point estimates indicate that the JST ranges in titanium concentration from 0.042 to 1.10, indicating a low to moderate titanomagnetite phase (Akimoto, 1962). Demagnetization experiments reveal mean destructive fields of the NRM ranging between 15mT and 40mT suggesting that both multi-domain to pseudo-single domain grains are the dominant ferromagnetic phases that carry the remanence and AMS fabric. Preliminary paleomagnetic data yield stable single component demagnetization behavior for most sites that, after structural correction, indicate clockwise vertical axis rotation ranging from +20°± 10° to +60°± 11° between multiple fault blocks. The uncorrected AMS data yield oblate magnetic fabrics that can be used to infer the transport direction, source region, and paleovalley geometry of the JST. These data are tentatively interpreted to indicate west to east transport of the JST across the Mono Basin region into the Mina Deflection that was erupted and

  20. Paleomagnetism and geochronology from the Lunayyir and Khaybar lava fields, Saudi Arabia (United States)

    Vigliotti, Luigi; Cai, Yue; Rasul, Najeeb M. A.; Ligi, Marco


    The Arabian Peninsula was one of the first plates to be investigated using paleomagnetic data (Irving & Tarling, 1961). However, very few additional results appeared in the literature since then and the available information are far from sufficient to explain the tectonics of the Red Sea region. In order to better constrain the tectonic history of the Arabian craton in the Tertiary, we carried out a combined paleomagnetic and Ar/Ar geochronological study on volcanic rocks from the Khaybar and Lunayyir Harrats (lava fields) plus a site of sediments deposited below the Miocene rocks in the former area. 86 hand-oriented samples were collected from 17 sites and progressive thermal or alternating field demagnetization isolated stable characteristic magnetizations (ChRM) that are consistent with a primary magnetization only in the Late Quaternary lava flows from the Lunayyir. Whole rock 39Ar/40Ar step-heating analyses yield whole-rock plateau ages of 12.8 to 16.3 Ma for four alkaline lava flows from Khaybar area, which is consistent with the estimated age range of the region-wide late Cenozoic alkaline volcanism in western Saudi Arabia. The paleomagnetic data from the rocks collected in this region appear to be affected by lightning and weathering and no significant tectonic/plate movement can be inferred from the obtained results. The direction of the high coercivity chemical remanent magnetization (CRM) isolated after thermal cleaning from the Pre-Miocene siltstones (D=169.6°, I=-44.8°; α95=5.4°) is consistent with the existing paleomagnetic results. The associated VGP (314.4°E, 80.6°N, A95=6.8°) is close to the Pliocene VGP of the Arabian Plate and CCW rotated (R=14.86°±6.38°) with respect to the Oligocene African VGP. The Lunayyir paleomagnetic data set of 11 Quaternary lava flows (D=0.31°, I=36.9°, α95=10.5) is statistically indistinguishable from the present field and the virtual geomagnetic poles (VGP: 214.1°E, 85.1°N; A95=12.3°) indicate a

  1. Paleomagnetic contributions to the Klamath Mountains terrane puzzle-a new piece from the Ironside Mountain batholith, northern California (United States)

    Mankinen, Edward A.; Gromme, C. Sherman; Irwin, W. Porter


    We obtained paleomagnetic samples from six sites within the Middle Jurassic Ironside Mountain batholith (~170 Ma), which constitutes the structurally lowest part of the Western Hayfork terrane, in the Klamath Mountains province of northern California and southern Oregon. Structural attitudes measured in the coeval Hayfork Bally Meta-andesite were used to correct paleomagnetic data from the batholith. Comparing the corrected paleomagnetic pole with a 170-Ma reference pole for North America indicates 73.5° ± 10.6° of clockwise rotation relative to the craton. Nearly one-half of this rotation may have occurred before the terrane accreted to the composite Klamath province at ~168 Ma. No latitudinal displacement of the batholith was detected.

  2. Basic research on tectonic reconstruction on the basis of paleomagnetic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Yasuto


    It is of great importance to clarify deformation mode in an extensive tectonic event in order to evaluate stability of rock masses. Although such evaluation is based on structural geology in general, conventional methods are of little use for understanding of the temporal and spatial changes in deformation mode accompanying rotational motions, which are brought about by relatively large fault movements. Therefore, deformation mode of rock masses are quantitatively evaluated in this report on the basis of paleomagnetic data. Arrangements of geologic units in the central Japan form a large northward cusp around the Izu Peninsula, which is interpreted as a result of intense deformation of rock mass by repeated collisions of the Izu-Bonin Arc against the Honshu Arc since the Miocene Period. As the Izu Peninsula is considered to be actively transported northward with slips on the Kannawa Fault, understanding for development process of collisional deformation zone is quite important to evaluate geological stability of rock masses. This report presents the paleomagnetic data of Miocene rocks obtained from a borehole in the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory, in Mizunami City, Gifu Prefecture. Progressive demagnetization tests separated stable primary remanent magnetizations for the Toki Lignite-Bearing Formation and the Akeyo Formation in the early Miocene. Their declinations are characterized by a significant easterly deflection reflecting a tectonic event probably linked to the Japan Sea opening. Comparison of the contemporaneous paleo-magnetic data reported from the central Japan implies that a boundary of relative rotational motions under the influence of collision of the Izu-Bonin Arc exists between the Mizunami area and eastern areas, for example, Kakegawa area. (author)

  3. New paleomagnetic and paleointensity results from late pliocene volcanic sequences from southern Georgia (Caucasus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo-Rathert, Manuel; Bogalo, Maria-Felicidad; Carrancho, Angel; Villalain, Juan Jose [Universidad de Burgos, Burgos (Spain). Departamento de Fisica, EPS; Goguichaichvili, Avto [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Morelia (Mexico). Laboratorio de Magnetismo Natural, Instituto de Geofisica; Vegas-Tubia, Nestor [Universidad del Pais Vasco, Bilbao (Spain). Departamento de Geodinamica; Sologashvili, Jemal [Ivane Javakhishvili State University of Tbilisi, Tbilisi (Georgia). Department of Geophysics


    Complete text of publication follows. Paleomagnetic and rock-magnetic experiments were carried out on 21 basaltic lava flows belonging to four different sequences of late Pliocene age from southern Georgia (Caucasus): Dmanisi (11 flows), Diliska (5 flows), Kvemo Orozmani (5 flows), and Zemo Karabulaki (3 flows). Paleomagnetic analysis generally showed the presence of a single component (mainly in the Dmanisi sequence) but also two more or less superimposed components in several other cases. All sites except one clearly displayed a normal-polarity characteristic component. Rock-magnetic experiments included measurement of thermomagnetic curves and hysteresis parameters. Susceptibility-versus-temperature curves measured in argon atmosphere on whole-rock powdered samples yielded low-Ti titanomagnetite as main carrier of remanence, although a lower T{sub C}-component was also observed in several cases. Both reversible and non-reversible k-T curves were measured. A pilot paleointensity study was performed with the Coe (1967) method on two samples of each of those sites considered suitable after interpretation of rock-magnetic and paleomagnetic data from all sites. The pilot study showed that reliable paleointensity results were mainly obtained from sites of the Dmanisi sequence. This thick sequence of basaltic lava flows records the upper end of the normal-polarity Olduvai subchron, a fact confirmed by {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar dating of the uppermost lava flow and overlying volcanogenic ashes, which yields ages of 1.8 to 1.85 My. A second paleointensity experiment was carried out only on samples belonging to the Dmanisi sequence. Preliminary results show that paleointensities often are low, their values lying between 10 and 20 muT in many cases. For comparison, present day field is 47 muT. The Dmanisi sequence of lava flows directly underlies the Dmanisi paleoanthropologic site, in which the end of the Olduvai subchron is recorded.

  4. The Padre Miguel Ignimbrite Suite, central Honduras: Paleomagnetism, geochronology, and tectonic implications (United States)

    Garza, Roberto S. Molina; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; Rogers, Robert D.; Ganerød, Morgan; Dekkers, Mark J.


    The Padre Miguel Group in western Honduras is a silicic volcanic sequence that forms part of the Central American Miocene volcanic arc built on the Chortis continental fragment. We report new 40Ar/39Ar data of 16.1 ± 0.2 Ma and 14.42 ± 0.08 Ma for the Padre Miguel Group, and present paleomagnetic data for 36 cooling units (mainly ignimbrites) from localities north and northeast of the capital city of Tegucigalpa. These rocks are characterized by univectorial characteristic magnetization carried mainly by low-Ti titanomagnetites, or two component magnetizations with a minor secondary overprint. Dual polarity magnetizations suggest that it is a primary thermo-remanence and the obtained data scatter can be straightforwardly explained by paleosecular variation. The overall mean of 33 selected sites (14.39°N, 87.14°W) defines a paleomagnetic pole at lat = 80.0°N, lon = 142.9°E (K = 24.5, A95 = 5.2°). The overall mean compared with the North America expected direction indicates statistically insignificant rotation and inclination anomaly (R = - 4.1° ± 6.1° and an F = - 8.6° ± 11.3°). Restoring 255 km of sinistral slip in the Polochic-Motagua fault system, as suggested by Cayman Trough reconstructions since 15 Ma, brings the mid-Miocene arcs of southern Mexico (Oaxaca) and the Central America ignimbrite province into alignment; this is consistent with a derivation of the Chortis Block from southern Mexico. Our paleomagnetic and geochronological studies hence support models that explain the offset of the Miocene ignimbrite belt of Central America by post-Middle Miocene displacement of the Chortis Block relative to North America.

  5. Emplacement and Deformation of Mesozoic Gabbros of the High Atlas (Morocco): Paleomagnetism and Magnetic Fabrics (United States)

    Calvín, P.; Ruiz-Martínez, V. C.; Villalaín, J. J.; Casas-Sainz, A. M.; Moussaid, B.


    A paleomagnetic and magnetic fabric study is performed in Upper Jurassic gabbros of the central High Atlas (Morocco). These gabbros were emplaced in the core of preexisting structures developed during the extensional stage and linked to basement faults. These structures were reactivated as anticlines during the Cenozoic compressional inversion. Gabbros from 19 out of the 33 sampled sites show a stable characteristic magnetization, carried by magnetite, which has been interpreted as a primary component. This component shows an important dispersion due to postemplacement tectonic movements. The absence of paleoposition markers in these igneous rocks precludes direct restorations. A novel approach analyzing the orientation of the primary magnetization is used here to restore the magmatic bodies and to understand the deformational history recorded by these rocks. Paleomagnetic vectors are distributed along small circles with horizontal axes, indicating horizontal axis rotations of the gabbro bodies. These rotations are higher when the ratio between shales and gabbros in the core of the anticlines increases. Due to the uncertainties inherent to this work (the igneous bodies recording strong rotations), interpretations must be qualitative. The magnetic fabric is carried by ferromagnetic (s.s.) minerals mimicking the magmatic fabric. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) axes, using the rotation routine inferred from paleomagnetic results, result in more tightly clustered magnetic lineations, which also become horizontal and are considered in terms of magma flow trend during its emplacement: NW-SE (parallel to the general extensional direction) in the western sector and NE-SW (parallel to the main faults) in the easternmost structures.

  6. Paleomagnetism of the Cretaceous Galula Formation and implications for vertebrate evolution (United States)

    Widlansky, Sarah J.; Clyde, William C.; O'Connor, Patrick M.; Roberts, Eric M.; Stevens, Nancy J.


    This study uses magnetostratigraphy to help constrain the age of the paleontologically important Galula Formation (Rukwa Rift Basin, southwestern Tanzania). The formation preserves a Cretaceous vertebrate fauna, including saurischian dinosaurs, a putative gondwanatherian mammal, and notosuchian crocodyliforms. With better dating, the Galula Formation and its fossils help fill a temporal gap in our understanding of vertebrate evolution in continental Africa, enabling better evaluation of competing paleobiogeographic hypotheses concerning faunal exchange throughout Gondwana during the Cretaceous. Paleomagnetic samples for this study were collected from the Namba (higher in section) and Mtuka (lower in section) members of the Galula Formation and underwent stepwise thermal demagnetization. All samples displayed a strong normal magnetic polarity overprint, and maximum unblocking temperatures at approximately 690 °C. Three short reversed intervals were identified in the Namba Member, whereas the Mtuka Member lacked any clear reversals. Given the relatively limited existing age constraints, one interpretation correlates the Namba Member to Chron C32. An alternative correlation assigns reversals in the Namba Member to recently proposed short reversals near the end of the Cretaceous Normal Superchron (Chron C34), a time that is traditionally interpreted as having stable normal polarity. The lack of reversals in the Mtuka Member supports deposition within Chron C34. These data suggest that the Namba Member is no older than Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian-Campanian), with the Mtuka Member less well constrained to the middle Cretaceous (Aptian-Cenomanian). The paleomagnetic results are supported by the application of fold and reversal tests for paleomagnetic stability, and paleomagnetic poles for the Namba (246.4°/77.9°, α95 5.9°) and Mtuka (217.1°/72.2°, α95 11.1°) members closely matching the apparent polar wander path for Africa during the Late Cretaceous. These

  7. Paleomagnetism of the Chinle and Kayenta Formations, New Mexico and Arizona (United States)

    Bazard, David R.; Butler, Robert F.


    Paleomagnetic data were obtained from 22 sites (6-10 samples/site) in the Upper Shale Member of the Chinle Formation, 43 sites in the Owl Rock Member of the Chinle Formation, and 35 sites in the Kayenta Formation. Thermal demagnetization and data analyses indicate that within-site dispersion is an important criterion for selecting sites which retain a high unblocking temperature characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM). Site-mean directions define at least four antipodal polarity zones within each member/formation, suggesting the ChRM was acquired soon after deposition. Fifteen site-mean virtual geomagnetic poles (VGPs) from the Upper Shale Member of the Chinle Formation yield an early Norian paleomagnetic pole position of 57.4°N, 87.8°E (K = 60, A95 = 5.0°). Eighteen site-mean VGPs from the Owl Rock Member of the Chinle Formation yield a middle Norian paleomagnetic pole position of 56.5°N, 66.4°E (K = 183, A95 = 2.6°). Twenty-three site-mean VGPs from the Kayenta Formation yield a Pliensbachian pole position of 59.0°N, 66.6°E (K = 155, A95 = 2.4°). Combined with paleomagnetic poles from the Moenave Formation and the Shinarump Member of the Chinle Formation, these data record ˜30 m.y. of North American apparent polar wander (APW) within a regional stratigraphic succession. During the Camian and Norian stages of the Late Triassic, Chinle poles progress westward. During the Hettangian through Pliensbachian stages of the Early Jurassic, the pattern of APW changed to an eastward progression. Even after correction for 4° clockwise rotation of the Colorado Plateau, a sharp comer in the APW path (J1 cusp) is resolved near the pole from the Hettangian/Sinemurian (˜200 Ma) Moenave Formation (59.4°N, 59.2°E). Amongst other implications, the sharp change in the APW path at the J1 cusp implies an abrupt change from counterclockwise rotation of Pangea prior to 200 Ma to clockwise rotation thereafter.

  8. Paleomagnetic evidence for dynamo activity driven by inward crystallisation of a metallic asteroid (United States)

    Bryson, James F. J.; Weiss, Benjamin P.; Harrison, Richard J.; Herrero-Albillos, Julia; Kronast, Florian


    The direction in which a planetary core solidifies has fundamental implications for the feasibility and nature of dynamo generation. Although Earth's core is outwardly solidifying, the cores of certain smaller planetary bodies have been proposed to inwardly solidify due to their lower central pressures. However, there have been no unambiguous observations of inwardly solidified cores or the relationship between this solidification regime and planetary magnetic activity. To address this gap, we present the results of complimentary paleomagnetic techniques applied to the matrix metal and silicate inclusions within the IVA iron meteorites. This family of meteorites has been suggested to originate from a planetary core that had its overlaying silicate mantle removed by collisions during the early solar system. This process is thought to have produced a molten ball of metal that cooled rapidly and has been proposed to have inwardly solidified. Recent thermal evolution models of such a body predict that it should have generated an intense, multipolar and time-varying dynamo field. This field could have been recorded as a remanent magnetisation in the outer, cool layers of a solid crust on the IVA parent core. We find that the different components in the IVA iron meteorites display a range of paleomagnetic fidelities, depending crucially on the cooling rate of the meteorite. In particular, silicate inclusions in the quickly cooled São João Nepomuceno meteorite are poor paleomagnetic recorders. On the other hand, the matrix metal and some silicate subsamples from the relatively slowly cooled Steinbach meteorite are far better paleomagnetic recorders and provide evidence of an intense (≳100 μT) and directionally varying (exhibiting significant changes on a timescale ≲200 kyr) magnetic field. This is the first demonstration that some iron meteorites record ancient planetary magnetic fields. Furthermore, the observed field intensity, temporal variability and dynamo

  9. Rock Magnetic Properties of Laguna Carmen (Tierra del Fuego, Argentina): Implications for Paleomagnetic Reconstruction (United States)

    Gogorza, C. G.; Orgeira, M. J.; Ponce, F.; Fernández, M.; Laprida, C.; Coronato, A.


    We report preliminary results obtained from a multi-proxy analysis including paleomagnetic and rock-magnetic studies of two sediment cores of Laguna Carmen (53°40'60" S 68°19'0" W, ~83m asl) in the semiarid steppe in northern Tierra del Fuego island, Southernmost Patagonia, Argentina. Two short cores (115 cm) were sampled using a Livingstone piston corer during the 2011 southern fall. Sediments are massive green clays (115 to 70 cm depth) with irregularly spaced thin sandy strata and lens. Massive yellow clay with thin sandy strata continues up to 30 cm depth; from here up to 10 cm yellow massive clays domain. The topmost 10 cm are mixed yellow and green clays with fine sand. Measurements of intensity and directions of Natural Remanent Magnetization (NRM), magnetic susceptibility, isothermal remanent magnetization, saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM), back field and anhysteretic remanent magnetization at 100 mT (ARM100mT) were performed and several associated parameters calculated (ARM100mT/k and SIRM/ ARM100mT). Also, as a first estimate of relative magnetic grain-size variations, the median destructive field of the NRM (MDFNRM), was determined. Additionally, we present results of magnetic parameters measured with vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The stability of the NRM was analyzed by alternating field demagnetization. The magnetic properties have shown variable values, showing changes in both grain size and concentration of magnetic minerals. It was found that the main carrier of remanence is magnetite with the presence of hematite in very low percentages. This is the first paleomagnetic study performed in lakes located in the northern, semiarid fuegian steppe, where humid-dry cycles have been interpreted all along the Holocene from an aeolian paleosoil sequence (Orgeira et el, 2012). Comparison between paleomagnetic records of Laguna Carmen and results obtained in earlier studies carried out at Laguna Potrok Aike (Gogorza et al., 2012

  10. Magnetostratigraphy, paleomagnetic correlation, and deformation of pleistocene deposits in the south central Puget Lowland, Washington (United States)

    Hagstrum, J.T.; Booth, D.B.; Troost, K.G.; Blakely, R.J.


    Paleomagnetic results from Pleistocene sedimentary deposits in the central Puget Lowland indicate that the region has experienced widespread deformation within the last 780 kyr. Three oriented samples were collected from unaltered fine-grained sediments mostly at sea level to determine the magnetostratigraphy at 83 sites. Of these, 47 have normal, 18 have reversed, and 18 have transitional (8 localities) polarities. Records of reversed- to normal-polarity transitions of the geomagnetic field were found in thick sections of silt near the eastern end of the Tacoma Narrows Bridge, and again at Wingehaven Park near the northern tip of Vashon Island. The transitional horizons, probably related to the Bruhnes-Matuyama reversal, apparently fall between previously dated Pleistocene sediments at the Puyallup Valley type section (all reversed-polarity) to the south and the Whidbey Island type section (all normal-polarity) to the north. The samples, in general, are of sufficient quality to record paleosecular variation (PSV) of the geomagnetic field, and a statistical technique is used to correlate horizons with significant agreement in their paleomagnetic directions. Our data are consistent with the broad structures of the Seattle uplift inferred at depth from seismic reflection, gravity, and aeromagnetic profiles, but the magnitude of vertical adjustments is greatly subdued in the Pleistocene deposits.

  11. Paleomagnetic study of areas B1, C1 and E2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, C.; Sopher, C.


    Sediments from all three areas retain a stable primary remanence with a small viscous overprint which can be removed by AF cleaning. This marginally reduces the scatter in NRM data and improves the constraints on some reversal boundaries. Excellent reversal stratigraphies exist in all cores, particularly within area E2, with the exception of core B1-43P. This core is normally magnetized throughout and has a larger viscous component than other cores. Sedimentation rates are slower during the Brunhes epoch in all cores except C1-32P and C1-33P. Cores C1-34P and E2-46P have almost constant sedimentation rates throughout. The abnormally low average sedimentation rate during the Brunhes in core C1-35P suggest a loss of up to 2m of sediment, either during coring or by in situ erosion. Overall sedimentation rates are highest in area B1, lowest in area E2, and show least variation between cores in area E2. There is no general correlation between lithology and the paleomagnetic record. Ash layers and horizons with abnormally low water contents sometimes coincide with spikes in the paleomagnetic records

  12. Paleomagnetic tests of tectonic reconstructions of the India-Asia collision zone (United States)

    Huang, Wentao; Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; Lippert, Peter C.; Guo, Zhaojie; Dupont-Nivet, Guillaume


    Several solutions have been proposed to explain the long-standing kinematic observation that postcollisional upper crustal shortening within the Himalaya and Asia is much less than the magnitude of India-Asia convergence. Here we implement these hypotheses in global plate reconstructions and test paleolatitudes predicted by the global apparent polar wander path against independent, and the most robust paleomagnetic data. Our tests demonstrate that (1) reconstructed 600-750 km postcollisional intra-Asian shortening is a minimum value; (2) a 52 Ma collision age is only consistent with paleomagnetic data if intra-Asian shortening was ~900 km; a ~56-58 Ma collision age requires greater intra-Asian shortening; (3) collision ages of 34 or 65 Ma incorrectly predict Late Cretaceous and Paleogene paleolatitudes of the Tibetan Himalaya (TH); and (4) Cretaceous counterclockwise rotation of India cannot explain the paleolatitudinal divergence between the TH and India. All hypotheses, regardless of collision age, require major Cretaceous extension within Greater India.

  13. Paleomagnetic Constraints From the Baoshan Area on the Deformation of the Qiangtang-Sibumasu Terrane Around the Eastern Himalayan Syntaxis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Shihu|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/411296248; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/269263624; Deng, Chenglong; Advokaat, Eldert L.; Zhu, Rixiang

    The Sibumasu Block in SE Asia represents the eastward continuation of the Qiangtang Block. Here we report a detailed rock magnetic and paleomagnetic study on the Middle Jurassic and Paleocene rocks from northern Sibumasu, to document the crustal deformation during the India-Asia collision since the

  14. Paleomagnetic results of Neogene strata in Eastern Vietnam and their paleogeographic Implications (United States)

    Weiwei, C.; Zhao, X.; Liu, Z.; Dong Pha, P.


    Neogene paleomagnetic data from the Vietnam, southeastern margin of the Indochina Block, are essential to reconstruct post-collisional paleogeography. This is key to understanding the evolution of the western South China Sea and verifying the model of extrusion tectonic. Mid-Miocene siltstone of the Song Ba Formation and Pliocene basalt were sampled from Phu Tue area, eastern Vietnam. Paleomagnetic samples were collected using a gasoline-powered drill and a magnetic compass mounted on an orienting device. We corrected for the effect of local magnetic anomalies on magnetic orientation by taking solar azimuths using a sun compass. For most samples, the discrepancy between the two compass readings is within 3°. Remanent magnetization measurements were carried out with 2G-755-4K cryogenic magnetometers, installed in the Plaleomagnetism Laboratory, Tongji University, Shanghai. All the instruments are located in a shielded room with residual fields less than 200 nT. The anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) results of four siltstone sites (sites 2, 6, 9, 10) indicate the siltstone preserve a normal sedimentary magnetic fabric. The other sites of the AMS (including basalt sites) show that the directions of K1, K2, K3 are scattered without any regulation. The thermal demagnetization and AF demagnetization were performed on specimens and stepwise demagnetization up to 600°C or 150 mT. ChRM directions were determined for all the specimens using principal component analysis. The directions obtained from Neogene rocks are far from the present geomagnetic field (PGF) and include antipodal dual polarities, suggesting a primary origin. A visible fluctuation in paleomagnetic direction from one site to another is evident from the results. Shallow inclination are obtained from most samples which range of 7.4° to 21.5°. The siltstone declination range of 16.8° to 34.5° while the basalt declination rang of 178.3° to 335.0°. This wide range of direction fluctuation

  15. New Paleomagnetic Data From Upper Gabbros Supports Limited Rotation of Central Semail Massif in Oman Ophiolite (United States)

    Horst, A. J.; Sarah, T.; Hartley, E.; Martin, J.


    Paleomagnetic data from northern massifs of the Oman ophiolite demonstrate substantial clockwise rotations prior to or during obduction, yet data from southern massifs are recently suggested to be remagnetized during obduction and show subsequent smaller counterclockwise rotations. To better understand paleomagnetic data from the southern massifs, we conducted a detailed paleomagnetic and rock magnetic study of 21 sites in upper gabbros and 5 sites in lower crustal gabbros within the central Semail massif. Samples treated with progressive thermal demagnetization yield interpretable magnetizations with dominant unblocking between 500-580°C that implies characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM) components carried by low-titanium magnetite and nearly pure magnetite. Rock magnetic and scanning electron microscopy data provide additional support of the carriers of magnetization. ChRMs from sites with samples containing partially-serpentinized olivine are similar to sites with samples lacking olivine, where the carriers appear to be fine magnetite intergrowths in pyroxene. The overall in situ and tilt-corrected mean directions from upper gabbros are distinct from the lower gabbros, from previous data within the massif, and also directions from similar crustal units in adjacent Rustaq and Wadi Tayin massifs. After tilt correction for 10-15° SE dip of the crust-mantle boundary, the mean direction from upper gabbros is nearly coincident with in situ lower gabbros. The tilt-corrected direction from upper gabbros is also consistent with an expected direction from the Late Cretaceous apparent polar wander path for Arabia at the age of crustal accretion ( 95Ma). These results suggest the upper crustal section in Semail has likely only experienced minor tilting since formation and acquisition of magnetization. Due to slow cooling of middle to lower gabbros in fast-spread crust, the lower gabbro sites likely cooled later or after obduction, and thus yield a distinct

  16. Paleomagnetic tests for tectonic reconstructions of the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous Woyla Group, Sumatra (United States)

    Advokaat, Eldert; Bongers, Mayke; van Hinsbergen, Douwe; Rudyawan, Alfend; Marshal, Edo


    SE Asia consists of multiple continental blocks, volcanic arcs and suture zones representing remnants of closing ocean basins. The core of this mainland is called Sundaland, and was formed by accretion of continental and arc fragments during the Paleozoic and Mesozoic. The former positions of these blocks are still uncertain but reconstructions based on tectonostratigraphic, palaeobiogeographic, geological and palaeomagnetic studies indicate the continental terranes separated from the eastern margin of Gondwana. During the mid-Cretaceous, more continental and arc fragments accreted to Sundaland, including the intra-oceanic Woyla Arc now exposed on Sumatra. These continental fragments were derived from Australia, but the former position of the Woyla Arc is unconstrained. Interpretations on the former position of the Woyla Arc fall in two end-member groups. The first group interprets the Woyla Arc to be separated from West Sumatra by a small back-arc basin. This back arc basin opened in the Late Jurassic, and closed mid-Cretaceous, when the Woyla Arc collided with West Sumatra. The other group interprets the Woyla Arc to be derived from Gondwana, at a position close to the northern margin of Greater India in the Late Jurassic. Subsequently the Woyla Arc moved northwards and collided with West Sumatra in the mid-Cretaceous. Since these scenarios predict very different plate kinematic evolutions for the Neotethyan realm, we here aim to place paleomagnetic constraints on paleolatitudinal evolution of the Woyla Arc. The Woyla Arc consists mainly of basaltic to andesitic volcanics and dykes, and volcaniclastic shales and sandstones. Associated limestones with volcanic debris are interpreted as fringing reefs. This assemblage is interpreted as remnants of an Early Cretaceous intra-oceanic arc. West Sumatra exposes granites, surrounded by quartz sandstones, shales and volcanic tuffs. These sediments are in part metamorphosed. This assemblage is interpreted as a Jurassic

  17. Paleomagnetic evidence bearing on Tertiary tectonics of the Tihamat Asir coastal plain, southwestern Saudi Arabia (United States)

    Kellogg, K.S.; Blank, H.R.


    Paleomagnetic directions determined for an upper Oligocene to lower Miocene dike swarm and from two lower Miocene layered gabbros in the Tihamat Asir coastal plain of southwestern Saudi Arabia are used to test several hypotheses concerning the tectonics of rifting along the eastern margin of the Red Sea. The dikes and gabbros were emplaced during the initial phases of Red Sea rifting and may mark the transition between continental and oceanic crust. Although these rocks have been hydrothermally altered to varying degrees, reliable remanent directions after alternating-field demagnetization were obtained for 23 dikes and for gabbros at Jabal at Tirf and Wadi Liyyah. Twelve of the dikes are reversely magnetized. After the directions of the reversely magnetized dikes are inverted 180?, the mean direction calculated for the normal dikes is approximately 24? more downward than that calculated for the reversed dikes. This result is similar to that found for the As Sarat volcanic field, 100 km to the north, and may be due to a displaced dipole source for the field. The unrotated mean remanent direction for the dikes (inverting reversed dike directions 180?) is D (declination) = 353.2? and I (inclination) = 6.8? with a95 (radius of the cone of 95 percent confidence) = 8.9? whereas directions from the Jabal at Tirf and Wadi Liyyah gabbros lie at D = 176.2?, I = -1.6? (a95 = 7 1 ?) and D = 17.1?, I = 16.3? (a 95 = 8.7?), respectively. Comparing these results with the results from the As Sarat volcanic field, all the paleomagnetic evidence supports a model for approximately 20 ? of westward tilting of the Wadi Damad and Wadi Jizan areas after the emplacement of the Jabal at Tiff gabbro. The Wadi Liyyah area may have been tilted even more toward the Red Sea. The paleomagnetic directions from three widely separated localities in the Jabal at Tirf gabbro are not significantly different, a fact which indicates that the body cooled in approximately its present bowl shape. Evidence

  18. Paleomagnetism and tectonic evolution of the Pan-African Damara Belt, southern Africa (United States)

    McWilliams, M. O.; KröNer, A.


    Paleomagnetic results are reported from the Nosib, Otavi, and Mulden groups of the Damara Supergroup, a late Precambrian shelf sequence on the southern margin of the Congo craton in Namibia. Three magnetizations were isolated in the Nosib group samples. In order of decreasing blocking temperature they are NQ1 (n = 6 sites, λ = 28°N, ϕ = 323°E, α95 = 15°), NQ2 (n = 7 sites, λ = 51°S, ϕ = 213°E, α95 = 12°), and NQ3 (n = 13 samples, λ = 09°N, ϕ = 295°E, α95 = 13°). Overall precision of all three magnetizations upon tectonic correction suggests that they predate Pan-African (650-450 Ma) folding. Two magnetizations were isolated in the Otavi group samples, above the Nosib in stratigraphic sequence. The DC1 component of possible prefolding age (n = 4 sites, λ = 52°S, ϕ = 186°E, α95 = 35°) has been over-printed by the DC2 magnetization (n = 10 sites, λ = 55°S, ϕ = 044°E, α95 = 15°) of probable postfolding age. A single magnetization of probable pre-folding age was isolated in the overlying Mulden Group samples (n = 6 sites, λ = 12°S, ϕ = 090°E, α95 = 16°). Together with previously published paleomagnetic data from Africa, the new data showed that no great relative movements have occurred between the Congo and Kalahari cratons during the interval of Pan-African tectonism in the Damara belt (McElhinny and McWilliams, 1977). Continental collision preceded by large relative displacements and closure of a wide ocean (e.g., a Himalayan analog) is effectively ruled out for the Damara belt. We develop an alternative model consistent with the available paleomagnetic and geologic data, which invokes rifting, heating, and stretching of the lithosphere underneath the Damara belt, followed by delamination of the subcrustal lithosphere. Hot asthenospheric material rises to take the place of the detached and sinking lithospheric base, inducing subduction and interstacking of continental crust. The much thickened continental crust is partially melted

  19. Paleomagnetic constraints on the age of the Botucatu Formation in Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endale Tamrat


    Full Text Available Paleomagnetic and rockmagnetic data are reported for the aeolian Botucatu Formation, in the southern Brazilian State of Rio Grande do Sul. Oriented samples were taken from a section located between the cities of Jaguari and Santiago. After thermal and alternating field demagnetization, both normal and reversed characteristic remanent magnetizations were found. These results yielded 13 reversed and 5 normal polarity sites, composing a magnetostratigraphic column displaying a sequence of reversed-normal-reversed polarity events. The paleomagnetic pole calculated for 18 sites is located at 114.7ºE, 78.5ºS (dp=8.1º; dm=1.2º, after restoring the strata to the paleohorizontal. This paleomagnetic pole indicates a Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous age to the Botucatu Formation in the investigated area, and places the sampling sites at paleolatitudes as low as 21ºS.Dados paleomagnéticos e de magnetismo de rochas dos sedimentos eólicos da Formação Botucatu, no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, obtidos de uma seção localizada entre as cidades de Jaguari e Santiago, permitiram definir a idade dessa formação. Direções de magnetização características com polaridades normal e reversa foram obtidas após desmagnetizações térmicas e por campos magnéticos alternados. Do total de sítios amostrados 13 apresentaram polaridade reversa e 5, polaridade normal, compondo uma coluna magnetoestratigráfica onde se identificam três horizontes de polaridade, na ordem, reverso-normal-reverso. O pólo paleomagnético baseado em 18 sítios está localizado a 114.7ºE, 78.5ºS (dp = 8.1º; dm = 1.2º, depois de restaurada a paleohorizontal dos sítios de amostragem. Este pólo paleomagnético indica idade do Jurássico Superior-Cretáceo Inferior para a Formação Botucatu na área estudada, e indica que as paleolatitudes ocupadas eram da ordem de 21ºS.

  20. Paleomagnetic record of a geomagnetic field reversal from late miocene mafic intrusions, southern nevada. (United States)

    Ratcliff, C D; Geissman, J W; Perry, F V; Crowe, B M; Zeitler, P K


    Late Miocene (about 8.65 million years ago) mafic intrusions and lava flows along with remagnetized host rocks from Paiute Ridge, southern Nevada, provide a high-quality paleomagnetic record of a geomagnetic field reversal. These rocks yield thermoremanent magnetizations with declinations of 227 degrees to 310 degrees and inclinations of -7 degrees to 49 degrees , defining a reasonably continuous virtual geomagnetic pole path over west-central Pacific longitudes. Conductive cooling estimates for the intrusions suggest that this field transition, and mafic magmatism, lasted only a few hundred years. Because this record comes principally from intrusive rocks, rather than sediments or lavas, it is important in demonstrating the longitudinal confinement of the geomagnetic field during a reversal.

  1. User-driven integrated software lives: ``Paleomag'' paleomagnetics analysis on the Macintosh (United States)

    Jones, Craig H.


    "PaleoMag," a paleomagnetics analysis package originally developed for the Macintosh operating system in 1988, allows examination of demagnetization of individual samples and analysis of directional data from collections of samples. Prior to recent reinvigorated development of the software for both Macintosh and Windows, it was widely used despite not running properly on machines and operating systems sold after 1995. This somewhat surprising situation demonstrates that there is a continued need for integrated analysis software within the earth sciences, in addition to well-developed scripting and batch-mode software. One distinct advantage of software like PaleoMag is in the ability to combine quality control with analysis within a unique graphical environment. Because such demands are frequent within the earth sciences, means of nurturing the development of similar software should be found.

  2. Paleomagnetic results from the upper silurian of the Shan-Thai-Malay Block, southwest Yunnan, China (United States)

    Chen, Haihong; Zhong, Dalai; Heller, Friedrich; Dobson, Jon P.

    77 paleomagnetic samples from the Upper Silurian reddish limestone and marlstone of the Shan-Thai-Malay block near Baoshan ( 99.1°E, 24.8°N ), western Yunnan, China, reveal a pre-folding remnant magnetization, with a mean direction of D=49.6°, I= -3.2°, k=9.7, a95=5.5°, corresponding a paleopole at 207.0°E, 36.8°N. These results, unlike the upper Paleozoic data with steeper inclinations published earlier, suggest that the block was located at equatorial latitude during late Silurian time, probably adjacent to the northern margin of Gondwanaland.

  3. Cenozoic to Cretaceous paleomagnetic dataset from Egypt: New data, review and global analysis (United States)

    Perrin, Mireille; Saleh, Ahmed


    Different phases of igneous activity took place in Egypt during the Mesozoic and the Cenozoic and oriented samples were collected from three Cenozoic localities (Baharya oasis in the Western Desert, Abu Had in the Eastern Desert and Quseir along the Red Sea coast), and four Cretaceous localities (Toshki & Abu Simbel south of Aswan, and Shalaten & Abu Shihat along the Red Sea coast). Rock magnetic properties of the samples indicate magnetite and titanomagnetite as the main carrier of the remanent magnetization. Following stepwise demagnetization, characteristic remanent directions were identified only for 62% of the samples, a fairly low rate for that type of samples, and 8 new paleomagnetic poles were calculated. All our Cenozoic poles fall clearly off Master Polar Wander Paths proposed for South Africa. Therefore, all paleomagnetic results, previously published for Egypt, were compiled from Cretaceous to Quaternary. The published poles largely overlap, blurring the Egyptian Apparent Polar Wander Path. A new analysis at the site level was then carried out. Only poles having a kappa larger than 50 were selected, and new pole positions were calculated by area and by epoch, when at least 3 sites were available. Even though the selection drastically reduced the number of considered poles, it allows definition of a reliable Cenozoic apparent polar wander trend for Egypt that differs from the South African Master Polar Wander Path by about 10-15 °. If the Cretaceous igneous poles are in good agreement with the rest of the African data, the sedimentary poles plot close to the Cenozoic portion of the South African Master Polar Wander Path, a discrepancy that could be related either to inclination flattening and/or error on age and/or remagnetization in the Cenozoic.

  4. A paleomagnetic record in loess-paleosol sequences since late Pleistocene in the arid Central Asia (United States)

    Li, Guanhua; Xia, Dunsheng; Appel, Erwin; Wang, Youjun; Jia, Jia; Yang, Xiaoqiang


    Geomagnetic excursions during Brunhes epoch have been brought to the forefront topic in paleomagnetic study, as they provide key information about Earth's interior dynamics and could serve as another tool for stratigraphic correlation among different lithology. Loess-paleosol sequences provide good archives for decoding geomagnetic excursions. However, the detailed pattern of these excursions was not sufficiently clarified due to pedogenic influence. In this study, paleomagnetic analysis was performed in loess-paleosol sequences on the northern piedmont of the Tianshan Mountains (northwestern China). By radiocarbon and luminance dating, the loess section was chronologically constrained to mainly the last c.130 ka, a period when several distinct geomagnetic excursions were involved. The rock magnetic properties in this loess section are dominated by magnetite and maghemite in a pseudo-single-domain state. The rock magnetic properties and magnetic anisotropy indicate weakly pedogenic influence for magnetic record. The stable component of remanent magnetization derived from thermal demagnetization revealed the presence of two intervals of directional anomalies with corresponding intensity lows in the Brunhes epoch. The age control in the key layers indicates these anomalies are likely associated with the Laschamp and Blake excursions, respectively. In addition, relative paleointensity in the loess section is basically compatible with other regional and global relative paleointensity records and indicates two low-paleointensity zones, possibly corresponding to the Blake and Laschamp excursions, respectively. As a result, this study suggests that the loess section may have the potential to record short-lived excursions, which largely reflect the variation of dipole components in the global archives.

  5. Paleomagnetic and structural evidence for oblique slip in a fault-related fold, Grayback monocline, Colorado (United States)

    Tetreault, J.; Jones, C.H.; Erslev, E.; Larson, S.; Hudson, M.; Holdaway, S.


    Significant fold-axis-parallel slip is accommodated in the folded strata of the Grayback monocline, northeastern Front Range, Colorado, without visible large strike-slip displacement on the fold surface. In many cases, oblique-slip deformation is partitioned; fold-axis-normal slip is accommodated within folds, and fold-axis-parallel slip is resolved onto adjacent strike-slip faults. Unlike partitioning strike-parallel slip onto adjacent strike-slip faults, fold-axis-parallel slip has deformed the forelimb of the Grayback monocline. Mean compressive paleostress orientations in the forelimb are deflected 15??-37?? clockwise from the regional paleostress orientation of the northeastern Front Range. Paleomagnetic directions from the Permian Ingleside Formation in the forelimb are rotated 16??-42?? clockwise about a bedding-normal axis relative to the North American Permian reference direction. The paleostress and paleomagnetic rotations increase with the bedding dip angle and decrease along strike toward the fold tip. These measurements allow for 50-120 m of fold-axis-parallel slip within the forelimb, depending on the kinematics of strike-slip shear. This resolved horizontal slip is nearly equal in magnitude to the ???180 m vertical throw across the fold. For 200 m of oblique-slip displacement (120 m of strike slip and 180 m of reverse slip), the true shortening direction across the fold is N90??E, indistinguishable from the regionally inferred direction of N90??E and quite different from the S53??E fold-normal direction. Recognition of this deformational style means that significant amounts of strike slip can be accommodated within folds without axis-parallel surficial faulting. ?? 2008 Geological Society of America.

  6. Paleomagnetic evidence for the persistence or recurrence of the South Atlantic geomagnetic Anomaly (United States)

    Shah, Jay; Koppers, Anthony A. P.; Leitner, Marko; Leonhardt, Roman; Muxworthy, Adrian R.; Heunemann, Christoph; Bachtadse, Valerian; Ashley, Jack A. D.; Matzka, Jürgen


    The South Atlantic geomagnetic Anomaly (SAA) is known as a region of the geomagnetic field that is approximately 25 μT in intensity, compared to an expected value of ˜43 μT. Geomagnetic field models do not find evidence for the SAA being a persistent feature of the geomagnetic field, however these models are constructed from paleomagnetic data that is sparse in the southern hemisphere. We present a full-vector paleomagnetic study of 40Ar/39Ar dated Late Pleistocene lavas from Tristan da Cunha in the South Atlantic Ocean (Shah et al., 2016; EPSL). Paleointensity estimations using the Thellier method of eight lava flows yield an average paleointensity of the Tristan da Cunha lavas as 18 ± 6 μT and an average virtual axial dipole moment (VADM) of 3.1 ± 1.2 × 1022 Am2. Comparing the VADM of the lava flows against the PADM2M, PINT and SINT-800 databases indicates that the lava flows represent four distinct periods of anomalously weak intensity in the South Atlantic between 43 and 90 ka ago, constrained by newly obtained 40Ar/39Ar ages. This anomalously weak intensity in the Late Pleistocene is similar to the present-day SAA and SAA-like anomalous behavior found in the recent archeomagnetic study by Tarduno et al. (2015; Nat. Commun.). Our dataset provides evidence for the persistence or recurrence of geomagnetic main field anomalies in the South Atlantic, and potentially indicates such anomalies are the geomagnetic field manifestation of the long-existing core-mantle boundary heterogeneity seismically identified as the African Large Low Velocity Shear Province (LLSVP).

  7. Paleomagnetism Onboard the IODP Research Vessel JOIDES Resolution: Recent Advances, Best Practices, and Pitfalls (United States)

    Acton, G. D.; Morris, A.; Musgrave, R. J.; Zhao, X., , prof; Clement, B. M.; Evans, H. F.; Hastedt, M.; Houpt, D.; Mills, B.; Novak, B.; Petronotis, K. E.


    One of the largest openly available paleomagnetism databases is derived from paleomagnetic data acquired continuously along drill cores collected by the International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) and its predecessors. The bulk of data are magnetic remanences measured using superconducting rock magnetometers (SRMs) with automated track systems and in-line alternating field (AF) demagnetization units produced by 2G Enterprises. Our goal in this study is to (1) report on the new SRM that was installed onboard the JOIDES Resolution in December 2016 prior to the start of IODP Expedition 366, (2) consider best practices that may aid shipboard scientists in collecting high quality data, and (3) discuss common pitfalls associated with using an SRM in the shipboard environment to measure a diverse range of lithologies collected in metal core barrels that pass through a relatively strongly magnetized drill string. From a series of tests conducted on the new SRM during a June 11-13, 2017 port call, our main conclusion was that the new magnetometer is functioning as designed. While overall its capabilities are comparable to the previous magnetometer, the new SRM does have several significant advances, including better flux counting, which allows more strongly magnetized rocks to be measured accurately. It also performs AF demagnetizations at high fields (up to 80 mT) without imparting spurious anhysteretic magnetizations, which was a common problem in the old SRM. A worrisome observation, and one that has been made in many shore-based labs, is that devices that emit radio-frequency electromagnetic waves, like actively transmitting cell phones, interfere significantly with SRM measurements. This pitfall will likely have to be addressed on all forthcoming cruises unless better electromagnetic shielding for the SQUID sensors can be found.

  8. Paleomagnetic evidence for counterclockwise rotation of the Dofan magmatic segment, Main Ethiopian Rift (United States)

    Nugsse, Kahsay; Muluneh, Ameha A.; Kidane, Tesfaye


    Twenty-six paleomagnetic sites in basalt and trachyte flows and ignimbrite deposits sampled in the Dofan magmatic segment, Main Ethiopian Rift (MER). From each site, 6 to 8 core samples were collected. The samples were then cut into 200 standard specimens and their Natural Remanent Magnetization (NRM) directions were measured using a JR6A spinner magnetometer. Most specimens were subjected to stepwise alternating field (AF) and at least one specimen per site to thermal (TH) demagnetization. The directional analysis of these individual specimens revealed either one or two components of NRM. Where two components are present, the first is isolated below a temperature of 300 °C or AF field below 20 mT; the second is isolated above those steps and mostly defined straight lines directed towards the origin and are interpreted as the Characteristic Remanent Magnetization (ChRM) acquired during cooling. Rock magnetic experiments on representative specimens indicate that the dominant magnetic minerals are titanium poor titanomagnetite and in few cases titanohematites. The overall mean directions calculated for the 23 sites of Dofan is Dec = 354.1°, Inc. = +11.6° (N = 23, K = 35.1, α95 = 5.2°). When these values are compared with the 1.5 Ma expected mean geomagnetic dipole reference field directions Dec = 1.0°, Inc. = +16.4° (N = 32, K = 105.6, α95 = 2.3°), obtained from African Apparent Polar Wander Path Curve; a difference in declination ΔD = -6.9° ± 4.7° and inclination ΔI = +4.8° ± 5.5° are determined. The declination difference is interpreted as a very slight counterclockwise rotation about vertical axis of the Dofan magmatic segment and the result is consistent with previous paleomagnetic reports and analogue modeling in Fentale magmatic segment.

  9. Microstructural and paleomagnetic insight into the cooling history of the IAB parent body (United States)

    Nichols, Claire I. O.; Krakow, Robert; Herrero-Albillos, Julia; Kronast, Florian; Northwood-Smith, Geraint; Harrison, Richard J.


    The IABs represent one of only two groups of iron meteorites that did not form by fractional crystallization of liquid Fe-Ni in the core of a differentiated planetesimal. Instead, they are believed to originate from a partially differentiated body that was severely disrupted by one or more impacts during its early history. We present a detailed microstructural and paleomagnetic study of the Odessa and Toluca IAB meteorites, with a view to further constraining the complex history of the IAB parent body. X-ray photoemission electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy were used to generate high-resolution Ni/Fe maps. The crystallographic architecture of Odessa was analysed using electron backscatter diffraction. Paleomagnetic signals and the magnetic properties of several microstructures were also assessed using X-ray magnetic circular dichroism. Odessa exhibits a complex series of microstructures, requiring an unusual evolution during slow cooling. A conventional Widmanstätten microstructure, consisting of multiple generations of kamacite lamellae surrounded by M-shaped diffusion profiles, developed via continuous precipitation to temperatures below ∼400 °C. Multiple generations of pearlitic plessite nucleated from kamacite/taenite (T > 400 °C) and tetrataenite rim/taenite interfaces (T theories, these rafts cannot have formed by coarsening of pre-existing pearlitic plessite. A new bowing mechanism is proposed, whereby rafts of Ni-enriched taenite form between advancing lobes of an irregular reaction front during discontinuous precipitation. Subsequent coarsening leads to the growth of the taenite rafts, and the partial or complete removal of pearlite lamellae, resulting in spheroidised plessite with a crystallographic architecture matching the experimental observations. We find no evidence for a strong magnetic field on the IAB parent body, suggesting it did not have an active core dynamo at the time of cloudy zone formation. This supports the

  10. Analysis of late Jurassic-recent paleomagnetic data from active plate margins of South America (United States)

    Beck, Myrl E.

    Paleomagnetic results for rocks of late Mesozoic and Cenozoic age from South America are analyzed and interpreted. Emphasis is placed on the active margins of the continent. Some important conclusions are reached, with varying degrees of certainty: (1) The reference APW path for stable South America is fairly well defined for the Late Jurassic and Cretaceous, and is not much different from the present rotation axis. (2) The so-called "Bolivian orocline" involved counterclockwise rotations in Peru and northernmost Chile and clockwise rotations in Chile south of about latitude 18.5S. These rotations probably are a result of in situ small-block rotations in response to shear, not actual oroclinal bending. (3) The Bonaire block of northern Venezuela and Colombia has been rotated clockwise relative to the stable interior of South America by about 90°. It also seems to have drifted northward relative to the craton by as much as 1600 km. It probably represents a true accreted terrane, one of very few recognized in South America so far. (4) The "Magellanes orocline" at the southern tip of South America apparently involves some counterclockwise rotation of paleomagnetic vectors, but this too is probably the result of distributed shear. (5) Tectonic processes have very thoroughly "rearranged" the rocks making up the active margins of South America. "Rearrange" here denotes displacement of crustal blocks relative to their surroundings, without significant internal deformation By analogy with North America "rearrangement" might entail in situ block rotation, translation of crustal blocks along the continental margin, and accretion of exotic "tectonostratigraphic terranes". However, in western South America "rearrangement" seems to have consisted dominantly of block rotations that were essentially in situ. For the parts of the Andes investigated so far, late Mesozoic and Cenozoic accretion of exotic terranes and large-scale translation of crustal slivers, as found in western

  11. Paleomagnetism of Early Paleozoic Rocks from the de Long Archipelago and Tectonics of the New Siberian Islands Terrane (United States)

    Metelkin, D. V.; Chernova, A. I.; Matushkin, N. Y.; Vernikovskiy, V. A.


    The De Long archipelago is located to the north of the Anjou archipelago as a part of a large group between the Laptev Sea and the East Siberian Sea - the New Siberian Islands and consists of Jeannette Island, Bennett Island and Henrietta Island. These islands have been shown to be part of a single continental terrane, whose tectonic history was independent of other continental masses at least since the Ordovician. Paleomagnetic and precise geological data for the De Long archipelago were absent until recently. Only in 2013 special international field trips to the De Long Islands could be organized and geological, isotope-geochronological and paleomagnetic studies were carried out.On Jeannette Island a volcanic-sedimentary sequence intruded by mafic dikes was described. The age of these dikes is more likely Early Ordovician, close to 480 Ma, as evidenced by the results of our 40Ar/39Ar and paleomagnetic investigations of the dolerites as well as the result from detrital zircons in the host rocks published before. On Bennett Island, there are widespread Cambrian-Ordovician mainly terrigenous rocks. Paleomagnetic results from these rocks characterize the paleogeographic position of the De Long archipelago at 465 Ma and perhaps at 530 Ma, although there is no evidence for the primary origin of magnetization for the latter. On Henrietta Island the Early Cambrian volcanic-sedimentary section was investigated. A paleomagnetic pole for 520 Ma was obtained and confirmed by new 40Ar/39Ar results. Adding to our previous paleomagnetic data for the Anjou archipelago the extended variant of the apparent polar wander path for the New Siberian Island terrane was created. The established paleolatitudes define its location in the equatorial and subtropical zone no higher than 40 degrees during the Early Paleozoic. Because there are no good confirmations for true polarity and related geographic hemisphere we present two possibilities for tectonic reconstruction. But both these

  12. Paleomagnetic reconstruction of the global geomagnetic field evolution during the Matuyama/Brunhes transition: Iterative Bayesian inversion and independent verification (United States)

    Leonhardt, Roman; Fabian, Karl


    The Earth's magnetic field changed its polarity from the last reversed into today's normal state approximately 780 000 years ago. While before and after this so called Matuyama/Brunhes reversal, the Earth magnetic field was essentially an axial dipole, the details of its transitional structure are still largely unknown. Here, a Bayesian inversion method is developed to reconstruct the spherical harmonic expansion of this transitional field from paleomagnetic data. This is achieved by minimizing the total variational power at the core-mantle boundary during the transition under paleomagnetic constraints. The validity of the inversion technique is proved in two ways. First by inverting synthetic data sets from a modeled reversal. Here it is possible to reliably reconstruct the Gauss coefficients even from noisy records. Second by iteratively combining four geographically distributed high quality paleomagnetic records of the Matuyama/Brunhes reversal into a single geometric reversal scenario without assuming an a priori common age model. The obtained spatio-temporal reversal scenario successfully predicts most independent Matuyama/Brunhes transitional records. Therefore, the obtained global reconstruction based on paleomagnetic data invites to compare the inferred transitional field structure with results from numerical geodynamo models regarding the morphology of the transitional field. It is found that radial magnetic flux patches form at the equator and move polewards during the transition. Our model indicates an increase of non-dipolar energy prior to the last reversal and a non-dipolar dominance during the transition. Thus, the character and information of surface geomagnetic field records is strongly site dependent. The reconstruction also offers new answers to the question of existence of preferred longitudinal bands during the transition and to the problem of reversal duration. Different types of directional variations of the surface geomagnetic field

  13. High-resolution chronology of sediment below CCD based on Holocene paleomagnetic secular variations in the Tohoku-oki earthquake rupture zone (United States)

    Kanamatsu, Toshiya; Usami, Kazuko; McHugh, Cecilia M. G.; Ikehara, Ken


    Using high-resolution paleomagnetic data, we examined the potential for obtaining precise ages from sediment core samples recovered from deep-sea basins close to rupture zones of the 2011 and earlier earthquakes off Tohoku, Japan. Obtaining detailed stratigraphic ages from deep-sea sediments below the calcium compensation depth (CCD) is difficult, but we found that the samples contain excellent paleomagnetic secular variation records to constrain age models. Variations in paleomagnetic directions obtained from the sediments reveal systematic changes in the cores. A stacked paleomagnetic profile closely matches the Lake Biwa data sets in southwest Japan for the past 7000 years, one can establish age models based on secular variations of the geomagnetic field on sediments recovered uniquely below the CCD. Comparison of paleomagnetic directions near a tephra and a paleomagnetic direction of contemporaneous pyroclastic flow deposits acquired by different magnetization processes shows precise depositional ages reflecting the magnetization delay of the marine sediment record.Plain Language SummaryGenerally obtaining detailed ages from deep-sea sediments is difficult, because available dating method is very limited. We found that the deep-see sediment off North Japan recorded past sequential geomagnetic directions. If those records correlate well with the reference record in past 7000 years, then we could estimate age of sediment by pattern matching. Additionally a volcanic ash emitted in 915 A.D., which was intercalated in our samples, indicates a time lag in our age model. This observation makes our age model more precise.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    К. M. Konstantinov


    Full Text Available Introduction. One of the main tasks of paleomagnetic studies is to obtain a framework of reference poles for calculating the kinematic characteristics of lithospheric taxones as a basis for geodynamic reconstructions. Each paleomagnetic reference point must have a precise (±10 Ma geochronological dating and a maximum paleomagnetic reliability index. A correct paleomagnetic pole (PMP can be obtained from the data of geochronological and paleomagnetic studies conducted in one and the same geological object, such as a suite, an intrusive complex etc. In the Yakutian diamondiferous province (YDP, such objects include basalt nappes of the Upper Devonian Appainskaya suite, which stratigraphic position is undoubted (Fran, 385–375 Ma.Geological setting (in brief. In the eastern segments of the Siberian platform, a powerful cycle of tectonic and magmatic activity in the Middle Paleozoic produced transgressive and sheet intrusions, volcanic pipes, lava and tuff formations comprised of basites, as well as all the currently known industrial diamondiferous kimberlite bodies. Magmatic activity of basites was associated with formation of paleorift systems, including the largest one, Viluyi paleorift (Fig. 1. In the Middle Paleozoic, the geodynamic setting for magmatism and rifting was determined by the plume-lithosphere interaction. The rise of the plume’s matter underneath the thinned lithosphere was accompanied by decompression melting and formation of basaltic magmas in large volumes.We have studied basalts of the Appainskaya suite which were sampled from the Ygyatta and Markha river valleys (Fig. 2. In the coastal outcrops at the Ygyatta river, two nappes are observed, a (stratigraphically lower outcrop 17÷23/10 containing plagiophyre palagonite basalts (upper five meters are outcropped, and an upper outcrop 16/10 containing olivinophyric palagonite basalts (upper three meters are outcropped. In the coastal outcrops of the Markha river, from the

  15. On the age of the hominid fossils at the Sima de los Huesos, Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain: paleomagnetic evidence. (United States)

    Parés, J M; Pérez-González, A; Weil, A B; Arsuaga, J L


    We report new paleomagnetic data for the Middle Pleistocene hominid-bearing strata in the Sima de los Huesos, North Spain. Sediments (brown muds with human and bear fossils and the underlying sterile clayey and sandy unit) preserve both normal and reversed magnetic components. The sterile unit has exclusively reversed magnetization, dating back to the Matuyama Chron, and thus is Lower Pleistocene in age. The overlying fossiliferous muds have a dominant normal magnetization that overprints a partially resolved reversed magnetization. These data are compatible with one of the reversal events that occurred during the Brunhes Chron. Combined with the existing U-series dates and evidence from the macro- and microfauna, these paleomagnetic results suggest an age of the hominid fossils between 325 to 205 ka, whereas the underlying sand and silts are older than 780 ka. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Geological setting and paleomagnetism of the Eocene red beds of Laguna Brava Formation (Quebrada Santo Domingo, northwestern Argentina) (United States)

    Vizán, H.; Geuna, S.; Melchor, R.; Bellosi, E. S.; Lagorio, S. L.; Vásquez, C.; Japas, M. S.; Ré, G.; Do Campo, M.


    The red bed succession cropping out in the Quebrada Santo Domingo in northwestern Argentina had been for long considered as Upper Triassic-Lower Jurassic in age based on weak radiometric and paleontological evidence. Preliminary paleomagnetic data confirmed the age and opened questions about the nature of fossil footprints with avian features discovered in the section. Recently the stratigraphic scheme was reviewed with the identification of previously unrecognized discontinuities, and a radiometric dating obtained in a tuff, indicated an Eocene age for the Laguna Brava Formation and the fossil bird footprints, much younger than the previously assigned. We present a detailed paleomagnetic study interpreted within a regional tectonic and stratigraphic framework, looking for an explanation for the misinterpretation of the preliminary paleomagnetic data. The characteristic remanent magnetizations pass a tilt test and a reversal test. The main magnetic carrier is interpreted to be low Ti titanomagnetites and to a lesser extent hematite. The characteristic remanent magnetization would be essentially detrital. The obtained paleomagnetic pole (PP) for the Laguna Brava Formation has the following geographic coordinates and statistical parameters: N = 29, Lon. = 184.5° E, Lat. = 75.0° S, A95 = 5.6° and K = 23.7. When this PP is compared with another one with similar age obtained in an undeformed area, a declination anomaly is recognized. This anomaly can be interpreted as Laguna Brava Formation belonging to a structural block that rotated about 16° clockwise along a vertical axis after about 34 Ma. This block rotation is consistent with the regional tectonic framework, and would have caused the fortuitous coincidence of the PP with Early Jurassic poles. According to the interpreted magnetostratigraphic correlation, the Laguna Brava Formation would have been deposited during the Late Eocene with a mean sedimentation rate of about 1.4 cm per thousand years, probably in

  17. 40Ar/ 39Ar and paleomagnetic results from Liberia and the Precambrian APW data base for the West African Shield (United States)

    Onstott, T. C.; Dorbor, J.

    Lower amphibolite to granulite facies metamorphic rocks in Nimba County, Liberia have yielded 2.2-2.9 Ga RbSr whole rock ages, indicating that they are part of the Archean Liberian age province. We report a 2040 Ma 4040Ar/ 39Ar plateau date on hornblende from an amphibolite in this region, and suggest that these rocks were also severelyreworked during the Eburnean (˜2.0 Ga) metamorphic episode. 40Ar/ 39Ar analyses of biotite and feldspars from neighboring schists also indicate the presence of two mild thermal events, at 1.5 Ga and 0.6 Ga. Paleomagnetic analyses of samples from these same metamorphic rocks reveal three components of magnetization. The predominant and most stable component (273°E, 21°N) is considered to have been acquired as a result of pos Eburnean uplift and cooling at ˜ 2.0 Ga, whereas the two less stable components with poles at 235°E, 43°N and 16°E, 36°N, probably correlate with the 1.5 Ga and 0.6 Ga thermal pulses, respectively. Rock units from southern Liberia also yield two secondary magnetizations, one at 247°E, 37°N and the other at 104°E, 5°N, and a 1.5 Ga 40Ar/ 39Ar date on plagioclase. Comparison of the paleomagnetic poles corresponding to the ˜2.0 Ga Eburnean component with published paleomagnetic data for West Africa is not consistent with prior interpretations of the polar wander path for West Africa. Our paleomagnetic data, when compared to poles of comparable age from the Kalahari Shield, still suggest that some form of displacement has occurred between the Kalahari and West African Shields since 2.0 Ga.

  18. Paleogeographic Evolution of the Late Neoproterozoic and Early Phanerozoic with New Paleomagnetic Constraints from West African Craton (United States)

    Robert, B.; Besse, J.; Blein, O.; Greff-Lefftz, M.; Baudin, T.; Fernando, L.; Meslouh, S.; Belbadaoui, M.


    The paleogeographic evolution of the late Neoproterozoic and early Phanerozoic is dominated by the dispersion of Rodinia and the assembly of Gondwana. The timing of these two episodes is still highly debated, partly due to the low number of good quality paleomagnetic data. In order to better constrain the paleogeography for this epoch, we bring new paleomagnetic data on volcanic series from the West African Craton (WAC), which is a key block to understand the evolution of these two supercontinents. We have sampled well dated pyroclastic and lava flows from the groups of Ouarzazate (upper Ediacaran) and Taroudant (lower Cambrian) in the Anti-Atlas (Morocco). 500 samples from 105 sites were thermally demagnetized in laboratory. Our results highlight two major groups of directions, mainly carried by minerals of the titano-hematite family. Magnetite may also contribute sometimes to the magnetization. The first group displays a single polarity direction, with a shallow inclination and a south-east declination. This direction close to the expected direction derived from the Permo-Carboniferous segment of the Gondwana apparent polar wander path (APWP) is due to a remagnetization acquired during the Kiaman reversed polarity superchron (320-262Ma). The second group, observed in the Ouarzazate and Taroudant groups, consists of a dual polarity high inclination direction and may represent the characteristic magnetization. On the basis of geologic and paleomagnetic data from literature, we constructed an APWP for both WAC and Amazonia between 615 and 530Ma, assuming these two blocks were already accreted. We found a paleomagnetic solution in which Laurentia and WAC-Amazonia remained attached from ~615Ma up to the late Ediacaran, Laurentia remaining at low latitude during this period. Around ~550Ma, WAC-Amazonia separated from Laurentia and finally collided with the other Gondwanan blocks during the lower Cambrian, marking the final accretion of Gondwana.

  19. Paleomagnetism of a well-dated marine succession in South China: A possible Late Cambrian true polar wander (TPW) (United States)

    Jiao, Wen-Jun; Li, Yong-Xiang; Yang, Zhen-Yu


    The Cambrian true polar wander (TPW) hypothesis remains controversial largely because of the uncertainties in the quality and/or fidelity of the paleomagnetic data as well as their chronological control. Testing the TPW hypothesis requires high-quality paleomagnetic data of sufficient spatial and temporal resolutions. Here, we present paleomagnetic results of a continuous Cambrian shallow marine succession from South China where available detailed biostratigraphy provides exceptional chronological constraints. Forty-three sites of paleomagnetic samples were collected from this limestone-dominated succession. Stepwise thermal demagnetization generally reveals three-component magnetizations. Low- and intermediate-temperature components can be cleaned by ∼330 °C, and the high-temperature component (HTC) was isolated typically from ∼350 to ∼450 °C. A positive fold test and the presence of reversed polarity in the strata, together with rock magnetic data as well as the scanning electron microscopic (SEM) and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) results, collectively suggest that the HTCs are likely primary. A directional shift of the HTCs occurs between the lower-middle Cambrian and the upper Cambrian strata in the succession and is tentatively interpreted to indicate a ∼57° polar wander from ∼500.5 to 494 Ma. Because the rate of polar wander is too fast to be a tectonic origin, this polar wander is interpreted to represent a Late Cambrian TPW. This TPW appears coeval with the Steptoean positive carbon isotope excursion (SPICE) and the major trilobite mass extinctions, suggesting a potential link between the TPW and the Late Cambrian biotic and climatic changes. Because the proposed TPW event is exceptionally well-dated, it should be testable through examination of other worldwide sections.

  20. Episodic Holocene eruption of the Salton Buttes rhyolites, California, from paleomagnetic, U-Th, and Ar/Ar dating (United States)

    Wright, Heather M.; Vazquez, Jorge A.; Champion, Duane E.; Calvert, Andrew T.; Mangan, Margaret T.; Stelten, Mark E.; Cooper, Kari M.; Herzig, Charles; Schriener Jr., Alexander


    In the Salton Trough, CA, five rhyolite domes form the Salton Buttes: Mullet Island, Obsidian Butte, Rock Hill, North and South Red Hill, from oldest to youngest. Results presented here include 40Ar/39Ar anorthoclase ages, 238U-230Th zircon crystallization ages, and comparison of remanent paleomagnetic directions with the secular variation curve, which indicate that all domes are Holocene. 238U-230Th zircon crystallization ages are more precise than but within uncertainty of 40Ar/39Ar anorthoclase ages, suggesting that zircon crystallization proceeded until shortly before eruption in all cases except one. Remanent paleomagnetic directions require three eruption periods: (1) Mullet Island, (2) Obsidian Butte, and (3) Rock Hill, North Red Hill, and South Red Hill. Borehole cuttings logs document up to two shallow tephra layers. North and South Red Hills likely erupted within 100 years of each other, with a combined 238U-230Th zircon isochron age of: 2.83 ± 0.60 ka (2 sigma); paleomagnetic evidence suggests this age predates eruption by hundreds of years (1800 cal BP). Rock Hill erupted closely in time to these eruptions. The Obsidian Butte 238U-230Th isochron age (2.86 ± 0.96 ka) is nearly identical to the combined Red Hill age, but its Virtual Geomagnetic Pole position suggests a slightly older age. The age of aphyric Mullet Island dome is the least well constrained: zircon crystals are resorbed and the paleomagnetic direction is most distinct; possible Mullet Island ages include ca. 2300, 5900, 6900, and 7700 cal BP. Our results constrain the duration of Salton Buttes volcanism to between ca. 5900 and 500 years.

  1. A new paleogeographic configuration of the Eurasian landmass resolves a paleomagnetic paradox of the Tarim Basin (China)


    Gilder , Stuart ,; Gomez , Julia; Chen , Yan; Cogné , Jean-Pascal


    International audience; New paleomagnetic data from Permian red beds and Middle Jurassic limestones from the Tarim Basin pose a paradox. Their declinations are similar to Upper Carboniferous to Neogene rocks collected from the same sections, and their inclinations parallel present values. When assuming that lower than expected inclinations in continental sedimentary rocks arise from inclination shallowing effects, then the paleolatitudes of all Upper Carboniferous to Present rocks from Tarim ...

  2. Paleomagnetic Results of the 925 Ma Mafic Dykes From the North China Craton: Implications for the Neoproterozoic Paleogeography of Rodinia (United States)

    Zhao, X.; Peng, P.


    Precambrian mafic dyke swarms are useful geologic records for Neoproterozoic paleogeographic reconstruction. We present a paleomagnetic study of the 925 Ma Dashigou dyke swarm from 3 widely separated locations in the central and northern parts of the North China Craton, which are previously unsampled regions. Stepwise thermal and alternating field demagnetizations were successful in isolating two magnetic components. The lower unblocking temperature component represents the recent Earth magnetic field. The higher unblocking temperature component is the characteristic remanent magnetization and yields positive baked contact test. Results from detailed rock magnetic measurements corroborate the demagnetization behavior and show that titanomagnetites are the main magnetic carrier in these rocks. There was no regional event that has reset the remanent magnetization of all the dyke sites, as indicated by the magnetization directions of both overlying and underlying strata. The similarity of the virtual paleomagnetic poles for the 3 sampled regions also argues that the characteristic remanent magnetizations are primary magnetization when the dykes were emplaced. The paleomagnetic poles from the Dashigou dyke swarm of the North China Craton are not similar to those of the identical aged Bahia dykes from the São Francisco Craton, Brazil, indicating that these mafic dykes may be not parts of a common regional magmatic event that affected North China Craton and NE Brazil at about 925 Ma.

  3. Paleomagnetic dating of non-sulfide Zn-Pb ores in SW Sardinia (Italy: a first attempt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Sagnotti


    Full Text Available A first paleomagnetic investigation aimed at constraining the age of the non-sulfide Zn-Pb ore deposits in the Iglesiente district (SW Sardinia, Italy was carried out. In these ores, the oxidation of primary sulfides, hosted in Cambrian carbonate rocks, was related to several paleoweathering episodes spanning from the Mesozoic onward. Paleomagnetic analyses were performed on 43 cores from 4 different localities, containing: a non-oxidized primary sulfides and host rock, b oxidized Fe-rich hydrothermal dolomites and (c supergene oxidation ore («Calamine». Reliable data were obtained from 18 samples; the others show uninterpretable results due to low magnetic intensity or to scattered demagnetization trajectories. Three of them show a scattered Characteristic Remanent Magnetization (ChRM, likely carried by the original (i.e. Paleozoic magnetic iron sulfides. The remaining 15 samples show a well defined and coherent ChRM, carried by high-coercivity minerals, acquired after the last phase of counterclockwise rotation of Sardinia (that is after 16 Myr, in a time interval long enough to span at least one reversal of the geomagnetic field. Hematite is the main magnetic carrier in the limestone, whereas weathered hydrothermal dolomite contains goethite or a mixture of both. The results suggest that paleomagnetism can be used to constrain the timing of oxidation in supergene-enriched ores.

  4. Paleomagnetism of the Santa Fé Group, central Brazil: Implications for the late Paleozoic apparent polar wander path for South America (United States)

    Brandt, Daniele; Ernesto, Marcia; Rocha-Campos, Antonio Carlos; Dos Santos, Paulo Roberto


    Paleomagnetic and rockmagnetic data are reported for the Floresta Formation (Santa Fé Group) of the Sanfranciscana Basin, central Brazil. This formation represents the Permo-Carboniferous glacial record of the basin and comprises the Brocotó (diamictites and flow diamictites), Brejo do Arroz (red sandstones and shales with dropstones and invertebrate trails), and Lavado (red sandstones) members, which crop out near the cities of Santa Fé de Minas and Canabrava, Minas Gerais State. Both Brejo do Arroz and Lavado members were sampled in the vicinities of the two localities. Alternating field and thermal demagnetizations of 268 samples from 76 sites revealed reversed components of magnetization in all samples in accordance with the Permo-Carboniferous Reversed Superchron. The magnetic carriers are magnetite and hematite with both minerals exhibiting the same magnetization component, suggesting a primary origin for the remanence. We use the high-quality paleomagnetic pole for the Santa Fé Group (330.9°E 65.7°S; N = 60; α95 = 4.1°; k = 21) in a revised late Carboniferous to early Triassic apparent polar wander path for South America. On the basis of this result it is shown that an early Permian Pangea A-type fit is possible if better determined paleomagnetic poles become available.

  5. Volcano-tectonic evolution of a linear volcanic ridge (Pico-Faial Ridge, Azores Triple Junction) assessed by paleomagnetic studies (United States)

    Silva, Pedro F.; Henry, Bernard; Marques, Fernando O.; Hildenbrand, Anthony; Lopes, Ana; Madureira, Pedro; Madeira, José; Nunes, João C.; Roxerová, Zuzana


    The morphology of volcanic oceanic islands results from the interplay between constructive and destructive processes, and tectonics. In this study, the analysis of the paleomagnetic directions obtained on well-dated volcanic rocks is used as a tool to assess tilting related to tectonics and large-scale volcano instability along the Pico-Faial linear volcanic ridge (Azores Triple Junction, Central-North Atlantic). For this purpose, 530 specimens from 46 lava flows and one dyke from Pico and Faial islands were submitted to thermal and alternating magnetic fields demagnetizations. Detailed rock magnetic analyses, including thermomagnetic analyses and classical high magnetic field experiments revealed titanomagnetites with different Ti-content as the primary magnetic carrier, capable of recording stable remanent magnetizations. In both islands, the paleomagnetic analysis yields a Characteristic Remanent Magnetization, which presents island mean direction with normal and reversed polarities in agreement with the islands location and the age of the studied lava flows, indicating a primary thermo-remanent magnetization. Field observations and paleomagnetic data show that lava flows were emplaced on pre-existing slopes and were later affected by significant tilting. In Faial Island, magmatic inflation and normal faults making up an island-scale graben, can be responsible for the tilting. In Pico Island, inflation related to magma intrusion during flow emplacement can be at the origin of the inferred tilting, whereas gradual downward movement of the SE flank by slumping processes appears mostly translational.

  6. Deciphering shallow paleomagnetic inclinations: 1. Implications from correlation of Albian volcanic rocks along the Insular/Intermontane Superterrane boundary in the southern Canadian Cordillera (United States)

    Haskin, M. L.; Enkin, R. J.; Mahoney, J. B.; Mustard, P. S.; Baker, J.


    Geologic and paleomagnetic data lead to two contradictory hypotheses regarding the paleoposition of the Insular and Intermontane Superterranes that presently constitute the western Canadian Cordillera. Paleomagnetic data from the Insular and Intermontane superterranes suggest a southerly origin coinciding with the latitude of Mexico and the northwest United States, respectively, during the mid-Cretaceous. Geologic evidence points to a northerly origin for these same tectonic entities during this period; both models cannot be correct. Geologic and paleomagnetic data from the Empire Valley-Churn Creek area in south central British Columbia (51.5°N, 122.5°W) are critical to resolving these contradictory hypotheses. Late Cretaceous rocks correlated to the Insular Superterrane with large paleomagnetic displacements unconformably overlie mid-Cretaceous rocks correlative to the Spences Bridge Group of the Intermontane Superterrane. We provide paleomagnetic evidence of this correlation based on similar magnetic properties, opaque mineral assemblages, demagnetization behavior, fold test results, mean inclinations, clockwise vertical axes rotations, and statistically indistinguishable paleomagnetic poles and displacement estimates. This correlation and the observed geologic relationships in the Empire Valley-Churn Creek area indicate that the Insular and Intermontane Superterranes were linked by the mid-Cretaceous. Sites from the two previous Spences Bridge Group studies are combined with their correlatives in the Empire Valley-Churn Creek area to give 81 sites that yield a paleomagnetic pole of 60.5°N, 304.5°E, dp = 3.7°, dm = 5.5° which corresponds to 1050 ± 450 km of displacement from the south. This new displacement estimate suggests that the Spences Bridge arc formed at the latitude of southern Oregon during the mid-Cretaceous.

  7. Tectonic implications of a paleomagnetic direction obtained from a Miocene dike swarm in central Honshu, Japan (United States)

    Hoshi, H.; Sugisaki, Y.


    Central Honshu of Japan is an ideal field for the study of crustal deformation related to arc-arc collision. In this study we obtained rock magnetic and paleomagnetic results from early Miocene igneous rocks in central Honshu in order to examine rotational deformation caused by the collision of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) arc with central Honshu. In Takane of the Hida region, gabbro intrusions and older sedimentary rocks are intruded by numerous andesitic dikes that comprise a parallel dike swarm. The dikes formed under two different normal-faulting paleostress conditions, which were suggested using a method of clustering dike orientations. Cross-cutting relationships indicate that the two paleostress conditions existed during the same period. More than 240 oriented cores were taken at 38 sites in two localities for magnetic study. The andesites and gabbros generally have magnetite, and some andesites also contain pyrrhotite. The magnetite records easterly deflected remanent magnetization directions of dual polarities that pass the reversals test. Positive baked contact tests at two sites demonstrate that the easterly deflected direction is a thermoremanent magnetization acquired at the time of intrusion. The overall in situ (i.e., in geographic coordinates) mean direction for andesitic dikes is judged to be highly reliable, although there are two possible scenarios for explaining the easterly deflection: (1) clockwise rotation and (2) tilting to the northwest. We prefer the former scenario and conclude that 45° clockwise rotation occurred in Takane with respect to the North China Block of the Asian continent. This rotation must represent the clockwise rotation of entire Southwest Japan during the opening period of the Japan Sea. Very little difference is observed between the amount of the easterly deflection in Takane and those in the Tokai and Hokuriku regions, indicating no significant relative rotation. Thus, the crust beneath Takane has not suffered rotation

  8. Ignimbrites of Armenia - Paleomagnetic constraints on flow direction and stratigraphy of pyroclastic activity of Mount Aragats (United States)

    Kirscher, Uwe; Meliksetian, Khachatur; Gevorgyan, Hripsime; Navasardyan, Gevorg; Bachtadse, Valerian


    The Aragats volcano is one of the largest stratovolcanoes within the Turkish-Armenian-Iranian orogenic plateau. It is located close to the Armenian capital Yerevan, and only 30 km from the only nuclear power plant within the country. Additional to numerous lava flows, Mount Aragats is thought to be the source of at least two large pyroclastic eruptions leading to a huge number of ignimbrite outcrops, which are located surrounding Mount Aragats with an evaluated eruption radius of 50 km. The age of several ignimbrite outcrops has recently been determined to be 0.65 Ma (Meliksetian et al., 2014). The different ignimbrite flows are characterized by huge diversity of colors, degree of welding and textures. Due to that reason some disagreement exist on how these outcrops can be linked and how the eruption process actually happened in terms of different eruption phases and mixing mechanism of magmas during the eruption. To add constraints to this debate we carried out an intensive paleomagnetic investigation on most of the ignimbrite outcrops (32 sites) in terms of directional and anisotropy measurements. Paleomagnetic directional measurements yield basically two polarities: (1) a well grouped normal polarity is present in the majority of the studied sites including 3 sites which have supposedly originated from a different vent located on Turkish territory in the west; (2) a reversed polarity of the remaining sites with a somewhat increased scatter. Based on secular variation arguments and considering the high quality of the data we suggest that at least all young outcrops represent a single eruption phase in the area at 0.65 Ma, which is in agreement with an occurrence during the Brunhes geomagnetic chron. Additional to that, at least one earlier phase of pyroclastic activity took place prior to the Brunhes-Matuyama boundary (0.781 Ma). Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) suggests initial radial flow directions, which shortly after the eruption become

  9. Paleomagnetism of the Oman Ophiolite: New Results from Oman Drilling Project Cores (United States)

    Horst, A. J.; Till, J. L.; Koornneef, L.; Usui, Y.; Kim, H.; Morris, A.


    The Oman Drilling Project drilled holes at four sites in a transect through the southern massifs of the Samail ophiolite, and recovered 1500 m of igneous and metamorphic rocks. We focus on three sites from the oceanic crustal section including lower layered gabbros (GT1A), the mid-crustal layered to foliated gabbro transition (GT2A), and the shallower transition from sheeted dikes to varitextured gabbros (GT3A). Detailed core descriptions, analyses, and paleomagnetic measurements, were made on D/V Chikyu from July to September 2017 to utilize the core laboratory facilities similar to IODP expeditions. Shipboard measurements included anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) and alternating field and thermal demagnetization of 597 discrete samples. Sample demagnetization behavior is varied from each of the cores, with some revealing multiple components of magnetization, and others yielding nearly univectorial data. The interpretation of results from the lower crustal cores is complicated by the pervasive presence of secondary magnetite. In almost all samples, a stable component was resolved (interpreted as a characteristic remanent magnetization) after removal of a lower-coercivity or lower unblocking-temperature component. The inclinations of the stable components in the core reference frame are very consistent in Hole GT1A. However, a transition from negative to positive inclinations in GT2A suggests some structural complexity, possibly as a result of intense late faulting activity. Both abrupt and gradual transitions between multiple zones of negative and positive inclinations occur in Hole GT3A. Interpretation and direct comparison of remanence between drill sites is difficult as recovered core pieces currently remain azimuthally unoriented, and GT2A was drilled at a plunge of 60°, whereas GT1A and GT3A were both drilled vertically. Work is ongoing to use borehole imagery to reorient the core pieces and paleomagnetic data into a geographic in situ reference

  10. Paleomagnetic constrains in the reconstruction of the recent stratigraphic evolution of the Po delta (United States)

    Correggiari, Annamaria; Vigliotti, Luigi; Remia, Alessandro; Perini, Luisa; Calabrese, Lorenzo; Luciani, Paolo


    The delta and prodelta deposits are characterized by a complex stratigraphic architecture that can be approached with several multidisciplinary tools. We present an example from the Po delta system characterized by alternating phases of rapid advance and abandonment of its multiple deltaic lobes that has been investigated through: (1) a review of historical cartography extending back several centuries; (2) integrated surveys of VHR seismic profiles recorded offshore of the modern delta from water depths as shallow as 5 m to the toe of the prodelta in about 30 m; and (3) sedimentological and geochronological data from precisely positioned sediment cores. Within this well known stratigraphic framework we have acquired seismic data and sediment cores in the area of the post roman Po delta system. However a precise dating of the recent evolution of depositional delta lobes is difficult because of the lack of suitable dating methods. To constrain the emplacement timing of the Renaissance lobes a paleomagnetic studies was carried out on a sedimentary sequence representing a seismic facies well correlated in the cores by whole core magnetic susceptibility profile. Forty eight samples were collected from a core section (RER96-1) characterized by a fine grained lithology suitable for paleomagnetic investigations. The characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM) of the sediments has been obtained by applying an AF cleaning between 10 and 30 millitesla. The results have been compared with the directions recorded by the historical lavas of the Etna and Vesuvius. The combination of the trends observed in the declination and inclination suggests that the results can be compatible with the directions of the secular variation of the earth magnetic field occurring during the XVII century. This allow to date the sismic unit as representative of the beginning of the new delta following the Porto Viro avulsion made by the Venice Republic in 1604 AD. This delta history reflects the

  11. Time-averaged paleomagnetic field at the equator: Complete data and results from the Galapagos Islands, Ecuador (United States)

    Gromme, Sherman; Mankinen, Edward A.; Prévot, Michel


    We present here the complete paleomagnetic laboratory results from a collection of approximately 1500 oriented cores from all 16 of the Galapagos Islands, Ecuador, collected by Allan Cox in 1964–1965 but nearly all previously unpublished. The islands are located in the eastern Pacific Ocean within 1.4° of latitude from the equator and range in age from historically erupted to 3 Ma, mostly determined by published K-Ar and 3He isotopic dating. The number of sites collected on each island ranges from 1 to 28, for a total of 186. After combining duplicate site mean directions, 149 are used for an overall mean direction and 8 represent excursions and one reversal path. Divided by geomagnetic polarity chron, 110 site means are Brunhes or Jaramillo (normal polarity), 27 are Matuyama (reversed polarity), and 12 are Gauss (both polarities). We have completed the magnetic cleaning that was commenced in the late 1960s. Secondary (mostly viscous) magnetizations were nearly all removed by alternating field demagnetization at 10 mT. We have used the so-called blanket cleaning method, generally at 10 mT. All sites were in basalt flows and gave good paleomagnetic results; none was rejected in toto, and only a few core specimens were magnetically unsatisfactory. Nearly all sites had eight independently oriented cores, and within-site angular standard deviations of directions range from 1° to 8°. We used both Fisher and Bingham statistics to analyze the data and found that many of the direction populations are strongly elongate along the paleomagnetic meridian, while the corresponding virtual pole (VGP) populations are essentially circularly distributed. The paleomagnetic poles, calculated as the means of VGPs, are as follows: Brunhes and Jaramillo, north latitude = 86.9°, east longitude = 245.1°, and 95% confidence radius A95 = 1.9°; Matuyama, latitude = 87.2°, longitude = 158.2°, and A95 = 3.8°; Gauss, latitude = 83.0°, longitude = 204.7°, and A95 = 7.0°. These

  12. Inclination Shallowing in the Permian/Triassic Boundary Sedimentary Sections of the East European Platform: the New Paleomagnetic Pole and its Significance for GAD Hypothesis (United States)

    Veselovskiy, R. V.; Fetisova, A. M.; Balabanov, Y.


    One of the key challenges which are traditionally encountered in studying the paleomagnetism of terrigenous sedimentary strata is the necessity to allow for the effect of shallowing of paleomagnetic inclinations which takes place under the compaction of the sediment at the early stages of diagenesis and most clearly manifests itself in the case of midlatitude sedimentation. Traditionally, estimating the coefficient of inclination flattening (f) implies routine re-deposition experiments and studying their magnetic anisotropy (Kodama, 2012), which is not possible in every standard paleomagnetic laboratory. The Elongation-Inclination (E/I) statistical method for estimating the coefficient of inclination shallowing, which was recently suggested in (Tauxe and Kent, 2004), does not require the investigation of the rock material in a specially equipped laboratory but toughens the requirements on the paleomagnetic data and, primarily, regarding the volume of the data, which significantly restricts the possibilities of the post factum estimation and correction for inclination shallowing. We present the results of the paleomagnetic reinvestigation of the some key sections of the Upper Permian and Lower Triassic rocks located on the East European Platform. The obtained paleomagnetic data allowed us to estimate the coefficient of inclination shallowing by the E/I method and calculate a new P-Tr paleomagnetic pole for Europe. The absence of a statistically significant difference between the mean Siberian, European and North American Permian-Triassic paleomagnetic poles allow us to conclude that 252 Ma the configuration of the Earth's magnetic field was predominantly dipole. We believe that the assumption of the non-dipolarity of the geomagnetic field at the Permian-Triassic boundary, which has been repeatedly discussed in recent decades (Van der Voo and Torsvik, 2001; Bazhenov and Shatsillo, 2010; Veselovskiy and Pavlov, 2006), arose due to the failure to take into account the

  13. Monogenetic origin of Ubehebe Crater maar volcano, Death Valley, California: Paleomagnetic and stratigraphic evidence (United States)

    Champion, Duane E.; Cyr, Andy; Fierstein, Judy; Hildreth, Wes


    Paleomagnetic data for samples collected from outcrops of basaltic spatter at the Ubehebe Crater cluster, Death Valley National Park, California, record a single direction of remanent magnetization indicating that these materials were emplaced during a short duration, monogenetic eruption sequence 2100 years ago. This conclusion is supported by geochemical data encompassing a narrow range of oxide variation, by detailed stratigraphic studies of conformable phreatomagmatic tephra deposits showing no evidence of erosion between layers, by draping of sharp rimmed craters by later tephra falls, and by oxidation of later tephra layers by the remaining heat of earlier spatter. This model is also supported through a reinterpretation and recalculation of the published 10Be age results (Sasnett et al., 2012) from an innovative and bold exposure-age study on very young materials. Their conclusion of multiple and protracted eruptions at Ubehebe Crater cluster is here modified through the understanding that some of their quartz-bearing clasts inherited 10Be from previous exposure on the fan surface (too old), and that other clasts were only exposed at the surface by wind and/or water erosion centuries after their eruption (too young). Ubehebe Crater cluster is a well preserved example of young monogenetic maar type volcanism protected within a National Park, and it represents neither a protracted eruption sequence as previously thought, nor a continuing volcanic hazard near its location.

  14. Paleomagnetic investigation of late Quaternary sediments of south San Francisco Bay, California (United States)

    Hillhouse, John W.


    Paleomagnetic inclinations of the Late Quaternary sediments of South San Francisco Bay were determined from bore hole samples collected near Dumbarton Bridge. The sediments consist of estuarine muds and nonmarine sand deposits, floored by bedrock of the Mesozoic Franciscan Formation. - Beneath Dumbarton Bridge the entire sedimentary fill is normally polarized; therefore, the fill postdates the Brunhes-Matayama polarity reversal (700,000 y. B.P.). Magnetic time lines such as the Mono Lake excursion (24,000 y. B.P.) and the reversed Blake event (110,000 y B.P.) were not found in this bore hole. In addition to Holocene and modern deposits of San Francisco Bay, an older estuarine unit occurs in the stratigraphic section. The older unit was deposited during a period of high sea level, tentatively correlated with the Sangamon interglacial period. Because evidence of the Blake event is not present in the older estuarine unit, the proposed age of this unit could not be confirmed. Although the Holocene estuarine deposits of South San Francisco Bay carry stable remanent magnetization, a reliable record of geomagnetic secular variation could not be recovered because the water-saturated sdiment was deformed by drilling.

  15. Unbiased analysis of geomagnetic data sets and comparison of historical data with paleomagnetic and archeomagnetic records (United States)

    Arneitz, Patrick; Egli, Ramon; Leonhardt, Roman


    Reconstructions of the past geomagnetic field provide fundamental constraints for understanding the dynamics of the Earth's interior, as well as serving as basis for magnetostratigraphic and archeomagnetic dating tools. Such reconstructions, when extending over epochs that precede the advent of instrumental measurements, rely exclusively on magnetic records from archeological artifacts, and, further in the past, from rocks and sediments. The most critical component of such indirect records is field intensity because of possible biases introduced by material properties and by laboratory protocols, which do not reproduce exactly the original field recording conditions. Large biases are usually avoided by the use of appropriate checking procedures; however, smaller ones can remain undetected in individual studies and might significantly affect field reconstructions. We introduce a new general approach for analyzing geomagnetic databases in order to investigate the reliability of indirect records. This approach is based on the comparison of historical records with archeomagnetic and volcanic data, considering temporal and spatial mismatches with adequate weighting functions and error estimation. A good overall agreement is found between indirect records and historical measurements, while for several subsets systematic bias is detected (e.g., inclination shallowing of lava records). We also demonstrate that simple approaches to analyzing highly inhomogeneous and internally correlated paleomagnetic data sets can lead to incorrect conclusions about the efficiency of quality checks and corrections. Consistent criteria for selecting and weighting data are presented in this review and can be used to improve current geomagnetic field modeling techniques.

  16. Towards a fully self-consistent inversion combining historical and paleomagnetic data for geomagnetic field reconstructions (United States)

    Arneitz, P.; Leonhardt, R.; Fabian, K.; Egli, R.


    Historical and paleomagnetic data are the two main sources of information about the long-term geomagnetic field evolution. Historical observations extend to the late Middle Ages, and prior to the 19th century, they consisted mainly of pure declination measurements from navigation and orientation logs. Field reconstructions going back further in time rely solely on magnetization acquired by rocks, sediments, and archaeological artefacts. The combined dataset is characterized by a strongly inhomogeneous spatio-temporal distribution and highly variable data reliability and quality. Therefore, an adequate weighting of the data that correctly accounts for data density, type, and realistic error estimates represents the major challenge for an inversion approach. Until now, there has not been a fully self-consistent geomagnetic model that correctly recovers the variation of the geomagnetic dipole together with the higher-order spherical harmonics. Here we present a new geomagnetic field model for the last 4 kyrs based on historical, archeomagnetic and volcanic records. The iterative Bayesian inversion approach targets the implementation of reliable error treatment, which allows different record types to be combined in a fully self-consistent way. Modelling results will be presented along with a thorough analysis of model limitations, validity and sensitivity.

  17. Quantifying Arabia-Eurasia convergence accommodated in the Greater Caucasus by paleomagnetic reconstruction (United States)

    van der Boon, A.; van Hinsbergen, D. J. J.; Rezaeian, M.; Gürer, D.; Honarmand, M.; Pastor-Galán, D.; Krijgsman, W.; Langereis, C. G.


    Since the late Eocene, convergence and subsequent collision between Arabia and Eurasia was accommodated both in the overriding Eurasian plate forming the Greater Caucasus orogen and the Iranian plateau, and by subduction and accretion of the Neotethys and Arabian margin forming the East Anatolian plateau and the Zagros. To quantify how much Arabia-Eurasia convergence was accommodated in the Greater Caucasus region, we here provide new paleomagnetic results from 97 volcanic sites (∼500 samples) in the Talysh Mountains of NW Iran, that show ∼15° net clockwise rotation relative to Eurasia since the Eocene. We apply a first-order kinematic restoration of the northward convex orocline that formed to the south of the Greater Caucasus, integrating our new data with previously published constraints on rotations of the Eastern Pontides and Lesser Caucasus. This suggests that north of the Talysh ∼120 km of convergence must have been accommodated. North of the Eastern Pontides and Lesser Caucasus this is significantly more: 200-280 km. Our reconstruction independently confirms previous Caucasus convergence estimates. Moreover, we show for the first time a sharp contrast of convergence between the Lesser Caucasus and the Talysh. This implies that the ancient Paleozoic-Mesozoic transform plate boundary, preserved between the Iranian and East-Anatolian plateaus, was likely reactivated as a right-lateral transform fault since late Eocene time.

  18. Lower Cambrian-Ediacaran Paleogeography and True Polar Wander with New Paleomagnetic Constraints from West African Craton (United States)

    Robert, B.; Besse, J.; Blein, O.; Greff-Lefftz, M.; Baudin, T.; Fernando, L.; Meslouh, S.; Belbadaoui, M.


    Paleomagnetic data from Laurentia and Baltica continents suggest fast large oscillations of the virtual geomagnetic poles (VGP) from high to low latitudes during the Ediacaran (635-542 Ma). These data are interpreted in the literature either as oscillations of the Earth magnetic dipole between polar and equatorial positions, or as True Polar Wander (TPW), implying a very fast tumbling of continents and perhaps, of whole Earth. In this study, we try to test these hypotheses by bringing new paleomagnetic data on volcanic series from another continent, the West African Craton (WAC). We have sampled well dated pyroclastic and lava flows from the Ouarzazate and Taroudant groups in the Anti-Atlas, (Morocco). 480 samples from 105 sites were thermally demagnetized in our laboratory. Our preliminary results highlight two major groups of directions, mainly carried by hematite, magnetite also contributing sometimes to the magnetization. The first group consists of a dual polarity high inclination direction that may represent the original magnetization. The observed paleolatitude is compatible with that predicted by the lower Cambrian-Ediacaran apparent polar wander path (APWP) of Gondwana, assuming that the WAC was already accreted to Gondwana at this age. Nevertheless, a complete agreement between our pole and the APWP needs a local rotation of around 80° on a vertical axis. The second group displays a single polarity direction, with a shallow inclination and a south-east declination. This direction is close to the expected direction derived from the Permo-Carboniferous segment of the Gondwana APWP, and may represent a remagnetization acquired during the Kiaman reversed polarity superchron. Our preliminary paleomagnetic results thus display large changes in the VGP position, as also evidenced by others on Baltica and Laurentia. However, their interpretation does not favor TPW episodes or equatorial Earth magnetic dipole during the lower Cambrian-Ediacaran periods, but

  19. An integrated paleomagnetic and magnetic anisotropy study of the Oligocene flysch from the Dukla nappe, Outer Western Carpathians, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiss Dániel


    Full Text Available The Dukla Nappe belongs to the Outer Western Carpathians, which suffered considerable shortening due to the convergence and collision of the European and African plates. In this paper we present new paleomagnetic and magnetic anisotropy results from the Polish part of the Dukla Nappe, based on 102 individually oriented cores from nine geographically distributed localities. Susceptibility measurements and mineralogy investigations showed that paramagnetic minerals are important contributors to susceptibility anisotropy (AMS. The AMS fabrics are related to deposition/compression (foliation and weak tectonic deformation (lineation. The AARM fabric, that of the ferrimagnetic minerals, seems to be a less sensitive indicator of tectonic deformation than the AMS fabric. The inclination-only test points to the pre-folding age of the remanent magnetizations. Seven localities exhibit CCW rotation, a single one shows CW rotation. The CCW rotated paleomagnetic directions form two groups, one showing large, the other moderate CCW rotation. Previously published paleomagentic directions from the Slovak part of the same nappe exhibit smeared distribution between them. The declination of the overall-mean paleomagnetic direction for the Dukla nappe is similar to those observed in the neighbouring Magura and Silesian nappes, but it is of poorer quality. The AMS lineations at several localities are deviating more to the west from the present north than that of the local tectonic strikes. A possible explanation for this is that the AMS lineations were imprinted first, probably still in the Oligocene, while the sediments were soft (ductile deformation and the folding and tilting took place during the CCW rotation.

  20. Paleomagnetic constraints on the Cenozoic kinematic evolution of the Pamir plateau from the Western Kunlun Shan foreland (United States)

    Li, Zhenyu; Ding, Lin; Lippert, Peter C.; Wei, Honghong


    Thick Cenozoic marine and terrestrial sediments are widely distributed along the perimeter of the Pamir plateau and provide valuable information on the kinematic evolution of the region. Here, we report new biostratigraphic and paleomagnetic results from the piedmont of the Western Kunlun Shan to constrain the magnitude and timing of vertical-axis rotations along the eastern margin of the Pamir. Sampling sites were selected by rock formations and ages, which are based on previous field mapping and on litholostratigraphic and biostratigraphic work presented here. Thermomagnetic analysis, step-wise thermal demagnetization behavior, and positive field tests all suggest that the characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM) directions most probably have a primary detrital and chemical origin. Our results indicate variable, minor, but in some intervals significant vertical axis rotations with respect to a stable Asian reference frame. This pattern of rotations is similar to paleomagnetic data reported in previously published studies from the Eastern Pamir foreland. In contrast, published paleomagnetic data from the Western Pamir foreland consistently indicate significant CCW rotations within that region. Collectively, these results challenge simple oroclinal bending models for the origin of the Pamir salient, and instead are more consistent with an asymmetric "half-orocline" kinematic model in which the curvature of the Western Pamir is the product of a combination of lithospheric bending of an originally quasi-linear mountain belt and radial thrusting, and the subdued curvature of the eastern edge of the plateau is the result of lateral translation of the Pamir plateau northward past Tibet and Tarim along the Kashgar-Yecheng transfer system. Our results are consistent with activity on the Kashgar-Yecheng transfer system in the Early Miocene.

  1. New Paleomagnetic and 40Ar/39Ar Geochronological Results for the South Shetland Islands, West Antarctica, and Their Tectonic Implications (United States)

    Gao, Liang; Zhao, Yue; Yang, Zhenyu; Liu, Jianmin; Liu, Xiaochun; Zhang, Shuan-Hong; Pei, Junling


    To reconstruct the paleoposition of the Antarctic Peninsula relative to the South American Plate during the breakup of Gondwana, as well as the opening kinematics of the Drake Passage, we conducted detailed paleomagnetic, rock magnetic, and isotopic chronology studies of Byers Peninsula (Livingston Island) and Fildes Peninsula (King George Island) of the South Shetland Islands. The 40Ar/39Ar ages of the Agate Beach Formation to the Long Hill Formation in Fildes Peninsula range from 56.38 ± 0.2 Ma to 52.42 ± 0.19 Ma. Low natural remanent magnetization/isothermal remanent magnetization ratios, inconsistency with the polarity constrained by the paleomagnetic results and 40Ar/39Ar age constraints, as well as the widespread cation-deficient titanomagnetite and Ti-free magnetite of secondary origin, indicate that the volcanic and sedimentary rocks of Fildes Peninsula were remagnetized at about 55 Ma. Combining our results with previous data from the South Shetland Islands and the Antarctic Peninsula, we calculated the paleopoles for 110 Ma and 55 Ma for the South Shetland Islands and the Antarctic Peninsula. The paleomagnetic reconstruction of the relative paleoposition of the Antarctic Peninsula and South America shows that these plates were connected and experienced a southward movement and clockwise rotation from 110 to 55 Ma. Subsequently, southward translation and clockwise rotation of the Antarctic Peninsula between 55 and 27 Ma separated the Antarctic Peninsula and South America, forming the Drake Passage. Northward translation of South America after 27 Ma increased the N-S divergence and increased the distance between the Antarctic Peninsula and the South American Plate.

  2. Post-collisional deformation of the Anatolides and motion of the Arabian indenter: A paleomagnetic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piper, J; Tatar, O; Gursoy, H; Mesci, B L; Kocbulut, F; Huang, B


    In the Anatolides of Turkey the neotectonic (post collisional) phase of deformation embraces the period since final closure of the southern arm of Neotethys in mid-Miocene times. The Arabian Shield indenter has continued to deform into the weak Anatolian accretionary collage resulting from subduction of this ocean by a combination of differential movement relative to the African Plate and counterclockwise (CCW) rotation. Much of resulting deformation has been accommodated by slip along major transforms comprising the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ), the East Anatolian Fault Zone (EAFZ) and the northward extension of the Dead Sea Fault Zone (DSFZ) but has also been distributed as differential block rotations through the zone of weak crust in between. Facets of this deformation comprise crustal thickening and uplift to produce the Anatolian Plateau, establishment of transform faults and tectonic escape as Arabia has continued to impinge into the Anatolian collage. Paleomagnetic analysis of this deformation is facilitated by the widespread distribution of neotectonic volcanism and graben infills, and rotations relative to the Eurasian reference frame are recognised on two scales. Rapid rotation (up to 5 0 /10,000 years) of small fault blocks is identified between master faults along the intracontinental transforms but deformation does not extend away from these zones and shows that seismogenic upper crust is decoupled from a lower continental lithosphere undergoing continuum deformation. The broad area of weak accreted crust between the transforms is dissected into large fault blocks which exhibit much lower rotation rates (mostly 0 /100,000 years) that vary systematically across the Anatolides. Large CCW rotations near the Arabian indenter diminish westwards to become zero then CW near the limit of tectonic escape in western Turkey. The view that the collage has rotated anticlockwise as a single plate, either uniformly or episodically, during the Neotectonic era is

  3. Magnetic Fabric and Paleomagnetism of the Peninsular Ranges Batholith, Sierra San Pedro M rtir, Baja California. (United States)

    Knight, M.; Herrero-Bervera, E.; Molina-Garza, R. S.; Böhnel, H. N.


    We summarize results of recent paleomagnetic, structural, petrologic and magnetic fabric studies along an east-west (60 km long) transect across the Peninsular Ranges Batholith (PRB) in north-central Baja California. The transect includes both magnetite rich plutons from the western sector of the PRB, and ilmenite rich plutons from the eastern sector, as well as plutons on the eastern and western side of major tectonic discontinuities. We include results for 8 plutons, included well-characterized bodies such as San Pedro M rtir (SP), San José (SJ) and La Zarza (LZ), and relatively little known plutons such as Potrero (PO), Aguaje del Burro (AB), El Milagro (MI), and San Telmo (ST). Plutons on the western sector of the PRB yield a paleomagnetic pole at 82° N-186.4° E (A95=4.8° ). When rotated into a pre- Gulf of California position, the pole (79.2° -188.2° ) is statistically undistinguishable from the North American reference pole. In contrast, SP, SJ and PO plutons, on either side of the NW trending Main Martir Thrust yield clearly discordant direction that can only be reconciled with results for the western plutons assuming southwestward tilt of ˜ 25° for SP and greater than 45° for SJ and PO. We find strong evidence in support of tilt of the plutons from thermochronological, structural, and geobarometric data. These data will be discussed elsewhere. Here we focus on magnetic fabric data. AMS for SJ is strongly developed with high values for degree of anisotropy (P= 1.14 a 1.40), but marked east-west asymmetry that contrasts with the general symmetry of the pluton along a north-south axis. Oblate fabrics (T ˜ +0.4) with dispersed lineation directions dominate the west side of the pluton and prolate fabrics (T ˜ -0.15) with steep to vertical lineations dominate on its eastern side. This fabric is interpreted to result from magma flow. SP, a much larger pluton and sensibly asymmetric, displays high degrees of anisotropy (P ˜1.2) on its western side but

  4. Paleomagnetic Constraints on the Tectonic History of the Mesozoic Ophiolite and Arc Terranes of Western Mexico (United States)

    Boschman, L.; Van Hinsbergen, D. J. J.; Langereis, C. G.; Molina-Garza, R. S.; Kimbrough, D. L.


    The North American Cordillera has been shaped by a long history of accretion of arcs and other buoyant crustal fragments to the western margin of the North American Plate since the Early Mesozoic. Accretion of these terranes resulted from a complex tectonic history interpreted to include episodes of both intra-oceanic subduction within the Panthalassa/Pacific Ocean, as well as continental margin subduction along the western margin of North America. Western Mexico, at the southern end of the Cordillera, contains a Late Cretaceous-present day long-lived continental margin arc, as well as Mesozoic arc and SSZ ophiolite assemblages of which the origin is under debate. Interpretations of the origin of these subduction-related rock assemblages vary from far-travelled exotic intra-oceanic island arc character to autochthonous or parautochthonous extended continental margin origin. We present new paleomagnetic data from four localities: (1) the Norian SSZ Vizcaíno peninsula Ophiolite; (2) its Lower Jurassic sedimentary cover; and (3) Barremian and (4) Aptian sediments derived from the Guerrero arc. The data show that the Mexican ophiolite and arc terranes have a paleolatitudinal plate motion history that is equal to that of the North American continent. This suggests that these rock assemblages were part of the overriding plate and were perhaps only separated from the North American continent by temporal fore- or back-arc spreading. These spreading phases resulted in the temporal existence of tectonic plates between the North American and Farallon Plates, and upon closure of the basins, in the growth of the North American continent without addition of any far-travelled exotic terranes.

  5. Paleomagnetism of the Todos Santos Formation in the Maya Block, Chiapas, Mexico: Preliminary Results (United States)

    Godinez-Urban, A.; Molina-Garza, R. S.; Iriondo, A.; Geissman, J. W.


    Preliminary results of a paleomagnetic study on jurassic volcanic rocks (U-Pb 188.8 +/- 3.2Ma) locally interbedded with red beds assigned to the Todos Santos Formation, sampled in the Homoclinal Tectonic Province of the Neogene Fold Belt, Chiapas-Mexico, reveal multi component magnetizations acquired during pre- and post- folding of these rocks. The samples responded well to thermal demagnetization, but not so to AF demagnetization, suggesting that a high coercivity mineral phase like hematite is the main remanence carrier. The post-folding B-component direction of Dec=174.3 Inc=-30.6 (k=46; alpha95=13.6; N=4) represents a recent Tertiary? overprint; while the pre-folding C-component direction of Dec=329.9 Inc=7.8 (k=12.5; alpha95=16.3; N=8) is in agreement with a previously reported small data set for the Todos Santos Formation. When compared to the North American reference direction (Jurassic Kayenta Formation) the observed direction indicates a counterclockwise rotation of 35.9 +/- 16.6 degrees, and moderate north to south latitudinal displacement. If a reference pole from NE North America is used, the amount of counterclockwise rotation and latitudinal displacement are both slightly reduced. If the assumption that Jurassic strata in Chiapas reflect displacement of the Maya Block, then these data are consistent with reconstructions of the Maya Block in the Gulf of Mexico region. Other sites sampled in Jurassic strata suggest that in addition to the interpreted regional rotation, local (vertical-axis) rotations may have affected the region in more recent times.

  6. Paleomagnetism of the Talesh Mountains and implications for the geodynamics of NW Iran (United States)

    Langereis, C. G.; Kuijper, C. B.; Rezaeian, M.; van der Boon, A.; Cotton, L.; Pastor-Galan, D.; Krijgsman, W.


    Since the late Eocene, convergence and subsequent collision between Arabia and Eurasia was accommodated both in the overriding Eurasian plate - which includes the Iranian plateau - and by subduction and accretion of the Neotethys and Arabian margin. Determining rotations of the Talesh is of crucial importance for estimating crustal shortening in the Arabia-Eurasia collision region. Previously, we quantified how much Arabia-Eurasia convergence was accommodated north of the Talesh mountains of NW Iran (120 km). Since the Eocene, the Talesh and western Alborz Mountains show a 16° net clockwise rotation relative to Eurasia. In our kinematic restoration, we considered the Talesh and western Alborz Mountains as a coherent single block, with a length of 600 km. However, on a smaller scale ( 100 km), the Talesh Mountains show a Z-shaped outcrop pattern of Eocene volcanic rocks. Here, we present new paleomagnetic data from Cretaceous sediments and Eocene volcanics of the Talesh Mountains, which cover a gap in our previous work. We reconstruct vertical axis rotations of the Z-shape. For the Eocene, our results indicate an increasing amount of CW rotation with respect to Eurasia from south to north: 24° in the southeast to 49° in the central Talesh. Cretaceous data show significantly larger rotations of 70-100° CW. This could indicate that curvature in the Talesh is progressive through time. The formation of this orocline must have started after the Eocene at the latest. However, it seems that not all of the outcrop pattern can be explained by the observed vertical axis rotations yet.

  7. First Paleomagnetic Map of the Easternmost Mediterranean Derived from Combined Geophysical-Geological Analysis (United States)

    Eppelbaum, Lev; Katz, Youri


    he easternmost Mediterranean is a tectonically complex region evolving in the long term and located in the midst of the progressive Afro-Eurasian collision (e.g., Ben-Avraham, 1978; Khain, 1984). Both rift-oceanic systems and terrane belts are known to have been formed in this collision zone (Stampfli et al., 2013). Despite years of investigation, the geological-geophysical structure of the easternmost Mediterranean is not completely known. The formation of its modern complex structure is associated with the evolution of the Neotethys Ocean and its margins (e.g., Ben-Avraham and Ginzburg, 1990; Robertson et al., 1991; Ben-Avraham et al., 2002). The easternmost Mediterranean was formed during the initial phase of the Neotethys in the Early and Late Permian (Golonka and Ford, 2000; Stampfli et al., 2013). At present this block of the ocean crust situated in the northern part of the Sinai plate (Ben-Avraham, 1978; Eppelbaum et al., 2012, 2014) is object of our investigation. The easternmost Mediterranean region has attracted increasing attention in connection with the recent discoveries of significant hydrocarbon deposits in this region (e.g., Montadert et al., 2010; Schenk et al., 2010; Eppelbaum et al., 2012). For example, Schenk et al. (2010) consider that more than 4 trillion m3 of recoverable gas is available in the Levant Basin (which located in the central part of the easternmost Mediterranean). Currently seismic prospecting is the main tool used in hydrocarbon deposit discovery. However, even sophisticated seismic data analysis (e.g., Hall et al., 2005; Roberts and Peace, 2007; Gardosh et al., 2010; Marlow et al., 2011; Lazar et al., 2012), fails to identify the full complex structural-tectonic mosaic of this region, and more importantly, is unable to clarify its baffling complex tectonic evolution. This highlights the need for combined analysis of geophysical data associated with the paleomagnetic and paleobiogeographic conditions that can yield deep

  8. Paleomagnetic and oxygen isotopic evidence for long term diagenesis in radiolarian chert, Pindos Mountains, Greece (United States)

    Baltuck, Miriam


    Paleomagnetics was used in an attempt to improve chronostratigraphy in the Middle and Upper Jurassic radiolarian chert and siliceous mudstone of the Pindos Zone, Greece. Remanent magnetism studies showed strong magnetic intensity but scattered orientation. Orientation of some pressure solution features in the radiolarities indicates their formation under horizontal pressure, a condition which in Pindos geologic history would only have occurred during early Cretaceous or Cenozoic tectonics, indicating very late diagenesis in these parts of the section. From time of deposition to later time at which diagenesis can be documented, the Earth's magnetic field would have reversed many times. Remagnetization during solution-precipitation steps of silica diagenesis could complicate the rock magnetics. Oxygen isotopic and major element analyses of radiolarite lithologies show a systematic variation of rate of silica diagenesis in different host lithologies, thus solution-precipitation would occur at widely differing times throughout the section lithologies. If the dissolution of the silica cement were physically to free magnetic material from an earlier orientation, the result could be a partial shift toward alignment with the ambient magnetic field. Alternatively, complete reorientation of particles could have occurred at varying times in different parts of the section as a function of host lithology. During the northward movement and clockwise rotation of the Apulian subplate (including Pindos) these different lithologies could completely reorient during different stages of silica diagenesis, locking the orientation of iron magnetic moments into alignment with the ambient magnetic field at time of precipitation to result in a strong intensity but scattered orientation of Pindos rock magnetics.

  9. Paleomagnetic study of 1765 Ma dyke swarm from the Singhbhum Craton: Implications to the paleogeography of India (United States)

    Shankar, Ravi; Srinivasa Sarma, D.; Ramesh Babu, N.; Parashuramulu, V.


    We report the first key paleopole as a result of paleomagnetic study on a precisely dated 1765.3 ± 1.0 Ma WNW-ESE trending dyke swarm from Singhbhum Craton. This pole has been used in this study to propose the paleogeographic reconstruction of India with Baltica Craton and North China Craton. Incremental alternating field (AF) and thermal demagnetization, isolated high coercivity components with north to north-westerly declination and shallow negative inclination from 9 sampling sites which are representing different individual dykes. The primary origin of the ChRM is supported by the positive baked contact test. The WNW-ESE trending dykes yield a mean paleomagnetic direction with a declination = 329.2° and an inclination = -22.8° (k = 31.6; α95 = 9.3°). The positive bake contact test proves the primary nature of remanence. The pole position of Singhbhum Craton at 1765 Ma is 45°N, 311°E (dp = 5.2 and dm = 9.9). Paleogeographic reconstruction at ca. 1770 Ma, supported by geological, tectonic and metallogenic evidences indicate that the Baltica Craton and India linkage can be stable for at least ∼370 Ma (∼1770-1400 Ma). There is also reasonable evidence in support of India-North China Craton spatial proximity at ∼1770 Ma.

  10. Paleomagnetism of the Miocene intrusive suite of Kidd Creek: Timing of deformation in the Cascade arc, southern Washington (United States)

    Hagstrum, J.T.; Swanson, D.A.; Snee, L.W.


    Paleomagnetic study of the intrusive suite of Kidd Creek in the southern Washington Cascades (23 sites in dikes and sills) was undertaken to help determine if these rocks are comagmatic and whether they postdate regional folding of the volcanic arc. Fission track and 40Ar-39Ar age determinations indicate an age of ???12.7 Ma (middle Miocene) for these rocks. The similarity of normal-polarity characteristic directions for most samples corroborate the available geochemical data indicating that these rocks are most likely comagmatic. Reversed-polarity directions for samples from four sites, however, show that emplacement of Kidd Creek intrusions spanned at least one reversal of the geomagnetic field. The paleomagnetic directions for the dikes and sills fail a fold test at the 99% confidence level indicating that the Kidd Creek rocks postdate regional folding. The mean in situ direction also indicates that the Kidd Creek and older rocks have been rotated 22?? ?? 6?? clockwise about a vertical or near-vertical axis from the expected Miocene direction. Compression and regional folding of the Cascade arc in southern Washington therefore had ended by ???12 Ma prior to the onset of deformation resulting in rotation of these rocks.

  11. Results of Paleomagnetic Investigation of Angara - Taseeva Depression and Central Part of Tunguska Syncline (Siberian Trap Province, Russia) (United States)

    Latyshev, A.; Veselovskiy, R. V.; Pavlov, V.


    Results of paleomagnetic investigation of two regions of Siberian Trap province (Angara - Taseeva depression and central part of Tunguska syncline) are performed here. Our work was dedicated to the estimation of dynamics and duration of magmatic activity during Siberian Traps emplacement. The conclusions are based on paleomagnetic study of large dolerite sills in the periphery of Siberian Trap province, tuffaceous deposits, small intrusions and lava flows of Tunguska syncline, and on geochronological data (Ivanov et al., 2013; Reichow et al., 2009). The presented data show that formation of Siberian Traps in these regions took place as several short bursts of magmatic activity led to large sill intrusions and eruptions of tuffs. This data are in agreement with the pulsating character of magmatic activity in the Northern part of Siberian platform (Pavlov et al., 2014). The most powerful burst of magmatic activity in Angara-Taseeva syncline is supposed to be synchronous to the main phase of volcanic eruptions in the Northern part of Siberian platform and emplacement of ore-bearing intrusions in Noril'sk district. This study was funded by grant RFBR # 14-05-31447.

  12. Paleomagnetism in the Determination of the Emplacement Temperature of Cerro Colorado Tuff Cone, El Pinacate Volcanic Field, Sonora, Mexico. (United States)

    Rodriguez Trejo, A.; Alva-Valdivia, L. M.; Vidal Solano, J. R.; Garcia Amador, B.; Gonzalez-Rangel, J. A.


    Cerro Colorado Maar is located at the World Heritage Site, biosphere reserve El Pinacate and Gran Desierto del Altar, at the NNW region of Sonora, Mexico (in El Pinacate Volcanic Field). It is a tuff cone, about 1 km diameter, result of several phreatomagmatic episodes during the late Quaternary. We report paleomagnetic and rock magnetic properties from fusiform volcanic bombs obtained from the borders of Cerro Colorado. This study is based in the thermoremanent magnetization TRM normally acquired by volcanic rocks, which can be used to estimate the emplacement temperature range. We performed the experiments on 20 lithic fragments (10 cm to 20 cm approximately), taking 6-8 paleomagnetic cores from each. Rock magnetic experiments (magnetic susceptibility vs. temperature (k-T), hysteresis curves and FORC analysis, shows that the main magnetic mineral carriers of magnetization are titanomagnetite and titanohematite in different levels of intergrowth. The k-T curves suggest in many cases, only one magnetic phase, but also in other cases a second magnetic phase. Thermal demagnetization was used to demagnetize the specimens in detailed short steps and make a well-defined emplacement temperature determination ranges. We found that temperature emplacement determination range for these two magnetic phases is between 350-450 °C, and 550-580 °C, respectively. These results are consistent with those expected in an eruption of Surtsey type, showing a distinct volcanic activity compared to the other craters from El Pinacate volcanic field.

  13. Complex remanent magnetization in the Kızılkaya ignimbrite (central Anatolia): Implication for paleomagnetic directions (United States)

    Agrò, Alessandro; Zanella, Elena; Le Pennec, Jean-Luc; Temel, Abidin


    Pyroclastic flow deposits, known as ash-flow tuffs or ignimbrites, are invaluable materials for paleomagnetic studies, with many applications for geological and tectonic purposes. However, little attention has been paid to evaluating the consistency and reliability of the paleomagnetic data when results are obtained on a single volcanic unit with uneven magnetic mineralogy. In this work we investigate this issue by concentrating on the Kızılkaya ignimbrite, the youngest large-volume unit of the Neogene ignimbrite sequence of the Central Anatolian Volcanic Province in Turkey, bringing evidence of significant magnetic heterogeneities in ignimbrite deposits (magnetic mineralogy, susceptibility, magnetic remanence, coercivity, etc.) and emphasizing the importance of a stratigraphic sampling strategy for this type of volcanic rocks in order to obtain reliable paleomagnetic data. Six sections were sampled at different stratigraphic heights within the devitrified portion of the ignimbrite. Isothermal remanence measurements point to low-Ti titanomagnetite as the main magnetic carrier at all sites; at some sites, the occurrence of oxidized Ti-magnetite and hematite is disclosed. The bulk susceptibility (km) decreases vertically at two out of six sections: its value for the topmost samples is commonly one order of magnitude lower than that of the samples at the base. In most cases, low km values relate to high coercivity of remanence (BCR) values, which range from 25 to > 400 mT, and to low S-ratios (measured at 0.3 T) between 0.28 and 0.99. These data point to the occurrence of oxidized magnetic phases. We therefore consider the km parameter as a reliable proxy to check the ignimbrite oxidation stage and to detect the presence of oxidized Ti-magnetite and hematite within the deposit. The characteristic remanent magnetization is determined after stepwise thermal and AF demagnetization and clearly isolated by principal component analysis at most sites. For these sites, the

  14. The Magnetics Information Consortium (MagIC) Online Database: Uploading, Searching and Visualizing Paleomagnetic and Rock Magnetic Data (United States)

    Minnett, R.; Koppers, A.; Tauxe, L.; Constable, C.; Pisarevsky, S. A.; Jackson, M.; Solheid, P.; Banerjee, S.; Johnson, C.


    The Magnetics Information Consortium (MagIC) is commissioned to implement and maintain an online portal to a relational database populated by both rock and paleomagnetic data. The goal of MagIC is to archive all measurements and the derived properties for studies of paleomagnetic directions (inclination, declination) and intensities, and for rock magnetic experiments (hysteresis, remanence, susceptibility, anisotropy). MagIC is hosted under at and has two search nodes, one for paleomagnetism and one for rock magnetism. Both nodes provide query building based on location, reference, methods applied, material type and geological age, as well as a visual map interface to browse and select locations. The query result set is displayed in a digestible tabular format allowing the user to descend through hierarchical levels such as from locations to sites, samples, specimens, and measurements. At each stage, the result set can be saved and, if supported by the data, can be visualized by plotting global location maps, equal area plots, or typical Zijderveld, hysteresis, and various magnetization and remanence diagrams. User contributions to the MagIC database are critical to achieving a useful research tool. We have developed a standard data and metadata template (Version 2.1) that can be used to format and upload all data at the time of publication in Earth Science journals. Software tools are provided to facilitate population of these templates within Microsoft Excel. These tools allow for the import/export of text files and provide advanced functionality to manage and edit the data, and to perform various internal checks to maintain data integrity and prepare for uploading. The MagIC Contribution Wizard at executes the upload and takes only a few minutes to process several thousand data records. The standardized MagIC template files are stored in the digital archives of where they


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Ren


    Full Text Available The Amuria block occupies the eastern part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt between the Siberia craton and the North China block (NCB and bears important information to understand the evolution of the MongolOkhotsk suture and the amalgamation of East Asia. However, the paleomagnetic database of Amuria remains very poor.

  16. New updated results of paleomagnetic dating of cave deposits exposed in Za Hájovnou Cave, Javoříčko Karst

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kadlec, Jaroslav; Čížková, Kristýna; Šlechta, Stanislav


    Roč. 70, 1-2 (2014), s. 27-34 ISSN 0036-5343 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 ; RVO:67985831 Keywords : Javoříčko Karst * Za Hájovnou Cave * Early and Middle Pleistocene * paleomagnetic dating Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  17. Acquisition of chemical remanent magnetization during experimental ferrihydrite-hematite conversion in Earth-like magnetic field-implications for paleomagnetic studies of red beds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, Zhaoxia; Liu, Qingsong; Dekkers, Mark J.; Tauxe, Lisa; Qin, Huafeng; Barrón, Vidal; Torrent, José


    Hematite-bearing red beds are renowned for their chemical remanent magnetization (CRM). If the CRM was acquired substantially later than the sediment was formed, this severely compromises paleomagnetic records. To improve our interpretation of the natural remanent magnetization, the intricacies of

  18. Paleomagnetic constraints on the Mesozoic-Cenozoic paleolatitudinal and rotational history of Indochina and South China : Review and updated kinematic reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Shihu; Advokaat, Eldert L.; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J.J.; Koymans, Mathijs; Deng, Chenglong; Zhu, Rixiang

    Paleomagnetic data have long been used to hypothesize that the Cenozoic extrusion of the Indochina Block along the left-lateral Ailao Shan-Red River fault, as a result of the India-Asia collision, may have been associated with a major southward paleolatitude shift of as much as 10–15°, and a

  19. Paleomagnetic correlation of surface and subsurface basaltic lava flows and flow groups in the southern part of the Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho, with paleomagnetic data tables for drill cores (United States)

    Champion, Duane E.; Hodges, Mary K.V.; Davis, Linda C.; Lanphere, Marvin A.


    Paleomagnetic inclination and polarity studies have been conducted on thousands of subcore samples from 51 coreholes located at and near the Idaho National Laboratory. These studies are used to paleomagnetically characterize and correlate successive stratigraphic intervals in each corehole to similar depth intervals in adjacent coreholes. Paleomagnetic results from 83 surface paleomagnetic sites, within and near the INL, are used to correlate these buried lava flow groups to basaltic shield volcanoes still exposed on the surface of the eastern Snake River Plain. Sample handling and demagnetization protocols are described as well as the paleomagnetic data averaging process. Paleomagnetic inclination comparisons between coreholes located only kilometers apart show comparable stratigraphic successions of mean inclination values over tens of meters of depth. At greater distance between coreholes, comparable correlation of mean inclination values is less consistent because flow groups may be missing or additional flow groups may be present and found at different depth intervals. Two shallow intersecting cross-sections, A-A- and B-B- (oriented southwest-northeast and northwest-southeast, respectively), drawn through southwest Idaho National Laboratory coreholes show the corehole to corehole or surface to corehole correlations derived from the paleomagnetic inclination data. From stratigraphic top to bottom, key results included the (1) Quaking Aspen Butte flow group, which erupted from Quaking Aspen Butte southwest of the Idaho National Laboratory, flowed northeast, and has been found in the subsurface in corehole USGS 132; (2) Vent 5206 flow group, which erupted near the southwestern border of the Idaho National Laboratory, flowed north and east, and has been found in the subsurface in coreholes USGS 132, USGS 129, USGS 131, USGS 127, USGS 130, USGS 128, and STF-AQ-01; and (3) Mid Butte flow group, which erupted north of U.S. Highway 20, flowed northwest, and has been

  20. Paleomagnetism and environmental magnetism of GLAD800 sediment cores from Bear Lake, Utah and Idaho (United States)

    Heil, C.W.; King, J.W.; Rosenbaum, J.G.; Reynolds, R.L.; Colman, Steven M.


    A ???220,000-year record recovered in a 120-m-long sediment core from Bear Lake, Utah and Idaho, provides an opportunity to reconstruct climate change in the Great Basin and compare it with global climate records. Paleomagnetic data exhibit a geomagnetic feature that possibly occurred during the Laschamp excursion (ca. 40 ka). Although the feature does not exhibit excursional behavior (???40?? departure from the expected value), it might provide an additional age constraint for the sequence. Temporal changes in salinity, which are likely related to changes in freshwater input (mainly through the Bear River) or evaporation, are indicated by variations in mineral magnetic properties. These changes are represented by intervals with preserved detrital Fe-oxide minerals and with varying degrees of diagenetic alteration, including sulfidization. On the basis of these changes, the Bear Lake sequence is divided into seven mineral magnetic zones. The differing magnetic mineralogies among these zones reflect changes in deposition, preservation, and formation of magnetic phases related to factors such as lake level, river input, and water chemistry. The occurrence of greigite and pyrite in the lake sediments corresponds to periods of higher salinity. Pyrite is most abundant in intervals of highest salinity, suggesting that the extent of sulfidization is limited by the availability of SO42-. During MIS 2 (zone II), Bear Lake transgressed to capture the Bear River, resulting in deposition of glacially derived hematite-rich detritus from the Uinta Mountains. Millennial-scale variations in the hematite content of Bear Lake sediments during the last glacial maximum (zone II) resemble Dansgaard-Oeschger (D-O) oscillations and Heinrich events (within dating uncertainties), suggesting that the influence of millennial-scale climate oscillations can extend beyond the North Atlantic and influence climate of the Great Basin. The magnetic mineralogy of zones IV-VII (MIS 5, 6, and 7

  1. Assessing New and Old Methods in Paleomagnetic Paleothermometry: A Test Case at Mt. St. Helens, USA (United States)

    Bowles, J. A.; Gerzich, D.; Jackson, M. J.


    Paleomagnetic data can be used to estimate deposit temperatures (Tdep) of pyroclastic density currents (PDCs). The typical method is to thermally demagnetize oriented lithic clasts incorporated into the PDC. If Tdep is less than the maximum Curie temperature (Tc), the clast is partially remagnetized in the PDC, and the unblocking temperature (Tub) at which this remagnetization is removed is an estimate of Tdep. In principle, juvenile clasts can also be used, and Tub-max is taken as the minimum Tdep. This all assumes blocking (Tb) and unblocking temperatures are equivalent and that the blocking spectrum remains constant through time. Recent evidence shows that Tc in many titanomagnetites is a strong function of thermal history due to a crystal-chemical reordering process. We therefore undertake a study designed to test some of these assumptions and to assess the extent to which the method may be biased by a Tb spectrum that shifts to higher T during cooling. We also explore a new magnetic technique that relies only on stratigraphic variations in Tc. Samples are from the May 18, 1980 PDCs at Mt. St. Helens, USA. Direct temperature measurements of the deposits were 297 - 367°C. At sites with oriented lithics, standard methods provide a Tdep range that overlaps with measured temperatures, but is systematically higher by a few 10s of °C. By contrast, pumice clasts all give Tdep_min estimates that greatly exceed lithic estimates and measured temperatures. We attribute this overestimate to two causes: 1) Tc and Tub systematically increase with depth as a result of the reordering process. This results in Tdep_min estimates that vary by 50°C and increase with depth. 2) MSH pumice is multi-domain, where Tub > Tb, resulting in a large overestimate in Tdep. At 5 sites, stratigraphic variations in Tc were conservatively interpreted in terms of Tdep as 300°C. More sophisticated modeling of the time-temperature-depth evolution of Tc allows us to place tighter constraints on

  2. Micropaleontological and Paleomagnetic Characterization of La Ceiba K/T Boundary Section, Central Mexico (United States)

    Martínez-López, M.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.


    We report results of a micropaleontological and magnetostratigraphic study of the La Ceiba section that spans the K/T boundary. La Ceiba is located in central Mexico (20o 19.8' N, 97o 41.0' W) within the Tampico-Mizantla basin. The K/T boundary is marked by a clastic unit of about one-meter thickness intercalated between the carbonate hemipelagic marls of the Cretaceous Mendez Formation and the Paleocene Velasco Formation. The clastic unit can be divided into four sub-units, according to their texture and architectural characteristics following Arenillas et al. (2002). The basal sub-unit is formed by calcareous marls and is rich in shocked quartz and millimeter size spherules with microtektites and bioclasts of shallow water origin. The second sub-unit is formed by medium-grained sandstones, with clasts and quartz fragments, feldspars, metamorphic and calcareous fragments and re-worked benthic and planktic foraminifera. The third sub-unit is composed by a single body of medium- to fine-grained sandstones with tabular geometry. In this sub-unit, cross- and parallel-lamination trough cross-stratification, current ripples and climbing ripples have been observed. The top sub-unit is a tabular body of fine-grained sandstones, showing parallel-lamination and low-angle cross-lamination, with asymmetric ripples and burrow traces to the top. For the paleontologic and paleomagnetic study we collected twenty-five oriented samples across the section. We measured the low-field susceptibility, intensity and direction of the NRM. The vectorial composition and stability of NRM were analyzed by progressive thermal and alternating field demagnetization. Vectorial orthogonal diagrams and vector subtraction and principal component analysis were used to determine the characteristic magnetization and secondary components for each sample. The characteristic NRM negative inclination and southward declination in the K/T clastic sediments indicate a reverse polarity, which is correlated to

  3. Fennoscandia in the Phanerozoic: Paleogeodynamic Reconstructions Based on the New Paleomagnetic and Geochronological Data from the Kola Magmatic Province (kola Peninsula, Russia) (United States)

    Veselovskiy, R. V.; Arzamastsev, A. A.


    During last four years we studied more than 100 dolerite and alkaline dykes, which are widely spread on the Kola Peninsula and belong to the Devonian magmatic province. Within the scope of our researches some of these dykes have been dated and their precise isotopic ages (Ar/Ar, Sm-Nd, Rb-Sr) lie in the range of 390-360 Ma (Veselovskiy et al., 2013). The age of other sampled dykes can be considered as Devonian due to similarity of their paleomagnetic, geochemical and petrological characteristics to the dated ones. Paleomagnetic directions have been obtained from more than 80 dykes. Almost all dykes yielded (a) a low-temperature component that is aligned along the present-day field and is likely of viscous origin; (b) a well defined dual-polarity intermediate-temperature component with steep eastward directions that accounts for a main part of the NRM and often decays to the origin on orthogonal plots; and (c) a dual-polarity high-temperature component with shallow inclinations and ENE declinations of presumed primary origin. The presence of the primary high-temperature component makes us possible to calculate preliminary Baltica's paleomagnetic pole for the Middle-Late Devonian. In view of the obtained microprobe data we believe that intermediate component is a result of unknown hydrothermal process, which age can be estimated from the comparison of corresponding paleomagnetic pole with the Baltica's APWP as Jurassic. We believe that both mentioned episodes of endogenous activity within the large stable craton were connected with plume-lithospheric interaction in the Devonian and Jurassic. In this presentation we use the obtained paleomagnetic, petrological and geochronological data to determine the paleogeography of Baltica in the Devonian and Jurassic times and to find its position within the global paleotectonic and geodynamic reconstructions. This study was funded by grants RFBR # 12-05-00216, 13-05-12021, 13-05-12030 and grant MK-3383.2012.5.

  4. An early bird from Gondwana: Paleomagnetism of Lower Permian lavas from northern Qiangtang (Tibet) and the geography of the Paleo-Tethys (United States)

    Song, Peiping; Ding, Lin; Li, Zhenyu; Lippert, Peter C.; Yue, Yahui


    The origin of the northern Qiangtang block and its Late Paleozoic-Early Mesozoic drift history remain controversial, largely because paleomagnetic constraints from pre-Mesozoic units are sparse and of poor quality. In this paper, we provide a robust and well-dated paleomagnetic pole from the Lower Permian Kaixinling Group lavas on the northern Qiangtang block. This pole suggests that the northern Qiangtang block had a paleolatitude of 21.9 ± 4.7 °S at ca. 296.9 ± 1.9 Ma. These are the first volcanic-based paleomagnetic results from pre-Mesozoic rocks of the Qiangtang block that appear to average secular variation accurately enough to yield a well-determined paleolatitude estimate. This new pole corroborates the hypothesis, first noted on the basis of less rigorous paleomagnetic data, the presence of diamictites, detrital zircon provenance records, and faunal assemblages, that the northern Qiangtang block rifted away from Gondwana prior to the Permian. Previous studies have documented that the northern Qiangtang block accreted to the Tarim-North China continent by Norian time. We calculate a total northward drift of ca. 7000 km over ca. 100 myr, which corresponds to an average south-north plate velocities of ∼7.0 cm/yr. Our results do not support the conclusion that northern Qiangtang has a Laurasian affinity, nor that the central Qiangtang metamorphic belt is an in situ Paleo-Tethys suture. Our analysis, however, does not preclude paleogeographies that interpret the central Qiangtang metamorphic belt as an intra-Qiangtang suture that developed at southernly latitudes outboard of the Gondwanan margin. We emphasize that rigorous paleomagnetic data from Carboniferous units of northern Qiangtang and especially upper Paleozoic units from southern Qiangtang can test and further refine these paleogeographic interpretations.

  5. Determining the Accuracy of Paleomagnetic Remanence and High-Resolution Chronostratigraphy for Sedimentary Rocks using Rock Magnetics (United States)

    Kodama, K. P.


    The talk will consider two broad topics in rock magnetism and paleomagnetism: the accuracy of paleomagnetic remanence and the use of rock magnetics to measure geologic time in sedimentary sequences. The accuracy of the inclination recorded by sedimentary rocks is crucial to paleogeographic reconstructions. Laboratory compaction experiments show that inclination shallows on the order of 10˚-15˚. Corrections to the inclination can be made using the effects of compaction on the directional distribution of secular variation recorded by sediments or the anisotropy of the magnetic grains carrying the ancient remanence. A summary of all the compaction correction studies as of 2012 shows that 85% of sedimentary rocks studied have enjoyed some amount of inclination shallowing. Future work should also consider the effect of grain-scale strain on paleomagnetic remanence. High resolution chronostratigraphy can be assigned to a sedimentary sequence using rock magnetics to detect astronomically-forced climate cycles. The power of the technique is relatively quick, non-destructive measurements, the objective identification of the cycles compared to facies interpretations, and the sensitivity of rock magnetics to subtle changes in sedimentary source. An example of this technique comes from using rock magnetics to identify astronomically-forced climate cycles in three globally distributed occurrences of the Shuram carbon isotope excursion. The Shuram excursion may record the oxidation of the world ocean in the Ediacaran, just before the Cambrian explosion of metazoans. Using rock magnetic cyclostratigraphy, the excursion is shown to have the same duration (8-9 Myr) in southern California, south China and south Australia. Magnetostratigraphy of the rocks carrying the excursion in California and Australia shows a reversed to normal geomagnetic field polarity transition at the excursion's nadir, thus supporting the synchroneity of the excursion globally. Both results point to a

  6. Post-middle Miocene Tuffs of Bodie Hills and Mono Basin, California: Paleomagnetic Reference Directions and Vertical Axis Rotation (United States)

    Lindeman, J. R.; Pluhar, C. J.; Farner, M. J.


    The relative motions of the Pacific and North American plates about the Sierra Nevada-North American Euler pole is accommodated by dextral slip along the San Andreas Fault System (~75%) and the Walker Lane-Eastern California Shear Zone system of faults, east of the Sierra Nevada microplate (~25%). The Bodie Hills and Mono Basin regions lie within the Walker Lane and partially accommodate deformation by vertical axis rotation of up to 60o rotation since ~9.4 Ma. This region experienced recurrent eruptive events from mid to late Miocene, including John et al.'s (2012) ~12.05 Ma Tuff of Jack Springs (TJS) and Gilbert's (1968) 11.1 - 11.9 Ma 'latite ignimbrite' east of Mono Lake. Both tuffs can be identified by phenocrysts of sanidine and biotite in hand specimens, with TJS composed of a light-grey matrix and the latite ignimbrite composed of a grey-black matrix. Our paleomagnetic results show these units to both be normal polarity, with the latite ignimbrite exhibiting a shallow inclination. TJS's normal polarity is consistent with emplacement during subchron C5 An. 1n (12.014 - 12.116 Ma). The X-ray fluorescence analyses of fiamme from TJS in Bodie Hills and the latite ignimbrite located east of Mono Lake reveal them both to be rhyolites with the latite ignimbrite sharing elevated K composition seen in the slightly younger Stanislaus Group (9.0 - 10.2 Ma). We establish a paleomagnetic reference direction of D = 352.8o I = 42.7o α95 = 7.7o n = 5 sites (42 samples) for TJS in the Bodie Hills in a region hypothesized by Carlson (2012) to have experienced low rotation. Our reference for Gilbert's latite ignimbrite (at Cowtrack Mountain) is D = 352.9o I = 32.1o α95 = 4.7o. This reference locality is found on basement highland likely to have experienced less deformation then the nearby Mono Basin since ignimbrite emplacement. Paleomagnetic results from this latite ignimbrite suggests ~98.2o × 5.5o of clockwise vertical axis rotation of parts of eastern Mono Basin since

  7. Paleomagnetic and Rock Magnetic Study of Oligocene-Holocene Sedimentary Rocks from Northern Dominican Republic: Evidence of Vertical Axis Rotations (United States)

    Anson Sanchez, M.; Kodama, K. P.; Pueyo, E. L.; Soto, R.; Garcia-Senz, J.; Escuder-Viruete, J.; Pastor-Galan, D.


    A paleomagnetic and rock magnetic study was conducted in the northern Dominican Republic to detect vertical axis rotations in an active left-lateral, strike slip fault zone. 191 samples from 21 sites were collected from a variety of lithologies including limestones, conglomerates, calcarenites and marls that ranged in age from the Oligocene to the Holocene. The rock magnetic portion of the study focused on the identification of magnetic minerals using coercivity, and Curie temperature (c vs temperature) measurement, modeling of IRM acquisition curves, and thermal demagnetization of IRMs (Lowrie, 19901). In the paleomagnetic portion of the study characteristic remanences (ChRMs) were isolated using thermal demagnetization (19 steps up to 680ºC) and alternating field (AF) demagnetization (17 steps up to 100 mT). In most cases the characteristic remanence is carried by magnetite, with peak unblocking temperatures of 575ºC. This interpretation was supported by c vs. T results that yielded Curie temperatures of 580˚C. In only a few cases (7 samples) higher unblocking temperatures suggested hematite as the magnetic carrier. The modeling of IRM acquisition curves, that shows two coercivity components, further supports the presence of magnetite. 75% of the IRM is carried by the low-coercivity component (100-300 mT, magnetite). 25% of the IRM is carried by the high-coercivity component (1.2-1.6T) characteristic of hematite. The IRM acquisition data was collected from 24 samples (3-4 from each of the lithologies sampled). IRMs were acquired in fields from 4mT to 1T in 23 steps. The paleomagnetic results show a grouping by tectonic blocks with one group having westerly ChRM declinations (268˚-295˚) and a second group having northerly ChRM declinations (357˚-035˚). In most cases, inclinations are intermediate ( 35˚), in agreement with the 24˚-31˚ expected inclinations for Dominican Republic in the period Oligocene to Holocene. The rotation of the tectonic blocks, as

  8. A Paleomagnetic Investigation of Large-Scale Vertical Axis Rotations in Coastal Sonora: Evidence for Transtensional Proto-Gulf Deformation (United States)

    Herman, S. W.; Gans, P. B.


    A paleomagnetic investigation into possible vertical axis rotations has been conducted in the Sierra el Aguaje and Sierra Tinajas del Carmen, Sonora, Mexico, in order assess proposed styles for oblique continental rifting in the Gulf of California. Two styles of rifting have been proposed; (1) strain partitioning (Stock and Hodges, 89), and (2) transtension (Gans, 97), for the Proto-Gulf period of the Gulf of California. The presence of large- scale vertical axis rotations would lend weight to the argument for transtension. The Sierra el Aguaje and Sierra Tinajas del Carmen are located in southwestern coastal Sonora, Mexico. The ranges represent the eastern-rifted margin of the central Gulf of California. This is one of the few areas of that margin which is entirely above water, with new ocean crust of the Guaymas basin lying immediately offshore of the western edge of the ranges. The ranges are composed of volcanic units and their corresponding volcaniclastic units that are the result of persistent magmatic activity between 20 and 8.8 Ma, including three packages of basalt and andesite that make excellent paleomagnetic recorders. Based on cross cutting relations and geochronologic data for pre-, syn-, and post-tectonic volcanic units, most of the faulting and tilting in the Sierra El Aguaje and Sierra Tinajas del Carmen is bracketed between 11.9 and 9.0 Ma, thus falling entirely within Proto-Gulf time. Existing field relations suggest the presence of large (>45°) vertical axis rotations in this region. This evidence includes: a) abrupt changes in the strike of tilted strata in different parts of the range b) ubiquitous NE-SW striking faults with left lateral-normal oblique slip, that terminate against major NW-trending right lateral faults, and c) obliquity between the general strike of tilted strata and the strike of faults. The results of the paleomagnetic investigation are consistent with the field evidence and show large clockwise rotations between ~30° and

  9. Two possibilities for New Siberian Islands terrane tectonic history during the Early Paleozoic based on paleomagnetic data (United States)

    Metelkin, Dmitry V.; Chernova, Anna I.; Vernikovsky, Valery A.; Matushkin, Nikolay Yu.


    The New Siberian Islands (NSI), located in the East Siberian Sea in the junction region of various structural elements, are a key target for deciphering the tectonic evolution of the Eastern Arctic. In recent years, we went on several expeditions and gathered an extensive geological material for this territory. Among other things, we could prove that the basement of the De Long and Anjou archipelagos structures is Precambrian and the overlying Paleozoic sections formed within the same terrane. The form of the boundaries of the NSI terrane are actively debated and are probably continued from the Lyakhovsky islands in the south-west to the southern parts of the submerged Mendeleev Ridge, for which there is increasing evidence of continental crust. Today there are several models that interpret the Paleozoic-Mesozoic tectonic history and structural affiliation of the NSI terrane. Some propose that the Paleozoic sedimentary section formed in a passive margin setting of the Siberian paleocontinent. Others compare its history with marginal basins of the Baltica and Laurentia continents or consider the NSI terrane as an element of the Chukotka-Alaska microplate. These models are mainly based on results of paleobiogeographical and lithological-facies analyses, including explanations of probable sources for detrital zircons. Our paleomagnetic research on sedimentary, volcanogenic-sedimentary and igneous rocks of the Anjou (Kotelny and Bel'kovsky islands) and De Long (Bennett, Jeannette and Henrietta islands) archipelagos let us calculate an apparent polar wander path for the early Paleozoic interval of geological history, which allows us to conclude that the NSI terrane could not have been a part of the continental plates listed above, but rather had active tectonic boundaries with them. Our paleomagnetic data indicate that the NSI terrane drifted slowly and steadily in the tropical and subtropical regions no higher than 40 degrees. However, the main uncertainty for the

  10. A review of the paleomagnetic data from Cretaceous to lower Tertiary rocks from Vietnam, Indochina and South China, and their implications for Cenozoic tectonism in Vietnam and adjacent areas (United States)

    Cung, Thu'ọ'ng Chí; Geissman, John W.


    Available paleomagnetic data from rock formations of Cretaceous age from Vietnam, Indochina and South China are compiled and reviewed in the context of their tectonic importance in a common reference frame with respect to Eurasia's coeval paleopoles. Key factors that play an important role in determining the reliability of a paleomagnetic result for utilization in tectonic studies have been taken into consideration and include the absence of evidence of remagnetization, which is a feature common to many rocks in this region. Overall, the Cretaceous paleomagnetic data from the South China Block show that the present geographic position of the South China Block has been relatively stable with respect to Eurasia since the mid-Cretaceous and that the paleomagnetically detected motion of a coherent lithospheric block must be based on the representative data obtained from different specific localities across the block in order to separate more localized, smaller scale deformation from true lithosphere scale motion (translation and/or rotation) of a tectonic block. Cretaceous to early Tertiary paleomagnetic data from the Indochina-Shan Thai Block reveal complex patterns of intra-plate deformation in response to the India-Eurasia collision. Paleomagnetically detected motions from the margins of tectonic blocks are interpreted to mainly reflect displacement of upper crustal blocks due to folding and faulting processes. Rigid, lithosphere scale block rotation is not necessarily supported by the paleomagnetic data. The paleomagnetic results from areas east and south of the Red River fault system suggest that this major transcurrent fault system has had a complicated slip history through much of the Cenozoic and that it does not demarcate completely non-rotated and significantly rotated parts of the crust in this area. However, most paleomagnetic results from areas east and south of the Red River fault system at the latitude of Yunnan Province are consistent with a very modest

  11. An oceanic core complex (OCC) in the Albanian Dinarides? Preliminary paleomagnetic and structural results from the Mirdita Ophiolite (northern Albania) (United States)

    Maffione, M.; Morris, A.; Anderson, M.


    Oceanic core complexes (OCCs) are dome-shaped massifs commonly associated with the inside corners of the intersection of transform faults and slow (and ultra-slow) spreading centres. They represent the uplifted footwalls of large-slip oceanic detachment faults (e.g. Cann et al., 1997; Blackman et al., 1998) and are composed of mantle and lower crustal rocks exhumed during fault displacement (Smith et al., 2006, 2008). Recent paleomagnetic studies of core samples from OCCs in the Atlantic Ocean (Morris et al., 2009; MacLeod et al., in prep) have confirmed that footwall sections undergo substantial rotation around (sub-) horizontal axes. These studies, therefore, support “rolling hinge” models for the evolution of OCCs, whereby oceanic detachment faults initiate at a steep angle at depth and then “roll-over” to their present day low angle orientations during unroofing (Buck, 1988; Wernicke & Axen, 1988; Lavier et al., 1999). However, a fully integrated paleomagnetic and structural analysis of this process is hampered by the one-dimensional sampling provided by ocean drilling of OCC footwalls. Therefore, ancient analogues for OCCs in ophiolites are of great interest, as these potentially provide 3-D exposures of these important structures and hence a more complete understanding of footwall strain and kinematics (providing that emplacement-related phases of deformation can be accounted for). Recently, the relationship between outcropping crustal and upper mantle rocks led Tremblay et al. (2009) to propose that an OCC is preserved within the Mirdita ophiolite of the Albanian Dinarides (northern Albania). This is a slice of Jurassic oceanic lithosphere exposed along a N-S corridor which escaped the main late Cenozoic Alpine deformation (Robertson, 2002, 2004; Dilek et al., 2007). Though in the eastern portion of the Mirdita ophiolite a Penrose-type sequence is present, in the western portion mantle rocks are in tectonic contact with upper crustal lithologies

  12. Uploading, Searching and Visualizing of Paleomagnetic and Rock Magnetic Data in the Online MagIC Database (United States)

    Minnett, R.; Koppers, A.; Tauxe, L.; Constable, C.; Donadini, F.


    The Magnetics Information Consortium (MagIC) is commissioned to implement and maintain an online portal to a relational database populated by both rock and paleomagnetic data. The goal of MagIC is to archive all available measurements and derived properties from paleomagnetic studies of directions and intensities, and for rock magnetic experiments (hysteresis, remanence, susceptibility, anisotropy). MagIC is hosted under at and will soon implement two search nodes, one for paleomagnetism and one for rock magnetism. Currently the PMAG node is operational. Both nodes provide query building based on location, reference, methods applied, material type and geological age, as well as a visual map interface to browse and select locations. Users can also browse the database by data type or by data compilation to view all contributions associated with well known earlier collections like PINT, GMPDB or PSVRL. The query result set is displayed in a digestible tabular format allowing the user to descend from locations to sites, samples, specimens and measurements. At each stage, the result set can be saved and, where appropriate, can be visualized by plotting global location maps, equal area, XY, age, and depth plots, or typical Zijderveld, hysteresis, magnetization and remanence diagrams. User contributions to the MagIC database are critical to achieving a useful research tool. We have developed a standard data and metadata template (version 2.3) that can be used to format and upload all data at the time of publication in Earth Science journals. Software tools are provided to facilitate population of these templates within Microsoft Excel. These tools allow for the import/export of text files and provide advanced functionality to manage and edit the data, and to perform various internal checks to maintain data integrity and prepare for uploading. The MagIC Contribution Wizard at executes the upload

  13. The Patagonian Orocline: Paleomagnetic evidence of a large counter-clockwise rotation during the closure of the Rocas Verdes basin. (United States)

    Poblete, Fernando; Roperch, Pierrick; Herve, Francisco; Ramirez, Cristobal; Arriagada, Cesar


    The southernmost Andes of Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego present a prominent arc-shaped structure, the Patagonian Orocline. Despite the fact that this major structure was already described by Alfred Wegener in his famous textbook in 1929, few paleomagnetic studies have been attempted to describe the rotations associated with the formation of the Patagonian Orocline. In this study we present a paleomagnetic and anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) study from more than 130 sites obtained from the Ultima Esperanza region (NS structures at ~51°S) to Península Hardy, south of the Beagle Channel at ~55°S. 45 sites were sampled in early-cretaceous gabbros (gabbro complex), mid-cretaceous tonalites and granodiorites (Canal Beagle group) and Paleocene intrusive rocks (Seno Año Nuevo group) from the South Patagonian batholith, 4 sites from the late Jurassic Hardy formation, a volcanic succession outcropping in Hardy Peninsula and Stewart Island, 9 sites were drilled in the lower cretaceous sedimentary infill of the Rocas Verdes Basin, 3 sites from the Tortuga ophiolite, a quasi-oceanic crust related to the opening of the Rocas Verdes basin. 80 sites were sampled in Cretaceous to Miocene sedimentary rocks from the Magallanes fold and thrust belt and Magallanes Basin. Characteristic Remanent Magnetizations (ChRMs) obtained from the Rocas Verdes Basin tectonic province correspond to secondary magnetizations postdating the early phase of folding. Pyrrhotite is the main magnetic carrier in some of these sites. ChRMs from the South Patagonian Batholith correspond to a primary magnetization. These rocks record about 90° counterclockwise rotations south of the Beagle channel. Few sites from sediments of the Magallanes fold and thrust belt have stable ChRM. The available paleomagnetic results show that no rotation has occurred in the Provincia of Ultima Esperanza (51.5°S), at least, for the last 60 Ma. In the southern part of Provincia de Magallanes and Tierra del Fuego

  14. Multi-scale three-dimensional characterization of iron particles in dusty olivine: Implications for paleomagnetism of chondritic meteorites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Einsle, Joshua F.; Harrison, Richard J.; Kasama, Takeshi


    Dusty olivine (olivine containing multiple sub-micrometer inclusions of metallic iron) in chondritic meteorites is considered an ideal carrier of paleomagnetic remanence, capable of maintaining a faithful record of pre-accretionary magnetization acquired during chondrule formation. Here we show how......-dimensional (3D) volume reconstruction of a dusty olivine grain, obtained by selective milling through a region of interest in a series of sequential 20 nm slices, which are then imaged using scanning electron microscopy. The data provide a quantitative description of the iron particle ensemble, including...... axes of the particles and the remanence vector imparted in different fields. Although the orientation of the vortex core is determined largely by the ellipsoidal geometry (i.e., parallel to the major axis for prolate ellipsoids and parallel to the minor axis for oblate ellipsoids), the core...

  15. K-Ar ages, paleomagnetism, and geochemistry of the South Auckland volcanic field, North Island, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, R.M.; Okada, T.; Itaya, T.; Shibuya, H.; Smith, I.E.M.


    The South Auckland volcanic field is one of the Pliocene-Quaternary intraplate basaltic fields in northern North Island. It consists of at least 97 monogenetic volcanic centres covering an area of c. 300 km 2 , 38 km south of Auckland. Fifty-nine of the volcanic centres are characterised by mainly magmatic or effusive activity that constructed scoria cones and lava flows, while 38 are mainly phreatomagmatic or explosive that produced tuff rings and maars. Rock types consist of basanites, hawaiites, nepheline hawaiites, transitional basalts, and ol-tholeiitic basalts, with relatively minor amounts of nephelinites, alkali basalts, Q-tholeiitic basalts, and nepheline mugearites. Forty-three new K-Ar ages are presented, which range from 0.51 to 1.59 Ma, and show two peaks of activity at 0.6 and 1.3 Ma. Paleomagnetic determinations at 26 selected sites agree well with the paleomagnetic reversal time scale and support the K-Ar age data. Age data from each of the volcanic fields of Okete, Ngatutura, South Auckland, and Auckland, which constitute the Auckland intraplate basaltic province, show that they have developed within a time span of 0.3-1.1 Ma. After activity ceased in any particular field, a new field then developed 35-38 km to the north. These consistent time/space patterns indicate the possibility of a mantle source migrating northwards at c. 5 cm/yr. There is no correlation of rock composition with time, which is consistent with observations in the Northland intraplate province, but is not consistent with the formerly invoked rising diapir model. (author). 30 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  16. An Integrated Geochronological, Petrological, Geochemical and Paleomagnetic Study of Paleoproterozoic and Mesoproterozoic Mafic Dyke Swarms in the Nain Craton, Labrador (United States)

    Sahin, Tugce

    The Nain craton comprises the western, Labrador segment of the larger North Atlantic craton (NAC) which exposes Early through Late Archean gneisses. The NAC is bounded on all sides by Paleoproterozoic collisional orogens that involved either considerable structural reworking (Torngat-Nagssugtoqidian-Lewisian) or the accretion of juvenile arc magmas (Ketilidian-Makkovik). The NAC remains poorly understood compared to other Archean crustal blocks now dispersed globally. Compounding this problem is a lack of reliable paleomagnetic poles for NAC units that predate its assembly into the supercontinent Laurentia by ca. 1800 Ma, which could be used to test neighboring relationships with other cratonic fragments. In order to understand the history of the NAC as part of a possible, larger supercontinent, the record of mafic dyke swarms affecting the craton, particularly those that postdate the Late Archean terrane assembly, were examined in this study. Diabase or gabbroic dyke swarms are invaluable in such studies because their geometries offer possible locus points, they often have a punctuated emplacement and precisely datable crystallization histories, and they have cooling histories and oxide mineralogy amenable to recovering robust paleopoles. Coastal Labrador exposes a number of mafic dykes, some of which are demonstrably Paleoproterozoic (e.g. 2235 Ma Kikkertavak dykes; 2121 Ma Tikkigatsiagak dykes) or Mesoproterozoic (e.g. 1280-1270 Ma Nain and Harp dykes) in age (U-Pb; baddeleyite or zircon). The southern half of the Nain craton (Hopedale block) in particular preserves a rich array of mafic dykes. Dyke cross-cutting relationships are numerous and relatively well exposed, permitting multiple opportunities for paleomagnetic field tests (e.g. baked contact). The results presented here allow understanding of the tectonic evolution of the NAC with implications for strengthened Labrador-Greenland correlations, and testing possible Paleoproterozoic supercontinent

  17. Paleomagnetism of Jurassic radiolarian chert above the Coast Range ophiolite at Stanley Mountain, California, and implications for its paleogeographic origins (United States)

    Hagstrum, J.T.; Murchey, B.L.


    Upper Jurassic red tuffaceous chert above the Coast Range ophiolite at Stanley Mountain, California (lat 35??N, long 240??E), contains three components of remanent magnetization. The first component (A; removed by ???100-???200 ??C) has a direction near the present-day field for southern California and is probably a recently acquired thermoviscous magnetization. A second component (B; removed between ???100 and ???600 ??C) is identical to that observed by previous workers in samples of underlying pillow basalt and overlying terrigenous sedimentary rocks. This component has constant normal polarity and direction throughout the entire section, although these rocks were deposited during a mixed polarity interval of the geomagnetic field. The B magnetization, therefore, is inferred to be a secondary magnetization acquired during accretion, uplift, or Miocene volcanism prior to regional clockwise rotation. The highest temperature component (C; removed between ???480 and 680 ??C) is of dual polarity and is tentatively interpreted as a primary magnetization, although it fails a reversal test possibly due to contamination by B. Separation of the B and C components is best shown by samples with negative-inclination C directions, and a corrected mean direction using only these samples indicates an initial paleolatitude of 32??N ?? 8??. Paleobiogeographic models relating radiolarian faunal distribution patterns to paleolatitude have apparently been incorrectly calibrated using the overprint B component. Few other paleomagnetic data have been incorporated in these models, and faunal distribution patterns are poorly known and mostly unqualified. The available data, therefore, do not support formation of the Coast Range ophiolite at Stanley Mountain near the paleoequator or accretion at ???10??N paleolatitude, as has been previously suggested based on paleomagnetic data, but indicate deposition near expected paleolatitudes for North America (35??N ?? 4??) during Late Jurassic

  18. New paleomagnetic results from the Paleocene redbeds in the Tethyan Himalaya: Insights into the precollisional extension of Greater India and the time of the India-Asia collision (United States)

    Yang, T.; Jin, J.; Ma, Y.; Bian, W.; Zhang, S.; Gao, F.; Wu, H.; Li, H.; Yang, Z.; Cao, L.


    The collision and ongoing convergence between the India and Asia continents have produced the Himalayan-Tibetan Orogen. The precollisional extension of Greater India and the time of the India-Asia collision are very important to understand the tectonic evolution of the Tibetan Plateau, but disputes still remain concerning these two problems. A paleomagnetic and rock-magnetic study has been carried out on the Sangdanlin and Zheya Formation redbeds, which were dated at 60-58.5 Ma, in the Saga area of the Tethyan Himalaya. Thirty-six Paleocene redbed sites provide a tilt-corrected site-mean direction of D=178.3°, I=9.8° with ɑ95=5.5°, corresponding to a paleopole at 55.6°N, 268.5°E with A95 = 4.9°. This Paleocene paleomagnetic dataset passes positive fold tests and shows that the Saga area (29.3°N, 85.3°E) was located at 5.1°S during 60-58.5 Ma. Comparing the Paleocene (60-58.5 Ma) paleomagnetic results observed from the Tethyan Himalaya with those expected from the Indian APWP indicates a paleolatitude difference of 2.1°, which, combined with that the Early Cretaceous paleomagnetic results obtained from the Tethyan Himalaya and the Indian craton also showed a similar paleolatitude difference, suggests that neither a great north-south crustal shortening occurred between the Indian craton and the Tethyan Himalaya after the India-Asia collision, nor that a wide ocean extended between them after the Early Cretaceous. Therefore, high-quality paleomagnetic results show no a big Greater India. Based on our new Paleocene results obtained from the Tethyan Himalaya and the reliable Cretaceous-Early Eocene paleomagnetic results observed from the Lhasa terrane, as well as on extrapolating a constant Indian northward velocity of 18.8 cm/yr, the India-Asia collision occurred at 49.2 Ma for the reference point at 29.3°N, 85.3°E. This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41572205) and the Fundamental Research Fund for the Central

  19. Paleomagnetic evidence for a Tertiary not Triassic age for rocks in the lower part of the Grober-Fuqua #1 well, southeastern Albuquerque Basin, New Mexico (United States)

    Hudson, M.R.; Grauch, V.J.S.


    A sedimentary sequence penetrated in the lower part of the Grober-Fuqua #1 well in the southeastern Albuquerque Basin has previously been interpreted as either Triassic or Eocene in age. Paleomagnetic study of three specimens from two core fragments yielded a 54.5?? mean inclination of remanent magnetization relative to bedding. This inclination is like that expected in Tertiary time and is distinct from an expected low-angle Triassic inclination. Although the data are very few, when considered in combination with stratigraphic relations and the presence of a gravity low in this southeastern part of the basin, the paleomagnetic evidence favors a Tertiary age for strata in the lower part of the Grober-Fuqua #1 well.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia M. Levashova


    Full Text Available The tectonic and paleogeographic evolution of the Ural-Mongol belt between the cratons of Baltica, Siberia, and Tarim is the key to the formation of the Eurasian supercontinent during Paleozoic time, but the views on this complicated process remain very disparate and sometimes controversial. Three volcanic formations of the Middle Silurian, LowertoMiddle Devonian and Middle Devonian age from the southwestern boundary of the Chingiz Range (NE Kazakhstan yields what are interpreted as primary paleomagnetic directions that help clarify the evolution of the belt. A singlepolarity characteristic component in midSilurian andesites yields a positive intraformational conglomerate test, whereas dualpolarity prefolding components are isolated from the two Devonian collections. These new data were evaluated together with previously published paleomagnetic results from Paleozoic rocks in the Chingiz Range, and allow us to establish with confidence the hemisphere in which the area was located at a given time. We conclude that NE Kazakhstan was steadily moving northward crossing the equator in Silurian time. These new paleomagnetic data from the Chingiz range also agree with and reinforce the hypothesis that the strongly curved volcanic belts of Kazakhstan underwent oroclinal bending between Middle Devonian and Late Carboniferous time. A comparison of the Chingiz paleolatitudes with those of Siberia shows similarities between the northward motion and rotational history of the Chingiz unit and those of Siberia, which imposes important constraints on the evolving paleogeography of the Ural-Mongol belt.

  1. U-Pb geochronology and paleomagnetism of the Neoproterozoic St Simeon dolerite dykes, Quebec: an eastern Laurentian perspective of Ediacaran Rodinia breakup (United States)

    Pisarevsky, Sergei; Murphy, Brendan; Hamilton, Mike; Söderlund, Ulf; Hodych, Joseph


    The St Simeon (SS) mafic dykes (150 km NE of Quebec City) are now dated at 548 ± 1 Ma (U-Pb; baddeleyite). This age is similar to a published LA-ICPMS zircon age of 550 ± 7 Ma for the Mt. St-Anselme (MS) basalts, which supports previous inferences of (i) a genetic relationship between them, (ii) the pene-contemporaneity of OIB-type mafic magmatism in East Laurentia and (iii) the existence of two late Ediacaran plumes that attended the final breakup of Rodinia and opening of the Iapetus Ocean and Tornquist Sea. Both the SS dykes and the MS basalts were sampled for paleomagnetic study. The paleomagnetic pole for SS is similar to the previously published pole for coeval basalts (Skinner Cove, SC) from Newfoundland. Unlike SC, the St Simeon pole represents rocks which are unambiguously coherent tectonically with the Laurentian Craton. This new pole is also coeval with high quality poles from the Winter Coast (Baltica) and provides paleomagnetic constraints on the history of the final breakup of Rodinia and opening of Eastern Iapetus and Tornquist Sea.

  2. The New Data on Dynamics of Permian - Triassic Magmatic Activity on Siberian Platform: Paleomagnetic Results from Tunguska Syncline and Angara - Taseeva Depression (United States)

    Latyshev, A.; Veselovskiy, R. V.


    We perform the new paleomagnetic data from intrusive complexes of two regions of Siberian Trap province (Angara - Taseeva depression and Tunguska syncline). Results of paleomagnetic and geological investigation indicate that two different patterns of magmatic process took place in these regions. In Angara - Taseeva depression short intense peaks of magmatic activity alternate with more prolonged periods of relative quietness. These bursts of magmatic activity resulted in intruding of large dolerite sills. In the central part of Tunguska syncline local intrusive events took place on the background of effusive volcanic activity. Considering the new data together with previous paleomagnetic results from Norilsk and Maymecha - Kotuy regions (Pavlov et al., 2015), western part of Viluy basin (Konstantinov et al., 2014) and Angara-Taseeva depression (Latyshev et al., 2013), it can be concluded that pulsating character of magmatic activity is typical for the periphery of Tunguska syncline. However, the central part of Tunguska syncline is characterized by more prolonged and even style of volcanic process and less widescale intrusive events. This conclusion is important for understanding of LIPs formation and mantle plumes dynamics. This study was funded by grants RFBR # 14-05-31447 and 15-35-20599 and Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation (grant 14.Z50.31.0017).

  3. Timing of volcanism and initiation of rifting in the Omo-Turkana depression, southwest Ethiopia: Evidence from paleomagnetism (United States)

    Erbello, Asfaw; Kidane, Tesfaye


    Lava flows of the Gombe Group basalt cover the base of the Omo-Turkana rift in southwestern Ethiopia and northern Kenya. Paleomagnetic study results on these basalts are integrated with previous geochronologic data to better constrain the timing of volcanism and rifting in the area. A total of 80 drilled core samples were collected from nine sites. Experimental methods of Alternating Field (AF) demagnetization, Thermal (TH) demagnetization and Isothermal Remanent Magnetization (IRM) experiments are performed to unravel components of magnetizations. Two components of Natural Remnant Magnetization (NRM) directions are identified; the first one considered as Viscous Remanent Magnetization (VRM) is removed by 5-25 mT AF or a temperature of 120 °C-250 °C, the second component isolated after these steps defined a straight-line segment directed towards the origin and is interpreted as the Characteristic Remanent Magnetization (ChRM). In the IRM Acquisition experiment all analyzed samples showed a sharp rise in acquisition and reached to their saturation magnetization by an applied field of 300 mT. This together with the AF demagnetization and TH demagnetization behaviors suggest pseudo single domain titanomagnetite as a dominant magnetic carrier of the remanence. From a total of nine sites, six sites are reversed polarity, two sites are normal polarity and pass the reversal test of McFadden and McElhinny (1990) while one site is of erratic behavior probably due to lightning strike. The mean direction for the reversed polarity is DS = 186.1°, IS = -1.9° (N = 2, KS = 38.8, α95 = 10.9°) and that for the normal polarity is DS = 348.4°, IS = 4.6° (N = 6, K = 378.9, α95 = 12.9°). The overall mean direction DS = 1.7°, IS = 2.6° (N = 8, KS = 34.2, α95 = 9.6°), is statistically identical to the expected mean direction Ds = 2.1°, Is = 7.8° (N = 26, α95 = 2.3) obtained from the African Apparent Polar Waner Path (APWP) curve of African plate for a mean age of 4.25 Ma

  4. Extending the Sensitivity of Paleomagnetic Techniques: Magnetostratigraphy of Weakly- Magnetized, Organic-Rich Black Limestone from the Permian of Japan (United States)

    Kirschvink, J. L.; Isozaki, Y.


    Despite their importance for biostratigraphy, bituminous, organic-rich limestone has rarely yielded reliable paleomagnetic results, principally due to the weak magnetization levels encountered; NRMs for such samples often start with moments below 10-10Am2 (10-7 emu), and they become unmeasurable or unstable rapidly upon demagnetization. Recently, we have developed a fairly simple and inexpensive automation system for standard paleomagnetic and rock magnetic measurements that has the additional benefit of using an extremely low-noise sample holder. A vacuum pick-and-put system holds samples at the end a thin-walled quartz-glass tube, moving them between a measurement queue and the sense region of a vertically-aligned superconducting rock magnetometer. The system minimizes the amount of extraneous material introduced into the magnetometer's sense region. With frequent cleaning in strong acid, the glass holder system is capable of reliably measuring samples with moments below 1 pAm2 (10-9 emu), on a DC-SQuID magnetometer system with stable instrument noise of a few hundred fAm2. Signal averaging and clean-lab handling techniques are often needed to achieve this sensitivity, however. To test this system, we collected a series of densely-spaced samples for magnetostratigraphy from two sections in the Middle-Late Permian limestone at Kamura in Kyushu, Japan, which is the remnant of lagoonal sediments formed on an oceanic island atoll (Isozaki et al., 2007). According to fusulinids, the Saraito section spans Wordian time, which should be near the end of the Kiaman Reversed superchron. Similarly, strata at the Kamura section cover late Capitanian to early Wuchiapingian time, which should display a shift from predominantly Normal to Reversed magnetization. Raman spectroscopy suggests no appreciable heating. NRM intensities of the samples range generally between 10-10 and 10-11 Am2, with little change in the vectors either upon low-temperature cycling or alternating

  5. Anisotropy of Anhysteretic Remanenct Magnetization (AARM) and its Dependence on Experimental Parameters - Implications for Fabric Interpretation and Paleomagnetic Corrections (United States)

    Feinberg, J. M.; Biedermann, A. R.; Bilardello, D.; Jackson, M.


    Magnetic fabrics often serve as proxies for mineral fabrics, and anisotropy of remanent magnetization in particular assesses the crystallographic and shape preferred orientation of ferromagnetic (sensu lato) minerals. Anisotropy of anhysteretic remanent magnetization (AARM) is most commonly measured by imparting a set of directional anhysteretic remanences over the entire coercivity range of the sample, or up to the maximum field the (de)magnetizer can reach. However, if several ferromagnetic minerals or grain sizes coexist in a rock, they may be affected by different stress fields or stages of deformation. For example, if magnetite is present both as exsolution lamellae within silicates as well as interstitial grains between silicates, then these two populations may possess significantly different fabrics. In this study, we investigate how AARM in a rock changes when the remanence is imparted over different coercivity windows. For this, remanences are imposed over 0-20, 0-50, 0-100, 0-180, and 20-50, 50-100 and 100-180 mT. We will also investigate how the strength of the DC bias field affects AARM tensors. Preliminary results on rocks from a series of lithologies indicate that principal directions, degree and shape of the ARM anisotropy can vary dramatically across different coercivity windows. The degree of anisotropy can either decrease or increase as higher-coercivity grains are included. In particular, it should be noted that the coercivity fraction carrying the largest portion of the remanence does not necessarily dominate the AARM. Principal directions can be similar for all coercivity windows, but a number of samples show distinct orientations of the 0-20 mT AARM tensors vs the 50-100 or 100-180 mT tensors, with the 0-50, 0-100 and 0-180 mT AARMs being a combination of these two fabrics. Changes in AARM tensors will influence the interpretation of inferred flow or deformation patterns, as well as anisotropy corrections of paleomagnetic data. Therefore

  6. Paleomagnetic evidence for an inverse rotation history of Western Anatolia during the exhumation of Menderes core complex (United States)

    Uzel, Bora; Langereis, Cornelis G.; Kaymakci, Nuretdin; Sözbilir, Hasan; Özkaymak, Çağlar; Özkaptan, Murat


    Within the Aegean extensional system, the İzmir-Balıkesir Transfer Zone (İBTZ) is a crucial element in the late Cenozoic evolution of western Anatolia since it accommodates the differential deformation between the Cycladic and the Menderes metamorphic core complexes. Here, we determine the rotational history of western Anatolia using new paleomagnetic data from 87 sites in Miocene volcano-sedimentary rocks to better understand the role of the İBTZ. Our results reveal two discrete and opposite major rotational phases during the Miocene. The first phase is derived from early Miocene volcanic, sedimentary and granitic rocks and is controlled by detachment and strike-slip faults. It is characterized by an average (net) 23 ± 6 ° clockwise (CW) rotation within the İBTZ since the early Miocene. Our new data from the Menderes part on the other hand show an average - 23 ± 10 ° counter-clockwise (CCW) rotation. The data from the Cycladic part show no significant (net) rotation since the early Miocene. The second phase is derived from middle-late Miocene volcanic and sedimentary rocks and is controlled by high-angle normal and strike-slip faults. The rotations from this phase show a very consistent pattern of - 22 ± 11 ° CCW within the İBTZ, while now the Menderes part shows an average CW rotation of 25 ± 14 °. Our paleomagnetic results hence document a major change and inversion of rotation. Between the early and late Miocene the İBTZ region experienced a large 45° CW rotation, while during the same time interval the Menderes part outside the zone experienced a similar (48°) CCW rotation. After that, the İBTZ became narrower and the sense of rotation inverted to CCW (- 23 ± 10 ° since the late Miocene), while in the Menderes part it inverted to CW (25 ± 14 ° since the late Miocene). Our new results do therefore fit the hypotheses of two-stage-extension scenario, rather than a one-single-phase of extension. We also conclude that the observed rotations

  7. Unravelling the Volcanological Complexities of a Flood Basalt Province: Volcanology, Paleomagnetism and Geochemistry, From the Deccan Volcanic Province (United States)

    Jay, A. E.; Widdowson, M.; Self, S.; Mac Niocaill, C.


    The lavas of the Deccan Volcanic Province (DVP), India, were erupted across the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary (KTB) and, as such, have been suggested as a candidate for causing the KTB mass extinction event. Understanding the development of such large outpourings of lava is essential to deducing their environmental impact. Detailed flow-by-flow logging was undertaken along four roads up the Mahabaleshwar Plateau, and a further three road sections to the north and south were investigated in order to study the volcanological style of this area of the DVP. Logging along the four roads which ascend the Mahabaleshwar Plateau was combined with detailed geochemical and paleomagnetic sampling and provides the first integrated study of its kind in the DVP. The logging demonstrated that almost all the lavas encountered were inflated pahoehoe sheet lobes. No `a'a flows were encountered and one rubbly pahoehoe flow may have been observed. Statistical analyses of XRF trace element data, and the occurrence of differing thicknesses and numbers of lava units between the paleomagnetic reversal horizon (Chron 29r/29n) and the top of the Ambenali Formation, suggest that individual sheet lobes are not greater than the width of the Plateau c. 20 km. This provides an explanation for the topography, up to 95 m in our study area, on the surface of the DVP at the time when the lavas were being erupted. As the sheet lobes were emplaced and inflated they left areas uncovered by lava, the topographic difference between these two areas could be many 10s of metres, and as this process occurred over the whole DVP the topographic differences could increase. As well as topography, this leads to other complexities. When later lavas in-fill these depressions it causes them to occur physically lower in the sequence than older lavas. This demonstrates that the previously held concept of large, flat-lying sheets lobes covering vast tracts of the province is not probable, as on the local scale tracing

  8. A re-evaluation of the Italian historical geomagnetic catalogue: implications for paleomagnetic dating at active Italian volcanoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. D'Ajello Caracciolo


    Full Text Available Paleomagnetism is proving to represent one of the most powerful dating tools of volcanics emplaced in Italy during the last few centuries/millennia. This method requires that valuable proxies of the local geomagnetic field (paleosecular variation ((PSV are available. To this end, we re-evaluate the whole Italian geomagnetic directional dataset, consisting of 833 and 696 declination and inclination measurements, respectively, carried out since 1640 AD at several localities. All directions were relocated via the virtual geomagnetic pole method to Stromboli (38.8° N, 15.2° E, the rough centre of the active Italian volcanoes. For declination-only measurements, missing inclinations were derived (always by pole method by French data (for period 1670–1789, and by nearby Italian sites/years (for periods 1640–1657 and 1790–1962. Using post-1825 declination values, we obtain a 0.46 ± 0.19° yr−1 westward drift of the geomagnetic field for Italy. The original observation years were modified, considering such drift value, to derive at a drift-corrected relocated dataset. Both datasets were found to be in substantial agreement with directions derived from the field models by Jackson et al. (2000 and Pavon-Carrasco et al. (2009. However, the drift-corrected dataset minimizes the differences between the Italian data and both field models, and eliminates a persistent 1.6° shift of 1933–1962 declination values from Castellaccio with respect to other nearly coeval Italian data. The relocated datasets were used to calculate two post-1640 Italian SV curves, with mean directions calculated every 30 and 10 years before and after 1790, respectively. The curve comparison suggests that both available field models yield the best available SV curve to perform paleomagnetic dating of 1600–1800 AD Italian volcanics, while the Italian drift-corrected curve is probably preferable for the 19th century. For the 20th century, the global model by

  9. Early Cretaceous paleomagnetic results from Marie Byrd Land, West Antarctica: Implications for the Weddellia collage of crustal blocks (United States)

    Divenere, Vic; Kent, Dennis V.; Dalziel, Ian W. D.


    A new approximately 117 Ma paleomagnetic pole has been defined from the study of volcanic and plutonic rocks from the eastern portion Marie Byrd Land (MBL). The new pole (185.6 deg E/56.8 deg S, A(sub 95) = 8.7 deg) implies that the eastern portion of MBL was an integral part of Weddellia, which included the ancestral Antarctic Peninsula, Thurston Island, and Ellsworth-Whitmore Mountains blocks of West Antarctica. This pole is generally similar to a approximately 125 Ma pole from Thurston Island. Both poles call for major clockwise rotation and poleward motion of eastern MBL and Thurston Island between the Early Cretaceous (125-117 Ma) and the mid-Cretaceous (110-100 Ma). We propose that in the Early Cretaceous, eastern MBL and the Eastern Province of New Zealand were part of a continuous active Pacific margin of Gondwana, connecting with the Antarctic Peninsula, and distinct from western MBL, the Western Province of New Zealand, and North Victoria Land. These western terranes are thought to have accreted to Gondwana in the Devonian. Eastern MBL and the Eastern Province of New Zealand amalgamated with western MBL and the Western Province of New Zealand by the mid-Cretaceous. Major Early Cretaceous motions of the Weddellia blocks postdate the estimated initiation of seafloor spreading in the Weddell Sea and therefore may be the result of plate reorganization during the Cretaceous Quiet Zone.

  10. PmagPy: Software Package for Paleomagnetic Data Analysis and Gateway to the Magnetics Information Consortium (MagIC) Database (United States)

    Jonestrask, L.; Tauxe, L.; Shaar, R.; Jarboe, N.; Minnett, R.; Koppers, A. A. P.


    There are many data types and methods of analysis in rock and paleomagnetic investigations. The MagIC database ( was designed to accommodate the vast majority of data used in such investigations. Yet getting data from the laboratory into the database, and visualizing and re-analyzing data downloaded from the database, makes special demands on data formatting. There are several recently published programming packages that deal with single types of data: demagnetization experiments (e.g., Lurcock et al., 2012), paleointensity experiments (e.g., Leonhardt et al., 2004), and FORC diagrams (e.g., Harrison et al., 2008). However, there is a need for a unified set of open source, cross-platform software that deals with the great variety of data types in a consistent way and facilitates importing data into the MagIC format, analyzing them and uploading them into the MagIC database. The PmagPy software package ( comprises a such a comprehensive set of tools. It facilitates conversion of many laboratory formats into the common MagIC format and allows interpretation of demagnetization and Thellier-type experimental data. With some 175 programs and over 250 functions, it can be used to create a wide variety of plots and allows manipulation of downloaded data sets as well as preparation of new contributions for uploading to the MagIC database.

  11. Paleomagnetic constraints on early collisional deformation along the eastern margin of the Qiantang terrane (Tibetan plateau) at 50 and 37 Ma. (United States)

    Roperch, Pierrick; Dupont-Nivet, Guillaume; Guillot, Stéphane; Goussin, Fanny; Huang, Wentao; Replumaz, Anne; Yang, Zhang; Guo, Zhaojie; Song, Bowen


    Ongoing controversies on the timing and latitude of the India-Asia collision with associated formation of the Tibetan plateau have major implications on geodynamic, climatic and biotic models. Rock paleomagnetic inclinations and declinations enable in principle to quantify respectively paleolatitudes and tectonic rotations. However, shallow paleomagnetic inclinations observed for most of the Cenozoic rocks across the active belts of Central Asia have been controversially interpreted as resulting from non dipolar geomagnetic fields, inclination flattening in the sedimentary data or large scale continental deformation. In addition tectonic rotations from the Eastern margin of Tibet may result from extrusion or dextral shear associated with implication on the early collision. We present new paleomagnetic results from two Cenozoic basins of the Eastern part of the Qiantang block characterized by two short-lived volcanic fields at 37-38Ma (Nangqian area) and 49-51Ma (Xialaxiu area). In the Xialaxiu area, we sampled the volcanic field near the town of Xialaxiu and red beds filling the Sangalaxiu basin 10 to 20km farther north. Results from the red beds after tilt correction (D=328.3°, I=34.3°, α95=7.6°) confirm the result (D=322.0°, I=32.3°, α95=9.5°) previously obtained by Cogne et al., (1999) but the age and nature of the characteristic magnetization are uncertain. The mean direction calculated from 21 sites in volcanic rocks provides a more reliable paleofield (D=11.9°, I=41.6°, α95=8.0°). Comparison with the expected direction for stable Eurasia suggest no rotation but significant post 50 Ma shortening north of the Qiantang block in agreement with results from the Lhasa terrane at the same age (56-47 Ma) (van Hinsbergen et al., 2012). In the Nangqian basin, paleomagnetic sites have been collected in red beds sediments, sills and dikes intruding the red bed sequence and in extrusive volcanic rocks mainly found on top of the sedimentary sequence. A well

  12. Paleomagnetism of Devonian dykes in the northern Kola Peninsula and its bearing on the apparent polar wander path of Baltica in the Precambrian (United States)

    Veselovskiy, Roman V.; Bazhenov, Mikhail L.; Arzamastsev, Andrey A.


    Mafic dykes and large alkaline and carbonatite intrusions of Middle-Late Devonian age are widespread on the Kola Peninsula in NE Fennoscandia. These magmatic rocks are well characterized with petrographic, geochemical and geochronological data but no paleomagnetic results have been reported yet. We studied dolerite dykes from the northern part of the Peninsula and isolated three paleomagnetic components in these rocks. A low-temperature component is aligned along the present-day field, while a major constituent of natural remanent magnetization is an intermediate-temperature component (Decl. = 79.6°, Inc. = 78.5°, α95 = 5,9°, N = 17 sites) that is present in most Devonian dykes but is found in some baked metamorphic rocks and Proterozoic dykes too. Finally, a primary Devonian component could be reliably isolated from two dykes only. Rock-magnetic studies point to presumably primary low-Ti titanomagnetite and/or pure magnetite as the main remanence carriers but also reveal alteration of the primary minerals and the formation of new magnetic phases. The directions of a major component differ from the Middle Paleozoic reference data for Baltica but closely match those for the 190 ± 10 Ma interval recalculated from the apparent polar wander path of the craton. We assume that this Early Jurassic component is a low-temperature overprint of chemical origin. The main impact of the new results is not to mid-Paleozoic or Early Mesozoic times but to much older epochs. Analysis of paleomagnetic data shows that the directionally similar remanences are present in objects with the ages ranging from 500 Ma to 2 Ga over entire Fennoscandia. Hence we argue that an Early Jurassic remagnetization is of regional extent but cannot link it to a certain process and a certain tectonic event. If true, this hypothesis necessitates a major revision of the APWP for Baltica over a wide time interval.

  13. Deconvolution of continuous paleomagnetic data from pass-through magnetometer: A new algorithm to restore geomagnetic and environmental information based on realistic optimization (United States)

    Oda, Hirokuni; Xuan, Chuang


    development of pass-through superconducting rock magnetometers (SRM) has greatly promoted collection of paleomagnetic data from continuous long-core samples. The output of pass-through measurement is smoothed and distorted due to convolution of magnetization with the magnetometer sensor response. Although several studies could restore high-resolution paleomagnetic signal through deconvolution of pass-through measurement, difficulties in accurately measuring the magnetometer sensor response have hindered the application of deconvolution. We acquired reliable sensor response of an SRM at the Oregon State University based on repeated measurements of a precisely fabricated magnetic point source. In addition, we present an improved deconvolution algorithm based on Akaike's Bayesian Information Criterion (ABIC) minimization, incorporating new parameters to account for errors in sample measurement position and length. The new algorithm was tested using synthetic data constructed by convolving "true" paleomagnetic signal containing an "excursion" with the sensor response. Realistic noise was added to the synthetic measurement using Monte Carlo method based on measurement noise distribution acquired from 200 repeated measurements of a u-channel sample. Deconvolution of 1000 synthetic measurements with realistic noise closely resembles the "true" magnetization, and successfully restored fine-scale magnetization variations including the "excursion." Our analyses show that inaccuracy in sample measurement position and length significantly affects deconvolution estimation, and can be resolved using the new deconvolution algorithm. Optimized deconvolution of 20 repeated measurements of a u-channel sample yielded highly consistent deconvolution results and estimates of error in sample measurement position and length, demonstrating the reliability of the new deconvolution algorithm for real pass-through measurements.

  14. Devonian paleomagnetism of the North Tien Shan: Implications for the middle-Late Paleozoic paleogeography of Eurasia (United States)

    Levashova, Natalia M.; Mikolaichuk, Alexander V.; McCausland, Philip J. A.; Bazhenov, Mikhail L.; Van der Voo, Rob


    The Ural-Mongol belt (UMB), between Siberia, Baltica and Tarim, is widely recognized as the locus of Asia's main growth during the Paleozoic, but its evolution remains highly controversial, as illustrated by the disparate paleogeographic models published in the last decade. One of the largest tectonic units of the UMB is the Kokchetav-North Tien Shan Domain (KNTD) that stretches from Tarim in the south nearly to the West Siberian Basin. The KNTD comprises several Precambrian microcontinents and numerous remnants of Early Paleozoic island arcs, marginal basins and accretionary complexes. In Late Ordovician time, all these structures had amalgamated into a single contiguous domain. Its paleogeographic position is of crucial importance for elucidating the Paleozoic evolution of the UMB in general and of the Urals in particular. The Aral Formation, located in Kyrgyzstan in the southern part of the KNTD, consists of a thick Upper Devonian (Frasnian) basalt-andesite sequence. Paleomagnetic data show a dual-polarity characteristic component (Dec/Inc = 286° / + 56°, α95 = 9°, k = 21, N = 15 sites). The primary origin of this magnetization is confirmed by a positive test on intraformational conglomerates. We combine this result with other Paleozoic data from the KNTD and show its latitudinal motion from the Late Ordovician to the end of the Paleozoic. The observed paleolatitudes are found to agree well with the values extrapolated from Baltica to a common reference point (42.5°N, 73°E) in our sampling area for the entire interval; hence coherent motion of the KNTD and Baltica is strongly indicated for most of the Paleozoic. This finding contradicts most published models of the UMB evolution, where the KNTD is separated from Baltica by a rather wide Ural Ocean containing one or more major plate boundaries. An exception is the model of Şengör and Natal'in [A.M.C. Şengör, B.A. Natal'in, Paleotectonics of Asia: fragments of a synthesis, in: A. Yin and M. Harrison (eds

  15. New paleomagnetic results from the Permian and Mesozoic rocks in central and northeast Thailand: their implications for the construction of the Indochina block in Pangea (United States)

    Zhang, D.; Yan, Y.; Huang, B.; Zhao, J.


    Paleomagnetic studies of the Indochina block, aiming to reconstruct the paleogeography, have been undertaken for several decades. Since the Indochina block is lack of reliable paleomagnetic data to constraint its paleo-positions during the Middle Permian to Upper Triassic, the paleogeography reconstruction is still in debate between different models reported. Here we present new paleomagnetic data of Middle Permian to Upper Triassic sediment rocks from the Indochina block in Thailand, and recalculate paleomagnetic data reported by different authors. We collected the Permian samples in 20 sites distributed in the central Thailand, and Triassic samples from the Huai Hin Lat and Nam Phong formations in 13 sites in the northern Thailand.The magnetic directions of the 11 sites of Permian limestones are not significantly clustered after tilt correction which implying a remagnetized result. Remarkably, in geographic coordinate, the 11 sites were distributed along a circle showing a similar inclination which is 22.9° implying the paleolatitude to be about 12°. Totally, 13 sites from the Huai Hin Lat formation are included in the calculation of the formation mean direction Dg/Ig = 21.4°/38.1°, kg = 19.5, α95 = 9.6° before and Ds/Is = 43.0°/48.0°, ks = 47.4, α95 = 6.1°, N = 13 after bedding correction. A pre-folding characteristic magnetization is suggested by the positive fold test result derived from the Huai Hin Lat formation, and thus implies a primary remanence of the Norian Stage Upper Triassic rocks. A new Nam Phong formation mean direction derived from 11 sites is Dg/Ig = 36.5°/31.3°, kg = 14.7, α95 = 12.3°before and Ds/Is = 36.4°/37.8°, ks = 68.5, α95 = 5.6°, N = 11 after bedding correction. The two formation mean directions correspond to the magnetic pole positions , Plat./Plon=48.7°N/165.9°E, A95=7.2° and Plat./Plon=55.2°N/178.0°E, A95=5.9°, respectively. A remarkable tectonic movement (~8° southward) of the Indochina block from the age of

  16. Accurate Predictions of Mean Geomagnetic Dipole Excursion and Reversal Frequencies, Mean Paleomagnetic Field Intensity, and the Radius of Earth's Core Using McLeod's Rule (United States)

    Voorhies, Coerte V.; Conrad, Joy


    The geomagnetic spatial power spectrum R(sub n)(r) is the mean square magnetic induction represented by degree n spherical harmonic coefficients of the internal scalar potential averaged over the geocentric sphere of radius r. McLeod's Rule for the magnetic field generated by Earth's core geodynamo says that the expected core surface power spectrum (R(sub nc)(c)) is inversely proportional to (2n + 1) for 1 less than n less than or equal to N(sub E). McLeod's Rule is verified by locating Earth's core with main field models of Magsat data; the estimated core radius of 3485 kn is close to the seismologic value for c of 3480 km. McLeod's Rule and similar forms are then calibrated with the model values of R(sub n) for 3 less than or = n less than or = 12. Extrapolation to the degree 1 dipole predicts the expectation value of Earth's dipole moment to be about 5.89 x 10(exp 22) Am(exp 2)rms (74.5% of the 1980 value) and the expected geomagnetic intensity to be about 35.6 (mu)T rms at Earth's surface. Archeo- and paleomagnetic field intensity data show these and related predictions to be reasonably accurate. The probability distribution chi(exp 2) with 2n+1 degrees of freedom is assigned to (2n + 1)R(sub nc)/(R(sub nc). Extending this to the dipole implies that an exceptionally weak absolute dipole moment (less than or = 20% of the 1980 value) will exist during 2.5% of geologic time. The mean duration for such major geomagnetic dipole power excursions, one quarter of which feature durable axial dipole reversal, is estimated from the modern dipole power time-scale and the statistical model of excursions. The resulting mean excursion duration of 2767 years forces us to predict an average of 9.04 excursions per million years, 2.26 axial dipole reversals per million years, and a mean reversal duration of 5533 years. Paleomagnetic data show these predictions to be quite accurate. McLeod's Rule led to accurate predictions of Earth's core radius, mean paleomagnetic field


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghai Zhang


    Full Text Available We report a paleomagnetic investigation on Permian volcanic rocks in the middle-east Inner Mongolia, NE China, aiming to puzzle out the timing and position of the final closure of the eastern Paleo-Asian ocean (PAO and further to better understand tectonic evolution of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB. Two pre-folding characteristic components are isolated from the Sanmianjing and Elitu formations (~283–266 Ma in the northern margin of the North China block (NMNCB and the Dashizhai Formation (~280 Ma in the Songliao-Xilinhot block (SXB, respectively.

  18. Managing Rock and Paleomagnetic Data Flow with the MagIC Database: from Measurement and Analysis to Comprehensive Archive and Visualization (United States)

    Koppers, A. A.; Minnett, R. C.; Tauxe, L.; Constable, C.; Donadini, F.


    The Magnetics Information Consortium (MagIC) is commissioned to implement and maintain an online portal to a relational database populated by rock and paleomagnetic data. The goal of MagIC is to archive all measurements and derived properties for studies of paleomagnetic directions (inclination, declination) and intensities, and for rock magnetic experiments (hysteresis, remanence, susceptibility, anisotropy). Organizing data for presentation in peer-reviewed publications or for ingestion into databases is a time-consuming task, and to facilitate these activities, three tightly integrated tools have been developed: MagIC-PY, the MagIC Console Software, and the MagIC Online Database. A suite of Python scripts is available to help users port their data into the MagIC data format. They allow the user to add important metadata, perform basic interpretations, and average results at the specimen, sample and site levels. These scripts have been validated for use as Open Source software under the UNIX, Linux, PC and Macintosh© operating systems. We have also developed the MagIC Console Software program to assist in collating rock and paleomagnetic data for upload to the MagIC database. The program runs in Microsoft Excel© on both Macintosh© computers and PCs. It performs routine consistency checks on data entries, and assists users in preparing data for uploading into the online MagIC database. The MagIC website is hosted under at and has two search nodes, one for paleomagnetism and one for rock magnetism. Both nodes provide query building based on location, reference, methods applied, material type and geological age, as well as a visual FlashMap interface to browse and select locations. Users can also browse the database by data type (inclination, intensity, VGP, hysteresis, susceptibility) or by data compilation to view all contributions associated with previous databases, such as PINT, GMPDB or TAFI or other user

  19. Lower-Middle Jurassic paleomagnetic data from the Mae Sot area (Thailand): Paleogeographic evolution and deformation history of Southeastern Asia (United States)

    Yang, Z. Y.; Besse, J.; Sutheetorn, V.; Bassoullet, J. P.; Fontaine, H.; Buffetaut, E.


    We have carried out a paleomagnetic study (12 sites, 85 samples) of Early-Middle Jurassic limestones and sandstones from the Mae Sot area of western Thailand. This area is part of the Shan-Thai-Malay (STM) block, and its geological characteristics have led some authors to suggest a Late Jurassic accretion of this region against the rest of Indochina along the Changning-Menglian zone, the latter sometimes being interpreted as a Mesozoic suture. The high-temperature (or high-coercivity) component isolated yields a paleodirection at D = 359.8 °, I = 31.4 ° (α 95 = 5.0 °). The primary nature of the magnetization acquisition is ascertained at a site with reversed polarity and a positive fold test (at the 95% confidence level). Comparison of the Mae Sot paleolatitude and another one from the STM with those recently published for the Simao and Khorat blocks show no significant difference at the 95% level, showing that the STM was situated close to, or had already accreted with, the Simao or Khorat blocks in the Early-Middle Jurassic. Comparison of the latitudes from these blocks with those from China indicates a relative southward motion of 8 ± 4° of Indochina as a single entity relative to China. Most rotations of these regions relative to China are found to be clockwise (between 14 and 75°). These rotations, and most prominently the 1200 ± 500 km post-Cretaceous left-lateral motion inferred for the Red River Fault, provide quantitative estimates of the large amount of extrusion of Indochina with respect to the rest of Asia.

  20. Paleomagnetic determinations on Lanzarote from magnetic and gravity anomalies: Implications for the early history of the Canary Islands (United States)

    Blanco-Montenegro, I.; Montesinos, F. G.; GarcíA, A.; Vieira, R.; VillalaíN, J. J.


    The Bouguer and aeromagnetic anomaly maps of Lanzarote show a gravity high and a dipolar magnetic anomaly over the central part of the island, indicating one isolated source. Assuming that the structure responsible for both anomalies is the same, a methodology has been designed to estimate the total magnetization vector of the source, which is interpreted as a large intrusive body (mafic core) positioned as a result of magma rising to the surface during the early stages of growth of Lanzarote. Considering its geometry to be known from a previous three-dimensional (3-D) gravity model, the approach proposed in this paper is based on the delineation of magnetic contacts through analysis of the horizontal gradient of the reduced-to-the-pole anomaly map, comparison between the gravity and the pseudogravity anomalies, and 3-D forward magnetic modeling. The total magnetization vector obtained by this method is defined by a module of 4.5 A m-1 and a direction D = -20° and I = 30°. Comparing the paleomagnetic pole, obtained from this direction, with the apparent polar wander path of Africa for the last 160 Myr, it is concluded that the main component of the total magnetization vector is probably a primary natural remanent magnetization (NRM) which could have been acquired between 60 and 100 Ma. This result suggests that the emplacement of magmas at shallow depths linked to the beginning of volcanism in Lanzarote took place during the Upper Cretaceous, thus providing the first evidence of a timeline for the early formative stages of this volcanic island.

  1. Paleomagnetism of Jurassic and Cretaceous rocks in central Patagonia: a key to constrain the timing of rotations during the breakup of southwestern Gondwana? (United States)

    Geuna, Silvana E.; Somoza, Rubén; Vizán, Haroldo; Figari, Eduardo G.; Rinaldi, Carlos A.


    A paleomagnetic study in Jurassic and Cretaceous rocks from the Cañadón Asfalto basin, central Patagonia, indicates the occurrence of about 25-30° clockwise rotation in Upper Jurassic-lowermost Cretaceous rocks, whereas the overlying mid-Cretaceous rocks do not show evidence of rotation. This constrains the tectonic rotation to be related to a major regional unconformity in Patagonia, which in turn seems to be close in time with the early opening of the South Atlantic Ocean. The sense and probably the timing of this rotation are similar to those of other paleomagnetically detected rotations in different areas of southwestern Gondwana, suggesting a possible relationship between these and major tectonic processes related with fragmentation of the supercontinent. On the other hand, the mid-Cretaceous rocks in the region yield a paleopole located at Lat. 87° South, Long. 159° East, A95=3.8°. This pole position is consistent with coeval high-quality paleopoles of other plates when transferred to South American coordinates, implying it is an accurate determination of the Aptian (circa 116 Ma) geomagnetic field in South America.

  2. Early Cretaceous paleomagnetic and geochronologic results from the Tethyan Himalaya: Insights into the Neotethyan paleogeography and the India–Asia collision (United States)

    Ma, Yiming; Yang, Tianshui; Bian, Weiwei; Jin, Jingjie; Zhang, Shihong; Wu, Huaichun; Li, Haiyan


    To better understand the Neotethyan paleogeography, a paleomagnetic and geochronological study has been performed on the Early Cretaceous Sangxiu Formation lava flows, which were dated from ~135.1 Ma to ~124.4 Ma, in the Tethyan Himalaya. The tilt-corrected site-mean characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM) direction for 26 sites is Ds = 296.1°, Is = −65.7°, ks = 51.7, α95 = 4.0°, corresponding to a paleopole at 5.9°S, 308.0°E with A95 = 6.1°. Positive fold and reversal tests prove that the ChRM directions are prefolding primary magnetizations. These results, together with reliable Cretaceous-Paleocene paleomagnetic data observed from the Tethyan Himalaya and the Lhasa terrane, as well as the paleolatitude evolution indicated by the apparent polar wander paths (APWPs) of India, reveal that the Tethyan Himalaya was a part of Greater India during the Early Cretaceous (135.1–124.4 Ma) when the Neotethyan Ocean was up to ~6900 km, it rifted from India sometime after ~130 Ma, and that the India-Asia collision should be a dual-collision process including the first Tethyan Himalaya-Lhasa terrane collision at ~54.9 Ma and the final India-Tethyan Himalaya collision at ~36.7 Ma. PMID:26883692

  3. Early Cretaceous paleomagnetic and geochronologic results from the Tethyan Himalaya: Insights into the Neotethyan paleogeography and the India-Asia collision. (United States)

    Ma, Yiming; Yang, Tianshui; Bian, Weiwei; Jin, Jingjie; Zhang, Shihong; Wu, Huaichun; Li, Haiyan


    To better understand the Neotethyan paleogeography, a paleomagnetic and geochronological study has been performed on the Early Cretaceous Sangxiu Formation lava flows, which were dated from ~135.1 Ma to ~124.4 Ma, in the Tethyan Himalaya. The tilt-corrected site-mean characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM) direction for 26 sites is Ds = 296.1°, Is = -65.7°, ks = 51.7, α95 = 4.0°, corresponding to a paleopole at 5.9°S, 308.0°E with A95 = 6.1°. Positive fold and reversal tests prove that the ChRM directions are prefolding primary magnetizations. These results, together with reliable Cretaceous-Paleocene paleomagnetic data observed from the Tethyan Himalaya and the Lhasa terrane, as well as the paleolatitude evolution indicated by the apparent polar wander paths (APWPs) of India, reveal that the Tethyan Himalaya was a part of Greater India during the Early Cretaceous (135.1-124.4 Ma) when the Neotethyan Ocean was up to ~6900 km, it rifted from India sometime after ~130 Ma, and that the India-Asia collision should be a dual-collision process including the first Tethyan Himalaya-Lhasa terrane collision at ~54.9 Ma and the final India-Tethyan Himalaya collision at ~36.7 Ma.

  4. Paleomagnetism of Holocene lava flows from the Reykjanes Peninsula and the Tungnaá lava sequence (Iceland): implications for flow correlation and ages (United States)

    Pinton, Annamaria; Giordano, Guido; Speranza, Fabio; Þórðarson, Þorvaldur


    The impact of Holocene eruptive events from hot spots like Iceland may have had significant global implications; thus, dating and knowledge of past eruptions chronology is important. However, at high-latitude volcanic islands, the paucity of soils severely limits 14C dating, while the poor K content of basalts strongly restricts the use of K/Ar and Ar/Ar methods. Even tephrochronology, based on 14C age determinations, refers to layers that rarely lie directly above lava flows to be dated. We report on the paleomagnetic dating of 25 sites from the Reykjanes Peninsula and the Tungnaá lava sequence of Iceland. The gathered paleomagnetic directions were compared with the available reference paleosecular variation curves of the Earth magnetic field to obtain the possible emplacement age intervals. To test the method's validity, we sampled the precisely dated Laki (1783-1784 AD) and Eldgjà (934-938 AD) lavas. The age windows obtained for these events encompass the true flow ages. For sites from the Reykjanes peninsula and the Tugnaá lava sequence, we derived multiple possible eruption events and ages. In the Reykjanes peninsula, we propose an older emplacement age (immediately following the 870 AD Iceland Settlement age) for Ogmundarhraun and Kapelluhraun lava fields. For pre-historical (older than the settlement age) Tugnaá eruptions, the method has a dating precision of 300-400 years which allows an increase of the detail in the chronostratigraphy and distribution of lavas in the Tugnaá sequence.

  5. The Upper Miocene Lake Pannon marl from the Filijala Open Pit (Beočin, northern Serbia: New geological and paleomagnetic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganić Meri


    Full Text Available This work presents major lithological, structural, paleontological and paleomagnetic characteristics of the Upper Miocene Pannonian marl in the Filijala Open Pit of the La Farge Cement Plant near Beočin, northern Serbia. Pannonian marl lies between the underlying heterogeneous Sarmatian deposits and the overlying set of Pontian sand beds and Quaternary sediments. The open pit is located on the NE range of Fruška Gora, a horst structure with a core of Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Paleogene rocks in a complex structural pattern. Pannonian sediments, which are part of a younger structural stage, deposited on the horst limbs. The Pannonian marl strata dip at angles from 12° to 26° (to the NNW, forming a monocline. The strata deformations are a consequence of radial tectonics and are a potential source of landslides. The many mollusks (7 gastropod and 9 bivalve species and ostracodes (27 species and their biostratigraphical position indicate marl deposition throughout the Pannonian age. A paleomagnetic investigation established that the marl has inconsistent remanent magnetization (with bad statistical parameters, which originates from neoformed magnetite.

  6. 40Ar/(39)Ar geochronology and paleomagnetic stratigraphy of the Lukeino and lower Chemeron Formations at Tabarin and Kapcheberek, Tugen Hills, Kenya. (United States)

    Deino, Alan L; Tauxe, Lisa; Monaghan, Marc; Hill, Andrew


    (40)Ar/(39)Ar single-crystal laser-fusion dating, K-Ar dating, and paleomagnetic reversal stratigraphy have been used to determine the chronostratigraphy of the Kabarnet Trachyte, Lukeino Formation, Kaparaina Basalt Formation, and Chemeron Formation at the sites of Kapcheberek (BPRP#77) and Tabarin (BPRP#77) in the Tugen Hills, Kenya. The succession ranges in age from 6.56-3.8 Ma. The upper Lukeino Formation at Kapcherberek, including the fauna from the site BPRP#76, was deposited during chron C3r and can be constrained to the interval 5.88-5.72 Ma. The Chemeron Formation at Tabarin includes at the base an ignimbrite and associated basal air-fall tuff with a combined age of 5.31+/-0.03 Ma. Sedimentary and volcaniclastic rocks of the Chemeron Formation which unconformably overlie the ignimbrite record chrons C3n.2n through C2Ar. The combined(40)Ar/(39)Ar and paleomagnetic data constrain the age of this sequence to 4.63-3.837 Ma. The age of the Tabarin mandible fragment (KNM-TH 13150) and associated fauna at site BPRP#77 in the Chemeron Formation is 4.48-4.41 Ma, marginally older than similar early hominids from Aramis, Ethiopia. Basin subsidence appears to be defining an overall accumulation rate of about 17 cm/ka over the 2.7 Ma represented at Tabarin and Kapcheberek, despite episodes of rapid accumulation and hiatuses. Copyright 2002 Academic Press.

  7. Paleomagnetic data for Siberia and Baltica in the context of testing some geodynamic models of the formation of the Central Asian Mobile Belt (United States)

    Shatsillo, A. V.; Kuznetsov, N. B.; Dronov, A. V.


    The synthesis of the paleomagnetic data for the Siberian (Siberia) and East European (Baltica) platforms shows that since the Early Paleozoic they could have experienced coherent movements as a part of consolidated continental agglomeration (a composite continent), which also includes the Arctida continent. Based on the paleomagnetic data, the relative positions of the Siberia and Baltica during the Ordovician is reconstructed, and a series of paleogeographical reconstructions describing the drift of the composite continent is suggested. The results of the lithologic-facial analysis of the sedimentation settings within the Ordovician basins of the Siberian and East European platforms and paleoclimatic markers are consistent with the suggested configuration and paleogeographical position of the composite continent. The suggested reconstructions and the ages of detrital zircons from the Early Paleozoic complexes of the platform margins and some objects of the Central Asian Mobile Belt (CAMB) reasonably well agree with the hypothesis (Sengör et al., 1993) which interprets the formation of the structure of CAMB Paleozoides as a result of the evolution of the island arc stretching along the margins of Siberia and Baltica.

  8. Africa was still far south in the Late Ypresian: Paleomagnetic study on the early Eocene ‘Minia’ formation in central Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Lotfy


    Full Text Available The paleomagnetic study was carried out on three sections of the Late Ypresian “Minia” formation limestone, in order to shed light on the paleolatitude of northeast Africa upon the end of the Early Eocene. The initial study on the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility [AMS] helped in confining the paleomagnetic sampling to the virtually isotropic limestone beds. The subsequent stepwise thermal demagnetization of the three-axis isothermal remanence acquired in one sample of each sampled site, revealed the limited contribution of goethite and hematite with the main remanence carrier magnetite in most samples.The assessment of the natural remanence during the progressive stepwise thermal demagnetization [15–17 steps] of all samples, elucidated the early decay [<150 °C] of a present- day field [PDF] overprint component scattered around the magnetic field direction of the study area. Despite that, the anchored component in most samples was carried in magnetite, yet hematite was recorded in few sites. The visual inspection of the decay spectra in the orthogonal projections, followed by the determination of the best-fit line of every component using the principal component analysis [PCA] technique, differentiated between the magnetite- and hematite- remanence components: 1. The magnetite-anchored component, which was overwhelming in most samples, was antipodal with shallow to medium inclination, yielding a paleomagnetic North poles at 73.8°N/197.5°E. This component, which successfully passed the reversal test at 95% confidence level, was considered as the characteristic primary remanent direction of the “Minia” formation. This paleomagnetic pole was, consequently, considered as representing the African Plate in the Late Ypresian. 2. On the other hand, the hematite component had normal north-direction clustered around the present-day field [PDF] in the study area. The hematite paleomagnetic pole at 88.7°N/78.8

  9. Paleomagnetism and rock magnetism from sediments along a continental shelf-to-slope transect in the NW Barents Sea: Implications for geomagnetic and depositional changes during the past 15 thousand years (United States)

    Caricchi, C.; Lucchi, R. G.; Sagnotti, L.; Macrì, P.; Morigi, C.; Melis, R.; Caffau, M.; Rebesco, M.; Hanebuth, T. J. J.


    Paleomagnetic and rock magnetic data were measured on glaciomarine silty-clay successions along an E-W sediment-core transect across the continental shelf and slope of the Kveithola paleo-ice stream system (south of Svalbard, north-western Barents Sea), representing a stratigraphic interval spanning the last deglaciation and the Holocene. The records indicate that magnetite is the main magnetic mineral and that magnetic minerals are distinctly less abundant on the shelf than at the continental slope. The paleomagnetic properties allow for the reconstruction of a well-defined characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM) throughout the sedimentary successions. The stratigraphic trends of rock magnetic and paleomagnetic parameters are used for a shelf-slope core correlation and sediment facies analysis is applied for depositional processes reconstruction. The new paleomagnetic records compare to the PSV and RPI variation predicted for the core sites by a simulation using the global geomagnetic field variation models SHA.DIF.14k and CALS7K.2 and closest PSV and RPI regional stack curves. The elaborated dataset, corroborated by available 14C ages, provides a fundamental chronological framework to constrain the coupling of shelf-slope sedimentary processes and environmental changes in the NW Barents Sea region during and after deglaciation.

  10. Paleomagnetic data from the Caborca terrane, Mexico: Implications for Cordilleran tectonics and the Mojave-Sonora megashear hypothesis (United States)

    Molina Garza, Roberto S.; Geissman, John W.


    or below the detection limit of paleomagnetism (displacement, yet evidence for statistically significant clockwise rotation, and the overall similarity of Jurassic magnetizations in the Cordilleran arc with those of the Caborca block, despite the fact that some of them are clearly secondary, are not consistent with the Mojave-Sonora megashear hypothesis of Late Jurassic left-lateral strike-slip motion of the crust of northern Mexico.

  11. A Paleomagnetic and Diagenetic Study of the Woodford Shale, Oklahoma, U.S.A.: The Timing of Hydrothermal Alteration (United States)

    Roberts, J.; Elmore, R. D.


    An oriented Woodford Shale core from the Ardmore Basin near the Ouachita thrust zone (Core B) was sampled to identify diagenetic events and interpret their origin, and to test if a magnetization was present that can be used to date the altering event(s). The shale is extensively altered, exhibiting a complex paragenesis with multiple fractures and brecciated intervals. Multiple hydrothermal minerals, including biotite, magnesite, norsethite, witherite, gorceixite, potassium feldspar, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, and saddle dolomite, are present in and around fractures and in the matrix. Vitrinite and bitumen reflectance measurements indicate VRo values of 1.82% ( 230°C). Two other Woodford Shale cores (A and C) from the Anadarko Basin also contain hydrothermal minerals. Vitrinite and bitumen reflectance data reveal trends between thermal maturity and the level of hydrothermal alteration, with Core A (0.80% VRo ( 125°C) displaying the lowest alteration, and Core C ( 1.5% VRo ( 210°C) displaying intermediate alteration compared to core B. Paleomagnetic analysis of Core B reveals the presence of a characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM) with south-southeasterly declinations and shallow inclinations that is unblocked by 450°C and is interpreted to reside in magnetite. This ChRM is interpreted to be either a chemical remanent magnetization (CRM) or a thermochemical remanent magnetization (TCRM) acquired during the Late Permian based on the pole position. The presence of specimens with the CRM/TCRM in altered rock and high thermal maturities suggests that this CRM/TCRM originated from alteration by hydrothermal fluids. These results suggest that the Woodford Shale evolved into an open diagenetic system. In addition to causing heightened thermal maturities, these hydrothermal fluids both increased porosity through dissolution and decreased porosity through precipitation of minerals. The Late Permian timing agrees with the dating of hydrothermal alteration found

  12. A re-examination of paleomagnetic results from NA Jurassic sedimentary rocks: Additional evidence for proposed Jurassic MUTO? (United States)

    Housen, B. A.


    Kent and Irving, 2010; and Kent et al, 2015 propose a monster shift in the position of Jurassic (160 to 145 Ma) paleopoles for North America- defined by results from igneous rocks. This monster shift is likely an unrecognized true polar wander occurrence. Although subject to inclination error, results from sedimentary rocks from North America, if corrected for these effects, can be used to supplement the available data for this time period. Steiner (2003) reported results from 48 stratigraphic horizons sampled from the Callovian Summerville Fm, from NE New Mexico. A recalculated mean of these results yields a mean direction of D = 332, I = 39, n=48, k = 15, α95 = 5.4°. These data were analyzed for possible inclination error-although the dataset is small, the E-I results yielded a corrected I = 53. This yields a corrected paleopole for NA at ~165 Ma located at 67° N and 168° E.Paleomagnetic results from the Black Hills- Kilanowski (2002) for the Callovian Hulett Mbr of the Sundance Fm, and Gregiore (2001) the Oxfordian-Tithonian Morrison Fm (Gregiore, 2001) have previously been interpreted to represent Eocene-aged remagnetizations- due to the nearly exact coincidence between the in-situ pole positions of these Jurassic units with the Eocene pole for NA. Both of the tilt-corrected results for these units have high latitude poles (Sundance Fm: 79° N, 146° E; Morrison Fm: 89° N, 165° E). An E-I analysis of these data will be presented- using a provisional inclination error of 10°, corrected paleopoles are: (Sundance Fm: 76° N, 220° E; Morrison Fm: 77° N, 266° E). The Black Hills 165 Ma (Sundance Fm) and 145 Ma (Morrison Fm) poles, provisionally corrected for 10° inclination error- occur fairly close to the NA APWP proposed by Kent et al, 2015- using an updated set of results from kimberlites- the agreement between the Sundance Fm and the Triple-B (158 Ma) pole would be nearly exact with a slightly lesser inclination error. The Summerville Fm- which is

  13. Paleomagnetic and magnetic fabric studies of Lower Triassic red sandstones from the autochthonous cover of the Central Western Carpathians: new insights into paleogeographic setting and tectonic evolution of the area (United States)

    Szaniawski, R.; Jankowski, L.; Ludwiniak, M.; Mazzoli, S.; Szczygieł, J.


    The Carpathian Mountains were formed through progressive collision and amalgamation of the Alcapa and Tisza-Dacia microplates with the European Platform. The Central Western Carpathians (CWC) tectonic unit analyzed in this study constitutes a fragment of the Alcapa microplate - research in this area is therefore of great importance in the context of the geotectonic evolution of the Carpathian orogen. Our paleomagnetic and magnetic fabric studies were focused on Lower Triassic red sandstones from the autochthonous cover of the crystalline basement. We present new results from three mountain massifs: Low Tatra, Velka Fatra and Strazovske Vrchy, comparing them with our earlier works performed in the Tatra Mts. Rockmagnetic studies reveal similar results in all four studied regions - the dominant ferromagnetic carrier in red sandstones is hematite, while the magnetic fabric is mostly controlled by paramagnetic minerals. AMS results outline a bedding parallel foliation and a tectonic lineation. This lineation lies in the bedding plane but is somewhat oblique to the present horizontal plane. The fact that the lineation is not exactly parallel to the strike of the beds is most likely due to multistage deformation: the lineation is related to bedding parallel shortening associated with the folding and thrusting stage, while present-day bedding attitude results at least partially from rotations associated with subsequent uplift and/or faulting. Paleomagnetic analysis indicate that hematite carrier records characteristic remanent component of high unblocking temperatures (680°C) and both normal (dominant) and reversed polarity. Paleomagnetic inclinations are similar to those expected from reference paleomagnetic data from the European Platform. Declination values are rather similar in all four studied areas and imply moderate counterclockwise rotations of the CWC. These results are incompatible with some of the previous paleomagnetic studies of younger rocks from the CWC

  14. Paleomagnetism of Cretaceous Oceanic Red Beds (CORBs) from Gyangze, northern Tethys Himalaya: Evidence for Intra-oceanic Subduction System and Southern Paleolatitute Limit for the Lhasa Block (United States)

    Tan, Xiaodong


    In the northern Tethys Himalaya, sporadically distributed Cretaceous oceanic red beds (CORBs, the Chuangde Formation) have been described. The sequence was interpreted to be firstly deposited in the outer continental shelf and upper slope, and later slumped into deep basin. Based on this model, and paleomagnetic data of shallow water deposits from the southern Tethys Himalaya, the CORBs were derived from the northern tip of the passive margin of the greater India. If so, the CORBs would provide more accurate record of the northern extent of the greater India, which is an important parameter for estimating the initial time of India-Asia continental collision and the amount of crustal shortening. The well studied and most accessible section is located in the Chuangde village, about 40km east from the Gyangze city. The formation is about 25m thick, ranging from 84 to 75Ma in age according to fossil records of planktonic foraminiferal species. The lower and upper parts are 2 and 5 meter thick marlstones, respectively, and the middle section is dominated by shale with a few layers of centimeter scale marlstones. Fifty cores were collected from the marlstones of the section, and for the purpose of fold test, 30 more cores were collected from the upper part of the formation from a second section located in the Pulong village, ~3km to the northeast of the Chuangde village. All samples were subject to stepwise thermal demagnetization. About 60% of the samples yielded interpretable demagnetization results. The bottom of the upper part of the formation show reversed high temperature component, and the rest of the upper part and the lower part show normal polarity. The Chuangde section data failed reversal test, because the normal polarity direction is likely not fully resolved from overprint component. However, the well resolved reversal direction from the Chuangde village and the normal direction from Pulong pass both reversal and fold tests. The mean paleomagnetic data

  15. Kinematics of Deformation in West-Central Walker Lane; Paleomagnetic Testing of Fault-Block Rotation and Doming Models, Eastern California and Western Nevada (United States)

    Fredrickson, S. M.; Pluhar, C. J.; Carlson, C. W.


    Walker Lane is a broad (~100-200 km) zone of dextral shear located between the Sierra Nevada microplate and the Basin and Range Province. We consider Bodie Hills a part of the greater Walker Lane because it has experienced clockwise, vertical-axis rotation of crustal blocks due to dextral shear accommodation. This strain is variable, resulting in rotations ranging from ~10°-70° depending on location. The Miocene Eureka Valley Tuff (EVT) is an ideal strain marker, because it is a geologically instantaneous and laterally extensive unit. We use paleomagnetic analysis of ignimbrites to improve the resolution of strain domain boundaries as well as test for doming in Bodie Hills. EVT site mean directions were compared to reference directions of the Tollhouse Flat and By Day Members collected from the stable Sierra Nevada to determine magnitudes of vertical-axis rotation. Three new sites and three previously sampled sites define a high-rotation domain including Bridgeport Valley and the East Walker River Canyon with an average clockwise rotation of ~50°-60°. We define the eastern boundary of this high-rotation domain as coinciding with a mapped fault exhibiting 11.7°×7.9° rotation of the presumed footwall. Our data corroborates and improves on Carlson's (2012) kinematic model in which the greater Bodie Hills has rotated clockwise ~30° since EVT emplacement. Eutaxitic textures, dipping up to 90°, are gross indicators of true tilt, but are also influenced by original dips in some localities, complicating interpretations. John et al. (2012) describe a simple doming model of Bodie Hills since EVT emplacement, supported by the high elevation of outflow channels compared to source areas. Our paleomagnetic data does not support simple doming, suggesting that there is either no doming of Bodie Hills, or that vertical crustal displacements have occurred without large-scale folding. John et al. (2012) dated undifferentiated EVT in Bodie Hills at ~9.4 Ma; using

  16. Clockwise rotation and implications for northward drift of the western Transverse Ranges from paleomagnetism of the Piuma Member, Sespe Formation, near Malibu, California (United States)

    Hillhouse, John W.


    New paleomagnetic results from mid-Tertiary sedimentary beds in the Santa Monica Mountains reinforce the evidence for large-scale rotation of the western Transverse Ranges, and anisotropy measurements indicate that compaction-induced inclination flattening may resolve a long-standing controversy regarding the original paleolatitude of the rotated block. Previously published paleomagnetic data indicate that post-Oligocene rotation amounts to 70°–110° clockwise, affecting the Channel Islands, Santa Monica Mountains, and Santa Ynez Mountains. The Sespe Formation near Malibu consists of a lower member dominated by nonmarine sandstone and conglomerate and an upper section, the Piuma Member, which consists of gray-red sandstone and mudstone interbedded with minor tuff and limestone beds. The Piuma Member has a paleomagnetic pole at 36.6°N, 326.7°E (A95min = 5.0°, A95max = 9.6°), obtained by thermal demagnetization of 34 oriented cores from Oligocene and early Miocene beds. After correcting for plunge of the geologic structure, the data are consistent with significant clockwise rotation (77° ± 7°) of the region relative to stable North America. Rotation of the western Transverse Ranges is generally viewed as a consequence of Pacific–North American plate interactions after 28 Ma, when east–west subduction gave way to northwest transform motion in southern California. Inclinations from the Piuma study indicate a paleolatitude anomaly of 11° ± 7° and are consistent with a mean northward drift that exceeds generally accepted San Andreas fault displacement by a factor of 3. However, sedimentary inclination error may accentuate the anomaly. Anisotropy of isothermal remanent magnetization indicates inclination flattening of approximately 8°, and correction for the effect reduces the paleolatitude anomaly to 5.3° ± 5.8°. Compaction may explain the inclination flattening in these sedimentary rocks, but the process does not adequately explain lower

  17. Tonian paleomagnetism of the red beds of Madiyi Formation, lower Banxi Group in South China: implications for pre-Sturtian climate, Rodinia reconstruction and true polar wander (United States)

    Hanbiao, X.; Zhang, S.; Xiao, Q.; Li, H.; Chang, L.; Fu, H.; Liu, R.


    We present a new Tonian paleomagnetic pole from the red beds of ca. 810 Ma Madiyi Formation, lower Banxi Group in the central South China Block (SCB). Detailed thermal demagnetization reveals two distinct magnetic components among the samples. A low temperature component (LTC), removed from almost all the samples below 580°C, yielded a paleopole at 68.0°N, 211.7°E (A95=1.9) that is close to the pole of late Jurassic. The high temperature component (HTC), isolated between 580-690°C, gave a mean direction of D=310.0°, I=57.4°, α95=3.7 (108 samples of 13 sites) after bedding correction, corresponding to a paleomagnetic pole at 47.6°N, 46.7°E (A95=5.6°). The HTC passed a reversal test on 95% and 99% confidence level. Directional distribution of the HTC show significant elongation which may indicate inclination shallowing, and the inclination was corrected to 75.1° using E/I technique, corresponding to a paleolatitude at 60.8±3.4° of research area. The paleopole calculated from the E/I-corrected HTC is at 44.8°N, 80.2°E (A95=3.4°), being significantly distinct from any younger poles of the SCB. This new pole plus existing high quality paleomagnetic poles from the SCB demonstrate that the SCB experienced a polar-equatorial region drifting tendency from 825 Ma to Cambrian. The high-paleolatitude red beds rather than glacial sediments deposited in the SCB, combined with coeval widespread evaporative in other continents, possibly suggest pre-Cryogenian global greenhouse climate. In our reconstruction at 800 Ma, the SCB was placed on the northwest periphery of Rodinia, with its western margin adjacent to the northern India, rather than occupying a central position of Rodinia. The distribution of 825-750 Ma poles of the SCB, East Svalbard, Australia, Laurentia, India along a great arc may be associated with true polar wander around 800 Ma.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Bakhmutov


    Full Text Available Paleomagnetic data are the priority source of information for global paleotectonic reconstructions representing horizontal movements of the crustal blocks. Upon receipt of new paleomagnetic data, kinematic models of the East European platform in the Paleozoic are regularly revised and improved. The article presents results of the paleomagnetic study of sedimentary gray-colored and red beds of the Silurian and Lower Devonian sequences located in the Dniester river basin, Podolia region, SW Ukraine. The study covered 17 outcrops that are stratigraphically correlated with the Wenlock, Ludlow, Pridoli states of the Sillurian and the Lochkovian stage of the Devon. Over 400 samples of grey limestone, argillite, dolomite, red limestone and sandstone were analyzed, and two components of natural remnant magnetization (NRM were revealed. The first component with SSW declination and negative inclination is revealed in the majority of the samples during AF- and T-magnetic cleaning. Its pole positions, that are calculated separately for each series, are trending to the Permian segment of the apparent polar wander path (APWP published by Torsvik et al. [2012] for Baltica / Stable Europe. Considering its chemical origin, this NRM component is related to formation of authigenic minerals due to rock remagnetization. The second component is revealed only in some samples taken from the red beds (during thermal demagnetization in the range of unblocking temperatures from 590 to 690 °С and in few samples of grey limestone (in AF fields from 30 to 70 mT or in the range of unblocking temperatures from 300 to 460 °С. This component has SW declination and positive inclination, goes to the origin of coordinates of the diagrams, and has all the indicators of primary magnetization of sediments. Calculated positions of the poles (0 ºS and 329 ºE for grey limestone of the Tiverskaya series, 2.3 °S and 338.4 °E for red beds of the Dniestrovskaya series, etc. are well

  19. Paleomagnetic results from Tertiary volcanic strata and intrusions, Absaroka Volcanic Supergroup, Yellowstone National Park and vicinity: Contributions to the North American apparent polar wander path (United States)

    Harlan, S.S.; Morgan, L.A.


    We report paleomagnetic and rock magnetic data from volcanic, volcaniclastic, and intrusive rocks of the 55-44Ma Absaroka Volcanic Supergroup (AVS) exposed along the northeastern margin of Yellowstone National Park and adjacent areas. Demagnetization behavior and rock magnetic experiments indicate that the remanence in most samples is carried by low-Ti titanomagnetite, although high-coercivity phases are present in oxidized basalt flows. Paleomagnetic demagnetization and rock magnetic characteristics, the presence of normal and reverse polarity sites, consistency with previous results, and positive conglomerate tests suggest that the observed remanences are primary thermoremanent magnetizations of Eocene age (c. 50Ma). An in situ grand-mean for 22 individual site- or cooling-unit means from this study that yield acceptable data combined with published data from Independence volcano yields a declination of 347.6?? and inclination of 59.2?? (k=21.8, ??95=6.8??) and a positive reversal test. Averaging 21 virtual geomagnetic poles (VGPs) that are well-grouped yields a mean at 137.1??E, 82.5??N (K=17.6, A95=7.8??), similar to results previously obtained from published studies from the AVS. Combining the VGPs from our study with published data yields a combined AVS pole at 146.3??E, 83.1??N (K=13.5, A95=6.2??, N=42 VGPs). Both poles are indistinguishable from c. 50Ma cratonic and synthetic reference poles for North America, and demonstrate the relative stability of this part of the Cordillera with respect to the craton. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  20. What was the Paleogene latitude of the Lhasa terrane? A reassessment of the geochronology and paleomagnetism of Linzizong volcanic rocks (Linzhou basin, Tibet) (United States)

    Huang, Wentao; Dupont-Nivet, Guillaume; Lippert, Peter C.; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; Dekkers, Mark J.; Waldrip, Ross; Ganerød, Morgan; Li, Xiaochun; Guo, Zhaojie; Kapp, Paul


    The Paleogene latitude of the Lhasa terrane (southern Tibet) can constrain the age of the onset of the India-Asia collision. Estimates for this latitude, however, vary from 5°N to 30°N, and thus, here, we reassess the geochronology and paleomagnetism of Paleogene volcanic rocks from the Linzizong Group in the Linzhou basin. The lower and upper parts of the section previously yielded particularly conflicting ages and paleolatitudes. We report consistent 40Ar/39Ar and U-Pb zircon dates of 52 Ma for the upper Linzizong, and 40Ar/39Ar dates ( 51 Ma) from the lower Linzizong are significantly younger than U-Pb zircon dates (64-63 Ma), suggesting that the lower Linzizong was thermally and/or chemically reset. Paleomagnetic results from 24 sites in lower Linzizong confirm a low apparent paleolatitude of 5°N, compared to the upper part ( 20°N) and to underlying Cretaceous strata ( 20°N). Detailed rock magnetic analyses, end-member modeling of magnetic components, and petrography from the lower and upper Linzizong indicate widespread secondary hematite in the lower Linzizong, whereas hematite is rare in upper Linzizong. Volcanic rocks of the lower Linzizong have been hydrothermally chemically remagnetized, whereas the upper Linzizong retains a primary remanence. We suggest that remagnetization was induced by acquisition of chemical and thermoviscous remanent magnetizations such that the shallow inclinations are an artifact of a tilt correction applied to a secondary remanence in lower Linzizong. We estimate that the Paleogene latitude of Lhasa terrane was 20 ± 4°N, consistent with previous results suggesting that India-Asia collision likely took place by 52 Ma at 20°N.

  1. Paleomagnetic direction and paleointensity variations during the Matuyama-Brunhes polarity transition from a marine succession in the Chiba composite section of the Boso Peninsula, central Japan (United States)

    Okada, Makoto; Suganuma, Yusuke; Haneda, Yuki; Kazaoka, Osamu


    The youngest geomagnetic polarity reversal, the Matuyama-Brunhes (M-B) boundary, provides an important plane of data for sediments, ice cores, and lavas. The geomagnetic field intensity and directional changes that occurred during the reversal also provide important information for understanding the dynamics of the Earth's outer core, which generates the magnetic field. However, the reversal process is relatively rapid in terms of the geological timescale; therefore, adequate temporal resolution of the geomagnetic field record is essential for addressing these topics. Here, we report a new high-resolution paleomagnetic record from a continuous marine succession in the Chiba composite section of the Kokumoto Formation of the Kazusa Group, Japan, that reveals detailed behaviors of the virtual geomagnetic poles (VGPs) and relative paleointensity changes during the M-B polarity transition. The resultant relative paleointensity and VGP records show a significant paleointensity minimum near the M-B boundary, which is accompanied by a clear "polarity switch." A newly obtained high-resolution oxygen isotope chronology for the Chiba composite section indicates that the M-B boundary is located in the middle of marine isotope stage (MIS) 19 and yields an age of 771.7 ka for the boundary. This age is consistent with those based on the latest astronomically tuned marine and ice core records and with the recalculated age of 770.9 ± 7.3 ka deduced from the U-Pb zircon age of the Byk-E tephra. To the best of our knowledge, our new paleomagnetic data represent one of the most detailed records on this geomagnetic field reversal that has thus far been obtained from marine sediments and will therefore be key for understanding the dynamics of the geomagnetic dynamo and for calibrating the geological timescale.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  2. APW path traced for the Guiana Shield (2070-1960 Ma) and Paleogeographic Implications: Paleomagnetic data from the 1.98-1.96 Ga Surumu Group (Northern Amazonian Craton) (United States)

    Bispo-Santos, F.; Dagrella Filho, M. S.; Reis, N. J.; Trindade, R. I.


    Definition of continental paleogeography for times prior to formation of Columbia Supercontinent (1900-1850 Ma) is very complex, since amalgamation of some continental blocks of Earth was still in progress, as in the case of Laurentia, Baltica and Amazonian Craton. So, paleogeographic models proposed for this time are still very speculative and/or subjective. The use of the paleomagnetic technique tracing apparent polar wander (APW) paths for the various cratonic blocks can contribute to understand the continental amalgamation and breakup, especially for times where all created oceanic lithosphere was fully consumed. In this study, we present the paleomagnetic data obtained for samples collected from 39 sites from the well-dated 1980-1960 Ma (U-Pb) volcanic rocks belonging to the Surumu Group, cropping out in the northern Roraima State (Guiana Shield, Amazonian Craton). AF and thermal treatment revealed northwestern directions with moderate downward inclinations on samples from 20 out of the 39 analyzed sites. Site mean directions cluster around the mean, Dm = 298.6°; Im = 39.4° (N = 20; α95 = 10.1°), which yielded a key paleomagnetic pole (SG) for the Guiana Shield, located at 234.8°E, 27.4°N (A95 = 9.8°). Magnetic mineralogy experiments show that the magnetization of these rocks, probably of primary origin, is carried by magnetite and/or hematite. The SG pole contributes to a better fit of the APW path traced for Guiana Shield during the Paleoproterozoic (2070-1960 Ma). Comparison with the APW path traced for the West-Africa Craton for the same time interval suggests that these cratonic blocks were linked at 2000-1960 Ma ago, forming a paleogeography in which the Guri (Guiana Shield) and Sassandra (West-Africa Craton) shear zones were aligned as suggested in previous geologic models. KEYWORDS: Paleoproterozoic, Paleomagnetism, APWP, Amazonian Craton, Surumu Group.

  3. Radiometric and paleomagnetic evidence for the Emperor reversed polarity event at 0.46 ± 0.05 M.Y. in basalt lava flows from the eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho (United States)

    Champion, Duane E.; Dalrymple, G. Brent; Kuntz, Mel A.


    K-Ar and paleomagnetic data from cores through a sequence of basalt flows in the eastern Snake River Plain provide evidence for a brief (0.005 to 0.01 m.y.) reversal of the geomagnetic field 0.46 ± 0.05 m.y. ago. This reversed polarity event has also been found in sea-floor magnetic anomalies and in sediment cores and is probably the Emperor event of Ryan [1972].

  4. Paleomagnetic Results of Permo-Carboniferous Volcanic-sedimentary Strata in Mid-eastern Inner Mongolia, China: Implications for Tectonic Evolution of the Eastern CAOB (United States)

    Zhang, D.; Huang, B.; Zhao, J.; Bai, Q.; Zhang, Y.; Zhou, T.


    There has been hotly debating over the closure time of the eastern Paleo-Asian Ocean and the tectonic evolution of the eastern CAOB (Central Asian Orogenic Belt) for decades. To better puzzle out this controversy, we carried out a detailed paleomagnetic study on the Permo-Carboniferous volcanic-sedimentary strata in mid-eastern Inner Mongolia, northeast of China. More than 820 samples were collected from 81 sites and titanium-poor magnetite and hematite are proved as the principal magnetic carriers. (1)In Kingan Block, 9 sites of volcanic rocks from Dashizhai Formation (P1) were calculated to get a mean magnetic direction Dg/Ig = 285.5°/77.4°, kg = 68.2, α95 = 6.8° before and Ds/Is = 206.5°/48.2°, ks = 100.8, α95 = 5.5°, N = 9 after bedding correction, which suggests a paleolatitude of 34.5°±5°N. Both the positive fold test and reversal test suggest a pre-folding magnetization and thus may indicate a primary remanence. (2)Three volcanic sections of Baoligaomiao Formation (C3-P1) from Uliastai Passive Margin were sampled and a mean magnetic direction derived from 16 sites is Dg/Ig = 30.1°/31.8°, kg = 16.3, α95 = 9.8° before and Ds/Is = 65.6°/58.1°, ks = 39.8, α95 = 6.1°, N = 16 after bedding correction. The corresponding paleomagnetic pole Plat. /Plong = 43.1° N/186.7°E, A95=8° suggests a paleolatitude of 38.7°±6.3°N. A primary remanence is confirmed by positive fold test. (3) In the northern margin of NCB (North China Block), a ChRM is successfully isolated from 6 sites of basaltic rocks in Elitu Formation (P2) as Dg/Ig = 351.1°/67.2°, kg = 2.1, α95 = 71.8° before and Ds/Is = 351.1°/29.1°, ks = 32.7, α95 = 71.8°, N = 16 after bedding correction, and thus yielded a paleomagnetic pole as Plat. /Plong = 63.1° N/313.5°E, A95=9.5°, which suggests a paleolatitude of 17.2°±7.2°N. A positive fold test and reversal test indicate that the remanence should be primary. The paleomagetic pole of Kingan Block and Uliastai Passive Margin are

  5. Rock- and Paleomagnetic Properties and Modeling of a Deep Crustal Volcanic System, the Reinfjord Ultramafic Complex, Seiland Igneous Province, Northern Norway (United States)

    ter Maat, G. W.; Pastore, Z.; Michels, A.; Church, N. S.; McEnroe, S. A.; Larsen, R. B.


    The Reinfjord Ultramafic Complex is part of the 5000 km2 Seiland Igneous Province (SIP) in Northern Norway. The SIP is argued to be the deep-seated conduit system of a Large Igneous Province and was emplaced at 25-35 km depth in less than 10 Ma (570-560 Ma). The Reinfjord Ultramafic Complex was emplaced during three major successive events at 22-28km depth at pressures of 6-8kb, with associated temperatures 1450-1500°C (Roberts, 2006). The rocks are divided into three formations: the central series (CS) consisting of mainly dunites, upper layered series (ULS) consisting of dunites and wehrlites, a lower layered series (LLS) containing most pyroxene-rich rocks and a marginal zone (MZ) which formed where the ultramafic melts intruded the gabbro-norite and metasedimentary gneisses. Deep exposures such as the Reinfjord Ultramafic Complex are rare, therefore this study gives a unique insight in the rock magnetic properties of a deep ultramafic system. Localised serpentinised zones provide an opportunity to observe the effect of this alteration process on the magnetic properties of deep-seated rocks. Here, we present the results from the rock magnetic properties, a paleomagnetic study and combined potential-fields modeling. The study of the rock magnetic properties provides insight in primary processes associated with the intrusion, and later serpentinization. The paleomagnetic data yields two distinct directions. One direction corresponds to a Laurentia pole at ≈ 532 Ma while the other, though younger, is not yet fully understood. Rock magnetic properties were measured on > 700 specimens and used to constrain the modelling of gravity, high-resolution helicopter, and ground magnetic data. The intrusion is modelled as a cylindrically shaped complex with a dunite core surrounded by wehrlite and gabbro. The ultramafic part of the complex dips to the NE and its maximum vertical extent is modelled to 1400m. Furthermore, modelling allows estimation of relative volumes of

  6. New paleomagnetic results on ˜ ˜2367 Ma Dharwar giant dyke swarm, Dharwar craton, southern India: implications for Paleoproterozoic continental reconstruction (United States)

    Babu, N. Ramesh; Venkateshwarlu, M.; Shankar, Ravi; Nagaraju, E.; Parashuramulu, V.


    Here we report new paleomagnetic results and precise paleopole position of the extensional study on ˜ 2367 Ma mafic giant radiating dyke swarm in the Dharwar craton, southern India. We have sampled 29 sites on 12 dykes from NE-SW Karimnagar-Hyderabad dykes and Dhone-Gooty sector dykes, eastern Dharwar craton to provide unambiguous paleomagnetism evidence on the spectacular radiating dyke swarm and thereby strengthening the presence of single magmatic event at ˜ 2367 Ma. A total of 158 samples were subjected to detailed alternating field and thermal demagnetization techniques and the results are presented here along with previously reported data on the same dyke swarm. The remanent magnetic directions are showing two components, viz., seven sites representing four dykes show component (A) with mean declination of 94{{}°} and mean inclination of - 70{{}°} (k=87, α_{95}=10{{}°}) and corresponding paleopole at 16{{}°}N, 41{{}°}E (dp=15{{}°} and dm=17{{}°}) and 22 sites representing 8 dykes yielded a component (B) with mean declination of 41{{}°} and mean inclination of - 21{{}°} (k=41, α_{95}=9{{}°}) with a paleopole at 41{{}°}N, 200{{}°}E (dp=5{{}°} and dm=10{{}°}). Component (A) results are similar to the previously reported directions from the ˜ 2367 Ma dyke swarm, which have been confirmed fairly reliably to be of primary origin. The component (B) directions appear to be strongly overprinted by the 2080 Ma event. The grand mean for the primary component (A) combined with earlier reported studies gives mean declination of 97{{}°} and mean inclination of - 79{{}°} (k=55, α_{95}=3{{}°}) with a paleopole at 15{{}°}N, 57{{}°}E (dp=5{{}°}, dm=6{{}°}). Paleogeographical position for the Dharwar craton at ˜ 2367 Ma suggests that there may be a chance to possible spatial link between Dharwar dykes of Dharwar craton (India), Widgemooltha and Erayinia dykes of Yilgarn craton (Australia), Sebanga Poort Dykes of Zimbabwe craton (Africa) and Karelian

  7. Paleomagnetically inferred ages of a cluster of Holocene monogenetic eruptions in the Tacámbaro-Puruarán area (Michoacán, México): Implications for volcanic hazards (United States)

    Mahgoub, Ahmed Nasser; Böhnel, Harald; Siebe, Claus; Salinas, Sergio; Guilbaud, Marie-Noëlle


    The paleomagnetic dating procedure was applied to a cluster of four partly overlapping monogenetic Holocene volcanoes and associated lava flows, namely La Tinaja, La Palma, Mesa La Muerta, and Malpaís de Cutzaróndiro, located in the Tacámbaro-Puruarán area, at the southeastern margin of the Michoacán-Guanajuato volcanic field. For this purpose, 21 sites distributed as far apart as possible from each other were sampled to obtain a well-averaged mean paleomagnetic direction for each single lava flow. For intensity determinations, double-heating Thellier experiments using the IZZI protocol were conducted on 55 selected samples. La Tinaja is the oldest of these flows and was dated by the 14C method at 5115 ± 130 years BP (cal 4184-3655 BCE). It is stratigraphically underneath the other three flows with Malpaís de Cutzaróndiro lava flow being the youngest. The paleomagnetic dating procedure was applied using the Matlab archaeo-dating tool in couple with the geomagnetic field model SHA.DIF.14k. Accordingly, for La Tinaja several possible age ranges were obtained, of which the range 3650-3480 BCE is closest to the 14C age. Paleomagnetic dating on La Palma produced a unique age range of 3220-2880 BCE. Two ages ranges of 2240-2070 BCE and 760-630 BCE were obtained for Mesa La Muerta and a well-constrained age of 420-320 BCE for Malpaís de Cutzaróndiro. Although systematic archaeological excavations have so far not been carried out in this area, it is possible that the younger eruptions were contemporary to local human occupation. Our paleomagnetic dates indicate that all four eruptions, although closely clustered in space, occurred separately in time with varying recurrence intervals ranging between 300 and 2300 years. This finding should be considered when constraining the nature of the magmatic plumbing system and developing a strategy aimed at reducing risk in the volcanically active Michoacán-Guanajuato volcanic field, where several young monogenetic volcano

  8. Magnetic studies and U Pb geochronology of the Uruguayan dyke swarm, Rio de la Plata craton, Uruguay: paleomagnetic and economic implications (United States)

    Halls, Henry C.; Campal, Nestor; Davis, Don W.; Bossi, Jorge


    A U-Pb age on baddeleyite of 1790±5 Ma has been obtained from a single dyke of the Uruguayan tholeiitic dyke swarm from the Rio de la Plata craton. Palaeomagnetic results from this and 10 other dykes yield two components, one (A) has the following paleomagnetic parameters: declination=12°, inclination=-16°, α95=7°, latitude of paleopole=61°, longitude=-31°, dp=4°, dm=7°, paleolatitude=-8°, whereas another (B), about 20° steeper, has a direction closer to the present Earth's field direction in Uruguay. Neither magnetisation is considered primary, although the A component may represent a composite between B and a primary component. A field test for the primary nature of the remanences was inconclusive, and no primary pole positions of similar age from other South American cratons are available for comparison. The magnetic results demonstrate that darker-coloured andesite dykes that are sought for facing and monument stone (as 'black granite') can be easily differentiated from more andesi-basaltic, lighter coloured, less valuable dykes of the same swarm, using aeromagnetic data. The results suggest that a high resolution airborne magnetic survey could constitute an important exploration tool for the Uruguayan 'black granite' industry.

  9. Paleomagnetic and magnetostratigraphic investigations of the whitehorse group/quartermaster (Dewey Lake) formation (upper permian-lowermost triassic) in the Palo Duro basin, northwest Texas, USA (United States)

    Collins, Dylan R.

    In northwest Texas, upper Permian to lowermost Triassic hematite-cemented detrital sedimentary rocks, which include a small number of regionally extensive ash beds, were deposited during the time interval of the greatest mass extinction event sequences in Earth history. The magnetic polarity stratigraphy, as well as key rock magnetic properties, of the upper Whitehorse Group (WH) and Quartermaster formations (QM) at selected sections in the Palo Duro Basin, have been determined using thermal, and chemical demagnetization approaches and anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility, acquisition of isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM) and backfield demagnetization, and thermal demagnetization of three component IRM methods. Demagnetization results show that the WH/QM contains a primary/near-primary characteristic remanent magnetization at each level sampled and thus the magnetic polarity stratigraphy for each section can be compared with existing polarity time scales across the Permian-Triassic boundary. Estimated site mean directions yield a paleomagnetic pole for the latest Permian for North America of 57.8°N, 130.6°E from 38 sampled sites.

  10. Late-Miocene thrust fault-related folding in the northern Tibetan Plateau: Insight from paleomagnetic and structural analyses of the Kumkol basin (United States)

    Lu, Haijian; Fu, Bihong; Shi, Pilong; Xue, Guoliang; Li, Haibing


    Constraints on the timing and style of the Tibetan Plateau growth help spur new understanding of the tectonic evolution of the northern Tibetan Plateau and its relation to the India-Asia continental collision. In this regard, records of tectonic deformation with accurate ages are urgently needed, especially in regions without relevant studies. The Kumkol basin, located between two major intermontane basins (the Hoh Xil and Qaidam basins), may hold clues to how these major basins evolve during the Cenozoic. However, little has been known about the exact ages of the strata and tectonic deformation of the basin. Herein, detailed paleomagnetic and structural studies are conducted on the southern Baiquanhe section in the central Kumkol basin, northern Tibetan Plateau. The magnetostratigraphic study indicates that the southern Baiquanhe section spans a time interval of 8.2-4.2 Ma. Well-preserved growth strata date to 7.5 Ma, providing evidence for a significant thrust fault-related folding. This thrust-related folding has also been identified in the Tian Shan foreland and in the northern Tibetan Plateau, most likely implying a pulsed basinward deformation during the late Miocene.

  11. Preliminary Paleomagnetic Data From Santa Mariá Volcano, Guatemala and Their Bearing on the Mono Lake and Hilina Pali Excursions (United States)

    Escobar Wolf, R. P.; Diehl, J. F.; Rose, W. I.; Singer, B. S.


    Paleomagnetic directions determined from oriented block samples collected by Rose et al. in 1977 ( Journal of Geology) and from eight paleomagnetic sites drilled in lava flows from Santa Maria volcano, Guatemala in 1990 define a pattern of variation similar to the pattern of geomagnetic field changes recorded by the sediments of the Wilson Creek Formation near Mono Lake, California. This led Conway et al. in 1994 ( Journal of Geology) to suggest that these flows had recorded the Mono Lake Excursion (MLE). The correlation was made on pattern recognition alone and relied almost entirely the well- defined inclination dataset than on the declination data; no radioisotopic ages were available. In March of 2005 we returned to the crater of Santa Mariá and drilled 23 lava flows from the original sections of Rose et al; block samples for 40Ar/39Ar were also collected. Unfortunately aggradation in the crater due to mass wasting made it impossible to sample all the flows of Rose et al. At each site or lava flow, four to seven cores were drilled and oriented with a sun compass. Samples cut from the drilled cores were magnetically cleaned using alternation field demagnetization and analyzed using principle component analysis. Thermal demagnetization is currently underway. The resulting inclination waveform (over 70° of change from +60° to -12°) is very similar to those previously reported in the literature for the MLE, but the declination waveform shows little variation (<25°; mean declination is 13.4°) throughout the stratigraphic sequence that we collected. Consequently, VGP data from the lava flows do not show the classic clockwise and counterclockwise loops as seen at the Wilson Creek section and at other MLE locations. Instead the directions (VGPs) tend to cluster in three distinct groups with the lowermost lava flows (5) and uppermost lava flows (3) clustering near the expected axial dipole inclination for the region (~28 °) while lava flows from the middle of the

  12. A new Triassic shortening-extrusion tectonic model for Central-EasternAsia: Structural, geochronological and paleomagnetic investigations in the Xilamulun Fault (North China) (United States)

    Zhao, Pan; Faure, Michel; Chen, Yan; Xu, Bei


    At the northern margin of the North China Block (NCB), the Xilamulun Fault (XMF) is a key belt to decipher the tectonic evolution of Central-Eastern Asia, as it records the Paleozoic final closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean, and localizes a Late Triassic intracontinental deformation. In this study, structural analysis, 40Ar-39Ar dating, and paleomagnetic studies were performed to investigate the kinematics of the XMF and to further discuss its Triassic geodynamic significance in the Central-Eastern Asia framework after the Paleozoic Central Asian Orogenic evolution. The structural analyses reveal two phases of ductile deformation. The first one (D1), which displays N-verging and E-W trending folds, is related to the Early Paleozoic collisional event between the NCB and the Songliao-Hunshandake Block (SHB). The second phase (D2) displays a high-angle foliation and a pervasive sub-horizontalE-W stretching lineation with kinematic criteria indicative of dextral strike-slip shearing. The 40Ar-39Ar dating on mylonitic granite places the main shearing event around 227-209 Ma. This D2 shearing is coeval with that of the dextral strike-slip Bayan Obo-Chifeng Fault (BCF) and the Chicheng-Fengning-Longhua Fault to the south, which together constitute a dextral shearing fault system on the northern margin of the NCB during the Late Triassic. The paleomagnetic study performed on the Middle Permian Guangxingyuan pluton, located between the XMF and BCF, documents a local clockwise rotation of this pluton with respect to the NCB and SHB. Our multidisciplinary study suggests anNNW-SSE shortening and strike-slip shearing dominated tectonic setting on the northern margin of the NCB during the Late Triassic. Combining the contemporaneous dextral strike-slip movements of the XMF and BCF in northern China and the sinistral strike-slip movement of East Gobi Fault (EGF) in southeastern Mongolia with the large-scale tectonic framework, a Late Triassic NNW-SSE shortening-eastward extrusion

  13. A paleomagnetic and stable isotope study of the pluton at Rio Hondo near Questa, New Mexico: Implications for CRM related to hydrothermal alteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagstrum, J.T.; Johnson, C.M.


    Paleomagnetic and rock magnetic data combined with stable isotope data from the middle Tertiary pluton along the Rio Hondo in northern New Mexico suggest that its magnetic remanence has both thermal (TRM) and high-temperature chemical (CRM) components. Oxygen isotope temperatures indicate that magnetite associated with the more rapidly cooled higher levels of the pluton, and with mafic inclusions and cogenetic rhyolitic dikes sampled at lower levels of exposure, ceased subsolidus recrystallization and isotopic exchange above its Curie temperature (580 0 C) in the presence of a magmatic fluid. Continued cooling imparted a TRM to these portions of the pluton. The more slowly cooled granodiorite at lower levels has quartz-magnetite isotopic temperatures that are below the Curie temperature of magnetite implying that its magnetization is high-temperature CRM. Sub-Curie isotopic temperatures for other granitic plutons in the western U.S.A. suggest that CRM may be commonly derived from subsolidus interactions between magnetite and magmatic fluids in plutonic rocks. A meteoric-hydrothermal system generated by the cooling Rio Hondo pluton, and not by younger adjacent intrusions, resulted in limited alteration along zones of high permeability near the southern margin of the Rio Hondo pluton, and in more prevasive alteration of the pluton to the north. The meteoric-hydrothermal alteration occurred at relatively high temperatures (>350 0 C) and, with the exception of local chloritization, caused little visible alteration of the rocks. The isotopic ratios indicate that little of the magnetite could have grown from or exchanged with a meteoric-hydrothermal fluid. (orig.)

  14. Paleomagnetic and stable isotope study of the pluton at Rio Hondo near Questa, New Mexico: Implications for CRM related to hydrothermal alteration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagstrum, J T; Johnson, C M


    Paleomagnetic and rock magnetic data combined with stable isotope data from the middle Tertiary pluton along the Rio Hondo in northern New Mexico suggest that its magnetic remanence has both thermal (TRM) and high-temperature chemical (CRM) components. Oxygen isotope temperatures indicate that magnetite associated with the more rapidly cooled higher levels of the pluton, and with mafic inclusions and cogenetic rhyolitic dikes sampled at lower levels of exposure, ceased subsolidus recrystallization and isotopic exchange above its Curie temperature (580/sup 0/C) in the presence of a magmatic fluid. Continued cooling imparted a TRM to these portions of the pluton. The more slowly cooled granodiorite at lower levels has quartz-magnetite isotopic temperatures that are below the Curie temperature of magnetite implying that its magnetization is high-temperature CRM. Sub-Curie isotopic temperatures for other granitic plutons in the western U.S.A. suggest that CRM may be commonly derived from subsolidus interactions between magnetite and magmatic fluids in plutonic rocks. A meteoric-hydrothermal system generated by the cooling Rio Hondo pluton, and not by younger adjacent intrusions, resulted in limited alteration along zones of high permeability near the southern margin of the Rio Hondo pluton, and in more prevasive alteration of the pluton to the north. The meteoric-hydrothermal alteration occurred at relatively high temperatures (>350/sup 0/C) and, with the exception of local chloritization, caused little visible alteration of the rocks. The isotopic ratios indicate that little of the magnetite could have grown from or exchanged with a meteoric-hydrothermal fluid.

  15. A detailed paleomagnetic and rock-magnetic investigation of the Matuyama-Bruhnes geomagnetic reversal recorded in tephra-paleosol sequence of Tlaxcala(Central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Soler-Arechalde


    Full Text Available Geomagnetic reversals are global phenomena, for about 50 years the paleomagnetists attempted to acquire as many detailed records as possible using the magnetic memory of sediments and lava flows. Yet, transitional field behavior remains poorly characterized largely because of sporadic aspect of volcanic eruptions. In some specific cases, paleosols such as those developed from alluvial or aeolian sediments, may also record the variations of the Geomagnetic Field across the polarity changes. Here, we report a detailed paleomagnetic and rock-magnetic investigation on some radiometrically dated chromic luvisols located in Central Mexico carrying detrital or chemical remanent magnetization. The research was developed in order i to demonstrate the primary origin of the magnetic remanence and ii to show that paleosoils are good candidates to provide a high resolution record of the behavior of geomagnetic field during reversals. The lower part of the paleosoil sequence shows a clearly defined reverse polarity magnetization followed by geomagnetically unstable transitional field and ended by normal polarity remanence. Our AMS and rock magnetic data suggest that magnetization is acquired during the initial stage of soil formation in context of active volcanic activity since magnetic fabric is essentially sedimentary and reverse and normal polarity paleodirections are almost antipodal. Titanomagnetites are identified as main magnetic carriers of rock-magnetic measurements including thermomagnetics and hysteresis cycles. We propose that the transition recorded in this study correspond to the B-M boundary, considering the K-Ar datings available at the sequence bottom and that the chromic luvisols are potentially good recorders of the paleosecular variation. The identification of the B-M boundary within the studied sequence has fundamental significance for improving the chronological scale of Tlaxcala paleosol-sedimentary sequence and its correlation with the

  16. High-precision 40Ar/39Ar dating of Quaternary basalts from Auckland Volcanic Field, New Zealand, with implications for eruption rates and paleomagnetic correlations (United States)

    Leonard, Graham S.; Calvert, Andrew T.; Hopkins, Jenni L.; Wilson, Colin J. N.; Smid, Elaine R.; Lindsay, Jan M.; Champion, Duane E.


    The Auckland Volcanic Field (AVF), which last erupted ca. 550 years ago, is a late Quaternary monogenetic basaltic volcanic field (ca. 500 km2) in the northern North Island of New Zealand. Prior to this study only 12 out of the 53 identified eruptive centres of the AVF had been reliably dated. Careful sample preparation and 40Ar/39Ar analysis has increased the number of well-dated centres in the AVF to 35. The high precision of the results is attributed to selection of fresh, non-vesicular, non-glassy samples from lava flow interiors. Sample selection was coupled with separation techniques that targeted only the groundmass of samples with 10 μm wide, coupled with ten-increment furnace step-heating of large quantities (up to 200 mg) of material. The overall AVF age data indicate an onset at 193.2 ± 2.8 ka, an apparent six-eruption flare-up from 30 to 34 ka, and a ≤ 10 kyr hiatus between the latest and second-to-latest eruptions. Such non-uniformity shows that averaging the number of eruptions over the life-span of the AVF to yield a mean eruption rate is overly simplistic. Together with large variations in eruption volumes, and the large sizes and unusual chemistry within the latest eruptions (Rangitoto 1 and Rangitoto 2), our results illuminate a complex episodic eruption history. In particular, the rate of volcanism in AVF has increased since 60 ka, suggesting that the field is still in its infancy. Multiple centres with unusual paleomagnetic inclination and declination orientations are confirmed to fit into a number of geomagnetic excursions, with five identified in the Mono Lake, two within the Laschamp, one within the post-Blake or Blake, and two possibly within the Hilina Pali.

  17. PreliminaryEquatorial Paleomagnetic results from Mt Kenya lavas. Neil D Opdyke, 1, Dennis V Kent, 2, Kainian Huang ,1, J.P. Patel , 3 (United States)

    Opdyke, N. D.; Kent, D. V.; Huang, K.; Patel, J. P.


    Field work on this study was carried out in August of 2006 by field parties from the University of Florida and Rutgers University. Mt Kenya is believed to be Plio-Pleistocene in age and an Argon dating survey is underway Ten samples were taken at each site consisting of one exposure in individual lava Flows. These exposures are usually in road cuts, streambeds and in some cases roadbeds. We sampled 100 sites distributed around the Mt Kenya Massif and to the northeast along the Nyambini range. The equator bisex's Mt Kenya and all sites were sampled within 40" north or south of the equator . The samples were returned to the US and processed at the University of Florida paleomagnetic laboratory. Many sites were severely affected by lightning however after demagnetization 68 sites yielded directions with alpha 95's equal to or less than 10°. Normal magnetized sites dominate, with N=58 (Dec=1°,Inc -0.1°,α95=2.6°) whereas only 10 reverse sites(Dec. =181.9,Inc. .6°α 95=8°) were identified. The combined site mean direction is Dec=1.1°, Inc..= -0.2° and α 95=3.2°. This result is not significantly different from what is expected from the geocentric axial dipole. VGP's were calculated from each site and the dispersion is low with the ASD = 11° which is in agreement with model "G" of MacFadden and McElhinny .No transitional directions were identified . Quadrupole components are not resolved. 1 Department of geological Sciences, the University of Florida , 2 Dept of Geology, Rutgers University,3,dept of Physics ,The University of Nairobi

  18. Refined permo-triassic paleomagnetic pole for the Siberian platform and geomagnetic secular variations at the Paleozoic-Mesozoic boundary as recorded in volcanic traps key sections of northern Siberia (United States)

    Pavlov, V. E.; Veselovskiy, R. V.; Khokhlov, A.; Latyshev, A. V.; fluteau, F.


    Two new volcanic key sections of the Siberian traps erupted ~ 250 million years ago have been studied in the Norilsk region (NW of the Siberian platform). Along with results obtained earlier from both this area (Heunemann et al., 2004) and Maymecha-Kotuy region (northern Siberian platform, Pavlov et al., 2011) these data constitute rather extensive database, including paleomagnetic information on about 200 volcanic flows. Using this information we can not only get refined permo-triassic paleomagnetic pole for the Siberian platform, based exceptionally on lava flows data, but also estimate amplitude of geomagnetic secular variation at the Paleozoic-Mesozoic boundary and check their compatibility with statistic models, suggested for description of recent (Late Cenozoic) Earth's magnetic field. Moreover, our results can be also used to obtain additional time constraints on duration of the trap emplacement and to isolate volcanic pulses within the traps sections. We present a report where we discuss all these topics. This work was supported by grants NSF # EAR 0807585 and RBRF #09-05-01180, 11-05-00601,10-05- 00557.

  19. Preliminary paleomagnetic and rock magnetic results from 17 to 22 ka sediment of Jeju Island, Korea: Geomagnetic excursional behavior or rock magnetic anomalies? (United States)

    Ahn, Hyeon-Seon; Sohn, Young Kwan; Lee, Jin-Young; Kim, Jin Cheul


    Paleomagnetic and rock magnetic investigations were performed on a 64-cm-thick section of nonmarine unconsolidated muddy sediment from the Gosan Formation on Jeju Island, Korea. This sediment was recently dated to have been deposited between 22 and 17 kyr BP calibrated, with a sedimentation rate of 13-25 cm/kyr, based on many radiocarbon ages. Interestingly, stepwise alternating field (AF) demagnetization revealed characteristic natural remanent magnetizations with anomalous directions, manifested by marked deviations from the direction of today's axial dipole field, for some separate depth levels. On the other hand, stepwise thermal (TH) demagnetization showed more complex behavior, resulting in the identification of multiple remanence components. For all TH-treated specimens, consistently two different components are predominant: a low-temperature component unblocked below 240-320 °C entirely having normal-polarity apparently within the secular variation range of the Brunhes Chron, and a high-temperature component with unblocking temperatures (Tubs) between 240-320 and 520-580 °C that have anomalous directions, concentrated in the 13-34-cm-depth interval ( 17-19 ka in inferred age) and possibly below 53 cm depth (before 20 ka). Rock magnetic results also infer the dominance of low-coercivity magnetic particles having 300 and 580 °C Curie temperature as remanence carriers, suggestive of (titano)maghemite and/or Ti-rich titanomagnetite and magnetite (or Ti-poor titanomagnetite), respectively. A noteworthy finding is that AF demagnetizations in this study often lead to incomplete separation of the two remanence components possibly due to their strongly overlapping AF spectra. The unusual directions do not appear to result from self-reversal remanences. Then, one interpretation is that the low-temperature components are attributable to post-depositional chemical remanences, associated possibly with the later formation of the mineral phase having Tub 300

  20. True Polar Wander and Hotspot Fixity: A Paleomagnetic Investigation of the Skewness of Magnetic Anomaly 12r (32 Ma B.P.) on the Pacific Plate (United States)

    Gordon, R. G.; Horner-Johnson, B. C.


    Prior studies have shown that Pacific hotspots and Indo-Atlantic hotspots have moved in approximate unison relative to the spin axis since 65 Ma B.P. [Morgan, 1981; Gordon and Cape, 1981; Gordon, 1982] and since 56 Ma B.P. [Petronotis et al., 1994], which is most simply interpreted as true polar wander. In contrast, Pacific hotspots and Indo-Atlantic hotspots give conflicting results for 72 Ma B.P. and for 81 Ma B.P., which may indicate motion between Pacific hotspots and Indo-Atlantic hotspots [Tarduno and Cottrell, 1997; Petronotis et al., 1999; Tarduno et al., 2003]. Thus it is important to estimate Pacific plate apparent polar wander (APW) for more time intervals. From such estimates the APW of Pacific hotspots can be inferred and compared with that of Indo-Atlantic hotspots [e.g., Besse and Courtillot 2002]. Here we present a study of the skewness of anomaly 12r between the Galapagos and Clipperton and between the Clipperton and Clarion fracture zones. We chose this region for several reasons: First, numerical experiments, like those conducted by Acton and Gordon [1991], indicate that magnetic profiles between the Galapagos and Clarion fracture zones should contain the most information about the Pacific plate paleomagnetic pole for chron C12r (32 Ma B.P.). Second, in these two spreading rate corridors, spreading half rates range from 72 to 86 mm/a and therefore have negligible anomalous skewness, given that they exceed ≈50 mm/a [Roest et al., 1992; Dyment et al. 1994]. Third, vector aeromagnetic profiles are available for analysis. One of the challenges to interpreting magnetic anomalies in low latitudes where the anomalies strike nearly north-south is the very low amplitude of the signal relative to the noise, the latter of which can be especially intense near the present magnetic equator due to the amplification of diurnal variation by the equatorial electrojet. Previously we showed that vector aeromagnetic profiles record low-latitude Pacific plate

  1. Does Deccan Volcanic Sequence contain more reversals than the three-Chron N-R-N flow magnetostratigraphy?- A paleomagnetic evidence from the dyke-swarm near Mumbai (United States)

    Basavaiah, N.; Satyanarayana, KVV; Deenadayalan, K.; Prasad, JN


    New paleomagnetic data from a series of Deccan-age dykes cutting across the basement of lava flows along east and south of Mumbai (18°-19° N and 72°-73.5° E) have uncovered both normal (N) and reverse (R) magnetizations. Out of 33 dykes investigated, 29 dykes have yielded stable characteristic remanent magnetizations (ChRM) amenable for statistical analysis. Twenty dykes exhibit N-polarity and nine dykes show R-polarity. The tilt-corrected dyke VGPs reveal two distinct groups of dykes. Each group consists of both N- and R- polarity dykes on the Indian Apparent Polar Wander Path (APWP). The mean of N-polarity dykes is antipodal to the mean of R-polarity dykes. Group I (GI) comprises nine N-polarity dykes with their mean at Dm = 337.8°, Im = -39.4° (k = 130.7, α95 = 4.5°), and three dykes of R-polarity whose mean is at Dm = 150.7°, Im = 44.1° (k = 147.1, α95 = 10.2°). The corresponding pole positions are at 43.5° S, 102.6° E (A95 = 4.6°) and 36.6° S, 107.6° E (A95 = 8.9°) respectively. These pole positions fall close to 65 Ma old Deccan Superpole (DSP) on the APWP, and may therefore be associated with magnetic Chron 29 N for the N-polarity and 29R for the R-polarity of the three-Chron (30N - 29R -29Ν) magnetostratigraphy of the Deccan Volcanic Province (DVP) used in the computation of DSP. In Group II (GII), eleven dykes display N-polarity with mean at Dm = 312.6°, Im = -45.2° (k = 93.3, α95 = 4.8°) and six dykes show R-polarity with mean at Dm = 130.1°, Im = 48.0° (k = 176.8, α95 = 5.1°). The corresponding pole positions at 25° S, 120.1° E (A95 = 5.3°) and 22.2° S, 119.1° E (A95 = 5.2°) respectively are significantly displaced (by more than 20°) from the DSP along the older segment (˜80 -90 Ma) of the Indian APWP. Hence, the dykes of GII appear to have been emplaced in an earlier episodic Deccan activity than that represented by the DSP. The paleolatituides corresponding to GI and GII are 23.2° S ± 4.0 and 27.6° S ± 4

  2. Geologic Mapping and Paired Geochemical-Paleomagnetic Sampling of Reference Sections in the Grande Ronde Basalt: An Example from the Bingen Section, Columbia River Gorge, Washington (United States)

    Sawlan, M.; Hagstrum, J. T.; Wells, R. E.


    We have completed comprehensive geochemical (GC) and paleomagnetic (PM) sampling of individual lava flows from eight reference stratigraphic sections in the Grande Ronde Basalt (GRB), Columbia River Basalt Group [Hagstrum et al., 2009, GSA Ann. Mtg, Portland (abst); Hagstrum et al., 2010, AGU Fall Mtg, San Francisco (abst)]. These sections, distributed across the Columbia Plateau and eastern Columbia River Gorge, contain as many as 30 flows, are up to 670 m thick, span upper magneto-stratigraphic zones R2 and N2, and, in some locations, also contain one or more N1 flows. In concert with GC and PM sampling, we have carried out detailed geologic mapping of these sections, typically at a scale of 1:3,000 to 1:5,000, using GPS, digital imagery from the National Aerial Imagery Program (NAIP), and compilation in GIS. GRB member and informal unit names of Reidel et al. [1989, GSA Sp. Paper 239] generally have been adopted, although two new units are identified and named within the N2 zone. Notably, a distinctive PM direction for intercalated lavas of several lower N2 units indicates coeval eruption of compositionally distinct units; this result contrasts with the scenario of serial stratigraphic succession of GRB units proposed by Reidel et al. [1989]. Our objectives in the mapping include: Confirming the integrity of the stratigraphic sequences by documenting flow contacts and intraflow horizons (changes in joint patterns or vesicularity); assessing fault displacements; and, establishing precisely located samples in geologic context such that selected sites can be unambiguously reoccupied. A geologic map and GC-PM data for the Bingen section, along the north side of the Columbia River, are presented as an example of our GRB reference section mapping and sampling. One of our thicker sections (670 m) along which 30 flows are mapped, the Bingen section spans 7 km along WA State Hwy 14, from near the Hood River Bridge ESE to Locke Lake. This section cuts obliquely through a

  3. Cosmic markers, 40Ar/ 39Ar dating and paleomagnetism of the KT sections in the Anjar Area of the Deccan large igneous province (United States)

    Courtillot, V.; Gallet, Y.; Rocchia, R.; Féraud, G.; Robin, E.; Hofmann, C.; Bhandari, N.; Ghevariya, Z. G.


    Bhandari et al. [Bhandari et al., Geophys. Res. Lett. 22 (1995) 433-436; Bhandari et al., Geol. Soc. Am. Spec. Paper 307 (1996) 417-424] reported the discovery of iridium-bearing sediments sandwiched between basalt flows in the Anjar area (Kutch province, India). They concluded that the signature of the K/T impact had been recorded and that onset of volcanism in the Deccan traps preceded the K/T boundary, excluding the possibility of a causal connection. This paper reports complementary analyses of Anjar outcrops by a joint Indo-French team, where we focused on cosmic markers (iridium and spinels) in the intertrappean sediments and 40Ar/ 39Ar dating and paleomagnetism of the lava flows. Anomalous Ir concentrations (up to 0.4 ng/g) are confirmed, with up to three thin and patchy enriched layers which cannot be traced throughout the exposed sections. Despite careful search, no Ni-rich spinels were found. Eight basalt samples provided 40Ar/ 39Ar results, four on plagioclase bulk samples, four on whole rocks. Spectra for whole rocks all indicate some amount of disturbance, and ages based on plagioclase bulk samples seem to be consistently more reliable [Hofmann et al., Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 180 (2000) 13-28]. The three flows underlying the Ir-bearing sediments are dated at ˜66.5 Ma, and two overlying flows at ˜65 Ma. Magnetic analyses (both thermal and by alternating fields) uncovered clear reversed primary components in the upper flows, and more disturbed normal components in the lower flows, with evidence for an additional reversed component. There are reports [Bajpai, Geol. Soc. India Mem. 37 (1996) 313-319; Bajpai, J. Geol. Soc. London 157 (2000) 257-260] that the intertrappean sediments contain uppermost Maastrichtian dinosaur and ostracod remains above the uppermost Ir-bearing level, and may not be mechanically disturbed. We propose the following scenario to interpret these multiple field and analytical observations. Deccan trap volcanism started within

  4. Application of paleomagnetism in stratigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Qinghua; Nie Fengjun; Li Mangen; Rao Minghui


    This paper introduces the formation of magnetic field, polarity reversal, secular variation and the use of geomagnetic polarity reversal or susceptibility in stratigraphic study. It is verified that this method is effective in dating of stratum and differentiating the boundary between two different layers in the Erlian basin, northeast China. (authors)

  5. A paleomagnetic investigation of vertical-axis rotations in coastal Sonora, Mexico: Evidence for distributed transtensional deformation during the Proto-Gulf shift from a subduction-dominated to transform-dominated plate boundary in the Gulf of California (United States)

    Herman, Scott William

    The history of late Miocene (Proto-Gulf) deformation on the Sonoran margin of the Gulf of California is key to understanding how Baja California was captured by the Pacific plate and how strain was partitioned during the Proto-Gulf period (12.5-6 Ma). The Sierra el Aguaje and Sierra Tinajas del Carmen are located in southwestern coastal Sonora, Mexico, and represent the eastern rifted margin of the central Gulf of California. The ranges are composed of volcanic units and their corresponding volcaniclastic units which are the result of persistent magmatic activity between 20 and 8.8 Ma, including three packages of basalt and andesite that make excellent paleomagnetic recorders. Based on cross cutting relations and geochronologic data for pre-, syn-, and post-tectonic volcanic units, most of the faulting and tilting in the Sierra El Aguaje is bracketed between 11.9 and 9.0 Ma, thus falling entirely within Proto-Gulf time. A paleomagnetic investigation into possible vertical axis rotations in the Sierra el Aguaje has uncovered evidence of clockwise rotations between ~13º and ~105º with possible translations. These results are consistent with existing field relations, which suggest the presence of large (>45°) vertical axis rotations in this region. This evidence includes: a) abrupt changes in the strike of tilted strata in different parts of the range, including large domains characterized by E-W strikes b) ubiquitous NE-SW striking faults with left lateral-normal oblique slip, that terminate against major NW-trending right lateral faults, and c) obliquity between the general strike of tilted strata and the strike of faults. These rotations occurred after 12 Ma and largely prior to 9 Ma, thus falling into the Proto-Gulf period. Such large-scale rotations lend credence to the theory that the area inboard of Baja California was experiencing transtension during the Proto-Gulf period, rather than the pure extension that would be the result of strain partitioning

  6. New Paleomagnetic Data from Upper Permian and Lower Triassic Volcanic Sequences from Hua Binh, Quynh Nhai, and Thuan Chau Localities, Northwest Veitnam and Their Bearing on the Accretion History of Southeast Asia (United States)

    Geissman, J. W.; Chi, C. T.


    New paleomagnetic data from Upper Permian to Lower Triassic volcanic rocks sampled in NW Vietnam provide more quantitative constraints on the paleogeographic setting of crustal elements that comprise the Song Da Terrane, east of the Song Ma suture, between the South China block (SCB) and north Indochina. These include results from 12 sites (125 samples) from basalts of the Vien Nam Formation, exposed at Hoa Binh Dam; eight sites (74 samples) from basalts of the Cam Thuy Formation near Thuan Chau; and 19 sites (198 samples) from andesites and basalts of the Vien Nam Formation near Quynh Nhai. The collection is limited by the quality of exposures and quantity of independent flows. Most sites yield interpretable magnetizations in progressive demagnetization, and the response implies that characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM) components are carried by low-titanium magnetite or hematite, or a combination of both; these are isolated from secondary components. Rock magnetic data and petrography support the retention of an early-acquired thermoremanent magnetization in most sites. The Vien Nam Formation mafic volcanic rocks yield a grand mean, in geographic coordinates, of D=33.8o, I=-28.4o ( a95 = 9.5o, k =30.3, N=9 accepted sites), and a pole position at Lat=41.1N, Long=239.8E and a paleolatitude at ~15o S during the Late Permian to Early Triassic. Permian basalts of the Cam Thuy Formation provide a grand mean, corrected for structural tilt, of D=216.1o, I=+10.5o, a95=8.9o, k=107.8, and N= 4, with a pole position at Lat=45.6N, Long=226.8E. Volcanic rocks at the Quynh Nhai locality likely yield the most robust paleofield determination, as the data set is of dual polarity and passes a reversal test. The tilt corrected grand mean (normal polarity) is D=48.3o, I=-10.0o, a95=8.0o, k=27.7, N = 13, and this in turn yields an inferred paleomagnetic pole at Lat=35.7N, Long=217.4E, and a paleolatitude of 5.1oS for the late Permian. Compared with the Late Permian


    Mason, S. N.; Geissman, J. W.; Sussman, A. J.


    In the Rio Grande rift (RGR), a late Cenozoic continental rift from central Colorado to southern New Mexico, hanging wall margins typically contain en echelon normal fault systems with intervening areas of typically complex structure, called relay zones. Relay zones transfer displacement through complex strain patterns and eventual linkage of faults and hold clues as to how fault zones initiate and grow. The western margin of the RGR at the latitude of the San Luis basin (SLB) exposes laterally continuous Eocene-Oligocene volcanic rocks, well-correlated by 40Ar/39Ar data, and well-preserved rift structures. Ash flow tuffs are usually excellent recorders of the instantaneous geomagnetic field and five ash flow tuffs (ca. 32.3 to 27.3 Ma; including the Saguache Creek, La Jara Canyon, Masonic Park, Fish Canyon, and Carpenter Ridge tuffs) have been sampled in spatial detail along west to east transects of the eastern San Juan volcanic field to the westernmost margin of the RGR at the SLB. Data obtained from our sampling approach will yield a comprehensive definition of relative vertical-axis rotations across the area and will be used to assess the timing of RGR fault linkages. Preliminary paleomagnetic data from the Masonic Park tuff (ca. 28.2 Ma) suggest up to ~17° clockwise rotation between sample locations on the Colorado Plateau and locations to the east, nearest the western margin of the RGR. Preliminary data from the Fish Canyon tuff (ca. 27.8 Ma) show a ~12° clockwise rotation. The relative clockwise vertical-axis rotation of sampling sites in both ash flow tuffs nearest the RGR margin suggests that relay zone development with attending vertical-axis rotation played an important role in the opening of the northern RGR. Our data set is not sufficiently robust at present to test the hypothesis that rotation was taking place concurrently with eruption of these large-volume ash flow tuffs in the early Oligocene, but it is a possibility and if so, the RGR at the

  8. Paleomagnetic and chronostratigraphic constraints on the Middle to Late Miocene evolution of the Transylvanian Basin (Romania): Implications for Central Paratethys stratigraphy and emplacement of the Tisza-Dacia plate (United States)

    de Leeuw, Arjan; Filipescu, Sorin; Maţenco, Liviu; Krijgsman, Wout; Kuiper, Klaudia; Stoica, Marius


    From the Oligocene onwards, the complex tectonic evolution of the Africa-Eurasia collision zone led to paleogeographic and biogeographic differentiation of the Mediterranean and Paratethys, two almost land-locked seas, in the area formerly occupied by the western Tethys Ocean. Episodic isolation of the basins triggered strong faunal endemism leading to the introduction of regional stratigraphic stages for the Paratethys. Chronostratigraphic control on the Paratethys stages remains rudimentary compared to the cyclostratigraphically constrained Mediterranean stages. This lack of chronostratigraphic control restricts the insight in the timing of geodynamic, climatic, and paleobiogeographic events and thereby hinders the identification of their causes and effects. In this paper, we here derive better age constraints on the Badenian, Sarmatian and Pannonian Central Paratethys regional stages through integrated 40Ar/39Ar, magnetostratigraphic, and biostratigraphic research in the Transylvanian Basin. The obtained results help to clarify the regions Middle Miocene geodynamic and paleobiogeographic evolution. Six new 40Ar/39Ar ages were determined for tuffs intercalating with the generally deep marine basin infill. Together with data from previous studies, there is now a total of 9 radio-isotopically dated horizons in the basin. These were traced along seismic lines into a synthetic seismic stratigraphic column in the basin center and serve as first order tie-points to the astronomically tuned Neogene timescale (ATNTS). Paleomagnetically investigated sections were treated similarly and their polarity in general corroborates the 40Ar/39Ar results. The integrated radio-isotopic and magnetostratigraphic results provide an improved high-resolution time-frame for the sedimentary infill of the Transylvanian Basin. Early Badenian deep water sedimentation is characterized by accumulation of the Dej Tuff Complex in response to a period of intensive volcanism, the onset of which is

  9. Scaling properties of paleomagnetic reversal sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Ivanov


    Full Text Available The history of reversals of main geomagnetic field during last 160 My is analyzed as a sequence of events, presented as a point set on the time axis. Different techniques were applied including the method of boxcounting, dispersion counter-scaling, multifractal analysis and examination of attractor behaviour in multidimensional phase space. The existence of a crossover point at time interval 0.5-1.0 My was clearly identified, dividing the whole time range into two subranges with different scaling properties. The long-term subrange is characterized by monofractal dimension 0.88 and by an attractor, whose correlation dimension converges to 1.0, that provides evidence of a deterministic dynamical system in this subrange, similar to most existing dynamo models. In the short-term subrange the fractal dimension estimated by different methods varies from 0.47 to 0.88 and the dimensionality of the attractor is obtained to be about 3.7. These results are discussed in terms of non-linear superposition of processes in the Earth's geospheres.

  10. Paleomagnetism of San Cristobal Island, Galapagos (United States)

    Cox, A.


    Isla San Cristobal, the most easterly of the Galapagos Islands, consists of two parts: a large volcano constitutes the southwest half of the island and an irregular apron of small cones and flows makes up the northeast half. As some of the younger flows on the flanks of the large volcano are reversely magnetized, the minimum age of the volcano is 0.7 my, which is the age of the Brunhes-Matuyama reversal boundary. The true age is probably several times greater. The cones and flows to the northeast are all normally magnetized. The between-site angular dispersion of virtual poles is 11.3?? - a value consistent with mathematical models for the latitude dependence of geomagnetic secular variation. ?? 1971.

  11. Paleomagnetic Studies of Returned Samples from Mars (United States)

    Weiss, B. P.; Beaty, D. W.; McSween, H. Y.; Carrier, B. L.; Czaja, A. D.; Goreva, Y. S.; Hausrath, E.; Herd, C. D. K.; Humayun, M.; McCubbin, F. M.; McLennan, S. M.; Pratt, L. M.; Sephton, M. A.; Steele, A.


    Magnetic measurements of returned samples could transform our understanding of the martian dynamo and its connection to climatic and planetary thermal evolution and provide powerful constraints on the preservation state of sample biosignatures.

  12. Paleomagnetism and radiochemical age estimates for Late Brunhes polarity episodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denham, C.R.; Anderson, R.F.; Bacon, M.P.


    Several reversed polarity magnetozones occur within deep-sea sediment core CH57-8 from the Greater Antilles Outer Ridge, within sediment of latest Pleistocene/Late Brunhes age. The uppermost reversed interval spanning 31 data points coincides with the X faunal zone of the Last Interglacial Period. Radiochemical dating of cores CH57-8 and KN25-4 has shown that all the reversed polarity magnetozones are significantly younger than the Brunhes/Matuyama boundary at 0.7 m.y.B.P. A variation of the excess 230 Th method was used, in which 210 Po and 238 U were the actual radionuclides measured. In a third core from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, the 210 Po results were similar to those which others obtained earlier by direct 230 Th measurements. (Auth.)

  13. paleomagnetic dating of the enticho sandstone at negash locality

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    origin and interpreted as the Characteristic Remanent Magnetization (ChRM). .... curve of the IRM experiment in A; the corresponding specimen names are given. ..... Planet. Sci. Lett. 215(3–4):379–394. 22. Tesfaye Kidane, Bachtadse, V., ...

  14. Paleomagnetism. Solar nebula magnetic fields recorded in the Semarkona meteorite. (United States)

    Fu, Roger R; Weiss, Benjamin P; Lima, Eduardo A; Harrison, Richard J; Bai, Xue-Ning; Desch, Steven J; Ebel, Denton S; Suavet, Clément; Wang, Huapei; Glenn, David; Le Sage, David; Kasama, Takeshi; Walsworth, Ronald L; Kuan, Aaron T


    Magnetic fields are proposed to have played a critical role in some of the most enigmatic processes of planetary formation by mediating the rapid accretion of disk material onto the central star and the formation of the first solids. However, there have been no experimental constraints on the intensity of these fields. Here we show that dusty olivine-bearing chondrules from the Semarkona meteorite were magnetized in a nebular field of 54 ± 21 microteslas. This intensity supports chondrule formation by nebular shocks or planetesimal collisions rather than by electric currents, the x-wind, or other mechanisms near the Sun. This implies that background magnetic fields in the terrestrial planet-forming region were likely 5 to 54 microteslas, which is sufficient to account for measured rates of mass and angular momentum transport in protoplanetary disks. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  15. Paleomagnetic evidence for a partially differentiated H chondrite parent planetesimal (United States)

    Bryson, J. F. J.; Weiss, B. P.; Scholl, A.; Getzin, B. L.; Abrahams, J. N. H.; Nimmo, F.


    The texture, composition and ages of chondrites have all been used to argue that the parent bodies of these meteorites did not undergo planetary differentiation. Without a core, these planetesimals could not have generated planetary magnetic fields, hence chondrites are predicted to be unmagnetized. Here, we test this hypothesis by applying synchrotron x-ray microscopy to the metallic melt veins in the metamorphosed H chondrite breccia Portales Valley. We find that tetrataenite nanostructures in these veins are uniformly magnetized, suggesting that the H chondrite parent body generated a stable, 10 µT ancient field. We also performed alternating field (AF) demagnetization on bulk silicate-rich portions of Portales Valley, finding that both the large grain size of the metal in these subsamples and the presence of tetrataenite hinder the reliable interpretation of these measurements. Based on 40Ar/39Ar dating and the metallographic cooling rate, we propose that this field inferred from x-ray microscopy was generated 100 Myr after solar system formation and lasted >5 Myr. These properties are consistent with a dynamo field generated by core solidification, implying that the H chondrite parent body was partially differentiated. This conclusion is supported by our analyses of the H4 chondrite Forest Vale, which show that H chondrite magnetization is unlikely to be a relic signature of early nebular or solar wind fields (Getzin et al., this meeting; Oran et al., this meeting). We propose that partial differentiation could result form prolonged accretion over millions of years, possibly in two stages. In this scenario, the earliest accreted material melted from the radioactive decay of abundant 26Al, forming a core and rocky achondritic mantle, while the later accreted material was less metamorphosed, forming an undifferentiated crust. We demonstrate that, with the inclusion of an insulating regolith, the thermal evolution of such a body is consistent with the measured ages of various H chondrites (Abrahams et al., this meeting). These observations contribute to a growing body of evidence supporting a spectrum of differentiation within planetesimals and place crucial constraints on the thermochemical evolution and formation of chondrite parent bodies.

  16. Paleomagnetic Study of a Reversal of the Earth's Magnetic Field. (United States)

    Dunn, J R; Fuller, M; Ito, H; Schmidt, V A


    A detailed record of a field reversal has been obtained from the natural remanent magnetization of the Tatoosh intrusion in Mount Rainier National Park, Washington. The reversal took place at 14.7 +/- 1 million years and is interpreted to be from reverse to normal. A decrease in the intensity of the field of about an order of magnitude occurs immediately before the reversal, while its orientation remains substantially unchanged. The onset of the reversal is marked by abrupt swinging of the virtual geomagnetic pole along an arc of a great circle. During the reversal the pole traces a path across the Pacific. In the last stage of the process recorded in the sections, the succession of virtual geomagnetic poles is very similar to those generated by secular variation in the recent past. Although the cooling rate of the intrusion is not sufficiently well known to permit a useful calculation of the duration of the reversal process, an estimate based on the length of the supposed secular variation cycles gives 1 to 4 x 103 years for the reversal of field direction and approximately 1 x 104 years for the time scale of the intensity changes.

  17. A global geomagnetic model based on historical and paleomagnetic data (United States)

    Arneitz, P.; Leonhardt, R.; Fabian, K.


    Two main types of data are available to reconstruct the temporal and spatial geomagnetic field evolution. Historical instrumental measurements (direct data) extend from present day to the late Middle Age, and, prior the 19th century, consist mainly of declination values. Further back in the past, field reconstructions rely exclusively on the magnetization acquired by archaeological artefacts and rocks or sediments (indirect data). The major challenges for a reliable inversion approach are the inhomogeneous data distribution, the highly variable data quality, and inconsistent quality parameters. Available historical, archeomagnetic and volcanic records have been integrated into a single database together with corresponding metadata. This combination of compilations enables a joint evaluation of geomagnetic field records from different origins. In particular, data reliability and quality of indirect records are investigated using a detailed comparison with their direct counterparts. The collection forms the basis for combined inverse modeling of the geomagnetic field evolution. The iterative Bayesian inversion approach targets the implementation of reliable error treatments, which allow to combine data from different sources. Furthermore, a verification method scrutinizing the limitations of the applied inversion scheme and the used datasets is developed. Here, we will present strategies for the integration of different data types into the modeling procedure. The obtained modeling results and their validity will be discussed.

  18. The correlation between orientation of Chinese mausoleums and paleomagnetic declinations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klokočník, Jaroslav; Kang, F.

    -, č. 2 (2017), s. 65-77 ISSN 1009-4490 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : pyramids in China * compass * Fuson hypothesis Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science)

  19. Paleomagnetic study of Shanwang formation, Shandong Province, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Huangfeng; Shi Nin


    The measured direction of the stable remanence of Shanwang Formation, Shandong Province, is D = 355.8 deg., I = 47.1 deg. According to the axial geocentre dipole model, the paleolatitude there during Miocene was 28.3 deg. N. The corrected value based on far-sided effect is 32.4 deg. N. The uncorrected and corrected pole positions were (81.0 deg. N, 323.1 deg. E) and (84.6 deg. N, 339.7 deg. E) separately. Comparing them with paleo-flora shows that the corrected value of paleolatitude is probably reasonable. (author). 14 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  20. Intraplate Crustal Deformation Within the Northern Sinai Microplate: Evidence from Paleomagnetic Directions and Mechanical Modeling (United States)

    Dembo, N.; Granot, R.; Hamiel, Y.


    The intraplate crustal deformation found in the northern part of the Sinai Microplate, located near the northern Dead Sea Fault plate boundary, is examined. Previous studies have suggested that distributed deformation in Lebanon is accommodated by regional uniform counterclockwise rigid block rotations. However, remanent magnetization directions observed near the Lebanese restraining bend are not entirely homogeneous suggesting that an unexplained and complex internal deformation pattern exists. In order to explain the variations in the amount of vertical-axis rotations we construct a mechanical model of the major active faults in the region that simulates the rotational deformation induced by motion along these faults. The rotational pattern calculated by the mechanical modeling predicts heterogeneous distribution of rotations around the faults. The combined rotation field that considers both the fault induced rotations and the already suggested regional block rotations stands in general agreement with the observed magnetization directions. Overall, the modeling results provide a more detailed and complete picture of the deformation pattern in this region and show that rotations induced by motion along the Dead Sea Fault act in parallel to rigid block rotations. Finally, the new modeling results unravel important insights as to the fashion in which crustal deformation is distributed within the northern part of the Sinai Microplate and propose an improved deformational mechanism that might be appropriate for other plate margins as well.

  1. Lower Cretaceous Xigaze ophiolites formed in the Gangdese forearc : Evidence from paleomagnetism, sediment provenance, and stratigraphy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Wentao; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J J; Maffione, Marco; Orme, Devon A.; Dupont-Nivet, Guillaume; Guilmette, Carl; Ding, Lin; Guo, Zhaojie; Kapp, Paul


    The India-Asia suture zone of southern Tibet exposes Lower Cretaceous Xigaze ophiolites and radiolarian cherts, and time-equivalent Asian-derived clastic forearc sedimentary rocks (Xigaze Group). These ophiolites have been interpreted to have formed in the forearc of the north-dipping subduction

  2. A rock- and paleomagnetic study of a Holocene lava flow in Central Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlag, P.; Alva-Valdivia, L.; Boer, C.B. de; Gonzalez, S.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.


    Magnetic measurements of the Tres Cruces lava flow (ca. 8500 years BP, Central Mexico) show the presence of two remanence carriers, a Ti-rich titanomagnetite with a Curie temperature between 350 and 400 °C and a Ti-poor magnetite with a Curie temperature close to 580°C. Magnetic changes after

  3. Weathering model in paleomagnetic field intensity measurements on ancient fired clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singalas, I.; Gangas, N-H.J.; Danon, J.


    Nonlinearities observed in Thellier's plots are explained in terms of a weathering model. This model is based on the reduction in size of the originaly present iron oxide particles, due to leaching. In the general case, the slope of the Thellier's plot is a function of the particle size destributions of the magnetic particles, both newly formed and leached ones. In the special case in which the newly formed magnetic particles are superparamagnetic, the limiting value of the slope of th Thellier's plot towards the magnetic ordering temperature is equal to the ratio of the ancient field intensity to the modern one

  4. The paleomagnetic field and possible mechanisms for the formation of reversed rock magnetization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trukhin, Vladimir I.; Bezaeva, Natalia; Kurochkina, Evgeniya


    Investigations of ancient magnetized rocks show that their natural remanent magnetization (NRM) can be oriented in the direction of modern geomagnetic field (GMF) as well as in the opposite direction. It is supposed that reversed NRM is related to reversals of the GMF in the past geological periods. During reversals, the strength of the GMF is near zero and can cause the destruction of living organisms as a result of powerful space and solar radiation, which, in the absence of the GMF, can reach the Earth's surface. That is why the question of reality of the GMF reversals is of global ecological importance. There is also another natural mechanism for the formation of reversed NRM-the self-reversal of magnetization as a result of thermomagnetization of rocks. In the paper, both natural processes for the formation of reversed NRM in rocks are discussed, and the results of experimental research on the physical mechanism of self-reversal of magnetization in continental and oceanic rocks are presented. The results of computer modeling of the self-reversal phenomenon are also presented

  5. The paleomagnetic field and possible mechanisms for the formation of reversed rock magnetization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trukhin, Vladimir I. [Faculty of Physics, Moscow State University, 119992 Moscow (Russian Federation)]. E-mail:; Bezaeva, Natalia [Faculty of Physics, Moscow State University, 119992 Moscow (Russian Federation); Kurochkina, Evgeniya [Faculty of Physics, Moscow State University, 119992 Moscow (Russian Federation)


    Investigations of ancient magnetized rocks show that their natural remanent magnetization (NRM) can be oriented in the direction of modern geomagnetic field (GMF) as well as in the opposite direction. It is supposed that reversed NRM is related to reversals of the GMF in the past geological periods. During reversals, the strength of the GMF is near zero and can cause the destruction of living organisms as a result of powerful space and solar radiation, which, in the absence of the GMF, can reach the Earth's surface. That is why the question of reality of the GMF reversals is of global ecological importance. There is also another natural mechanism for the formation of reversed NRM-the self-reversal of magnetization as a result of thermomagnetization of rocks. In the paper, both natural processes for the formation of reversed NRM in rocks are discussed, and the results of experimental research on the physical mechanism of self-reversal of magnetization in continental and oceanic rocks are presented. The results of computer modeling of the self-reversal phenomenon are also presented.

  6. Paleomagnetic dates of hominid remains from Yuanmou, China, and other Asian sites. (United States)

    Hyodo, Masayuki; Nakaya, Hideo; Urabe, Atsushi; Saegusa, Haruo; Shunrong, Xue; Jiyun, Yin; Xuepin, Ji


    Two hominid upper central incisors found in the Yuanmou Basin in southwest China in 1965 have affinities with Homo erectus fossils from Zhoukoudian, but exhibit primitive features. The Yuanmou hominid remains are alleged to be coeval with or older than African specimens dated at about 1.8 m.y.a. Recent age refinements of geomagnetic short reversal events and excursions permit assigning the Yuanmou hominid-bearing bed to the early Brunhes chron (about 0.7 m.y.a.). Magnetochronological assessments confirm that the Lantian calotte which has been dated to about 1.2 m.y.a., is the oldest reliable evidence for the emergence of Homo in eastern Asia as well as China, and that hominid fossils from Sangiran and Mojokerto, Java, do not exceed 1.1 Ma in age. These results refute the view that the genus Homo migrated into eastern Asia in the late Pliocene or the earliest Pleistocene. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. High resolution Holocene paleomagnetic secular variation records from Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Usapkar, A.; Dewangan, P.; Badesab, F.K.; Mazumdar, A.; Ramprasad, T.; Krishna, K.S.; Basavaiah, N.

    /8 probably due to local effects. Paleoinclination records of MD161/8, MD161/11 and MD161/13 show a low between ~2.4 and 2.0 cal. kyr BP, an increase between 2.0 and 1.4 cal. kyr BP and a decrease towards the present. To varying degrees these trends can...

  8. New and revised 14C dates for Hawaiian surface lava flows: Paleomagnetic and geomagnetic implications (United States)

    Pressline, N.; Trusdell, F.A.; Gubbins, David


    Radiocarbon dates have been obtained for 30 charcoal samples corresponding to 27 surface lava flows from the Mauna Loa and Kilauea volcanoes on the Island of Hawaii. The submitted charcoal was a mixture of fresh and archived material. Preparation and analysis was undertaken at the NERC Radiocarbon Laboratory in Glasgow, Scotland, and the associated SUERC Accelerator Mass Spectrometry facility. The resulting dates range from 390 years B.P. to 12,910 years B.P. with corresponding error bars an order of magnitude smaller than previously obtained using the gas-counting method. The new and revised 14C data set can aid hazard and risk assessment on the island. The data presented here also have implications for geomagnetic modelling, which at present is limited by large dating errors. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  9. 40Ar/39Ar dating and paleo-magnetism of traps from Ethiopia, Deccan and Siberia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, C.


    Recent studies have shown that major flood basalt provinces have been emplaced as short events (∼ 1 Myr), more or less synchronous with climatic crises and mass extinctions. We present new geochronologic ( 40 Ar/ 39 Ar) and magneto-stratigraphic results for the Ethiopian traps, one of the last remaining flood basalts for which little of such data were available. The ages obtained in a 2000 m thick section are indistinguishable. Moreover, magneto-stratigraphy reveals a simple 3-chron reverse-normal-reverse sequence. Although magnetic chrons cannot be yet unambiguously identified, there is more likelihood for the normal sub-chron in the main basaltic pile to correspond to 11N, supporting a brief duration (less than 1.5 Ma). The Ethiopian traps erupted near 30 Ma at or near the time of the cold and dry climate, major Antarctic ice sheet advance, and the largest sea-level drop in the Tertiary. Bhandari et al. (GRL, 1995) have discovered inter-traps sediments with a triple iridium anomaly in a series of seven basaltic lava flows in the Kutch area of the North Western Deccan traps of India. Plagioclases from three flows above the iridium bearing sediments yield 39 Ar/ 40 Ar plateau ages near 65.0 Ma: these flows have unambiguously reversed magnetic polarity interpreted as chron 29R. As a preliminary summary, evidence of the KTB asteroid impact is confirmed in the Deccan traps, showing that they are coeval events in a general sense (in a Ma long window) though clearly with vastly different time constants. This is compatible with paleontologic evidence of two scales of extinctions, one quasi-instantaneous and the other on the order of 10 5 to 10 6 yrs. Clearly, the impact cannot have caused trap eruptions. On the other hand, the exact age and significance of the lower flows more altered remains to be analyzed further as they pertained to the much debated question of duration of Deccan trap volcanism. (author)

  10. Refinement on geometry of Matuyama-Brunhes polarity transition from paleomagnetic records (United States)

    Oda, H.; Fabian, K.; Leonhardt, R.


    The Bayesian model of the Matuyama/Brunhes (MB) geomagnetic polarity reversal was extended from the previous model IMMAB4 (Leonhardt and Fabian, 2007), which was based on one volcanic record and three sedimentary records from the Atlantic sector. The essential improvement on the model was achieved by incorporating a new volcanic record from Tahiti (Mochizuki et al., 2011). This record is unique in that it contains important absolute paleointensity data for the Pacific region, which provide new constraints for the global geomagnetic reversal scenario. The full vector development of transitional geomagnetic field in the central part of the Pacific significantly stabilized the solution in this important region, which was completely missing in the previous model IMMAB4. The sedimentary high-quality record of ODP Site 769 by Oda et al. (2000) previously was only used to check the reliability of the model IMMAB4 by comparing the VGP paths of the model and the data. An integrated sedimentary record of ODP Site 769 was developed from Oda et al. (2000) in combination with the relative paleointensity record provided by Schneider et al. (1992) and Kent&Schneider (1995). The record will also be included into the construction of the new model. Additionally, two records from the Antarctic region (Guyodo et al., 2001; Macri et al., 2010) were found, and might prove useful for further refining the model. To fulfill the aim, we have also revised the data structure, and developed a GUI based correlation software to simplify refinement of the model and further development of the scheme. In the presentation, we will show the revised morphological development of the Earth's magnetic field during Matuyama-Brunhes polarity transition.

  11. Paleomagnetic and geochronologic constraints on the geodynamic evolution of the Central Dinarides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Leeuw, Arjan; Mandic, Oleg; Krijgsman, Wout; Kuiper, Klaudia; Hrvatović, Hazim


    The geodynamic evolution of the Dinaride Mountains of southeastern Europe is relatively poorly understood, especially in comparison with the neighboring Alps and Carpathians. Here, we construct a new chronostratigraphy for the post-orogenic intra-montane basins of the Central Dinarides based on

  12. Paleomagnetism of late Archaean flood basalt terrains : implications for early Earth geodynamics and geomagnetism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strik, G.H.M.A.


    Palaeomagnetic studies are e.g. important for demonstrating and quantifying horizontal movement and rotation of pieces of the Earth's crust. The constant movement and recycling of plates, in other words plate tectonics, is an important mechanism for the Earth to lose its heat. It is generally

  13. Petro- and Paleomagnetic Investigations of Tuzla Section Sediments (Krasnodarsk Territory)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilipenko, Olga; Abrahamsen, N.; Trubikhin, Valerian


    in this study display an anomalous direction coinciding in time (~25-35 ka) with an anomalous horizon discovered in rocks of the Roxolany section (Ukraine). According to the world time scale of geomagnetic excursions, the anomalous direction correlates with the Mono Lake excursion. A significant correlation...... between the time series NRM 0.015 /SIRM (Tuzla section) and NRM 250 /KB (Roxolany section) in the interval 50-10 ka and the world composite curves VADM-21 and Sint-800 implies that, in this time interval, the curve NRM 0.015 /SIRM reflects the variation in the relative paleointensity of the geomagnetic...

  14. Geology and permian paleomagnetism of the Val-di-Non area W. Dolomites, N. Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hilten, D.


    During the summers of 1957 till 1959 geological investigations were carried out in the western part of the Dolomites (southern Alps), where these are separated from the central Alps by the Judicaria fault. A long time before the principal displacements occurred along this fault - late oligocene -

  15. Geology and permian paleomagnetism of the Val-di-Non area W. Dolomites, N. Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilten, D. van


    During the summers of 1957 till 1959 geological investigations were carried out in the western part of the Dolomites (southern Alps), where these are separated from the central Alps by the Judicaria fault. A long time before the principal displacements occurred along this fault - late oligocene

  16. Paleomagnetism of Eocene Talerua Member Lavas on Hareøen Island, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, N.; Schmidt, Anne G.; Riisager, P.


    The results of a palaeomagnetic sampling carried out along two vertical profiles (altogether 19 lavaflows, 126 samples) covering the entire stratigraphy of the Talerua Member lavas (~39 Myr old) that outcrop on the island Hareøen are presented and represent some of the youngest volcanism in the W...

  17. Two normal paleomagnetic polarity intervals in the lower Matuyama Chron recorded in the Shungura Formation (Omo Valley, Southwest Ethiopia) (United States)

    Kidane, Tesfaye; Otofuji, Yo-Ichiro; Brown, Francis H.; Takemoto, Kazuhiro; Eshete, Getachew


    Two hundred fifty meters of fluvio-lacustrine deposits were sampled from the 760-meter thick Shungura Formation to study magnetostratigraphy within the lower Matuyama Chron. Two to three block samples (at different positions) were collected from 46 units in the section. Characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM) is isolated at temperatures between 390 °C and 620 °C or alternating fields between 25 and 100 mT. The ChRM is carried by detrital magnetite and maghemite. Directional analyses revealed three reversed and three normal polarity zones: R3-N3-R2-N2-R1-N1 in the sequence. The overall mean direction Ds = 359.1°, Is = 3.4°; α95 = 3.9°, N = 44 differs marginally from the expected mean dipole field direction ( D = 1.0°, I = 8.8°, α95 = 2.3°, N = 26) [Besse, J., Courtillot, V., 2003. Apparent and True Polar wander and the geometry of the geomagnetic field in the last 200 million years. J. Geophys. Res. 108 (B10), 2469. doi 10.1029/2003JB002684]. Using stratigraphic scaling between 40Ar/ 39Ar and K/Ar isotopic age data [Brown, F.H., McDougall, I., Davies, I., Maier, R., 1985. An integrated Plio-Pleistocene chronology for the Turkana basin. In: Delson, E. (Ed.), Ancestors: The Hard Evidence. Alan R. Liss, Inc., New York, pp. 82-90; McDougall, I., Brown, F.H., 2006. Precise 40Ar/ 39Ar geochronology for the upper Koobi Fora Foramtions, Turkana Basin, northern Kenya. J. Geo. Soc. (Lond.) 163, 205-220], the normal zones N3, N2, and N1 are dated between 2.06 ± 0.01-2.08 ± 0.01 Ma, 2.15 ± 0.01-2.20 ± 0.01 Ma, and at 1.93 ± 0.02 Ma respectively. These age estimates imply that N1 represents the bottom of the Olduvai Subchron while N2 and N3 might represent Réunion Subchrons. If the sedimentation rates are assumed to be constant, the duration for the older Réunion (I) Subchron is about four to seven times (57 ± 15 kyr) that currently adopted by the recent GPTS [Cande, S.C., Kent, D.V., 1995. Revised calibration of the geomagnetic polarity timescale for the Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic. J. Geophys. Res. 100, 6093-6095] and the younger Réunion (II) Subchron has a shorter duration of 18 ± 25 kyr.

  18. Paleomagnetic evidence for an inverse rotation history of Western Anatolia during the exhumation of Menderes core complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uzel, Bora; Langereis, Cornelis G.; Kaymakçı, Nuretdin; Sözbilir, Hasan; Özkaymak, Çağlar; Özkaptan, Murat


    Within the Aegean extensional system, the Izmir-Balikesir Transfer Zone (IBTZ) is a crucial element in the late Cenozoic evolution of western Anatolia since it accommodates the differential deformation between the Cycladic and the Menderes metamorphic core complexes. Here, we determine the

  19. Paleomagnetic Secular Variation Constraints on the Rapid Eruption of the Emeishan Continental Flood Basalts in Southwestern China and Northern Vietnam (United States)

    Xu, Yingchao; Yang, Zhenyu; Tong, Ya-Bo; Jing, Xianqing


    Estimating the duration of magma eruptions using isotopic dating methods is difficult because of the intrinsic errors of the technique regarding the dated materials (such as zircon). However, the long-term variation of the geomagnetic field recorded by lava flows can be used to estimate the net duration of an eruption sequence. The Emeishan basalts at Dongchuan, with a thickness of 630 m, yielded a reliable characteristic remanent magnetization of normal polarity and which passed the fold test (Tauxe & Watson, 1994, Stratigraphic and magnetostratigraphic correlations of the Emeishan basalts in the Dongchuan section with other sections indicate that the eruption of the Emeishan basalts at Dongchuan spans the entire normal polarity zone in the early stage of the Emeishan large igneous province. A flow-by-flow analysis of geomagnetic directions of the Emeishan basalts at Dongchuan indicates that four directional groups and fifteen individual lava directions were recorded, with a net duration (excluding quiescent intervals) of no more than 3100 years. The averaged site directions from the Emeishan basalts with normal polarity conforming to a geocentric axial dipole direction indicate that this interval is longer than 104-105 years. In addition, a magnetostratigraphic study indicates that the normal polarity interval recorded by the Emeishan basalts was shorter than 2-20 × 104 years. Thus, the total duration of the normal polarity stage of the Emeishan large igneous province was roughly 105 years. There is a possible relationship between the rapid eruption and the Late Capitanian mass extinction (259.8 ± 0.4 Ma, Henderson et al., 2012).

  20. Paleomagnetism of volcanic rocks from the Northeast of Brazil and the time of the opening of the South Atlantic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerreiro, S.D.C.


    In the first part of this paper palaeomagnetic and rock magnetism investigations were developed in volcanic samples from the Northeast of Brazil. The age of the samples spans the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods. To accomplish this task four areas were studied and a total of 495 samples from 58 sites were analysed. A portable drilling machine with 2.5 em core diameter was used to collect the samples. The orientation of the samples were obtained by means of a magnetic compass, and a clinometer. The analysis of the magnetic minerals of these samples was done by thermomagnetic curves and by X-ray diffraction. In most cases the magnetic phase in the rocks is mainly titanomagnetite with poor titanium content. Maghemite and sometimes hematite, usually a product of weathering, did not obscure the initial thermoremanent magnetization of these rocks. The second part of this paper deals with the determination of the time of the opening of the South Atlantic ocean by means of palaeomagnetic data. In this paper, however, instead of using the polar wandering paths of the continents (the usual method) statistical tests were applied that give the probability that a certain configuration for the two continents be consistent or not with the palaeomagnetic data for a chosen period. (author)

  1. Forced transport of thermal energy in magmatic and phreatomagmatic large volume ignimbrites: Paleomagnetic evidence from the Colli Albani volcano, Italy (United States)

    Trolese, Matteo; Giordano, Guido; Cifelli, Francesca; Winkler, Aldo; Mattei, Massimo


    Few studies have detailed the thermal architecture of large-volume pyroclastic density current deposits, although such work has a clear importance for understanding the dynamics of eruptions of this magnitude. Here we examine the temperature of emplacement of large-volume caldera-forming ignimbrites related to magmatic and phreatomagmatic eruptions at the Colli Albani volcano, Italy, by using thermal remanent magnetization analysis on both lithic and juvenile clasts. Results show that all the magmatic ignimbrites were deposited at high temperature, between the maximum blocking temperature of the magnetic carrier (600-630 °C) and the glass transition temperature (about 710 °C). Temperature estimations for the phreatomagmatic ignimbrite range between 200 and 400 °C, with most of the clasts emplaced between 200 and 320 °C. Because all the investigated ignimbrites, magmatic and phreatomagmatic, share similar magma composition, volume and mobility, we attribute the temperature difference to magma-water interaction, highlighting its pronounced impact on thermal dissipation, even in large-volume eruptions. The homogeneity of the deposit temperature of each ignimbrite across its areal extent, which is maintained across topographic barriers, suggests that these systems are thermodynamically isolated from the external environment for several tens of kilometers. Based on these findings, we propose that these large-volume ignimbrites are dominated by the mass flux, which forces the lateral transport of mass, momentum, and thermal energy for distances up to tens of kilometers away from the vent. We conclude that spatial variation of the emplacement temperature can be used as a proxy for determining the degree of forced-convection flow.

  2. Paleomagnetic evidence for the continuity and independent movement of a distinct major crustal block in the southern Appalachians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellwood, B.B.


    The magnetization of 22 granitic and gneissic southern Appalachian rock units, with estimated cooling ages of 415--250 m.y., has been determined. Included are 842 samples from 114 sites within 19 granites (100 sites) and 3 gneisses (14 sites) located in North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia. Data for units which cooled to temperatures 0 C between 350--240 m.y., a period of apparently only slight North American plate motion, can be divided into two groups. A mean paleopole calculated for the first of these groups, group A (derived from six granites and gneisses 365--325 m.y. in age), located in the vicinity of Atlanta, Ga., is coincident with well-defined Lower Carboniferous North American paleopoles. Site paleolatitude is estimated to be approx.11 0 S. Group B granites (six units) range in age from 350--250 m.y., are located to the SE of an arc drawn from Columbia, S.C., through Athens, Ga., to Macon, Ga., are apparently anomalous, and lie in a crustal block >20,000 km 2 in size. A mean paleopole for this group, with corrections for maximum tilt estimates, exhibits good precision but has a paleosite latitude of approx.10 0 N. Without tilt correction the paleopole for group B still exhibits an anomalous paleosite latitude of approx.4 0 N. These data indicate that the group B block (Elberton-Sparta Crustal Block) lying to the SE has an apparent paleosite latitude corresponding to magnetization at a location to the north of the zone containing group A units

  3. Paleomagnetism and the Alpine tectonics of Eurasia IV : Jurassic, Cretaceous and Eocene pole positions from northeastern Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voo, R. van der

    In April 1965 and May 1966 several groups of samples were collected by the author in northern and eastern Turkey in view of a study of their magnetic properties. The characteristic magnetizations of four groups of Eocene and Cretaceous volcanic rocks and sediments had the following directions of

  4. Paleomagnetism of the Grande Ronde (lower Yakima) basalt exposed at Sentinel Gap: potential use for stratigraphic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coe, R.S.; Bogue, S.; Myers, C.W.


    Directions of natural remanent magnetization were measured in each of the twelve superposed Grande Ronde (lower Yakima) Basalt flows exposed at Sentinel Gap, Washington. The sequence of changes in the natural remanent magnetism direction in these flows is sufficiently distinct that identification and correlation at other surface- and subsurface-sampling sites should be possible. Preliminary tests made on the feasibility of measuring variations in the ancient field intensity in these flows indicate they are not suitable for intensity measurements

  5. Results of a paleomagnetic survey undertaken in the Damara mobile belt, South West Africa, with special reference to the magnetisation of the uraniferous pegmatitic granites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corner, B.; Henthorn, D.I.


    A project study, undertaken by the Geology Division of the AEB, on the correlation between airborne magnetic and radiometric data covering a portion of the Damara Mobile Belt in South West Africa, has revealed that all the known occurrences of uranium in late- to post-tectonic leucogranite (alaskite) of the Damara orogeny are associated with negative geomagnetic anomalies. Although the uranium occurrences themselves do not display marked geomagnetic anomalies, their immediate geological environment is characterised by the negative anomalies, which are semi-regional in extent. To investigate the origin of these anomalies, the Atomic Energy Board and the Geological Survey of South Africa undertook a palaeomagnetic study of the area. Oriented cores were taken from 31 sites in the mobile belt, 18 of which were selected within the negative magnetic zones, mostly in close association with known uraniferous alaskitic granites. Palaeomagnetic evidence suggests that the negative geomagnetic anomalies are associated with a remanent magnetisation, resulting from the Damara orogenic event, whose direction is removed from the earth's present field and which has affected rocks of the Nosib Group. Absence of this stable remanent direction in rocks stratigraphically overlying the Nosib Group accounts for the distinctive geomagnetic signature, in the form of negative anomalies, of the Nosib Group. It is this signature which can be used in airborne surveys to identify rocks of the Nosib Group outcropping, or of shallow suboutcrop, in anticlinal or dome-like structures. Since the uraniferous alaskites are mostly confined stratigraphically to the Nosib Group, the negative geomagnetic anomalies form an important prospecting criterion as they may be used to delineate target areas for further exploration in areas covered by sand, scree and duricrust deposits [af

  6. History of Snake River Canyon Indicated by Revised Stratigraphy of Snake River Group Near Hagerman and King Hill, Idaho: With a Section on Paleomagnetism (United States)

    Malde, Harold E.; Cox, Allan


    A discovery that debris left by the Bonneville Flood (Melon Gravel) overlies McKinney Basalt about 200 feet above the Snake River near King Hill requires that the stratigraphy of the Snake River Group be revised. In former usage, the McKinney Basalt and its immediately older companion, the Wendell Grade Basalt, were considered on the basis of equivocal field relations to be younger than the Melon Gravel and were assigned to the Recent. These lava flows are here reclassified as Pleistocene. The Bancroft Springs Basalt, which consists of both subaerial lava and pillow lava in a former Snake River canyon, was previously separated from the McKinney but is now combined with the McKinney. Accordingly, the name Bancroft Springs Basalt is here abandoned. This revised stratigraphy is first described from geomorphic relations of the McKinney Basalt near King Hill and is then discussed in the light of drainage changes caused by local lava flows during entrenchment of the Snake River. Near King Hill, a former Snake River canyon was completely filled by McKinney Basalt at the place called Bancroft Springs, hut the depth of this lava in the next several miles of the canyon downstream (along a route that approximately coincides with the present canyon) steadily decreased. This ancestral geomorphology is inferred from the former canyon route and, also, from the continuity in gradient of the McKinney lava surface downstream from Bancroft Springs. The drainage history recorded by various lava flows and river deposits of the Snake River Group indicates that the McKinney and Wendell Grade Basalts erupted after the Snake River canyon had reached its present depth of about 500 feet. The Snake River of that time, as far downstream as Bliss, flowed approximately along its present route. The Wood River of that time, however, skirted the north flank of Gooding Butte and joined the ancestral Snake at a junction, now concealed by lava, north of the present canyon about 3 miles west of Bliss. From that place the former Snake River canyon, also now concealed by lava, continued west to Bancroft Springs and thence along a route close to the present canyon to King Hill. To become entrenched in a canyon 500 feet deep, the Snake River downstream from Hagerman became progressively more incised while its upstream route was pushed south in several earlier canyons by intermittent lava flows. Distinctive gravel deposits help to establish the episodes of progressive canyon cutting and to determine the routes of ancestral drainage, including the former position of the Wood River. As canyon cutting continued, springs began to emerge where lavas had filled the earlier canyons. When the Snake River canyon eventually attained its approximate present depth, the Wendell Grade Basalt erupted near Shoshone and, as several tongues, spread west to the canyon rim opposite Hagerman. One tongue crossed the future route of the Wood River, and another covered an upland area of Sand Springs Basalt that had previously reached the canyon floor at Hagerman. The McKinney Basalt then erupted from McKinney Butte northeast of Bliss and spread southward as a subaerial flow, covering part of the Wendell Grade Basalt. It filled the ancestral Wood River canyon and the Snake River canyon of that time west of Bliss as far downstream as King Hill. The resulting dam of lava impounded a deep lake, which extended upstream in the canyon beyond Hagerman. Copious amounts of the McKinney spilled into this temporary lake and produced pillow lava. About 2 miles west of Bliss, pillow lava 500 feet thick completely fills the former canyon and is protected by rimrock of the subaerial McKinney Basalt. From Bliss, the pillow facies extends upstream as far as the McKinney rimrock - about 5 miles. Eruption of the McKinney Basalt diverted the Wood River to a course along the southeast edge of this lava flow. The temporary lake that was dammed by McKinney Basalt west of Bliss spilled along the sou

  7. Paleomagnetic intensity of Aso pyroclastic flows: Additional results with LTD-DHT Shaw method, Thellier method with pTRM-tail check (United States)

    Maruuchi, T.; Shibuya, H.


    For the sake to calibrate the absolute value of the ’relative paleointensity variation curve’ drawn from sediment cores, Takai et al. (2002) proposed to use pyroclastic flows co-bearing with wide spread tephras. The pyroclastic flows prepare volcanic rocks with TRM, which let us determine absolute paleointensity, and the tephras prepare the correlation with sediment stratigraphy. While 4 out of 6 pyroclastic flows are consistent with Sint-800 paleointensity variation curve, two flows, Aso-2 and Aso-4, show weaker and stronger than Sint-800 beyond the error, respectively. We revisited the paleointensity study of Aso pyroclastic flows, adding LTD- DHT Shaw method, the pTRM-tail check in Thellier experiment, and LTD-DHT Shaw method by using volcanic glasses. We prepared 11 specimens from 3 sites of Aso-1 welded tuff for LTD-DHT Shaw method experiments, and obtained 6 paleointensities satisfied a set of strict criteria. They yield an average paleointensity of 21.3±5.8uT, which is smaller than 31.0±3.4uT provided by Takai et al. (2002). For Aso-2 welded tuff, 11 samples from 3 sites were submitted to Thellier experiments, and 6 passed a set of pretty stringent criteria including pTRM-tail check, which is not performed by Takai et al. (2002). They give an average paleointensity of 20.2±1.5uT, which is virtually identical to 20.2±1.0uT (27 samples) given by Takai et al. (2002). Although the success rate was not good in LTD-DHT Shaw method, 2 out of 12 specimens passed the criteria, and gave 25.8±3.4uT, which is consistent with Takai et al. (2002). In addition, we obtained a reliable paleointensity from a volcanic glass in LTD-DHT Shaw method, it gives a paleointensity of 23.6 uT. It is also consitent with Takai et al. (2002). For Aso-3 welded tuff, we performed only LTD-DHT Shaw method for one specimen from one site yet. It gives a paleointensity of 43.0uT, which is higher than 31.8±3.6uT given by Takai et al. (2002). Eight sites were set for Aso-4 welded tuff, and 42 specimens were submitted to Thellier experiments. Twelve specimens from 4 sites passed the same criteria as Aso-2, and yield a mean paleointensity of 43.1±1.4uT. It again agrees with the value (45.6±1.7uT) of Takai et al. (2002). LTD-DHT Shaw method experiment is also applied for 12 specimens from 3 sites, and 4 passed the criteria giving 38.2±1.7. Although it is a little smaller than Thellier results, it is way larger than the Sint-800 at the time of Aso-4. Aso-1 result in this study is more consistent with the Sint-800 at that time than Takai et al. (2002). But for Aso-2 and Aso-4, their new reliable paleointensity results suggest that the discrepancy from the Sint-800 is not attributed to the experimental problems.

  8. Developing a chronostratigraphic tool for climatic archives: absolute dating (K/Ar and 40Ar/39Ar) and paleo-magnetism applied to lavas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasco, Romain


    The understanding of climatic mechanisms and rapid climate changes requires a high-resolution, robust, and precise timescale which allows long-distance and multi-archives correlations.An appropriate tool to construct such a timescale is provided by the Earth magnetic field (EMF). The EMF is independent from climatic variations and its past evolution, global at the surface of the Earth, is recorded by most of the geological/climatic archives. Sedimentary sequences provide continuous records of relative intensities of the EMF on timescales usually based on ice core age models or orbital tuning. Lavas, though discontinuously emitted through time, record the absolute intensity of the EMF during their cooling at the surface of the Earth. Lavas are dated using 2 complementary methods: 40 Ar/ 39 Ar and K-Ar, both independent from climatic parameters. Lavas have therefore the potential to deliver tie-points (age - paleo-intensity couples) enabling the time calibration of sedimentary sequences and their transfer onto absolute intensity scale and chronological time scale. This timescale can then be transferred to other climatic archives. The present study focusses on the last 200 ka with lavas sampled from young volcanoes of Ardeche (South Massif Central, France) and recent phases of volcanism in the Canary Islands. Lava flows from Ardeche provided un-exploitable paleo-intensity results and ages with large uncertainties. Therefore, they failed to provide suitable tie-points. However, our geochronological results evidence how crucial the combination of both the K-Ar and 40 Ar/ 39 Ar methods is to test the accuracy and geological meaning of the ages. Ardeche lavas have abundant mantellic and crustal xenoliths, potential carriers of excess 40 Ar*. Our study suggests that the argon excess is located in sites that decrepitate at low temperature (≤600 C). Because 40 Ar/ 39 Ar ages are not affected by excess 40 Ar*, they provide reliable results. The new age dataset indicates that the volcanic activity of Ardeche can be divided in 3 phases: the oldest one (180±30 ka) took place in the northern part of the studied area and 2 younger phases are expressed in the South (31±4 ka and 24±8 ka).The study of the Canarian lavas produced 14 tie-points (9 out of 14 dated combining K-Ar and 40 Ar/ 39 Ar results). These data have been added to the available ones for the same time period. The published data have been selected on the basis of robust analytical protocols and accuracy. The 51 data finally selected are compared to available sedimentary stacks. Over the last 80 ka, the volcanic data corroborate the calibration of GLOPIS-75, initially based on volcanic and archaeo-magnetic data between 10-20 ka and the low intensity observed in the Laschamp excursion. Three newly produced data, dated between 45 and 60 ka, extend the database initially used to older periods and they are also consistent with the initial calibration of GLOPIS-75. Between 80 and 140 ka, though volcanic data have significant uncertainties (in age and/or paleo-intensity), they are consistent with available sedimentary records and validate their calibration level on the long-term. At a shorter time scale, volcanic data corroborate the intensity low reached during the older phase of the Blake excursion (120 ka) by PISO-1500, whereas this low does not appear in SINT-2000. For ages older than 140 ka, not only the volcanic data are scattered, but also the sedimentary records are different from one another and no conclusions could be drawn. Finally, 2 of our data suggest a brief geomagnetic event around 155 ka. Such an event cannot be seen on available global sedimentary stacks or models, even though some individual studies report a local geomagnetic event around 150 ka (Austria, Russia, and China Sea). (author) [fr

  9. Paleomagnetism of Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous red beds from the Cardamom Mountains, southwestern Cambodia: Tectonic deformation of the Indochina Peninsula (United States)

    Tsuchiyama, Yukiho; Zaman, Haider; Sotham, Sieng; Samuth, Yos; Sato, Eiichi; Ahn, Hyeon-Seon; Uno, Koji; Tsumura, Kosuke; Miki, Masako; Otofuji, Yo-ichiro


    Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous red beds of the Phuquoc Formation were sampled at 33 sites from the Sihanoukville and Koah Kong areas of the Phuquoc-Kampot Som Basin, southwestern Cambodia. Two high-temperature remanent components with unblocking temperature ranging 650°-670 °C and 670-690 °C were identified. The magnetization direction for the former component (D = 5.2 °, I = 18.5 ° with α95 = 3.1 ° in situ) reveals a negative fold test that indicates a post-folding secondary nature. However, the latter component, carried by specular hematite, is recognized as a primary remanent magnetization. A tilt-corrected mean direction of D = 43.4 °, I = 31.9 ° (α95 = 3.6 °) was calculated for the primary component at 11 sites, corresponding to a paleopole of 47.7°N, 178.9°E (A95 = 3.6 °). When compared with the 130 Ma East Asian pole, a southward displacement of 6.0 ° ± 3.5 ° and a clockwise rotation of 33.1 ° ± 4.0 ° of the Phuquoc-Kampot Som Basin (as a part of the Indochina Block) with respect to East Asia were estimated. This estimate of the clockwise rotation is ∼15° larger than that of the Khorat Basin, which we attribute to dextral motion along the Wang Chao Fault since the mid-Oligocene. The comparison of the herein estimated clockwise rotation with the counter-clockwise rotation reported from the Da Lat area in Vietnam suggests the occurrence of a differential tectonic rotation in the southern tip of the Indochina Block. During the southward displacement of the Indochina Block, the non-rigid lithosphere under its southern tip moved heterogeneously, while the rigid lithosphere under the Khorat Basin moved homogeneously.

  10. Paleomagnetism and Magnetostratigraphy of Upper Permian to Lower Triassic (?) Beaufort Group Strata at Bethulie, Karoo Basin, Free State Province, South Africa (United States)

    Geissman, J. W.; Gastaldo, R. A.; Neveling, J.; Makubalo, S.


    A multifaceted approach to understand the timing of interpreted environmental changes during the Late Permian to possibly Early Triassic (?) time in the Beaufort Group strata of the Karoo Basin includes work to establish robust magnetic polarity records for sections previously interpreted to encompass end-Permian extinction events. Demonstrating the preservation of an early-acquired remanence (RM) in Karoo strata is required for a robust magnetostratigraphy. Yet, this is challenging due to thermochemical effects related to the Early Jurassic (ca. 183 Ma) Karoo Large Igneous Province (LIP), and the NE to SW increase in burial diagenesis attending Cape Fold Belt tectonism. Documentation of a primary RM in these strata, which appears to be preserved in some areas, requires careful laboratory- and field-based assessment. We report data from 53 sites collected at the well-studied Bethulie section, Free State Province, in which several samples per individual horizon to assess ChRM uniformity. Strata well-removed from dikes yield both normal and reverse polarity ChRM. It is always the case that the first-removed RM is a NNW seeking, moderate to steep negative-inclination ChRM (normal polarity); NRM intensities are typically 1 to 5 mA/m. Sites BT15 and BT21, which are located in strata lying some 4 m below the often-cited "event bed" interval inferred to be the terrestrial expression of the Permian/Triassic boundary, is dominated by a well-defined reverse RM with a normal overprint RM unblocked below 400oC, implying elevated temperatures (i.e., 100 to 250oC+) for ca. 1 Ma (+/-). Contact tests are positive but complicated. Host strata collected in distances equal to or less than 1-2 dike widths from the intrusions have been thermally remagnetized and demonstrate high NRM intensities (> 50 mA/m). Collectively, we interpret these data to indicate that any ChRM, with the exception of those from host strata in baked contacts, that persists above Tlub of 425oC is pre-Karoo LIP in origin, and likely primary at the Bethulie locality.

  11. Paleomagnetism and integrated stratigraphy of the Upper Berriasian hemipelagic succession in the Barlya section Western Balkan, Bulgaria: Implications for lithogenic input and paleoredox variations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grabowski, J.; Lakova, I.; Petrova, S.; Stoykova, K.; Ivanova, D.; Wójcik-Tabol, P.; Sobien, K.; Schnabl, Petr


    Roč. 461, 1 November (2016), s. 156-177 ISSN 0031-0182 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-09979S Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : biostratigraphy * carbon isotope stratigraphy * climate * magnetic susceptibility * magnetostratigraphy * sea-level changes Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 2.578, year: 2016

  12. Paleomagnetic results from Late Pennsylvanian marls and Early Permian red paleosols of the Dunkard group, Ohio and West Virginia, U.S.A. (United States)

    Abrajevitch, A.; Oliva, B.; Peters, S.; Beehr, A.; van der Voo, R.


    Sediments of the Dunkard Gr. were deposited in the Appalachian foreland basin during the Pennsylvanian and Early Permian, an interval encompassing the long reverse polarity Kiaman chron. Lithofacies in the Dunkard Gr. in eastern Ohio and western West Virginia include lenticular and sheet-form cross-bedded micaceous sandstones, coal, mottled red and purple mudstones, gray laminated mudstones and argillaceous lime mudstones. They are indicative of deposition on a low-gradient, tropical wet-dry fluvial plain. Few lithofacies are laterally persistent over sufficiently long distances, so that correlation schemes are based largely on coal horizons, partly for historical economic reasons and partly because coal beds appear to be more laterally persistent than most other lithofacies. Magnetostratigraphy would therefore provide a powerful additional correlation tool in the Dunkard Gr, A short normal polarity interval has been reported in the Dunkard Gr. (Helsley, 1965), but to date such a change in magnetic field polarity has not been confirmed by later studies. To confirm the presence of the normal polarity subchron and to explore the possibility of using it as a correlation tool in the Dunkard Gr., we sampled 5 sections thought to straddle the Late Pennyslvanian-Early Permian boundary. Sampled lithofacies include red and mottled red-purple paleosols, grey mudstones containing siderite concretions, micaceous sandstones, and dark gray argillaceous limestones. Samples were demagnetized thermally and by AF. The remanent magnetic directions agree with those expected for the Early Permian. A change in polarity was detected in three of the studied sections. Magnetization is carried by several different magnetic minerals, mostly hematite in paleosols and iron sulfides in combination with magnetite in sandstones, marls and limestones. Although we have found good evidence for the normal polarity interval within Kiaman age rocks of the Dunkard Gr., additional magnetostratigraphic data are needed to validate the present lithology-based correlations and to determine the temporal extent of the normal polarity chron.

  13. Equatorial paleomagnetic time-averaged field results from 0-5 Ma lavas from Kenya and the latitudinal variation of angular dispersion (United States)

    Opdyke, Neil D.; Kent, Dennis V.; Huang, Kainian; Foster, David A.; Patel, J. P.


    Lavas of Pliocene-Pleistocene age were sampled in two regions in Kenya: Mount Kenya on the equator and the Loiyangalani region, east of Lake Turkana, at about 3°N. We sampled 100 sites distributed around the Mount Kenya Massif and to the northeast along the Nyambini Range. The equator bisects Mount Kenya, and all sites were sampled within 40' of the equator. Thirty-two sites were sampled in the Loiyangalani area, making a total of 132 sites. Many sites from the Mount Kenya study were severely affected by lightning; however, after progressive AF demagnetization 69 sites yielded directions with α95 equal to or less than 10°. Normal polarity sites dominate (N = 58 and a mean of declination (dec) = 1.2°, inclination (inc) = -0.7°, and α95 = 3.6°) with only 11 reverse polarity sites (mean of dec = 182.3°, inc = 0.6°, and α95 = 7.2°); no transitional directions were identified. Inverting the reverse sites yields a combined mean direction of dec = l.4°, inc = -0.7°, and α95 = 3.2°. This result is not significantly different from what is expected from the geocentric axial dipole for the mean locality (dec = 0° and inc = 0°); a quadrupole component was not resolved. The samples from the Loiyangalani region were not seriously affected by lightning, and all 32 sites gave satisfactory data with α95 less than 10° (17 reverse sites, dec = 183.4°, inc = 0.8°, and α95 = 6.7°; 15 normal sites, dec = 358.6°, inc = -1.1°, and α95 = 4.7°); after inverting the reverse sites the combined mean was dec = 1.1°, inc = -1.0°, and α95 = 4.1°. Altogether, we had a total of 101 successful sites. A virtual geomagnetic pole (VGP) was calculated from each site mean; the VGP dispersion is low, with Sb = 10.9° for Mount Kenya and 9.8° for the Loiyangalani region. This dispersion agrees with updated Model G of McElhinny and McFadden (1997) and model TK03 of Tauxe and Kent (2004) that was tuned to the compilation of McElhinny and McFadden (1997) but disagrees with the higher dispersion near the equator and the smaller latitudinal gradient in dispersion estimated by Johnson et al. (2008). A new database is presented, and the included studies support a systematic decrease of dispersion from high to low latitudes.

  14. Moessbauer, X-ray fluorescence and paleomagnetic studies of deep-sea sediments from Peru Basin: two million years of sedimentation history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drodt, M.; Trautwein, A.X.; Dekkers, M.J.


    Sediment cores with different sub-bottom depths (I: 45 cm and II: 700 cm) from the Peru Basin have been investigated. From the depth profile of the relative amount of Fe(II) a redox zone is obtained which correlates with the organic carbon flux into the sediment (core I). Moessbauer parameters suggest that the iron in the sediments is mainly contained in clay minerals and to varying extent also in goethite

  15. A 20-15 ka high-resolution paleomagnetic secular variation record from Black Sea sediments - no evidence for the 'Hilina Pali excursion'? (United States)

    Liu, Jiabo; Nowaczyk, Norbert R.; Frank, Ute; Arz, Helge W.


    A comprehensive magnetostratigraphic investigation on sixteen sediment cores from the southeastern Black Sea yielded a very detailed high-quality paleosecular variation (PSV) record spanning from 20 to 15 ka. The age models are based on radiocarbon dating, stratigraphic correlation, and tephrochronology. Further age constraints were obtained by correlating four meltwater events, described from the western Black Sea, ranging in age from about 17 to 15 ka, with maxima in K/Ti ratios, obtained from X-ray fluorescence (XRF) scanning, and minima in S-ratios, reflecting increased hematite content, in the studied cores. Since the sedimentation rates in the investigated time window are up to 50 cm ka-1, the obtained PSVs records enabled a stacking using 50-yr bins. A directional anomaly at 18.5 ka, associated with pronounced swings in inclination and declination, as well as a low in relative paleointensity (rPI), is probably contemporaneous with the Hilina Pali excursion, originally reported from Hawaiian lava flows. However, virtual geomagnetic poles (VGPs) calculated from Black Sea sediments are not located at latitudes lower than 60°N, which denotes normal, though pronounced secular variations. During the postulated Hilina Pali excursion, the VGPs calculated from Black Sea data migrated clockwise only along the coasts of the Arctic Ocean from NE Canada (20.0 ka), via Alaska (18.6 ka) and NE Siberia (18.0 ka) to Svalbard (17.0 ka), then looping clockwise through the Eastern Arctic Ocean.

  16. delineating the jurassic to mid-cretaceous part of the pacific ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    paleomagnetic field. This problem was solved by the formulation of the seamount paleomagnetism technique (Talwani 1965,. Plouff 1976, Parker et al. 1987). Following this, Sager and Pringle (1988) using mainly seamount paleomagnetic data delineated a well defined Pacific ... earth's surface and abuts six major and.

  17. Paleomagnetic and chronostratigraphic constraints on the Middle to Late Miocene evolution of the Transylvanian Basin (Romania): Implications for Central Paratethys stratigraphy and emplacement of the Tisza-Dacia plate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, A. de; Filipescu, S.; Matenco, L.C.; Krijgsman, W.; Kuiper, K.; Stoica, M.


    From the Oligocene onwards, the complex tectonic evolution of the Africa–Eurasia collision zone led to paleogeographic and biogeographic differentiation of the Mediterranean and Paratethys, two almost land-locked seas, in the area formerly occupied by the western Tethys Ocean. Episodic isolation of

  18. Paleomagnetic and chronostratigraphic constraints on the middle to late miocene evolution of the transylvanian basin (Romania) : Implications for central paratethys stratigraphy and emplacement of the tisza-dacia plate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Leeuw, Arjan; Filipescu, Sorin; Maţenco, Liviu; Krijgsman, Wout; Kuiper, Klaudia; Stoica, Marius


    From the Oligocene onwards, the complex tectonic evolution of the Africa-Eurasia collision zone led to paleogeographic and biogeographic differentiation of theMediterranean and Paratethys, two almost land-locked seas, in the area formerly occupied by the western Tethys Ocean. Episodic isolation of

  19. New detailed holocene paleomagnetic records with anomalous geomagnetic field behavior in Argentina Nuevos registros paleomagnéticos holocenos detallados con comportamiento anómalo del campo magnético terrestre en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo G Nami


    Full Text Available Detailed palaeomagnetic studies were performed in several archaeological and geological sections dated with diverse relative and absolute methods. Data from 360 cores obtained in eight sites across eastern Argentina are reported. Characteristic remanence magnetization directions were determined by progressive alternating field demagnetization. Remanence directions showed anomalous geomagnetic field behavior far from the present magnetic field bearing oblique normal, oblique reverse and reverse polarities for the latest Pleistocene and Holocene, as well as evidence of possible field excursions recorded in several stratigraphic sections spanning ~11-0.5 kya. Computed virtual geomagnetic poles from those directions tend to be concentrated over North America, Europe, Eastern Asia, Africa and Australia. The hypothesis of the anomalous geomagnetic field directions is probably related with 14C fluctuations and solar activity.Se realizaron estudios paleomagnéticos detallados en varias secciones sedimentarias arqueológicas y geológicas fechadas con diversos métodos de datación absoluta y relativa. Se reportan resultados obtenidos de 360 muestras recogidas en ocho sitios localizados en el este de Argentina. La magnetización remanente característica fue determinada por desmagnetización progresiva utilizando campos alternos. Las direcciones remanentes mostraron conductas anómalas del campo geomagnético lejanas al campo actual mostrando polaridades oblicuas normales, oblicuas reversas y reversas con evidencia de posibles excursiones geomagnéticas registradas en varias secciones con un lapso temporal de ~11-0.5 kya. Los polos geomagnéticos virtuales computados a partir de las direcciones tienden a concentrarse sobre Norteamérica, Europa, Este de Asia, África y Australia. Se discute la hipótesis que la conducta anómala del campo magnético terrestre probablemente se relacione con las fluctuaciones de la producción de 14C y la actividad solar.

  20. {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar dating and paleo-magnetism of traps from Ethiopia, Deccan and Siberia; Datation {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar et paleomagnetisme des traps d'Ethiopie, du Deccan et de Siberie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, C


    Recent studies have shown that major flood basalt provinces have been emplaced as short events ({approx} 1 Myr), more or less synchronous with climatic crises and mass extinctions. We present new geochronologic ({sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar) and magneto-stratigraphic results for the Ethiopian traps, one of the last remaining flood basalts for which little of such data were available. The ages obtained in a 2000 m thick section are indistinguishable. Moreover, magneto-stratigraphy reveals a simple 3-chron reverse-normal-reverse sequence. Although magnetic chrons cannot be yet unambiguously identified, there is more likelihood for the normal sub-chron in the main basaltic pile to correspond to 11N, supporting a brief duration (less than 1.5 Ma). The Ethiopian traps erupted near 30 Ma at or near the time of the cold and dry climate, major Antarctic ice sheet advance, and the largest sea-level drop in the Tertiary. Bhandari et al. (GRL, 1995) have discovered inter-traps sediments with a triple iridium anomaly in a series of seven basaltic lava flows in the Kutch area of the North Western Deccan traps of India. Plagioclases from three flows above the iridium bearing sediments yield {sup 39}Ar/{sup 40}Ar plateau ages near 65.0 Ma: these flows have unambiguously reversed magnetic polarity interpreted as chron 29R. As a preliminary summary, evidence of the KTB asteroid impact is confirmed in the Deccan traps, showing that they are coeval events in a general sense (in a Ma long window) though clearly with vastly different time constants. This is compatible with paleontologic evidence of two scales of extinctions, one quasi-instantaneous and the other on the order of 10{sup 5} to 10{sup 6} yrs. Clearly, the impact cannot have caused trap eruptions. On the other hand, the exact age and significance of the lower flows more altered remains to be analyzed further as they pertained to the much debated question of duration of Deccan trap volcanism. (author)

  1. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    New paleomagnetic results on ~2367 Ma Dharwar giant dyke swarm, Dharwar craton, southern India: implications for Paleoproterozoic continental reconstruction · N Ramesh Babu M Venkateshwarlu Ravi Shankar E Nagaraju V Parashuramulu · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. Here we report new paleomagnetic results ...

  2. Permian and triassic palynology and the concept of “tethys twist”

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visscher, H.


    Both paleomagnetism and palynology may furnish useful diagnostic facts for recognizing long-distance movements of the earth's crust. With respect to the relative positions of North America and Eurasia, paleomagnetic and palynological data contribute evidence in support of the theory of continental

  3. Permian and Triassic palynology and the concept of “Tethys twist”

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visscher, H.


    Both paleomagnetism and palynology may furnish useful diagnostic facts for recognizing long-distance movements of the earth’s crust. With respect to the relative positions of North America and Eurasia, paleomagnetic and palynological data contribute evidence in support of the theory of continental

  4. Intrusion of lamprophyre dyke and related deformation effects in the host rock salt: A case study from the Loulé diapir, Portugal

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Machek, Matěj; Roxerová, Zuzana; Závada, Prokop; Silva, P. F.; Henry, B.; Dědeček, Petr; Petrovský, Eduard; Marques, F. O.


    Roč. 629, August (2014), s. 165-178 ISSN 0040-1951 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : AMS * lamprophyre dyke * rock salt * paleomagnetism * microstructure * CPO Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 2.872, year: 2014

  5. Malužinská jaskyňa v severovýchodnej časti Nízkých Tatier: Freatická speleogenéza spôsobená vodami vystupujúcimi pozdĺž zlomovej zóny

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bella, P.; Littva, J.; Pruner, Petr; Gaál, Ľ.; Bosák, Pavel; Haviarová, D.


    Roč. 52, č. 2 (2014), s. 111-126 ISSN 0560-3137 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : speleogenesis * phreatic morphology * fault tectonics * ascending waters * paleomagnetism * Western Carpathians * Slovakia Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  6. A Probabilistic Assessment of the Next Geomagnetic Reversal


    Buffett, B; Davis, W


    ©2018. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved. Deterministic forecasts for the next geomagnetic reversal are not feasible due to large uncertainties in the present-day state of the Earth's core. A more practical approach relies on probabilistic assessments using paleomagnetic observations to characterize the amplitude of fluctuations in the geomagnetic dipole. We use paleomagnetic observations for the past 2 Myr to construct a stochastic model for the axial dipole field and apply wel...

  7. Magnetostratigraphy of the Grande Ronde Basalt Pasco Basin, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Packer, D.R.; Petty, M.H.


    The paleomagnetic measurements of samples from the holes sampled have shown that there are four magnetic correlation lines, between adjacent flows in holes that have distinctly different mean stratigraphic inclinations, and two magnetic polarity boundaries that can be used for magnetic correlation in the Grande Ronde Basalt in the Pasco Basin. The results of paleomagnetic measurements of samples from the Wanapum Basalt and Saddle Mountains Basalt indicate that the potential for magnetostratigraphic correlation in these sequences is also good

  8. High northern geomagnetic field behavior and new constraints on the Gilsá event: Paleomagnetic and 40Ar/39Ar results of ∼0.5–3.1 Ma basalts from Jökuldalur, Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Døssing Andreasen, Arne; Muxworthy, Adrian R.; Supakulopas, Radchagrit


    .2–1.83 Ma, thus filling a large data gap of the high-northern stable field behavior. We obtain a median VADM of 57±3ZAm2 (VDM of 60±5Am2), which is higher than the median VADM of 16 intensity estimates from Antarctica (39±7 ZAm2) from the same period. A higher northern field is also found when using less...... strict cut-off criteria resulting in 14 field estimates from Jökuldalur, i.e. we find support for higher field strength in the northern hemisphere as compared to the southern hemisphere during the Matuyama. Finally, we deliver a revised magneto-chronostratigraphic model of Jökuldalur and conduct...... an investigation of the type sections of the so-called Gilsá normal polarity event around 1.62 Ma. Our revised model is based on 11 new 40Ar/39Ar ages. No evidence is found of the existence of the Gilsá event in Jökuldalur. Instead we find that the normal polarity intervals in the type sections can both...

  9. 40Ar/39Ar dating of 1.0-1.1 Ga magnetizations from the Sao Francisco and Kalahari cratons: tectonic implications for Pan-African and Brasiliano mobile belts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renne, P.R.; Onstott, T.C.; Agrella-Filho, M.S. d'; Pacca, I.G.; Teixeira, W.


    Paleomagnetic poles from 1.1-1.0 Ga dyke swarms in eastern Brazil (Sao Francisco Craton) are compared with 1.0 Ga poles from granulites of the Namaqua Province in southern Africa (Kalahari Graton). The intrusive ages of dykes are estimated from 40 Ar/ 39 Ar dating of outgassed biotites from baked country rocks. The age of magnetization for the granulites is derived by combining 40 Ar/ 39 Ar hornblende and biotite dates. When restored to a Mesozoic pre-drift configuration the paleomagnetic poles are in crude spatial agreement but are temporally discordant. To satisfy both paleomagnetic and geochronologic constraints, a reconstruction involving separation of the Sao Francisco and Kalahari cratons is required, indicating that the intervening Pan-African (Brasiliano) mobile belt may record a craton-craton collision. (orig.)

  10. A Probabilistic Assessment of the Next Geomagnetic Reversal (United States)

    Buffett, Bruce; Davis, William


    Deterministic forecasts for the next geomagnetic reversal are not feasible due to large uncertainties in the present-day state of the Earth's core. A more practical approach relies on probabilistic assessments using paleomagnetic observations to characterize the amplitude of fluctuations in the geomagnetic dipole. We use paleomagnetic observations for the past 2 Myr to construct a stochastic model for the axial dipole field and apply well-established methods to evaluate the probability of the next geomagnetic reversal as a function of time. For a present-day axial dipole moment of 7.6 × 1022 A m2, the probability of the dipole entering a reversed state is less than 2% after 20 kyr. This probability rises to 11% after 50 kyr. An imminent geomagnetic reversal is not supported by paleomagnetic observations. The current rate of decline in the dipole moment is unusual but within the natural variability predicted by the stochastic model.

  11. A 10Be profile in mid-pleistocene sediments of the Wanganui Basin, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, I.J.; Ditchburn, R.G.; Sparks, R.J.; Whitehead, N.E.; Turner, G.M.


    A 10 Be study of marine sediments from the Wanganui Basin (Castlecliff Section) has yielded some interesting, though not immediately explainable results. A 5-6 fold increase in 10 Be has been identified immediately above the Brunhes-Matuyama paleomagnetic reversal within the sedimentary sequence, ca. 780 ka. The increase in 10 Be cannot be attributed entirely to the paleomagnetic reversal, and probably reflects the major global climatic change at that time resulting in an influx of 1 0Be during post-glacial melting. (authors) 30 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  12. The Geomagnetic Field Recorded in Sediments of the Tuzla Section (the Krasnodar Territory, Russia) over the Time Interval 120-70 ka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilipenko, Olga; Abrahamsen, N.; Trubikhin, V. M.


    Petro- and paleomagnetic methods are applied to the study of the lower part of the Early Pleistocene Tuzla section on the Black Sea coast of the Taman Peninsula. This part of the section is composed of marine and lagoonal sediments deposited over the time interval 120-70 ka. The measured curves...... of the variation in the geomagnetic field inclination reveal an anomalous direction dated at ~110 ka which coincides with a similar anomalous direction in the Eltigen section (Ukraine) correlating with the Blake paleomagnetic event. The significant correlation between the time series NRM0.015/SIRM0.015 (Tuzla...

  13. A simple statistical model for geomagnetic reversals (United States)

    Constable, Catherine


    The diversity of paleomagnetic records of geomagnetic reversals now available indicate that the field configuration during transitions cannot be adequately described by simple zonal or standing field models. A new model described here is based on statistical properties inferred from the present field and is capable of simulating field transitions like those observed. Some insight is obtained into what one can hope to learn from paleomagnetic records. In particular, it is crucial that the effects of smoothing in the remanence acquisition process be separated from true geomagnetic field behavior. This might enable us to determine the time constants associated with the dominant field configuration during a reversal.

  14. What can the Cretaceous-to-present latitude history of the Lhasa terrane tell us about plate-scale deformation in the Tibetan-Himalayan orogen? (Invited) (United States)

    Lippert, P. C.; Van Hinsbergen, D. J.; Dupont-Nivet, G.; Huang, W.


    Published paleomagnetic data from well-dated sedimentary and volcanic rocks from the Lhasa terrane have been re-evaluated in a statistically consistent framework to assess the latitude history of southern Tibet from ~110 Ma to the present. We apply a methodology similar to the one used by the Time-Averaged geomagnetic Field Initiative to each paleomagnetic data set to establish coherency within and between paleomagnetic data from Tibet (see Session T023 for more details). Moreover, we use only sedimentary data that have been evaluated for and, where necessary, corrected for sedimentary inclination shallowing. The resulting apparent polar wander path (APWP) shows that the southern margin of the Lhasa terrane at the longitudes of Nepal remained at 20×4°N latitude from ~110 to at least 50 Ma and subsequently drifted northward to its present latitude of 29°N. This latitude history provides a paleomagnetically-determined collision age between the Tibetan Himalaya and the southern margin of Asia that is 49.5×4.5 Ma at 21×4° N latitude. The paleomagnetic age and latitude of this collision may be a few millions of years earlier and ~2° lower if estimates for shortening within the suture zone are considered. When compared to the global APWP of Torsvik et al. (2012) in Eurasian coordinates, the Lhasa APWP indicates that at most 1100×560 km of post-50 Ma India-Asia convergence was partitioned into Asian lithosphere. The lower bound of these paleomagnetic estimates is consistent with the magnitude of upper crustal shortening within Asia calculated from orogen-scale geological reconstructions. An implication is that 1700×560 km or more post-50 Ma India-Asia convergence was partitioned into Greater India. Paleomagnetic data from the Tibetan Himalaya are consistent with >2000 km of extension of Greater Indian lithosphere after break-up from Gondwana but prior to collision with the southern margin of Asia. Cenozoic subduction of this Cretaceous extensional basin following

  15. Results of radiocarbon dating of Holocene fluvial sediments from Northeastern Bohemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silar, J.; Zeman, A.


    Samples of wood and charcoal from the latest Holocene fluvial sediments under the lowest surface of alluvial plains were dated by radiocarbon in order to check paleomagnetic data at four sites in northeastern Bohemia. The results are presented as funcorrected 14 C ages and dendrochronologically corrected ages. Two samples were recent. 4 figs., 1 tab., 3 refs

  16. IODP Expeditions 303 and 306 Monitor Miocene- Quaternary Climate in the North Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alvarez-Zarikian


    Full Text Available Introduction The IODP Expeditions 303 and 306 drilling sites were chosen for two reasons: (1 to capture Miocene-Quaternary millennial-scale climate variability in sensitive regions at the mouth of the Labrador Sea and in the North Atlantic icerafted debris (IRD belt (Ruddiman et al., 1977, and (2 to provide the sedimentary and paleomagnetic attributes, including adequate sedimentation rates, for constructinghigh-resolution isotopic and magnetic stratigraphies.High accumulation rates, reaching 20 cm ky-1, permit the study of millennial-scale variations in climate and in the Earth's magnetic fi eld over the past several million years, when the amplitude and frequency of climate variability changed substantially. Shipboard logging and scanning data (magnetic susceptibility and remanence, density, natural gamma radiation, digital images and color refl ectance and post-expedition x-ray fl uorescence (XRF scanning datahave revealed that the sediment cores recovered on Expeditions 303 and 306 contain detailed histories of millennial-scale climate and geomagnetic fi eld variability throughout the late Miocene to Quaternary epochs. The climate proxies will be integrated with paleomagnetic data to place the records of millennial-scale climate change into a high resolution stratigraphy based on oxygen isotope andrelative paleomagnetic intensity (RPI. The paleomagnetic record of polarity reversals, excursions and RPI in these cores is central to the construction of the stratigraphic template and will provide detailed documentation of geomagnetic fi eld behavior.

  17. Paleolatitudes of the Tibetan Himalaya from primary and secondary magnetizations of Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous sedimentary rocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Wentao; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J J; Dekkers, Mark J.; Garzanti, Eduardo; Dupont-Nivet, Guillaume; Lippert, Peter C.; Li, Xiaochun; Maffione, Marco; Langereis, Cor G.; Hu, Xiumian; Guo, Zhaojie; Kapp, Paul


    The Tibetan Himalaya represents the northernmost continental unit of the Indian plate that collided with Asia in the Cenozoic. Paleomagnetic studies on the Tibetan Himalaya can help constrain the dimension and paleogeography of "Greater India," the Indian plate lithosphere that subducted and

  18. The upper and lower Thvera sedimentary geomagnetic reversal records from southern Sicily

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoof, A.A.M. van; Langereis, C.G.


    Detailed paleomagnetic records of the upper and lower Thvera polarity transitions have been determined from Pliocenc marine marls in southern Sicily. The dominant magnetic mineral is fine grained magnetite. The two transitions have VGP paths following a great circle passing South America and the

  19. Geomagnetic Reversals during the Phanerozoic. (United States)

    McElhinny, M W


    An antalysis of worldwide paleomagnetic measurements suggests a periodicity of 350 x 10(6) years in the polarity of the geomagnetic field. During the Mesozoic it is predominantly normal, whereas during the Upper Paleozoic it is predominantly reversed. Although geomagnetic reversals occur at different rates throughout the Phanerozoic, there appeaars to be no clear correlation between biological evolutionary rates and reversal frequency.

  20. Magnetic paleofield estimates for chondrules extracted from Bjurbole (L4) meteorite

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kletetschka, Günther; Wasilewski, P.; Zila, V.


    Roč. 40, Supplement 9 (2005), s. 82-82 ISSN 0026-1114. [Annual Meeting of the Meteoritical Society /68./. 12.09.2005-16.09.2005, Gatlinburg] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : paleomagnetism * solar nebula * chondrules Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  1. Basalt stratigraphy - Pasco Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waters, A.C.; Myers, C.W.; Brown, D.J.; Ledgerwood, R.K.


    The geologic history of the Pasco Basin is sketched. Study of the stratigraphy of the area involved a number of techniques including major-element chemistry, paleomagnetic investigations, borehole logging, and other geophysical survey methods. Grande Ronde basalt accumulation in the Pasco Basin is described. An illustrative log response is shown. 1 figure

  2. New late Paleozoic paleopoles from the Donbas Foldbelt (Ukraine): Implications for the Pangea A vs. B controversy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijers, M.J.M.; Hamers, M.; van Hinsbergen, D.J.J.; Meer van der, D.; Kitchka, A.; Langereis, C.G.; Stephenson, R.A.


    The Carboniferous to early Permian apparent polar wander (APW) path for Eurasia is not well constrained, because of the paucity of reliable paleomagnetic poles. This is at least partly responsible for the Pangea A vs. B controversy in the early Permian: is the overlap between the northern and

  3. Magnetostratigraphy of the Dali Basin in Yunnan and implications for late Neogene rotation of the southeast margin of the Tibetan Plateau

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Shihu; Deng, Chenglong; Yao, Haitao; Huang, Sheng; Liu, Chengying; He, Huaiyu; Pan, Yongxin; Zhu, Rixiang

    [1] The rotation pattern and fault activity in the southeast margin of the Tibetan Plateau (SEMTP) provide meaningful constraints on the geodynamic evolution of the plateau. However, the lack of Cenozoic paleomagnetic studies and accurate age constraints on Neogene sediments prevents a better

  4. Out-of-phase magnetic susceptibility and environmental magnetism

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrouda, F.; Chadima, Martin; Ježek, J.


    Roč. 18 (2016), EGU2016-6808 ISSN 1607-7962. [European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2016. 17.04.2016-22.04.2016, Vienna] Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : paleomagnetism * magnetic susceptibility * environmental magnetism Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  5. Palaeomagnetism or Palaeomagic? Misconceptions about Rock Magnetism (United States)

    Murphy, Phil


    The study and understanding of paleomagnetism has been pivotal in the development of the theory of plate tectonics. When it is taught in schools there are a number possible misconceptions that need to be addressed. This article attempts to provide an explanation of rock magnetism as well as strategies to avoid reinforcing some commonly identified…

  6. The quest for chron E23r at Partridge Island, bay of Fundy, Canada: CAMP emplacement postdates the end-Triassic extinction event at the North American craton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deenen, M.H.L.; Krijgsman, W.; Ruhl, M.


    The Partridge Island stratigraphic section at the Bay of Fundy, Maritime Canada, reveals a continental sedimentary succession with the end-Triassic mass extinction level closely followed by basalts of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP). New Paleomagnetic data show that a short reverse

  7. Determining Individual Particle Magnetizations in Assemblages of Micrograins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Lennart V.; Fabian, Karl; Béguin, Annemarieke; Reith, Pim; Barnhoorn, Auke; Hilgenkamp, Hans


    Obtaining reliable information from even the most challenging paleomagnetic recorders, such as the oldest igneous rocks and meteorites, is paramount to open new windows into Earth's history. Currently, such information is acquired by simultaneously sensing millions of particles in small samples or

  8. Determining Individual Particle Magnetizations in Assemblages of Micrograins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, L.V.; Fabian, Karl; Béguin, Annemarieke; Reith, Pim; Barnhoorn, A.; Hilgenkamp, Hans


    Obtaining reliable information from even the most challenging paleomagnetic recorders, such as the oldest igneous rocks and meteorites, is paramount to open new windows into Earth's history. Currently, such information is acquired by simultaneously sensing millions of particles in small samples

  9. Geologická stavba, morfológia a vývoj Važeckej jaskyně

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bella, P.; Littva, J.; Pruner, Petr; Bosák, Pavel; Šlechta, Stanislav; Hercman, H.; Čížková, Kristýna


    Roč. 54, č. 1 (2016), s. 5-31 ISSN 0560-3137 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : contact karst * structural geology * phreatic solution features * breakdown morphology * flood-water injection * sedimentary fill * paleomagnetism * U-series dating Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  10. Vývoj doliny Bielej vo vzťahu ku genéze Belianskej jaskyně

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bella, P.; Bosák, Pavel; Pruner, Petr; Glazek, J.; Hercman, H.


    Roč. 63, č. 4 (2011), s. 369-387 ISSN 0016-7193 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300130701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : geomorphology * denundation chronology * planation surface * river valley * cave morphology * speleogenesis * paleomagnetism * U-series dating * pollen analysis * Belianské Tatry Mts. (Slovakia) Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  11. Svrchněkenozoický severomoravský vulkanismus: rekonstrukce činnosti, paleomagnetismus, geofyzikální obraz, návrh litostratigrafie

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cajz, Vladimír; Skácelová, Z.; Schnabl, Petr; Radoň, M.


    Roč. 2012, Prosinec (2013), s. 20-25 ISSN 0514-8057 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300130612 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Cenozoic basaltic volcanism * Northern Moravia * Bruntál Volcanic Field * monogenetic volcanism * lithostratigraphy * paleomagnetism Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  12. Paleomagnetne datacije fluvialnih sedimentov iz Postojnske Jame, Zgube Jame in Planinske jame

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zupan Hajna, N.; Mihevc, A.; Pruner, Petr; Bosák, Pavel


    Roč. 88, - (2008), s. 46-51 ISSN 1318-3257 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300130701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : paleomagnetic datting * cave sediments * Slovenia Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  13. How Strong is the Case for Proterozoic Low-Latitude Glaciation? (United States)

    Evans, D. A.


    The most recent global compilations of paleomagnetic depositional latitudes for Proterozoic glaciogenic formations indicate a dominant mode near the paleo-equator (Evans 2000 AJS; Evans 2003 Tectonophysics). This result would therefore support either the snowball Earth or the large-obliquity hypotheses for Precambrian ice ages, but would reject the uniformitarian comparison to polar-temperate-restricted Phanerozoic glaciogenic deposits. The most reliable low-latitude results come from the Australian Marinoan succession, but a recent summary of these units has suggested that a glaciogenic origin is not yet demonstrated (Eyles and Januszczak 2004 Earth-Sci Reviews). It becomes useful, then, to review the global evidence for Proterozoic low-latitude glaciation. Eyles and Januszczak (ibid.) identified 13 Neoproterozoic deposits with "demonstrated" glacial influence. Among these, poor age constraints and lack of paleomagnetic data prohibit estimation of depositional paleolatitudes for the Fiq, Sturtian, Vreeland, Taoudeni, East Greenland, Port Askaig, and Zhengmuguan units. Moderate paleolatitudes are reasonably well supported for the South China, Gaskiers, Smalfjord, and Moelv units. Among the three remaining units, the Rapitan Group can be assigned a near-equatorial paleolatitude indirectly through use of the Galeros and Franklin-Natkusiak paleomagnetic results, as long as the Rapitan age lies within 750-720 Ma as generally expected. The Moonlight Valley Formation in northern Australia may be assigned a tropical paleolatitude according to high-quality paleomagnetic results from compellingly correlated Marinoan strata in southern Australia. Those strata, including the famous Elatina Formation, have yielded a robust paleomagnetic signature that is commonly interpreted to imply frigid climate (manifest in part by frost-wedge polygons) at near-equatorial latitudes. Concerns that the Neoproterozoic geomagnetic field was either nonaxial or nondipolar are valid in principle

  14. Le craton ouest-africain et le bouclier guyanais: un seul craton au Protérozoïque inférieur? (United States)

    Caen-Vachette, Michelle

    Geochronological and paleomagnetism data for southern West African craton and Guyana shield in South America, are concordant and suggest the existence of a large unit grouping them during Archean and Lower Proterozoic times. The paleomagnetism data allow to put on a single line, the Zednes (Mauritania), Sassandra (Ivory Coast) and Guri (Venezuela) fault zones, the mylonites of which were dated 1670 Ma. This age reflects the end of the eburnean-transamazonian shearing tectonic, which affected the large West Africa-Guyana unit. This line separates the western Archean domain from the eastern lower Proterozoic one; thence it is possible to correlate the Sasca (Ivory Coast) and Pastora (Venezuela) areas. Archean relics have been found in mobile pan-african-bresiliano zones which surround the Precambrian cratons; this fact suggests the existence of still more extended Archean craton than defined above.

  15. Magnetic properties of ilmenite-hematite single crystals from the Ecstall pluton near Prince Rupert, British Columbia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brownlee, Sarah J.; Feinberg, Joshua M.; Kasama, Takeshi


    Paleomagnetic studies of the 91 Ma Ecstall pluton and other Cretaceous plutons of British Columbia imply large northward tectonic movements (>2000 km) may have occurred during the tectonic evolution of western North America. However, more recent studies have shown that the eastern edge...... of the Ecstall pluton experienced considerable mineralogical changes as younger Eocene plutons, such as the ∼58 Ma Quottoon Pluton, were emplaced along its margins. We investigated changes in the rock magnetic properties associated with this reheating event by examining isolated grains of intergrown ilmenite...... and hematite, the primary paleomagnetic recorder in the Ecstall pluton. Measurements of hysteresis properties, low-temperature remanence, and room temperature isothermal remanent magnetization acquisition and observations from magnetic force microscopy and off-axis electron holography indicate that samples...

  16. Geocronologia e Paleomagnetismo del Vulcano Roccamonfina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available A detailed K-Ar and paleomagnetic study was made on the oldest outcropping lavas of the Roccamonfina volcano. The very first episodes of volcanism were concentrated at around 1 M.Y., whereas most of the activity occurred between 0.4 and 0.5 M.Y. After the formation of a caldera a second cycle of volcanism started at 0.25 M.Y. The paleomagnetic measurements indicate an episode of normal polarity at 1.10 + 0.05 M.Yr. The occurrence of this episode was suggested by Watkins (14 in 1968. There is no evidence of other magnetic events on younger rocks.

  17. Late Tertiary Motion of the Hawaiian Hot Spot Relative to the Spin Axis and Implications for True Polar Wander (United States)

    Gaastra, K.; Gordon, R. G.


    Recent work on Pacific plate paleomagnetic poles, when combined with analyses of equatorial sediment facies [Suárez and Molnar, 1980; Gordon and Cape, 1981; Parés and Moore, 2005], demonstrates that the Hawaiian hotspot lay 3° to 4° north of its present latitude during formation of most of the Hawaiian chain [Woodworth et al., this meeting]. Available Pacific plate paleomagnetic and equatorial sediment facies data constrain the hotspot to this latitude from 44 Ma until 12 Ma, with the hotspot shifting to its present latitude since 12 Ma. Comparison with the apparent polar wander of the Indo-Atlantic hotspots inferred from continental paleomagnetic poles combined with plate reconstructions indicates that global hotspots have moved in unison relative to the spin axis since 12 Ma, indicating the occurrence of an episode of true polar wander, but the timing is not well constrained from available data. The direction of the indicated true polar wander is similar to that observed over the past few decades from space geodetic data [Argus and Gross, 2004], which suggests that the same episode of true polar wander may be occurring today.For these reasons we present a skewness analysis of marine magnetic anomaly 3r ( 5.5 Ma) with the goal of limiting the timing and rate of the shift of the Hawaiian hotspot (and other hotspots) relative to the spin axis. We will determine whether the shift occurred partly or entirely in the past 5.5 Ma, which has implications for the hotspot and paleomagnetic reference frames.

  18. ULF/VLF (0.001 to 50 Hz) Seismo-Acoustic Noise in the Ocean. Proceedings of a Workshop Held at Austin, Texas on November 29-December 1, 1988 (United States)


    holes drilled in the seafloor from the D/V JOIDES Resolution through petrological , geochemical and paleomagnetic studies of the samples and logging...seismome- ters and/or hydrophones (or differential pressure gauges , DPG). Testing of the new instruments at very early stages is important to ensure...resolved using ocean bottom seismometers, suspended hydrophones and differential pressure gauges assisted by an orbiting radar altimeter (GEOSAT

  19. New argon-argon (40Ar/39Ar) radiometric age dates from selected subsurface basalt flows at the Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho (United States)

    Hodges, Mary K. V.; Turrin, Brent D.; Champion, Duane E.; Swisher, Carl C.


    In 2011, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, collected samples for 12 new argon-argon radiometric ages from eastern Snake River Plain olivine tholeiite basalt flows in the subsurface at the Idaho National Laboratory. The core samples were collected from flows that had previously published paleomagnetic data. Samples were sent to Rutgers University for argon-argon radiometric dating analyses.

  20. Petrology, magnetostratigraphy and geochronology of the Miocene volcaniclastic Tepoztlán Formation: implications for the initiation of the Transmexican Volcanic Belt (Central Mexico)


    Lenhardt, Nils; Böhnel, Harald; Wemmer, Klaus; Torres-Alvarado, Ignacio; Hornung, Jens; Hinderer, Matthias


    The volcaniclastic Tepoztlán Formation (TF) represents an important rock record to unravel the early evolution of the Transmexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB). Here, a depositional model together with a chronostratigraphy of this Formation is presented, based on detailed field observations together with new geochronological, paleomagnetic, and petrological data. The TF consists predominantly of deposits from pyroclastic density currents and extensive epiclastic products such as tuffaceous sandstones...

  1. pySCu: A new python code for analyzing remagnetizations directions by means of small circle utilities (United States)

    Calvín, Pablo; Villalaín, Juan J.; Casas-Sainz, Antonio M.; Tauxe, Lisa; Torres-López, Sara


    The Small Circle (SC) methods are founded upon two main starting hypotheses: (i) the analyzed sites were remagnetized contemporarily, acquiring the same paleomagnetic direction. (ii) The deviation of the acquired paleomagnetic signal from its original direction is only due to tilting around the bedding strike and therefore the remagnetization direction must be located on a small circle (SC) whose axis is the strike of bedding and contains the in situ paleomagnetic direction. Therefore, if we analyze several sites (with different bedding strikes) their SCs will intersect in the remagnetization direction. The SC methods have two applications: (1) the Small Circle Intersection (SCI) method is capable of providing adequate approximations to the expected paleomagnetic direction when dealing with synfolding remagnetizations. By comparing the SCI direction with that predicted from an apparent polar wander path, the (re)magnetization can be dated. (2) Once the remagnetization direction is known, the attitude of the beds (at each site) can be restored to the moment of the acquisition of the remagnetization, showing a palinspastic reconstructuion of the structure. Some caveats are necessary under more complex tectonic scenarios, in which SC-based methods can lead to erroneous interpretations. However, the graphical output of the methods tries to avoid 'black-box' effects and can minimize misleading interpretations or even help, for example, to identify local or regional vertical axis rotations. In any case, the methods must be used with caution and always considering the knowledge of the tectonic frame. In this paper, some utilities for SCs analysis are automatized by means of a new Python code and a new technique for defining the uncertainty of the solution is proposed. With pySCu the SCs methods can be easily and quickly applied, obtaining firstly a set of text files containing all calculated information and subsequently generating a graphical output on the fly.

  2. Shannon information of the geomagnetic field for the past 7000 years


    De Santis, A.; Qamili, E.


    The present behaviour of the geomagnetic field as expressed by the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) deserves special attention when compared with that shown over the past few thousands of years by two paleomagnetic/archeomagnetic models, CALS3K and CALS7K. The application of the Information theory in terms of Shannon Information and K-entropy to these models shows characteristics of an instable geomagnetic field. Although the result is mitigated when we correct the CALS7K mode...

  3. Preliminary investigation of the magnetostratigraphy of the Ringold Formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Packer, D.R.; Johnston, J.M.


    The Ringold Formation consists of lacustrine and fluvial deposits overlying the Columbia River Basalt. The Ringold Formation, because of its thickness, extent, and age, is an excellent unit in which to detect and possibly data the deformation that has occurred since deposition of the basalt. One objective of this study was to investigate the paleomagnetism of the upper Ringold unit exposed at one location in the White Bluffs in enough detail to resolve, with reasonable confidence, the magnetostratigraphy of the rock units sampled. The other objective was to evaluate, in a preliminary manner, the paleomagnetic favorability and magnetostratigraphy of the subsurface Ringold Formation in the Pasco Basin and at selected exposures outside the Pasco Basin. The scope of this study was the collection of 300 paleomagnetic samples, their measurement, and analysis. Samples were collected from the White Bluffs, from core recovered from six drill holes on the Hanford Site, and from two surface exposures outside the Pasco Basin. A total of 294 samples was collected, and 2928 paleomagnetic measurements were performed on these samples. The samples were measured by means of a three-axis super-conducting rock magnetometer having a sensitivity of 10 -8 emu/cm 3 and were demagnetized progressively in a 400-hertz alternating field (AF). All data were recorded and processed during measurement by an on-line computer.The declination, inclination, and intensity of magnetization of the samples from the various sections are plotted as a function of their stratigraphic position. The directions of the magnetization of the various sections are also plotted as a group on Wulff equal-angle stereonets. 22 figures, 8 tables

  4. Palaeomagnetic age constraints on folding and faulting events in devonian carbonates of the Kielce Fold Zone southern Holy Cross Mountains, Central Poland)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Szaniawski, R.; Konon, A.; Grabowski, J.; Schnabl, Petr


    Roč. 55, č. 3 (2011), s. 223-234 ISSN 1641-7291 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP210/10/2351 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : paleomagnetic components * remagnetization * tectonics Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 0.844, year: 2011

  5. Bringing Earth Magnetism Research into the High School Physics Classroom (United States)

    Smirnov, A. V.; Bluth, G.; Engel, E.; Kurpier, K.; Foucher, M. S.; Anderson, K. L.


    We present our work in progress from an NSF CAREER project that aims to integrate paleomagnetic research and secondary school physics education. The research project is aimed at quantifying the strength and geometry of the Precambrian geomagnetic field. Investigation of the geomagnetic field behavior is crucial for understanding the mechanisms of field generation, and the development of the Earth's atmosphere and biosphere, and can serve as a focus for connecting high-level Earth science research with a standard physics curriculum. High school science teachers have participated in each summer field and research component of the project, gaining field and laboratory research experience, sets of rock and mineral samples, and classroom-tested laboratory magnetism activities for secondary school physics and earth science courses. We report on three field seasons of teacher field experiences and two years of classroom testing of paleomagnetic research materials merged into physics instruction on magnetism. Students were surveyed before and after dedicated instruction for both perceptions and attitude towards earth science in general, then more specifically on earth history and earth magnetism. Students were also surveyed before and after instruction on major earth system and magnetic concepts and processes, particularly as they relate to paleomagnetic research. Most students surveyed had a strongly positive viewpoint towards the study of Earth history and the importance of studying Earth Sciences in general, but were significantly less drawn towards more specific topics such as mineralogy and magnetism. Students demonstrated understanding of Earth model and the basics of magnetism, as well as the general timing of life, atmospheric development, and magnetic field development. However, detailed knowledge such as the magnetic dynamo, how the magnetic field has changed over time, and connections between earth magnetism and the development of an atmosphere remained largely

  6. Sedimenty ve Sloupsko-šošůvských jeskyních a v Kůlně – klíč k porozumění podzemním procesům

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kadlec, Jaroslav


    Roč. 31, - (2012), s. 26-33 ISSN 1211-8397. [Speleofórum 2012 : setkání speleologů v Moravském krasu. Moravský kras, 20.04.2012-22.04.2012] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : cave sediment s * Moravian Karst * paleomagnetic and radiomentric datings Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  7. Atom and pre-history: the geological framework of fossil man in the light of dating and isotopic data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miskovsky, J.C.; Gibert, E.


    The discovery of natural radioactivity and the applications of nuclear physics to the study of sediments and sediment content, allow for the delimitation of the chrono-stratigraphic and paleoclimatic framework of fossil Man. This chronology is based on the development of continental glacial phenomena and is specified through comparison with various methods: paleomagnetic inversion, the variation of oxygen isotopic composition of marine biogenic carbonates and the dating methods. Pleistocene and Holocene era are reviewed. (authors). 9 figs., 90 refs

  8. Long hard road from Nuna to Rodinia (United States)

    Pisarevsky, Sergei


    The popular concept of supercontinental cycles suggests the existence of at least two Precambrian supercontinents, referred to as Nuna (or Columbia) and Rodinia. The times of their assembly and breakup are debated, as are their constituents and configurations. The recent compilation of paleomagnetic data supported by the geological evidence suggests that Nuna have broken up at ca. 1450-1380 Ma by separation of the Australia-Mawson continent from western Laurentia. The recent robust paleomagnetic pole from 1210 Ma mafic dykes in Western Australia provides an additional evidence of wide separation of these continents by the time of the dykes' emplacement. On the other hand, there is the evidence that Laurentia and Baltica have been rigidly connected with present Scandinavia facing East Greenland until after 1270 Ma, when they broke up. Baltica then moved c.1000 km south and rotated clockwise 95° with respect to Laurentia by 1000 Ma and two continents recombined again with the Scandinavian margin of Baltica facing Scottish terranes of the Laurentian affinity, Rockall Bank and southeast Greenland. However, the published model of the simple fan-like opening of the Asgard Sea Between Laurentia and Baltica is somewhat hampered by the recent 1120 Ma paleomagnetic pole from Finland, which suggests a more complicated drift of Baltica with respect to Laurentia. There are also reasons to suggest that a large part of Nuna, which included Laurentia and Siberia has been incorporated into Rodinia after 1000 Ma. The c. 1300-1000 Ma Apparent Polar Wander Paths for Laurentia, Baltica, Australia, Amazonia and India are significantly different in their lengths and shapes suggesting relative movements of these continents with respect to each other. There is still not enough reliable published late Mesoproterozoic - early Neoproterozoic paleomagnetic data to make the unequivocal paleogeographic reconstructions for this time interval. However, it is unlikely that a large supercontinent

  9. Shallow magnetic inclinations in the Cretaceous Valle Group, Baja California: remagnetization, compaction, or terrane translation? (United States)

    Smith, Douglas P.; Busby, Cathy J.


    Paleomagnetic data from Albian to Turonian sedimentary rocks on Cedros Island, Mexico (28.2° N, 115.2° W) support the interpretation that Cretaceous rocks of western Baja California have moved farther northward than the 3° of latitude assignable to Neogene oblique rifting in the Gulf of California. Averaged Cretaceous paleomagnetic results from Cedros Island support 20 ± 10° of northward displacement and 14 ± 7° of clockwise rotation with respect to cratonic North America. Positive field stability tests from the Vizcaino terrane substantiate a mid-Cretaceous age for the high-temperature characteristic remanent magnetization in mid-Cretaceous strata. Therefore coincidence of characteristic magnetization directions and the expected Quaternary axial dipole direction is not due to post mid-Cretaceous remagnetization. A slump test performed on internally coherent, intrabasinal slump blocks within a paleontologically dated olistostrome demonstrates a mid-Cretaceous age of magnetization in the Valle Group. The in situ high-temperature natural remanent magnetization directions markedly diverge from the expected Quaternary axial dipole, indicating that the characteristic, high-temperature magnetization was acquired prior to intrabasinal slumping. Early acquisition of the characteristic magnetization is also supported by a regional attitude test involving three localities in coherent mid-Cretaceous Valle Group strata. Paleomagnetic inclinations in mudstone are not different from those in sandstone, indicating that burial compaction did not bias the results toward shallow inclinations in the Vizcaino terrane.

  10. The Steens Mountain ( Oregon) geomagnetic polarity transition ( USA). 3. Its regional significance. (United States)

    Mankinen, E.A.; Larson, E.E.; Gromme, C.S.; Prevot, M.; Coe, R.S.


    Study of the variations of direction and intensity of the geomagnetic field as recorded by the Miocene lava flows on Steens Mountain, SE Oregon, has resulted in a detailed description of total field behavior during a reversal in polarity. In addition to information about the polarity reversal itself, the detailed paleomagnetic record includes several thousand years of geomagnetic history preceding and following the polarity transition at 15.5 Ma. To test the feasibility of using this record as a means of correlation in this part of the western US, comparisons are made of reconnaissance and previously published paleomagnetic records obtained from what has been thought to be the Steens Basalt or rocks of equivalent age. Despite the fact that many of these earlier studies were not detailed and were not intended for correlation purposes, convincing similarities among some of the records are evident. The Steens Basalt paleomagnetic record does, indeed, have potential as a correlation tool during this time of widespread basaltic volcanism. Concludes that findings indicate no post-20 Ma differential rotation between S-E Washington and S-central Oregon, in contrast to previous interpretations. -from Authors

  11. Detailed Jaramillo field reversals recorded in lake sediments from Armenia - Lower mantle influence on the magnetic field revisited (United States)

    Kirscher, U.; Winklhofer, M.; Hackl, M.; Bachtadse, V.


    While it is well established that the Earth's magnetic field is generated by a self sustaining dynamo that reversed its polarity at irregular intervals in the geological past, the very mechanisms causing field reversals remain obscure. Paleomagnetic reconstructions of polarity transitions have been essential for physically constraining the underlying mechanisms in terms of time scale, but thus far remain ambiguous with regard to the transitional field geometry. Here we present new paleomagnetic records from a rapidly deposited lacustrine sediment sequence with extraordinarily stable paleomagnetic signals, which has captured in unprecedented detail the bottom (reverse to normal: R-N) and top (normal to reverse: N-R) transitions of the Jaramillo subchron (at 1.072 Ma and at 0.988 Ma). The obtained virtual geomagnetic pole (VGP) path indicates an oscillatory transitional field behavior with four abrupt transequatorial precursory jumps across the Pacific. The distribution of VGP positions indicates regions of preferred occurrence. Our results are in agreement with previously proposed bands of transitional VGP occurrence over the Americas and Australia/northwest Pacific. Additionally, our VGP positions seem to avoid large low shear velocity provinces (LLSVPs) above the core mantle boundary (CMB). Thus, our data supports the idea that the transitional field geometry is controlled by heat flux heterogeneities at the CMB linked to LLSVPs.

  12. Hotspot motion caused the Hawaiian-Emperor Bend and LLSVPs are not fixed (United States)

    Tarduno, J. A.; Bono, R. K.


    Paleomagnetic study of volcanic rocks remains the gold standard on which to assess hotspot motion, true polar wander and plate motion recorded by oceanic plates. There is remarkable consistency between paleomagnetic results from basaltic lavas recovered by ocean drilling of the Emperor seamounts, and independent predictions of plate circuits. Both reveal greater than 40 mm/yr of southward hotspot motion; thus the dominant reason for the distinct bend morphology the Hawaiian-Emperor track is hotspot motion rather than plate motion. These findings provide the motivation for moving beyond hotspot fixity to understand mantle processes responsible for the observed motions. Global analyses as well as comparisons between the Hawaiian-Emperor and Louisville tracks indicate only a minor (if any) role for true polar wander. Two viable, non-mutually exclusive processes to explain the observed Hawaiian plume motion are: i. plume-ridge and ii plume-LLSVP interaction. Here we further explore these issues by paleomagnetic analyses of basalts from the Cenozoic Hawaiian chain and Late Cretaceous basalts of the southernmost Pacific Plate. The latter yield paleolatitudes consistent with those from the northern Pacific, indicating that long-standing non-dipole fields cannot have been large enough to affect conclusions on hotspot drift. Data from the former suggest some relative motions between the LLSVPs on tens-of-millions of year time scales, which probably record the continual reshaping of these provinces by plume motion in the lower mantle.

  13. Transitional geomagnetic impulse hypothesis: Geomagnetic fact or rock-magnetic artifact? (United States)

    Camps, Pierre; Coe, Robert S.; PréVot, Michel


    A striking feature of the Steens Mountain (Oregon) geomagnetic polarity reversal is the two (maybe three) extremely rapid field directional changes (6 degrees per day) proposed to account for unusual behavior in direction of remanent magnetization in a single lava flow. Each of these very fast field changes, or impulses, is associated with a large directional gap (some 90°) in the record. In order to check the spatial reproducibility of the paleomagnetic signal over distances up to several kilometers, we have carried out a paleomagnetic investigation of two new sections (B and F) in the Steens summit region which cover the second and the third directional gap. The main result is the description of two new directions, which are located between the pre second and post second impulse directions. These findings weigh against the hypothesis that the geomagnetic field cause the unusual intraflow fluctuations, which now appears to be more ad hoc as an explanation of the paleomagnetic data. However, the alternative baking hypothesis remains also ad hoc since we have to assume variable rock magnetic properties that we have not yet been able to detect within the flows at the original section Steens A and D 1.5 km to the north. In addition, new results for 22 transitional and normal lava flows in section B are presented that correlate well with earlier results from section A.

  14. Apparent Polar Wander of the Pacific Plate Since the Cretaeous and Implications for True Polar Wander and for the Plate Motion Circuit Through Antarctica (United States)

    Gordon, R. G.; Woodworth, D.


    In this presentation we review prior work on Pacific plate apparent polar wander and its implications (1) for true polar wander since ≈125 Ma and (2) for testing the global plate motion circuit through Antarctica. We furthermore update prior analyses using our recently improved and expanded apparent polar wander path for the Pacific plate [Woodworth et al., this meeting]. Three episodes of rapid motion of Pacific hotspots relative to the spin axis have occurred in the past ≈125 Ma: a ≈15° shift near 85 Ma [Gordon, 1983; Sager and Koppers, 2000], an ≈8° shift near the age of the Hawaiian-Emperor Bend [Petronotis et al., 1994; Woodworth et al., this meeting], and a 3°-°4 shift since 12 Ma [Woodworth et al., this meeting]. These shifts are in general agreement with the shifts of Indo-Atlantic hotspots relative to the spin axis. It has long been recognized that paleomagnetic poles from the continents, when rotated into the Pacific plate reference frame through plate motion circuits through Antarctica, are inconsistent with indigenous Pacific plate paleomagnetic poles and paleolatitudes [Suárez and Molnar, 1980; Gordon and Cox, 1980; Acton and Gordon, 1994]. We update such tests using our new and improved Pacific apparent polar wander path and show that the plate motion circuit through Antarctica still fails such paleomagnetic tests of consistency. Implications for global plate reconstructions and the hotspot reference frame will be discussed.

  15. Low Amplitude of Geomagnetic Secular Variations Recorded in Traps of the Southern Siberian Platform: Very Fast Emplacement or Regional Remagnetization? (United States)

    Veselovskiy, R. V.; Latyshev, A. V.; Pavlov, V. E.


    We have studied the lowest part of the Permo-Triassic Siberian trap sequence which is located in the middle course of the Angara river (Southern Siberia). This sequenced is composed by 200m thick volcanoclastic rocks (tuffs with bombs of different composition) and includes numerous mafic subvolcanic bodies (dykes and sills). Altogether more than 20 sites representing tuffs, bombs, dykes and sills stretched along the valley of the Angara river over the distance more than 30 km have been sampled and studied. Obtained site mean paleomagnetic directions are tightly grouped, showing very lower scatter. Taking into account that amplitude of geomagnetic secular variation at the P-T boundary was about of same order as in Late Cenozoic (Pavlov et al., 2011) this lower scatter can be either a sequence of very fast traps emplacement which could have disastrous environmental impact or a result of subsequent regional remagnetization. The only geological event in the region which seems to be capable to cause this remagnetization is emplacement of Early Triassic sills in nearby areas. In such the case we should expect that mean paleomagnetic directions from these sills will be very close to these ones obtained from site presented in this report. We present results of paleomagnetic studies of these sills and make a choice in favor of one of discussed options. This work was supported by grants NSF EAR 0807585 ("The Siberian Traps and end-Permian extinction") and RFBR 09-05-01180, 10-05-00557.

  16. FY 1994 report on the survey of geothermal development promotion. Complementary survey on the fracture system, etc. (Wasabizawa area); 1994 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa sogo kaiseki hokokusho futai shiryo. Wasabizawa chiiki danretsu kei tou hokan chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    For the contribution to elucidation of the geothermal structure in the Wasabizawa area, Akita Prefecture, survey by the paleomagnetic measurement and fracture system measurement was conducted of the borehole cores and specimens of outcrop granite obtained from boreholes of N6-WZ-3 and N6-WZ-4. In the survey, the following were carried out: measurement of the core fracture system of N6-WZ-3 (102-1,505m) and N6-WZ-4 (507-1,556m), paleomagnetic measurement of 9 outcrop granite specimens and 16 core specimens, and k/Ar age determination of 3 outcrop granite specimens. As a result of the paleomagnetic measurement of outcrop granite, the magnetization azimuth of the schistose granodiorite distributed in Kuwanosawa was regarded as almost NS. The measured magnetization azimuth of the core specimen obtained from the same rock mass was also made NS-based, and measurement of the fracture in the neighborhood was made. As a result, it was found out that the NNW system was dominant in dikes and that there was the NE system in most of the small geothermal channels. The fracture system of well tended to develop around the boundary between granite and metamorphic rock, and it was thought that this part could be a reservoir if temperature conditions are prepared. (NEDO)

  17. Late Triassic paleolatitude of the Qiangtang block: Implications for the closure of the Paleo-Tethys Ocean (United States)

    Song, Peiping; Ding, Lin; Li, Zhenyu; Lippert, Peter C.; Yang, Tianshui; Zhao, Xixi; Fu, Jiajun; Yue, Yahui


    To better constrain the Late Triassic paleolatitude of the Qiangtang block and the closure of the Paleo-Tethys Ocean, a combined paleomagnetic and zircon U/Pb geochronological study has been conducted on the Upper Triassic Jiapila Formation volcanic rocks on the northern edge of the Qiangtang block of Central Tibet (34.1°N, 92.4°E). These rocks are dated to 204-213 Ma. Progressive thermal or alternating field demagnetization successfully isolated stable characteristic remanent magnetizations (ChRM) that pass both the fold and reversal tests, consistent with a primary magnetization. These are the first volcanic-based paleomagnetic results from pre-Cretaceous rocks of the Qiangtang block that appear to average secular variation well enough to yield a reliable paleolatitude estimate. Based on our new paleomagnetic data from Upper Triassic lavas, we conclude that the Late Triassic pole of the Qiangtang block was located at 64.0°N, 174.7°E, with A95 = 6.6 ° (N = 29). We compile published paleomagnetic data from the Qiangtang block to calculate a Late Triassic latitude for the Qiangtang block at 31.7 ± 3.0°N. The central Paleo-Tethys Ocean basin was located between the North China (NCB) and Tarim blocks to the north and the Qiangtang block to the south during Late Paleozoic-Early Mesozoic. A comparison of published Early Triassic paleopole from the Qiangtang block with the coeval paleopoles from the NCB and Tarim indicates that the Paleo-Tethys Ocean could not have closed during the Early Triassic and that its width was approximately ∼32-38° latitude (∼3500-4200 km). However, the comparison of our new combined Late Triassic paleomagnetic result with the Late Triassic poles of the NCB and Tarim, as well as numerous geological observations, indicates that the closure of the Paleo-Tethys Ocean at the longitude of the Qiangtang block most likely occurred during the Late Triassic.

  18. IODP Expedition 351 Izu-Bonin-Mariana Arc Origins: Age model for Site U1438 (United States)

    Morris, Antony; Maffione, Marco; Kender, Sev; Aljahdali, Mohammed; Bandini, Alexandre; Guerra, Rodrigo do Monte


    We report preliminary paleomagnetic and paleontological results from International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 351, which recovered an unprecedented ~1.4 km thick volcaniclastic sedimentary record documenting the initiation and subsequent evolution of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) intra-oceanic arc-basin system. Magnetostratigraphic and biostratigraphic constraints provide a high-resolution temporal framework for interpretation of this record. Paleomagnetic analyses of archive half core samples provide a continuous record of the geomagnetic field inclination down to 847 mbsf that allows construction of a detailed site magnetostratigraphy that closely matches the Geomagnetic Polarity Timescale (Gradstein et al., 2012). A total of 87 geomagnetic reversals have been recognized in the studied succession, extending back to ~36 Ma. Despite sporadic microfossil occurrences in parts, calcareous nannofossils, planktonic foraminifera and radiolarians each contribute to the age model for the entire Site. All nannofossil marker species for Oligocene to Eocene Zones NP25 to NP19/20 are recognised. Beneath paleomagnetic control (847-1449 mbsf), foraminifera and radiolarians provide the only age control. The most salient features of the age model are that: (i) average linear sedimentation rates during the Plio-Pleistocene range from 1.4 to 2.2 cm/ka; (ii) there was a reduction in sedimentation rates to 0.25 - 0.5 cm/ka throughout the Miocene; and (iii) sedimentation rates sharply increase again in the Oligocene to Late Eocene to a maximum of ~20 cm/ka. These quantitative constraints closely match (non-quantitative) inferences based on the lithostratigraphy of the site, with fine-grained/coarse-grained sediments dominating in periods with low/high sedimentation rates respectively.

  19. Initial report for magnetostratigraphy of IODP Site U1490 (United States)

    Kumagai, Y.; Hatfield, R. G.; Nakamura, N.; Yamazaki, T.


    We report preliminary paleomagnetic results from between 175-296 meters composite depth (Miocene in age) of IODP Site U1490 recovered during Expedition 363. Site U1490 is located at 05°48.95´N, 142°39.27´E (the northern edge of the Eauripik Rise in the equatorial Pacific) in 2341 m water depth. A primary objective of Expedition 363 was to reconstruct the regional climate variability within the Western Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP) in a broad spatial coverage and different temporal resolutions through the time interval from the middle Miocene to late Pleistocene. The recovered pelagic sediments contains calcareous and siliceous nannofossils with varying proportions of clay and ash. It is also characterized by current-controlled mud waves with gradually decreasing amplitude upsection (Rosenthal et al., 2017). Since deep water is enriched in dissolved oxygen due to downwelling in polar regions, the mud waves were probably formed in an oxic environment by bottom currents, hindering the dissolution of magnetic minerals in the sediments. Shipboard analysis revealed that magnetic minerals between 20-175 m composite depth at Site U1490 have been dissolved by diagenetic alteration and the paleomagnetic data is uninterpretable. But the upper 20 m and below 175 m have a stable magnetization that spans from present to early Pleistocene (0-1.9 Ma) and middle to late Miocene period ( 9-19 Ma), respectively. The latter is an exceptionally long-time range continuous core sample, so it provides us an opportunity to reveal long-range variations of paleomagnetic field. We will show stepwise alternate-field (AF) demagnetization of the natural remanent magnetization on U-channel samples from the composite stratigraphic section to establish magnetostratigraphy at this site.

  20. Assessing the intersection/remagnetization puzzle with synthetic apparent polar wander paths (United States)

    Pivarunas, Anthony F.; Meert, Joseph G.; Miller, Scott R.


    Paleomagnetic data are of variable quality. To assist in a systematic assessment of data, a set of seven quality criteria (VQ1 - VQ7) were introduced by Van der Voo (1990). The last of those criteria `VQ7' concerns the possibility of remagnetization when a particular paleomagnetic pole resembles a younger paleopole from the same stable region. While remagnetizations are often the culprit, the mere resemblance of an older pole to a younger pole does not a priori require that the rocks under investigation are remagnetized. Given that the Earth has a finite surface area; that apparent polar wander paths are represented as wide swathes rather than points, and that continental motion has taken place over several billion years, we ask the question `How likely is it for an apparent polar wander path to loop back on itself?' To answer this question, we constructed synthetic apparent polar wander paths (APWPs) in an effort to evaluate the likelihood of self-intersection. We find that given 500 Myr of apparent polar wander, ˜60 per cent of the synthetic APWPs show self-intersection. Given 1000 Myr of apparent polar wander, ˜95 per cent of the synthetic APWPs show self-intersection. These results show that resemblance to younger paleopoles, over the long term, may be governed by simple probability rather than only remagnetization. We recognize that remagnetization does occur, sometimes pervasively, and must be reckoned with in the assessment of paleomagnetic data. Perhaps VQ7 should be amended to the first sentence in the original discussion (Van der Voo, 1990), and focus on satisfying `No suspicion of remagnetization' via other means rather than solely a resemblance to younger poles.

  1. Correlations and Areal Distribution of the Table Mountain Formation, Stanislaus Group; Central Sierra Nevada, California (United States)

    Torrez, G.; Carlson, C. W.; Putirka, K. D.; Pluhar, C. J.; Sharma, R. K.


    Late Cenozoic evolution of the western Cordillera is a matter of ongoing debate in geologic studies. Volcanic deposits within, and adjacent to the Sierra Nevada have played a significant role in many of these debates. With local faulting coincident with eruption of members of the Stanislaus Group at ca. 38°N, the composition and correlation of these volcanics can greatly aid our understanding of Sierra Nevada tectonics. At the crest of the central Sierra Nevada, 23 trachyandesite lava flows of the Table Mountain Formation, dated at ~10 Ma, cap Sonora Peak. These 23 flows compose the thickest and most complete known stratigraphic section of the Table Mountain Formation in the region. Located ~12 km east of Sonora Peak are 16 flows of trachyandesite at Grouse Meadow. We have collected a detailed set of geochemical and paleomagnetic data for flows of these two sections at Sonora Peak and Grouse Meadows in an attempt to correlate volcanic, paleomagnetic and structural events related to uplift and extension in the Sierra Nevada and the Walker Lane. Correlation of individual flows is possible based on: stratigraphic order, temporal gaps in deposition as determined by paleomagnetic remanence direction and nonconformities, and flow geochemistry. These correlations allow us to infer source localities, flow directions, and temporal changes in flow routes. The large number of flows present at Grouse Meadow provides an additional data set from which to correlate various localities in the region to those units not represented at Sonora Peak. Several flows which occur in the upper portions of the Sonora Peak and Grouse Meadow stratigraphic sections do not correlate between these localities. The causes of stratigraphic discontinuity potentially represent: tectonic isolation across the Sierran Crest, topographic isolation by the emplacement of younger flows, or the combination of the two. Additional to the correlation of individual flows at these localities, this study shows a

  2. Magnetostratigraphy in the Lodo Formation, CA: An Attempt to Locate Hyperthermals of the Early Eocene (United States)

    Aldrich, N. C.; Pluhar, C. J.; Gibbs, S.; Rieth, J. A.


    The Lodo Formation in the California Coast Range, Fresno County records the Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) and possibly other Early Eocene hyperthermal events. The Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 (ETM2, ELMO, or H1) represents a hyperthermal event that occurred approximately 2 million years after the PETM and just prior to the C24r - C24n magnetic reversal (≈ 53.9 Ma) in the Ypresian. While the ETM2 event has been located in offshore samples, it has been more difficult to locate in a terrestrial section. This project attempts to locate the ETM2 magnetostratigraphically by finding the paleomagnetic reversal at C24r-C24n.3n, provide geochronological framework, and assess sedimentation rate changes during this time. This area is known to have had a high rate of deposition (16.8 cm/kyr ) during the PETM, which is found lower in the section. We collected 36 new samples from a 13.44m section spanning stratigraphy thought to cover the ETM2 along with 31 previous samples spanning the PETM, and prepared them for paleomagnetic and paleontological analysis. We analyzed samples using standard paleomagnetic methods including low-temperature and thermal demagnetization. Preliminary results suggest that the magnetostratigraphy spans the C24r-C24n boundary, while the micropaleontology shows the NP10-NP11 boundary, which occurs near the ETM2 as well as the NP11-NP12 boundary. The data indicate an order-of-magnitude drop in sedimentation rate in the lower Eocene at this site, concomitant with a drop in grain size, compared with the PETM.

  3. Speleology and magnetobiostratigraphic chronology of the GD 2 locality of the Gondolin hominin-bearing paleocave deposits, North West Province, South Africa. (United States)

    Herries, Andy I R; Adams, Justin W; Kuykendall, Kevin L; Shaw, John


    Speleological, paleomagnetic, mineral magnetic, and biochronological analyses have been undertaken at the Gondolin hominin-bearing paleocave, North West Province, South Africa. Two fossiliferous but stratigraphically separate sequences, GD2 and GD1/3, which were once part of a large cavern system, have been identified. Although some comparative paleomagnetic samples were taken from the GD 1, 3, and 4 localities that are currently under investigation, the research presented here focuses on the fossil-rich, in situ deposits at locality GD 2, excavated by E.S. Vrba in 1979. The GD 2 deposits are dominated by normal-polarity calcified clastic deposits that are sandwiched between clastic-free flowstone speleothems. The lower flowstone has a sharp contact with the red siltstone deposits and is of reversed polarity. The capping flowstone shows a change from normal to reversed polarity, thereby preserving a polarity reversal. While the paleomagnetic work indicates that the GD 2 fossil material was deposited during a normal-polarity period, the shortness of the sequence made matching of the magnetostratigraphy to the geomagnetic polarity time scale (GPTS) impossible without the aid of biochronology. While lacking multiple time-sensitive taxa, the recovery of specimens attributable to Stage III Metridiochoerus andrewsi is consistent with a deposition date between 1.9 and 1.5 Ma. A comparison of the magnetostratigraphy with the GPTS therefore suggests that the fauna-bearing siltstone of GD 2 date to the Olduvai normal-polarity event, which occurred between 1.95 and 1.78 Ma, and that the reversal from normal to reversed polarity identified in the capping flowstone dates to 1.78 Ma. The main faunal layers therefore date to slightly older than 1.78 Ma. Deposits from the GD 1 locality are dominated by reversed directions of magnetization, which show that this deposit is not of the same age as the faunal layers from the GD 2 locality.

  4. Paleoarchean and Cambrian observations of the geodynamo in light of new estimates of core thermal conductivity (United States)

    Tarduno, John; Bono, Richard; Cottrell, Rory


    Recent estimates of core thermal conductivity are larger than prior values by a factor of approximately three. These new estimates suggest that the inner core is a relatively young feature, perhaps as young as 500 million years old, and that the core-mantle heat flux required to drive the early dynamo was greater than previously assumed (Nimmo, 2015). Here, we focus on paleomagnetic studies of two key time intervals important for understanding core evolution in light of the revisions of core conductivity values. 1. Hadean to Paleoarchean (4.4-3.4 Ga). Single silicate crystal paleointensity analyses suggest a relatively strong magnetic field at 3.4-3.45 Ga (Tarduno et al., 2010). Paleointenity data from zircons of the Jack Hills (Western Australia) further suggest the presence of a geodynamo between 3.5 and 3.6 Ga (Tarduno and Cottrell, 2014). We will discuss our efforts to test for the absence/presence of the geodynamo in older Eoarchean and Hadean times. 2. Ediacaran to Early Cambrian (~635-530 Ma). Disparate directions seen in some paleomagnetic studies from this time interval have been interpreted as recording inertial interchange true polar wander (IITPW). Recent single silicate paleomagnetic analyses fail to find evidence for IITPW; instead a reversing field overprinted by secondary magnetizations is defined (Bono and Tarduno, 2015). Preliminary analyses suggest the field may have been unusually weak. We will discuss our on-going tests of the hypothesis that this interval represents the time of onset of inner core growth. References: Bono, R.K. & Tarduno, J.A., Geology, in press (2015); Nimmo, F., Treatise Geophys., in press (2015); Tarduno, J.A., et al., Science (2010); Tarduno, J.A. & Cottrell, R.D., AGU Fall Meeting (2014).

  5. A 10,000 yr record of high-resolution Paleosecular Variation from a flowstone of Rio Martino Cave, Northwestern Alps, Italy (United States)

    Zanella, Elena; Tema, Evdokia; Lanci, Luca; Regattieri, Eleonora; Isola, Ilaria; Hellstrom, John C.; Costa, Emanuele; Zanchetta, Giovanni; Drysdale, Russell N.; Magrì, Federico


    Speleothems are potentially excellent archives of the Earth's magnetic field, capable of recording its past variations. Their characteristics, such as the continuity of the record, the possibility to be easily dated, the almost instantaneous remanence acquisition and the high time-resolution make them potentially unique high-quality Paleosecular Variation (PSV) recorders. Nevertheless, speleothems are commonly characterized by low magnetic intensities, which often limits their resolution. Here we present a paleomagnetic study performed on two cores from a flowstone from the Rio Martino Cave (Western Alps, Italy). U/Th dating indicates that the flowstone's deposition covers almost the entire Holocene, spanning the period ca. 0.5-9.0 ka, while an estimation of its mean growth rate is around 1 mm per 15 years. The flowstone is composed of columnar calcite, characterized by a highly magnetic detrital content from meta-ophiolites in the cave's catchment. This favorable geological context results in an intense magnetic signal that permits the preparation and measurement of thin (∼3 mm depth equivalent) samples, each representing around 45 yr. The Characteristic Remanent Magnetization (ChRM), isolated after systematic stepwise Alternating Field demagnetization, is well defined, with Maximum Angular Deviation (MAD) generally lower than 10°. Paleomagnetic directional data allow the reconstruction of the PSV path during the Holocene for the area. Comparison of the new data with archeomagnetic data from Italian archeological and volcanic records and using the predictions of the SHA.DIF.14k and pfm9k.1a global geomagnetic field models shows that the Rio Martino flowstone represents an excellent recorder of the Earth's magnetic field during the last 9,000 years. Our high resolution paleomagnetic record, anchored by a high-quality chronology, provides promising data both for the detection of short term geomagnetic field variations and for complementing existing regional PSV

  6. Five millions years of paleosecular variations from the Golan Heights volcanic field, Israel (United States)

    Behar, N.; Shaar, R.; Asefaw, H.; Ebert, Y.; Koppers, A.; Tauxe, L.


    One of the most fundamental assumption in paleomagnetism is that the averaged geomagnetic field on geological timescales is a geocentric axial dipole (GAD). Given the first order importance of the GAD hypothesis, it is essential to rigorously test its validity and to understand the limits of its use. Additionally, it is equally vital to characterize statistically paleomagnetic secular variations (PSV) over timescales of 106 years. The Plio-Pleistocene volcanic field in the Golan Heights, Israel (32.7°N-33.3°N) is a nearly ideal location to investigate these issues, owing to excellent exposure of basaltic flows, dated using more than 100 radiometric (K/Ar and Ar/Ar) ages covering the past 5 Myr. Here we present new data from 89 basalt flows from the Golan Heights with ages spanning from 5.4 Ma to 0.1 Ma, and 18 new Ar/Ar ages. This relatively large dataset allows us to calculate three different Virtual Geomagnetic Poles (VGP): Pleistocene, Pliocene, and a combined Plio-Pleistocene. From each pole we calculate the inclination anomaly (ΔI) and the VGP scatter parameter (SB). The Pleistocene pole yields a VGP scatter parameter around SB =13, lower than predictions of PSV models. Also, it demonstrates negligible inclination anomaly of less than 2°, suggesting validation of the GAD model. The Pliocene pole shows a larger scatter (SB 18) and a negative inclination anomaly around ΔI = -7°. We discuss these results in view of the worldwide paleomagnetic database and the available PSV models.

  7. A Paleolatitude Calculator for Paleoclimate Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douwe J J van Hinsbergen

    Full Text Available Realistic appraisal of paleoclimatic information obtained from a particular location requires accurate knowledge of its paleolatitude defined relative to the Earth's spin-axis. This is crucial to, among others, correctly assess the amount of solar energy received at a location at the moment of sediment deposition. The paleolatitude of an arbitrary location can in principle be reconstructed from tectonic plate reconstructions that (1 restore the relative motions between plates based on (marine magnetic anomalies, and (2 reconstruct all plates relative to the spin axis using a paleomagnetic reference frame based on a global apparent polar wander path. Whereas many studies do employ high-quality relative plate reconstructions, the necessity of using a paleomagnetic reference frame for climate studies rather than a mantle reference frame appears under-appreciated. In this paper, we briefly summarize the theory of plate tectonic reconstructions and their reference frames tailored towards applications of paleoclimate reconstruction, and show that using a mantle reference frame, which defines plate positions relative to the mantle, instead of a paleomagnetic reference frame may introduce errors in paleolatitude of more than 15° (>1500 km. This is because mantle reference frames cannot constrain, or are specifically corrected for the effects of true polar wander. We used the latest, state-of-the-art plate reconstructions to build a global plate circuit, and developed an online, user-friendly paleolatitude calculator for the last 200 million years by placing this plate circuit in three widely used global apparent polar wander paths. As a novelty, this calculator adds error bars to paleolatitude estimates that can be incorporated in climate modeling. The calculator is available at We illustrate the use of the paleolatitude calculator by showing how an apparent wide spread in Eocene sea surface temperatures of southern high

  8. Paleolatitudes of the Tibetan Himalaya from primary and secondary magnetizations of Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous sedimentary rocks (United States)

    Huang, Wentao; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; Dekkers, Mark J.; Garzanti, Eduardo; Dupont-Nivet, Guillaume; Lippert, Peter C.; Li, Xiaochun; Maffione, Marco; Langereis, Cor G.; Hu, Xiumian; Guo, Zhaojie; Kapp, Paul


    The Tibetan Himalaya represents the northernmost continental unit of the Indian plate that collided with Asia in the Cenozoic. Paleomagnetic studies on the Tibetan Himalaya can help constrain the dimension and paleogeography of "Greater India," the Indian plate lithosphere that subducted and underthrusted below Asia after initial collision. Here we present a paleomagnetic investigation of a Jurassic (limestones) and Lower Cretaceous (volcaniclastic sandstones) section of the Tibetan Himalaya. The limestones yielded positive fold test, showing a prefolding origin of the isolated remanent magnetizations. Detailed paleomagnetic analyses, rock magnetic tests, end-member modeling of acquisition curves of isothermal remanent magnetization, and petrographic investigation reveal that the magnetic carrier of the Jurassic limestones is authigenic magnetite, whereas the dominant magnetic carrier of the Lower Cretaceous volcaniclastic sandstones is detrital magnetite. Our observations lead us to conclude that the Jurassic limestones record a prefolding remagnetization, whereas the Lower Cretaceous volcaniclastic sandstones retain a primary remanence. The volcaniclastic sandstones yield an Early Cretaceous paleolatitude of 55.5°S [52.5°S, 58.6°S] for the Tibetan Himalaya, suggesting it was part of the Indian continent at that time. The size of "Greater India" during Jurassic time cannot be estimated from these limestones. Instead, a paleolatitude of the Tibetan Himalaya of 23.8°S [21.8°S, 26.1°S] during the remagnetization process is suggested. It is likely that the remagnetization, caused by the oxidation of early diagenetic pyrite to magnetite, was induced during 103-83 or 77-67 Ma. The inferred paleolatitudes at these two time intervals imply very different tectonic consequences for the Tibetan Himalaya.

  9. Can a primary remanence be retrieved from partially remagnetized Eocence volcanic rocks in the Nanmulin Basin (southern Tibet) to date the India-Asia collision? (United States)

    Huang, Wentao; Dupont-Nivet, Guillaume; Lippert, Peter C.; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; Dekkers, Mark J.; Guo, Zhaojie; Waldrip, Ross; Li, Xiaochun; Zhang, Xiaoran; Liu, Dongdong; Kapp, Paul


    Paleomagnetic dating of the India-Asia collision hinges on determining the Paleogene latitude of the Lhasa terrane (southern Tibet). Reported latitudes range from 5°N to 30°N, however, leading to contrasting paleogeographic interpretations. Here we report new data from the Eocene Linzizong volcanic rocks in the Nanmulin Basin, which previously yielded data suggesting a low paleolatitude ( 10°N). New zircon U-Pb dates indicate an age of 52 Ma. Negative fold tests, however, demonstrate that the isolated characteristic remanent magnetizations, with notably varying inclinations, are not primary. Rock magnetic analyses, end-member modeling of isothermal remanent magnetization acquisition curves, and petrographic observations are consistent with variable degrees of posttilting remagnetization due to low-temperature alteration of primary magmatic titanomagnetite and the formation of secondary pigmentary hematite that unblock simultaneously. Previously reported paleomagnetic data from the Nanmulin Basin implying low paleolatitude should thus not be used to estimate the time and latitude of the India-Asia collision. We show that the paleomagnetic inclinations vary linearly with the contribution of secondary hematite to saturation isothermal remanent magnetization. We tentatively propose a new method to recover a primary remanence with inclination of 38.1° (35.7°, 40.5°) (95% significance) and a secondary remanence with inclination of 42.9° (41.5°,44.4°) (95% significance). The paleolatitude defined by the modeled primary remanence—21°N (19.8°N, 23.1°N)—is consistent with the regional compilation of published results from pristine volcanic rocks and sedimentary rocks of the upper Linzizong Group corrected for inclination shallowing. The start of the Tibetan Himalaya-Asia collision was situated at 20°N and took place by 50 Ma.

  10. Chemical Remagnetization of Jurassic Carbonates and a Primary Paleolatitude of Lower Cretaceous Volcaniclastic Rocks of the Tibetan Himalaya (United States)

    Huang, W.; Van Hinsbergen, D. J. J.; Dekkers, M. J.; Garzanti, E.; Dupont Nivet, G.; Lippert, P. C.; Li, X.; Maffione, M.; Langereis, C. G.; Hu, X.; Guo, Z.; Kapp, P. A.


    Paleolatitudes for the Tibetan Himalaya Zone based on paleomagnetic inclinations provide kinematic constraints of the passive northern Indian margin and the extent of 'Greater India' before the India-Asia collision. Here, we present a paleomagnetic investigation of the Jurassic (carbonates) to Lower Cretaceous (volcaniclastic rocks) Wölong section of the Tibetan Himalaya in the Everest region. The carbonates yield positive fold tests, suggesting that the remanent magnetizations have a pre-folding origin. However, detailed paleomagnetic analyses, rock magnetic tests, end-member modeling of acquisition curves of isothermal remanent magnetization, and petrographic studies reveal that the magnetic carrier of the Jurassic carbonates is authigenic magnetite, whereas the dominant magnetic carrier of the Lower Cretaceous volcaniclastic rocks is detrital magnetite. We conclude that the Jurassic carbonates were remagnetized, whereas the Lower Cretaceous volcaniclastics retain a primary remanence. We hypothesize that remagnetization of the Jurassic carbonates was probably caused by the oxidation of early diagenetic pyrite to magnetite within the time interval at ~86-84 Ma during the latest Cretaceous Normal Superchron and earliest deposition of Cretaceous oceanic red beds in the Tibetan Himalaya. The remagnetization of the limestones prevents determining the size of 'Greater India' during Jurassic time. Instead, a paleolatitude of the Tibetan Himalaya of 23.8±2.1° S at ~86-84 Ma is suggested. This value is lower than the expected paleolatitude of India from apparent polar wander path (APWP). The volcaniclastic rocks with the primary remanence, however, yielded a Lower Cretaceous paleolatitude of Tibetan Himalaya of 55.5±3° S, fitting well with the APWP of India.

  11. Long-term trends in foF2: their estimating and origin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laštovička, Jan; Yue, X.; Wan, W.


    Roč. 26, č. 3 (2008), s. 593-598 ISSN 0992-7689 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 091 Grant - others:COST(XE) 296; National Science Foundation of China(CN) 40636032; National Science Foundation of China(CN) 40574071; National important Basic Research Project(CN) 2006CB806306 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : ionosphere * long-term trends * geomagnetism and paleomagnetism * Radio Science Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.660, year: 2008

  12. The low-latitude Rapitan glaciation (Invited) (United States)

    MacDonald, F. A.; Schmitz, M. D.; Crowley, J. L.; Roots, C.; Maloof, A. C.; Jones, D. S.; Strauss, J.


    The snowball Earth hypothesis1 was developed in response to strong palaeomagnetic evidence for low-latitude glaciation from “Marinoan” glacial deposits in the Elatina Formation of Australia. An earlier Cryogenian glaciation, commonly referred to as the “Sturtian” glaciation, has been inferred from the ubiquity of pre-Marinoan glacial deposits; however, the synchroneity and global extent of this event have been questioned due to the lack of precise U/Pb ages and robust paleomagnetic data. Herein we provide new age constraints on the Franklin LIP with revised U/Pb ID-TIMS dates on the the Mt. Harper volcanic complex in the Yukon Territory and the Coronation sills of Victoria Island. Furthermore we present a new age from a tuff interbedded with diamictite in the Upper Mt. Harper Group. A glaciogenic origin of the diamictites is provided by striated clasts and laminae-penetrating dropstones. These glacial deposits can be traced from Alaska westward through the Yukon Territory and into the Northwest Territories, and are correlative to the Rapitan Group. Throughout the Cordillera, the Rapitan Group and its correlatives commonly host iron formation, are the lower of two Cryogenian glacial horizons, and globally are thought to be equivalent to the Sturtian glaciation. The age of the tuff interbedded with the glacial deposits in the Mt. Harper Group is within 1 million years of the revised age on the Franklin LIP. Several paleomagnetic studies on dikes, sills, and basalts spanning >2000 km of NW Canada have agreed that the Franklin LIP erupted when NW Laurentia was in an equatorial position2,3. Consequently, the Sturtian glaciation on Laurentia can now be confidently inferred to have occurred at a very low palaeolatitude. Thus, there were at least two Cryogenian glaciations of global extent. 1 Kirschvink, J.L., in The Proterozoic Biosphere, edited by J. W. Schopf and C. Klein (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1992), pp. 51. 2 Park, J.K., Paleomagnetic

  13. Late Cenozoic Arctic Ocean sea ice and terrestrial paleoclimate. (United States)

    Carter, L.D.; Brigham-Grette, J.; Marincovich, L.; Pease, V.L.; Hillhouse, J.W.


    Sea otter remains found in deposits of two marine transgressions (Bigbendian and Fishcreekian) of the Alaskan Arctic Coastal Plain which occurred between 2.4 and 3 Ma suggest that during these two events the southern limit of seasonal sea ice was at least 1600 km farther north than at present in Alaskan waters. Perennial sea ice must have been severely restricted or absent, and winters were warmer than at present during these two sea-level highstands. Paleomagnetic, faunal, and palynological data indicate that the later transgression (Fishcreekian) occurred during the early part of the Matuyama Reversed-Polarity Chron. -from Authors

  14. An Archean Geomagnetic Reversal in the Kaap Valley Pluton, South Africa (United States)

    Layer; Kroner; McWilliams


    The Kaap Valley pluton in South Africa is a tonalite intrusion associated with the Archean Barberton Greenstone Belt. Antipodal paleomagnetic directions determined from the central and marginal parts of the pluton record a geomagnetic reversal that occurred as the pluton cooled. The age of the reversal is constrained by an 40Ar/39Ar plateau age from hornblende at 3214 +/- 4 million years, making it the oldest known reversal. The data presented here suggest that Earth has had a reversing, perhaps dipolar, magnetic field since at least 3.2 billion years ago.

  15. Matuyama-age lithic tools from the Sima del Elefante site, Atapuerca (northern Spain). (United States)

    Parés, Josep M; Pérez-González, Alfredo; Rosas, Antonio; Benito, A; Bermúdez de Castro, J M; Carbonell, E; Huguet, R


    Paleomagnetic results obtained from the sedimentary fill at the Sima del Elefante site in Atapuerca, Spain, reveal a geomagnetic reversal, interpreted as the Matuyama-Brunhes boundary (0.78 Ma). The uppermost lithostratigraphic units (E17 through E19), which contain Mode II and III archaeological assemblages, display normal polarity magnetization, whereas the six lowermost units (E9 through E16) yield negative latitudinal virtual geomagnetic pole positions. Units E9 through E13, all of which display reverse magnetic polarity, contain Mode I (Oldowan) lithic tools, testifying to the presence of humans in the early Pleistocene (0.78-1.77 Ma).

  16. GEOMAGIA50: An archeointensity database with PHP and MySQL (United States)

    Korhonen, K.; Donadini, F.; Riisager, P.; Pesonen, L. J.


    The GEOMAGIA50 database stores 3798 archeomagnetic and paleomagnetic intensity determinations dated to the past 50,000 years. It also stores details of the measurement setup for each determination, which are used for ranking the data according to prescribed reliability criteria. The ranking system aims to alleviate the data reliability problem inherent in this kind of data. GEOMAGIA50 is based on two popular open source technologies. The MySQL database management system is used for storing the data, whereas the functionality and user interface are provided by server-side PHP scripts. This technical brief gives a detailed description of GEOMAGIA50 from a technical viewpoint.

  17. Planktonic foraminiferal biostratigraphy of the Upper Barremian and Aptian of Crimea (United States)

    Brovina, E. A.


    Reexamination of the Barremian-Aptian planktonic foraminifers from three sections (Verkhoirechie, mountain Krasnaya, and Marino) allowed the biostratigraphic scheme for Southwest and Central Crimea to be refined and updated. The following standard zones are recognized in the studied sections: Blowiella blowi (upper Barremian), Hedbergella excelsa (upper Barremian-lower Aptian), Leupoldina cabri (lower Aptian), H. luterbacheri, Globigerinelloides ferreolensis, Gl. barri, Gl. algerianus, Hedbergella trocoidea, Paraticinella rohri (upper Aptian). Beds with Hedbergella ruka are recognized in the B. blowi Zone. Foraminifers from the Partizanskoe section, representing the lower Aptian L. cabri and H. luterbacheri zones, are studied. The recognized strata are correlated with ammonite and nannoplankton zones and paleomagnetic data.

  18. MAGSAT anomaly map and continental drift (United States)

    Lemouel, J. L. (Principal Investigator); Galdeano, A.; Ducruix, J.


    Anomaly maps of high quality are needed to display unambiguously the so called long wave length anomalies. The anomalies were analyzed in terms of continental drift and the nature of their sources is discussed. The map presented confirms the thinness of the oceanic magnetized layer. Continental magnetic anomalies are characterized by elongated structures generally of east-west trend. Paleomagnetic reconstruction shows that the anomalies found in India, Australia, and Antarctic exhibit a fair consistency with the African anomalies. It is also shown that anomalies are locked under the continents and have a fixed geometry.

  19. RETRACTED: Early Cretaceous origin of the Woyla Arc (Sumatra, Indonesia) on the Australian plate (United States)

    Advokaat, Eldert L.; Bongers, Mayke L. M.; Rudyawan, Alfend; BouDagher-Fadel, Marcelle K.; Langereis, Cor G.; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.


    This article has been retracted: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal ( The authors contacted the Editor shortly after publication stating that they have been made aware of errors in their data files and the paleomagnetic directions, site averages, and paleolatitudes that lie at the basis of their interpretations are incorrect. Because this error concerns the heart of the paper, the authors have decided to retract. A revised version of the article will be submitted for peer review.

  20. Constraining the India-Asia collision by retrieving the paleolatitude from partially remagnetized Paleogene volcanics in the Nanmulin Basin (southern Tibet) (United States)

    Huang, Wentao; Dupont-Nivet, Guillaume; van Hinsbergen, Douwe; Lippert, Peter; Dekkers, Mark; Guo, Zhaojie; Li, Xiaochun; Zhang, Xiaoran


    Determining paleolatitudes of the Lhasa terrane (southern Tibet) using paleomagnetic inclinations is key to constraining the paleogeography and timing of the collision between India and Asia. However, paleolatitude estimates vary widely from 5°N to 30°N due to unrecognized rock magnetic biases such as inclination shallowing in sedimentary rocks or poor averaging of secular variation in volcanic rocks. Here, we investigated Paleogene volcanics of the Linzizong Group from southern Tibet in the Nanmulin Basin that had previously yielded low paleomagnetic inclinations ca. 10°N. Using proper paleomagnetic sampling and measurement protocols we observe similar shallow inclinations. However, sampled sections with different bedding attitudes yield a negative fold test indicating that the isolated remanent magnetizations do not have a primary origin. Detailed rock magnetic analysis, end-member modeling, and petrographic investigation reveal that most of the section has been variably remagnetized due to low-temperature alteration of magmatic titanomagnetite and formation of secondary hematite, which occurred after tilting of the strata. We show that the observed paleomagnetic inclinations vary according to a linear trend with the degree of remagnetization. Accordingly, we can estimate that the primary pre-tilting thermoremanent magnetization has an inclination of 38.1° ([35.7°, 40.5°] within 95% confidence limit), corresponding to a paleolatitude of 21.4° ([19.8°, 23.1°] within 95% confidence limit). This is consistent with results from pristine volcanic units and inclination-shallowing corrected sediments of the upper Linzizong Group ~200 km to the east [Dupont-Nivet et al., Geophysical Journal International, 182, 1189-1198; Huang et al., Geophysical Journal International, 194, 1390-1411]. Our results demonstrate that previously reported low paleolatitudes of the Lhasa terrane can be an artifact of unrecognized remagnetization. Furthermore, we show that original

  1. Lunar magnetism (United States)

    Hood, L. L.; Sonett, C. P.; Srnka, L. J.


    Aspects of lunar paleomagnetic and electromagnetic sounding results which appear inconsistent with the hypothesis that an ancient core dynamo was the dominant source of the observed crustal magnetism are discussed. Evidence is summarized involving a correlation between observed magnetic anomalies and ejecta blankets from impact events which indicates the possible importance of local mechanisms involving meteoroid impact processes in generating strong magnetic fields at the lunar surface. A reply is given to the latter argument which also presents recent evidence of a lunar iron core.

  2. A high-resolution Early Holocene-late MIS 3 environmental rock- and palaeomagnetic record from Lake Sf. Ana, Carpathian Mts, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel VERES


    Full Text Available Lacustrine sediments are excellent sources of palaeoenvironmental and palaeoclimatic information because they usually provide continuous and high-resolution records. In centraleastern Europe however lacustrine records that extend beyond the Holocene are rather sparse.Palaeomagnetic records from this region are also insufficiently explored, and usually associated with terrestrial deposits such as loess. In this context, the lacustrine record of Lake Sf. Ana, a volcanic crater lake in the East Carpathians, Romania, provides an important archive for reconstructing past paleomagnetic secular variation in the region from early Holocene to late Marine Isotope Stage (MIS 3.

  3. The duration of a Yellowstone super-eruption cycle and implications for the age of the Olduvai subchron (United States)

    Rivera, Tiffany A.; Darata, Rachel; Lippert, Peter C.; Jicha, Brian R.; Schmitz, Mark D.


    Small-volume rhyolitic eruptions preceding and following a caldera-forming eruption can provide insights into the tempo of eruption cycles and timing of magmatic recharge. In this contribution, high-precision 40Ar/39Ar eruption ages were obtained on the three effusive eruptions bracketing the Huckleberry Ridge Tuff, which comprise Yellowstone's first volcanic cycle. These dates are supplemented with detailed paleomagnetic and rock magnetic analyses to resolve discrepancies with previous reported stratigraphy. The Huckleberry Ridge Tuff (2.08 Ma) was preceded by an eruption at 2.14 Ma, and followed by eruptions at 1.98 and 1.95 Ma, all of which occurred during four distinct periods of geomagnetic instability within the Matuyama chron. The first volcanic cycle of Yellowstone has now been constrained to within a 200 kyr timespan, or half of the previously proposed duration, and similar to the duration of volcanic activity for caldera-forming systems in the Jemez Volcanic Field. The maximum duration for magmatic recharge for the first Yellowstone volcanic cycle is no greater than 100 kyr, and likely closer to 40 kyr. Furthermore, the combined 40Ar/39Ar eruption ages and paleomagnetic results provide polarity anchors for the Pre-Olduvai excursion and Olduvai subchron, which are often used as tie-points in studies of early Pleistocene hominin evolution.

  4. Resolving the Origin of Pseudo-Single Domain Magnetic Behavior (United States)

    Roberts, Andrew P.; Almeida, Trevor P.; Church, Nathan S.; Harrison, Richard J.; Heslop, David; Li, Yiliang; Li, Jinhua; Muxworthy, Adrian R.; Williams, Wyn; Zhao, Xiang


    The term "pseudo-single domain" (PSD) has been used to describe the transitional state in rock magnetism that spans the particle size range between the single domain (SD) and multidomain (MD) states. The particle size range for the stable SD state in the most commonly occurring terrestrial magnetic mineral, magnetite, is so narrow ( 20-75 nm) that it is widely considered that much of the paleomagnetic record of interest is carried by PSD rather than stable SD particles. The PSD concept has, thus, become the dominant explanation for the magnetization associated with a major fraction of particles that record paleomagnetic signals throughout geological time. In this paper, we argue that in contrast to the SD and MD states, the term PSD does not describe the relevant physical processes, which have been documented extensively using three-dimensional micromagnetic modeling and by parallel research in material science and solid-state physics. We also argue that features attributed to PSD behavior can be explained by nucleation of a single magnetic vortex immediately above the maximum stable SD transition size. With increasing particle size, multiple vortices, antivortices, and domain walls can nucleate, which produce variable cancellation of magnetic moments and a gradual transition into the MD state. Thus, while the term PSD describes a well-known transitional state, it fails to describe adequately the physics of the relevant processes. We recommend that use of this term should be discontinued in favor of "vortex state," which spans a range of behaviors associated with magnetic vortices.

  5. Late Jurassic low latitude of Central Iran: paleogeographic and tectonic implications (United States)

    Mattei, Massimo; Muttoni, Giovanni; Cifelli, Francesca


    The individual blocks forming present-day Central Iran are now comprised between the Zagros Neo-Tethys suture to the south and the Alborz Palaeo-Tethys suture to the north. At the end of the Palaeozoic, the Iranian blocks rifted away from the northern margin of Gondwana as consequence of the opening of the Neo-Tethys, and collided with Eurasia during the Late Triassic, giving place to the Eo-Cimmerian orogeny. From then on, the Iranian block(s) should have maintained European affinity. Modern generations of apparent polar wander paths (APWPs) show the occurrence in North American and African coordinates of a major and rapid shift in pole position (=plate shift) during the Middle-Late Jurassic. This so-called monster polar shift is predicted also for Eurasia from the North Atlantic plate circuit, but Jurassic data from this continent are scanty and problematic. Here, we present paleomagnetic data from the Kimmeridgian-Tithonian (Upper Jurassic) Garedu Formation of Iran. Paleomagnetic component directions of primary (pre-folding) age indicate a paleolatitude of deposition of 10°N ± 5° that is in excellent agreement with the latitude drop predicted for Iran from APWPs incorporating the Jurassic monster polar shift. We show that paleolatitudes calculated from these APWPs, used in conjunction with simple zonal climate belts, better explain the overall stratigraphic evolution of Iran during the Mesozoic.

  6. Ultra-high sensitivity moment magnetometry of geological samples using magnetic microscopy (United States)

    Lima, Eduardo A.; Weiss, Benjamin P.


    Useful paleomagnetic information is expected to be recorded by samples with moments up to three orders of magnitude below the detection limit of standard superconducting rock magnetometers. Such samples are now detectable using recently developed magnetic microscopes, which map the magnetic fields above room-temperature samples with unprecedented spatial resolutions and field sensitivities. However, realizing this potential requires the development of techniques for retrieving sample moments from magnetic microscopy data. With this goal, we developed a technique for uniquely obtaining the net magnetic moment of geological samples from magnetic microscopy maps of unresolved or nearly unresolved magnetization. This technique is particularly powerful for analyzing small, weakly magnetized samples such as meteoritic chondrules and terrestrial silicate crystals like zircons. We validated this technique by applying it to field maps generated from synthetic sources and also to field maps measured using a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) microscope above geological samples with moments down to 10-15 Am2. For the most magnetic rock samples, the net moments estimated from the SQUID microscope data are within error of independent moment measurements acquired using lower sensitivity standard rock magnetometers. In addition to its superior moment sensitivity, SQUID microscope net moment magnetometry also enables the identification and isolation of magnetic contamination and background sources, which is critical for improving accuracy in paleomagnetic studies of weakly magnetic samples.

  7. Contraints on the cenozoic position of Sundaland (United States)

    Powell, C. McA.; Johnson, B. D.


    The Cenozoic ocean-floor path of the continental fragment, Greater India, is overlapped by the present western part of Malaysia and Sumatra which are now part of a coherent continental block, Sundaland. This part of Southeast Asia must consequently have lain further east during the Cenozoic. The past positions of Greater India, combined with published paleomagnetic data indicating that Sundaland has lain near the Equator since the Permian and rotated anticlockwise since the mid-Cretaceous, are used to reconstruct constraints on the relative motions of Sundaland and the Indian—Australian plate in 10 m.y. intervals. We show that the northern part of Sundaland has rotated a minimum of 550 km westward with respect to India in the last 50 m.y. (since Early Eocene) with most of the rotation occurring in the latter half of the Cenozoic. Accepting geological evidence for an even larger Cenozoic sinistral shear between Sundaland and Australia, we construct a model consistent with ocean-floor and paleomagnetic constraints in which Australia and Sundaland made their closest approach between 10 and 20 m.y. ago (Miocene). The S-shape of the Banda Arcs may have formed since mid-Miocene from an initially linear, E-W trending pair of arcs by the interaction of the large sinistral shear between Sundaland and Australia and the collision of the leading edge of Australia with these paired arcs commencing approximately 15 m.y. ago.

  8. Transverse zones controlling the structural evolution of the Zipaquira Anticline (Eastern Cordillera, Colombia): Regional implications (United States)

    García, Helbert; Jiménez, Giovanny


    We report paleomagnetic, magnetic fabric and structural results from 21 sites collected in Cretaceous marine mudstones and Paleogene continental sandstones from the limbs, hinge and transverse zones of the Zipaquira Anticline (ZA). The ZA is an asymmetrical fold with one limb completely overturned by processes like gravity and salt tectonics, and marked by several axis curvatures. The ZA is controlled by at least two (2) transverse zones known as the Neusa and Zipaquira Transverse Zones (NTZ and ZTZ, respectively). Magnetic mineralogy methods were applied at different sites and the main carriers of the magnetic properties are paramagnetic components with some sites being controlled by hematite and magnetite. Magnetic fabric analysis shows rigid-body rotation for the back-limb in the ZA, while the forelimb is subjected to internal deformation. Structural and paleomagnetic data shows the influence of the NTZ and ZTZ in the evolution of the different structures like the ZA and the Zipaquira, Carupa, Rio Guandoque, Las Margaritas and Neusa faults, controlling several factors as vergence, extension, fold axis curvature and stratigraphic detatchment. Clockwise rotations unraveled a block segmentation following a discontinuos model caused by transverse zones and one site reported a counter clockwise rotation associated with a left-lateral strike slip component for transverse faults (e.g. the Neusa Fault). We propose that diverse transverse zones have been active since Paleogene times, playing an important role in the tectonic evolution of the Cundinamarca sub-basin and controlling the structural evolution of folds and faults with block segmentation and rotations.

  9. Magnetochronology and stratigraphy at Gran Dolina section, Atapuerca (Burgos, Spain). (United States)

    Parés, J M; Pérez-González, A


    The Atapuerca Site (Burgos, N. Spain) is an extensive archaeological site which has yielded numerous human fossil remains. The Gran Dolina section, one of the open-air excavations and subject of this study, consists of a sedimentary infilling of 18 m thickness in a gallery originated by karstification of the host Cretaceous limestones. In this paper we present new stratigraphic and paleomagnetic evidence for the age and the sedimentary environment of the karst infilling where the archaeological site is located. Paleomagnetic dating places the hominids (Aurora stratum) in the Matuyama reversed Chron, hence before 780 ka. We also report evidence for a short normal polarity event at the bottom of the section that we speculate as being Jaramillo or Kamikatsura. The early and well-constrained date of the Atapuerca archaeological site, its location in the cul-de-sac we know as Europe, its stratigraphic context, the abundant fossil remains and the stone tool industry make it one of the most important localities for the question of the earliest human occupation in Europe. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  10. Report on earth science studies at the Mt. Riiser-Larsen area, Amundsen Bay, Enderby Land, 2000-2001 (JARE-42

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoru Funaki


    Full Text Available Five members of the summer party of the 42nd Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE-42 stayed in the Mt. Riiser-Larsen area, Amundsen Bay, Enderby Land, Antarctica, from December 18, 2000 to February 18, 2001 for paleomagnetism, geochronology, electromagnetic and magnetic surveys. A resident hut was built beside the generator hut constructed by JARE-38 in the camp. For the paleomagnetic study, 741 samples from 86 sites were collected in addition to the data of susceptibility and distribution of magnetite-quartz gneiss. 187 samples of felsic gneisses and basic dike rocks were collected for the geochronology. The high conductivity layer between 8 and 28 km was elucidated by the magnetotelluric method applied to samples obtained from 5 sites on the moraine field and 1 site on Richardson Lake. Strong magnetic anomalies up to 7000 nT were observed along gneissosity and dike intrusions by the magnetic survey. The weather was relatively mild during 63 days, although the maximum wind speed reached 50.7m/s. The camp was maintained without major accidents or trouble. After the work was completed, the camp facilities at Mt. Riiser-Larsen and Tonagh Island were completely withdrawn for environmental protection.

  11. K-Ar geochronology and palaeomagnetism of volcanic rocks in the lesser Antilles island arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briden, J.C.; Rex, D.C.; Faller, A.M.; Tomblin, J.F.


    K-Ar age determinations on rocks and minerals from 95 locations in the Lesser Antilles. An age range of 38 - 10 million years was found for the outer arc (Limestone Caribbees) but less than 7.7 million years in the inner arc (Volcanic Caribbees). From Martinique southwards the two arcs are superimposed. These age ranges fit between discontinuities in sea floor spreading in the North Atlantic at about 38 and 9 million years and a causal connection between spreading change and relocation of arc volcanicity is suggested. Paleomagnetic directions at 108 localities in 10 islands fall into normal and reversed groups with 6 sites intermediate and 5 indeterminate. The mean dipole axis is within 2% of the present rotation axis. The data generally agrees with the established geomagnetic polarity time scale but there is some suggestion of a normal polarity event at about 1.18 million years. The paleomagnetic data suggest that in the past 10 million years the Lesser Antilles have not changed their latitude or geographical orientation and the geomagnetic field has averaged that of a central axial dipole. (author)

  12. Diatom and silicoflagellate biostratigraphy for the late Eocene: ODP 1090 (sub-Antarctic Atlantic) (United States)

    Barron, John A.; Bukry, David B.; Gersonde, Rainer


    Abundant and well-preserved diatoms and silicofl agellate assemblages are documented through a complete late Eocene sequence, ODP Hole 1090B, recovered from the southern Agulhas Ridge in the sub-Antarctic South Atlantic. A sequence of Cestodiscus (diatom) species occurrence events involving C. pulchellus var. novazealandica, C. fennerae, C. antarcticus, C. convexus, C. trochus, and C. robustus is tied with paleomagnetic stratigraphy and provides the basis of proposing a new diatom zonation for the latest middle Eocene to early Oligocene (~37.6–33.4 Ma) of the sub-Antarctic South Atlantic. Comparison with previously published diatom occurrence charts suggested this zonation should be applicable throughout the low latitude regions of the world’s oceans. Silicofl agellates belong to the Dictyocha hexacantha and the overlying Corbisema apiculata Zones. The late Eocene succession of silicofl agellate species is dominated by Naviculopsis (20–60%). Naviculopsis constricta and N. foliacea dominate the D. hexacantha Zone, followed by the N. constricta, then N. biapiculata in the C. apiculata Zone. Cold-water Distephanus is most abundant in the latest Eocene along with N. biapiculata. The tops of zonal guide fossils Dictyocha hexacantha and Hannaites quadria (both 36.6 Ma) and Dictyocha spinosa (37.1 Ma) are tied with paleomagnetic stratigraphy.

  13. 26Al/10Be burial dating of Xujiayao-Houjiayao site in Nihewan Basin, northern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Tu

    Full Text Available The Xujiayao-Houjiayao site in Nihewan Basin is among the most important Paleolithic sites in China for having provided a rich collection of hominin and mammalian fossils and lithic artifacts. Based on biostratigraphical correlation and exploratory results from a variety of dating methods, the site has been widely accepted as early Upper Pleistocene in time. However, more recent paleomagnetic analyses assigned a much older age of ∼500 ka (thousand years. This paper reports the application of 26Al/10Be burial dating as an independent check. Two quartz samples from a lower cultural horizon give a weighted mean age of 0.24 ± 0.05 Ma (million years, 1σ. The site is thus younger than 340 ka at 95% confidence, which is at variance with the previous paleomagnetic results. On the other hand, our result suggests an age of older than 140 ka for the site's lower cultural deposits, which is consistent with recent post-infrared infrared stimulated luminescence (pIR-IRSL dating at 160-220 ka.

  14. Hotspot Motion, Before and After the Hawaiian-Emperor Bend (United States)

    Tarduno, J. A.; Bono, R. K.


    Hawaiian hotspot motion of >40 mm/yr is best documented by paleomagnetic investigations of basalt cores recovered by ocean drilling of the Emperor seamounts during ODP Leg 197 (Tarduno et al., 2003). These data indicate that the trend of the Emperor Seamounts dominantly records motion of the hotspot in the mantle, further suggesting that the great Hawaiian-Emperor bend (HEB) reflects mainly a change in hotspot motion. Data used for Pacific "absolute plate motion models" for times before the age of the HEB are also internally inconsistent with a fixed hotspot assumption; at present the best way to estimate Pacific absolute plate motion prior to the HEB bend is through use of predictions derived from plate circuits (e.g. Doubrovine and Tarduno, 2008). These analyses predict much less motion for the hotspot responsible for the Louisville Seamount chain, as has been observed by paleomagnetic analyses of cores recovered by IODP Expedition 330 (Koppers et al., 2012). Together, the ocean drilling data sets favor hotspot-specific processes to explain high drift rates, such as the model whereby the Hawaiian mantle plume was captured by a ridge in the Late Cretaceous, and subsequent changes in sub-Pacific mantle flow resulted in the trend of the Emperor Seamounts (Tarduno et al., 2009). However, the question of whether there is a smaller signal of motion between groups of hotspots remains. Plate circuit analyses yield a small discrepancy between predicted and actual hotspot locations for times between ca. 47 Ma and 10 Ma that could be a signal of continued southward migration of the Hawaiian hotspot. Alternatively, this could reflect the motion of the group of Indo-Atlantic hotspots relative to Hawaii. New paleomagnetic data from Midway Atoll (ca. 27 Ma) suggests little difference with the present-day latitude of the plume, indicating that the rate of motion of either the Hawaiian hotspot, or the Indo-Atlantic hotspot group, was about 15 mm/yr between 47 and 27 Ma. This

  15. Thermomagnetic Stability in Pseudo Single Domain Grains (United States)

    Nagy, Lesleis; Williams, Wyn; Muxworthy, Adrian; Fabian, Karl; Conbhuí, Pádraig Ó.


    The reliability of paleomagnetic remanences are well understood for fine grains of magnetite that are single-domain (SD, uniformly magnetized). In particular Néel's theory [1] outlined the thermal energies required to block and unblock magnetic remanences. This lead to determination of thermal stability for magnetization in fine grains as outlined in Pullaiah et. al. [2] and a comprehensive understanding of SD paleomagnetic recordings. It has been known for some time that single domain magnetite is possible only in the grain size range 30 - 80nm, which may only account for a small fraction of the grain size distribution in any rock sample. Indeed rocks are often dominated by grains in the pseudo single domain (PSD) size range, at approximately 80 - 1000nm. Toward the top end of this range multi-domain features begin to dominate. In order to determine thermomagnetic stability in PSD grains we need to identify the energy barriers between all possible pairs of local energy minima (LEM) domain states as a function of both temperature and grain size. We have attempted to do this using the nudged elastic band (NEB) method [3] which searches for minimum energy paths between any given pair of LEM states. Using this technique we have determined, for the first time, complete thermomagnetic stability curves for PSD magnetite. The work presented is at a preliminary stage. However it can be shown that PSD grains of magnetite with simple geometries (e.g. cubes or cuboctahedra) have very few low energy transition paths and the stability is likely to be similar to that observed for SD grains (as expected form experimental observations). The results will provide a basis for a much more rigorous understanding of the fidelity of paleomagnetic signals in assemblages of PSD grains and their ability to retain ancient recordings of the geomagnetic field. References: [1] Néel, Louis. "Théorie du traînage magnétique des ferromagnétiques en grains fins avec applications aux terres

  16. New Tests of the Fixed Hotspot Approximation (United States)

    Gordon, R. G.; Andrews, D. L.; Horner-Johnson, B. C.; Kumar, R. R.


    We present new methods for estimating uncertainties in plate reconstructions relative to the hotspots and new tests of the fixed hotspot approximation. We find no significant motion between Pacific hotspots, on the one hand, and Indo-Atlantic hotspots, on the other, for the past ~ 50 Myr, but large and significant apparent motion before 50 Ma. Whether this motion is truly due to motion between hotspots or alternatively due to flaws in the global plate motion circuit can be tested with paleomagnetic data. These tests give results consistent with the fixed hotspot approximation and indicate significant misfits when a relative plate motion circuit through Antarctica is employed for times before 50 Ma. If all of the misfit to the global plate motion circuit is due to motion between East and West Antarctica, then that motion is 800 ± 500 km near the Ross Sea Embayment and progressively less along the Trans-Antarctic Mountains toward the Weddell Sea. Further paleomagnetic tests of the fixed hotspot approximation can be made. Cenozoic and Cretaceous paleomagnetic data from the Pacific plate, along with reconstructions of the Pacific plate relative to the hotspots, can be used to estimate an apparent polar wander (APW) path of Pacific hotspots. An APW path of Indo-Atlantic hotspots can be similarly estimated (e.g. Besse & Courtillot 2002). If both paths diverge in similar ways from the north pole of the hotspot reference frame, it would indicate that the hotspots have moved in unison relative to the spin axis, which may be attributed to true polar wander. If the two paths diverge from one another, motion between Pacific hotspots and Indo-Atlantic hotspots would be indicated. The general agreement of the two paths shows that the former is more important than the latter. The data require little or no motion between groups of hotspots, but up to ~10 mm/yr of motion is allowed within uncertainties. The results disagree, in particular, with the recent extreme interpretation of

  17. A Full Vector Study of a Terrestrial Geomagnetic Record of the Porcupine Excursion (ca. 2737 ka) Recovered From a Long Volcanic Sequence at Makapuu Point, Koolau Volcano, Hawaii, USA. (United States)

    Herrero-Bervera, E.; Jicha, B.


    New paleomagnetic measurements, coupled with 40Ar/39Ar dating are revolutionizing our understanding of the geodynamo by providing terrestrial lava records of the short-term behavior of the paleofield. As part of an investigation of the Koolau volcano, Oahu, and the short-term behavior of the geomagnetic field, we have sampled the exposed flows of a long volcanic section (i.e. 191-m) located on the volcano's southwest collapsed flank at a locality known as Makapuu Point. Paleomagnetic and K-Ar investigations of the Koolau Volcanic Series have revealed excursional directions for lavas ranging from 2-3 Ma. The easy access and close geographical proximity to the K-Ar dated lava flows made this newly studied 191-m thick sequence of flows an excellent candidate for detailed paleomagnetic analysis. At least 10 samples, collected from each of the successive sites, were stepwise demagnetized by both a.f. (5-100 mT) and thermal (28 to 700 °C) methods. Mean directions were obtained by p.c. analysis. All samples yielded a strong and stable ChRM vector demagnetization diagrams based on 7 or more demagnetization steps, with thermal and a.f. results differing insignificantly. k-T analysis conducted on individual lava flows indicated 50% with reversible curves. Curie points from these analyses revealed a temperature close to or equal to 150-250oC, 575°C and 620oC, indicative of Ti-poor and Ti-rich magnetite as well as titanomaghemite ranging from single domain to pseudosingle domain grain sizes. The mean directions of the base of the section sampled up to ˜14m of the section are excursional ( 10 flows). We have also conducted absolute paleointensity (PI) determinations of the excursional flows using the Thellier-Coe protocol yielding PI values as low as 19 mT and up to 88 mT within the excursional zone of the record. 40Ar/39Ar incremental heating experiments on the groundmass from at least one flow site at 9-m from sea level that yields a plateau with an age of 2.60±0.13 Ma

  18. Fethiye-Burdur Fault Zone (SW Turkey): a myth? (United States)

    Kaymakci, Nuretdin; Langereis, Cornelis; Özkaptan, Murat; Özacar, Arda A.; Gülyüz, Erhan; Uzel, Bora; Sözbilir, Hasan


    Fethiye Burdur Fault Zone (FBFZ) is first proposed by Dumont et al. (1979) as a sinistral strike-slip fault zone as the NE continuation of Pliny-Strabo trench in to the Anatolian Block. The fault zone supposed to accommodate at least 100 km sinistral displacement between the Menderes Massif and the Beydaǧları platform during the exhumation of the Menderes Massif, mainly during the late Miocene. Based on GPS velocities Barka and Reilinger (1997) proposed that the fault zone is still active and accommodates sinistral displacement. In order to test the presence and to unravel its kinematics we have conducted a rigorous paleomagnetic study containing more than 3000 paleomagnetic samples collected from 88 locations and 11700 fault slip data collected from 198 locations distributed evenly all over SW Anatolia spanning from Middle Miocene to Late Pliocene. The obtained rotation senses and amounts indicate slight (around 20°) counter-clockwise rotations distributed uniformly almost whole SW Anatolia and there is no change in the rotation senses and amounts on either side of the FBFZ implying no differential rotation within the zone. Additionally, the slickenside pitches and constructed paleostress configurations, along the so called FBFZ and also within the 300 km diameter of the proposed fault zone, indicated that almost all the faults, oriented parallel to subparallel to the zone, are normal in character. The fault slip measurements are also consistent with earthquake focal mechanisms suggesting active extension in the region. We have not encountered any significant strike-slip motion in the region to support presence and transcurrent nature of the FBFZ. On the contrary, the region is dominated by extensional deformation and strike-slip components are observed only on the NW-SE striking faults which are transfer faults that accommodated extension and normal motion. Therefore, we claim that the sinistral Fethiye Burdur Fault (Zone) is a myth and there is no tangible

  19. Morphology of the Iceland Basin Excursion from a spherical harmonics analysis and an iterative Bayesian inversion procedure of sedimentary records (United States)

    Lanci, Luca; Kissel, Catherine; Leonhardt, Roman; Laj, Carlo


    Based on 5 published marine high-resolution sedimentary records of the Iceland Basin Excursion [IBE; Channell, J.E.T., Hodell, D.A., Lehman, B., 1997. Relative geomagnetic paleointensity and ∂ 18O at ODP Site 983/Gardar Drift, North Atlantic since 350 ka. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 153, 103-118; Laj, C., Kissel, C., Roberts, A., 2006. Geomagnetic field behavior during the Iceland Basin and Laschamp geomagnetic excursions: a simple transitional field geometry? Geochem. Geophys. Geosystems. 7, Q03004, doi:10.1029/2005GC001122] dated around 186-190 kyr, we present models of the excursional geomagnetic field at the Earth's surface using two different approaches. First a spherical harmonics analysis is performed after synchronization of the records using their paleointensity profiles. Second, we have used an iterative Bayesian inversion procedure, calibrated using the single volcanic data available so far. Both modeling approaches suffer from imperfections of the paleomagnetic signals and mostly from the still poor geographical distribution of detailed records, presently available only from the North Atlantic and the West Pacific. For these reasons, our modeling results should only be regarded as preliminary models of the geomagnetic field during the IBE, susceptible to improvements when including results from future paleomagnetic studies. Nevertheless, both approaches show distinct similarities and are stable against moderate variations of modeling parameters. The general picture is that of a dipole field undergoing a strong reduction, but remaining higher than the non-dipole field all through the excursional process, except for a very short interval of time corresponding to the dipole minimum at the center of the excursion. On the other hand, some differences exist between the results of the two models with each other and with the real data when the virtual geomagnetic pole (VGP) paths are considered. The non-dipole field does not appear to undergo very significant

  20. Can Inclusions Survive To The Ends Of The Earth? (United States)

    Taylor, R.


    Many petrological, geochemical, and paleomagnetic studies are now focussing on the inclusions that are hosted within other minerals. This approach comes with the benefit that the inclusion can be protected or `armoured' from further external influences subsequent to its encapsulation within a host phase. An armoured inclusion may retain genuine primary information, rather than secondary information resulting from alteration by agents such as aqueous fluids. A key player in the role of the host mineral is zircon, being regarded as "ultrastable" with both physical and chemical resilience. Most importantly zircon is common in many rock types and is widely considered our primary U-­Pb geochronometer in ancient rocks. However this blessing is also its curse, U-decay can result in the accumulation of severe radiation damage over extreme lengths of time, potentially rendering the ultrastable host incapable of protecting its inclusions. Magnetic inclusions, such as magnetite, in zircon are pushing back the boundaries of our understanding of the Earth's magnetic field. The oldest zircon grains from Western Australia predate the most ancient rock record by c. 500 Myr, meaning that magnetic data from inclusions in such grains can push our paleomagnetic record into the Hadean. However few studies thus far have focussed on nature of the Fe-bearing inclusions in terms of their susceptibility to secondary alteration during their long history. Here we present 2D, 3D and isotopic data from inclusions and other internal features of the host zircon and investigate the characteristic features of primary vs secondary Fe-bearing material that may hold clues to early Earth history. Archean grains up to 3 Ga from NW Scotland are used as analogues for the rare Jack Hills material, and allow investigation of Fe alteration from source to sink. Inclusions and potential fluid infiltration networks are imaged in 3D by synchrotron x-ray micro computed tomography. These 3D images are compared to

  1. Multi scale imaging of the Cloudy Zone in the Tazewell IIICD Meteorite (United States)

    Einsle, J. F.; Harrison, R. J.; Nichols, C. I. O.; Blukis, R.; Midgley, P. A.; Eggeman, A.; Saghi, Z.; Bagot, P.


    Paleomagnetic studies of iron and stony iron meteorites suggest that many small planetary bodies possessed molten cores resulting in the generation of a magnetic field. As these bodies cooled, Fe-Ni metal trapped within their mantle underwent a series of low-temperature transitions, leading to the familiar Widmanstatten intergrowth of kamacite and taenite. Adjacent to the kamacite/taenite interface is the so-called "cloudy zone" (CZ): a nanoscale intergrowth of tetrataenite islands in an Fe-rich matrix phase formed via spinodal decomposition. It has recently been shown (Bryson et al. 2015, Nature) that the CZ encodes a time-series record of the evolution of the magnetic field generated by the molten core of the planetary body. Extracting meaningful paleomagnetic data from the CZ relies, on a thorough understanding of the 3D chemical and magnetic properties of the intergrowth focsusing on the interactions between the magnetically hard tetrataenite islands and the magnetically soft matrix. Here we present a multi scale study of the chemical and crystallographic make up of the CZ in the Tazewell IIICD meteorite, using a range of advanced microscopy techniques. The results provide unprecedented insight into the architecture of the CZ, with implications for how the CZ acquires chemical transformation remanance during cooling on the parent body. Previous 2D transmission electron microscope studies of the CZ suggested that the matrix is an ordered Fe3Ni phase with the L12 structure. Interpretation of the electron diffraction patterns and chemical maps in these studies was hindered by a failure to resolve signals from overlapping island and matrix phases. Here we obtain high resolution electron diffraction and 3D chemical maps with near atomic resolution using a combination of scanning precession electron diffraction, 3D STEM EDS and atom probe tomography. Using this combined methodology we reslove for the first time the phenomena of secondary precipitation in the

  2. Oman's low latitude "Snowball Earth" pole revisited: Late Cretaceous remagnetisation of Late Neoproterozoic carbonates in Northern Oman (United States)

    Rowan, C. J.; Tait, J.


    Glaciogenic diamictites and associated ‘cap’ carbonates within the Neoproterozoic Huqf Supergroup of Oman record a period of extreme, possibly global, glaciations between 750-635 Ma (the "Snowball Earth"). We have performed high-resolution paleomagnetic sampling of two sections through ~635 Ma cap carbonates in the Jebel Akhdar region of northern Oman. Stepwise thermal demagnetisation reveals a low temperature component carried by goethite, and a high temperature component carried by haematite, that are both aligned with the modern dipole field direction. Occasional reversed polarity directions antipodal to the present day field indicate pervasive weathering of these outcrops over timescales of at least 1 Ma. Between these two overprints an intermediate component with typical unblocking temperatures of 300-550 C, probably carried by magnetite, can also be isolated in most samples. A robust fold test clearly demonstrates that this component was acquired after Paleozoic folding of the carbonates, and was most likely acquired during exhumation associated with emplacement of the Semail ophiolite during the Late Cretaceous (95-68 Ma). In geographic co-ordinates, the intermediate component has an almost horizontal NNW or SSE direction, similar to directions previously reported from outcrops of the ophiolite close to the Jebel Akhdar region, and from thermally altered basement rocks in the the Saih Hatat window further to the east [Feinberg et al. 1999]. Hints of an older, Permian, remagnetisation of the carbonates, which is also observed in the Saih Hatat basement rocks, have also produced a false polarity stratigraphy in one of the sampled sections. Our results contrast with the previously reported low latitude pole from the Huqf Supergroup [Kilner et al., 2005], which was considered to be amongst the more reliable paleomagnetic data supporting glaciations extending to low latitudes during the late Neoproterozoic. However, this interpretation was made on the basis

  3. Integrated PSV, 14C, Pollen Study of the IODP Expedition 347, site M0059 at Little Belt, Baltic Sea, for the last 9000 years. (United States)

    Herrero-Bervera, E.; Lau, J. K. S.; Snowball, I.; Andren, T.; Kotthoff, U.; Granoszewski, W.


    Paleomagnetic and rock magnetic measurements, coupled with radiocarbon dating, are continue to better our understanding of the geodynamo by providing precisely dated records of paleomagnetic secular variation (PSV). We undertook a rock magnetic, paleomagnetic and radiocarbon study of a 82 meter-long composite core from IODP Site M0059 (Little Belt) recovering for the most part clays, silty sands, and sandy clays. We deployed 454 8-cc discrete samples at approximately every 50 cm down-core from inside the site splice. Magnetic susceptibility (c) of the specimens was normalized to wet mass and is positively correlated to the NRM intensity. AF demagnetization of the NRM up to a maximum peak field of 80 mT enabled a low coercivity ChRM to be isolated after removal of a weak VRM. At Site M0059 the upper lithologic units (i, ii & iii) show inclinations that vary within 10o on either side of the geoaxial dipole prediction (GAD) for this location, while lower coarser grained units have scattered inclinations with evidence of inclination shallowing. Measurements of the temperature dependence of bulk susceptibility (k-T) indicate the presence of at least three magnetic mineral phases, which display characteristic Curie point temperatures of 360-400°C, 520°C and 575°C. Induced magnetization experiments such as ARM and (S)IRM were obtained for the sediments. Hysteresis experiments that show that the ratios, Mrs/Ms vs (Bo)CR/(Bo)c of bulk sediments are characterized by pseudo-single domain (PSD), single-domain (SD) and multi-domain (MD) according to the modified Dunlop (2002) diagram. Calibrated radiocarbon ages were obtained for 17 levels and enabled a time-depth relationship to be established for the upper 49 mcd, which extends back to 7450 Cal BP. Support for the radiocarbon-based chronology is a good agreement with PSV data from the southern Swedish site of Lake Byestadsjön (Snowball & Sandgren 2004), which contribute to FENNOSTACK (Snowball et al. 2007). A series of

  4. Recognition of primary and diagenetic magnetizations to determine the magnetic polarity record and timing of deposition of the moat-fill rocks of the Oligocene Creede Caldera, Colorado (United States)

    Reynolds, Richard L.; Rosenbaum, Joseph G.; Sweetkind, Donald S.; Lanphere, Marvin A.; Robert, Andrew P.; Verosub, Kenneth L.


    Sedimentary and volcaniclastic rocks of the Oligocene Creede Formation fill the moat of the Creede caldera, which formed at about 26.9 Ma during the eruption of the Snowshoe Mountain Tuff. Paleomagnetic and rock magnetic studies of two cores (418 and 703 m long) that penetrated the lower half of the Creede Formation, in addition to paleomagnetic and isotopic dating studies of stratigraphically bracketing volcanic units, provide information on the age and the time span of sedimentation of the caldera fill. Normal polarity magnetization are found in Snowshoe Mountain Tuff beneath the moat sediments; in detrital-magnetite-bearing graded tuffs near the bottom of the moat fill; in an ash-fall deposit about 200 m stratigraphically about the top of core 2; and in postcaldera lava flows of the Fisher Dacite that overlie the Creede Formation. Normal polarity also characterizes detrital-magnetite-bearing tuff and sandstone unites within the caldera moat rocks that did not undergo severe sulfidic alteration. The combination of initially low magnitude of remanent magnetization and the destructive effects of subsequent diagenetic sulfidization on detrital iron oxides results in a poor paleomagnetic record for the fine-grained sedimentary rocks of the Creede Formation. these fine-grained rocks have either normal or revered polarity magnetizations that are carried by magnetite and/or maghemite. Many more apparent reversals are found that can be accommodated by any geomagnetic polarity time scale over the interval spanned by the ages of the bracketing extrusive rocks. Moreover, opposite polarity magnetization are found in specimens separated by only a few centimeters, without intervening hiatuses, and by specimens in several tuff beds, each of which represents a single depositional event. These polarity changes cannot, therefore, be attributed to detrital remanent magnetization. Many polarity changes are apparently related to chemical remanent magnetizations carried by

  5. Ted Irving and the Arc of APW Paths (United States)

    Kent, D. V.


    Ted Irving's last two published papers neatly encapsulate his seminal contributions to the delineation of ever-important apparent polar wander (APW) paths. His final (210th) paper [Creer & Irving, 2012 Earth Sciences History] describes in detail how Ken Creer and he when still graduate students at Cambridge started to generate and assemble paleomagnetic data for the first APW path, for then only the UK; the paper was published 60 years ago and happened to be Ted's first [Creer, Irving & Runcorn, 1954 JGE]. Only 10 years later, there was already a lengthy reference list of paleomagnetic results available from most continents that had been compiled in pole lists he published in GJRAS from 1960 to 1965 and included in an appendix in his landmark book "Paleomagnetism" [Irving, 1964 Wiley] in support of wide ranging discussions of continental drift and related topics in chapters like 'Paleolatitudes and paleomeridians.' A subsequent innovation was calculating running means of poles indexed to a numerical geologic time scale [Irving, 1977 Nature], which with independent tectonic reconstructions as already for Gondwana allowed constructions of more detailed composite APW paths. His 1977 paper also coined Pangea B for an earlier albeit contentious configuration for the supercontinent that refuses to go away. Gliding over much work on APW tracks and hairpins in the Precambrian, we come to Ted's penultimate (209th) paper [Kent & Irving, 2010 JGR] in which individual poles from short-lived large igneous provinces were grouped and most sedimentary poles, many rather venerable, excluded as likely to be biased by variable degrees of inclination error. The leaner composite APW path helped to resurrect the Baja BC scenario of Cordilleran terrane motions virtually stopped in the 1980s by APW path techniques that relied on a few key but alas often badly skewed poles. The new composite APW path also revealed several major features, such as a huge polar shift of 30° in 15 Myr in the

  6. Geomagnetic modulation of the late Pleistocene cosmic-ray flux as determined by 10Be from Blake Outer Ridge marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHargue, L.R.; Donahue, D.; Damon, P.E.; Sonett, C.P.; Biddulph, D.; Burr, G.


    The cosmic-ray flux incident upon the Earth during the late Pleistocene, 20-60 kyr B.P., was studied by measuring the cosmogenic radionuclide 10 Be from a marine sediment core at site CH88-10P on the Blake Outer Ridge. The paleointensity of the geomagnetic field for this core was determined by various methods. The variance in the concentration of 10 Be in the authigenic fraction of the sediments from Blake Ridge closely correlates with the inverse of the variance in the paleointensity of the geomagnetic field. The 10 Be signal lags, up to 1000 years of sedimentation, the measured paleointensity of the sediments. In contrast, the data from several other elements, some climatically sensitive, and from beryllium show relationship neither to 10 Be nor to the paleomagnetic data. The relationship between 10 Be concentration and the dipole field intensity (M/M o ) as measured in the sediments is consistent with theoretical models

  7. Geologic map of the Cochiti Dam quadrangle, Sandoval County, New Mexico (United States)

    Dethier, David P.; Thompson, Ren A.; Hudson, Mark R.; Minor, Scott A.; Sawyer, David A.


    The Cochiti Dam quadrangle is located in the southern part of the Española Basin and contains sedimentary and volcanic deposits that record alluvial, colluvial, eolian, tectonic and volcanic processes over the past seventeen million years. The geology was mapped from 1997 to 1999 and modified in 2004 to 2008. The primary mapping responsibilities were as follows: Dethier mapped the surficial deposits, basin-fill sedimentary deposits, Miocene to Quaternary volcanic deposits of the Jemez volcanic field, and a preliminary version of fault distribution. Thompson and Hudson mapped the Pliocene and Quaternary volcanic deposits of the Cerros del Rio volcanic field. Thompson, Minor, and Hudson mapped surface exposures of faults and Hudson conducted paleomagnetic studies for stratigraphic correlations. Thompson prepared the digital compilation of the geologic map.

  8. Earliest Pleistocene hominid cranial remains from Dmanisi, Republic of Georgia: taxonomy, geological setting, and age. (United States)

    Gabunia, L; Vekua, A; Lordkipanidze, D; Swisher, C C; Ferring, R; Justus, A; Nioradze, M; Tvalchrelidze, M; Antón, S C; Bosinski, G; Jöris, O; Lumley, M A; Majsuradze, G; Mouskhelishvili, A


    Archaeological excavations at the site of Dmanisi in the Republic of Georgia have uncovered two partial early Pleistocene hominid crania. The new fossils consist of a relatively complete cranium and a second relatively complete calvaria from the same site and stratigraphic unit that yielded a hominid mandible in 1991. In contrast with the uncertain taxonomic affinity of the mandible, the new fossils are comparable in size and morphology with Homo ergaster from Koobi Fora, Kenya. Paleontological, archaeological, geochronological, and paleomagnetic data from Dmanisi all indicate an earliest Pleistocene age of about 1.7 million years ago, supporting correlation of the new specimens with the Koobi Fora fossils. The Dmanisi fossils, in contrast with Pleistocene hominids from Western Europe and Eastern Asia, show clear African affinity and may represent the species that first migrated out of Africa.

  9. Methods of dating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gatty, B


    Scientific methods of dating, born less than thirty years ago, have recently improved tremendously. First the dating principles will be given; then it will be explained how, through natural radioactivity, we can have access to the age of an event or an object; the case of radiocarbon will be especially emphasized. The principle of relative methods such as thermoluminescence or paleomagnetism will also be shortly given. What is the use for dating. The fields of its application are numerous; through these methods, relatively precise ages can be given to the major events which have been keys in the history of universe, life and man; thus, dating is a useful scientific tool in astrophysics, geology, biology, anthropology and archeology. Even if certain ages are still subject to controversies, we can say that these methods have confirmed evolution's continuity, be it on a cosmic, biologic or human scale, where ages are measured in billions, millions or thousands of years respectively.

  10. Paleointensity determination on Neoarchaean dikes within the Vodlozerskii terrane of the Karelian craton (United States)

    Shcherbakova, V. V.; Lubnina, N. V.; Shcherbakov, V. P.; Zhidkov, G. V.; Tsel'movich, V. A.


    The results of paleomagnetic studies and paleointensity determinations from two Neoarchaean Shala dikes with an age of 2504 Ma, located within the Vodlozerskii terrane of the Karelian craton, are presented. The characteristic components of primary magnetization with shallow inclinations I = -5.7 and 1.9 are revealed; the reliability of the determinations is supported by two contact tests. High paleointensity values are obtained by the Thellier-Coe and Wilson techniques. The calculated values of the virtual dipole moment (11.5 and 13.8) × 1022 A m2 are noticeably higher than the present value of 7.8 × 1022 A m2. Our results, in combination with the previous data presented in the world database, support the hypothesized existence of a period of high paleointensity in the Late Archaean-Early Proterozoic.

  11. A basal magma ocean dynamo to explain the early lunar magnetic field (United States)

    Scheinberg, Aaron L.; Soderlund, Krista M.; Elkins-Tanton, Linda T.


    The source of the ancient lunar magnetic field is an unsolved problem in the Moon's evolution. Theoretical work invoking a core dynamo has been unable to explain the magnitude of the observed field, falling instead one to two orders of magnitude below it. Since surface magnetic field strength is highly sensitive to the depth and size of the dynamo region, we instead hypothesize that the early lunar dynamo was driven by convection in a basal magma ocean formed from the final stages of an early lunar magma ocean; this material is expected to be dense, radioactive, and metalliferous. Here we use numerical convection models to predict the longevity and heat flow of such a basal magma ocean and use scaling laws to estimate the resulting magnetic field strength. We show that, if sufficiently electrically conducting, a magma ocean could have produced an early dynamo with surface fields consistent with the paleomagnetic observations.

  12. Jurassic ash-flow sheets, calderas, and related intrusions of the Cordilleran volcanic arc in southeastern Arizona: implications for regional tectonics and ore deposits (United States)

    Lipman, P.W.; Hagstrum, J.T.


    Volcanologic, petrologic, and paleomagnetic studies of widespread Jurassic ash-flow sheets in the Huachuca-southern Dragoon Mountains area have led to identification of four large source calderas and associated comagnetic intracaldera intrusions. Stratigraphic, facies, and contact features of the caldera-related tuffs also provide constraints on the locations, lateral displacements, and very existence for some major northwest-trending faults and inferred regional thrusts in southeastern Arizona. Silicic alkalic compositions of the Jurassic caldera-related, ash-flow tuffs; bimodal associated mafic magmatism; and interstratified coarse sedimentary deposits provide evidence for synvolcanic extension and rifting within the Cordilleran magmatic arc. Gold-copper mineralization is associated with subvolcanic intrusions at several of the Jurassic calderas. -from Authors

  13. Impact of uncertain reference-frame motions in plate kinematic reconstructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iaffaldano, Giampiero; Stein, Seth


    Geoscientists infer past plate motions, which serve as fundamental constraints for a range of studies, from observations of magnetic isochrons as well as hotspots tracks on the ocean floor and, for stages older than the Cretaceous, from paleomagnetic data. These observations effectively represent...... time-integrals of past plate motions but, because they are made at present, yield plate kinematics naturally tied to a present-day reference-frame, which may be another plate or a hotspots system. These kinematics are therefore different than those occurred at the time when the rocks acquired...... – in a temporal sense – and prone to noise. This limitation is commonly perceived to hamper the correction of plate kinematic reconstructions for RFAMs, but the extent to which this may be the case has not been explored. Here we assess the impact of uncertain RFAMs on kinematic reconstructions using synthetic...

  14. Different weathering stages indicated by the magnetization of limestones: An example from the southeast Pyrenees, Spain (United States)

    Keller, P.; Gehring, A. U.


    Paleomagnetic and structural data from the Pedraforca thrust sheet in the southeast Pyrenees show that the chemical weathering of the late Cretaceous limestones is a multistage process. The first weathering stage, of latest Eocene to early Oligocene age, is indicated by a chemical remanent magnetization carried by hematite. The formation of hematite as the dominant weathering product suggests a subtropical climate in northeast Spain during this period. The second weathering stage is indicated by the presence of goethite, which carries a chemical remanent magnetization parallel to the present earth field. This suggests formation of the goethite since the late Pleistocene under cooler climatic conditions similar to the present-day climate in the Pyrenees.

  15. Evidence for a new geomagnetic reversal from lava flows in Idaho: discussion of short polarity reversals in the Brunhes and late Matuyama Polarity Chrons (United States)

    Champion, D.E.; Lanphere, M.A.; Kuntz, M.A.


    K-Ar ages and paleomagnetic data for basalt samples from a new core hole (site E) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) indicate that the age of the reversed polarity event recorded in Snake River Plain lavas is older than 465 ?? 50 ka (1000 years before present) reported previously by Champion et al. (1981). A review of data documenting short reversal records from volcanic and sedimentary rocks shows that there is evidence for eight polarity subchrons in the Brunhes and two besides the Jaramillo in the late Matuyama. These 10 short subchrons begin to indicate the many short events that Cox (1968) hypothesized must exist if polarity interval lengths have a Poisson distribution. The mean sustained polarity interval length since late Matuyama Chron time is 90 000 years. The similarity of this number with the 105-year period of the Earth's orbital eccentricity suggests anew that linkage between geomagnetic, paleoclimatic, and possible underlying Earth orbital parameters should be evaluated. -from Authors

  16. Some new approaches to the study of the Earth's magnetic field reversals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Consolini


    Full Text Available Paleomagnetic studies clearly show that the polarity of the magnetic fi eld has been subject to reversals. It is generally assumed that polarity intervals are exponentially distributed. Here, the geomagnetic polarity reversal record, for the past 166 Ma, is analysed and a new approach to the study of the reversals is presented. In detail, the occurrence of 1/f-noise in the Power Spectral Density (PSD, relative to geomagnetic fi eld reversals, the existence of a Zipf's law behaviour for the cumulative distribution of polarity intervals, and the occurrence of punctuated equilibrium, as shown by a sort of Devil's staircase for the reversal time series, are investigated. Our results give a preliminary picture of the dynamical state of the geomagnetic dynamo suggesting that the geodynamo works in a marginally stable out-of-equilibrium confi guration, and that polarity reversals are equivalent to a sort of phase transition between two metastable states.

  17. High geomagnetic intensity during the mid-Cretaceous from Thellier analyses of single plagioclase crystals. (United States)

    Tarduno, J A; Cottrell, R D; Smirnov, A V


    Recent numerical simulations have yielded the most efficient geodynamo, having the largest dipole intensity when reversal frequency is low. Reliable paleointensity data are limited but heretofore have suggested that reversal frequency and paleointensity are decoupled. We report data from 56 Thellier-Thellier experiments on plagioclase crystals separated from basalts of the Rajmahal Traps (113 to 116 million years old) of India that formed during the Cretaceous Normal Polarity Superchron. These data suggest a time-averaged paleomagnetic dipole moment of 12.5 +/- 1.4 x 10(22) amperes per square meter, three times greater than mean Cenozoic and Early Cretaceous-Late Jurassic dipole moments when geomagnetic reversals were frequent. This result supports a correlation between intervals of low reversal frequency and high geomagnetic field strength.

  18. Stochastic disk dynamo as a model of reversals of the Earth's magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, H.M.


    A stochastic model is given of a system composed of N similar disk dynamos interacting with one another. The time evolution of the system is governed by a master equation of the class introduced by van Kampen as relevant to stochastic macrosystems. In the model, reversals of the Earth's magnetic field are regarded as large deviations caused by a small random force of O(N/sup -1/2/) from one of the field polarities to the other. Reversal processes are studied by simulation, which shows that the model explains well the activities of the paleomagnetic field inclusive of statistical laws of the reversal sequence and the intensity distribution. Comparison are made between the model and dynamical disk dynamo models

  19. Regional magnetic anomaly constraints on continental rifting (United States)

    Vonfrese, R. R. B.; Hinze, W. J.; Olivier, R.; Bentley, C. R.


    Radially polarized MAGSAT anomalies of North and South America, Europe, Africa, India, Australia and Antarctica demonstrate remarkably detailed correlation of regional magnetic lithospheric sources across rifted margins when plotted on a reconstruction of Pangea. These major magnetic features apparently preserve their integrity until a superimposed metamorphoric event alters the magnitude and pattern of the anomalies. The longevity of continental scale magnetic anomalies contrasts markedly with that of regional gravity anomalies which tend to reflect predominantly isostatic adjustments associated with neo-tectonism. First observed as a result of NASA's magnetic satellite programs, these anomalies provide new and fundamental constraints on the geologic evolution and dynamics of the continents and oceans. Accordingly, satellite magnetic observations provide a further tool for investigating continental drift to compliment other lines of evidence in paleoclimatology, paleontology, paleomagnetism, and studies of the radiometric ages and geometric fit of the continents.

  20. Accommodation of missing shear strain in the Central Walker Lane, western North America: Constraints from dense GPS measurements (United States)

    Bormann, Jayne M.; Hammond, William C.; Kreemer, Corné; Blewitt, Geoffrey


    We present 264 new interseismic GPS velocities from the Mobile Array of GPS for Nevada Transtension (MAGNET) and continuous GPS networks that measure Pacific-North American plate boundary deformation in the Central Walker Lane. Relative to a North America-fixed reference frame, northwestward velocities increase smoothly from ∼4 mm/yr in the Basin and Range province to 12.2 mm/yr in the central Sierra Nevada resulting in a Central Walker Lane deformation budget of ∼8 mm/yr. We use an elastic block model to estimate fault slip and block rotation rates and patterns of deformation from the GPS velocities. Right-lateral shear is distributed throughout the Central Walker Lane with strike-slip rates generally Bodie Hills, Carson Domain, and Mina Deflection are between 1-4°/Myr, lower than published paleomagnetic rotation rates, suggesting that block rotation rates have decreased since the Late to Middle Miocene.

  1. Fundamentals of Geophysics (United States)

    Lowrie, William


    This unique textbook presents a comprehensive overview of the fundamental principles of geophysics. Unlike most geophysics textbooks, it combines both the applied and theoretical aspects to the subject. The author explains complex geophysical concepts using abundant diagrams, a simplified mathematical treatment, and easy-to-follow equations. After placing the Earth in the context of the solar system, he describes each major branch of geophysics: gravitation, seismology, dating, thermal and electrical properties, geomagnetism, paleomagnetism and geodynamics. Each chapter begins with a summary of the basic physical principles, and a brief account of each topic's historical evolution. The book will satisfy the needs of intermediate-level earth science students from a variety of backgrounds, while at the same time preparing geophysics majors for continued study at a higher level.

  2. 40Ar/39Ar laster fusion and K-Ar ages from Lathrop Wells, Nevada, and Cima, California: The age of the latest volcanic activity in the Yucca Mountain area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turrin, B.D.; Champion, D.E.


    K-Ar and 40 Ar/ 39 Ar ages from the Lathrop Wells volcanic center, Nevada, and from the Cima volcanic field, California, indicate that the recently reported 20-ka age estimate for the Lathrop Wells volcanic center is incorrect. Instead, an age of 119 ± 11 to 141 ± 10 ka is indicated for the Lathrop Wells volcanic center. This age corrected is concordant with the ages determined by two independent isotopic geochronometric techniques and with the stratigraphy of surficial deposits in the Yucca Mountain region. In addition, paleomagnetic data and radiometric age data indicate only two volcanic events at the Lathrop Wells volcanic center that are probably closely linked in time, not as many as five as recently reported. 32 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Properties and development of the middle European Lithospere: Reality and Ideas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Suk


    Full Text Available The structure of the middle European lithosphere is extra-ordinary complicated by a combination of the shield type (Baltica the organic type (European Cadomiles, Hercyniles and Alpides and the basin types (Po and Pannonian basins lithosphere. The geological and geophysical data on its structure, age distribution of temperature and pressures and on the plate movements in its geological development inspire some loubts about the correctness of the theories exploining the relations of the parts by subduction processes only. For example, the long distance autonomous movements deduced from paleomagnetic data can be explained by an expansion of the continental crust and the anomalous properties or tne basins are explainable by the beginning of the origin of a new intracontinental rift zone.

  4. Quaternary dating methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahaney, W.C.


    The papers in this book cover absolute, relative and multiple dating methods, and have been written by specialists from a number of different earth sciences disciplines - their common interest being the dating of geological materials within the Quaternary. Papers on absolute dating methods discuss radiocarbon, uranium-series, potassium argon, 40 Ar/ 39 Ar, paleomagnetic, obsidian hydration, thermoluminescence, amino acid racemization, tree rings, and lichenometric techniques. Those on relative dating include discussions on various geomorphic relative age indicators such as drainage density changes, hypsometric integrals, bifurcation ratios, stream junction angles, spur morphology, hillslope geometry, and till sheet characteristics. The papers on multiple dating cite examples from the Rocky Mountains, Australia, Lake Agassiz Basin, and the Southern Andes. Also included is the panel discussion which reviews and assesses the information presented, and a field trip guide which discusses the sequences of Wisconian tills and interlayered lacustrine and fluvial sediments. (orig.)

  5. Upper Proterozoic (1800-570 Ma) stratigraphy: a survey of lithostratigraphic, paleontological, radiochronological and magnetic correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trompette, R.


    Classical stratigraphy which was conceived in relation to the Phanerozoic, can be extended into the Precambrian, particularly the upper part. Stromatolite biostratigraphy provides natural subdivisions of the Upper Proterozoic, as indicated by studies on the Riphean of the U.S.S.R. The correlation techniques are identical to those used in the Phanerozoic. Imperfections in the biostratigraphic record, however, have encouraged the development of lithostratigraphic, radiochronological and paleomagnetic techniques. The possibility of dating argillaceous sedimentary rocks largely depends on the care taken in the selection of samples. The samples should have the necessary mineralogy and should not contain inherited 40 Ar or 87 Sr. Good results have been obtained on glauconites rich in K 2 O and particularly on illite and smectite, using the Rb-Sr method. Geochronology is the most precise of the four methods of correlation considered. It also provides a framework on which to hang the results of lithostratigraphy and magnetostratigraphy. (Auth.)

  6. Earth magnetism a guided tour through magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, Wallace H


    An introductory guide to global magnetic field properties, Earth Magnetism addresses, in non-technical prose, many of the frequently asked questions about Earth''s magnetic field. Magnetism surrounds and penetrates our Earth in ways basic science courses can rarely address. It affects navigation, communication, and even the growth of crystals. As we observe and experience an 11-year solar maximum, we may witness spectacular satellite-destroying solar storms as they interact with our magnetic field. Written by an acknowledged expert in the field, this book will enrich courses in earth science, atmospheric science, geology, meteorology, geomagnetism, and geophysics. Contains nearly 200 original illustrations and eight pages of full-color plates.* Largely mathematics-free and with a wide breadth of material suitable for general readers* Integrates material from geomagnetism, paleomagnetism, and solar-terrestrial space physics.* Features nearly 200 original illustrations and 4 pages of colour plates

  7. Chandler wobbles and the geomagnetic field (United States)

    Flodmark, Stig; Davstad, K.


    Paleomagnetic motion of the magnetic pole is explained by angular momentum balance between the magnetic field, inner core, outer core, and mantle. The Chandler wobbles are explained as a nutation of the mantle and crust, caused by transfer of angular momentum between the core and mantle. Evidence is found for the atmosphere not to be fully responsible for the annual oscillation period of the Chandler wobbles. The main reasons for the principal periods of 12 and 14 months are found to be the flattenings of mantle and core, respectively. The fluid core rotates collectively, as a consequence of globally coworking long-distance electromagnetic coupling. Short-distance forces may locally displace fluid core material without essentially deforming its ellipsoid of inertia. The longitudinal polar drifts of the mantle and outer core are also explained by core-mantle interaction. The core is found to force the Chandler period on the mantle, and it has high wobbling energy in comparison with the mantle.

  8. Developing Bridges from Earth Magnetism Research to Pre-College Physics Education (United States)

    Anderson, K.; Smirnov, A. V.; Bluth, G. J.; Schepke, C.; Piispa, E. J.


    We present a 5-year NSF CAREER project incorporating educational outreach for high school science teachers. Teachers are integrated into field and research components of this project in order to provide the most meaningful and classroom-translatable experience. The associated research project is aimed at quantifying the strength and morphology of the Precambrian geomagnetic field via detailed paleomagnetic analyses of reliably dated mafic sequences known to contain pristine paleomagnetic records. Investigation of the geomagnetic field behavior is crucial for understanding the mechanisms of field generation, has important implications for the development of the Earth's atmosphere and biosphere, and can serve as a focus for connecting high-level Earth science research with a standard physics curriculum. Educational outreach objectives include developing effective methods for pre-college physics teachers to gain the experience and expertise to (1) use paleomagnetic research to motivate and help students understand the physics of magnetism, from microscopic to planetary scales; (2) transfer key experiences of scientific processes to classroom activities, specifically the skills of patience, innovation, flexibility, and collaboration; and (3) help students integrate mathematics and physics into logical problem-solving approaches. Because the teacher participants are directly involved with our research, they are able to provide significant contributions to project outreach and dissemination efforts. This year's work focused on sampling and analyzing mafic dikes from northern Wisconsin and Michigan. The summer phase featured a 3-week field/lab/classroom session. In week one, a 4-person field team (including two teacher participants) conducted field work - the small size of the team ensured that every participant gained skills on aspects of site location, rock identification, and paleomagnetic field procedures. During week two, participants gained proficiency at processing

  9. Neogene tectonic block rotations and margin curvature at the Pampean flat slab segment (28º-33º SL, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S Japas


    Full Text Available Available paleomagnetic data from the Pampean flat slab segment reveal a heterogeneous rotation pattern that is interpreted herein as the result of the overprinting of late NNW-WNW left-lateral brittle-ductile megashear zones that would be also responsible for the continental margin bending.La base de datos paleomagnéticos disponible para el segmento de losa plana Pampeano revela un patrón de rotaciones heterogéneo como resultado de la sobreimposición de zonas de cizalla frágil-dúctiles regionales, de desplazamiento lateral izquierdo y rumbo NNO a ONO, las que habrían producido además la curvatura del margen continental.

  10. X-ray Spectroscopy and Magnetism in Mineralogy (United States)

    Sainctavit, Philippe; Brice-Profeta, Sandrine; Gaudry, Emilie; Letard, Isabelle; Arrio, Marie-Anne

    The objective of this paper is to present the kind of information that can be gained in the field of mineralogy from the use of x-ray magnetic spectroscopies. We review some of the questions that are unsettled and that could benefit from an interdisciplinary approach where magnetism, spectroscopy and mineralogy could be mixed. Most of the attention is focused on iron and some other 3d transition elements. The mineralogy of planetary cores and its relation with known meteorites are exemplified. The various oxide phases in the mantle and the nature of iron in these phases is also underlined. The presence of transition elements in insulating minerals and its relation with macroscopic properties such as the color of gemstones are reviewed. Finally an introduction to paleomagnetism is given with a special attention to nanomaghemites.

  11. The Southern Central Andes vertical axis tectonic rotations: relations with the deformation pattern Rotaciones tectónicas según ejes verticales en los Andes Centrales del Sur: relaciones con el patrón de deformación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Prezzi


    Full Text Available Along the Central Andes a pattern of vertical axis tectonic rotations has been paleomagnetically identified. Such rotations are counterclockwise north of Arica Deflection (~19°S and clockwise to the south. Different hypothesis and models have been proposed to explain the Central Andean Rotation Pattern (CARP. However, the CARP is a subject of ongoing debate. Recently, the quantity, quality, and geographic distribution of paleomagnetic data have expanded greatly. Such expansion has been accompanied by an increase in the knowledge of the deformation periods in the Andes, allowing a more detailed analysis of the temporal and spatial distribution of the detected rotations. We compiled and analyzed the available Cenozoic paleomagnetic data for the region extending between 19° and 27.5°S. The results suggest the possible existence of different rotational domains with distinct characteristics. We propose that in the Southern Central Andes, a close correlation would exist between the style and the temporal and spatial pattern of deformation and the amount of recorded vertical axis rotations. However, in order to further investigate such relationship, new paleomagnetic studies are necessary, particularly in the Eastern Cordillera domain, in Paleogene rocks cropping out in the Altiplano-Puna and in Neogene rocks of the forearc.En los Andes Centrales se ha identificado un patrón de rotaciones tectónicas según ejes verticales a través de estudios paleomagnéticos. Dichas rotaciones son en sentido antihorario al norte del codo de Arica (~19°S y en sentido horario hacia el sur. Distintos autores han propuesto diferentes hipótesis y modelos para tratar de explicar el Patrón de Rotaciones de los Andes Centrales (PRAC. Sin embargo, el PRAC sigue siendo objeto de debate. Recientemente, la cantidad, calidad y la distribución geográfica de los datos paleomagnéticos ha aumentado de manera notable. Dicho incremento ha sido acompañado por un importante

  12. The Cretaceous superchron geodynamo: Observations near the tangent cylinder (United States)

    Tarduno, John A.; Cottrell, Rory D.; Smirnov, Alexei V.


    If relationships exist between the frequency of geomagnetic reversals and the morphology, secular variation, and intensity of Earth's magnetic field, they should be best expressed during superchrons, intervals tens of millions of years long lacking reversals. Here we report paleomagnetic and paleointensity data from lavas of the Cretaceous Normal Polarity Superchron that formed at high latitudes near the tangent cylinder that surrounds the solid inner core. The time-averaged field recorded by these lavas is remarkably strong and stable. When combined with global results available from lower latitudes, these data define a time-averaged field that is overwhelmingly dominated by the axial dipole (octupole components are insignificant). These observations suggest that the basic features of the geomagnetic field are intrinsically related. Superchrons may reflect times when the nature of core–mantle boundary heat flux allows the geodynamo to operate at peak efficiency. PMID:12388778

  13. On the relative motions of long-lived Pacific mantle plumes. (United States)

    Konrad, Kevin; Koppers, Anthony A P; Steinberger, Bernhard; Finlayson, Valerie A; Konter, Jasper G; Jackson, Matthew G


    Mantle plumes upwelling beneath moving tectonic plates generate age-progressive chains of volcanos (hotspot chains) used to reconstruct plate motion. However, these hotspots appear to move relative to each other, implying that plumes are not laterally fixed. The lack of age constraints on long-lived, coeval hotspot chains hinders attempts to reconstruct plate motion and quantify relative plume motions. Here we provide 40 Ar/ 39 Ar ages for a newly identified long-lived mantle plume, which formed the Rurutu hotspot chain. By comparing the inter-hotspot distances between three Pacific hotspots, we show that Hawaii is unique in its strong, rapid southward motion from 60 to 50 Myrs ago, consistent with paleomagnetic observations. Conversely, the Rurutu and Louisville chains show little motion. Current geodynamic plume motion models can reproduce the first-order motions for these plumes, but only when each plume is rooted in the lowermost mantle.

  14. Constraining the age of the Matuyama-Brunhes reversal using intercalibrated 40Ar/39Ar and astronomical ages of the Bishop Tuff and Australasian Tektite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rivera, Tiffany; Storey, Michael; Palike, Heiko

    Recent high-resolution δ18O records from North Atlantic (I)ODP cores, with reliable paleomagnetic signals, have placed the mean age of the Matuyama-Brunhes (MB) geomagnetic polarity reversal ca. 8 ka younger than previous estimates when correlated to ice-volume age models (Channell et al., 2010...... with sedimentation rates determined through drill core analysis, we approach the MB boundary from both sides to arrive at a boundary age that is consistent with independent astronomical ages proposed for the polarity transition. This novel approach provides a best-fit age for the MB boundary that incorporates radio......-isotopic dating, astrochronologies, and sedimentation rates. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme [FP7/2007-2013] under grant agreement no. 215458....

  15. Luminescence dating: methodological research and application to volcanism in the Laschamp environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassinet, C.


    The aim of this work was to date lava flows from the Chaine des Puys (Massif Central, France) which were chronologically situated during the period of the Laschamp paleo-magnetic event (30-50 ka). The methods used were thermoluminescence and optically stimulated luminescence applied to quartz grains and quartz pebbles extracted from sediments baked by the lava flows. These minerals often emit luminescence signals exhibiting erratic behaviour. Thus, their radiation doses were tentatively determined by various methods to select those which were most likely to yield reliable results. These intercomparisons highlighted a dispersion of results beyond what could be expected from the uncertainties usually associated with each measurement. In the majority of cases, these observations forced us to propose a relatively wide interval in which the most probable age of the sample is included. (author)

  16. Luminescence dating: methodological research and application to volcanism in the Laschamp environment; Datation par luminescence: recherches methodologiques et applications au volcanisme dans l'environnement de Laschamp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassinet, C


    The aim of this work was to date lava flows from the Chaine des Puys (Massif Central, France) which were chronologically situated during the period of the Laschamp paleo-magnetic event (30-50 ka). The methods used were thermoluminescence and optically stimulated luminescence applied to quartz grains and quartz pebbles extracted from sediments baked by the lava flows. These minerals often emit luminescence signals exhibiting erratic behaviour. Thus, their radiation doses were tentatively determined by various methods to select those which were most likely to yield reliable results. These intercomparisons highlighted a dispersion of results beyond what could be expected from the uncertainties usually associated with each measurement. In the majority of cases, these observations forced us to propose a relatively wide interval in which the most probable age of the sample is included. (author)

  17. Observing thermomagnetic stability of nonideal magnetite particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almeida, Trevor P.; Kasama, Takeshi; Muxworthy, Adrian R.


    The thermomagnetic behavior of remanence-induced magnetite (Fe3O4) particles in the pseudo-single-domain (PSD) size range (similar to 0.1-10 mu m), which dominate the magnetic signature of many rock lithologies, is investigated using off-axis electron holography. Construction of magnetic induction...... of the Fe3O4 grain, in this instance, remains thermally stable close to its unblocking temperature and exhibits a similar in-plane remanent state upon cooling; i.e., the particle is effectively behaving like a uniaxial single-domain particle to temperatures near T-C. Such particles are thought to be robust...... magnetic recorders. It is suggested that evidence for PSD behavior should therefore not preclude paleomagnetic investigation....

  18. Solving the challenges of data preprocessing, uploading, archiving, retrieval, analysis and visualization for large heterogeneous paleo- and rock magnetic datasets (United States)

    Minnett, R.; Koppers, A. A.; Tauxe, L.; Constable, C.; Jarboe, N. A.


    The Magnetics Information Consortium (MagIC) provides an archive for the wealth of rock- and paleomagnetic data and interpretations from studies on natural and synthetic samples. As with many fields, most peer-reviewed paleo- and rock magnetic publications only include high level results. However, access to the raw data from which these results were derived is critical for compilation studies and when updating results based on new interpretation and analysis methods. MagIC provides a detailed metadata model with places for everything from raw measurements to their interpretations. Prior to MagIC, these raw data were extremely cumbersome to collect because they mostly existed in a lab's proprietary format on investigator's personal computers or undigitized in field notebooks. MagIC has developed a suite of offline and online tools to enable the paleomagnetic, rock magnetic, and affiliated scientific communities to easily contribute both their previously published data and data supporting an article undergoing peer-review, to retrieve well-annotated published interpretations and raw data, and to analyze and visualize large collections of published data online. Here we present the technology we chose (including VBA in Excel spreadsheets, Python libraries, FastCGI JSON webservices, Oracle procedures, and jQuery user interfaces) and how we implemented it in order to serve the scientific community as seamlessly as possible. These tools are now in use in labs worldwide, have helped archive many valuable legacy studies and datasets, and routinely enable new contributions to the MagIC Database (

  19. Preliminary geologic map of the Sleeping Butte volcanic centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowe, B.M.; Perry, F.V.


    The Sleeping Butte volcanic centers comprise two, spatially separate, small-volume ( 3 ) basaltic centers. The centers were formed by mildly explosive Strombolian eruptions. The Little Black Peak cone consists of a main scoria cone, two small satellitic scoria mounds, and associated lobate lava flows that vented from sites at the base of the scoria cone. The Hidden Cone center consists of a main scoria cone that developed on the north-facing slope of Sleeping Butte. The center formed during two episodes. The first included the formation of the main scoria cone, and venting of aa lava flows from radial dikes at the northeast base of the cone. The second included eruption of scoria-fall deposits from the summit crater. The ages of the Little Black Peak and the Hidden Cone are estimated to be between 200 to 400 ka based on the whole-rock K-Ar age determinations with large analytical undertainty. This age assignment is consistent with qualitative observations of the degree of soil development and geomorphic degradation of volcanic landforms. The younger episode of the Hidden Cone is inferred to be significantly younger and probably of Late Pleistocene or Holocene age. This is based on the absence of cone slope rilling, the absence of cone-slope apron deposits, and erosional unconformity between the two episodes, the poor horizon- development of soils, and the presence of fall deposits on modern alluvial surfaces. Paleomagnetic data show that the centers record similar but not identical directions of remanent magnetization. Paleomagnetic data have not been obtained for the youngest deposits of the Hidden Cone center. Further geochronology, soils, geomorphic, and petrology studies are planned of the Sleeping Butte volcanic centers 20 refs., 3 figs

  20. Anomalous Late Jurassic motion of the Pacific Plate with implications for true polar wander (United States)

    Fu, Roger R.; Kent, Dennis V.


    True polar wander, or TPW, is the rotation of the entire mantle-crust system about an equatorial axis that results in a coherent velocity contribution for all lithospheric plates. One of the most recent candidate TPW events consists of a ∼30° rotation during Late Jurassic time (160-145 Ma). However, existing paleomagnetic documentation of this event derives exclusively from continents, which compose less than 50% of the Earth's surface area and may not reflect motion of the entire mantle-crust system. Additional paleopositional information from the Pacific Basin would significantly enhance coverage of the Earth's surface and allow more rigorous testing for the occurrence of TPW. We perform paleomagnetic analyses on core samples from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 801B, which were taken from the oldest available Pacific crust, to determine its paleolatitude during the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous (167-133 Ma). We find that the Pacific Plate underwent a steady southward drift of 0.49°-0.74° My-1 except for an interval between Kimmeridgian and Tithonian time (157-147 Ma), during which it underwent northward motion at 1.45° ± 0.76° My-1 (1σ). This trajectory indicates that the plates of the Pacific Basin participated in the same large-amplitude (∼30°) rotation as continental lithosphere in the 160-145 Ma interval. Such coherent motion of a large majority of the Earth's surface strongly supports the occurrence of TPW, suggesting that a combination of subducting slabs and rising mantle plumes was sufficient to significantly perturb the Earth's inertia tensor in the Late Jurassic.

  1. Magnetic stratigraphy of the Ordovician in the lower reach of the Kotuy River: the age of the Bysy-Yuryakh stratum and the rate of geomagnetic reversals on the eve of the superchron (United States)

    Pavlov, V. E.; Tolmacheva, T. Yu.; Veselovskiy, R. V.; Latyshev, A. V.; Fetisova, A. M.; Bigun, I. V.


    Until recently, the existing data prevented the geophysicists from accurately dating the Bysy-Yuryakh stratum, which outcrops in the middle reach of the Kotuy River, constraining the time of its formation to a wide interval from the end of the Late Cambrian to the beginning of the Silurian. The obtained paleomagnetic data unambiguously correlate the Bysy-Yuryakh stratum to the Nyaian regional stage and constrain its formation, at least a considerable part of it, by the Tremadocian. This result perfectly agrees with the data on the Bysy-Yuryakh conodonts studied in this work and yields a spectacular example of the successful application of paleomagnetic studies in solving important tasks of stratigraphy and, correspondingly, petroleum geology. Within the Bysy-Yuryakh stratum, we revealed a large normal-polarity interval corresponding to the long (>1 Ma) period when the geomagnetic reversals were absent. This result, in combination with the data for the Tremadocian and Middle-Upper Cambrian sequences of the other regions, indicates that (1) the rate of occurrence of the geomagnetic reversals on the eve of the Ordovician Moyero superchron of reversed polarity was at most one reversal per Ma; (2) the superchron does not switch on instantaneously but is preceded by a certain gradual change in the operation conditions of the dynamo mechanism which, inter alia, manifests itself by the reduction of the frequency of geomagnetic reversals with the approach of the superchron. This finding supports the views according to which a process preparing the establishment of the superchrons takes place at the core-mantle boundary.

  2. A Chronostratigraphic and Environment Magnetic Study of Drill Cores Collected in the Mozambique Channel on Cruise MD13 (United States)

    Ray, D. J.; DeBone, K. N.; Smesny, J.; Chadinha, C.; Mitchell, B.; Acton, G. D.; Kulhanek, D. K.


    The South Atlantic Petroleum Company donated drill cores from 18 sites cored in October 2013 in the Mozambique Channel off Madagascar by the RV Marion Dufresne. Up to 30.11 m of sediment was recovered from cores collected at two localities, referred to as Juan de Nova ( 16.5°S, 42.9°E) and Belo Profound ( 19.5°S, 42.2°E), in water depths of 2,157-2,795 m. The cores are composed mostly of mixtures of fairly homogenous biogenic ooze and clay that is highly bioturbated, with turbidites occurring relatively commonly (about every meter or two) in most of the cores, although rarely in others (e.g., Core MD13-3506). The core color varies between light tan, olive gray, light brown, and light reddish brown. The darker colors probably reflect higher proportion of terrigenous input and the lighter intervals more biogenic input. We collected rock magnetic and paleomagnetic data along the cores and conducted initial calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphic analyses in order to provide stratigraphic and chronologic constraints and to investigate paleoenvironment changes. Records of magnetic susceptibility are used to correlate stratigraphy between sites and then are correlated to well-dated global records of climate change, such as the marine oxygen isotope record. The correlation to oxygen isotope records, which is constrained by biostratigraphic and paleomagnetic observations, helps refine the chronostratigraphy and allows us to interpret the variations in lithology and magnetic properties in the context of global climate change.

  3. Large geomagnetic field anomalies revealed in Bronze to Iron Age archeomagnetic data from Tel Megiddo and Tel Hazor, Israel (United States)

    Shaar, Ron; Tauxe, Lisa; Ron, Hagai; Ebert, Yael; Zuckerman, Sharon; Finkelstein, Israel; Agnon, Amotz


    Geomagnetic field measurements from the past few centuries show heightened secular variation activity in the southern hemisphere associated with the south Atlantic anomaly (SAA). It is uncertain whether geomagnetic anomalies at a similar scale have existed in the past owing to limited coverage and uncertainties in the paleomagnetic database. Here we provide new evidence from archaeological sources in the Levant suggesting a large positive northern hemisphere anomaly, similar in magnitude to the SAA during the 9th-8th centuries BCE, called ;Levantine Iron Age anomaly;. We also report an additional geomagnetic spike in the 8th century. The new dataset comprises 73 high precision paleointensity estimates from ca. 3000 BCE to 732 BCE, and five directional measurements between the 14th and the 9th centuries BCE. Well-dated pottery and cooking ovens were collected from twenty archaeological strata in two large contemporaneous stratigraphical mounds (tells) in Israel: Tel Megiddo and Tel Hazor. The new data are combined with previously published data and interpreted automatically using the PmagPy Thellier GUI program. The Tel Megiddo and Tel Hazor data sets demonstrate excellent internal consistency and remarkable agreement with published data from Mesopotamia (Syria). The data illustrate the evolution of an extreme geomagnetic high that culminated in at least two spikes between the 11th and the 8th centuries BCE (Iron Age in the Levant). The paleomagnetic directional data of the 9th century BCE show positive inclination anomalies, and deviations of up to 22° from the averaged geocentric axial dipole (GAD) direction. From comparison of the Levantine archaeomagnetic data with IGRF model for 2015 we infer the ;Levantine Iron Age anomaly; between the 10th and the 8th centuries BCE is a local positive anomaly. The eastward extent of the anomaly is currently unknown.

  4. The age of volcanic tuffs from the Upper Freshwater Molasse (North Alpine Foreland Basin) and their possible use for tephrostratigraphic correlations across Europe for the Middle Miocene (United States)

    Rocholl, Alexander; Schaltegger, Urs; Gilg, H. Albert; Wijbrans, Jan; Böhme, Madelaine


    The Middle Miocene Upper Freshwater Molasse sediments represent the last cycle of clastic sedimentation during the evolution of the North Alpine Foreland Basin. They are characterized by small-scale lateral and temporal facies changes that make intra-basin stratigraphic correlations at regional scale difficult. This study provides new U-Pb zircon ages as well as revised 40Ar/39Ar data of volcanic ash horizons in the Upper Freshwater Molasse sediments from southern Germany and Switzerland. In a first and preliminary attempt, we propose their possible correlation to other European tephra deposits. The U-Pb zircon data of one Swiss (Bischofszell) and seven southern German (Zahling, Hachelstuhl, Laimering, Unterneul, Krumbad, Ponholz) tuff horizons indicate eruption ages between roughly 13.0 and 15.5 Ma. The stratigraphic position of the Unterneul and Laimering tuffs, bracketing the ejecta of the Ries impact (Brockhorizon), suggests that the Ries impact occurred between 14.93 and 15.00 Ma, thus assigning the event to the reversed chron C5Bn1r (15.032-14.870 Ma) which is in accordance with paleomagnetic evidence. We combine our data with published ages of tuff horizons from Italy, Switzerland, Bavaria, Styria, Hungary, and Romania to derive a preliminary tephrochronological scheme for the Middle Miocene in Central Europe in the age window from 13.2 to 15.5 Ma. The scheme is based on the current state of knowledge that the Carpathian-Pannonian volcanic field was the only area in the region producing explosive calc-alkaline felsic volcanism. This preliminary scheme will require verification by more high-quality ages complemented by isotopic, geochemical and paleomagnetic data.

  5. Geomagnetic fluctuations during a polarity transition (United States)

    Audunsson, Haraldur; Levi, Shaul


    The extensive Roza Member of the Columbia River Basalt Group (Washington State) has intermediate paleomagnetic directions, bracketed by underlying normal and overlying reverse polarity flows. A consistent paleomagnetic direction was measured at 11 widely distributed outcrops; the average direction has a declination of 189° and an inclination of -5°, with greater variation in the inclination [Rietman, 1966]. In this study the Roza Member was sampled in two Pasco Basin drillcores, where it is a single cooling unit and its thickness exceeds 50 m. Excellent core recovery allowed uniform and dense sampling of the drillcores. During its protracted cooling, the Roza flow in the drillcores recorded part of a 15.5 Ma geomagnetic polarity transition. The inclination has symmetric, quasicyclic intraflow variation, while the declination is nearly constant, consistent with the results from the outcrops. Thermal models of the cooling flow provide the timing for remanence acquisition. The inclination is inferred to have progressed from 0° to -15° and back to -3°over a period of 15 to 60 years, at rates of 1.6° to 0.5°/yr. Because the geomagnetic intensity was probably weak during the transition, these apparently high rates of change are not significantly different from present-day secular variation. These results agree with the hypothesis that normal secular variation persists through geomagnetic transitions. The Iow-amplitude quasicyclical fluctuations of the field over tens of years, recorded by Roza, suggest that the geomagnetic field reverses in discrete steps, and that more than 15-60 years were required to complete this reversal.

  6. Long-lived magnetism on chondrite parent bodies (United States)

    Shah, Jay; Bates, Helena C.; Muxworthy, Adrian R.; Hezel, Dominik C.; Russell, Sara S.; Genge, Matthew J.


    We present evidence for both early- and late-stage magnetic activity on the CV and L/LL parent bodies respectively from chondrules in Vigarano and Bjurböle. Using micro-CT scans to re-orientate chondrules to their in-situ positions, we present a new micron-scale protocol for the paleomagnetic conglomerate test. The paleomagnetic conglomerate test determines at 95% confidence, whether clasts within a conglomerate were magnetized before or after agglomeration, i.e., for a chondritic meteorite whether the chondrules carry a pre- or post-accretionary remanent magnetization. We found both meteorites passed the conglomerate test, i.e., the chondrules had randomly orientated magnetizations. Vigarano's heterogeneous magnetization is likely of shock origin, due to the 10 to 20 GPa impacts that brecciated its precursor material on the parent body and transported it to re-accrete as the Vigarano breccia. The magnetization was likely acquired during the break-up of the original body, indicating a CV parent body dynamo was active ∼9 Ma after Solar System formation. Bjurböle's magnetization is due to tetrataenite, which transformed from taenite as the parent body cooled to below 320 °C, when an ambient magnetic field imparted a remanence. We argue either the high intrinsic anisotropy of tetrataenite or brecciation on the parent body manifests as a randomly orientated distribution, and a L/LL parent body dynamo must have been active at least 80 to 140 Ma after peak metamorphism. Primitive chondrites did not originate from entirely primitive, never molten and/or differentiated parent bodies. Primitive chondrite parent bodies consisted of a differentiated interior sustaining a long-lived magnetic dynamo, encrusted by a layer of incrementally accreted primitive meteoritic material. The different ages of carbonaceous and ordinary chondrite parent bodies might indicate a general difference between carbonaceous and ordinary chondrite parent bodies, and/or formation location in the

  7. Magnetic insights on seismogenic processes from scientific drilling of fault (United States)

    Ferre, E. C.; Chou, Y. M.; Aubourg, C. T.; Li, H.; Doan, M. L.; Townend, J.; Sutherland, R.; Toy, V.


    Modern investigations through scientific drilling of recently seismogenic faults have provided remarkable insights on the physics of rupture processes. Following devastating earthquakes, several drilling programs focused since 1995 on the Nojima, Chelungpu, San Andreas, Wenchuan, Nankai Trough, Japan Trench and New Zealand Alpine faults. While these efforts were all crowned with success largely due to the multidisciplinarity of investigations, valuable insights were gained from rock magnetism and paleomagnetism and deserve to be highlighted. Continuous logging of magnetic properties allows detection of mineralogical and chemical changes in the host rock and fault zone particularly in slip zones, whether these are caused by frictional melting, elevation of temperature, ultracataclasis, or post-seismic fluid rock interaction. Further magnetic experiments on discrete samples including magnetic susceptibility, natural remanent magnetization, hysteresis properties, isothermal remanent magnetization acquisition and first order reversal curves, provide additional constrains on the nature, concentration and grain size of magnetic carriers. These experiments typically also inform on magnetization processes by thermal, chemical, or electrical mechanisms. Magnetic fabrics are generally not investigated on fault rocks from drill cores primarily in an effort to conserve the recovered core. However, recent methodological developments now would allow chemically non-destructive anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) measurements to be performed on small 3.5 mm cubes. The mini-AMS method could provide crucial information on the kinematics of frictional melts produced during recent or ancient earthquakes and therefore would constrain the corresponding focal mechanisms. Finally, demagnetization experiments of the natural remanent magnetization (NRM) are one of the most powerful items in the magnetic toolkit because they provide chronological constrains on magnetization processes

  8. Rates and timing of vertical-axis block rotations across the central Sierra Nevada-Walker Lane transition in the Bodie Hills, California/Nevada (United States)

    Rood, Dylan H.; Burbank, Douglas W.; Herman, Scott W.; Bogue, Scott


    We use paleomagnetic data from Tertiary volcanic rocks to address the rates and timing of vertical-axis block rotations across the central Sierra Nevada-Walker Lane transition in the Bodie Hills, California/Nevada. Samples from the Upper Miocene (˜9 Ma) Eureka Valley Tuff suggest clockwise vertical-axis block rotations between NE-striking left-lateral faults in the Bridgeport and Mono Basins. Results in the Bodie Hills suggest clockwise rotations (R ± ΔR, 95% confidence limits) of 74 ± 8° since Early to Middle Miocene (˜12-20 Ma), 42 ± 11° since Late Miocene (˜8-9 Ma), and 14 ± 10° since Pliocene (˜3 Ma) time with no detectable northward translation. The data are compatible with a relatively steady rotation rate of 5 ± 2° Ma-1 (2σ) since the Middle Miocene over the three examined timescales. The average rotation rates have probably not varied by more than a factor of two over time spans equal to half of the total time interval. Our paleomagnetic data suggest that block rotations in the region of the Mina Deflection began prior to Late Miocene time (˜9 Ma), and perhaps since the Middle Miocene if rotation rates were relatively constant. Block rotation in the Bodie Hills is similar in age and long-term average rate to rotations in the Transverse Ranges of southern California associated with early transtensional dextral shear deformation. We speculate that the age of rotations in the Bodie Hills indicates dextral shear and strain accommodation within the central Walker Lane Belt resulting from coupling of the Pacific and North America plates.

  9. La técnica del paleomagnetismo. Estudio piloto en los bordes de la Cuenca Balear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banda, E.


    Full Text Available We present a review of paleomagnetic methods and techniques is applied to samples collected for a pilot study of the borders of the Balearic Basin. Subsequently a description of results is summarized showing the Permo-Carboniferous dikes are specially suitable for paleomagnetic studies. Muschelkalk limestones display a remagnetization wich can probably be dated as Paleogene. Some Jurassic series can be used for magnetostrigraphic purposes. The results encouraged us to iniciate specific studies on possible block movements in the Catalan Coastal Ranges, structure of the linking zone between the Catalan Coastal Ranges and the Iberic Range, and the tectonic evolution of the Balearic promontory.

    En una primera parte se repasan los fundamentos del paleomagnetismo con especial énfasis en los métodos y técnicas aplicados a las muestras coleccionadas en el estudio piloto de los bordes de la Cuenca Balear. En una segunda parte se describen los resultados obtenidos en el estudio de distintas litologías . Los diques del Carbonífero-Pérmico presentan una magnetización muy bien definida que los hace particularmente uu1izables para estudios paleomagnéticos. Las calizas del Muschelkalk presentan una remagnetización que posiblemente puede datarse como paleógena.. Algunas de las series jurásicas muestreadas pueden usarse con fines magnetoestratigráficos. Los resultados obtenidos han permitido iniciar estudios específicos de posibles movimientos de bloques en la Cadena Costera Catalana, la estructura de enlace entre la Cadena Costera Catalana y la Cordillera Ibérica y evolución tectónica del conjunto balear.

  10. Reconstructing the paleogeography and subduction geodynamics of Greater India: how to apply Ockham's Razor? (United States)

    Van Hinsbergen, D. J. J.; Li, S.; Lippert, P. C.; Huang, W.; Advokaat, E. L.; Spakman, W.


    Key in understanding the geodynamics governing subduction and orogeny is reconstructing the paleogeography of `Greater India', the Indian plate lithosphere that subducted since Tibetan Himalayan continental crustal collision with Asia. Here, we discuss how the principle of Ockham's Razor, favoring the simplest scenario as the most likely, may apply to three perspectives on Greater India's paleogeography. We follow recent constraints suggesting a 58 Ma initial collision and update the kinematic restoration of intra-Asian shortening with a recently proposed Indochina extrusion model that reconciles long-debated large and small estimates of Indochina extrusion. The reconstruction is tested against Tibetan paleomagnetic rotation data, and against seismic tomographic constraints on paleo-subduction zone locations. The resulting restoration shows 1000-1200 km of post-collisional intra-Asian shortening, leaving a 2600-3400 km wide Greater India. Ockham's Razor from a paleogeographic, sediment provenance perspective would prefer a fully continental Greater India, although these sediments may also source from the Paleocene-Eocene west Indian orogen unrelated to the India-Asia collision. Ockham's Razor applied from a kinematic, paleomagnetic perspective, prefers major Cretaceous extension and `Greater India Basin' opening within Greater India, but data uncertainty may speculatively allow for minimal extension. Finally, from a geodynamic perspective, assuming a fully continental Greater India would require that the highest subduction rates recorded in the Phanerozoic would have been driven by a subduction of a lithosphere-crust assemblage more buoyant than the mantle, which seems physically improbable. Ockhams Razor thereby isolates the Greater India Basin hypothesis as the only scenario sustainable from all perspectives. Finally, we infer that the old pre-collisional lithosphere rapidly entered the lower mantle sustaining high subduction rates, whilst post

  11. Pervasive remagnetization of detrital zircon host rocks in the Jack Hills, Western Australia and implications for records of the early geodynamo (United States)

    Weiss, Benjamin P.; Maloof, Adam C.; Tailby, Nicholas; Ramezani, Jahandar; Fu, Roger R.; Hanus, Veronica; Trail, Dustin; Bruce Watson, E.; Harrison, T. Mark; Bowring, Samuel A.; Kirschvink, Joseph L.; Swanson-Hysell, Nicholas L.; Coe, Robert S.


    It currently is unknown when Earth's dynamo magnetic field originated. Paleomagnetic studies indicate that a field with an intensity similar to that of the present day existed 3.5 billion years ago (Ga). Detrital zircon crystals found in the Jack Hills of Western Australia are some of the very few samples known to substantially predate this time. With crystallization ages ranging from 3.0-4.38 Ga, these zircons might preserve a record of the missing first billion years of Earth's magnetic field history. However, a key unknown is the age and origin of magnetization in the Jack Hills zircons. The identification of >3.9 Ga (i.e., Hadean) field records requires first establishing that the zircons have avoided remagnetization since being deposited in quartz-rich conglomerates at 2.65-3.05 Ga. To address this issue, we have conducted paleomagnetic conglomerate, baked contact, and fold tests in combination with U-Pb geochronology to establish the timing of the metamorphic and alteration events and the peak temperatures experienced by the zircon host rocks. These tests include the first conglomerate test directly on the Hadean-zircon bearing conglomerate at Erawandoo Hill. Although we observed little evidence for remagnetization by recent lightning strikes, we found that the Hadean zircon-bearing rocks and surrounding region have been pervasively remagnetized, with the final major overprinting likely due to thermal and/or aqueous effects from the emplacement of the Warakurna large igneous province at ∼1070 million years ago (Ma). Although localized regions of the Jack Hills might have escaped complete remagnetization, there currently is no robust evidence for pre-depositional (>3.0 Ga) magnetization in the Jack Hills detrital zircons.

  12. Magnetic paleointensities recorded in fault pseudotachylytes and implications for earthquake lightnings (United States)

    Leibovitz, Natalie; Ferré, Eric; Geissman, John; Gattacceca, Jérôme


    Fault pseudotachylytes commonly form by frictional melting due to seismic slip. These fine-grained clastic rocks result from melt quenching and may show a high concentration of fine ferromagnetic grains. These grains are potentially excellent recorders of the rock natural remanent magnetization (NRM). The magnetization processes of fault pseudotachylytes are complex and may include the following: i) near coseismic thermal remanent magnetization (TRM) acquired upon cooling of the melt; ii) coseismic lightning induced remanent magnetization (LIRM) caused by earthquake lightnings (EQL); iii) post seismic chemical remanent magnetization (CRM) related to both devitrification and alteration. Deciphering these magnetization components is crucial to the interpretation of microstructures and the timing of microstructural development. Hence the paleomagnetic record of fault pseudotachylytes provides an independent set of new constraints on coseismic and post-seismic deformation. Fault pseudotachylytes from the Santa Rosa Mountains, California host a magnetic assemblage dominated by stoichiometric magnetite, formed from the breakdown of ferromagnesian silicates and melt oxidation at high temperature. Magnetite grain size in these pseudotachylytes compares to that of magnetites formed in friction experiments. Paleomagnetic data on these 59 Ma-old fault rocks reveal not only anomalous magnetization directions, inconsistent with the coseismic geomagnetic field, but also anomalously high magnetization intensities. Here we discuss preliminary results of paleointensity experiments designed to quantify the intensity of coseismic magnetizing fields. The REM' paleointensity method is particularly well suited to investigate NRMs resulting from non-conventional and multiple magnetization processes. The anomalously high NRM recorded in a few, but not all, specimens points to LIRM as the dominant origin of magnetization.

  13. Magnetic paleointensities in fault pseudotachylytes and implications for earthquake lightnings (United States)

    Leibovitz, Natalie Ruth

    Fault pseudotachylytes commonly form by frictional melting due to seismic slip. These fine-grained clastic rocks result from melt quenching and may show a high concentration of fine ferromagnetic grains. These grains are potentially excellent recorders of the rock natural remanent magnetization (NRM). The magnetization processes of fault pseudotachylytes are complex and may include the following: i) near coseismic thermal remanent magnetization (TRM) acquired upon cooling of the melt; ii) coseismic lightning induced remanent magnetization (LIRM) caused by earthquake lightnings (EQL); iii) post seismic chemical remanent magnetization (CRM) related to both devitrification and alteration. Deciphering these magnetization components is crucial to the interpretation of paleointensities to see if coseismic phenomena such as EQL's were recorded within these rocks. Hence the paleomagnetic record of fault pseudotachylytes provides an independent set of new constraints on coseismic events. Fault pseudotachylytes from the Santa Rosa Mountains, California host a magnetic assemblage dominated by stoichiometric magnetite, formed from the breakdown of ferromagnesian silicates and melt oxidation at high temperature. Magnetite grain size in these pseudotachylytes compares to that of magnetite formed in friction experiments. Paleomagnetic data on these 59 Ma-old fault rocks reveal not only anomalous magnetization directions, inconsistent with the coseismic geomagnetic field, but also anomalously high magnetization intensities. Here we discuss results of rock magnetism and paleointensity experiments designed to quantify the intensity of coseismic magnetizing fields. The REM' paleointensity method, previously tested on meteorites, is particularly well suited to investigate NRMs resulting from non-conventional and multiple magnetization processes. Overall findings indicate an isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM) in some, but not all, specimens taken from four different Santa Rosa

  14. Geometry, kinematics and tectonic models of the Kazakhstan Orocline, Central Asian Orogenic Belt (United States)

    Li, Pengfei; Sun, Min; Rosenbaum, Gideon; Yuan, Chao; Safonova, Inna; Cai, Keda; Jiang, Yingde; Zhang, Yunying


    The Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) is one of the largest accretionary orogens on Earth and is characterized by the occurrence of tight oroclines (Kazakhstan and Tuva-Mongolian oroclines). The origin of these large-scale orogenic curvatures is not quite understood, but is fundamentally important for understanding crustal growth and tectonic evolution of the CAOB. Here we provide an outline of available geological and paleomagnetic data around the Kazakhstan Orocline, with an aim of clarifying the geometry, kinematics and geodynamic origin of the orocline. The Kazakhstan Orocline is evident in a total magmatic image, and can be traced by the continuation of high magnetic anomalies associated with the Devonian Volcanic Belt and the Late Devonian to Carboniferous Balkhash-Yili arc. Paleomagnetic data show ∼112-126° clockwise rotation of the northern limb relative to the southern limb in the Late Devonian to Early Carboniferous, as well as ∼15-28° clockwise rotation of the northern limb and ∼39-40° anticlockwise rotation of the southern limb relative to the hinge of the orocline during the Late Carboniferous to Permian. We argue that the Kazakhstan Orocline experienced two-stage bending with the early stage of bending (Late Devonian to Early Carboniferous; ∼112-126°) driven by slab rollback, and the later stage (Late Carboniferous to Permian; 54-68°) possibly associated with the amalgamation of the Siberian, Tarim and Baltic cratons. This new tectonic model is compatible with the occurrence of rift basins, the spatial migration of magmatic arc, and the development of large-scale strike-slip fault systems during oroclinal bending.

  15. Analysis of Variscan dynamics; early bending of the Cantabria-Asturias Arc, northern Spain (United States)

    Kollmeier, J. M.; van der Pluijm, B. A.; Van der Voo, R.


    Calcite twinning analysis in the Cantabria-Asturias Arc (CAA) of northern Spain provides a basis for evaluating conditions of Variscan stress and constrains the arc's structural evolution. Twinning typically occurs during earliest layer-parallel shortening, offering the ability to define early conditions of regional stress. Results from the Somiedo-Correcilla region are of two kinds: early maximum compressive stress oriented layer-parallel and at high angles to bedding strike (D1 σ1) and later twin producing compression oriented sub-parallel to strike (D2 σ1). When all D1 compressions are rotated into a uniform east-west reference orientation, a quite linear, north-south trending fold-thrust belt results showing a slight deflection of the southern zone to the south-southeast. North-south-directed D2 σ1 compression was recorded prior to bending of the belt. Calcite twinning data elucidate earliest structural conditions that could not be obtained by other means, whereas the kinematics of arc tightening during D2 is constrained by paleomagnetism. A large and perhaps protracted D2 σ1 is suggested by our results, as manifested by approximately 50% arc tightening prior to acquisition of paleomagnetic remagnetizations throughout the CAA. Early east-west compression (D1 σ1) likely resulted from the Ebro-Aquitaine massif docking to Laurussia whereas the north-directed collision of Africa (D2 σ1) produced clockwise bending in the northern zone, radial folding in the hinge, and rotation of thrusts in the southern zone.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This paper deals with a definition of the lower boundary stratotype of the Tithonian Stage in the Upper Jurassic succession of Monte Inici, Western Sicily. The upper member of the Rosso Ammonitico Fm. is 27 m thick and shows a typical nodular-calcareous lithofacies; its lower beds have been sampled for biostratigraphic and paleomagnetic purposes. Though the succession is affected by high stratigraphic condensation, the resulting hiatuses have been shown to be below biochronological resolution and thus do not hinder any biostratigraphic definition. The biostratigraphic analysis has been based on the rich ammonite assemblages in which the common genus Hybonoticeras is the index-key for characterizing the Kimmeridgian-Tithonian boundary. Four ammonite biozones have been identified; the basal Tithonian one is defined by the assemblage of Hybonoticeras gr. hybonotum and Haploceras staszycii. The recorded calcareous nannofossil bioevents allow recognition of the V. stradneri and C. mexicana Zones, whose boundary is located a little below the identified Tithonian lower boundary. The paleomagnetic record shows normal polarity in the S. darwini/V. albertinum Zone and mainly reverse polarity in the H. beckeri and H. hybonotum Zones, with three minor normal polarity intervals; the lower boundary of the Tithonian falls in the oldest of these intervals. The integrated multidisciplinary stratigraphic information gathered from the Contrada Fornazzo section defines the lower boundary of the H. hybonotum Zone at the base of Bed 110, and supplies elements of chrono-correlation sufficient to regard this section as a possible G.S.S.P. of the Tithonian Stage.

  17. Subsurface architecture of Las Bombas volcano circular structure (Southern Mendoza, Argentina) from geophysical studies (United States)

    Prezzi, Claudia; Risso, Corina; Orgeira, María Julia; Nullo, Francisco; Sigismondi, Mario E.; Margonari, Liliana


    The Plio-Pleistocene Llancanelo volcanic field is located in the south-eastern region of the province of Mendoza, Argentina. This wide back-arc lava plateau, with hundreds of monogenetic pyroclastic cones, covers a large area behind the active Andean volcanic arc. Here we focus on the northern Llancanelo volcanic field, particularly in Las Bombas volcano. Las Bombas volcano is an eroded, but still recognizable, scoria cone located in a circular depression surrounded by a basaltic lava flow, suggesting that Las Bombas volcano was there when the lava flow field formed and, therefore, the lava flow engulfed it completely. While this explanation seems reasonable, the common presence of similar landforms in this part of the field justifies the need to establish correctly the stratigraphic relationship between lava flow fields and these circular depressions. The main purpose of this research is to investigate Las Bombas volcano 3D subsurface architecture by means of geophysical methods. We carried out a paleomagnetic study and detailed topographic, magnetic and gravimetric land surveys. Magnetic anomalies of normal and reverse polarity and paleomagnetic results point to the occurrence of two different volcanic episodes. A circular low Bouguer anomaly was detected beneath Las Bombas scoria cone indicating the existence of a mass deficit. A 3D forward gravity model was constructed, which suggests that the mass deficit would be related to the presence of fracture zones below Las Bombas volcano cone, due to sudden degassing of younger magma beneath it, or to a single phreatomagmatic explosion. Our results provide new and detailed information about Las Bombas volcano subsurface architecture.

  18. A Kinematic Model for Vertical Axis Rotation within the Mina Deflection of the Walker Lane (United States)

    Gledhill, T.; Pluhar, C. J.; Johnson, S. A.; Lindeman, J. R.; Petronis, M. S.


    The Mina Deflection, at the boundary between the Central and Southern Walker Lane, spans the California-Nevada border and includes a heavily-faulted Pliocene volcanic field overlying Miocene ignimbrites. The dextral Walker Lane accommodates 25% of relative Pacific-North America plate motion and steps right across the sinistral Mina deflection. Ours and previous work shows that the Mina Deflection partially accommodates deformation by vertical-axis rotation of up to 99.9o ± 6.1o rotation since 11 Ma. This rotation is evident in latite ignimbrite of Gilbert et al. (1971), which we have formalized as three members of Tuff of Huntoon Creek (THC). The welded, basal, normal-polarity Huntoon Valley Member of THC is overlain by the unwelded to partially-welded, reversed-polarity Adobe Hills Mbr. This member includes internal breaks suggesting multiple eruptive phases, but the paleomagnetic results from each are statistically indistinguishable, meaning that they were likely erupted in rapid succession (within a few centuries of one another). THC ends with a welded member exhibiting very shallow inclination and south declination that we call Excursional Mbr. One of the upper members has been dated at 11.17 ± 0.04 Ma. These Miocene units are overlain by Pliocene basalts, Quaternary alluvium, and lacustrine deposits. Our paleomagnetic results show a gradient between the zero rotation domain and high rotation across a 20km baseline. A micropolar model, based on 25 years of earthquake data from the Northern and Southern California Seismic Network, suggest the Mina Deflection is currently experiencing transpressional seismogenic deformation (Unruh et al., 2003). Accepting Unruh's model and assuming continuous rotation since 11 Ma, we propose a kinematic model for the western Mina Deflection that accommodates 90o of vertical axis rotation from N-S to ENE-WSW oriented blocks.

  19. Jurassic Paleolatitudes, Paleogeography, and Climate Transitions In the Mexican Subcontinen (United States)

    Molina-Garza, R. S.; Geissman, J. W.; Lawton, T. F.


    Jurassic northward migration of Mexico, trailing the North America plate, resulted in temporal evolution of climate-sensitive depositional environments. Lower-Middle Jurassic rocks in central Mexico contain a record of warm-humid conditions, which are indicated by coal and compositionally mature sandstone deposited in continental environments. Preliminary paleomagnetic data indicate that these rocks were deposited at near-equatorial paleolatitudes. The Middle Jurassic (ca. 170 Ma) Diquiyú volcanic sequence in central Oaxaca give an overall mean of D=82.2º/ I= +4.1º (n=10; k=17.3, α95=12º). In the Late Jurassic, the Gulf of Mexico formed as a subsidiary basin of the Atlantic Ocean, when the supercontinent Pangaea ruptured. Upper Jurassic strata, including eolianite and widespread evaporite deposits, across Mexico indicate dry-arid conditions. Available paleomagnetic data (compaction-corrected) from eolianites in northeast Mexico indicate deposition at ~15-20ºN. As North America moved northward during Jurassic opening of the Atlantic, different latitudinal regions experienced coeval Late Jurassic climatic shifts. Climate transitions have been widely recognized in the Colorado plateau region. The plateau left the horse-latitudes in the late Middle Jurassic to reach temperate humid climates at ~40ºN in the latest Jurassic. In turn, the southern end of the North America plate (central Mexico) reached arid horse-latitudes in the Late Jurassic. At that time, epeiric platforms developed in the circum-Gulf region after a long period of margin extension. We suggest that Upper Jurassic hydrocarbon source rocks in the circum-Gulf region accumulated on these platforms as warm epeiric hypersaline seas and the Gulf of Mexico itself were fertilized by an influx of wind-blown silt from continental regions. Additional nutrients were brought to shallow zones of photosynthesis by ocean upwelling driven by changes in the continental landmass configuration.

  20. Sedimentary and Volcanic Records of the Laschamp and Mono Lake Excursions from Australia and New Zealand (United States)

    Ingham, E. M.; Roberts, A. P.; Turner, G. M.; Heslop, D.; Ronge, T.; Conway, C.; Leonard, G.; Townsend, D.; Tiedemann, R.; Lamy, F.; Calvert, A. T.


    Geomagnetic excursions are short-lived deviations of the geomagnetic field from the normal range of secular variation. Despite significant advances in geomagnetic excursion research over the past 20 years, fundamental questions remain concerning the typical duration and global morphology of excursional geomagnetic fields. To answer such questions, more high-resolution, chronologically well-constrained excursion records are required, particularly from the Southern Hemisphere. We present preliminary paleomagnetic records of the Laschamp (~41 ka) and Mono Lake (~35 ka) excursions from three marine sediment cores from the Bounty Trough, New Zealand margin, and complementary volcanic records of the Laschamp excursion from lavas of Mt Ruapehu, New Zealand. Relatively high sedimentation rates of 12 - 26 cm/kyr in the Bounty Trough during glacial periods allow identification of excursional field behavior at each of the studied core locations. Each core displays one or two excursional events, with rapid directional swings between stable normal polarity and reversed excursional directions, each associated with coincident relative paleointensity minima. These anomalous paleomagnetic directions are interpreted to represent the Laschamp and Mono Lake excursions, based on a combination of tephrochronology, radiocarbon dating, and cyclostratigraphy (defined from core-scanning X-ray fluorescence and magnetic susceptibility records). Beside these records, we present results from fourteen lava flows, on Mt Ruapehu, for which 40Ar-39Ar dating indicates ages of between 39 and 45 ka. The step heating 40Ar-39Ar experiments produced particularly flat age plateaus, with corresponding 2 s.d. errors mostly approaching 1 kyr. The youngest and oldest flows carry normal polarity magnetization, however six flows, dated between 41 and 43 ka, display transitional field characteristics. Three of these flows display a declination swing of around 180o, which coincides with a previously published

  1. Remagnetization mechanisms in Triassic red beds from South China (United States)

    Jiang, Zhaoxia; Liu, Qingsong; Dekkers, Mark J.; Zhao, Xiang; Roberts, Andrew P.; Yang, Zhenyu; Jin, Chunsheng; Liu, Jianxing


    Paleogeographic reconstructions based on paleomagnetic data rely on the reliability of the natural remanent magnetization (NRM) as a primary geomagnetic signal. Remagnetizations, however, can be common in many rock types, including late Paleozoic and Mesozoic red beds, and they complicate paleogeographic interpretations. Extracting the primary NRM from partially remagnetized rocks, and understanding the remagnetization mechanism are important in these contexts. We carried out a systematic paleomagnetic study of red bed samples from the Triassic Huangmaqing Formation, Nanjing (32.0°N, 118.9°E), South China. Two NRM components carried by secondary and primary hematite are isolated in 47 of the 94 samples studied, where the latter component has a direction in stratigraphic coordinates of D = 29.2 °, I = 34.6 ° (α95 = 10.9 °, 47 samples from 6 sites) that yields a paleopole of λ = 60.8°N, ϕ = 228.1°E, dp / dm = 12.5 / 7.2, which is consistent with Triassic pole positions for the South China Block. A secondary chemical remanent magnetization (CRM) (D = 227.1 °, I = 80.8 °, α95 = 7.3 °) is documented in all 94 samples from 10 sites and is carried by pigmentary hematite that is inferred to have been generated by magnetite oxidation during orogenic activity. This secondary component has steep inclinations and is interpreted to have been influenced by a combination of the remanence carried by original parent magnetite, the orogenic stress field, and the prevailing geomagnetic field direction during deformation. This CRM direction is recorded commonly by red beds from the South China Block, and is significant for regional tectonic studies in the area.

  2. Potential and limits of OSL, TT-OSL, IRSL and pIRIR290 dating methods applied on a Middle Pleistocene sediment record of Lake El'gygytgyn, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zander


    Full Text Available This study tests the paleomagnetic and proxy-data based Mid- to Upper Pleistocene sediment deposition history of Lake El'gygytgyn by applying different approaches of luminescence dating techniques on sediment cores taken from the centre of the 175 m deep lake. For dating polymineral and quartz fine grains (4–11 μm grain size range were extracted from nine different levels from the upper 28 m of sediment cores 5011-1A and 5011-1B. According to the independent age model, the lowest sample from 27.8–27.9 m below lake bottom level correlates to the Brunhes-Matuyama (B/M reversal. Polymineral sub-samples were analysed by infra-red stimulated luminescence (IRSL and post-IR IRSL measured at 290 °C (pIRIR290 using single aliquot regenerative dose (SAR sequences. SAR protocols were further applied to measure the blue light optically stimulated luminescence (OSL and thermally-transferred OSL (TT-OSL of fine-grained quartz supplemented by a multiple aliquot approach. Neither low temperature IRSL measurements at 50 °C nor any OSL dating approach on quartz yielded reliable results. Deconvolution of their dose response curves revealed a pseudo-increase of the dose response curves and explains the observed underestimation. The pIRIR protocol applied to polymineral fine grains was the only luminescence technique able to provide dating results of acceptable accuracy up to ca. 700 ka when correlated to the existing proxy-data and paleomagnetic based age record. We present the potential and limits of the different dating techniques and a correlation of pIRIR290 results with the proxy-data based age model.

  3. From Tethyan Oceans to the Western Mediterranean I - Plate reconstructions from the Present back to the Early Mesozoic (United States)

    Schmid, Stefan; Handy, Mark; Bousquet, Romain; Kissling, Eduard; Bernoulli, Daniel


    A new reconstruction of the branches of Alpine Tethys combines available plate kinematic models of Africa-Europe motion with a wealth of new geological and geophysical data (seismic tomography and paleomagnetics) to shed light the evolution of the Western Mediterranean-Alps system, from sea-floor spreading through subduction to collision. Unlike previous models which relate the fate of Alpine Tethys solely to relative motions of the African plate with respect to Europe during opening of the Atlantic, our reconstruction invokes motions and rotations of four additional and temporarily independent microplates: Adria, Iberia, Alcapia and Alkapecia. Translations and rotations of these microplates with respect to Europe are constrained in the following way: (1) The retro-translations of Adria back to 94 Ma are obtained from shortening estimates in the Alps along geological-geophysical transects of the Alpine orogen and from geobarometric estimates of subduction depth in tectonic units that underwent high-pressure and ultrahigh-pressure metamorphism. Rotations are based on paleomagnetic data of Márton et al. (in press); (2) Iberia follows the motion paths of Savostin et al. (1986), based on magnetic anomalies in the Central and Northern Atlantic; the Corsica-Sardinia block later rifted from Iberia leading to Burdigalian opening of the Liguria-Provençal basin (Serranne 1999). (3) The Alcapia microplate, whose name is derived from the acronym ALCAPA (Alps-Carpathians-Pannonian Basin), separated from Adria in Cretaceous times. Its movement with respect to Adria was absorbed by Cretaceous orogeny in the Eastern Alps, constrained by the Adria-Europe displacement and rotation path; later, during Cenozoic orogeny in the Alps, associated with the closing of the Alpine Tethys, it became part of the Adria microplate again. (4) The introduction of an independent Alkapekia continental fragment and independent microplate during the Late Cenozoic only (Alboran

  4. Paleosecular Type Curves for South America Based on Holocene-Pleistocene Lake Sediments Studies (United States)

    Gogorza, C. S.


    Most of the high-resolution paleomagnetic secular variation (PSV) results were obtained from records on sediments from the Northern Hemisphere. Experimental results from South America are scarce. The first results were obtained by Creer et al. (1983) and have been continued since few years ago by the author and collaborators. This review deals with studies of PSV records from bottom sediments from three lakes: Escondido, Moreno and El Trébol (south-western Argentina, 41° S, 71° 30'W). Measurements of directions (declination D and inclination I) and intensity of natural remanent magnetization (NRM), magnetic susceptibility at low and high frequency (specific, X and volumetric, k), isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM), saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM), and back field were carried out. Stability of the NRM was investigated by alternating-field demagnetization. Rock magnetic studies suggest that the main carriers of magnetization are ferrimagnetic minerals, predominantly pseudo single domain magnetite. The correlation between cores was based on magnetic parameters as X and NRM. The tephra layers were identified from the lithologic profiles and also from the magnetic susceptibility logs. Due to their different chronological meaning and their rather bad behavior as magnetic recorder, these layers were removed from the sequence and the gaps that were produced along the profiles by the removal were closed, obtaining a "shortened depth". Radiocarbon age estimates from these cores and from earlier studies allow us to construct paleosecular variation records for the past 22,000 years. Inclination and declination curves (Gogorza et al., 2000a; Gogorza et al., 2002; Irurzun et al., 2006) show trends that are similar to a paleomagnetic secular variation curve for SW of Argentina (Gogorza et al., 2000b). References Creer, K.M., Tucholka, P. and Barton, C.E. 1983. Paleomagnetism of lake sediments, in Geomagnetism of Baked Clays and Recent Sediments, edited

  5. The Colorado Plateau Coring Project: A Continuous Cored Non-Marine Record of Early Mesozoic Environmental and Biotic Change (United States)

    Irmis, Randall; Olsen, Paul; Geissman, John; Gehrels, George; Kent, Dennis; Mundil, Roland; Rasmussen, Cornelia; Giesler, Dominique; Schaller, Morgan; Kürschner, Wolfram; Parker, William; Buhedma, Hesham


    The early Mesozoic is a critical time in earth history that saw the origin of modern ecosystems set against the back-drop of mass extinction and sudden climate events in a greenhouse world. Non-marine sedimentary strata in western North America preserve a rich archive of low latitude terrestrial ecosystem and environmental change during this time. Unfortunately, frequent lateral facies changes, discontinuous outcrops, and a lack of robust geochronologic constraints make lithostratigraphic and chronostratigraphic correlation difficult, and thus prevent full integration of these paleoenvironmental and paleontologic data into a regional and global context. The Colorado Plateau Coring Project (CPCP) seeks to remedy this situation by recovering a continuous cored record of early Mesozoic sedimentary rocks from the Colorado Plateau of the western United States. CPCP Phase 1 was initiated in 2013, with NSF- and ICDP-funded drilling of Triassic units in Petrified Forest National Park, northern Arizona, U.S.A. This phase recovered a 520 m core (1A) from the northern part of the park, and a 240 m core (2B) from the southern end of the park, comprising the entire Lower-Middle Triassic Moenkopi Formation, and most of the Upper Triassic Chinle Formation. Since the conclusion of drilling, the cores have been CT scanned at the University of Texas - Austin, and split, imaged, and scanned (e.g., XRF, gamma, and magnetic susceptibility) at the University of Minnesota LacCore facility. Subsequently, at the Rutgers University Core Repository, core 1A was comprehensively sampled for paleomagnetism, zircon geochronology, petrography, palynology, and soil carbonate stable isotopes. LA-ICPMS U-Pb zircon analyses are largely complete, and CA-TIMS U-Pb zircon, paleomagnetic, petrographic, and stable isotope analyses are on-going. Initial results reveal numerous horizons with a high proportion of Late Triassic-aged primary volcanic zircons, the age of which appears to be a close

  6. Evaluation of a new paleosecular variation activity index as a diagnostic tool for geomagnetic field variations (United States)

    Panovska, Sanja; Constable, Catherine


    Geomagnetic indices like Dst, K and A, have been used since the early twentieth century to characterize activity in the external part of the modern geomagnetic field and as a diagnostic for space weather. These indices reflect regional and global activity and serve as a proxy for associated physical processes. However, no such tools are yet available for the internal geomagnetic field driven by the geodynamo in Earth's liquid outer core. To some extent this reflects limited spatial and temporal sampling for longer timescales associated with paleomagnetic secular variation, but recent efforts in both paleomagnetic data gathering and modeling activity suggest that longer term characterization of the internal geomagnetic weather/climate and its variability would be useful. Specifically, we propose an index for activity in paleosecular variation, useful as both a local and global measure of field stability during so-called normal secular variation and as a means of identifying more extreme behavior associated with geomagnetic excursions and reversals. To date, geomagnetic excursions have been identified by virtual geomagnetic poles (VGPs) deviating more than some conventional limit from the geographic pole (often 45 degrees), and/or by periods of significant intensity drops below some critical value, for example 50% of the present-day field. We seek to establish a quantitative definition of excursions in paleomagnetic records by searching for synchronous directional deviations and lows in relative paleointensity. We combine paleointensity variations with deviations from the expected geocentric axial dipole (GAD) inclination in a single parameter, which we call the paleosecular variation (PSV) activity index. This new diagnostic can be used on any geomagnetic time series (individual data records, model predictions, spherical harmonic coefficients, etc.) to characterize the level of paleosecular variation activity, find excursions, or even study incipient reversals

  7. Resolving the Timing of Events Around the Cretaceous-Paleogene Boundary (United States)

    Sprain, Courtney Jean

    Despite decades of study, the exact cause of the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary (KPB) mass extinction remains contentious. Hypothesized scenarios center around two main environmental perturbations: voluminous (>10 6 km3) volcanic eruptions from the Deccan Traps in modern-day India, and the large impact recorded by the Chicxulub crater. The impact hypothesis has gained broad support, bolstered by the discoveries of iridium anomalies, shocked quartz, and spherules at the KPB worldwide, which are contemporaneous with the Chicxulub impact structure. However, evidence for protracted extinctions, particularly in non-marine settings, and paleoenvironmental change associated with climatic swings before the KPB, challenge the notion that the impact was the sole cause of the KPB mass extinction. Despite forty years of study, the relative importance of each of these events is unclear, and one key inhibitor is insufficient resolution of existing geochronology. In this dissertation, I present work developing a high-precision global chronologic framework for the KPB that outlines the temporal sequence of biotic changes (both within the terrestrial and marine realms), climatic changes, and proposed perturbations (i.e. impact, volcanic eruptions) using 40Ar/39Ar geochronology and paleomagnetism. This work is focused on two major areas of study: 1) refining the timing and tempo of terrestrial ecosystem change around the KPB, and 2) calibrating the geomagnetic polarity timescale, and particularly the timing and duration of magnetic polarity chron C29r (the KPB falls about halfway into C29r). First I develop a high-precision chronostratigraphic framework for fluvial sediments within the Hell Creek region, in NE Montana, which is one of the best-studied terrestrial KPB sections worldwide. For this work I dated 15 tephra deposits with +/- 30 ka precision using 40Ar/ 39Ar geochronology, ranging in time from 300 ka before the KPB to 1 Ma after. By tying these results to paleontological

  8. Transtensional Rifting in the Late Proto-Gulf of California Near Bahía Kino, Sonora, México (United States)

    Bennett, S. E.; Oskin, M. E.; Dorsey, R. J.


    We investigate the role of obliquity in continental rupture from the example of the Gulf of California rift. Focused transtensional strain adjacent to strike-slip faults, ubiquitous in oblique rifts, may act as a catalyst for lithospheric rupture. To test this hypothesis we completed detailed structural mapping, fault kinematic analysis, basin analysis, and paleomagnetism of pre- and syn-rift volcanic and sedimentary rocks exposed in coastal Sonora, near Bahía Kino, México. This area is host to the NW-striking, dextral Sacrificio and Bahía Kino faults onshore that are likely linked to the offshore De Mar transform fault that accommodated Gulf opening. Three fault-bounded sedimentary basins formed unconformably above the 12.50 ± 0.08 Ma Tuff of San Felipe. The 6.53 ± 0.18 Ma Tuff of Cerro Tordillo and the 6.39 ± 0.02 Ma Tuffs of Mesa Cuadrada are interbedded in the lower part of the non-marine basin fill. In one of these basins, we used these tuff markers to calibrate a sedimentation rate of 1.2 ± 0.2 mm/yr and a tilting rate of 0.12 ± 0.02 °/kyr. These rapid rates suggest transtensional strain and related basin subsidence initiated ca. 6.6 Ma, near the end of proto-Gulf time. Paleomagnetism of the Tuff of San Felipe and Tuffs of Mesa Cuadrada in coastal Sonora show variable amounts of clockwise vertical-axis rotation when compared to paleomagnetic reference sites in Baja California. Fault blocks in the central and southern parts of the study area are rotated counter-clockwise 15° to clockwise 35°. Strike-slip faults in this area accommodate up to 10 km of slip. In contrast, ~53° of clockwise rotation occurred in the northern part of the study area, where strike-slip faults are absent. In this northern area, transtensional deformation occurred primarily by block rotation and ~6 km of normal slip on the low-angle (5-15°) Punta Chueca fault. After correcting for variable amounts of rotation, fault blocks display a consistent tilt down to the ENE. Pre

  9. An Evaluation of the Fixed Hotspot Hypothesis for the Pacific Plate (United States)

    Wessel, P.; Kroenke, L. W.


    Using geometry and ages from 12 Pacific seamount chains, we recently constructed two new Pacific absolute plate motion models that extend our self-consistent and high-resolution models back to 145 Ma. The WK08-A model maps the full uncertainty in the age progressions into uncertainties in rotation opening angles, yielding a relatively smooth plate motion model. The WK08-G model relaxes the mapping of age uncertainties in order to better isolate secondary geometry changes seen along many co-registered chains. Both models have been used to assess the viability of the fixed hotspot hypothesis in the Pacific. In constructing these models, we found that only a small group of age samples had to be discarded on the grounds that they were discordant with the dominant trends. We were able to connect plate motions for pre- and post-Emperor age intervals by including the Ratak-Gilbert-Ellice, Liliuokalani and Musicians trails in our analysis. However, as no active hotspot locations exist for the older chains their inclusion adds additional model parameters. Both age and geometry misfits increase with age, reflecting the observed increase in age uncertainties and the broader and less distinct nature of the older trails. Paleomagnetic observations from the Emperor seamount chain have been interpreted to suggest that these seamounts must have formed at latitudes significantly more northerly than the present location of the Hawaii hotspot, implying a drifting mantle plume. At the same time, new estimates of the age of the Hawaii- Emperor bend places bend formation at a time of global plate reorganization. We will present a complete analysis of inter-chain distances between coeval radiometric samples from Pacific chains and compare these distances to the inter-hotspot distances at the present time. Significant departures from the current hotspot separations would be direct and unequivocal evidence of motion between the Pacific hotspot reference frame and the spin axis and as such

  10. Linking Rock Magnetic Parameters and Tropical Paleoclimate in Postglacial Carbonates of the Tahitian Coral Reef (United States)

    Platzman, E. S.; Lund, S.; Camoin, G.; Thouveny, N.


    In areas far away from active plate boundaries and previously glaciated regions, ecologically sensitive coral reefs provide an ideal laboratory for studying the timing and extent of deglaciation events as well as climatic change/variability at sub-millennial timescales. We have studied the Post Last-Glacial-Maximum (Post-LGM) coral reef terrace sediments recovered from the island of Tahiti on IODP Expedition 310. Samples for magnetic analysis were obtained from 632 meters of core from three reef tracts (Maraa, Tiarei, Faaa) surrounding the island (37 holes at 22 sites). The Post-LGM sediments are composed of >95% carbonate residing in a mixture of macroscopic framework corals, encrusting coralline algae, and bacterial microbialites (60% of the total core volume). Detailed paleomagnetic and rock magnetic measurements indicate that the microbialites carry a strong and stable natural magnetic remanence residing almost entirely in titanomagnetite derived from the Tahitian volcanic edifice. Within each tract, paleomagnetic results (inclination, relative paleointensity) were correlated to build a composite magnetic stratigraphy, which we could then compile with radiocarbon dates to develop an absolute chronostratigraphy. At the Maraa tract, for example, we use 54 radiocarbon dates to date our composite section to 7,500 to 13,500 cal. ybp. and demonstrate that the reef developed in a smooth and coherent manner over this interval. Overlaying the chronostratigraphy on measurements of the variation in magnetic properties including susceptibility, ARM, and IRM we can monitor changes in concentration, composition and grainsize of the influx of volcanogenic sediment over time. The ARM, IRM, and CHI intensities (normalized to sample weight) show a single strong peak between~9-10,000 years ago. We also observe a ~500-yr cyclicity in magnetic grain size and a clear increase in grain size associated with the Younger Dryas that we interpret to be related to rainfall variability. The

  11. The timing and origin of pre- and post-caldera volcanism associated with the Mesa Falls Tuff, Yellowstone Plateau volcanic field (United States)

    Stelten, Mark E.; Champion, Duane E.; Kuntz, Mel A.


    We present new sanidine 40Ar/39Ar ages and paleomagnetic data for pre- and post-caldera rhyolites from the second volcanic cycle of the Yellowstone Plateau volcanic field, which culminated in the caldera-forming eruption of the Mesa Falls Tuff at ca. 1.3 Ma. These data allow for a detailed reconstruction of the eruptive history of the second volcanic cycle and provide new insights into the petrogenesis of rhyolite domes and flows erupted during this time period. 40Ar/39Ar age data for the biotite-bearing Bishop Mountain flow demonstrate that it erupted approximately 150 kyr prior to the Mesa Falls Tuff. Integrating 40Ar/39Ar ages and paleomagnetic data for the post-caldera Island Park rhyolite domes suggests that these five crystal-rich rhyolites erupted over a centuries-long time interval at 1.2905 ± 0.0020 Ma (2σ). The biotite-bearing Moonshine Mountain rhyolite dome was originally thought to be the downfaulted vent dome for the pre-caldera Bishop Mountain flow due to their similar petrographic and oxygen isotope characteristics, but new 40Ar/39Ar dating suggest that it erupted near contemporaneously with the Island Park rhyolite domes at 1.2931 ± 0.0018 Ma (2σ) and is a post-caldera eruption. Despite their similar eruption ages, the Island Park rhyolite domes and the Moonshine Mountain dome are chemically and petrographically distinct and are not derived from the same source. Integrating these new data with field relations and existing geochemical data, we present a petrogenetic model for the formation of the post-Mesa Falls Tuff rhyolites. Renewed influx of basaltic and/or silicic recharge magma into the crust at 1.2905 ± 0.0020 Ma led to [1] the formation of the Island Park rhyolite domes from the source region that earlier produced the Mesa Falls Tuff and [2] the formation of Moonshine Mountain dome from the source region that earlier produced the biotite-bearing Bishop Mountain flow. These magmas were stored in the crust for less than a few thousand

  12. Quickly erupted volcanic sections of the Steens Basalt, Columbia River Basalt Group: Secular variation, tectonic rotation, and the Steens Mountain reversal (United States)

    Jarboe, Nicholas A.; Coe, Robert S.; Renne, Paul R.; Glen, Jonathan M. G.; Mankinen, Edward A.


    The Steens Basalt, now considered part of the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG), contains the earliest eruptions of this magmatic episode. Lava flows of the Steens Basalt cover about 50,000 km2 of the Oregon Plateau in sections up to 1000 m thick. The large number of continuously exposed, quickly erupted lava flows (some sections contain over 200 flows) allows for small loops in the magnetic field direction paths to be detected. For volcanic rocks, this detail and fidelity are rarely found outside of the Holocene and yield estimates of eruption durations at our four sections of ∼2.5 ka for 260 m at Pueblo Mountains, 0.5 to 1.5 ka for 190 m at Summit Springs, 1–3 ka for 170 m at North Mickey, and ∼3 ka for 160 m at Guano Rim. That only one reversal of the geomagnetic field occurred during the eruption of the Steens Basalt (the Steens reversal at approximately 16.6 Ma) is supported by comparing 40Ar/39Ar ages and magnetic polarities to the geomagnetic polarity timescale. At Summit Springs two 40Ar/39Ar ages from normal polarity flows (16.72 ± ± 0.29 Ma (16.61) and 16.92 ± ± 0.52 Ma (16.82); ± ± equals 2σ error) place their eruptions after the Steens reversal, while at Pueblo Mountains an 40Ar/39Ar age of 16.72 ± ± 0.21 Ma (16.61) from a reverse polarity flow places its eruption before the Steens reversal. Paleomagnetic field directions yielded 50 nontransitional directional-group poles which, combined with 26 from Steens Mountain, provide a paleomagnetic pole for the Oregon Plateau of 85.7°N, 318.4°E, K = 15.1, A95 = 4.3. Comparison of this new pole with a reference pole derived from CRBG flows from eastern Washington and a synthetic reference pole for North America derived from global data implies relative clockwise rotation of the Oregon Plateau of 7.4 ± 5.0° or 14.5 ± 5.4°, respectively, probably due to northward decreasing extension of the basin and range.

  13. Evolution of the Mongol-Okhotsk suture as constrained by new Early Cretaceous palaeomagnetic data from the North China and southern Mongolia (United States)

    Ren, Q.; Zhang, S.; Zhao, H.; Ding, J.; Turbold, S.; Gao, Y.; Xu, B.; Wu, Y.; Fu, H.


    The closure time of the Mongol-Okhotsk ocean and subsequent collision between the Siberia and Amuria-North China block (AMU-NCB) during the final episode of the amalgamation of Northeast Asia have been hotly debating for decades. In order to better puzzle out the controversy, we carried out new paleomagnetic investigations from the Early Cretaceous geological units on the northern margin of the NCB and southern AMU. These geological units have been well-dated. Within the Yanshan Belt of the northern margin of the NCB, we collected the 209 paleomagnetic samples from the sandstone of the middle-upper member of the Tuchengzi Formation ( 140 Ma) and the volcanic rocks of the bottom of the Yixian Formation ( 130 Ma). We drilled 225 samples from the lava flows of two sections of the Tsagantsav Formation ( 130 Ma) in the southern Mongolia of the AMU. All samples were subjected to stepwise thermal demagnetization. After removal of a recent geomagnetic field viscous component, the stable high temperature component can pass a reversal test and a fold test at 95% and 99% confidence level. They are thus interpreted as primary. The virtual geomagnetic poles observed from the 130 Ma volcanic rocks of the Yixian Formation and the Tsagantsav Formation respectively averaged out the paleosecular variation and they overlapped each other, indicating that NCB and AMU was a single unit (NCB-AMU) at that time. The paleopole from the Tuchengzi Formation ( 140 Ma) of the NCB is different from the coeval pole of the Siberia, indicating that there was a significant latitudinal convergence between the Siberia and the NCB. Compared the 130 Ma paleopoles of the NCB-AMU and Siberia, there was no significant latitudinal difference, but the relative tectonic rotation was existing. It has been suggested that the plate convergence or Mongol-Okhotsk collisional orogeny was stopped between Siberia and NCB-AMU during the 140-130 Ma. After Mongol-Okhotsk orogeny, the widely extensional rift basins were

  14. Evidence from lava flows for complex polarity transitions: The new composite Steens Mountain reversal record (United States)

    Jarboe, Nicholas A.; Coe, Robert S.; Glen, Jonathan M. G.


    Geomagnetic polarity transitions may be significantly more complex than are currently depicted in many sedimentary and lava-flow records. By splicing together paleomagnetic results from earlier studies at Steens Mountain with those from three newly studied sections of Oregon Plateau flood basalts at Catlow Peak and Poker Jim Ridge 70–90 km to the southeast and west, respectively, we provide support for this interpretation with the most detailed account of a magnetic field reversal yet observed in volcanic rocks. Forty-five new distinguishable transitional (T) directions together with 30 earlier ones reveal a much more complex and detailed record of the 16.7 Ma reversed (R)-to-normal (N) polarity transition that marks the end of Chron C5Cr. Compared to the earlier R-T-N-T-N reversal record, the new record can be described as R-T-N-T-N-T-R-T-N. The composite record confirms earlier features, adds new west and up directions and an entire large N-T-R-T segment to the path, and fills in directions on the path between earlier directional jumps. Persistent virtual geomagnetic pole (VGP) clusters and separate VGPs have a preference for previously described longitudinal bands from transition study compilations, which suggests the presence of features at the core–mantle boundary that influence the flow of core fluid and distribution of magnetic flux. Overall the record is consistent with the generalization that VGP paths vary greatly from reversal to reversal and depend on the location of the observer. Rates of secular variation confirm that the flows comprising these sections were erupted rapidly, with maximum rates estimated to be 85–120 m ka−1 at Catlow and 130–195 m ka−1 at Poker Jim South. Paleomagnetic poles from other studies are combined with 32 non-transitional poles found here to give a clockwise rotation of the Oregon Plateau of 11.4°± 5.6° with respect to the younger Columbia River Basalt Group flows to the north and 14.5°± 4.6° with respect

  15. Sedimentology, tephrostratigraphy, and chronology of the DEEP site sediment record, Lake Ohrid (Albania, FYROM) (United States)

    Leicher, Niklas; Wagner, Bernd; Francke, Alexander; Just, Janna; Zanchetta, Giovanni; Sulpizio, Roberto; Giaccio, Biagio; Nomade, Sebastien


    biogeochemical proxy data to orbital parameters in order to develop an age depth model for the last 637 kyr. This dating approach for the upper part will be further extended for the lower sequence below 247.8 m and combined with paleomagnetic information. The Brunhes/Matuyama boundary and the Jaramillo subchron are evident in the DEEP site sequence and will be further confined by higher resolution paleomagnetic measurements. The high-resolution data will also enable the reconstruction of the dynamic of the Earth's Magnetic Field during polarity transitions. This mulit-method dating approach will provide a robust chronology of the core, which is the backbone to fulfil the major aims of the SCOPSCO project.

  16. On the possibility of recovering palaeo-diurnal magnetic variations in transitional lava flows. 2. An experimental case study (United States)

    Vérard, Christian; Leonhardt, Roman; Winklhofer, Michael; Fabian, Karl


    Geomagnetic field variations of external origin may be enhanced during periods of transitional field behaviour, particularly when the dipole moment is low, in which case they are likely to leave a paleomagnetic signature in rapidly cooled lava flows. To test this proposition, we have resampled en bloc and studied in fine detail a thin transitional Aa flow from a mid-Miocene lava sequence on Gran Canaria which was paleomagnetically investigated previously (Leonhardt, R., Soffel, H.-C., 2002. A reversal of the Earth's magnetic field recorded in mid-Miocene lava flows of Gran Canaria, Paleointensities. Journal of Geophysical Research 107, 2299. doi:10.1029/2001JB000949). The flow is characterised by high-unblocking temperatures, an equatorial VGP position and a very low absolute palaeointensity of ˜2 μT. Two slabs were cut out of the flow and sampled at 1 cm intervals, along four vertical profiles running parallel to each other. Thermal demagnetisation was performed on two profiles using heating steps as small as 15 °C at elevated temperatures. The high-temperature part of the unblocking spectrum was found to be remarkably constant across the flow, as was the Curie temperature of 540 °C, and the negligible anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility. The exsolution lamallae observed under the microscope point to deuteric (high temperature) oxidation having occurred prior to the acquisition of the primary thermoremanent magnetisation. While the absolute palaeointensity values vary only little with vertical position, the magnetisation directions recovered by thermal demagnetisation vary considerably (on average, by some 20° at 500 °C). These large variations can be attributed to an overprint by secondary minerals, formed by fluid diffusion around vesicles and low-temperature oxidation. Since the secondary magnetisation recorded transitional directions as well, the overprint must have occurred soon after emplacement. The directional variations typically decrease in

  17. True Polar Wander and the Origin of the Hawaiian-Emperor Bend: New Evidence (United States)

    Woodworth, D.; Gordon, R. G.; Seidman, L.; Zheng, L.


    We present an updated apparent polar wander (APW) path for the Pacific plate constructed from paleomagnetic poles determined from the skewness of marine magnetic anomalies, from equatorial sediment facies, and from paleocolatitudes of vertical cores of igneous rock. While paleocolatitude data provide some constraints, their usefulness is limited because they only limit the pole position in one direction, and the uncertainty in that direction is large because of the challenges of averaging secular variation. In contrast, secular variation contributes negligibly to the poles from skewness data, which give compact confidence limits for a well-defined interval of time. We review, update, or present six useful poles available for chrons 12r, 20r, 25r, 26r, 27r-31, and 32, corresponding respectively to 32 Ma, 44 Ma, 58 Ma, 60 Ma, 65 Ma, and 72 Ma. Moreover, we incorporate spin axis locations inferred from equatorial sediment facies [Suárez and Molnar; 1980; Gordon and Cape, 1981; Parés and Moore, 2005] and estimate their 95% confidence limits. An APW path for Pacific hotspots can be obtained by moving each Pacific plate paleomagnetic pole with the Pacific plate relative to the hotspots to a reconstruction that corresponds to the age of the pole. This path has a stillstand from 44 Ma to 12 Ma at a location (P1) about 3° from the present spin axis and a second stillstand from 81 Ma to 58 Ma at a location (P2) about 11° from the present spin axis. We hypothesize that the shift from P2 to P1 records an episode of true polar wander sometime between 58 and 44 Ma and that the shift from P1 to the present spin axis records another episode of true polar that has occurred since 12 Ma and may continue today. We test these hypotheses by comparing the APW path of Pacific hotspots with the APW path of Indo-Atlantic hotspots and find them in agreement. Our results imply that global hotspots have moved in unison with respect to the spin axis and that the Hawaiian-Emperor Bend (HEB

  18. The Role of Rift Obliquity in Formation of the Gulf of California (United States)

    Bennett, Scott Edmund Kelsey

    The Gulf of California illustrates how highly oblique rift geometries, where transform faults are kinematically linked to large-offset normal faults in adjacent pull-apart basins, enhance the ability of continental lithosphere to rupture and, ultimately, hasten the formation of new oceanic basins. The Gulf of California rift has accommodated oblique divergence of the Pacific and North America tectonic plates in northwestern Mexico since Miocene time. Due to its infancy, the rifted margins of the Gulf of California preserve a rare onshore record of early continental break-up processes from which to investigate the role of rift obliquity in strain localization. Using new high-precision paleomagnetic vectors from tectonically stable sites in north-central Baja California, I compile a paleomagnetic transect of Miocene ignimbrites across northern Baja California and Sonora that reveals the timing and distribution of dextral shear associated with inception of this oblique rift. I integrate detailed geologic mapping, basin analysis, and geochronology of pre-rift and syn-rift volcanic units to determine the timing of fault activity on Isla Tiburon, a proximal onshore exposure of the rifted North America margin, adjacent to the axis of the Gulf of California. The onset of strike-slip faulting on Isla Tiburon, ca. 8 - 7 Ma, was synchronous with the onset of transform faulting along a significant length of the nascent plate boundary within the rift. This tectonic transition coincides with a clockwise azimuthal shift in Pacific-North America relative motion that increased rift obliquity. I constrain the earliest marine conditions on southwest Isla Tiburon to ca. 6.4 - 6.0 Ma, coincident with a regional latest Miocene marine incursion in the northern proto-Gulf of California. This event likely flooded a narrow, incipient topographic depression along a ˜650 km-long portion of the latest Miocene plate boundary and corresponds in time and space with formation of a newly

  19. Response to critique by lucas et al. (2009) of paper by Fassett (2009) documenting Paleocene dinosaurs in the San Juan Basin (United States)

    Fassett, J.E.


    In this issue of Palaeontologia Electronica Lucas, et al. (2009) question the validity f the Fassett (2009) paper that presented evidence for Paleocene dinosaurs in the San Juan Basin of New Mexico and Colorado. Their challenges focus primarily on the lithostratigraphy, palynology, and paleomagnetism of the dinosaur-bearing Ojo Alamo Sandstone, shown by Fassett to be of Paleocene age. The lithostratigraphy of the Ojo Alamo is addressed by Lucas et al. (2009) based on detailed studies of outcrops of this formation in two relatively small areas in the southern San Juan Basin where Ojo Alamo dinosaur fossils have been found. When viewed over its 13,000 km2 extent, the Ojo Alamo is seen to be a much more complex formation than these authors recognize, thus their perception and description of the lithostratigraphy of this rock unit is limited and provincial. Fassett (2009) presented a detailed discussion of the palynology of the rocks adjacent to the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) interface in the San Juan Basin, including a 67-page appendix and 25 tables listing the 244 palynomorph species identified from these strata. The Ojo Alamo Sandstone produced 103 palynomorphs from five principal localities including one especially prolific sample set from drill core through K-T strata. Without exception, all samples collected from the Ojo Alamo Sandstone for palynologic analysis were found to contain Paleocene palynomorph assemblages. Lucas et al. challenge only one Ojo Alamo palynomorph assemblage from one of the five areas studied, stating that they were unable to find palynomorph-productive samples at that locality. They submit no new palynologic data that refutes the Paleocene palynologic age of the Ojo Alamo Sandstone. In addressing the paleomagnetism of the Ojo Alamo, these authors dismiss the presence of a critical normal-polarity magnetochron discovered in the lower part of the Ojo Alamo - magnetochron C29n.2n of Fassett (2009) with no evidence to justify this dismissal

  20. Translation vs. Rotation: The Battle for Accommodation of Dextral Shear at the Northern Terminus of the Central Walker Lane, Western Nevada (United States)

    Carlson, C. W.; Faulds, J. E.


    Positioned between the Sierra Nevada microplate and Basin and Range in western North America, the Walker Lane (WL) accommodates ~20% of the dextral motion between the North American and Pacific plates on predominately NW-striking dextral and ENE to E-W-striking sinistral fault systems. The Terrill Mountains (TM) lie at the northern terminus of a domain of dextral faults accommodating translation of crustal-blocks in the central WL and at the southeast edge of sinistral faults accommodating oroclinal flexure and CW rotation of blocks in the northern WL. As the mechanisms of strain transfer between these disparate fault systems are poorly understood, the thick Oligocene to Pliocene volcanic strata of the TM area make it an ideal site for studying the transfer of strain between regions undergoing differing styles of deformation and yet both accommodating dextral shear. Detailed geologic mapping and paleomagnetic study of ash-flow tuffs in the TM region has been conducted to elucidate Neogene strain accommodation for this transitional region of the WL. Strain at the northernmost TM appears to be transferred from a system of NW-striking dextral faults to a system of ~E-W striking sinistral faults with associated CW flexure. A distinct ~23 Ma paleosol is locally preserved below the tuff of Toiyabe and provides an important marker bed. This paleosol is offset with ~6 km of dextral separation across the fault bounding the NE flank of the TM. This fault is inferred as the northernmost strand of the NW-striking, dextral Benton Spring fault system, with offset consistent with minimums constrained to the south (6.4-9.6 km, Gabbs Valley Range). Paleomagnetic results suggest counter-intuitive CCW vertical-axis rotation of crustal blocks south of the domain boundary in the system of NW-striking dextral faults, similar to some other domains of NW-striking dextral faults in the northern WL. This may result from coeval dextral shear and WNW-directed extension within the left

  1. A Two Million Year Equatorial Paleogeomagnetic and Relative Paleointensity Record from IODP Site U1489 in the West Pacific Warm Pool: Towards an Improved Tuning Target. (United States)

    Hatfield, R. G.; Stoner, J. S.; Kumagai, Y.


    International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 363 drilled nine sites in the West Pacific Warm Pool in October-December 2016. IODP Site U1489 (02°07.19'N, 141°01.67'E, 3421 meters water depth) located on the Eauripik Rise was drilled to a depth of 270 meters below sea floor using the advanced piston corer. Shipboard data revealed the upper 112 meters composite depth (mcd) consist of clay-rich nanno fossil ooze and contain all twenty-two geomagnetic reversals over the last 5 million years (Myrs). Shipboard generated rock magnetic data and post-cruise hysteresis data suggest the paleomagnetic record is carried by fine-grained pseudo-single domain magnetite. A shipboard estimate of relative paleointensity (RPI) was generated by normalizing the natural remanent magnetization (NRM) intensity after 15mT peak alternating field (AF) demagnetization of the shipboard half core measurement by whole round magnetic susceptibility (MS). Coherence of the NRM15mT/MS record with existing RPI stacks over the last 2 Myrs highlighted the potential for development of a RPI record back to the earliest Pliocene. Here we present the first u-channel measurements of the upper 40 mcd from Site U1489 spanning the last 2 Myrs. The NRM was measured at 1 cm intervals after stepwise AF demagnetization in peak fields of 15-100mT. Component inclination plots around that predicted by a geocentric axial dipole field and maximum angular deviation values are so far generally < 3° implying the paleomagnetic record is well resolved at Site U1489. Measurements of MS and anhysteretic remanent magnetization (ARM) characterize the environmental variability and provide a normalizer for the NRM to generate an estimate of RPI. The chronology is iteratively developed, initially based on polarity reversals boundaries, then by tuning MS to astronomical precession. We compare our RPI estimates to PISO-1500 and NARPI-2200 whose chronologies are based upon δ18O of benthic foraminifera to assess the

  2. Migration to Current Open Source Technologies by MagIC Enables a More Responsive Website, Quicker Development Times, and Increased Community Engagement (United States)

    Jarboe, N.; Minnett, R.; Koppers, A.; Constable, C.; Tauxe, L.; Jonestrask, L.


    The Magnetics Information Consortium (MagIC) supports an online database for the paleo, geo, and rock magnetic communities ( ). Researchers can upload data into the archive and download data as selected with a sophisticated search system. MagIC has completed the transition from an Oracle backed, Perl based, server oriented website to an ElasticSearch backed, Meteor based thick client website technology stack. Using JavaScript on both the sever and the client enables increased code reuse and allows easy offloading many computational operations to the client for faster response. On-the-fly data validation, column header suggestion, and spreadsheet online editing are some new features available with the new system. The 3.0 data model, method codes, and vocabulary lists can be browsed via the MagIC website and more easily updated. Source code for MagIC is publicly available on GitHub ( ). The MagIC file format is natively compatible with the PmagPy ( paleomagnetic analysis software. MagIC files can now be downloaded from the database and viewed and interpreted in the PmagPy GUI based tool, pmag_gui. Changes or interpretations of the data can then be saved by pmag_gui in the MagIC 3.0 data format and easily uploaded to the MagIC database. The rate of new contributions to the database has been increasing with many labs contributing measurement level data for the first time in the last year. Over a dozen file format conversion scripts are available for translating non-MagIC measurement data files into the MagIC format for easy uploading. We will continue to work with more labs until the whole community has a manageable workflow for contributing their measurement level data. MagIC will continue to provide a global repository for archiving and retrieving paleomagnetic and rock magnetic data and, with the new system in place, be able to more quickly respond to the community

  3. Marine sediments and Beryllium-10 record of the geomagnetic moment variations during the Brunhes period. (United States)

    Ménabréaz, Lucie; Thouveny, Nicolas; Bourlès, Didier; Demory, François


    Over millennial time scales, the atmospheric production of the cosmonuclid 10Be (half-life 1.387 ± 0.012 Ma [Shmeleff et al., 2009; Korschinek et al., 2009]) is modulated by the geomagnetic field strength, following a negative power law (e.g. Lal, 1988; Masarik and Beer, 2009). With respect to paleomagnetic reconstructions, 10Be-derived paleointensity records can therefore constitute an alternative, global and independent reading of the dipole moment variations. During the last years, efforts have been made to extract a geomagnetic signal from single and stacked 10Be records in natural archives such as ice and marine sediments (e.g. Carcaillet et al., 2004; Christl et al., 2007; Muscheler et al., 2005). In marine sediments, the 10Be concentration results from complex interplay of several processes: cosmogenic production, adsorption on sediment particles, redistribution by fluviatile and oceanic transport, and deposition. Therefore, a correction procedure is required to consider both sediment redistribution and enhanced scavenging, which can alter the primary signatures. To reconstruct the succession of field intensity lows accompanying excursions during the Brunhes chron, we investigated authigenic 10Be/9Be record of marine sequences also studied for paleomagnetism and oxygen isotopes. Mid and low latitude sites were preferred in order to benefit from the most efficient modulation by the magnetospheric shielding. We present a high resolution authigenic 10Be/9Be record of the last 50 ka recovered from the Portuguese Margin, that deciphers the cosmonuclide 10Be overproduction created by the geomagnetic dipole low associated with the Laschamp excursion. This record is compared to other proxy records of the geomagnetic field variations for the same time interval: (1) the relative paleointensity (RPI) reconstructed from the same sediments and the GLOPIS-75 record (Laj et al., 2004), (2) the absolute VDM record based on absolute paleointensities measured on lava flows

  4. Ted Irving and the Precambrian continental drift of (within?) the Canadian Shield (United States)

    Hoffman, P. F.


    Ted Irving was no stranger to the Precambrian when he began paleomagnetic studies in the Canadian Shield (CS) that would dominate his research in the early and mid-1970's. Twenty years before, his graduate work on billion-year-old strata in Scotland established paleomagnetic methodologies applicable to sedimentary rocks generally. In 1958, he and Ronald Green presented an 'Upper Proterozoic' APW path from Australia as evidence for pre-Carboniferous drift relative to Europe and North America (the poles actually range in age from 1.2 to 2.7 Ga). His first published CS poles were obtained from the Franklin LIP of the Arctic platform and demonstrate igneous emplacement across the paleoequator. Characteristically, his 1971 poles are statistically indistinguishable from the most recent grand mean paleopole of 2009. His main focus, however, was on the question of Precambrian continental drift. He compared APW paths with respect to Laurentia with those obtained from other Precambrian shields, and he compared APW paths from different tectonic provinces within the CS. He was consistently antagonistic to the concept of a single long-lived Proterozoic supercontinent, but he was on less certain ground regarding motions within the CS due to inadequate geochronology. With Ron Emslie, he boldly proposed rapid convergence between parts of the Grenville Province and Interior Laurentia (IL) ~1.0 Ga. This was controversial given the uncertain ages of multiple magnetic components in high-grade metamorphic rocks. With John McGlynn and John Park, he developed a Paleoproterozoic APW path for the Slave Province from mafic dikes and red clastics, encompassing the time of consolidation of IL during 2.0-1.8 Ga orogenesis. Before 1980, he constructed Paleoproterozoic APW paths for IL as a whole, finding little evidence for significant internal displacement. He recognized that the Laurentian APW path describes a series of straight tracks linked by hairpins, the latter corresponding in age to

  5. Stress-induced comenditic trachyte effusion triggered by trachybasalt intrusion: multidisciplinary study of the AD 1761 eruption at Terceira Island (Azores) (United States)

    Pimentel, A.; Zanon, V.; de Groot, L. V.; Hipólito, A.; Di Chiara, A.; Self, S.


    The AD 1761 eruption on Terceira was the only historical subaerial event on the island and one of the last recorded in the Azores. The eruption occurred along the fissure zone that crosses the island and produced a trachybasalt lava flow and scoria cones. Small comenditic trachyte lava domes (known as Mistérios Negros) were also thought by some to have formed simultaneously on the eastern flank of Santa Bárbara Volcano. Following a multidisciplinary approach, we combined geological mapping, paleomagnetic, petrographic, mineral and whole-rock geochemical and structural analyses to study this eruption. The paleomagnetic dating method compared geomagnetic vectors (directions and intensities) recorded by both the AD 1761 lava flow and Mistérios Negros domes and revealed that the two events were indeed coeval. Based on new data and interpretation of historical records, we have accordingly reconstructed the AD 1761 eruptive dynamics and distinguished three phases: (1) a precursory phase characterized by decreased degassing in the fumarolic field of Pico Alto Volcano and a gradual increase of seismic activity, which marked the intrusion of trachybasalt magma; (2) a first eruptive phase that started with phreatic explosions on the eastern flank of Santa Bárbara Volcano, followed by the inconspicuous effusion of comenditic trachyte (66 wt% SiO2), forming a WNW-ESE-oriented chain of lava domes; and (3) a second eruptive phase on the central part of the fissure zone, where a Hawaiian to Strombolian-style eruption formed small scoria cones (E-W to ENE-WSW-oriented) and a trachybasalt lava flow (50 wt% SiO2) which buried 27 houses in Biscoitos village. Petrological analyses show that the two batches of magma were emitted independently without evidence of interaction. We envisage that the dome-forming event was triggered by local stress changes induced by intrusion of the trachybasalt dyke along the fissure zone, which created tensile stress conditions that promoted ascent

  6. K-Ar ages of the Nyuto-Takakura volcanic products, southern part of the Sengan geothermal area, northeast Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suto, Shigeru; Uto, Kozo; Uchiumi, Shigeru


    The K-Ar age determination of the volcanic rocks from the Nyuto-Takakura volcano group, northeast Japan, was carried out. Nyuto-Takakura volcanoes are situated in the southern part of the Sengan geothermal area. And the Young Volcanic Rocks in the area were already divided into the Early stage volcanics (erupted in Matsuyama reversed epoch or more older epoch) and the Later stage volcanics (erupted in Brunhes normal epoch) by accumulated paleomagnetic and K-Ar age data. The results in this study are as follows; Nyuto Volcano: 0.63±0.06, 0.36±0.07 Ma, Sasamoriyama Volcano: 0.09±0.07, 0.3±0.3 Ma, Marumori Lava Dome: 0.4±0.3, 0.31±0.12 Ma, Mikadoyama Lava Dome: <1 Ma, Takakurayama-Kotakakurayama volcano: 1.4±0.5, 1.0±0.4, <0.4 Ma. The determinated ages are concordant with the volcanic stratigraphy and the paleomagnetic data. Nyuto Volcano, Sasamoriyama Volcano, Marumori Lava Dome, Mikadoyama Lava Dome and upper part of the Takakurayama-Kotakakurayama Volcano are interpreted to be erupted in Brunhes normal epoch. The volcanic rocks from the lower part of the Takakurayama-Kotakakurayama volcano show normal magnetic polarity, so they are interpreted to be erupted in Jaramillo normal polarity event. The Early stage volcanics and the Later stage volcanics in the studied area are tend to be distributed in the central part and the outer part of the area, respectively. But the determinated ages in this study show that there is no simple migration of the eruption center of the volcanic rocks from the central part to the peripheral part. There is no geothermal manifestation or alteration area around the Sasamoriyama Volcano and the Marumori Lava Dome, which are the youngest volcanoes in the studied area. So it is concluded that there is no direct correlation between the eruption age of the nearest volcano and the geothermal activity. (author)

  7. New Pleomagnetic Evidence for Counter Clockwise Rotation of the Dofan Magmatic Segment Linked to Variation in Fault Slip Directions Along the Different Fault Systems, Main Ethiopian Rift. (United States)

    Birke, T. K.; Nugsse, K.


    Twenty-six paleomagnetic sites were sampled from basalt, trachyte and ignimbrite flows of the Dofan magmatic segment, Southern Afar Depression. The samples were then cut in to 200 standard and their Natural Remanent Magnetization (NRM) directions were measured using the JR6A Spinner Magnetometer, of Addis Ababa University. Twin specimens from same sample were subjected to stepwise alternative field (AF) and thermal (TH) demagnetizations respectively with the corresponding directional measurements done at each step. Directional analysis of individual specimens revealed either one or two components of NRM; the first is isolated below a temperature of 300°C or AF field below 20mT; the second is isolated above those steps and defined straight lines directed towards the origin, which were interpreted as the Characteristic Remanent Magnetization (ChRM) acquired during cooling. Rock magnetic experiments on representative specimens indicated that the dominant magnetic minerals are titanium poor titanomagnetite with few cases of titanohematites. The overall mean directions calculated for the 24 stable polarity sites of Dofan is Dec=351.8°, Inc=11.5° (N=24, K=21.4, α95=6.5°). When these values are compared with the 1.5 Ma mean expected geomagnetic dipole reference field directions Dec=1.0°, Inc=16.4° (N=32, K=105.6, α95=2.3°) obtained from African Apparent Polar Wander Path Curve (Besse & Courtillot, 1991, 2003); a difference in declination DD=-9.2°± 5.6° and inclination DI=4.9°±5.5° are determined. This declination difference is interpreted as counterclockwise rotation of the Dofan segment about vertical axis and it is consistent with previous paleomagnetic reports in Fentale area (Kidane et al., 2009) and also with the recent analogue models of RE-Orientation of extension directions and pure extensional faulting at the oblique rift margins of the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER) (Corti et al., 2013).

  8. Paleo-watertable definition using cave ferromanganese stromatolites and associated cave-wall notches (Sierra de Arnero, Spain) (United States)

    Rossi, Carlos; Villalaín, Juan J.; Lozano, Rafael P.; Hellstrom, John


    limestone. U-series dating of carbonate speleothems and paleomagnetic data from ferromanganese stromatolites and clastic sediments indicate that the paleo-watertables recorded 320 m above the present-day watertable formed during the Matuyama Chron but prior to 1.5 Ma, implying long-term base-level-lowering rates from 125 to 213 m/Ma. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt of paleomagnetic dating of cave ferromanganese stromatolites. These deposits are excellent geomagnetic recorders and offer a direct way to delineate and date paleo-watertables, especially in caves developed in dolostone.

  9. Numerical Simulation of the Borehole Magnetic Field for Resolving the Possible Rotation of Tectonic Basins and Plates during ICDP and IODP Experiments (United States)

    Lee, S. M.; Parq, J. H.


    An accurate measurement of magnetic field inside the borehole, together with a right set of paleomagnetic measurements on the recovered core samples, should allow one to resolve important elements such as the rotation of the basin or the plate on which the basin is located. The ability to resolve the rotation of the basin can be crucial during drilling experiments by International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) and International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP). A good example where the rotation is a central question is the Philippine Sea Plate, which is thought to have rotated about 90° clockwise during the last 55 million years. Despite the significance, previous borehole magnetometers were not accurate enough to achieve such a goal because, among various technical issues, determining the orientation of the sensor inside the borehole to a very high level of accuracy was not easy. The next-generation (third-generation) borehole magnetometer (3GBM) was developed to overcome this difficulty and to bring paleomagnetic investigations to a new level. Even with the new development, however, there are still concerns whether the new instrument can really resolve the rotation because the magnetic field anomalies generated by the sediment is generally very low. In this paper, we present numerical simulations based on finite element method of the magnetic field inside the borehole that were conducted as part of a test to demonstrate that, despite low levels of magnetization, the magnetic fields can be resolved. The results also served as an important input on the design requirements of the borehole magnetometer. Various cases were considered, including the situation where the sedimentary layer is horizontal and inclined. We also explored the cases where volcanic sills were present within the sedimentary layer as they may provide a greater magnetic signature than having sediment alone, and thus improving our chances of determining the rotation. Simulations are

  10. Comparison of Thellier-type and multispecimen absolute paleointensities obtained on Miocene to historical lava flows from Lanzarote (Canary Islands, Spain) (United States)

    Calvo-Rathert, M.; Morales, J.; Carrancho, Á.; Gogichaishvili, A.


    A paleomagnetic, rock-magnetic and paleointensity study has been carried out on 16 Miocene, Pleistocene, Quaternary and historical lava flows from Lanzarote (Canary Islands, Spain) with two main goals: (i) Compare paleointensity results obtained with two different techniques (Thellier-type and multispecimen) and (ii) obtain new paleointensity data. Initial rock-magnetic experiments on selected samples from each site were carried out to find out the carriers of remanence and to determine their thermal stability and grain size. They included the measurement of thermomagnetic curves, hysteresis parameters and IRM acquisition curves. Mostly reversible but also non-reversible curves were recorded in thermomagnetic experiments, with low-Ti titanomagnetite being the main carrier of remanence in mos